Sample records for aircraft handling

  1. Factors influencing aircraft ground handling performance (United States)

    Yager, T. J.


    Problems associated with aircraft ground handling operations on wet runways are discussed and major factors which influence tire/runway braking and cornering traction capability are identified including runway characteristics, tire hydroplaning, brake system anomalies, and pilot inputs. Research results from tests with instrumented ground vehicles and aircraft, and aircraft wet runway accident investigation are summarized to indicate the effects of different aircraft, tire, and runway parameters. Several promising means are described for improving tire/runway water drainage capability, brake system efficiency, and pilot training to help optimize aircraft traction performance on wet runways.

  2. Analysis of aircraft longitudinal handling qualities (United States)

    Hess, R. A.


    The optimal control model (OCM) of the human pilot is applied to the study of aircraft handling qualities. Attention is focused primarily on longitudinal tasks. The modeling technique differs from previous applications of the OCM in that considerable effort is expended in simplifying the pilot/vehicle analysis. After briefly reviewing the OCM, a technique for modeling the pilot controlling higher order systems is introduced. Following this, a simple criterion for determining the susceptibility of an aircraft to pilot induced oscillations (PIO) is formulated. Finally, a model-based metric for pilot rating prediction is discussed. The resulting modeling procedure provides a relatively simple, yet unified approach to the study of a variety of handling qualities problems.

  3. Handling Qualities Evaluations of Unmanned Aircraft Systems (United States)


    Control Loop – Manned Platform Ai rc ra ft Pilot Flight Computer Control Surface Deflection Aircraft Response Inertia Measurements Visual Cues Aural...dynamics, ergonomics in the control station, and the control surfaces and actuators in the air- craft. The software may contain displays, with the latency of manned aircraft that exhibit imperceptible time delays, usually less than 5 millisec- onds , which is considered a minimum

  4. Fault Diagnosis and Fault Handling for Autonomous Aircraft

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Søren

    Unmanned Aerial vehicles (UAVs) or drones are used increasingly for missions where piloted aircraft are unsuitable. The unmanned aircraft has a number of advantages with respect to size, weight and manoeuvrability that makes it possible for them to solve tasks that an aircraft previously has been...... that the fault is discovered in time such that appropriate actions can be taken. That could either be the aircraft controlling computer taking the fault into account or a human operator that intervenes. Detection of faults that occur during flight is exactly the subject of this thesis. Safety towards faults...... to another type of aircraft with different parameters. Amongst the main findings of this research project is a method to handle faults on the UAV’s pitot tube, which measures the aircraft speed. A set of software redundancies based on GPS velocity information and engine thrust are used to detect abnormal...

  5. Handling Quality Requirements for Advanced Aircraft Design: Longitudinal Mode (United States)


    regarded by implication or otherwise as in any manner licensing the holder or any other person or corporation, or conveying any rights or permission...analog hardware specifications and seleccion on the DFCS performance. * Consideration of the potential degradation of DFCS performance and research or even for the engineering design of an aircraft or FCS, matters of style and personal taste can dictate how one chooses to

  6. Application of Quantitative Measures for Analysing Aircraft Handling Qualities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Archana Hebbar


    Full Text Available The ease and precision with which pilot is able to handle the designated task determines the aircraft’s handling qualities. Accordingly, the most common methodology for determining aircraft’s handling qualities is through pilot opinions or through questionnaires. These subjective means of analysis is not reliable as the sole source of judgments. Quantitative metrics to analyse the task difficulty based on pilot’s performance, supplemented with subjective decision, can provide better insight into pilot workload levels and in turn the aircraft’s handling qualities. The application of few objective performance measurement techniques to flight data of a high performance fighter aircraft is discussed. Pilot/aircraft’s performance under different configurations is analysed. Analysis results show that pilots usually tend to give more priority to pitch axis in case of dual axis tracking task. And pilots are therefore more aggressive in accomplishing pitch axis tracking task than in roll. Workload assessments were also performed by comparing the results of single axis tracking experiments conducted using a high fidelity flight simulator with the flight data. It is seen that pilot’s aggressiveness levels in controlling the roll control inceptor is significantly less, with improved tracking accuracy when exercised as the primary task.Defence Science Journal, Vol. 66, No. 1, January 2016, pp. 03-10, DOI:

  7. Unified Theory for Aircraft Handling Qualities and Adverse Aircraft-Pilot Coupling (United States)

    Hess, R. A.


    A unified theory for aircraft handling qualities and adverse aircraft-pilot coupling or pilot-induced oscillations is introduced. The theory is based on a structural model of the human pilot. A methodology is presented for the prediction of (1) handling qualities levels; (2) pilot-induced oscillation rating levels; and (3) a frequency range in which pilot-induced oscillations are likely to occur. Although the dynamics of the force-feel system of the cockpit inceptor is included, the methodology will not account for effects attributable to control sensitivity and is limited to single-axis tasks and, at present, to linear vehicle models. The theory is derived from the feedback topology of the structural model and an examination of flight test results for 32 aircraft configurations simulated by the U.S. Air Force/CALSPAN NT-33A and Total In-Flight Simulator variable stability aircraft. An extension to nonlinear vehicle dynamics such as that encountered with actuator saturation is discussed.

  8. Analysis of Aircraft Control Performance using a Fuzzy Rule Base Representation of the Cooper-Harper Aircraft Handling Quality Rating (United States)

    Tseng, Chris; Gupta, Pramod; Schumann, Johann


    The Cooper-Harper rating of Aircraft Handling Qualities has been adopted as a standard for measuring the performance of aircraft since it was introduced in 1966. Aircraft performance, ability to control the aircraft, and the degree of pilot compensation needed are three major key factors used in deciding the aircraft handling qualities in the Cooper- Harper rating. We formulate the Cooper-Harper rating scheme as a fuzzy rule-based system and use it to analyze the effectiveness of the aircraft controller. The automatic estimate of the system-level handling quality provides valuable up-to-date information for diagnostics and vehicle health management. Analyzing the performance of a controller requires a set of concise design requirements and performance criteria. Ir, the case of control systems fm a piloted aircraft, generally applicable quantitative design criteria are difficult to obtain. The reason for this is that the ultimate evaluation of a human-operated control system is necessarily subjective and, with aircraft, the pilot evaluates the aircraft in different ways depending on the type of the aircraft and the phase of flight. In most aerospace applications (e.g., for flight control systems), performance assessment is carried out in terms of handling qualities. Handling qualities may be defined as those dynamic and static properties of a vehicle that permit the pilot to fully exploit its performance in a variety of missions and roles. Traditionally, handling quality is measured using the Cooper-Harper rating and done subjectively by the human pilot. In this work, we have formulated the rules of the Cooper-Harper rating scheme as fuzzy rules with performance, control, and compensation as the antecedents, and pilot rating as the consequent. Appropriate direct measurements on the controller are related to the fuzzy Cooper-Harper rating system: a stability measurement like the rate of change of the cost function can be used as an indicator if the aircraft is under

  9. Analysis of flexible aircraft longitudinal dynamics and handling qualities. Volume 1: Analysis methods (United States)

    Waszak, M. R.; Schmidt, D. S.


    As aircraft become larger and lighter due to design requirements for increased payload and improved fuel efficiency, they will also become more flexible. For highly flexible vehicles, the handling qualities may not be accurately predicted by conventional methods. This study applies two analysis methods to a family of flexible aircraft in order to investigate how and when structural (especially dynamic aeroelastic) effects affect the dynamic characteristics of aircraft. The first type of analysis is an open loop model analysis technique. This method considers the effects of modal residue magnitudes on determining vehicle handling qualities. The second method is a pilot in the loop analysis procedure that considers several closed loop system characteristics. Volume 1 consists of the development and application of the two analysis methods described above.

  10. Analysis of flexible aircraft longitudinal dynamics and handling qualities. Volume 2: Data (United States)

    Waszak, M. R.; Schmidt, D. K.


    Two analysis methods are applied to a family of flexible aircraft in order to investigate how and when structural (especially dynamic aeroelastic) effects affect the dynamic characteristics of aircraft. The first type of analysis is an open loop modal analysis technique. This method considers the effect of modal residue magnitudes on determining vehicle handling qualities. The second method is a pilot in the loop analysis procedure that considers several closed loop system characteristics. Both analyses indicated that dynamic aeroelastic effects caused a degradation in vehicle tracking performance, based on the evaluation of some simulation results. Volume 2 consists of the presentation of the state variable models of the flexible aircraft configurations used in the analysis applications mode shape plots for the structural modes, numerical results from the modal analysis frequency response plots from the pilot in the loop analysis and a listing of the modal analysis computer program.

  11. Modal control theory and application to aircraft lateral handling qualities design (United States)

    Srinathkumar, S.


    A multivariable synthesis procedure based on eigenvalue/eigenvector assignment is reviewed and is employed to develop a systematic design procedure to meet the lateral handling qualities design objectives of a fighter aircraft over a wide range of flight conditions. The closed loop modal characterization developed provides significant insight into the design process and plays a pivotal role in the synthesis of robust feedback systems. The simplicity of the synthesis algorithm yields an efficient computer aided interactive design tool for flight control system synthesis.

  12. Effect of winglets on performance and handling qualities of general aviation aircraft (United States)

    Van Dam, C. P.; Holmes, B. J.; Pitts, C.


    Recent flight and wind tunnel evaluations of winglets mounted on general aviation airplanes have shown improvements in cruise fuel efficiency, and climbing and turning performance. Some of these analyses have also uncovered various effects of winglets on airplane handling qualities. Retrofitting an airplane with winglets can result in reduced cross wind take-off and landing capabilities. Also, winglets can have a detrimental effect on the lateral directional response characteristics of aircraft which have a moderate to high level of adverse yaw due to aileron. Introduction of an aileron-rudder-interconnect, and reduction of the effective dihedral by canting-in of the winglets, or addition of a lower winglet can eliminate these flying quality problems.

  13. Emissions of NOx, particle mass and particle numbers from aircraft main engines, APU's and handling equipment at Copenhagen Airport (United States)

    Winther, Morten; Kousgaard, Uffe; Ellermann, Thomas; Massling, Andreas; Nøjgaard, Jacob Klenø; Ketzel, Matthias


    This paper presents a detailed emission inventory for NOx, particle mass (PM) and particle numbers (PN) for aircraft main engines, APU's and handling equipment at Copenhagen Airport (CPH) based on time specific activity data and representative emission factors for the airport. The inventory has a high spatial resolution of 5 m × 5 m in order to be suited for further air quality dispersion calculations. Results are shown for the entire airport and for a section of the airport apron area ("inner apron") in focus. The methodology presented in this paper can be used to quantify the emissions from aircraft main engines, APU and handling equipment in other airports. For the entire airport, aircraft main engines is the largest source of fuel consumption (93%), NOx, (87%), PM (61%) and PN (95%). The calculated fuel consumption [NOx, PM, PN] shares for APU's and handling equipment are 5% [4%, 8%, 5%] and 2% [9%, 31%, 0%], respectively. At the inner apron area for handling equipment the share of fuel consumption [NOx, PM, PN] are 24% [63%, 75%, 2%], whereas APU and main engines shares are 43% [25%, 19%, 54%], and 33% [11%, 6%, 43%], respectively. The inner apron NOx and PM emission levels are high for handling equipment due to high emission factors for the diesel fuelled handling equipment and small for aircraft main engines due to small idle-power emission factors. Handling equipment is however a small PN source due to the low number based emission factors. Jet fuel sulphur-PM sensitivity calculations made in this study with the ICAO FOA3.0 method suggest that more than half of the PM emissions from aircraft main engines at CPH originate from the sulphur content of the fuel used at the airport. Aircraft main engine PN emissions are very sensitive to the underlying assumptions. Replacing this study's literature based average emission factors with "high" and "low" emission factors from the literature, the aircraft main engine PN emissions were estimated to change with a

  14. Effects of higher order control systems on aircraft approach and landing longitudinal handling qualities (United States)

    Pasha, M. A.; Dazzo, J. J.; Silverthorn, J. T.


    An investigation of approach and landing longitudinal flying qualities, based on data generated using a variable stability NT-33 aircraft combined with significant control system dynamics is described. An optimum pilot lead time for pitch tracking, flight path angle tracking, and combined pitch and flight path angle tracking tasks is determined from a closed loop simulation using integral squared error (ISE) as a performance measure. Pilot gain and lead time were varied in the closed loop simulation of the pilot and aircraft to obtain the best performance for different control system configurations. The results lead to the selection of an optimum lead time using ISE as a performance criterion. Using this value of optimum lead time, a correlation is then found between pilot rating and performance with changes in the control system and in the aircraft dynamics. It is also shown that pilot rating is closely related to pilot workload which, in turn, is related to the amount of lead which the pilot must generate to obtain satisfactory response. The results also indicate that the pilot may use pitch angle tracking for the approach task and then add flight path angle tracking for the flare and touchdown.

  15. Flight performance using a hyperstereo helmet-mounted display: aircraft handling (United States)

    Jennings, Sion A.; Craig, Gregory L.; Stuart, Geoffrey W.; Kalich, Melvyn E.; Rash, Clarence E.; Harding, Thomas H.


    A flight study was conducted to assess the impact of hyperstereopsis on helicopter handling proficiency, workload and pilot acceptance. Three pilots with varying levels of night vision goggle and hyperstereo helmet-mounted display experience participated in the test. The pilots carried out a series of flights consisting of low-level maneuvers over a period of two weeks. Four of the test maneuvers, The turn around the tail, the hard surface landing, the hover height estimation and the tree-line following were analysed in detail. At the end of the testing period, no significant difference was observed in the performance data, between maneuvers performed with the TopOwl helmet and maneuvers performed with the standard night vision goggle. This study addressed only the image intensification display aspects of the TopOwl helmet system. The tests did not assess the added benefits of overlaid symbology or head slaved infrared camera imagery. These capabilities need to be taken into account when assessing the overall usefulness of the TopOwl system. Even so, this test showed that pilots can utilize the image intensification imagery displayed on the TopOwl to perform benign night flying tasks to an equivalent level as pilots using ANVIS. The study should be extended to investigate more dynamic and aggressive low level flying, slope landings and ship deck landings. While there may be concerns regarding the effect of hyperstereopsis on piloting, this initial study suggests that pilots can either adapt or compensate for hyperstereo effects with sufficient exposure and training. Further analysis and testing is required to determine the extent of training required.

  16. Aircraft (United States)

    Hibbs, B.D.; Lissaman, P.B.S.; Morgan, W.R.; Radkey, R.L.


    This disclosure provides a solar rechargeable aircraft that is inexpensive to produce, is steerable, and can remain airborne almost indefinitely. The preferred aircraft is a span-loaded flying wing, having no fuselage or rudder. Travelling at relatively slow speeds, and having a two-hundred foot wingspan that mounts photovoltaic cells on most all of the wing`s top surface, the aircraft uses only differential thrust of its eight propellers to turn. Each of five sections of the wing has one or more engines and photovoltaic arrays, and produces its own lift independent of the other sections, to avoid loading them. Five two-sided photovoltaic arrays, in all, are mounted on the wing, and receive photovoltaic energy both incident on top of the wing, and which is incident also from below, through a bottom, transparent surface. The aircraft is capable of a top speed of about ninety miles per hour, which enables the aircraft to attain and can continuously maintain altitudes of up to sixty-five thousand feet. Regenerative fuel cells in the wing store excess electricity for use at night, such that the aircraft can sustain its elevation indefinitely. A main spar of the wing doubles as a pressure vessel that houses hydrogen and oxygen gases for use in the regenerative fuel cell. The aircraft has a wide variety of applications, which include weather monitoring and atmospheric testing, communications, surveillance, and other applications as well. 31 figs.

  17. Handling qualities airworthiness verification for electronic flight control aircraft%电子飞控飞机的飞行品质适航验证

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张雅妮; 李岩; 金镭


    FAA AC25-7A中的飞行品质评定方法(HQRM)能够对使用电子飞控系统的民用运输机进行飞行品质评估.分析了HQRM评估程序以及相关适航要求,根据某民用飞机飞控系统功能危险分析,针对单侧升降舵卡阻这一典型故障,提出了在该失效状态下的模拟器飞行品质评估试验程序,分别给出了HQRM和相应军用标准评估方法,对军民评估方法的差异性和一致性进行了分析.研究结果对采用电子飞控系统的现代飞机的飞行品质适航验证具有工程参考意义.%Handling quality rating method (HQRM) in FAA AC25-7A provide a means by which one may evaluate flight characteristics for fly-by-wire flight control transport aircraft. This paper explains the HQRM procedure, and analyses airworthiness requirements which are related to HQRM. According to flight control system functional hazard assessment of a commercial airplane, simulator experiment procedure for a elevator jam is proposed, and experiment analysis methods using the FAA method and military standard are offered. The consistency and differences between civil and military standards are analyzed. This study can supply references for flying qualities and airworthiness verification of a modern airplane with electrical flight control system.

  18. Criteria for Handling Qualities of Military Aircraft. (United States)


    itendue juaqu’i Is vitesse nuLle. Ce qui fut felt mel. au prix , on le congoit, d’une complexiti accrue du dispoaltdf. Le second exomplo concerne, cette fois... transfert du rotor a fourni un modL-le analytique particuli~rement simple (Rif. 15). Dane cetto communication, nous nous concentrerons pour ddcouverte do la matrice do transfert du rotor fournit une relation tree simple entre lea coefficients de Fourier caractirisant lea signaux

  19. Analyses of Aircraft Responses to Atmospheric Turbulence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Staveren, W.H.J.J.


    The response of aircraft to stochastic atmospheric turbulence plays an important role in aircraft-design (load calculations), Flight Control System (FCS) design and flight-simulation (handling qualities research and pilot training). In order to simulate these aircraft responses, an accurate mathemat

  20. Handling Metalloproteinases. (United States)

    Fridrich, Sven; Karmilin, Konstantin; Stöcker, Walter


    Substrate cleavage by metalloproteinases involves nucleophilic attack on the scissile peptide bond by a water molecule that is polarized by a catalytic metal, usually a zinc ion, and a general base, usually the carboxyl group of a glutamic acid side chain. The zinc ion is most often complexed by imidazole nitrogens of histidine side chains. This arrangement suggests that the physiological pH optimum of most metalloproteinases is in the neutral range. In addition to their catalytic metal ion, many metalloproteinases contain additional transition metal or alkaline earth ions, which are structurally important or modulate the catalytic activity. As a consequence, these enzymes are generally sensitive to metal chelators. Moreover, the catalytic metal can be displaced by adventitious metal ions from buffers or biological fluids, which may fundamentally alter the catalytic function. Therefore, handling, purification, and assaying of metalloproteinases require specific precautions to warrant their stability.

  1. Analyses of Aircraft Responses to Atmospheric Turbulence


    Van Staveren, W.H.J.J.


    The response of aircraft to stochastic atmospheric turbulence plays an important role in aircraft-design (load calculations), Flight Control System (FCS) design and flight-simulation (handling qualities research and pilot training). In order to simulate these aircraft responses, an accurate mathematical model is required. Two classical models will be discussed in this thesis, that is the Delft University of Technology (DUT) model and the Four Point Aircraft (FPA) model. Although they are well...

  2. Cooper-Harper Experience Report for Spacecraft Handling Qualities Applications (United States)

    Bailey, Randall E.; Jackson, E. Bruce; Bilimoria, Karl D.; Mueller, Eric R.; Frost, Chad R.; Alderete, Thomas S.


    A synopsis of experience from the fixed-wing and rotary-wing aircraft communities in handling qualities development and the use of the Cooper-Harper pilot rating scale is presented as background for spacecraft handling qualities research, development, test, and evaluation (RDT&E). In addition, handling qualities experiences and lessons-learned from previous United States (US) spacecraft developments are reviewed. This report is intended to provide a central location for references, best practices, and lessons-learned to guide current and future spacecraft handling qualities RDT&E.

  3. Aircraft recognition and tracking device (United States)

    Filis, Dimitrios P.; Renios, Christos I.


    The technology of aircraft recognition and tracking has various applications in all areas of air navigation, be they civil or military, spanning from air traffic control and regulation at civilian airports to anti-aircraft weapon handling and guidance for military purposes.1, 18 The system presented in this thesis is an alternative implementation of identifying and tracking flying objects, which benefits from the optical spectrum by using an optical camera built into a servo motor (pan-tilt unit). More specifically, through the purpose-developed software, when a target (aircraft) enters the field of view of the camera18, it is both detected and identified.5, 22 Then the servo motor, being provided with data on target position and velocity, tracks the aircraft while it is in constant communication with the camera (Fig. 1). All the features are so designed as to operate under real time conditions.

  4. Aircraft recognition and pose estimation (United States)

    Hmam, Hatem; Kim, Jijoong


    This work presents a geometry based vision system for aircraft recognition and pose estimation using single images. Pose estimation improves the tracking performance of guided weapons with imaging seekers, and is useful in estimating target manoeuvres and aim-point selection required in the terminal phase of missile engagements. After edge detection and straight-line extraction, a hierarchy of geometric reasoning algorithms is applied to form line clusters (or groupings) for image interpretation. Assuming a scaled orthographic projection and coplanar wings, lateral symmetry inherent in the airframe provides additional constraints to further reject spurious line clusters. Clusters that accidentally pass all previous tests are checked against the original image and are discarded. Valid line clusters are then used to deduce aircraft viewing angles. By observing that the leading edges of wings of a number of aircraft of interest are within 45 to 65 degrees from the symmetry axis, a bounded range of aircraft viewing angles can be found. This generic property offers the advantage of not requiring the storage of complete aircraft models viewed from all aspects, and can handle aircraft with flexible wings (e.g. F111). Several aircraft images associated with various spectral bands (i.e. visible and infra-red) are finally used to evaluate the system's performance.

  5. Aircraft Design (United States)

    Bowers, Albion H. (Inventor); Uden, Edward (Inventor)


    The present invention is an aircraft wing design that creates a bell shaped span load, which results in a negative induced drag (induced thrust) on the outer portion of the wing; such a design obviates the need for rudder control of an aircraft.

  6. The effects of aircraft design on STOL ride quality (United States)

    Jones, C. R.; Jacobson, I. D.


    Effects of aircraft dynamic characteristics on passenger ride quality are investigated to determine ride-quality isocontours similar to aircraft handling-qualities contours. Measurements are made on a moving-base simulator while varying the aircraft short-period and Dutch Roll frequencies and dampings. Both pilot ratings and subjective ride-quality ratings are obtained during flight. Ride and handling qualities were found to be complementary for the Dutch Roll mode, but not for the short-period mode. Regions of optimal ride and handling qualities are defined for the short-period mode, and the effects of turbulence levels studied.

  7. Robust ASPNET Exception Handling

    CERN Document Server

    Dumond, Lee


    This Wrox Blox will teach you how to unravel the mysteries of exception handling in ASP.NET.   First, you'll get a thorough introduction to structured exception handling in the .NET Framework, learn about the Exception class, the related C# language constructs, and how exceptions propagate up the call stack. Then, you'll delve into a variety of practical topics such as: when, where, and how to properly throw, catch, and handle exceptions in your code; how to employ "defensive programming" techniques to avoid triggering the most common CLR exceptions; adopting exception handling "best practices

  8. Amphibious Aircraft (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A brief self composed research article on Amphibious Aircrafts discussing their use, origin and modern day applications along with their advantages and disadvantages...

  9. Handling Qualities Optimization for Rotorcraft Conceptual Design (United States)

    Lawrence, Ben; Theodore, Colin R.; Berger, Tom


    Over the past decade, NASA, under a succession of rotary-wing programs has been moving towards coupling multiple discipline analyses in a rigorous consistent manner to evaluate rotorcraft conceptual designs. Handling qualities is one of the component analyses to be included in a future NASA Multidisciplinary Analysis and Optimization framework for conceptual design of VTOL aircraft. Similarly, the future vision for the capability of the Concept Design and Assessment Technology Area (CD&A-TA) of the U.S Army Aviation Development Directorate also includes a handling qualities component. SIMPLI-FLYD is a tool jointly developed by NASA and the U.S. Army to perform modeling and analysis for the assessment of flight dynamics and control aspects of the handling qualities of rotorcraft conceptual designs. An exploration of handling qualities analysis has been carried out using SIMPLI-FLYD in illustrative scenarios of a tiltrotor in forward flight and single-main rotor helicopter at hover. Using SIMPLI-FLYD and the conceptual design tool NDARC integrated into a single process, the effects of variations of design parameters such as tail or rotor size were evaluated in the form of margins to fixed- and rotary-wing handling qualities metrics as well as the vehicle empty weight. The handling qualities design margins are shown to vary across the flight envelope due to both changing flight dynamic and control characteristics and changing handling qualities specification requirements. The current SIMPLI-FLYD capability and future developments are discussed in the context of an overall rotorcraft conceptual design process.

  10. Practices of Handling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ræbild, Ulla

    meanings seem to merge in the fashion design process, thus opening up for an embodied engagement with matter that entails direction giving, organizational management and negotiation. By seeing processes of handling as a key fashion methodological practice, it is possible to divert the discourse away from...... a dichotomized idea of design as combined, alternating or parallel processes of thinking and doing. In other words, the notion of handling is not about reflection in or on action, as brought to the fore by Schön (1984), but about reflection as action. Below the methodological macro level of handling, the paper...

  11. CHR -- Character Handling Routines (United States)

    Charles, A. C.; Rees, P. C. T.; Chipperfield, A. J.; Jenness, T.

    This document describes the Character Handling Routine library, CHR, and its use. The CHR library augments the limited character handling facilities provided by the Fortran 77 standard. It offers a range of character handling facilities: from formatting Fortran data types into text strings and the reverse, to higher level functions such as wild card matching, string sorting, paragraph reformatting and justification. The library may be used simply for building text strings for interactive applications or as a basis for more complex text processing applications.

  12. Handling Pyrophoric Reagents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alnajjar, Mikhail S.; Haynie, Todd O.


    Pyrophoric reagents are extremely hazardous. Special handling techniques are required to prevent contact with air and the resulting fire. This document provides several methods for working with pyrophoric reagents outside of an inert atmosphere.

  13. Indirect economic drivers for end-of-life handling in the aviation sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Brito, M.P.; Van der Laan, E.A.; Moleveld, M.


    An important issue that is getting increasing attention in the aviation sector is the handling of end-of-life aircraft. Traditionally, retired aircraft are parked in the desert waiting for a buyer, but more attractive options are available. There is some literature on direct economic factors influen

  14. A design procedure and handling quality criteria for lateral directional flight control systems (United States)

    Stein, G.; Henke, A. H.


    A practical design procedure for aircraft augmentation systems is described based on quadratic optimal control technology and handling-quality-oriented cost functionals. The procedure is applied to the design of a lateral-directional control system for the F4C aircraft. The design criteria, design procedure, and final control system are validated with a program of formal pilot evaluation experiments.


    CERN Multimedia

    Groupe ST/HM


    A new EDH document entitled 'Transport/Handling Request' will be in operation as of Monday, 11th February 2002, when the corresponding icon will be accessible from the EDH desktop, together with the application instructions. This EDH form will replace the paper-format transport/handling request form for all activities involving the transport of equipment and materials. However, the paper form will still be used for all vehicle-hire requests. The introduction of the EDH transport/handling request form is accompanied by the establishment of the following time limits for the various services concerned: 24 hours for the removal of office items, 48 hours for the transport of heavy items (of up to 6 metric tons and of standard road width), 5 working days for a crane operation, extra-heavy transport operation or complete removal, 5 working days for all transport operations relating to LHC installation. ST/HM Group, Logistics Section Tel: 72672 - 72202

  16. Aircraft cybernetics (United States)


    The use of computers for aircraft control, flight simulation, and inertial navigation is explored. The man-machine relation problem in aviation is addressed. Simple and self-adapting autopilots are described and the assets and liabilities of digital navigation techniques are assessed.

  17. Improving coal handling effectiveness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, S.


    Appropriate coal handling systems are essential for successful coal utilisation. The paper looks at some of the options available, including crushers and hammer mills, wear-resistant liners for chutes and wagons, and dewatering systems. These are individual components within larger systems such as stockyard stacking and reclaiming installations. 5 photos.

  18. Control of Next Generation Aircraft and Wind Turbines (United States)

    Frost, Susan


    The first part of this talk will describe some of the exciting new next generation aircraft that NASA is proposing for the future. These aircraft are being designed to reduce aircraft fuel consumption and environmental impact. Reducing the aircraft weight is one approach that will be used to achieve these goals. A new control framework will be presented that enables lighter, more flexible aircraft to maintain aircraft handling qualities, while preventing the aircraft from exceeding structural load limits. The second part of the talk will give an overview of utility-scale wind turbines and their control. Results of collaboration with Dr. Balas will be presented, including new theory to adaptively control the turbine in the presence of structural modes, with the focus on the application of this theory to a high-fidelity simulation of a wind turbine.

  19. Solid waste handling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parazin, R.J.


    This study presents estimates of the solid radioactive waste quantities that will be generated in the Separations, Low-Level Waste Vitrification and High-Level Waste Vitrification facilities, collectively called the Tank Waste Remediation System Treatment Complex, over the life of these facilities. This study then considers previous estimates from other 200 Area generators and compares alternative methods of handling (segregation, packaging, assaying, shipping, etc.).

  20. Uranium hexafluoride handling. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    The United States Department of Energy, Oak Ridge Field Office, and Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., are co-sponsoring this Second International Conference on Uranium Hexafluoride Handling. The conference is offered as a forum for the exchange of information and concepts regarding the technical and regulatory issues and the safety aspects which relate to the handling of uranium hexafluoride. Through the papers presented here, we attempt not only to share technological advances and lessons learned, but also to demonstrate that we are concerned about the health and safety of our workers and the public, and are good stewards of the environment in which we all work and live. These proceedings are a compilation of the work of many experts in that phase of world-wide industry which comprises the nuclear fuel cycle. Their experience spans the entire range over which uranium hexafluoride is involved in the fuel cycle, from the production of UF{sub 6} from the naturally-occurring oxide to its re-conversion to oxide for reactor fuels. The papers furnish insights into the chemical, physical, and nuclear properties of uranium hexafluoride as they influence its transport, storage, and the design and operation of plant-scale facilities for production, processing, and conversion to oxide. The papers demonstrate, in an industry often cited for its excellent safety record, continuing efforts to further improve safety in all areas of handling uranium hexafluoride. Selected papers were processed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  1. Aircraft Carriers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nødskov, Kim; Kværnø, Ole

    in Asia and will balance the carrier acquisitions of the United States, the United Kingdom, Russia and India. China’s current military strategy is predominantly defensive, its offensive elements being mainly focused on Taiwan. If China decides to acquire a large carrier with offensive capabilities......, then the country will also acquire the capability to project military power into the region beyond Taiwan, which it does not possess today. In this way, China will have the military capability to permit a change of strategy from the mainly defensive, mainland, Taiwan-based strategy to a more assertive strategy...... catapult with which to launch the fi ghter aircraft, not to mention the possible development of a nuclear power plant for the ship. The Russian press has indicated that China is negotiating to buy SU-33 fi ghters, which Russia uses on the Kuznetsov carrier. The SU-33 is, in its modernized version...

  2. Aircraft Electric Secondary Power (United States)


    Technologies resulted to aircraft power systems and aircraft in which all secondary power is supplied electrically are discussed. A high-voltage dc power generating system for fighter aircraft, permanent magnet motors and generators for aircraft, lightweight transformers, and the installation of electric generators on turbine engines are among the topics discussed.

  3. New transport and handling contract

    CERN Multimedia

    SC Department


    A new transport and handling contract entered into force on 1.10.2008. As with the previous contract, the user interface is the internal transport/handling request form on EDH: To ensure that you receive the best possible service, we invite you to complete the various fields as accurately as possible and to include a mobile telephone number on which we can reach you. You can follow the progress of your request (schedule, completion) in the EDH request routing information. We remind you that the following deadlines apply: 48 hours for the transport of heavy goods (up to 8 tonnes) or simple handling operations 5 working days for crane operations, transport of extra-heavy goods, complex handling operations and combined transport and handling operations in the tunnel. For all enquiries, the number to contact remains unchanged: 72202. Heavy Handling Section TS-HE-HH 72672 - 160319

  4. Backstepping Designs for Aircraft Control - What is there to Gain?


    Härkegård, Ola


    Aircraft flight control design is traditionally based on linear control theory, due to the existing wealth of tools for linear design and analysis. However, in order to achieve tactical advantages, modern fighter aircraft strive towards performing maneuvers outside the region where the dynamics of flight are linear, and the need for nonlinear tools arises. In this paper, backstepping is proposed as a possible framework for nonlinear flight control design. Its capabilities of handling five maj...

  5. Trends in Modern Exception Handling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Kuta


    Full Text Available Exception handling is nowadays a necessary component of error proof information systems. The paper presents overview of techniques and models of exception handling, problems connected with them and potential solutions. The aspects of implementation of propagation mechanisms and exception handling, their effect on semantics and general program efficiency are also taken into account. Presented mechanisms were adopted to modern programming languages. Considering design area, formal methods and formal verification of program properties we can notice exception handling mechanisms are weakly present what makes a field for future research.

  6. Propulsion controlled aircraft computer (United States)

    Cogan, Bruce R. (Inventor)


    A low-cost, easily retrofit Propulsion Controlled Aircraft (PCA) system for use on a wide range of commercial and military aircraft consists of an propulsion controlled aircraft computer that reads in aircraft data including aircraft state, pilot commands and other related data, calculates aircraft throttle position for a given maneuver commanded by the pilot, and then displays both current and calculated throttle position on a cockpit display to show the pilot where to move throttles to achieve the commanded maneuver, or is automatically sent digitally to command the engines directly.

  7. A Risk Management Architecture for Emergency Integrated Aircraft Control (United States)

    McGlynn, Gregory E.; Litt, Jonathan S.; Lemon, Kimberly A.; Csank, Jeffrey T.


    Enhanced engine operation--operation that is beyond normal limits--has the potential to improve the adaptability and safety of aircraft in emergency situations. Intelligent use of enhanced engine operation to improve the handling qualities of the aircraft requires sophisticated risk estimation techniques and a risk management system that spans the flight and propulsion controllers. In this paper, an architecture that weighs the risks of the emergency and of possible engine performance enhancements to reduce overall risk to the aircraft is described. Two examples of emergency situations are presented to demonstrate the interaction between the flight and propulsion controllers to facilitate the enhanced operation.

  8. Basics for Handling Food Safely (United States)

    ... 888-MPHotline (1-888-674-6854) Basics for Safe Food Handling dishes in bowls of ice or use ... 9 months Do not freeze 2 Basics for Safe Food Handling Product Refrigerator Freezer (40 °F) (0 °F) ...

  9. Assessment of Issue Handling Efficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luijten, B.; Visser, J.; Zaidman, A.


    We mined the issue database of GNOME to assess how issues are handled. How many issues are submitted and resolved? Does the backlog grow or decrease? How fast are issues resolved? Does issue resolution speed increase or decrease over time? In which subproject are issues handled most efficiently? To

  10. Unmanned aircraft systems (United States)

    Unmanned platforms have become increasingly more common in recent years for acquiring remotely sensed data. These aircraft are referred to as Unmanned Airborne Vehicles (UAV), Remotely Piloted Aircraft (RPA), Remotely Piloted Vehicles (RPV), or Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS), the official term used...

  11. A design of FPGA based intelligent data handling interfacing card.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anandaraj D


    Full Text Available With the increasing demand in the custom built logic for avionics systems, FPGA is used in this proposed interfacing card design. This FPGA based intelligent data handling card (IDHC for the IVHM system, will interface the data from aircraft subsystems to the aircraft digital data bus. This IDHC interfacing card is based on the Virtex-5 FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Array, which provides flexibility by re-programming, so that it can be configured to the required functionality. Fault detection can be done within the FPGA and only the anomalies passed to the computer, so that the bus bandwidth can be utilized effectively and also excessive wiring can be eliminated, that would have been required for multiple individual systems. The work concentrates on designing the schematic using OrCAD.

  12. Tritium handling in vacuum systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gill, J.T. [Monsanto Research Corp., Miamisburg, OH (United States). Mound Facility; Coffin, D.O. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)


    This report provides a course in Tritium handling in vacuum systems. Topics presented are: Properties of Tritium; Tritium compatibility of materials; Tritium-compatible vacuum equipment; and Tritium waste treatment.

  13. Towards integrated microliquid handling systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elwenspoek, M.; Lammerink, T.S.J.; Miyake, R.; Fluitman, J.H.J.


    In this paper we describe components for integrated microliquid handling systems such as fluid injection analysis, and first results of planar integration of components. The components discussed are channels, passive and active valves, actuators for micropumps, micromixers, microflow sensors, optica

  14. Lunar Materials Handling System Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Lunar Materials Handling System (LMHS) is a method for transfer of bulk materials and products into and out of process equipment in support of lunar and Mars in...

  15. Order Handling in Convergent Environments

    CERN Document Server

    Vrtanoski, Jordan


    The rapid development of IT&T technology had big impact on the traditional telecommunications market, transforming it from monopolistic market to highly competitive high-tech market where new services are required to be created frequently. This paper aims to describe a design approach that puts order management process (as part of enterprise application integration) in function of rapid service creation. In the text we will present a framework for collaborative order handling supporting convergent services. The design splits the order handling processes in convergent environments in three business process groups: order capture, order management and order fulfillment. The paper establishes abstract framework for order handling and provides design guidelines for transaction handling implementation based on the checkpoint and inverse command strategy. The proposed design approach is based in a convergent telecommunication environment. Same principles are applicable in solving problems of collaboration in fun...

  16. Lunar Materials Handling System Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Lunar Materials Handling System (LMHS) is a method for transfer of lunar soil into and out of process equipment in support of in situ resource utilization...

  17. Solidex 88: solids handling conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    Papers are presented under the session headings: BMHB (British Materials Handling Board) - tackling user problems; feeding pneumatic conveying systems - matching the hardware to the product; and solutions to some operational problems.

  18. Investigation of Practical Flight Control Systems for Small Aircraft

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Falkena, W.


    Personal air transportation utilizing small aircraft is a market that is expected to grow significantly in the near future. However, seventy times more accidents occur in this segment as compared with the commercial aviation sector. The majority of these accidents is related to handling and control

  19. Civilsamfundets ABC: H for Handling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Anker Brink; Meyer, Gitte


    Hvad er civilsamfundet? Anker Brink Lund og Gitte Meyer fra CBS Center for Civil Society Studies gennemgår civilsamfundet bogstav for bogstav. Vi er nået til H for Handling.......Hvad er civilsamfundet? Anker Brink Lund og Gitte Meyer fra CBS Center for Civil Society Studies gennemgår civilsamfundet bogstav for bogstav. Vi er nået til H for Handling....

  20. Grain Handling and Storage Safety


    Webster, Jill, Ph.D.


    Agricultural Health and Safety Fact Sheet AHS-02 Grain Handling and Storage Safety Jill Webster Ph.D., S. Christian Mariger, Graduate Assistant Agricultural Systems Technology and Education There are several hazards that should be considered when working with grain. Storage structures, handling equipment, and the grain itself have all caused serious injuries and deaths. Storage structures (bins, silos, and granaries), like all confined spaces, have significant hazards associated with them. Be...

  1. Síndrome HaNDL / HaNDL Syndrome / Síndrome HaNDL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilo Ernesto Barros-Gutiérrez, MD., Esp.


    Full Text Available Introducción: El Síndrome HaNDL (Headache and neurologic deficits with cerebroespinal fluid lymphocytosis por sus siglas en inglés, es una patología que cursa con cefalea, focalización neurológica y linfocitosis en el líquido cefalorraquídeo. Objetivo: este artículo busca presentar un caso de Síndrome de HaNDL, puesto que esta condición nosológica implica un reto diagnóstico. Resultados y conclusiones: Se presenta el caso de un paciente con diagnóstico de síndrome de HaNDL los hallazgos al examen físico y del líquido cefalorraquídeo. [Barros-Gutiérrez CE, Silva-Monsalve E, Gualtero-Trujillo S. Síndrome HaNDL. MedUNAB 2015; 17(3: xx-xx]. Introduction: The syndrome of transient Headache and Neurological Deficits with cerebrospinal fluid Lymphocytosis, is a pathology that presents cephalalgia, neurological focalization and lymphocytes in the cerebrospinal fluid. Objective: This article presents a HaNDL Syndrome case, since this nosological condition implies a diagnostic challenge. Results and conclusions: A case of a patient with HaNDL syndrome diagnosis, physical examination findings and cerebrospinal fluid are presented. [Barros-Gutiérrez CE, Silva-Monsalve E, Gualtero-Trujillo S. HaNDL Syndrome. MedUNAB 2015; 17(3: xx-xx]. Introdução: A síndrome de HaNDL (Headache and neurologic déficits with cerebrospinal fluid lymphocytosis por sua sigla em inglês é uma doença que causa dor de cabeça, foco neurológico e linfocitose no líquido cefalorraquidiano. Objetivo: Este artigo tem como objetivo apresentar um caso de Síndrome de HaNDL, uma vez que esta condição nosológica envolve um desafio diagnóstico. Resultados e conclusões: Apresenta-se o caso de um paciente diagnosticado com a síndrome de HaNDL, o encontrado no exame físico e o líquido cefalorraquidiano. [Barros-Gutiérrez CE, Silva-Monsalve E, Gualtero-Trujillo S. Síndrome HaNDL. MedUNAB 2015; 17(3: xx-xx].

