WorldWideScience

Sample records for aircraft carriers

  1. Aircraft Carriers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nødskov, Kim; Kværnø, Ole

    in Asia and will balance the carrier acquisitions of the United States, the United Kingdom, Russia and India. China’s current military strategy is predominantly defensive, its offensive elements being mainly focused on Taiwan. If China decides to acquire a large carrier with offensive capabilities......, then the country will also acquire the capability to project military power into the region beyond Taiwan, which it does not possess today. In this way, China will have the military capability to permit a change of strategy from the mainly defensive, mainland, Taiwan-based strategy to a more assertive strategy...... catapult with which to launch the fi ghter aircraft, not to mention the possible development of a nuclear power plant for the ship. The Russian press has indicated that China is negotiating to buy SU-33 fi ghters, which Russia uses on the Kuznetsov carrier. The SU-33 is, in its modernized version...

  2. Obstacle avoidance and path planning for carrier aircraft launching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Yu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Launching safety and efficiency are important indexes to measure the fighting capacity of carrier. The study on path planning for taxi of carrier aircraft launching under actual deck environment is of great significance. In actual deck scheduling, manual command is applied to taxi of carrier aircraft, which has negative effects on the safety of staff and carrier aircraft launching. In consideration of both the safety and efficiency of carrier aircraft launching, the key elements of the problem are abstracted based on the analysis of deck environment, carrier aircraft maneuver performance and task requirements. According to the problem description, the mathematical model is established including various constraints. The carrier aircraft and the obstacles are reasonably simplified as circle and polygons respectively. What’s more, the proposed collision detection model reduces the calculations. Aimed at the features of model, the theory of model predictive control (MPC is applied to the path search. Then a dynamic weight heuristic function is designed and a dynamic multistep optimization algorithm is proposed. Taking the Nimitz-class aircraft carrier as an example, the paths from parking place to catapult are planned, which indicate the rationality of the model and the effectiveness of the algorithm by comparing the planning results under different simulation environments. The main contribution of research is the establishment of obstacle avoidance and path planning model. In addition, it provides the solution of model and technological foundations for comprehensive command and real-time decision-making of the carrier aircraft.

  3. Carrier Analysis Lab (CAL) – Aircraft/Weapons/Ship Compatibility Lab

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Purpose: The Carrier Analysis Lab (CAL) - Aircraft/Weapons/Ship Compatibility Lab located at the Naval Air Warfare Center Aircraft Division, Lakehurst, NJ provides...

  4. Environmental Influence on Automatic Landing Error of the Carrier-Borne Aircraft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Zhimin

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to analyze the movement model of aircraft carrier and stern flow model under the influence of marine sport. Also, we focus on the influence of marine sports and aft flow on the landing error of the carrier-borne aircraft under the guidance of the automatic landing system in different sea state level by numerical simulation and calculation. The analysis result is meaningful to the aircraft carrier due to the fact that environmental factors have a great influence on the error of carrier-borne aircraft landing on aircraft carrier, especially; marine sports and aft flow always affect the movement of an aircraft carrier and landing process of carrier-borne aircraft.

  5. Determining the approach speed envelope of carrier aircraft

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Geng Jianzhong; Yao Hailin; Duan Zhuoyi

    2013-01-01

    Many factors,such as deck motion and air wave,influence the determination of the approach speed which has an important effect on landing safety. Until recently,there are no design criteria about approach speed of carrier aircraft in the current standards and available publications. Therefore,the requirements of stall margin, longitudinal acceleration ability,altitude correction and field-of-view on approach speed were researched. Based on the flight dynamics model,the flight simulations were conducted to study the effect of the response time of en-gine,wave off requirements,elevator efficiency and deflection rate on the approach speed. The results presented that the approach longitudinal acceleration and altitude correction ability had crucial influence on the approach speed envelope of the aircraft. The limitations of the control requirements,field-of-view requirements and gear were also given through the simulation and analysis. Based on the above results,the approach speed envelope were determined.

  6. Multi-body dynamic system simulation of carrier-based aircraft ski-jump takeoff

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Yangang; Wang Weijun; Qu Xiangju

    2013-01-01

    The flight safety is threatened by the special flight conditions and the low speed of carrier-based aircraft ski-jump takeoff.The aircraft carrier motion,aircraft dynamics,landing gears and wind field of sea state are comprehensively considered to dispose this multidiscipline intersection problem.According to the particular naval operating environment of the carrier-based aircraft ski-jump takeoff,the integrated dynamic simulation models of multi-body system are developed,which involves the movement entities of the carrier,the aircraft and the landing gears,and involves takeoff instruction,control system and the deck wind disturbance.Based on Matlab/Simulink environment,the multi-body system simulation is realized.The validity of the model and the rationality of the result are verified by an example simulation of carrier-based aircraft ski-jump takeoff.The simulation model and the software are suitable for the study of the multidiscipline intersection problems which are involved in the performance,flight quality and safety of carrier-based aircraft takeoff,the effects of landing gear loads,parameters of carrier deck,etc.

  7. A NASA study of the impact of technology on future carrier based tactical aircraft - Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, S. B., III

    1992-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of technology on future carrier based tactical aircraft. The results were used in the Center for Naval Analysis Future Carrier Study. The NASA Team designed three classes of aircraft ('Fighter', 'Attack', and 'Multimission') with two different technology levels. The Multimission aircraft were further analyzed by examining the penalty on the aircraft for both catapult launch/arrested landing recovery (Cat/trap) and short take-off/vertical landing (STOVL). The study showed the so-called STOVL penalty was reduced by engine technology and the next generation Strike Fighter will pay more penalty for Cat/trap than for STOVL capability.

  8. 14 CFR 382.119 - What information must carriers give individuals with vision or hearing impairment on aircraft?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false What information must carriers give individuals with vision or hearing impairment on aircraft? 382.119 Section 382.119 Aeronautics and Space... carriers give individuals with vision or hearing impairment on aircraft? (a) As a carrier, you must...

