WorldWideScience

Sample records for aircraft engine components

  1. Research regarding reverse engineering for aircraft components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Udroiu Razvan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Reverse engineering is a useful technique used in manufacturing and design process of new components. In aerospace industry new components can be developed, based on existing components without technical Computer Aided Design (CAD data, in order to reduce the development cycle of new products. This paper proposes a methodology wherein the CAD model of turbine blade can be build using computer aided reverse engineering technique utilising a 5 axis Coordinate Measuring Machine (CMM. The proposed methodology uses a scanning strategy by features, followed by a design methodology for 3D modelling of complex shapes.

  2. Measuring compliance during aircraft (Component) redeliveries at KLM engineering & maintenance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burhani, Shahir; Verhagen, W.J.C.; Curran, Ricky

    2016-01-01

    Aircraft and aircraft components are redelivered to the next operator or owner during the phase-out process. During this process the operator is required by law and contract requirements to show compliance with maintenance procedures. At KLM E&M the phase-out documentation process is under

  3. Some failure analyses of South African Air Force aircraft engine and airframe components

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Benson, JM

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available Failure analyses of various engine and airframe components from South African Air Force aircraft have been performed by the Division of Materials Science and Technology over several years and these have ranged from crash investigations to minor...

  4. Aircraft Engine Sensor/Actuator/Component Fault Diagnosis Using a Bank of Kalman Filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Takahisa; Simon, Donald L. (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    In this report, a fault detection and isolation (FDI) system which utilizes a bank of Kalman filters is developed for aircraft engine sensor and actuator FDI in conjunction with the detection of component faults. This FDI approach uses multiple Kalman filters, each of which is designed based on a specific hypothesis for detecting a specific sensor or actuator fault. In the event that a fault does occur, all filters except the one using the correct hypothesis will produce large estimation errors, from which a specific fault is isolated. In the meantime, a set of parameters that indicate engine component performance is estimated for the detection of abrupt degradation. The performance of the FDI system is evaluated against a nonlinear engine simulation for various engine faults at cruise operating conditions. In order to mimic the real engine environment, the nonlinear simulation is executed not only at the nominal, or healthy, condition but also at aged conditions. When the FDI system designed at the healthy condition is applied to an aged engine, the effectiveness of the FDI system is impacted by the mismatch in the engine health condition. Depending on its severity, this mismatch can cause the FDI system to generate incorrect diagnostic results, such as false alarms and missed detections. To partially recover the nominal performance, two approaches, which incorporate information regarding the engine s aging condition in the FDI system, will be discussed and evaluated. The results indicate that the proposed FDI system is promising for reliable diagnostics of aircraft engines.

  5. Multifuel rotary aircraft engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, C.; Berkowitz, M.

    1980-01-01

    The broad objectives of this paper are the following: (1) to summarize the Curtiss-Wright design, development and field testing background in the area of rotary aircraft engines; (2) to briefly summarize past activity and update development work in the area of stratified charge rotary combustion engines; and (3) to discuss the development of a high-performance direct injected unthrottled stratified charge rotary combustion aircraft engine. Efficiency improvements through turbocharging are also discussed.

  6. Mechanical Behaviour of Inconel 718 Thin-Walled Laser Welded Components for Aircraft Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrico Lertora

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nickel alloys are very important in many aerospace applications, especially to manufacture gas turbines and aero engine components, where high strength and temperature resistance are necessary. These kinds of alloys have to be welded with high energy density processes, in order to preserve their high mechanical properties. In this work, CO2 laser overlap joints between Inconel 718 sheets of limited thickness in the absence of postweld heat treatment were made. The main application of this kind of joint is the manufacturing of a helicopter engine component. In particular the aim was to obtain a specific cross section geometry, necessary to overcome the mechanical stresses found in these working conditions without failure. Static and dynamic tests were performed to assess the welds and the parent material fatigue life behaviour. Furthermore, the life trend was identified. This research pointed out that a full joint shape control is possible by choosing proper welding parameters and that the laser beam process allows the maintenance of high tensile strength and ductility of Inconel 718 but caused many liquation microcracks in the heat affected zone (HAZ. In spite of these microcracks, the fatigue behaviour of the overlap welds complies with the technical specifications required by the application.

  7. Aircraft engine pollution reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudey, R. A.

    1972-01-01

    The effect of engine operation on the types and levels of the major aircraft engine pollutants is described and the major factors governing the formation of these pollutants during the burning of hydrocarbon fuel are discussed. Methods which are being explored to reduce these pollutants are discussed and their application to several experimental research programs are pointed out. Results showing significant reductions in the levels of carbon monoxide, unburned hydrocarbons, and oxides of nitrogen obtained from experimental combustion research programs are presented and discussed to point out potential application to aircraft engines. An experimental program designed to develop and demonstrate these and other advanced, low pollution combustor design methods is described. Results that have been obtained to date indicate considerable promise for reducing advanced engine exhaust pollutants to levels significantly below current engines.

  8. Aircraft engines. IV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruffles, P C

    1989-01-01

    Configurational design and thermodynamic performance gain trends are projected into the next 50 years, in view of the growing interest of aircraft manufacturers in both larger and more efficient high-bypass turbofan engines for subsonic flight and variable cycle engines for supersonic flight. Ceramic- and metal-matrix composites are envisioned as the key to achievement of turbine inlet temperatures 300 C higher than the 1400 C which is characteristic of the state-of-the-art, with the requisite high stiffness, strength, and low density. Such fiber-reinforced materials can be readily tailored to furnish greatest strength in a specific direction of loading. Large, low-density engines are critical elements of future 1000-seat aircraft.

  9. Induction hardening of tool steel for heavily loaded aircraft engine components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rokicki P.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Induction hardening is an innovative process allowing modification of the materials surface with more effective, cheaper and more reproducible way to compare with conventional hardening methods used in the aerospace industry. Unfortunately, high requirements and strict regulation concerning this branch of the industry force deep research allowing to obtain results that would be used for numerical modelling of the process. Only by this way one is able to start the industrial application of the process. The main scope of presented paper are results concerning investigation of microstructure evolution of tool steel after single-frequency induction hardening process. The specimens that aim in representing final industrial products (as heavily loaded gears, were heat- -treated with induction method and subjected to metallographic preparation, after which complex microstructure investigation was performed. The results obtained within the research will be a basis for numerical modelling of the process of induction hardening with potential to be introduced for the aviation industrial components.

  10. Cycle Counting Methods of the Aircraft Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedorchenko, Dmitrii G.; Novikov, Dmitrii K.

    2016-01-01

    The concept of condition-based gas turbine-powered aircraft operation is realized all over the world, which implementation requires knowledge of the end-of-life information related to components of aircraft engines in service. This research proposes an algorithm for estimating the equivalent cyclical running hours. This article provides analysis…

  11. Alternative general-aircraft engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomazic, W. A.

    1976-01-01

    The most promising alternative engine (or engines) for application to general aircraft in the post-1985 time period was defined, and the level of technology was cited to the point where confident development of a new engine can begin early in the 1980's. Low emissions, multifuel capability, and fuel economy were emphasized. Six alternative propulsion concepts were considered to be viable candidates for future general-aircraft application: the advanced spark-ignition piston, rotary combustion, two- and four-stroke diesel, Stirling, and gas turbine engines.

  12. Flight service evaluation of an advanced composite empennage component on commercial transport aircraft. Phase 1: Engineering development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ary, A.; Axtell, C.; Fogg, L.; Jackson, A.; James, A. M.; Mosesian, B.; Vanderwier, J.; Vanhamersveld, J.

    1976-01-01

    The empennage component selected for this program is the vertical fin box of the L-1011 aircraft. The box structure extends from the fuselage production joint to the tip rib and includes the front and rear spars. Various design options were evaluated to arrive at a configuration which would offer the highest potential for satisfying program objectives. The preferred configuration selected consists of a hat-stiffened cover with molded integrally stiffened spars, aluminum trussed composite ribs, and composite miniwich web ribs with integrally molded caps. Material screening tests were performed to select an advanced composite material system for the Advanced Composite Vertical Fin (ACFV) that would meet the program requirements from the standpoint of quality, reproducibility, and cost. Preliminary weight and cost analysis were made, targets established, and tracking plans developed. These include FAA certification, ancillary test program, quality control, and structural integrity control plans.

  13. 77 FR 39623 - Airworthiness Standards: Aircraft Engines; Technical Amendment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-05

    ...: AIRCRAFT ENGINES 0 1. The authority citation for part 33 continues to read as follows: Authority: 49 U.S.C..., analysis, and component test. * * * * * Issued in Washington, DC, on June 7, 2012. Lirio Liu, Acting...

  14. Technology for reducing aircraft engine pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudey, R. A.; Kempke, E. E., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    Programs have been initiated by NASA to develop and demonstrate advanced technology for reducing aircraft gas turbine and piston engine pollutant emissions. These programs encompass engines currently in use for a wide variety of aircraft from widebody-jets to general aviation. Emission goals for these programs are consistent with the established EPA standards. Full-scale engine demonstrations of the most promising pollutant reduction techniques are planned within the next three years. Preliminary tests of advanced technology gas turbine engine combustors indicate that significant reductions in all major pollutant emissions should be attainable in present generation aircraft engines without adverse effects on fuel consumption. Fundamental-type programs are yielding results which indicate that future generation gas turbine aircraft engines may be able to utilize extremely low pollutant emission combustion systems.

  15. 14 CFR 21.6 - Manufacture of new aircraft, aircraft engines, and propellers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Manufacture of new aircraft, aircraft... Manufacture of new aircraft, aircraft engines, and propellers. (a) Except as specified in paragraphs (b) and (c) of this section, no person may manufacture a new aircraft, aircraft engine, or propeller based on...

  16. Exergetic analysis of an aircraft turbojet engine with an afterburner

    OpenAIRE

    Ehyaei M.A.; Anjiridezfuli A.; Rosen M.A.

    2013-01-01

    An exergy analysis is reported of a J85-GE-21 turbojet engine and its components for two altitudes: sea level and 11,000 meters. The turbojet engine with afterburning operates on the Brayton cycle and includes six main parts: diffuser, compressor, combustion chamber, turbine, afterburner and nozzle. Aircraft data are utilized in the analysis with simulation data. The highest component exergy efficiency at sea level is observed to be for the compressor, at 9...

  17. Aircraft gas turbine engine vibration diagnostics

    OpenAIRE

    Stanislav Fábry; Marek Češkovič

    2017-01-01

    In the Czech and Slovak aviation are in service elderly aircrafts, usually produced in former Soviet Union. Their power units can be operated in more efficient way, in case of using additional diagnostic methods that allow evaluating their health. Vibration diagnostics is one of the methods indicating changes of rotational machine dynamics. Ground tests of aircraft gas turbine engines allow vibration recording and analysis. Results contribute to airworthiness evaluation and making corrections...

  18. Exergetic analysis of an aircraft turbojet engine with an afterburner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehyaei M.A.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available An exergy analysis is reported of a J85-GE-21 turbojet engine and its components for two altitudes: sea level and 11,000 meters. The turbojet engine with afterburning operates on the Brayton cycle and includes six main parts: diffuser, compressor, combustion chamber, turbine, afterburner and nozzle. Aircraft data are utilized in the analysis with simulation data. The highest component exergy efficiency at sea level is observed to be for the compressor, at 96.7%, followed by the nozzle and turbine with exergy efficiencies of 93.7 and 92.3%, respectively. At both considered heights, reducing of engine intake air speed leads to a reduction in the exergy efficiencies of all engine components and overall engine. The exergy efficiency of the turbojet engine is found to decrease by 0.45% for every 1°C increase in inlet air temperature.

  19. Aircraft Turbine Engine Control Research at NASA Glenn Research Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Sanjay

    2014-01-01

    This lecture will provide an overview of the aircraft turbine engine control research at NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) Glenn Research Center (GRC). A brief introduction to the engine control problem is first provided with a description of the current state-of-the-art control law structure. A historical aspect of engine control development since the 1940s is then provided with a special emphasis on the contributions of GRC. The traditional engine control problem has been to provide a means to safely transition the engine from one steady-state operating point to another based on the pilot throttle inputs. With the increased emphasis on aircraft safety, enhanced performance and affordability, and the need to reduce the environmental impact of aircraft, there are many new challenges being faced by the designers of aircraft propulsion systems. The Controls and Dynamics Branch (CDB) at GRC is leading and participating in various projects in partnership with other organizations within GRC and across NASA, other government agencies, the U.S. aerospace industry, and academia to develop advanced propulsion controls and diagnostics technologies that will help meet the challenging goals of NASA programs under the Aeronautics Research Mission. The second part of the lecture provides an overview of the various CDB technology development activities in aircraft engine control and diagnostics, both current and some accomplished in the recent past. The motivation for each of the research efforts, the research approach, technical challenges and the key progress to date are summarized. The technologies to be discussed include system level engine control concepts, gas path diagnostics, active component control, and distributed engine control architecture. The lecture will end with a futuristic perspective of how the various current technology developments will lead to an Intelligent and Autonomous Propulsion System requiring none to very minimum pilot interface

  20. Aircraft Piston Engine Exhaust Emission Symposium

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    A 2-day symposium on the reduction of exhaust emissions from aircraft piston engines was held on September 14 and 15, 1976, at the Lewis Research Center in Cleveland, Ohio. Papers were presented by both government organizations and the general aviation industry on the status of government contracts, emission measurement problems, data reduction procedures, flight testing, and emission reduction techniques.

  1. Stratified charge rotary aircraft engine technology enablement program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badgley, P. R.; Irion, C. E.; Myers, D. M.

    1985-01-01

    The multifuel stratified charge rotary engine is discussed. A single rotor, 0.7L/40 cu in displacement, research rig engine was tested. The research rig engine was designed for operation at high speeds and pressures, combustion chamber peak pressure providing margin for speed and load excursions above the design requirement for a high is advanced aircraft engine. It is indicated that the single rotor research rig engine is capable of meeting the established design requirements of 120 kW, 8,000 RPM, 1,379 KPA BMEP. The research rig engine, when fully developed, will be a valuable tool for investigating, advanced and highly advanced technology components, and provide an understanding of the stratified charge rotary engine combustion process.

  2. Study on afterburner of aircraft engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kashiwagi, T [Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1991-07-01

    Study on the afterburner for aircraft engines was reported which is used as an optimum means to produce the supersonic capability of military aircrafts. The basic principle and types of the afterburner were outlined, and as the major problem concerning turbofan afterburners, a combustion capacity at low temperature in fan air flow was discussed, in particular, flame stabilization and combustion efficiency. Basic studies were conducted by fuel spray test, combustion stability test, sector model combustion test and numerical analysis of afterburner internal flow. As a result, a mixing spray fuel injection system with injection of a small amount of fuel into flameholder wake resulted in broadening of a combustible region, and an original flameholder combined with a scoop and double gutters caused a high combustion efficiency. The prototype afterburner was developed for F3 turbofan engines in association with Japan Defence Agency, and a combustion efficiency of 74% was obtained in on-engine running test. 4 refs., 14 figs.

  3. Aircraft gas turbine engine vibration diagnostics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislav Fábry

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In the Czech and Slovak aviation are in service elderly aircrafts, usually produced in former Soviet Union. Their power units can be operated in more efficient way, in case of using additional diagnostic methods that allow evaluating their health. Vibration diagnostics is one of the methods indicating changes of rotational machine dynamics. Ground tests of aircraft gas turbine engines allow vibration recording and analysis. Results contribute to airworthiness evaluation and making corrections, if needed. Vibration sensors distribution, signal recording and processing are introduced in a paper. Recorded and re-calculated vibration parameters are used in role of health indicators.

  4. Aircraft Engine Technology for Green Aviation to Reduce Fuel Burn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Christopher E.; VanZante, Dale E.; Heidmann, James D.

    2013-01-01

    The NASA Fundamental Aeronautics Program Subsonic Fixed Wing Project and Integrated Systems Research Program Environmentally Responsible Aviation Project in the Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate are conducting research on advanced aircraft technology to address the environmental goals of reducing fuel burn, noise and NOx emissions for aircraft in 2020 and beyond. Both Projects, in collaborative partnerships with U.S. Industry, Academia, and other Government Agencies, have made significant progress toward reaching the N+2 (2020) and N+3 (beyond 2025) installed fuel burn goals by fundamental aircraft engine technology development, subscale component experimental investigations, full scale integrated systems validation testing, and development validation of state of the art computation design and analysis codes. Specific areas of propulsion technology research are discussed and progress to date.

  5. Aircraft Engine Life-Consumption Monitoring for Real-Time Reliability Determination, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The object of this research is to develop an in-service life-monitor system for the prediction of the remaining component and system life of aircraft engines. The...

  6. Industrial approach to piezoelectric damping of large fighter aircraft components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, John; Schweiger, Johannes

    1998-06-01

    Different concepts to damp structural vibrations of the vertical tail of fighter aircraft are reported. The various requirements for a vertical tail bias an integrated approach for the design. Several active vibrations suppression concepts had been investigated during the preparatory phase of a research program shared by Daimler-Benz Aerospace Military Aircraft (Dasa), Daimler-Benz Forschung (DBF) and Deutsche Forschungsandstalt fuer Luftund Raumfahrt (DLR). Now in the main phase of the programme, four concepts were finally chosen: two concepts with aerodynamic control surfaces and two concepts with piezoelectric components. One piezo concept approach will be described rigorously, the other concepts are briefly addressed. In the Dasa concept, thin surface piezo actuators are set out carefully to flatten the dynamic portion of the combined static and dynamic maximum bending moment loading case directly in the shell structure. The second piezo concept by DLR involves pre-loaded lead zirconate titanate (PZT)-block actuators at host structure fixtures. To this end a research apparatus was designed and built as a full scale simplified fin box with carbon fiber reinformed plastic skins and an aluminium stringer-rib substructure restrained by relevant aircraft fixtures. It constitutes a benchmark 3D-structural impedance. The engineering design incorporates 7kg of PZT surface actuators. The structural system then should be excited to more than 15mm tip displacement amplitude. This prepares the final step to total A/C integration. Typical analysis methods using cyclic thermal analogies adapted to induced load levels are compared. Commercial approaches leading onto basic state space model interpretation wrt. actuator sizing and positioning, structural integrity constraints, FE-validation and testing are described. Both piezoelectric strategies are aimed at straight open-loop performance related to concept weight penalty and input electric power. The required actuators, power

  7. Residual life estimation of cracked aircraft structural components

    OpenAIRE

    Maksimović, Mirko S.; Vasović, Ivana V.; Maksimović, Katarina S.; Trišović, Nataša; Maksimović, Stevan M.

    2018-01-01

    The subject of this investigation is focused on developing computation procedure for strength analysis of damaged aircraft structural components with respect to fatigue and fracture mechanics. For that purpose, here will be defined computation procedures for residual life estimation of aircraft structural components such as wing skin and attachment lugs under cyclic loads of constant amplitude and load spectrum. A special aspect of this investigation is based on using of the Strain Energy Den...

  8. Fractographic Analysis of High-Cycle Fatgue in Aircraft Engines

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shockey, Donald

    2000-01-01

    .... Fracture surfaces produced under systematically varied cydic load conditions in laboratory specimens of titanium turbine blade alloy were provided to the program by an aircraft engine manufacturer...

  9. Fractographic Analysis of High-Cycle Fatigue in Aircraft Engines

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shockey, Donald

    2000-01-01

    .... Fracture surfaces produced under systematically varied cyclic load conditions in laboratory specimens of titanium turbine blade alloy were provided to the program by an aircraft engine manufacturer...

  10. PVD TBC experience on GE aircraft engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maricocchi, Antonio; Bartz, Andi; Wortman, David

    1995-01-01

    The higher performance levels of modern gas turbine engines present significant challenges in the reliability of materials in the turbine. The increased engine temperatures required to achieve the higher performance levels reduce the strength of the materials used in the turbine sections of the engine. Various forms of thermal barrier coatings (TBC's) have been used for many years to increase the reliability of gas turbine engine components. Recent experience with the physical vapor deposition (PVD) process using ceramic material has demonstrated success in extending the service life of turbine blades and nozzles. Engine test results of turbine components with a 125 micron (0.005 in) PVD TBC have demonstrated component operating temperatures of 56-83 C (100-150 F) lower than non-PVD TBC components. Engine testing has also revealed the TBC is susceptible to high angle particle impact damage. Sand particles and other engine debris impact the TBC surface at the leading edge of airfoils and fracture the PVD columns. As the impacting continues, the TBC erodes away in local areas. Analysis of the eroded areas has shown a slight increase in temperature over a fully coated area, however a significant temperature reduction was realized over an airfoil without TBC.

  11. Safety engineering with COTS components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Halloran, Mark; Hall, Jon G.; Rapanotti, Lucia

    2017-01-01

    Safety-critical systems are becoming more widespread, complex and reliant on software. Increasingly they are engineered through (COTS) (Commercial Off The Shelf) components to alleviate the spiralling costs and development time, often in the context of complex supply chains. A parallel increased concern for safety has resulted in a variety of safety standards, with a growing consensus that a safety life cycle is needed which is fully integrated with the design and development life cycle, to ensure that safety has appropriate influence on the design decisions as system development progresses. In this article we explore the application of an integrated approach to safety engineering in which assurance drives the engineering process. The paper reports on the outcome of a case study on a live industrial project with a view to evaluate: its suitability for application in a real-world safety engineering setting; its benefits and limitations in counteracting some of the difficulties of safety engineering with (COTS) components across supply chains; and, its effectiveness in generating evidence which can contribute directly to the construction of safety cases. - Highlights: • Assurance as effective driver for COTS-based safety-critical system development. • Engages stakeholders, captures requirements and provides rich traceability. • Shares appropriate safety requirements across the supply chain.

  12. Trend of supersonic aircraft engine. Choonsokukiyo engine no doko

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yashima, S [Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries, Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1994-05-01

    The present paper explained the R and D trend of supersonic aircraft engine in Europe, USA and Japan. Taking the high speed flight resistance into consideration, the engine must be characterized by its high exhaust gas speed and high specific thrust (ratio of thrust to the airflow rate) to secure strong thrust by a low airflow rate. Therefore, the turbojet is appropriate. However to reduce the fuel consumption during the cruising flight, the turbofan is normally used with a low by-pass ratio of 0.2 to 0.9. The thrust-to-weight ratio (thrust per unit weight) of low by-pass ratio turbofan engine equipped with afterburner is 7 to 8 in case of stronger thrust than 70kN. Its target value of development is 10. The specific thrust which is a performance parameter of engine exceeds 120s for the fighter engine and is about 30s for the passenger plane engine. The turbine inlet temperature is 2073K at the stage of element research. The overall pressure ratio ranges from 25 to 30. The reheating turbofan engine experimentally built for the research in Japan is 34kN in thrust and 7 in thrust-to-weight ratio. 8 refs., 9 figs.

  13. Trends in aircraft engines. Trends in aircraft gas turbines and subsonic engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murashima, Kanji

    1988-06-10

    While the emphasis of commercial, large aircraft engines is placed on low fuel consumption at high subsonic flight and the turbofan engines with high bypass ratio are dominating, high speed turboprop (ATP) of Mach 0.85 class with low fuel consumption are emerging. UHB with bypass ratio of 15 - 20 are planned with expection for application to intermediate size commercial planes. The pressure ratio is continuously rizing for improved cycle efficiency, reaching 35 - 40 in highest cases. Trends in design technique include: Use of computational aerodynamics and application of two-dimensional structural analysis and the digital simulation of engine characteristics. In the field of large, high bypass turbofan, serious competition is seen between GE and PNA at the thrust level of 5 - 60,000 pounds. Several engines for fighting planes have been approved in the type test and accepted as candidates for next generation of fighting planes including Japan. (15 figs, 36 refs)

  14. Aircraft Engine Thrust Estimator Design Based on GSA-LSSVM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Hanlin; Zhang, Tianhong

    2017-08-01

    In view of the necessity of highly precise and reliable thrust estimator to achieve direct thrust control of aircraft engine, based on support vector regression (SVR), as well as least square support vector machine (LSSVM) and a new optimization algorithm - gravitational search algorithm (GSA), by performing integrated modelling and parameter optimization, a GSA-LSSVM-based thrust estimator design solution is proposed. The results show that compared to particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm, GSA can find unknown optimization parameter better and enables the model developed with better prediction and generalization ability. The model can better predict aircraft engine thrust and thus fulfills the need of direct thrust control of aircraft engine.

  15. Final Rule for Control of Air Pollution From Aircraft and Aircraft Engines; Emission Standards and Test Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA adopted emission standards and related provisions for aircraft gas turbine engines with rated thrusts greater than 26.7 kilonewtons. These engines are used primarily on commercial passenger and freight aircraft.

  16. Effect of broadened-specification fuels on aircraft engines and fuel systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudey, R. A.

    1979-01-01

    A wide variety of studies on the potential effects of broadened-specification fuels on future aircraft engines and fuel systems are summarized. The compositions and characteristics of aircraft fuels that may be derived from current and future crude-oil sources are described, and the most critical properties that may affect aircraft engines and fuel systems are identified and discussed. The problems that are most likely to be encountered because of changes in selected fuel properties are described; and the related effects on engine performance, component durability and maintenance, and aircraft fuel-system performance are discussed. The ability of current technology to accept possible future fuel-specification changes is discussed, and selected technological advances that can reduce the severity of the potential problems are illustrated.

  17. Research and development of turbofan engine for supersonic aircraft. Choonsokukiyo turbofan engine no kenkyu kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yashima, S [Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1992-01-01

    This paper described the researched results of the demonstrator of a turbofan engine for supersonic aircraft (IHI-17). A turbofan engine with an afterburner was experimentally fabricated and various engine tests have been carried out since 1988. Although the engine size is small, the fighter engine specifications were applied to its design and the prior or simultaneous research on each component was carried out. As a result, the system integration technique by which an engine was assembled by integrating each component could be established. New materials and new manufacturing techniques such as turbine blades of single crystal, turbine disks of powder metallurgy and deep chemical milling for a duct were developed to use for the long term engine test and the prospect to commercialization could be obtained. The following techniques have been established and the results satisfying target specifications could be achieved: the three dimensional aerodynamic design of compressor and turbine, the adoption of air blast fuel atomizer to suppress the smoke generation, an afterburner of spray bar system and the mounting type FADEC (full authority digital electronic control) to control the engine with the afterburner. 4 refs., 15 figs., 4 tabs.

  18. Calculation of odour emissions from aircraft engines at Copenhagen Airport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winther, Morten; Kousgaard, Uffe [National Environmental Research Institute, Frederiksborgvej 399, 4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Oxboel, Arne [FORCE Technology, Park Alle 345, 2605 Broendby (Denmark)

    2006-07-31

    In a new approach the odour emissions from aircraft engines at Copenhagen Airport are calculated using actual fuel flow and emission measurements (one main engine and one APU: Auxiliary Power Unit), odour panel results, engine specific data and aircraft operational data for seven busy days. The calculation principle assumes a linear relation between odour and HC emissions. Using a digitalisation of the aircraft movements in the airport area, the results are depicted on grid maps, clearly reflecting aircraft operational statistics as single flights or total activity during a whole day. The results clearly reflect the short-term temporal fluctuations of the emissions of odour (and exhaust gases). Aircraft operating at low engine thrust (taxiing, queuing and landing) have a total odour emission share of almost 98%, whereas the shares for the take off/climb out phases (2%) and APU usage (0.5%) are only marginal. In most hours of the day, the largest odour emissions occur, when the total amount of fuel burned during idle is high. However, significantly higher HC emissions for one specific engine cause considerable amounts of odour emissions during limited time periods. The experimentally derived odour emission factor of 57 OU/mg HC is within the range of 23 and 110 OU/mg HC used in other airport odour studies. The distribution of odour emission results between aircraft operational phases also correspond very well with the results for these other studies. The present study uses measurement data for a representative engine. However, the uncertainties become large when the experimental data is used to estimate the odour emissions for all aircraft engines. More experimental data is needed to increase inventory accuracy, and in terms of completeness it is recommended to make odour emission estimates also for engine start and the fuelling of aircraft at Copenhagen Airport in the future. (author)

  19. Calculation of odour emissions from aircraft engines at Copenhagen Airport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winther, Morten; Kousgaard, Uffe; Oxbøl, Arne

    2006-07-31

    In a new approach the odour emissions from aircraft engines at Copenhagen Airport are calculated using actual fuel flow and emission measurements (one main engine and one APU: Auxiliary Power Unit), odour panel results, engine specific data and aircraft operational data for seven busy days. The calculation principle assumes a linear relation between odour and HC emissions. Using a digitalisation of the aircraft movements in the airport area, the results are depicted on grid maps, clearly reflecting aircraft operational statistics as single flights or total activity during a whole day. The results clearly reflect the short-term temporal fluctuations of the emissions of odour (and exhaust gases). Aircraft operating at low engine thrust (taxiing, queuing and landing) have a total odour emission share of almost 98%, whereas the shares for the take off/climb out phases (2%) and APU usage (0.5%) are only marginal. In most hours of the day, the largest odour emissions occur, when the total amount of fuel burned during idle is high. However, significantly higher HC emissions for one specific engine cause considerable amounts of odour emissions during limited time periods. The experimentally derived odour emission factor of 57 OU/mg HC is within the range of 23 and 110 OU/mg HC used in other airport odour studies. The distribution of odour emission results between aircraft operational phases also correspond very well with the results for these other studies. The present study uses measurement data for a representative engine. However, the uncertainties become large when the experimental data is used to estimate the odour emissions for all aircraft engines. More experimental data is needed to increase inventory accuracy, and in terms of completeness it is recommended to make odour emission estimates also for engine start and the fuelling of aircraft at Copenhagen Airport in the future.

  20. Development of composite aircraft components in INCDT COMOTI, Bucharest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raluca VOICU

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the recent research activities within INCDT COMOTI, in the composite materials field. The author makes a short introduction of this field and presents an example of application developed within the composite materials laboratory from INCDT COMOTI, targeting the aeronautic field. The aircraft component is a stator blade made of CFRP composites, integrating new active noise reduction technologies and manufactured by means of the autoclave technology.

  1. On the dominant noise components of tactical aircraft: Laboratory to full scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, Christopher K. W.; Aubert, Allan C.; Spyropoulos, John T.; Powers, Russell W.

    2018-05-01

    This paper investigates the dominant noise components of a full-scale high performance tactical aircraft. The present study uses acoustic measurements of the exhaust jet from a single General Electric F414-400 turbofan engine installed in a Boeing F/A-18E Super Hornet aircraft operating from flight idle to maximum afterburner. The full-scale measurements are to the ANSI S12.75-2012 standard employing about 200 microphones. By comparing measured noise spectra with those from hot supersonic jets observed in the laboratory, the dominant noise components specific to the F/A-18E aircraft at different operating power levels are identified. At intermediate power, it is found that the dominant noise components of an F/A-18E aircraft are essentially the same as those of high temperature supersonic laboratory jets. However, at military and afterburner powers, there are new dominant noise components. Their characteristics are then documented and analyzed. This is followed by an investigation of their origin and noise generation mechanisms.

  2. Sonic IR crack detection of aircraft turbine engine blades with multi-frequency ultrasound excitations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Ding; Han, Xiaoyan; Newaz, Golam

    2014-01-01

    Effectively and accurately detecting cracks or defects in critical engine components, such as turbine engine blades, is very important for aircraft safety. Sonic Infrared (IR) Imaging is such a technology with great potential for these applications. This technology combines ultrasound excitation and IR imaging to identify cracks and flaws in targets. In general, failure of engine components, such as blades, begins with tiny cracks. Since the attenuation of the ultrasound wave propagation in turbine engine blades is small, the efficiency of crack detection in turbine engine blades can be quite high. The authors at Wayne State University have been developing the technology as a reliable tool for the future field use in aircraft engines and engine parts. One part of the development is to use finite element modeling to assist our understanding of effects of different parameters on crack heating while experimentally hard to achieve. The development has been focused with single frequency ultrasound excitation and some results have been presented in a previous conference. We are currently working on multi-frequency excitation models. The study will provide results and insights of the efficiency of different frequency excitation sources to foster the development of the technology for crack detection in aircraft engine components

  3. Control Design for a Generic Commercial Aircraft Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csank, Jeffrey; May, Ryan D.

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the control algorithms and control design process for a generic commercial aircraft engine simulation of a 40,000 lb thrust class, two spool, high bypass ratio turbofan engine. The aircraft engine is a complex nonlinear system designed to operate over an extreme range of environmental conditions, at temperatures from approximately -60 to 120+ F, and at altitudes from below sea level to 40,000 ft, posing multiple control design constraints. The objective of this paper is to provide the reader an overview of the control design process, design considerations, and justifications as to why the particular architecture and limits have been chosen. The controller architecture contains a gain-scheduled Proportional Integral controller along with logic to protect the aircraft engine from exceeding any limits. Simulation results illustrate that the closed loop system meets the Federal Aviation Administration s thrust response requirements

  4. QCGAT aircraft/engine design for reduced noise and emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanson, L.; Terrill, K. M.

    1980-01-01

    The high bypass ratio QCGAT engine played an important role in shaping the aircraft design. The aircraft which evolved is a sleek, advanced design, six-place aircraft with 3538 kg (7,800 lb) maximum gross weight. It offers a 2778 kilometer (1500 nautical mile) range with cruise speed of 0.5 Mach number and will take-off and land on the vast majority of general aviation airfields. Advanced features include broad application of composite materials and a supercritical wing design with winglets. Full-span fowler flaps were introduced to improve landing capability. Engines are fuselage-mounted with inlets over the wing to provide shielding of fan noise by the wing surfaces. The design objectives, noise, and emission considerations, engine cycle and engine description are discussed as well as specific design features.

  5. 14 CFR 33.91 - Engine system and component tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: AIRCRAFT ENGINES Block Tests; Turbine Aircraft Engines § 33.91 Engine system and..., reliability, and durability. (c) Each unpressurized hydraulic fluid tank may not fail or leak when subjected... hydraulic fluid tank must meet the requirements of § 33.64. (d) For an engine type certificated for use in...

  6. Rankine-Brayton engine powered solar thermal aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Charles L [Livermore, CA

    2009-12-29

    A solar thermal powered aircraft powered by heat energy from the sun. A Rankine-Brayton hybrid cycle heat engine is carried by the aircraft body for producing power for a propulsion mechanism, such as a propeller or other mechanism for enabling sustained free flight. The Rankine-Brayton engine has a thermal battery, preferably containing a lithium-hydride and lithium mixture, operably connected to it so that heat is supplied from the thermal battery to a working fluid. A solar concentrator, such as reflective parabolic trough, is movably connected to an optically transparent section of the aircraft body for receiving and concentrating solar energy from within the aircraft. Concentrated solar energy is collected by a heat collection and transport conduit, and heat transported to the thermal battery. A solar tracker includes a heliostat for determining optimal alignment with the sun, and a drive motor actuating the solar concentrator into optimal alignment with the sun based on a determination by the heliostat.

  7. Rankline-Brayton engine powered solar thermal aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Charles L [Livermore, CA

    2012-03-13

    A solar thermal powered aircraft powered by heat energy from the sun. A Rankine-Brayton hybrid cycle heat engine is carried by the aircraft body for producing power for a propulsion mechanism, such as a propeller or other mechanism for enabling sustained free flight. The Rankine-Brayton engine has a thermal battery, preferably containing a lithium-hydride and lithium mixture, operably connected to it so that heat is supplied from the thermal battery to a working fluid. A solar concentrator, such as reflective parabolic trough, is movably connected to an optically transparent section of the aircraft body for receiving and concentrating solar energy from within the aircraft. Concentrated solar energy is collected by a heat collection and transport conduit, and heat transported to the thermal battery. A solar tracker includes a heliostat for determining optimal alignment with the sun, and a drive motor actuating the solar concentrator into optimal alignment with the sun based on a determination by the heliostat.

  8. Aircraft propulsion and gas turbine engines

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    El-Sayed, Ahmed F

    2008-01-01

    ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xvii xxxi xxxiii xxxv Part I Aero Engines and Gas Turbines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C...

  9. Structureborne noise investigations of a twin engine aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrelick, J. M.; Cole, J. E., III; Martini, K.

    1986-01-01

    The interior noise of aircraft powered by advanced turbo-prop concepts is likely to have nonnegligible contributions from structureborne paths, these paths being those involving propeller loads transmitted to the structures of the lifting surfaces. As a means of examining these paths, structural measurements have been performed on a small twin-engine aircraft, and in addition analytical models of the structure have been developed. In this paper results from both portions of this study are presented.

  10. Military Tactical Aircraft Engine Noise Matching to Infrared Signatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-16

    Jet engine exhaust plumes also exhibit emission and absorption of radiation from their emitted chemical species, occurring at discrete spectra...Modulation,” Naval Postgraduate School MS thesis (1990). [8] Sinha, N., Ungewitter, R. J., Kenzakowski, D. C., and Seiner, J. M., “Gas Turbine Engine Jet...FINAL REPORT Military Tactical Aircraft Engine Noise Matching to Infrared Signatures SERDP Project WP-2404 JANUARY 2016 Dr

  11. The Demand for Single Engine Piston Aircraft,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-08-01

    flying markets. The wing incorporates the drooped leading edge technology developed by NASA for more stability and spin resistance and its aerodynamic ...composites more quickly because of the absence of certi- ficatjcr: requirements. Less conventional configurations such as carar( wings and winglets are...smooth contours and surfaces. Composites offer much promise and are already in use in winos of a number of aircraft. Winglets reduce vortex drag by

  12. Multi-Fuel Rotary Engine for General Aviation Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, C.; Ellis, D. R.; Meng, P. R.

    1983-01-01

    Design studies, conducted for NASA, of Advanced Multi-fuel General Aviation and Commuter Aircraft Rotary Stratified Charge Engines are summarized. Conceptual design studies of an advanced engine sized to provide 186/250 shaft KW/HP under cruise conditions at 7620/25,000 m/ft. altitude were performed. Relevant engine development background covering both prior and recent engine test results of the direct injected unthrottled rotary engine technology, including the capability to interchangeably operate on gasoline, diesel fuel, kerosene, or aviation jet fuel, are presented and related to growth predictions. Aircraft studies, using these resultant growth engines, define anticipated system effects of the performance and power density improvements for both single engine and twin engine airplanes. The calculated results indicate superior system performance and 30 to 35% fuel economy improvement for the Rotary-engine airplanes as compared to equivalent airframe concept designs with current baseline engines. The research and technology activities required to attain the projected engine performance levels are also discussed.

  13. Organic positive ions in aircraft gas-turbine engine exhaust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorokin, Andrey; Arnold, Frank

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) represent a significant fraction of atmospheric aerosol. However the role of organic species emitted by aircraft (as a consequence of the incomplete combustion of fuel in the engine) in nucleation of new volatile particles still remains rather speculative and requires a much more detailed analysis of the underlying mechanisms. Measurements in aircraft exhaust plumes have shown the presence of both different non-methane VOCs (e.g. PartEmis project) and numerous organic cluster ions (MPIK-Heidelberg). However the link between detected organic gas-phase species and measured mass spectrum of cluster ions is uncertain. Unfortunately, up to now there are no models describing the thermodynamics of the formation of primary organic cluster ions in the exhaust of aircraft engines. The aim of this work is to present first results of such a model development. The model includes the block of thermodynamic data based on proton affinities and gas basicities of organic molecules and the block of non-equilibrium kinetics of the cluster ions evolution in the exhaust. The model predicts important features of the measured spectrum of positive ions in the exhaust behind aircraft. It is shown that positive ions emitted by aircraft engines into the atmosphere mostly consist of protonated and hydrated organic cluster ions. The developed model may be explored also in aerosol investigations of the background atmosphere as well as in the analysis of the emission of fine aerosol particles by automobiles.

  14. Rotor Systems of Aircraft Jet Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ján Kamenický

    2000-01-01

    engine's both coaxial rotors, their supports (including their hydrodynamic dampers, and its casing as well. Besides the short description of the engine design peculiarities and of its calculating model, there is also a short description of the used method of calculations, with focus on its peculiarities as well. Finally, some results of calculations and conclusions that follow from them are presented.

  15. Engine-propeller power plant aircraft community noise reduction key methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moshkov P., A.; Samokhin V., F.; Yakovlev A., A.

    2018-04-01

    Basic methods of aircraft-type flying vehicle engine-propeller power plant noise reduction were considered including single different-structure-and-arrangement propellers and piston engines. On the basis of a semiempirical model the expressions for blade diameter and number effect evaluation upon propeller noise tone components under thrust constancy condition were proposed. Acoustic tests performed at Moscow Aviation institute airfield on the whole qualitatively proved the obtained ratios. As an example of noise and detectability reduction provision a design-and-experimental estimation of propeller diameter effect upon unmanned aircraft audibility boundaries was performed. Future investigation ways were stated to solve a low-noise power plant design problem for light aircraft and unmanned aerial vehicles.

  16. Data Fusion for Enhanced Aircraft Engine Prognostics and Health Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volponi, Al

    2005-01-01

    Aircraft gas-turbine engine data is available from a variety of sources, including on-board sensor measurements, maintenance histories, and component models. An ultimate goal of Propulsion Health Management (PHM) is to maximize the amount of meaningful information that can be extracted from disparate data sources to obtain comprehensive diagnostic and prognostic knowledge regarding the health of the engine. Data fusion is the integration of data or information from multiple sources for the achievement of improved accuracy and more specific inferences than can be obtained from the use of a single sensor alone. The basic tenet underlying the data/ information fusion concept is to leverage all available information to enhance diagnostic visibility, increase diagnostic reliability and reduce the number of diagnostic false alarms. This report describes a basic PHM data fusion architecture being developed in alignment with the NASA C-17 PHM Flight Test program. The challenge of how to maximize the meaningful information extracted from disparate data sources to obtain enhanced diagnostic and prognostic information regarding the health and condition of the engine is the primary goal of this endeavor. To address this challenge, NASA Glenn Research Center, NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, and Pratt & Whitney have formed a team with several small innovative technology companies to plan and conduct a research project in the area of data fusion, as it applies to PHM. Methodologies being developed and evaluated have been drawn from a wide range of areas including artificial intelligence, pattern recognition, statistical estimation, and fuzzy logic. This report will provide a chronology and summary of the work accomplished under this research contract.

  17. Study of advanced rotary combustion engines for commuter aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkowitz, M.; Jones, C.; Myers, D.

    1983-01-01

    Performance, weight, size, and maintenance data for advanced rotary aircraft engines suitable for comparative commuter aircraft system evaluation studies of alternate engine candidates are provided. These are turbocharged, turbocompounded, direct injected, stratified charge rotary engines. Hypothetical engines were defined (an RC4-74 at 895 kW and an RC6-87 at 1490 kW) based on the technologies and design approaches used in the highly advanced engine of a study of advanced general aviation rotary engines. The data covers the size range of shaft power from 597 kW (800 hp) to 1865 kW (2500 hp) and is in the form of drawings, tables, curves and written text. These include data on internal geometry and configuration, installation information, turbocharging and turbocompounding arrangements, design features and technologies, engine cooling, fuels, scaling for weight size BSFC and heat rejection for varying horsepower, engine operating and performance data, and TBO and maintenance requirements. The basic combustion system was developed and demonstrated; however the projected power densities and performance efficiencies require increases in engine internal pressures, thermal loading, and rotative speed.

  18. Federal Aviation Administration (FAA airworthiness certification for ceramic matrix composite components in civil aircraft systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonczy Stephen T.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ceramic matrix composites (CMCs are being designed and developed for engine and exhaust components in commercial aviation, because they offer higher temperature capabilities, weight savings, and improved durability compared to metals. The United States Federal Aviation Administration (FAA issues and enforces regulations and minimum standards covering the safe manufacture, operation, and maintenance of civil aircraft. As new materials, these ceramic composite components will have to meet the certification regulations of the FAA for “airworthiness”. The FAA certification process is defined in the Federal Aviation Regulations (Title 14 of the Code of Federal Regulations, FAA policy statements, orders, advisory circulars, technical standard orders, and FAA airworthiness directives. These regulations and documents provide the fundamental requirements and guidelines for design, testing, manufacture, quality assurance, registration, operation, inspection, maintenance, and repair of aircraft systems and parts. For metallic parts in aircraft, the FAA certification and compliance process is well-established for type and airworthiness certification, using ASTM and SAE standards, the MMPDS data handbook, and FAA advisory circulars. In a similar manner for polymer matrix composites (PMC, the PMC industry and the FAA have jointly developed and are refining parallel guidelines for polymer matrix composites (PMCs, using guidance in FAA circulars and the CMH-17 PMC handbook. These documents discuss design methods and codes, material testing, property data development, life/durability assessment, production processes, QA procedures, inspection methods, operational limits, and repairs for PMCs. For ceramic composites, the FAA and the CMC and aerospace community are working together (primarily through the CMH-17 CMC handbook to define and codify key design, production, and regulatory issues that have to be addressed in the certification of CMC components in

  19. Additive manufacturing of titanium alloy for aircraft components

    OpenAIRE

    Uhlmann, E.; Kersting, R.; Klein, T.B.; Cruz, M.F.; Borille, A.V.

    2015-01-01

    Selective Laser melting (SLM) is an additive manufacturing technology that uses laser as a power source to sinter powdered metals to produce solid structures. The application of SLM permits engineers to develop and implement components with topologically optimized designs and resultant material properties in comparison to conventionally produced casting parts. Current aviation programs as ACARE 2020 (Advisory Council for Aviation Research and Innovation in the EU) and Flightpath 2050 request ...

  20. Advanced technology for reducing aircraft engine pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, R. E.

    1973-01-01

    The proposed EPA regulations covering emissions of gas turbine engines will require extensive combustor development. The NASA is working to develop technology to meet these goals through a wide variety of combustor research programs conducted in-house, by contract, and by university grant. In-house efforts using the swirl-can modular combustor have demonstrated sizable reduction in NO emission levels. Testing to reduce idle pollutants has included the modification of duplex fuel nozzles to air-assisted nozzles and an exploration of the potential improvements possible with combustors using fuel staging and variable geometry. The Experimental Clean Combustor Program, a large contracted effort, is devoted to the testing and development of combustor concepts designed to achieve a large reduction in the levels of all emissions. This effort is planned to be conducted in three phases with the final phase to be an engine demonstration of the best reduced emission concepts.

  1. Philosophy of integrity assessment of engineering components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaudhuri, Satyabrata

    2008-01-01

    Integrity assessment of engineering components in power plants and process industries has attracted global attention from the viewpoint of safety and economy for their optimum utilization. This paper describes some aspects of philosophy of component integrity such as life assessment technology, materials used and the factors limiting the serviceability of the components operating at high temperatures and pressures. Numerous investigations have been carried out all over the world to study changes in microstructure and material property due to prolonged service of the components to decide their further serviceability. This paper includes case studies on integrity assessment of service-exposed components carried out in our laboratory as well

  2. Number and mass analysis of particles emitted by aircraft engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasiński Remigiusz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Exhaust emissions from aircraft is a complex issue because of the limited possibility of measurements in flight conditions. Most of the studies on this subject were performed on the basis of stationary test. Engine certification data is used to calculate total emissions generated by air transport. However, it doesnt provide any information about the local effects of air traffic. The main threat to local communities is particulate matter emissions, which adversely affects human health. Emissions from air transport affect air quality, particularly in the vicinity of the airports; it also contributes to the greenhouse effect. The article presents the measurement results of the concentration and size distribution of particles emitted during aircraft landing operation. Measurements were carried out during the landings of aircraft at a civilian airport. It was found that a single landing operation causes particle number concentration value increase of several ten-fold in a short period of time. Using aircraft engine certification data, the methodology for determination of the total number of particles emitted during a single landing operation was introduced.

  3. Cobalt: A vital element in the aircraft engine industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, J. R.

    1981-01-01

    Recent trends in the United States consumption of cobalt indicate that superalloys for aircraft engine manufacture require increasing amounts of this strategic element. Superalloys consume a lion's share of total U.S. cobalt usage which was about 16 million pounds in 1980. In excess of 90 percent of the cobalt used in this country was imported, principally from the African countries of Zaire and Zambia. Early studies on the roles of cobalt as an alloying element in high temperature alloys concentrated on the simple Ni-Cr and Nimonic alloy series. The role of cobalt in current complex nickel base superalloys is not well defined and indeed, the need for the high concentration of cobalt in widely used nickel base superalloys is not firmly established. The current cobalt situation is reviewed as it applies to superalloys and the opportunities for research to reduce the consumption of cobalt in the aircraft engine industry are described.

  4. Exergo-Economic Analysis of an Experimental Aircraft Turboprop Engine Under Low Torque Condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atilgan, Ramazan; Turan, Onder; Aydin, Hakan

    Exergo-economic analysis is an unique combination of exergy analysis and cost analysis conducted at the component level. In exergo-economic analysis, cost of each exergy stream is determined. Inlet and outlet exergy streams of the each component are associated to a monetary cost. This is essential to detect cost-ineffective processes and identify technical options which could improve the cost effectiveness of the overall energy system. In this study, exergo-economic analysis is applied to an aircraft turboprop engine. Analysis is based on experimental values at low torque condition (240 N m). Main components of investigated turboprop engine are the compressor, the combustor, the gas generator turbine, the free power turbine and the exhaust. Cost balance equations have been formed for all components individually and exergo-economic parameters including cost rates and unit exergy costs have been calculated for each component.

  5. State of Aircraft Turboshaft Engines by Means of Tribotechnical Diagnostic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihalčová, Janka

    2018-03-01

    The contribution describes concrete example of application of tribotechnical methods for the determination of the bearing wear state in aircraft turboshaft engines. Tribotechnical methods, which will be mentioned, deal with qualitative and quantitative characterization of particles occurred in oil. Here belong method optical emission spectrometry method with rotating disc electrode for determination of chemical elements concentration in oil. Method of optical particles counting for detection of particles distribution according to their scale, determination of their number and ferrographic analysis. Exploitation of these methods make it possible to determine quickly and correctly the friction regime and wearing of friction pair that is washed by oil in observed engines.

  6. Diesel engine management systems and components

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    This reference book provides a comprehensive insight into todays diesel injection systems and electronic control. It focusses on minimizing emissions and exhaust-gas treatment. Innovations by Bosch in the field of diesel-injection technology have made a significant contribution to the diesel boom. Calls for lower fuel consumption, reduced exhaust-gas emissions and quiet engines are making greater demands on the engine and fuel-injection systems. Contents History of the diesel engine.- Areas of use for diesel engines.- Basic principles of the diesel engine.- Fuels: Diesel fuel.- Fuels: Alternative fuels.- Cylinder-charge control systems.- Basic principles of diesel fuel-injection.- Overview of diesel fuel-injection systems.- Fuel supply to the low pressure stage.- Overview of discrete cylinder systems.- Unit injector system.- Unit pump system.- Overview of common-rail systems.- High pressure components of the common-rail system.- Injection nozzles.- Nozzle holders.- High pressure lines.- Start assist systems.-...

  7. Self Diagnostic Accelerometer Ground Testing on a C-17 Aircraft Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokars, Roger P.; Lekki, John D.

    2013-01-01

    The self diagnostic accelerometer (SDA) developed by the NASA Glenn Research Center was tested for the first time in an aircraft engine environment as part of the Vehicle Integrated Propulsion Research (VIPR) program. The VIPR program includes testing multiple critical flight sensor technologies. One such sensor, the accelerometer, measures vibrations to detect faults in the engine. In order to rely upon the accelerometer, the health of the accelerometer must be ensured. Sensor system malfunction is a significant contributor to propulsion in flight shutdowns (IFSD) which can lead to aircraft accidents when the issue is compounded with an inappropriate crew response. The development of the SDA is important for both reducing the IFSD rate, and hence reducing the rate at which this component failure type can put an aircraft in jeopardy, and also as a critical enabling technology for future automated malfunction diagnostic systems. The SDA is a sensor system designed to actively determine the accelerometer structural health and attachment condition, in addition to making vibration measurements. The SDA uses a signal conditioning unit that sends an electrical chirp to the accelerometer and recognizes changes in the response due to changes in the accelerometer health and attachment condition. In an effort toward demonstrating the SDAs flight worthiness and robustness, multiple SDAs were mounted and tested on a C-17 aircraft engine. The engine test conditions varied from engine off, to idle, to maximum power. The two SDA attachment conditions used were fully tight and loose. The newly developed SDA health algorithm described herein uses cross correlation pattern recognition to discriminate a healthy from a faulty SDA. The VIPR test results demonstrate for the first time the robustness of the SDA in an engine environment characterized by high vibration levels.

  8. The High Level Mathematical Models in Calculating Aircraft Gas Turbine Engine Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. A. Ezrokhi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article describes high-level mathematical models developed to solve special problems arising at later stages of design with regard to calculation of the aircraft gas turbine engine (GTE under real operating conditions. The use of blade row mathematics models, as well as mathematical models of a higher level, including 2D and 3D description of the working process in the engine units and components, makes it possible to determine parameters and characteristics of the aircraft engine under conditions significantly different from the calculated ones.The paper considers application of mathematical modelling methods (MMM for solving a wide range of practical problems, such as forcing the engine by injection of water into the flowing part, estimate of the thermal instability effect on the GTE characteristics, simulation of engine start-up and windmill starting condition, etc. It shows that the MMM use, when optimizing the laws of the compressor stator control, as well as supplying cooling air to the hot turbine components in the motor system, can significantly improve the integral traction and economic characteristics of the engine in terms of its gas-dynamic stability, reliability and resource.It ought to bear in mind that blade row mathematical models of the engine are designed to solve purely "motor" problems and do not replace the existing models of various complexity levels used in calculation and design of compressors and turbines, because in “quality” a description of the working processes in these units is inevitably inferior to such specialized models.It is shown that the choice of the mathematical modelling level of an aircraft engine for solving a particular problem arising in its designing and computational study is to a large extent a compromise problem. Despite the significantly higher "resolution" and information ability the motor mathematical models containing 2D and 3D approaches to the calculation of flow in blade machine

  9. A Novel Modeling Method for Aircraft Engine Using Nonlinear Autoregressive Exogenous (NARX) Models Based on Wavelet Neural Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Bing; Shu, Wenjun; Cao, Can

    2018-05-01

    A novel modeling method for aircraft engine using nonlinear autoregressive exogenous (NARX) models based on wavelet neural networks is proposed. The identification principle and process based on wavelet neural networks are studied, and the modeling scheme based on NARX is proposed. Then, the time series data sets from three types of aircraft engines are utilized to build the corresponding NARX models, and these NARX models are validated by the simulation. The results show that all the best NARX models can capture the original aircraft engine's dynamic characteristic well with the high accuracy. For every type of engine, the relative identification errors of its best NARX model and the component level model are no more than 3.5 % and most of them are within 1 %.

  10. Aircraft Engine Gas Path Diagnostic Methods: Public Benchmarking Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Donald L.; Borguet, Sebastien; Leonard, Olivier; Zhang, Xiaodong (Frank)

    2013-01-01

    Recent technology reviews have identified the need for objective assessments of aircraft engine health management (EHM) technologies. To help address this issue, a gas path diagnostic benchmark problem has been created and made publicly available. This software tool, referred to as the Propulsion Diagnostic Method Evaluation Strategy (ProDiMES), has been constructed based on feedback provided by the aircraft EHM community. It provides a standard benchmark problem enabling users to develop, evaluate and compare diagnostic methods. This paper will present an overview of ProDiMES along with a description of four gas path diagnostic methods developed and applied to the problem. These methods, which include analytical and empirical diagnostic techniques, will be described and associated blind-test-case metric results will be presented and compared. Lessons learned along with recommendations for improving the public benchmarking processes will also be presented and discussed.

  11. Uncertainty quantification in computational fluid dynamics and aircraft engines

    CERN Document Server

    Montomoli, Francesco; D'Ammaro, Antonio; Massini, Michela; Salvadori, Simone

    2015-01-01

    This book introduces novel design techniques developed to increase the safety of aircraft engines. The authors demonstrate how the application of uncertainty methods can overcome problems in the accurate prediction of engine lift, caused by manufacturing error. This in turn ameliorates the difficulty of achieving required safety margins imposed by limits in current design and manufacturing methods. This text shows that even state-of-the-art computational fluid dynamics (CFD) are not able to predict the same performance measured in experiments; CFD methods assume idealised geometries but ideal geometries do not exist, cannot be manufactured and their performance differs from real-world ones. By applying geometrical variations of a few microns, the agreement with experiments improves dramatically, but unfortunately the manufacturing errors in engines or in experiments are unknown. In order to overcome this limitation, uncertainty quantification considers the probability density functions of manufacturing errors...

  12. Design and evaluation of combustors for reducing aircraft engine pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, R. E.; Grobman, J.