  2. Aircraft Noise Prediction



    This contribution addresses the state-of-the-art in the field of aircraft noise prediction, simulation and minimisation. The point of view taken in this context is that of comprehensive models that couple the various aircraft systems with the acoustic sources, the propagation and the flight trajectories. After an exhaustive review of the present predictive technologies in the relevant fields (airframe, propulsion, propagation, aircraft operations, trajectory optimisation), the paper add...

  3. The handling of chemical data

    CERN Document Server

    Lark, P D; Bosworth, R C L


    The Handling of Chemical Data deals with how measurements, such as those arrived at from chemical experimentation, are handled. The book discusses the different kinds of measurements and their specific dimensional characteristics by starting with the origin and presentation of chemical data. The text explains the units, fixed points, and relationships found between scales, the concept of dimensions, the presentation of quantitative data (whether in a tabular or graphical form), and some uses of empirical equations. The book also explains the relationship between two variables, and how equatio

  4. How Retailers Handle Complaint Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Torben; Wilke, Ricky; Zaichkowsky, Judy


    as to the links between CM and redress of consumers’ complaints. The results suggest that retailers who attach large negative consequences to consumer dissatisfaction are more likely than other retailers to develop a positive strategic view on customer complaining, but at the same time an increase in perceived......This article fills a gap in the literature by providing insight about the handling of complaint management (CM) across a large cross section of retailers in the grocery, furniture, electronic and auto sectors. Determinants of retailers’ CM handling are investigated and insight is gained...... negative consequences of customer dissatisfaction leads to a more negative view on interacting with complaining customers....

  5. The Dφ Data Handling System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    V.White; D.Adams; 等


    In this paper we highlight strategies and choices that make the Dφ Data Handling system markedly different from many other experiments' systems,We emphasize how far the Dφ system has come in innovating and implementing a Dφ-specific Data Grid system.We discuss experiences during the first months of detector commissioning and give some future plans for the system.

  6. Seven Ways to Handle Pressure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    1.Take care of your body.Exercise, eat healthily,and get plenty of sleep.You’ll handle stress much better. 2.Take down your thoughts.Recording your thoughts in a diary will help you choose your feelings and relieve~* stress. 3.Talk about it.If possible,find someone

  7. Predicted electrothermal deicing of aircraft blades (United States)

    Keith, T. G., Jr.; Masiulaniec, K. C.; Dewitt, K. J.; Chao, D. F.


    A finite difference method is presented for the transient two-dimensional simulation of an electrothermal de-icer pad of an aircraft wing or blade. The irregular geometry of the composite ice laden blade is handled by use of a body fitted coordinate transformation. By this approach the various blade layers are mapped into a set of stacked rectangular strips in which the numerical solution takes place. Several heat conduction examples are presented in order to demonstrate the accuracy of the numerical procedure. Ice melting time predictions are made and compared to earlier predictions where possible. Finally, a new graphical presentation of thermal results is shown.

  8. Review of evolving trends in blended wing body aircraft design (United States)

    Okonkwo, Paul; Smith, Howard


    The desire to produce environmentally friendly aircraft that is aerodynamically efficient and capable of conveying large number of passengers over long ranges at reduced direct operating cost led aircraft designers to develop the Blended Wing Body (BWB) aircraft concept. The BWB aircraft represents a paradigm shift in the design of aircraft. The design provides aerodynamics and environmental benefits and is suitable for the integration of advanced systems and concepts like laminar flow technology, jet flaps and distributed propulsion. However, despite these benefits, the BWB is yet to be developed for commercial air transport due to several challenges. This paper reviews emerging trends in BWB aircraft design highlighting design challenges that have hindered the development of a BWB passenger transport aircraft. The study finds that in order to harness the advantages and reduce the deficiencies of a tightly coupled configuration like the BWB, a multidisciplinary design synthesis optimisation should be conducted with good handling and ride quality as objective functions within acceptable direct operating cost and noise bounds.

  9. Cable Tensiometer for Aircraft (United States)

    Nunnelee, Mark (Inventor)


    The invention is a cable tensiometer that can be used on aircraft for real-time, in-flight cable tension measurements. The invention can be used on any aircraft cables with high precision. The invention is extremely light-weight, hangs on the cable being tested and uses a dual bending beam design with a high mill-volt output to determine tension.

  10. Aircraft operations management manual (United States)


    The NASA aircraft operations program is a multifaceted, highly diverse entity that directly supports the agency mission in aeronautical research and development, space science and applications, space flight, astronaut readiness training, and related activities through research and development, program support, and mission management aircraft operations flights. Users of the program are interagency, inter-government, international, and the business community. This manual provides guidelines to establish policy for the management of NASA aircraft resources, aircraft operations, and related matters. This policy is an integral part of and must be followed when establishing field installation policy and procedures covering the management of NASA aircraft operations. Each operating location will develop appropriate local procedures that conform with the requirements of this handbook. This manual should be used in conjunction with other governing instructions, handbooks, and manuals.

  11. A strategic planning methodology for aircraft redesign (United States)

    Romli, Fairuz Izzuddin

    Due to a progressive market shift to a customer-driven environment, the influence of engineering changes on the product's market success is becoming more prominent. This situation affects many long lead-time product industries including aircraft manufacturing. Derivative development has been the key strategy for many aircraft manufacturers to survive the competitive market and this trend is expected to continue in the future. Within this environment of design adaptation and variation, the main market advantages are often gained by the fastest aircraft manufacturers to develop and produce their range of market offerings without any costly mistakes. This realization creates an emphasis on the efficiency of the redesign process, particularly on the handling of engineering changes. However, most activities involved in the redesign process are supported either inefficiently or not at all by the current design methods and tools, primarily because they have been mostly developed to improve original product development. In view of this, the main goal of this research is to propose an aircraft redesign methodology that will act as a decision-making aid for aircraft designers in the change implementation planning of derivative developments. The proposed method, known as Strategic Planning of Engineering Changes (SPEC), combines the key elements of the product redesign planning and change management processes. Its application is aimed at reducing the redesign risks of derivative aircraft development, improving the detection of possible change effects propagation, increasing the efficiency of the change implementation planning and also reducing the costs and the time delays due to the redesign process. To address these challenges, four research areas have been identified: baseline assessment, change propagation prediction, change impact analysis and change implementation planning. Based on the established requirements for the redesign planning process, several methods and

  12. Predicting Visibility of Aircraft (United States)

    Watson, Andrew; Ramirez, Cesar V.; Salud, Ellen


    Visual detection of aircraft by human observers is an important element of aviation safety. To assess and ensure safety, it would be useful to be able to be able to predict the visibility, to a human observer, of an aircraft of specified size, shape, distance, and coloration. Examples include assuring safe separation among aircraft and between aircraft and unmanned vehicles, design of airport control towers, and efforts to enhance or suppress the visibility of military and rescue vehicles. We have recently developed a simple metric of pattern visibility, the Spatial Standard Observer (SSO). In this report we examine whether the SSO can predict visibility of simulated aircraft images. We constructed a set of aircraft images from three-dimensional computer graphic models, and measured the luminance contrast threshold for each image from three human observers. The data were well predicted by the SSO. Finally, we show how to use the SSO to predict visibility range for aircraft of arbitrary size, shape, distance, and coloration. PMID:19462007

  13. Orion Entry Handling Qualities Assessments (United States)

    Bihari, B.; Tiggers, M.; Strahan, A.; Gonzalez, R.; Sullivan, K.; Stephens, J. P.; Hart, J.; Law, H., III; Bilimoria, K.; Bailey, R.


    The Orion Command Module (CM) is a capsule designed to bring crew back from the International Space Station (ISS), the moon and beyond. The atmospheric entry portion of the flight is deigned to be flown in autopilot mode for nominal situations. However, there exists the possibility for the crew to take over manual control in off-nominal situations. In these instances, the spacecraft must meet specific handling qualities criteria. To address these criteria two separate assessments of the Orion CM s entry Handling Qualities (HQ) were conducted at NASA s Johnson Space Center (JSC) using the Cooper-Harper scale (Cooper & Harper, 1969). These assessments were conducted in the summers of 2008 and 2010 using the Advanced NASA Technology Architecture for Exploration Studies (ANTARES) six degree of freedom, high fidelity Guidance, Navigation, and Control (GN&C) simulation. This paper will address the specifics of the handling qualities criteria, the vehicle configuration, the scenarios flown, the simulation background and setup, crew interfaces and displays, piloting techniques, ratings and crew comments, pre- and post-fight briefings, lessons learned and changes made to improve the overall system performance. The data collection tools, methods, data reduction and output reports will also be discussed. The objective of the 2008 entry HQ assessment was to evaluate the handling qualities of the CM during a lunar skip return. A lunar skip entry case was selected because it was considered the most demanding of all bank control scenarios. Even though skip entry is not planned to be flown manually, it was hypothesized that if a pilot could fly the harder skip entry case, then they could also fly a simpler loads managed or ballistic (constant bank rate command) entry scenario. In addition, with the evaluation set-up of multiple tasks within the entry case, handling qualities ratings collected in the evaluation could be used to assess other scenarios such as the constant bank angle

  14. Tropospheric sampling with aircraft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daum, P.H.; Springston, S.R.


    Aircraft constitute a unique environment which places stringent requirements on the instruments used to measure the concentrations of atmospheric trace gases and aerosols. Some of these requirements such as minimization of size, weight, and power consumption are general; others are specific to individual techniques. This review presents the basic principles and considerations governing the deployment of trace gas and aerosol instrumentation on an aircraft. An overview of common instruments illustrates these points and provides guidelines for designing and using instruments on aircraft-based measurement programs.

  15. Lightning hazards to aircraft (United States)

    Corn, P. B.


    Lightning hazards and, more generally, aircraft static electricity are discussed by a representative for the Air Force Flight Dynamics Laboratory. An overview of these atmospheric electricity hazards to aircraft and their systems is presented with emphasis on electrical and electronic subsystems. The discussion includes reviewing some of the characteristics of lightning and static electrification, trends in weather and lightning-related mishaps, some specific threat mechanisms and susceptible aircraft subsystems and some of the present technology gaps. A roadmap (flow chart) is presented to show the direction needed to address these problems.



    RAHMATI, Sadegh; GHASED, Amir


    Abstract. Generally domain Aircraft uses conventional fuel. These fuel having limited life, high cost and pollutant. Also nowadays price of petrol and other fuels are going to be higher, because of scarcity of those fuels. So there is great demand of use of non-exhaustible unlimited source of energy like solar energy. Solar aircraft is one of the ways to utilize solar energy. Solar aircraft uses solar panel to collect the solar radiation for immediate use but it also store the remaining part ...

  17. 7 CFR 983.14 - Handle. (United States)


    ... NEW MEXICO Definitions § 983.14 Handle. Handle means to engage in: (a) Receiving pistachios; (b... of interstate or foreign commerce; and/or (d) Placing pistachios into the current of commerce...

  18. HMSRP Hawaiian Monk Seal Handling Data (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains records for all handling and measurement of Hawaiian monk seals since 1981. Live seals are handled and measured during a variety of events...

  19. 7 CFR 1205.312 - Handle. (United States)


    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1205.312 Handle. Handle means to harvest, gin, warehouse, compress, purchase, market, transport, or otherwise acquire ownership or control of cotton....

  20. 7 CFR 1207.307 - Handle. (United States)


    ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE POTATO RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Potato Research and Promotion Plan Definitions § 1207.307 Handle. Handle means to grade, pack,...

  1. Depreciation of aircraft (United States)

    Warner, Edward P


    There is a widespread, and quite erroneous, impression to the effect that aircraft are essentially fragile and deteriorate with great rapidity when in service, so that the depreciation charges to be allowed on commercial or private operation are necessarily high.

  2. Essentials of aircraft armaments

    CERN Document Server

    Kaushik, Mrinal


    This book aims to provide a complete exposure about armaments from their design to launch from the combat aircraft. The book details modern ammunition and their tactical roles in warfare. The proposed book discusses aerodynamics, propulsion, structural as well as navigation, control, and guidance of aircraft armament. It also introduces the various types of ammunition developed by different countries and their changing trends. The book imparts knowledge in the field of design, and development of aircraft armaments to aerospace engineers and covers the role of the United Nations in peacekeeping and disarmament. The book will be very useful to researchers, students, and professionals working in design and manufacturing of aircraft armaments. The book will also serve air force and naval aspirants, and those interested in working on defence research and developments organizations. .

  3. Solar thermal aircraft (United States)

    Bennett, Charles L.


    A solar thermal powered aircraft powered by heat energy from the sun. A heat engine, such as a Stirling engine, is carried by the aircraft body for producing power for a propulsion mechanism, such as a propeller. The heat engine has a thermal battery in thermal contact with it so that heat is supplied from the thermal battery. A solar concentrator, such as reflective parabolic trough, is movably connected to an optically transparent section of the aircraft body for receiving and concentrating solar energy from within the aircraft. Concentrated solar energy is collected by a heat collection and transport conduit, and heat transported to the thermal battery. A solar tracker includes a heliostat for determining optimal alignment with the sun, and a drive motor actuating the solar concentrator into optimal alignment with the sun based on a determination by the heliostat.

  4. Aircraft electromagnetic compatibility (United States)

    Clarke, Clifton A.; Larsen, William E.


    Illustrated are aircraft architecture, electromagnetic interference environments, electromagnetic compatibility protection techniques, program specifications, tasks, and verification and validation procedures. The environment of 400 Hz power, electrical transients, and radio frequency fields are portrayed and related to thresholds of avionics electronics. Five layers of protection for avionics are defined. Recognition is given to some present day electromagnetic compatibility weaknesses and issues which serve to reemphasize the importance of EMC verification of equipment and parts, and their ultimate EMC validation on the aircraft. Proven standards of grounding, bonding, shielding, wiring, and packaging are laid out to help provide a foundation for a comprehensive approach to successful future aircraft design and an understanding of cost effective EMC in an aircraft setting.

  5. Aircraft Fire Protection Laboratory (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Navy Aircraft Protection Laboratory provides complete test support for all Navy air vehicle fire protection systems.The facility allows for the simulation of a...

  6. Aircraft Fire Protection Laboratory (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Navy Aircraft Protection Laboratory provides complete test support for all Navy air vehicle fire protection systems. The facility allows for the simulation of a...

  7. Feedstock storage, handling and processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Egg, R.P.; Coble, C.G.; Engler, C.R. (Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Agricultural Engineering); Lewis, D.H. (Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Veterinary Microbiology and Parasitology)


    This paper is a review of the technology and research covering components of a methane from biomass system between the field and the digester. It deals primarily with sorghum as a feedstock and focuses on research conducted by the Texas Agricultural Experiment Station. Subjects included in this paper are harvesting, hay storage, ansiling, materials handling, pumping and hydraulic characteristics, hydraulic conductivity, pressure/density relationship, and biological pretreatment. This paper is not a comprehensive design manual; however, design equations and coefficients for sorghum are presented, where available, along with references describing the development and application of design models. (author)

  8. Automatic aircraft recognition (United States)

    Hmam, Hatem; Kim, Jijoong


    Automatic aircraft recognition is very complex because of clutter, shadows, clouds, self-occlusion and degraded imaging conditions. This paper presents an aircraft recognition system, which assumes from the start that the image is possibly degraded, and implements a number of strategies to overcome edge fragmentation and distortion. The current vision system employs a bottom up approach, where recognition begins by locating image primitives (e.g., lines and corners), which are then combined in an incremental fashion into larger sets of line groupings using knowledge about aircraft, as viewed from a generic viewpoint. Knowledge about aircraft is represented in the form of whole/part shape description and the connectedness property, and is embedded in production rules, which primarily aim at finding instances of the aircraft parts in the image and checking the connectedness property between the parts. Once a match is found, a confidence score is assigned and as evidence in support of an aircraft interpretation is accumulated, the score is increased proportionally. Finally a selection of the resulting image interpretations with the highest scores, is subjected to competition tests, and only non-ambiguous interpretations are allowed to survive. Experimental results demonstrating the effectiveness of the current recognition system are given.

  9. 7 CFR 58.443 - Whey handling. (United States)


    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Whey handling. 58.443 Section 58.443 Agriculture... Procedures § 58.443 Whey handling. (a) Adequate sanitary facilities shall be provided for the handling of whey. If outside, necessary precautions shall be taken to minimize flies, insects and development...

  10. Rotorcraft pilot coupling susceptibility accompanying handling qualities prospects in preliminary rotorcraft design.


    Yilmaz, D; Dang Vu, B.; M. Jones


    Due to expensive and risky Rotorcraft-Pilot Couplings (RPC) that can develop during flight testing phases of any new prototype aircraft, it is beneficial to crosscheck the RPC susceptibility of the vehicle as early as possible during the design process. One of the objectives of the European project ARISTOTEL (2010-2013) is to provide guidelines to designers and simulator programs to reveal RPC aspects of the vehicle to be designed. First, a methodology to assess the sensitivity of Handling Qu...

  11. CFD Modeling & Verification in an Aircraft Paint Hangar (United States)


    Collaboration •Navy Bureau of Medicine and Surgery (BUMED), IH Division –Assists CNO with health and safety of Navy aircraft artisans –Quarterly monitoring...levels • Handling paint particulates and vapors 10 E2S2. Verification Pitfalls • Artisans change process in the weeks between baseline and...verification – Added a fabric blanket in front of filter to save filter bank blocking exhaust airflow during sanding • Learn how to go w/o sleep

  12. Transfer Area Mechanical Handling Calculation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    B. Dianda


    This calculation is intended to support the License Application (LA) submittal of December 2004, in accordance with the directive given by DOE correspondence received on the 27th of January 2004 entitled: ''Authorization for Bechtel SAX Company L.L. C. to Include a Bare Fuel Handling Facility and Increased Aging Capacity in the License Application, Contract Number DE-AC28-01R W12101'' (Arthur, W.J., I11 2004). This correspondence was appended by further Correspondence received on the 19th of February 2004 entitled: ''Technical Direction to Bechtel SAIC Company L.L. C. for Surface Facility Improvements, Contract Number DE-AC28-OIRW12101; TDL No. 04-024'' (BSC 2004a). These documents give the authorization for a Fuel Handling Facility to be included in the baseline. The purpose of this calculation is to establish preliminary bounding equipment envelopes and weights for the Fuel Handling Facility (FHF) transfer areas equipment. This calculation provides preliminary information only to support development of facility layouts and preliminary load calculations. The limitations of this preliminary calculation lie within the assumptions of section 5 , as this calculation is part of an evolutionary design process. It is intended that this calculation is superseded as the design advances to reflect information necessary to support License Application. The design choices outlined within this calculation represent a demonstration of feasibility and may or may not be included in the completed design. This calculation provides preliminary weight, dimensional envelope, and equipment position in building for the purposes of defining interface variables. This calculation identifies and sizes major equipment and assemblies that dictate overall equipment dimensions and facility interfaces. Sizing of components is based on the selection of commercially available products, where applicable. This is not a specific recommendation for the future use

  13. Development of control laws for a flight test maneuver autopilot for an F-15 aircraft (United States)

    Alag, G. S.; Duke, E. L.


    An autopilot can be used to provide precise control to meet the demanding requirements of flight research maneuvers with high-performance aircraft. The development of control laws within the context of flight test maneuver requirements is discussed. The control laws are developed using eigensystem assignment and command generator tracking. The eigenvalues and eigenvectors are chosen to provide the necessary handling qualities, while the command generator tracking enables the tracking of a specified state during the maneuver. The effectiveness of the control laws is illustrated by their application to an F-15 aircraft to ensure acceptable aircraft performance during a maneuver.

  14. Data Handling and Parameter Estimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sin, Gürkan; Gernaey, Krist


    a set of tools and the techniques necessary to estimate the kinetic and stoichiometric parameters for wastewater treatment processes using data obtained from experimental batch activity tests. These methods and tools are mainly intended for practical applications, i.e. by consultants...... literature that are mostly based on the ActivatedSludge Model (ASM) framework and their appropriate extensions (Henze et al., 2000).The chapter presents an overview of the most commonly used methods in the estimation of parameters from experimental batch data, namely: (i) data handling and validation, (ii......). Models have also been used as an integral part of the comprehensive analysis and interpretation of data obtained from a range of experimental methods from the laboratory, as well as pilot-scale studies to characterise and study wastewater treatment plants. In this regard, models help to properly explain...

  15. MPI Debugging with Handle Introspection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brock-Nannestad, Laust; DelSignore, John; Squyres, Jeffrey M.;

    The Message Passing Interface, MPI, is the standard programming model for high performance computing clusters. However, debugging applications on large scale clusters is difficult. The widely used Message Queue Dumping interface enables inspection of message queue state but there is no general...... interface for extracting information from MPI objects such as communicators. A developer can debug the MPI library as if it was part of the application, but this exposes an unneeded level of detail. The Tools Working Group in the MPI Forum has proposed a specification for MPI Handle Introspection....... It defines a standard interface that lets debuggers extract information from MPI objects. Extracted information is then presented to the developer, in a human readable format. The interface is designed to be independent of MPI implementations and debuggers. In this paper, we describe our support...

  16. Identification of Aircraft Hazards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K. Ashley


    Aircraft hazards were determined to be potentially applicable to a repository at Yucca Mountain in ''Monitored Geological Repository External Events Hazards Screening Analysis'' (BSC 2005 [DIRS 174235], Section 6.4.1). That determination was conservatively based upon limited knowledge of flight data in the area of concern and upon crash data for aircraft of the type flying near Yucca Mountain. The purpose of this report is to identify specific aircraft hazards that may be applicable to a monitored geologic repository (MGR) at Yucca Mountain, using NUREG-0800, ''Standard Review Plan for the Review of Safety Analysis Reports for Nuclear Power Plants'' (NRC 1987 [DIRS 103124], Section, as guidance for the inclusion or exclusion of identified aircraft hazards. The intended use of this report is to provide inputs for further screening and analysis of identified aircraft hazards based upon the criteria that apply to Category 1 and Category 2 event sequence analyses as defined in 10 CFR 63.2 [DIRS 176544] (Section 4). The scope of this report includes the evaluation of military, private, and commercial use of airspace in the 100-mile regional setting of the repository at Yucca Mountain with the potential for reducing the regional setting to a more manageable size after consideration of applicable screening criteria (Section 7).


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K.L. Ashley


    Aircraft hazards were determined to be potentially applicable to a repository at Yucca Mountain in the ''Monitored Geological Repository External Events Hazards Screening Analysis'' (BSC 2004, Section 6.4.1). That determination was conservatively based on limited knowledge of flight data in the area of concern and on crash data for aircraft of the type flying near Yucca Mountain. The purpose of this report is to identify specific aircraft hazards that may be applicable to a Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) at Yucca Mountain using NUREG-0800, ''Standard Review Plan for the Review of Safety Analysis Reports for Nuclear Power Plants'' (NRC 1987, Section, as guidance for the inclusion or exclusion of identified aircraft hazards. NUREG-0800 is being used here as a reference because some of the same considerations apply. The intended use of this report is to provide inputs for further screening and analysis of the identified aircraft hazards based on the criteria that apply to Category 1 and 2 event sequence analyses as defined in 10 CFR 63.2 (see Section 4). The scope of this technical report includes the evaluation of military, private, and commercial use of airspace in the 100-mile regional setting of the MGR at Yucca Mountain with the potential for reducing the regional setting to a more manageable size after consideration of applicable screening criteria (see Section 7).

  18. Aircraft Operations Classification System (United States)

    Harlow, Charles; Zhu, Weihong


    Accurate data is important in the aviation planning process. In this project we consider systems for measuring aircraft activity at airports. This would include determining the type of aircraft such as jet, helicopter, single engine, and multiengine propeller. Some of the issues involved in deploying technologies for monitoring aircraft operations are cost, reliability, and accuracy. In addition, the system must be field portable and acceptable at airports. A comparison of technologies was conducted and it was decided that an aircraft monitoring system should be based upon acoustic technology. A multimedia relational database was established for the study. The information contained in the database consists of airport information, runway information, acoustic records, photographic records, a description of the event (takeoff, landing), aircraft type, and environmental information. We extracted features from the time signal and the frequency content of the signal. A multi-layer feed-forward neural network was chosen as the classifier. Training and testing results were obtained. We were able to obtain classification results of over 90 percent for training and testing for takeoff events.

  19. Advanced Aircraft Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivek Kumar Prince


    Full Text Available There has been long debate on “advanced aircraft material” from past decades & researchers too came out with lots of new advanced material like composites and different aluminum alloys. Now days a new advancement that is in great talk is third generation Aluminum-lithium alloy. Newest Aluminum-lithium alloys are found out to have low density, higher elastic modulus, greater stiffness, greater cryogenic toughness, high resistance to fatigue cracking and improved corrosion resistance properties over the earlier used aircraft material as mentioned in Table 3 [1-5]. Comparison had been made with nowadays used composite material and is found out to be more superior then that

  20. Aircraft Fuel Systems Career Ladder. (United States)


    type fittings remove and install fuel cells clean work areas inspect aircraft for safety pin installation purge tanks or cells using blow purge method...INSPECT AIRCRAFT FOR SAFETY PIN INSTALLATION 84 H254 PURGE TANKS OR CELLS USING BLOW PURGE METHOD 83 H227 CHECK AIRCRAFT FOR LIQUID OXYGEN (LOX...H243 INSPECT AIRCRAFT FOR SAFETY PIN INSTALLATION 52 M483 MIX SEALANTS BY HAND 48 K372 CONNECT OR DISCONNECT WIGGINS TYPE FITTINGS 48 H236 DISCONNECT

  1. Enclosure for handling high activity materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimeno de Osso, F.


    One of the most important problems that are met at the laboratories producing and handling radioisotopes is that of designing, building and operating enclosures suitable for the safe handling of active substances. With this purpose in mind, an enclosure has been designed and built for handling moderately high activities under a shielding made of 150 mm thick lead. In this report a description is given of those aspects that may be of interest to people working in this field. (Author)

  2. Scheduling of outbound luggage handling at airports

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barth, Torben C.; Pisinger, David


    This article considers the outbound luggage handling problem at airports. The problem is to assign handling facilities to outbound flights and decide about the handling start time. This dynamic, near real-time assignment problem is part of the daily airport operations. Quality, efficiency......). Another solution method is a decomposition approach. The problem is divided into different subproblems and solved in iterative steps. The different solution approaches are tested on real world data from Frankfurt Airport....

  3. Ergonomics: safe patient handling and mobility. (United States)

    Hallmark, Beth; Mechan, Patricia; Shores, Lynne


    This article reviews and investigates the issues surrounding ergonomics, with a specific focus on safe patient handling and mobility. The health care worker of today faces many challenges, one of which is related to the safety of patients. Safe patient handling and mobility is on the forefront of the movement to improve patient safety. This article reviews the risks associated with patient handling and mobility, and informs the reader of current evidence-based practice relevant to this area of care.

  4. Ergonomic handle for an arthroscopic cutter. (United States)

    Tuijthof; van Engelen; Herder; Goossens; Snijders; van Dijk


    From an analysis of the routinely performed meniscectomy procedures, it was concluded that a punch with a side-ways steerable tip would improve the reachability of meniscal tissue. This potentially leads to a safer and more efficient meniscectomy. Furthermore, the current scissors handles of arthroscopic punches are ergonomically not sufficient. An ergonomic handle is designed with one lever that enables opening and closing of the instrument tip, and side-ways steering of the instrument tip. The design of the handle complies with ergonomic guidelines that were found in the literature. A model of the instrument tip was added to the new handle for comparison with conventional handles. Experiments were performed with a knee joint model, using objective and subjective criteria. The results show that the concept of a side-ways steerable punch is promising, since faster task times are achieved without increasing the risk of damaging healthy tissue. The current design of the ergonomic handle incorporates two degrees of freedom in an intuitive way, the handle is more comfortable to hold, and easy to control. The external memory capabilities of the new handle could be improved. Further development of this handle and the addition of a sufficient instrument tip and force transmission are recommended.

  5. Handling S/MAR vectors. (United States)

    Hagedorn, Claudia; Baiker, Armin; Postberg, Jan; Ehrhardt, Anja; Lipps, Hans J


    Nonviral episomal vectors represent attractive alternatives to currently used virus-based expression systems. In the late 1990s, it was shown that a plasmid containing an expression cassette linked to a scaffold/matrix attached region (S/MAR) replicates as a low copy number episome in all cell lines tested, as well as primary cells, and can be used for the genetic modification of higher animals. Once established in the cell, the S/MAR vector replicates early during S-phase and, in the absence of selection, is stably retained in the cells for an unlimited period of time. This vector can therefore be regarded as a minimal model system for studying the epigenetic regulation of replication and functional nuclear architecture. In theory, this construct represents an almost "ideal" expression system for gene therapy. In practice, S/MAR-based vectors stably modify mammalian cells with efficiencies far below those of virus-based constructs. Consequently, they have not yet found application in gene therapy trials. Furthermore, S/MAR vector systems are not trivial to handle and several critical technical issues have to be considered when modifying these vectors for various applications.

  6. Aircraft Oxygen Generation (United States)


    aircraft use some form of on-board oxygen generation provided by one of two corporations that dominate this market . A review of safety incident data...manufacture of synthetic resins (e.g., Bakelite), and for 161 making dyestuffs, flavorings, perfumes , and other chemicals. Some are used as

  7. Robots for Aircraft Maintenance (United States)


    Marshall Space Flight Center charged USBI (now Pratt & Whitney) with the task of developing an advanced stripping system based on hydroblasting to strip paint and thermal protection material from Space Shuttle solid rocket boosters. A robot, mounted on a transportable platform, controls the waterjet angle, water pressure and flow rate. This technology, now known as ARMS, has found commercial applications in the removal of coatings from jet engine components. The system is significantly faster than manual procedures and uses only minimal labor. Because the amount of "substrate" lost is minimal, the life of the component is extended. The need for toxic chemicals is reduced, as is waste disposal and human protection equipment. Users of the ARMS work cell include Delta Air Lines and the Air Force, which later contracted with USBI for development of a Large Aircraft Paint Stripping system (LARPS). LARPS' advantages are similar to ARMS, and it has enormous potential in military and civil aircraft maintenance. The technology may also be adapted to aircraft painting, aircraft inspection techniques and paint stripping of large objects like ships and railcars.

  8. Aircraft noise prediction (United States)

    Filippone, Antonio


    This contribution addresses the state-of-the-art in the field of aircraft noise prediction, simulation and minimisation. The point of view taken in this context is that of comprehensive models that couple the various aircraft systems with the acoustic sources, the propagation and the flight trajectories. After an exhaustive review of the present predictive technologies in the relevant fields (airframe, propulsion, propagation, aircraft operations, trajectory optimisation), the paper addresses items for further research and development. Examples are shown for several airplanes, including the Airbus A319-100 (CFM engines), the Bombardier Dash8-Q400 (PW150 engines, Dowty R408 propellers) and the Boeing B737-800 (CFM engines). Predictions are done with the flight mechanics code FLIGHT. The transfer function between flight mechanics and the noise prediction is discussed in some details, along with the numerical procedures for validation and verification. Some code-to-code comparisons are shown. It is contended that the field of aircraft noise prediction has not yet reached a sufficient level of maturity. In particular, some parametric effects cannot be investigated, issues of accuracy are not currently addressed, and validation standards are still lacking.

  9. Aircraft Emissions Characterization (United States)


    sample from each trap through a heated (1500C) six-port valve ’ Carle Instruments Model 5621) and onto the analytical column. The coLoponents in each...Environmental Protection, Vol. II. Aircraft Engine Emissions, Int. Civil Aviation Organ., 1981. 7. Nebel , G. J., "Benzene in Auto Exhaust," J. Air Poll

  10. Braking performance of aircraft tires (United States)

    Agrawal, Satish K.

    This paper brings under one cover the subject of aircraft braking performance and a variety of related phenomena that lead to aircraft hydroplaning, overruns, and loss of directional control. Complex processes involving tire deformation, tire slipping, and fluid pressures in the tire-runway contact area develop the friction forces for retarding the aircraft; this paper describes the physics of these processes. The paper reviews the past and present research efforts and concludes that the most effective way to combat the hazards associated with aircraft landings and takeoffs on contaminated runways is by measuring and displaying in realtime the braking performance parameters in the aircraft cockpit.

  11. Risk based decision support for new air traffic operations with reduced aircraft separation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Speijker, L.J.P.


    With the steady increase in air traffic, the aviation system is under continuous pressure to increase aircraft handling capacity. Various new Air Traffic Management systems and flight procedures are proposed to increase airport capacity while maintaining the required level of safety. Newly proposed

  12. Research on Event Handling Models of Java

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Yue; WU Jing; ZHOU Ming-tian


    A new event-handling paradigm and its application model are proposed. The working mechanism and principle of event listener model is given in detail. Finally, the launching event mechanisms,the choosing event handling models and the dispatching mechanism are illustrated.

  13. 7 CFR 1219.11 - Handle. (United States)


    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HASS AVOCADO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Hass Avocado Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1219.11 Handle. Handle means to pack, process, transport, purchase, or in any other way to place or cause Hass...

  14. Storage and Handling of Commercially Packaged Foods


    Villalba, Abigail; Boyer, Renee Raiden; Bazemore, Sherry


    Proper selection of foods at the grocery store and appropriate storage and handling practices at home are necessary to maintain the quality and safety of commercially processed foods and perishable foods. This brochure offers some guidelines to follow when buying, handling, and storing packaged foods.

  15. 29 CFR 1917.18 - Log handling. (United States)


    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Log handling. 1917.18 Section 1917.18 Labor Regulations...) MARINE TERMINALS Marine Terminal Operations § 1917.18 Log handling. (a) The employer shall ensure that structures (bunks) used to contain logs have rounded corners and rounded structural parts to avoid...

  16. 9 CFR 3.19 - Handling. (United States)


    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Handling. 3.19 Section 3.19 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE STANDARDS Specifications for the Humane Handling, Care, Treatment, and Transportation of Dogs...

  17. 9 CFR 3.41 - Handling. (United States)


    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Handling. 3.41 Section 3.41 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE STANDARDS Specifications for the Humane Handling, Care, Treatment, and Transportation of...

  18. 9 CFR 3.92 - Handling. (United States)


    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Handling. 3.92 Section 3.92 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE STANDARDS Specifications for the Humane Handling, Care, Treatment, and Transportation of...

  19. 9 CFR 3.66 - Handling. (United States)


    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Handling. 3.66 Section 3.66 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE STANDARDS Specifications for the Humane Handling, Care, Treatment and Transportation of...

  20. Feasibility of Upper Port Plug tube handling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koning, J.F.; Elzendoorn, B.S.Q.; Ronden, D.M.S.; Klinkhamer, J.F.F.; Biel, W.; Krasikov, Y.; Walker, C.I.


    Central, retractable tubes are proposed in several Upper Port Plugs (UPPs) designs for ITER, to enable fast exchange of specific components of diagnostics housed in these UPPs. This paper investigates into possible designs to enable the efficient handling of tubes. The feasibility of tube handling i

  1. Reducing Mouse Anxiety during Handling: Effect of Experience with Handling Tunnels


    Kelly Gouveia; Hurst, Jane L.


    Handling stress is a well-recognised source of variation in animal studies that can also compromise the welfare of research animals. To reduce background variation and maximise welfare, methods that minimise handling stress should be developed and used wherever possible. Recent evidence has shown that handling mice by a familiar tunnel that is present in their home cage can minimise anxiety compared with standard tail handling. As yet, it is unclear whether a tunnel is required in each home c...

  2. 19 CFR 10.183 - Duty-free entry of civil aircraft, aircraft engines, ground flight simulators, parts, components... (United States)


    ... Duty-free entry of civil aircraft, aircraft engines, ground flight simulators, parts, components, and... aircraft, aircraft engines, and ground flight simulators, including their parts, components, and... United States (HTSUS) by meeting the following requirements: (1) The aircraft, aircraft engines,...

  3. Aircraft Data Acquisition


    Elena BALMUS


    The introduction of digital systems instead of analog ones has created a major separation in the aviation technology. Although the digital equipment made possible that the increasingly faster controllers take over, we should say that the real world remains essentially analogue [4]. Fly-by-wire designers attempting to control and measure the real feedback of an aircraft were forced to find a way to connect the analogue environment to their digital equipment. In order to manage the implications...

  4. Airline and Aircraft Reliability


    Hauka, Maris; Paramonovs, Jurijs


    Development of the inspection programme of fatigue-prone aircraft construction under limitation of airline fatigue failure rate. The highest economical effectiveness of airline under limitation of fatigue failure rate and failure probability is discussed. For computing is used exponential regression, Monte Carlo method, Log Normal distribution, Markov chains and semi-Markov process theory. The minimax approach is offered for processing the results of full-scale fatigue approval test of an air...

  5. Slotted Aircraft Wing (United States)

    McLean, James D. (Inventor); Witkowski, David P. (Inventor); Campbell, Richard L. (Inventor)


    A swept aircraft wing includes a leading airfoil element and a trailing airfoil element. At least one full-span slot is defined by the wing during at least one transonic condition of the wing. The full-span slot allows a portion of the air flowing along the lower surface of the leading airfoil element to split and flow over the upper surface of the trailing airfoil element so as to achieve a performance improvement in the transonic condition.

  6. Interaction of Aircraft Wakes From Laterally Spaced Aircraft (United States)

    Proctor, Fred H.


    Large Eddy Simulations are used to examine wake interactions from aircraft on closely spaced parallel paths. Two sets of experiments are conducted, with the first set examining wake interactions out of ground effect (OGE) and the second set for in ground effect (IGE). The initial wake field for each aircraft represents a rolled-up wake vortex pair generated by a B-747. Parametric sets include wake interactions from aircraft pairs with lateral separations of 400, 500, 600, and 750 ft. The simulation of a wake from a single aircraft is used as baseline. The study shows that wake vortices from either a pair or a formation of B-747 s that fly with very close lateral spacing, last longer than those from an isolated B-747. For OGE, the inner vortices between the pair of aircraft, ascend, link and quickly dissipate, leaving the outer vortices to decay and descend slowly. For the IGE scenario, the inner vortices ascend and last longer, while the outer vortices decay from ground interaction at a rate similar to that expected from an isolated aircraft. Both OGE and IGE scenarios produce longer-lasting wakes for aircraft with separations less than 600 ft. The results are significant because concepts to increase airport capacity have been proposed that assume either aircraft formations and/or aircraft pairs landing on very closely spaced runways.

  7. How the NWC handles software as product

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vinson, D.


    This tutorial provides a hands-on view of how the Nuclear Weapons Complex project should be handling (or planning to handle) software as a product in response to Engineering Procedure 401099. The SQAS has published the document SQAS96-002, Guidelines for NWC Processes for Handling Software Product, that will be the basis for the tutorial. The primary scope of the tutorial is on software products that result from weapons and weapons-related projects, although the information presented is applicable to many software projects. Processes that involve the exchange, review, or evaluation of software product between or among NWC sites, DOE, and external customers will be described.