  9. Unmanned Carrier-based Aircraft System: Navy Needs to Demonstrate Match between Its Requirements and Available Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-01

    UNMANNED CARRIER -BASED AIRCRAFT SYSTEM Navy Needs to Demonstrate Match between Its Requirements and Available...DATES COVERED 00-00-2015 to 00-00-2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Unmanned Carrier -based Aircraft System: Navy Needs to Demonstrate Match between Its...UNMANNED CARRIER -BASED AIRCRAFT SYSTEM Navy Needs to Demonstrate Match between Its Requirements and Available Resources Why GAO Did This Study The

  10. Navy Ford (CVN 78) Class Aircraft Carrier Program: Background and Issues for Congress

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-27

    Names Next Aircraft Carrier USS John F. Kennedy,” Navy News Service, May 29, 2011, accessed online on June 1, 2011 at http://www.navy.mil/search...and USS John F. Kennedy (CVN 79) come online ? A: The proposed plan matches the number of complete carrier air wings to the number of operationally...efficiently be performed. The CVN 79 build sequence installs 20 percent more parts in shop , and 30 percent more parts on the final assembly platen, as

  11. Navy Ford (CVN-78) Class Aircraft Carrier Program: Background and Issues for Congress

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-27

    Names Next Aircraft Carrier USS John F. Kennedy,” Navy News Service, May 29, 2011, accessed online on June 1, 2011 at http://www.navy.mil/search...and USS John F. Kennedy (CVN 79) come online ? A: The proposed plan matches the number of complete carrier air wings to the number of operationally...efficiently be performed. The CVN 79 build sequence installs 20 percent more parts in shop , and 30 percent more parts on the final assembly platen, as

  12. China’s Aircraft Carrier Ambitions: An Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    weapons acquisition budget during that time. The annual cost for regular training , maintenance, repairs, and fuel for two carrier battle groups can be...Technology], no. 2 (2008); and Ding Guoliang, Hu Yefa, and Liu Xiaojing, “ Maglev Electromagnetic Catapult System Structure Design and Magnetic Field

  13. Unmanned Carrier-Based Aircraft System: Debate over Systems Role Led to Focus on Aerial Refueling

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-24

    Unmanned Carrier-Based Aircraft System: Debate over System’s Role Led to Focus on Aerial Refueling Prior to February 2016, the Navy had planned to...pages in the publication and whether the publication is printed in color or black and white . Pricing and ordering information is posted on GAO’s

  14. Survey of health status and physical fitness in Royal Thai Naval Aircraft Carrier personnel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Supanitayanon, Thanawat; Jensen, Olaf Chresten; Canals, ML

    2011-01-01

    Background: In naval personnel, health status and physical fitness may be affected by work in confined spaces, stressful events, mission fulfillment, and long periods of time away from home on board ship. The aircraft carrier "H.T.M.S. Chakrinaruebet" is the flagship of the Royal Thai Navy, suppo...

  15. Application of the concept of dynamic trim control to automatic landing of carrier aircraft. [utilizing digital feedforeward control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, G. A.; Meyer, G.

    1980-01-01

    The results of a simulation study of an alternative design concept for an automatic landing control system are presented. The alternative design concept for an automatic landing control system is described. The design concept is the total aircraft flight control system (TAFCOS). TAFCOS is an open loop, feed forward system that commands the proper instantaneous thrust, angle of attack, and roll angle to achieve the forces required to follow the desired trajector. These dynamic trim conditions are determined by an inversion of the aircraft nonlinear force characteristics. The concept was applied to an A-7E aircraft approaching an aircraft carrier. The implementation details with an airborne digital computer are discussed. The automatic carrier landing situation is described. The simulation results are presented for a carrier approach with atmospheric disturbances, an approach with no disturbances, and for tailwind and headwind gusts.

  16. Evaluation of simulation-based training for aircraft carrier marshalling with learning cubic and Kirkpatrick’s models

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tian Yongliang; Liu Hu; Yin Jiao; Luo Mingqiang; Wu Guanghui

    2015-01-01

    Simulation-based training is a promising way to train a carrier flight deck crew because of the complex and dangerous working environment. Quantitative evaluation of simulation-based training quality is vital to make simulation-based training practical for aircraft carrier marshalling. This paper develops a personal computer-based aircraft carrier marshalling simulation system and a cave automatic virtual environment (CAVE)-based immersive environment. In order to compare the training effectiveness of simulation-based training and paper-based training, a learning cubic model is proposed and a contrast experiment is carried out as well. The experimental data is ana-lyzed based on a simplified Kirkpatrick’s model. The results show that simulation-based training is better than paper-based training by 26.80%after three rounds of testing, which prove the effective-ness of simulation-based aircraft carrier marshalling training.

  17. Large >60 gallon/day ‘pulse-tube’ oxygen liquefier for aircraft carriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spoor, P. S.

    2015-12-01

    An oxygen liquefier using a large ‘pulse-tube’ or acoustic-Stirling cryocooler is described, which has a liquefaction rate in excess of 60 gallons per day (227 liters per day) as measured by the increase in weight of a storage dewar, from <20 kWe input. Several of these systems will be deployed on U.S. Navy aircraft carriers to provide shipboard liquid oxygen. Paths to improvement in future systems are identified, although it is noted that since the present system exceeds the required specifications, these improvements may not be implemented in the near term.

  18. Multi-agent Based Hierarchy Simulation Models of Carrier-based Aircraft Catapult Launch

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Weijun; Qu Xiangju; Guo Linliang

    2008-01-01

    With the aid of multi-agent based modeling approach to complex systems,the hierarchy simulation models of carrier-based aircraft catapult launch are developed.Ocean,carrier,aircraft,and atmosphere are treated as aggregation agents,the detailed components like catapult,landing gears,and disturbances are considered as meta-agents,which belong to their aggregation agent.Thus,the model with two layers is formed i.e.the aggregation agent layer and the meta-agent layer.The information communication among all agents is described.The meta-agents within one aggregation agent communicate with each other directly by information sharing,but the meta-agents,which belong to different aggregation agents exchange their information through the aggregation layer fast,and then perceive it from the sharing environment,that is the aggregation agent.Thus,not only the hierarchy model is built,but also the environment perceived by each agent is specified.Meanwhile,the problem of balancing the independency of agent and the resource consumption brought by real-time communication within multi-agent system (MAS) is resolved.Each agent involved in carrier-based aircraft catapult launch is depicted,with considering the interaction within disturbed atmospheric environment and multiple motion bodies including carrier,aircraft,and landing gears.The models of reactive agents among them are derived based on tensors,and the perceived messages and inner frameworks of each agent are characterized.Finally,some results of a simulation instance are given.The simulation and modeling of dynamic system based on multi-agent system is of benefit to express physical concepts and logical hierarchy clearly and precisely.The system model can easily draw in kinds of other agents to achieve a precise simulation of more complex system.This modeling technique makes the complex integral dynamic equations of multibodies decompose into parallel operations of single agent,and it is convenient to expand,maintain,and reuse

  19. How Long Before NATO Aircraft Carrier Force Projection Capabilities Are Successfully Countered? Some effects of the fiscal crises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lučev Josip

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Growth and fiscal policy conducive to economic development have been severely jeopardized in most NATO member countries since 2008. In sharp contrast, China has experienced only a relatively slower GDP growth, which it has mitigated with a fiscally expansionary outlook. Under these conditions, when can we expect the politico-military position of NATO to be challenged? This paper surveys amphibious force projection capabilities in six countries: the USA, the UK, France, Russia, India and the People's Republic of China (PRC. An assessment of the current capability for aircraft carrier building and a survey of carrier-related ambitions is undertaken to offer projections of probable aircraft carrier fleets by 2030. The three non-NATO countries are far better positioned to build aircraft carriers than the three NATO members, with China in the lead. Nevertheless, there is a high probability of the continued military dominance of the USA and NATO, but also of a military build-up focusing on the Indian Ocean.