    1973-01-01

    Various techniques and test results are briefly described and referenced for detail. The effort arises from the increasing concern for the measurement and control of emissions from gas turbine engines. The greater part of this research is focused on reducing the oxides of nitrogen formed during takeoff and cruise in both advanced CTOL, high pressure ratio engines, and advanced supersonic aircraft engines. The experimental approaches taken to reduce oxides of nitrogen emissions include the use of: multizone combustors incorporating reduced dwell time, fuel-air premixing, air atomization, fuel prevaporization, water injection, and gaseous fuels. In the experiments conducted to date, some of these techniques were more successful than others in reducing oxides of nitrogen emissions. Tests are being conducted on full-annular combustors at pressures up to 6 atmospheres and on combustor segments at pressures up to 30 atmospheres.

  13. Final Rule for Control of Air Pollution from Aircraft and Aircraft Engines: Emission Standards and Test Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA is amending the existing emission standards for oxides of nitrogen (NOx) for new commercial aircraft engines. These standards are equivalent to the NOx emission standards of the United Nations International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO).

  14. Combustion Dynamics and Control for Ultra Low Emissions in Aircraft Gas-Turbine Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLaat, John C.

    2011-01-01

    Future aircraft engines must provide ultra-low emissions and high efficiency at low cost while maintaining the reliability and operability of present day engines. The demands for increased performance and decreased emissions have resulted in advanced combustor designs that are critically dependent on efficient fuel/air mixing and lean operation. However, all combustors, but most notably lean-burning low-emissions combustors, are susceptible to combustion instabilities. These instabilities are typically caused by the interaction of the fluctuating heat release of the combustion process with naturally occurring acoustic resonances. These interactions can produce large pressure oscillations within the combustor and can reduce component life and potentially lead to premature mechanical failures. Active Combustion Control which consists of feedback-based control of the fuel-air mixing process can provide an approach to achieving acceptable combustor dynamic behavior while minimizing emissions, and thus can provide flexibility during the combustor design process. The NASA Glenn Active Combustion Control Technology activity aims to demonstrate active control in a realistic environment relevant to aircraft engines by providing experiments tied to aircraft gas turbine combustors. The intent is to allow the technology maturity of active combustion control to advance to eventual demonstration in an engine environment. Work at NASA Glenn has shown that active combustion control, utilizing advanced algorithms working through high frequency fuel actuation, can effectively suppress instabilities in a combustor which emulates the instabilities found in an aircraft gas turbine engine. Current efforts are aimed at extending these active control technologies to advanced ultra-low-emissions combustors such as those employing multi-point lean direct injection.

  15. REQUIREMENT VERIFICATION AND SYSTEMS ENGINEERING TECHNICAL REVIEW (SETR) ON A COMMERCIAL DERIVATIVE AIRCRAFT (CDA) PROGRAM

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    VERIFICATION AND SYSTEMS ENGINEERING TECHNICAL REVIEW (SETR) ON A COMMERCIAL DERIVATIVE AIRCRAFT (CDA) PROGRAM by Theresa L. Thomas September... ENGINEERING TECHNICAL REVIEW (SETR) ON A COMMERCIAL DERIVATIVE AIRCRAFT (CDA) PROGRAM 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6. AUTHOR(S) Theresa L. Thomas 7...CODE 13. ABSTRACT (maximum 200 words) The Naval Air Systems Command (NAVAIR) systems engineering technical review (SETR) process does not

  16. A fully adaptive hybrid optimization of aircraft engine blades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumas, L.; Druez, B.; Lecerf, N.

    2009-10-01

    A new fully adaptive hybrid optimization method (AHM) has been developed and applied to an industrial problem in the field of the aircraft engine industry. The adaptivity of the coupling between a global search by a population-based method (Genetic Algorithms or Evolution Strategies) and the local search by a descent method has been particularly emphasized. On various analytical test cases, the AHM method overperforms the original global search method in terms of computational time and accuracy. The results obtained on the industrial case have also confirmed the interest of AHM for the design of new and original solutions in an affordable time.

  17. Structureborne noise measurements on a small twin-engine aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, J. E., III; Martini, K. F.

    1988-01-01

    Structureborne noise measurements performed on a twin-engine aircraft (Beechcraft Baron) are reported. There are two overall objectives of the test program. The first is to obtain data to support the development of analytical models of the wing and fuselage, while the second is to evaluate effects of structural parameters on cabin noise. Measurements performed include structural and acoustic responses to impact excitation, structural and acoustic loss factors, and modal parameters of the wing. Path alterations include added mass to simulate fuel, variations in torque of bolts joining wing and fuselage, and increased acoustic absorption. Conclusions drawn regarding these measurements are presented.

  18. 76 FR 55293 - Special Conditions: Diamond Aircraft Industries, Model DA-40NG; Electronic Engine Control (EEC...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-07

    ... with an electronic engine control (EEC), also known as a Full Authority Digital Engine Control (FADEC... engine design certification, and the certification requirements for engine control systems are driven by... aircraft supplied power and data failures on the engine control system, and the resulting effects on engine...

  19. Conceptual study of advanced VTOL transport aircraft engine; Kosoku VTOL kiyo engine no gainen kento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saito, Y; Endo, M; Matsuda, Y; Sugiyama, N; Watanabe, M; Sugahara, N; Yamamoto, K [National Aerospace Laboratory, Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-04-01

    This report proposes the concept of an ultra-low noise engine for advanced high subsonic VTOL transport aircraft, and discusses its technological feasibility. As one of the applications of the previously reported `separated core turbofan engine,` the conceptual engine is composed of 3 core engines, 2 cruise fan engines for high subsonic cruising and 6 lift fan engines producing thrust of 98kN (10000kgf)/engine. The core turbojet engine bleeds a large amount of air at the outlet of a compressor to supply driving high-pressure air for fans to other engines. The lift fan engine is composed of a lift fan, driving combustor, turbine and speed reduction gear, and is featured by not only high operation stability and thin fan engine like a separated core engine but also ultra-low noise operation. The cruise fan engine adopts the same configuration as the lift fan engine. Since this engine configuration has no technological problems difficult to be overcome, its high technological feasibility is expected. 6 refs., 7 figs., 5 tabs.

  20. Aircraft Flight Modeling During the Optimization of Gas Turbine Engine Working Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tkachenko, A. Yu; Kuz'michev, V. S.; Krupenich, I. N.

    2018-01-01

    The article describes a method for simulating the flight of the aircraft along a predetermined path, establishing a functional connection between the parameters of the working process of gas turbine engine and the efficiency criteria of the aircraft. This connection is necessary for solving the optimization tasks of the conceptual design stage of the engine according to the systems approach. Engine thrust level, in turn, influences the operation of aircraft, thus making accurate simulation of the aircraft behavior during flight necessary for obtaining the correct solution. The described mathematical model of aircraft flight provides the functional connection between the airframe characteristics, working process of gas turbine engines (propulsion system), ambient and flight conditions and flight profile features. This model provides accurate results of flight simulation and the resulting aircraft efficiency criteria, required for optimization of working process and control function of a gas turbine engine.

  1. Engine jet entrainment in the near field of an aircraft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garnier, F.; Jacquin, L.; Laverdant, A. [Office National d`Etudes et de Recherches Aerospatiales (ONERA), 92 - Chatillon (France)

    1997-12-31

    A simplified approach has been applied to analyse the mixing and entrainment processes of the engine exhaust through their interaction with the vortex wake of an aircraft. These investigations are focused on the near filed, extending from exit nozzle to the beginning of the vortex phase (i.e. to about twenty seconds after the wake is generated). This study is performed using an integral model and a numerical simulation for a two-engine large civil aircraft. The properties of the wing-tip vortices on the calculation of the dilution ratio (defined as a tracer concentration) have been shown. The mixing process is also affected by the buoyancy effect, but only after the jet regime, when the trapping in the vortex core has occurred. Qualitative comparison with contrail photography shows similar features. Finally the distortion and stretching of the plume streamlines inside the vortices can be observed, and the role of the descent of the vortices on the maximum tracer concentration has been discussed. (author) 19 refs.

  2. Engine jet entrainment in the near field of an aircraft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garnier, F; Jacquin, L; Laverdant, A [Office National d` Etudes et de Recherches Aerospatiales (ONERA), 92 - Chatillon (France)

    1998-12-31

    A simplified approach has been applied to analyse the mixing and entrainment processes of the engine exhaust through their interaction with the vortex wake of an aircraft. These investigations are focused on the near filed, extending from exit nozzle to the beginning of the vortex phase (i.e. to about twenty seconds after the wake is generated). This study is performed using an integral model and a numerical simulation for a two-engine large civil aircraft. The properties of the wing-tip vortices on the calculation of the dilution ratio (defined as a tracer concentration) have been shown. The mixing process is also affected by the buoyancy effect, but only after the jet regime, when the trapping in the vortex core has occurred. Qualitative comparison with contrail photography shows similar features. Finally the distortion and stretching of the plume streamlines inside the vortices can be observed, and the role of the descent of the vortices on the maximum tracer concentration has been discussed. (author) 19 refs.

  3. Performance Engineering Technology for Scientific Component Software

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malony, Allen D.

    2007-05-08

    Large-scale, complex scientific applications are beginning to benefit from the use of component software design methodology and technology for software development. Integral to the success of component-based applications is the ability to achieve high-performing code solutions through the use of performance engineering tools for both intra-component and inter-component analysis and optimization. Our work on this project aimed to develop performance engineering technology for scientific component software in association with the DOE CCTTSS SciDAC project (active during the contract period) and the broader Common Component Architecture (CCA) community. Our specific implementation objectives were to extend the TAU performance system and Program Database Toolkit (PDT) to support performance instrumentation, measurement, and analysis of CCA components and frameworks, and to develop performance measurement and monitoring infrastructure that could be integrated in CCA applications. These objectives have been met in the completion of all project milestones and in the transfer of the technology into the continuing CCA activities as part of the DOE TASCS SciDAC2 effort. In addition to these achievements, over the past three years, we have been an active member of the CCA Forum, attending all meetings and serving in several working groups, such as the CCA Toolkit working group, the CQoS working group, and the Tutorial working group. We have contributed significantly to CCA tutorials since SC'04, hosted two CCA meetings, participated in the annual ACTS workshops, and were co-authors on the recent CCA journal paper [24]. There are four main areas where our project has delivered results: component performance instrumentation and measurement, component performance modeling and optimization, performance database and data mining, and online performance monitoring. This final report outlines the achievements in these areas for the entire project period. The submitted progress

  4. Failure Investigation of WB-57 Aircraft Engine Cowling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, J. E.; Gafka, T.; Figert, J.

    2014-01-01

    The NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) in Houston, Texas is the home of the NASA WB-57 High Altitude Research Program. Three fully operational WB-57 aircraft are based near JSC at Ellington Field. The aircraft have been flying research missions since the early 1960's, and continue to be an asset to the scientific community with professional, reliable, customer-oriented service designed to meet all scientific objectives. The NASA WB-57 Program provides unique, high-altitude airborne platforms to US Government agencies, academic institutions, and commercial customers in order to support scientific research and advanced technology development and testing at locations around the world. Mission examples include atmospheric and earth science, ground mapping, cosmic dust collection, rocket launch support, and test bed operations for future airborne or spaceborne systems. During the return from a 6 hour flight, at 30,000 feet, in the clean configuration, traveling at 175 knots indicated airspeed, in un-accelerated flight with the auto pilot engaged, in calm air, the 2-man crew heard a mechanical bang and felt a slight shudder followed by a few seconds of high frequency vibration. The crew did not notice any other abnormalities leading up to, or for the remaining 1 hour of flight and made an uneventful landing. Upon taxi into the chocks, the recovery ground crew noticed the high frequency long wire antenna had become disconnected from the vertical stabilizer and was trailing over the left inboard wing, and that the left engine upper center removable cowling panel was missing, with noticeable damage to the left engine inboard cowling fixed structure. The missing cowling panel was never recovered. Each engine cowling panel is attached to the engine nacelle using six bushings made of 17-4 PH steel. The cylinder portions of four of the six bushings were found still attached to the aircraft (Fig 1). The other two bushings were lost with the panel. The other four bushings exhibited

  5. 76 FR 40219 - Airworthiness Directives; Various Aircraft Equipped With Rotax Aircraft Engines 912 A Series Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-08

    ... forced landing, damage to the aeroplane and injury to occupants. This AD requires actions that are... engine shutdown leading to a forced landing. A forced landing could result in damage to the airplane and...-hours per product to comply with the basic requirements of this AD. The average labor rate is $85 per...

  6. Impact of future fuel properties on aircraft engines and fuel systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudey, R. A.; Grobman, J. S.

    1978-01-01

    From current projections of the availability of high-quality petroleum crude oils, it is becoming increasingly apparent that the specifications for hydrocarbon jet fuels may have to be modified. The problems that are most likely to be encountered as a result of these modifications relate to engine performance, component durability and maintenance, and aircraft fuel-system performance. The effect on engine performance will be associated with changes in specific fuel consumption, ignition at relight limits, at exhaust emissions. Durability and maintenance will be affected by increases in combustor liner temperatures, carbon deposition, gum formation in fuel nozzles, and erosion and corrosion of turbine blades and vanes. Aircraft fuel-system performance will be affected by increased deposits in fuel-system heat exchangers and changes in the pumpability and flowability of the fuel. The severity of the potential problems is described in terms of the fuel characteristics most likely to change in the future. Recent data that evaluate the ability of current-technology aircraft to accept fuel specification changes are presented, and selected technological advances that can reduce the severity of the problems are described and discussed.

  7. 76 FR 72087 - Special Conditions: Diamond Aircraft Industries, Model DA-40NG; Electronic Engine Control (EEC...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-22

    ...; Special Conditions No. 23-253-SC] Special Conditions: Diamond Aircraft Industries, Model DA-40NG..., Model DA-40NG airplane. This airplane will have a novel or unusual design feature(s) associated with an... include the new model DA- 40NG with the Austro Engine GmbH model E4 Aircraft Diesel Engine (ADE). The...

  8. Proposed Rule and Related Materials for Control of Emissions of Air Pollution From Nonroad Diesel Engines Control of Air Pollution From Aircraft and Aircraft Engines; Proposed Emission Standards and Test Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA is proposing to adopt emission standards and related provisions for aircraft gas turbine engines with rated thrusts greater than 26.7 kilonewtons. These engines are used primarily on commercial passenger and freight aircraft.

  9. 77 FR 65823 - Control of Air Pollution From Aircraft and Aircraft Engines; Emission Standards and Test Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-31

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Parts 87 [EPA-HQ-OAR-2010-0687; FRL-9678-1] RIN 2060-AO70 Control of Air Pollution From Aircraft and Aircraft Engines; Emission Standards and Test Procedures Correction In rule document 2012-13828 appearing on pages 36341-36386 in the issue of Monday, June 18, 2012, make the following corrections: Sec. 87.2...

  10. Safety Assessment of a Metal Cask under Aircraft Engine Crash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanghoon Lee

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The structural integrity of a dual-purpose metal cask currently under development by the Korea Radioactive Waste Agency (KORAD was evaluated, through numerical simulations and a model test, under high-speed missile impact reflecting targeted aircraft crash conditions. The impact conditions were carefully chosen through a survey on accident cases and recommendations from literature. In the impact scenario, a missile flying horizontally hits the top side of the cask, which is freestanding on a concrete pad, with a velocity of 150 m/s. A simplified missile simulating a commercial aircraft engine was designed from an impact load–time function available in literature. In the analyses, the dynamic behavior of the metal cask and the integrity of the containment boundary were assessed. The simulation results were compared with the test results for a 1:3 scale model. Although the dynamic behavior of the cask in the model test did not match exactly with the prediction from the numerical simulation, other structural responses, such as the acceleration and strain history during the impact, showed very good agreement. Moreover, the containment function of the cask survived the missile impact as expected from the numerical simulation. Thus, the procedure and methodology adopted in the structural numerical analyses were successfully validated.

  11. Aircraft crash protection from a military engineering point of view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lynch, J.P.

    1975-01-01

    The general problem is to investigate the situation of an aircraft crash on a reactor building. One aspect of the problem is to determine if the structural conditions required to protect the environment against the results of an impact at the center of a 10 m by 10 m reinforced concrete wall slab are reasonable. This paper discusses the dynamic structural response problem, using the analytical methods developed for military structures designed to resist blast loading. The military protection problem is quite similar to reactor protection in that extensive analysis is required to define the threat or loading conditions. The post-dynamic-loading structural requirements must also be defined, since every possible source of resistance is used to obtain a structure which protects against the stated threat at the lowest cost. Such a structural design contains the lowest possible factor of safety, using reasonable analytical techniques, and is more properly called collapse design. If more protection is provided than required, the cost will be greater than necessary. An aircraft jet engine impact is selected as the loading condition for the protection requirements of the reactor wall panel. Analytical investigation of the impact indicates that the load function can be reasonably well approximated by the half sine wave pressure-time curve. Thus, the maximum pressure and duration of the half sine pressure pulse completely define the load-time history. (orig./HP) [de

  12. Detecting cracks in aircraft engine fan blades using vibrothermography nondestructive evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Chunwang; Meeker, William Q.; Mayton, Donna

    2014-01-01

    Inspection is an important part of many maintenance processes, especially for safety-critical system components. This work was motivated by the need to develop more effective methods to detect cracks in rotating components of aircraft engines. This paper describes the analysis of data from vibrothermography inspections on aircraft engine turbine blades. Separate but similar analysis were done for two different purposes. In both analyses, we fit statistical models with random effects to describe the crack-to-crack variability and the effect that the experimental variables have on the responses. In the first analysis, the purpose of the study was to find vibrothermography equipment settings that will provide good crack detection capability over the population of similar cracks in the particular kind of aircraft engine turbine blades that were inspected. Then, the fitted model was used to determine the test conditions where the probability of detection (POD) is expected to be high and probability of alarm is expected to be low. In our second analysis, crack size information was added and a similar model was fit. This model provides an estimate of POD as a function of crack size for specified test conditions. This function is needed as an input to models for planning in-service inspection intervals. - Highlights: • Developed experimental design methods to optimize the inspection parameters for a vibrothermography inspection system. • Used mixed effects modeling to describe crack-to-crack variability. • Fit an extended model to provide estimates of the probability of detection as a function of crack length. • Investigated the coverage probability of confidence intervals for probability of detection

  13. Local damage to Ultra High Performance Concrete structures caused by an impact of aircraft engine missiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riedel, Werner; Noeldgen, Markus; Strassburger, Elmar; Thoma, Klaus; Fehling, Ekkehard

    2010-01-01

    Research highlights: → Experimental series on UHPC panels subjected to aircraft engine impact. → Improved ballistic limit of fiber reinforced UHPC in comparison to conventional R/C. → Detailed investigation of failure mechanisms of fiber reinforced UHPC panel. - Abstract: The impact of an aircraft engine missile causes high stresses, deformations and a severe local damage to conventional reinforced concrete. As a consequence the design of R/C protective structural elements results in components with rather large dimensions. Fiber reinforced Ultra High Performance Concrete (UHPC) is a concrete based material which combines ultra high strength, high packing density and an improved ductility with a significantly increased energy dissipation capacity due to the addition of fiber reinforcement. With those attributes the material is potentially suitable for improved protective structural elements with a reduced need for material resources. The presented paper reports on an experimental series of scaled aircraft engine impact tests with reinforced UHPC panels. The investigations are focused on the material behavior and the damage intensity in comparison to conventional concrete. The fundamental work of is taken as reference for the evaluation of the results. The impactor model of a Phantom F4 GE-J79 engine developed and validated by Sugano et al. is used as defined in the original work. In order to achieve best comparability, the experimental configuration and method are adapted for the UHPC experiments. With 'penetration', 'scabbing' and 'perforation' all relevant damage modes defined in are investigated so that a full set of results are provided for a representative UHPC structural configuration.

  14. Aircraft and ancillary materials. 2. ; Engine materials. Kokuki to sono shuhen zairyo. 2. ; Engine zairyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-04-05

    This paper summarizes materials for aircraft engines. Jet engines are the mainstream today, which are classified according to their operation process into a turbo jet engine, a turbo prop engine, a turbo shaft engine, and a turbo fan engine. Japan has produced 1543 engines in the past decade, almost all of which are supplied to the Defense Agency. Jet engines use mainly Ni-group heat-resistant alloys, titanium alloys and steels. Improvement of engine efficiency has caused turbine inlet temperatures to rise to 1400[degree]C to 1500[degree]C that give rise to grain boundary cracking. To prevent this, discussions are in progress on monocrystal blades replacing the conventional polycrystal precision casts. Intermetallic compounds including Al/Ti are expected especially of use as jet engine constructing materials from their high melting point and formability. Discussions are preceding on ceramics as to coating them intended of improving heat resistance. Composite materials have a problem of insufficient mechanical strength remaining unsolved. 8 figs., 5 tabs.

  15. Potential emissions savings of lightweight composite aircraft components evaluated through life cycle assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available A cradle-to-grave life cycle assessment (LCA of structural aircraft materials has been utilised to assess and compare the total emissions produced during manufacturing, use and disposal of aerospace materials and their selected components. First, a comparison of aluminium, GLARE and carbon fibre reinforced polymer (CFRP plates was performed to investigate the potential of lightweight composites in reducing aviation emissions. Subsequently, a case study is presented on a tubular component for which more accurate manufacturing data were directly available. A structural steel tube was replaced with a composite tubular component. The analysis has shown that once the composite material is used as a component in the aircraft, there is a cumulative saving of aircraft fuel and emissions, in particular from CFRP structures. The environmental analysis included the long-term use predictions for CFRPs, involving detailed raw materials production, use and operation, and disposal scenarios.

  16. Computerized systems analysis and optimization of aircraft engine performance, weight, and life cycle costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishbach, L. H.

    1979-01-01

    The computational techniques utilized to determine the optimum propulsion systems for future aircraft applications and to identify system tradeoffs and technology requirements are described. The characteristics and use of the following computer codes are discussed: (1) NNEP - a very general cycle analysis code that can assemble an arbitrary matrix fans, turbines, ducts, shafts, etc., into a complete gas turbine engine and compute on- and off-design thermodynamic performance; (2) WATE - a preliminary design procedure for calculating engine weight using the component characteristics determined by NNEP; (3) POD DRG - a table look-up program to calculate wave and friction drag of nacelles; (4) LIFCYC - a computer code developed to calculate life cycle costs of engines based on the output from WATE; and (5) INSTAL - a computer code developed to calculate installation effects, inlet performance and inlet weight. Examples are given to illustrate how these computer techniques can be applied to analyze and optimize propulsion system fuel consumption, weight, and cost for representative types of aircraft and missions.

  17. Advanced materials for aircraft engine applications. Koku engine yo zairyo no doko

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-05-01

    The thrust/weight ratio which is thrust per unit weight of engine is a parameter of aircraft engine performance. With a mean material density of 6.6g/cm[sup 3], some of the supersonic plane engines are 7.9 in thrust/weight ratio. Its attaining 20 is predicted by some reports. The turbine inlet temperature is a parameter of engine temperature heightening exceeds 1400[degree]C. Its attaining 2000[degree]C in the 21st century is also predicted by some reports. By dividing the aircraft engine materials into both improvement and innovation material systems, the present paper explained the characteristics and present status of materials, and how to put them in practical use. As an improvement material, titanium alloy, nickel base alloy and resinous composite materials were exhibited with examples of having improved the established material system in performance and cost. Used as a turbine vane member, the nickel base alloy contributes, as a unidirectional coagulation alloy, single crystal alloy and oxide dispersion exciting alloy, to the creep resistance strengthening at high temperatures against the fatigue due to thermal strain. It is also explained how to put TiAl and FRM to practical use. 8 refs., 13 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. Development of Advanced Carbon Face Seals for Aircraft Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falaleev, S. V.; Bondarchuk, P. V.; Tisarev, A. Yu

    2018-01-01

    Modern aircraft gas turbine engines require the development of seals which can operate for a long time with low leakages. The basic type of seals applied for gas turbine engine rotor supports is face seal. To meet the modern requirements of reliability, leak-tightness and weight, low-leakage gas-static and hydrodynamic seals have to be developed. Dry gas seals use both gas-static and hydrodynamic principles. In dry gas seals microgrooves are often used, which ensure the reverse injection of leakages in the sealed cavity. Authors have developed a calculation technique including the concept of coupled hydrodynamic, thermal and structural calculations. This technique allows to calculate the seal performance taking into account the forces of inertia, rupture of the lubricant layer and the real form of the gap. Authors have compared the efficiency of seals with different forms of microgrooves. Results of calculations show that seal with rectangular form of microgrooves has a little gap leading to both the contact of seal surfaces and the wear. Reversible microgrooves have a higher oil mass flow rate, whereas HST micro-grooves have good performance, but they are difficult to produce. Spiral microgrooves have both an acceptable leakages and a high stiffness of liquid layer that is important in terms of ensuring of sealing performance at vibration conditions. Therefore, the spiral grooves were chosen for the developed seal. Based on calculation results, geometric dimensions were chosen to ensure the reliability of the seal operation by creating a guaranteed liquid film, which eliminates the wear of the sealing surfaces. Seals designed were tested both at the test rig and in the engine.

  19. Small Engine Technology (SET) Task 24 Business and Regional Aircraft System Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieber, Lysbeth

    2003-01-01

    This final report has been prepared by Honeywell Engines & Systems, Phoenix, Arizona, a unit of Honeywell International Inc., documenting work performed during the period June 1999 through December 1999 for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Glenn Research Center, Cleveland, Ohio, under the Small Engine Technology (SET) Program, Contract No. NAS3-27483, Task Order 24, Business and Regional Aircraft System Studies. The work performed under SET Task 24 consisted of evaluating the noise reduction benefits compared to the baseline noise levels of representative 1992 technology aircraft, obtained by applying different combinations of noise reduction technologies to five business and regional aircraft configurations. This report focuses on the selection of the aircraft configurations and noise reduction technologies, the prediction of noise levels for those aircraft, and the comparison of the noise levels with those of the baseline aircraft.

  20. Pollution reduction technology program for small jet aircraft engines: Class T1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce, T. W.; Davis, F. G.; Mongia, H. C.

    1977-01-01

    Small jet aircraft engines (EPA class T1, turbojet and turbofan engines of less than 35.6 kN thrust) were evaluated with the objective of attaining emissions reduction consistent with performance constraints. Configurations employing the technological advances were screened and developed through full scale rig testing. The most promising approaches in full-scale engine testing were evaluated.

  1. Damage Propagation Modeling for Aircraft Engine Run-to-Failure Simulation

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This paper describes how damage propagation can be modeled within the modules of aircraft gas turbine engines. To that end, response surfaces of all sensors are...

  2. Potential for Fuel Tank Fire and Hydrodynamic Ram from Uncontained Aircraft Engine Debris

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    This report addresses the potential consequences of the impact and penetration of fuel tanks by debris from uncontained engine failures on commercial jet aircraft. The report presents a brief review of accident data and of the pertinent technical lit...

  3. 14 CFR 43.7 - Persons authorized to approve aircraft, airframes, aircraft engines, propellers, appliances, or...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... data approved by the Administrator. (e) The holder of an air carrier operating certificate or an... holder of a repairman certificate (light-sport aircraft) with a maintenance rating may approve an aircraft issued a special airworthiness certificate in light-sport category for return to service, as...

  4. Perm State University HPC-hardware and software services: capabilities for aircraft engine aeroacoustics problems solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demenev, A. G.

    2018-02-01

    The present work is devoted to analyze high-performance computing (HPC) infrastructure capabilities for aircraft engine aeroacoustics problems solving at Perm State University. We explore here the ability to develop new computational aeroacoustics methods/solvers for computer-aided engineering (CAE) systems to handle complicated industrial problems of engine noise prediction. Leading aircraft engine engineering company, including “UEC-Aviadvigatel” JSC (our industrial partners in Perm, Russia), require that methods/solvers to optimize geometry of aircraft engine for fan noise reduction. We analysed Perm State University HPC-hardware resources and software services to use efficiently. The performed results demonstrate that Perm State University HPC-infrastructure are mature enough to face out industrial-like problems of development CAE-system with HPC-method and CFD-solvers.

  5. 77 FR 70114 - Airworthiness Directives; Cessna Aircraft Company Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-23

    ... Aircraft Company Service Bulletin SB04-28-03, dated August 30, 2004, and Engine Fuel Return System... Aircraft System Component (JASC)/Air Transport Association (ATA) of America Code 2820, Aircraft Fuel... Modification Do not incorporate Cessna Aircraft Company Engine Fuel Return System Modification Kit MK 172-28-01...

  6. A Hybrid PCA-CART-MARS-Based Prognostic Approach of the Remaining Useful Life for Aircraft Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Sánchez Lasheras

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Prognostics is an engineering discipline that predicts the future health of a system. In this research work, a data-driven approach for prognostics is proposed. Indeed, the present paper describes a data-driven hybrid model for the successful prediction of the remaining useful life of aircraft engines. The approach combines the multivariate adaptive regression splines (MARS technique with the principal component analysis (PCA, dendrograms and classification and regression trees (CARTs. Elements extracted from sensor signals are used to train this hybrid model, representing different levels of health for aircraft engines. In this way, this hybrid algorithm is used to predict the trends of these elements. Based on this fitting, one can determine the future health state of a system and estimate its remaining useful life (RUL with accuracy. To evaluate the proposed approach, a test was carried out using aircraft engine signals collected from physical sensors (temperature, pressure, speed, fuel flow, etc.. Simulation results show that the PCA-CART-MARS-based approach can forecast faults long before they occur and can predict the RUL. The proposed hybrid model presents as its main advantage the fact that it does not require information about the previous operation states of the input variables of the engine. The performance of this model was compared with those obtained by other benchmark models (multivariate linear regression and artificial neural networks also applied in recent years for the modeling of remaining useful life. Therefore, the PCA-CART-MARS-based approach is very promising in the field of prognostics of the RUL for aircraft engines.

  7. Critical component wear in heavy duty engines

    CERN Document Server

    Lakshminarayanan, P A

    2011-01-01

    The critical parts of a heavy duty engine are theoretically designed for infinite life without mechanical fatigue failure. Yet the life of an engine is in reality determined by wear of the critical parts. Even if an engine is designed and built to have normal wear life, abnormal wear takes place either due to special working conditions or increased loading.  Understanding abnormal and normal wear enables the engineer to control the external conditions leading to premature wear, or to design the critical parts that have longer wear life and hence lower costs. The literature on wear phenomenon r

  8. Study on afterburner of aircraft engine. Koku engine yo afterburner no kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kashiwagi, T [Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries, Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1991-03-01

    This paper explains concepts of aircraft engine afterburner, and describes history of afterburner study, and describe the result of major research items. An afterburner is located down stream of a fan, compressor, burner, and turbine in a jet engine. Its basic principle is that fuel is injected into turbine exhaust and fan air flows from an fuel injector, ignited by a spark plug using oxygen remaining in the exhaust gas flow, burned and flame-held by a flame stabilizer. The combustion gas of high temperature (1,700 to 1,800 {degree}c) thus generated is jetted out from an exhaust nozzle to increase the thrust. The prototype afterburner is featured by adoption of a mixed type fuel injection system that provides wide stable combustion range, and flame stabilizer with a scoop aimed at improving the ignition performance and combustion efficiency. A confirmation test verified smooth ignition and wide air to fuel ratio for stabilized combustion. 4 refs., 16 figs.

  9. CAD system of design and engineering provision of die forming of compressor blades for aircraft engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaimovich, I. N.

    2017-10-01

    The articles provides the calculation algorithms for blank design and die forming fitting to produce the compressor blades for aircraft engines. The design system proposed in the article allows generating drafts of trimming and reducing dies automatically, leading to significant reduction of work preparation time. The detailed analysis of the blade structural elements features was carried out, the taken limitations and technological solutions allowed forming generalized algorithms of forming parting stamp face over the entire circuit of the engraving for different configurations of die forgings. The author worked out the algorithms and programs to calculate three dimensional point locations describing the configuration of die cavity. As a result the author obtained the generic mathematical model of final die block in the form of three-dimensional array of base points. This model is the base for creation of engineering documentation of technological equipment and means of its control.

  10. Surface modeling method for aircraft engine blades by using speckle patterns based on the virtual stereo vision system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Zhijing; Ma, Kai; Wang, Zhijun; Wu, Jun; Wang, Tao; Zhuge, Jingchang

    2018-03-01

    A blade is one of the most important components of an aircraft engine. Due to its high manufacturing costs, it is indispensable to come up with methods for repairing damaged blades. In order to obtain a surface model of the blades, this paper proposes a modeling method by using speckle patterns based on the virtual stereo vision system. Firstly, blades are sprayed evenly creating random speckle patterns and point clouds from blade surfaces can be calculated by using speckle patterns based on the virtual stereo vision system. Secondly, boundary points are obtained in the way of varied step lengths according to curvature and are fitted to get a blade surface envelope with a cubic B-spline curve. Finally, the surface model of blades is established with the envelope curves and the point clouds. Experimental results show that the surface model of aircraft engine blades is fair and accurate.

  11. Gasoline engine management systems and components

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    The call for environmentally compatible and economical vehicles necessitates immense efforts to develop innovative engine concepts. Technical concepts such as gasoline direct injection helped to save fuel up to 20 % and reduce CO2-emissions. Descriptions of the cylinder-charge control, fuel injection, ignition and catalytic emission-control systems provides comprehensive overview of today´s gasoline engines. This book also describes emission-control systems and explains the diagnostic systems. The publication provides information on engine-management-systems and emission-control regulations. Contents History of the automobile.- Basics of the gasoline engine.- Fuels.- Cylinder-charge control systems.- Gasoline injection systems over the years.- Fuel supply.- Manifold fuel injection.- Gasoline direct injection.- Operation of gasoline engines on natural gas.- Ignition systems over the years.- Inductive ignition systems.- Ignition coils.- Spark plugs.- Electronic control.- Sensors.- Electronic control unit.- Exh...

  12. Advanced liquid-cooled, turbocharged and intercooled stratified charge rotary engines for aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mount, Robert E.; Bartel, John; Hady, William F.

    1987-01-01

    Developments concerning stratified-charge rotary (SCR) engines over the past 10 years are reviewed. Aircraft engines being developed using SCR technology are shown and described, and the ability of such technology to meet general aviation engine needs is considered. Production timing and availability of SCR technology for the development of aviation rotary engines are discussed, and continuing efforts toward improving this technology, including NASA efforts, are described.

  13. Lightweight two-stroke cycle aircraft diesel engine technology enablement program, volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freen, P. D.; Berenyi, S. G.; Brouwers, A. P.; Moynihan, M. E.

    1985-01-01

    An experimental Single Cylinder Test Engine Program is conducted to confirm the analytically projected performance of a two-stroke cycle diesel engine for aircraft applications. Testing confirms the ability of a proposed 4-cylinder version of such an engine to reach the target power at altitude in a highly turbocharged configuration. The experimental program defines all necessary parameters to permit a design of a multicylinder engine for eventual flight applications.

  14. Study of a LH2-fueled topping cycle engine for aircraft propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turney, G. E.; Fishbach, L. H.

    1983-01-01

    An analytical investigation was made of a topping cycle aircraft engine system which uses a cryogenic fuel. This system consists of a main turboshaft engine which is mechanically coupled (by cross-shafting) to a topping loop which augments the shaft power output of the system. The thermodynamic performance of the topping cycle engine was analyzed and compared with that of a reference (conventional-type) turboshaft engine. For the cycle operating conditions selected, the performance of the topping cycle engine in terms of brake specific fuel consumption (bsfc) was determined to be about 12 percent better than that of the reference turboshaft engine. Engine weights were estimated for both the topping cycle engine and the reference turboshaft engine. These estimates were based on a common shaft power output for each engine. Results indicate that the weight of the topping cycle engine is comparable to that of the reference turboshaft engine. Previously announced in STAR as N83-34942

  15. Study of LH2-fueled topping cycle engine for aircraft propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turney, G. E.; Fishbach, L. H.

    1983-01-01

    An analytical investigation was made of a topping cycle aircraft engine system which uses a cryogenic fuel. This system consists of a main turboshaft engine which is mechanically coupled (by cross-shafting) to a topping loop which augments the shaft power output of the system. The thermodynamic performance of the topping cycle engine was analyzed and compared with that of a reference (conventional-type) turboshaft engine. For the cycle operating conditions selected, the performance of the topping cycle engine in terms of brake specific fuel consumption (bsfc) was determined to be about 12 percent better than that of the reference turboshaft engine. Engine weights were estimated for both the topping cycle engine and the reference turboshaft engine. These estimates were based on a common shaft power output for each engine. Results indicate that the weight of the topping cycle engine is comparable to that of the reference turboshaft engine.

  16. Analysis of a topping-cycle, aircraft, gas-turbine-engine system which uses cryogenic fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turney, G. E.; Fishbach, L. H.

    1984-01-01

    A topping-cycle aircraft engine system which uses a cryogenic fuel was investigated. This system consists of a main turboshaft engine that is mechanically coupled (by cross-shafting) to a topping loop, which augments the shaft power output of the system. The thermodynamic performance of the topping-cycle engine was analyzed and compared with that of a reference (conventional) turboshaft engine. For the cycle operating conditions selected, the performance of the topping-cycle engine in terms of brake specific fuel consumption (bsfc) was determined to be about 12 percent better than that of the reference turboshaft engine. Engine weights were estimated for both the topping-cycle engine and the reference turboshaft engine. These estimates were based on a common shaft power output for each engine. Results indicate that the weight of the topping-cycle engine is comparable with that of the reference turboshaft engine.

  17. Qualification of engine-mounted components due to operational vibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, B.J.; Bayat, A.

    1994-01-01

    The Emergency Diesel Generator (EDG) in a Nuclear Power Plant is considered to be an essential component of the plant for its safe operation. Failures of auxiliary components directly mounted on the EDG creates costly repairs, and compromises the engine's availability and reliability. Although IEEE-323 and Section III of the ASME code require addressing of safety-related components due to mechanically induced vibration, very few guidelines exist in the nuclear industry to show how this may be accounted for. Most engine vendors rely on the empirical experience data as the basis of their evaluation for vibration. Upgrade of engine controls, addition of monitoring components and other engine modifications require design and installation of new mechanical and electrical components to be mounted directly on the engine. This necessitates the evaluation of such components for engine-induced vibration which is considered to be one of the most severe design parameters. This paper presents a methodology to evaluate three categories of components; structural, mechanical, and electrical under engine vibration. The discussion for the characteristics and manipulation of engine vibration profile to be used for each component evaluation is also given. In addition, the suitability of analytical verses testing approaches is discussed for each category. An example application of the methodology is presented for a typical EDG which is currently undergoing major controls upgrade and monitoring modification

  18. Development and characterization of fatigue resistant Aramid reinforced aluminium laminates (ARALL) for fatigue Critical aircraft components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qaiser, M. H.; Umar, S.; Nauman, S.

    2014-06-01

    The structural weight of an aircraft has always been a controlling parameter that governs its fuel efficiency and transport capacity. In pursuit of achieving light-weight aircraft structures, high design stress levels have to be adopted and materials with high specific strength such as Aluminum etc. are to be deployed. However, an extensive spectrum of fatigue load exists at the aircraft wings and other aerodynamic components that may cause initiation and propagation of fatigue cracks and concludes in a catastrophic rupture. Fatigue is therefore the limiting design parameter in such cases and materials with high fatigue resistance are then required. A major improvement in the fatigue behavior was observed by laminating Kevlar fibers with Aluminum using epoxy. ARALL (Aramid Reinforced ALuminum Laminates) is a fatigue resistant hybrid composite that consists of layers of thin high strength aluminum alloy sheets surface bonded with aramid fibers. The intact aramid fibers tie up the fatigue cracks, thus reducing the stress intensity factor at the crack tip as a result of which the fatigue properties of can be enhanced with orders of magnitude as compared to monolithic high strength Aluminum alloy sheets. Significant amount of weight savings can be achieved in fatigue critical components in comparison with the traditional materials used in aircraft.

  19. Development and characterization of fatigue resistant Aramid reinforced aluminium laminates (ARALL) for fatigue Critical aircraft components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qaiser, M H; Umar, S; Nauman, S

    2014-01-01

    The structural weight of an aircraft has always been a controlling parameter that governs its fuel efficiency and transport capacity. In pursuit of achieving light-weight aircraft structures, high design stress levels have to be adopted and materials with high specific strength such as Aluminum etc. are to be deployed. However, an extensive spectrum of fatigue load exists at the aircraft wings and other aerodynamic components that may cause initiation and propagation of fatigue cracks and concludes in a catastrophic rupture. Fatigue is therefore the limiting design parameter in such cases and materials with high fatigue resistance are then required. A major improvement in the fatigue behavior was observed by laminating Kevlar fibers with Aluminum using epoxy. ARALL (Aramid Reinforced ALuminum Laminates) is a fatigue resistant hybrid composite that consists of layers of thin high strength aluminum alloy sheets surface bonded with aramid fibers. The intact aramid fibers tie up the fatigue cracks, thus reducing the stress intensity factor at the crack tip as a result of which the fatigue properties of can be enhanced with orders of magnitude as compared to monolithic high strength Aluminum alloy sheets. Significant amount of weight savings can be achieved in fatigue critical components in comparison with the traditional materials used in aircraft

  20. Development and characterization of fatigue resistant aramid reinforced aluminium laminates (ARALL) for fatigue critical aircraft components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qaiser, M. H.; Umar, S.; Nauman, S.

    2013-01-01

    The structural weight of an aircraft has always been a controlling parameter that governs its fuel efficiency and transport capacity. In pursuit of achieving light-weight aircraft structures, high design stress levels have to be adopted and materials with high specific strength such as Aluminum etc. are to be deployed. However, an extensive spectrum of fatigue load exists at the aircraft wings and other aerodynamic components that may cause initiation and propagation of fatigue cracks and concludes in a catastrophic rupture. Fatigue is therefore the limiting design parameter in such cases and materials with high fatigue resistance are then required. A major improvement in the fatigue behavior was observed by laminating Kevlar fibers with Aluminum using epoxy. ARALL (Aramid Reinforced Aluminum Laminates) is a fatigue resistant hybrid composite that consists of layers of thin high strength aluminum alloy sheets surface bonded with aramid fibers. The intact aramid fibers tie up the fatigue cracks, thus reducing the stress intensity factor at the crack tip as a result of which the fatigue properties of can be enhanced with orders of magnitude as compared to monolithic high strength Aluminum alloy sheets. Significant amount of weight savings can be achieved in fatigue critical components in comparison with the traditional materials used in aircraft. (author)

  1. Tip-Clearance Measurement in the First Stage of the Compressor of an Aircraft Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iker García

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we report the design of a reflective intensity-modulated optical fiber sensor for blade tip-clearance measurement, and the experimental results for the first stage of a compressor of an aircraft engine operating in real conditions. The tests were performed in a ground test cell, where the engine completed four cycles from idling state to takeoff and back to idling state. During these tests, the rotational speed of the compressor ranged between 7000 and 15,600 rpm. The main component of the sensor is a tetrafurcated bundle of optical fibers, with which the resulting precision of the experimental measurements was 12 µm for a measurement range from 2 to 4 mm. To get this precision the effect of temperature on the optoelectronic components of the sensor was compensated by calibrating the sensor in a climate chamber. A custom-designed MATLAB program was employed to simulate the behavior of the sensor prior to its manufacture.

  2. Evaluation of Methods for the Determination of Black Carbon Emissions from an Aircraft Gas Turbine Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    The emissions from aircraft gas turbine engines consist of nanometer size black carbon (BC) particles plus gas-phase sulfur and organic compounds which undergo gas-to-particle conversion downstream of the engine as the plume cools and dilutes. In this study, four BC measurement ...

  3. 75 FR 22439 - Advance Notice of Proposed Rulemaking on Lead Emissions From Piston-Engine Aircraft Using Leaded...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-28

    ... piston-engine aircraft as well as certain high performance engines such as race cars. \\33\\ See http://www... for all remaining uses, including use as fuel in aircraft, racing cars, and nonroad engines such as.... These include the voluntary partnership between EPA and the National Association for Stock Car Auto...

  4. The Effect of Modified Control Limits on the Performance of a Generic Commercial Aircraft Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csank, Jeffrey T.; May, Ryan D.; Gou, Ten-Huei; Litt, Jonathan S.

    2012-01-01

    This paper studies the effect of modifying the control limits of an aircraft engine to obtain additional performance. In an emergency situation, the ability to operate an engine above its normal operating limits and thereby gain additional performance may aid in the recovery of a distressed aircraft. However, the modification of an engine s limits is complex due to the risk of an engine failure. This paper focuses on the tradeoff between enhanced performance and risk of either incurring a mechanical engine failure or compromising engine operability. The ultimate goal is to increase the engine performance, without a large increase in risk of an engine failure, in order to increase the probability of recovering the distressed aircraft. The control limit modifications proposed are to extend the rotor speeds, temperatures, and pressures to allow more thrust to be produced by the engine, or to increase the rotor accelerations and allow the engine to follow a fast transient. These modifications do result in increased performance; however this study indicates that these modifications also lead to an increased risk of engine failure.

  5. Numerical study of influence of biofuels on the combustion characteristics and performance of aircraft engine system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Li; Liu, Zeng-wen; Wang, Zhan-xue

    2015-01-01

    The atomization and combustion flowfield of the combustion chamber with swirl-nozzle were simulated using different biofuels; the thermodynamic cycle of the aircraft engine system were also analyzed, influences of biofuels on the combustion characteristics and performance of aircraft engine system were explored. Results show that viscosity and caloric value are key factors affecting the atomization and combustion characteristics of biofuels, and then dominate the distribution of the temperature and NO concentration. Due to the characteristic of low viscosity and low caloric value for biofuels adopted, the biofuels accumulate near the head of combustion chamber, and the corresponding NO emission is lower than that it has for conventional kerosene. When biofuels with low caloric value are used under the operation condition which is same as the condition for the conventional kerosene, lower turbine inlet temperature, lower thrust and higher specific fuel consumption would be achieved for the aircraft engine. - Highlights: • Influences of biofuels properties on combustion characteristic are explored. • Effects of biofuels on cycle parameters of aircraft engine are discussed. • Viscosity and caloric value are key factors affecting combustion of biofuels. • NO emission becomes lower when biofuels with low caloric value is adopted. • The performance of aircraft engine becomes worse for biofuels with low caloric value.

  6. Teaching Risk Analysis in an Aircraft Gas Turbine Engine Design Capstone Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    support the required performance specifications (Brandt, 2004) ( Raymer , 1989). There is no specific step to treat a selected design performance...a Design Perspective, 2nd ed.: AIAA Education Series, 2004. Raymer , Daniel P. 1989. Aircraft Design: A Conceptual Approach.: AIAA Educational...Mattingly, Jack D., Heiser, William H., Pratt, David T. 2002. Aircraft Engine Design, 2nd ed.: AIAA Education Series, 2002. Drews, Robert W. 2006. The

  7. Component-based development of software language engineering tools

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ssanyu, J.; Hemerik, C.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we outline how Software Language Engineering (SLE) could benefit from Component-based Software Development (CBSD) techniques and present an architecture aimed at developing a coherent set of lightweight SLE components, fitting into a general-purpose component framework. In order to

  8. Development of Demonstrably Predictive Models for Emissions from Alternative Fuels Based Aircraft Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-01

    Engineering Chemistry Fundamentals, Vol. 5, No. 3, 1966, pp. 356–363. [14] Burns, R. A., Development of scalar and velocity imaging diagnostics...in an Aero- Engine Model Combustor at Elevated Pressure Using URANS and Finite- Rate Chemistry ,” 50th AIAA/ASME/SAE/ASEE Joint Propulsion Conference...FINAL REPORT Development of Demonstrably Predictive Models for Emissions from Alternative Fuels Based Aircraft Engines SERDP Project WP-2151

  9. Local damage to reinforced concrete structures caused by impact of aircraft engine missiles. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugano, T.; Tsubota, H.; Kasai, Y.; Koshika, N.; Ohnuma, H.; Von Riesemann, W.A.; Bickel, D.C.; Parks, M.B.

    1993-01-01

    Structural damage induced by an aircraft crashing into a reinforced concrete structure includes local damage caused by the deformable engines, and global damage caused by the entire aircraft. Local damage to the target may consist of spalling of concrete from its front face together with missile penetration into it, scabbing of concrete from its rear face, and perforation of missile through it. Until now, local damage to concrete structures has been mainly evaluated by rigid missile impact tests. Past research work regarding local damage caused by impact of deformable missiles has been limited. This paper presents the results of a series of impact tests of small-, intermediate-, and full-scale engine models into reinforced concrete panels. The purpose of the tests was to determine the local damage to a reinforced concrete structure caused by the impact of a deformable aircraft engine. (orig.)

  10. Recent developments in turbomachinery component materials and manufacturing challenges for aero engine applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivas, G.; Raghunandana, K.; Satish Shenoy, B.

    2018-02-01

    In the recent years the development of turbomachinery materials performance enhancement plays a vital role especially in aircraft air breathing engines like turbojet engine, turboprop engine, turboshaft engine and turbofan engines. Especially the transonic flow engines required highly sophisticated materials where it can sustain the entire thrust which can create by the engine. The main objective of this paper is to give an overview of the present cost-effective and technological capabilities process for turbomachinery component materials. Especially the main focus is given to study the Electro physical, Photonic additive removal process and Electro chemical process for turbomachinery parts manufacture. The aeronautical propulsion based technologies are reviewed thoroughly where in surface reliability, geometrical precession, and material removal and highly strengthened composite material deposition rates usually difficult to cut dedicated steels, Titanium and Nickel based alloys. In this paper the past aeronautical and propulsion mechanical based manufacturing technologies, current sophisticated technologies and also future challenging material processing techniques are covered. The paper also focuses on the brief description of turbomachinery components of shaping process and coating in aeromechanical applications.

  11. Advanced stratified charge rotary aircraft engine design study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badgley, P.; Berkowitz, M.; Jones, C.; Myers, D.; Norwood, E.; Pratt, W. B.; Ellis, D. R.; Huggins, G.; Mueller, A.; Hembrey, J. H.

    1982-01-01

    A technology base of new developments which offered potential benefits to a general aviation engine was compiled and ranked. Using design approaches selected from the ranked list, conceptual design studies were performed of an advanced and a highly advanced engine sized to provide 186/250 shaft Kw/HP under cruise conditions at 7620/25,000 m/ft altitude. These are turbocharged, direct-injected stratified charge engines intended for commercial introduction in the early 1990's. The engine descriptive data includes tables, curves, and drawings depicting configuration, performance, weights and sizes, heat rejection, ignition and fuel injection system descriptions, maintenance requirements, and scaling data for varying power. An engine-airframe integration study of the resulting engines in advanced airframes was performed on a comparative basis with current production type engines. The results show airplane performance, costs, noise & installation factors. The rotary-engined airplanes display substantial improvements over the baseline, including 30 to 35% lower fuel usage.

  12. An improved particle filtering algorithm for aircraft engine gas-path fault diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qihang Wang

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In this article, an improved particle filter with electromagnetism-like mechanism algorithm is proposed for aircraft engine gas-path component abrupt fault diagnosis. In order to avoid the particle degeneracy and sample impoverishment of normal particle filter, the electromagnetism-like mechanism optimization algorithm is introduced into resampling procedure, which adjusts the position of the particles through simulating attraction–repulsion mechanism between charged particles of the electromagnetism theory. The improved particle filter can solve the particle degradation problem and ensure the diversity of the particle set. Meanwhile, it enhances the ability of tracking abrupt fault due to considering the latest measurement information. Comparison of the proposed method with three different filter algorithms is carried out on a univariate nonstationary growth model. Simulations on a turbofan engine model indicate that compared to the normal particle filter, the improved particle filter can ensure the completion of the fault diagnosis within less sampling period and the root mean square error of parameters estimation is reduced.

  13. Component-Based Software Engineering and Runtime Type Definition

    OpenAIRE

    A. R. Shakurov

    2011-01-01

    The component-based approach to software engineering, its current implementations and their limitations are discussed. A new extended architecture for such systems is presented. Its main architectural concepts and principles are considered.

  14. Roles, uses, and benefits of general aviation aircraft in aerospace engineering education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odonoghue, Dennis P.; Mcknight, Robert C.

    1994-01-01

    Many colleges and universities throughout the United States offer outstanding programs in aerospace engineering. In addition to the fundamentals of aerodynamics, propulsion, flight dynamics, and air vehicle design, many of the best programs have in the past provided students the opportunity to design and fly airborne experiments on board various types of aircraft. Sadly, however, the number of institutions offering such 'airborne laboratories' has dwindled in recent years. As a result, opportunities for students to apply their classroom knowledge, analytical skills, and engineering judgement to the development and management of flight experiments on an actual aircraft are indeed rare. One major reason for the elimination of flight programs by some institutions, particularly the smaller colleges, is the prohibitive cost of operating and maintaining an aircraft as a flying laboratory. The purpose of this paper is to discuss simple, low-cost, relevant flight experiments that can be performed using readily available general aviation aircraft. This paper examines flight experiments that have been successfully conducted on board the NASA Lewis Research Center's T-34B aircraft, as part of the NASA/AIAA/University Flight Experiment Program for Students (NAUFEPS) and discusses how similar experiments could be inexpensively performed on other general aviation aircraft.

  15. Prospects of increasing the engineering level of NPP components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filippov, G.A.

    1987-01-01

    Consideration is being given to main problems related to development and industrial introduction of NPP components corresponding to the perspective world-wide engineering level. The nearest task in this field is to elevate the engineering level of developed and being produced power equipment up to the level of similar equipment, manufactured by leading foreign companies

  16. Design and test of aircraft engine isolators for reduced interior noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unruh, J. F.; Scheidt, D. C.

    1982-01-01

    Improved engine vibration isolation was proposed to be the most weight and cost efficient retrofit structure-borne noise control measure for single engine general aviation aircraft. A study was carried out the objectives: (1) to develop an engine isolator design specification for reduced interior noise transmission, (2) select/design candidate isolators to meet a 15 dB noise reduction design goal, and (3) carry out a proof of concept evaluation test. Analytical model of the engine, vibration isolators and engine mount structure were coupled to an empirical model of the fuselage for noise transmission evaluation. The model was used to develop engine isolator dynamic properties design specification for reduced noise transmission. Candidate isolators ere chosen from available product literature and retrofit to a test aircraft. A laboratory based test procedure was then developed to simulate engine induced noise transmission in the aircraft for a proof of concept evaluation test. Three candidate isolator configurations were evaluated for reduced structure-borne noise transmission relative to the original equipment isolators.

  17. Aircraft dual-shaft jet engine with indirect action fuel flow controller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tudosie, Alexandru-Nicolae

    2017-06-01

    The paper deals with an aircraft single-jet engine's control system, based on a fuel flow controller. Considering the engine as controlled object and its thrust the most important operation effect, from the multitude of engine's parameters only its rotational speed n is measurable and proportional to its thrust, so engine's speed has become the most important controlled parameter. Engine's control system is based on fuel injection Qi dosage, while the output is engine's speed n. Based on embedded system's main parts' mathematical models, the author has described the system by its block diagram with transfer functions; furthermore, some Simulink-Matlab simulations are performed, concerning embedded system quality (its output parameters time behavior) and, meanwhile, some conclusions concerning engine's parameters mutual influences are revealed. Quantitative determinations are based on author's previous research results and contributions, as well as on existing models (taken from technical literature). The method can be extended for any multi-spool engine, single- or twin-jet.

  18. Planning and forecasting demand for aircraft engines airline fleet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А.Г. Кучер

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available  The questions of air-engines supply system processes analysis on the basis of order planning and air-engine demand forecasting of airline’s air fleet with the use of imitating simulation methods are considered.

  19. Real Time Engineering Analysis Based on a Generative Component Implementation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Klitgaard, Jens

    2007-01-01

    The present paper outlines the idea of a conceptual design tool with real time engineering analysis which can be used in the early conceptual design phase. The tool is based on a parametric approach using Generative Components with embedded structural analysis. Each of these components uses the g...

  20. The Effect of Faster Engine Response on the Lateral Directional Control of a Damaged Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Ryan D.; Lemon, Kimberly A.; Csank, Jeffrey T.; Litt, Jonathan S.; Guo, Ten-Huei

    2012-01-01

    The integration of flight control and propulsion control has been a much discussed topic, especially for emergencies where the engines may be able to help stabilize and safely land a damaged aircraft. Previous research has shown that for the engines to be effective as flight control actuators, the response time to throttle commands must be improved. Other work has developed control modes that accept a higher risk of engine failure in exchange for improved engine response during an emergency. In this effort, a nonlinear engine model (the Commercial Modular Aero-Propulsion System Simulation 40k) has been integrated with a nonlinear airframe model (the Generic Transport Model) in order to evaluate the use of enhanced-response engines as alternative yaw rate control effectors. Tests of disturbance rejection and command tracking were used to determine the impact of the engines on the aircraft's dynamical behavior. Three engine control enhancements that improve the response time of the engine were implemented and tested in the integrated simulation. The enhancements were shown to increase the engine s effectiveness as a yaw rate control effector when used in an automatic feedback loop. The improvement is highly dependent upon flight condition; the airframe behavior is markedly improved at low altitude, low speed conditions, and relatively unchanged at high altitude, high speed.