  8. Handling of bulk solids theory and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Shamlou, P A


    Handling of Bulk Solids provides a comprehensive discussion of the field of solids flow and handling in the process industries. Presentation of the subject follows classical lines of separate discussions for each topic, so each chapter is self-contained and can be read on its own. Topics discussed include bulk solids flow and handling properties; pressure profiles in bulk solids storage vessels; the design of storage silos for reliable discharge of bulk materials; gravity flow of particulate materials from storage vessels; pneumatic transportation of bulk solids; and the hazards of solid-mater

  9. Reducing mouse anxiety during handling: effect of experience with handling tunnels. (United States)

    Gouveia, Kelly; Hurst, Jane L


    Handling stress is a well-recognised source of variation in animal studies that can also compromise the welfare of research animals. To reduce background variation and maximise welfare, methods that minimise handling stress should be developed and used wherever possible. Recent evidence has shown that handling mice by a familiar tunnel that is present in their home cage can minimise anxiety compared with standard tail handling. As yet, it is unclear whether a tunnel is required in each home cage to improve response to handling. We investigated the influence of prior experience with home tunnels among two common strains of laboratory mice: ICR(CD-1) and C57BL/6. We compared willingness to approach the handler and anxiety in an elevated plus maze test among mice picked up by the tail, by a home cage tunnel or by an external tunnel shared between cages. Willingness to interact with the handler was much greater for mice handled by a tunnel, even when this was unfamiliar, compared to mice picked up by the tail. Once habituated to handling, C57BL/6 mice were most interactive towards a familiar home tunnel, whereas the ICR strain showed strong interaction with all tunnel handling regardless of any experience of a home cage tunnel. Mice handled by a home cage or external tunnel showed less anxiety in an elevated plus maze than those picked up by the tail. This study shows that using a tunnel for routine handling reduces anxiety among mice compared to tail handling regardless of prior familiarity with tunnels. However, as home cage tunnels can further improve response to handling in some mice, we recommend that mice are handled with a tunnel provided in their home cage where possible as a simple practical method to minimise handling stress.

  10. Guidance Systems of Fighter Aircraft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.N. Rajanikanth


    Full Text Available Mission performance of a fighter aircraft is crucial for survival and strike capabilities in todays' aerial warfare scenario. The guidance functions of such an aircraft play a vital role inmeeting the requirements and accomplishing the mission success. This paper presents the requirements of precision guidance for various missions of a fighter aircraft. The concept ofguidance system as a pilot-in-loop system is pivotal in understanding and designing such a system. Methodologies of designing such a system are described.

  11. Guidance Systems of Fighter Aircraft


    K.N. Rajanikanth; Rao, R S; P. S. Subramanyam; Ajai Vohra


    Mission performance of a fighter aircraft is crucial for survival and strike capabilities in todays' aerial warfare scenario. The guidance functions of such an aircraft play a vital role inmeeting the requirements and accomplishing the mission success. This paper presents the requirements of precision guidance for various missions of a fighter aircraft. The concept ofguidance system as a pilot-in-loop system is pivotal in understanding and designing such a system. Methodologies of designing s...

  12. Drag/thrust analysis of jet-propelled transonic transport aircraft; definition of physical drag components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Destarac, D. [Office National d' Etudes et de Recherches Aerospatiales (ONERA), 92 - Chatillon (France); Van der Vooren, J. [Senior research scientist, retired, Hoekse Waard (Netherlands)


    Drag/thrust analysis of jet-propelled transonic transport aircraft on the basis of calculated viscous flow is discussed. Unique definitions for viscous drag plus wave drag and for induced drag are established. The concept of additive through flow drag is introduced. Drag/thrust bookkeeping is given attention. All drag components can be calculated in the flow region adjacent to the aircraft, where numerical accuracy is expectingly highest. Uniform handling of complex aircraft configurations is brought within reach. Near-field/far-field drag balances are exact. Computational aspects are discussed, in particular the elimination of spurious drag sources. Numerical examples are given for a wing-body and for a wing-body-pylon-nacelle configuration. In either case, the spurious drag sources are eliminated. Acceptable agreement is obtained for the total drag in the first case, and for the installation drag in the second case. Extension of the analysis presented to propeller-driven transport aircraft is straightforward. (author)

  13. Scheduling of an aircraft fleet (United States)

    Paltrinieri, Massimo; Momigliano, Alberto; Torquati, Franco


    Scheduling is the task of assigning resources to operations. When the resources are mobile vehicles, they describe routes through the served stations. To emphasize such aspect, this problem is usually referred to as the routing problem. In particular, if vehicles are aircraft and stations are airports, the problem is known as aircraft routing. This paper describes the solution to such a problem developed in OMAR (Operative Management of Aircraft Routing), a system implemented by Bull HN for Alitalia. In our approach, aircraft routing is viewed as a Constraint Satisfaction Problem. The solving strategy combines network consistency and tree search techniques.

  14. How Do Search Engines Handle Chinese Queries?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Cui


    Full Text Available The use of languages other than English has been growing exponentially on the Web. However, the major search engines have been lagging behind in providing indexes and search features to handle these languages. This article explores the characteristics of the Chinese language and how queries in this language are handled by different search engines. Queries were entered in two major search engines (Google and AlltheWeb and two search engines developed for Chinese (Sohu and Baidu. Criteria such as handling word segmentation, number of retrieved documents, and correct display and identification of Chinese characters were used to examine how the search engines handled the queries. The results showed that the performance of the two major search engines was not on a par with that of the search engines developed for Chinese.

  15. GeoLab Sample Handling System Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Develop  a robotic sample handling/ manipulator system for the GeoLab glovebox. This work leverages from earlier GeoLab work and a 2012 collaboration with a...

  16. Aerobot Sampling and Handling System Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Honeybee Robotics proposes to: ?Derive and document the functional and technical requirements for Aerobot surface sampling and sample handling across a range of...

  17. 7 CFR 926.9 - Handle. (United States)



  18. Live-trapping and handling brown bear (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This paper reports techniques developed to live trap and handle brown bears on the Kodiak National Wildlife Refuge. The brown bears (Ursus middendorffi) on the...

  19. Management of transport and handling contracts

    CERN Document Server

    Rühl, I


    This paper shall outline the content, application and management strategies for the various contracts related to transport and handling activities. In total, the two sections Logistics and Handling Maintenance are in charge of 27 (!) contracts ranging from small supply contracts to big industrial support contracts. The activities as well as the contracts can generally be divided into four main topics "Vehicle Fleet Management"; "Supply, Installation and Commissioning of Lifting and Hoisting Equipment"; "Equipment Maintenance" and "Industrial Support for Transport and Handling". Each activity and contract requires different approaches and permanent adaptation to the often changing CERN's requirements. In particular, the management and the difficulties experienced with the contracts E072 "Maintenance of lifting and hoisting equipment", F420 "Supply of seven overhead traveling cranes for LHC" and S090/S103 "Industrial support for transport and handling" will be explained in detail.

  20. Handling knowledge on osteoporosis - a qualitative study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Dorthe; Huniche, Lotte; Brixen, Kim


    Scand J Caring Sci; 2012 Handling knowledge on osteoporosis - a qualitative study The aim of this qualitative study was to increase understanding of the importance of osteoporosis information and knowledge for patients' ways of handling osteoporosis in their everyday lives. Interviews were...... performed with 14 patients recruited from two English university hospitals and 12 patients from a Danish university hospital. Critical psychology was used as a theoretical framework for the data analysis, which aimed at shedding light on patients' ways of conducting everyday life with osteoporosis....... The themes that emerged from the analysis showed that life conditions influenced the way in which risk, pain and osteoporosis were handled. Everyday life was also influenced by patients' attitude to treatment. The patients who were experiencing emotional difficulties in handling osteoporosis were not those...

  1. 30o inclination in handles of plastic boxes can reduce postural and muscular workload during handling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana C. C. B. Silva


    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The handling of materials, which occurs in the industrial sector, is associated with lesions on the lumbar spine and in the upper limbs. Inserting handles in industrial boxes is a way to reduce work-related risks. Although the position and angle of the handles are significant factors in comfort and safety during handling, these factors have rarely been studied objectively. OBJECTIVE: To compare the handling of a commercial box and prototypes with handles and to evaluate the effects on upper limb posture, muscle electrical activity, and perceived acceptability using different grips while handling materials from different heights. METHOD: Thirty-seven healthy volunteers evaluated the handles of prototypes that allowed for changes in position (top and bottom and angle (0°, 15°, and 30°. Wrist, elbow, and shoulder movements were evaluated using electrogoniometry and inclinometry. The muscle electrical activity in the wrist extensors, biceps brachii, and the upper portion of the trapezius was measured using a portable electromyographer. The recorded data on muscle movements and electrical activity were synchronized. Subjective evaluations of acceptability were evaluated using a visual analog scale. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: The prototypes with handles at a 30° angle produced the highest acceptability ratings, more neutral wrist positions, lower levels of electromyographic activity for the upper trapezius, and lower elevation angles for the arms. The different measurement methods were complementary in evaluating the upper limbs during handling.

  2. Safety Training: "Manual Handling" course in September

    CERN Multimedia

    Safety Training, HSE Unit


    The next "Manual Handling" course will be given, in French, on 26 September 2016. This course is designed for anyone required to carry out manual handling of loads in the course of their work.   The main objective of this course is to adopt and apply the basic principles of physical safety and economy of effort. There are places available. If you are interested in following this course, please fill an EDH training request via our catalogue. 

  3. Direct Adaptive Aircraft Control Using Dynamic Cell Structure Neural Networks (United States)

    Jorgensen, Charles C.


    A Dynamic Cell Structure (DCS) Neural Network was developed which learns topology representing networks (TRNS) of F-15 aircraft aerodynamic stability and control derivatives. The network is integrated into a direct adaptive tracking controller. The combination produces a robust adaptive architecture capable of handling multiple accident and off- nominal flight scenarios. This paper describes the DCS network and modifications to the parameter estimation procedure. The work represents one step towards an integrated real-time reconfiguration control architecture for rapid prototyping of new aircraft designs. Performance was evaluated using three off-line benchmarks and on-line nonlinear Virtual Reality simulation. Flight control was evaluated under scenarios including differential stabilator lock, soft sensor failure, control and stability derivative variations, and air turbulence.

  4. Handling Qualities Flight Testing of the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) (United States)

    Glaser, Scott T.; Strovers, Brian K.


    Airborne infrared astronomy has a long successful history, albeit relatively unknown outside of the astronomy community. A major problem with ground based infrared astronomy is the absorption and scatter of infrared energy by water in the atmosphere. Observing the universe from above 40,000 ft puts the observation platform above 99% of the water vapor in the atmosphere, thereby addressing this problem at a fraction of the cost of space based systems. The Stratospheric Observatory For Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) aircraft is the most ambitious foray into the field of airborne infrared astronomy in history. Using a 747SP (The Boeing Company, Chicago, Illinois) aircraft modified with a 2.5m telescope located in the aft section of the fuselage, the SOFIA endeavors to provide views of the universe never before possible and at a fraction of the cost of space based systems. The modification to the airplane includes moveable doors and aperture that expose the telescope assembly. The telescope assembly is aimed and stabilized using a multitude of on board systems. This modification has the potential to cause aerodynamic anomalies that could induce undesired forces either at the cavity itself or indirectly due to interference with the empennage, both of which could cause handling qualities issues. As a result, an extensive analysis and flight test program was conducted from December 2009 through March 2011. Several methods, including a Lower Order Equivalent Systems analysis and pilot assessment, were used to ascertain the effects of the modification. The SOFIA modification was found to cause no adverse handling qualities effects and the aircraft was cleared for operational use. This paper discusses the history and modification to the aircraft, development of test procedures and analysis, results of testing and analysis, lessons learned for future projects and justification for operational certification.

  5. Fatigue crack growth from handling surface anomalies in a Nickel based superalloy at high temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gourdin Stéphane


    Full Text Available Aircraft engine manufacturers have to demonstrate that handling surface anomalies in sensible areas of discs are not critical for in-service life of a component. Currently, the models used consider anomalies as long cracks propagating from the first cycle, which introduce a certain degree of conservatism when calculating the fatigue life of surface flaws. Preliminary studies have shown that the first stages of crack propagation from surface anomalies are responsible for the conservative results. Thus, the aim of the study is to characterize the crack propagation from typical surface anomalies and to establish a new crack growth model, which can account for the micro-propagation stage.

  6. Optics in aircraft engines (United States)

    Vachon, James; Malhotra, Subhash

    The authors describe optical IR&D (independent research and development) programs designed to demonstrate and evaluate optical technologies for incorporation into next-generation military and commercial aircraft engines. Using a comprehensive demonstration program to validate this technology in an on-engine environment, problems encountered can be resolved early and risk can be minimized. In addition to specific activities related to the optics demonstration on the fighter engine, there are other optical programs underway, including a solenoid control system, a light off detection system, and an optical communication link. Research is also underway in simplifying opto-electronics and exploiting multiplexing to further reduce cost and weight.

  7. Aircraft propeller control (United States)

    Day, Stanley G. (Inventor)


    In the invention, the speeds of both propellers in a counterrotating aircraft propeller pair are measured. Each speed is compared, using a feedback loop, with a demanded speed and, if actual speed does not equal demanded speed for either propeller, pitch of the proper propeller is changed in order to attain the demanded speed. A proportional/integral controller is used in the feedback loop. Further, phase of the propellers is measured and, if the phase does not equal a demanded phase, the speed of one propeller is changed, by changing pitch, until the proper phase is attained.

  8. Commercial Aircraft Protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehst, David A. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)


    This report summarizes the results of theoretical research performed during 3 years of P371 Project implementation. In results of such research a new scientific conceptual technology of quasi-passive individual infrared protection of heat-generating objects – Spatial Displacement of Thermal Image (SDTI technology) was developed. Theoretical substantiation and description of working processes of civil aircraft individual IR-protection system were conducted. The mathematical models and methodology were presented, there were obtained the analytical dependencies which allow performing theoretical research of the affect of intentionally arranged dynamic field of the artificial thermal interferences with variable contrast onto main parameters of optic-electronic tracking and homing systems.

  9. Chemistry in aircraft plumes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kraabol, A.G.; Stordal, F.; Knudsen, S. [Norwegian Inst. for Air Research, Kjeller (Norway); Konopka, P. [Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V. (DLR), Wessling (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik der Atmosphaere


    An expanding plume model with chemistry has been used to study the chemical conversion of NO{sub x} to reservoir species in aircraft plumes. The heterogeneous conversion of N{sub 2}O{sub 5} to HNO{sub 3}(s) has been investigated when the emissions take place during night-time. The plume from an B747 has been simulated. During a ten-hour calculation the most important reservoir species was HNO{sub 3} for emissions at noon. The heterogeneous reactions had little impact on the chemical loss of NO{sub x} to reservoir species for emissions at night. (author) 4 refs.

  10. Hydrogen aircraft technology (United States)

    Brewer, G. D.


    A comprehensive evaluation is conducted of the technology development status, economics, commercial feasibility, and infrastructural requirements of LH2-fueled aircraft, with additional consideration of hydrogen production, liquefaction, and cryostorage methods. Attention is given to the effects of LH2 fuel cryotank accommodation on the configurations of prospective commercial transports and military airlifters, SSTs, and HSTs, as well as to the use of the plentiful heatsink capacity of LH2 for innovative propulsion cycles' performance maximization. State-of-the-art materials and structural design principles for integral cryotank implementation are noted, as are airport requirements and safety and environmental considerations.

  11. Solidex 84 - modern technology in bulk solids handling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    Proceedings from Conference on solids handling. Sections which are of interest include coal and ash handling, and flow problems and explosion hazards in bulk handling plant. 14 papers have been abstracted separately.

  12. 7 CFR 959.53 - Handling for special purposes. (United States)


    ... Regulating Handling Regulations § 959.53 Handling for special purposes. Regulations in effect pursuant to §§ 959.42, 959.52, or 959.60 may be modified, suspended, or terminated to facilitate handling of...

  13. 7 CFR 929.60 - Handling for special purposes. (United States)


    ... LONG ISLAND IN THE STATE OF NEW YORK Order Regulating Handling Reports and Records § 929.60 Handling... facilitate handling of excess cranberries for the following purposes: (a) Charitable institutions;...

  14. How Should the Joint Force Handle the Command and Control of Unmanned Aircraft Systems? (United States)


    that precipitated the centralization of the command and control of airpower in the United States military. This section begins with the first American...Officers Commanding, they were responsible for North-West Africa, the Middle East, and Malta . At this point in the war, the North-West African region


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.M. Meyer


    Full Text Available Many sources maintain that the role played by air power in the 1973 Yom Kippur War was important. Other interpretations state that control of air space over the battlefield areas, (either by aircraft or anti-aircraft defences, was vital.

  16. Aircraft landing using GPS (United States)

    Lawrence, David Gary

    The advent of the Global Positioning System (GPS) is revolutionizing the field of navigation. Commercial aviation has been particularly influenced by this worldwide navigation system. From ground vehicle guidance to aircraft landing applications, GPS has the potential to impact many areas of aviation. GPS is already being used for non-precision approach guidance; current research focuses on its application to more critical regimes of flight. To this end, the following contributions were made: (1) Development of algorithms and a flexible software architecture capable of providing real-time position solutions accurate to the centimeter level with high integrity. This architecture was used to demonstrate 110 automatic landings of a Boeing 737. (2) Assessment of the navigation performance provided by two GPS-based landing systems developed at Stanford, the Integrity Beacon Landing System, and the Wide Area Augmentation System. (3) Preliminary evaluation of proposed enhancements to traditional techniques for GPS positioning, specifically, dual antenna positioning and pseudolite augmentation. (4) Introduction of a new concept for positioning using airport pseudolites. The results of this research are promising, showing that GPS-based systems can potentially meet even the stringent requirements of a Category III (zero visibility) landing system. Although technical and logistical hurdles still exist, it is likely that GPS will soon provide aircraft guidance in all phases of flight, including automatic landing, roll-out, and taxi.

  17. Rotorcraft handling-qualities design criteria development (United States)

    Aiken, Edwin W.; Lebacqz, J. Victor; Chen, Robert T. N.; Key, David L.


    Joint NASA/Army efforts at the Ames Research Center to develop rotorcraft handling-qualities design criteria began in earnest in 1975. Notable results were the UH-1H VSTOLAND variable stability helicopter, the VFA-2 camera-and-terrain-board simulator visual system, and the generic helicopter real-time mathematical model, ARMCOP. An initial series of handling-qualities studies was conducted to assess the effects of rotor design parameters, interaxis coupling, and various levels of stability and control augmentation. The ability to conduct in-flight handling-qualities research was enhanced by the development of the NASA/Army CH-47 variable-stability helicopter. Research programs conducted using this vehicle include vertical-response investigations, hover augmentation systems, and the effects of control-force characteristics. The handling-qualities data base was judged to be sufficient to allow an update of the military helicopter handling-qualities specification, MIL-H-8501. These efforts, including not only the in-house experimental work but also contracted research and collaborative programs performed under the auspices of various international agreements. The report concludes by reviewing the topics that are currently most in need of work, and the plans for addressing these topics.

  18. Exploratory piloted simulator study of the effects of winglets on handling qualities of a representative agricultural airplane (United States)

    Ogburn, M. E.; Brown, P. W.


    The effects on handling qualities of adding winglets to a representative agricultural aircraft configuration during swath-run maneuvering were evaluated. Aerodynamic data used in the simulation were based on low-speed wind tunnel tests of a full scale airplane and a subscale model. The Cooper-Harper handling qualities rating scale, supplementary pilot comments, and pilot vehicle performance data were used to describe the handling qualities of the airplane with the different wing-tip configurations. Results showed that the lateral-directional handling qualities of the airplane were greatly affected by the application of winglets and winglet cant angle. The airplane with winglets canted out 20 deg exhibited severely degraded lateral directional handling qualities in comparison to the basic airplane. When the winglets were canted inward 10 deg, the flying qualities of the configuration were markedly improved over those of the winglet-canted-out configuration or the basic configuration without winglets, indicating that proper tailoring of the winglet design may afford a potential benefit in the area of handling qualities.

  19. DOE handbook: Tritium handling and safe storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The DOE Handbook was developed as an educational supplement and reference for operations and maintenance personnel. Most of the tritium publications are written from a radiological protection perspective. This handbook provides more extensive guidance and advice on the null range of tritium operations. This handbook can be used by personnel involved in the full range of tritium handling from receipt to ultimate disposal. Compliance issues are addressed at each stage of handling. This handbook can also be used as a reference for those individuals involved in real time determination of bounding doses resulting from inadvertent tritium releases. This handbook provides useful information for establishing processes and procedures for the receipt, storage, assay, handling, packaging, and shipping of tritium and tritiated wastes. It includes discussions and advice on compliance-based issues and adds insight to those areas that currently possess unclear DOE guidance.

  20. Handling of fuel chips - a health problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stroemquist, L.H.; Blomqvist, G.; Karlsson, E.; Vincent, A.; Lundgren, R.; Eliasson, L.


    An investigation has been made about health problems and occurrence of mold in connection with handling of fuel chips. The investigation was composed of three different parts. First, an inquiry was made to chip stokers about handling, storage etc. of chips as well as possible medical trouble. The answers indicated that symptoms on allergic alveolitis are common among chip stokers, 13% of the answers. Second, a determination of the proportion of living airborne colony-forming mold fungi was made at some chip using units. Third, a pilot study was made to examine the possibilities to improve storability of fuel chips using high-temperature drying.

  1. Commercial aircraft composite technology

    CERN Document Server

    Breuer, Ulf Paul


    This book is based on lectures held at the faculty of mechanical engineering at the Technical University of Kaiserslautern. The focus is on the central theme of societies overall aircraft requirements to specific material requirements and highlights the most important advantages and challenges of carbon fiber reinforced plastics (CFRP) compared to conventional materials. As it is fundamental to decide on the right material at the right place early on the main activities and milestones of the development and certification process and the systematic of defining clear requirements are discussed. The process of material qualification - verifying material requirements is explained in detail. All state-of-the-art composite manufacturing technologies are described, including changes and complemented by examples, and their improvement potential for future applications is discussed. Tangible case studies of high lift and wing structures emphasize the specific advantages and challenges of composite technology. Finally,...

  2. Aircraft control system (United States)

    Lisoski, Derek L. (Inventor); Kendall, Greg T. (Inventor)


    A solar rechargeable, long-duration, span-loaded flying wing, having no fuselage or rudder. Having a two-hundred foot wingspan that mounts photovoltaic cells on most all of the wing's top surface, the aircraft uses only differential thrust of its eight propellers to turn, pitch and yaw. The wing is configured to deform under flight loads to position the propellers such that the control can be achieved. Each of five segments of the wing has one or more motors and photovoltaic arrays, and produces its own lift independent of the other segments, to avoid loading them. Five two-sided photovoltaic arrays, in all, are mounted on the wing, and receive photovoltaic energy both incident on top of the wing, and which is incident also from below, through a bottom, transparent surface.

  3. Flight tests of the total automatic flight control system (Tafcos) concept on a DHC-6 Twin Otter aircraft (United States)

    Wehrend, W. R., Jr.; Meyer, G.


    Flight control systems capable of handling the complex operational requirements of the STOL and VTOL aircraft designs as well as designs using active control concepts are considered. Emphasis is placed on the total automatic flight control system (TACOS) (TAFCOS). Flight test results which verified the performance of the system concept are presented.

  4. 40 CFR 87.6 - Aircraft safety. (United States)


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Aircraft safety. 87.6 Section 87.6 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF AIR POLLUTION FROM AIRCRAFT AND AIRCRAFT ENGINES General Provisions § 87.6 Aircraft safety. The provisions...

  5. 14 CFR 21.6 - Manufacture of new aircraft, aircraft engines, and propellers. (United States)


    ... Manufacture of new aircraft, aircraft engines, and propellers. (a) Except as specified in paragraphs (b) and (c) of this section, no person may manufacture a new aircraft, aircraft engine, or propeller based on... provisions of §§ 21.183(c), 21.184(b), or 21.185(c); and (2) New aircraft engines or propellers...

  6. 78 FR 54385 - Airworthiness Directives; Various Aircraft Equipped With Rotax Aircraft Engines 912 A Series Engine (United States)


    ... Aircraft Equipped With Rotax Aircraft Engines 912 A Series Engine AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration... directive (AD) for various aircraft equipped with Rotax Aircraft Engines 912 A Series Engine. This AD...; phone: +43 7246 601 0; fax: +43 7246 601 9130; Internet: . You...

  7. Remote-handled transuranic system assessment appendices. Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Volume 2 of this report contains six appendices to the report: Inventory and generation of remote-handled transuranic waste; Remote-handled transuranic waste site storage; Characterization of remote-handled transuranic waste; RH-TRU waste treatment alternatives system analysis; Packaging and transportation study; and Remote-handled transuranic waste disposal alternatives.

  8. 'Safe handling of nanotechnology' ten years on (United States)

    Maynard, Andrew D.; Aitken, Robert J.


    In 2006, a group of scientists proposed five grand challenges to support the safe handling of nanotechnology. Ten years on, Andrew Maynard and Robert Aitken -- two of the original authors -- look at where we have come, and where we still need to go.

  9. 7 CFR 915.10 - Handle. (United States)


    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Handle. 915.10 Section 915.10 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and... prepared for market. In the event a grower sells his avocados to a handler who is not so registered...

  10. 7 CFR 920.11 - Handle. (United States)


    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Handle. 920.11 Section 920.11 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE KIWIFRUIT GROWN IN CALIFORNIA...

  11. 7 CFR 955.7 - Handle. (United States)


    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Handle. 955.7 Section 955.7 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIDALIA ONIONS GROWN IN GEORGIA...

  12. Goods handling: tugs, trailers and tractors. (United States)

    Grayson, H


    Ease of handling ought to be a priority in any supply and disposal system. Hazel Grayson, senior research officer at the Medical Architecture Research Unit, Polytechnic of North London, suggests that even where driver-operated electric tow tractors cannot be used, other types of electric pulling device should be considered.

  13. Railcar handling systems - designs for individual solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The article examines the latest state of the art developments in railcar handling technology, with profiles of leading equipment suppliers in this field and recent projects completed worldwide. Equipment covered includes: railcar discharge systems; rotary dumpers; side discharge dumpers; and railcar loading systems. 2 figs., 7 photos.

  14. Ergonomics intervention in manual handling of oxygen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Motamedzadeh


    Conclusion: With the implementation of ergonomic intervention is casting unit, the risk of exposure to musculoskeletal disorders caused by manual handling of oxygen cylinders was eliminated and safety of employees against the risk of explosion of the cylinders in comparison with before the intervention was improved.

  15. 340 Waste handling facility interim safety basis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stordeur, R.T.


    This document presents an interim safety basis for the 340 Waste Handling Facility classifying the 340 Facility as a Hazard Category 3 facility. The hazard analysis quantifies the operating safety envelop for this facility and demonstrates that the facility can be operated without a significant threat to onsite or offsite people.

  16. 340 waste handling facility interim safety basis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    VAIL, T.S.


    This document presents an interim safety basis for the 340 Waste Handling Facility classifying the 340 Facility as a Hazard Category 3 facility. The hazard analysis quantifies the operating safety envelop for this facility and demonstrates that the facility can be operated without a significant threat to onsite or offsite people.

  17. Biodiesel Handling and Use Guide (Fifth Edition)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alleman, Teresa L. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); McCormick, Robert L. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Christensen, Earl D. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Fioroni, Gina [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Moriarty., Kristi [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Yanowitz, Janet [EcoEngineering, Cincinnati, OH (United States)


    This document is a guide for those who blend, distribute, and use biodiesel and biodiesel blends. It provides basic information on the proper and safe use of biodiesel and biodiesel blends in engines and boilers, and is intended to help fleets, individual users, blenders, distributors, and those involved in related activities understand procedures for handling and using biodiesel fuels.

  18. Intertextuality for Handling Complex Environmental Issues (United States)

    Byhring, Anne Kristine; Knain, Erik


    Nowhere is the need for handling complexity more pertinent than in addressing environmental issues. Our study explores students' situated constructs of complexity in unfolding discourses on socio-scientific issues. Students' dialogues in two group-work episodes are analysed in detail, with tools from Systemic Functional Linguistics. We identify…

  19. Confluence Modulo Equivalence in Constraint Handling Rules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Henning; Kirkeby, Maja Hanne


    Previous results on confluence for Constraint Handling Rules, CHR, are generalized to take into account user-defined state equivalence relations. This allows a much larger class of programs to enjoy the ad- vantages of confluence, which include various optimization techniques and simplified corre...

  20. Handling Sparse Data by Successive Abstraction

    CERN Document Server

    Samuelsson, C


    A general, practical method for handling sparse data that avoids held-out data and iterative reestimation is derived from first principles. It has been tested on a part-of-speech tagging task and outperformed (deleted) interpolation with context-independent weights, even when the latter used a globally optimal parameter setting determined a posteriori.

  1. 30 CFR 715.16 - Topsoil handling. (United States)


    ... redistribution on a disturbed area. (d) Nutrients and soil amendments. Nutrients and soil amendments in the... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Topsoil handling. 715.16 Section 715.16 Mineral... identified by soil surveys shall be removed according to paragraph (a) and then replaced on disturbed...

  2. Caution required for handling genome editing technology. (United States)

    Araki, Motoko; Nojima, Kumie; Ishii, Tetsuya


    Genome-editing technology, although a robust tool for genetic engineering, is creating indistinct regulatory boundaries between naturally occurring and modified organisms. However, researchers must act with caution in research and development to avoid misleading society. Furthermore, appropriate regulations should be proactively discussed and established for handling genome-editing technology.

  3. Tips for Handling Gourds this Fall Season


    Bratsch, Tony


    Each year, more direct market and wholesale growers are adding gourds to their fall sales mix, along with pumpkins, ornamental corn and fall mums. Proper harvest timing, handling and curing are important to ensure maximum longevity of gourds once the consumer brings them home.

  4. Instrumentation to handle thermal polarized neutron beams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kraan, W.H.


    In this thesis we investigate devices needed to handle the polarization of thermal neutron beams: Ï/2-flippers (to start/stop Larmor precession) and Ï-flippers (to reverse polarization/precession direction) and illustrate how these devices are used to investigate the properties of matter and of the


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaidatul Shida Razali


    Full Text Available As in many other developing countries, the generation of clinical waste in Malaysia has increased significantly over the last few decades. Even though the serious impact of the clinical waste on human beings and the environment is significant, only minor attention is directed to its proper handling and legal aspects. This study seeks to examine the management of clinical waste in Selangor’s government hospitals as well as problems that arise from the current practice of clinical waste management. A depth interview with the responsible concession who handles the clinical waste management in those hospitals also has been taken. In general, it was found that the consortium’s administration was reasonably aware of the importance of clinical waste management. However, significant voids were presented that need to be addressed in future including efficient segregation, better handling and transfer means, as well as the need for training and awareness programs for the personnel. Other obstacles faced by consortiums were to handle the clinical waste including the operational costs. Waste minimizing and recycling, as well as the alternative treatment methods for incineration are regarded to be major challenges in the future.

  6. Wet handling of solids using submersible pumps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Czarnota, Z.; Fahlgren, M.; Grainger, M. [ITT Flygt Slurry Laboratory, Soina (Sweden)


    A complete and efficient concept for handling solids in short distance pumping applications is described. The function of pump, mixer, agitator, and sump have been determined in experimental studies. The major factors that affect pump performance such as impeller design and slurry characteristics are discussed. The results apply to a range of applications in industry and mining. 10 refs., 6 figs.

  7. Data handling and representation of freeform surfaces (United States)

    Steinkopf, Ralf; Dick, Lars; Kopf, Tino; Gebhardt, Andreas; Risse, Stefan; Eberhardt, Ramona


    Freeform surfaces enable innovative optics. They are not limited by axis symmetry and hence they are almost free in design. They are used to reduce the installation space and enhance the performance of optical elements. State of the art optical design tools are computing with powerful algorithms to simulate freeform surfaces. Even new mathematical approaches are under development /1/. In consequence, new optical designs /2/ are pushing the development of manufacturing processes consequently and novel types of datasets have to proceed through the process chain /3/. The complexity of these data is the huge challenge for the data handling. Because of the asymmetrical and 3-dimensional surfaces of freeforms, large data volumes have to be created, trimmed, extended and fitted. All these processes must be performed without losing the accuracy of the original design data. Additionally, manifold types of geometries results in different kinds of mathematical representations of freeform surfaces and furthermore the used CAD/CAM tools are dealing with a set of spatial transport formats. These are all reasons why manufacture-oriented approaches for the freeform data handling are not yet sufficiently developed. This paper suggests a classification of freeform surfaces based on the manufacturing methods which are offered by diamond machining. The different manufacturing technologies, ranging from servo-turning to shaping, require a differentiated approach for the data handling process. The usage of analytical descriptions in form of splines and polynomials as well as the application of discrete descriptions like point clouds is shown in relation to the previously made classification. Advantages and disadvantages of freeform representations are discussed. Aspects of the data handling in between different process steps are pointed out and suitable exchange formats for freeform data are proposed. The described approach offers the possibility for efficient data handling from optical

  8. VTOL to Transonic Aircraft Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The cyclogyro, an aircraft propulsion concept with the potential for VTOL to the lower bounds of transonic flight, is conceptually simple but structurally and...

  9. Western Pacific Typhoon Aircraft Fixes (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Western Pacific typhoon aircraft reconnaissance data from the years 1946 - 1965 and 1978, excluding 1952, were transcribed from original documents, or copy of...

  10. Fire resistant aircraft seat program (United States)

    Fewell, L. A.


    Foams, textiles, and thermoformable plastics were tested to determine which materials were fire retardant, and safe for aircraft passenger seats. Seat components investigated were the decorative fabric cover, slip covers, fire blocking layer, cushion reinforcement, and the cushioning layer.

  11. Causes of aircraft electrical failures (United States)

    Galler, Donald; Slenski, George


    The results of a survey of data on failures of aircraft electronic and electrical components that was conducted to identify problematic components are reported. The motivation for the work was to determine priorities for future work on the development of accident investigation techniques for aircraft electrical components. The primary source of data was the Airforce Mishap Database, which is maintained by the Directorate of Aerospace Safety at Norton Air Force Base. Published data from the Air Force Avionics Integrity Program (AVIP) and Hughes Aircraft were also reviewed. Statistical data from these three sources are presented. Two major conclusions are that problems with interconnections are major contributors to aircraft electrical equipment failures, and that environmental factors, especially corrosion, are significant contributors to connector problems.

  12. Structural Dynamics of Maneuvering Aircraft. (United States)



  13. Aircraft vibration and flutter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. R. Aggarwal


    Full Text Available "The paper outlines the theoretical and experimental procedure one has to adopt for flutter prevention during the various stages (project, design and prototype of the development of modern aircraft. With the advent of high speed, the aerodynamic coefficients have to be calculated with due regards to the effects of compressibility, finite aspect ratio of the lifting surfaces, sweep back and other peculiar shapes of the wings. The use of thin, small aspect ratio with external masses, necessitates the computation of higher frequency modes of vibration. Single degree of freedom flutter and the effect of control surface non-linearities has also become very important. Thus, it is shown how the availability of high speed computing machines, improved experimental technique for model and full scale testing has not kept pace with the uncertainties associated with the transonic speeds, low aspect ratio and the high frequency modes. Cross-checking of theoretical and experimental results at every stage seem to be the only answer."

  14. Aircraft exhaust sulfur emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, R.C.; Anderson, M.R.; Miake-Lye, R.C.; Kolb, C.E. [Aerodyne Research, Inc., Billerica, MA (United States). Center for Chemical and Environmental Physics; Sorokin, A.A.; Buriko, Y.I. [Scientific Research Center `Ecolen`, Moscow (Russian Federation)


    The extent to which fuel sulfur is converted to SO{sub 3} during combustion and the subsequent turbine flow in supersonic and subsonic aircraft engines is estimated numerically. The analysis is based on: a flamelet model with non-equilibrium sulfur chemistry for the combustor, and a one-dimensional, two-stream model with finite rate chemical kinetics for the turbine. The results indicate that between 2% and 10% of the fuel sulfur is emitted as SO{sub 3}. It is also shown that, for a high fuel sulfur mass loading, conversion in the turbine is limited by the level of atomic oxygen at the combustor exit, leading to higher SO{sub 2} oxidation efficiency at lower fuel sulfur loadings. While SO{sub 2} and SO{sub 3} are the primary oxidation products, the model results further indicate H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} levels on the order of 0.1 ppm for supersonic expansions through a divergent nozzle. This source of fully oxidized S(6) (SO{sub 3} + H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}) exceeds previously calculated S(6) levels due to oxidation of SO{sub 2} by OH in the exhaust plume outside the engine nozzle. (author) 26 refs.

  15. Parabolic aircraft solidification experiments (United States)

    Workman, Gary L. (Principal Investigator); Smith, Guy A.; OBrien, Susan


    A number of solidification experiments have been utilized throughout the Materials Processing in Space Program to provide an experimental environment which minimizes variables in solidification experiments. Two techniques of interest are directional solidification and isothermal casting. Because of the wide-spread use of these experimental techniques in space-based research, several MSAD experiments have been manifested for space flight. In addition to the microstructural analysis for interpretation of the experimental results from previous work with parabolic flights, it has become apparent that a better understanding of the phenomena occurring during solidification can be better understood if direct visualization of the solidification interface were possible. Our university has performed in several experimental studies such as this in recent years. The most recent was in visualizing the effect of convective flow phenomena on the KC-135 and prior to that were several successive contracts to perform directional solidification and isothermal casting experiments on the KC-135. Included in this work was the modification and utilization of the Convective Flow Analyzer (CFA), the Aircraft Isothermal Casting Furnace (ICF), and the Three-Zone Directional Solidification Furnace. These studies have contributed heavily to the mission of the Microgravity Science and Applications' Materials Science Program.

  16. Energy efficiency in air handling applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fontaine, P. [Australian Baldor (Australia)


    It is estimated that the cost of air handling in a typical office building is $25,000 to $60,000 per 10,000 sq metres. New technologies are now available to reduce this by 50 percent with an investment that is recoverable within two years. Old systems of air handling operated at full speed with flow rates changed by mechanical vanes or dampers. The excess capacity generated is wasting energy which could be saved using modern motor controls that match the system output with actual needs. Comparisons of relative energy consumptions of different fan flow control methods show that the more time a system spends throttled down, the better candidate it is for the more efficient Variable Speed Drive (VSD) device which matches the motor`s speed to actual needs. The use of VSD instead of vanes and dampers reduces operating costs which impacts directly on profitability. 2 tables, 1 fig.

  17. Statistical methods for handling incomplete data

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Jae Kwang


    ""… this book nicely blends the theoretical material and its application through examples, and will be of interest to students and researchers as a textbook or a reference book. Extensive coverage of recent advances in handling missing data provides resources and guidelines for researchers and practitioners in implementing the methods in new settings. … I plan to use this as a textbook for my teaching and highly recommend it.""-Biometrics, September 2014

  18. Development of spent fuel remote handling technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Ji Sup; Park, B. S.; Park, Y. S.; Oh, S. C.; Kim, S. H.; Cho, M. W.; Hong, D. H


    Since the nation`s policy on spent fuel management is not finalized, the technical items commonly required for safe management and recycling of spent fuel - remote technologies of transportation, inspection, maintenance, and disassembly of spent fuel - are selected and pursued. In this regards, the following R and D activities are carried out : collision free transportation of spent fuel assembly, mechanical disassembly of spent nuclear fuel and graphical simulation of fuel handling / disassembly process. (author). 36 refs., 16 tabs., 77 figs

  19. NB Power`s fish handling facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hickman, C. N. [New Brunswick Power, Fredericton, NB (Canada)


    Fish handling facilities at the various hydroelectric power generating stations of New Brunswick Power on the St. John River, were described. The facilities described included the fish hoist at the Beechwood Generating Station , the fish ladder at the Tobique Generating Station and a trap and truck operation at the Mactaquac Station. Details of operating arrangements were provided. Operating issues, solutions and ongoing efforts to improve operations further, were discussed. 4 refs., 4 figs.