  20. 舰载机机舰适配性体系研究%Study on Adaptation System of Carrier-based Aircraft

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭润兆; 段卓毅; 李小卫

    2014-01-01

    针对固定翼舰载机和采用弹射装置的大型航母,分析了舰载机与航母之间的约束接口关系,提出了较为完整的舰载机机舰适配性研究框架。该体系框架涵盖了量化的机舰适配性设计要素,为舰载机的全程研制提供了指导和依据。%In Based on the ifxed wing carrier-based aircraft and large carrier with catapult, the constraint interface between aircrafts and carrier is analyzed and a carrier-based aircraft adaptation system architecture is proposed. This system architecture, which involves quantized adaptation design factors, provides guidance and basis for the carrier-based aircraft design.

  1. Ambiguity Function Method Scheme for Aircraft Attitude Sensor Utilising GPS/GLONASS Carrier Phase Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenrui Jin

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available When the receivers of GPS, GLONASS, COMPASS and other such systems are equipped with multiple antennas, they can give attitude information. Based on the difference carrier phase equations established in local level frame (LLF, a new algorithm is presented to resolve aircraft attitude determination problems in real-time. Presuming that the cycle integer ambiguity is known, the measurement equations have attitude analytical resolutions using single difference (SD equations of two navigation satellites in-view. Similar with SD process, the doubledifference (DD measurements are established and analysed. In addition, the SD and DD algorithms are capable of reducing the integer search space into some discrete point space and then the ambiguity function method (AFM resolves the ambiguity function within the point solutions space. Therefore the procedures have very low computation, thus saving time. The hardware architecture has been realised using multiple  GPS/GLONASS OEMs. The experimental results have demonstrated that the proposed approach is effective and can satisfy the requirement of real-time application in cases of GPS, and combined GPS, and GLONASS.Defence Science Journal, 2009, 59(5, pp.466-470, DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.14429/dsj.59.1548

  2. Review on Initial Alignment of Carrier Aircraft%舰载机初始对准综述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谈潇麟; 伏思华; 姜广文; 吴伟

    2016-01-01

    Since the large and unknown lever-arm, the large azimuth misalignment angle and repaid alignment in the emergency situations , the carrier aircraft alignment technology is different from the initial alignment of shipboard weapons and the airborne weapons .Aiming at the problem of initial alignment , the development of alignment technology for carrier aircraft at home and abroad is described , and the key technologies of this problem , such as matching , error compensation model and filtering algorithms are de-scribed in detail .Finally, the trend of the carrier aircraft alignment technology is briefly discussed .%舰载机对准技术由于杆臂较大且未知、大方位失准角以及紧急情况下的快速对准等问题,与舰载武器、机载武器的初始对准都有所不同。本文针对舰载机的初始对准问题,阐述了国内外舰载机对准技术的发展,对舰载机对准问题的关键技术如匹配方式、误差补偿模型和滤波算法进行了详细的介绍,最后,初步分析了舰载机对准技术的研究方向。

  3. 潍坊海王创建医药物流航母%Weifang Haiwang,an Aircraft Carrier in the Pharmaceutical Logistics Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜冬

    2005-01-01

    In the just starting pharmaceutical logistics industry in China,Weifang Haiwang Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd., like an aircraft carrier, with annual sales revenues of 2.61 billion yuan, has become the leader in China.

  4. 15 CFR 30.26 - Reporting of vessels, aircraft, cargo vans, and other carriers and containers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... vehicles, trailers, pallets, cargo vans, lift vans, or similar shipping containers are not considered... transfer of ownership or title, in their capacity as carriers of goods or as instruments of such carriers... to sale or other transfer from ownership in the United States to ownership abroad. If a vessel,...

  5. Comparing the performance of expert user heuristics and an integer linear program in aircraft carrier deck operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Jason C; Banerjee, Ashis Gopal; Cummings, Mary L; Roy, Nicholas

    2014-06-01

    Planning operations across a number of domains can be considered as resource allocation problems with timing constraints. An unexplored instance of such a problem domain is the aircraft carrier flight deck, where, in current operations, replanning is done without the aid of any computerized decision support. Rather, veteran operators employ a set of experience-based heuristics to quickly generate new operating schedules. These expert user heuristics are neither codified nor evaluated by the United States Navy; they have grown solely from the convergent experiences of supervisory staff. As unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) are introduced in the aircraft carrier domain, these heuristics may require alterations due to differing capabilities. The inclusion of UAVs also allows for new opportunities for on-line planning and control, providing an alternative to the current heuristic-based replanning methodology. To investigate these issues formally, we have developed a decision support system for flight deck operations that utilizes a conventional integer linear program-based planning algorithm. In this system, a human operator sets both the goals and constraints for the algorithm, which then returns a proposed schedule for operator approval. As a part of validating this system, the performance of this collaborative human-automation planner was compared with that of the expert user heuristics over a set of test scenarios. The resulting analysis shows that human heuristics often outperform the plans produced by an optimization algorithm, but are also often more conservative.

  6. 舰载无人机与弹射装置适配性问题研究%Study on Adaptability of Carrier-based Unmanned Aircraft with Aircraft Catapult Device

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许云飞; 陈良

    2016-01-01

    The adaptability of carrier-based aircraft with aircraft catapult device is composed of machinery interface adaptability, operation process adaptability, take-off capability adaptability and environment condition adaptability in terms of engineering. Carrier-based unmanned aircraft has some unique features compared with common carrier-based aircraft in which be told issues, because it has been constricted by some factors such as requirements, technology level and cost. Chinese industry is a junior in application and design for carrier-based aircraft. This paper discussed features of adaptability of carrier-based aircraft with aircraft catapult device. As well as it believes that discussion could promote the technology readiness level up.%从工程角度,舰载机与弹射装置的适配性由机械接口适配性、操作流程适配性、起飞(含性能)适配性和环境适应性等4个方面构成。舰载无人机作为舰载机的一个分支,受到需求、技术成熟度与成本等多因素影响或制约,在上述4个方面与有人驾驶的舰载机相比,具有其特殊性。我国在舰载机特别是可被弹射起飞的舰载机设计领域仍处于初级阶段,本文针对舰载无人机与弹射装置的适配性进行讨论,以提高未来舰载无人机研制中相关技术的成熟度,加快型号研制进展。

  7. Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hibbs, B.D.; Lissaman, P.B.S.; Morgan, W.R.; Radkey, R.L.