  1. Charging process analysis of an opposed-piston two-stroke aircraft Diesel engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grabowski Łukasz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the research results on a 1D model of an opposed-piston two-stroke aircraft Diesel engine. The research aimed at creating a model of the engine in question to investigate how engine performance is affected by the compressor gear ratio. The power was constant at all the operating points. The research results are presented as graphs of power consumed by the compressor, compressor efficiency and brake specific fuel consumption. The optimal range of compressor gear ratio in terms of engine efficiency was defined from the research results.

  2. Pollution reduction technology program small jet aircraft engines, phase 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce, T. W.; Davis, F. G.; Kuhn, T. E.; Mongia, H. C.

    1981-01-01

    A series of Model TFE731-2 engine tests were conducted with the Concept 2 variable geometry airblast fuel injector combustion system installed. The engine was tested to: (1) establish the emission levels over the selected points which comprise the Environmental Protection Agency Landing-Takeoff Cycle; (2) determine engine performance with the combustion system; and (3) evaulate the engine acceleration/deceleration characteristics. The hydrocarbon (HC), carbon monoxide (CO), and smoke goals were met. Oxides of nitrogen (NOx) were above the goal for the same configuration that met the other pollutant goals. The engine and combustor performance, as well as acceleration/deceleration characteristics, were acceptable. The Concept 3 staged combustor system was refined from earlier phase development and subjected to further rig refinement testing. The concept met all of the emissions goals.

  3. Influence of Gasoline Components on Engine Efficiency and Emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Machado Guilherme B.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available For the next few decades, it is expected that fossil fuels and bio-fuels used in internal combustion engines will remain the primary source for vehicular propulsion. This justifies the intense worldwide research and development effort to comply with the challenges of increasing efficiency and reducing internal combustion engine emissions. The modeling of commercial fuels and engine combustion processes presents great challenges. There is also the need to better understand how different fuel components interact and influence engine combustion and performance parameters. In the present work, surrogate fuels were used to implement methodologies to evaluate the influence of fuel components on fuel properties and multiple engine combustion and performance parameters. Special attention is given to engine efficiency and emissions behavior and their correlations to fuel properties and others performance parameters of the engine. The potentials of each component and corresponding chemical group were identified for different engine designs. The results combine information and methodologies that can be used to develop fuels for different applications.

  4. Mechanical and materials engineering of modern structure and component design

    CERN Document Server

    Altenbach, Holm

    2015-01-01

    This book presents the latest findings on mechanical and materials engineering as applied to the design of modern engineering materials and components. The contributions cover the classical fields of mechanical, civil and materials engineering, as well as bioengineering and advanced materials processing and optimization. The materials and structures discussed can be categorized into modern steels, aluminium and titanium alloys, polymers/composite materials, biological and natural materials, material hybrids and modern nano-based materials. Analytical modelling, numerical simulation, state-of-the-art design tools and advanced experimental techniques are applied to characterize the materials’ performance and to design and optimize structures in different fields of engineering applications.

  5. Starting the aircraft engines and gas-turbine drive by means of electric starter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    І.М. Іщенко

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available  In the article the questions of the starting the aircraft engines and gas-turbine drive by means of electric starter is considered. In the same way in the article are determined the main requirements to steady-state converter for feeding electric starter.

  6. Assessment of engine noise shielding by the wings of current turbofan aircraft

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alves Vieira, A.E.; Snellen, M.; Simons, D.G.; Gibbs, B.

    2017-01-01

    The shielding of engine noise by the aircraft wings and fuselage can lead to a significant reduction on perceived noise on ground. Most research on noise shielding is focused on BlendedWing Body (BWB) configurations because of the large dimension of the fuselage. However, noise shielding is also

  7. Report to NASA Committee on Aircraft Operating Problems Relative to Aviation Safety Engineering and Research Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    1963-01-01

    The following report highlights some of the work accomplished by the Aviation Safety Engineering and Research Division of the Flight Safety Foundations since the last report to the NASA Committee on Aircraft Operating Problems on 22 May 1963. The information presented is in summary form. Additional details may be provided upon request of the reports themselves may be obtained from AvSER.

  8. Supercharging system behavior for high altitude operation of an aircraft 2-stroke Diesel engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlucci, Antonio Paolo; Ficarella, Antonio; Laforgia, Domenico; Renna, Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Different supercharging architectures have been compared for an aircraft 2T engine. • The supercharging architectures are compared to minimize the fuel consumption. • The architecture with the highest conversion efficiency was determined. - Abstract: Different studies on both 2- and 4-stroke engines have shown how the choice of different supercharging architectures can influence engine performance. Among them, architectures coupling one turbocharger with a mechanical compressor or two turbochargers are found to be the most performing in terms of engine output power and efficiency. However, defining the best supercharging architecture for aircraft 2-stroke engines is a quite complex task because the supercharging system as well as the ambient conditions influence the engine performance/efficiency. This is due to the close interaction between supercharging, trapping, scavenging and combustion processes. The aim of the present work is the comparison between different architectures (single turbocharger, double turbocharger, single turbocharger combined with a mechanical compressor, single turbocharger with an electrically-assisted turbocharger, with intercooler or aftercooler) designed to supercharge an aircraft 2-stroke Diesel engine for general aviation and unmanned aerial vehicles characterized by a very high altitude operation and long fuel distance. A 1D model of the engine purposely designed has been used to compare the performance of the different supercharging systems in terms of power, fuel consumption, and their effect on trapping and scavenging efficiency at different altitudes. The analysis shows that the engine target power is reached by a 2 turbochargers architecture; in this way, in fact, the cylinder filling, and consequently the engine performance, are maximized. Moreover, it is shown that the performance of a 2 turbochargers architecture performance can be further improved connecting electrically and not mechanically the low

  9. Computational modelling of an Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC waste heat recovery system for an aircraft engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saadon S.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Escalating fuel prices and carbon dioxide emission are causing new interest in methods to increase the thrust force of an aircraft engine with limitation of fuel consumption. One viable means is the conversion of exhaust engine waste heat to a more useful form of energy or to be used in the aircraft environmental system. A one-dimensional analysis method has been proposed for the organic Rankine cycle (ORC waste heat recovery system for turbofan engine in this paper. The paper contains two main parts: validation of the numerical model and a performance prediction of turbofan engine integrated to an ORC system. The cycle is compared with industrial waste heat recovery system from Hangzhou Chinen Steam Turbine Power CO., Ltd. The results show that thrust specific fuel consumption (TSFC of the turbofan engine reach lowest value at 0.91 lbm/lbf.h for 7000 lbf of thrust force. When the system installation weight is applied, the system results in a 2.0% reduction in fuel burn. Hence implementation of ORC system for waste heat recovery to an aircraft engine can bring a great potential to the aviation industry.

  10. Variable-cycle engines for supersonic cruise aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, E.

    1976-01-01

    Progress and the current status of the Variable Cycle Engine (VCE) study are reviewed with emphasis placed on the impact of technology advancements and design specifications. A large variety of VCE concepts are also examined.

  11. Chemical composition and photochemical reactivity of exhaust from aircraft turbine engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. F. Lyon

    Full Text Available Assessment of the environmental impact of aircraft emissions is required by planners and policy makers. Seveal areas of concern are: 1. exposure of airport workers and urban residents to toxic chemicals emitted when the engines operate at low power (idle and taxi on the ground; 2. contributions to urban photochemical air pollution of aircraft volatile organic and nitrogen oxides emissions from operations around airports; and 3. emissions of nitrogen oxides and particles during high-altitude operation. The environmental impact of chemicals emitted from jet aircraft turbine engines has not been firmly established due to lack of data regarding emission rates and identities of the compounds emitted. This paper describes an experimental study of two different aircraft turbine engines designed to determine detailed organic emissions, as well as emissions of inorganic gases. Emissions were measured at several engine power settings. Measurements were made of detailed organic composition from C1 through C17, CO, CO2, NO, NOx, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Measurements were made using a multi-port sampling pro be positioned directly behind the engine in the exhaust exit plane. The emission measurements have been used to determine the organic distribution by carbon number and the distribution by compound class at each engine power level. The sum of the organic species was compared with an independent measurement of total organic carbon to assess the carbon mass balance. A portion of the exhaust was captured and irradiated in outdoor smog chambers to assess the photochemical reactivity of the emissions with respect to ozone formation. The reactivity of emissions from the two engines was apportioned by chemical compound class.

  12. Chemical composition and photochemical reactivity of exhaust from aircraft turbine engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. W. Spicer

    1994-08-01

    Full Text Available Assessment of the environmental impact of aircraft emissions is required by planners and policy makers. Seveal areas of concern are: 1. exposure of airport workers and urban residents to toxic chemicals emitted when the engines operate at low power (idle and taxi on the ground; 2. contributions to urban photochemical air pollution of aircraft volatile organic and nitrogen oxides emissions from operations around airports; and 3. emissions of nitrogen oxides and particles during high-altitude operation. The environmental impact of chemicals emitted from jet aircraft turbine engines has not been firmly established due to lack of data regarding emission rates and identities of the compounds emitted. This paper describes an experimental study of two different aircraft turbine engines designed to determine detailed organic emissions, as well as emissions of inorganic gases. Emissions were measured at several engine power settings. Measurements were made of detailed organic composition from C1 through C17, CO, CO2, NO, NOx, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Measurements were made using a multi-port sampling pro be positioned directly behind the engine in the exhaust exit plane. The emission measurements have been used to determine the organic distribution by carbon number and the distribution by compound class at each engine power level. The sum of the organic species was compared with an independent measurement of total organic carbon to assess the carbon mass balance. A portion of the exhaust was captured and irradiated in outdoor smog chambers to assess the photochemical reactivity of the emissions with respect to ozone formation. The reactivity of emissions from the two engines was apportioned by chemical compound class.

  13. Optimal Tuner Selection for Kalman-Filter-Based Aircraft Engine Performance Estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Donald L.; Garg, Sanjay

    2011-01-01

    An emerging approach in the field of aircraft engine controls and system health management is the inclusion of real-time, onboard models for the inflight estimation of engine performance variations. This technology, typically based on Kalman-filter concepts, enables the estimation of unmeasured engine performance parameters that can be directly utilized by controls, prognostics, and health-management applications. A challenge that complicates this practice is the fact that an aircraft engine s performance is affected by its level of degradation, generally described in terms of unmeasurable health parameters such as efficiencies and flow capacities related to each major engine module. Through Kalman-filter-based estimation techniques, the level of engine performance degradation can be estimated, given that there are at least as many sensors as health parameters to be estimated. However, in an aircraft engine, the number of sensors available is typically less than the number of health parameters, presenting an under-determined estimation problem. A common approach to address this shortcoming is to estimate a subset of the health parameters, referred to as model tuning parameters. The problem/objective is to optimally select the model tuning parameters to minimize Kalman-filterbased estimation error. A tuner selection technique has been developed that specifically addresses the under-determined estimation problem, where there are more unknown parameters than available sensor measurements. A systematic approach is applied to produce a model tuning parameter vector of appropriate dimension to enable estimation by a Kalman filter, while minimizing the estimation error in the parameters of interest. Tuning parameter selection is performed using a multi-variable iterative search routine that seeks to minimize the theoretical mean-squared estimation error of the Kalman filter. This approach can significantly reduce the error in onboard aircraft engine parameter estimation

  14. Analysis and test of insulated components for rotary engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badgley, Patrick R.; Doup, Douglas; Kamo, Roy

    1989-01-01

    The direct-injection stratified-charge (DISC) rotary engine, while attractive for aviation applications due to its light weight, multifuel capability, and potentially low fuel consumption, has until now required a bulky and heavy liquid-cooling system. NASA-Lewis has undertaken the development of a cooling system-obviating, thermodynamically superior adiabatic rotary engine employing state-of-the-art thermal barrier coatings to thermally insulate engine components. The thermal barrier coating material for the cast aluminum, stainless steel, and ductile cast iron components was plasma-sprayed zirconia. DISC engine tests indicate effective thermal barrier-based heat loss reduction, but call for superior coefficient-of-thermal-expansion matching of materials and better tribological properties in the coatings used.

  15. Accurate Measurements of Aircraft Engine Soot Emissions Using a CAPS PMssa Monitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onasch, Timothy; Thompson, Kevin; Renbaum-Wolff, Lindsay; Smallwood, Greg; Make-Lye, Richard; Freedman, Andrew

    2016-04-01

    We present results of aircraft engine soot emissions measurements during the VARIAnT2 campaign using CAPS PMssa monitors. VARIAnT2, an aircraft engine non-volatile particulate matter (nvPM) emissions field campaign, was focused on understanding the variability in nvPM mass measurements using different measurement techniques and accounting for possible nvPM sampling system losses. The CAPS PMssa monitor accurately measures both the optical extinction and scattering (and thus single scattering albedo and absorption) of an extracted sample using the same sample volume for both measurements with a time resolution of 1 second and sensitivity of better than 1 Mm-1. Absorption is obtained by subtracting the scattering signal from the total extinction. Given that the single scattering albedo of the particulates emitted from the aircraft engine measured at both 630 and 660 nm was on the order of 0.1, any inaccuracy in the scattering measurement has little impact on the accuracy of the ddetermined absorption coefficient. The absorption is converted into nvPM mass using a documented Mass Absorption Coefficient (MAC). Results of soot emission indices (mass soot emitted per mass of fuel consumed) for a turbojet engine as a function of engine power will be presented and compared to results obtained using an EC/OC monitor.

  16. Aircraft Wing for Over-The-Wing Mounting of Engine Nacelle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Andrew S. (Inventor); Kinney, David J. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    An aircraft wing has an inboard section and an outboard section. The inboard section is attached (i) on one side thereof to the aircraft's fuselage, and (ii) on an opposing side thereof to an inboard side of a turbofan engine nacelle in an over-the-wing mounting position. The outboard section's leading edge has a sweep of at least 20 degrees. The inboard section's leading edge has a sweep between -15 and +15 degrees, and extends from the fuselage to an attachment position on the nacelle that is forward of an index position defined as an imaginary intersection between the sweep of the outboard section's leading edge and the inboard side of the nacelle. In an alternate embodiment, the turbofan engine nacelle is replaced with an open rotor engine nacelle.

  17. Reducing Conservatism in Aircraft Engine Response Using Conditionally Active Min-Max Limit Regulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Ryan D.; Garg, Sanjay

    2012-01-01

    Current aircraft engine control logic uses a Min-Max control selection structure to prevent the engine from exceeding any safety or operational limits during transients due to throttle commands. This structure is inherently conservative and produces transient responses that are slower than necessary. In order to utilize the existing safety margins more effectively, a modification to this architecture is proposed, referred to as a Conditionally Active (CA) limit regulator. This concept uses the existing Min-Max architecture with the modification that limit regulators are active only when the operating point is close to a particular limit. This paper explores the use of CA limit regulators using a publicly available commercial aircraft engine simulation. The improvement in thrust response while maintaining all necessary safety limits is demonstrated in a number of cases.

  18. Correlation between electrical, mechanical and chemical properties of fresh and used aircraft engine oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajewski, Juliusz B.; Głogowski, Marek J.; Paszkowski, Maciej; Czarnik-Matusewicz, Bogusława

    2011-06-01

    In this paper the results are presented of measurements of electrical, mechanical and chemical properties of fresh and used aircraft engine oils. Oils were used in a four-stroke aircraft engine and their samples were taken after the 50-hour work of the engine. The resistivity, permittivity and viscosity of oils were measured as a function of temperature. Additionally, some measurements of the absorbance spectra and size of particles contained in the oils were carried out. The significant reduction in the resistivity of the used Total oil was observed. The relative permittivity of both used oils was slightly increased. The oil's relative viscosity depends on temperature of oil and given time that elapsed from the very first moment when the shear force was applied in a rheometer. The results obtained allowed one to identify more precisely the chemical and physico-chemical interactions occurring in the tested samples, as compared with a typical infrared spectroscopy.

  19. The influence of engine/transmission/governor on tilting proprotor aircraft dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, W.

    1975-01-01

    An analytical model is developed for the dynamics of a tilting proprotor aircraft engine and drive train, including a rotor speed governor and interconnect shaft. The dynamic stability of a proprotor and cantilever wing is calculated, including the engine-transmission-governor model. It is concluded that the rotor behaves much as if windmilling as far as its dynamic behavior is concerned, with some influence of the turboshaft engine inertia and damping. The interconnect shaft has a significant influence on the antisymmetric dynamics of proprotor aircraft. The proprotor aerodynamics model is extended to include reverse flow, and a refinement on the method used to calculate the kinematic pitch-bending coupling of the blade is developed.

  20. Leakage Account for Radial Face Contact Seal in Aircraft Engine Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinogradov, A. S.; Sergeeva, T. V.

    2018-01-01

    The article is dedicated to the development of a methodology for the radial face contact seal design taking into consideration the supporting elements deformations in different aircraft engine operating modes. Radial face contact seals are popular in the aircraft engines bearing support. However, there are no published leakage calculation methodologies of these seals. Radial face contact seal leakage is determined by the gap clearance in the carbon seal ring split. In turn, the size gap clearance depends on the deformation of the seal assembly parts and from the engine operation. The article shows the leakage detection sequence in the intershaft radial face contact seal of the compressor support for take-off and cruising modes. Evaluated calculated leakage values (2.4 g/s at takeoff and 0.75 g/s at cruising) go with experience in designing seals.

  1. Correlation between electrical, mechanical and chemical properties of fresh and used aircraft engine oils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gajewski, Juliusz B; Glogowski, Marek J; Paszkowski, Maciej; Czarnik-Matusewicz, Boguslawa

    2011-01-01

    In this paper the results are presented of measurements of electrical, mechanical and chemical properties of fresh and used aircraft engine oils. Oils were used in a four-stroke aircraft engine and their samples were taken after the 50-hour work of the engine. The resistivity, permittivity and viscosity of oils were measured as a function of temperature. Additionally, some measurements of the absorbance spectra and size of particles contained in the oils were carried out. The significant reduction in the resistivity of the used Total oil was observed. The relative permittivity of both used oils was slightly increased. The oil's relative viscosity depends on temperature of oil and given time that elapsed from the very first moment when the shear force was applied in a rheometer. The results obtained allowed one to identify more precisely the chemical and physico-chemical interactions occurring in the tested samples, as compared with a typical infrared spectroscopy.

  2. Constructing an Efficient Self-Tuning Aircraft Engine Model for Control and Health Management Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Jeffrey B.; Simon, Donald L.

    2012-01-01

    Self-tuning aircraft engine models can be applied for control and health management applications. The self-tuning feature of these models minimizes the mismatch between any given engine and the underlying engineering model describing an engine family. This paper provides details of the construction of a self-tuning engine model centered on a piecewise linear Kalman filter design. Starting from a nonlinear transient aerothermal model, a piecewise linear representation is first extracted. The linearization procedure creates a database of trim vectors and state-space matrices that are subsequently scheduled for interpolation based on engine operating point. A series of steady-state Kalman gains can next be constructed from a reduced-order form of the piecewise linear model. Reduction of the piecewise linear model to an observable dimension with respect to available sensed engine measurements can be achieved using either a subset or an optimal linear combination of "health" parameters, which describe engine performance. The resulting piecewise linear Kalman filter is then implemented for faster-than-real-time processing of sensed engine measurements, generating outputs appropriate for trending engine performance, estimating both measured and unmeasured parameters for control purposes, and performing on-board gas-path fault diagnostics. Computational efficiency is achieved by designing multidimensional interpolation algorithms that exploit the shared scheduling of multiple trim vectors and system matrices. An example application illustrates the accuracy of a self-tuning piecewise linear Kalman filter model when applied to a nonlinear turbofan engine simulation. Additional discussions focus on the issue of transient response accuracy and the advantages of a piecewise linear Kalman filter in the context of validation and verification. The techniques described provide a framework for constructing efficient self-tuning aircraft engine models from complex nonlinear

  3. Large eddy simulation of air pollution produced by aircraft engine emissions inside the airport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Synylo, Kateryna [National Aviation University (Ukraine)], email: synylo@nau.edu.ua

    2011-07-01

    With the increase of air traffic movement, air pollution from airport emissions has become an important concern. In the past, various research has been undertaken on the impact of aircraft engines on the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere, however the impact that emissions have on airports themselves is not taken into account by the most frequently used monitoring software programs. The aim of this paper is to present the use of a CFD simulation to determine the dynamic and fluid mechanics characteristics of aircraft emissions near the ground. The CFD simulation was carried out using Fluent 6.3 software and the effects of counter-rotating vortices and wind conditions on fulfilled gases jet. It was found that numerical simulation is able to resolve difficult equations and provide realistic results. This study demonstrated that the use of CFD computation could be used to improve local air quality modeling and assessment of the impact of aircraft emissions at airports.

  4. Extractive sampling and optical remote sensing of F100 aircraft engine emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowen, Kenneth; Goodwin, Bradley; Joseph, Darrell; Tefend, Matthew; Satola, Jan; Kagann, Robert; Hashmonay, Ram; Spicer, Chester; Holdren, Michael; Mayfield, Howard

    2009-05-01

    The Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program (SERDP) has initiated several programs to develop and evaluate techniques to characterize emissions from military aircraft to meet increasingly stringent regulatory requirements. This paper describes the results of a recent field study using extractive and optical remote sensing (ORS) techniques to measure emissions from six F-15 fighter aircraft. Testing was performed between November 14 and 16, 2006 on the trim-pad facility at Tyndall Air Force Base in Panama City, FL. Measurements were made on eight different F100 engines, and the engines were tested on-wing of in-use aircraft. A total of 39 test runs were performed at engine power levels that ranged from idle to military power. The approach adopted for these tests involved extractive sampling with collocated ORS measurements at a distance of approximately 20-25 nozzle diameters downstream of the engine exit plane. The emission indices calculated for carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, nitric oxide, and several volatile organic compounds showed very good agreement when comparing the extractive and ORS sampling methods.

  5. Multi-Objective Climb Path Optimization for Aircraft/Engine Integration Using Particle Swarm Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aristeidis Antonakis

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In this article, a new multi-objective approach to the aircraft climb path optimization problem, based on the Particle Swarm Optimization algorithm, is introduced to be used for aircraft–engine integration studies. This considers a combination of a simulation with a traditional Energy approach, which incorporates, among others, the use of a proposed path-tracking scheme for guidance in the Altitude–Mach plane. The adoption of population-based solver serves to simplify case setup, allowing for direct interfaces between the optimizer and aircraft/engine performance codes. A two-level optimization scheme is employed and is shown to improve search performance compared to the basic PSO algorithm. The effectiveness of the proposed methodology is demonstrated in a hypothetic engine upgrade scenario for the F-4 aircraft considering the replacement of the aircraft’s J79 engine with the EJ200; a clear advantage of the EJ200-equipped configuration is unveiled, resulting, on average, in 15% faster climbs with 20% less fuel.

  6. Acoustic Characterization and Prediction of Representative, Small-Scale Rotary-Wing Unmanned Aircraft System Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zawodny, Nikolas S.; Boyd, D. Douglas, Jr.; Burley, Casey L.

    2016-01-01

    In this study, hover performance and acoustic measurements are taken on two different isolated rotors representative of small-scale rotary-wing unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) for a range of rotation rates. Each rotor system consists of two fixed-pitch blades powered by a brushless motor. For nearly the same thrust condition, significant differences in overall sound pressure level (OASPL), up to 8 dB, and directivity were observed between the two rotor systems. Differences are shown to be in part attributed to different rotor tip speeds, along with increased broadband and motor noise levels. In addition to acoustic measurements, aeroacoustic predictions were implemented in order to better understand the noise content of the rotor systems. Numerical aerodynamic predictions were computed using the unsteady Reynoldsaveraged Navier Stokes code OVERFLOW2 on one of the isolated rotors, while analytical predictions were computed using the Propeller Analysis System of the Aircraft NOise Prediction Program (ANOPP-PAS) on the two rotor configurations. Preliminary semi-empirical frequency domain broadband noise predictions were also carried out based on airfoil self-noise theory in a rotational reference frame. The prediction techniques further supported trends identified in the experimental data analysis. The brushless motors were observed to be important noise contributors and warrant further investigation. It is believed that UAS acoustic prediction capabilities must consider both rotor and motor components as part of a combined noise-generating system.

  7. Structured automated code checking through structural components and systems engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coenders, J.L.; Rolvink, A.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a proposal to employ the design computing methodology proposed as StructuralComponents (Rolvink et al [6] and van de Weerd et al [7]) as a method to perform a digital verification process to fulfil the requirements related to structural design and engineering as part of a

  8. A Modular Aero-Propulsion System Simulation of a Large Commercial Aircraft Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeCastro, Jonathan A.; Litt, Jonathan S.; Frederick, Dean K.

    2008-01-01

    A simulation of a commercial engine has been developed in a graphical environment to meet the increasing need across the controls and health management community for a common research and development platform. This paper describes the Commercial Modular Aero Propulsion System Simulation (C-MAPSS), which is representative of a 90,000-lb thrust class two spool, high bypass ratio commercial turbofan engine. A control law resembling the state-of-the-art on board modern aircraft engines is included, consisting of a fan-speed control loop supplemented by relevant engine limit protection regulator loops. The objective of this paper is to provide a top-down overview of the complete engine simulation package.

  9. A kernel principal component analysis–based degradation model and remaining useful life estimation for the turbofan engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delong Feng

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Remaining useful life estimation of the prognostics and health management technique is a complicated and difficult research question for maintenance. In this article, we consider the problem of prognostics modeling and estimation of the turbofan engine under complicated circumstances and propose a kernel principal component analysis–based degradation model and remaining useful life estimation method for such aircraft engine. We first analyze the output data created by the turbofan engine thermodynamic simulation that is based on the kernel principal component analysis method and then distinguish the qualitative and quantitative relationships between the key factors. Next, we build a degradation model for the engine fault based on the following assumptions: the engine has only had constant failure (i.e. no sudden failure is included, and the engine has a Wiener process, which is a covariate stand for the engine system drift. To predict the remaining useful life of the turbofan engine, we built a health index based on the degradation model and used the method of maximum likelihood and the data from the thermodynamic simulation model to estimate the parameters of this degradation model. Through the data analysis, we obtained a trend model of the regression curve line that fits with the actual statistical data. Based on the predicted health index model and the data trend model, we estimate the remaining useful life of the aircraft engine as the index reaches zero. At last, a case study involving engine simulation data demonstrates the precision and performance advantages of this prediction method that we propose. At last, a case study involving engine simulation data demonstrates the precision and performance advantages of this proposed method, the precision of the method can reach to 98.9% and the average precision is 95.8%.

  10. Packaged Capacitive Pressure Sensor System for Aircraft Engine Health Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scardelletti, Maximilian C.; Zorman, Christian A.

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a packaged silicon carbide (SiC) based MEMS pressure sensor system designed specifically for a conventional turbofan engine. The electronic circuit is based on a Clapp-type oscillator that incorporates a 6H-SiC MESFET, a SiCN MEMS capacitive pressure sensor, titanate MIM capacitors, wirewound inductors, and thick film resistors. The pressure sensor serves as the capacitor in the LC tank circuit, thereby linking pressure to the resonant frequency of the oscillator. The oscillator and DC bias circuitry were fabricated on an alumina substrate and secured inside a metal housing. The packaged sensing system reliably operates at 0 to 350 psi and 25 to 540C. The system has a pressure sensitivity of 6.8 x 10E-2 MHzpsi. The packaged system shows negligible difference in frequency response between 25 and 400C. The fully packaged sensor passed standard benchtop acceptance tests and was evaluated on a flight-worthy engine.

  11. Need for Robust Sensors for Inherently Fail-Safe Gas Turbine Engine Controls, Monitoring, and Prognostics (Postprint)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Behbahani, Alireza R

    2006-01-01

    Sensor reliability is critical to turbine engine control. Today's aircraft engines demand more sophisticated sensors in the control systems, requiring advanced engine testing for component performance demonstration...

  12. Problems of Formation of Diagnostic Features in the Diagnosis of Aircraft Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pronyakin V.I.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the evaluation of current technical condition of aircraft engines. Deals with the choice of the detection method of diagnostic features required for degradation assessment, emergency protection and detection of incipient defects on the example of cyclic machines and mechanisms. For the formation of diagnostic features in the diagnosis of aircraft engines use different physical effects (vibration, shock, heat radiation, electrodynamic and thermal processes, wear debris in oil, etc.. Classification of defects and requirements for the development of diagnostics systems is formed based on them. The article describes the requirements for diagnostic signs. The article provides a promising phase method that allows obtaining stable diagnostic characters in exploitation. The result of applying the method is shown. Diagnostic signs are formed. In mathematical modeling it was used the traditional theory of the description of rotary mechanisms. The data obtained are compared with experimental data.

  13. Engine Yaw Augmentation for Hybrid-Wing-Body Aircraft via Optimal Control Allocation Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Brian R.; Yoo, Seung Yeun

    2011-01-01

    Asymmetric engine thrust was implemented in a hybrid-wing-body non-linear simulation to reduce the amount of aerodynamic surface deflection required for yaw stability and control. Hybrid-wing-body aircraft are especially susceptible to yaw surface deflection due to their decreased bare airframe yaw stability resulting from the lack of a large vertical tail aft of the center of gravity. Reduced surface deflection, especially for trim during cruise flight, could reduce the fuel consumption of future aircraft. Designed as an add-on, optimal control allocation techniques were used to create a control law that tracks total thrust and yaw moment commands with an emphasis on not degrading the baseline system. Implementation of engine yaw augmentation is shown and feasibility is demonstrated in simulation with a potential drag reduction of 2 to 4 percent. Future flight tests are planned to demonstrate feasibility in a flight environment.

  14. Aircraft Engine Noise Research and Testing at the NASA Glenn Research Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Dave

    2015-01-01

    The presentation will begin with a brief introduction to the NASA Glenn Research Center as well as an overview of how aircraft engine noise research fits within the organization. Some of the NASA programs and projects with noise content will be covered along with the associated goals of aircraft noise reduction. Topics covered within the noise research being presented will include noise prediction versus experimental results, along with engine fan, jet, and core noise. Details of the acoustic research conducted at NASA Glenn will include the test facilities available, recent test hardware, and data acquisition and analysis methods. Lastly some of the actual noise reduction methods investigated along with their results will be shown.

  15. Aircraft Maintenance Engineering: Factors Impacting Airlines E-Maintenance Technologies, Authoring and Illustrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karayianes, Frank

    The purpose of this research was to evaluate factors influencing acceptance and use of technologies in the field of aircraft maintenance authoring, graphics, and documentation. Maintenance engineering authors convert complex engineering used in aircraft production and transform that data using technology (tools) into usable technical publications data. While the current literature includes a large volume of research in technology acceptance in various domains of industry and business, the problem is that no such studies exist with respect to the aircraft maintenance engineering authoring, allowing any number of tools to be used and acceptance to be unsure. The study was based on theoretical approaches of the Technology Acceptance Model and the associated hypothesis related to eight research questions. A survey questionnaire was developed for data collection from a selected population of aircraft maintenance engineering authors. Data collected from 148 responses were exposed to a range of statistical methods and analyses. Analysis of data were performed within the structural equation model using exploratory factor analysis, confirmatory factor analysis, and a range of regression methods. The analyses generally provided results consistent with prior literature. Two survey questions yielded unexpected results contrary to similar studies. The relationship between prior experience and job level did not show a significant relationship with perceived usefulness or perceived ease of use. Other results included the significant relationship between Perceived Usefulness and Perceived Ease of Use with Technology acceptance. Recommendations include understanding how Technology Acceptance can be improved for the industry and the need for further research not covered to refine recommendations for technology acceptance related to the aviation industry.

  16. MODELING OF THE FUNCTIONING UNITS OF FUEL SYSTEM OF GAS TURBINE ENGINE AIRCRAFT IN VIEW OF AVIATION FUEL QUALITY CHANGES

    OpenAIRE

    I. I. Zavyalik; V. S. Oleshko; V. M. Samoylenko; E. V. Fetisov

    2016-01-01

    The article describes the developed modeling system in MATLAB Simulink which allows to simulate, explore and pre- dict the technical condition of the units of the aircraft gas turbine engine fuel system depending on aviation fuel quality changes.

  17. Sliding Mode Fault Tolerant Control with Adaptive Diagnosis for Aircraft Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Lingfei; Du, Yanbin; Hu, Jixiang; Jiang, Bin

    2018-03-01

    In this paper, a novel sliding mode fault tolerant control method is presented for aircraft engine systems with uncertainties and disturbances on the basis of adaptive diagnostic observer. By taking both sensors faults and actuators faults into account, the general model of aircraft engine control systems which is subjected to uncertainties and disturbances, is considered. Then, the corresponding augmented dynamic model is established in order to facilitate the fault diagnosis and fault tolerant controller design. Next, a suitable detection observer is designed to detect the faults effectively. Through creating an adaptive diagnostic observer and based on sliding mode strategy, the sliding mode fault tolerant controller is constructed. Robust stabilization is discussed and the closed-loop system can be stabilized robustly. It is also proven that the adaptive diagnostic observer output errors and the estimations of faults converge to a set exponentially, and the converge rate greater than some value which can be adjusted by choosing designable parameters properly. The simulation on a twin-shaft aircraft engine verifies the applicability of the proposed fault tolerant control method.

  18. Modular Engine Noise Component Prediction System (MCP) Program Users' Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golub, Robert A. (Technical Monitor); Herkes, William H.; Reed, David H.

    2004-01-01

    This is a user's manual for Modular Engine Noise Component Prediction System (MCP). This computer code allows the user to predict turbofan engine noise estimates. The program is based on an empirical procedure that has evolved over many years at The Boeing Company. The data used to develop the procedure include both full-scale engine data and small-scale model data, and include testing done by Boeing, by the engine manufacturers, and by NASA. In order to generate a noise estimate, the user specifies the appropriate engine properties (including both geometry and performance parameters), the microphone locations, the atmospheric conditions, and certain data processing options. The version of the program described here allows the user to predict three components: inlet-radiated fan noise, aft-radiated fan noise, and jet noise. MCP predicts one-third octave band noise levels over the frequency range of 50 to 10,000 Hertz. It also calculates overall sound pressure levels and certain subjective noise metrics (e.g., perceived noise levels).

  19. Pratt & Whitney aircraft nuclear J-8 turbojet engine performance variation with radiator diameter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larson, John W.

    1960-01-01

    The variation of engine performance with liquid metal radiator diameter and flight altitude has been estimated for both the 1600F NaK and 1800F NaK radiators at Mach 0.6 and hot day atmospheric conditions. The net thrust, air flow and reactor power is presented in 3 figures for the Pratt & Whitney Aircraft J-58 engine with the 1600F NaK radiator. The net thrust, air flow and reactor power for the 1800F NaK radiator are also presented in figures.

  20. Local damage to reinforced concrete structures caused by impact of aircraft engine missiles. Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugano, T.; Tsubota, H.; Kasai, Y.; Koshika, N.; Itoh, C.; Shirai, K.; Von Riesemann, W.A.; Bickel, D.C.; Parks, M.B.

    1993-01-01

    Three sets of impact tests, small-, intermediate-, and full-scale tests, have been executed to determine local damage to reinforced concrete structures caused by the impact of aircraft engine missiles. The results of the test program showed that (1) the use of the similarity law is appropriate, (2) suitable empirical formulas exist for predicting the local damage caused by rigid missiles, (3) reduction factors may be used for evaluating the reduction in local damage due to the deformability of the engines, (4) the reinforcement ratio has no effect on local damage, and (5) the test results could be adequately predicted using nonlinear response analysis. (orig.)

  1. Novel approach of wavelet analysis for nonlinear ultrasonic measurements and fatigue assessment of jet engine components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunget, Gheorghe; Tilmon, Brevin; Yee, Andrew; Stewart, Dylan; Rogers, James; Webster, Matthew; Farinholt, Kevin; Friedersdorf, Fritz; Pepi, Marc; Ghoshal, Anindya

    2018-04-01

    Widespread damage in aging aircraft is becoming an increasing concern as both civil and military fleet operators are extending the service lifetime of their aircraft. Metallic components undergoing variable cyclic loadings eventually fatigue and form dislocations as precursors to ultimate failure. In order to characterize the progression of fatigue damage precursors (DP), the acoustic nonlinearity parameter is measured as the primary indicator. However, using proven standard ultrasonic technology for nonlinear measurements presents limitations for settings outside of the laboratory environment. This paper presents an approach for ultrasonic inspection through automated immersion scanning of hot section engine components where mature ultrasonic technology is used during periodic inspections. Nonlinear ultrasonic measurements were analyzed using wavelet analysis to extract multiple harmonics from the received signals. Measurements indicated strong correlations of nonlinearity coefficients and levels of fatigue in aluminum and Ni-based superalloys. This novel wavelet cross-correlation (WCC) algorithm is a potential technique to scan for fatigue damage precursors and identify critical locations for remaining life prediction.

  2. Aircraft Gas Turbine Engine Health Monitoring System by Real Flight Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustagime Tülin Yildirim

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Modern condition monitoring-based methods are used to reduce maintenance costs, increase aircraft safety, and reduce fuel consumption. In the literature, parameters such as engine fan speeds, vibration, oil pressure, oil temperature, exhaust gas temperature (EGT, and fuel flow are used to determine performance deterioration in gas turbine engines. In this study, a new model was developed to get information about the gas turbine engine’s condition. For this model, multiple regression analysis was carried out to determine the effect of the flight parameters on the EGT parameter and the artificial neural network (ANN method was used in the identification of EGT parameter. At the end of the study, a network that predicts the EGT parameter with the smallest margin of error has been developed. An interface for instant monitoring of the status of the aircraft engine has been designed in MATLAB Simulink. Any performance degradation that may occur in the aircraft’s gas turbine engine can be easily detected graphically or by the engine performance deterioration value. Also, it has been indicated that it could be a new indicator that informs the pilots in the event of a fault in the sensor of the EGT parameter that they monitor while flying.

  3. Lightweight two-stroke cycle aircraft diesel engine technology enablement program, volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freen, P. D.; Berenyi, S. G.; Brouwers, A. P.; Moynihan, M. E.

    1985-01-01

    An experimental Single Cylinder Test Engine Program is conducted to confirm the analytically projected performance of a two-stroke cycle diesel engine for aircraft applications. The test engine delivered 78kW indicated power from 1007cc displacement, operating at 3500 RPM on Schnuerle loop scavenged two-stroke cycle. Testing confirms the ability of a proposed 4-cylinder version of such an engine to reach the target power at altitude, in a highly turbocharged configuration. The experimental program defines all necessary parameters to permit design of a multicylinder engine for eventual flight applications; including injection system requirement, turbocharging, heat rejection, breathing, scavenging, and structural requirements. The multicylinder engine concept is configured to operate with an augmented turbocharger, but with no primary scavenge blower. The test program is oriented to provide a balanced turbocharger compressor to turbine power balance without an auxiliary scavenging system. Engine cylinder heat rejection to the ambient air has been significantly reduced and the minimum overall turbocharger efficiency required is within the range of commercially available turbochargers. Analytical studies and finite element modeling is made of insulated configurations of the engines - including both ceramic and metallic versions. A second generation test engine is designed based on current test results.

  4. A summary of computational experience at GE Aircraft Engines for complex turbulent flows in gas turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zerkle, Ronald D.; Prakash, Chander

    1995-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation summarizes some CFD experience at GE Aircraft Engines for flows in the primary gaspath of a gas turbine engine and in turbine blade cooling passages. It is concluded that application of the standard k-epsilon turbulence model with wall functions is not adequate for accurate CFD simulation of aerodynamic performance and heat transfer in the primary gas path of a gas turbine engine. New models are required in the near-wall region which include more physics than wall functions. The two-layer modeling approach appears attractive because of its computational complexity. In addition, improved CFD simulation of film cooling and turbine blade internal cooling passages will require anisotropic turbulence models. New turbulence models must be practical in order to have a significant impact on the engine design process. A coordinated turbulence modeling effort between NASA centers would be beneficial to the gas turbine industry.

  5. Take-off engine particle emission indices for in-service aircraft at Los Angeles International Airport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Richard H; Shook, Michael A; Ziemba, Luke D; DiGangi, Joshua P; Winstead, Edward L; Rauch, Bastian; Jurkat, Tina; Thornhill, Kenneth L; Crosbie, Ewan C; Robinson, Claire; Shingler, Taylor J; Anderson, Bruce E

    2017-12-19

    We present ground-based, advected aircraft engine emissions from flights taking off at Los Angeles International Airport. 275 discrete engine take-off plumes were observed on 18 and 25 May 2014 at a distance of 400 m downwind of the runway. CO 2 measurements are used to convert the aerosol data into plume-average emissions indices that are suitable for modelling aircraft emissions. Total and non-volatile particle number EIs are of order 10 16 -10 17 kg -1 and 10 14 -10 16 kg -1 , respectively. Black-carbon-equivalent particle mass EIs vary between 175-941 mg kg -1 (except for the GE GEnx engines at 46 mg kg -1 ). Aircraft tail numbers recorded for each take-off event are used to incorporate aircraft- and engine-specific parameters into the data set. Data acquisition and processing follow standard methods for quality assurance. A unique aspect of the data set is the mapping of aerosol concentration time series to integrated plume EIs, aircraft and engine specifications, and manufacturer-reported engine emissions certifications. The integrated data enable future studies seeking to understand and model aircraft emissions and their impact on air quality.

  6. Take-off engine particle emission indices for in-service aircraft at Los Angeles International Airport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Richard H.; Shook, Michael A.; Ziemba, Luke D.; Digangi, Joshua P.; Winstead, Edward L.; Rauch, Bastian; Jurkat, Tina; Thornhill, Kenneth L.; Crosbie, Ewan C.; Robinson, Claire; Shingler, Taylor J.; Anderson, Bruce E.

    2017-12-01

    We present ground-based, advected aircraft engine emissions from flights taking off at Los Angeles International Airport. 275 discrete engine take-off plumes were observed on 18 and 25 May 2014 at a distance of 400 m downwind of the runway. CO2 measurements are used to convert the aerosol data into plume-average emissions indices that are suitable for modelling aircraft emissions. Total and non-volatile particle number EIs are of order 1016-1017 kg-1 and 1014-1016 kg-1, respectively. Black-carbon-equivalent particle mass EIs vary between 175-941 mg kg-1 (except for the GE GEnx engines at 46 mg kg-1). Aircraft tail numbers recorded for each take-off event are used to incorporate aircraft- and engine-specific parameters into the data set. Data acquisition and processing follow standard methods for quality assurance. A unique aspect of the data set is the mapping of aerosol concentration time series to integrated plume EIs, aircraft and engine specifications, and manufacturer-reported engine emissions certifications. The integrated data enable future studies seeking to understand and model aircraft emissions and their impact on air quality.

  7. On the effect of emissions from aircraft engines on the state of the atmosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Schumann

    1994-04-01

    Full Text Available Emissions from aircraft engines include carbon dioxide, water vapour, nitrogen oxides, sulphur components and various other gases and particles. Such emissions from high-flying global civil subsonic air traffic may cause anthropogenic climate changes by an increase of ozone and cloudiness in the upper troposphere, and by an enhanced greenhouse effect. The absolute emissions by air traffic are small (a few percent of the total compared to surface emissions. However, the greenhouse effect of emitted water and of nitrogen oxides at cruise altitude is potentially large compared to that of the same emissions near the earth's surface because of relatively large residence times at flight altitudes, low background concentrations, low temperature, and large radiative efficiency. Model computations indicate that emission of nitrogen oxides has doubled the background concentration in the upper troposphere between 40°N and 60°N. Models also indicate that this causes an increase of ozone by about 5-20%. Regionally, the observed annual mean change in cloudiness is 0.4%. It is estimated that the resultant greenhouse effect of changes in ozone and thin cirrus cloud cover causes a climatic surface temperature change of 0.01-0.1 K. These temperature changes are small compared to the natural variability. Recent research indicates that the emissions at cruise altitude may increase the amount of stratospheric aerosols and polar stratospheric clouds and thereby have an impact on the atmospheric environment. Air traffic is increasing about 5-6% per year, fuel consumption by about 3%, hence the effects of the related emissions are expected to grow. This paper surveys the state of knowledge and describes several results from recent and ongoing research.

  8. On the effect of emissions from aircraft engines on the state of the atmosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Schumann

    Full Text Available Emissions from aircraft engines include carbon dioxide, water vapour, nitrogen oxides, sulphur components and various other gases and particles. Such emissions from high-flying global civil subsonic air traffic may cause anthropogenic climate changes by an increase of ozone and cloudiness in the upper troposphere, and by an enhanced greenhouse effect. The absolute emissions by air traffic are small (a few percent of the total compared to surface emissions. However, the greenhouse effect of emitted water and of nitrogen oxides at cruise altitude is potentially large compared to that of the same emissions near the earth's surface because of relatively large residence times at flight altitudes, low background concentrations, low temperature, and large radiative efficiency. Model computations indicate that emission of nitrogen oxides has doubled the background concentration in the upper troposphere between 40°N and 60°N. Models also indicate that this causes an increase of ozone by about 5-20%. Regionally, the observed annual mean change in cloudiness is 0.4%. It is estimated that the resultant greenhouse effect of changes in ozone and thin cirrus cloud cover causes a climatic surface temperature change of 0.01-0.1 K. These temperature changes are small compared to the natural variability. Recent research indicates that the emissions at cruise altitude may increase the amount of stratospheric aerosols and polar stratospheric clouds and thereby have an impact on the atmospheric environment. Air traffic is increasing about 5-6% per year, fuel consumption by about 3%, hence the effects of the related emissions are expected to grow. This paper surveys the state of knowledge and describes several results from recent and ongoing research.

  9. Eddy Current Assessment of Engineered Components Containing Nanofibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Ray T.; Hoppe, Wally; Pierce, Jenny

    2009-03-01

    The eddy current approach has been used to assess engineered components containing nanofibers. Five specimens with different programmed defects were fabricated. A 4-point collinear probe was used to verify the electrical resistivity of each specimen. The liftoff component of the eddy current signal was used to test two extreme cases with different nano contents. Additional eddy current measurements were also used in detecting a missing nano layer simulating a manufacturing process error. The results of this assessment suggest that eddy current liftoff measurement can be a useful tool in evaluating the electrical properties of materials containing nanofibers.

  10. Green IT engineering components, networks and systems implementation

    CERN Document Server

    Kondratenko, Yuriy; Kacprzyk, Janusz

    2017-01-01

    This book presents modern approaches to improving the energy efficiency, safety and environmental performance of industrial processes and products, based on the application of advanced trends in Green Information Technologies (IT) Engineering to components, networks and complex systems (software, programmable and hardware components, communications, Cloud and IoT-based systems, as well as IT infrastructures). The book’s 16 chapters, prepared by authors from Greece, Malaysia, Russia, Slovakia, Ukraine and the United Kingdom, are grouped into four sections: (1) The Green Internet of Things, Cloud Computing and Data Mining, (2) Green Mobile and Embedded Control Systems, (3) Green Logic and FPGA Design, and (4) Green IT for Industry and Smart Grids. The book will motivate researchers and engineers from different IT domains to develop, implement and propagate green values in complex systems. Further, it will benefit all scientists and graduate students pursuing research in computer science with a focus on green ...

  11. Turboelectric Distributed Propulsion Engine Cycle Analysis for Hybrid-Wing-Body Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felder, James L.; Kim, Hyun Dae; Brown, Gerald V.

    2009-01-01

    Meeting NASA's N+3 goals requires a fundamental shift in approach to aircraft and engine design. Material and design improvements allow higher pressure and higher temperature core engines which improve the thermal efficiency. Propulsive efficiency, the other half of the overall efficiency equation, however, is largely determined by the fan pressure ratio (FPR). Lower FPR increases propulsive efficiency, but also dramatically reduces fan shaft speed through the combination of larger diameter fans and reduced fan tip speed limits. The result is that below an FPR of 1.5 the maximum fan shaft speed makes direct drive turbines problematic. However, it is the low pressure ratio fans that allow the improvement in propulsive efficiency which, along with improvements in thermal efficiency in the core, contributes strongly to meeting the N+3 goals for fuel burn reduction. The lower fan exhaust velocities resulting from lower FPRs are also key to meeting the aircraft noise goals. Adding a gear box to the standard turbofan engine allows acceptable turbine speeds to be maintained. However, development of a 50,000+ hp gearbox required by fans in a large twin engine transport aircraft presents an extreme technical challenge, therefore another approach is needed. This paper presents a propulsion system which transmits power from the turbine to the fan electrically rather than mechanically. Recent and anticipated advances in high temperature superconducting generators, motors, and power lines offer the possibility that such devices can be used to transmit turbine power in aircraft without an excessive weight penalty. Moving to such a power transmission system does more than provide better matching between fan and turbine shaft speeds. The relative ease with which electrical power can be distributed throughout the aircraft opens up numerous other possibilities for new aircraft and propulsion configurations and modes of operation. This paper discusses a number of these new

  12. Individual aircraft life monitoring: An engineering approach for fatigue damage evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui JIAO

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Individual aircraft life monitoring is required to ensure safety and economy of aircraft structure, and fatigue damage evaluation based on collected operational data of aircraft is an integral part of it. To improve the accuracy and facilitate the application, this paper proposes an engineering approach to evaluate fatigue damage and predict fatigue life for critical structures in fatigue monitoring. In this approach, traditional nominal stress method is applied to back calculate the S-N curve parameters of the realistic structure details based on full-scale fatigue test data. Then the S-N curve and Miner’s rule are adopted in damage estimation and fatigue life analysis for critical locations under individual load spectra. The relationship between relative small crack length and fatigue life can also be predicted with this approach. Specimens of 7B04-T74 aluminum alloy and TA15M titanium alloy are fatigue tested under two types of load spectra, and there is a good agreement between the experimental results and analysis results. Furthermore, the issue concerning scatter factor in individual aircraft damage estimation is also discussed. Keywords: Fatigue damage, Fatigue monitoring, Fatigue test, Scatter factor, S-N curve

  13. Advanced diesel engine component development program, tasks 4-14

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaushal, Tony S.; Weber, Karen E.

    1994-01-01

    This report summarizes the Advanced Diesel Engine Component Development (ADECD) Program to develop and demonstrate critical technology needed to advance the heavy-duty low heat rejection engine concept. Major development activities reported are the design, analysis, and fabrication of monolithic ceramic components; vapor phase and solid film lubrication; electrohydraulic valve actuation; and high pressure common rail injection. An advanced single cylinder test bed was fabricated as a laboratory tool in studying these advanced technologies. This test bed simulates the reciprocator for a system having no cooling system, turbo compounding, Rankine bottoming cycle, common rail injection, and variable valve actuation to achieve fuel consumption of 160 g/kW-hr (.26 lb/hp-hr). The advanced concepts were successfully integrated into the test engine. All ceramic components met their functional and reliability requirements. The firedeck, cast-in-place ports, valves, valve guides, piston cap, and piston ring were made from silicon nitride. Breakthroughs required to implement a 'ceramic' engine included the fabrication of air-gap cylinder heads, elimination of compression gaskets, machining of ceramic valve seats within the ceramic firedeck, fabrication of cast-in-place ceramic port liners, implementation of vapor phase lubrication, and elimination of the engine coolant system. Silicon nitride valves were successfully developed to meet several production abuse test requirements and incorporated into the test bed with a ceramic valve guide and solid film lubrication. The ADECD cylinder head features ceramic port shields to increase insulation and exhaust energy recovery. The combustion chamber includes a ceramic firedeck and piston cap. The tribological challenge posed by top ring reversal temperatures of 550 C was met through the development of vapor phase lubrication using tricresyl phosphate at the ring-liner interface. A solenoid-controlled, variable valve actuation system

  14. Advanced diesel engine component development program, tasks 4-14

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaushal, Tony S.; Weber, Karen E.

    1994-11-01

    This report summarizes the Advanced Diesel Engine Component Development (ADECD) Program to develop and demonstrate critical technology needed to advance the heavy-duty low heat rejection engine concept. Major development activities reported are the design, analysis, and fabrication of monolithic ceramic components; vapor phase and solid film lubrication; electrohydraulic valve actuation; and high pressure common rail injection. An advanced single cylinder test bed was fabricated as a laboratory tool in studying these advanced technologies. This test bed simulates the reciprocator for a system having no cooling system, turbo compounding, Rankine bottoming cycle, common rail injection, and variable valve actuation to achieve fuel consumption of 160 g/kW-hr (.26 lb/hp-hr). The advanced concepts were successfully integrated into the test engine. All ceramic components met their functional and reliability requirements. The firedeck, cast-in-place ports, valves, valve guides, piston cap, and piston ring were made from silicon nitride. Breakthroughs required to implement a 'ceramic' engine included the fabrication of air-gap cylinder heads, elimination of compression gaskets, machining of ceramic valve seats within the ceramic firedeck, fabrication of cast-in-place ceramic port liners, implementation of vapor phase lubrication, and elimination of the engine coolant system. Silicon nitride valves were successfully developed to meet several production abuse test requirements and incorporated into the test bed with a ceramic valve guide and solid film lubrication. The ADECD cylinder head features ceramic port shields to increase insulation and exhaust energy recovery. The combustion chamber includes a ceramic firedeck and piston cap. The tribological challenge posed by top ring reversal temperatures of 550 C was met through the development of vapor phase lubrication using tricresyl phosphate at the ring-liner interface. A solenoid-controlled, variable valve actuation system

  15. Some current engineering topics in nuclear power plant components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amana, M.

    1977-01-01

    An analysis based on the principle of fracture mechanics, is presented for several engineering problems occuring in nuclear power plant components. The specific problems covered are: underclad cracking; stress corrosion cracking; cracks in HAZ of nozzle weld; feedwater nozzle corner crack; shift of transition temperature due to neutron irradiation; LWR local-ECC thermal shock experiment; and design and material selection of RPV in terms of fracture mechanics. (B.R.H.)

  16. Model-Based Control of an Aircraft Engine using an Optimal Tuner Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connolly, Joseph W.; Chicatelli, Amy; Garg, Sanjay

    2012-01-01

    This paper covers the development of a model-based engine control (MBEC) method- ology applied to an aircraft turbofan engine. Here, a linear model extracted from the Commercial Modular Aero-Propulsion System Simulation 40,000 (CMAPSS40k) at a cruise operating point serves as the engine and the on-board model. The on-board model is up- dated using an optimal tuner Kalman Filter (OTKF) estimation routine, which enables the on-board model to self-tune to account for engine performance variations. The focus here is on developing a methodology for MBEC with direct control of estimated parameters of interest such as thrust and stall margins. MBEC provides the ability for a tighter control bound of thrust over the entire life cycle of the engine that is not achievable using traditional control feedback, which uses engine pressure ratio or fan speed. CMAPSS40k is capable of modeling realistic engine performance, allowing for a verification of the MBEC tighter thrust control. In addition, investigations of using the MBEC to provide a surge limit for the controller limit logic are presented that could provide benefits over a simple acceleration schedule that is currently used in engine control architectures.

  17. Additive Manufacturing Design Considerations for Liquid Engine Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitten, Dave; Hissam, Andy; Baker, Kevin; Rice, Darron

    2014-01-01

    The Marshall Space Flight Center's Propulsion Systems Department has gained significant experience in the last year designing, building, and testing liquid engine components using additive manufacturing. The department has developed valve, duct, turbo-machinery, and combustion device components using this technology. Many valuable lessons were learned during this process. These lessons will be the focus of this presentation. We will present criteria for selecting part candidates for additive manufacturing. Some part characteristics are 'tailor made' for this process. Selecting the right parts for the process is the first step to maximizing productivity gains. We will also present specific lessons we learned about feature geometry that can and cannot be produced using additive manufacturing machines. Most liquid engine components were made using a two-step process. The base part was made using additive manufacturing and then traditional machining processes were used to produce the final part. The presentation will describe design accommodations needed to make the base part and lessons we learned about which features could be built directly and which require the final machine process. Tolerance capabilities, surface finish, and material thickness allowances will also be covered. Additive Manufacturing can produce internal passages that cannot be made using traditional approaches. It can also eliminate a significant amount of manpower by reducing part count and leveraging model-based design and analysis techniques. Information will be shared about performance enhancements and design efficiencies we experienced for certain categories of engine parts.