  20. Reactions and interactions in handling anticancer drugs. (United States)

    D'Arcy, P F


    The clinical toxicity of anticancer drugs has been well documented with regard to the adverse effects of treatment in patients. However, many of these drugs have a direct irritant effect on the skin, eyes, mucous membranes, and other tissues. Handled without due care, especially when being prepared for injection, most cytotoxic drugs can cause local toxic or allergic reactions; they also present hazards of carcinogenicity and mutagenicity. This spectrum of potential risk should be kept in mind by personnel administering or handling these drugs, especially in oncology units where just a few individuals may routinely and frequently reconstitute many doses of cytotoxic agents. This is work in which the hospital pharmacist should and must be involved; indeed, many of the techniques and skills required are identical with those used in standard aseptic procedures for preparing pharmaceutical products. Pharmacy departments should take the initiative in making hospital staff aware of the potential risks of handling neoplastic agents, and they should spearhead a multidisciplinary assessment for producing local guidelines for working with these drugs. This article warns practitioners about the inherent dangers of these practitioner-drug interactions and suggests ways in which they may be reduced. Information is given in tabular form regarding recommended procedures for reconstituting 24 anticancer drugs and precautions to protect the personnel handling them, especially when there is spillage of powdered or liquid drugs. Also, guidelines are given about incompatibilities with admixtures of such drugs, and the literature is reviewed relative to recent developments in hospital pharmacy departments where reconstitution of anticancer drugs has been incorporated into existing intravenous fluid preparation/admixture units. Not only has this been shown to be safer and more effective in terms of time and labor, but also it has cut the cost of injectable cytotoxic drugs by an

  1. Aircraft Cabin Environmental Quality Sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gundel, Lara; Kirchstetter, Thomas; Spears, Michael; Sullivan, Douglas


    The Indoor Environment Department at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) teamed with seven universities to participate in a Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) Center of Excellence (COE) for research on environmental quality in aircraft. This report describes research performed at LBNL on selecting and evaluating sensors for monitoring environmental quality in aircraft cabins, as part of Project 7 of the FAA's COE for Airliner Cabin Environmental Research (ACER)1 effort. This part of Project 7 links to the ozone, pesticide, and incident projects for data collection and monitoring and is a component of a broader research effort on sensors by ACER. Results from UCB and LBNL's concurrent research on ozone (ACER Project 1) are found in Weschler et al., 2007; Bhangar et al. 2008; Coleman et al., 2008 and Strom-Tejsen et al., 2008. LBNL's research on pesticides (ACER Project 2) in airliner cabins is described in Maddalena and McKone (2008). This report focused on the sensors needed for normal contaminants and conditions in aircraft. The results are intended to complement and coordinate with results from other ACER members who concentrated primarily on (a) sensors for chemical and biological pollutants that might be released intentionally in aircraft; (b) integration of sensor systems; and (c) optimal location of sensors within aircraft. The parameters and sensors were selected primarily to satisfy routine monitoring needs for contaminants and conditions that commonly occur in aircraft. However, such sensor systems can also be incorporated into research programs on environmental quality in aircraft cabins.

  2. Handle-attachments from nubia. A note

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William CULICAN


    Full Text Available Information on the distinctive bronze handle - attachments in the shape of a pair of human hands has been painstakingly collected by Dr. E. Cuadrado in his Refertorio de los Recipientes Rituales metálicos con "Asas de Manos" de la Península Ibérica (Trabajos de Prehistoria XXI, Madrid 1966. There is little room to doubt that metal vessels with this form of handle, whether we regard them as braziers (braserillos in the older terminology or 'ritual vessels' as does Cuadrado, are related to the distribution of Phoenician or Punic trade and influence in the Iberian peninsula. The southerly 'Tartessian' distribution speaks for itself; for the western 'Levantine' distribution (from Murcia, Alicante, Valencia, Teruel, Tarragona, Málaga, Ibiza we can postulate Ibiza, Málaga or Cartagena as a probable distribution centre. The examples in the west central meseta (Sanchorreja, El Berrueco, La Osera come as no surprise in view of the fact that such obviously Phoenician objects as the Sanchorreja belt-buckle, the Berrueco bronzes reached the regions of Avila and Salamanca respectively. Even for the outlying spot on the hand-handle distribution map at Santa Olaya, the cèltic oppidum at the mouth of the River Mondego, a context of Phoenician trade is likely, since pottery of Carmona and later types was found there and is now in the museum at Figueira da Foz.

  3. Vestibule and Cask Preparation Mechanical Handling Calculation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    N. Ambre


    The scope of this document is to develop the size, operational envelopes, and major requirements of the equipment to be used in the vestibule, cask preparation area, and the crane maintenance area of the Fuel Handling Facility. This calculation is intended to support the License Application (LA) submittal of December 2004, in accordance with the directive given by DOE correspondence received on the 27th of January 2004 entitled: ''Authorization for Bechtel SAIC Company L.L.C. to Include a Bare Fuel Handling Facility and Increased Aging Capacity in the License Application, Contract Number DE-AC28-01R W12101'' (Ref. 167124). This correspondence was appended by further correspondence received on the 19th of February 2004 entitled: ''Technical Direction to Bechtel SAIC Company L.L. C. for Surface Facility Improvements, Contract Number DE-AC28-01R W12101; TDL No. 04-024'' (Ref. 16875 1). These documents give the authorization for a Fuel Handling Facility to be included in the baseline. The limitations of this preliminary calculation lie within the assumptions of section 5 , as this calculation is part of an evolutionary design process.

  4. Improving Memory Error Handling Using Linux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlton, Michael Andrew [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Blanchard, Sean P. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Debardeleben, Nathan A. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    As supercomputers continue to get faster and more powerful in the future, they will also have more nodes. If nothing is done, then the amount of memory in supercomputer clusters will soon grow large enough that memory failures will be unmanageable to deal with by manually replacing memory DIMMs. "Improving Memory Error Handling Using Linux" is a process oriented method to solve this problem by using the Linux kernel to disable (offline) faulty memory pages containing bad addresses, preventing them from being used again by a process. The process of offlining memory pages simplifies error handling and results in reducing both hardware and manpower costs required to run Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) clusters. This process will be necessary for the future of supercomputing to allow the development of exascale computers. It will not be feasible without memory error handling to manually replace the number of DIMMs that will fail daily on a machine consisting of 32-128 petabytes of memory. Testing reveals the process of offlining memory pages works and is relatively simple to use. As more and more testing is conducted, the entire process will be automated within the high-performance computing (HPC) monitoring software, Zenoss, at LANL.

  5. D0 data handling operational experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee Lueking et al.


    We report on the production experience of the D0 experiment at the Fermilab Tevatron, using the SAM data handling system with a variety of computing hardware configurations, batch systems, and mass storage strategies. We have stored more than 300 TB of data in the Fermilab Enstore mass storage system. We deliver data through this system at an average rate of more than 2 TB/day to analysis programs, with a substantial multiplication factor in the consumed data through intelligent cache management. We handle more than 1.7 Million files in this system and provide data delivery to user jobs at Fermilab on four types of systems: a reconstruction farm, a large SMP system, a Linux batch cluster, and a Linux desktop cluster. In addition, we import simulation data generated at 6 sites worldwide, and deliver data to jobs at many more sites. We describe the scope of the data handling deployment worldwide, the operational experience with this system, and the feedback of that experience.

  6. Remote handling systems for the Pride application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    In this paper is described the development of remote handling systems for use in the pyro processing technology development. Remote handling systems mainly include a BDSM (Bridge transported Dual arm Servo-Manipulator) and a simulator, all of which will be applied to the Pride (Pyro process integrated inactive demonstration facility) that is under construction at KAERI. BDMS that will traverse the length of the ceiling is designed to have two pairs of master-slave manipulators of which each pair of master-slave manipulators has a kinematic similarity and a force reflection. A simulator is also designed to provide an efficient means for simulating and verifying the conceptual design, developments, arrangements, and rehearsal of the pyro processing equipment and relevant devices from the viewpoint of remote operation and maintenance. In our research is presented activities and progress made in developing remote handling systems to be used for the remote operation and maintenance of the pyro processing equipment and relevant devices in the Pride. (Author)

  7. Waste Handling Equipment Devleopment Test and Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R.L. Tome


    The purpose of this study is to identify candidate Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) surface waste handling equipment for development testing. This study will also identify strategies for performing the development tests. Development testing shall be implemented to support detail design and reduce design risks. Development testing shall be conducted to confirm design concepts, evaluate alternative design concepts, show the availability of needed technology, and provide design documentation. The candidate equipment will be selected from MGR surface waste handling equipment that is the responsibility of the Management and Operating Contractor (M&O) Surface Design Department. The equipment identified in this study is based on Viability Assessment (VA) design. The ''Monitored Geologic Repository Test and Evaluation Plan'' (MGR T&EP), Reference 5.1, was used as a basis for this study. The MGR T&EP reflects the extent of test planning and analysis that can be conducted, given the current status of the MGR requirements and latest VA design information. The MGR T&EP supports the appropriate sections in the license application (LA) in accordance with 10 CFR 60.2 1(c)(14). The MGR T&EP describes the following test activities: site characterization to confirm, by test and analysis, the suitability of the Yucca Mountain site for housing a geologic repository; development testing to investigate and document design concepts to reduce risk; qualification testing to verify equipment compliance with design requirements, specifications, and regulatory requirements; system testing to validate compliance with MGR requirements, which include the receipt, handling, retrieval, and disposal of waste; periodic performance testing to verify preclosure requirements and to demonstrate safe and reliable MGR operation; and performance confirmation modeling, testing, and analysis to verify adherence to postclosure regulatory requirements. Development test activities can be


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C.E. Sanders


    This design calculation revises and updates the previous criticality evaluation for the canister handling, transfer and staging operations to be performed in the Canister Handling Facility (CHF) documented in BSC [Bechtel SAIC Company] 2004 [DIRS 167614]. The purpose of the calculation is to demonstrate that the handling operations of canisters performed in the CHF meet the nuclear criticality safety design criteria specified in the ''Project Design Criteria (PDC) Document'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 171599], Section, the nuclear facility safety requirement in ''Project Requirements Document'' (Canori and Leitner 2003 [DIRS 166275], p. 4-206), the functional/operational nuclear safety requirement in the ''Project Functional and Operational Requirements'' document (Curry 2004 [DIRS 170557], p. 75), and the functional nuclear criticality safety requirements described in the ''Canister Handling Facility Description Document'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 168992], Sections and 3.2.3). Specific scope of work contained in this activity consists of updating the Category 1 and 2 event sequence evaluations as identified in the ''Categorization of Event Sequences for License Application'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 167268], Section 7). The CHF is limited in throughput capacity to handling sealed U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and high-level radioactive waste (HLW) canisters, defense high-level radioactive waste (DHLW), naval canisters, multicanister overpacks (MCOs), vertical dual-purpose canisters (DPCs), and multipurpose canisters (MPCs) (if and when they become available) (BSC 2004 [DIRS 168992], p. 1-1). It should be noted that the design and safety analyses of the naval canisters are the responsibility of the U.S. Department of the Navy (Naval Nuclear Propulsion Program) and will not be included in this document. In addition, this calculation is valid for

  9. Solidex 86 - modern technology in bulk solids handling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    A total of 30 papers were presented covering the following topics: coal and ash handling; dust control and explosion hazards; pneumatic conveying; mechanical conveying; storage and wear; and weighing technology and automated materials handling. 15 papers have been abstracted separately.

  10. 7 CFR 958.53 - Handling for specified purposes. (United States)


    ... DESIGNATED COUNTIES IN IDAHO, AND MALHEUR COUNTY, OREGON Order Regulating Handling Regulation § 958.53..., in order to facilitate the handling of onions for the following purposes whenever he finds that to...

  11. Modular Electric Propulsion Test Bed Aircraft Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — An all electric aircraft test bed is proposed to provide a dedicated development environment for the rigorous study and advancement of electrically powered aircraft....

  12. Versatile Electric Propulsion Aircraft Testbed Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — An all-electric aircraft testbed is proposed to provide a dedicated development environment for the rigorous study and advancement of electrically powered aircraft....

  13. Introduction to unmanned aircraft systems

    CERN Document Server

    Marshall, Douglas M; Hottman, Stephen B; Shappee, Eric; Most, Michael Thomas


    Introduction to Unmanned Aircraft Systems is the editors' response to their unsuccessful search for suitable university-level textbooks on this subject. A collection of contributions from top experts, this book applies the depth of their expertise to identify and survey the fundamentals of unmanned aircraft system (UAS) operations. Written from a nonengineering civilian operational perspective, the book starts by detailing the history of UASs and then explores current technology and what is expected for the future. Covering all facets of UAS elements and operation-including an examination of s

  14. Future aircraft networks and schedules (United States)

    Shu, Yan


    Because of the importance of air transportation scheduling, the emergence of small aircraft and the vision of future fuel-efficient aircraft, this thesis has focused on the study of aircraft scheduling and network design involving multiple types of aircraft and flight services. It develops models and solution algorithms for the schedule design problem and analyzes the computational results. First, based on the current development of small aircraft and on-demand flight services, this thesis expands a business model for integrating on-demand flight services with the traditional scheduled flight services. This thesis proposes a three-step approach to the design of aircraft schedules and networks from scratch under the model. In the first step, both a frequency assignment model for scheduled flights that incorporates a passenger path choice model and a frequency assignment model for on-demand flights that incorporates a passenger mode choice model are created. In the second step, a rough fleet assignment model that determines a set of flight legs, each of which is assigned an aircraft type and a rough departure time is constructed. In the third step, a timetable model that determines an exact departure time for each flight leg is developed. Based on the models proposed in the three steps, this thesis creates schedule design instances that involve almost all the major airports and markets in the United States. The instances of the frequency assignment model created in this thesis are large-scale non-convex mixed-integer programming problems, and this dissertation develops an overall network structure and proposes iterative algorithms for solving these instances. The instances of both the rough fleet assignment model and the timetable model created in this thesis are large-scale mixed-integer programming problems, and this dissertation develops subproblem schemes for solving these instances. Based on these solution algorithms, this dissertation also presents

  15. 14 CFR 43.7 - Persons authorized to approve aircraft, airframes, aircraft engines, propellers, appliances, or... (United States)


    ..., airframes, aircraft engines, propellers, appliances, or component parts for return to service after... Administrator, may approve an aircraft, airframe, aircraft engine, propeller, appliance, or component part for..., airframe, aircraft engine, propeller, appliance, or component part for return to service as provided...

  16. 77 FR 1626 - Airworthiness Directives; Various Aircraft Equipped With Rotax Aircraft Engines 912 A Series Engine (United States)


    ... Equipped With Rotax Aircraft Engines 912 A Series Engine AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT... various aircraft equipped with Rotax Aircraft Engines 912 A series engine. This AD results from mandatory... Rotax Aircraft Engines BRP has issued Alert Service Bulletin ASB- 912-059 and ASB-914-042...

  17. 76 FR 31465 - Airworthiness Directives; Various Aircraft Equipped With Rotax Aircraft Engines 912 A Series Engine (United States)


    ... Aircraft Equipped With Rotax Aircraft Engines 912 A Series Engine AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration...:// . You may review copies of the referenced service information at the... by examining the MCAI in the AD docket. Relevant Service Information Rotax Aircraft Engines...


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D.T. Dexheimer


    The purpose of this calculation is to estimate radiation doses received by personnel working in the Canister Handling Facility (CHF) performing operations to receive transportation casks, transfer wastes, prepare waste packages, perform associated equipment maintenance. The specific scope of work contained in this calculation covers individual worker group doses on an annual basis, and includes the contributions due to external and internal radiation. The results of this calculation will be used to support the design of the CHF and provide occupational dose estimates for the License Application.

  19. Concurrent projects: how many can you handle?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steyn, Herman


    Full Text Available The number of projects a person can handle simultaneously is a relevant factor in strategic planning and in project portfolio management. Internationally the de facto standard seems to be that a person should not work on more than two or three projects simultaneously; but several factors could influence this figure. Empirical evidence indicates that, in some South African sectors, people tend to work on many more than two or three projects simultaneously. In this paper, factors that influence the number of projects a person can work on are identified so that they can be investigated in further studies. Some ideas about using key resources optimally are also presented.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert KONIECZKA


    Full Text Available This article provides a summary of the issues involved in de-icing several kinds of aircrafts before flight. The basic risks of an iced aircraft and the factors that can influence its intensity are stated. It discusses the methods for de-icing and protecting against ice formation on small aircrafts, helicopters, and large aircrafts. It also classifies the fluids and other methods used for these de-icing operations, and explains the characteristics and limitations of their use.

  1. Residents' Annoyance Responses to Aircraft Noise Events


    United States, National Aeronautics and Space Administration


    In a study conducted in the vicinity of Salt Lake City International Airport, community residents reported their annoyance with individual aircraft flyovers during rating sessions conducted in their homes. Annoyance ratings were obtained at different times of the day. Aircraft noise levels were measured, and other characteristics of the aircraft were noted by trained observers. Metrics commonly used for assessing aircraft noise were compared, but none performed significantly better than A-...

  2. 7 CFR 923.322 - Washington cherry handling regulation. (United States)


    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Washington cherry handling regulation. 923.322 Section... CHERRIES GROWN IN DESIGNATED COUNTIES IN WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Grade, Size, Container and Pack Regulation § 923.322 Washington cherry handling regulation. (a) Grade. No handler shall...

  3. 49 CFR 176.57 - Supervision of handling and stowage. (United States)


    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Supervision of handling and stowage. 176.57 Section 176.57 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS... VESSEL General Handling and Stowage § 176.57 Supervision of handling and stowage. (a) Hazardous...

  4. 30 CFR 75.817 - Cable handling and support systems. (United States)


    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cable handling and support systems. 75.817... High-Voltage Longwalls § 75.817 Cable handling and support systems. Longwall mining equipment must be provided with cable-handling and support systems that are constructed, installed and maintained to...

  5. 76 FR 37118 - Manual Materials Handling (MMH) Workshop (United States)


    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Manual Materials Handling (MMH) Workshop... Health, will be holding a two-day Manual Materials Handling (MMH) Workshop. The Workshop is a National... engineering solutions for manual materials handling jobs in Retail, Wholesale and Warehouse industries....

  6. Automation of 3D micro object handling process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gegeckaite, Asta; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard


    Most of the micro objects in industrial production are handled with manual labour or in semiautomatic stations. Manual labour usually makes handling and assembly operations highly flexible, but slow, relatively imprecise and expensive. Handling of 3D micro objects poses special challenges due to ...

  7. Quantitative Inspection Technologies for Aging Military Aircraft (United States)


    177 Figure 133. Aircraft Mockup With EDM Notches Marked As Red Dots And Numbered In Magnified Photos...178 ix Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited Figure 134. First Test Of The Pantograph Scanner On The Mockup Aircraft...180 Figure 137. CAD Model Of Arc Scanner And Simulated Aircraft Fitting Mockup Panel ..................................... 181 Figure 138

  8. Policy and the evaluation of aircraft noise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kroesen, M.; Molin, E.J.E.; Van Wee, G.P.


    In this paper, we hypothesize and test the ideas that (1) people’s subjectivity in relation to aircraft noise is shaped by the policy discourse, (2) this results in a limited number of frames towards aircraft noise, (3) the frames inform people how to think and feel about aircraft noise and (4) the

  9. 19 CFR 122.37 - Precleared aircraft. (United States)


    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Precleared aircraft. 122.37 Section 122.37 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Landing Requirements § 122.37 Precleared aircraft. (a) Application. This section applies when aircraft carrying...

  10. 19 CFR 122.64 - Other aircraft. (United States)


    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Other aircraft. 122.64 Section 122.64 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Clearance of Aircraft and Permission To Depart § 122.64 Other aircraft. Clearance or permission to depart shall be...

  11. 14 CFR 91.117 - Aircraft speed. (United States)


    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Aircraft speed. 91.117 Section 91.117... speed. (a) Unless otherwise authorized by the Administrator, no person may operate an aircraft below 10... than the maximum speed prescribed in this section, the aircraft may be operated at that minimum speed....

  12. Practices to identify and preclude adverse Aircraft-and-Rotorcraft-Pilot Couplings - A design perspective (United States)

    Pavel, Marilena D.; Masarati, Pierangelo; Gennaretti, Massimo; Jump, Michael; Zaichik, Larisa; Dang-Vu, Binh; Lu, Linghai; Yilmaz, Deniz; Quaranta, Giuseppe; Ionita, Achim; Serafini, Jacopo


    Understanding, predicting and supressing the inadvertent aircraft oscillations caused by Aircraft/Rotorcraft Pilot Couplings (A/RPC) is a challenging problem for designers. These are potential instabilities that arise from the effort of controlling aircraft with high response actuation systems. The present paper reviews, updates and discusses desirable practices to be used during the design process for unmasking A/RPC phenomena. These practices are stemming from the European Commission project ARISTOTEL Aircraft and Rotorcraft Pilot Couplings - Tools and Techniques for Alleviation and Detection (2010-2013) and are mainly related to aerodynamic and structural modelling of the aircraft/rotorcraft, pilot modelling and A/RPC prediction criteria. The paper proposes new methodologies for precluding adverse A/RPCs events taking into account the aeroelasticity of the structure and pilot biodynamic interaction. It is demonstrated that high-frequency accelerations due to structural elasticity cause negative effects on pilot control, since they lead to involuntary body and limb-manipulator system displacements and interfere with pilot's deliberate control activity (biodynamic interaction) and, finally, worsen handling quality ratings.

  13. Innovative Concept for a Heavy-Load Aircraft Utilizing a Two-Dimensional Wing (United States)

    Spearman, M. Leroy


    Heavy-load aircraft of conventional wing-body-tail design have become very large. Excessive size of such aircraft may present problems in the manufacturing process. In addition, large wing spans may cause some difficulties in ground handling. Increasing lift loads on large span cantilever wings will also increase the strength of the wing tip vortex. The concept presented herein proposes a means for substantially increasing the lift load capability of an aircraft without increasing the overall length and span of the configuration. The concept has a rectangular wing with a relatively low span and a large chord to provide the area required for high lift. Large fuselages are attached at each wing tip to provide the volume required for heavy loading. The fuselages serve as endplates for the wing and should preclude tip flow so that two-dimensional flow might be established on the wing. Elimination of the wing tip flow should prevent the formation of a tip vortex and eliminate the tip vortex hazard to trailing aircraft. Exploratory wind tunnel tests of such an aircraft concept have been conducted. Lessons learned from these tests are discussed herein in an effort to determine the validity of the concept.

  14. MATE. Multi Aircraft Training Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauland, G.; Bove, T.; Andersen, Henning Boje


    . The cockpit switches and instruments in MATE are computer-generated graphics. The graphics are back projected onto semi-transparent touch screen panels in a hybrid cockpit mock-up. Thus, the MATE is relativelycheap, it is always available, it is reconfigurable (e.g. between types of aircraft...

  15. Aircraft Lightning Electromagnetic Environment Measurement (United States)

    Ely, Jay J.; Nguyen, Truong X.; Szatkowski, George N.


    This paper outlines a NASA project plan for demonstrating a prototype lightning strike measurement system that is suitable for installation onto research aircraft that already operate in thunderstorms. This work builds upon past data from the NASA F106, FAA CV-580, and Transall C-180 flight projects, SAE ARP5412, and the European ILDAS Program. The primary focus is to capture airframe current waveforms during attachment, but may also consider pre and post-attachment current, electric field, and radiated field phenomena. New sensor technologies are being developed for this system, including a fiber-optic Faraday polarization sensor that measures lightning current waveforms from DC to over several Megahertz, and has dynamic range covering hundreds-of-volts to tens-of-thousands-of-volts. A study of the electromagnetic emission spectrum of lightning (including radio wave, microwave, optical, X-Rays and Gamma-Rays), and a compilation of aircraft transfer-function data (including composite aircraft) are included, to aid in the development of other new lightning environment sensors, their placement on-board research aircraft, and triggering of the onboard instrumentation system. The instrumentation system will leverage recent advances in high-speed, high dynamic range, deep memory data acquisition equipment, and fiber-optic interconnect.

  16. Human Response to Aircraft Noise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kroesen, M.


    How can it be that one person is extremely annoyed by the sounds of aircrafts, while his neighbour claims not to be bothered at all? The present thesis attempts to explain this observation by applying a range of quantitative methods to field data gathered among residents living near large airports.

  17. Aircraft Natural/Artificial Icing (United States)


    axial vibration is caused by an oscillator driving a coil in the probe to create a magnetostrictive force. A sensing coil within the probe senses the...Consequence TOP 7-3-537 12 February 2009 C-1 APPENDIX C. ICING TEST SITE SELECTION 1. INTRODUCTION Unlike large fixed-wing aircraft, helicopters

  18. Aircraft Simulators and Pilot Training. (United States)

    Caro, Paul W.

    Flight simulators are built as realistically as possible, presumably to enhance their training value. Yet, their training value is determined by the way they are used. Traditionally, simulators have been less important for training than have aircraft, but they are currently emerging as primary pilot training vehicles. This new emphasis is an…

  19. Survival analysis of aging aircraft (United States)

    Benavides, Samuel

    This study pushes systems engineering of aging aircraft beyond the boundaries of empirical and deterministic modeling by making a sharp break with the traditional laboratory-derived corrosion prediction algorithms that have shrouded real-world failures of aircraft structure. At the heart of this problem is the aeronautical industry's inability to be forthcoming in an accurate model that predicts corrosion failures in aircraft in spite of advances in corrosion algorithms or improvements in simulation and modeling. The struggle to develop accurate corrosion probabilistic models stems from a multitude of real-world interacting variables that synergistically influence corrosion in convoluted and complex ways. This dissertation, in essence, offers a statistical framework for the analysis of structural airframe corrosion failure by utilizing real-world data while considering the effects of interacting corrosion variables. This study injects realism into corrosion failures of aging aircraft systems by accomplishing four major goals related to the conceptual and methodological framework of corrosion modeling. First, this work connects corrosion modeling from the traditional, laboratory derived algorithms to corrosion failures in actual operating aircraft. This work augments physics-based modeling by examining the many confounding and interacting variables, such as environmental, geographical and operational, that impact failure of airframe structure. Examined through the lens of censored failure data from aircraft flying in a maritime environment, this study enhances the understanding between the triad of the theoretical, laboratory and real-world corrosion. Secondly, this study explores the importation and successful application of an advanced biomedical statistical tool---survival analysis---to model censored corrosion failure data. This well-grounded statistical methodology is inverted from a methodology that analyzes survival to one that examines failures. Third, this

  20. Hydrogen Storage for Aircraft Applications Overview (United States)

    Colozza, Anthony J.; Kohout, Lisa (Technical Monitor)


    Advances in fuel cell technology have brought about their consideration as sources of power for aircraft. This power can be utilized to run aircraft systems or even provide propulsion power. One of the key obstacles to utilizing fuel cells on aircraft is the storage of hydrogen. An overview of the potential methods of hydrogen storage was compiled. This overview identifies various methods of hydrogen storage and points out their advantages and disadvantages relative to aircraft applications. Minimizing weight and volume are the key aspects to storing hydrogen within an aircraft. An analysis was performed to show how changes in certain parameters of a given storage system affect its mass and volume.

  1. Aircraft technology portfolio optimization using ant colony optimization (United States)

    Villeneuve, Frederic J.; Mavris, Dimitri N.


    Technology portfolio selection is a combinatorial optimization problem often faced with a large number of combinations and technology incompatibilities. The main research question addressed in this article is to determine if Ant Colony Optimization (ACO) is better suited than Genetic Algorithms (GAs) and Simulated Annealing (SA) for technology portfolio optimization when incompatibility constraints between technologies are present. Convergence rate, capability to find optima, and efficiency in handling of incompatibilities are the three criteria of comparison. The application problem consists of finding the best technology portfolio from 29 aircraft technologies. The results show that ACO and GAs converge faster and find optima more easily than SA, and that ACO can optimize portfolios with technology incompatibilities without using penalty functions. This latter finding paves the way for more use of ACO when the number of constraints increases, such as in the technology and concept selection for complex engineering systems.

  2. CERN Sells its Electronic Document Handling System

    CERN Multimedia


    The EDH team. Left to right: Derek Mathieson, Rotislav Titov, Per Gunnar Jonsson, Ivica Dobrovicova, James Purvis. Missing from the photo is Jurgen De Jonghe. In a 1 MCHF deal announced this week, the British company Transacsys bought the rights to CERN's Electronic Document Handling (EDH) system, which has revolutionised the Laboratory's administrative procedures over the last decade. Under the deal, CERN and Transacsys will collaborate on developing EDH over the coming 12 months. CERN will provide manpower and expertise and will retain the rights to use EDH, which will also be available freely to other particle physics laboratories. This development is an excellent example of the active technology transfer policy CERN is currently pursuing. The negotiations were carried out through a fruitful collaboration between AS and ETT Divisions, following the recommendations of the Technology Advisory Board, and with the help of SPL Division. EDH was born in 1991 when John Ferguson and Achille Petrilli of AS Divisi...

  3. Handling Occlusions for Robust Augmented Reality Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madjid Maidi


    Full Text Available In Augmented Reality applications, the human perception is enhanced with computer-generated graphics. These graphics must be exactly registered to real objects in the scene and this requires an effective Augmented Reality system to track the user's viewpoint. In this paper, a robust tracking algorithm based on coded fiducials is presented. Square targets are identified and pose parameters are computed using a hybrid approach based on a direct method combined with the Kalman filter. An important factor for providing a robust Augmented Reality system is the correct handling of targets occlusions by real scene elements. To overcome tracking failure due to occlusions, we extend our method using an optical flow approach to track visible points and maintain virtual graphics overlaying when targets are not identified. Our proposed real-time algorithm is tested with different camera viewpoints under various image conditions and shows to be accurate and robust.

  4. Handling Occlusions for Robust Augmented Reality Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maidi Madjid


    Full Text Available Abstract In Augmented Reality applications, the human perception is enhanced with computer-generated graphics. These graphics must be exactly registered to real objects in the scene and this requires an effective Augmented Reality system to track the user's viewpoint. In this paper, a robust tracking algorithm based on coded fiducials is presented. Square targets are identified and pose parameters are computed using a hybrid approach based on a direct method combined with the Kalman filter. An important factor for providing a robust Augmented Reality system is the correct handling of targets occlusions by real scene elements. To overcome tracking failure due to occlusions, we extend our method using an optical flow approach to track visible points and maintain virtual graphics overlaying when targets are not identified. Our proposed real-time algorithm is tested with different camera viewpoints under various image conditions and shows to be accurate and robust.

  5. Handling of wet residues in industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villanueva, Alejandro

    , to remove from it the substances which presence impedes reusing the water. These substances accumulate in a by-product called wet residue. An integral part of water recycling projects in the industry is the handling and disposal of the wet residues generated. The treatment, utilisation and disposal of wet...... residues depend totally on the industrial sector of origin and the composition of the water to be recycled. Treatment is more problematic in some cases than in others, but in all water recycling applications it is an issue of concern. The present study addresses this concern by providing a package...... to water bodies and uses of such bodies, distance to available agricultural land, characteristics of the local wastewater treatment plant, local and national legislation, or availability of subsidies. This study uses as example the geographical, legislative, economic and social boundary conditions...

  6. Error handling strategies in multiphase inverse modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finsterle, S.; Zhang, Y.


    Parameter estimation by inverse modeling involves the repeated evaluation of a function of residuals. These residuals represent both errors in the model and errors in the data. In practical applications of inverse modeling of multiphase flow and transport, the error structure of the final residuals often significantly deviates from the statistical assumptions that underlie standard maximum likelihood estimation using the least-squares method. Large random or systematic errors are likely to lead to convergence problems, biased parameter estimates, misleading uncertainty measures, or poor predictive capabilities of the calibrated model. The multiphase inverse modeling code iTOUGH2 supports strategies that identify and mitigate the impact of systematic or non-normal error structures. We discuss these approaches and provide an overview of the error handling features implemented in iTOUGH2.

  7. Development of spent fuel remote handling technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, B. S.; Yoon, J. S.; Hong, H. D. (and others)


    In this research, the remote handling technology was developed for the ACP application. The ACP gives a possible solution to reduce the rapidly cumulative amount of spent fuels generated from the nuclear power plants in Korea. The remote technologies developed in this work are a slitting device, a voloxidizer, a modified telescopic servo manipulator and a digital mock-up. A slitting device was developed to declad the spent fuel rod-cuts and collect the spent fuel UO{sub 2} pellets. A voloxidizer was developed to convert the spent fuel UO{sub 2} pellets obtained from the slitting process in to U{sub 3}O{sub 8} powder. Experiments were performed to test the capabilities and remote operation of the developed slitting device and voloxidizer by using simulated rod-cuts and fuel in the ACP hot cell. A telescopic servo manipulator was redesigned and manufactured improving the structure of the prototype. This servo manipulator was installed in the ACP hot cell, and the target module for maintenance of the process equipment was selected. The optimal procedures for remote operation were made through the maintenance tests by using the servo manipulator. The ACP digital mockup in a virtual environment was established to secure a reliability and safety of remote operation and maintenance. The simulation for the remote operation and maintenance was implemented and the operability was analyzed. A digital mockup about the preliminary conceptual design of an enginnering-scale ACP was established, and an analysis about a scale of facility and remote handling was accomplished. The real-time diagnostic technique was developed to detect the possible fault accidents of the slitting device. An assessment of radiation effect for various sensors was also conducted in the radiation environment.

  8. Evaluating ITER remote handling middleware concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koning, J.F., E-mail: [FOM Institute DIFFER, Association EURATOM-FOM, Partner in the Trilateral Euregio Cluster and ITER-NL, PO Box 1207, 3430 BE Nieuwegein (Netherlands); Heemskerk, C.J.M.; Schoen, P.; Smedinga, D. [Heemskerk Innovative Technology, Noordwijk (Netherlands); Boode, A.H. [University of Applied Sciences InHolland, Alkmaar (Netherlands); Hamilton, D.T. [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 Saint Paul Lez Durance (France)


    Highlights: ► Remote Handling Study Centre: middleware system setup and modules built. ► Aligning to ITER RH Control System Layout: prototype of database, VR and simulator. ► OpenSplice DDS, ZeroC ICE messaging and object oriented middlewares reviewed. ► Windows network latency found problematic for semi-realtime control over the network. -- Abstract: Remote maintenance activities in ITER will be performed by a unique set of hardware systems, supported by an extensive software kit. A layer of middleware will manage and control a complex set of interconnections between teams of operators, hardware devices in various operating theatres, and databases managing tool and task logistics. The middleware is driven by constraints on amounts and timing of data like real-time control loops, camera images, and database access. The Remote Handling Study Centre (RHSC), located at FOM institute DIFFER, has a 4-operator work cell in an ITER relevant RH Control Room setup which connects to a virtual hot cell back-end. The centre is developing and testing flexible integration of the Control Room components, resulting in proof-of-concept tests of this middleware layer. SW components studied include generic human-machine interface software, a prototype of a RH operations management system, and a distributed virtual reality system supporting multi-screen, multi-actor, and multiple independent views. Real-time rigid body dynamics and contact interaction simulation software supports simulation of structural deformation, “augmented reality” operations and operator training. The paper presents generic requirements and conceptual design of middleware components and Operations Management System in the context of a RH Control Room work cell. The simulation software is analyzed for real-time performance and it is argued that it is critical for middleware to have complete control over the physical network to be able to guarantee bandwidth and latency to the components.

  9. Overview on Hydrate Coring, Handling and Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jon Burger; Deepak Gupta; Patrick Jacobs; John Shillinglaw


    Gas hydrates are crystalline, ice-like compounds of gas and water molecules that are formed under certain thermodynamic conditions. Hydrate deposits occur naturally within ocean sediments just below the sea floor at temperatures and pressures existing below about 500 meters water depth. Gas hydrate is also stable in conjunction with the permafrost in the Arctic. Most marine gas hydrate is formed of microbially generated gas. It binds huge amounts of methane into the sediments. Worldwide, gas hydrate is estimated to hold about 1016 kg of organic carbon in the form of methane (Kvenvolden et al., 1993). Gas hydrate is one of the fossil fuel resources that is yet untapped, but may play a major role in meeting the energy challenge of this century. In June 2002, Westport Technology Center was requested by the Department of Energy (DOE) to prepare a ''Best Practices Manual on Gas Hydrate Coring, Handling and Analysis'' under Award No. DE-FC26-02NT41327. The scope of the task was specifically targeted for coring sediments with hydrates in Alaska, the Gulf of Mexico (GOM) and from the present Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) drillship. The specific subjects under this scope were defined in 3 stages as follows: Stage 1: Collect information on coring sediments with hydrates, core handling, core preservation, sample transportation, analysis of the core, and long term preservation. Stage 2: Provide copies of the first draft to a list of experts and stakeholders designated by DOE. Stage 3: Produce a second draft of the manual with benefit of input from external review for delivery. The manual provides an overview of existing information available in the published literature and reports on coring, analysis, preservation and transport of gas hydrates for laboratory analysis as of June 2003. The manual was delivered as draft version 3 to the DOE Project Manager for distribution in July 2003. This Final Report is provided for records purposes.

  10. Safety Enhancements for TRU Waste Handling - 12258

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cannon, Curt N. [Perma-Fix Northwest Richland, Inc., Richland, WA 99354 (United States)


    For years, proper Health Physics practices and 'As Low As Reasonably Achievable' (ALARA) principles have fostered the use of glove boxes or other methods of handling (without direct contact) high activities of radioactive material. The physical limitations of using glove boxes on certain containers have resulted in high-activity wastes being held in storage awaiting a path forward. Highly contaminated glove boxes and other remote handling equipment no longer in use have also been added to the growing list of items held for storage with no efficient method of preparation for proper disposal without creating exposure risks to personnel. This is especially true for wastes containing alpha-emitting radionuclides such as Plutonium and Americium that pose significant health risks to personnel if these Transuranic (TRU) wastes are not controlled effectively. Like any good safety program or root cause investigation PFNW has found that the identification of the cause of a negative change, if stopped, can result in a near miss and lessons learned. If this is done in the world of safety, it is considered a success story and is to be shared with others to protect the workers. PFNW believes that the tools, equipment and resources have improved over the past number of years but that the use of them has not progressed at the same rate. If we use our tools to timely identify the effect on the work environment and immediately following or possibly even simultaneously identify the cause or some of the causal factors, we may have the ability to continue to work rather than succumb to the start and stop-work mentality trap that is not beneficial in waste minimization, production efficiency or ALARA. (authors)

  11. Aircraft systems design methodology and dispatch reliability prediction


    Bineid, Mansour


    Aircraft despatch reliability was the main subject of this research in the wider content of aircraft reliability. The factors effecting dispatch reliability, aircraft delay, causes of aircraft delays, and aircraft delay costs and magnitudes were examined. Delay cost elements and aircraft delay scenarios were also studied. It concluded that aircraft dispatch reliability is affected by technical and non-technical factors, and that the former are under the designer's control. It showed that ...

  12. Instruments for minimally invasive surgery: principles of ergonomic handles. (United States)

    Matern, U; Waller, P


    Although the advantages of minimally invasive surgery (MIS) have been clearly established for the patient, the surgeon must cope with disadvantages caused by unergonomic instrument handles. Pressure areas and persisting nerve lesions have been described in the literature. The shape of the instrument handles has been identified as the reason for these disorders. To prevent these, it is necessary to use ergonomically designed handles for MIS instruments. Anatomic, physiologic, and ergonomic facts as well as the results of the authors' own experiences and tests are presented. On this basis, an ideal ergonomic working posture for the laparoscopic surgeon and an optimal grasp for manipulating the instruments' functional elements are recommended. To enable the surgeon to evaluate ergonomic handles for MIS instruments according to his own needs, 14 criteria for genuine "ergonomic handles" are established. On the basis of these criteria, deficiencies of handles currently available (ring and shank handles at an angle or with axial extension to the instrument shaft, and pistol handles) are discussed. Furthermore, new handles, developed by the authors according to the criteria for genuine ergonomic handles, are presented.

  13. Perception of aircraft Deviation Cues (United States)

    Martin, Lynne; Azuma, Ronald; Fox, Jason; Verma, Savita; Lozito, Sandra


    To begin to address the need for new displays, required by a future airspace concept to support new roles that will be assigned to flight crews, a study of potentially informative display cues was undertaken. Two cues were tested on a simple plan display - aircraft trajectory and flight corridor. Of particular interest was the speed and accuracy with which participants could detect an aircraft deviating outside its flight corridor. Presence of the trajectory cue significantly reduced participant reaction time to a deviation while the flight corridor cue did not. Although non-significant, the flight corridor cue seemed to have a relationship with the accuracy of participants judgments rather than their speed. As this is the second of a series of studies, these issues will be addressed further in future studies.