    1998-09-22

    This disclosure provides a solar rechargeable aircraft that is inexpensive to produce, is steerable, and can remain airborne almost indefinitely. The preferred aircraft is a span-loaded flying wing, having no fuselage or rudder. Travelling at relatively slow speeds, and having a two-hundred foot wingspan that mounts photovoltaic cells on most all of the wing`s top surface, the aircraft uses only differential thrust of its eight propellers to turn. Each of five sections of the wing has one or more engines and photovoltaic arrays, and produces its own lift independent of the other sections, to avoid loading them. Five two-sided photovoltaic arrays, in all, are mounted on the wing, and receive photovoltaic energy both incident on top of the wing, and which is incident also from below, through a bottom, transparent surface. The aircraft is capable of a top speed of about ninety miles per hour, which enables the aircraft to attain and can continuously maintain altitudes of up to sixty-five thousand feet. Regenerative fuel cells in the wing store excess electricity for use at night, such that the aircraft can sustain its elevation indefinitely. A main spar of the wing doubles as a pressure vessel that houses hydrogen and oxygen gases for use in the regenerative fuel cell. The aircraft has a wide variety of applications, which include weather monitoring and atmospheric testing, communications, surveillance, and other applications as well. 31 figs.

  8. Designing an Interactive Local and Global Decision Support System for Aircraft Carrier Deck Scheduling

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    Deck Scheduling Jason C. Ryana, M. L. Cummingsb, Nick Royc, Ashis Banerjeed Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, 02139 and Axel...the human satisficing, where only a small portion of the overall problem is solved. This perspective considers the individual aircraft as the point ...leak, a certain point in the future corresponds to the predicted complete loss of fuel. To signify this “ point of no return” to the operator, a

  9. Annual Review of Aircraft Accident Data. US Carrier Operations Calendar Year 1997

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-24

    U.S. AIR CARRIER OPERATIONS 1987 - 1997 Number of Accidents by Segements of Aviation Involved Accidents S135 N135 N135 S121 Total and and and and Year...planning/decision 1 1 Lack of familiarity with geographic area 1 0 Proper alignment 1 1 Raising of flaps 1 0 Refueling 1 0 Self-induced pressure 1 0

  10. Modeling of Carrier-based Aircraft's Catapult Launch under Surf%有浪条件下舰载机弹射起飞建模研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张磊; 王海峰; 宋笔锋

    2012-01-01

    有浪条件下,航空母舰的摇摆会影响舰载机的安全起飞.对有浪条件下舰载机弹射起飞过程受力、运动情况进行了分析.采用柔性起落架来实现航空母舰与舰载机之间的干涉,建立了模块化的仿真系统并研究了中等海况下航空母舰的摇摆对舰载机弹射起飞的影响.仿真结果表明,中等海况下纵摇是导致下沉的主要因素,最大下沉量可达15 m;横摇导致最大下沉约0.2m;垂荡导致最大下沉约1m;横摇会导致明显的横侧向运动;纵摇、横摇、垂荡均会导致起落架最大载荷显著增大.%The carrier' s swing can endanger the safety of carrier-based aircraft launching. The forces and motions during the carrier-based aircraft catapult launch under surf, adopted flexible gear model to achieve interaction between the carrier-based aircraft and the carrier are theoretically analyzed, founded a modularized simulation system and researched on the influence of carrier' s rocking on aircraft' s catapult launch. Simulation results show that under moderate sea conditions, the pitch is the main factor leading to the subsidence which can up to 15 meters while roll resulting about 0.2 m and heave resulting about 1 m in the maximum subsidence. Roll also leads to significant lateral movement. Pitch, roll and heave result are significantly increased in load of gear.

  11. Requirements for an Aircraft Carrier Flight Deck Fire Fighting Test Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    PEO Carriers 614 Sicard Street SE Stop 7007 11. SPONSOR / MONITOR’S REPORT Washington Navy Yard DC 20376-7007 NUMBER(S) 12. DISTRIBUTION /AVAILABILITY...nozzles are installed every 8 feet (alternately 5 feet and 3 feet apart). > Every point on the flight deck must be reachable by a minimum of two AFFF...nozzle rated at 125 gpm. > AFFF solution flow rates for each flight deck demand point are as follows: AFFF System Nominal Flow Rate Flush Deck/Deck Edge

  12. 舰载机前轮滑跃起飞技术%Carriered-Aircraft Taking-off with Nose Landing Gear on Ski-jump Ramp Profile

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    房兴波; 聂宏; 于浩

    2011-01-01

    The ramp profile is introduced to the aircraft carrier to make it sure that the nose landing gear goes to the ramp profile after the catapult process, so that the nose of the aircraft rise. The simplified model of the whole carriered-aircraft during the process of catapult take off is built. Dynamic equations about catapult run phase are presented. The dynamic response of the carriered-aircraft during the process of catapult take off is calculated via Runge-Kutta procedure. The results indicate that the introduction of ramp profile can decrease the flight path sinkage during the catapult take off, the off-carrier velocity of the aircraft, and increase the take off masses and the load of the nose landing-gear.%在航母甲板上引入斜坡跑道,使舰载机弹射冲程结束后,前轮单独进入斜坡跑道,从而使飞机抬头.建立了舰载机起飞时的简化分析模型,给出了基于该分析模型的运动微分方程及相关参数的表达式,并采用龙格库塔算法对舰载执在斜坡跑道上滑跑起飞速一过程的动态响应进行了数值仿真.仿真结果表明,斜坡跑道的引入可以明显降低舰载机离舰后航迹的下沉量,降低舰载机的离舰速度,增加起飞质量,增大前起落架载荷.

  13. 航母航空弹药组成及需求分析%The composition and requirement analysis of aviation ammunition in aircraft carrier

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    史文强; 陈练; 蒋志勇

    2012-01-01

    为了保证持续的打击能力,舰载机必须往返于航母和战场上空,通过飞行甲板上的挂弹作业完成弹药补给,因而挂弹架次以及弹药需求量对于航空作业的规划安排具有重要意义.针对美国现役“尼米兹”级航母及其舰载机F/A-18E/F“超级大黄蜂”,重点分析了航母航空弹药类型及舰载机挂弹配置;讨论了作战架次的基本组成并总结了挂弹架次计算的基本步骤.以“尼米兹”级和“福特”级航母为例,详细计算了挂弹架次以及航空弹药需求量,并对弹药库自持力进行分析.结果表明,舰载机挂弹架次和航空弹药需求之间存在互相制约的关系.弹药需求量的分析对于航母设计和作战使用具有一定参考价值.%In order to ensure the sustained strike ability,embarked aircraft's should fly between the aircraft carrier and the midair of battlefield,completing the ammunition supplies by ordnance handling on the flight deck. Therefore, arming sortie of embarked aircrafts and requirement for ammunition have an important significance for planning arrangement of aviation operation. Based on the operation experience of USS Niinitz and F/A-l 8E/F Super Hornet onboard, analysis was firstly focused on the main types of aviation ammunition and the basic ordnance configuration for embarked aircraft. Then following by the discussion about breakdown of strike sorties and basic calculation steps of arming sortie, attention was drawn to the detailed calculation of arming sortie and ammunition requirement for USS Nimitz and Ford class aircraft carrier( CVN78). In the end,analysis was also performed on the self-supplying capacity of magazine stock in aircraft carrier. The conclusion is that it is interdependent between the arming sortie and requirement for ammunition. Paper's research production is valuable to the design and operation for aircraft carrier.