  18. Recommended Practices for Measurement of Gas Path Pressures and Temperatures for Performance Assessment of Aircraft Turbine Engines and Components (Les Methodes Recommandees pour la Mesure de la Pression et de la Temperature de la Veine Gazeuse en Vue de l’Evaluation des Performances des Turbines Aeronautiques et de leurs Composants

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-06-01

    and the attachment of the tag To Engine Center Line while satisfying the requirements in I above. Aluminium or stainless steel are preferred. Two...1IP~g 11211 U TNU yl j 7/PjM U! UZZZPUMU IM iL PI/P$| ________ L_____/ ___ Neau PKUK UTISL PTT /Pu WO12 ENME MU STL T/PM Fig. 2.10-2 Examples of...uncertainty distortion produced by intrusive probes of an types estimation as well. A diagram of the components of one must be controlled; and

  19. Evaluation of sealing performance of metal cask subjected to vertical impact load due to aircraft engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Namba, Kosuke; Shirai, Koji; Saegusa, Toshiari

    2010-01-01

    To confirm the sealing performance of a metal cask subjected to impact force due to commercial aircraft crash against a spent fuel storage facility, a vertical impact test was carried out. In this test, a simplified deformable missile was used by considering the rigidity of the actual aircraft engine and accelerated to the specified impact velocity (60 m/s) to hit the full-scale lid structure with the primary and secondary lids. Then, the leak rate, the inner pressure between the lids, and the displacement of the lids were measured. The leak rate of the secondary lid exceeded 1.0x10 -3 Pa·m 3 /s upon impact. However, because no residual lid opening displacement occurred after loading, the leak rate recovered to less than 1.0x10 -6 Pa·m 3 /s after 3 h from the impact test. In addition, to clarify the impact behaviour of the lid structure, the impact analysis using the LS-DYNA code was executed. It was found that the lid bolts maintained the good tightening force after impact loading, and the sealing performance of the full-scale metal cask would not be affected immediately by the vertical impact of the aircraft engine with a speed of 60 m/s. (author)

  20. Thrust Performance Evaluation of a Turbofan Engine Based on Exergetic Approach and Thrust Management in Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yalcin, Enver

    2017-05-01

    The environmental parameters such as temperature and air pressure which are changing depending on altitudes are effective on thrust and fuel consumption of aircraft engines. In flights with long routes, thrust management function in airplane information system has a structure that ensures altitude and performance management. This study focused on thrust changes throughout all flight were examined by taking into consideration their energy and exergy performances for fuel consumption of an aircraft engine used in flight with long route were taken as reference. The energetic and exergetic performance evaluations were made under the various altitude conditions. The thrust changes for different altitude conditions were obtained to be at 86.53 % in descending direction and at 142.58 % in ascending direction while the energy and exergy efficiency changes for the referenced engine were found to be at 80.77 % and 84.45 %, respectively. The results revealed here can be helpful to manage thrust and reduce fuel consumption, but engine performance will be in accordance with operation requirements.

  1. Local behavior of reinforced concrete slabs to aircraft engine projectile impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoo, Hyeon Kyeong; Choi, Hyun; Chung, Chul Hun; Lee, Jung Whee; Kim, Sang Yun

    2011-01-01

    Structural safety evaluation of nuclear power plant considers two distinct types of structural failure, local failure and global failure. In the local failure evaluation, considered projectiles can be divided as internal and external projectile according to the impact location, and they also can be divided as rigid and soft projectile according to the deformation level after impact. Frequently considered projectiles are aircraft engine, tornado, and turbine projectile. When the speed and weight of the projectiles are considered, the most influential projectile is aircraft engine, which is one of the soft projectiles. Sugano et al. performed impact test using an engine model projectile, which is derived from GE-J79 engine and concentrated mass-spring model idealization. Kojima and Sugano et al. demonstrated from their experiments that steel liner on the rear side of the concrete wall reduces impact induced damage and suppresses debris scattering. Chung et al. performed comparison study of various formulae suggested for local damage evaluation using previously performed numerous local impact test results. Also, they validated a methodology of numerical analysis for impact simulation using LS-DYNA. Previously suggested formulae and research results do not consider the effect of liner plate or curved shape of the containment building walls on the local damage. In this research, flat wall and curved wall are individually modeled using the same curvature of nuclear power plants, and the effects of curvature and liner plates on the local damage are analytically investigated

  2. Chemistry Characterization of Jet Aircraft Engine Particulate by XPS: Results from APEX III

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vander Wal, Randy L.; Bryg, Victoria M.

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports XPS analysis of jet exhaust particulate from a B737, Lear, ERJ, and A300 aircraft during the APEX III NASA led field campaign. Carbon hybridization and bonding chemistry are identified by high-resolution scans about the C1s core-shell region. Significant organic content as gauged by the sp3/sp2 ratio is found across engines and platforms. Polar oxygen functional groups include carboxylic, carbonyl and phenol with combined content of 20 percent or more. By lower resolution survey scans various elements including transition metals are identified along with lighter elements such as S, N, and O in the form of oxides. Burning additives within lubricants are probable sources of Na, Ba, Ca, Zn, P and possibly Sn. Elements present and their percentages varied significantly across all engines, not revealing any trend or identifiable cause for the differences, though the origin is likely the same for the same element when observed. This finding suggests that their presence can be used as a tracer for identifying soots from aircraft engines as well as diagnostic for monitoring engine performance and wear.

  3. Optical Methods For Automatic Rating Of Engine Test Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritchard, James R.; Moss, Brian C.

    1989-03-01

    In recent years, increasing commercial and legislative pressure on automotive engine manufacturers, including increased oil drain intervals, cleaner exhaust emissions and high specific power outputs, have led to increasing demands on lubricating oil performance. Lubricant performance is defined by bench engine tests run under closely controlled conditions. After test, engines are dismantled and the parts rated for wear and accumulation of deposit. This rating must be consistently carried out in laboratories throughout the world in order to ensure lubricant quality meeting the specified standards. To this end, rating technicians evaluate components, following closely defined procedures. This process is time consuming, inaccurate and subject to drift, requiring regular recalibration of raters by means of international rating workshops. This paper describes two instruments for automatic rating of engine parts. The first uses a laser to determine the degree of polishing of the engine cylinder bore, caused by the reciprocating action of piston. This instrument has been developed to prototype stage by the NDT Centre at Harwell under contract to Exxon Chemical, and is planned for production within the next twelve months. The second instrument uses red and green filtered light to determine the type, quality and position of deposit formed on the piston surfaces. The latter device has undergone feasibility study, but no prototype exists.

  4. Engineering assessment of in situ sulfate production onboard aircraft at high altitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J.; Dykema, J. A.; Keith, D.

    2016-12-01

    Stratospheric injection of scattering aerosols has been proposed as a way to reduce global temperature increases by decreasing net atmospheric radiative forcing. Several methods have been suggested as a means of implementing solar geoengineering, and high altitude aircraft have been identified as an accessible means delivering sulfate aerosols to the lower and mid-stratosphere. This research initiative analyzes the design features of an onboard open cycle chemical plant capable of in situ sulfur to sulfate conversion, and compares the required mass to that of transporting pre-fabricated gaseous or liquid sulfate aerosol precursors. Scaling from aero-derivative gas turbine engines, commercial catalytic converters, and existing aerospace materials indicate that aircraft equipped with such a system could provide a substantial mass benefit compared to direct transport of compound sulfate products.

  5. Update of development on the new Audi NSU rotary engine generation. [for application to aircraft engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanbasshuysen, R.

    1978-01-01

    Rotary engines with a chamber volume of 750 cc as a two rotor automotive powerplant, called KKM 871 are described. This engine is compared to a 3 liter or 183 cubic inch, six-cylinder reciprocating engine. Emphasis is placed on exhaust emission control and fuel economy.

  6. 78 FR 1733 - Airworthiness Directives; Thielert Aircraft Engines GmbH Reciprocating Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-09

    ... (FADEC) software version 2.91. This new AD requires removing all software mapping versions prior to 292... Engineer, Engine Certification Office, FAA, Engine & Propeller Directorate, 12 New England Executive Park... proposed to require removing all software mapping versions prior to 292, 301, or 302, applicable to the TAE...

  7. Design of a high-performance rotary stratified-charge research aircraft engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, C.; Mount, R. E.

    1984-01-01

    The power section for an advanced rotary stratified-charge general aviation engine has been designed under contract to NASA. The single-rotor research engine of 40 cubic-inches displacement (RCI-40), now being procured for test initiation this summer, is targeted for 320 T.O. horse-power in a two-rotor production engine. The research engine is designed for operating on jet-fuel, gasoline or diesel fuel and will be used to explore applicable advanced technologies and to optimize high output performance variables. Design of major components of the engine is described in this paper.

  8. Modeling and Detection of Ice Particle Accretion in Aircraft Engine Compression Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Ryan D.; Simon, Donald L.; Guo, Ten-Huei

    2012-01-01

    The accretion of ice particles in the core of commercial aircraft engines has been an ongoing aviation safety challenge. While no accidents have resulted from this phenomenon to date, numerous engine power loss events ranging from uneventful recoveries to forced landings have been recorded. As a first step to enabling mitigation strategies during ice accretion, a detection scheme must be developed that is capable of being implemented on board modern engines. In this paper, a simple detection scheme is developed and tested using a realistic engine simulation with approximate ice accretion models based on data from a compressor design tool. These accretion models are implemented as modified Low Pressure Compressor maps and have the capability to shift engine performance based on a specified level of ice blockage. Based on results from this model, it is possible to detect the accretion of ice in the engine core by observing shifts in the typical sensed engine outputs. Results are presented in which, for a 0.1 percent false positive rate, a true positive detection rate of 98 percent is achieved.

  9. Transient performance simulation of aircraft engine integrated with fuel and control systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, C.; Li, Y.G.; Yang, B.Y.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A new performance simulation method for engine hydraulic fuel systems is introduced. • Time delay of engine performance due to fuel system model is noticeable but small. • The method provides details of fuel system behavior in engine transient processes. • The method could be used to support engine and fuel system designs. - Abstract: A new method for the simulation of gas turbine fuel systems based on an inter-component volume method has been developed. It is able to simulate the performance of each of the hydraulic components of a fuel system using physics-based models, which potentially offers more accurate results compared with those using transfer functions. A transient performance simulation system has been set up for gas turbine engines based on an inter-component volume (ICV) method. A proportional-integral (PI) control strategy is used for the simulation of engine controller. An integrated engine and its control and hydraulic fuel systems has been set up to investigate their coupling effect during engine transient processes. The developed simulation system has been applied to a model aero engine. The results show that the delay of the engine transient response due to the inclusion of the fuel system model is noticeable although relatively small. The developed method is generic and can be applied to any other gas turbines and their control and fuel systems.

  10. Influence Of Aircraft Engine Exhaust Emissions At A Global Level And Preventive Measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasna Golubić

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available The work considers the differences in the aircraft engine exhaustemissions, as well as the impact of the emissions on theenvironment depending on several factors. These include theage of the engine, i. e. technical refinement, engine operating regimesat different thrusts during time periods: takeoff, climb,approach, etc. Also, the exhaust emissions do not have thesame influence on different atmospheric layers. The pollutantsemitted at higher altitudes during cruising have become agreater problem, although the volume of pollutants is smaller,due to the chemical complexity and sensitivity of these layers ascompared to the lower layers of atmosphere. One of the reasonswhy these problems have long remained outside the focus of interestof the environmentalists is that the air transport of goodsand people is performed at high altitudes, so that the pollutionof atmosphere does not present a direct threat to anyone, sincethe environment is being polluted at a global level and thereforeis more difficult to notice at the local level.

  11. A Hybrid Neural Network-Genetic Algorithm Technique for Aircraft Engine Performance Diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Takahisa; Simon, Donald L.

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, a model-based diagnostic method, which utilizes Neural Networks and Genetic Algorithms, is investigated. Neural networks are applied to estimate the engine internal health, and Genetic Algorithms are applied for sensor bias detection and estimation. This hybrid approach takes advantage of the nonlinear estimation capability provided by neural networks while improving the robustness to measurement uncertainty through the application of Genetic Algorithms. The hybrid diagnostic technique also has the ability to rank multiple potential solutions for a given set of anomalous sensor measurements in order to reduce false alarms and missed detections. The performance of the hybrid diagnostic technique is evaluated through some case studies derived from a turbofan engine simulation. The results show this approach is promising for reliable diagnostics of aircraft engines.

  12. Unmanned Aerial Aircraft Systems for transportation engineering: Current practice and future challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanouil N. Barmpounakis

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Acquiring and processing video streams from static cameras has been proposed as one of the most efficient tools for visualizing and gathering traffic information. With the latest advances in technology and visual media, combined with the increased needs in dealing with congestion more effectively and directly, the use of Unmanned Aerial Aircraft Systems (UAS has emerged in the field of traffic engineering. In this paper, we review studies and applications that incorporate UAS in transportation research and practice with the aim to set the grounds from the proper understanding and implementation of UAS related surveillance systems in transportation and traffic engineering. The studies reviewed are categorized in different transportation engineering areas. Additional significant applications from other research fields are also referenced to identify other promising applications. Finally, issues and emerging challenges in both a conceptual and methodological level are revealed and discussed.

  13. Net-Shape HIP Powder Metallurgy Components for Rocket Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bampton, Cliff; Goodin, Wes; VanDaam, Tom; Creeger, Gordon; James, Steve

    2005-01-01

    True net shape consolidation of powder metal (PM) by hot isostatic pressing (HIP) provides opportunities for many cost, performance and life benefits over conventional fabrication processes for large rocket engine structures. Various forms of selectively net-shape PM have been around for thirty years or so. However, it is only recently that major applications have been pursued for rocket engine hardware fabricated in the United States. The method employs sacrificial metallic tooling (HIP capsule and shaped inserts), which is removed from the part after HIP consolidation of the powder, by selective acid dissolution. Full exploitation of net-shape PM requires innovative approaches in both component design and materials and processing details. The benefits include: uniform and homogeneous microstructure with no porosity, irrespective of component shape and size; elimination of welds and the associated quality and life limitations; removal of traditional producibility constraints on design freedom, such as forgeability and machinability, and scale-up to very large, monolithic parts, limited only by the size of existing HIP furnaces. Net-shape PM HIP also enables fabrication of complex configurations providing additional, unique functionalities. The progress made in these areas will be described. Then critical aspects of the technology that still require significant further development and maturation will be discussed from the perspective of an engine systems builder and end-user of the technology.

  14. Physical characterization of the fine particle emissions from commercial aircraft engines during the Aircraft Particle Emissions eXperiment (APEX) 1-3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinsey, John S.; Dong, Yuanji; Williams, D. Craig; Logan, Russell

    2010-06-01

    The fine particulate matter (PM) emissions from nine commercial aircraft engine models were determined by plume sampling during the three field campaigns of the Aircraft Particle Emissions Experiment (APEX). Ground-based measurements were made primarily at 30 m behind the engine for PM mass and number concentration, particle size distribution, and total volatile matter using both time-integrated and continuous sampling techniques. The experimental results showed a PM mass emission index (EI) ranging from 10 to 550 mg kg -1 fuel depending on engine type and test parameters as well as a characteristic U-shaped curve of the mass EI with increasing fuel flow for the turbofan engines tested. Also, the Teflon filter sampling indicated that ˜40-80% of the total PM mass on a test-average basis was comprised of volatile matter (sulfur and organics) for most engines sampled. The number EIs, on the other hand, varied from ˜10 15 to 10 17 particles kg -1 fuel with the turbofan engines exhibiting a logarithmic decay with increasing fuel flow. Finally, the particle size distributions of the emissions exhibited a single primary mode that were lognormally distributed with a minor accumulation mode also observed at higher powers for all engines tested. The geometric (number) mean particle diameter ranged from 9.4 to 37 nm and the geometric standard deviation ranged from 1.3 to 2.3 depending on engine type, fuel flow, and test conditions.

  15. Compton imaging tomography for nondestructive evaluation of large multilayer aircraft components and structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanov, Volodymyr; Grubsky, Victor; Zahiri, Feraidoon

    2017-02-01

    We present a novel NDT/NDE tool for non-contact, single-sided 3D inspection of aerospace components, based on Compton Imaging Tomography (CIT) technique, which is applicable to large, non-uniform, and/or multilayer structures made of composites or lightweight metals. CIT is based on the registration of Compton-scattered X-rays, and permits the reconstruction of the full 3D (tomographic) image of the inspected objects. Unlike conventional computerized tomography (CT), CIT requires only single-sided access to objects, and therefore can be applied to large structures without their disassembly. The developed tool provides accurate detection, identification, and precise 3D localizations and measurements of any possible internal and surface defects (corrosions, cracks, voids, delaminations, porosity, and inclusions), and also disbonds, core and skin defects, and intrusion of foreign fluids (e.g., fresh and salt water, oil) inside of honeycomb sandwich structures. The NDE capabilities of the system were successfully demonstrated on various aerospace structure samples provided by several major aerospace companies. Such a CIT-based tool can detect and localize individual internal defects with dimensions about 1-2 mm3, and honeycomb disbond defects less than 6 mm by 6 mm area with the variations in the thickness of the adhesive by 100 m. Current maximum scanning speed of aircraft/spacecraft structures is about 5-8 min/ft2 (50-80 min/m2).

  16. Optimal Tuner Selection for Kalman Filter-Based Aircraft Engine Performance Estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Donald L.; Garg, Sanjay

    2010-01-01

    A linear point design methodology for minimizing the error in on-line Kalman filter-based aircraft engine performance estimation applications is presented. This technique specifically addresses the underdetermined estimation problem, where there are more unknown parameters than available sensor measurements. A systematic approach is applied to produce a model tuning parameter vector of appropriate dimension to enable estimation by a Kalman filter, while minimizing the estimation error in the parameters of interest. Tuning parameter selection is performed using a multi-variable iterative search routine which seeks to minimize the theoretical mean-squared estimation error. This paper derives theoretical Kalman filter estimation error bias and variance values at steady-state operating conditions, and presents the tuner selection routine applied to minimize these values. Results from the application of the technique to an aircraft engine simulation are presented and compared to the conventional approach of tuner selection. Experimental simulation results are found to be in agreement with theoretical predictions. The new methodology is shown to yield a significant improvement in on-line engine performance estimation accuracy

  17. Experimental investigation and modeling of an aircraft Otto engine operating with gasoline and heavier fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saldivar Olague, Jose

    A Continental "O-200" aircraft Otto-cycle engine has been modified to burn diesel fuel. Algebraic models of the different processes of the cycle were developed from basic principles applied to a real engine, and utilized in an algorithm for the simulation of engine performance. The simulation provides a means to investigate the performance of the modified version of the Continental engine for a wide range of operating parameters. The main goals of this study are to increase the range of a particular aircraft by reducing the specific fuel consumption of the engine, and to show that such an engine can burn heavier fuels (such as diesel, kerosene, and jet fuel) instead of gasoline. Such heavier fuels are much less flammable during handling operations making them safer than aviation gasoline and very attractive for use in flight operations from naval vessels. The cycle uses an electric spark to ignite the heavier fuel at low to moderate compression ratios, The stratified charge combustion process is utilized in a pre-chamber where the spray injection of the fuel occurs at a moderate pressure of 1200 psi (8.3 MPa). One advantage of fuel injection into the combustion chamber instead of into the intake port, is that the air-to-fuel ratio can be widely varied---in contrast to the narrower limits of the premixed combustion case used in gasoline engines---in order to obtain very lean combustion. Another benefit is that higher compression ratios can be attained in the modified cycle with heavier fuels. The combination of injection into the chamber for lean combustion, and higher compression ratios allow to limit the peak pressure in the cylinder, and to avoid engine damage. Such high-compression ratios are characteristic of Diesel engines and lead to increase in thermal efficiency without pre-ignition problems. In this experimental investigation, operations with diesel fuel have shown that considerable improvements in the fuel efficiency are possible. The results of

  18. Analytical modeling of the structureborne noise path on a small twin-engine aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, J. E., III; Stokes, A. Westagard; Garrelick, J. M.; Martini, K. F.

    1988-01-01

    The structureborne noise path of a six passenger twin-engine aircraft is analyzed. Models of the wing and fuselage structures as well as the interior acoustic space of the cabin are developed and used to evaluate sensitivity to structural and acoustic parameters. Different modeling approaches are used to examine aspects of the structureborne path. These approaches are guided by a number of considerations including the geometry of the structures, the frequency range of interest, and the tractability of the computations. Results of these approaches are compared with experimental data.

  19. Performance optimization of a Two-Stroke supercharged diesel engine for aircraft propulsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlucci, Antonio Paolo; Ficarella, Antonio; Trullo, Gianluca

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A Two-Stroke diesel engine for aircraft propulsion was modeled with a 0D/1D approach. • The results of the 0D/1D model are compared with those resulting from a 3D model. • The effect of several design and thermodynamic parameters have been analyzed. • Guidelines for the optimization of engine performance are provided. - Abstract: In Two-Stroke engines, the cylinder filling efficiency is antithetical to the cylinder scavenging efficiency; moreover, both of them are influenced by geometric and thermodynamic parameters characterizing the design and operation of both the engine and the related supercharging system. Aim of this work is to provide several guidelines about the definition of design and operation parameters for a Two-Stroke two banks Uniflow diesel engine, supercharged with two sequential turbochargers and an aftercooler per bank, with the goal of either increasing the engine brake power at take-off or decreasing the engine fuel consumption in cruise conditions. The engine has been modeled with a 0D/1D modeling approach. Then, the model capability in describing the effect of several parameters on engine performance has been assessed comparing the results of 3D simulations with those of 0D/1D model. The validated 0D/1D model has been used to simulate the engine behavior varying several design and operation engine parameters (exhaust valves opening and closing angles and maximum valve lift, scavenging ports opening angle, distance between bottom edge of the scavenging ports and bottom dead center, area of the single scavenging port and number of ports, engine volumetric compression ratio, low and high pressure compressor pressure ratios, air/fuel ratio) on a wide range of possible values. The parameters most influencing the engine performance are then recognized and their effect on engine thermodynamic behavior is discussed. Finally, the system configurations leading to best engine power at sea level and lowest fuel consumption in cruise

  20. Study of advanced fuel system concepts for commercial aircraft and engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Versaw, E. F.; Brewer, G. D.; Byers, W. D.; Fogg, H. W.; Hanks, D. E.; Chirivella, J.

    1983-01-01

    The impact on a commercial transport aircraft of using fuels which have relaxed property limits relative to current commercial jet fuel was assessed. The methodology of the study is outlined, fuel properties are discussed, and the effect of the relaxation of fuel properties analyzed. Advanced fuel system component designs that permit the satisfactory use of fuel with the candidate relaxed properties in the subject aircraft are described. The two fuel properties considered in detail are freezing point and thermal stability. Three candidate fuel system concepts were selected and evaluated in terms of performance, cost, weight, safety, and maintainability. A fuel system that incorporates insulation and electrical heating elements on fuel tank lower surfaces was found to be most cost effective for the long term.

  1. Advanced rotary engine components utilizing fiber reinforced Mg castings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goddard, D.; Whitman, W.; Pumphrey, R.; Lee, C.-M.

    1986-01-01

    Under a two-phase program sponsored by NASA, the technology for producing advanced rotary engine components utilizing graphite fiber-reinforced magnesium alloy casting is being developed. In Phase I, the successful casting of a simulated intermediate housing was demonstrated. In Phase II, the goal is to produce an operating rotor housing. The effort involves generation of a material property data base, optimization of parameters, and development of wear- and corrosion-resistant cast surfaces and surface coatings. Results to date are described.

  2. Full-Scale Tests of Lightweight Fragment Barriers on Commercial Aircraft

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shockey, Donald

    1999-01-01

    Because fragments from inflight engine failures can damage critical aircraft components and produce catastrophic consequences, the Federal Aviation Administration is sponsoring research to mitigate...

  3. Wind tunnel investigation of an STOL aircraft model. STOL zenki mokei-fudo shiken. ; Engine nacelle keijo koka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-01-01

    The nacelle shape of a mimic engine mounted on the wind tunnel test model for an STOL aircraft developed by the National Aerospace Laboratory has much larger length than in the nacelle of a scale reduced to 8% of an actual engine, and the shape below the nacelle is different. Therefore, in order to estimate the air force in the actual aircraft from the aerodynamic data obtained in a wind tunnel test, the data are corrected by using differences in aerodynamic loads (estimated values) applied on the mimic engine and the actual engine. For the purpose of discussing the reasonability of this correction, an 8%-scale flow through nacelle with the same shape as in the actual aircraft (the actual aircraft type) and a flow through nacelle for a wind tunnel testing model of the experimental STOL aircraft were fabricated and wind tunnel tests were performed. These results were compared with the corrected results of the mimic engine wind tunnel test. As a result, it was made clear that the force data have been corrected excessively, and the moments have been corrected considerably well. 7 refs., 32 figs., 7 tabs.

  4. Aircraft engine exhaust emissions and other airport-related contributions to ambient air pollution: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masiol, Mauro; Harrison, Roy M.

    2014-10-01

    Civil aviation is fast-growing (about +5% every year), mainly driven by the developing economies and globalisation. Its impact on the environment is heavily debated, particularly in relation to climate forcing attributed to emissions at cruising altitudes and the noise and the deterioration of air quality at ground-level due to airport operations. This latter environmental issue is of particular interest to the scientific community and policymakers, especially in relation to the breach of limit and target values for many air pollutants, mainly nitrogen oxides and particulate matter, near the busiest airports and the resulting consequences for public health. Despite the increased attention given to aircraft emissions at ground-level and air pollution in the vicinity of airports, many research gaps remain. Sources relevant to air quality include not only engine exhaust and non-exhaust emissions from aircraft, but also emissions from the units providing power to the aircraft on the ground, the traffic due to the airport ground service, maintenance work, heating facilities, fugitive vapours from refuelling operations, kitchens and restaurants for passengers and operators, intermodal transportation systems, and road traffic for transporting people and goods in and out to the airport. Many of these sources have received inadequate attention, despite their high potential for impact on air quality. This review aims to summarise the state-of-the-art research on aircraft and airport emissions and attempts to synthesise the results of studies that have addressed this issue. It also aims to describe the key characteristics of pollution, the impacts upon global and local air quality and to address the future potential of research by highlighting research needs.

  5. Physics and engineering assessments of spherical torus component test facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng, Y.-K.M.; Neumeyer, C.A.; Kessel, C.; Rutherford, P.; Mikkelsen, D.; Bell, R.; Menard, J.; Gates, D.; Schmidt, J.; Synakowski, E.; Grisham, L.; Fogarty, P.J.; Strickler, D.J.; Burgess, T.W.; Tsai, J.; Nelson, B.E.; Sabbagh, S.; Mitarai, O.; Cheng, E.T.; El-Guebaly, L.

    2005-01-01

    A broadly based study of the fusion engineering and plasma science conditions of a Component Test Facility (CTF), using the Spherical Torus or Spherical Tokamak (ST) configuration, have been carried out. The chamber systems testing conditions in a CTF are characterized by high fusion neutron fluxes Γ n > 4.4x10 13 n/s/cm 2 , over size scales > 10 5 cm 2 and depth scales > 50 cm, delivering > 3 accumulated displacement per atom (dpa) per year. The desired chamber conditions can be provided by a CTF with R 0 1.2 m, A = 1.5, elongation ∼ 3.2, I p ∼ 9 MA, B T ∼ 2.5 T, producing a driven fusion burn using 36 MW of combined neutral beam and RF power. Relatively robust ST plasma conditions are adequate, which have been shown achievable [4] without active feedback manipulation of the MHD modes. The ST CTF will test the single-turn, copper alloy center leg for the toroidal field coil without an induction solenoid and neutron shielding, and require physics data on solenoid-free plasma current initiation, ramp-up, and sustainment to multiple MA level. A new systems code that combines the key required plasma and engineering science conditions of CTF has been prepared and utilized as part of this study. The results show high potential for a family of lowercost CTF devices to suit a variety of fusion engineering science test missions. (author)

  6. Weight Assessment for Fuselage Shielding on Aircraft With Open-Rotor Engines and Composite Blade Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carney, Kelly; Pereira, Michael; Kohlman, Lee; Goldberg, Robert; Envia, Edmane; Lawrence, Charles; Roberts, Gary; Emmerling, William

    2013-01-01

    The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has been engaged in discussions with airframe and engine manufacturers concerning regulations that would apply to new technology fuel efficient "openrotor" engines. Existing regulations for the engines and airframe did not envision features of these engines that include eliminating the fan blade containment systems and including two rows of counter-rotating blades. Damage to the airframe from a failed blade could potentially be catastrophic. Therefore the feasibility of using aircraft fuselage shielding was investigated. In order to establish the feasibility of this shielding, a study was conducted to provide an estimate for the fuselage shielding weight required to provide protection from an open-rotor blade loss. This estimate was generated using a two-step procedure. First, a trajectory analysis was performed to determine the blade orientation and velocity at the point of impact with the fuselage. The trajectory analysis also showed that a blade dispersion angle of 3deg bounded the probable dispersion pattern and so was used for the weight estimate. Next, a finite element impact analysis was performed to determine the required shielding thickness to prevent fuselage penetration. The impact analysis was conducted using an FAA-provided composite blade geometry. The fuselage geometry was based on a medium-sized passenger composite airframe. In the analysis, both the blade and fuselage were assumed to be constructed from a T700S/PR520 triaxially-braided composite architecture. Sufficient test data on T700S/PR520 is available to enable reliable analysis, and also demonstrate its good impact resistance properties. This system was also used in modeling the surrogate blade. The estimated additional weight required for fuselage shielding for a wing- mounted counterrotating open-rotor blade is 236 lb per aircraft. This estimate is based on the shielding material serving the dual use of shielding and fuselage structure. If the

  7. Mathematical model of an indirect action fuel flow controller for aircraft jet engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tudosie, Alexandru-Nicolae

    2017-06-01

    The paper deals with a fuel mass flow rate controller with indirect action for aircraft jet engines. The author has identified fuel controller's main parts and its operation mode, then, based on these observations, one has determined motion equations of each main part, which have built system's non-linear mathematical model. In order to realize a better study this model was linearised (using the finite differences method) and then adimensionalized. Based on this new form of the mathematical model, after applying Laplace transformation, the embedded system (controller+engine) was described by the block diagram with transfer functions. Some Simulink-Matlab simulations were performed, concerning system's time behavior for step input, which lead to some useful conclusions and extension possibilities.

  8. Modelling of plume chemistry of high flying aircraft with H2 combustion engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weibring, G.; Zellner, R.

    1993-01-01

    Emissions from hydrogen fueled aircraft engines include large concentrations of radicals such as NO, OH, O and H. We describe the result of modelling studies in which the evolution of the radical chemistry in an expanding and cooling plume for three different mixing velocities is evaluated. The simulations were made for hydrogen combustion engines at an altitude of 26 km. For the fastest mixing conditions, the radical concentrations decrease only because of dilution with the ambient air, since the time for chemical reaction is too short. With lower mixing velocities, however, larger chemical conversions were determined. For the slowest mixing conditions the unburned hydrogen is converted into water. As a consequence the radicals O and OH increase considerably around 1400 K. The only exception being NO, for which no chemical change during the expansion is found. The concentrations of the reservoir molecules like H 2 O 2 , N 2 O 5 or HNO 3 have been calculated to remain relatively small. (orig.)

  9. Strength analysis of an aircraft turbo-compressor engine turbine disc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimko, Marek

    2017-09-01

    This article deals with a strength analysis of a gas turbine rotor disc of the concrete type of an aircraft turbo-compressor engine (ATCE). The introductory part is dedicated to a basic description of the given engine, including the main technical parameters entering the calculation. The calculation is carried out by the finite difference method. This method allows to determine the tension of a generally shaped disc, which is affected by centrifugal forces of its weight, external load and heat stress caused by the difference of thermal gradients along the disc radius. The result of calculations are dependencies of the most important parameters, such as the reduced stress, radial stress, or the safety coefficient along the disc radius.

  10. Investigation of a Verification and Validation Tool with a Turbofan Aircraft Engine Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uth, Peter; Narang-Siddarth, Anshu; Wong, Edmond

    2018-01-01

    The development of more advanced control architectures for turbofan aircraft engines can yield gains in performance and efficiency over the lifetime of an engine. However, the implementation of these increasingly complex controllers is contingent on their ability to provide safe, reliable engine operation. Therefore, having the means to verify the safety of new control algorithms is crucial. As a step towards this goal, CoCoSim, a publicly available verification tool for Simulink, is used to analyze C-MAPSS40k, a 40,000 lbf class turbo-fan engine model developed at NASA for testing new control algorithms. Due to current limitations of the verification software, several modifications are made to C-MAPSS40k to achieve compatibility with CoCoSim. Some of these modifications sacrifice fidelity to the original model. Several safety and performance requirements typical for turbofan engines are identified and constructed into a verification framework. Preliminary results using an industry standard baseline controller for these requirements are presented. While verification capabilities are demonstrated, a truly comprehensive analysis will require further development of the verification tool.

  11. A Model-Based Anomaly Detection Approach for Analyzing Streaming Aircraft Engine Measurement Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Donald L.; Rinehart, Aidan Walker

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a model-based anomaly detection architecture designed for analyzing streaming transient aircraft engine measurement data. The technique calculates and monitors residuals between sensed engine outputs and model predicted outputs for anomaly detection purposes. Pivotal to the performance of this technique is the ability to construct a model that accurately reflects the nominal operating performance of the engine. The dynamic model applied in the architecture is a piecewise linear design comprising steady-state trim points and dynamic state space matrices. A simple curve-fitting technique for updating the model trim point information based on steadystate information extracted from available nominal engine measurement data is presented. Results from the application of the model-based approach for processing actual engine test data are shown. These include both nominal fault-free test case data and seeded fault test case data. The results indicate that the updates applied to improve the model trim point information also improve anomaly detection performance. Recommendations for follow-on enhancements to the technique are also presented and discussed.

  12. Applying Best Practices to Military Commercial-Derivative Aircraft Engine Sustainment: Assessment of Using Parts Manufacturer Approval (PMA) Parts and Designated Engineering Representative (DER) Repairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    savings through greater use of non-OEM alternate parts and services 5 According to Broderick (2013), the FAA developed regulations governing PMA parts...when operators of surplus military aircraft wanted to keep them operat- ing safely and the OEMs were no longer making new parts ( Broderick , 2013...of the world’s aircraft and engines will be leased by the year 2020 (Sean Broderick , 2014). Categorization of Risks of Greater Use of PMA Parts and

  13. Automation of reverse engineering process in aircraft modeling and related optimization problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, W.; Swetits, J.

    1994-01-01

    During the year of 1994, the engineering problems in aircraft modeling were studied. The initial concern was to obtain a surface model with desirable geometric characteristics. Much of the effort during the first half of the year was to find an efficient way of solving a computationally difficult optimization model. Since the smoothing technique in the proposal 'Surface Modeling and Optimization Studies of Aerodynamic Configurations' requires solutions of a sequence of large-scale quadratic programming problems, it is important to design algorithms that can solve each quadratic program in a few interactions. This research led to three papers by Dr. W. Li, which were submitted to SIAM Journal on Optimization and Mathematical Programming. Two of these papers have been accepted for publication. Even though significant progress has been made during this phase of research and computation times was reduced from 30 min. to 2 min. for a sample problem, it was not good enough for on-line processing of digitized data points. After discussion with Dr. Robert E. Smith Jr., it was decided not to enforce shape constraints in order in order to simplify the model. As a consequence, P. Dierckx's nonparametric spline fitting approach was adopted, where one has only one control parameter for the fitting process - the error tolerance. At the same time the surface modeling software developed by Imageware was tested. Research indicated a substantially improved fitting of digitalized data points can be achieved if a proper parameterization of the spline surface is chosen. A winning strategy is to incorporate Dierckx's surface fitting with a natural parameterization for aircraft parts. The report consists of 4 chapters. Chapter 1 provides an overview of reverse engineering related to aircraft modeling and some preliminary findings of the effort in the second half of the year. Chapters 2-4 are the research results by Dr. W. Li on penalty functions and conjugate gradient methods for

  14. Trends in air-breathing engines for super high speed aircraft engine system and its task

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nose, Hiroyuki

    1988-06-10

    The second generation of space plane is under active development as the world only space plane, the Space Shuttle of U.S. will not be able to satisfy the demands in 2000 even if its flight is resumed. Conceptual study was completed in the NASP project of U.S. and the test flight of experimental plane X-30 is scheduled in mid-90's. A variety of proposals have been made by U.K, West Germany and France and the European Space Agency (ESA) is adjusting them. The mini-shuttle is under planning in Japan, which will employ H-2 rocket. Typical air-breathing engines for space planes are: Super-sonic variable cycle turbofan engine, turbo-ram jet engine, and scram jet engine, which reduces the static temperature by making the flow velocity in combustion chamber to be supersonic to fire fuels. (29 figs, 3 tabs, 9 refs)

  15. Compact, Lightweight, Ceramic Matrix Composite (CMC) Based Acoustic Liners for Reducing Subsonic Jet Aircraft Engine Noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiser, J. Douglas; Grady, Joseph E.; Miller, Christopher J.; Hultgren, Lennart S.; Jones, Michael G.

    2016-01-01

    Recent developments have reduced fan and jet noise contributions to overall subsonic aircraft jet-engine noise. Now, aircraft designers are turning their attention toward reducing engine core noise. The NASA Glenn Research Center and NASA Langley Research Center have teamed to investigate the development of a compact, lightweight acoustic liner based on oxide/oxide ceramic matrix composite (CMC) materials. The NASA team has built upon an existing oxide/oxide CMC sandwich structure concept that provides monotonal noise reduction. Oxide/oxide composites have good high temperature strength and oxidation resistance, which could allow them to perform as core liners at temperatures up to 1000C (1832F), and even higher depending on the selection of the composite constituents. NASA has initiated the evaluation of CMC-based liners that use cells of different lengths (variable-depth channels) or effective lengths to achieve broadband noise reduction. Reducing the overall liner thickness is also a major goal, to minimize the volume occupied by the liner. As a first step toward demonstrating the feasibility of our concepts, an oxide/oxide CMC acoustic testing article with different channel lengths was tested. Our approach, summary of test results, current status, and goals for the future are reported.

  16. Eddy current testing for blade edge micro cracks of aircraft engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei-min; Xu, Min-dong; Gao, Xuan-yi; Jin, Xin; Qin, Feng

    2017-10-01

    Based on the problems of low detection efficiency in the micro cracks detection of aircraft engine blades, a differential excitation eddy current testing system was designed and developed. The function and the working principle of the system were described, the problems which contained the manufacture method of simulated cracks, signal generating, signal processing and the signal display method were described. The detection test was carried out by taking a certain model aircraft engine blade with simulated cracks as a tested specimen. The test data was processed by digital low-pass filter in the computer and the crack signals of time domain display and Lissajous figure display were acquired. By comparing the test results, it is verified that Lissajous figure display shows better performance compared to time domain display when the crack angle is small. The test results show that the eddy current testing system designed in this paper is feasible to detect the micro cracks on the aeroengine blade and can effectively improve the detection efficiency of micro cracks in the practical detection work.

  17. Direct Final Rule for Control of Air Pollution From Aircraft and Aircraft Engines; Emission Standards and Test Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    This rule will adopt the current voluntary NOx and CO emissions standards of the United Nations International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO), bringing the United States aircraft standards into alignment with the international standards.

  18. Causes and risk factors for fatal accidents in non-commercial twin engine piston general aviation aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Douglas D

    2015-04-01

    Accidents in twin-engine aircraft carry a higher risk of fatality compared with single engine aircraft and constitute 9% of all general aviation accidents. The different flight profile (higher airspeed, service ceiling, increased fuel load, and aircraft yaw in engine failure) may make comparable studies on single-engine aircraft accident causes less relevant. The objective of this study was to identify the accident causes for non-commercial operations in twin engine aircraft. A NTSB accident database query for accidents in twin piston engine airplanes of 4-8 seat capacity with a maximum certified weight of 3000-8000lbs. operating under 14CFR Part 91 for the period spanning 2002 and 2012 returned 376 accidents. Accident causes and contributing factors were as per the NTSB final report categories. Total annual flight hour data for the twin engine piston aircraft fleet were obtained from the FAA. Statistical analyses employed Chi Square, Fisher's Exact and logistic regression analysis. Neither the combined fatal/non-fatal accident nor the fatal accident rate declined over the period spanning 2002-2012. Under visual weather conditions, the largest number, n=27, (27%) of fatal accidents was attributed to malfunction with a failure to follow single engine procedures representing the most common contributing factor. In degraded visibility, poor instrument approach procedures resulted in the greatest proportion of fatal crashes. Encountering thunderstorms was the most lethal of all accident causes with all occupants sustaining fatal injuries. At night, a failure to maintain obstacle/terrain clearance was the most common accident cause leading to 36% of fatal crashes. The results of logistic regression showed that operations at night (OR 3.7), off airport landings (OR 14.8) and post-impact fire (OR 7.2) all carried an excess risk of a fatal flight. This study indicates training areas that should receive increased emphasis for twin-engine training/recency. First, increased

  19. Cascade Optimization for Aircraft Engines With Regression and Neural Network Analysis - Approximators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patnaik, Surya N.; Guptill, James D.; Hopkins, Dale A.; Lavelle, Thomas M.

    2000-01-01

    The NASA Engine Performance Program (NEPP) can configure and analyze almost any type of gas turbine engine that can be generated through the interconnection of a set of standard physical components. In addition, the code can optimize engine performance by changing adjustable variables under a set of constraints. However, for engine cycle problems at certain operating points, the NEPP code can encounter difficulties: nonconvergence in the currently implemented Powell's optimization algorithm and deficiencies in the Newton-Raphson solver during engine balancing. A project was undertaken to correct these deficiencies. Nonconvergence was avoided through a cascade optimization strategy, and deficiencies associated with engine balancing were eliminated through neural network and linear regression methods. An approximation-interspersed cascade strategy was used to optimize the engine's operation over its flight envelope. Replacement of Powell's algorithm by the cascade strategy improved the optimization segment of the NEPP code. The performance of the linear regression and neural network methods as alternative engine analyzers was found to be satisfactory. This report considers two examples-a supersonic mixed-flow turbofan engine and a subsonic waverotor-topped engine-to illustrate the results, and it discusses insights gained from the improved version of the NEPP code.

  20. Safety analysis of dual purpose metal cask subjected to impulsive loads due to aircraft engine crash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirai, Koji; Namba, Kosuke; Saegusa, Toshiari

    2009-01-01

    In Japan, the first Interim Storage Facility of spent nuclear fuel away from reactor site is being planned to start its commercial operation around 2010, in use of dual-purpose metal cask in the northern part of Main Japan Island. Business License Examination for safety design approval has started since March, 2007. To demonstrate the more scientific and rational performance of safety regulation activities on each phase for the first license procedure, CREPEI has executed demonstration tests with full scale casks, such as drop tests onto real targets without impact limiters and seismic tests subjected to strong earthquake motions. Moreover, it is important to develop the knowledge for the inherent security of metal casks under extreme mechanical-impact conditions, especially for increasing interest since the terrorist attacks from 11th September 2001. This paper presents dynamic mechanical behavior of the metal cask lid closure system caused by direct aircraft engine crash and describes calculated results (especially, leak tightness based on relative dynamic displacements between metallic seals). Firstly, the local penetration damage of the interim storage facility building by a big passenger aircraft engine research (diameter 2.7m, length 4.3m, weight 4.4ton, impact velocity 90m/s) has been examined. The reduced velocity is calculated by the local damage formula for concrete structure with its thickness of 70cm. The load vs. time function for this reduced velocity (60m/s) is estimated by the impact analysis using Finite Element code LS-DYNA with the full scale engine model onto a hypothetically rigid target. Secondly, as the most critical scenarios for the metal cask, two impact scenarios (horizontal impact hitting the cask and vertical impact onto the lid metallic seal system) are chosen. To consider the geometry of all bolts for two lids, the gasket reaction forces and the inner pressure of the cask cavity, the detailed three dimensional FEM models are developed

  1. Safety Analysis of Dual Purpose Metal Cask Subjected to Impulsive Loads due to Aircraft Engine Crash

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirai, Koji; Namba, Kosuke; Saegusa, Toshiari

    In Japan, the first Interim Storage Facility of spent nuclear fuel away from reactor site is being planned to start its commercial operation around 2010, in use of dual-purpose metal cask in the northern part of Main Japan Island. Business License Examination for safety design approval has started since March, 2007. To demonstrate the more scientific and rational performance of safety regulation activities on each phase for the first license procedure, CREPEI has executed demonstration tests with full scale casks, such as drop tests onto real targets without impact limiters(1) and seismic tests subjected to strong earthquake motions(2). Moreover, it is important to develop the knowledge for the inherent security of metal casks under extreme mechanical-impact conditions, especially for increasing interest since the terrorist attacks from 11th September 2001(3)-(6). This paper presents dynamic mechanical behavior of the metal cask lid closure system caused by direct aircraft engine crash and describes calculated results (especially, leak tightness based on relative dynamic displacements between metallic seals). Firstly, the local penetration damage of the interim storage facility building by a big passenger aircraft engine crash (diameter 2.7m, length 4.3m, weight 4.4ton, impact velocity 90m/s) has been examined. The reduced velocity is calculated by the local damage formula for concrete structure with its thickness of 70cm. The load vs. time function for this reduced velocity (60m/s) is estimated by the impact analysis using Finite Element code LS-DYNA with the full scale engine model onto a hypothetically rigid target. Secondly, as the most critical scenarios for the metal cask, two impact scenarios (horizontal impact hitting the cask and vertical impact onto the lid metallic seal system) are chosen. To consider the geometry of all bolts for two lids, the gasket reaction forces and the inner pressure of the cask cavity, the detailed three dimensional FEM models are

  2. Weibull-Based Design Methodology for Rotating Structures in Aircraft Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erwin V. Zaretsky

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The NASA Energy-Efficient Engine (E3-Engine is used as the basis of a Weibull-based life and reliability analysis. Each component's life, and thus the engine's life, is defined by high-cycle fatigue or low-cycle fatigue. Knowing the cumulative life distribution of each of the components making up the engine as represented by a Weibull slope is a prerequisite to predicting the life and reliability of the entire engine. As the engine's Weibull slope increases, the predicted life decreases. The predicted engine lives L5 (95% probability of survival of approximately 17,000 and 32,000 hr do correlate with current engine-maintenance practices without and with refurbishment, respectively. The individual high-pressure turbine (HPT blade lives necessary to obtain a blade system life L0.1 (99.9% probability of survival of 9000 hr for Weibull slopes of 3, 6, and 9 are 47,391; 20,652; and 15,658 hr, respectively. For a design life of the HPT disks having probable points of failure equal to or greater than 36,000 hr at a probability of survival of 99.9%, the predicted disk system life L0.1 can vary from 9408 to 24,911 hr.

  3. Aircraft engine sensor fault diagnostics using an on-line OBEM update method.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaofeng Liu

    Full Text Available This paper proposed a method to update the on-line health reference baseline of the On-Board Engine Model (OBEM to maintain the effectiveness of an in-flight aircraft sensor Fault Detection and Isolation (FDI system, in which a Hybrid Kalman Filter (HKF was incorporated. Generated from a rapid in-flight engine degradation, a large health condition mismatch between the engine and the OBEM can corrupt the performance of the FDI. Therefore, it is necessary to update the OBEM online when a rapid degradation occurs, but the FDI system will lose estimation accuracy if the estimation and update are running simultaneously. To solve this problem, the health reference baseline for a nonlinear OBEM was updated using the proposed channel controller method. Simulations based on the turbojet engine Linear-Parameter Varying (LPV model demonstrated the effectiveness of the proposed FDI system in the presence of substantial degradation, and the channel controller can ensure that the update process finishes without interference from a single sensor fault.

  4. Sensor Selection for Aircraft Engine Performance Estimation and Gas Path Fault Diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Donald L.; Rinehart, Aidan W.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents analytical techniques for aiding system designers in making aircraft engine health management sensor selection decisions. The presented techniques, which are based on linear estimation and probability theory, are tailored for gas turbine engine performance estimation and gas path fault diagnostics applications. They enable quantification of the performance estimation and diagnostic accuracy offered by different candidate sensor suites. For performance estimation, sensor selection metrics are presented for two types of estimators including a Kalman filter and a maximum a posteriori estimator. For each type of performance estimator, sensor selection is based on minimizing the theoretical sum of squared estimation errors in health parameters representing performance deterioration in the major rotating modules of the engine. For gas path fault diagnostics, the sensor selection metric is set up to maximize correct classification rate for a diagnostic strategy that performs fault classification by identifying the fault type that most closely matches the observed measurement signature in a weighted least squares sense. Results from the application of the sensor selection metrics to a linear engine model are presented and discussed. Given a baseline sensor suite and a candidate list of optional sensors, an exhaustive search is performed to determine the optimal sensor suites for performance estimation and fault diagnostics. For any given sensor suite, Monte Carlo simulation results are found to exhibit good agreement with theoretical predictions of estimation and diagnostic accuracies.

  5. Data-driven fault detection, isolation and estimation of aircraft gas turbine engine actuator and sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naderi, E.; Khorasani, K.

    2018-02-01

    In this work, a data-driven fault detection, isolation, and estimation (FDI&E) methodology is proposed and developed specifically for monitoring the aircraft gas turbine engine actuator and sensors. The proposed FDI&E filters are directly constructed by using only the available system I/O data at each operating point of the engine. The healthy gas turbine engine is stimulated by a sinusoidal input containing a limited number of frequencies. First, the associated system Markov parameters are estimated by using the FFT of the input and output signals to obtain the frequency response of the gas turbine engine. These data are then used for direct design and realization of the fault detection, isolation and estimation filters. Our proposed scheme therefore does not require any a priori knowledge of the system linear model or its number of poles and zeros at each operating point. We have investigated the effects of the size of the frequency response data on the performance of our proposed schemes. We have shown through comprehensive case studies simulations that desirable fault detection, isolation and estimation performance metrics defined in terms of the confusion matrix criterion can be achieved by having access to only the frequency response of the system at only a limited number of frequencies.

  6. Formal Model-Driven Engineering: Generating Data and Behavioural Components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen-Wei Wang

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Model-driven engineering is the automatic production of software artefacts from abstract models of structure and functionality. By targeting a specific class of system, it is possible to automate aspects of the development process, using model transformations and code generators that encode domain knowledge and implementation strategies. Using this approach, questions of correctness for a complex, software system may be answered through analysis of abstract models of lower complexity, under the assumption that the transformations and generators employed are themselves correct. This paper shows how formal techniques can be used to establish the correctness of model transformations used in the generation of software components from precise object models. The source language is based upon existing, formal techniques; the target language is the widely-used SQL notation for database programming. Correctness is established by giving comparable, relational semantics to both languages, and checking that the transformations are semantics-preserving.

  7. Methodology to estimate particulate matter emissions from certified commercial aircraft engines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wayson, Roger L; Fleming, Gregg G; Lovinelli, Ralph

    2009-01-01

    Today, about one-fourth of U.S. commercial service airports, including 41 of the busiest 50, are either in nonattainment or maintenance areas per the National Ambient Air Quality Standards. U.S. aviation activity is forecasted to triple by 2025, while at the same time, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is evaluating stricter particulate matter (PM) standards on the basis of documented human health and welfare impacts. Stricter federal standards are expected to impede capacity and limit aviation growth if regulatory mandated emission reductions occur as for other non-aviation sources (i.e., automobiles, power plants, etc.). In addition, strong interest exists as to the role aviation emissions play in air quality and climate change issues. These reasons underpin the need to quantify and understand PM emissions from certified commercial aircraft engines, which has led to the need for a methodology to predict these emissions. Standardized sampling techniques to measure volatile and nonvolatile PM emissions from aircraft engines do not exist. As such, a first-order approximation (FOA) was derived to fill this need based on available information. FOA1.0 only allowed prediction of nonvolatile PM. FOA2.0 was a change to include volatile PM emissions on the basis of the ratio of nonvolatile to volatile emissions. Recent collaborative efforts by industry (manufacturers and airlines), research establishments, and regulators have begun to provide further insight into the estimation of the PM emissions. The resultant PM measurement datasets are being analyzed to refine sampling techniques and progress towards standardized PM measurements. These preliminary measurement datasets also support the continued refinement of the FOA methodology. FOA3.0 disaggregated the prediction techniques to allow for independent prediction of nonvolatile and volatile emissions on a more theoretical basis. The Committee for Aviation Environmental Protection of the International Civil

  8. Combustion engine diagnosis model-based condition monitoring of gasoline and diesel engines and their components

    CERN Document Server

    Isermann, Rolf

    2017-01-01

    This book offers first a short introduction to advanced supervision, fault detection and diagnosis methods. It then describes model-based methods of fault detection and diagnosis for the main components of gasoline and diesel engines, such as the intake system, fuel supply, fuel injection, combustion process, turbocharger, exhaust system and exhaust gas aftertreatment. Additionally, model-based fault diagnosis of electrical motors, electric, pneumatic and hydraulic actuators and fault-tolerant systems is treated. In general series production sensors are used. It includes abundant experimental results showing the detection and diagnosis quality of implemented faults. Written for automotive engineers in practice, it is also of interest to graduate students of mechanical and electrical engineering and computer science. The Content Introduction.- I SUPERVISION, FAULT DETECTION AND DIAGNOSIS METHODS.- Supervision, Fault-Detection and Fault-Diagnosis Methods - a short Introduction.- II DIAGNOSIS OF INTERNAL COMBUST...

  9. Aircraft gas turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sekido, T [Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries, Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1994-03-01

    Current developmental activities of aircraft gas turbines in Japan are reviewed. V2500-A5 engine with thrust of 30,000 LBF is scheduled to be used for real aircraft in 1994, and intensive developmental activities are also proceeding in larger engines over 90,000 LBF. Recently, developmental programs of engines for 75-100 seat aircraft have been actively discussed, and Japanese engine makers are having discussions towards international collaboration. Such engines will be high bypass turbofans of 12,000-22,000 LBF. Development of SST/HST engines in a speed range from subsonic to Mach 5 is under the initiative of the Agency of Industrial Science and Technology. The Technical Research and Development Institute of Japan, Defence Agency achieved the target thrust of 3.4 tons in the small turbofan engine program, and the small turboshaft engine for small helicopters is also under development. Both National Aerospace Laboratory (NAL) and Institute of Space and Aeronautical Science (ISAS) are now conducting the research programs on turbo-ramjet engines under a component test phase. 1 fig.

  10. Engineering design and fabrication of X-Band components

    CERN Document Server

    Filippova, M; Solodko, A; Riddone, G; Syratchev, I

    2011-01-01

    The CLIC RF frequency has been changed in 2008 from the initial 30 GHz to the European X-band 11.994 GHz permitting beam independent power production using klystrons for the accelerating structure testing. X-band klystron test facilities at 11.424 GHz are operated at SLAC and at KEK [1], and they are used by the CLIC study in the framework of the X-band structure collaboration for testing accelerating structures scaled to that frequency [2]. CERN is currently building a klystron test-stand operating at 11.994 GHz. In addition X-FEL projects at PSI and Sincrotrone Trieste operate at 11.4 GHz. Therefore several RF components accommodating frequencies from 11.424 to 11.994 GHz are required. The engineering design of these RF components (high power and compact loads, bi-directional couplers, X-band splitters, hybrids, phase shifters, variable power attenuators) and the main fabrication processes are presented here.

  11. Recent technologies for reduction of aircraft propulsion noise. Kokuki engine soon teigenka no saikin no gijutsu shinpo ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobayashi, H [National Aerospace Lab., Chofu, Tokyo (Japan)

    1994-03-10

    Inside the jet engine, the propulsion engine for an aircraft, a high speed air current is flowing, and the rotors such as the fan, compress or, turbine and so forth are rotating with a high speed in its flowing current. The flow itself in which a high speed exhaust jet is discharged in the air from engine exhaust port, and the aerodynamic noise generated by an interaction of the flow with the material bodies are the main noise sources of the aircraft engine. Because the supersonic planes are necessary to fly with mach number 2 - 3 during cruising, the turbojet engine with a large jet exhaust speed or the low bypass ratio turbofan engine is selected. Since a noise reduction by reducing the jet exhaust speed, which was an effective measure for the high subsonic speed passenger plane, can not be applied, a reduction of the supersonic jet noise, which is hard to be reduced, becomes a necessity. In addition, in recent years, a research and development of the advanced turbo prop (ATP) aircraft with a further higher thrust efficiency are advanced as well. The aerodynamical noise reduction technologies of these engines for supersonic airplanes are summarized. 14 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Aircraft Control Using Engine Thrust: A History of Learning TOC Real-Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Jennifer H.; Batteas, Frank; Fullerton, Gordon

    2006-01-01

    A history of learning the operation of Throttles Only Control (TOC) to control an aircraft in real time using engine thrust is shown. The topics include: 1) Past TOC Accidents/Incidents; 2) 1972: DC-10 American Airlines; 3) May 1974: USAF B-52H; 4) April 1975: USAF C-5A; 5) April 1975: USAF C-5A; 6) 1981: USAF B-52G; 7) August 1985: JAL 123 B-747; 8) JAL 123 Survivor Story; 9) JAL 123 Investigation Findings; 10) July 1989: UAL 232 DC-10; 11) UAL 232 DC-10; 12) Eastwind 517 B-737; 13) November 2003: DHL A-300; 14) Historically, TOC has saved lives; 15) Automated Throttles-Only Control; 16) PCA Project; 17) Propulsion-Controlled Aircraft; 18) MD-11 PCA System and Flight Test Envelope; 19) MD-11 Simulation, PCA ILS-Soupled Landing Dispersion; 20) Throttles-Only Pitch and Roll Control Power; 21) PCA in Commercial Fleet; 22) Fall 2005: PCAR Project; 23) PCAR Background - TOC; and 24) PCAR Background - TOC.