  14. CID Aircraft slap-down (United States)


    In this photograph the B-720 is seen during the moments of initial impact. The left wing is digging into the lakebed while the aircraft continues sliding towards wing openers. In 1984 NASA Dryden Flight Research Facility and the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) teamed-up in a unique flight experiment called the Controlled Impact Demonstration (CID). The test involved crashing a Boeing 720 aircraft with four JT3C-7 engines burning a mixture of standard fuel with an additive, Anti-misting Kerosene (AMK), designed to supress fire. In a typical aircraft crash, fuel spilled from ruptured fuel tanks forms a fine mist that can be ignited by a number of sources at the crash site. In 1984 the NASA Dryden Flight Research Facility (after 1994 a full-fledged Center again) and the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) teamed-up in a unique flight experiment called the Controlled Impact Demonstration (CID), to test crash a Boeing 720 aircraft using standard fuel with an additive designed to supress fire. The additive, FM-9, a high-molecular-weight long-chain polymer, when blended with Jet-A fuel had demonstrated the capability to inhibit ignition and flame propagation of the released fuel in simulated crash tests. This anti-misting kerosene (AMK) cannot be introduced directly into a gas turbine engine due to several possible problems such as clogging of filters. The AMK must be restored to almost Jet-A before being introduced into the engine for burning. This restoration is called 'degradation' and was accomplished on the B-720 using a device called a 'degrader.' Each of the four Pratt & Whitney JT3C-7 engines had a 'degrader' built and installed by General Electric (GE) to break down and return the AMK to near Jet-A quality. In addition to the AMK research the NASA Langley Research Center was involved in a structural loads measurement experiment, which included having instrumented dummies filling the seats in the passenger compartment. Before the final flight on December 1

  15. Prediction of the handling qualities and pilot-induced oscillation rating levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreea-Irina AFLOARE


    Full Text Available The basis for the aviation development is the ambition of increasing the efficiency and safety of flight. Improvements include flight performance and extended flight envelope, new flight regimes and tasks. However, all of these factors lead to the increase of pilot workload which can reduce the accuracy and safety of flight. Fixed and rotary wing pilots are being confronted with potential instabilities or with annoying limit cycle oscillations, known as Aircraft/Rotorcraft Pilot Couplings (A/RPC that arise from the effort of controlling the vehicle with high response actuators. This paper deals with the unified theory of predicting handling qualities level (HQSF and pilot-induced oscillation rating levels (PIOR based on the structural model of human operator, developed by Hess. HQSF and PIOR are capable of capturing the prominent features of human pilot dynamics characteristics for a large class of aerial vehicles and tasks. The key element in this method is to unify the topics of vehicle handling qualities and RPC/PIO, applied to the analysis of a medium weight helicopter model.

  16. Static Aeroelasticity in Combat Aircraft. (United States)


    Simulation Maneuverability Performance System Integration Design Load Spectren FIG. 1 HIGH PERFORMANCE AIRCRAFT DESIGN Simulation has a great potential...Aeroelasticity has also a great effect on the flight control system design. If the basic control powers are reduced by increasing dynamic pressure...Components Flight Envelope Structure Concept a Total Aircraf Analysis FIG, 2 BASIC DATAS FOR AEROELASTIC DESIGN STUDIES Aeroelastic activities are now devided

  17. Aircraft Derived Data Validation Algorithms (United States)


    to be equipped with Flight Management Systems (FMSs) that use sophisticated digital computers to assist pilots, allowing them to fly more fuel...some basic data is prepared. These include calculations of aircraft position projeted on a three-dimensional Cartesian coordinate system, and...Administration FMS Flight Management System GA General Aviation NextGen Next Generation Air Transportation System NGA National Geospatial-Intelligence

  18. Stochastic Methods for Aircraft Design (United States)

    Pelz, Richard B.; Ogot, Madara


    The global stochastic optimization method, simulated annealing (SA), was adapted and applied to various problems in aircraft design. The research was aimed at overcoming the problem of finding an optimal design in a space with multiple minima and roughness ubiquitous to numerically generated nonlinear objective functions. SA was modified to reduce the number of objective function evaluations for an optimal design, historically the main criticism of stochastic methods. SA was applied to many CFD/MDO problems including: low sonic-boom bodies, minimum drag on supersonic fore-bodies, minimum drag on supersonic aeroelastic fore-bodies, minimum drag on HSCT aeroelastic wings, FLOPS preliminary design code, another preliminary aircraft design study with vortex lattice aerodynamics, HSR complete aircraft aerodynamics. In every case, SA provided a simple, robust and reliable optimization method which found optimal designs in order 100 objective function evaluations. Perhaps most importantly, from this academic/industrial project, technology has been successfully transferred; this method is the method of choice for optimization problems at Northrop Grumman.

  19. Effects of handling on fear reactions in young Icelandic horses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marsbøll, Anna Feldberg; Christensen, Janne Winther


    Reasons for performing the study Inclusion of objective temperament tests at practical horse breeding evaluations is of increased interest. It has been debated whether such tests may involve human handling, since there may be considerable differences in horses' handling experience. Objectives...... of fearfulness. Known handlers may ‘mask’ behavioural responses of horses in fear tests and thus handling by a known handler during testing may not be appropriate for objective evaluation of fearfulness in a practical situation....... To investigate the effect of a short-term standardised handling procedure on reactions of young horses in 2 types of fear tests (including and excluding human handling). Study design An experimental study with 3-year-old Icelandic horses (n = 24). Methods Handled horses (n = 12) were trained according...

  20. Design and sizing of ergonomic handles for hand tools. (United States)

    Lewis, W G; Narayan, C V


    In this paper, handles for two commonly used hand tools, the chisel and the off-set pliers, are designed using ergonomic principles. These were sized for both males and females falling in the 5th percentile, 50th percentile and 95th percentile groupings. The stresses developed in the ergonomically designed chisel handle while in use were analysed to verify the validity of the design. This chisel handle was then manufactured, and preliminary evaluation using electromyography was conducted. In these tests, the stresses exerted on the flexor and extensor muscles of the arm were measured and compared with those obtained during the use of a conventional handle. Under similar working conditions, results clearly showed that the ergonomically designed handle allows higher working efficiency than existing handles.

  1. Manual handling the deceased child in a children's hospice. (United States)

    Pike, Anne M


    The introduction of the Manual Handling Operation Regulations 1992 has forced organizations to review all manual handling carried out in the work-place. Safe manual handling is now a legislative requirement to enable the workforce to carry out their jobs in a safe and structured environment. This project looked in detail at the manual handling that was being carried out when caring for a child after they have died. It was undertaken at CHASE Children's Hospice in the period up until December 2002, with a telephone survey investigating practice at six other children's hospices. It aimed to identify incorrect procedures and, by applying the theory of ergonomics, identify changes that needed to occur in practice, making recommendations for environmental changes. The study led to the production of a policy for handling the children, devising child-specific handling guidelines, reducing the number of times the children are moved after they have died and providing appropriate equipment.

  2. The prevention and handling of the missing data. (United States)

    Kang, Hyun


    Even in a well-designed and controlled study, missing data occurs in almost all research. Missing data can reduce the statistical power of a study and can produce biased estimates, leading to invalid conclusions. This manuscript reviews the problems and types of missing data, along with the techniques for handling missing data. The mechanisms by which missing data occurs are illustrated, and the methods for handling the missing data are discussed. The paper concludes with recommendations for the handling of missing data.

  3. Building a framework for ergonomic research on laparoscopic instrument handles. (United States)

    Li, Zheng; Wang, Guohui; Tan, Juan; Sun, Xulong; Lin, Hao; Zhu, Shaihong


    Laparoscopic surgery carries the advantage of minimal invasiveness, but ergonomic design of the instruments used has progressed slowly. Previous studies have demonstrated that the handle of laparoscopic instruments is vital for both surgical performance and surgeon's health. This review provides an overview of the sub-discipline of handle ergonomics, including an evaluation framework, objective and subjective assessment systems, data collection and statistical analyses. Furthermore, a framework for ergonomic research on laparoscopic instrument handles is proposed to standardize work on instrument design.

  4. Towards an efficient retractor handle: an ergonomic study. (United States)

    Brearley, S; Watson, H


    In a study whose aim was to design an ergonomically efficient retractor handle, surgeons' views on retractor design were canvassed by questionnaire. After observing retractors in use and measuring the forces involved peroperatively, prototype handles were made and tested in a laboratory. Experimental subjects showed a marked preference for a vertical 'T' configuration. Such a handle could easily be incorporated into most existing retractor designs.

  5. Pre-mortem handling effect on the meat quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorgue Hernandez-Bautista


    Full Text Available The main characteristics that define meat quality are the physicochemical, organoleptic and microbiological properties. These characteristics are influenced by like production system, racial group, feed, transport, ante-mortem animals handling and post-mortem meat handling. The ante-mortem handling is very important, where stress physiology and the factors that provoke it (fasting, transportation, stunning, specie and their effect in each step of the ante-mortem handling is reflected in final meat quality (pH, conductivity, color, water holding capacity and shelf life.

  6. The NOAO KOSMOS Data Handling System

    CERN Document Server

    Seaman, Rob


    KOSMOS and COSMOS are twin high-efficiency imaging spectrographs that have been deployed as NOAO facility instruments for the Mayall 4-meter telescope on Kitt Peak in Arizona and for the Blanco telescope on Cerro Tololo in Chile, respectively. The NOAO Data Handling System (DHS) has seen aggressive use over several years at both the Blanco and Mayall telescopes with NEWFIRM (the NOAO Extremely Wide-Field Infrared Imager) and the Mosaic-1.1 wide-field optical imager. Both of these instruments also rely on the Monsoon array controller and related software, and on instrument-specific versions of the NOAO Observation Control System (NOCS). NOCS, Monsoon and DHS are thus a well-tested software suite that was adopted by the KOSMOS project. This document describes the specifics of the KOSMOS implementation of DHS, in particular in support of the original two-amplifier e2v 2Kx4K CCD detectors with which the instruments were commissioned. The emphasis will be on the general layout of the DHS software components and th...

  7. Whole Teflon valves for handling droplets. (United States)

    Cybulski, Olgierd; Jakiela, Slawomir; Garstecki, Piotr


    We propose and test a new whole-Teflon gate valve for handling droplets. The valve allows droplet plugs to pass through without disturbing them. This is possible due to the geometric design, the choice of material and lack of any pulses of flow generated by closing or opening the valve. The duct through the valve resembles a simple segment of tubing, without constrictions, change in lumen or side pockets. There are no extra sealing materials with different wettability or chemical resistance. The only material exposed to liquids is FEP Teflon, which is resistant to aggressive chemicals and fully biocompatible. The valve can be integrated into microfluidic systems: we demonstrate a complex system for culturing bacteria in hundreds of microliter droplet chemostats. The valve effectively isolates modules of the system to increase precision of operations on droplets. We verified that the valve allowed millions of droplet plugs to safely pass through, without any cross-contamination with bacteria between the droplets. The valve can be used in automating complex microfluidic systems for experiments in biochemistry, biology and organic chemistry.

  8. Valve Concepts for Microfluidic Cell Handling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Grabowski


    Full Text Available In this paper we present various pneumatically actuated microfluidic valves to enable user-defined fluid management within a microfluidic chip. To identify a feasible valve design, certain valve concepts are simulated in ANSYS to investigate the pressure dependent opening and closing characteristics of each design. The results are verified in a series of tests. Both the microfluidic layer and the pneumatic layer are realized by means of soft-lithographic techniques. In this way, a network of channels is fabricated in photoresist as a molding master. By casting these masters with PDMS (polydimethylsiloxane we get polymeric replicas containing the channel network. After a plasma-enhanced bonding process, the two layers are irreversibly bonded to each other. The bonding is tight for pressures up to 2 bar. The valves are integrated into a microfluidic cell handling system that is designed to manipulate cells in the presence of a liquid reagent (e.g. PEG – polyethylene glycol, for cell fusion. For this purpose a user-defined fluid management system is developed. The first test series with human cell lines show that the microfluidic chip is suitable for accumulating cells within a reaction chamber, where they can be flushed by a liquid medium.

  9. AIRTV: Broadband Direct to Aircraft (United States)

    Sorbello, R.; Stone, R.; Bennett, S. B.; Bertenyi, E.


    Airlines have been continuously upgrading their wide-body, long-haul aircraft with IFE (in-flight entertainment) systems that can support from 12 to 24 channels of video entertainment as well as provide the infrastructure to enable in-seat delivery of email and internet services. This is a direct consequence of increased passenger demands for improved in-flight services along with the expectations that broadband delivery systems capable of providing live entertainment (news, sports, financial information, etc.) and high speed data delivery will soon be available. The recent events of Sept. 11 have slowed the airline's upgrade of their IFE systems, but have also highlighted the compelling need for broadband aeronautical delivery systems to include operational and safety information. Despite the impact of these events, it is estimated that by 2005 more than 3000 long haul aircraft (servicing approximately 1 billion passengers annually) will be fully equipped with modern IFE systems. Current aircraft data delivery systems, which use either Inmarsat or NATS, are lacking in bandwidth and consequently are unsuitable to satisfy passenger demands for broadband email/internet services or the airlines' burgeoning data requirements. Present live video delivery services are limited to regional coverage and are not readily expandable to global or multiregional service. Faced with a compelling market demand for high data transport to aircraft, AirTV has been developing a broadband delivery system that will meet both passengers' and airlines' needs. AirTV is a global content delivery system designed to provide a range of video programming and data services to commercial airlines. When AirTV is operational in 2004, it will provide a broadband connection directly to the aircraft, delivering live video entertainment, internet/email service and essential operational and safety data. The system has been designed to provide seamless global service to all airline routes except for those

  10. Mars Sample Handling and Requirements Panel (MSHARP) (United States)

    Carr, Michael H.; McCleese, Daniel J.; Bada, Jeffrey L.; Bogard, Donald D.; Clark, Benton C.; DeVincenzi, Donald; Drake, Michael J.; Nealson, Kenneth H.; Papike, James J.; Race, Margaret S.; Stahl, David


    In anticipation of the return of samples from Mars toward the end of the first decade of the next century, NASA's Office of Space Sciences chartered a panel to examine how Mars samples should be handled. The panel was to make recommendations in three areas: (1) sample collection and transport back to Earth; (2) certification of the samples as nonhazardous; and (3) sample receiving, curation, and distribution. This report summarizes the findings of that panel. The samples should be treated as hazardous until proven otherwise. They are to be sealed within a canister on Mars, and the canister is not to be opened until within a Biosafety Hazard Level 4 (BSL-4) containment facility here on Earth. This facility must also meet or exceed the cleanliness requirements of the Johnson Space Center (JSC) facility for curation of extraterrestrial materials. A containment facility meeting both these requirements does not yet exist. Hazard assessment and life detection experiments are to be done at the containment facility, while geochemical characterization is being performed on a sterilized subset of the samples released to the science community. When and if the samples are proven harmless, they are to be transferred to a curation facility, such as that at JSC.

  11. Design Methods and Optimization for Morphing Aircraft (United States)

    Crossley, William A.


    This report provides a summary of accomplishments made during this research effort. The major accomplishments are in three areas. The first is the use of a multiobjective optimization strategy to help identify potential morphing features that uses an existing aircraft sizing code to predict the weight, size and performance of several fixed-geometry aircraft that are Pareto-optimal based upon on two competing aircraft performance objectives. The second area has been titled morphing as an independent variable and formulates the sizing of a morphing aircraft as an optimization problem in which the amount of geometric morphing for various aircraft parameters are included as design variables. This second effort consumed most of the overall effort on the project. The third area involved a more detailed sizing study of a commercial transport aircraft that would incorporate a morphing wing to possibly enable transatlantic point-to-point passenger service.

  12. 78 FR 65554 - Exhaust Emission Standards for New Aircraft Turbine Engines and Identification Plate for Aircraft... (United States)


    ... Aircraft Turbine Engines and Identification Plate for Aircraft Engines Correction In rule document 2013... for Subsonic Engines'', in the third column, in the last row, the entry ``rO > 26.7'' is corrected...

  13. A Qualitative Analysis of SAC Aircraft Maintenance. (United States)



  14. Visualization of Aircraft Longitudinal-Axis Motion


    Peter Kvasnica


    In this paper, the use of continuous mathematical models of an aircraft in an aircraft simulator is described. The models are of lower degree and less time-consuming for calculation. Computer implementation of the models capable to work faster and more accurately and efficiently is also described. The suggested approach allows to achieve the required precision at accelerated simulation speed using the continuous mathematical models of an aircraft. Frequency of the computation of continuous ma...

  15. Advanced Aerostructural Optimization Techniques for Aircraft Design


    Yingtao Zuo; Pingjian Chen; Lin Fu; Zhenghong Gao; Gang Chen


    Traditional coupled aerostructural design optimization (ASDO) of aircraft based on high-fidelity models is computationally expensive and inefficient. To improve the efficiency, the key is to predict aerostructural performance of the aircraft efficiently. The cruise shape of the aircraft is parameterized and optimized in this paper, and a methodology named reverse iteration of structural model (RISM) is adopted to get the aerostructural performance of cruise shape efficiently. A new mathematic...

  16. Aircraft Survivability. Susceptibility Reduction. Fall 2010 (United States)


    to determine the degree of control available with manual manipulation of engine throttles for various transport aircraft. Simulations included...Boeing 727, 737, 747, 757, 767, 777, MD-11, MD-90, C-17, and Airbus A320 and A300 transport aircraft. Preliminary missile impact effects were...shown, for most aircraft tested, that using only manual TOC it is very difficult to make a safe runway landing due to difficulty in controlling the

  17. Analysis of the longitudinal handling qualities and pilot-induced-oscillation tendencies of the High-Angle-of-Attack Research Vehicle (HARV) (United States)

    Hess, Ronald A.


    The NASA High-Angle-of Attack Research Vehicle (HARV), a modified F-18 aircraft, experienced handling qualities problems in recent flight tests at NASA Dryden Research Center. Foremost in these problems was the tendency of the pilot-aircraft system to exhibit a potentially dangerous phenomenon known as a pilot-induced oscillation (PIO). When they occur, PIO's can severely restrict performance, sharply dimish mission capabilities, and can even result in aircraft loss. A pilot/vehicle analysis was undertaken with the goal of reducing these PIO tendencies and improving the overall vehicle handling qualities with as few changes as possible to the existing feedback/feedforward flight control laws. Utilizing a pair of analytical pilot models developed by the author, a pilot/vehicle analysis of the existing longitudinal flight control system was undertaken. The analysis included prediction of overall handling qualities levels and PIO susceptability. The analysis indicated that improvement in the flight control system was warranted and led to the formulation of a simple control stick command shaping filter. Analysis of the pilot/vehicle system with the shaping filter indicated significant improvements in handling qualities and PIO tendencies could be achieved. A non-real time simulation of the modified control system was undertaken with a realistic, nonlinear model of the current HARV. Special emphasis was placed upon those details of the command filter implementation which could effect safety of flight. The modified system is currently awaiting evaluation in the real-time, pilot-in-the-loop, Dual-Maneuvering-Simulator (DMS) facility at Langley.

  18. Digital virtual flight testing and evaluation method for flight characteristics airworthiness compliance of civil aircraft based on HQRM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Fan; Wang Lixin; Tan Xiangsheng


    In order to incorporate airworthiness requirements for flight characteristics into the entire development cycle of electronic flight control system (EFCS) equipped civil aircraft, digital virtual flight testing and evaluation method based on handling qualities rating method (HQRM) is proposed. First, according to HQRM, flight characteristics airworthiness requirements of civil aircraft in EFCS failure states are determined. On this basis, digital virtual flight testing model, comprising flight task digitized model, pilot controlling model, aircraft motion and atmospheric tur-bulence model, is used to simulate the realistic process of a pilot controlling an airplane to perform assigned flight tasks. According to the simulation results, flight characteristics airworthiness com-pliance of the airplane can be evaluated relying on the relevant regulations for handling qualities (HQ) rating. Finally, this method is applied to a type of passenger airplane in a typical EFCS failure state, and preliminary conclusions concerning airworthiness compliance are derived quickly. The research results of this manuscript can provide important theoretical reference for EFCS design and actual airworthiness compliance verification of civil aircraft.

  19. Hardware-in-the-loop environment facility to address pilot-vehicle-interface issues of a fighter aircraft (United States)

    Pandurangareddy, Meenige


    The evolution of Pilot-Vehicle-Interface (PVI) of a fighter aircraft is a complex task. The PVI design involves both static and dynamic issues. Static issues involve the study of reach of controls and switches, ejection path clearance, readability of indicators and display symbols, etc. Dynamic issues involve the study of the effect of aircraft motion on display symbols, pilot emergency handling, situation awareness, weapon aiming, etc. This paper describes a method of addressing the above issues by building a facility with cockpit, which is ergonomically similar to the fighter cockpit. The cockpit is also fitted with actual displays, controls and switches. The cockpit is interfaced with various simulation models of aircraft and outside-window-image generators. The architecture of the facility is designed to represent the latencies of the aircraft and facilitates replacement of simulation models with actual units. A parameter injection facility could be used to induce faults in a comprehensive manner. Pilots could use the facility right from familiarising themselves with procedures to start the engine, take-off, navigate, aim the weapons, handling of emergencies and landing. This approach is being followed and further being enhanced on Cockpit-Environment-Facility (CEF) at Aeronautical Development Agency (ADA), Bangalore, India.

  20. Aircraft Wiring Support Equipment Integration Laboratory (AWSEIL) (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Purpose:The Aircraft Wiring Support Equipment Integration Laboratory (AWSEIL) provides a variety of research, design engineering and prototype fabrication services...

  1. Research on Emerging and Descending Aircraft Noise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Bartkevičiūtė


    Full Text Available Along with an increase in the aircraft engine power and growth in air traffic, noise level at airports and their surrounding environs significantly increases. Aircraft noise is high level noise spreading within large radius and intensively irritating the human body. Air transport is one of the main sources of noise having a particularly strong negative impact on the environment. The article deals with activities and noises taking place in the largest nationwide Vilnius International Airport.The level of noise and its dispersion was evaluated conducting research on the noise generated by emerging and descending aircrafts in National Vilnius Airport. Investigation was carried out at 2 measuring points located in a residential area. There are different types of aircrafts causing different sound levels. It has been estimated the largest exceedances that occur when an aircraft is approaching. In this case, the noisiest types of aircrafts are B733, B738 and AT72. The sound level varies from 70 to 85 dBA. The quietest aircrafts are RJ1H and F70. When taking off, the equivalent of the maximum sound level value of these aircrafts does not exceed the authorized limits. The paper describes the causes of noise in aircrafts, the sources of origin and the impact of noise on humans and the environment.Article in Lithuanian

  2. Aircraft Wiring Support Equipment Integration Laboratory (AWSEIL) (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Purpose: The Aircraft Wiring Support Equipment Integration Laboratory (AWSEIL) provides a variety of research, design engineering and prototype fabrication services...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matei POPA


    Full Text Available In accordance with Air Force requirements, the comparative analysis of short/medium transport aircraft comes to sustain procurement decision of short/medium transport aircraft. This paper presents, in short, the principles and the results of the comparative analysis for short/medium military transport aircraft.

  4. 75 FR 50865 - Airworthiness Directives; Various Aircraft Equipped With Rotax Aircraft Engines 912 A Series Engines (United States)


    ... Equipped With Rotax Aircraft Engines 912 A Series Engines AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA... 912 A series engine installed in various aircraft does not have an engine type certificate; instead, the engine is part of the aircraft type design. Comments We gave the public the opportunity...

  5. 75 FR 32315 - Airworthiness Directives; Various Aircraft Equipped With Rotax Aircraft Engines 912 A Series Engines (United States)


    ... Equipped With Rotax Aircraft Engines 912 A Series Engines AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA... certificated in the United States. However, the Model 912 A series engine installed in various aircraft does not have an engine type certificate; instead, the engine is part of the aircraft type design. You...

  6. 76 FR 40219 - Airworthiness Directives; Various Aircraft Equipped With Rotax Aircraft Engines 912 A Series Engine (United States)


    ... Equipped With Rotax Aircraft Engines 912 A Series Engine AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT... Rotax Aircraft Engines Mandatory Service Bulletin SB-912-058 SB-914-041, dated April 15, 2011, listed in... 601 0; fax: +43 7246 601 9130; Internet: . You may review...

  7. Quasi-ADS-B Based UAV Conflict Detection and Resolution to Manned Aircraft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chin E. Lin


    Full Text Available A Conflict Detection and Resolution (CD&R system for manned/unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV based on Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B concept is designed and verified in this paper. The 900 MHz XBee-Pro is selected as data transponder to broadcast flight information among participating aircraft in omnirange. Standard Compact Position Report (CPR format packet data are automatically broadcasted by ID sequencing under Quasi-ADS-B mechanism. Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA monitoring checks the designated time slot and reallocates the conflict ID. This mechanism allows the transponder to effectively share data with multiple aircraft in near airspace. The STM32f103 microprocessor is designed to handle RF, GPS, and flight data with Windows application on manned aircraft and ground control station simultaneously. Different conflict detection and collision avoidance algorithms can be implemented into the system to ensure flight safety. The proposed UAV/CD&R using Quasi-ADS-B transceiver is tested using ultralight aircraft flying at 100–120 km/hr speed in small airspace for mission simulation. The proposed hardware is also useful to additional applications to mountain hikers for emergency search and rescue. The fundamental function by the proposed UAV/CD&R using Quasi-ADS-B is verified with effective signal broadcasting for surveillance and efficient collision alert and avoidance performance to low altitude flights.

  8. Modeling and control for a blended wing body aircraft a case study

    CERN Document Server

    Schirrer, Alexander


    This book demonstrates the potential of the blended wing body (BWB) concept for significant improvement in both fuel efficiency and noise reduction and addresses the considerable challenges raised for control engineers because of characteristics like open-loop instability, large flexible structure, and slow control surfaces. This text describes state-of-the-art and novel modeling and control design approaches for the BWB aircraft under consideration. The expert contributors demonstrate how exceptional robust control performance can be achieved despite such stringent design constraints as guaranteed handling qualities, reduced vibration, and the minimization of the aircraft’s structural loads during maneuvers and caused by turbulence. As a result, this innovative approach allows the building of even lighter aircraft structures, and thus results in considerable efficiency improvements per passenger kilometer. The treatment of this large, complex, parameter-dependent industrial control problem highlights relev...

  9. A.I.-based real-time support for high performance aircraft operations (United States)

    Vidal, J. J.


    Artificial intelligence (AI) based software and hardware concepts are applied to the handling system malfunctions during flight tests. A representation of malfunction procedure logic using Boolean normal forms are presented. The representation facilitates the automation of malfunction procedures and provides easy testing for the embedded rules. It also forms a potential basis for a parallel implementation in logic hardware. The extraction of logic control rules, from dynamic simulation and their adaptive revision after partial failure are examined. It uses a simplified 2-dimensional aircraft model with a controller that adaptively extracts control rules for directional thrust that satisfies a navigational goal without exceeding pre-established position and velocity limits. Failure recovery (rule adjusting) is examined after partial actuator failure. While this experiment was performed with primitive aircraft and mission models, it illustrates an important paradigm and provided complexity extrapolations for the proposed extraction of expertise from simulation, as discussed. The use of relaxation and inexact reasoning in expert systems was also investigated.

  10. Aircrew-aircraft integration: A summary of US Army research programs and plans (United States)

    Key, D. L.; Aiken, E. W.


    A review of selected programs which illustrate the research efforts of the U.S. Army Aeromechanics Laboratory in the area of aircrew-aircraft integration is presented. Plans for research programs to support the development of future military rotorcraft are also described. The crew of a combat helicopter must, in general, perform two major functions during the conduct of a particular mission: flightpath control and mission management. Accordingly, the research programs described are being conducted in the same two major categories: (1) flightpath control, which encompasses the areas of handling qualities, stability and control, and displays for the pilot's control of the rotorcraft's flightpath, and (2) mission management, which includes human factors and cockpit integration research topics related to performance of navigation, communication, and aircraft systems management tasks.

  11. Aircrew-aircraft integration - A summary of U.S. Army research programs and plans (United States)

    Key, D. L.; Aiken, E. W.


    A review of selected programs which illustrate the research efforts of the U.S. Army Aeromechanics Laboratory in the area of aircrew-aircraft integration is presented. Plans for research programs to support the development of future military rotorcraft are also described. The crew of a combat helicopter must, in general, perform two major functions during the conduct of a particular mission: flightpath control and mission management. Accordingly, the research programs described are being conducted in the same two major categories: (1) flightpath control, which encompasses the areas of handling qualities, stability and control, and displays for the pilot's control of the rotorcraft's flightpath, and (2) mission management, which includes human factors and cockpit integration research topics related to performance of navigation, communication, and aircraft systems management tasks.

  12. Advanced AFCS developments on the XV-15 tilt rotor research aircraft. [Automatic Flight Control System (United States)

    Churchill, G. B.; Gerdes, R. M.


    The design criteria and control and handling qualities of the Automatic Flight Control System (AFCS), developed in the framework of the XV-15 tilt-rotor research aircraft, are evaluated, differentiating between the stability and control criteria. A technically aggressive SCAS control law was implemented, demonstrating that significant benefits accrue when stability criteria are separated from design criteria; the design analyses for application of the control law are presented, and the limit bandwidth for stabilization in hovering flight is shown to be defined by rotor or control lag functions. Flight tests of the aircraft resulted in a rating of 3 on the Cooper-Harper scale; a possibility of achieving a rating of 2 is expected if the system is applied to the yaw and heave control modes.

  13. Digital adaptive model following flight control. [using fighter aircraft mathematical model-following algorithm (United States)

    Alag, G. S.; Kaufman, H.


    Simple mechanical linkages are often unable to cope with the many control problems associated with high performance aircraft maneuvering over a wide flight envelope. One procedure for retaining uniform handling qualities over such an envelope is to implement a digital adaptive controller. Towards such an implementation an explicit adaptive controller, which makes direct use of online parameter identification, has been developed and applied to the linearized equations of motion for a typical fighter aircraft. The system is composed of an online weighted least squares identifier, a Kalman state filter, and a single stage real model following control law. The corresponding control gains are readily adjustable in accordance with parameter changes to ensure asymptotic stability if the conditions for perfect model following are satisfied and stability in the sense of boundedness otherwise.

  14. Coupled nonlinear aeroelasticity and flight dynamics of fully flexible aircraft (United States)

    Su, Weihua

    This dissertation introduces an approach to effectively model and analyze the coupled nonlinear aeroelasticity and flight dynamics of highly flexible aircraft. A reduced-order, nonlinear, strain-based finite element framework is used, which is capable of assessing the fundamental impact of structural nonlinear effects in preliminary vehicle design and control synthesis. The cross-sectional stiffness and inertia properties of the wings are calculated along the wing span, and then incorporated into the one-dimensional nonlinear beam formulation. Finite-state unsteady subsonic aerodynamics is used to compute airloads along lifting surfaces. Flight dynamic equations are then introduced to complete the aeroelastic/flight dynamic system equations of motion. Instead of merely considering the flexibility of the wings, the current work allows all members of the vehicle to be flexible. Due to their characteristics of being slender structures, the wings, tail, and fuselage of highly flexible aircraft can be modeled as beams undergoing three dimensional displacements and rotations. New kinematic relationships are developed to handle the split beam systems, such that fully flexible vehicles can be effectively modeled within the existing framework. Different aircraft configurations are modeled and studied, including Single-Wing, Joined-Wing, Blended-Wing-Body, and Flying-Wing configurations. The Lagrange Multiplier Method is applied to model the nodal displacement constraints at the joint locations. Based on the proposed models, roll response and stability studies are conducted on fully flexible and rigidized models. The impacts of the flexibility of different vehicle members on flutter with rigid body motion constraints, flutter in free flight condition, and roll maneuver performance are presented. Also, the static stability of the compressive member of the Joined-Wing configuration is studied. A spatially-distributed discrete gust model is incorporated into the time simulation

  15. LCC-OPS: Life Cycle Cost Application in Aircraft Operations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suwondo, E.


    Observation of current practices in aircraft operations and maintenance shows limited consideration of cost savings applied by aircraft modifications, maintenance program optimisation and aircraft selection. This is due to hidden (maintenance dependent) costs and difficulties in quantifying the util

  16. 77 FR 58301 - Technical Amendment; Airworthiness Standards: Aircraft Engines; Correction (United States)


    ... Technical Amendment entitled, ``Airworthiness Standards: Aircraft Engine'' (77 FR 39623). In that technical... Administration 14 CFR Part 33 RIN 2120-AF57 Technical Amendment; Airworthiness Standards: Aircraft Engines... technical amendment, the FAA clarified aircraft engine vibration test requirements in the...

  17. 77 FR 39623 - Airworthiness Standards: Aircraft Engines; Technical Amendment (United States)


    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 33 Airworthiness Standards: Aircraft Engines; Technical.... SUMMARY: This amendment clarifies aircraft engine vibration test requirements in the airworthiness... 33--AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: AIRCRAFT ENGINES 0 1. The authority citation for part 33 continues...

  18. 48 CFR 1852.211-70 - Packaging, handling, and transportation. (United States)


    ... transportation. 1852.211-70 Section 1852.211-70 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND... and Clauses 1852.211-70 Packaging, handling, and transportation. As prescribed in 1811.404-70, insert the following clause: Packaging, Handling, and Transportation (SEPT 2005) (a) The Contractor...

  19. 8 CFR 207.5 - Waiting lists and priority handling. (United States)


    ... REFUGEES § 207.5 Waiting lists and priority handling. Waiting lists are maintained for each designated refugee group of special humanitarian concern. Each applicant whose application is accepted for filing by... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Waiting lists and priority handling....

  20. 14 CFR 420.65 - Handling of solid propellants. (United States)


    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Handling of solid propellants. 420.65....65 Handling of solid propellants. (a) A launch site operator shall determine the maximum total quantity of solid propellants and other solid explosives by class and division, in accordance with 49...


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. D. Bigbee


    The Waste Handling Building Fire Protection System provides the capability to detect, control, and extinguish fires and/or mitigate explosions throughout the Waste Handling Building (WHB). Fire protection includes appropriate water-based and non-water-based suppression, as appropriate, and includes the distribution and delivery systems for the fire suppression agents. The Waste Handling Building Fire Protection System includes fire or explosion detection panel(s) controlling various detectors, system actuation, annunciators, equipment controls, and signal outputs. The system interfaces with the Waste Handling Building System for mounting of fire protection equipment and components, location of fire suppression equipment, suppression agent runoff, and locating fire rated barriers. The system interfaces with the Waste Handling Building System for adequate drainage and removal capabilities of liquid runoff resulting from fire protection discharges. The system interfaces with the Waste Handling Building Electrical Distribution System for power to operate, and with the Site Fire Protection System for fire protection water supply to automatic sprinklers, standpipes, and hose stations. The system interfaces with the Site Fire Protection System for fire signal transmission outside the WHB as needed to respond to a fire emergency, and with the Waste Handling Building Ventilation System to detect smoke and fire in specific areas, to protect building high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters, and to control portions of the Waste Handling Building Ventilation System for smoke management and manual override capability. The system interfaces with the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) Operations Monitoring and Control System for annunciation, and condition status.

  2. Development of a gripper for handling and assembly of microscrews

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gegeckaite, Asta; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Eriksson, Torbjörn


    This paper presents the development and design of a gripping tool, able to perform both handling and assembly of microscrews. The gripping tool presented here is a vacuum based gripper interacted with an automatic screwdriver. This construction is used in the handling and assembly of microscrews....

  3. A Review of Missing Data Handling Methods in Education Research (United States)

    Cheema, Jehanzeb R.


    Missing data are a common occurrence in survey-based research studies in education, and the way missing values are handled can significantly affect the results of analyses based on such data. Despite known problems with performance of some missing data handling methods, such as mean imputation, many researchers in education continue to use those…

  4. New Ergonomic Design Criteria for Handles of Laparoscopic Dissection Forceps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Veelen, M.A.; Meijer, D.W.; Goossens, R.H.M.; Snijders, C.J.


    Background: The shape of laparoscopic instrument handles can cause physical discomfort. This problem may be ascribed to a lack of standards for instrument design. In this study, new ergonomic requirements for the design of laparoscopic dissection forceps were created. Three representative handles (a

  5. 7 CFR 97.18 - Applications handled in confidence. (United States)


    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Applications handled in confidence. 97.18 Section 97.18 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING... confidence. (a) Pending applications shall be handled in confidence. Except as provided below, no...

  6. Optimal event handling by multiple unmanned aerial vehicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roo, de Martijn; Frasca, Paolo; Carloni, Raffaella


    This paper proposes a control architecture for a fleet of unmanned aerial vehicles that is responsible for handling the events that take place in a given area. The architecture guarantees that each event is handled by the required number of vehicles in the shortest time, while the rest of the fleet

  7. Priming of Reach and Grasp Actions by Handled Objects (United States)

    Masson, Michael E. J.; Bub, Daniel N.; Breuer, Andreas T.


    Pictures of handled objects such as a beer mug or frying pan are shown to prime speeded reach and grasp actions that are compatible with the object. To determine whether the evocation of motor affordances implied by this result is driven merely by the physical orientation of the object's handle as opposed to higher-level properties of the object,…

  8. 45 CFR 650.19 - Electronic invention handling. (United States)


    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Electronic invention handling. 650.19 Section 650... PATENTS § 650.19 Electronic invention handling. (a) Grantees must use the iEdison Invention Information Management System maintained by the National Institutes of Health to disclose NSF subject...

  9. 24 CFR 3282.256 - Distributor or dealer complaint handling. (United States)


    ... handling. 3282.256 Section 3282.256 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban... HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT MANUFACTURED HOME PROCEDURAL AND ENFORCEMENT REGULATIONS Dealer and Distributor Responsibilities § 3282.256 Distributor or dealer complaint handling. (a) When a distributor...

  10. 9 CFR 2.131 - Handling of animals. (United States)


    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Handling of animals. 2.131 Section 2.131 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE REGULATIONS Miscellaneous § 2.131 Handling of animals. (a) All licensees who maintain...

  11. How do new product development startups handle missing expertise?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eris, O.; van den Eijnden, W.; Roling, M.


    This paper presents a framework for how new product development focused startup firms (NPDSF) handle missing expertise. The dimensions of the framework are: strategies for handling missing expertise, channels used to acquire missing expertise, and a priori awareness, timing and nature of missing exp

  12. Incorporating Handling Qualities Analysis into Rotorcraft Conceptual Design (United States)

    Lawrence, Ben


    This paper describes the initial development of a framework to incorporate handling qualities analyses into a rotorcraft conceptual design process. In particular, the paper describes how rotorcraft conceptual design level data can be used to generate flight dynamics models for handling qualities analyses. Also, methods are described that couple a basic stability augmentation system to the rotorcraft flight dynamics model to extend analysis to beyond that of the bare airframe. A methodology for calculating the handling qualities characteristics of the flight dynamics models and for comparing the results to ADS-33E criteria is described. Preliminary results from the application of the handling qualities analysis for variations in key rotorcraft design parameters of main rotor radius, blade chord, hub stiffness and flap moment of inertia are shown. Varying relationships, with counteracting trends for different handling qualities criteria and different flight speeds are exhibited, with the action of the control system playing a complex part in the outcomes. Overall, the paper demonstrates how a broad array of technical issues across flight dynamics stability and control, simulation and modeling, control law design and handling qualities testing and evaluation had to be confronted to implement even a moderately comprehensive handling qualities analysis of relatively low fidelity models. A key outstanding issue is to how to 'close the loop' with an overall design process, and options for the exploration of how to feedback handling qualities results to a conceptual design process are proposed for future work.

  13. Design of liquid container handles in accordance with user preferences. (United States)

    Jung, H S; Jung, H-S


    In this study, a prototype liquid container combined with auxiliary handles was designed to increase the safety of manual handling and to protect users of these containers from hand contamination. A Likert summated rating method as well as a pairwise ranking test was applied to evaluate the user preferences for handles provided for the container under the conditions of different shapes and positions. The results show that the participants preferred perpendicular orientation of the handle on the top of the liquid container while carrying the containers and the crosswise position of the handle at the side of the container while pouring the liquid. In order to satisfy both conditions, the container needs to be designed with handles in perpendicular as well as crosswise positions for selective application. A prototype liquid container with provided auxiliary handles was developed based on the results of the evaluation. It is recommended that a liquid container provides extra handles to reduce musculoskeletal stress and in turn increase user satisfaction.

  14. 46 CFR 151.25-2 - Cargo handling space. (United States)


    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo handling space. 151.25-2 Section 151.25-2 Shipping... BULK LIQUID HAZARDOUS MATERIAL CARGOES Environmental Control § 151.25-2 Cargo handling space. Pump rooms, compressor rooms, refrigeration rooms, heating rooms, instrument rooms or other closed...