  14. 舰载机蒸汽弹射动力学仿真分析%Dynamics Simulation of Carrier-based Aircraft Steam Catapult

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张雷; 冯蕴雯; 薛小锋; 冯元生

    2012-01-01

    This article illustrates the need for a steam catapult device applications. Proposed the dynamics simulation model of carrier- based aircraft steam catapult on the basis of comprehensive consideration of the thermodynamic model, the traction release device mathematical model , aircraft kinetics model and landing gear jump and other factors. Based on C - 13 catapult and a certain type of aircraft,a simulation analysis is presented. The results,which are compared with test data,provide a useful reference for the design of carrier- based aircraft steam catapult system and experimental verification.%阐明了蒸汽弹射装置应用的必要性.在综合考虑热力学模型、牵引释放装置数学模型、舰载机动力学模型以及起落架突伸等因素的基础上,提出了舰载机蒸汽弹射动力学仿真分析模型.以C-13型弹射器和某型飞机为例进行了仿真分析,并与相关实验数据进行对比分析,其分析结果可为舰栽机蒸汽弹射系统设计以及试验验证提供有益参考.

  15. 航母关键系统对架次率的影响研究%The influence of critical systems on the sortie generation rate of aircraft carriers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵远征

    2016-01-01

    The sortie generation rate is a basic criterion to judge the combat capability of an aircraft carrier and its em-barked air wing, and it is also an important technical index of an aircraft carrier. In this paper, the influence of several critic-al systems on the sortie generation rate of aircraft carriers is discussed. The direct impact of the catapults, the approaching and landing system, the aircraft elevators, and the aviation weapon handling system are analyzed. The different impacts of the accelerating capability between nuclear aircraft carriers and conventional aircraft carriers are also analyzed.%航母舰载机的出动架次率是衡量航母及其航空联队作战能力的基本标准,是航母重要的战技指标。本文着重探讨了航母关键系统对架次率的影响,分析了弹射装置、着舰引导系统、飞机升降机、航空弹药贮运系统的能力对舰载机出动架次率的直接影响,对比了常规动力航母和核动力航母的加速性能对架次率的间接作用。

  16. Leveraging America’s Aircraft Carrier Capabilities. Exploring New Combat and Noncombat Roles and Missions for the U.S. Carrier Fleet

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    in the center of the Mediterranean Sea, roughly 100 miles south of Sicily . British aircraft, submarines, and surface ships based on Malta inflicted...Noncombat Vignettes 91 Most refugees flee to the north, toward the Florida Keys. To com- plicate matters, there are three tropical -storm systems in the

  17. French aircraft carrier design using virtual reality%虚拟现实技术在法国航母设计中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于雷

    2013-01-01

    A French virtual-reality simulation software named GASPAR is described.This software was developed in order to simulate different configurations of the French Navy' s future aircraft carrier and test their viability.Two supporting libraries upon which the software GASPAR is built is introduced,then the structure and use of the software follows.Finally,some results that the software has validated about the aircraft carrier design are given.%介绍法国开发的一款虚拟现实仿真软件GASPAR.该软件用于仿真法国海军未来航母的各种配置并测试它们的生存能力.首先介绍GASPAR软件的两大基础库,以及该软件的构成和用法,最后给出该软件在航母设计验证中的典型应用.

  18. Self-Directed Violence Aboard U.S. Navy Aircraft Carriers: An Examination of General and Shipboard-Specific Risk and Protective Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saitzyk, Arlene; Vorm, Eric

    2016-04-01

    Self-directed violence (SDV), which includes suicidal ideation with and without intent, suicidal preparatory behaviors and attempts with and without harm, non-suicidal self-directed violence, and completed suicide, has been a rising concern in the military. Military shipboard personnel may represent a unique subset of this population due to the distinct nature of deployment stressors and embedded supports. As such, one might expect differences in the prevalence of SDV between this group and other active duty personnel, signifying a distinct operational impact. This study analyzed the prevalence of SDV among personnel assigned or deployed to U.S. Navy aircraft carriers, and examined whether occurrences varied by descriptors commonly identified in the literature (e.g., age, gender, marital status, pay grade/rank). This study also examined characteristics specific to life aboard a U.S. Navy aircraft carrier in order to better understand the issues particular to this population. Descriptive analyses and relative risk findings suggested similarities in demographic risk factors to the general military population, but also striking differences related to occupational specialty and assigned department. This study is the first to shed light on risk and protective factors relevant to shipboard personnel.

  19. Integrated maintenance support scheduling method of multi-carrier aircrafts%舰载机多机一体化机务保障调度方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩维; 苏析超; 陈俊锋

    2015-01-01

    为了有效提升舰载机多机机务保障的效率和保障人员的利用率,根据单机机务保障流程约束特性,建立了基于多计划评审技术网络的多目标多机一体化机务保障调度模型。针对问题的求解,提出了一种自适应混合差分进化算法。首先根据调度的网络化排队过程,设计了基于事件调度策略的解码方法。其次为了协调算法“探索”与“开发”的能力,引入了自适应的变异操作和交叉、变异参数控制。再次,针对工序块的平行组合排列特征,提出了4种邻域结构,进而在算法框架中嵌入了一种自适应多邻域局部搜索策略。最后通过仿真实验验证了模型和算法的可行性和有效性。%In order to improve the maintenance support efficiency and support personnel availability of multi-carrier aircrafts effectively,according to the constraint characteristics of maintenance support process for single-carrier aircraft,a multi-objective integrated maintenance support scheduling model of multi-carrier air-crafts based on multiple program evaluation and review technique networks is established.To solve the pro-blem,a self-adaptive hybrid differential evolution algorithm is presented.First,a decoding method based on event scheduling is designed according to networked queuing process of scheduling.Second,for coordinating the exploration and exploitation in algorithm,a self-adaptive mutation operation,an adaptive control strategy of crossover and mutation parameters are introduced.Third,in view of the characteristics of parallel-arrangement of process blocks,four kinds of neighborhood structure are defined,and then a novel local search based on the newly defined neighborhoods is presented and imbedded in the SaHDE algorithm.The simulation results show the feasibility of the model and the effectiveness of the algorithm.