  13. Structural evaluation of spent nuclear fuel storage facilities under aircraft crash impact (2). Horizontal impact test onto reduced scale metal cask due to aircraft engine missile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Namba, Kosuke; Shirai, Koji; Saegusa, Toshiari

    2009-01-01

    In this study, to confirm the sealing performance of a metal cask subjected to impact force due to possible commercial aircraft crash against a spent fuel storage facility, the horizontal impact test was carried out. In the test, an aircraft engine missile with a speed of 57.3 m/s attacked the reduced scale metal cask containing helium gas, which stands vertically. Then the leak rate and sliding displacement of the lid were measured. The leak rate increased rapidly and reached to 4.0 x 10 -6 Pa·m 3 /sec. After that, the leak rate decreased slowly and converged to 1.0x10 -6 Pa·m 3 /sec after 20 hours from the impact test. The leak rate of a full scale cask was evaluated using that of reduced scale cask obtained by the test. Then the leak rate of the full scale cask was 3.5x10 -5 Pa·m 3 /sec. This result showed that the sealing performance of the full scale metal cask would not be affected immediately by the horizontal impact of the aircraft engine with a speed of 57.3 m/s. (author)

  14. Active control of aircraft engine inlet noise using compact sound sources and distributed error sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burdisso, Ricardo (Inventor); Fuller, Chris R. (Inventor); O'Brien, Walter F. (Inventor); Thomas, Russell H. (Inventor); Dungan, Mary E. (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    An active noise control system using a compact sound source is effective to reduce aircraft engine duct noise. The fan noise from a turbofan engine is controlled using an adaptive filtered-x LMS algorithm. Single multi channel control systems are used to control the fan blade passage frequency (BPF) tone and the BPF tone and the first harmonic of the BPF tone for a plane wave excitation. A multi channel control system is used to control any spinning mode. The multi channel control system to control both fan tones and a high pressure compressor BPF tone simultaneously. In order to make active control of turbofan inlet noise a viable technology, a compact sound source is employed to generate the control field. This control field sound source consists of an array of identical thin, cylindrically curved panels with an inner radius of curvature corresponding to that of the engine inlet. These panels are flush mounted inside the inlet duct and sealed on all edges to prevent leakage around the panel and to minimize the aerodynamic losses created by the addition of the panels. Each panel is driven by one or more piezoelectric force transducers mounted on the surface of the panel. The response of the panel to excitation is maximized when it is driven at its resonance; therefore, the panel is designed such that its fundamental frequency is near the tone to be canceled, typically 2000-4000 Hz.

  15. An experimental evaluation of the performance deficit of an aircraft engine starter turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, J. E.; Roelke, R. J.; Hermann, P.

    1980-01-01

    An experimental investigation is presented to determine the aerodynamic performance deficit of a 13.5 - centimeter-tip-diameter aircraft engine starter turbine. The two-phased evaluation comprised both the stator and the stage performance, and the experimental design is described in detail. Data obtained from the investigation of three honeycomb shrouds clearly showed that the filled honeycomb reached a total efficiency of 0.868, 8.2 points higher than the open honeycomb shroud, at design equivalent conditions of speed and blade-jet speed ratio. It was concluded that the use of an open honeycomb shroud caused the large performance deficit for the starter turbine. Further research is suggested to ascertain stator inlet boundary layer measurements.

  16. An Optimal Augmented Monotonic Tracking Controller for Aircraft Engines with Output Constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiakun Qin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a novel min-max control scheme for aircraft engines, with the aim of transferring a set of regulated outputs between two set-points, while ensuring a set of auxiliary outputs remain within prescribed constraints. In view of this, an optimal augmented monotonic tracking controller (OAMTC is proposed, by considering a linear plant with input integration, to enhance the ability of the control system to reject uncertainty in system parameters and ensure no crossing limits. The key idea is to use the eigenvalue and eigenvector placement method and genetic algorithms to shape the output responses. The approach is validated by numerical simulation. The results show that the designed OAMTC controller can achieve a satisfactory dynamic and steady performance and keep the auxiliary outputs within constraints in the transient regime.

  17. Noise transmission through sidewall treatments applicable to twin-engine turboprop aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosveld, F. W.

    1983-04-01

    The noise transmission loss characteristics of the sidewall treatment in the propeller plane of a twin-engine turboprop aircraft are experimentally investigated in the NASA Langley Research Center Transmission Loss Facility. The sound attenuation properties of the individual elements of this treatment are evaluated showing least noise transmission loss in the low frequencies (below 500 Hz) where the excitation levels at the propeller blade passage frequency and the first few harmonics are highest. It is shown that single and double wall resonances play an important role in the noise transmission loss values of the treatment at these low frequencies suggesting that a limp mass with a very low resonance frequency serves better as a trim panel than a trim panel having a high structural stiffness. It is indicated that the window structures might be a potential noise control problem.

  18. Standard Test Method for Stress-Corrosion of Titanium Alloys by Aircraft Engine Cleaning Materials

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2006-01-01

    1.1 This test method establishes a test procedure for determining the propensity of aircraft turbine engine cleaning and maintenance materials for causing stress corrosion cracking of titanium alloy parts. 1.2 The evaluation is conducted on representative titanium alloys by determining the effect of contact with cleaning and maintenance materials on tendency of prestressed titanium alloys to crack when subsequently heated to elevated temperatures. 1.3 Test conditions are based upon manufacturer's maximum recommended operating solution concentration. This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. For specific precautionary statements, see and .

  19. Feedback on the Surveillance 8 challenge: Vibration-based diagnosis of a Safran aircraft engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoni, Jérôme; Griffaton, Julien; André, Hugo; Avendaño-Valencia, Luis David; Bonnardot, Frédéric; Cardona-Morales, Oscar; Castellanos-Dominguez, German; Daga, Alessandro Paolo; Leclère, Quentin; Vicuña, Cristián Molina; Acuña, David Quezada; Ompusunggu, Agusmian Partogi; Sierra-Alonso, Edgar F.

    2017-12-01

    This paper presents the content and outcomes of the Safran contest organized during the International Conference Surveillance 8, October 20-21, 2015, at the Roanne Institute of Technology, France. The contest dealt with the diagnosis of a civil aircraft engine based on vibration data measured in a transient operating mode and provided by Safran. Based on two independent exercises, the contest offered the possibility to benchmark current diagnostic methods on real data supplemented with several challenges. Outcomes of seven competing teams are reported and discussed. The object of the paper is twofold. It first aims at giving a picture of the current state-of-the-art in vibration-based diagnosis of rolling-element bearings in nonstationary operating conditions. Second, it aims at providing the scientific community with a benchmark and some baseline solutions. In this respect, the data used in the contest are made available as supplementary material.

  20. MODELING OF THE FUNCTIONING UNITS OF FUEL SYSTEM OF GAS TURBINE ENGINE AIRCRAFT IN VIEW OF AVIATION FUEL QUALITY CHANGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. I. Zavyalik

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the developed modeling system in MATLAB Simulink which allows to simulate, explore and pre- dict the technical condition of the units of the aircraft gas turbine engine fuel system depending on aviation fuel quality changes.

  1. AUTOMATIC CONTROL SYSTEM FOR REGULATED HIGH TEMPERATURE MAIN COMBUSTION CHAMBER OF MANEUVERABLE AIRCRAFT MULTIMODE GAS TURBINE ENGINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. V. Gras’Ko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes choosing and substantiating the control laws, forming the appearance the automatic control system for regulated high temperature main combustion chamber of maneuverable aircraft multimode gas turbine engine aimed at sustainable and effective functioning of main combustion chamber within a broad operation range.

  2. Wear studies of engine components using neutron activation techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banados Perez, H.E.; Carvalho, G.; Daltro, T.F.L.

    1984-01-01

    The results obtained in a series of tests for determining the wearing rate of some diesel engine components are reported. The pieces investigated were the needles of fuel injection nozzles, that were previously irradiated with a 10 13 nv in the IEA-R1 nuclear reactor, and the wearing rate was established for different types of fuels. Total wear was calculated by measuring the specific activity of 51 Cr present in the fuel and originated by metal particles worn from the needle. Wear were performed using a device that simulated the actual working conditions of the injection nozzles. The system was run during 350 hours and, along that period, 36 fuel samples of 10 ml each, were collected and analysed for cumulative wear calculation. A metal concentration as low as 10- 6 g in 10 ml of fuel sample could be measured by this method. At present time this procedure is being applied for measuring the wear-rate of other nozzle parts, using localized neutron activation techiques. (Author) [pt

  3. Flight Demonstration of X-33 Vehicle Health Management System Components on the F/A-18 Systems Research Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweikhard, Keith A.; Richards, W. Lance; Theisen, John; Mouyos, William; Garbos, Raymond

    2001-01-01

    The X-33 reusable launch vehicle demonstrator has identified the need to implement a vehicle health monitoring system that can acquire data that monitors system health and performance. Sanders, a Lockheed Martin Company, has designed and developed a COTS-based open architecture system that implements a number of technologies that have not been previously used in a flight environment. NASA Dryden Flight Research Center and Sanders teamed to demonstrate that the distributed remote health nodes, fiber optic distributed strain sensor, and fiber distributed data interface communications components of the X-33 vehicle health management (VHM) system could be successfully integrated and flown on a NASA F-18 aircraft. This paper briefly describes components of X-33 VHM architecture flown at Dryden and summarizes the integration and flight demonstration of these X-33 VHM components. Finally, it presents early results from the integration and flight efforts.

  4. Measurement of nitrogen species NO{sub y} at the exhaust of an aircraft engine combustor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ristori, A [Office National d` Etudes et de Recherches Aerospatiales (ONERA), Palaiseau (France); Baudoin, C [Societe Nationale d` Etude et de Construction de Moteurs d` Aviation (SNECMA), Villaroche (France)

    1998-12-31

    A research programme named AEROTRACE was supported by the EC (CEC contract AERA-CT94-0003) in order to investigate trace species measurements at the exhaust of aero-engines. Within this project, NO{sub y}, NO, HNO{sub 3} and HONO were measured at the exhaust of aircraft engine combustors. Major species (NO{sub y},NO) were measured by using a chemiluminescence instrument. Minor species (HNO{sub 3},HONO) were measured by using filter packs. Two combustors were tested under various running conditions; the first one at ONERA (Task 2) and the second one at DRA (Task 5). Results show that EI{sub NOy} < 50 g/kg, EI{sub HNO3} < 0.2 g/kg and EI{sub HONO} < 0.55 g/kg. Regarding ratios, (HNO{sub 3})/(NO{sub y}) < 0.5%, (HONO)/(NO{sub y}) < 8%, (HONO)/(NO{sub 2}) {approx} 19.2%, and (HNO{sub 3})/(NO{sub 2}) {approx} 0.8% was found. (author) 9 refs.

  5. Measurement of nitrogen species NO{sub y} at the exhaust of an aircraft engine combustor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ristori, A. [Office National d`Etudes et de Recherches Aerospatiales (ONERA), Palaiseau (France); Baudoin, C. [Societe Nationale d`Etude et de Construction de Moteurs d`Aviation (SNECMA), Villaroche (France)

    1997-12-31

    A research programme named AEROTRACE was supported by the EC (CEC contract AERA-CT94-0003) in order to investigate trace species measurements at the exhaust of aero-engines. Within this project, NO{sub y}, NO, HNO{sub 3} and HONO were measured at the exhaust of aircraft engine combustors. Major species (NO{sub y},NO) were measured by using a chemiluminescence instrument. Minor species (HNO{sub 3},HONO) were measured by using filter packs. Two combustors were tested under various running conditions; the first one at ONERA (Task 2) and the second one at DRA (Task 5). Results show that EI{sub NOy} < 50 g/kg, EI{sub HNO3} < 0.2 g/kg and EI{sub HONO} < 0.55 g/kg. Regarding ratios, (HNO{sub 3})/(NO{sub y}) < 0.5%, (HONO)/(NO{sub y}) < 8%, (HONO)/(NO{sub 2}) {approx} 19.2%, and (HNO{sub 3})/(NO{sub 2}) {approx} 0.8% was found. (author) 9 refs.

  6. An Integrated Architecture for On-Board Aircraft Engine Performance Trend Monitoring and Gas Path Fault Diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Donald L.

    2010-01-01

    Aircraft engine performance trend monitoring and gas path fault diagnostics are closely related technologies that assist operators in managing the health of their gas turbine engine assets. Trend monitoring is the process of monitoring the gradual performance change that an aircraft engine will naturally incur over time due to turbomachinery deterioration, while gas path diagnostics is the process of detecting and isolating the occurrence of any faults impacting engine flow-path performance. Today, performance trend monitoring and gas path fault diagnostic functions are performed by a combination of on-board and off-board strategies. On-board engine control computers contain logic that monitors for anomalous engine operation in real-time. Off-board ground stations are used to conduct fleet-wide engine trend monitoring and fault diagnostics based on data collected from each engine each flight. Continuing advances in avionics are enabling the migration of portions of the ground-based functionality on-board, giving rise to more sophisticated on-board engine health management capabilities. This paper reviews the conventional engine performance trend monitoring and gas path fault diagnostic architecture commonly applied today, and presents a proposed enhanced on-board architecture for future applications. The enhanced architecture gains real-time access to an expanded quantity of engine parameters, and provides advanced on-board model-based estimation capabilities. The benefits of the enhanced architecture include the real-time continuous monitoring of engine health, the early diagnosis of fault conditions, and the estimation of unmeasured engine performance parameters. A future vision to advance the enhanced architecture is also presented and discussed

  7. 76 FR 17757 - Airworthiness Directives; Thielert Aircraft Engines GmbH Models TAE 125-01, TAE 125-02-99, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-31

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Thielert Aircraft Engines GmbH Models TAE 125-01, TAE 125-02-99, and TAE 125-02-114.... Applicability (c) This AD applies to Thielert Aircraft Engines GmbH models TAE 125-01, TAE 125-02-99, and TAE...) For TAE 125-02-99 and TAE 125-02-114 engines, Operation & Maintenance Manual OM-02-02, Version 2...

  8. Advanced Materials Test Methods for Improved Life Prediction of Turbine Engine Components

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Stubbs, Jack

    2000-01-01

    Phase I final report developed under SBIR contract for Topic # AF00-149, "Durability of Turbine Engine Materials/Advanced Material Test Methods for Improved Use Prediction of Turbine Engine Components...

  9. Achievement report on research and development in the Sunshine Project in fiscal 1976. Comprehensive discussion on hydrogen utilizing subsystems and research on peripheral technologies (Research for aircraft engines); 1976 nendo suiso riyo subsystem no sogoteki kento to shuhen gijutsu ni kansuru kenkyu seika hokokusho. Koku engine ni kansuru kenkyu (furoku)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1977-05-01

    This paper introduces two out of six theses related to hydrogen fueled aircraft engines presented at the First World Hydrogen Energy Conference held in Miami in March 1976. One thesis mentions several initial prospects related to terrestrial requirements on hydrogen fueled transport aircraft. Liquefied hydrogen is attractive for large long-distance transport aircraft. Its high energy content can reduce the take-off full load weight by more than 30%, enhancing the economic effect of the aircraft. Saving fossil fuels will require national policy decisions in the near future, where introduction of liquefied hydrogen is more advantageous for long-distance aircraft. However, its introduction into wide-body transport aircraft being the major consumer requires transportation companies and airport authorities to carry out joint development with transport aircraft makers and liquefied hydrogen suppliers. The second thesis describes special natures of fuel subsystems for liquefied hydrogen fueled aircraft. Requirements to major fuel system elements and operation characteristics require evaluation as a comprehensive system, rather than as individual component criteria. In addition, hardware, experience and fuel systems as they are now in space development may not necessarily serve for the purpose. (NEDO)

  10. Local Impact Simulation of SC Wall Structures using Aircraft Engine Projectile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Chulhun; Lee, Jungwhee; Lee, Hanjoo; Jung, Raeyoung; Hyun, Changhun

    2013-01-01

    SC wall structure developed for nuclear power plant buildings consists of plain concrete and two steel plates on both surface of the concrete, while RC structure consists of re bar and concrete. SC structure has higher scabbing resistance than RC structure due to the action of steel plate on the rear side of impact. Therefore SC structure is known as more effective structure from the viewpoint of aircraft crash than RC structure. However, most of the recent researches and experiments about local impact damage deal with RC structures, and the effect of re bar and steel plate is not considered reasonably. Although Walter et al. and Make-work et al. suggested a formula for evaluating perforation depth of steel plate covered RC walls, most of the previous researches about SC structure are focused on perforation and scabbing due to the impact of hard projectile, rather than soft projectile such as an aircraft. In this research a soft projectile, i. e. aircraft engine, is utilized for impact simulation of RC and SC walls. To evaluate local damage of SC wall structures, parametric study with the variables of wall thickness and steel ratio of the cover plate is performed, and the results are compared with those of RC structures. Since scabbing was prevented by the steel plates, penetration mode of damage was observed in SC walls while scabbing damage was occurred in RC walls. It is confirmed that the rear steel plate not only contains concrete debris, but also reduces the internal damage of the concrete walls. Penetration depth of SC walls did not largely vary due to the increasing steel ratio, and similar results to RC walls were observed when the wall thickness is larger than a certain value since the impact resistance of SC wall is mainly governed by the thickness of concrete part. Therefore, it is expected that similar level of impact resistance to RC structure can be produced with the minimum thickness of steel plates of SC structure. According to these results, SC

  11. Evaluation of Ceramic Matrix Composite Technology for Aircraft Turbine Engine Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halbig, Michael C.; Jaskowiak, Martha H.; Kiser, James D.; Zhu, Dongming

    2013-01-01

    The goals of the NASA Environmentally Responsible Aviation (ERA) Project are to reduce the NO(x) emissions, fuel burn, and noise from turbine engines. In order to help meet these goals, commercially-produced ceramic matrix composite (CMC) components and environmental barrier coatings (EBCs) are being evaluated as parts and panels. The components include a CMC combustor liner, a CMC high pressure turbine vane, and a CMC exhaust nozzle as well as advanced EBCs that are tailored to the operating conditions of the CMC combustor and vane. The CMC combustor (w/EBC) could provide 2700 F temperature capability with less component cooling requirements to allow for more efficient combustion and reductions in NOx emissions. The CMC vane (w/EBC) will also have temperature capability up to 2700 F and allow for reduced fuel burn. The CMC mixer nozzle will offer reduced weight and improved mixing efficiency to provide reduced fuel burn. The main objectives are to evaluate the manufacturability of the complex-shaped components and to evaluate their performance under simulated engine operating conditions. Progress in CMC component fabrication, evaluation, and testing is presented in which the goal is to advance from the proof of concept validation (TRL 3) to a system/subsystem or prototype demonstration in a relevant environment (TRL 6).

  12. Procurement and quality control of components important to safety in nuclear engineering projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Zhihua; Zhang Yiyun

    2006-01-01

    The procurement and quality control of components is a very important work in the nuclear engineering. This paper introduces the project management techniques, such as how to make a plan of components purchase in nuclear engineering. This paper discussed the classification of components, evaluation of the potential suppliers, invitation of bids, exchange of design details with the suppliers, quality assurance and quality assurance audit, and the equipment checks before acceptance and some engineering experiences. (authors)

  13. Research and development of cooled turbine for aircraft engines. Koku engine yo reikyaku turbine no kenkyu kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maya, T; Yamawaki, S [Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries, Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1994-05-01

    For the turbine which is one of the principal elements of aircraft engine, progress in turbine use material development and cooling performance further heightened for the turbine are needed to grapple with the required heightening of turbine inlet temperature. In the present paper based on the turbine inlet temperature designed to be 1600[degree]C as a target, a two-dimensional model used for the turbine cooling performance test was structurally given together with the result of the above test which aimed at confirming the design calculation. As a result of cooling design for the turbine which was about 1600[degree]C in inlet temperature, the highest gas temperature was 1890 and 1470[degree]C on the stator blade and rotor blade, respectively. Both those blades were 0.66 and 0.62, respectively in cooling efficiency. To test the cooling performance, a two-dimensional cascade was tested with a doubly amplified model of cooling blade, the use of which could set its Reynolds number near that of the actual one. As compared with the actual operation, the test was made at low temperatures of 400 to 500[degree]C and low pressures of 0.02 to 0.03MPa. The test agreed with the design calculation in result. 4 refs., 8 figs.

  14. An Integrated Surface Engineering Technology Development for Improving Energy Efficiency of Engine Components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephen Hsu; Liming Chang; Huan Zhan

    2009-05-31

    Frictional losses are inherent in most practical mechanical systems. The ability to control friction offers many opportunities to achieve energy conservation. Over the years, materials, lubricants, and surface modifications have been used to reduce friction in automotive and diesel engines. However, in recent years, progress in friction reduction technology has slowed because many of the inefficiencies have been eliminated. A new avenue for friction reduction is needed. Designing surfaces specifically for friction reduction with concomitant enhanced durability for various engine components has emerged recently as a viable opportunity due to advances in fabrication and surface finishing techniques. Recently, laser ablated dimples on surfaces have shown friction reduction properties and have been demonstrated successfully in conformal contacts such as seals where the speed is high and the load is low. The friction reduction mechanism in this regime appears to depend on the size, patterns, and density of dimples in the contact. This report describes modeling efforts in characterizing surface textures and understanding their mechanisms for enhanced lubrication under high contact pressure conditions. A literature survey is first presented on the development of descriptors for irregular surface features. This is followed by a study of the hydrodynamic effects of individual micro-wedge dimples using the analytical solution of the 1-D Reynolds equation and the determination of individual components of the total friction resistance. The results obtained provide a better understanding of the dimple orientation effects and the approach which may be used to further compare the friction reduction provided by different texture patterns.

  15. Improved Barriers to Turbine Engine Fragments: Interim Report II

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shockey, Donald

    1999-01-01

    Because fragments from in-flight engine failures can damage critical aircraft components and produce catastrophic consequences, the Federal Aviation Administration is sponsoring research to mitigate...

  16. Numerical simulation of the laser welding process for the prediction of temperature distribution on welded aluminium aircraft components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsirkas, S. A.

    2018-03-01

    The present investigation is focused to the modelling of the temperature field in aluminium aircraft components welded by a CO2 laser. A three-dimensional finite element model has been developed to simulate the laser welding process and predict the temperature distribution in T-joint laser welded plates with fillet material. The simulation of the laser beam welding process was performed using a nonlinear heat transfer analysis, based on a keyhole formation model analysis. The model employs the technique of element ;birth and death; in order to simulate the weld fillet. Various phenomena associated with welding like temperature dependent material properties and heat losses through convection and radiation were accounted for in the model. The materials considered were 6056-T78 and 6013-T4 aluminium alloys, commonly used for aircraft components. The temperature distribution during laser welding process has been calculated numerically and validated by experimental measurements on different locations of the welded structure. The numerical results are in good agreement with the experimental measurements.

  17. Engine thermomanagement with electrical components for fuel consumption reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cortona, E.; Onder, C.H.; Guzzella, L. [Swiss Federal Inst. of Technology, Zurich (Switzerland)

    2002-09-01

    This paper proposes a solution for advanced temperature control of the relevant temperature of a combustion engine. It analyses the possibility of reducing vehicle fuel consumption by improving engine thermomanagement. In conventional applications, combustion engine cooling systems are designed to guarantee sufficient heat removal at full load. The cooling pump is belt-driven by the combustion engine crankshaft, resulting in a direct coupling of engine and cooling pump speeds. It is dimensioned such that it can guarantee adequate performance over the full engine speed range. This causes an excessive flow of cooling fluid at part-load conditions and at engine cold-start. This negatively affects the engine efficiency and, as a consequence, the overall fuel consumption. Moreover, state-of-the-art cooling systems allow the control of the coolant temperature only by expansion thermostats (solid-to-liquid phase wax actuators). The resulting coolant temperature does not permit engine efficiency to be optimized. In this paper, active control of the coolant flow as well as of the coolant temperature has been realized using an electrical cooling pump and an electrically driven valve which controls the flow distribution between the radiator and its bypass. For this purpose, a control-oriented model of the whole cooling system has been derived. Model-based feedforward and feedback controls of coolant temperature and flow have been designed and tested. With the additional actuators and the model-based control scheme, a good performance in terms of fast heat-up and small temperature overshoot has been achieved. The improvements in fuel consumption obtained with the proposed configuration have been verified on a dynamic testbench. Both engine cold-start under stationary engine operation and the European driving cycle MVEG-A with engine cold-start were tested. The fuel consumption reductions achieved during these tests vary between 2.8 and 4.5 per cent, depending on the engine

  18. Characterization of aircraft deicer and anti-icer components and toxicity in airport snowbanks and snowmelt runoff

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corsi, S.R.; Geis, S.W.; Loyo-Rosales, J. E.; Rice, C.P.; Sheesley, R.J.; Failey, G.G.; Cancilla, Devon A.

    2006-01-01

    Snowbank samples were collected from snowbanks within a medium-sized airport for four years to characterize aircraft deicer and anti-icer (ADAF) components and toxicity. Concentrations of ADAF components varied with median glycol concentrations from individual sampling periods ranging from 65 to 5940 mg/L. Glycol content in snowbanks ranged from 0.17 to 11.4% of that applied to aircraft. Glycol, a freezing point depressant, was selectively removed during melt periods before snow and ice resulting in lower glycol concentrations after melt periods. Concentrations of ADAF components in airport runoff were similar during periods of snowmelt as compared to active ADAF application periods; however, due to the long duration of snowmelt events, greater masses of glycol were transported during snowmelt events. Alkylphenol ethoxylates (APEO), selected APEO degradation products, and 4- and 5-methyl-1H-benzotriazole were detected in snowbank samples and airport snowmelt. Concentrations of APEO parent products were greater in snowbank samples than in runoff samples. Relative abundance of APEO degradation products increased in the downstream direction from the snowbank to the outfalls and the receiving stream with respect to APEO parent compounds and glycol. Toxicity in Microtox assays remained in snowbanks after most glycol had been removed during melt periods. Increased toxicity in airport snowbanks as compared to other urban snowbanks was not explained by additional combustion or fuel contribution in airport snow. Organic markers suggest ADAF additives as a possible explanation for this increased toxicity. Results indicate that glycol cannot be used as a surrogate for fate and transport of other ADAF components. ?? 2006 American Chemical Society.

  19. A Dynamic Model for the Evaluation of Aircraft Engine Icing Detection and Control-Based Mitigation Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Donald L.; Rinehart, Aidan W.; Jones, Scott M.

    2017-01-01

    Aircraft flying in regions of high ice crystal concentrations are susceptible to the buildup of ice within the compression system of their gas turbine engines. This ice buildup can restrict engine airflow and cause an uncommanded loss of thrust, also known as engine rollback, which poses a potential safety hazard. The aviation community is conducting research to understand this phenomena, and to identify avoidance and mitigation strategies to address the concern. To support this research, a dynamic turbofan engine model has been created to enable the development and evaluation of engine icing detection and control-based mitigation strategies. This model captures the dynamic engine response due to high ice water ingestion and the buildup of ice blockage in the engines low pressure compressor. It includes a fuel control system allowing engine closed-loop control effects during engine icing events to be emulated. The model also includes bleed air valve and horsepower extraction actuators that, when modulated, change overall engine operating performance. This system-level model has been developed and compared against test data acquired from an aircraft turbofan engine undergoing engine icing studies in an altitude test facility and also against outputs from the manufacturers customer deck. This paper will describe the model and show results of its dynamic response under open-loop and closed-loop control operating scenarios in the presence of ice blockage buildup compared against engine test cell data. Planned follow-on use of the model for the development and evaluation of icing detection and control-based mitigation strategies will also be discussed. The intent is to combine the model and control mitigation logic with an engine icing risk calculation tool capable of predicting the risk of engine icing based on current operating conditions. Upon detection of an operating region of risk for engine icing events, the control mitigation logic will seek to change the

  20. Aircraft impact qualification of RBMK systems and components. Technical report. Rev. 00, May 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    In the present report, the problem of qualification procedures of electrical equipment with respect to the dynamic excitation subsequent to an aircraft impact (ACC) on a Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) is approached, within the context of IAEA Benchmark on vulnerability of equipment and structures of RBMK-type NPP against the aircraft impact. After a short description of the main objectives of the work and the relevant area of concern (Chapter 1), the safety related equipment more commonly installed in a NPP are grouped in few classes, according to widely accepted classification criteria and the relevant failure modes are described (Chapter 2). Taking as reference a deeply studied RBMK reactor (Ignalina NPP), an overview of its main characteristics and of the equipment ensemble housed in is given in Chapter 3. An overview of the worldwide most used qualification standards for safety related equipment for NPPs is reported in Chapter 4, and a comparison of the practices used in Europe for the qualification of safety related electrical and I and C equipment is described with special attention to seismic and impact qualification (Chapter 5). In the hypothesis that the equipment to qualify against impact excitation has been already qualified against seismic excitation, the problems relevant to the different nature of earthquake and shock phenomena are listed, together with the main criteria to implement a procedure which, based on standardized shock pulses, could be applied for ACC qualification purposes (Chapter 6). Consequently, a possible ACC qualification procedure is outlined (Chapter 7) and the interface data (data coming from numerical analysis and seismic qualification, to be used for ACC qualification purposes) are listed (Chapter 8). Finally, the main conclusions of the work are described (Chapter 9). The main references are listed in Chapter 10. (author)

  1. Analytical Design Package (ADP2): A computer aided engineering tool for aircraft transparency design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wuerer, J. E.; Gran, M.; Held, T. W.

    1994-01-01

    The Analytical Design Package (ADP2) is being developed as a part of the Air Force Frameless Transparency Program (FTP). ADP2 is an integrated design tool consisting of existing analysis codes and Computer Aided Engineering (CAE) software. The objective of the ADP2 is to develop and confirm an integrated design methodology for frameless transparencies, related aircraft interfaces, and their corresponding tooling. The application of this methodology will generate high confidence for achieving a qualified part prior to mold fabrication. ADP2 is a customized integration of analysis codes, CAE software, and material databases. The primary CAE integration tool for the ADP2 is P3/PATRAN, a commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) software tool. The open architecture of P3/PATRAN allows customized installations with different applications modules for specific site requirements. Integration of material databases allows the engineer to select a material, and those material properties are automatically called into the relevant analysis code. The ADP2 materials database will be composed of four independent schemas: CAE Design, Processing, Testing, and Logistics Support. The design of ADP2 places major emphasis on the seamless integration of CAE and analysis modules with a single intuitive graphical interface. This tool is being designed to serve and be used by an entire project team, i.e., analysts, designers, materials experts, and managers. The final version of the software will be delivered to the Air Force in Jan. 1994. The Analytical Design Package (ADP2) will then be ready for transfer to industry. The package will be capable of a wide range of design and manufacturing applications.

  2. Inhomogeneity of the grain size of aircraft engine turbine polycrystalline blades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Chmiela

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The determination of the behaviour of inhomogeneous materials with a complex microstructure requires taking into account the inhomogeneity of the grain size, as it is the basis for the process of designing and modelling effective behaviours. Therefore, the functional description of the inhomogeneity is becoming an important issue. The paper presents an analytical approach to the grain size inhomogeneity, based on the derivative of a logarithmic-logistic function. The solution applied enabled an effective evaluation of the inhomogeneity of two macrostructures of aircraft engine turbine blades, characterized by a high degree of diversity in the grain size. For the investigated single-modal and bimodal grain size distributions on a perpendicular projection and for grains with a non-planar surface, we identified the parameters that describe the degree of inhomogeneity of the constituents of weight distributions and we also derived a formula describing the overall degree of inhomogeneity of bimodal distributions. The solution presented in the paper is of a general nature and it can be used to describe the degree of inhomogeneity of multi-modal distributions. All the calculations were performed using the Mathematica® package.

  3. Structural Analysis and Optimization of a Composite Fan Blade for Future Aircraft Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coroneos, Rula M.; Gorla, Rama Subba Reddy

    2012-09-01

    This paper addresses the structural analysis and optimization of a composite sandwich ply lay-up of a NASA baseline solid metallic fan blade comparable to a future Boeing 737 MAX aircraft engine. Sandwich construction with a polymer matrix composite face sheet and honeycomb aluminum core replaces the original baseline solid metallic fan model made of Titanium. The focus of this work is to design the sandwich composite blade with the optimum number of plies for the face sheet that will withstand the combined pressure and centrifugal loads while the constraints are satisfied and the baseline aerodynamic and geometric parameters are maintained. To satisfy the requirements a sandwich construction for the blade is proposed with composite face sheets and a weak core made of honeycomb aluminum material. For aerodynamic considerations, the thickness of the core is optimized where as the overall blade thickness is held fixed in order not to alter the original airfoil geometry. Weight reduction is taken as the objective function by varying the core thickness of the blade within specified upper and lower bounds. Constraints are imposed on radial displacement limitations and ply failure strength. From the optimum design, the minimum number of plies, which will not fail, is back-calculated. The ply lay-up of the blade is adjusted from the calculated number of plies and final structural analysis is performed. Analyses were carried out by utilizing the OpenMDAO Framework, developed at NASA Glenn Research Center combining optimization with structural assessment.

  4. Structural Analysis and Optimization of a Composite Fan Blade for Future Aircraft Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coroneos, Rula M.

    2012-01-01

    This report addresses the structural analysis and optimization of a composite fan blade sized for a large aircraft engine. An existing baseline solid metallic fan blade was used as a starting point to develop a hybrid honeycomb sandwich construction with a polymer matrix composite face sheet and honeycomb aluminum core replacing the original baseline solid metallic fan model made of titanium. The focus of this work is to design the sandwich composite blade with the optimum number of plies for the face sheet that will withstand the combined pressure and centrifugal loads while the constraints are satisfied and the baseline aerodynamic and geometric parameters are maintained. To satisfy the requirements, a sandwich construction for the blade is proposed with composite face sheets and a weak core made of honeycomb aluminum material. For aerodynamic considerations, the thickness of the core is optimized whereas the overall blade thickness is held fixed so as to not alter the original airfoil geometry. Weight is taken as the objective function to be minimized by varying the core thickness of the blade within specified upper and lower bounds. Constraints are imposed on radial displacement limitations and ply failure strength. From the optimum design, the minimum number of plies, which will not fail, is back-calculated. The ply lay-up of the blade is adjusted from the calculated number of plies and final structural analysis is performed. Analyses were carried out by utilizing the OpenMDAO Framework, developed at NASA Glenn Research Center combining optimization with structural assessment.

  5. Extractive Sampling and Optical Remote Sensing of F-100 Aircraft Engine Emissions (PREPRINT)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cowen, Kenneth; Goodwin, Bradley; Satola, Jan; Kagann, Robert; Hashmonay, Ram; Spicer, Chester; Holdren, Michael; Mayfield, Howard T

    2008-01-01

    ... from military aircraft, in order to meet increasingly stringent regulatory requirements. This paper describes the results of a recent field study using extractive and optical remote sensing (ORS...

  6. 76 FR 9963 - Airworthiness Directives; Thielert Aircraft Engines GmbH Models TAE 125-02-99 and TAE 125-02-114...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-23

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Thielert Aircraft Engines GmbH Models TAE 125-02-99 and TAE 125-02-114 Reciprocating... TAE 125-02-99 and TAE 125-02-114 reciprocating engines installed in, but not limited to, Cessna 172... occurs later. Repetitive Replacements of Timing Chains for All TAE 125-02-99 and TAE 125-02-114 Engines...

  7. Methods of Si based ceramic components volatilization control in a gas turbine engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Crespo, Andres Jose; Delvaux, John; Dion Ouellet, Noemie

    2016-09-06

    A method of controlling volatilization of silicon based components in a gas turbine engine includes measuring, estimating and/or predicting a variable related to operation of the gas turbine engine; correlating the variable to determine an amount of silicon to control volatilization of the silicon based components in the gas turbine engine; and injecting silicon into the gas turbine engine to control volatilization of the silicon based components. A gas turbine with a compressor, combustion system, turbine section and silicon injection system may be controlled by a controller that implements the control method.

  8. Laboratory Validation of Four Black Carbon Measurement Methods for Determination of the Nonvolatile Particulate Matter (nvPM) Mass Emissions from Commercial Aircraft Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Four candidate black carbon (BC) measurement techniques have been identified by the SAE International E-31 Committee for possible use in determining nonvolatile particulate matter (nvPM) mass emissions during commercial aircraft engine certification. These techniques are carbon b...

  9. Tracking and Control of Gas Turbine Engine Component Damage/Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaw, Link C.; Wu, Dong N.; Bryg, David J.

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes damage mechanisms and the methods of controlling damages to extend the on-wing life of critical gas turbine engine components. Particularly, two types of damage mechanisms are discussed: creep/rupture and thermo-mechanical fatigue. To control these damages and extend the life of engine hot-section components, we have investigated two methodologies to be implemented as additional control logic for the on-board electronic control unit. This new logic, the life-extending control (LEC), interacts with the engine control and monitoring unit and modifies the fuel flow to reduce component damages in a flight mission. The LEC methodologies were demonstrated in a real-time, hardware-in-the-loop simulation. The results show that LEC is not only a new paradigm for engine control design, but also a promising technology for extending the service life of engine components, hence reducing the life cycle cost of the engine.

  10. 76 FR 45011 - Control of Air Pollution From Aircraft and Aircraft Engines; Proposed Emission Standards and Test...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-27

    ... Paso, TX 223 0.9 1.1 Greater Connecticut, CT 405 0.8 2.4 Houston-Galveston-Brazoria, TX 3,045 1.3 3.4... by many types of pollution sources, such as highway and nonroad motor vehicles and engines, power...

  11. Reliability analysis of C-130 turboprop engine components using artificial neural network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qattan, Nizar A.

    turbine under actual operating conditions, which can be used by aircraft operators for assessing system and component failures and customizing the maintenance programs recommended by the manufacturer.

  12. ANALYTICAL ENGINEERING OF A TELECONTROLLED PILOTLESS AIRCRAFT CONTOUR IN ACCORDANCE WITH GENERALIZED WORK CRITERION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Eromin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the non­terminal problem for neutral contour of a telecontrolled pilotless aircraft. Optimal control synthesis is provided on the basis of minimization of generalized work functional. The analysis of optimal telecontrolled pilotless aircraft contour is carried out.

  13. Fuel-Efficient Road Vehicle Non-Engine Components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    The need to address global energy issues, i.e. energy security and climate change, is more urgent than ever. Road vehicles dominate global oil consumption and are one of the fastest growing energy end-uses. This paper studies policies and measures to improve on-road fuel efficiency of vehicles by focusing on energy efficiency of automobile components not generally considered in official fuel efficiency test, namely tyres, cooling technologies and lightings. In this paper, current policies and industry activities on these components are reviewed, fuel saving potential by the components analysed and possible policies to realise the potential recommended.

  14. Effects of acoustic treatment on the interior noise levels of a twin-engine propeller aircraft - Experimental flight results and theoretical predictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, T. B.; Powell, C. A.; Daniels, E. F.; Pope, L. D.

    1984-01-01

    In-flight noise level measurements were made within two cabin configurations of a general aviation business aircraft. The Fairchild Merlin IVC twin-engine aircraft was tested with bare walls and fiberglass insulation and in an executive trim configuration. Narrow-band and octave format data were subjected to analyses which permitted identification of the blade passage harmonics (BPH). Cabin noise level reductions (insertion losses) due to added insulation varied with position in the cabin, the BPH number, cabin pressure, and engine torque. The measurements were closely predicted using the propeller aircraft interior noise (PAIN) mode.

  15. Modal analysis by holographic interferometry of a turbine blade for aircraft engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caponero, Michele A.; De Angelis, Alberto; Filetti, V. R.; Gammella, S.

    1994-11-01

    Within the planning stage devoted to realize an innovative turbine for an aircraft engine, an experimental prototype has been made. Several measurements have been carried out to experimentally verify the expected structural and dynamic features of such a prototype. Expected properties were worked out by finite elements method, using the well-known Nastran software package. Natural frequencies and vibration modes of the designed prototype were computed assuming the turbine being in both `dynamic condition' (rotating turbine at running speed and temperature), and in `static condition' (still turbine at room temperature). We present the experimental modal analysis carried out by time average holographic interferometry, being the prototype in `static condition;' results show the modal behavior of the prototype. Experimental and computed modal features are compared to evaluate the reliability of the finite elements model of the turbine used for computation by the Nastran package; reliability of the finite elements model must be checked to validate results computed assuming the turbine blade is in hostile environments, such as `dynamic condition,' which could hardly be tested by experimental measurements. A piezoelectric transducer was used to excite the turbine blade by sine variable pressure. To better estimate the natural vibration modes, two holographic interferograms have been made for each identified natural frequency, being the sensitivity vector directions of the two interferograms perpendicular to each other. The first ten lower natural frequencies and vibration modes of the blade have been analyzed; experimental and computed results are compared and discussed. Experimental and computed values of natural frequencies are in good agrement between each other. Several differences are present between experimental and computed modal patterns; a possible cause of such discrepancies is identified in wrong structural constraints imposed at nodes of the finite elements

  16. Advanced transport aircraft technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winblade, R L

    1980-06-01

    Various elements of the NASA aircraft energy efficiency program are described. Regarding composite structures, the development of three secondary and three medium-primary components to validate structural and fabrication technology is discussed. In laminar flow control, the design of advanced airfoils having large regions of supercritical flow with features which simplify laminarization are considered. Emphasis is placed on engine performance improvement, directed at developing advanced components to reduce fuel consumption in current production engines, and engine diagnostics aimed at identifying the sources and causes of performance deterioration in high-bypass turbofan engines. In addition, the results of propeller aerodynamic and acoustic tests have substantiated the feasibility of achieving the propeller efficiency goal of 80% and confirmed that the effect of blade sweep on reducing propeller source noise was 5-6 dB.

  17. Engine-integrated solid oxide fuel cells for efficient electrical power generation on aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, Daniel F.; Cadou, Christopher P.

    2015-06-01

    This work investigates the use of engine-integrated catalytic partial oxidation (CPOx) reactors and solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) to reduce fuel burn in vehicles with large electrical loads like sensor-laden unmanned air vehicles. Thermodynamic models of SOFCs, CPOx reactors, and three gas turbine (GT) engine types (turbojet, combined exhaust turbofan, separate exhaust turbofan) are developed and checked against relevant data and source material. Fuel efficiency is increased by 4% and 8% in the 50 kW and 90 kW separate exhaust turbofan systems respectively at only modest cost in specific power (8% and 13% reductions respectively). Similar results are achieved in other engine types. An additional benefit of hybridization is the ability to provide more electric power (factors of 3 or more in some cases) than generator-based systems before encountering turbine inlet temperature limits. A sensitivity analysis shows that the most important parameters affecting the system's performance are operating voltage, percent fuel oxidation, and SOFC assembly air flows. Taken together, this study shows that it is possible to create a GT-SOFC hybrid where the GT mitigates balance of plant losses and the SOFC raises overall system efficiency. The result is a synergistic system with better overall performance than stand-alone components.

  18. Model-integrating software components engineering flexible software systems

    CERN Document Server

    Derakhshanmanesh, Mahdi

    2015-01-01

    In his study, Mahdi Derakhshanmanesh builds on the state of the art in modeling by proposing to integrate models into running software on the component-level without translating them to code. Such so-called model-integrating software exploits all advantages of models: models implicitly support a good separation of concerns, they are self-documenting and thus improve understandability and maintainability and in contrast to model-driven approaches there is no synchronization problem anymore between the models and the code generated from them. Using model-integrating components, software will be

  19. Advanced technology for future regional transport aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, L. J.

    1982-01-01

    In connection with a request for a report coming from a U.S. Senate committee, NASA formed a Small Transport Aircraft Technology (STAT) team in 1978. STAT was to obtain information concerning the technical improvements in commuter aircraft that would likely increase their public acceptance. Another area of study was related to questions regarding the help which could be provided by NASA's aeronautical research and development program to commuter aircraft manufacturers with respect to the solution of technical problems. Attention is given to commuter airline growth, current commuter/region aircraft and new aircraft in development, prospects for advanced technology commuter/regional transports, and potential benefits of advanced technology. A list is provided of a number of particular advances appropriate to small transport aircraft, taking into account small gas turbine engine component technology, propeller technology, three-dimensional wing-design technology, airframe aerodynamics/propulsion integration, and composite structure materials.

  20. Combining effect of optimized axial compressor variable guide vanes and bleed air on the thermodynamic performance of aircraft engine system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sangjo; Son, Changmin; Kim, Kuisoon

    2017-01-01

    Aim of this work is to provide evidence of the effectiveness of combined use of the variable guide vanes (VGVs) and bleed air on the thermodynamic performance of aircraft engine system. This paper performed the comparative study to evaluate the overall thermal performance of an aircraft engine with optimized VGVs and bleed air, separately or simultaneously. The low-bypass ratio turbofan engine has been modeled with a 0D/1D modeling approach. The genetic algorithm is employed to find the optimum schedule of VGVs and bleed air. There are four types of design variables: (1) the inlet guide vane (IGV) angle, (2) the IGV and 1st stator vane (SV) angles, (3) bleed air mass flow rate at the exit of the axial compressor, and (4) both type 2 and type 3. The optimization is conducted with surge margin constraints of more than 10% and 15% in the axial compressor. The results show that the additional use of the bleed air increases the efficiency of the compressors. Overall, the percentage reductions of the total fuel consumption for the engine with the IGV, 1st SV and bleed air schedule is 1.63% for 15% surge margin constraints when compared with the engine with the IGV schedule. - Highlights: • The effect of combined use of variable guide vanes and bleed air is evaluated. • The genetic algorithm is employed to find the optimum setting angle and bleed air. • A low bypass ratio mixed turbofan engine is analyzed for optimization. • Additional use of the bleed air shows improved overall performance of the engine.

  1. Active Combustion Control for Aircraft Gas-Turbine Engines-Experimental Results for an Advanced, Low-Emissions Combustor Prototype

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLaat, John C.; Kopasakis, George; Saus, Joseph R.; Chang, Clarence T.; Wey, Changlie

    2012-01-01

    Lean combustion concepts for aircraft engine combustors are prone to combustion instabilities. Mitigation of instabilities is an enabling technology for these low-emissions combustors. NASA Glenn Research Center s prior activity has demonstrated active control to suppress a high-frequency combustion instability in a combustor rig designed to emulate an actual aircraft engine instability experience with a conventional, rich-front-end combustor. The current effort is developing further understanding of the problem specifically as applied to future lean-burning, very low-emissions combustors. A prototype advanced, low-emissions aircraft engine combustor with a combustion instability has been identified and previous work has characterized the dynamic behavior of that combustor prototype. The combustor exhibits thermoacoustic instabilities that are related to increasing fuel flow and that potentially prevent full-power operation. A simplified, non-linear oscillator model and a more physics-based sectored 1-D dynamic model have been developed to capture the combustor prototype s instability behavior. Utilizing these models, the NASA Adaptive Sliding Phasor Average Control (ASPAC) instability control method has been updated for the low-emissions combustor prototype. Active combustion instability suppression using the ASPAC control method has been demonstrated experimentally with this combustor prototype in a NASA combustion test cell operating at engine pressures, temperatures, and flows. A high-frequency fuel valve was utilized to perturb the combustor fuel flow. Successful instability suppression was shown using a dynamic pressure sensor in the combustor for controller feedback. Instability control was also shown with a pressure feedback sensor in the lower temperature region upstream of the combustor. It was also demonstrated that the controller can prevent the instability from occurring while combustor operation was transitioning from a stable, low-power condition to

  2. Dynamic Response Analysis of Storage Cask Lid Structure Subjected to Lateral Impact Load of Aircraft Engine Crash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almomania, Belal; Kang, Hyun Gook; Lee, Sanghoon

    2015-01-01

    Several numerical methods and tests have been carried out to measure the capability of storage cask to withstand extreme impact loads. Testing methods are often constrained by cost, and difficulty in preparation for several impact conditions with different applied loads, and areas of impact. Instead, analytic method is an acceptable process that can easily apply different impact conditions for the evaluation of cask integrity. The aircraft engine impact is considered as one of the most critical impact accidents on the storage cask that significantly affects onto the lid closure system and may cause a considerable release of radioactive materials. This paper presents a method for evaluating the dynamic responses of one upper metal cask lid closure without impact limiters subjected to lateral impact of an aircraft engine with respect to variation of the impact velocity. An assessment method to predict damage response due to the lateral engine impact onto metal storage cask has been studied by using computer code LS-DYNA. The dynamic behavior of the lid movements was successfully calculated by utilizing a simplified finite element cask model, which showed a good agreement with the previous research. The simulation analyses results showed that no significant plastic deformation for bolts, lid, and the cask body. In this study, the lid opening and sliding displacements are considered as the major factors in initiating the leakage path. This analysis may be useful for evaluating the instantaneous leakage rates in a connection with the sliding and opening displacements between the lid and the flange to ensure that the radiological consequences caused by an aircraft engine crash accident during the storage phase are within the permissible level

  3. Dynamic Response Analysis of Storage Cask Lid Structure Subjected to Lateral Impact Load of Aircraft Engine Crash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almomania, Belal; Kang, Hyun Gook [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sanghoon [Keimyung Univ., Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    Several numerical methods and tests have been carried out to measure the capability of storage cask to withstand extreme impact loads. Testing methods are often constrained by cost, and difficulty in preparation for several impact conditions with different applied loads, and areas of impact. Instead, analytic method is an acceptable process that can easily apply different impact conditions for the evaluation of cask integrity. The aircraft engine impact is considered as one of the most critical impact accidents on the storage cask that significantly affects onto the lid closure system and may cause a considerable release of radioactive materials. This paper presents a method for evaluating the dynamic responses of one upper metal cask lid closure without impact limiters subjected to lateral impact of an aircraft engine with respect to variation of the impact velocity. An assessment method to predict damage response due to the lateral engine impact onto metal storage cask has been studied by using computer code LS-DYNA. The dynamic behavior of the lid movements was successfully calculated by utilizing a simplified finite element cask model, which showed a good agreement with the previous research. The simulation analyses results showed that no significant plastic deformation for bolts, lid, and the cask body. In this study, the lid opening and sliding displacements are considered as the major factors in initiating the leakage path. This analysis may be useful for evaluating the instantaneous leakage rates in a connection with the sliding and opening displacements between the lid and the flange to ensure that the radiological consequences caused by an aircraft engine crash accident during the storage phase are within the permissible level.

  4. Concept definition and aerodynamic technology studies for single-engine V/STOL fighter/attack aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelms, W. P.; Durston, D. A.

    1981-01-01

    The results obtained in the early stages of a research program to develop aerodynamic technology for single-engine V/STOL fighter/attack aircraft projected for the post-1990 period are summarized. This program includes industry studies jointly sponsored by NASA and the Navy. Four contractors have identified promising concepts featuring a variety of approaches for providing propulsive lift. Vertical takeoff gross weights range from about 10,000 to 13,600 kg (22,000 to 30,000 lb). The aircraft have supersonic capability, are highly maneuverable, and have significant short takeoff overload capability. The contractors have estimated the aerodynamics and identified aerodynamic uncertainties associated with their concepts. Wind-tunnel research programs will be formulated to investigate these uncertainties. A description of the concepts is emphasized.

  5. Replacement of Chromium Electroplating on Gas Turbine Engine Components Using Thermal Spray Coatings

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sartwell, Bruce D; Legg, Keith O; Schell, Jerry; Bondaruk, Bob; Alford, Charles; Natishan, Paul; Lawrence, Steven; Shubert, Gary; Bretz, Philip; Kaltenhauser, Anne

    2005-01-01

    .... This document constitutes the final report on a project to qualify high-velocity oxygen-fuel (HVOF) and plasma thermal spray coatings as a replacement for hard chrome plating on gas turbine engine components...

  6. Profiles of Automotive Suppliers Industries--Engineered Mechanical Components and Systems : Volume II, Appendices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-09-01

    The profile describes and analyzes that segment of the automotive supplier industry which provides engineered mechanical components/assemblies/systems to the prime auto manufacturers. It presents an overview of the role and structure of this industry...

  7. Profiles of Automotive Suppliers Industries--Engineered Mechanical Components and Systems : Volume I, Text.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-09-01

    This profile describes and analyzes that segment of the automotive supplier industry which provides engineered mechanical components/assemblies/systems to the prime auto manufacturers. It presents an overview of the role and structure of this industr...

  8. Crankshaft and component adequacy: Update of analysis and testing developed for nuclear standby engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1987-01-01

    This book contains eight selections. Some of the topics are: reliability improvement of diesels in nuclear standby applications, diesel engine crankshaft torsional vibrations, pendulum dampers, transportation fatalities,and diesel component life predictions

  9. Preliminary Axial Flow Turbine Design and Off-Design Performance Analysis Methods for Rotary Wing Aircraft Engines. Part 1; Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shu-cheng, S.

    2009-01-01

    For the preliminary design and the off-design performance analysis of axial flow turbines, a pair of intermediate level-of-fidelity computer codes, TD2-2 (design; reference 1) and AXOD (off-design; reference 2), are being evaluated for use in turbine design and performance prediction of the modern high performance aircraft engines. TD2-2 employs a streamline curvature method for design, while AXOD approaches the flow analysis with an equal radius-height domain decomposition strategy. Both methods resolve only the flows in the annulus region while modeling the impact introduced by the blade rows. The mathematical formulations and derivations involved in both methods are documented in references 3, 4 for TD2-2) and in reference 5 (for AXOD). The focus of this paper is to discuss the fundamental issues of applicability and compatibility of the two codes as a pair of companion pieces, to perform preliminary design and off-design analysis for modern aircraft engine turbines. Two validation cases for the design and the off-design prediction using TD2-2 and AXOD conducted on two existing high efficiency turbines, developed and tested in the NASA/GE Energy Efficient Engine (GE-E3) Program, the High Pressure Turbine (HPT; two stages, air cooled) and the Low Pressure Turbine (LPT; five stages, un-cooled), are provided in support of the analysis and discussion presented in this paper.

  10. MATHEMATICAL ASPECTS OF AIRCRAFT ENGINES RUNNING OPTIMIZATION FOR MINIMUM FUEL CONSUMPTION WHILE LANDING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuriy Michaylovich Chinyuchin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The consistency of the potential increase of fuel efficiency, based on aircraft maintenance optimization, is mathe- matically proved. The mathematical apparatus and a set mathematical model of aircraft spatial motion allow to analyze aircraft behavior on the stage before landing and to draw optimal flight path for minimum fuel consumption with fixed time.For effective problem solving the choice and realization of optimal flight paths are made. The algorithm for the problem of optimal civil aircraft flight control aimed at the most accurate realization of chosen soft path under limited time conditions is proposed. The optimization of the given process is made by solving a point-to-point boundary canonical sys- tem based on the Pontryagin maximum principle.The necessary initial data and conditions for the statement of problem are given. The mathematical model for the simplification of calculations is created and its equivalent representation is given by uniting problems of controls by thrust channels and the angle of attack as the thrust control function. The boundary-value problem is mathematically composed and the analytical apparatus of its solution is presented. Optimal aircraft landing paths reflecting the behavior of the angle of attack and thrust are constructed. The potential of this method is proved by the economic justifiability and its effectiveness, in particular the compar- ison of total aircraft fuel consumption on obtained optimal path to the classic path on which there are rectilinear sections what allowed to confirm the conclusion about the economical expedience and effectiveness of the method of aircraft con- stant landing while making flights.

  11. The development of turbojet aircraft in Germany, Britain, and the United States: A multi-national comparison of aeronautical engineering, 1935--1946

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavelec, Sterling Michael

    In the 1930s aeronautical engineering needed revision. A presumptive anomaly was envisaged as piston-engine aircraft flew higher and faster. Radical alternatives to piston engines were considered in the unending quest for speed. Concurrently, but unwittingly, two turbojet engine programs were undertaken in Europe. The air-breathing three-stage turbojet engine was based on previous turbine technology; the revolutionary idea was the gas turbine as a prime mover for aircraft. In Germany, Dr. Hans von Ohain was the first to complete a flight-worthy turbojet engine for aircraft. Installed in a Heinkel designed aircraft, the Germans began the jet age on 27 August 1939. The Germans led throughout the war and were the first to produce jet aircraft for combat operations. The principal limiting factor for the German jet program was a lack of reliable engines. The continuing myths that Hitler orders, too little fuel, or too few pilots hindered the program are false. In England, Frank Whittle, without substantial support, but with dogged determination, also developed a turbojet engine. The British came second in the jet race when the Whittle engine powered the Gloster Pioneer on 15 May 1941. The Whittle-Gloster relationship continued and produced the only Allied combat jet aircraft during the war, the Meteor, which was confined to Home Defense in Britain. The American turbojet program was built directly from the Whittle engine. General Electric copied the Whittle designs and Bell Aircraft was contracted to build the first American jet plane. The Americans began the jet age on 1 October 1942 with a lackluster performance from their first jet, the Airacomet. But the Americans forged ahead, and had numerous engine and airframe programs in development by the end of the war. But, the Germans did it right and did it first. Partly because of a predisposition towards excellent engineering and physics, partly out of necessity, the Germans were able to produce combat turbojet aircraft

  12. Development of wear resistant ceramic coatings for diesel engine components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haselkorn, M.H. (Caterpillar, Inc., Peoria, IL (United States))

    1992-04-01

    Improved fuel economy and a reduction of emissions can be achieved by insulation of the combustion chamber components to reduce heat rejection. However, insulating the combustion chamber components will also increase the operating temperature of the piston ring/cylinder liner interface from approximately 150{degree}C to over 300{degree}C. Existing ring/liner materials can not withstand these higher operating temperatures and for this reason, new materials need to be developed for this critical tribological interface. The overall goal of this program is the development of piston ring/cylinder liner material pairs which would be able to provide the required friction and wear properties at these more severe operating conditions. More specifically, this program first selected, and then evaluated, potential d/wear resistant coatings which could be applied to either piston rings an or cylinder liners and provide, at 350{degree}C under lubricated conditions, coefficients of friction below 0.1 and wear rates of less than 25 {times} lO{sup {minus}6} mm/hour. The processes selected for applying the candidate wear resistant coatings to piston rings and/or cylinder liners were plasma spraying, chemical vapor, physical vapor and low temperature arc vapor deposition techniques as well as enameling techniques.