  15. Relationships between the renal handling of DMPS and DMSA and the renal handling of mercury. (United States)

    Zalups, Rudolfs K; Bridges, Christy C


    Within the body of this review, we provide updates on the mechanisms involved in the renal handling mercury (Hg) and the vicinal dithiol complexing/chelating agents, 2,3-bis(sulfanyl)propane-1-sulfonate (known formerly as 2,3-dimercaptopropane-1-sulfonate, DMPS) and meso-2,3-bis(sulfanyl)succinate (known formerly as meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinate, DMSA), with a focus on the therapeutic effects of these dithiols following exposure to different chemical forms of Hg. We begin by reviewing briefly some of the chemical properties of Hg, with an emphasis on the high bonding affinity between mercuric ions and reduced sulfur atoms, principally those contained in protein and nonprotein thiols. A discussion is provided on the current body of knowledge pertaining to the handling of various mercuric species within the kidneys, focusing on the primary cellular targets that take up and are affected adversely by these species of Hg, namely, proximal tubular epithelial cells. Subsequently, we provide a brief update on the current knowledge on the handling of DMPS and DMSA in the kidneys. In particular, parallels are drawn between the mechanisms participating in the uptake of various thiol S-conjugates of Hg in proximal tubular cells and mechanisms by which DMPS and DMSA gain entry into these target epithelial cells. Finally, we discuss factors that permit DMPS and DMSA to bind intracellular mercuric ions and mechanisms transporting DMPS and DMSA S-conjugates of Hg out of proximal tubular epithelial cells into the luminal compartment of the nephron, and promoting urinary excretion.

  16. Aircraft type influence on contrail properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Jeßberger


    Full Text Available The investigation of the impact of aircraft parameters on contrail properties helps to better understand the climate impact from aviation. Yet, in observations, it is a challenge to separate aircraft and meteorological influences on contrail formation. During the CONCERT campaign in November 2008, contrails from 3 Airbus passenger aircraft of type A319-111, A340-311 and A380-841 were probed at cruise under similar meteorological conditions with in-situ instruments on board the DLR research aircraft Falcon. Within the 2 min old contrails detected near ice saturation, we find similar effective diameters Deff (5.2–5.9 μm, but differences in particle number densities nice (162–235 cm−3 and in vertical contrail extensions (120–290 m, resulting in large differences in contrail optical depths τ (0.25–0.94. Hence larger aircraft produce optically thicker contrails. Based on the observations, we apply the EULAG-LCM model with explicit ice microphysics and in addition the Contrail and Cirrus Prediction model CoCiP to calculate the aircraft type impact on young contrails under identical meteorological conditions. The observed increase in τ for heavier aircraft is confirmed by the models, yet for generally smaller τ. An aircraft dependence of climate relevant contrail properties persists during contrail lifetime, adding importance to aircraft dependent model initialization. We finally derive an analytical relationship between contrail, aircraft and meteorological parameters. Near ice saturation, contrail width × τ scales linearly with fuel flow rate as confirmed by observations. For higher saturation ratios approximations from theory suggest a non-linear increase in the form (RHI–12/3. Summarized our combined results could help to more accurately assess the climate impact from aviation using an aircraft dependent contrail parameterization.

  17. Ergonomic redesign and evaluation of a clamping tool handle. (United States)

    Jung, Myung-Chul; Hallbeck, M Susan


    The handle of a commercial bar clamp was redesigned using ergonomic principles and then compared with an original clamp. Ten male and ten female students participated in simulated clamping tasks under various conditions, including different clamping heights, clamping methods, and handle-gripping methods, with respect to the dependent variables of clamping and handle-squeezing forces. The results showed that the redesigned clamp produced larger clamping force with lower handle-squeezing forces than the original clamp. As expected, males exerted more force than females in both clamping and squeezing forces. A pistol grip method was superior to an upside-down handle-gripping method. Two-handed operation was recommended for this type of clamp by simultaneously pulling the trigger and sliding the bar in order to initially tighten around objects. This study shows that the application of ergonomic guidelines increases the efficiency and usability of manual handtools.

  18. Segment handling system prototype progress for Thirty Meter Telescope (United States)

    Sofuku, Satoru; Ezaki, Yutaka; Kawaguchi, Noboru; Nakaoji, Toshitaka; Takaki, Junji; Horiuchi, Yasushi; Saruta, Yusuke; Haruna, Masaki; Kim, Ieyoung; Fukushima, Kazuhiko; Domae, Yukiyasu; Hatta, Toshiyuki; Yoshitake, Shinya; Hoshino, Hayato


    Segment Handling System (SHS) is the subsystem that is planned to be permanently implemented on Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT) telescope structure that enables fast, efficient, semi-automatic exchange of M1 segments. TMT plans challenging segment exchange (10 segments per 10 hours a day). To achieve these, MELCO develops innovative SHS by accommodating Factory Automation (FA) technology such as force control system and machine vision system into the system. Force control system used for install operation, achieves soft handling by detecting force exerted to mirror segment and automatically compensating the position error between handling segments and primary mirror. Machine vision system used for removal operation, achieves semi-automatic positioning between SHS and mirror segments to be handled. Prototype experience proves soft (extraneous force 300N) and fast ( 3 minutes) segment handling. The SHS will provide upcoming segmented large telescopes for cost-efficient, effortless, and safe segment exchange operation.

  19. Stores Interface Data Handling Analysis - Phase 2. Volume 2. Appendixes (United States)


    DM-0U6 DM-OU? DM-0U8 DM-OU9 DM-050 DM-O5I DM-O52 DM-053 DM-05U DM~055 DM-O56 (Ai+02- E252 ) - Aircraft bomb rack release logic is not...NO. E252 DEFIN] ’!■.■; Specifies the type of aircraft bomb rack function that is compatible with the equipment circuit. lARACTERISTIC BLOCK

  20. Regulating nanomedicine - can the FDA handle it? (United States)

    Bawa, Raj


    nanomedicine research and development (R&D) and erode public acceptance of nanoproducts. The end-result of this could be a delay or loss of commercialized nanoproducts. Whether the FDA eventually creates new regulations, tweaks existing ones or establishes a new regulatory center to handle nanoproducts, for the time being it should at least look at nanoproducts on a case-by-case basis. The FDA should not attempt regulation of nanomedicine by applying existing statutes alone, especially where scientific evidence suggests otherwise. Incorporating nanomedicine regulation into the current regulatory scheme is a poor idea. Regulation of nanomedicine must balance innovation and R&D with the principle of ensuring maximum public health protection and safety.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C.E. Sanders


    The purpose of this design calculation is to perform a criticality evaluation of the Fuel Handling Facility (FHF) and the operations and processes performed therein. The current intent of the FHF is to receive transportation casks whose contents will be unloaded and transferred to waste packages (WP) or MGR Specific Casks (MSC) in the fuel transfer bays. Further, the WPs will also be prepared in the FHF for transfer to the sub-surface facility (for disposal). The MSCs will be transferred to the Aging Facility for storage. The criticality evaluation of the FHF features the following: (I) Consider the types of waste to be received in the FHF as specified below: (1) Uncanistered commercial spent nuclear fuel (CSNF); (2) Canistered CSNF (with the exception of horizontal dual-purpose canister (DPC) and/or multi-purpose canisters (MPCs)); (3) Navy canistered SNF (long and short); (4) Department of Energy (DOE) canistered high-level waste (HLW); and (5) DOE canistered SNF (with the exception of MCOs). (II) Evaluate the criticality analyses previously performed for the existing Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC)-certified transportation casks (under 10 CFR 71) to be received in the FHF to ensure that these analyses address all FHF conditions including normal operations, and Category 1 and 2 event sequences. (III) Evaluate FHF criticality conditions resulting from various Category 1 and 2 event sequences. Note that there are currently no Category 1 and 2 event sequences identified for FHF. Consequently, potential hazards from a criticality point of view will be considered as identified in the ''Internal Hazards Analysis for License Application'' document (BSC 2004c, Section 6.6.4). (IV) Assess effects of potential moderator intrusion into the fuel transfer bay for defense in depth. The SNF/HLW waste transfer activity (i.e., assembly and canister transfer) that is being carried out in the FHF has been classified as safety category in the &apos

  2. Remote-Handled Transuranic Content Codes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washington TRU Solutions


    The Remote-Handled Transuranic (RH-TRU) Content Codes (RH-TRUCON) document representsthe development of a uniform content code system for RH-TRU waste to be transported in the 72-Bcask. It will be used to convert existing waste form numbers, content codes, and site-specificidentification codes into a system that is uniform across the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sites.The existing waste codes at the sites can be grouped under uniform content codes without any lossof waste characterization information. The RH-TRUCON document provides an all-encompassing|description for each content code and compiles this information for all DOE sites. Compliance withwaste generation, processing, and certification procedures at the sites (outlined in this document foreach content code) ensures that prohibited waste forms are not present in the waste. The contentcode gives an overall description of the RH-TRU waste material in terms of processes and|packaging, as well as the generation location. This helps to provide cradle-to-grave traceability ofthe waste material so that the various actions required to assess its qualification as payload for the72-B cask can be performed. The content codes also impose restrictions and requirements on themanner in which a payload can be assembled.The RH-TRU Waste Authorized Methods for Payload Control (RH-TRAMPAC), Appendix 1.3.7of the 72-B Cask Safety Analysis Report (SAR), describes the current governing procedures|applicable for the qualification of waste as payload for the 72-B cask. The logic for this|classification is presented in the 72-B Cask SAR. Together, these documents (RH-TRUCON,|RH-TRAMPAC, and relevant sections of the 72-B Cask SAR) present the foundation and|justification for classifying RH-TRU waste into content codes. Only content codes described in thisdocument can be considered for transport in the 72-B cask. Revisions to this document will be madeas additional waste qualifies for transport. |Each content code uniquely

  3. A Turbo-Brayton Cryocooler for Aircraft Superconducting Systems Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Hybrid turboelectric aircraft with gas turbines driving electric generators connected to electric propulsion motors have the potential to transform the aircraft...

  4. An Instrument to Measure Aircraft Sulfate Particle Emissions Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Aircraft particle emissions contribute a modest, but growing, portion of the overall particle emissions budget. Characterizing aircraft particle emissions is...

  5. 14 CFR 91.209 - Aircraft lights. (United States)


    ...; or (iii) is in an area that is marked by obstruction lights; (3) Anchor an aircraft unless the aircraft— (i) Has lighted anchor lights; or (ii) Is in an area where anchor lights are not required on vessels; or (b) Operate an aircraft that is equipped with an anticollision light system, unless it...

  6. The longitudinal static stability of tailless aircraft


    de Castro, Helena V.


    This paper describes the development of a simple theory of the longitudinal controls fixed static stability of tailless aeroplanes. The classical theory, as developed for the conventional aircraft, is modified to accommodate the particular features of the tailless aeroplanes. The theory was then applied to a particular blended-wing-body tailless civil transport aircraft, BWB-98. Cranfield University

  7. Trajectory Control for Very Flexible Aircraft (United States)


    total airspeed and the classic aircraft longitudinal , lateral, and vertical velocity components are u positive out the nose, v positive out the right...wing flexibility is a secondary and minimal contribution to aircraft longitudinal motion. Using this assumption and the previous assumptions of

  8. A Wind Tunnel Captive Aircraft Testing Technique (United States)


    Flight/Wind Tunnel Correlation of Aircraft Longitudinal Motion ....................................... 14 10. Fright/Wind Tunnel Correlation of...I 2 3 4 5 6 T IME, s e c Figure 9. Flight/wind tunnel correla- tion of aircraft longitudinal motion. ’ D A n ~ v i i i | ~ 0 0 - 4 0

  9. Maintenance of air worthiness of aircrafts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    В. А. Горячев


    Full Text Available Described are modem conditions of operation of Russian civil aviation, state of aircraft stock, the main principles of maintaining air worthiness of airplanes and helicopters. Considered is a stage by stage prolongation of the service life of each specimen of aircraft with certification being obligatory

  10. Intraocular lens in a fighter aircraft pilot.


    Loewenstein, A; Geyer, O; Biger, Y; Bracha, R; Shochat, I; Lazar, M.


    A pseudophakic pilot of the Israeli air force flying an F-15 (Eagle) aircraft was followed up for three years. He experienced about 100 flying hours, 5% of the time under high g stress. The intraocular lens did not dislocate and no complications were observed. It seems that flying high performance fighter aircraft is not contraindicated in pseudophakic pilots.

  11. Noise Control in Propeller-Driven Aircraft (United States)

    Rennison, D. C.; Wilby, J. F.


    Analytical model predicts noise levels inside propeller-driven aircraft during cruise at mach 0.8. Double wall sidewalls minimize interior noise and weight. Model applied to three aircraft with fuselages of different size (wide-body, narrow-body, and small-diameter) to determine noise reductions required to achieve A-weighted sound level not to exceed 80 dB.

  12. Study on Impedance Characteristics of Aircraft Cables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weilin Li


    Full Text Available Voltage decrease and power loss in distribution lines of aircraft electric power system are harmful to the normal operation of electrical equipment and may even threaten the safety of aircraft. This study investigates how the gap distance (the distance between aircraft cables and aircraft skin and voltage frequency (variable frequency power supply will be adopted for next generation aircraft will affect the impedance of aircraft cables. To be more precise, the forming mechanism of cable resistance and inductance is illustrated in detail and their changing trends with frequency and gap distance are analyzed with the help of electromagnetic theoretical analysis. An aircraft cable simulation model is built with Maxwell 2D and the simulation results are consistent with the conclusions drawn from the theoretical analysis. The changing trends of the four core parameters of interest are analyzed: resistance, inductance, reactance, and impedance. The research results can be used as reference for the applications in Variable Speed Variable Frequency (VSVF aircraft electric power system.

  13. Lift augmentation for highly swept wing aircraft (United States)

    Rao, Dhanvada M. (Inventor)


    A pair of spaced slots, disposed on each side of an aircraft centerline and spaced well inboard of the wing leading edges, are provided in the wing upper surfaces and directed tangentially spanwise toward thin sharp leading wing edges of a highly swept, delta wing aircraft. The slots are individually connected through separate plenum chambers to separate compressed air tanks and serve, collectively, as a system for providing aircraft lift augmentation. A compressed air supply is tapped from the aircraft turbojet power plant. Suitable valves, under the control of the aircraft pilot, serve to selective provide jet blowing from the individual slots to provide spanwise sheets of jet air closely adjacent to the upper surfaces and across the aircraft wing span to thereby create artificial vortices whose suction generate additional lift on the aircraft. When desired, or found necessary, unequal or one-side wing blowing is employed to generate rolling moments for augmented lateral control. Trailing flaps are provided that may be deflected differentially, individually, or in unison, as needed for assistance in take-off or landing of the aircraft.

  14. 14 CFR 121.538 - Aircraft security. (United States)


    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Aircraft security. 121.538 Section 121.538..., FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Flight Operations § 121.538 Aircraft security. Certificate holders conducting operations under this part must comply with the applicable security requirements in 49 CFR...

  15. 14 CFR 135.125 - Aircraft security. (United States)


    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Aircraft security. 135.125 Section 135.125....125 Aircraft security. Certificate holders conducting operators conducting operations under this part must comply with the applicable security requirements in 49 CFR chapter XII....

  16. Cycle Counting Methods of the Aircraft Engine (United States)

    Fedorchenko, Dmitrii G.; Novikov, Dmitrii K.


    The concept of condition-based gas turbine-powered aircraft operation is realized all over the world, which implementation requires knowledge of the end-of-life information related to components of aircraft engines in service. This research proposes an algorithm for estimating the equivalent cyclical running hours. This article provides analysis…

  17. 19 CFR 122.42 - Aircraft entry. (United States)


    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Aircraft entry. 122.42 Section 122.42 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Aircraft Entry and Entry Documents; Electronic Manifest Requirements...

  18. Unmanned aircraft systems as wingmen (United States)

    Garcia, Richard; Barnes, Laura; Fields, MaryAnne


    This paper introduces a concept towards integrating manned and Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UASs) into a highly functional team though the design and implementation of 3-D distributed formation/flight control algorithms with the goal to act as wingmen for a manned aircraft. This method is designed to minimize user input for team control, dynamically modify formations as required, utilize standard operating formations to reduce pilot resistance to integration, and support splinter groups for surveillance and/or as safeguards between potential threats and manned vehicles. The proposed work coordinates UAS members by utilizing artificial potential functions whose values are based on the state of the unmanned and manned assets including the desired formation, obstacles, task assignments, and perceived intentions. The overall unmanned team geometry is controlled using weighted potential fields. Individual UAS utilize fuzzy logic controllers for stability and navigation as well as a fuzzy reasoning engine for flight path intention prediction. Approaches are demonstrated in simulation using the commercial simulator X-Plane and controllers designed in Matlab/Simulink. Experiments include trail and right echelon formations as well as splinter group surveillance.

  19. Multispectral imaging of aircraft exhaust (United States)

    Berkson, Emily E.; Messinger, David W.


    Aircraft pollutants emitted during the landing-takeoff (LTO) cycle have significant effects on the local air quality surrounding airports. There are currently no inexpensive, portable, and unobtrusive sensors to quantify the amount of pollutants emitted from aircraft engines throughout the LTO cycle or to monitor the spatial-temporal extent of the exhaust plume. We seek to thoroughly characterize the unburned hydrocarbon (UHC) emissions from jet engine plumes and to design a portable imaging system to remotely quantify the emitted UHCs and temporally track the distribution of the plume. This paper shows results from the radiometric modeling of a jet engine exhaust plume and describes a prototype long-wave infrared imaging system capable of meeting the above requirements. The plume was modeled with vegetation and sky backgrounds, and filters were selected to maximize the detectivity of the plume. Initial calculations yield a look-up chart, which relates the minimum amount of emitted UHCs required to detect the presence of a plume to the noise-equivalent radiance of a system. Future work will aim to deploy the prototype imaging system at the Greater Rochester International Airport to assess the applicability of the system on a national scale. This project will help monitor the local pollution surrounding airports and allow better-informed decision-making regarding emission caps and pollution bylaws.

  20. Subsonic Ultra Green Aircraft Research (United States)

    Bradley, Marty K.; Droney, Christopher K.


    This Final Report summarizes the work accomplished by the Boeing Subsonic Ultra Green Aircraft Research (SUGAR) team in Phase 1, which includes the time period of October 2008 through March 2010. The team consisted of Boeing Research and Technology, Boeing Commercial Airplanes, General Electric, and Georgia Tech. The team completed the development of a comprehensive future scenario for world-wide commercial aviation, selected baseline and advanced configurations for detailed study, generated technology suites for each configuration, conducted detailed performance analysis, calculated noise and emissions, assessed technology risks, and developed technology roadmaps. Five concepts were evaluated in detail: 2008 baseline, N+3 reference, N+3 high span strut braced wing, N+3 gas turbine battery electric concept, and N+3 hybrid wing body. A wide portfolio of technologies was identified to address the NASA N+3 goals. Significant improvements in air traffic management, aerodynamics, materials and structures, aircraft systems, propulsion, and acoustics are needed. Recommendations for Phase 2 concept and technology projects have been identified.

  1. Command and Data Handling Branch Internship (United States)

    Billings, Rachel Mae


    Modular Integrated Stackable Layers (MISL) is a computer system designed for simple, fast, and cost effective flexible reconfiguration in space environments such as the ISS and Orion projects for various uses. Existing applications include wireless and wired communications, data acquisition and instrumentation, and camera systems, and potential applications include bus protocol converters and subsystem control. MISL is based on Texas Instruments (TI)' MSP430 16-bit ultra-low-power microcontroller device. The purpose of my project was to integrate the MISL system with a liquid crystal display (LCD) touchscreen. The LCD, manufactured by Crystalfontz and part number CFAF320240F-035T-TS, is a 320 by 240 RGB resistive color screen including an optional carrier board. The vast majority of the project was done with Altium Designer, a tool for printed circuit board (PCB) schematic capture, 3D design, and FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Array) development. The new PCB was to allow the LCD to directly stack to the rest of MISL. Research was done with datasheets for the TI microcontroller and touchscreen display in order to meet desired hardware specifications. Documentation on prior MISL projects was also utilized. The initial step was to create a schematic for the LCD, power bus, and data bus connections between components. A layout was then designed with the required physical dimensions, routed traces and vias, power and ground planes, layer stacks, and other specified design rules such as plane clearance and hole size. Multiple consultation sessions were held with Hester Yim, the technical discipline lead for the Command and Data Handling Branch, and Christy Herring, the lead PCB layout designer in the Electronic Design and Manufacturing Branch in order to ensure proper configuration. At the moment, the PCB is awaiting revision by the latter-mentioned branch. Afterwards, the board will begin to undergo the manufacturing and testing process. Throughout the internship at

  2. Flux Sampling Errors for Aircraft and Towers (United States)

    Mahrt, Larry


    Various errors and influences leading to differences between tower- and aircraft-measured fluxes are surveyed. This survey is motivated by reports in the literature that aircraft fluxes are sometimes smaller than tower-measured fluxes. Both tower and aircraft flux errors are larger with surface heterogeneity due to several independent effects. Surface heterogeneity may cause tower flux errors to increase with decreasing wind speed. Techniques to assess flux sampling error are reviewed. Such error estimates suffer various degrees of inapplicability in real geophysical time series due to nonstationarity of tower time series (or inhomogeneity of aircraft data). A new measure for nonstationarity is developed that eliminates assumptions on the form of the nonstationarity inherent in previous methods. When this nonstationarity measure becomes large, the surface energy imbalance increases sharply. Finally, strategies for obtaining adequate flux sampling using repeated aircraft passes and grid patterns are outlined.

  3. Scorpion: Close Air Support (CAS) aircraft (United States)

    Allen, Chris; Cheng, Rendy; Koehler, Grant; Lyon, Sean; Paguio, Cecilia


    The objective is to outline the results of the preliminary design of the Scorpion, a proposed close air support aircraft. The results obtained include complete preliminary analysis of the aircraft in the areas of aerodynamics, structures, avionics and electronics, stability and control, weight and balance, propulsion systems, and costs. A conventional wing, twin jet, twin-tail aircraft was chosen to maximize the desirable characteristics. The Scorpion will feature low speed maneuverability, high survivability, low cost, and low maintenance. The life cycle cost per aircraft will be 17.5 million dollars. The maximum takeoff weight will be 52,760 pounds. Wing loading will be 90 psf. The thrust to weight will be 0.6 lbs/lb. This aircraft meets the specified mission requirements. Some modifications have been suggested to further optimize the design.

  4. 76 FR 6525 - Airworthiness Directives; Cessna Aircraft Company (Type Certificate Previously Held by Columbia... (United States)


    ... Company (Type Certificate Previously Held by Columbia Aircraft Manufacturing (Previously the Lancair... Aircraft Company (Type Certificate Previously Held by Columbia Aircraft Manufacturing (Previously The... Aircraft Company (type certificate previously held by Columbia Aircraft Manufacturing (previously...

  5. Development of Safe Food Handling Guidelines for Korean Consumers. (United States)

    Kang, Hee-Jin; Lee, Min-Woo; Hwang, In-Kyeong; Kim, Jeong-Weon


    The purpose of this study was to develop guidelines for Korean consumers with regard to safe food handling practices at home by identifying current food handling issues. Korean consumers' behaviors regarding their safe food handling were identified via survey questionnaires that included items on individual hygiene practices, prepreparation steps when cooking, the cooking process, and the storage of leftover foods. The subjects were 417 Korean parents with elementary school children living in Seoul and Gyeonggi Province in the central area of Korea. The survey results revealed gaps between the knowledge or practices of Korean consumers and scientific evidence pertaining to safe food handling practices. Based on these findings, a leaflet on safe food handling guidelines was developed in accordance with Korean food culture. These guidelines suggest personal hygiene practices as well as fundamental principles and procedures for safe food handling from the stage of food purchase to that of keeping leftover dishes. A pilot application study with 50 consumers revealed that the guidelines effectively improved Korean consumers' safe food handling practices, suggesting that they can serve as practical educational material suitable for Korean consumers.

  6. Eco Issues in Bulk Materials Handling Technologies in Ports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nenad Zrnić


    Full Text Available This paper deals with eco issues in bulk materials handling in ports. Solid, free-flowing materials are said to be in bulk. Bulk materials handling is very difficult, because it incorporates all the features of liquids, gasses and mass solids. Energy efficiency, dust emissions in nearby environment, dust explosions, jamming, noise, handling of hazardous materials and protection of materials from contamination are issues that will be considered in this paper. Here are also presented possible solutions for some of these issues

  7. Ergonomic T-Handle for Minimally Invasive Surgical Instruments. (United States)

    Parekh, J; Shepherd, Det; Hukins, Dwl; Maffulli, N


    A T-handle has been designed to be used for minimally invasive implantation of a dynamic hip screw to repair fractures of the proximal femur. It is capable of being used in two actions: (i) push and hold (while using an angle guide) and (ii) application of torque when using the insertion wrench and lag screw tap. The T-handle can be held in a power or precision grip. It is suitable for either single (sterilised by γ-irradiation) or multiple (sterilised by autoclaving) use. The principles developed here are applicable to handles for a wide range of surgical instruments.

  8. Discharging Part of LNG Liquid Cargo Handling Simulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen-Zhou Yang


    Full Text Available With the development of the national economy, it is important to develop LNG (Liquefied Natural Gas liquid cargo handling simulator. In this paper, the discharging part of Liquid Cargo Handling Simulator of LNG Carriers is developed by Visual Basic. The system includes 5 major forms and 3 mathematical models such as cargo pump model, the pressure and temperature model of the LNG vapour in the cargo tank and the liquid level model. The system can complete the unloading task. The system has become a preliminary model of LNG liquid cargo handlings simulator training.

  9. Rational Handling of Multiple Goals for Mobile Robots (United States)


    AD.-A273 733 V * ~ 1. K ~Rational Handling of Multiple Goals for Mobile Robots Richard Goodwin Reid Simmons November 1, 1993. CM-S-93-204 ... I.f it...8217A ~~DEC99 oilsi VI-uI Best Available Copy Radonal Handling of Multiple Goals for Mobile Robots Richard Goodwin Reid Sinnos November 1, 1993 CMU-€S-93...Engineering Research Council of Canada. 93 12 8, 081 1 Introduction This report examines a method for handling multiple active goals for mobile robots . Specifically

  10. Turboprop aircraft against terrorism: a SWOT analysis of turboprop aircraft in CAS operations (United States)

    Yavuz, Murat; Akkas, Ali; Aslan, Yavuz


    Today, the threat perception is changing. Not only for countries but also for defence organisations like NATO, new threat perception is pointing terrorism. Many countries' air forces become responsible of fighting against terorism or Counter-Insurgency (COIN) Operations. Different from conventional warfare, alternative weapon or weapon systems are required for such operatioins. In counter-terrorism operations modern fighter jets are used as well as helicopters, subsonic jets, Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS), turboprop aircraft, baloons and similar platforms. Succes and efficiency of the use of these platforms can be determined by evaluating the conditions, the threats and the area together. Obviously, each platform has advantages and disadvantages for different cases. In this research, examples of turboprop aircraft usage against terrorism and with a more general approach, turboprop aircraft for Close Air Support (CAS) missions from all around the world are reviewed. In this effort, a closer look is taken at the countries using turboprop aircraft in CAS missions while observing the fields these aircraft are used in, type of operations, specifications of the aircraft, cost and the maintenance factors. Thus, an idea about the convenience of using these aircraft in such operations can be obtained. A SWOT analysis of turboprop aircraft in CAS operations is performed. This study shows that turboprop aircraft are suitable to be used in counter-terrorism and COIN operations in low threat environment and is cost benefical compared to jets.

  11. Propeller aircraft interior noise model (United States)

    Pope, L. D.; Wilby, E. G.; Wilby, J. F.


    An analytical model was developed to predict the interior noise of propeller-driven aircraft. The fuselage model is that of a cylinder with a structurally-integral floor. The cabin sidewall is stiffened by stringers and ring frames, and the floor by longitudinal beams. The cabin interior is covered with a sidewall treatments consisting of layers of porous material and an impervious trim septum. Representation of the propeller pressure field is utilized as input data in the form of the propeller noise signature at a series of locations on a grid over the fuselage structure. Results obtained from the analytical model are compared with test data measured by NASA in a scale model cylindrical fuselage excited by a model propeller.

  12. Aircraft measurements of wave cloud

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Cui


    Full Text Available In this paper, aircraft measurements are presented of liquid phase (ice-free wave clouds made at temperatures greater than −5 °C that formed over Scotland, UK. The horizontal variations of the vertical velocity across wave clouds display a distinct pattern. The maximum updraughts occur at the upshear flanks of the clouds and the strong downdraughts at the downshear flanks. The cloud droplet concentrations were a couple of hundreds per cubic centimetres, and the drops generally had a mean diameter between 15–45 μm. A small proportion of the drops were drizzle. A new definition of a mountain-wave cloud is given, based on the measurements presented here and previous studies. The results in this paper provide a case for future numerical simulation of wave cloud and the interaction between wave and clouds.


    Bach, R.


    The computer program SMACK (SMoothing for AirCraft Kinematics) is designed to provide flightpath reconstruction of aircraft forces and motions from measurements that are noisy or incomplete. Additionally, SMACK provides a check on instrument accuracy and data consistency. The program can be used to analyze data from flight-test experiments prior to their use in performance, stability and control, or aerodynamic modeling calculations. It can also be used in the analysis of aircraft accidents, where the actual forces and motions may have to be determined from a very limited data set. Application of a state-estimation method for flightpath reconstruction is possible because aircraft forces and motions are related by well-known equations of motion. The task of postflight state estimation is known as a nonlinear, fixed-interval smoothing problem. SMACK utilizes a backward-filter, forward-smoother algorithm to solve the problem. The equations of motion are used to produce estimates that are compared with their corresponding measurement time histories. The procedure is iterative, providing improved state estimates until a minimum squared-error measure is achieved. In the SMACK program, the state and measurement models together represent a finite-difference approximation for the six-degree-of-freedom dynamics of a rigid body. The models are used to generate time histories which are likely to be found in a flight-test measurement set. These include onboard variables such as Euler angles, angular rates, and linear accelerations as well as tracking variables such as slant range, bearing, and elevation. Any bias or scale-factor errors associated with the state or measurement models are appended to the state vector and treated as constant but unknown parameters. The SMACK documentation covers the derivation of the solution algorithm, describes the state and measurement models, and presents several application examples that should help the analyst recognize the potential

  14. Performance Evaluation Method for Dissimilar Aircraft Designs (United States)

    Walker, H. J.


    A rationale is presented for using the square of the wingspan rather than the wing reference area as a basis for nondimensional comparisons of the aerodynamic and performance characteristics of aircraft that differ substantially in planform and loading. Working relationships are developed and illustrated through application to several categories of aircraft covering a range of Mach numbers from 0.60 to 2.00. For each application, direct comparisons of drag polars, lift-to-drag ratios, and maneuverability are shown for both nondimensional systems. The inaccuracies that may arise in the determination of aerodynamic efficiency based on reference area are noted. Span loading is introduced independently in comparing the combined effects of loading and aerodynamic efficiency on overall performance. Performance comparisons are made for the NACA research aircraft, lifting bodies, century-series fighter aircraft, F-111A aircraft with conventional and supercritical wings, and a group of supersonic aircraft including the B-58 and XB-70 bomber aircraft. An idealized configuration is included in each category to serve as a standard for comparing overall efficiency.

  15. Infection Control: The Use and Handling of Toothbrushes (United States)

    ... for Infection Control The Use and Handling of Toothbrushes Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Infection Control ... Recommended Toothbrush Care Toothbrushing in Group Settings Recommended Toothbrush Care Do not share toothbrushes. The exchange of ...

  16. Physical properties of fertilizer in relation to handling and spreading.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofstee, J.W.


    The influence of physical properties of fertilizer on the handling and spreading is studied. The reviewed properties are particle size and particle size distribution, coefficient of friction, coefficient of restitution, particle strength and aerodynamic resistance. Further a measuring procedure base


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noller, D


    Funding for implementing risk handling strategies typically is allocated according to either the risk-averse approach (the worst risk first) or the cost-effective approach (the greatest risk reduction per implementation dollar first). This paper introduces a prime value approach in which risk handling strategies are prioritized according to how nearly they meet the goals of the organization that disburses funds for risk handling. The prime value approach factors in the importance of the project in which the risk has been identified, elements of both risk-averse and cost-effective approaches, and the time period in which the risk could happen. This paper also presents a prioritizer spreadsheet, which employs weighted criteria to calculate a relative rank for the handling strategy of each risk evaluated.

  18. Optimal handle angle of the fencing foil for improved performance. (United States)

    Lin, Fang-Tsan


    Improperly designed hand tools and sports equipment contribute to undesired injuries and accidents. The idea of bending the tool, not the wrist, has been applied to sports equipment. According to Bennett's idea, the design of an ideal handle angle should be in the range of 14 degrees to 24 degrees. Thus design of the handle angle in the sport of fencing is also important. A well-designed handle angle could not only reduce ulnar deviation to avoid wrist injury but also enhance performance. An experiment with several different handle angles was conducted to analyze the effect on performance. Analysis showed an angle of 18 degrees to 21 degrees provided best overall performance in fencing.

  19. Uncertainty Handling in Remote Sensing Data Analysis for Defence


    D. P. Mandal; Murthy, C. A.; Pal, S K


    Describes a way of handling uncertainty in IRS imagery by utilising a multivalued recognition system. Roads and bridges can be detected effectively by using the multiple class choices provided by the multivalued recognition system.

  20. Apparatus for handling micron size range particulate material (United States)

    Friichtenicht, J. F.; Roy, N. L. (Inventor)


    An apparatus for handling, transporting, or size classifying comminuted material was described in detail. Electrostatic acceleration techniques for classifying particles as to size in the particle range from 0.1 to about 100 microns diameter were employed.

  1. The prevention and handling of the missing data


    Kang, Hyun


    Even in a well-designed and controlled study, missing data occurs in almost all research. Missing data can reduce the statistical power of a study and can produce biased estimates, leading to invalid conclusions. This manuscript reviews the problems and types of missing data, along with the techniques for handling missing data. The mechanisms by which missing data occurs are illustrated, and the methods for handling the missing data are discussed. The paper concludes with recommendations for ...

  2. Safe moving and handling of patients: an interprofessional approach. (United States)

    Anderson, Matthew P; Carlisle, Susan; Thomson, Clare; Ross, Catherine; Reid, Helen J; Hart, Nigel D; Clarke, Angela


    A gap in the medical undergraduate curriculum on safe moving and handling of patients was identified, and a project to enhance moving and handling education for undergraduates in various healthcare disciplines was undertaken. A team of nurses, doctors, physiotherapists and e-learning professionals developed a cross-discipline e-learning resource, piloted with medical and nursing students at Queen's University Belfast. One outcome of the project was the development of a deeper recognition of the common curriculum across healthcare disciplines.

  3. Aircraft emission research within ISTC project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dedesh, V.; Leut, A.; Boris, S. [Scientific Research Center at the Gromov Flight, Research Institute (Russian Federation)


    This research is aimed at obtaining experimental data on contamination of the atmosphere by emissions from aircraft engines in cruise flight conditions, to establish and improve models of the physical and chemical processes which take place in the aircraft wake and in the general zone of air traffic corridors. An Su-24 'sounder' aircraft equipped with an air sampling and collection system has been established to obtain the necessary atmospheric samples in flight, and procedures have been developed for performing the research flights. Techniques have also been developed for chemical analysis of the samples. (authors)

  4. Moving towards a more electric aircraft


    Rosero García, Javier Alveiro; Ortega Redondo, Juan Antonio; Aldabas Rubira, Emiliano; Romeral Martínez, José Luis


    Harry Rowe Mimno Award for the March 2007 AESS Magazine Paper: “Moving Towards A More Electric Aircraft” The latest advances in electric and electronic aircraft technologies from the point of view of an "all-electric" aircraft are presented herein. Specifically, we describe the concept of a "more electric aircraft" (MEA), which involves removing the need for on-engine hydraulic power generation and bleed air off-takes, and the increasing use of power electronics in the starter/generation s...

  5. Research related to variable sweep aircraft development (United States)

    Polhamus, E. C.; Toll, T. A.


    Development in high speed, variable sweep aircraft research is reviewed. The 1946 Langley wind tunnel studies related to variable oblique and variable sweep wings and results from the X-5 and the XF1OF variable sweep aircraft are discussed. A joint program with the British, evaluation of the British "Swallow", development of the outboard pivot wing/aft tail configuration concept by Langley, and the applied research program that followed and which provided the technology for the current, variable sweep military aircraft is outlined. The relative state of variable sweep as a design option is also covered.

  6. Multidisciplinary Techniques and Novel Aircraft Control Systems (United States)

    Padula, Sharon L.; Rogers, James L.; Raney, David L.


    The Aircraft Morphing Program at NASA Langley Research Center explores opportunities to improve airframe designs with smart technologies. Two elements of this basic research program are multidisciplinary design optimization (MDO) and advanced flow control. This paper describes examples where MDO techniques such as sensitivity analysis, automatic differentiation, and genetic algorithms contribute to the design of novel control systems. In the test case, the design and use of distributed shape-change devices to provide low-rate maneuvering capability for a tailless aircraft is considered. The ability of MDO to add value to control system development is illustrated using results from several years of research funded by the Aircraft Morphing Program.

  7. Hail damage to typical aircraft surfaces. (United States)

    Hayduk, R. J.


    Severe structural damage can occur when aircraft collide with hailstones. Consequently, methods of predicting hail damage to airplane surfaces are needed by the aircraft designer. This paper describes an analytical method of predicting the dent depth and final deformed shape for simple structural components impacted by hailstones. The solution was accomplished by adapting the DEPROSS computer program to the problem of normal impact of hail on flat metallic sheets and spherical metallic caps. Experimental data and analytical predictions are presented for hail damage to typical aircraft surfaces along with a description of the hail gun and hail simulation technique used in the experimental study.

  8. 14 CFR 91.1109 - Aircraft maintenance: Inspection program. (United States)


    ... currently recommended by the manufacturer of the aircraft, aircraft engines, propellers, appliances, and... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Aircraft maintenance: Inspection program... Ownership Operations Program Management § 91.1109 Aircraft maintenance: Inspection program. Each...

  9. 77 FR 42455 - Airworthiness Directives; Piper Aircraft, Inc. Airplanes (United States)


    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 39 RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Piper Aircraft, Inc... directive (AD) for all Piper Aircraft, Inc. (type certificate previously held by The New Piper Aircraft Inc... receive about this proposed AD. Discussion Three forced landings of Piper Aircraft, Inc. Model...

  10. WIPP Remote Handled Waste Facility: Performance Dry Run Operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burrington, T. P.; Britain, R. M.; Cassingham, S. T.


    The Remote Handled (RH) TRU Waste Handling Facility at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) was recently upgraded and modified in preparation for handling and disposal of RH Transuranic (TRU) waste. This modification will allow processing of RH-TRU waste arriving at the WIPP site in two different types of shielded road casks, the RH-TRU 72B and the CNS 10-160B. Washington TRU Solutions (WTS), the WIPP Management and Operation Contractor (MOC), conducted a performance dry run (PDR), beginning August 19, 2002 and successfully completed it on August 24, 2002. The PDR demonstrated that the RHTRU waste handling system works as designed and demonstrated the handling process for each cask, including underground disposal. The purpose of the PDR was to develop and implement a plan that would define in general terms how the WIPP RH-TRU waste handling process would be conducted and evaluated. The PDR demonstrated WIPP operations and support activities required to dispose of RH-TRU waste in the WIPP underground.

  11. Impact of Advanced Propeller Technology on Aircraft/Mission Characteristics of Several General Aviation Aircraft (United States)

    Keiter, I. D.


    Studies of several General Aviation aircraft indicated that the application of advanced technologies to General Aviation propellers can reduce fuel consumption in future aircraft by a significant amount. Propeller blade weight reductions achieved through the use of composites, propeller efficiency and noise improvements achieved through the use of advanced concepts and improved propeller analytical design methods result in aircraft with lower operating cost, acquisition cost and gross weight.