  20. 14 CFR 298.63 - Reporting of aircraft operating expenses and related statistics by small certificated air carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... into a single classification; therefore, carriers are not required to report the fourth digit of an... equipment, amortization of capitalized leases for flight equipment, provision for obsolescence and... to all salaries in this classification. (3) Line 13 “Departure Related (Station) Expense”...

  1. 舰载机弹射起飞动力学虚拟试验研究%Research on Dynamics during Catapult Takeoff of Carrier-based Aircraft

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    隋成国; 许锋; 聂宏

    2013-01-01

    基于多体动力软件LMS Virtual.lab建立了某型飞机弹射起飞的刚柔耦合虚拟样机模型,使用一对点和柔性曲线约束副来模拟活塞杆和外筒的运动,分析了目标飞机的弹射起飞安全性及弹射过程中飞机的动力学响应.仿真表明:目标飞机的舰首下沉量能够满求,可以安全起飞.纵摇和垂荡的耦合会使飞机舰首下沉量增大;分离时的动态响应情况与分离载荷的大小和衰减速度有关.%A flex-rigid virtual prototype model was built in LMS Virtual, lab to simulate the catapult launch process of carrier-based aircraft. A pair of flex point curve joints were used to simulate the movements of the piston rod and the outer tube. The catapult security and dynamics response of the target aircraft were analyzed. Simulation results show that: the target aircraft meets the criteria requirements,and can take off safelysthe coupling of pitch and heave will increase subsidence;the dynamic response caused by separation is related to the size and decay rate of separate load.

  2. A Feasibility Study of A Persistent Monitoring System For The Flight Deck of U.S. Navy Aircraft Carriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-01

    AFIT Antenna Distance Measurement Statistics Date Regime Device emax (m) ē (m) σe (m) 21-Oct-2008 All Custom 2.5184 0.2877 0.3096 22-Oct-2008 Static...Aircraft Wingspan Measurement Statistics Time emax (m) ē (m) σe (m) Morning 0.1842 0.0535 0.0140 Evening 0.9808 0.1333 0.1727 often introduces noise into...packetized network protocol (such as IEEE 802.11) which would allow for the use of public/private key authentication to prevent spoofing and allow

  3. Modeling and analyze of the environmental factors of carrier-based aircraft catapult launch in complex environment%复杂环境下舰载机弹射起飞环境因素建模分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭元江; 李会杰; 申功璋; 杨汀

    2011-01-01

    舰载机弹射起飞过程复杂,受到甲板运动、舰首气流、地面效应等复杂环境因素的影响.通过构建甲板运动模型、甲板风模型和地面效应模型,描述了弹射起飞过程中复杂的外部环境,并视为附加项加入到常规飞机方程中,建立了舰载机弹射起飞模型.研究表明:地面效应不利于舰载机弹射起飞;甲板风与舰首气流可抑制航迹下沉;舰面运动对舰载机离舰后下沉量影响很大.%The process of carrier-based aircraft catapult launch was complex,disturbed by the motion of aircraft carrier,deck wind,disturbance ahead of the bow and ground effect.The condition of carrier-based aircraft catapult launch was described by the simulation model of motion of aircraft carrier,deck wind,disturbance ahead of the bow and ground effect.The simulation model considering the condition of circumstance was composed of the model of plane and the model of circumstance condition,as the added factor.The results indicate that ground effect increases the flight path sinking,and the deck wind can help to decrease the flight path sinking during the catapult takeoff process.In addition,the motion of aircraft carrier has some important effects on maximum sinking and angle of attack.

  4. 航母编队受到的敌空袭威胁扇面大小预测模型%Forecasting model of the enemy air raid threat sector of aircraft carrier formation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯威; 王平; 程子光

    2011-01-01

    研究航母编队在防空作战中受到的敌空袭威胁扇面对航母编队兵力编成和防空兵力阵位配置具有重要意义.从航母编队受到的威胁扇面影响参数的定义人手,首先分析了影响敌空袭威胁扇面大小的主要因素,然后在假定敌空袭武器射程小于航母编队预警距离的情况下,提供了航母编队受到的敌空袭威胁扇面大小的预测方法,建立了计算威胁扇面大小的数学模型,举例并仿真计算了模型中各个参数对威胁扇面大小的影响,最后对仿真结果进行了分析.%The research on the enemy air raid threat sector of aircraft carrier formation in air defense combat have great significance to the force organization and air defense force disposition of aircraft carrier formation. Based on the definition of parameters which influence threat sector, we first analyze the primary factors which affect the size of threat sector. Then supposes the range of enemy air raid weapon is smaller than early-warning distance of aircraft carrier formation, a method of forecasting the size of the enemy air raid threat sector of aircraft carrier formation is suggested, and the corresponding mathematical models are established, the influence of the parameters on the threat sector of aircraft carrier formation is analyzed by examples and simulations. At last, the simulations results and the analysis conclusion haven been given.

  5. Static Balance Analysis of Carrier-Based Aircraft Catapult Launch with Six Degrees of Freedom%舰载机弹射起飞六自由度静平衡分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白双刚; 胡孟权; 段进坦

    2012-01-01

    静平衡状态是弹射起飞动力学分析的初始条件,也是进行弹射起飞动力学建模的基础.将舰船、飞机、起落架等视作具有独立质量的多运动实体,并分析描述它们之间的运动耦合关系,建立了舰载机静平衡状态下的六自由度数学模型,考虑了航母运动和甲板风以及海面气流扰动对飞机的影响.利用这一模型仿真计算了在不同情况下舰载机的静平衡状态,并分析了不同情况下舰载机的运动规律.计算结果与实际情况吻合,为舰载机弹射起飞六自由度动力学分析奠定了基础.%Static balance is the initial condition of catapult launch dynamic analysis, and the foundation of establishing the catapult launch model. Carrier, aircraft and landing gears, etc. are considered as multi -motion bodies that have their own masses, and the coupling relationships within these multi - motion bodies are also analyzed. The six degrees of freedom model of carrier - based aircraft is established in the condition of static balance, with the influences of carrier movement, deck wind and the airflow interference on aircraft considered. This model is applied to calculate and simulate the static balance of aircraft in different situations. The simulation and calculation results are consistent with the actual situation, which lays a foundation of dynamics analysis on carrier - based aircraft catapult launch with the six degrees of freedom model.