  13. Thermo-Mechanical Fatigue of Compacted Graphite Iron in Diesel Engine Components

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ghodrat, S.

    2013-01-01

    Cast iron components in combustion engines, such as cylinder blocks and heads of trucks, are exposed for long periods of time to elevated temperatures. Moreover, the engines are started and stopped frequently during their operational life, constituting a large number of heating and cooling cycles.

  14. Residual life and strength estimates of aircraft structural components with MSD/MED

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ripudaman; Park, Jai H.; Atluri, Satya N.

    1994-01-01

    Economic and safe operation of the flight vehicles flying beyond their initial design life calls for an in-depth structural integrity evaluation of all components with potential for catastrophic damages. Fuselage panels with cracked skin and/or stiffening elements is one such example. A three level analytical approach is developed to analyze the pressurized fuselage stiffened shell panels with damaged skin or stiffening elements. A global finite element analysis is first carried out to obtain the load flow pattern through the damaged panel. As an intermediate step, the damaged zone is treated as a spatially three-dimensional structure modeled by plate and shell finite elements, with all the neighboring elements that can alter the stress state at the crack tip. This is followed by the Schwartz-Neumann alternating method for local analysis to obtain the relevant crack tip parameters that govern the onset of fracture and the crack growth. The methodology developed is generic in nature and aims at handling a large fraction of problem areas identified by the Industry Committee on Wide-Spread Fatigue Damage.

  15. Model-Based Control of a Nonlinear Aircraft Engine Simulation using an Optimal Tuner Kalman Filter Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connolly, Joseph W.; Csank, Jeffrey Thomas; Chicatelli, Amy; Kilver, Jacob

    2013-01-01

    This paper covers the development of a model-based engine control (MBEC) methodology featuring a self tuning on-board model applied to an aircraft turbofan engine simulation. Here, the Commercial Modular Aero-Propulsion System Simulation 40,000 (CMAPSS40k) serves as the MBEC application engine. CMAPSS40k is capable of modeling realistic engine performance, allowing for a verification of the MBEC over a wide range of operating points. The on-board model is a piece-wise linear model derived from CMAPSS40k and updated using an optimal tuner Kalman Filter (OTKF) estimation routine, which enables the on-board model to self-tune to account for engine performance variations. The focus here is on developing a methodology for MBEC with direct control of estimated parameters of interest such as thrust and stall margins. Investigations using the MBEC to provide a stall margin limit for the controller protection logic are presented that could provide benefits over a simple acceleration schedule that is currently used in traditional engine control architectures.

  16. Definition of 1992 Technology Aircraft Noise Levels and the Methodology for Assessing Airplane Noise Impact of Component Noise Reduction Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumasaka, Henry A.; Martinez, Michael M.; Weir, Donald S.

    1996-01-01

    This report describes the methodology for assessing the impact of component noise reduction on total airplane system noise. The methodology is intended to be applied to the results of individual study elements of the NASA-Advanced Subsonic Technology (AST) Noise Reduction Program, which will address the development of noise reduction concepts for specific components. Program progress will be assessed in terms of noise reduction achieved, relative to baseline levels representative of 1992 technology airplane/engine design and performance. In this report, the 1992 technology reference levels are defined for assessment models based on four airplane sizes - an average business jet and three commercial transports: a small twin, a medium sized twin, and a large quad. Study results indicate that component changes defined as program final goals for nacelle treatment and engine/airframe source noise reduction would achieve from 6-7 EPNdB reduction of total airplane noise at FAR 36 Stage 3 noise certification conditions for all of the airplane noise assessment models.

  17. 78 FR 37958 - Special Conditions: Cessna Aircraft Company, Model J182T; Electronic Engine Control System...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-25

    ...; Electronic Engine Control System Installation AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION... feature(s) associated with the installation of an electronic engine control. The applicable airworthiness...) fuel. The J182T incorporates an engine controlled by an electronic engine [[Page 37959

  18. Clean Diesel Engine Component Improvement Program Diesel Truck Thermoelectric Generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elsner, N. B. [Hi-Z Technology, Inc., San Diego, CA (United States); Bass, J. C. [Hi-Z Technology, Inc., San Diego, CA (United States); Ghamaty, S. [Hi-Z Technology, Inc., San Diego, CA (United States); Krommenhoek, D. [Hi-Z Technology, Inc., San Diego, CA (United States); Kushch, A. [Hi-Z Technology, Inc., San Diego, CA (United States); Snowden, D. [Hi-Z Technology, Inc., San Diego, CA (United States); Marchetti, S. [Hi-Z Technology, Inc., San Diego, CA (United States)

    2005-03-16

    Hi-Z Technology, Inc. (Hi-Z) is currently developing four different auxiliary generator designs that are used to convert a portion (5 to 20%) of the waste heat from vehicle engines exhaust directly to electricity. The four designs range from 200 Watts to 10 kW. The furthest along is the 1 kW Diesel Truck Thermoelectric Generator (DTTEG) for heavy duty Class 8 Diesel trucks, which, under this program, has been subjected to 543,000 equivalent miles of bouncing and jarring on PACCAR's test track. Test experience on an earlier version of the DTTEG on the same track showed the need for design modifications incorporated in DTTEG Mod 2, such as a heavy duty shock mounting system and reinforcement of the electrical leads mounting system, the thermocouple mounting system and the thermoelectric module restraints. The conclusion of the 543,000 mile test also pointed the way for an upgrading to heavy duty hose or flex connections for the internal coolant connections for the TEG, and consideration of a separate lower temperature cooling loop with its own radiator. Fuel savings of up to $750 per year and a three to five year payback are believed to be possible with the 5 % efficiency modules. The economics are expected to improve considerably to approach a two year payback when the 5 kW to 10 kW generators make it to the market in a few years with a higher efficiency (20%) thermoelectric module system called Quantum Wells, which are currently under development by Hi-Z. Ultimately, as automation takes over to reduce material and labor costs in the high volume production of QW modules, a one year payback for the 5 kW to10 kW generator appears possible. This was one of the stated goals at the beginning of the project. At some future point in time, with the DTTEG becoming standard equipment on all trucks and automobiles, fuel savings from the 25% conversion of exhaust heat to useable electricity nationwide equates to a 10% reduction in the 12 to 15 million barrels per day of

  19. The application of cast SiC/Al to rotary engine components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoller, H. M.; Carluccio, J. R.; Norman, J. P.

    1986-01-01

    A silicon carbide reinforced aluminum (SiC/Al) material fabricated by Dural Aluminum Composites Corporation was tested for various components of rotary engines. Properties investigated included hardness, high temperature strength, wear resistance, fatigue resistance, thermal conductivity, and expansion. SiC/Al appears to be a viable candidate for cast rotors, and may be applicable to other components, primarily housings.

  20. Non-intrusive measurement of emission indices. A new approach to the evaluation of infrared spectra emitted by aircraft engine exhaust gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindermeir, E.; Haschberger, P.; Tank, V. [Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V. (DLR), Wessling (Germany). Inst. fuer Optoelektronik

    1997-12-31

    A non-intrusive method is used to determine the emission indices of a research aircraft`s engine in-flight. The principle is based on the Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometer MIROR which was specifically designed and built for operation aboard aircrafts. This device measures the spectrum of the infrared radiation emitted by the hot exhaust gas under cruise conditions. From these spectra mixing ratios and emission indices can be derived. An extension to previously applied evaluation schemes is proposed: Whereas formerly the plume was assumed a homogeneous layer of gas, temperature and concentration profiles are now introduced to the evaluation procedure. (author) 5 refs.

  1. Structural Diagnostics of CFRP Composite Aircraft Components by Ultrasonic Guided Waves and Built-In Piezoelectric Transducers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matt, Howard M. [Univ. of California, San Diego, CA (United States)

    2006-01-01

    To monitor in-flight damage and reduce life-cycle costs associated with CFRP composite aircraft, an autonomous built-in structural health monitoring (SHM) system is preferred over conventional maintenance routines and schedules. This thesis investigates the use of ultrasonic guided waves and piezoelectric transducers for the identification and localization of damage/defects occurring within critical components of CFRP composite aircraft wings, mainly the wing skin-to-spar joints. The guided wave approach for structural diagnostics was demonstrated by the dual application of active and passive monitoring techniques. For active interrogation, the guided wave propagation problem was initially studied numerically by a semi-analytical finite element method, which accounts for viscoelastic damping, in order to identify ideal mode-frequency combinations sensitive to damage occurring within CFRP bonded joints. Active guided wave tests across three representative wing skin-to-spar joints at ambient temperature were then conducted using attached Macro Fiber Composite (MFC) transducers. Results from these experiments demonstrate the importance of intelligent feature extraction for improving the sensitivity to damage. To address the widely neglected effects of temperature on guided wave base damage identification, analytical and experimental analyses were performed to characterize the influence of temperature on guided wave signal features. In addition, statistically-robust detection of simulated damage in a CFRP bonded joint was successfully achieved under changing temperature conditions through a dimensionally-low, multivariate statistical outlier analysis. The response of piezoceramic patches and MFC transducers to ultrasonic Rayleigh and Lamb wave fields was analytically derived and experimentally validated. This theory is useful for designing sensors which possess optimal sensitivity toward a given mode-frequency combination or for predicting the frequency dependent

  2. Qualification of Indigenously Developed Special Coatings for Aero-Engine Components

    OpenAIRE

    V. Sambasiva Rao; T. Rangaraju; V. Unnikrishnan

    1999-01-01

    The demand for higher performance and reliability of aero-engiaes necessitates its components to worksatisfactorily under severe operating conditions. The durability of various components in these environmentis often enhanced by applying suitable coatings. The development of new materials/processing methods andalso various coatings to protect the components have been driven by the ever-increasing severity of theaero-engine internal environment. While the selection of a coating is dictated by ...

  3. Development status of rotary engine at Toyo Kogyo. [for general aviation aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, K.

    1978-01-01

    Progress in the development of rotary engines which use a thermal reactor as the primary part of the exhaust emission control system is reviewed. Possibilities of further improvements in fuel economy of future rotary engines are indicated.

  4. Differences in Characteristics of Aviation Accidents During 1993-2012 Based on Aircraft Type

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Joni K.

    2015-01-01

    Civilian aircraft are available in a variety of sizes, engine types, construction materials and instrumentation complexity. For the analysis reported here, eleven aircraft categories were developed based mostly on aircraft size and engine type, and these categories were applied to twenty consecutive years of civil aviation accidents. Differences in various factors were examined among these aircraft types, including accident severity, pilot characteristics and accident occurrence categories. In general, regional jets and very light sport aircraft had the lowest rates of adverse outcomes (injuries, fatal accidents, aircraft destruction, major accidents), while aircraft with twin (piston) engines or with a single (piston) engine and retractable landing gear carried the highest incidence of adverse outcomes. The accident categories of abnormal runway contact, runway excursions and non-powerplant system/component failures occur frequently within all but two or three aircraft types. In contrast, ground collisions, loss of control - on ground/water and powerplant system/component failure occur frequently within only one or two aircraft types. Although accidents in larger aircraft tend to have less severe outcomes, adverse outcome rates also differ among accident categories. It may be that the type of accident has as much or more influence on the outcome as the type of aircraft.

  5. Effects of Gas Turbine Component Performance on Engine and Rotary Wing Vehicle Size and Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Christopher A.; Thurman, Douglas R.

    2010-01-01

    In support of the Fundamental Aeronautics Program, Subsonic Rotary Wing Project, further gas turbine engine studies have been performed to quantify the effects of advanced gas turbine technologies on engine weight and fuel efficiency and the subsequent effects on a civilian rotary wing vehicle size and mission fuel. The Large Civil Tiltrotor (LCTR) vehicle and mission and a previous gas turbine engine study will be discussed as a starting point for this effort. Methodology used to assess effects of different compressor and turbine component performance on engine size, weight and fuel efficiency will be presented. A process to relate engine performance to overall LCTR vehicle size and fuel use will also be given. Technology assumptions and levels of performance used in this analysis for the compressor and turbine components performances will be discussed. Optimum cycles (in terms of power specific fuel consumption) will be determined with subsequent engine weight analysis. The combination of engine weight and specific fuel consumption will be used to estimate their effect on the overall LCTR vehicle size and mission fuel usage. All results will be summarized to help suggest which component performance areas have the most effect on the overall mission.

  6. Performance assessment of a Multi-fuel Hybrid Engine for Future Aircraft

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yin, F.; Gangoli Rao, A.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents performance assessment of the proposed hybrid engine concept using Liquid Natural Gas (LNG) and kerosene. The multi-fuel hybrid engine is a new engine concept integrated with contra rotating fans, sequential dual combustion chambers to facilitate “Energy Mix” in aviation and a

  7. Performance assessment of a multi-fuel hybrid engine for future aircraft

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yin, F.; Gangoli Rao, A.; Bhat, Abhishek; Chen, Min

    2018-01-01

    This paper presents the performance assessment of a novel turbofan engine using two energy sources: Liquid Natural Gas (LNG) and kerosene, called Multi-Fuel Hybrid Engine (MFHE). The MFHE is a new engine concept consisting of several novel features, such as a contra-rotating fan to sustain

  8. Analysis of appraisal tool of system security engineering capability maturity based on component

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Zhenghai; Yang Xiaohua; Zou Shuliang; Liu Yachun; Xiao Jiantian; Liu Zhiming

    2012-01-01

    Spent Fuel Reprocessing is a part of nuclear fuel cycle and is the inevitably choice of nuclear power sustainable development. Reprocessing needs to face with radiological, criticality, chemical hazards. Besides using the tradition appraisal methods based on the security goals, it is a beneficial supplement that using the appraisal method of system security engineering capability maturity model based on the process. Experts should check and approve large numbers of documents during the appraisal based on system security engineering capability maturity model, so it is necessary that developing a tool to assist the expert to complete the appraisal. The method of developing software based on component is highly effective, nimble and reliable. Component technology is analyzed, the methods of extraction model domain components and general components is introduced, and the appraisal system is developed based on component technology. (authors)

  9. Enhanced Bank of Kalman Filters Developed and Demonstrated for In-Flight Aircraft Engine Sensor Fault Diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Takahisa; Simon, Donald L.

    2005-01-01

    In-flight sensor fault detection and isolation (FDI) is critical to maintaining reliable engine operation during flight. The aircraft engine control system, which computes control commands on the basis of sensor measurements, operates the propulsion systems at the demanded conditions. Any undetected sensor faults, therefore, may cause the control system to drive the engine into an undesirable operating condition. It is critical to detect and isolate failed sensors as soon as possible so that such scenarios can be avoided. A challenging issue in developing reliable sensor FDI systems is to make them robust to changes in engine operating characteristics due to degradation with usage and other faults that can occur during flight. A sensor FDI system that cannot appropriately account for such scenarios may result in false alarms, missed detections, or misclassifications when such faults do occur. To address this issue, an enhanced bank of Kalman filters was developed, and its performance and robustness were demonstrated in a simulation environment. The bank of filters is composed of m + 1 Kalman filters, where m is the number of sensors being used by the control system and, thus, in need of monitoring. Each Kalman filter is designed on the basis of a unique fault hypothesis so that it will be able to maintain its performance if a particular fault scenario, hypothesized by that particular filter, takes place.

  10. Engineering of Fast and Robust Adaptive Control for Fixed-Wing Unmanned Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    evaluate the use of adaptive control on fixed-wing unmanned aircraft . The growing demand for unmanned systems will inherit the costs associated with...aerospace environment . 2.2 Classical Feedback vs Adaptive Control Control of a system can be categorized into two required elements; the requirement to...stabilize the system in the presence of: 1. disturbances that affect the controlled states and outputs (pitch rate perturbation caused by environmental

  11. Origin and type of flaws in heat engine ceramic materials and components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Govila, R.K.

    1995-01-01

    A number of ceramic materials such as Silicon Nitrides and Carbides, Sialons, Whisker-Reinforced Ceramic Composites and Partially-Stabilized Zirconias (PSZs) have been developed for use as structural components in heat engine applications. The reliability and durability of a structural engine component is critically dependent on the size, density of distribution and location of flaws. This information is critical for the processing and design engineers in order to design structural components using suitable materials and thus minimize stress intensity. In general, the failure initiating flaws are associated or produced due to material impurity, processing methods and parameters, and fabrication techniques (machining and grinding). Examples of each type of flaws associated with material impurity, processing methods and fabrication techniques are illustrated

  12. The role of NDE in maintaining and extending the life cycle of engineering components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doctor, S.R.

    1997-01-01

    A successful life cycle of engineering components begins during the design to select the best materials for a given application, designing for economical maintenance, and accommodating NDE inspections. NDE in the nuclear industry is part of the defense in depth to insure structural integrity of components. High reliability NDE is needed to reliably detect and accurately characterize the failure modes that have occurred in nuclear components. The move toward risk-informed inservice inspection programs focusses the NDE on the most safety significant components. The use of performance demonstration testing is leading to improved inservice inspections through screening out ineffective procedure/equipment/personnel. (orig.)

  13. Proceedings International Workshop on Formal Engineering approaches to Software Components and Architectures

    OpenAIRE

    Kofroň, Jan; Tumova, Jana

    2017-01-01

    These are the proceedings of the 14th International Workshop on Formal Engineering approaches to Software Components and Architectures (FESCA). The workshop was held on April 22, 2017 in Uppsala (Sweden) as a satellite event to the European Joint Conference on Theory and Practice of Software (ETAPS'17). The aim of the FESCA workshop is to bring together junior researchers from formal methods, software engineering, and industry interested in the development and application of formal modelling ...

  14. Proceedings 10th International Workshop on Formal Engineering Approaches to Software Components and Architectures

    OpenAIRE

    Buhnova, Barbora; Happe, Lucia; Kofroň, Jan

    2013-01-01

    These are the proceedings of the 10th International Workshop on Formal Engineering approaches to Software Components and Architectures (FESCA). The workshop was held on March 23, 2013 in Rome (Italy) as a satellite event to the European Joint Conference on Theory and Practice of Software (ETAPS'13). The aim of the FESCA workshop is to bring together both young and senior researchers from formal methods, software engineering, and industry interested in the development and application of formal...

  15. The development and testing of ceramic components in piston engines. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McEntire, B.J. [Norton Co., Northboro, MA (United States). Advanced Ceramics Div.; Willis, R.W.; Southam, R.E. [TRW, Inc., Cleveland, OH (United States)

    1994-10-01

    Within the past 10--15 years, ceramic hardware has been fabricated and tested in a number of piston engine applications including valves, piston pins, roller followers, tappet shims, and other wear components. It has been shown that, with proper design and installation, ceramics improve performance, fuel economy, and wear and corrosion resistance. These results have been obtained using rig and road tests on both stock and race engines. Selected summaries of these tests are presented in this review paper.

  16. Propulsion controlled aircraft computer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cogan, Bruce R. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A low-cost, easily retrofit Propulsion Controlled Aircraft (PCA) system for use on a wide range of commercial and military aircraft consists of an propulsion controlled aircraft computer that reads in aircraft data including aircraft state, pilot commands and other related data, calculates aircraft throttle position for a given maneuver commanded by the pilot, and then displays both current and calculated throttle position on a cockpit display to show the pilot where to move throttles to achieve the commanded maneuver, or is automatically sent digitally to command the engines directly.

  17. Evaluation and silicon nitride internal combustion engine components. Final report, Phase I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voldrich, W. [Allied-Signal Aerospace Co., Torrance, CA (United States). Garrett Ceramic Components Div.

    1992-04-01

    The feasibility of silicon nitride (Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}) use in internal combustion engines was studied by testing three different components for wear resistance and lower reciprocating mass. The information obtained from these preliminary spin rig and engine tests indicates several design changes are necessary to survive high-stress engine applications. The three silicon nitride components tested were valve spring retainers, tappet rollers, and fuel pump push rod ends. Garrett Ceramic Components` gas-pressure sinterable Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} (GS-44) was used to fabricate the above components. Components were final machined from densified blanks that had been green formed by isostatic pressing of GS-44 granules. Spin rig testing of the valve spring retainers indicated that these Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} components could survive at high RPM levels (9,500) when teamed with silicon nitride valves and lower spring tension than standard titanium components. Silicon nitride tappet rollers showed no wear on roller O.D. or I.D. surfaces, steel axles and lifters; however, due to the uncrowned design of these particular rollers the cam lobes indicated wear after spin rig testing. Fuel pump push rod ends were successful at reducing wear on the cam lobe and rod end when tested on spin rigs and in real-world race applications.

  18. Nondestructive Induced Residual Stress Assessment in Superalloy Turbine Engine Components Using Induced Positron Annihilation (IPA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rideout, C. A.; Ritchie, S. J.; Denison, A.

    2007-01-01

    Induced Positron Analysis (IPA) has demonstrated the ability to nondestructively quantify shot peening/surface treatments and relaxation effects in single crystal superalloys, steels, titanium and aluminum with a single measurement as part of a National Science Foundation SBIR program and in projects with commercial companies. IPA measurement of surface treatment effects provides a demonstrated ability to quantitatively measure initial treatment effectiveness along with the effect of operationally induced changes over the life of the treated component. Use of IPA to nondestructively quantify surface and subsurface residual stresses in turbine engine materials and components will lead to improvements in current engineering designs and maintenance procedures

  19. Effect of soot on oil properties and wear of engine components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, D A; Lewis, R

    2007-01-01

    The objective of the work outlined in this paper was to increase the understanding of the wear mechanisms that occur within a soot contaminated contact zone, to help in future development of a predictive wear model to assist in the automotive engine valve train design process. The paper builds on previous work by the author, through testing of different lubricants and increased levels of soot contamination. Wear testing has been carried out using specimens operating under realistic engine conditions, using a reciprocating test-rig specifically designed for this application, where a steel disc is held in a heated bath of oil and a steel ball is attached to a reciprocating arm (replicating a sliding elephant's foot valve train contact). Detailed analysis of the test specimens has been performed using scanning electron microscopy to identify wear features relating to the proposed wear mechanisms. Analysis of worn engine components from durability engine tests has also been carried out for a comparison between specimen tests and engine testing. To assist the understanding of the wear test results obtained, the physical properties of contaminated lubricants were investigated, through viscosity, traction and friction measurements. The results have revealed how varying lubrication conditions change the wear rate of engine components and determine the wear mechanism that dominates in specific situations. Testing has also shown the positive effects of advanced engine lubricants to reduce the amount of wear produced with soot present

  20. Model Specification for Rework of Aircraft Engine, Power Transmission, and Accessory/Auxiliary Ball and Roller Bearings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaretsky, Erwin V.; Branzai, Emanuel V.

    2007-01-01

    This document provides a model specification for the rework and/or repair of bearings used in aircraft engines, helicopter main power train transmissions, and auxiliary bearings determined to be critical by virtue of performance, function, or availability. The rolling-element bearings to be processed under the provisions of this model specification may be used bearings removed after service, unused bearings returned from the field, or certain rejected bearings returned for reinspection and salvage. In commercial and military aircraft application, it has been a practice that rolling-element bearings removed at maintenance or overhaul be reworked and returned to service. Depending on the extent of rework and based upon theoretical analysis, representative life factors (LF) for bearings subject to rework ranged from 0.87 to 0.99 the lives of new bearings. Based on bearing endurance data, 92 percent of the bearing sets that would be subject to rework would result in L(sub 10) lives equaling and/or exceeding that predicted for new bearings. The remaining 8 percent of the bearings have the potential to achieve the analytically predicted life of new bearings when one of the rings is replaced at rework. The potential savings from bearing rework varies from 53 to 82 percent of that of new bearings depending on the cost, size, and complexity of the bearing

  1. Light Aircraft Piston Engine Carburetor Ice Detector/Warning Device Sensitivity/Effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-06-01

    10kHz max), converting raw data into engineering units as established by operator, displaying eight different parameters on cathode ray tube (CRT) and...TN No. 1790, February 1949. f. icing - Protection Requirements for Reciprocating Engine Induction Systems, NCA Technical Report No. 982, June 1949. q

  2. Small Internal Combustion Engine Testing for a Hybrid-Electric Remotely-Piloted Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    is relatively small in a mild system. It is used to aid in acceleration and utilizes regenerative braking to recharge batteries during decelerations...engine speed ............................... 82 Figure 45: Engine characteristic comparison bar graph with category contribution ........ 84 Page...Center BMEP Brake Mean Effective Pressure BSFC Brake Specific Fuel Consumption CEA Chemical Equilibrium with Applications CI Compression Ignition

  3. A Study of Bird Ingestions Into Large High Bypass Ratio Turbine Aircraft Engines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-09-01

    average weights based on ".S _ _ _ L TABLE 2.3 CUMULATIVE DISTRIBUTION OF INCESTION EVENTS FOR REVISED IST and 2ND YEAR Year I Year 2 month £,ant Cue. It...7Q iMIM I MLLS*NIcE r2 UN MU.SA=Yc RSZU54 VIGURI 5-5. IM 31211-524 SWGIM/ ,UVC MOM W 3- ’u bi~ mum riom - * 1-5)5 Us1 CrMN-2 ugh Dowus Turbofan Knein... son time. The following codes refer to entries in Appendix E. AIRCRAFT (AC) WEATHER (WX) 1 - )C8 IFR - Instruent Flight Rules 2 - OClO VFR - Visual

  4. An engineering optimization method with application to STOL-aircraft approach and landing trajectories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, H. G.

    1972-01-01

    An optimization method has been developed that computes the optimal open loop inputs for a dynamical system by observing only its output. The method reduces to static optimization by expressing the inputs as series of functions with parameters to be optimized. Since the method is not concerned with the details of the dynamical system to be optimized, it works for both linear and nonlinear systems. The method and the application to optimizing longitudinal landing paths for a STOL aircraft with an augmented wing are discussed. Noise, fuel, time, and path deviation minimizations are considered with and without angle of attack, acceleration excursion, flight path, endpoint, and other constraints.

  5. Preliminary Axial Flow Turbine Design and Off-Design Performance Analysis Methods for Rotary Wing Aircraft Engines. Part 2; Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shu-cheng, S.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, preliminary studies on two turbine engine applications relevant to the tilt-rotor rotary wing aircraft are performed. The first case-study is the application of variable pitch turbine for the turbine performance improvement when operating at a substantially lower shaft speed. The calculations are made on the 75 percent speed and the 50 percent speed of operations. Our results indicate that with the use of the variable pitch turbines, a nominal (3 percent (probable) to 5 percent (hypothetical)) efficiency improvement at the 75 percent speed, and a notable (6 percent (probable) to 12 percent (hypothetical)) efficiency improvement at the 50 percent speed, without sacrificing the turbine power productions, are achievable if the technical difficulty of turning the turbine vanes and blades can be circumvented. The second casestudy is the contingency turbine power generation for the tilt-rotor aircraft in the One Engine Inoperative (OEI) scenario. For this study, calculations are performed on two promising methods: throttle push and steam injection. By isolating the power turbine and limiting its air mass flow rate to be no more than the air flow intake of the take-off operation, while increasing the turbine inlet total temperature (simulating the throttle push) or increasing the air-steam mixture flow rate (simulating the steam injection condition), our results show that an amount of 30 to 45 percent extra power, to the nominal take-off power, can be generated by either of the two methods. The methods of approach, the results, and discussions of these studies are presented in this paper.

  6. Development of Advanced In-Cylinder Components and Tribological Systems for Low Heat Rejection Diesel Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yonushonis, T. M.; Wiczynski, P. D.; Myers, M. R.; Anderson, D. D.; McDonald, A. C.; Weber, H. G.; Richardson, D. E.; Stafford, R. J.; Naylor, M. G.

    1999-01-01

    In-cylinder components and tribological system concepts were designed, fabricated and tested at conditions anticipated for a 55% thermal efficiency heavy duty diesel engine for the year 2000 and beyond. A Cummins L10 single cylinder research engine was used to evaluate a spherical joint piston and connecting rod with 19.3 MPa (2800 psi) peak cylinder pressure capability, a thermal fatigue resistant insulated cylinder head, radial combustion seal cylinder liners, a highly compliant steel top compression ring, a variable geometry turbocharger, and a microwave heated particulate trap. Components successfully demonstrated in the final test included spherical joint connecting rod with a fiber reinforced piston, high conformability steel top rings with wear resistant coatings, ceramic exhaust ports with strategic oil cooling and radial combustion seal cylinder liner with cooling jacket transfer fins. A Cummins 6B diesel was used to develop the analytical methods, materials, manufacturing technology and engine components for lighter weight diesel engines without sacrificing performance or durability. A 6B diesel engine was built and tested to calibrate analytical models for the aluminum cylinder head and aluminum block.

  7. New method of calculating the power at altitude of aircraft engines equipped with superchargers on the basis of tests made under sea-level conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarracino, Marcello

    1941-01-01

    The present article deals with what is considered to be a simpler and more accurate method of determining, from the results of bench tests under approved rating conditions, the power at altitude of a supercharged aircraft engine, without application of correction formulas. The method of calculating the characteristics at altitude, of supercharged engines, based on the consumption of air, is a more satisfactory and accurate procedure, especially at low boost pressures.

  8. RAGE Reusable Game Software Components and Their Integration into Serious Game Engines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Vegt, Wim; Nyamsuren, Enkhbold; Westera, Wim

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents and validates a methodology for integrating reusable software components in diverse game engines. While conforming to the RAGE com-ponent-based architecture described elsewhere, the paper explains how the interac-tions and data exchange processes between a reusable software

  9. AGARD/SMP Review Damage Tolerance for Engine Structures. 3. Component Behaviour and Life Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-06-01

    logistic and financial planning of engine overhauls and component replacements. Conclusions This workshop covers the critical technologies that relate the...veloppements trZs importants do la part des instituits et laboratoires do recherchos 2A-2 franqais, soutenus en celii par la SNECD1A. Aujourd’hui, ces mod&1es

  10. Thermal damage of power plants components and their reparation. Aspects of welding engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kautz, H.R.; Zurn, H.E.D.

    1993-01-01

    In the last years, the technology of power plants has been developed. With the recommendation in environmental protection, the research is focussed on gaseous effluents purification . In case of were an accident, the welding engineering might repair the components. 47 refs

  11. Software Engineering Environment for Component-based Design of Embedded Software

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guo, Yu

    2010-01-01

    as well as application models in a computer-aided software engineering environment. Furthermore, component models have been realized following carefully developed design patterns, which provide for an efficient and reusable implementation. The components have been ultimately implemented as prefabricated...... executable objects that can be linked together into an executable application. The development of embedded software using the COMDES framework is supported by the associated integrated engineering environment consisting of a number of tools, which support basic functionalities, such as system modelling......, validation, and executable code generation for specific hardware platforms. Developing such an environment and the associated tools is a highly complex engineering task. Therefore, this thesis has investigated key design issues and analysed existing platforms supporting model-driven software development...

  12. Pollution Reduction Technology Program for Small Jet Aircraft Engines, Phase 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce, T. W.; Davis, F. G.; Kuhn, T. E.; Mongia, H. C.

    1978-01-01

    A series of iterative combustor pressure rig tests were conducted on two combustor concepts applied to the AiResearch TFE731-2 turbofan engine combustion system for the purpose of optimizing combustor performance and operating characteristics consistant with low emissions. The two concepts were an axial air-assisted airblast fuel injection configuration with variable-geometry air swirlers and a staged premix/prevaporization configuration. The iterative rig testing and modification sequence on both concepts was intended to provide operational compatibility with the engine and determine one concept for further evaluation in a TFE731-2 engine.

  13. 76 FR 19903 - Special Conditions: Diamond Aircraft Industry Model DA-40NG; Diesel Cycle Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-11

    ... must include- (a) Whirl mode degree of freedom which takes into account the stability of the plane of... (engine fuel consumption). In place of compliance to Sec. 91.205, comply with the following: The diesel...

  14. 78 FR 28719 - Special Conditions: Cessna Aircraft Company, Model J182T; Diesel Cycle Engine Installation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-16

    ... include -- (a) Whirl mode degree of freedom which takes into account the stability of the plane of... temperature indicator. (i) Fuel flow indicator (engine fuel consumption). If percentage power is used in place...

  15. 78 FR 50317 - Special Conditions: Cessna Aircraft Company, Model J182T; Diesel Cycle Engine Installation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-19

    ... of the plane of rotation of the propeller and significant elastic, inertial, and aerodynamic forces... temperature indicator. (i) Fuel flow indicator (engine fuel consumption) or fuel pressure. If percentage power...

  16. The NASA Pollution-Reduction Technology Program for small jet aircraft engines - A status report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fear, J. S.

    1976-01-01

    A three-phase experimental program is described which has the objective of enabling EPA Class T1 jet engines to meet the 1979 EPA emissions standards. In Phase I, three advanced combustor concepts, designed for the AiResearch TFE 731-2 turbofan engine, were evaluated in screening tests. Goals for carbon monoxide and unburned hydrocarbons were met or closely approached with two of the concepts with relatively modest departures from conventional combustor design practices. A more advanced premixing/prevaporizing combustor, while appearing to have the potential for meeting the oxides of nitrogen goal as well, will require extensive development to make it a practical combustion system. Smoke numbers for the two combustor concepts which will be carried forward into Phase II of the program were well within the EPA smoke standard. Phase II, Combustor-Engine Compatibility Testing, which is in its early stages, and planned Phase III, Combustor-Engine Demonstration Testing, are also described.

  17. Performance and control study of a low-pressure-ratio turbojet engine for a drone aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seldner, K.; Geyser, L. C.; Gold, H.; Walker, D.; Burgner, G.

    1972-01-01

    The results of analog and digital computer studies of a low-pressure-ratio turbojet engine system for use in a drone vehicle are presented. The turbojet engine consists of a four-stage axial compressor, single-stage turbine, and a fixed area exhaust nozzle. Three simplified fuel schedules and a generalized parameter fuel control for the engine system are presented and evaluated. The evaluation is based on the performance of each schedule or control during engine acceleration from a windmill start at Mach 0.8 and 6100 meters to 100 percent corrected speed. It was found that, because of the higher acceleration margin permitted by the control, the generalized parameter control exhibited the best dynamic performance.

  18. Components of WWER engineering factors for peaking factors: status and trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsyganov, S.V.

    2010-01-01

    One of the topics for discussion at special working group 'Elaboration of the methodology for calculating the core design engineering factors' is the problem of engineering factor components. The list of components corresponds to the phenomena that are taken into account with the engineering factor. It is supposed the better understanding of the influenced phenomena is important stage for developing unified methodology. This paper presents some brief overview of components of the engineering factor for VVER core peaking factors as they are in the Kurchatov Institute methodology. The evolution of some components to less conservative values is observed. Author makes some assumptions as for the further progress in components assessment. The engineering factors providing observance of design limits at normal operation, should cover, with the set probability, the uncertainty, connected with process of core design. For definition of the value of factors it is necessary to define influence of these uncertainties on the investigated parameter of the reactor. Practice consists in defining all possible sources of uncertainties, to estimate influence of each of them, and on their basis to define total influence of all uncertainties. The important stage of a technique of factor calculation is a definition of the list influencing uncertainties. It is obvious that all characteristics of VVER core are known with some uncertainty-owing to manufacturing tolerances, the measurement errors, etc. However essential influence on the parameters connected with safety, render only a part from them. At list formation those characteristics get out only, whose influence is essential to the corresponding parameter. (Author)

  19. Development of a mechanical maintenance training simulator in OpenSimulator for F-16 aircraft engines

    OpenAIRE

    Pinheiro, André; Fernandes, Paulo; Maia, Ana; Cruz, Gonçalo; Pedrosa, Daniela; Fonseca, Benjamim; Paredes, Hugo; Martins, Paulo; Morgado, Leonel; Rafael, Jorge

    2014-01-01

    Mechanical maintenance of F-16 engines is carried out as a team effort involving 3–4 skilled engine technicians, but the details of its procedures and requisites change constantly, to improve safety, optimize resources, and respond to knowledge learned from field outcomes. This provides a challenge for development of training simulators, since simulated actions risk becoming obsolete rapidly and require costly reimplementation. This paper presents the development of a 3D mechanical maintenanc...

  20. Engineering Bacteria to Catabolize the Carbonaceous Component of Sarin: Teaching E. coli to Eat Isopropanol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brown, Margaret E.; Mukhopadhyay, Aindrila; Keasling, Jay D.

    2016-01-01

    conversion with a key reaction performed by the acetone carboxylase complex (ACX). We engineered the heterologous expression of the ACX complex from Xanthobacter autotrophicus PY2 to match the naturally occurring subunit stoichiometry and purified the recombinant complex from E. coli for biochemical analysis....... Incorporating this ACX complex and enzymes from diverse organisms, we introduced an isopropanol degradation pathway in E. coli, optimized induction conditions, and decoupled enzyme expression to probe pathway bottlenecks. Our engineered E. coli consumed 65% of isopropanol compared to no-cell controls......We report an engineered strain of Escherichia coli that catabolizes the carbonaceous component of the extremely toxic chemical warfare agent sarin. Enzymatic decomposition of sarin generates isopropanol waste that, with this engineered strain, is then transformed into acetyl-CoA by enzymatic...

  1. The construction of life prediction models for the design of Stirling engine heater components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrovich, A.; Bright, A.; Cronin, M.; Arnold, S.

    1983-01-01

    The service life of Stirling-engine heater structures of Fe-based high-temperature alloys is predicted using a numerical model based on a linear-damage approach and published test data (engine test data for a Co-based alloy and tensile-test results for both the Co-based and the Fe-based alloys). The operating principle of the automotive Stirling engine is reviewed; the economic and technical factors affecting the choice of heater material are surveyed; the test results are summarized in tables and graphs; the engine environment and automotive duty cycle are characterized; and the modeling procedure is explained. It is found that the statistical scatter of the fatigue properties of the heater components needs to be reduced (by decreasing the porosity of the cast material or employing wrought material in fatigue-prone locations) before the accuracy of life predictions can be improved.

  2. Design and analysis of annular combustion chamber of a low bypass turbofan engine in a jet trainer aircraft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Priyant Mark

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The design of an annular combustion chamber in a gas turbine engine is the backbone of this paper. It is specifically designed for a low bypass turbofan engine in a jet trainer aircraft. The combustion chamber is positioned in between the compressor and turbine. It has to be designed based on the constant pressure, enthalpy addition process. The present methodology deals with the computation of the initial design parameters from benchmarking of real-time industry standards and arriving at optimized values. It is then studied for feasibility and finalized. Then the various dimensions of the combustor are calculated based on different empirical formulas. The air mass flow is then distributed across the zones of the combustor. The cooling requirement is met using the cooling holes. Finally the variations of parameters at different points are calculated. The whole combustion chamber is modeled using Siemens NX 8.0, a modeling software and presented. The model is then analyzed using various parameters at various stages and levels to determine the optimized design. The aerodynamic flow characteristics is simulated numerically by means of ANSYS 14.5 software suite. The air-fuel mixture, combustion-turbulence, thermal and cooling analysis is carried out. The analysis is performed at various scenarios and compared. The results are then presented in image outputs and graphs.

  3. ERBS fuel addendum: Pollution reduction technology program small jet aircraft engines, phase 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce, T. W.; Davis, F. G.; Kuhn, T. E.; Mongia, H. C.

    1982-01-01

    A Model TFE731-2 engine with a low emission, variable geometry combustion system was tested to compare the effects of operating the engine on Commercial Jet-A aviation turbine fuel and experimental referee broad specification (ERBS) fuels. Low power emission levels were essentially identical while the high power NOx emission indexes were approximately 15% lower with the EBRS fuel. The exhaust smoke number was approximately 50% higher with ERBS at the takeoff thrust setting; however, both values were still below the EPA limit of 40 for the Model TFE731 engine. Primary zone liner wall temperature ran an average of 25 K higher with ERBS fuel than with Jet-A. The possible adoption of broadened proprties fuels for gas turbine applications is suggested.

  4. The NASA pollution-reduction technology program for small jet aircraft engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fear, J. S.

    1976-01-01

    Three advanced combustor concepts, designed for the AiResearch TFE 731-2 turbofan engine, were evaluated in screening tests. Goals for carbon monoxide and unburned hydrocarbons were met or closely approached with two of the concepts with relatively modest departures from conventional combustor design practices. A more advanced premixing/prevaporizing combustor, while appearing to have the potential for meeting the oxides of nitrogen goal as well, will require extensive development to make it a practical combustion system. Smoke numbers for the two combustor concepts were well within the EPA smoke standard. Phase 2, Combustor-Engine Compatibility Testing, which is in its early stages, and planned Phase 3, Combustor-Engine Demonstration Testing, are also described.

  5. Status of Technological Advancements for Reducing Aircraft Gas Turbine Engine Pollutant Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudey, R. A.

    1975-01-01

    Combustor test rig results indicate that substantial reductions from current emission levels of carbon monoxide (CO), total unburned hydrocarbons (THC), oxides of nitrogen (NOx), and smoke are achievable by employing varying degrees of technological advancements in combustion systems. Minor to moderate modifications to existing conventional combustors produced significant reductions in CO and THC emissions at engine low power (idle/taxi) operating conditions but did not effectively reduce NOx at engine full power (takeoff) operating conditions. Staged combusiton techniques were needed to simultaneously reduce the levels of all the emissions over the entire engine operating range (from idle to takeoff). Emission levels that approached or were below the requirements of the 1979 EPA standards were achieved with the staged combustion systems and in some cases with the minor to moderate modifications to existing conventional combustion systems. Results from research programs indicate that an entire new generation of combustor technology with extremely low emission levels may be possible in the future.

  6. SALSA-A new instrument for strain imaging in engineering materials and components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pirling, Thilo; Bruno, Giovanni; Withers, Philip J.

    2006-01-01

    Residual stresses are very hard to predict and if undetected can lead to premature failure or unexpected behaviour of engineering materials or components. This paper describes the operation of a new residual strain-mapping instrument, Strain Analyser for Large and Small scale engineering Applications (SALSA), recently commissioned at the public user facility, the Institut Laue-Langevin in Grenoble, France. A unique feature of this neutron diffraction instrument is the sample manipulator, which is the first of its kind, allowing precise scanning of large and heavy (<500 kg) samples along any trajectory involving translations, tilts and rotations. Other notable features of the instrument are also described

  7. Propulsion Health Monitoring of a Turbine Engine Disk using Spin Test Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — On line detection techniques to monitor the health of rotating engine components are becoming increasingly attractive options to aircraft engine companies in order...

  8. 78 FR 63017 - Exhaust Emissions Standards for New Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines and Identification Plate for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-23

    [email protected] . For legal questions concerning this action contact Karen Petronis, International Law... adopting the gas turbine engine test procedures of the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO... regulation did not apply. The word ``exemption'' has a specific legal meaning. In 14 CFR Part 11 the FAA uses...

  9. Methodology of Computer-Aided Design of Variable Guide Vanes of Aircraft Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falaleev, Sergei V.; Melentjev, Vladimir S.; Gvozdev, Alexander S.

    2016-01-01

    The paper presents a methodology which helps to avoid a great amount of costly experimental research. This methodology includes thermo-gas dynamic design of an engine and its mounts, the profiling of compressor flow path and cascade design of guide vanes. Employing a method elaborated by Howell, we provide a theoretical solution to the task of…

  10. Study of the contribution of the different components of atmospheric cosmic radiation in dose received by the aircraft crew

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, Marlon A.; Prado, Adriane C.M.; Federico, Claudio A.; Goncalez, Odair L.

    2014-01-01

    The crews and aircraft passengers are exposed to atmospheric cosmic radiation. The flow of this radiation is modulated by the solar cycle and space weather, varying with the geomagnetic latitude and altitude. This paper presents a study of the contributions of radiation in total ambient dose equivalent of the crews depending on flight altitude up to 20 km, during maximum and minimum solar and in equatorial and polar regions. The results of calculations of the particle flows generated by the EXPACS and QARM codes are used. The particles evaluated that contributing significantly in the ambient dose equivalent are neutrons, protons, electrons, positrons, alphas, photons, muons and charged pions. This review allows us to characterize the origin of the dose received by crews and also support a project of a dosimetric system suitable for this ionizing radiation field in aircraft and on the ground

  11. Recent NASA progress in composites. [application to spacecraft and aircraft structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heldenfels, R. R.

    1975-01-01

    The application of composites in aerospace vehicle structures is reviewed. Research and technology program results and specific applications to space vehicles, aircraft engines, and aircraft and helicopter structures are discussed in detail. Particular emphasis is given to flight service evaluation programs that are or will be accumulating substantial experience with secondary and primary structural components on military and commercial aircraft to increase confidence in their use.

  12. Minimum Specific Fuel Consumption of a Liquid-Cooled Multicylinder Aircraft Engine as Affected by Compression Ratio and Engine Operating Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brun, Rinaldo J.; Feder, Melvin S.; Harries, Myron L.

    1947-01-01

    An investigation was conducted on a 12-cylinder V-type liquid-cooled aircraft engine of 1710-cubic-inch displacement to determine the minimum specific fuel consumption at constant cruising engine speed and compression ratios of 6.65, 7.93, and 9.68. At each compression ratio, the effect.of the following variables was investigated at manifold pressures of 28, 34, 40, and 50 inches of mercury absolute: temperature of the inlet-air to the auxiliary-stage supercharger, fuel-air ratio, and spark advance. Standard sea-level atmospheric pressure was maintained at the auxiliary-stage supercharger inlet and the exhaust pressure was atmospheric. Advancing the spark timing from 34 deg and 28 deg B.T.C. (exhaust and intake, respectively) to 42 deg and 36 deg B.T.C. at a compression ratio of 6.65 resulted in a decrease of approximately 3 percent in brake specific fuel consumption. Further decreases in brake specific fuel consumption of 10.5 to 14.1 percent (depending on power level) were observed as the compression ratio was increased from 6.65 to 9.68, maintaining at each compression ratio the spark advance required for maximum torque at a fuel-air ratio of 0.06. This increase in compression ratio with a power output of 0.585 horsepower per cubic inch required a change from . a fuel- lend of 6-percent triptane with 94-percent 68--R fuel at a compression ratio of 6.65 to a fuel blend of 58-percent, triptane with 42-percent 28-R fuel at a compression ratio of 9.68 to provide for knock-free engine operation. As an aid in the evaluation of engine mechanical endurance, peak cylinder pressures were measured on a single-cylinder engine at several operating conditions. Peak cylinder pressures of 1900 pounds per square inch can be expected at a compression ratio of 9.68 and an indicated mean effective pressure of 320 pounds per square inch. The engine durability was considerably reduced at these conditions.

  13. FY 1998 Report on technical results. Part 1 of 2. Research and development of supersonic transportation aircraft propulsion systems (Development of methane-fueled aircraft engines); 1998 nendo choonsoku yusokiyo suishin system no kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. 1/2. Methane nenryo kokukiyo engine no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-09-01

    The research and development project is conducted for (1) ramjet systems, (2) high-performance turbojet systems, (3) instrumentation/control systems and (4) total systems, in order to develop methane-fueled supersonic transportation aircraft engines. For the item (1), the ram combustor for the target engine is designed to evaluate its performance, and the shock-position within the dummy intake is successfully controlled by the variable exhaust nozzle. For the item (2), the R and D efforts are directed to the fans and low-pressure turbines, the former covering the studies on the single-stage elements for the fans of high flow rate, and the elements for the 2-stage, high-efficiency, high-load fans. For the item (3), the R and D efforts are directed to the electronic control systems and electro-optical measurement systems, the latter including development of the improved optical positioning and rotational sensors operating at high temperature of 350 degrees C. For the item (4), the R and D efforts are directed to intake nozzles as the total system component, noise reduction technology, and cooling and new material application technologies. (NEDO)

  14. GRAPHIC COMPETENCE AS A COMPONENT OF TRAINING FUTURE ENGINEERING TEACHERS OF COMPUTER PROFILE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuliya Kozak

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The article analysis the system of professional training of future engineering teachers of computer type at the pedagogical universities, including graphical content preparation. It is established that the modernization of this system of training engineering teachers of computer profile is extremely important because of increasing demands for total graphics education, which in terms of mass communication, the need to compress a significant amount of information and opportunities provided by new information technologies, becomes so important as second literacy. The article reveals the essential characteristics of the concept of graphic competence as important component of the modernization of the education system, and an attempt to find promising ways of further work to effective solving of the issue of formation of graphic competence of engineering teachers of computer profile.

  15. EVALUATION OF VIBRATION LOAD ON COMMON RAIL FUEL SYSTEM COMPONENTS FOR DIESEL ENGINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. M. Kuharonak

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the paper is to develop a program, a methodology and execute vibration load tests of Common Rail fuel system components for a diesel engine. The paper contains an analysis of parameters that characterize vibration activity of research object and determine its applicability as a part of the specific mechanical system. A tests program has been developed that includes measurements of general peak values of vibration acceleration in the fuel system components, transformation of the obtained data while taking into account the fact that peak vibration acceleration values depend on crank-shaft rotation frequency and spectrum of vibration frequency, comparison of these dependences with the threshold limit values obtained in the process of component tests with the help of vibration shaker. The investigations have been carried out in one of the most stressed elements of the Common Rail fuel system that is a RDS 4.2-pressure sensor in a fuel accumulator manufactured by Robert Bosch GmbH and mounted on the MMZ D245.7E4-engines.According to the test methodology measurements have been performed on an engine test bench at all fullload engine curves. Vibration measurements have resulted in time history of the peak vibration acceleration values in three directions from every accelerometer and crank-shaft rotation frequency.It has been proposed to increase a diameter of mounting spacers of the fuel accumulator and install a damping clamp on high pressure tubes from a high pressure fuel pump to the fuel accumulator that permits to reduce a maximum peak vibration acceleration value on the pressure sensor in the fuel accumulator by 400 m/s2 and ensure its application in the given engine.

  16. Pollution reduction technology program for small jet aircraft engines, phase 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce, T. W.; Davis, F. G.; Kuhn, T. E.; Mongia, H. C.

    1977-01-01

    A series of combustor pressure rig screening tests was conducted on three combustor concepts applied to the TFE731-2 turbofan engine combustion system for the purpose of evaluating their relative emissions reduction potential consistent with prescribed performance, durability, and envelope contraints. The three concepts and their modifications represented increasing potential for reducing emission levels with the penalty of increased hardware complexity and operational risk. Concept 1 entailed advanced modifications to the present production TFE731-2 combustion system. Concept 2 was based on the incorporation of an axial air-assisted airblast fuel injection system. Concept 3 was a staged premix/prevaporizing combustion system. Significant emissions reductions were achieved in all three concepts, consistent with acceptable combustion system performance. Concepts 2 and 3 were identified as having the greatest achievable emissions reduction potential, and were selected to undergo refinement to prepare for ultimate incorporation within an engine.

  17. Use of an additive in biofuel to evaluate emissions, engine component wear and lubrication characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalam, M.A.; Majsuki, H.H.

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents the results of experiments carried out to evaluate the effect of adding an anticorrosion additive to blended biofuel and lubricating oil on emissions, engine component wear and lubrication characteristics. The blended biofuels consist of 7.5 and 15 per cent palm olein (PO) with ordinary diesel oil (OD). Pure OD was used for comparison purposes. Exhaust emission gases such as NO x , CO and hydrocarbons (HCs) were measured by an exhaust emission analyser for engine operation on 50 per cent throttle at speeds of 800-3600 r/min. To measure engine component wear and lubricating oil characteristics, the engine was operated at 50 per cent throttle at a speed of 2000 r/min for a period of 100 h with each of the fuel samples. The same lubricating oil, conventional SAE 40, was used in all the fuels. A multielement oil analyser (MOA) was used to measure the increase in wear of metals (Fe, Cu, Al, Pd) and the decrease in lubricating oil additives (Zn, Ca) in the lubricating oil used. An ISL automatic Houillon viscometer (ASTM D445) and potentiometric titration (ASTM D2896) were used to measure viscosity and total base number (TBN) respectively. The results show that the addition of anticorrosion additive with biofuel and lubricating oil improves the emission and engine wear characteristics; both the exhaust emission gases (NO x , CO and HCs) and the wear of metals (Fe, Cu, Al and Pd) decrease with the blended fuels in comparison with the base fuel OD. Detailed results, including engine brake power, are discussed. (Author)

  18. Analysis and simulation on two types of thrust reversers in an aircraft engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian Feng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available With rapid development of new composite material and manufacturing, innovative engineering solutions are supplied to the advanced nacelle, such as integrated propulsion system(IPS, carbon-fiber composite inner skin by single-piece molding process,which offers a reduction in fuel burn and less noise produced by engines. The advanced nacelle has an O-duct thrust reverser demonstrator whose composite structure is in the form of an “O” as opposed to the traditional “D-duct”. A comparative study is to be conducted to investigate the differences between the latest O-duct and conventional D-duct in numerical approaches. To focus on the quantitative analysis of thrust reverser’s operation, this paper mainly uses CATIA/Digital Mock Up(DMU to simulate under deployment and stowed conditions of two different thrust reverser. After comparing the structural weight, the design models of blocker door are built for kinematic analysis of relevant mechanism and simulation. The results show that simplified design and elimination of multiple interfaces generates weight saving, O-duct improves airflows within the engine, meanwhile D-duct has excellent cost effective and maintainability.

  19. Experimental study on engine gas-path component fault monitoring using exhaust gas electrostatic signal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Jianzhong; Zuo, Hongfu; Liu, Pengpeng; Wen, Zhenhua

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the recent development in engine gas-path components health monitoring using electrostatic sensors in combination with signal-processing techniques. Two ground-based engine electrostatic monitoring experiments are reported and the exhaust gas electrostatic monitoring signal-based fault-detection method is proposed. It is found that the water washing, oil leakage and combustor linear cracking result in an increase in the activity level of the electrostatic monitoring signal, which can be detected by the electrostatic monitoring system. For on-line health monitoring of the gas-path components, a baseline model-based fault-detection method is proposed and the multivariate state estimation technique is used to establish the baseline model for the electrostatic monitoring signal. The method is applied to a data set from a turbo-shaft engine electrostatic monitoring experiment. The results of the case study show that the system with the developed method is capable of detecting the gas-path component fault in an on-line fashion. (paper)

  20. A Co-modeling Method Based on Component Features for Mechatronic Devices in Aero-engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bin; Zhao, Haocen; Ye, Zhifeng

    2017-08-01

    Data-fused and user-friendly design of aero-engine accessories is required because of their structural complexity and stringent reliability. This paper gives an overview of a typical aero-engine control system and the development process of key mechatronic devices used. Several essential aspects of modeling and simulation in the process are investigated. Considering the limitations of a single theoretic model, feature-based co-modeling methodology is suggested to satisfy the design requirements and compensate for diversity of component sub-models for these devices. As an example, a stepper motor controlled Fuel Metering Unit (FMU) is modeled in view of the component physical features using two different software tools. An interface is suggested to integrate the single discipline models into the synthesized one. Performance simulation of this device using the co-model and parameter optimization for its key components are discussed. Comparison between delivery testing and the simulation shows that the co-model for the FMU has a high accuracy and the absolute superiority over a single model. Together with its compatible interface with the engine mathematical model, the feature-based co-modeling methodology is proven to be an effective technical measure in the development process of the device.