  12. Innovative Aircraft Design – Options for a New Medium Range Aircraft


    Scholz, Dieter


    Task was to find an innovative aircraft design for a new medium range aircraft. The aircraft design methodology is based on equations (in contrast to numeric methods) and formal optimization with a genetic algorithm called differential evolution. Airbus has postponed an all-new A320 to 2025 or even 2030. This allows including also unconventional configurations into the search. Economic requirements are extreme: 25 % to 40 % reduction in fuel consumption, 35 % reduction in Cash Operating Costs...

  13. ALARMS: Alerting and Reasoning Management System for Next Generation Aircraft Hazards

    CERN Document Server

    Carlin, Alan S; Marecki, Janusz


    The Next Generation Air Transportation System will introduce new, advanced sensor technologies into the cockpit. With the introduction of such systems, the responsibilities of the pilot are expected to dramatically increase. In the ALARMS (ALerting And Reasoning Management System) project for NASA, we focus on a key challenge of this environment, the quick and efficient handling of aircraft sensor alerts. It is infeasible to alert the pilot on the state of all subsystems at all times. Furthermore, there is uncertainty as to the true hazard state despite the evidence of the alerts, and there is uncertainty as to the effect and duration of actions taken to address these alerts. This paper reports on the first steps in the construction of an application designed to handle Next Generation alerts. In ALARMS, we have identified 60 different aircraft subsystems and 20 different underlying hazards. In this paper, we show how a Bayesian network can be used to derive the state of the underlying hazards, based on the se...

  14. A task analysis of pier side ship-handling for virtual environment ship-handling simulator scenario development


    Grassi, Charles R.


    Approved for public release: distribution is unlimited Researchers at the Naval Air Warfare Center Training Systems Divisions (NAWCTSD) in Orlando, FL have developed a testbed for the Conning Officer Virtual Environment (COVE) Ship-handling simulator. The purpose of this task analysis was to provide a workable document that they could use in the development of pier side ship-handling scenarios for their simulator. The task analysis not only identified the general procedures and methodologi...

  15. Conceptual design and optimization methodology for box wing aircraft


    Jemitola, Paul Olugbeji


    A conceptual design optimization methodology was developed for a medium range box wing aircraft. A baseline conventional cantilever wing aircraft designed for the same mis- sion and payload was also optimized alongside a baseline box wing aircraft. An empirical formula for the mass estimation of the fore and aft wings of the box wing aircraft was derived by relating conventional cantilever wings to box wing aircraft wings. The results indicate that the fore and aft wings would ...

  16. Aircraft Noise and Quality of Life around Frankfurt Airport


    Thomas Eikmann; Christin Peschel; Cara Kahl; Dirk Schreckenberg; Markus Meis


    In a survey of 2,312 residents living near Frankfurt Airport aircraft noise annoyance and disturbances as well as environmental (EQoL) and health-related quality of life (HQoL) were assessed and compared with data on exposure due to aircraft, road traffic, and railway noise. Results indicate higher noise annoyance than predicted from general exposure-response curves. Beside aircraft sound levels source-related attitudes were associated with reactions to aircraft noise. Furthermore, aircraft n...

  17. Investigation of aircraft vortex wake structure (United States)

    Baranov, N. A.; Turchak, L. I.


    In this work we analyze the mechanisms of formation of the vortex wake structure of aircraft with different wing shape in the plan flying close to or away from the underlying surface cleaned or released mechanization wing.

  18. Titanium in fatigue critical military aircraft structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gillespie, F.


    This paper discusses the effect of fatigue requirements on titanium structure in military aircraft applications, specifically, fighter aircraft. The discussion covers how fatigue affects the design and analysis of detail parts, and how manufacturing processes affect the fatigue performance of titanium structure. Criteria for designing fighter aircraft have evolved from simple strength calculations to extremely complex computer generated analyses involving strength, durability, damage tolerance and fatigue. Fatigue life prediction is an important part of these analyses and dramatically affects the design and weight of fighter aircraft. Manufacturing processes affect fatigue performance both in a positive and negative manner. Designers must allow for the effect of these processes on titanium structure and consider the efficiency and economy of adding processes that increase fatigue life.

  19. Aircraft Electronics Maintenance Training Simulator. Curriculum Outlines. (United States)

    Blackhawk Technical Coll., Janesville, WI.

    Instructional materials are provided for nine courses in an aircraft electronics maintenance training program. Courses are as follows: aviation basic electricity, direct current and alternating current electronics, basic avionic installations, analog electronics, digital electronics, microcomputer electronics, radio communications, aircraft…

  20. Aircraft Test & Evaluation Facility (Hush House) (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Aircraft Test and Evaluation Facility (ATEF), or Hush House, is a noise-abated ground test sub-facility. The facility's controlled environment provides 24-hour...

  1. Emerging nondestructive inspection methods for aging aircraft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beattie, A; Dahlke, L; Gieske, J [and others


    This report identifies and describes emerging nondestructive inspection (NDI) methods that can potentially be used to inspect commercial transport and commuter aircraft for structural damage. The nine categories of emerging NDI techniques are: acoustic emission, x-ray computed tomography, backscatter radiation, reverse geometry x-ray, advanced electromagnetics, including magnetooptic imaging and advanced eddy current techniques, coherent optics, advanced ultrasonics, advanced visual, and infrared thermography. The physical principles, generalized performance characteristics, and typical applications associated with each method are described. In addition, aircraft inspection applications are discussed along with the associated technical considerations. Finally, the status of each technique is presented, with a discussion on when it may be available for use in actual aircraft maintenance programs. It should be noted that this is a companion document to DOT/FAA/CT-91/5, Current Nondestructive Inspection Methods for Aging Aircraft.

  2. Thermal Management System for Superconducting Aircraft Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Aircraft powered by hydrogen power plants or gas turbines driving electric generators connected to distributed electric motors for propulsion have the potential to...

  3. Aircraft Nodal Data Acquisition System (ANDAS) Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Development of an Aircraft Nodal Data Acquisition System (ANDAS) is proposed. The proposed methodology employs the development of a very thin (135m) hybrid...

  4. Aircraft Nodal Data Acquisition System (ANDAS) Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Development of an Aircraft Nodal Data Acquisition System (ANDAS) based upon the short haul Zigbee networking standard is proposed. It employs a very thin (135 um)...

  5. Design of heavy lift cargo aircraft (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This is the bird of the skies of the future. The heavy lift cargo aircraft which is currently being developed by me has twice the payload capacity of an Antonov...

  6. Modular Electric Propulsion Test Bed Aircraft Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A hybrid electric aircraft simulation system and test bed is proposed to provide a dedicated development environment for the rigorous study and advancement of hybrid...

  7. Aircraft Abnormal Conditions Detection, Identification, and Evaluation Using Innate and Adaptive Immune Systems Interaction (United States)

    Al Azzawi, Dia

    Abnormal flight conditions play a major role in aircraft accidents frequently causing loss of control. To ensure aircraft operation safety in all situations, intelligent system monitoring and adaptation must rely on accurately detecting the presence of abnormal conditions as soon as they take place, identifying their root cause(s), estimating their nature and severity, and predicting their impact on the flight envelope. Due to the complexity and multidimensionality of the aircraft system under abnormal conditions, these requirements are extremely difficult to satisfy using existing analytical and/or statistical approaches. Moreover, current methodologies have addressed only isolated classes of abnormal conditions and a reduced number of aircraft dynamic parameters within a limited region of the flight envelope. This research effort aims at developing an integrated and comprehensive framework for the aircraft abnormal conditions detection, identification, and evaluation based on the artificial immune systems paradigm, which has the capability to address the complexity and multidimensionality issues related to aircraft systems. Within the proposed framework, a novel algorithm was developed for the abnormal conditions detection problem and extended to the abnormal conditions identification and evaluation. The algorithm and its extensions were inspired from the functionality of the biological dendritic cells (an important part of the innate immune system) and their interaction with the different components of the adaptive immune system. Immunity-based methodologies for re-assessing the flight envelope at post-failure and predicting the impact of the abnormal conditions on the performance and handling qualities are also proposed and investigated in this study. The generality of the approach makes it applicable to any system. Data for artificial immune system development were collected from flight tests of a supersonic research aircraft within a motion-based flight

  8. Nondestructive Evaluation of Aircraft and Spacecraft Wiring (United States)

    White, John E.; Tucholski, Edward J.; Green, Robert E., Jr.


    Spacecraft, and especially aircraft, often fry well past their original design lives and, therefore, the need to develop nondestructive evaluation procedures for inspection of vital structures in these craft is extremely important. One of the more recent problems is the degradation of wiring and wiring insulation. The present paper describes several nondestructive characterization methods which afford the possibility to detect wiring and insulation degradation in-situ prior to major problems with the safety of aircraft and spacecraft.

  9. Aircraft Pitch Attitude Control using Backstepping


    Härkegård, Ola; Glad, Torkel


    A nonlinear approach to the automatic pitch attitude control problem for a generic fighter aircraft is presented. A nonlinear model describing the longitudinal equations of motion in strict feedback form is derived. Backstepping is utilized for the construction of a globally stabilizing controller with a number of free design parameters. Two tuning schemes are proposed based on the desired locally linear controller properties. The controller is evaluated using the HIRM fighter aircraft model.

  10. An Optimization Model for Aircraft Service Logistics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Angus; Cheung; W; H; Ip; Angel; Lai; Eva; Cheung


    Scheduling is one of the most difficult issues in t he planning and operations of the aircraft services industry. In this paper, t he various scheduling problems in ground support operation of an aircraft mainte nance service company are addressed. The authors developed a set of vehicle rout ings to cover each schedule flights; the objectives pursued are the maximization of vehicle and manpower utilization and minimization of operation time. To obta in the goals, an integer-programming model with geneti...

  11. The Demand for Single Engine Piston Aircraft, (United States)


    composites more quickly because of the absence of certi- ficatjcr: requirements. Less conventional configurations such as carar( wings and winglets are...smooth contours and surfaces. Composites offer much promise and are already in use in winos of a number of aircraft. Winglets reduce vortex drag by...Vore Aviation Corporation in Albuquerque, NM. It is a high-wing, composite , tricycle-gear aircraft designed primarily for the training and personal

  12. Integrated lift/drag controller for aircraft (United States)

    Olcott, J. W.; Seckel, E.; Ellis, D. R. (Inventor)


    A system for altering the lift/drag characteristics of powered aircraft to provide a safe means of glide path control includes a control device integrated for coordination action with the aircraft throttle. Such lift/drag alteration devices as spoilers, dive brakes, and the like are actuated by manual operation of a single lever coupled with the throttle for integrating, blending or coordinating power control. Improper operation of the controller is inhibited by safety mechanisms.

  13. Aircraft Wake Vortex Deformation in Turbulent Atmosphere


    Hennemann, Ingo; Holzaepfel, Frank


    Large-scale distortion of aircraft wake vortices appears to play a crucial role for aircraft safety during approach and landing. Vortex distortion is investigated based on large eddy simulations of wake vortex evolution in a turbulent atmosphere. A vortex identification method is developed that can be adapted to the vortex scales of interest. Based on the identified vortex center tracks, a statistics of vortex curvature radii is established. This statistics constitutes the basis for understan...

  14. Noise of High Performance Aircraft at Afterburner (United States)


    aircraft carrier, navy personnel work in close proximity to high performance jets at takeoffs and landings. The noise level emitted by these jets is...any major differences between the dominant noise components of these jets and those of a standard high temperature laboratory supersonic jet . It is...noise. For the F18E aircraft, we find that its noise, at high engine power settings, also includes new noise components in addition to the usual fine

  15. A Pilot Opinion Study of Lateral Control Requirements for Fighter-Type Aircraft (United States)

    Creer, Brent Y.; Stewart, John D.; Merrick, Robert B.; Drinkwater, Fred J., III


    As part of a continuing NASA program of research on airplane handling qualities, a pilot opinion investigation has been made on the lateral control requirements of fighter aircraft flying in their combat speed range. The investigation was carried out using a stationary flight simulator and a moving flight simulator, and the flight simulator results were supplemented by research tests in actual flight. The flight simulator study was based on the presumption that the pilot rates the roll control of an airplane primarily on a single-degree-of-freedom basis; that is, control of angle of roll about the aircraft body axis being of first importance. From the assumption of a single degree of freedom system it follows that there are two fundamental parameters which govern the airplane roll response, namely the roll damping expressed as a time constant and roll control power in terms of roll acceleration. The simulator study resulted in a criterion in terms of these two parameters which defines satisfactory, unsatisfactory, and unacceptable roll performance from a pilot opinion standpoint. The moving simulator results were substantiated by the in-flight investigation. The derived criterion was compared with the roll performance criterion based upon wing tip helix angle and also with other roll performance concepts which currently influence the roll performance design of military fighter aircraft flying in their combat speed range.

  16. Aircraft parameter estimation — A tool for development of aerodynamic databases

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R V Jategaonkar; F Thielecke


    With the evolution of high performance modern aircraft and spiraling developmental and experimental costs, the importance of flight validated databases for flight control design applications and for flight simulators has increased significantly in the recent past. Ground-based and in-flight simulators are increasingly used not only for pilot training but also for other applications such asflight planning, envelope expansion, design and analysis of control laws, and handling qualitiesinvestigations. Most of these demand a high-fidelity aerodynamic database representing the flight vehicle. System identification methodology, evolved over the past three decades, provides a powerful and sophisticated tool to identify from flight data aerodynamic characteristics valid over the entire operational flight envelope. This paper briefly presents aircraft parameter estimation methods for both stable and unstable aircraft, highlighting the developmental work at the DLR Institute of Flight Mechanics. Various aspects of database identification and its validation are presented. Practical aspectslike the proper choice of integration and optimization methods as well as limitations of gradient approximation through finite-differences are brought out. Though the paper focuses on application of system identification methodsto flight vehicles, its use in other applications, like the modelling of inelastic deformations of metallic materials, is also presented. It is shown that there are many similar problems and several challenges requiring additional concepts and algorithms.

  17. Fatigue crack growth from handling surface anomalies in a nickel based superalloy at high temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gourdin Stéphane


    Full Text Available Aircraft engine manufacturers have to demonstrate that handling surface anomalies in sensitive areas of discs are not critical for in-service life of a component. Currently, the models used consider anomalies as long cracks propagating from the first cycle, which introduces a certain degree of conservatism when calculating the fatigue life of surface flaws. Preliminary studies have shown that the first stages of crack propagation from surface anomalies are responsible for the conservative results. Thus, the aim of the study is to characterize the crack propagation from typical surface anomalies and to establish a new crack growth model, which can account for the micro-propagation stage. To separate the effects of the geometry of the anomalies and the residual stress state after introduction of the surface flaws, two V-type anomalies are studied: scratches and dents. Different studies have shown that the residual stresses beneath the anomalies seem to control the fatigue life of samples exhibiting scratches and dents. In order to monitor the crack micro-propagation, a direct current potential drop technique, coupled with heat tints is used during fatigue tests at elevated temperature. Thermal treatments releasing the residual stresses are also used to decouple the effect of crack morphology and residual stresses.

  18. Productivity and ergonomic investigation of bent-handle pliers. (United States)

    Duke, Kelly; Mirka, Gary A; Sommerich, Carolyn M


    Awkward wrist posture is generally considered an occupational risk factor for hand/wrist disorders, leading to the ergonomic design principle of "bend the tool, not the wrist." Sixteen participants performed a computer jumper installation task and a simple assembly task while productivity, wrist posture, and shoulder posture were measured. The work surface orientation (vertical and 45 degrees) and the level of constraint placed on the user (constrained grip and unconstrained grip) were also varied. The results indicate that the beneficial effects of the bent-handle pliers are task dependent. In the computer jumper task the bent-handle pliers resulted in 5.3% faster task performance, whereas in the assembly task performance was 4.9% faster with the straight-handle pliers. The bent-handle pliers reduced shoulder deviations by 50% in the jumper installation task, and ulnar deviation was reduced by 12% and 22% for the jumper installation task and the assembly task, respectively (all significant at p ergonomic utility of bent-handle pliers can be considerable but that the 3-D kinematics characteristics of the task must be considered.

  19. Modeling Programs Increase Aircraft Design Safety (United States)


    Flutter may sound like a benign word when associated with a flag in a breeze, a butterfly, or seaweed in an ocean current. When used in the context of aerodynamics, however, it describes a highly dangerous, potentially deadly condition. Consider the case of the Lockheed L-188 Electra Turboprop, an airliner that first took to the skies in 1957. Two years later, an Electra plummeted to the ground en route from Houston to Dallas. Within another year, a second Electra crashed. In both cases, all crew and passengers died. Lockheed engineers were at a loss as to why the planes wings were tearing off in midair. For an answer, the company turned to NASA s Transonic Dynamics Tunnel (TDT) at Langley Research Center. At the time, the newly renovated wind tunnel offered engineers the capability of testing aeroelastic qualities in aircraft flying at transonic speeds near or just below the speed of sound. (Aeroelasticity is the interaction between aerodynamic forces and the structural dynamics of an aircraft or other structure.) Through round-the-clock testing in the TDT, NASA and industry researchers discovered the cause: flutter. Flutter occurs when aerodynamic forces acting on a wing cause it to vibrate. As the aircraft moves faster, certain conditions can cause that vibration to multiply and feed off itself, building to greater amplitudes until the flutter causes severe damage or even the destruction of the aircraft. Flutter can impact other structures as well. Famous film footage of the Tacoma Narrows Bridge in Washington in 1940 shows the main span of the bridge collapsing after strong winds generated powerful flutter forces. In the Electra s case, faulty engine mounts allowed a type of flutter known as whirl flutter, generated by the spinning propellers, to transfer to the wings, causing them to vibrate violently enough to tear off. Thanks to the NASA testing, Lockheed was able to correct the Electra s design flaws that led to the flutter conditions and return the

  20. Conceptual design of high speed supersonic aircraft: A brief review on SR-71 (Blackbird) aircraft (United States)

    Xue, Hui; Khawaja, H.; Moatamedi, M.


    The paper presents the conceptual design of high-speed supersonic aircraft. The study focuses on SR-71 (Blackbird) aircraft. The input to the conceptual design is a mission profile. Mission profile is a flight profile of the aircraft defined by the customer. This paper gives the SR-71 aircraft mission profile specified by US air force. Mission profile helps in defining the attributes the aircraft such as wing profile, vertical tail configuration, propulsion system, etc. Wing profile and vertical tail configurations have direct impact on lift, drag, stability, performance and maneuverability of the aircraft. A propulsion system directly influences the performance of the aircraft. By combining the wing profile and the propulsion system, two important parameters, known as wing loading and thrust to weight ratio can be calculated. In this work, conceptual design procedure given by D. P. Raymer (AIAA Educational Series) is applied to calculate wing loading and thrust to weight ratio. The calculated values are compared against the actual values of the SR-71 aircraft. Results indicates that the values are in agreement with the trend of developments in aviation.

  1. B-52 Launch Aircraft in Flight (United States)


    NASA's venerable B-52 mothership is seen here photographed from a KC-135 Tanker aircraft. The X-43 adapter is visible attached to the right wing. The B-52, used for launching experimental aircraft and for other flight research projects, has been a familiar sight in the skies over Edwards for more than 40 years and is also both the oldest B-52 still flying and the aircraft with the lowest flight time of any B-52. NASA B-52, Tail Number 008, is an air launch carrier aircraft, 'mothership,' as well as a research aircraft platform that has been used on a variety of research projects. The aircraft, a 'B' model built in 1952 and first flown on June 11, 1955, is the oldest B-52 in flying status and has been used on some of the most significant research projects in aerospace history. Some of the significant projects supported by B-52 008 include the X-15, the lifting bodies, HiMAT (highly maneuverable aircraft technology), Pegasus, validation of parachute systems developed for the space shuttle program (solid-rocket-booster recovery system and the orbiter drag chute system), and the X-38. The B-52 served as the launch vehicle on 106 X-15 flights and flew a total of 159 captive-carry and launch missions in support of that program from June 1959 to October 1968. Information gained from the highly successful X-15 program contributed to the Mercury, Gemini, and Apollo human spaceflight programs as well as space shuttle development. Between 1966 and 1975, the B-52 served as the launch aircraft for 127 of the 144 wingless lifting body flights. In the 1970s and 1980s, the B-52 was the launch aircraft for several aircraft at what is now the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, to study spin-stall, high-angle-of attack, and maneuvering characteristics. These included the 3/8-scale F-15/spin research vehicle (SRV), the HiMAT (Highly Maneuverable Aircraft Technology) research vehicle, and the DAST (drones for aerodynamic and structural testing). The aircraft supported

  2. Status of ITER neutral beam cell remote handling system

    CERN Document Server

    Sykes, N; Choi, C-H; Crofts, O; Crowe, R; Damiani, C; Delavalle, S; Meredith, L; Mindham, T; Raimbach, J; Tesini, A; Van Uffelen, M


    The ITER neutral beam cell will contain up to three heating neutral beams and one diagnostic neutral beam, and four upper ports. Though manual maintenance work is envisaged within the cell, when containment is breached, or the radiological protection is removed the maintenance must be conducted remotely. This maintenance constitutes the removal and replacement of line replaceable units, and their transport to and from a cask docked to the cell. A design of the remote handling system has been prepared to concept level which this paper describes including the development of a beam line transporter, beam source remote handling equipment, upper port remote handling equipment and equipment for the maintenance of the neutral shield. This equipment has been developed complete the planned maintenance tasks for the components of the neutral beam cell and to have inherent flexibility to enable as yet unforeseen tasks and recovery operations to be performed.

  3. Remote-Handled Low Level Waste Disposal Project Alternatives Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Duncan


    This report identifies, evaluates, and compares alternatives for meeting the U.S. Department of Energy’s mission need for management of remote-handled low-level waste generated by the Idaho National Laboratory and its tenants. Each alternative identified in the Mission Need Statement for the Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste Treatment Project is described and evaluated for capability to fulfill the mission need. Alternatives that could meet the mission need are further evaluated and compared using criteria of cost, risk, complexity, stakeholder values, and regulatory compliance. The alternative for disposal of remote-handled low-level waste that has the highest confidence of meeting the mission need and represents best value to the government is to build a new disposal facility at the Idaho National Laboratory Site.

  4. [Nursing workers' perceptions regarding the handling of hazardous chemical waste]. (United States)

    Costa, Taiza Florêncio; Felli, Vanda Elisa Andres; Baptista, Patrícia Campos Pavan


    The objectives of this study were to identify the perceptions of nursing workers regarding the handling of hazardous chemical waste at the University of São Paulo University Hospital (HU-USP), and develop a proposal to improve safety measures. This study used a qualitative approach and a convenience sample consisting of eighteen nursing workers. Data collection was performed through focal groups. Thematic analysis revealed four categories that gave evidence of training deficiencies in terms of the stages of handling waste. Difficulties that emerged included a lack of knowledge regarding exposure and its impact, the utilization of personal protective equipment versus collective protection, and suggestions regarding measures to be taken by the institution and workers for the safe handling of hazardous chemical waste. The present data allowed for recommending proposals regarding the safe management of hazardous chemical waste by the nursing staff.

  5. Status of ITER neutral beam cell remote handling system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sykes, N., E-mail: [CCFE. Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Belcher, C. [Oxford Technologies Ltd, Abingdon OX14 1RJ (United Kingdom); Choi, C.-H. [ITER Organisation, CS90 046, 13067 St. Paul les Durance Cedex (France); Crofts, O. [CCFE. Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Crowe, R. [Oxford Technologies Ltd, Abingdon OX14 1RJ (United Kingdom); Damiani, C. [Fusion for Energy, C/Josep Pla 2, Torres Diagonal Litoral-B3, E-08019 Barcelona (Spain); Delavalle, S.; Meredith, L. [Oxford Technologies Ltd, Abingdon OX14 1RJ (United Kingdom); Mindham, T.; Raimbach, J. [CCFE. Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Tesini, A. [ITER Organisation, CS90 046, 13067 St. Paul les Durance Cedex (France); Van Uffelen, M. [Fusion for Energy, C/Josep Pla 2, Torres Diagonal Litoral-B3, E-08019 Barcelona (Spain)


    The ITER neutral beam cell will contain up to three heating neutral beams and one diagnostic neutral beam, and four upper ports. Though manual maintenance work is envisaged within the cell, when containment is breached, or the radiological protection is removed the maintenance must be conducted remotely. This maintenance constitutes the removal and replacement of line replaceable units, and their transport to and from a cask docked to the cell. A design of the remote handling system has been prepared to concept level which this paper describes including the development of a beam line transporter, beam source remote handling equipment, upper port remote handling equipment and equipment for the maintenance of the neutral shield. This equipment has been developed complete the planned maintenance tasks for the components of the neutral beam cell and to have inherent flexibility to enable as yet unforeseen tasks and recovery operations to be performed.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehsanullah Khan


    Full Text Available Handling of patient from hospital bed to CT-Scan, MR Scan, X-Ray, Sonography centre etc is a cumbersome and tedious job. Generally from bed, the patient is moved to trolley manually. Three to four persons lift the patient and keep him on the stretcher. The trolley is moved to lift if necessary. If the lift cannot accommodate, the trolley, the patient is transferred to the ground floor by a nursing staff on a stretcher, and the stretcher is kept on the trolley. Again the trolley takes the patient to ambulance but patient is to be liftedmanually with stretcher and put on ambulance platform. Again at the CT scan centre the patient with stretcher has to be lifted manually for X-Ray or CT scan. The procedure is repeated for moving the patient back to the hospital bed. The manual handling of patient is injurious to the patient as stresses are produced in the body of thepatient, especially in neck, back bone, limb joints etc along with the basic medical problem he has. Improper handling may cause injuries to the patient. Also the nursing staffs who handles patients, faces some health problems like pain in the shoulder, back bone etc. For safety of the patient, the manual handling of patient should be totally eliminated. If trolley cum wheelchair ,with adjustable height is available, once the patient is transferred to the trolley-cum-wheelchair from hospital bed, the patient will not be required to be handled manually till he reaches the CT Scan / X-Raycentre. The paper presents a schematic design of trolley cum wheelchair and discusses its salient features and applications.

  7. Remote handling assessment of attachment concepts for DEMO blanket segments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iglesias, Daniel, E-mail: [CCFE, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Bastow, Roger; Cooper, Dave; Crowe, Robert; Middleton-Gear, Dave [CCFE, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Sibois, Romain [VTT, Technical Research Centre of Finland, Industrial Systems, ROViR, Tampere (Finland); Carloni, Dario [Institute of Neutron Physics and Reactor Technology, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) (Germany); Vizvary, Zsolt; Crofts, Oliver [CCFE, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Harman, Jon [EFDA Close Support Unit Garching, Boltzmannstaße 2, D-85748 Garching bei München (Germany); Loving, Antony [CCFE, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom)


    Highlights: • Challenges are identified for the remote handling of blanket segments’ attachments. • Two attachment design approaches are assessed for remote handling (RH) feasibility. • An alternative is proposed, which potentially simplifies and speeds-up RH operations. • Up to three different assemblies are proposed for the remote handling of the attachments. • Proposed integrated design of upper port is compatible with the attachment systems. - Abstract: The replacement strategy of the massive Multi-Module Blanket Segments (MMS) is a key driver in the design of several DEMO systems. These include the blankets themselves, the vacuum vessel (VV) and its ports and the Remote Maintenance System (RMS). Common challenges to any blanket attachment system have been identified, such as the need for applying a preload to the MMS manifold, the effects of the decay heat and several uncertainties related to permanent deformations when removing the blanket segments after service. The WP12 kinematics of the MMS in-vessel transportation was adapted to the requirements of each of the supports during 2013 and 2014 design activities. The RM equipment envisaged for handling attachments and earth connections may be composed of up to three different assemblies. An In-Vessel Mover at the divertor level handles the lower support and earth bonding, and could stabilize the MMS during transportation. A Shield Plug crane with a 6 DoF manipulator operates the upper attachment and earth straps. And a Vertical Maintenance Crane is responsible for the in-vessel MMS transportation and can handle the removable upper support pins. A final proposal is presented which can potentially reduce the number of required systems, at the same time that speeds-up the RMS global operations.

  8. ReHandle: towards integrating physical rehabilitation in everyday life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagalkot, Naveen L.; Sokoler, Tomas


    an integration of the rehab activities with the everyday activities of senior citizens. We expect that our articulation of the emerging ReHandle design space will be informative and inspirational for the interaction design and HCI community exploring the role of digital technology for successful rehabilitation......In this paper we present ReHandle, an emerging design space currently inhabited and shaped by three different design sketches. We describe how the three sketches point to three possible dimensions for exploring the role of digital technology in facilitating self-monitoring; aimed at promoting...

  9. BepiColombo MPO Data Handling and Archiving Operations Strategy (United States)

    Perez-Lopez, Fernando; Martinez, Santa; de la Fuente, Sara; Lefort, Jayne; Casale, Mauro


    This paper describes the BepiColombo MPO Data Handling and Archiving (DHA) Operations Strategy including the justification and the main advantages. This strategy was presented to the MPO Instrument Teams during the BepiColombo Data Handling and Archiving Working Group Meeting #1 held at ESAC in November 2012 and will be implemented by the BepiColombo Science Ground Segment (SGS) in coordination with the MPO Instrument Teams. The paper covers the following topics: BepiColombo Mission Overview, SGS Roles and Interfaces, DHA Strategy Drivers, DHA Strategy Workflow and Conclusions.

  10. Research on network failure handling technology based on deflection routing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tao YU; Shanzhi CHEN; Xin LI; Zhen QIN


    A new deflection routing scheme is proposed to overcome the drawback of existing deflection routing scheme that cannot handle node failure and suffer from routing loops.A new algorithm for computing the backup shortest path tree(SPT)is proposed and a set of procedures are defined for utilizing the backup SPT in case of node or link failure.The failure can be handled swiftly and the backup routes are guaranteed to be loop-free.Experimental results show that the backup routes calculated by proposed scheme are close to the optimal routes by totally re-computing.

  11. Design and Implementation of Company Tailored Automated Material Handling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langer, Gilad; Bilberg, Arne


    This article focuses on the problems of analysing automation of material handling systems in order to develop an efficient automated solution that is specifically tailored to the company. The research has resulted in development of new methods for evaluating factory automation from design...... for their application with computer aided information processing tools. The framework is named the "Automated Material Handling (AMH) Preference GuideLine". The research has been carried out in close co-operation with Danish and European industry, where implementations of automation can be referred to. It is our...

  12. Handling Data Uncertainty and Inconsistency Using Multisensor Data Fusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waleed A. Abdulhafiz


    paper presents an approach to multisensor data fusion in order to decrease data uncertainty with ability to identify and handle inconsistency. The proposed approach relies on combining a modified Bayesian fusion algorithm with Kalman filtering. Three different approaches, namely, prefiltering, postfiltering and pre-postfiltering are described based on how filtering is applied to the sensor data, to the fused data or both. A case study to find the position of a mobile robot by estimating its x and y coordinates using four sensors is presented. The simulations show that combining fusion with filtering helps in handling the problem of uncertainty and inconsistency of the data.

  13. Aircraft Combat Survivability Estimation and Synthetic Tradeoff Methods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Shu-lin; LI Shou-an; LI Wei-ji; LI Dong-xia; FENG Feng


    A new concept is proposed that susceptibility, vulnerability, reliability, maintainability and supportability should be essential factors of aircraft combat survivability. A weight coefficient method and a synthetic method are proposed to estimate aircraft combat survivability based on the essential factors. Considering that it takes cost to enhance aircraft combat survivability, a synthetic tradeoff model between aircraft combat survivability and life cycle cost is built. The aircraft combat survivability estimation methods and synthetic tradeoff with a life cycle cost model will be helpful for aircraft combat survivability design and enhancement.

  14. Improvements in Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines for the 90s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arun Prasad


    Full Text Available The gas turbine propulsion system has been playing the most significant role in the evolution and development of present-day aircraft, and has become the limiting technology for developing most new aircraft. However, the jet engine still remains the preferred propulsion choice. Aircraft gas turbines in one form or the other, viz. turbojet, turbofan, turboprop or turboshaft, have been used in commercial passenger aircraft, high performance military aircraft and in rotary wing aircraft (helicopters. The emphasis in engine development programmes world over seems to be in reducing fuel consumption, increasing thrust and in reducing weight.

  15. Small Autonomous Aircraft Servo Health Monitoring (United States)

    Quintero, Steven


    Small air vehicles offer challenging power, weight, and volume constraints when considering implementation of system health monitoring technologies. In order to develop a testbed for monitoring the health and integrity of control surface servos and linkages, the Autonomous Aircraft Servo Health Monitoring system has been designed for small Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle (UAV) platforms to detect problematic behavior from servos and the air craft structures they control, This system will serve to verify the structural integrity of an aircraft's servos and linkages and thereby, through early detection of a problematic situation, minimize the chances of an aircraft accident. Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University's rotary-winged UAV has an Airborne Power management unit that is responsible for regulating, distributing, and monitoring the power supplied to the UAV's avionics. The current sensing technology utilized by the Airborne Power Management system is also the basis for the Servo Health system. The Servo Health system measures the current draw of the servos while the servos are in Motion in order to quantify the servo health. During a preflight check, deviations from a known baseline behavior can be logged and their causes found upon closer inspection of the aircraft. The erratic behavior nay include binding as a result of dirt buildup or backlash caused by looseness in the mechanical linkages. Moreover, the Servo Health system will allow elusive problems to be identified and preventative measures taken to avoid unnecessary hazardous conditions in small autonomous aircraft.

  16. Control strategies for aircraft airframe noise reduction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Yong; Wang Xunnian; Zhang Dejiu


    With the development of low-noise aircraft engine,airframe noise now represents a major noise source during the commercial aircraft's approach to landing phase.Noise control efforts have therefore been extensively focused on the airframe noise problems in order to further reduce aircraft overall noise.In this review,various control methods explored in the last decades for noise reduction on airframe components including high-lift devices and landing gears are summarized.We introduce recent major achievements in airframe noise reduction with passive control methods such as fairings,deceleration plates,splitter plates,acoustic liners,slat cove cover and side-edge replacements,and then discuss the potential and control mechanism of some promising active flow control strategies for airframe noise reduction,such as plasma technique and air blowing/suction devices.Based on the knowledge gained throughout the extensively noise control testing,a few design concepts on the landing gear,high-lift devices and whole aircraft are provided for advanced aircraft low-noise design.Finally,discussions and suggestions are given for future research on airframe noise reduction.

  17. Dynamics and control of morphing aircraft (United States)

    Seigler, Thomas Michael

    The following work is directed towards an evaluation of aircraft that undergo structural shape change for the purpose of optimized flight and maneuvering control authority. Dynamical equations are derived for a morphing aircraft based on two primary representations; a general non-rigid model and a multi-rigid-body. A simplified model is then proposed by considering the altering structural portions to be composed of a small number of mass particles. The equations are then extended to consider atmospheric flight representations where the longitudinal and lateral equations are derived. Two aspects of morphing control are considered. The first is a regulation problem in which it is desired to maintain stability in the presence of large changes in both aerodynamic and inertial properties. From a baseline aircraft model various wing planform designs were constructed using Datcom to determine the required aerodynamic contributions. Based on nonlinear numerical evaluations adequate stabilization control was demonstrated using a robust linear control design. In maneuvering, divergent characteristics were observed at high structural transition rates. The second aspect considered is the use of structural changes for improved flight performance. A variable span aircraft is then considered in which asymmetric wing extension is used to effect the rolling moment. An evaluation of the variable span aircraft is performed in the context of bank-to-turn guidance in which an input-output control law is implemented.

  18. Longitudinal dynamics of a perching aircraft concept (United States)

    Wickenheiser, Adam; Garcia, Ephrahim; Waszak, Martin


    This paper introduces a morphing aircraft concept whose purpose is to demonstrate a new bio-inspired flight capability: perching. Perching is a maneuver that utilizes primarily aerodynamics -- as opposed to thrust generation -- to achieve a vertical or short landing. The flight vehicle that will accomplish this is described herein with particular emphasis on its addition levels of actuation beyond the traditional aircraft control surfaces. A computer model of the aircraft is developed in order to predict the changes in applied aerodynamic loads as it morphs and transitions through different flight regimes. The analysis of this model is outlined, including a lifting-line-based analytical technique and a trim and stability analysis. These analytical methods -- compared to panel or computational fluid dynamics (CFD) methods -- are considered desirable for the analysis of a large number of vehicle configurations and flight conditions. The longitudinal dynamics of this aircraft are studied, and several interesting results are presented. Of special interest are the changes in vehicle dynamics as the aircraft morphs from a cruise configuration to initiate the perching maneuver. Changes in trim conditions and stability are examined as functions of vehicle geometry. The time response to changes in vehicle configuration is also presented.

  19. Technical Evaluations of Proposed Remote-Handled Transuranic Waste Characterization Requirements at WIPP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anastas, G.; Channell, J. K.


    Characterization, packaging, transport, handling and disposal of remotely handled transuranic (RH TRU) waste at WIPP will be different than similar operations with contact handled transuranic (CH TRU) waste. This paper presents results of technical evaluations associated with the planned disposal of remotely handled transuranic waste at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP).

  20. Sensitivity of vehicle handling to combined slip tyre characteristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, S.T.H.; Oosten, J.J.M. van; Pacejka, H.B.; Pauwelussen, J.P.


    The sensitivity of vehicle handling to combined slip tyre characteristics is investigated using two simulation models with different interaction between lateral and longitudinal tyre forces. The standard method for the braking in a turn test is simulated with both models, and differences in the outc

  1. Micro and Nano Techniques for the Handling of Biological Samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Micro and Nano Techniques for the Handling of Biological Samples reviews the different techniques available to manipulate and integrate biological materials in a controlled manner, either by sliding them along a surface (2-D manipulation), or by gripping and moving them to a new position (3-D...

  2. An Architecture for Handling Fuzzy Queries in Data Warehouses (United States)

    Singh, Manu Pratap; Tiwari, Rajdev; Mahajan, Manish; Dani, Diksha

    This paper presents an augmented architecture of Data Warehouse for fuzzy query handling to improve the performance of Data Mining process. The performance of Data Mining may become worst while mining the fuzzy information from the large Data Warehouses. There are number of preprocessing steps suggested and implemented so far to support the mining process. But querying large Data warehouses for fuzzy information is still a challenging task for the researchers’ community. The model proposed here may provide a more realistic and powerful technique for handling the vague queries directly. The basic idea behind the creation of Data Warehouses is to integrate a large amount of pre-fetched data and information from the distributed sources for direct querying and analysis .But the end user’s queries contain the maximum fuzziness and to handle those queries directly may not yield the desired response. So the model proposed here will create a fuzzy extension of Data warehouse by applying Neuro-Fuzzy technique and the fuzzy queries then will get handled directly by the extension of data warehouse.

  3. Remote-handling challenges in fusion research and beyond (United States)

    Buckingham, Rob; Loving, Antony


    Energy-producing nuclear fusion reactions taking place in tokamaks cause radiation damage and radioactivity. Remote-handling technology for repairing and replacing in-vessel components has evolved enormously over the past two decades -- and is now being deployed elsewhere too.

  4. A general approach to handling missing values in Procrustes analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albers, Casper J.; Gower, John C.


    General Procrustes analysis is concerned with transforming a set of given configuration matrices to closest agreement. This paper introduces an approach useful for handling missing values in the configuration matrices in the context of general linear transformations. Centring and/or standardisation

  5. Handling Missing Data in Educational Research Using SPSS (United States)

    Cheema, Jehanzeb


    This study looked at the effect of a number of factors such as the choice of analytical method, the handling method for missing data, sample size, and proportion of missing data, in order to evaluate the effect of missing data treatment on accuracy of estimation. In order to accomplish this a methodological approach involving simulated data was…

  6. Structural acceptance criteria Remote Handling Building Tritium Extraction Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mertz, G.


    This structural acceptance criteria contains the requirements for the structural analysis and design of the Remote Handling Building (RHB) in the Tritium Extraction Facility (TEF). The purpose of this acceptance criteria is to identify the specific criteria and methods that will ensure a structurally robust building that will safely perform its intended function and comply with the applicable Department of Energy (DOE) structural requirements.

  7. Different ways to handle topography in practical geoid determination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, O.C.; Forsberg, René


    In this paper two different methods of how to handle topography in geoid determination is investigated. First method employs the Residual Terrain Model (RTM) remove-restore technique and yields the quasigeoid, whereas the second method is the classical Helmert condensation method, yielding the ge...