  6. 应用电磁弹射器的舰载机起飞性能分析%Performance Analysis of Catapult Take-Off Process of Carrier-Based Aircraft Using Electromagnetic Aircraft Launch System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李静; 左斌; 路翠华

    2012-01-01

    针对应用电磁弹射器的舰载机弹射起飞过程,综合考虑了电磁弹射器的推力、舰载机前起落架突伸力和载舰的运动,建立了舰载机弹射起飞的数学模型,并据此,分析了上述各种因素对舰载机弹射起飞安全性的影响,计算得到在满足舰载机弹射起飞安全准则的条件下,各种起飞因素应该满足的适应范围。研究分析表明:在风浪较大的恶劣天气条件下,通过适当地增加电磁弹射器的电磁推力和前起落架的突伸力,可以有效抑制舰载机的航迹下沉现象,确保舰载机的安全起飞过程。%Taking into consideration the thrust force of electromagnetic launch system,the nose gear fast-extension force and the ship motion process,a mathematical model of a carrier-based aircraft using electromagnetic launch system during the catapult takeoff process was built.Based on the proposed model,the influence of the above factors on catapult take-off safety was analyzed.Moreover,the scales of several take-off factors which accord with the catapult take-off safety were computed.The results indicated that properly increasing the thrust force of electromagnetic launch system and enhancing the nose gear fast-extension force could help to decrease the flight path sinkage and guarantee the catapult take-off safety of the carrier-based aircraft under the condition of atrocious weather.

  7. 舰载机不同弹射系统的弹射过程%Catapult Process of Different Catapult Systems for Carrier-Based Aircraft

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    甄子洋; 江驹; 王新华; 朱熠

    2012-01-01

    针对目前世界上最典型的两种舰载机弹射系统:蒸汽弹射系统和电磁弹射系统,对比研究了不同弹射系统的结构原理、数学模型、弹射性能等问题.分析了常用的蒸汽弹射装置和电磁装置的组成部件及其功用,给出对比分析结果;根据蒸汽弹射装置和电磁弹射装置的运动学特性,获得两种弹射装置的数学模型,推导出它们的非线性运动学方程,并给出对比分析结果;针对两种不同的弹射系统,构建了舰载机在舰面加速段的弹射过程的Matlab数值仿真模型,通过仿真研究,分析了不同弹射系统中对弹射性能起主要影响作用的关键因素,并根据仿真结果进行了对比分析.%The structure, principle, mathematical models and performance were studied for the two typical methods, steam catapult and Electromagnetic Aircraft Launch System ( EMALS) , for catapult launch of carrier-based aircraft. The compositions of steam catapult and EMALS were analyzed. The functions of the different parts of the catapult systems were also discussed. According to the kinematical characteristics of steam catapult and EMALS, the mathematical models were established, their nonlinear kinematical equations were deduced and the comparative analysis reslult was given. Simulations were made for the two catapult methods on the speeding stage of the aircraft. The main factors that have effect on catapult launch performance were analysed for different catapult methods by using the simulation result. Comparison of the two catapult launch systems was also made.

  8. Research on the Rapid Modeling of Carrier-Based Aircraft Wing Model%舰载机机翼模型的快速建模技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁振刚; 韩铁; 张广荣; 袁志华; 段梅

    2015-01-01

    The optimum design process of the carrier-based aircraft wing structure needs to create a large number of complex simulation models,the modeling capabilities of traditional simulation software can not solve the problem of rapid modeling. So this paper proposes a rapid modeling method for models on a certain type of carrier–based aircraft wing,which is based on the CATIA used widely in aviation field . By the division of research on the model,modeling the benchmark and encapsulation of the standardization of modeling process,a rapid design template of three-dimensional model on various parts of the wing to achieve the fast automatic modeling is eatablished. The results show that the rapid modeling system of the wing skeleton can create 3D models with high quality and efficiency,and provide a strong guarantee for the wing analysis and system simulation.%舰载机机翼结构的优化设计过程中需要建立大量的复杂仿真模型,传统仿真软件不能解决其快速建模问题。基于航空领域中广泛使用的CATIA设计平台,提出了一种针对某型号舰载机机翼模型的快速建模方法。通过对模型种类划分、建模基准及建模标准化流程的封装,建立了机翼中各类组成零件三维模型的快速设计模板,实现了快速自动建模。结果表明,机翼骨架快速建模系统能够建立优质高效的三维模型,为整机的分析及系统的仿真提供了有力的保障。

  9. Changing Aircraft Carrier Procurement Schedules: Effects that a Five-Year Procurement Cycle would have on Cost, Availability, and Shipyard Manpower and Workload

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Metrica 30-Year SBP 5-Year Cycle 30-Year SBP 5-Year Cycle 30-Year SBP 5-Year Cycle 2015 11 11 2.2 2.2 6.0 6.0 2016 11 11 2.3 2.4 6.2 6.3 2017...Carrier Force-Structure Analysis 21 Year Number of Carriers Carriers Deployed FRP Metrica 30-Year SBP 5-Year Cycle 30-Year SBP 5-Year Cycle 30

  10. CFD Numerical Simulation of Carrier-Based Aircraft Warming Machine with the Island Influence%舰载机暖机对舰岛影响的CFD数值模拟

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐鸣; 岳奎志; 郁大照

    2015-01-01

    为了对机舰适配性提供技术支持,文章研究了舰载机暖机对航母舰岛的热作用影响。首先,采用CATIA软件,建立航母与舰载机的3D数字样机;其次,采用Fluent软件,基于标准k-ε方程的湍流模型和三维N-S方程的控制理论,对航母与舰载机系统的数字样机进行CFD数值模拟,数值模拟了甲板风和燃气流相互作用和热交换作用下对舰岛的影响,并得出航母流场流线图、速度云图、动压云图和温度云图。数值模拟结果表明:暖机时,舰载机发动机的燃气流对舰岛及周边设备影响很大;最后,提出参考建议:舰岛及附近设备应进行抗热性能改进以满足暖机要求,人员禁止进入燃气流影响到的高温区域。%To provide technical support for aircraft carrier suitability, thermal coupling effect between the island and the warming-up carrier-based aircraft was proposed. A 3D digital mock-up of a carrier and aircrafts was established in CA⁃TIA, and a CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) numerical simulation was calculated based on k-εtwo-equation turbu⁃lent mode and Navier-Stokes equation. Considering the impact of the coupling and heat exchange between wind and com⁃bustion-gas flow on the island, the simulation results included flow streamline distribution, velocity distribution, pressure distribution and temperature distribution. The numerical simulation showed that the combustion-gas flow of the warming-up engines had great influence on the island the peripheral equipment. And the suggestion is that the island and peripheral equipment need to increase heat resisting property, and people are prohibited from entering the high temperature area.