  1. Hybrid PSO–SVM-based method for forecasting of the remaining useful life for aircraft engines and evaluation of its reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    García Nieto, P.J.; García-Gonzalo, E.; Sánchez Lasheras, F.; Cos Juez, F.J. de

    2015-01-01

    The present paper describes a hybrid PSO–SVM-based model for the prediction of the remaining useful life of aircraft engines. The proposed hybrid model combines support vector machines (SVMs), which have been successfully adopted for regression problems, with the particle swarm optimization (PSO) technique. This optimization technique involves kernel parameter setting in the SVM training procedure, which significantly influences the regression accuracy. However, its use in reliability applications has not been yet widely explored. Bearing this in mind, remaining useful life values have been predicted here by using the hybrid PSO–SVM-based model from the remaining measured parameters (input variables) for aircraft engines with success. A coefficient of determination equal to 0.9034 was obtained when this hybrid PSO–RBF–SVM-based model was applied to experimental data. The agreement of this model with experimental data confirmed its good performance. One of the main advantages of this predictive model is that it does not require information about the previous operation states of the engine. Finally, the main conclusions of this study are exposed. - Highlights: • A hybrid PSO–SVM-based model is built as a predictive model of the RUL values for aircraft engines. • The remaining physical–chemical variables in this process are studied in depth. • The obtained regression accuracy of our method is about 95%. • The results show that PSO–SVM-based model can assist in the diagnosis of the RUL values with accuracy

  2. Durability Testing of Biomass Based Oxygenated Fuel Components in a Compression Ignition Engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ratcliff, Matthew A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); McCormick, Robert L [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Baumgardner, Marc E. [Gonzaga University; Lakshminarayanan, Arunachalam [Colorado State University; Olsen, Daniel B. [Colorado State University; Marchese, Anthony J. [Colorado State University

    2017-10-18

    Blending cellulosic biofuels with traditional petroleum-derived fuels results in transportation fuels with reduced carbon footprints. Many cellulosic fuels rely on processing methods that produce mixtures of oxygenates which must be upgraded before blending with traditional fuels. Complete oxygenate removal is energy-intensive and it is likely that such biofuel blends will necessarily contain some oxygen content to be economically viable. Previous work by our group indicated that diesel fuel blends with low levels (<4%-vol) of oxygenates resulted in minimal negative effects on short-term engine performance and emissions. However, little is known about the long-term effects of these compounds on engine durability issues such as the impact on fuel injection, in-cylinder carbon buildup, and engine oil degradation. In this study, four of the oxygenated components previously tested were blended at 4%-vol in diesel fuel and tested with a durability protocol devised for this work consisting of 200 hrs of testing in a stationary, single-cylinder, Yanmar diesel engine operating at constant load. Oil samples, injector spray patterns, and carbon buildup from the injector and cylinder surfaces were analyzed. It was found that, at the levels tested, these fuels had minimal impact on the overall engine operation, which is consistent with our previous findings.

  3. Analysis of the engine fragment threat and the crush environment for small packages carried on U.S. commercial jet aircraft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartman, W.F.; McClure, J.D.; von Riesemann, W.A.

    1978-01-01

    The results of two separate analyses are reported. The engine fragment analysis determined the probability of a small package being in the path of a fragment from a failure in a gas turbine engine. The calculated values show that, depending on aircraft type, the incidence rate varies by approximately an order of magnitude from a high of about once per 5 million flights to a low of nearly once every 40 million package flights for a flight of five hours' duration. The analysis of the crush environment consisted of an examination of two principal crush modes, i.e., vertical and longitudinal crush. The vertical crush mode was examined by formulating a structural model of the cargo deck beams of the aircraft. The longitudinal crush mode was studied by using dynamic models of the aircraft cargo and the radioactive material package (RAM). The results of the analysis of these crush modes provided the basis for the formulation of a 310 kN/(70,000 lb) crush test to simulate vertical crush. The longitudinal crush analysis indicated that it was possible, under infrequently occurring conditions, to produce extremely large crush forces and hence it was recommended that RAM packages be located in the aft end of aircraft cargo compartments to minimize the effects of longitudinal crush

  4. Probabilistic Structural Analysis Methods for select space propulsion system components (PSAM). Volume 2: Literature surveys of critical Space Shuttle main engine components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajagopal, K. R.

    1992-01-01

    The technical effort and computer code development is summarized. Several formulations for Probabilistic Finite Element Analysis (PFEA) are described with emphasis on the selected formulation. The strategies being implemented in the first-version computer code to perform linear, elastic PFEA is described. The results of a series of select Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) component surveys are presented. These results identify the critical components and provide the information necessary for probabilistic structural analysis. Volume 2 is a summary of critical SSME components.

  5. Recoding of Information as a Component of Cognitive Training Technologies in the Course "Engineering Graphics"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. N. Lunina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The efficiency to understand scientific and technical information is a relevant problem for a modern type of students. It is particularly acute for the freshmen learning the course of engineering graphics, which is one of the basic disciplines in engineering education.This problem, generally, arises from the information blow-up and cognitive students’ deficiency. The students need to perceive, understand, take in, and apply a huge amount of information to acquire obligatory professional competencies. The cognitive deficiency is because of the poor school knowledge in geometry and graphics, underdeveloped spatial and logical thinking, lack of skills to work with educational and reference books, clip thinking.The modern engineering graphics teaches a technology for the visual presentation of information, graphical illustration, and interpretation of scientific and technical texts. The text is considered to be a completed piece of information that is described in any way – verbal, graphical, symbolic. Graphical language is a professionally oriented language of engineers.One of the components of cognitive learning technologies aimed at understanding the meaning of the studied texts is the development the skills for recoding some information, because a criterion of understanding the meaning of the text is the independent student’s ability to represent the verbal texts in the form of drawings, blueprints, charts, diagrams, tables, formulae, and numeric entries.The article explores some examples of transcoding texts used in the course of engineering graphics (in lectures, seminars, homework, tests. It is emphasized that integrated presentation (verbal + graphical + symbolic that creates the cohesion of the verbal and figurative components of thinking allows students to gain the most thorough understanding the meaning of educational information. This enables students to minimize their cognitive deficiency, elevate scientific mind, and promote

  6. Reliability analysis of component of affination centrifugal 1 machine by using reliability engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sembiring, N.; Ginting, E.; Darnello, T.

    2017-12-01

    Problems that appear in a company that produces refined sugar, the production floor has not reached the level of critical machine availability because it often suffered damage (breakdown). This results in a sudden loss of production time and production opportunities. This problem can be solved by Reliability Engineering method where the statistical approach to historical damage data is performed to see the pattern of the distribution. The method can provide a value of reliability, rate of damage, and availability level, of an machine during the maintenance time interval schedule. The result of distribution test to time inter-damage data (MTTF) flexible hose component is lognormal distribution while component of teflon cone lifthing is weibull distribution. While from distribution test to mean time of improvement (MTTR) flexible hose component is exponential distribution while component of teflon cone lifthing is weibull distribution. The actual results of the flexible hose component on the replacement schedule per 720 hours obtained reliability of 0.2451 and availability 0.9960. While on the critical components of teflon cone lifthing actual on the replacement schedule per 1944 hours obtained reliability of 0.4083 and availability 0.9927.

  7. Small transport aircraft technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, L. J.

    1983-01-01

    Information on commuter airline trends and aircraft developments is provided to upgrade the preliminary findings of a NASA-formed small transport aircraft technology (STAT) team, established to determine whether the agency's research and development programs could help commuter aircraft manufacturers solve technical problems related to passenger acceptance and use of 19- to 50-passenger aircraft. The results and conclusions of the full set of completed STAT studies are presented. These studies were performed by five airplane manufacturers, five engine manufacturers, and two propeller manufacturers. Those portions of NASA's overall aeronautics research and development programs which are applicable to commuter aircraft design are summarized. Areas of technology that might beneficially be expanded or initiated to aid the US commuter aircraft manufacturers in the evolution of improved aircraft for the market are suggested.

  8. Communal Sensor Network for Adaptive Noise Reduction in Aircraft Engine Nacelles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Kennie H.; Nark, Douglas M.; Jones, Michael G.

    2011-01-01

    Emergent behavior, a subject of much research in biology, sociology, and economics, is a foundational element of Complex Systems Science and is apropos in the design of sensor network systems. To demonstrate engineering for emergent behavior, a novel approach in the design of a sensor/actuator network is presented maintaining optimal noise attenuation as an adaptation to changing acoustic conditions. Rather than use the conventional approach where sensors are managed by a central controller, this new paradigm uses a biomimetic model where sensor/actuators cooperate as a community of autonomous organisms, sharing with neighbors to control impedance based on local information. From the combination of all individual actions, an optimal attenuation emerges for the global system.

  9. Aero Engine Component Fault Diagnosis Using Multi-Hidden-Layer Extreme Learning Machine with Optimized Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shan Pang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A new aero gas turbine engine gas path component fault diagnosis method based on multi-hidden-layer extreme learning machine with optimized structure (OM-ELM was proposed. OM-ELM employs quantum-behaved particle swarm optimization to automatically obtain the optimal network structure according to both the root mean square error on training data set and the norm of output weights. The proposed method is applied to handwritten recognition data set and a gas turbine engine diagnostic application and is compared with basic ELM, multi-hidden-layer ELM, and two state-of-the-art deep learning algorithms: deep belief network and the stacked denoising autoencoder. Results show that, with optimized network structure, OM-ELM obtains better test accuracy in both applications and is more robust to sensor noise. Meanwhile it controls the model complexity and needs far less hidden nodes than multi-hidden-layer ELM, thus saving computer memory and making it more efficient to implement. All these advantages make our method an effective and reliable tool for engine component fault diagnosis tool.

  10. A New Predictive Model Based on the ABC Optimized Multivariate Adaptive Regression Splines Approach for Predicting the Remaining Useful Life in Aircraft Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulino José García Nieto

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Remaining useful life (RUL estimation is considered as one of the most central points in the prognostics and health management (PHM. The present paper describes a nonlinear hybrid ABC–MARS-based model for the prediction of the remaining useful life of aircraft engines. Indeed, it is well-known that an accurate RUL estimation allows failure prevention in a more controllable way so that the effective maintenance can be carried out in appropriate time to correct impending faults. The proposed hybrid model combines multivariate adaptive regression splines (MARS, which have been successfully adopted for regression problems, with the artificial bee colony (ABC technique. This optimization technique involves parameter setting in the MARS training procedure, which significantly influences the regression accuracy. However, its use in reliability applications has not yet been widely explored. Bearing this in mind, remaining useful life values have been predicted here by using the hybrid ABC–MARS-based model from the remaining measured parameters (input variables for aircraft engines with success. A correlation coefficient equal to 0.92 was obtained when this hybrid ABC–MARS-based model was applied to experimental data. The agreement of this model with experimental data confirmed its good performance. The main advantage of this predictive model is that it does not require information about the previous operation states of the aircraft engine.

  11. 75 FR 6636 - Foreign-Trade Zone 77-Memphis, TN Application for Subzone Cummins, Inc. (Engine Components...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-10

    ...-origin internal combustion engine (diesel and CNG) parts and components for the U.S. market and export...-origin parts and components that would be admitted to the proposed subzone for distribution include... harnesses, lights, fuel injection components, turbochargers, and block heaters (duty rate range: free--9.9...

  12. Surface engineering glass-metal coatings designed for induction heating of ceramic components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, Amir Azam; Labbe, Jean Claude

    2014-01-01

    The term Surface Engineering is of relatively recent origin and use, however, the use of coatings and treatments to render surfaces of materials more suitable for certain application or environment is not new. With the advent of Vacuum Technology, Surface Engineering has gained a whole new impetus, whereby expensive materials with adequate mechanical, chemical and thermal properties are being coated or treated on their surfaces in order to achieve what is called as Surface Engineered materials. The present paper presents an overview of recent achievements in Surface Engineering and gives a detailed view of a specific application where glass-metal composite coatings were deposited on ceramic components in order to render them sensitive to induction heating. Sintered glaze coatings containing silver particles in appropriate concentration can be used for the induction heating of porcelain. Mixtures of glass ceramic powders with silver are used to prepare self-transfer patterns, which are deposited over porcelain. Several configurations of these coatings, which are aesthetic to start with, are employed and heating patterns are recorded. The microstructure of these coatings is discussed in relation to the heating ability by a classical household induction system. The results show that this technique is practical and commercially viable

  13. Reliability prediction of engineering systems with competing failure modes due to component degradation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Son, Young Kap

    2011-01-01

    Reliability of an engineering system depends on two reliability metrics: the mechanical reliability, considering component failures, that a functional system topology is maintained and the performance reliability of adequate system performance in each functional configuration. Component degradation explains not only the component aging processes leading to failure in function, but also system performance change over time. Multiple competing failure modes for systems with degrading components in terms of system functionality and system performance are considered in this paper with the assumption that system functionality is not independent of system performance. To reduce errors in system reliability prediction, this paper tries to extend system performance reliability prediction methods in open literature through combining system mechanical reliability from component reliabilities and system performance reliability. The extended reliability prediction method provides a useful way to compare designs as well as to determine effective maintenance policy for efficient reliability growth. Application of the method to an electro-mechanical system, as an illustrative example, is explained in detail, and the prediction results are discussed. Both mechanical reliability and performance reliability are compared to total system reliability in terms of reliability prediction errors

  14. Isotopic Tracing of Fuel Components in Particulate Emissions from Diesel Engines using Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchholz, B A; Mueller, C J; Garbak, J.

    2001-01-01

    Accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) is an isotope-ratio measurement technique developed in the late 1970s for tracing long-lived radioisotopes (e.g., 14 C half life = 5760 y). The technique counts individual nuclei rather than waiting for their radioactive decay, allowing measurement of more than 100 low-level 14 C samples per day (Vogel et al, 1995). The LLNL AMS system is shown in Fig.1. The contemporary quantity of 14 C in living things ( 14 C/C = 1.2 x 10 -12 or 110 fmol 14 C/ g C) is highly elevated compared to the quantity of 14 C in petroleum-derived products. This isotopic elevation is sufficient to trace the fate of bio-derived fuel components in the emissions of an engine without the use of radioactive materials. If synthesis of a fuel component from biologically-derived source material is not feasible, another approach is to purchase 14 C-labeled material (e.g., dibutyl maleate (DBM)) and dilute it with petroleum-derived material to yield a contemporary level of 14 C. In each case, the virtual absence of 14 C in petroleum based fuels gives a very low 14 C background that makes this approach to tracing fuel components practical. Regulatory pressure to significantly reduce the particulate emissions from diesel engines is driving research into understanding mechanisms of soot formation. If mechanisms are understood, then combustion modeling can be used to evaluate possible changes in fuel formulation and suggest possible fuel components that can improve combustion and reduce PM emissions. The combustion paradigm assumes that large molecules break down into small components and then build up again during soot formation. AMS allows us to label specific fuel components, including oxygenates, trace the carbon atoms, and test this combustion modeling paradigm. Volatile and non-volatile organic fractions (VOF, NVOF) in the PM can be further separated. The VOF of the PM can be oxidized with catalysts in the exhaust stream to further decrease PM. The effectiveness

  15. Building community partnerships to implement the new Science and Engineering component of the NGSS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, M. P.; Linn, F.

    2013-12-01

    Partnerships between science professionals in the community and professional educators can help facilitate the adoption of the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS). Classroom teachers have been trained in content areas but may be less familiar with the new required Science and Engineering component of the NGSS. This presentation will offer a successful model for building classroom and community partnerships and highlight the particulars of a collaborative lesson taught to Rapid City High School students. Local environmental issues provided a framework for learning activities that encompassed several Crosscutting Concepts and Science and Engineering Practices for a lesson focused on Life Science Ecosystems: Interactions, Energy, and Dynamics. Specifically, students studied local water quality impairments, collected and measured stream samples, and analyzed their data. A visiting hydrologist supplied additional water quality data from ongoing studies to extend the students' datasets both temporally and spatially, helping students to identify patterns and draw conclusions based on their findings. Context was provided through discussions of how science professionals collect and analyze data and communicate results to the public, using an example of a recent bacterial contamination of a local stream. Working with Rapid City High School students added additional challenges due to their high truancy and poverty rates. Creating a relevant classroom experience was especially critical for engaging these at-risk youth and demonstrating that science is a viable career path for them. Connecting science in the community with the problem-solving nature of engineering is a critical component of NGSS, and this presentation will elucidate strategies to help prospective partners maneuver through the challenges that we've encountered. We recognize that the successful implementation of the NGSS is a challenge that requires the support of the scientific community. This partnership

  16. Towards Rocket Engine Components with Increased Strength and Robust Operating Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcu, Bogdan; Hadid, Ali; Lin, Pei; Balcazar, Daniel; Rai, Man Mohan; Dorney, Daniel J.

    2005-01-01

    High-energy rotating machines, powering liquid propellant rocket engines, are subject to various sources of high and low cycle fatigue generated by unsteady flow phenomena. Given the tremendous need for reliability in a sustainable space exploration program, a fundamental change in the design methodology for engine components is required for both launch and space based systems. A design optimization system based on neural-networks has been applied and demonstrated in the redesign of the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) Low Pressure Oxidizer Turbo Pump (LPOTP) turbine nozzle. One objective of the redesign effort was to increase airfoil thickness and thus increase its strength while at the same time detuning the vane natural frequency modes from the vortex shedding frequency. The second objective was to reduce the vortex shedding amplitude. The third objective was to maintain this low shedding amplitude even in the presence of large manufacturing tolerances. All of these objectives were achieved without generating any detrimental effects on the downstream flow through the turbine, and without introducing any penalty in performance. The airfoil redesign and preliminary assessment was performed in the Exploration Technology Directorate at NASA ARC. Boeing/Rocketdyne and NASA MSFC independently performed final CFD assessments of the design. Four different CFD codes were used in this process. They include WIL DCA T/CORSAIR (NASA), FLUENT (commercial), TIDAL (Boeing Rocketdyne) and, a new family (AardvarWPhantom) of CFD analysis codes developed at NASA MSFC employing LOX fluid properties and a Generalized Equation Set formulation. Extensive aerodynamic performance analysis and stress analysis carried out at Boeing Rocketdyne and NASA MSFC indicate that the redesign objectives have been fully met. The paper presents the results of the assessment analysis and discusses the future potential of robust optimal design for rocket engine components.

  17. Advanced SiC/SiC Ceramic Composites For Gas-Turbine Engine Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, H. M.; DiCarlo, J. A.; Easler, T. E.

    2004-01-01

    NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) is developing a variety of advanced SiC/SiC ceramic composite (ASC) systems that allow these materials to operate for hundreds of hours under stress in air at temperatures approaching 2700 F. These SiC/SiC composite systems are lightweight (approximately 30% metal density) and, in comparison to monolithic ceramics and carbon fiber-reinforced ceramic composites, are able to reliably retain their structural properties for long times under aggressive gas-turbine engine environments. The key for the ASC systems is related first to the NASA development of the Sylramic-iBN Sic fiber, which displays higher thermal stability than any other SiC- based ceramic fibers and possesses an in-situ grown BN surface layer for higher environmental durability. This fiber is simply derived from Sylramic Sic fiber type that is currently produced at ATK COI Ceramics (COIC). Further capability is then derived by using chemical vapor infiltration (CVI) and/or polymer infiltration and pyrolysis (PIP) to form a Sic-based matrix with high creep and rupture resistance as well as high thermal conductivity. The objectives of this study were (1) to optimize the constituents and processing parameters for a Sylramic-iBN fiber reinforced ceramic composite system in which the Sic-based matrix is formed at COIC almost entirely by PIP (full PIP approach), (2) to evaluate the properties of this system in comparison to other 2700 F Sylramic-iBN systems in which the matrix is formed by full CVI and CVI + PIP, and (3) to examine the pros and cons of the full PIP approach for fabricating hot-section engine components. A key goal is the development of a composite system with low porosity, thereby providing high modulus, high matrix cracking strength, high interlaminar strength, and high thermal conductivity, a major property requirement for engine components that will experience high thermal gradients during service. Other key composite property goals are demonstration at

  18. Virtual modelling of components of a production system as the tool of lean engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monica, Z.

    2015-11-01

    Between the most effective techniques of manufacturing management is considered the Lean Engineering. The term “lean engineering” was created by Japanese manufacturers. The high efficiency of this method resulted in a meaningful growth in concern in the philosophy of Lean among European companies, and consequently the use of its European markets. Lean philosophy is an approach to manufacturing to minimize the use of all resources, including time. These are resources that are used in the company for a variety of activities. This implies, first identify and then eliminate activities which does not generate added value in the field of design, manufacturing, supply chain management, and customer relations. The producers of these principles not only employ teams multi-professional employees at all levels of the organization, but also use a more automated machines to produce large quantities of products with a high degree of diversity. Lean Engineering is to use a number of principles and practical guidelines that allow you to reduce costs by eliminating absolute extravagance, and also simplification of all manufacturing processes and maintenance. Nowadays it could be applied the powerful engineering programs to realize the concept of Lean Engineering. They could be described using the term CAD/CAM/CAE. They consist of completely different packages for both the design of elements, as well process design. Their common feature is generally considered with their application area. They are used for computer programs assisting the design, development and manufacturing phases of a manufacturing process. The idea of the presented work is to use the Siemens NX software for aiding the process of Lean Engineering system creating. The investigated system is a robotized workcell. In the NX system are created the components of the designed workcell such as machine tools, as industrial robot, as conveyors and buffers. The system let to functionally link these components to

  19. Economic-based design of engineering systems with degrading components using probabilistic loss of quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Son, Young Kap; Savage, Gordon J.; Chang, Seog Weon

    2007-01-01

    The allocation of means and tolerances to provide quality, functional reliability and performance reliability in engineering systems is a challenging problem. Traditional measures to help select the best means and tolerances include mean time to failure and its variance: however, they have some shortcomings. In this paper, a monetary measure based on present worth is invoked as a more inclusive metric. We consider the sum of the production cost and the expected loss of quality cost over a planned horizon at the customer's discount rates. Key to the approach is a probabilistic loss of quality cost that incorporates the cumulative distribution function that arises from time-variant distributions of system performance measures due to degrading components. The proposed design approach investigates both degradation and uncertainty in component. Moreover, it tries to obviate problems of current Taguchi's loss function-based design approaches. Case studies show the practicality and promise of the approach

  20. The impact of the fuel chemical composition on volatile organic compounds emitted by an in-service aircraft gas turbine engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setyan, A.; Kuo, Y. Y.; Brem, B.; Durdina, L.; Gerecke, A. C.; Heeb, N. V.; Haag, R.; Wang, J.

    2017-12-01

    Aircraft emissions received increased attention recently because of the steady growth of aviation transport in the last decades. Aircraft engines substantially contribute to emissions of particulate matter and gaseous pollutants in the upper and lower troposphere. Among all the pollutants emitted by aircrafts, volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are particularly important because they are mainly emitted at ground level, posing a serious health risk for people living or working near airports. A series of measurements was performed at the aircraft engine testing facility of SR Technics (Zürich airport, Switzerland). Exhausts from an in-service turbofan engine were sampled at the engine exit plane by a multi-point sampling probe. A wide range of instruments was connected to the common sampling line to determine physico-chemical characteristics of non-volatile particulate matter and gaseous pollutants. Conventional Jet A-1 fuel was used as the base fuel, and measurements were performed with the base fuel doped with two different mixtures of aromatic compounds (Solvesso 150 and naphthalene-depleted Solvesso 150) and an alternative fuel (hydro-processed esters and fatty acids [HEFA] jet fuel). During this presentation, we will show results obtained for VOCs. These compounds were sampled with 3 different adsorbing cartridges, and analyzed by thermal desorption gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (TD-GC/MS, for Tenax TA and Carboxen 569) and by ultra-performance liquid chromatography/ mass spectrometry (UPLC/MS, for DNPH). The total VOC concentration was also measured with a flame ionization detector (FID). In addition, fuel samples were also analyzed by GC/MS, and their chemical compositions were compared to the VOCs emitted via engine exhaust. Total VOCs concentrations were highest at ground idle (>200 ppm C at 4-7% thrust), and substantially lower at high thrust (engine were mainly constituted of alkanes, oxygenated compounds, and aromatics. More than 50 % of the

  1. The Aircraft Industry

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fitzgerald, Tim; Baiche, Noureddine; Brewer, Mike; Collins, Al; Knapp, Kathy; Kott, Marilyn; McGill, Duncan; Mensah, Dunstan; Neighbors, Mark; Reardon, Dee

    2005-01-01

    .... As the airline companies prepare to buy new Boeing and Airbus passenger jets, they remain under intense pressure to cut costs in order to remain profitable, forcing aircraft and engine manufacturers...

  2. Start Up Research Effort in Fluid Mechanics. Advanced Methods for Acoustic and Thrust Benefits for Aircraft Engine Nozzle

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Samuel G.; Gilinsky, Mikhail M.

    1997-01-01

    In accordance with the project plan for the report period in the proposal titled above, HU and FML teams investigated two sets of concepts for reduction of noise and improvement in efficiency for jet exhaust nozzles of aircraft engines and screws for mixers, fans, propellers and boats. The main achievements in the report period are: (a) Publication of the paper in the AIAA Journal, which described our concepts and some results. (b) The Award in the Civil Research and Development Foundation (CRDF) competition. This 2 year grant for Hampton University (HU) and Central AeroHydrodynamic Institute (TSAGI, Moscow, Russia) supports the research implementation under the current NASA FAR grant. (c) Selection for funding by NASA HQ review panel of the Partnership Awards Concept Paper. This two year grant also will support our current FAR grant. (d) Publication of a Mobius Strip concept in NASA Technical Briefs, June, 1996, and a great interest of many industrial companies in this invention. Successful experimental results with the Mobius shaped screw for mixers, which save more than 30% of the electric power by comparison with the standard screws. Creation of the scientific-popular video-film which can be used for commercial and educational purposes. (e) Organization work, joint meetings and discussions of the NASA LARC JNL Team and HU professors and administration for the solution of actual problems and effective work of the Fluid Mechanics Laboratory at Hampton University. In this report the main designs are enumerated. It also contains for both concept sets: (1) the statement of the problem for each design, some results, publications, inventions, patents, our vision for continuation of this research, and (2) present and expected problems in the future.

  3. Band-pass filtering algorithms for adaptive control of compressor pre-stall modes in aircraft gas-turbine engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznetsova, T. A.

    2018-05-01

    The methods for increasing gas-turbine aircraft engines' (GTE) adaptive properties to interference based on empowerment of automatic control systems (ACS) are analyzed. The flow pulsation in suction and a discharge line of the compressor, which may cause the stall, are considered as the interference. The algorithmic solution to the problem of GTE pre-stall modes’ control adapted to stability boundary is proposed. The aim of the study is to develop the band-pass filtering algorithms to provide the detection functions of the compressor pre-stall modes for ACS GTE. The characteristic feature of pre-stall effect is the increase of pressure pulsation amplitude over the impeller at the multiples of the rotor’ frequencies. The used method is based on a band-pass filter combining low-pass and high-pass digital filters. The impulse response of the high-pass filter is determined through a known low-pass filter impulse response by spectral inversion. The resulting transfer function of the second order band-pass filter (BPF) corresponds to a stable system. The two circuit implementations of BPF are synthesized. Designed band-pass filtering algorithms were tested in MATLAB environment. Comparative analysis of amplitude-frequency response of proposed implementation allows choosing the BPF scheme providing the best quality of filtration. The BPF reaction to the periodic sinusoidal signal, simulating the experimentally obtained pressure pulsation function in the pre-stall mode, was considered. The results of model experiment demonstrated the effectiveness of applying band-pass filtering algorithms as part of ACS to identify the pre-stall mode of the compressor for detection of pressure fluctuations’ peaks, characterizing the compressor’s approach to the stability boundary.

  4. The Influence of Engineers' Training Models on Ethics and Civic Education Component in Engineering Courses in Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Fátima; Leite, Carlinda; Rocha, Cristina

    2017-01-01

    The recognition of the need and importance of including ethical and civic education in engineering courses, as well as the training profile on ethical issues, relies heavily on the engineer's concept and the perception of the engineering action. These views are strongly related to the different engineer education model conceptions and its…

  5. Application of laser cladding to the aeroengine component. Koku engine buhin eno laser nikumori yosetsu no tekiyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morita, A [Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries, Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1991-08-01

    Keeping the pace with recent development and application of laser cladding, hard-facing is used more frequently on turbine blades made of superalloys used in aeroengines. This paper explains the basic principles and features of laser hard-facing technique, welding parameters, and examples of practical use. Examples of practical use include application to turbine blades used in ALF502R-5 turbo fan engines for commuter aircraft and high-pressure turbine blades used in RB211 turbo fan engines for large passenger aircraft. In the former engine, improvement of abrasion resistance was intended at the shroud section where blades are in contact with each other, for which inconel was used as the base material and CO-group alloy as the welding material. The welding used a powder supply system with a laser generator oscillating CO{sub 2} at 5 kW and employing a beam collecting mirror plus scanner to attain a beam covering wider width. Faces with higher performance were obtained than by the conventional TIG welding, and the finishing time was decreased largely. 2 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs.

  6. Advanced energy systems (APU) for large commercial aircraft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westenberger, A.; Bleil, J.; Arendt, M. [Airbus Deutschland GmbH, Hamburg (Germany)

    2013-06-01

    The intention of using a highly integrated component using on fuel cell technology installed on board of large commercial passenger aircraft for the generation of onboard power for the systems demand during an entire aircraft mission was subject of several studies. The results of these studies have been based on the simulation of the whole system in the context of an aircraft system environment. In front of the work stood the analyses of different fuel cell technologies and the analyses of the aircraft system environment. Today onboard power is provided on ground by an APU and in flight by the main engines. In order to compare fuel cell technology with the today's usual gas turbine operational characteristics have been analysed. A second analysis was devoted to the system demand for typical aircraft categories. The MEA system concept was supposed in all cases. The favourable concept represented an aircraft propelled by conventional engines with starter generator units, providing AC electrical power, covering in total proximately half of the power demand and a component based on fuel cell technology. This component provided electrical DC power, clean potable water, thermal energy at 180 degrees Celsius and nitrogen enriched air for fire suppression and fire extinguishing agent. In opposite of a usual gas turbine based APU, this new unit was operated as the primary power system. (orig.)

  7. CONCEPT AND MODELS FOR EVALUATION OF BLACK AND WHITE SMOKE COMPONENTS IN DIESEL ENGINE EXHAUST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor BLYANKINSHTEIN

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available A method for measuring exhaust smoke opacity has been developed, which allows estimating the differentiated components forming black exhaust and those forming white smoke. The method is based on video recording and special software for processing the video recording data. The flow of the diesel exhaust gas is visualised using the digital camera, against the background of the screen, on a cut of an exhaust pipe, and with sufficient illumination of the area. The screen represents standards of whiteness and blackness. The content of the black components (soot is determined by the degree of blackening of the white standard in the frames of the video, and the content of whitish components (unburned fuel and oil, etc. is determined by the degree of whitening of black standard on the frames of the video. The paper describes the principle and the results of testing the proposed method of measuring exhaust smoke opacity. We present an algorithm for the frame-by-frame analysis of the video sequence, and static and dynamic mathematical models of exhaust opacity, measured under free-acceleration of a diesel engine.

  8. Solar thermal aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Charles L.

    2007-09-18

    A solar thermal powered aircraft powered by heat energy from the sun. A heat engine, such as a Stirling engine, is carried by the aircraft body for producing power for a propulsion mechanism, such as a propeller. The heat engine has a thermal battery in thermal contact with it so that heat is supplied from the thermal battery. A solar concentrator, such as reflective parabolic trough, is movably connected to an optically transparent section of the aircraft body for receiving and concentrating solar energy from within the aircraft. Concentrated solar energy is collected by a heat collection and transport conduit, and heat transported to the thermal battery. A solar tracker includes a heliostat for determining optimal alignment with the sun, and a drive motor actuating the solar concentrator into optimal alignment with the sun based on a determination by the heliostat.

  9. Component Analysis of Deposits in Selective Catalytic Reduction System for Automotive Diesel Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu Neng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, deposits in exhaust pipes for automotive diesel engines were studied by various chemical analysis methods and a kind of analysis process to determine the compositions of organic matter was proposed. Firstly, the elements of the deposits were determined through the element analysis method. Then using characteristic absorption properties of organic functional groups to the infrared spectrum, the functional groups in the deposits were determined. Finally, by GC-MS (gas chromatography - mass spectrometry test, the content of each main component was determined quantitatively. Element analysis results indicated that the deposits adsorbed metal impurities from fuel oil, lubricating oil, mechanical wear and urea water solution. The result of GC-MS test showed that the area percentage of cyanuric acid was the biggest (about 85%, the second was urea (about 4%, and the content of biuret and biurea was scarce.

  10. 40 CFR 87.6 - Aircraft safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Aircraft safety. 87.6 Section 87.6... POLLUTION FROM AIRCRAFT AND AIRCRAFT ENGINES General Provisions § 87.6 Aircraft safety. The provisions of... met within the specified time without creating a safety hazard. ...

  11. FY 1998 Report on technical results. Part 2 of 2. Research and development of supersonic transportation aircraft propulsion systems (Development of methane-fueled aircraft engines); 1998 nendo choonsoku yusokiyo suishin system no kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. 2/2. Methane nenryo kokukiyo engine no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-09-01

    The research and development project is conducted for (1) ramjet systems, (2) high-performance turbojet systems, (3) instrumentation/control systems and (4) total systems, in order to develop methane-fueled supersonic transportation aircraft engines, and the intended targets are achieved. This project has ended with preparation of the overall plans of the target engine. Described herein is the R and D of the combined cycle engine, following the results described in Part 1 of 2. This program includes designs and development of (1) the turbojet engine, and (2) combined cycle engine. The item (1) includes studies on cycles, preparation of the overall plans and studies on the systems, and the item (2) includes the designs, ground and altitudes function tests, and ground noise tests. (NEDO)

  12. Engineering design and thermal hydraulics of plasma facing components of SST-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pragash, N. Ravi; Chaudhuri, P.; Santra, P.; Chenna Reddy, D.; Khirwadkar, S.; Saxena, Y.C.

    2001-01-01

    SST-1 is a medium size tokamak with super conducting magnetic field coils. All the subsystems of SST-1 are designed for quasi steady state (∼1000 s) operation. Plasma Facing Components (PFCs) of SST-1 consisting of divertors, passive stabilizers, baffles and poloidal limiters are also designed to be compatible for steady state operation. As SST-1 is designed to run double null divertor plasmas, these components also have up-down symmetry. A closed divertor configuration is chosen to produce high recycling and high pumping speed in the divertor region. All the PFC are made of copper alloys (CuCrZr and CuZr) on which graphite tiles are mechanically attached. These copper alloy back plates are actively cooled with water flowing in the channels grooved on them with the main consideration in the design of PFCs as the steady state heat removal of about 1.0 MW/m 2 . In addition to be able to remove high heat fluxes, the PFCs are also designed to be compatible for baking at 350 degree sign C. Extensive studies, involving different flow parameters and various cooling layouts, have been done to select the final cooling parameters and layout. Thermal response of the PFCs and vacuum vessel during baking, has been calculated using a FORTRAN code and a 2-D finite element analysis. The PFCs and their supports are also designed to withstand large electro-magnetic forces. Finite element analysis using ANSYS software package is used in this and other PFCs design. The engineering design including thermal hydraulics for cooling and baking of all the PFCs is completed. Poloidal limiters are being fabricated. The remaining PFCs, viz. divertors, stabilizers and baffles are likely to go for fabrication in the next few months. The detailed engineering design, the finite element calculations in the structural and thermal designs are presented in this paper

  13. New design of engineered safety features-component control system to improve performance and reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, S.T.; Jung, H.W.; Lee, S.J.; Cho, C.H.; Kim, D.H.; Kim, H.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: Full text: The Engineered Safety Features-Component Control System (ESF-CCS) controls the engineered safety features of a Nuclear Power Plant such as Solenoid Operated Valves (SOV), Motor Operated Valves (MOV), pumps, dampers, etc. to mitigate the effects of a Design Basis Accident (DBA) or an abnormal operation. ESF-CCS serves as an interface system between the Plant Protection System (PPS) and remote actuation devices. ESF-CCS is composed of fault tolerant Group Controllers GC, Loop Controllers (LC), ESF-CCS Test and Interface Processor (ETIP) and Cabinet Operator Module (COM) and Control Channel Gateway (CCG) etc. GCs in each division are designed to be fully independent triple configuration, which perform system level NSSS and BOP ESFAS logic (2-out-of-4 logic and l-out-of-2 logic, respectively) making it possible to test each GC individually during normal operation. In the existing configuration, the safety-related plant component control is part of the Plant Control System (PCS) non-safety system. For increased safety and reliability, this design change incorporates this part into the LCs, and is therefore designed according to the safety-critical system procedures. The test and diagnosis capabilities of ETIP and COM are reinforced. By means of an automatic periodic test for all main functions of the system, it is possible to quickly determine an abnormal status of the system, and to decrease the elapsed time for tests, thus effectively increasing availability. ESF-CCS consists of four independent divisions (A, B, C, and D) in the Advanced Power Reactor 1400 (APR1400). One prototype division is being manufactured and will be tested

  14. Achievement report on research and development in the Sunshine Project in fiscal 1976. Comprehensive discussion on hydrogen utilizing subsystems and research on peripheral technologies (Research for aircraft engines); 1976 nendo suiso riyo subsystem no sogoteki kento to shuhen gijutsu ni kansuru kenkyu seika hokokusho. Koku engine ni kansuru kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1977-05-01

    With an objective to utilize hydrogen fuel in aircraft engines, a conceptual design survey was carried out on medium size transport aircraft. Large size long-distance aircraft and SST loaded with a great amount of fuel have the jet fuel (JP) increase take-off weight, affecting largely the selection of wing area and engine thrust. If the hydrogen fuel can be liquefied, large reduction can be achieved and the economic effect can be increased. However, for short-distance transport aircraft, the fuel weight ratio is small, where no large advantage is anticipated even if hydrogen is liquefied. Nevertheless, considering oil depletion in the future, a conceptual design was performed on the YX2688 short-medium distance aircraft being discussed of development. Even the short-medium distance aircraft that can be developed and commercialized as civilian use aircraft has a number of common points with large aircraft development, such as hydrogen fuel using technologies and safety. Although the advantage of using liquefied hydrogen as fuel may of course be smaller in the short-medium distance aircraft than in larger aircraft, the trend of using hydrogen fuel is historical necessity, whose development plans should be moved forward. (NEDO)

  15. Simplifying and upscaling water resources systems models that combine natural and engineered components

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntyre, N.; Keir, G.

    2014-12-01

    Water supply systems typically encompass components of both natural systems (e.g. catchment runoff, aquifer interception) and engineered systems (e.g. process equipment, water storages and transfers). Many physical processes of varying spatial and temporal scales are contained within these hybrid systems models. The need to aggregate and simplify system components has been recognised for reasons of parsimony and comprehensibility; and the use of probabilistic methods for modelling water-related risks also prompts the need to seek computationally efficient up-scaled conceptualisations. How to manage the up-scaling errors in such hybrid systems models has not been well-explored, compared to research in the hydrological process domain. Particular challenges include the non-linearity introduced by decision thresholds and non-linear relations between water use, water quality, and discharge strategies. Using a case study of a mining region, we explore the nature of up-scaling errors in water use, water quality and discharge, and we illustrate an approach to identification of a scale-adjusted model including an error model. Ways forward for efficient modelling of such complex, hybrid systems are discussed, including interactions with human, energy and carbon systems models.

  16. Aircraft Depainting Technology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kozol, Joseph

    1999-01-01

    ... of aircraft and component stripping at various levels of maintenance. Under this program, the Navy pursued development of non-HAP chemical paint strippers as alternatives for methylene chloride based strippers...

  17. An explication of the Graphite Structural Design Code of core components for the High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iyoku, Tatsuo; Ishihara, Masahiro; Toyota, Junji; Shiozawa, Shusaku

    1991-05-01

    The integrity evaluation of the core graphite components for the High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor (HTTR) will be carried out based upon the Graphite Structural Design Code for core components. In the application of this design code, it is necessary to make clear the basic concept to evaluate the integrity of core components of HTTR. Therefore, considering the detailed design of core graphite structures such as fuel graphite blocks, etc. of HTTR, this report explicates the design code in detail about the concepts of stress and fatigue limits, integrity evaluation method of oxidized graphite components and thermal irradiation stress analysis method etc. (author)

  18. Laser Engineered Net Shape (LENS) Technology for the Repair of Ni-Base Superalloy Turbine Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dejian; Lippold, John C.; Li, Jia; Rohklin, Stan R.; Vollbrecht, Justin; Grylls, Richard

    2014-09-01

    The capability of the laser engineered net shape (LENS) process was evaluated for the repair of casting defects and improperly machined holes in gas turbine engine components. Various repair geometries, including indentations, grooves, and through-holes, were used to simulate the actual repair of casting defects and holes in two materials: Alloy 718 and Waspaloy. The influence of LENS parameters, including laser energy density, laser scanning speed, and deposition pattern, on the repair of these defects and holes was studied. Laser surface remelting of the substrate prior to repair was used to remove machining defects and prevent heat-affected zone (HAZ) liquation cracking. Ultrasonic nondestructive evaluation techniques were used as a possible approach for detecting lack-of-fusion in repairs. Overall, Alloy 718 exhibited excellent repair weldability, with essentially no defects except for some minor porosity in repairs representative of deep through-holes and simulated large area casting defects. In contrast, cracking was initially observed during simulated repair of Waspaloy. Both solidification cracking and HAZ liquation cracking were observed in the repairs, especially under conditions of high heat input (high laser power and/or low scanning speed). For Waspaloy, the degree of cracking was significantly reduced and, in most cases, completely eliminated by the combination of low laser energy density and relatively high laser scanning speeds. It was found that through-hole repairs of Waspaloy made using a fine powder size exhibited excellent repair weldability and were crack-free relative to repairs using coarser powder. Simulated deep (7.4 mm) blind-hole repairs, representative of an actual Waspaloy combustor case, were successfully produced by the combination use of fine powder and relatively high laser scanning speeds.

  19. Recent developments in the United Kingdom in ion implantation equipment for engineering components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gardner, P.R.

    1988-01-01

    Harwell has been particularly active in the development and commercial exploitation of low-cost, rugged, reliable and simple-to-operate equipment for implantation of engineering components with gaseous ions, especially nitrogen. Laboratory experiments show this to reduce mild abrasive wear in a wide range of materials by factors typically 2-10, provided operating temperatures remain below about 400 deg C. The latest nitrogen ion implantation machine (the Tecvac 221 model) embodies a substantial degree of flexibility, with cable-mounted ion sources and demountable target chambers. This enables wide ranges of workpiece size and shape to be accommodated. The latest development at Harwell is the large 'Blue Tank' ion implantation machine, currently the biggest in the world. This can treat workpieces up to 2 metres maximum dimension and 1 tonne weight using a bucket-type ion source capable of generating 35 mA of nitrogen ion beam current over an 800 mm diameter treatment area. This machine enables increased flexibility and reduced unit treatment costs for nitrogen ion implantation. Uptake of nitrogen ion implantation in British industry is increasing steadily. Key market sectors include the plastics processing industry (for extrusion screws, moulds and dies), as well as many other engineering sectors. A useful accessory to ion implantation developed at Harwell in conjunction with Millspin Limited, monitors nitrogen ion dose colour changes in anodised tantalum which can be compared against a calibrated standard. Accuracies of around 20 % at 2.5 x 10 17 nitrogen ions.cm -2 dose are achievable. (J.P.N.)

  20. An Integrated Knowledge Based Engineering Mechatronics Modeling Approach to Support the Design of Unstable and Unmanned Aircraft

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tian, F.N.

    2015-01-01

    The commercial transport aircraft industry is currently developing new “more electric aircraft” (MEA) designs in which various conventional mechanical, hydraulic and pneumatic power systems are replaced with electrically-based power systems. Their objective is to improve the overall flight

  1. Lift/cruise fan V/STOL technology aircraft design definition study. Volume 2: Propulsion transmission system design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obrien, W. J.

    1976-01-01

    Two types of lift/cruise fan technology aircraft were conceptually designed. One aircraft used turbotip fans pneumatically interconnected to three gas generators, and the other aircraft used variable pitch fans mechanically interconnected to three turboshaft engines. The components of each propulsion transmission system were analyzed and designed to the depth necessary to determine areas of risk, development methods, performance, weights and costs. The types of materials and manufacturing processes were identified to show that the designs followed a low cost approach. The lift/cruise fan thrust vectoring hoods, which are applicable to either aircraft configuration, were also evaluated to assure a low cost/low risk approach.

  2. Engineering design of the IFMIF EVEDA reference test cell and key components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tian, Kuo, E-mail: kuo.tian@kit.edu [Institute for Neutron Physics and Reactor Technology, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Karlsruhe (Germany); Arbeiter, Frederik; Chen, Yuming; Heinzel, Volker; Kondo, Keitaro [Institute for Neutron Physics and Reactor Technology, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Karlsruhe (Germany); Mittwollen, Martin [Institute for Material Handling and Logistics, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2014-10-15

    The latest design updates of the IFMIF-EVEDA reference test cell (TC) are described with emphasis on the following key components: active cooling pipes for concrete biological shielding walls and stainless steel liner, TC gas leak tight boundary, and piping and cabling inside TC and between TC and the access cell (AC). Water cooling is adopted for concrete shielding walls and the liner. Buried pipes are selected for active cooling of the TC surrounding shielding walls; directly welded pipes on the liner are used to remove nuclear heat of the liner. Technical features and layout of the cooling pipes are preliminary defined. The TC vacuum boundary, which includes the TC liner, an independent TC cover plate, a rubber based sealing gasket, and welding seams between interface shielding plugs and TC liner, is described. Engineering design of the piping and cabling plugs as well as the arrangement of pipes and cables under the TC covering plate and the AC floor are updated. Pipes and cable tunnels inside the shielding plugs are arranged with several bends for minimizing neutron streaming from inside to outside of the TC. Pipes, cables, and the corresponding penetrations between the TC and the AC are carefully arranged for convenient access and maintenances.

  3. Multi-Sensing system for outdoor thermal monitoring: Application to large scale civil engineering components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crinière, Antoine; Dumoulin, Jean; Manceau, Jean-Luc; Perez, Laetitia; Bourquin, Frederic

    2014-05-01

    and a backup system. All the components of the system are connected to the IrLaW software through an IP network. The monitoring system is fully autonomous since August 2013 and provides data at 0. Hz sampling frequency. First results obtained by data post-processing is addressed. Finally, discussion on experimental feedback and main outcomes of several month of measurement in outdoor conditions will be presented. REFERENCES [1]Proto M. et al., , 2010. Transport infrastructure surveillance and monitoring by electromagnetic sensing: the ISTIMES project. Sensors, 10,10620-10639, doi: 10.3390/s101210620. [2]J. Dumoulin, R. Averty ".Development of an infrared system coupled with a weather station for real time atmospheric corrections using GPU computing: Application to bridge monitoring", in Proc of 11th International Conference on Quantitative InfraRed Thermography, Naples Italy, 2012. [3]J. Dumoulin, A. Crinière, R. Averty ," Detection and thermal characterization of the inner structure of the "Musmeci" bridge deck by infrared thermography monitoring ",Journal of Geophysics and Engineering, Volume 10, Number 2, November 2013, IOP Science, doi:10.1088/1742-2132/10/6/064003. [4]I. Catapano, R. Di Napoli, F. Soldovieri1, M. Bavusi, A. Loperte and J. Dumoulin, "Structural monitoring via microwave tomography-enhanced GPR: the Montagnole test site", Journal of Geophysics and Engineering, Volume 9, Number 4, August 2012, pp 100-107, IOP Science, doi:10.1088/1742-2132/9/4/S100.

  4. Ramgen Power Systems-Supersonic Component Technology for Military Engine Applications

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sohn, Chang W; Holcomb, Franklin H; Baldwin, Peter; Lawlor, Shawn; Steele, Robert C; Belshaw, Karen; Tamm, Gunnar

    2006-01-01

    ...) a unique configuration that minimizes flow stream turning losses throughout the engine. The RPS engine concept can be configured as a high-pressure ratio simple-cycle design for propulsion applications or as a low-pressure ratio recuperated engine...

  5. Flight service evaluation of Kevlar-49/epoxy composite panels in wide-bodied commercial transport aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, R. H.

    1977-01-01

    Kevlar-49 fairing panels, installed as flight service components on three L-1011s, were inspected after three years' service, and found to be performing satisfactorily. There are six Kevlar-49 panels on each aircraft, including sandwich and solid laminate wing-body panels, and 150 C service aft engine fairings. The service history to date indicates that Kevlar-49 epoxy composite materials have satisfactory service characteristics for use in aircraft secondary structure.

  6. Aircraft gas turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arai, M [Kawasaki Heavy Industries Ltd., Kobe (Japan)

    1995-03-01

    Recently the international relationship has been playing an important role in the research, development and production of the aircraft gas turbine. The YSX, which is supposed to be the 100-seat class commercial aircraft, has been planned by Japan Aircraft Development (JADC) as an international cooperative project. Recently many western aeroengine companies have offered the collaboration of small turbofan engines which would be installed on YSX to Japanese aeroengine companies (IHI, KHI and MHI). The YSX is powered by 16,000-20,000 1bs thrust class engines. As for medium turbofan engine (V2500), the V 2500 family of 22,000 to 30,000 1bs thrust has been developed since 1983 through international collaboration by seven aeroengine companies in five nations. In this paper, the recent Japan`s activities of the research, development and production with viewing the world-wide movement, are described. 6 figs.

  7. Lab-on-a-Chip Design-Build Project with a Nanotechnology Component in a Freshman Engineering Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allam, Yosef; Tomasko, David L.; Trott, Bruce; Schlosser, Phil; Yang, Yong; Wilson, Tiffany M.; Merrill, John

    2008-01-01

    A micromanufacturing lab-on-a-chip project with a nanotechnology component was introduced as an alternate laboratory in the required first-year engineering curriculum at The Ohio State University. Nanotechnology is introduced in related reading and laboratory tours as well as laboratory activities including a quarter-length design, build, and test…

  8. Equipment to reduce the emission of noxious components in the exhaust gas of an internal combustion engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tatsutomi, Y; Inoue, H

    1976-10-21

    The invention concerns an arrangement for the reduction of emission of noxious components in exhaust gas of an internal combustion engine with automatic drive. According to the invention, there is a further switch in parallel with the usual kickdown switch, which is actuated by a temperature sensor and/or choke. If the operating temperature of the engine is below a certain value, or if the choke is pulled out, then the switch is closed. This has the effect that the downstream valve is brought into the same position as that in which the closed kickdown switch would place it. The automatic drive therefore takes up that position, independently of the position of the accelerator pedal, which it would normally occupy only with the accelerator pedal fully pressed down. This guarantees that the engine is always kept at high speed during the hot running phase, which reduces the portion of the noxious gas components emitted.

  9. Small Transport Aircraft Technology /STAT/ Propulsion Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heldenbrand, R. W.; Baerst, C. F.; Rowse, J. H.

    1980-01-01

    The NASA Small Transport Aircraft Technology (STAT) Propulsion Study was established to identify technology requirements and define the research and development required for new commuter aircraft. Interim results of the studies defined mission and design characteristics for 30- and 50-passenger aircraft. Sensitivities were defined that relate changes in engine specific fuel consumption (SFC), weight, and cost (including maintenance) to changes in the aircraft direct operating cost (DOC), takeoff gross weight, and empty weight. A comparison of performance and economic characteristics is presented between aircraft powered by 1980 production engines and those powered by a 1990 advanced technology baseline engine.

  10. FY 1995 annual report on research and development of propulsion systems for supersonic transport aircraft. Pt. 2. Research and development of methane-fueled engines for aircraft; 1995 nendo choonsoku yusokiyo suishin system no kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. 2. Methane nenryo kokukiyo engine no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    Described herein are the R and D results of FY 1995 for the total system as part of R and D of propulsion systems for supersonic transport aircraft. For R and D of the intake, researches on aerodynamic flow passages at a combined intake design point of Mach 5 are conducted, in which the effects of the boundary layer are taken into consideration, and the wind tunnel tests are conducted for the combined intake. For R and D of the nozzle, experiments are conducted to establish the techniques for designing exhaust nozzle variable schedules in the turbo region, aerodynamic force in the turbo and ram regions, cooling systems, and composite liners. For R and D of the turbojet engines, the second phase engine tests are conducted with the engine of improved designs and two-dimensional variable exhaust nozzle. The tests produce good results in terms of engine endurance and mechanical soundness of the low-pressure systems. For R and D of the combined cycle engine incorporating the turbojet and ramjet engines, the model tests are conducted to understand aerodynamic characteristics when these engines are switched to each other. (NEDO)

  11. Effects of NOX Storage Component on Ammonia Formation in TWC for Passive SCR NOX Control in Lean Gasoline Engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prikhodko, Vitaly Y. [ORNL; Pihl, Josh A. [ORNL; Toops, Todd J. [ORNL; Parks, II, James E. [ORNL

    2018-04-01

    A prototype three-way catalyst (TWC) with NOX storage component was evaluated for ammonia (NH3) generation on a 2.0-liter BMW lean burn gasoline direct injection engine as a component in a passive ammonia selective catalytic reduction (SCR) system. The passive NH3 SCR system is a potential approach for controlling nitrogen oxides (NOX) emissions from lean burn gasoline engines. In this system, NH3 is generated over a close-coupled TWC during periodic slightly-rich engine operation and subsequently stored on an underfloor SCR catalyst. Upon switching to lean, NOX passes through the TWC and is reduced by the stored NH3 on the SCR catalyst. Adding a NOX storage component to a TWC provides two benefits in the context of a passive SCR system: (1) enabling longer lean operation by storing NOX upstream and preserving NH3 inventory on the downstream SCR catalyst; and (2) increasing the quantity and rate of NH3 production during rich operation. Since the fuel penalty associated with passive SCR NOX control depends on the fraction of time that the engine is running rich rather than lean, both benefits (longer lean times and shorter rich times achieved via improved NH3 production) will decrease the passive SCR fuel penalty. However, these benefits are primarily realized at low to moderate temperatures (300-500 °C), where the NOX storage component is able to store NOX, with little to no benefit at higher temperatures (>500 °C), where NOX storage is no longer effective. This study discusses engine parameters and control strategies affecting the NH3 generation over a TWC with NOX storage component.

  12. Specialized data analysis for the Space Shuttle Main Engine and diagnostic evaluation of advanced propulsion system components

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    The Marshall Space Flight Center is responsible for the development and management of advanced launch vehicle propulsion systems, including the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME), which is presently operational, and the Space Transportation Main Engine (STME) under development. The SSME's provide high performance within stringent constraints on size, weight, and reliability. Based on operational experience, continuous design improvement is in progress to enhance system durability and reliability. Specialized data analysis and interpretation is required in support of SSME and advanced propulsion system diagnostic evaluations. Comprehensive evaluation of the dynamic measurements obtained from test and flight operations is necessary to provide timely assessment of the vibrational characteristics indicating the operational status of turbomachinery and other critical engine components. Efficient performance of this effort is critical due to the significant impact of dynamic evaluation results on ground test and launch schedules, and requires direct familiarity with SSME and derivative systems, test data acquisition, and diagnostic software. Detailed analysis and evaluation of dynamic measurements obtained during SSME and advanced system ground test and flight operations was performed including analytical/statistical assessment of component dynamic behavior, and the development and implementation of analytical/statistical models to efficiently define nominal component dynamic characteristics, detect anomalous behavior, and assess machinery operational condition. In addition, the SSME and J-2 data will be applied to develop vibroacoustic environments for advanced propulsion system components, as required. This study will provide timely assessment of engine component operational status, identify probable causes of malfunction, and indicate feasible engineering solutions. This contract will be performed through accomplishment of negotiated task orders.

  13. Design and evaluation of an integrated Quiet, Clean General Aviation Turbofan (QCGAT) engine and aircraft propulsion system

    Science.gov (United States)

    German, J.; Fogel, P.; Wilson, C.

    1980-01-01

    The design was based on the LTS-101 engine family for the core engine. A high bypass fan design (BPR=9.4) was incorporated to provide reduced fuel consumption for the design mission. All acoustic and pollutant emissions goals were achieved. A discussion of the preliminary design of a business jet suitable for the developed propulsion system is included. It is concluded that large engine technology can be successfully applied to small turbofans, and noise or pollutant levels need not be constraints for the design of future small general aviation turbofan engines.

  14. Analysis of Oxygenated Component (butyl Ether) and Egr Effect on a Diesel Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Seung-Hun; Oh, Young-Taig

    Potential possibility of the butyl ether (BE, oxygenates of di-ether group) was analyzed as an additives for a naturally aspirated direct injection diesel engine fuel. Engine performance and exhaust emission characteristics were analyzed by applying the commercial diesel fuel and oxygenates additives blended diesel fuels. Smoke emission decreased approximately 26% by applying the blended fuel (diesel fuel 80 vol-% + BE 20vol-%) at the engine speed of 25,000 rpm and with full engine load compared to the diesel fuel. There was none significant difference between the blended fuel and the diesel fuel on the power, torque, and brake specific energy consumption rate of the diesel engine. But, NOx emission from the blended fuel was higher than the commercial diesel fuel. As a counter plan, the EGR method was employed to reduce the NOx. Simultaneous reduction of the smoke and the NOx emission from the diesel engine was achieved by applying the BE blended fuel and the cooled EGR method.

  15. Crack Growth-Based Predictive Methodology for the Maintenance of the Structural Integrity of Repaired and Nonrepaired Aging Engine Stationary Components

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Barron, Michael

    1999-01-01

    .... Specifically, the FAA's goal was to develop "Crack Growth-Based Predictive Methodologies for the Maintenance of the Structural Integrity of Repaired and Nonrepaired Aging Engine Stationary Components...