  8. 29 CFR 1910.272 - Grain handling facilities. (United States)


    ... and bucket movement. A bucket elevator is not considered choked that has the up-leg partially or fully... handling system, of such size as will pass through a U.S. Standard 40 mesh sieve (425 microns or less... maintenance. The types of work clothing should also be considered in the program at least to caution...

  9. A screwing device for handling and assembly of micro screws

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gegeckaite, Asta; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Eriksson, Torbjörn Gerhard


    Nowadays, the application of specially designed handling devices in micro technology is an important topic and a necessity for the industry. Conventional methods for screwing can not be applied directly to micro screws. This is caused by the 3D micro object geometry and dimensions which inducing ...

  10. Handling Missing Data in Research Studies of Instructional Technology. (United States)

    Oh, Jeong-Eun

    Missing data is an important issue that is discussed across many fields. In order to understand the issues caused by missing data, this paper reviews the types of missing data and problems caused by missing data. Also, to understand how missing data are handled in instructional technology research, articles published in "Educational Media…

  11. 7 CFR 322.26 - Inspection and handling. (United States)


    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Inspection and handling. 322.26 Section 322.26 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BEES, BEEKEEPING BYPRODUCTS, AND BEEKEEPING EQUIPMENT Transit...

  12. 9 CFR 114.11 - Storage and handling. (United States)


    ... AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS PRODUCTION REQUIREMENTS FOR BIOLOGICAL PRODUCTS § 114.11 Storage and handling. Biological products at licensed establishments shall be... filed Outline of Production. All biological products to be shipped or delivered shall be securely packed....

  13. Quality control for handling of accidental blood exposures.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijk, P.T. van; Pelk-Jongen, M.; Wijkmans, C.; Voss, A.; Schneeberger, P.M.


    A regional counselling service was established to handle all accidental blood exposures using a standardized protocol. Levels of risk were assessed using an algorithm. Accidents that posed a risk for the transmission of hepatitis B (HBV), hepatitis C (HCV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) were

  14. How to handle topography in practical geoid determination: three examples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Omang, O.C.D.; Forsberg, René


    Three different methods of handling topography in geoid determination were investigated. The first two methods employ the residual terrain model (RTM) remove-restore technique, yielding the quasi-geoid, whereas the third method uses the classical Helmert condensation method, yielding the geoid. A...

  15. Handling missing data by re-approaching non-respondents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huisman, Mark; Krol, B; Van Sonderen, E


    When handling missing data, a researcher should be aware of the mechanism underlying the missingness. In the presence of non-randomly missing data, a model of the missing data mechanism should be included in the analyses to prevent the analyses based on the data from becoming biased. Modeling the mi

  16. Food Safety Posters for Safe Handling of Leafy Greens (United States)

    Rajagopal, Lakshman; Arendt, Susan W.; Shaw, Angela M.; Strohbehn, Catherine H.; Sauer, Kevin L.


    This article describes food safety educational tools depicting safe handling of leafy greens that are available as downloadable posters to Extension educators and practitioners ( Nine visual-based minimal-text colored posters in English, Chinese, and Spanish were developed for use when formally or informally educating…

  17. Discovering faults in idiom-based exception handling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruntink, M.; Deursen, A. van; Tourwé, T.


    In this paper, we analyse the exception handling mechanism of a state-of-the-art industrial embedded software system. Like many systems implemented in classic programming languages, our subject system uses the popular return-code idiom for dealing with exceptions. Our goal is to evaluate the fault-p

  18. 21 CFR 1250.35 - Health of persons handling food. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Health of persons handling food. 1250.35 Section 1250.35 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... SANITATION Food Service Sanitation on Land and Air Conveyances, and Vessels § 1250.35 Health of...

  19. China's Cool Handling of Avian Flu

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    ON January 27, 2004,the China National Avian Flu Reference Lab confirmed that in Dingdang Town, Long'an County,Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region a duck had died of the highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza. In contrast to the SARS epidemic last year, this occurrence has been handled coolly and efficiently by the Chinese government and people in general.

  20. Empowering Students to Handle Conflicts through the Use of Drama (United States)

    Malm, Birgitte; Lofgren, Horst


    DRACON (DRAma for CONflict management) is an interdisciplinary and comparative action research project aimed at improving conflict handling among adolescent schoolchildren through the use of educational drama. The main purpose of our research has been to develop an integrated programme using conflict management as the theory and practice, and…

  1. 14 CFR 234.6 - Baggage-handling statistics. (United States)


    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Baggage-handling statistics. 234.6 Section 234.6 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION... statistics. Each reporting carrier shall report monthly to the Department on a domestic system...

  2. DNA sequence handling programs in BASIC for home computers.


    Biro, P A


    This paper describes a DNA sequence handling program written entirely in BASIC and designed to be run on an Atari home computer. Many of the features common to more sophisticated programs have been included. The advantage of this program are its convenience, its transportability and its potential for user modification. The disadvantages are lack of sophistication and speed.

  3. Handling the Young Cerebral Palsied Child at Home. (United States)

    Finnie, Nancie R.

    Written primarily for parents of cerebral palsied children, the text discusses and illustrates methods for handling the child in daily activities. Introduced with a questionnaire concerning developmental stages and activity levels, the manual describes the most common difficulties of the spastic, athetoid, ataxic, or flaccid child. Drawings and…

  4. A Reverse Logistics Network Model for Handling Returned Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nizar Zaarour


    obtained the optimal solution at a fraction of the time used by the traditional nonlinear model and solution procedure, as well as the ability to handle up to 150 customers as compared to 30 in the conventional nonlinear model. As such, the proposed linear model is more suitable for actual industry applications than the existing models.

  5. Design package for fuel retrieval system fuel handling tool modification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This is a design package that contains the details for a modification to a tool used for moving fuel elements during loading of MCO Fuel Baskets for the Fuel Retrieval System. The tool is called the fuel handling tool (or stinger). This document contains requirements, development design information, tests, and test reports.

  6. Design package for fuel retrieval system fuel handling tool modification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This is a design package that contains the details for a modification to a tool used for moving fuel elements during loading of MCO Fuel Baskets for the Fuel Retrieval System. The tool is called the fuel handling tool (or stinger). This document contains requirements, development design information, tests, and test reports.

  7. Model-Based Control for Postal Automation and Baggage Handling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tarau, A.N.


    In this thesis we focus on two specific transportation systems, namely postal automation and baggage handling. Postal automation: During the last decades the volume of magazines, catalogs, and other plastic wrapped mail items that have to be processed by post sorting centers has increased consider

  8. Breeder Spent Fuel Handling Program multipurpose cask design basis document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duckett, A.J.; Sorenson, K.B.


    The Breeder Spent Fuel Handling (BSFH) Program multipurpose cask Design Basis Document defines the performance requirements essential to the development of a legal weight truck cask to transport FFTF spent fuel from reactor to a reprocessing facility and the resultant High Level Waste (HLW) to a repository. 1 ref.

  9. Vehicle handling: relationships between subjective and objective measures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verschuren, R.M.A.F.; Hogema, J.H.


    TNO Human Factors and TNO Automotive are investigating relationships between subjective and objective measures in the area of vehicle handling. This paper presents a driving simulator study and a field experiment in which these relationships were investigated. First, in the driving simulator experim

  10. Sensor Based Effective Monitoring of Coal Handling System (CHS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Coal level detection is an important aspect to assess the performance of a coal-fired power plant. Coal has to be transported, via a coal handling system. The fuel in a coal-fired power plant is stored in silos, bunkers or stock piles. Coal is stored in silos in a small plant, Bunkers for handling a day’s operation and Stock piling methods for large plants. So, fuel handling had to done efficiently. To accurately sense the coal height, Real-time feedback is deployed within the bunker or stock pile. The real time range information is then fedback to the control system. Of the different types of ranging sensors, radar based system is used. Also a real-time temperature monitoring system is developed to protect the coal. The range and temperature data from sensors are sent to the main system through GSM modem by means of SMS. The range information is used to start the conveyor belt to draw the coal from coal yard. If the temperature exceeds the limit, the SMS will be sent through the software or it will call the respective person to monitor the process. A fire sensor is also used to extinguish the fire by initiating the water spraying system. A PIC Microcontroller is interfaced all the sensors for effective handling of thermal power plant.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Pérez Magaña


    Full Text Available This contribution had as objective identifying the Knowledge and the strategies that have developed the peasants of a michoacana community for natural resources handle whit agriculturals objective. Starting from idea of that in the Sierra Purepecha region a little has been studied about folk knowledge and agricultural, and that had been unestimated, since the agrarians sciences, its potential for the rural development. Since the focus agroecologic it was studied a community of peasants of the Michoacan Stated using the techniques of participating observation, the agroecological transect and the semistructured individual interview. The results show that the peasants have developed knowledge, which permit to distinguish and identify environmental unities, and the handle the production space; it permit to handle different strategies of natural resources such as: the construction of boars, enclosures alive, reforestation, the use of dung the association crops, distribution space of the crops, expansion of the biodiversity and the handle of the germplasma. These actions are favored for the collective behavior of the community. In these actions are reflexeted a social construction, in which is present the knowledge of the peasants and their capacity of answer to adverses socioenvaironmental factors for assureting its production and reproduction.

  12. Food handling and mastication in the carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sibbing, F.A.


    The process of food handling in the common carp ( Cyprinus carpio L.) and its structures associated with feeding are analyzed. The aim of this study is to explain the relation between the the architecture of the head and its functions in food processing and to determine the specializations for some

  13. Prosthetic Hand For Holding Rods, Tools, And Handles (United States)

    Belcher, Jewell G., Jr.; Vest, Thomas W.


    Prosthetic hand with quick-grip/quick-release lever broadens range of specialized functions available to lower-arm amputee by providing improved capabilities for gripping rods, tools, handles, and like. Includes two stationary lower fingers opposed by one pivoting upper finger. Lever operates in conjunction with attached bracket.

  14. How to handle and care for bulbs in ophthalmic equipment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismael Cordero


    Full Text Available Many devices used in eye care rely on light bulbs or lamps for their operation. All light bulbs have a limited lifespan and when the bulb fails the device becomes unusable. Therefore, knowing how to handle, how to inspect and how to replace bulbs is important. Just as important is keeping spare bulbs to hand!

  15. Tritium handling experience at Atomic Energy of Canada Limited

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suppiah, S.; McCrimmon, K.; Lalonde, S.; Ryland, D.; Boniface, H.; Muirhead, C.; Castillo, I. [Atomic Energy of Canad Limited - AECL, Chalk River Laboratories, Chalk River, ON (Canada)


    Canada has been a leader in tritium handling technologies as a result of the successful CANDU reactor technology used for power production. Over the last 50 to 60 years, capabilities have been established in tritium handling and tritium management in CANDU stations, tritium removal processes for heavy and light water, tritium measurement and monitoring, and understanding the effects of tritium on the environment. This paper outlines details of tritium-related work currently being carried out at Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL). It concerns the CECE (Combined Electrolysis and Catalytic Exchange) process for detritiation, tritium-compatible electrolysers, tritium permeation studies, and tritium powered batteries. It is worth noting that AECL offers a Tritium Safe-Handling Course to national and international participants, the course is a mixture of classroom sessions and hands-on practical exercises. The expertise and facilities available at AECL is ready to address technological needs of nuclear fusion and next-generation nuclear fission reactors related to tritium handling and related issues.

  16. Rapid Parameterization Schemes for Aircraft Shape Optimization (United States)

    Li, Wu


    A rapid shape parameterization tool called PROTEUS is developed for aircraft shape optimization. This tool can be applied directly to any aircraft geometry that has been defined in PLOT3D format, with the restriction that each aircraft component must be defined by only one data block. PROTEUS has eight types of parameterization schemes: planform, wing surface, twist, body surface, body scaling, body camber line, shifting/scaling, and linear morphing. These parametric schemes can be applied to two types of components: wing-type surfaces (e.g., wing, canard, horizontal tail, vertical tail, and pylon) and body-type surfaces (e.g., fuselage, pod, and nacelle). These schemes permit the easy setup of commonly used shape modification methods, and each customized parametric scheme can be applied to the same type of component for any configuration. This paper explains the mathematics for these parametric schemes and uses two supersonic configurations to demonstrate the application of these schemes.

  17. Static aeroelastic analysis for generic configuration aircraft (United States)

    Lee, IN; Miura, Hirokazu; Chargin, Mladen K.


    A static aeroelastic analysis capability that can calculate flexible air loads for generic configuration aircraft was developed. It was made possible by integrating a finite element structural analysis code (MSC/NASTRAN) and a panel code of aerodynamic analysis based on linear potential flow theory. The framework already built in MSC/NASTRAN was used and the aerodynamic influence coefficient matrix is computed externally and inserted in the NASTRAN by means of a DMAP program. It was shown that deformation and flexible airloads of an oblique wing aircraft can be calculated reliably by this code both in subsonic and supersonic speeds. Preliminary results indicating importance of flexibility in calculating air loads for this type of aircraft are presented.

  18. Aircraft System Design and Integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. P. Coldbeck


    Full Text Available In the 1980's the British aircraft industry changed its approach to the management of projects from a system where a project office would manage a project and rely on a series of specialist departments to support them to a more process oriented method, using systems engineering models, whose most outwardly visible signs were the introduction of multidisciplinary product teams. One of the problems with the old method was that the individual departments often had different priorities and projects would get uneven support. The change in the system was only made possible for complex designs by the electronic distribution of data giving instantaneous access to all involved in the project. In 1997 the Defence and Aerospace Foresight Panel emphasised the need for a system engineering approach if British industry was to remain competitive. The Royal Academy of Engineering recognised that the change in working practices also changed what was required of a chartered engineer and redefined their requirements in 1997 [1]. The result of this is that engineering degree courses are now judged against new criteria with more emphasis placed on the relevance to industry rather than on purely academic content. At the University of Glasgow it was realized that the students ought to be made aware of current working practices and that there ought to be a review to ensure that the degrees give students the skills required by industry. It was decided to produce a one week introduction course in systems engineering for Masters of Engineering (MEng students to be taught by both university lecturers and practitioners from a range of companies in the aerospace industry with the hope of expanding the course into a module. The reaction of the students was favourable in terms of the content but it seems ironic that the main criticism was that there was not enough discussion involving the students. This paper briefly describes the individual teaching modules and discusses the

  19. Design and Synthesis of Microscale Opto-Magnetic Trapping Handles (United States)

    Lawson, Joseph L.

    Opto-Magnetic Trapping (OMT) is a novel micromanipulation technology capable of translating particles with nanometer precision and producing forces on the order of pico-Newtons. OMT combines the benefits of optical trapping (OT) to manipulate handle particles in translational directions and magnetic trapping (MT) to provide rotational control. This combined manipulation technology shows promise for applications ranging from novel single molecule force spectroscopy to advanced manufacturing of smart micro or nano structures. Successful OMT requires handles containing material properties amenable to both OT and MT individually. Since these material properties are traditionally exclusive, novel anisotropic handles must be synthesized to accommodate both micromanipulation technologies. This body of research advances the state of the art in micromanipulation technology by addressing the fundamental material incompatibility issues associated with OMT. Novel micro-scale "patchy" handle particles were fabricated using a glancing angle deposition (GLAD) process. Due to their composite design combining dielectric and ferromagnetic materials, these particles successfully demonstrated OMT manipulation. These particles, along with the developed GLAD fabrication process, improve upon the current state of the art by enabling the robust synthesis of a wider range of particle sizes. Furthermore, the magnetic moments of these particles can be more accurately controlled over a wider range including producing magnetic moments grater than is capable with current techniques. A thorough numerical simulation was also conducted to identify the variation of OT performance of these patchy particles with respect to standard dielectric-only OT handles. While variations in trapping location do exist, they were found to be within an acceptable range for OMT applications and are still capable of manipulation with nanometer precision.

  20. View of QF-106 aircraft cockpit (United States)


    View of the cockpit and instrument panel of the QF-106 airplane used in the Eclipse project. In 1997 and 1998, the Dryden Flight Research Center at Edwards, California, supported and hosted a Kelly Space & Technology, Inc. project called Eclipse, which sought to demonstrate the feasibility of a reusable tow-launch vehicle concept. The project goal was to successfully tow, inflight, a modified QF-106 delta-wing aircraft with an Air Force C-141A transport aircraft. This would demonstrate the possibility of towing and launching an actual launch vehicle from behind a tow plane. Dryden was the responsible test organization and had flight safety responsibility for the Eclipse project. Dryden provided engineering, instrumentation, simulation, modification, maintenance, range support, and research pilots for the test program. The Air Force Flight Test Center (AFFTC), Edwards, California, supplied the C-141A transport aircraft and crew and configured the aircraft as needed for the tests. The AFFTC also provided the concept and detail design and analysis as well as hardware for the tow system and QF-106 modifications. Dryden performed the modifications to convert the QF-106 drone into the piloted EXD-01 (Eclipse eXperimental Demonstrator-01) experimental aircraft. Kelly Space & Technology hoped to use the results gleaned from the tow test in developing a series of low-cost, reusable launch vehicles. These tests demonstrated the validity of towing a delta-wing aircraft having high wing loading, validated the tow simulation model, and demonstrated various operational procedures, such as ground processing of in-flight maneuvers and emergency abort scenarios.

  1. A Turbo-Brayton Cryocooler for Aircraft Superconducting Systems Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Hybrid turbo-electric aircraft with gas turbines driving electric generators connected to electric propulsion motors have the potential to transform the aircraft...

  2. Aircraft detection based on probability model of structural elements (United States)

    Chen, Long; Jiang, Zhiguo


    Detecting aircrafts is important in the field of remote sensing. In past decades, researchers used various approaches to detect aircrafts based on classifiers for overall aircrafts. However, with the development of high-resolution images, the internal structures of aircrafts should also be taken into consideration now. To address this issue, a novel aircrafts detection method for satellite images based on probabilistic topic model is presented. We model aircrafts as the connected structural elements rather than features. The proposed method contains two major steps: 1) Use Cascade-Adaboost classier to identify the structural elements of aircraft firstly. 2) Connect these structural elements to aircrafts, where the relationships between elements are estimated by hierarchical topic model. The model places strict spatial constraints on structural elements which can identify differences between similar features. The experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of the approach.

  3. Distributed Data Mining for Aircraft Health Management Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Aircraft Flight Operations Quality Assurance (FOQA) programs are implemented by most of the aircraft operators. Vast amounts of FOQA data are distributed between...

  4. Cosmic Radiation - An Aircraft Manufacturer's View

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hume, C


    The relevance and context of cosmic radiation to an aircraft maker Airbus Industrie are outlined. Some future developments in aircraft and air traffic are described, along with their possible consequences for exposure. (author)

  5. Distributed Data Mining for Aircraft Health Management Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA, DoD, and commercial aircraft operators need to transform vast amounts of aircraft data accumulated in distributed databases into actionable knowledge. We...

  6. Fault Tolerance, Diagnostics, and Prognostics in Aircraft Flight (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Abstract In modern fighter aircraft with statically unstable airframe designs, the flight control system is considered flight critical, i.e. the aircraft will...

  7. Practical Voice Recognition for the Aircraft Cockpit Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This proposal responds to the urgent need for improved pilot interfaces in the modern aircraft cockpit. Recent advances in aircraft equipment bring tremendous...

  8. High performance forward swept wing aircraft (United States)

    Koenig, David G. (Inventor); Aoyagi, Kiyoshi (Inventor); Dudley, Michael R. (Inventor); Schmidt, Susan B. (Inventor)


    A high performance aircraft capable of subsonic, transonic and supersonic speeds employs a forward swept wing planform and at least one first and second solution ejector located on the inboard section of the wing. A high degree of flow control on the inboard sections of the wing is achieved along with improved maneuverability and control of pitch, roll and yaw. Lift loss is delayed to higher angles of attack than in conventional aircraft. In one embodiment the ejectors may be advantageously positioned spanwise on the wing while the ductwork is kept to a minimum.

  9. A computer application for parametric aircraft design (United States)

    Fraqueiro, Filipe R.; Albuquerque, Pedro F.; Gamboa, Pedro V.


    The present work describes the development and final result of a graphical user interface tailored for a mission-based parametric aircraft design optimization code which targets the preliminary design phase of unmanned aerial vehicles. This development was built from the XFLR5 open source platform and further benefits from two-dimensional aerodynamic data obtained from XFOIL. For a better understanding, the most important graphical windows are shown. In order to demonstrate the graphical user interface interaction with the aircraft designer, the results of a case study which maximizes payload are presented.

  10. Titanium alloys Russian aircraft and aerospace applications

    CERN Document Server

    Moiseyev, Valentin N


    This text offers previously elusive information on state-of-the-art Russian metallurgic technology of titanium alloys. It details their physical, mechanical, and technological properties, as well as treatments and applications in various branches of modern industry, particularly aircraft and aerospace construction. Titanium Alloys: Russian Aircraft and Aerospace Applications addresses all facets of titanium alloys in aerospace and aviation technology, including specific applications, fundamentals, composition, and properties of commercial alloys. It is useful for all students and researchers interested in the investigation and applications of titanium.

  11. Small unmanned aircraft ballistic impact speed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    La Cour-Harbo, Anders


    A study of how smaller unmanned aircraft will fall in case of failure. The aim is to determine the impact speed of a drone givens its general shape and aerodynamic behavior. This will include both CFD simulations and real world test of ballistic drops of smaller drones.......A study of how smaller unmanned aircraft will fall in case of failure. The aim is to determine the impact speed of a drone givens its general shape and aerodynamic behavior. This will include both CFD simulations and real world test of ballistic drops of smaller drones....

  12. High-Speed Propeller for Aircraft (United States)

    Sagerser, D. A.; Gatzen, B. S.


    Engine efficiency increased. Propeller blades required to be quite thin and highly swept to minimize compressibility losses and propeller noise during high-speed cruise. Use of 8 or 10 blades with highpropeller-power loading allows overall propeller diameter to be kept relatively small. Area-ruled spinner and integrated nacelle shape reduce compressibility losses in propeller hub region. Finally, large modern turboshaft engine and gearbox provide power to advanced propeller. Fuel savings of 30 to 50 percent over present systems anticipated. Propfan system adaptable to number of applications, such as highspeed (subsonic) business and general-aviation aircraft, and military aircraft including V/STOL.

  13. Serial Escape System For Aircraft Crews (United States)

    Wood, Kenneth E.


    Emergency escape system for aircraft and aerospace vehicles ejects up to seven crewmembers, one by one, within 120 s. Intended for emergencies in which disabled craft still in stable flight at no more than 220 kn (113 m/s) equivalent airspeed and sinking no faster than 110 ft/s (33.5 m/s) at altitudes up to 50,000 ft (15.2 km). Ejection rockets load themselves from magazine after each crewmember ejected. Jumpmaster queues other crewmembers and helps them position themselves on egress ramp. Rockets pull crewmembers clear of aircraft structure. Provides orderly, controlled exit and avoids ditching at sea or landing in rough terrain.

  14. Advanced materials for aircraft engine applications. (United States)

    Backman, D G; Williams, J C


    A review of advances for aircraft engine structural materials and processes is presented. Improved materials, such as superalloys, and the processes for making turbine disks and blades have had a major impact on the capability of modern gas turbine engines. New structural materials, notably composites and intermetallic materials, are emerging that will eventually further enhance engine performance, reduce engine weight, and thereby enable new aircraft systems. In the future, successful aerospace manufacturers will combine product design and materials excellence with improved manufacturing methods to increase production efficiency, enhance product quality, and decrease the engine development cycle time.

  15. Improving transient analysis technology for aircraft structures (United States)

    Melosh, R. J.; Chargin, Mladen


    Aircraft dynamic analyses are demanding of computer simulation capabilities. The modeling complexities of semi-monocoque construction, irregular geometry, high-performance materials, and high-accuracy analysis are present. At issue are the safety of the passengers and the integrity of the structure for a wide variety of flight-operating and emergency conditions. The technology which supports engineering of aircraft structures using computer simulation is examined. Available computer support is briefly described and improvement of accuracy and efficiency are recommended. Improved accuracy of simulation will lead to a more economical structure. Improved efficiency will result in lowering development time and expense.

  16. Conversion of the dual training aircraft (DC into single control advanced training aircraft (SC. Part I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Converting the DC school jet aircraft into SC advanced training aircraft - and use them forthe combat training of military pilots from the operational units, has become a necessity due to thebudget cuts for Air Force, with direct implications on reducing the number of hours of flight assignedto operating personnel for preparing and training.The purpose of adopting such a program is to reduce the number of flight hours allocated annuallyfor preparing and training in advanced stages of instruction, for every pilot, by more intensive use ofthis type of aircraft, which has the advantage of lower flight hour costs as compared to a supersoniccombat plane.

  17. Analysis of Handling Qualities Design Criteria for Active Inceptor Force-Feel Characteristics (United States)

    Malpica, Carlos A.; Lusardi, Jeff A.


    The force-feel system characteristics of the cyclic inceptors of most helicopters are set based on the characteristics of the mechanical components in the control system (mass, springs, friction dampers, etc.). For these helicopters, the force-feel characteristics typically remain constant over the entire flight envelope, with perhaps a trim release to minimize control forces while maneuvering. With the advent of fly-by-wire control systems and active inceptors in helicopters, the force-feel characteristics are now determined by the closed-loop response of the active inceptor itself as defined by the inertia, force/displacement gradient, damping, breakout force and detent shape configuration parameters in the inceptor control laws. These systems give the flexibility to dynamically prescribe different feel characteristics for different control modes or flight conditions, and the ability to provide tactile cueing to the pilot through the actively controlled side-stick or center-stick cyclic inceptor. For rotorcraft, a few studies have been conducted to assess the effects of cyclic force-feel characteristics on handling qualities in flight. An early study provided valuable insight into the static force-deflection characteristics (force gradient) and the number of axes controlled by the side-stick controller for the U.S. Army's Advanced Digital/Optical Control System (ADOCS) demonstrator aircraft [1]. The first of a series of studies providing insight on the inceptor dynamic force-feel characteristics was conducted on the NASA/Army CH-47B variable-stability helicopter [2]. This work led to a proposed requirement that set boundaries based on the cyclic natural frequency and inertia, with the stipulation of a lower damping ratio limit of 0.3 [3]. A second study was conducted by the Canadian Institute for Aerospace Research using their variable-stability Bell 205A helicopter [4]. This research suggested boundaries for stick dynamics based on natural frequency and damping

  18. Flight Control Design for a Tailless Aircraft Using Eigenstructure Assignment


    Clara Nieto-Wire; Kenneth Sobel


    We apply eigenstructure assignment to the design of a flight control system for a wind tunnel model of a tailless aircraft. The aircraft, known as the innovative control effectors (ICEs) aircraft, has unconventional control surfaces plus pitch and yaw thrust vectoring. We linearize the aircraft in straight and level flight at an altitude of 15,000 feet and Mach number 0.4. Then, we separately design flight control systems for the longitudinal and lateral dynamics. We use a control allocation ...

  19. F-35 Joint Strike Fighter Aircraft (F-35) (United States)


    Joint Strike Fighter Aircraft (F-35) Program will develop and field an affordable, highly common family of next- generation strike aircraft for the...the O&S account, with U.S. Services’ changes in aircraft life expectancy and bed down plans overshadowing real reductions in O&S costs. Business ...aircraft subprogram and engine subprogram (Navy). (Estimating) -44.4 -46.2 Revised estimate for Small Business Innovation Research in FY 2015 (Navy

  20. 76 FR 45011 - Control of Air Pollution From Aircraft and Aircraft Engines; Proposed Emission Standards and Test... (United States)


    ... procedures. EPA actively participated in the United Nation's International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO... Regulation of Aircraft Engine Emissions E. Brief History of ICAO Regulation of Aircraft Engine Emissions II... under consideration by the United Nation's International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO)....

  1. Navy’s Advanced Aircraft Armament System Program Concept Objectives (United States)


    growth. For the ground crew, the task complexity growth is even greater and the effects appear in downed aircraft and lower aircraft availabilty . To...aircraft or coaaercial usage . Many suppliers and high annual deaand rate - ; unliaitad opportunity coapetition. 12-15 Table 4 STANDARDIZATION

  2. Development and experimental characterization of a fuel cell powered aircraft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradley, Thomas H.; Moffitt, Blake A.; Mavris, Dimitri N.; Parekh, David E. [Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332-0405 (United States)


    This paper describes the characteristics and performance of a fuel cell powered unmanned aircraft. The aircraft is novel as it is the largest compressed hydrogen fuel cell powered airplane built to date and is currently the only fuel cell aircraft whose design and test results are in the public domain. The aircraft features a 500 W polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell with full balance of plant and compressed hydrogen storage incorporated into a custom airframe. Details regarding the design requirements, implementation and control of the aircraft are presented for each major aircraft system. The performances of the aircraft and powerplant are analyzed using data from flights and laboratory tests. The efficiency and component power consumption of the fuel cell propulsion system are measured at a variety of flight conditions. The performance of the aircraft powerplant is compared to other 0.5-1 kW-scale fuel cell powerplants in the literature and means of performance improvement for this aircraft are proposed. This work represents one of the first studies of fuel cell powered aircraft to result in a demonstration aircraft. As such, the results of this study are of practical interest to fuel cell powerplant and aircraft designers. (author)

  3. Northwest to Accelerate Retirement of Dc10 Aircraft

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    @@ Northwest Airlines announced that it will accelerate the retirement of its remaining 12DC10-30 aircraft in service. The airline said that during the next seven months,it will replace DC10 aircraft with new Airbus A330s and Boeing 747-400aircraft being returned to service.Currently, seven routes are served with the DC10.

  4. ASDAR (aircraft to satellite data relay) flight test report (United States)

    Domino, E. J.; Lovell, R. R.; Conroy, M. J.; Culp, D. H.


    The aircraft to Satellite Data Relay (ASDAR), an airborne data collection system that gathers meteorological data from existing aircraft instrumentation and relays it to ground user via a geo-synchronous meteorological satellite, is described and the results of the first test flight on a commercial Boeing 747 aircraft are presented. The flight test was successful and verified system performance in the anticipated environment.

  5. 14 CFR 45.31 - Marking of export aircraft. (United States)


    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Marking of export aircraft. 45.31 Section 45.31 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT IDENTIFICATION AND REGISTRATION MARKING Nationality and Registration Marks § 45.31 Marking of export aircraft....

  6. Licencing and Training Reform in the Australian Aircraft Maintenance Industry (United States)

    Hampson, Ian; Fraser, Doug


    The training and licencing of aircraft maintenance engineers fulfils a crucial protective function since it is they who perform and supervise aircraft maintenance and certify that planes are safe afterwards. In Australia, prior to training reform, a trades-based system of aircraft maintenance engineer training existed in an orderly relation with…

  7. 75 FR 70074 - Consensus Standards, Light-Sport Aircraft (United States)


    ... Federal Aviation Administration Consensus Standards, Light-Sport Aircraft AGENCY: Federal Aviation... provisions of the Sport Pilot and Light-Sport Aircraft rule issued July 16, 2004, and effective September 1, 2004. ASTM International Committee F37 on Light Sport Aircraft developed the revised standards...

  8. 76 FR 45647 - Consensus Standards, Light-Sport Aircraft (United States)


    ... Federal Aviation Administration Consensus Standards, Light-Sport Aircraft AGENCY: Federal Aviation... to the provisions of the Sport Pilot and Light-Sport Aircraft rule issued July 16, 2004, and effective September 1, 2004. ASTM International Committee F37 on Light Sport Aircraft developed the...

  9. 14 CFR 135.145 - Aircraft proving and validation tests. (United States)


    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Aircraft proving and validation tests. 135... Aircraft and Equipment § 135.145 Aircraft proving and validation tests. (a) No certificate holder may... safely and in compliance with applicable regulatory standards. Validation tests are required for...

  10. Smart Sensor System for NDE or Corrosion in Aging Aircraft (United States)

    Bar-Cohen, Y.; Marzwell, N.; Osegueda, R.; Ferregut, C.


    The extension of the operation life of military and civilian aircraft rather than replacing them with new ones is increasing the probability of aircraft component failure as a result of aging. Aircraft that already have endured a long srvice life of more than 40 years are now being considered for another 40 years of service.

  11. 14 CFR 21.128 - Tests: aircraft engines. (United States)


    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Tests: aircraft engines. 21.128 Section 21.128 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT... engines. (a) Each person manufacturing aircraft engines under a type certificate only shall subject...

  12. 78 FR 7642 - Airworthiness Directives; Piper Aircraft, Inc. (United States)


    ...-020-AD; Amendment 39-17334; AD 2013-02-13] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Piper Aircraft, Inc... airworthiness directive (AD) for certain Piper Aircraft, Inc. (type certificate previously held by The New Piper... information identified in this AD, contact Piper Aircraft, Inc., 2926 Piper Drive, Vero Beach, Florida...

  13. 77 FR 31169 - Airworthiness Directives; Piper Aircraft, Inc. Airplanes (United States)


    ...-002-AD; Amendment 39-17058; AD 2012-10-09] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Piper Aircraft, Inc... superseding an existing airworthiness directive (AD) for certain Piper Aircraft, Inc. (type certificate previously held by The New Piper Aircraft Inc.) Models PA-31T and PA-31T1 airplanes. That AD...

  14. 78 FR 26556 - Airworthiness Directives; Piper Aircraft, Inc. Airplanes (United States)


    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 39 RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Piper Aircraft, Inc...: This document withdraws a notice of proposed rulemaking (NPRM) that would have applied to all Piper Aircraft, Inc. (type certificate previously held by The New Piper Aircraft Inc.) Models PA-18 and...

  15. 78 FR 41277 - Airworthiness Directives; Piper Aircraft, Inc. Airplanes (United States)


    ...-018-AD; Amendment 39-17489; AD 2013-13-01] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Piper Aircraft, Inc.... SUMMARY: We are adopting a new airworthiness directive (AD) for certain Piper Aircraft, Inc. Models PA-46... information identified in this AD, contact Piper Aircraft, Inc., 2926 Piper Drive, Vero Beach, FL...

  16. 78 FR 35110 - Airworthiness Directives; Piper Aircraft, Inc. Airplanes (United States)


    ...-001-AD; Amendment 39-17457; AD 2013-10-04] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Piper Aircraft, Inc... superseding an existing airworthiness directive (AD) for all Piper Aircraft, Inc. Models PA-31, PA-31-325, and.... ADDRESSES: For service information identified in this AD, contact Piper Aircraft, Inc., 2926 Piper...

  17. Quinone-induced protein handling changes: Implications for major protein handling systems in quinone-mediated toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiong, Rui; Siegel, David; Ross, David, E-mail:


    Para-quinones such as 1,4-Benzoquinone (BQ) and menadione (MD) and ortho-quinones including the oxidation products of catecholamines, are derived from xenobiotics as well as endogenous molecules. The effects of quinones on major protein handling systems in cells; the 20/26S proteasome, the ER stress response, autophagy, chaperone proteins and aggresome formation, have not been investigated in a systematic manner. Both BQ and aminochrome (AC) inhibited proteasomal activity and activated the ER stress response and autophagy in rat dopaminergic N27 cells. AC also induced aggresome formation while MD had little effect on any protein handling systems in N27 cells. The effect of NQO1 on quinone induced protein handling changes and toxicity was examined using N27 cells stably transfected with NQO1 to generate an isogenic NQO1-overexpressing line. NQO1 protected against BQ–induced apoptosis but led to a potentiation of AC- and MD-induced apoptosis. Modulation of quinone-induced apoptosis in N27 and NQO1-overexpressing cells correlated only with changes in the ER stress response and not with changes in other protein handling systems. These data suggested that NQO1 modulated the ER stress response to potentiate toxicity of AC and MD, but protected against BQ toxicity. We further demonstrated that NQO1 mediated reduction to unstable hydroquinones and subsequent redox cycling was important for the activation of the ER stress response and toxicity for both AC and MD. In summary, our data demonstrate that quinone-specific changes in protein handling are evident in N27 cells and the induction of the ER stress response is associated with quinone-mediated toxicity. - Highlights: • Unstable hydroquinones contributed to quinone-induced ER stress and toxicity.

  18. The IAGOS Information System: From the aircraft measurements to the users. (United States)

    Boulanger, Damien; Thouret, Valérie; Cammas, Jean-Pierre; Petzold, Andreas; Volz-Thomas, Andreas; Gerbig, Christoph; Brenninkmeijer, Carl A. M.


    IAGOS (In-service Aircraft for a Global Observing System, aims at the provision of long-term, frequent, regular, accurate, and spatially resolved in-situ observations of atmospheric chemical composition throughout the troposphere and in the UTLS. It builds on almost 20 years of scientific and technological expertise gained in the research projects MOZAIC (Measurement of Ozone and Water Vapour on Airbus In-service Aircraft) and CARIBIC (Civil Aircraft for the Regular Investigation of the Atmosphere Based on an Instrument Container). The European consortium includes research centres, universities, national weather services, airline operators and aviation industry. IAGOS consists of two complementary building blocks proving a unique global observation system: IAGOS-CORE deploys newly developed instrumentation for regular in-situ measurements of atmospheric chemical species both reactive and greenhouse gases (O3, CO, NOx, NOy, H2O, CO2, CH4), aerosols and cloud particles. In IAGOS-CARIBIC a cargo container is deployed monthly as a flying laboratory aboard one aircraft. Involved airlines ensure global operation of the network. Today, 5 aircraft are flying with the MOZAIC (3) or IAGOS-CORE (2) instrumentation namely 3 aircraft from Lufthansa, 1 from Air Namibia, and 1 from China Airlines Taiwan. A main improvement and new aspect of the IAGOS-CORE instrumentation compared to MOZAIC is to deliver the raw data in near real time (i.e. as soon as the aircraft lands data are transmitted). After a first and quick validation of the O3 and CO measurements, preliminary data are made available in the central database for both the MACC project (Monitoring Atmospheric Composition and Climate) and scientific research groups. In addition to recorded measurements, the database also contains added-value products such as meteorological information (tropopause height, air mass backtrajectories) and lagrangian model outputs (FLEXPART). Data access is handled by open


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I W Putra Yadnya


    Full Text Available Ngurah Rai Airport is an International Airport in Bali, this will increase the air traffic frequency and increase the number of aircraft types. This condition increases the noise risk factor which contributes to probable cause of health problem for airport workers. The objective of this study is to analyze the noise effect against hearing acurity of the ground handling staff in Ngurah Rai Airport.This cross sectional study design with 44 number of sample. The sample was taking by proportional random sampling method.The study results showed that noise level in the Administration Division was between 49.6 – 52 dBA. However, in the Technical Division at 08.00 – 16.00 was averagely between 88,3 – 90.9 dBA, at 16.00 – 24.00 was between 89.3 – 93.5 dBA and at 24.00 – 08.00 was between 69.9 – 73.2 dBA. Hearing acurity of ground handling staff in the administration division was 1 personnel (16.7 % experienced hearing acurity depreciation. However, in the technical division, 23 personnel (60.5% experienced hearing acurity depreciation. The staff with ? 20 years working period numbering 6 personnel (37,5% experienced hearing acurity depreciation and staff with > 20 years working period numbering 17 personnel (77.3% experienced hearing acurity depreciation. On the other hand, personnel that always wear hearing protective equipment numbering 7 personnel (33.3% experienced hearing acurity depreciation and personnel who where not wear hearing protective equipment numbering 16 personnel (94.1% experienced hearing acurity depreciation.The study concluded that noise level in the administration division was under threshold limit value, in technical division between 08.00 – 16.00 and 16.00 – 24.00 was upper threshold limit value but between 24.00 – 08.00 was under threshold limit value. There was a different hearing acurity between administration division staff and the technical division staff. The study also enlighten there was association

  20. Emergency Landing Planning for Damaged Aircraft (United States)

    Meuleau, Nicolas; Plaunt, Christian John; Smith, David E.


    Considerable progress has been made over the last 15 years on building adaptive control systems to assist pilots in flying damaged aircraft. Once a pilot has regained control of a damaged aircraft, the next problem is to determine the best site for an emergency landing. In general, the decision depends on many factors including the actual control envelope of the aircraft, distance to the site, weather en route, characteristics of the approach path, characteristics of the runway or landing site, and emergency facilities at the site. All of these influence the risk to the aircraft, to the passengers and crew, and to people and property on the ground. We describe an ongoing project to build and demonstrate an emergency landing planner that takes these various factors into consideration and proposes possible routes and landing sites to the pilot, ordering them according to estimated risk. We give an overview of the system architecture and input data, describe our preliminary modeling of risk, and describe how we search the space of landing sites and routes.