  16. Analysis of nonequilibrium chemical processes in the plume of subsonic and supersonic aircraft with hydrogen and hydrocarbon combustion engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Starik, A.M.; Lebedev, A.B.; Titova, N.S. [Central Inst. of Aviation Motors, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1997-12-31

    On the basic of quasi one dimensional mixing model the numerical analysis of nonequilibrium chemical processes in the plume of subsonic and hypersonic aircraft is presented. It was found that species HNO, HNO{sub 3}, HNO{sub 4}, N{sub 2}O{sub 5}, ClO{sub 2}, CH{sub 3}NO{sub 2} could be formed as a result of nonequilibrium processes in the plume and their concentrations can essentially exceed both background values in free stream of atmosphere and their values at the nozzle exit plane. (author) 10 refs.

  17. Analysis of nonequilibrium chemical processes in the plume of subsonic and supersonic aircraft with hydrogen and hydrocarbon combustion engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Starik, A M; Lebedev, A B; Titova, N S [Central Inst. of Aviation Motors, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1998-12-31

    On the basic of quasi one dimensional mixing model the numerical analysis of nonequilibrium chemical processes in the plume of subsonic and hypersonic aircraft is presented. It was found that species HNO, HNO{sub 3}, HNO{sub 4}, N{sub 2}O{sub 5}, ClO{sub 2}, CH{sub 3}NO{sub 2} could be formed as a result of nonequilibrium processes in the plume and their concentrations can essentially exceed both background values in free stream of atmosphere and their values at the nozzle exit plane. (author) 10 refs.

  18. An Architecture for On-Line Measurement of the Tip Clearance and Time of Arrival of a Bladed Disk of an Aircraft Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Miguel Gil-García

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Safety and performance of the turbo-engine in an aircraft is directly affected by the health of its blades. In recent years, several improvements to the sensors have taken place to monitor the blades in a non-intrusive way. The parameters that are usually measured are the distance between the blade tip and the casing, and the passing time at a given point. Simultaneously, several techniques have been developed that allow for the inference—from those parameters and under certain conditions—of the amplitude and frequency of the blade vibration. These measurements are carried out on engines set on a rig, before being installed in an airplane. In order to incorporate these methods during the regular operation of the engine, signal processing that allows for the monitoring of those parameters at all times should be developed. This article introduces an architecture, based on a trifurcated optic sensor and a hardware processor, that fulfills this need. The proposed architecture is scalable and allows several sensors to be simultaneously monitored at different points around a bladed disk. Furthermore, the results obtained by the electronic system will be compared with the results obtained by the validation of the optic sensor.

  19. Performance of the Components of the XJ34-WE-32 Turbojet Engine over a Range of Engine and Flight Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcaulay, John E; Sobolewski, Adam E; Smith, Ivan D

    1952-01-01

    Performance of the compressor, combustor, and turbine operating as integral parts of the XJ34-WE-32 turbojet engine was determined in the Lewis altitude wind tunnel over a range of altitudes from 5000 to 55,000 feet and flight Mach numbers from 0.28 to 1.05. Data were obtained for each of four exhaust-nozzle areas and are presented in graphical and tabular form.

  20. A Fully Non-Metallic Gas Turbine Engine Enabled by Additive Manufacturing Part I: System Analysis, Component Identification, Additive Manufacturing, and Testing of Polymer Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grady, Joseph E.; Haller, William J.; Poinsatte, Philip E.; Halbig, Michael C.; Schnulo, Sydney L.; Singh, Mrityunjay; Weir, Don; Wali, Natalie; Vinup, Michael; Jones, Michael G.; hide

    2015-01-01

    The research and development activities reported in this publication were carried out under NASA Aeronautics Research Institute (NARI) funded project entitled "A Fully Nonmetallic Gas Turbine Engine Enabled by Additive Manufacturing." The objective of the project was to conduct evaluation of emerging materials and manufacturing technologies that will enable fully nonmetallic gas turbine engines. The results of the activities are described in three part report. The first part of the report contains the data and analysis of engine system trade studies, which were carried out to estimate reduction in engine emissions and fuel burn enabled due to advanced materials and manufacturing processes. A number of key engine components were identified in which advanced materials and additive manufacturing processes would provide the most significant benefits to engine operation. The technical scope of activities included an assessment of the feasibility of using additive manufacturing technologies to fabricate gas turbine engine components from polymer and ceramic matrix composites, which were accomplished by fabricating prototype engine components and testing them in simulated engine operating conditions. The manufacturing process parameters were developed and optimized for polymer and ceramic composites (described in detail in the second and third part of the report). A number of prototype components (inlet guide vane (IGV), acoustic liners, engine access door) were additively manufactured using high temperature polymer materials. Ceramic matrix composite components included turbine nozzle components. In addition, IGVs and acoustic liners were tested in simulated engine conditions in test rigs. The test results are reported and discussed in detail.

  1. Engineering Analysis of Thermal-Load Components in the Process of Heating of Pet Preforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidorov, D. É.; Kolosov, A. E.; Kazak, I. A.; Pogorelyi, A. V.

    2018-05-01

    The influence of thermal-load components (convection, collimated and uncollimated components of infrared radiation) in the process of production of PET packaging on the heating of PET preforms has been assessed. It has been established that the collimated component of infrared radiation ensures most (up to 70%) of the thermal energy in the process of heating of a PET preform.

  2. Essentials of aircraft armaments

    CERN Document Server

    Kaushik, Mrinal

    2017-01-01

    This book aims to provide a complete exposure about armaments from their design to launch from the combat aircraft. The book details modern ammunition and their tactical roles in warfare. The proposed book discusses aerodynamics, propulsion, structural as well as navigation, control, and guidance of aircraft armament. It also introduces the various types of ammunition developed by different countries and their changing trends. The book imparts knowledge in the field of design, and development of aircraft armaments to aerospace engineers and covers the role of the United Nations in peacekeeping and disarmament. The book will be very useful to researchers, students, and professionals working in design and manufacturing of aircraft armaments. The book will also serve air force and naval aspirants, and those interested in working on defence research and developments organizations. .

  3. The Aircraft Morphing Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wlezien, R. W.; Horner, G. C.; McGowan, A. R.; Padula, S. L.; Scott, M. A.; Silcox, R. J.; Simpson, J. O.

    1998-01-01

    In the last decade smart technologies have become enablers that cut across traditional boundaries in materials science and engineering. Here we define smart to mean embedded actuation, sensing, and control logic in a tightly coupled feedback loop. While multiple successes have been achieved in the laboratory, we have yet to see the general applicability of smart devices to real aircraft systems. The NASA Aircraft Morphing program is an attempt to couple research across a wide range of disciplines to integrate smart technologies into high payoff aircraft applications. The program bridges research in seven individual disciplines and combines the effort into activities in three primary program thrusts. System studies are used to assess the highest- payoff program objectives, and specific research activities are defined to address the technologies required for development of smart aircraft systems. In this paper we address the overall program goals and programmatic structure, and discuss the challenges associated with bringing the technologies to fruition.

  4. Aircraft Wiring Support Equipment Integration Laboratory (AWSEIL)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Purpose:The Aircraft Wiring Support Equipment Integration Laboratory (AWSEIL) provides a variety of research, design engineering and prototype fabrication services...

  5. Numerical predictions and measurements in the lubrication of aeronautical engine and transmission components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraru, Laurentiu Eugen

    2005-11-01

    This dissertation treats a variety of aspects of the lubrication of mechanical components encountered in aeronautical engines and transmissions. The study covers dual clearance squeeze film dampers, mixed elastohydrodynamic lubrication (EHL) cases and thermal elastohydrodynamic contacts. The dual clearance squeeze film damper (SFD) invented by Fleming is investigated both theoretically and experimentally for cases when the sleeve that separates the two oil films is free to float and for cases when the separating sleeve is supported by a squirrel cage. The Reynolds equation is developed to handle each of these cases and it is solved analytically for short bearings. A rotordynamic model of a test rig is developed, for both the single and dual SFD cases. A computer code is written to calculate the motion of the test rig rotor. Experiments are performed in order to validate the theoretical results. Rotordynamics computations are found to favorably agree with measured data. A probabilistic model for mixed EHL is developed and implemented. Surface roughness of gears are measured and processed. The mixed EHL model incorporates the average flow model of Patir and Cheng and the elasto-plastic contact mechanics model of Chang Etsion and Bogy. The current algorithm allows for the computation of the load supported by an oil film and for the load supported by the elasto-plastically deformed asperities. This work also presents a way to incorporate the effect of the fluid induced roughness deformation by utilizing the "amplitude reduction" results provided by the deterministic analyses. The Lobatto point Gaussian integration algorithm of Elrod and Brewe was extended for thermal lubrication problems involving compressible lubricants and it was implemented in thermal elastohydrodynamic cases. The unknown variables across the film are written in series of Legendre polynomials. The thermal Reynolds equation is obtained in terms of the series coefficients and it is proven that it can

  6. Reliability in automotive and mechanical engineering determination of component and system reliability

    CERN Document Server

    Bertsche, Bernd

    2008-01-01

    In the present contemporary climate of global competition in every branch of engineering and manufacture it has been shown from extensive customer surveys that above every other attribute, reliability stands as the most desired feature in a finished product. To survive this relentless fight for survival any organisation, which neglect the plea of attaining to excellence in reliability, will do so at a serious cost Reliability in Automotive and Mechanical Engineering draws together a wide spectrum of diverse and relevant applications and analyses on reliability engineering. This is distilled into this attractive and well documented volume and practising engineers are challenged with the formidable task of simultaneously improving reliability and reducing the costs and down-time due to maintenance. The volume brings together eleven chapters to highlight the importance of the interrelated reliability and maintenance disciplines. They represent the development trends and progress resulting in making this book ess...

  7. Advanced technology components for model GTP305-2 aircraft auxiliary power system. Final report 6 May 75-15 Jul 79

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kidwell, J.R.; Large, G.D.

    1980-02-01

    The GTP305-2 Advanced APU is a single shaft, all shaft power engine incorporating an axial-centrifugal compressor, a reverse flow annular combustor and a radial-axial turbine. Cycle analyses indicated a 10-percent high pressure compressor flow increase improved matching characteristics with the low pressure compressor. The combustion system is a reverse flow annular combustor with an air-assist/airblast fuel injection system. The radial-axial turbine stage is characterized by an integrally cast turbine rotor and a cast exhaust duct assembly. The Integrated Components Assembly (ICA) rig consists of the combustor and turbines with a dummy mass on the shaft to simulate the compressor. ICA testing was conducted to establish component performance at design operating conditions. ICA and cold air aerodynamic testing of the turbine stage and cooling flow effects, indicates design efficiency goals were exceeded. ICA test results, cold-air testing and combustion system parameters were input to the cycle model. Room temperature strain-control LCF tests were performed and results analyzed on a Weibull distribution. Data analysis indicated LCF life improvement was obtained through HIP and heat treatment.

  8. ThermoData Engine: Extension to Solvent Design and Multi-component Process Stream Property Calculations with Uncertainty Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diky, Vladimir; Chirico, Robert D.; Muzny, Chris

    ThermoData Engine (TDE, NIST Standard Reference Databases 103a and 103b) is the first product that implements the concept of Dynamic Data Evaluation in the fields of thermophysics and thermochemistry, which includes maintaining the comprehensive and up-to-date database of experimentally measured...... property values and expert system for data analysis and generation of recommended property values at the specified conditions along with uncertainties on demand. The most recent extension of TDE covers solvent design and multi-component process stream property calculations with uncertainty analysis...... variations). Predictions can be compared to the available experimental data, and uncertainties are estimated for all efficiency criteria. Calculations of the properties of multi-component streams including composition at phase equilibria (flash calculations) are at the heart of process simulation engines...

  9. Durability testing of medium speed diesel engine components designed for operating on coal/water slurry fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDowell, R. E.; Giammarise, A. W.; Johnson, R. N.

    1994-01-01

    Over 200 operating cylinder hours were run on critical wearing engine parts. The main components tested included cylinder liners, piston rings, and fuel injector nozzles for coal/water slurry fueled operation. The liners had no visible indication of scoring nor major wear steps found on their tungsten carbide coating. While the tungsten carbide coating on the rings showed good wear resistance, some visual evidence suggests adhesive wear mode was present. Tungsten carbide coated rings running against tungsten carbide coated liners in GE 7FDL engines exhibit wear rates which suggest an approximate 500 to 750 hour life. Injector nozzle orifice materials evaluated were diamond compacts, chemical vapor deposited diamond tubes, and thermally stabilized diamond. Based upon a total of 500 cylinder hours of engine operation (including single-cylinder combustion tests), diamond compact was determined to be the preferred orifice material.

  10. A data processing method for determining instantaneous angular speed and acceleration of crankshaft in an aircraft engine-propeller system using a magnetic encoder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, S. D.; Zhang, X.

    2010-05-01

    This paper presents a method for determining the instantaneous angular speed and instantaneous angular acceleration of the crankshaft in a reciprocating engine and propeller dynamical system from electrical pulse signals generated by a magnetic encoder. The method is based on accurate determination of the measured global mean angular speed and precise values of times when leading edges of individual magnetic teeth pass through the magnetic sensor. Under a steady-state operating condition, a discrete deviation time vs. shaft rotational angle series of uniform interval is obtained and used for accurate determination of the crankshaft speed and acceleration. The proposed method for identifying sub- and super-harmonic oscillations in the instantaneous angular speeds and accelerations is new and efficient. Experiments were carried out on a three-cylinder four-stroke Saito 450R model aircraft engine and a Solo propeller in connection with a 64-teeth Admotec KL2202 magnetic encoder and an HS-4 data acquisition system. Comparisons with an independent data processing scheme indicate that the proposed method yields noise-free instantaneous angular speeds and is superior to the finite difference based methods commonly used in the literature.

  11. Сomputational and experimental researches of ice pieces impact against a plate-imitator of a blade airfoil of an aircraft engine axial compressor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. F. Shorr

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Ingestion of hailstones and shedding ice in operating aircraft engine can lead to damage of compressor rotating blades, as well as to change of gas-dynamic characteristics, and loss of engine thrust.The paper presents a computational and experimental study results of an ice impact against a thin edge of the steel plate, which simulates a compressor blade.Impacts of the ice bricks against the plate with a velocity corresponding to the circumference rate of blades rotation were realized by the pneumatic gunshots. The trials were carried out under various angles attack between the direction of the ice flight and the plate plane. The experiments has shown that on impact the ice brick is covered by numerous cracks and collapsed just at the very beginning of the interaction with a plate. Thus, a leading edge of the plate has a smoothly bending form without appearing cracks.For modeling the ice an isotropic elastoplastic material was chosen. Its failure was based on shear and rupture criteria. Two models of ice with different size of the yield point were used.The test results and their comparison with the numerical ones have shown the following: 1. Calculations of brick impact against a thin edge of the plate-imitator with accepted ice characteristics yield a correct qualitative picture of the plate damage, but lead to some undersizes of its leading edge bending.2. The ice design model with a larger yield point well reflects a character of the ice brick impact destruction as a formation of numerous cracks in it and splitting the piece into small particles, which was observed in the experiments. The model with smaller yield point shows the ice brick cutting into two parts without cracking.3. The plate damage considerably increases with increasing ice brick attack angle. Under a direct impact against the plate edge, the ice brick is cut into two halves, with no plastic deformations of the plate observed.4. Available results give the grounds to use

  12. Optical Measurement Techniques for Rocket Engine Testing and Component Applications: Digital Image Correlation and Dynamic Photogrammetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gradl, Paul

    2016-01-01

    NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) has been advancing dynamic optical measurement systems, primarily Digital Image Correlation, for extreme environment rocket engine test applications. The Digital Image Correlation (DIC) technology is used to track local and full field deformations, displacement vectors and local and global strain measurements. This technology has been evaluated at MSFC through lab testing to full scale hotfire engine testing of the J-2X Upper Stage engine at Stennis Space Center. It has been shown to provide reliable measurement data and has replaced many traditional measurement techniques for NASA applications. NASA and AMRDEC have recently signed agreements for NASA to train and transition the technology to applications for missile and helicopter testing. This presentation will provide an overview and progression of the technology, various testing applications at NASA MSFC, overview of Army-NASA test collaborations and application lessons learned about Digital Image Correlation.

  13. Recent trends in superalloys research for critical aero-engine components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Remy, Luc [Mine ParisTech, CNRS UMR 7633, 91 - Evry (France). Centre des Materiaux; Guedou, Jean-Yves [Snecma Safran Group, Moissy-Cramayel (France). Materials and Processes Dept.

    2010-07-01

    This paper is a brief survey of common research activity on superalloys for aero-engines between Snecma and Mines ParisTech Centre des Materiaux during recent years. First in disks applications, the development of new powder metallurgy superalloys is shown. Then grain boundary engineering is investigated in a wrought superalloy. Secondly, design oriented research on single crystals blades is shown: a damage model for low cycle fatigue is used for life prediction when cracks initiated at casting pores. The methodology developed for assessing coating life is illustrated for thermal barrier coating deposited on AMI single crystal superalloy. (orig.)

  14. Engineering solutions for components facing the plasma in experimental power reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casini, G.; Farfaletti-Casali, F.

    1985-01-01

    A review of the engineering problems related to the structures in front of the plasma of experimental Tokamak-type reactors is made. Attention is focused on the so-named ''first wall'', i.e. the wall side of the blanket segments facing the plasma, and on the collector plates of the impurity control system, in particular for the case of the single-null poloidal divertor. Even if the uncertainties related to the plasma-wall interaction are stil relevant, some engineering solutions which look manageable are identified and described. (orig.)

  15. Molecular Modeling as a Self-Taught Component of a Conventional Undergraduate Chemical Reaction Engineering Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothe, Erhard W.; Zygmunt, William E.

    2016-01-01

    We inserted a self-taught molecular modeling project into an otherwise conventional undergraduate chemical-reaction-engineering course. Our objectives were that students should (a) learn with minimal instructor intervention, (b) gain an appreciation for the relationship between molecular structure and, first, macroscopic state functions in…

  16. PROFESSIONAL COMPETENCY OF AN AVIATION ENGINEER AS A COMPONENT OF THE TRAINING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tania Kharlamova

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available  The article is devoted to the definition and notion of professional competency and its role in competence formation of an aviation engineer. It refers to engineer’s competences that must be upgraded upon training to his performance.

  17. A prototype knowledge-based system for material selection of ceramic matrix composites of automotive engine components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sapuan, S.M.; Jacob, M.S.D.; Mustapha, F.; Ismail, N

    2002-12-15

    A prototype knowledge based system (KBS) for material selection of ceramic matrix composites (CMC) for engine components such as piston, connecting rod and piston ring is proposed in this paper. The main aim of this research work is to select the most suitable material for the automotive engine components. The selection criteria are based upon the pre-defined constraint value. The constraint values are mechanical, physical properties and manufacturing techniques. The constraint values are the safety values for the product design. The constraint values are selected from the product design specification. The product design specification values are selected from the past design calculation and some values are calculated by the help of past design data. The knowledge-based system consists of several modules such as knowledge acquisition module, inference module and user interface module. The domains of the knowledge-based system are defined as objects and linked together by hierarchical graph. The system is capable of selecting the most suitable materials and ranks the materials with respect to their properties. The design engineers can choose the required materials related to the materials property.

  18. Combat aircraft noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sgarbozza, M.; Depitre, A.

    1992-04-01

    A discussion of the characteristics and the noise levels of combat aircraft and of a transport aircraft in taking off and landing are presented. Some methods of noise reduction are discussed, including the following: operational anti-noise procedures; and concepts of future engines (silent post-combustion and variable cycle). Some measurement results concerning the noise generated in flight at great speeds and low altitude will also be examined. Finally, the protection of the environment of French air bases against noise will be described and the possibilities of regulation examined.

  19. Enhancing requirements engineering for patient registry software systems with evidence-based components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindoerfer, Doris; Mansmann, Ulrich

    2017-07-01

    Patient registries are instrumental for medical research. Often their structures are complex and their implementations use composite software systems to meet the wide spectrum of challenges. Commercial and open-source systems are available for registry implementation, but many research groups develop their own systems. Methodological approaches in the selection of software as well as the construction of proprietary systems are needed. We propose an evidence-based checklist, summarizing essential items for patient registry software systems (CIPROS), to accelerate the requirements engineering process. Requirements engineering activities for software systems follow traditional software requirements elicitation methods, general software requirements specification (SRS) templates, and standards. We performed a multistep procedure to develop a specific evidence-based CIPROS checklist: (1) A systematic literature review to build a comprehensive collection of technical concepts, (2) a qualitative content analysis to define a catalogue of relevant criteria, and (3) a checklist to construct a minimal appraisal standard. CIPROS is based on 64 publications and covers twelve sections with a total of 72 items. CIPROS also defines software requirements. Comparing CIPROS with traditional software requirements elicitation methods, SRS templates and standards show a broad consensus but differences in issues regarding registry-specific aspects. Using an evidence-based approach to requirements engineering for registry software adds aspects to the traditional methods and accelerates the software engineering process for registry software. The method we used to construct CIPROS serves as a potential template for creating evidence-based checklists in other fields. The CIPROS list supports developers in assessing requirements for existing systems and formulating requirements for their own systems, while strengthening the reporting of patient registry software system descriptions. It may be

  20. Choice of french clays as engineered barrier components for waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coulon, H.; Lajudie, A.; Debrabant, P.; Atabek, R.; Jorda, M.; Andre-Jehan, R.

    1987-01-01

    Results are presented of physical measurements on candidate buffer materials for use in nuclear fuel waste disposal. The materials being considered as constituent elements of engineered barriers are essentially calcium smectite clays, in other terms swelling clays, coming from fourteen french deposits. The criteria for good candidates are mainly: smectite content in the clay materials, carbonate and organic material content and bulk density of the material, compacted under a pressure of 100 MPa. 14 references, 4 figures, 6 tables

  1. Integrated tracking of components by engineering and logistics utilizing logistics asset tracking system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renfroe, Michael B.; Mcdonald, Edward J.; Bradshaw, Kimberly

    1988-01-01

    The Logistics Asset Tracking System (LATS) devised by NASA contains data on Space Shuttle LRUs that are daily updated to reflect such LRU status changes as repair due to failure or modification due to changing engineering requirements. The implementation of LATS has substantially increased personnel responsiveness, preventing costly delays in Space Shuttle processing and obviating hardware cannibalization. An evaluation is presented of LATS achievements in the direction of an integrated logistical support posture.

  2. Diesel fuel component contributions to engine emissions and performance: Clean fuel study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erwin, J.; Ryan, T.W. III; Moulten, D.S. [Southwest Research Inst., San Antonio, TX (United States)

    1994-08-01

    The emissions characteristics of diesel engines are dominated by current engine design parameters as long as the fuels conform to the current industry-accepted specifications. The current and future emissions standard, are low enough that the fuel properties and compositions are starting to play a more significant role in meeting the emerging standards. The potential role of the fuel composition has been recognized by state and federal government agencies, and for the first time, fuel specifications have become part of the emissions control legislation. In this work, five different fuel feed and blend stocks were hydrotreated to two levels of sulfur and aromatic content. These materials were then each distilled to seven or eight fractions of congruent boiling points. After this, the raw materials and all of the fractions were characterized by a complement of tests from American Society for Testing and Materials and by hydrocarbon-type analyses. The sample matrix was subjected to a series of combustion bomb and engine tests to determine the ignition, combustion, and emissions characteristics of each of the 80 test materials.

  3. Root cause analysis in support of reliability enhancement of engineering components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Sachin; Mishra, Vivek; Joshi, N.S.; Varde, P.V.

    2014-01-01

    Reliability based methods have been widely used for the safety assessment of plant system, structures and components. These methods provide a quantitative estimation of system reliability but do not give insight into the failure mechanism. Understanding the failure mechanism is a must to avoid the recurrence of the events and enhancement of the system reliability. Root cause analysis provides a tool for gaining detailed insights into the causes of failure of component with particular attention to the identification of fault in component design, operation, surveillance, maintenance, training, procedures and policies which must be improved to prevent repetition of incidents. Root cause analysis also helps in developing Probabilistic Safety Analysis models. A probabilistic precursor study provides a complement to the root cause analysis approach in event analysis by focusing on how an event might have developed adversely. This paper discusses the root cause analysis methodologies and their application in the specific case studies for enhancement of system reliability. (author)

  4. Environmental impact assessment of a turboprop engine with the aid of exergy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atılgan, Ramazan; Turan, Önder; Altuntaş, Önder; Aydın, Hakan; Synylo, Kateryna

    2013-01-01

    To develop approaches that effectively reduce engine environmental effect of aircrafts, it is necessary to understand the mechanisms that have enabled improvements in thermodynamic efficiency of aircraft engines. In the present work, a turboprop engine used in regional aircrafts that produces 1948 shp and 640 N.m torque is examined using exergo-environmental method. The results show compressor, combustion chamber, gas generator turbine, power turbine and exhaust nozzle create 9%, 69%, 13%, 7%, 2% of total environmental impact of the engine, respectively. According to rates, the compressor and gas turbine can be considered first to improve in case of component related environmental impact. Furthermore, total component related environmental impact for the turboprop engine is found to be 2.26 mPts/s for the constructional phase and 2.34 mPts/s for the operation/maintenance phases. Accordingly, it is suggested that, in order to estimate environmental impact metric of aircrafts, the exergo-environmental analysis can be employed for aircraft propulsion systems. - Highlights: • Evaluating the exergo-environmental aspects of the turboprop engine. • According to exergo-environmental results, the biggest candidate for improving is the combustion chamber. • Specific environmental impact dominates at engine exhaust outlet of the turboprop engine. • Greatest total component related environmental impact is found at the gas generator turbine of the turboprop engine

  5. Probabilistic calibration of safety coefficients for flawed components in nuclear engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ardillon, E.; Pitner, P.; Barthelet, B.; Remond, A.

    1996-01-01

    The rules that are currently under application to verify the acceptance of flaws in nuclear components rely on deterministic criteria supposed to ensure the safe operating of plants. The interest of having a precise and reliable method to evaluate the safety margins and the integrity of components led Electricite de France to launch an approach to link directly safety coefficients with safety levels. This paper presents a probabilistic methodology to calibrate safety coefficients in relation to reliability target values. The proposed calibration procedure applies to the case of a ferritic flawed pipe using the R6 procedure for assessing the integrity of the structure. (authors). 5 refs., 5 figs

  6. Probabilistic calibration of safety coefficients for flawed components in nuclear engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ardillon, E.; Pitner, P.; Barthelet, B.; Remond, A.

    1995-01-01

    The current rules applied to verify the flaws acceptance in nuclear components rely on deterministic criteria supposed to ensure the plant safe operation. The interest in have a precise and reliable method to evaluate the safety margins and the integrity of components led Electricite de France to launch an approach to link directly safety coefficients with safety levels. This paper presents a probabilistic methodology to calibrate safety coefficients in relation do reliability target values. The proposed calibration procedure applies to the case of a ferritic flawed pipe using the R 6 procedure for assessing the structure integrity. (author). 5 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  7. Improvement of Fatigue Life of Welded Structural Components of a Large Two-Stroke Diesel Engine by Grinding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agerskov, Henning; Hansen, Anders V.; Bjørnbak-Hansen, Jørgen

    2004-01-01

    one side only, with no access to the root side. Various investigations on the fatigue life of the structural components of this new design have been carried out. The present investigation concentrates on the improvement in fatigue life which may be obtained by grinding of the weld toes. The tests...... grinding to m=6 for the test series with grinding. In one of the test series, it was observed that in most cases crack initiation moved from the weld toe to the non-ground surface between the ground areas at the weld toes. Tests were made on steel S 275, on centrally and eccentrically loaded test specimens.......The crankshaft housings of large two-stroke diesel engines are welded structures subjected to constant amplitude loading and designed for infinite life at full design load. A new design of the so-called frame box has been introduced in the engine using butt weld joints of thick plates, welded from...

  8. INFLUENCE OF AXIAL COMPRESSOR STAGE SPATIAL OPTIMIZATION ON THRUST-ECONOMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF CARGO AIRCRAFT GAS TURBINE ENGINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.G. Volyanskaya

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available  The article considers the research results of D-27 gas turbine engine thrust-economical characteristics change due to of axial compressor flow path optimization. The applied procedure of optimization takes into account a difference in the shapes of axial compressor stage blades at rest and design mode, redistribution of kinetic energy losses along the blade height. The estimation of parameters of a gas flow in the stage flow path is made by the solution of Navier-Stokes equation complete set.

  9. Inlet-engine matching for SCAR including application of a bicone variable geometry inlet. [Supersonic Cruise Aircraft Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasserbauer, J. F.; Gerstenmaier, W. H.

    1978-01-01

    Airflow characteristics of variable cycle engines (VCE) designed for Mach 2.32 can have transonic airflow requirements as high as 1.6 times the cruise airflow. This is a formidable requirement for conventional, high performance, axisymmetric, translating centerbody mixed compression inlets. An alternate inlet is defined where the second cone of a two cone centerbody collapses to the initial cone angle to provide a large off-design airflow capability, and incorporates modest centerbody translation to minimize spillage drag. Estimates of transonic spillage drag are competitive with those of conventional translating centerbody inlets. The inlet's cruise performance exhibits very low bleed requirements with good recovery and high angle of attack capability.

  10. Design and Implementation of a Media Access Component at Picsearch Using a Rigorous Software Engineering Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Diego Núñez

    2011-01-01

    With the arrival of a new generation of sophisticated smartphones, possibilities for mobile video usage are presenting exciting new opportunities. This Master's thesis is based on a collaboration with Picsearch to design and implement a software component that enables the company's video services in Android smartphones.

  11. Suppression of secondary reactions during n-butene dimerization to gasoline blending components : Chemical Reaction Engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Golombok, M.; Bruijn, J.

    2000-01-01

    There are 72 isomers of the octene molecules and only a small number of them have high value as a blending octane component in gasoline. The amorphous silica alumina catalyst used for selectively dimerizing octenes from linear butenes can itself isomerize the target species. It is demonstrated that

  12. Impact analysis of composite aircraft structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pifko, Allan B.; Kushner, Alan S.

    1993-01-01

    The impact analysis of composite aircraft structures is discussed. Topics discussed include: background remarks on aircraft crashworthiness; comments on modeling strategies for crashworthiness simulation; initial study of simulation of progressive failure of an aircraft component constructed of composite material; and research direction in composite characterization for impact analysis.

  13. A new technology perspective and engineering tools approach for large, complex and distributed mission and safety critical systems components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrio, Miguel A., Jr.

    1988-01-01

    Rapidly emerging technology and methodologies have out-paced the systems development processes' ability to use them effectively, if at all. At the same time, the tools used to build systems are becoming obsolescent themselves as a consequence of the same technology lag that plagues systems development. The net result is that systems development activities have not been able to take advantage of available technology and have become equally dependent on aging and ineffective computer-aided engineering tools. New methods and tools approaches are essential if the demands of non-stop and Mission and Safety Critical (MASC) components are to be met.

  14. Commercial Aircraft Integrated Vehicle Health Management Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reveley, Mary S.; Briggs, Jeffrey L.; Evans, Joni K.; Jones, Sharon Monica; Kurtoglu, Tolga; Leone, Karen M.; Sandifer, Carl E.; Thomas, Megan A.

    2010-01-01

    Statistical data and literature from academia, industry, and other government agencies were reviewed and analyzed to establish requirements for fixture work in detection, diagnosis, prognosis, and mitigation for IVHM related hardware and software. Around 15 to 20 percent of commercial aircraft accidents between 1988 and 2003 involved inalftfnctions or failures of some aircraft system or component. Engine and landing gear failures/malfunctions dominate both accidents and incidents. The IVI vl Project research technologies were found to map to the Joint Planning and Development Office's National Research and Development Plan (RDP) as well as the Safety Working Group's National Aviation Safety Strategic. Plan (NASSP). Future directions in Aviation Technology as related to IVHlvl were identified by reviewing papers from three conferences across a five year time span. A total of twenty-one trend groups in propulsion, aeronautics and aircraft categories were compiled. Current and ftiture directions of IVHM related technologies were gathered and classified according to eight categories: measurement and inspection, sensors, sensor management, detection, component and subsystem monitoring, diagnosis, prognosis, and mitigation.

  15. Load event: Aircraft crash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fritsch, H.

    1985-01-01

    The bibliography includes 48 quotations, up to the year 1983, on the following issues: Experiments and computational methods. Design load for the dimensioning of reinforced concrete buildings and components with respect to the dynamic load in the event of an aircraft crash. (orig./HP) [de

  16. Fire resistant aircraft seat program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fewell, L. A.

    1979-01-01

    Foams, textiles, and thermoformable plastics were tested to determine which materials were fire retardant, and safe for aircraft passenger seats. Seat components investigated were the decorative fabric cover, slip covers, fire blocking layer, cushion reinforcement, and the cushioning layer.

  17. Machined GRP laminates for components in heavy electrical engineering and their use at very low temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuchs, H.

    1982-01-01

    Safe and economical components can be produced from machined GRP laminates. Matrix system, fibre reinforcement and elastic properties are described. Onset of damage and long-term properties are given with detailed charting of tests. Application of the laminate studies at stresses of up to half their short-term strength can be made, provided creep strain and its dependence on time and temperature are considered

  18. Life prediction methodology for ceramic components of advanced vehicular heat engines: Volume 1. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khandelwal, P.K.; Provenzano, N.J.; Schneider, W.E. [Allison Engine Co., Indianapolis, IN (United States)

    1996-02-01

    One of the major challenges involved in the use of ceramic materials is ensuring adequate strength and durability. This activity has developed methodology which can be used during the design phase to predict the structural behavior of ceramic components. The effort involved the characterization of injection molded and hot isostatic pressed (HIPed) PY-6 silicon nitride, the development of nondestructive evaluation (NDE) technology, and the development of analytical life prediction methodology. Four failure modes are addressed: fast fracture, slow crack growth, creep, and oxidation. The techniques deal with failures initiating at the surface as well as internal to the component. The life prediction methodology for fast fracture and slow crack growth have been verified using a variety of confirmatory tests. The verification tests were conducted at room and elevated temperatures up to a maximum of 1371 {degrees}C. The tests involved (1) flat circular disks subjected to bending stresses and (2) high speed rotating spin disks. Reasonable correlation was achieved for a variety of test conditions and failure mechanisms. The predictions associated with surface failures proved to be optimistic, requiring re-evaluation of the components` initial fast fracture strengths. Correlation was achieved for the spin disks which failed in fast fracture from internal flaws. Time dependent elevated temperature slow crack growth spin disk failures were also successfully predicted.

  19. Estimation of nuclear power plant aircraft hazards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gottlieb, P.

    1978-01-01

    The standard procedures for estimating aircraft risk to nuclear power plants provide a conservative estimate, which is adequate for most sites, which are not close to airports or heavily traveled air corridors. For those sites which are close to facilities handling large numbers of aircraft movements (airports or corridors), a more precise estimate of aircraft impact frequency can be obtained as a function of aircraft size. In many instances the very large commercial aircraft can be shown to have an acceptably small impact frequency, while the very small general aviation aircraft will not produce sufficiently serious impact to impair the safety-related functions. This paper examines the in between aircraft: primarily twin-engine, used for business, pleasure, and air taxi operations. For this group of aircraft the total impact frequency was found to be approximately once in one million years, the threshold above which further consideration of specific safety-related consequences would be required

  20. Usage of Parameterized Fatigue Spectra and Physics-Based Systems Engineering Models for Wind Turbine Component Sizing: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parsons, Taylor; Guo, Yi; Veers, Paul; Dykes, Katherine; Damiani, Rick

    2016-01-26

    Software models that use design-level input variables and physics-based engineering analysis for estimating the mass and geometrical properties of components in large-scale machinery can be very useful for analyzing design trade-offs in complex systems. This study uses DriveSE, an OpenMDAO-based drivetrain model that uses stress and deflection criteria to size drivetrain components within a geared, upwind wind turbine. Because a full lifetime fatigue load spectrum can only be defined using computationally-expensive simulations in programs such as FAST, a parameterized fatigue loads spectrum that depends on wind conditions, rotor diameter, and turbine design life has been implemented. The parameterized fatigue spectrum is only used in this paper to demonstrate the proposed fatigue analysis approach. This paper details a three-part investigation of the parameterized approach and a comparison of the DriveSE model with and without fatigue analysis on the main shaft system. It compares loads from three turbines of varying size and determines if and when fatigue governs drivetrain sizing compared to extreme load-driven design. It also investigates the model's sensitivity to shaft material parameters. The intent of this paper is to demonstrate how fatigue considerations in addition to extreme loads can be brought into a system engineering optimization.

  1. Progress in the engineering design and assessment of the European DEMO first wall and divertor plasma facing components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrett, Thomas R., E-mail: tom.barrett@ukaea.uk [CCFE, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Ellwood, G.; Pérez, G.; Kovari, M.; Fursdon, M.; Domptail, F.; Kirk, S.; McIntosh, S.C.; Roberts, S.; Zheng, S. [CCFE, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Boccaccini, L.V. [KIT, INR, Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); You, J.-H. [Max Planck Institute for Plasma Physics, Boltzmannstr. 2, 85748 Garching (Germany); Bachmann, C. [EUROfusion, PPPT, Boltzmann Str. 2, 85748 Garching (Germany); Reiser, J.; Rieth, M. [KIT, IAM, Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Visca, E.; Mazzone, G. [ENEA, Unità Tecnica Fusione, ENEA C. R. Frascati, via E. Fermi 45, 00044 Frascati (Italy); Arbeiter, F. [KIT, INR, Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Domalapally, P.K. [Research Center Rez, Hlavní 130, 250 68 Husinec – Řež (Czech Republic)

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • The engineering of the plasma facing components for DEMO is an extreme challenge. • PFC overall requirements, methods for assessment and designs status are described. • Viable divertor concepts for 10 MW/m{sup 2} surface heat flux appear to be within reach. • The first wall PFC concept will need to vary poloidally around the wall. • First wall coolant, structural material and PFC topology are open design choices. - Abstract: The European DEMO power reactor is currently under conceptual design within the EUROfusion Consortium. One of the most critical activities is the engineering of the plasma-facing components (PFCs) covering the plasma chamber wall, which must operate reliably in an extreme environment of neutron irradiation and surface heat and particle flux, while also allowing sufficient neutron transmission to the tritium breeding blankets. A systems approach using advanced numerical analysis is vital to realising viable solutions for these first wall and divertor PFCs. Here, we present the system requirements and describe bespoke thermo-mechanical and thermo-hydraulic assessment procedures which have been used as tools for design. The current first wall and divertor designs are overviewed along with supporting analyses. The PFC solutions employed will necessarily vary around the wall, depending on local conditions, and must be designed in an integrated manner by analysis and physical testing.

  2. Innovative Research on the Development of Game-based Tourism Information Services Using Component-based Software Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Hsin Huang

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, a number of studies have been conducted exploring the potential of digital tour guides, that is, multimedia components (e.g., 2D graphic, 3D models, and sound effects that can be integrated into digital storytelling with location-based services. This study uses component-based software engineering to develop the content of game-based tourism information services. The results of this study are combined with 3D VR/AR technology to implement the digital 2D/3D interactive tour guide and show all the attractions’ information on a service platform for the gamification of cultural tourism. Nine kinds of game templates have been built in the component module. Five locations have completed indoor or external 3D VR real scenes and provide online visitors with a virtual tour of the indoor or outdoor attractions. The AR interactive work has three logos. The interactive digital guide includes animated tour guides, interactive guided tours, directions and interactive guides. Based on the usage analysis of the component databases built by this study, VR game types are suited to object-oriented game templates, such as the puzzle game template and the treasure hunt game template. Background music is the database component required for each game. The icons and cue tones are the most commonly used components in 2D graphics and sound effects, but the icons are gathered in different directions to approximate the shape of the component to be consistent. This study built a vivid story of a scene tour for online visitors to enhance the interactive digital guide. However, the developer can rapidly build new digital guides by rearranging the components of the modules to shorten the development time by taking advantage of the usage frequency of various databases that have been built by this study to effectively continue to build and expand the database components. Therefore, more game-based digital tour guides can be created to make better defined high

  3. Development of wear resistant ceramic coatings for diesel engine components. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haselkorn, M.H. [Caterpillar, Inc., Peoria, IL (United States)

    1992-04-01

    Improved fuel economy and a reduction of emissions can be achieved by insulation of the combustion chamber components to reduce heat rejection. However, insulating the combustion chamber components will also increase the operating temperature of the piston ring/cylinder liner interface from approximately 150{degree}C to over 300{degree}C. Existing ring/liner materials can not withstand these higher operating temperatures and for this reason, new materials need to be developed for this critical tribological interface. The overall goal of this program is the development of piston ring/cylinder liner material pairs which would be able to provide the required friction and wear properties at these more severe operating conditions. More specifically, this program first selected, and then evaluated, potential d/wear resistant coatings which could be applied to either piston rings an or cylinder liners and provide, at 350{degree}C under lubricated conditions, coefficients of friction below 0.1 and wear rates of less than 25 {times} lO{sup {minus}6} mm/hour. The processes selected for applying the candidate wear resistant coatings to piston rings and/or cylinder liners were plasma spraying, chemical vapor, physical vapor and low temperature arc vapor deposition techniques as well as enameling techniques.

  4. FY 1995 annual report on research and development of propulsion systems for supersonic transport aircraft. Pt. 1. Research and development of methane-fueled engines for aircraft; 1995 nendo choonsoku yusokiyo suishin system no kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. 1. Methane nenryo kokukiyo engine no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    Described herein are the R and D results of FY 1995 for ramjet, high-performance turbojet, control/measurement and total systems. For R and D of the ramjet system, the combined component test is conducted, using a dummy intake which simulates the flow pattern downstream of the intake throat, ram combustor and variable exhaust nozzle. The first free jet test is successfully conducted at a combustor exit temperature of 1900 degrees C. For R and D of the high-performance turbojet components, the experimental researches are conducted on fan components, a combustor, and high-performance, variable, low-pressure turbine. For R and D of the control/measurement system, the system developed is improved by incorporating a dual redundant FADEC. The engine test produces good results. For R and D of the total system, the R and D efforts are made for the intake, nozzle, noise reduction, cooling and application of new materials, and combined cycle engine. (NEDO)

  5. Long-term stability and properties of zirconia ceramics for heavy duty diesel engine components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, D. C.; Adams, J. W.

    1985-01-01

    Physical, mechanical, and thermal properties of commercially available transformation-toughened zirconia are measured. Behavior is related to the material microstructure and phase assemblage. The stability of the materials is assessed after long-term exposure appropriate for diesel engine application. Properties measured included flexure strength, elastic modulus, fracture toughness, creep, thermal shock, thermal expansion, internal friction, and thermal diffusivity. Stability is assessed by measuring the residual property after 1000 hr/1000C static exposure. Additionally static fatigue and thermal fatigue testing is performed. Both yttria-stabilized and magnesia-stabilized materials are compared and contrasted. The major limitations of these materials are short term loss of properties with increasing temperature as the metastable tetragonal phase becomes more stable. Fine grain yttria-stabilized material (TZP) is higher strength and has a more stable microstructure with respect to overaging phenomena. The long-term limitation of Y-TZP is excessive creep deformation. Magnesia-stabilized PSZ has relatively poor stability at elevated temperature. Overaging, decomposition, and/or destabilization effects are observed. The major limitation of Mg-PSZ is controlling unwanted phase changes at elevated temperature.

  6. A Monte Carlo study of Weibull reliability analysis for space shuttle main engine components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abernethy, K.

    1986-01-01

    The incorporation of a number of additional capabilities into an existing Weibull analysis computer program and the results of Monte Carlo computer simulation study to evaluate the usefulness of the Weibull methods using samples with a very small number of failures and extensive censoring are discussed. Since the censoring mechanism inherent in the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) data is hard to analyze, it was decided to use a random censoring model, generating censoring times from a uniform probability distribution. Some of the statistical techniques and computer programs that are used in the SSME Weibull analysis are described. The methods documented in were supplemented by adding computer calculations of approximate (using iteractive methods) confidence intervals for several parameters of interest. These calculations are based on a likelihood ratio statistic which is asymptotically a chisquared statistic with one degree of freedom. The assumptions built into the computer simulations are described. The simulation program and the techniques used in it are described there also. Simulation results are tabulated for various combinations of Weibull shape parameters and the numbers of failures in the samples.

  7. Amphibious Aircraft

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A brief self composed research article on Amphibious Aircrafts discussing their use, origin and modern day applications along with their advantages and disadvantages...

  8. Study of an advanced General Aviation Turbine Engine (GATE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, J. C.; Short, F. R.; Staton, D. V.; Zolezzi, B. A.; Curry, C. E.; Orelup, M. J.; Vaught, J. M.; Humphrey, J. M.

    1979-01-01

    The best technology program for a small, economically viable gas turbine engine applicable to the general aviation helicopter and aircraft market for 1985-1990 was studied. Turboshaft and turboprop engines in the 112 to 746 kW (150 to 1000 hp) range and turbofan engines up to 6672 N (1500 lbf) thrust were considered. A good market for new turbine engines was predicted for 1988 providing aircraft are designed to capitalize on the advantages of the turbine engine. Parametric engine families were defined in terms of design and off-design performance, mass, and cost. These were evaluated in aircraft design missions selected to represent important market segments for fixed and rotary-wing applications. Payoff parameters influenced by engine cycle and configuration changes were aircraft gross mass, acquisition cost, total cost of ownership, and cash flow. Significant advantage over a current technology, small gas turbine engines was found especially in cost of ownership and fuel economy for airframes incorporating an air-cooled high-pressure ratio engine. A power class of 373 kW (500 hp) was recommended as the next frontier for technology advance where large improvements in fuel economy and engine mass appear possible through component research and development.

  9. Real-time simulation of an F110/STOVL turbofan engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drummond, Colin K.; Ouzts, Peter J.

    1989-01-01

    A traditional F110-type turbofan engine model was extended to include a ventral nozzle and two thrust-augmenting ejectors for Short Take-Off Vertical Landing (STOVL) aircraft applications. Development of the real-time F110/STOVL simulation required special attention to the modeling approach to component performance maps, the low pressure turbine exit mixing region, and the tailpipe dynamic approximation. Simulation validation derives by comparing output from the ADSIM simulation with the output for a validated F110/STOVL General Electric Aircraft Engines FORTRAN deck. General Electric substantiated basic engine component characteristics through factory testing and full scale ejector data.

  10. Engineering failure assessment methods applied to pressurized components; Bruchmechanische Bewertung druckfuehrender Komponenten mittels ingenieurmaessiger Bewertungsverfahren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zerbst, U.; Beeck, F.; Scheider, I.; Brocks, W. [GKSS-Forschungszentrum Geesthacht GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Werkstofforschung

    1998-11-01

    Under the roof of SINTAP (Structural Integrity Assessment Procedures for European Industry), a European BRITE-EURAM project, a study is being carried out into the possibility of establishing on the basis of existing models a standard European flaw assessment method. The R6 Routine and the ETM are important, existing examples in this context. The paper presents the two methods, explaining their advantages and shortcomes as well as common features. Their applicability is shown by experiments with two pressure vessels subject to internal pressure and flawed by a surface crack or a through-wall crack, respectively. Both the R6 Routine and the ETM results have been compared with results of component tests carried out in the 1980s at TWI and are found to yield acceptable conservative, i.e. sufficiently safe, lifetime predictions, as they do not give lifetime assessments which unduly underestimate the effects of flaws under operational loads. (orig./CB) [Deutsch] Gegenwaertig wird im Rahmen von SINTAP (Structural Integrity Assessment Procedures for European Industries), einem europaeischen BRITE-EURAM-Projekt geprueft, inwieweit auf der Grundlage vorhandener Modelle eine einheitliche europaeische Fehlerbewertungsmethode erstellt werden kann. Eine zentrale Stellung kommt dabei Verfahren wie der R6-Routine und dem ETM zu. In der vorliegenden Arbeit wurden beide Methoden vorgestellt, wobei ihre Vor- und Nachteile, aber auch ihre Gemeinsamkeiten herausgearbeitet wurden. Die Anwendung wurde an zwei innendruckbelasteten Behaeltern mit Oberflaechen- bzw. wanddurchdringendem Riss demonstriert. Sowohl R6-Routine als auch ETM ergaben im Vergleich mit am TWI zu Beginn der 80er Jahre durchgefuehrten Bauteilexperimenten eine vertretbare konservative Vorhersage, d.h. eine nicht allzu grosse Unterschaetzung der ertragbaren Last der Bauteile. (orig.)

  11. The verification methodologies for a software modeling of Engineered Safety Features- Component Control System (ESF-CCS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Young-Jun; Cheon, Se-Woo; Cha, Kyung-Ho; Park, Gee-Yong; Kwon, Kee-Choon

    2007-01-01

    The safety of a software is not guaranteed through a simple testing of the software. The testing reviews only the static functions of a software. The behavior, dynamic state of a software is not reviewed by a software testing. The Ariane5 rocket accident and the failure of the Virtual Case File Project are determined by a software fault. Although this software was tested thoroughly, the potential errors existed internally. There are a lot of methods to solve these problems. One of the methods is a formal methodology. It describes the software requirements as a formal specification during a software life cycle and verifies a specified design. This paper suggests the methods which verify the design to be described as a formal specification. We adapt these methods to the software of a ESF-CCS (Engineered Safety Features-Component Control System) and use the SCADE (Safety Critical Application Development Environment) tool for adopting the suggested verification methods

  12. Aircraft Capability Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumaw, Randy; Feary, Mike

    2018-01-01

    This presentation presents an overview of work performed at NASA Ames Research Center in 2017. The work concerns the analysis of current aircraft system management displays, and the initial development of an interface for providing information about aircraft system status. The new interface proposes a shift away from current aircraft system alerting interfaces that report the status of physical components, and towards displaying the implications of degradations on mission capability. The proposed interface describes these component failures in terms of operational consequences of aircraft system degradations. The research activity was an effort to examine the utility of different representations of complex systems and operating environments to support real-time decision making of off-nominal situations. A specific focus was to develop representations that provide better integrated information to allow pilots to more easily reason about the operational consequences of the off-nominal situations. The work is also seen as a pathway to autonomy, as information is integrated and understood in a form that automated responses could be developed for the off-nominal situations in the future.

  13. A miniature powerplant for very small, very long range autonomous aircraft. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tad McGeer

    1999-09-29

    The authors have developed a new piston engine offering unprecedented efficiency for a new generation of miniature robotic aircraft. Following Phase 1 preliminary design in 1996--97, they have gone forward in Phase 2 to complete detail design, and are nearing completion of a first batch of ten engines. A small-engine dynamometer facility has been built in preparation for the test program. Provisions have been included for supercharging, which will allow operation at ceilings in the 10,000 m range. Component tests and detailed analysis indicate that the engine will achieve brake-specific fuel consumption well below 300 gm/kWh at power levels of several hundred watts. This level of performance opens the door to development of tabletop-sized aircraft having transpacific range and multi-day endurance, which will offer extraordinary new capabilities for meteorology, geomagnetic, and a variety of applications in environmental monitoring and military operations.

  14. Impact of aircraft systems within aircraft operation: A MEA trajectory optimisation study

    OpenAIRE

    Seresinhe, R.

    2014-01-01

    Air transport has been a key component of the socio-economic globalisation. The ever increasing demand for air travel and air transport is a testament to the success of the aircraft. But this growing demand presents many challenges. One of which is the environmental impact due to aviation. The scope of the environmental impact of aircraft can be discussed from many viewpoints. This research focuses on the environmental impact due to aircraft operation. Aircraft operation causes...

  15. Preliminary design study of advanced composite blade and hub and nonmechanical control system for the tilt-rotor aircraft. Volume 1: Engineering studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, H. R.; Smith, K. E.; Mcveigh, M. A.; Dixon, P. G.; Mcmanus, B. L.

    1979-01-01

    Composite structures technology is applied in a preliminary design study of advanced technology blades and hubs for the XV-15 tilt rotor research demonstrator aircraft. Significant improvements in XV-15 hover and cruise performance are available using blades designed for compatibility with the existing aircraft, i.e., blade installation would not require modification of the airframe, hub or upper controls. Provision of a low risk nonmechanical control system was also studied, and a development specification is given.

  16. Aircraft Carriers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nødskov, Kim; Kværnø, Ole

    as their purchases of aircraft carrier systems, makes it more than likely that the country is preparing such an acquisition. China has territorial disputes in the South China Sea over the Spratly Islands and is also worried about the security of its sea lines of communications, by which China transports the majority......, submarines, aircraft and helicopters, is not likely to be fully operational and war-capable until 2020, given the fact that China is starting from a clean sheet of paper. The United States of America (USA), the United Kingdom (UK), Russia and India are currently building or have made decisions to build new...

  17. Advanced supersonic propulsion study, phases 3 and 4. [variable cycle engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allan, R. D.; Joy, W.

    1977-01-01

    An evaluation of various advanced propulsion concepts for supersonic cruise aircraft resulted in the identification of the double-bypass variable cycle engine as the most promising concept. This engine design utilizes special variable geometry components and an annular exhaust nozzle to provide high take-off thrust and low jet noise. The engine also provides good performance at both supersonic cruise and subsonic cruise. Emission characteristics are excellent. The advanced technology double-bypass variable cycle engine offers an improvement in aircraft range performance relative to earlier supersonic jet engine designs and yet at a lower level of engine noise. Research and technology programs required in certain design areas for this engine concept to realize its potential benefits include refined parametric analysis of selected variable cycle engines, screening of additional unconventional concepts, and engine preliminary design studies. Required critical technology programs are summarized.

  18. Alternate Fuels for Use in Commercial Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daggett, David L.; Hendricks, Robert C.; Walther, Rainer; Corporan, Edwin

    2008-01-01

    The engine and aircraft Research and Development (R&D) communities have been investigating alternative fueling in near-term, midterm, and far-term aircraft. A drop in jet fuel replacement, consisting of a kerosene (Jet-A) and synthetic fuel blend, will be possible for use in existing and near-term aircraft. Future midterm aircraft may use a biojet and synthetic fuel blend in ultra-efficient airplane designs. Future far-term engines and aircraft in 50-plus years may be specifically designed to use a low- or zero-carbon fuel. Synthetic jet fuels from coal, natural gas, or other hydrocarbon feedstocks are very similar in performance to conventional jet fuel, yet the additional CO2 produced during the manufacturing needs to be permanently sequestered. Biojet fuels need to be developed specifically for jet aircraft without displacing food production. Envisioned as midterm aircraft fuel, if the performance and cost liabilities can be overcome, biofuel blends with synthetic jet or Jet-A fuels have near-term potential in terms of global climatic concerns. Long-term solutions address dramatic emissions reductions through use of alternate aircraft fuels such as liquid hydrogen or liquid methane. Either of these new aircraft fuels will require an enormous change in infrastructure and thus engine and airplane design. Life-cycle environmental questions need to be addressed.

  19. Quiet engine program flight engine design study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klapproth, J. F.; Neitzel, R. E.; Seeley, C. T.

    1974-01-01

    The results are presented of a preliminary flight engine design study based on the Quiet Engine Program high-bypass, low-noise turbofan engines. Engine configurations, weight, noise characteristics, and performance over a range of flight conditions typical of a subsonic transport aircraft were considered. High and low tip speed engines in various acoustically treated nacelle configurations were included.

  20. Systems Analysis Initiated for All-Electric Aircraft Propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohout, Lisa L.

    2003-01-01

    A multidisciplinary effort is underway at the NASA Glenn Research Center to develop concepts for revolutionary, nontraditional fuel cell power and propulsion systems for aircraft applications. There is a growing interest in the use of fuel cells as a power source for electric propulsion as well as an auxiliary power unit to substantially reduce or eliminate environmentally harmful emissions. A systems analysis effort was initiated to assess potential concepts in an effort to identify those configurations with the highest payoff potential. Among the technologies under consideration are advanced proton exchange membrane (PEM) and solid oxide fuel cells, alternative fuels and fuel processing, and fuel storage. Prior to this effort, the majority of fuel cell analysis done at Glenn was done for space applications. Because of this, a new suite of models was developed. These models include the hydrogen-air PEM fuel cell; internal reforming solid oxide fuel cell; balance-of-plant components (compressor, humidifier, separator, and heat exchangers); compressed gas, cryogenic, and liquid fuel storage tanks; and gas turbine/generator models for hybrid system applications. Initial mass, volume, and performance estimates of a variety of PEM systems operating on hydrogen and reformate have been completed for a baseline general aviation aircraft. Solid oxide/turbine hybrid systems are being analyzed. In conjunction with the analysis efforts, a joint effort has been initiated with Glenn s Computer Services Division to integrate fuel cell stack and component models with the visualization environment that supports the GRUVE lab, Glenn s virtual reality facility. The objective of this work is to provide an environment to assist engineers in the integration of fuel cell propulsion systems into aircraft and provide a better understanding of the interaction between system components and the resulting effect on the overall design and performance of the aircraft. Initially, three