  11. Aircraft Disinsection: A Guide for Military and Civilian Air Carriers (Desinsectisation des aeronefs: Un guide a l’intention des responsables des transports aeriens civils et militaires)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-04-01

    and other pests (e.g., viruses, bac- within the fuselage. The exterior surfaces teria, fungi, amphibians , snakes, birds, and and wheel housings are of...Sudan to the subject of aircraft disinsection. The - Sri Lanka - Surinam resurgence has been caused by the disin- - Swaziland - Tanzania tegration of...is being re- birds, amphibians ), seeds, and meat pro- turned from abroad, every effort should be ducts. made to ensure that it is free of pests

  12. Study on the Planning Model and Algorithm of Aircraft Carrier Formation Oil with Supplies%航母编队油料伴随补给规划模型及算法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄必佳; 王公宝

    2015-01-01

    基于航母编队油料伴随补给规划问题,提出作战背景下补给舰船的3种补给策略。根据合理假设,将解决TSP问题的指导思想加以改进并应用于补给规划问题中。以最小化补给时间和最大化作战效能为目标函数,分别构建补给规划模型,通过Matlab软件,利用改进的多目标离散粒子群算法对问题进行求解,并进行仿真实验验证。仿真结果表明:该方法是合理、有效的,能获得更小的补给时间和更大的编队作战效能,较好地实现航母编队油料伴随补给规划问题的优化。%Based on the planning problem of accompanied oil supply in the formation of aircraft carrier, put forwards three kinds of replenishment strategy under the background of ship combat supplies. According to reasonable assumptions, the guiding ideology to solve the TSP problem is improved and applied to the supply planning problem. Taking minimize supply time and maximum effectiveness as the objective function, supply planning model were constructed by Matlab software, to solve the problem by using the multi-objective improved discrete particle swarm algorithm, and the simulation experiment. Results show that the method is reasonable and effective which can get a smaller supply time and greater formation combat effectiveness, optimization of aircraft carrier formation with better fuel supply planning problem.

  13. 低成本材料技术在美国新型航母上的应用研究%Applied Research of Low Cost Materials and Technologies in American aircraft carrier

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓贤辉; 郭爱红; 廖志谦

    2012-01-01

    During the period of 2010-2011, NMC has participated in many research projects on low cost materials and technologies applied in American new aircraft carrier, including R&D of advanced material and manufacturing technology, advanced jointing technology, new surface and coating technology,and so on. The research progress of these projects are summarized in this article. The economic and social benefits of improving properties and reducing cost on the aircraft carrier building are expected, which may inspire us in the R&D of advanced material and manufacturing technology for shipbuilding.%本文概述了美国海军金属加工中心(NMC)在2010-2011年间参与开展的新型航空母舰用先进材料、先进制造技术、先进连接技术、新型表面涂装与处理技术等方面开展的低成本材料技术研发工作所取得的进展.预测了研究成果转让给海军应用时,给航空母舰建造提高性能、降低成本所带来的巨大经济效益和社会效益.这将对我国开展舰船用先进材料及制造技术方面的研究与开发工作起重要启示作用.

  14. Modeling of Carrier-based Aircraft Ski Jump Take-off Based on Tensor%基于张量的舰载机滑跃式起飞动力学建模

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘伟伟; 屈香菊

    2005-01-01

    A general mathematical model of carrier-based aircraft ski jump take-off is derived based on tensor. The carrier, the aircraft body and the movable parts of the landing gears are treated as independent entities. These entities are assembled into a multi-rigid-body system with flexible links. Dynamical equations of each entity are derived on the basis of the Newton law and the Euler transformation. Using the invariance property of the tensor, the dynamical and kinematical equations are converted to tensor forms which are invariant under time-dependent coordinate transformations. Then the tensor-formed equations are expressed by the matrix operation. Differential equation group of the matrix form is formulated for the programming. The closure of the model is discussed, and the simulation results are given.%基于张量推导建立了舰载机起飞过程的一般数学模型.将航空母舰、飞机、飞机的前后起落架活动部分视为具有独立质量的实体, 构成柔性连接的多刚体系统.用牛顿-欧拉法(N-E法)建立各个实体的动力学方程.利用张量的不变性对动力学和运动学方程进行变换,消除坐标系转换的影响,得到矩阵形式的微分方程组.这样动力学的全部计算均统一为矩阵形式.讨论了模型的封闭性,并给出了仿真结果.

  15. Dynamics and Test Method of Carrier-based Aircraft Nose Landing Gear Sudden Extension%舰载机前起落架突伸动力学分析及试验方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏小辉; 刘成龙; 聂宏; 张明; 尹乔之

    2013-01-01

    为了了解舰载机前起落架突伸试验与实际突伸过程的当量关系,本文以某舰载机为研究对象,建立了全机弹射起飞动力学模型,进行了全机弹射起飞动力学分析,得到了前起落架突伸过程中的动态响应.提出了基于当量质量的前起落架突伸动力学试验方法,设计了试验方案,建立了前起落架突伸动力学试验分析模型,进行了突伸动力学分析.进而依据全机突伸动力学分析结果,对基于当量质量的前起落架突伸动力学试验中相关参数的选取进行了探讨研究,结果表明:当突伸当量质量系数取0.8时,突伸动力学响应特性与全机弹射起飞突伸过程的动态响应结果比较吻合.%In order to understand the equivalent relationship of a landing gear's sudden-extension test and the real suddenextension process of a carrier-based aircraft,a dynamics model of a certain carrier-based aircraft catapult-assisted takeoff process is established.The catapult-assisted takeoff dynamics is simulated and the nose landing gears dynamic response to the sudden-extension process is obtained.A test method is introduced to study the nose landing gear 's sudden extension based on equivalent mass.Accordingly,a test program is presented for independent nose landing gear sudden-extension analysis.With simulated results of the models introduced above,the value range of relevant test parameters is studied.It is shown that the independent nose landing gear sudden-extension dynamic response is relatively consistent with the full-aircraft catapult-assisted takeoff dynamics when the equivalent mass coefficient is equal to 0.8.

  16. 舰载机大失准角的快速二次传递对准方法%Rapid second time transfer alignment of large misalignment for carrier aircrafts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙枫; 吴旭; 王根

    2012-01-01

    针对舰载机传递对准特点,直接利用主惯导的导航信息进行一次装订,引入了大失准角对准问题.为了解决舰载机传递对准问题,提出利用子惯导自主对准进行一次装订减小子惯导中间坐标系与主惯导间的失准角.分析Wahba问题提出统计意义的Quaternion(四元数)对准方法替换传统的Triad(双矢定姿)对准方法,提高了多信息冗余度和对准精度.基于分级修正思想,提出二次传递对准方法,第一次传递基于非线性模型和自适应渐消扩展卡尔曼滤波,并给出简化的渐消因子计算方法;第二次传递对准基于线性误差模型,采用速度+航向匹配,在补偿失准角的基础上,估计陀螺漂移.仿真结果表明二次传递方法能够满足舰载机传递对准需求.%Using the master inertial navigation system(MINS) navigation information,the slave inertial navigation system(SINS) was introduce to solve the large misalignment problem of the carrier aircraft transfer.The self-alignment was adopted before the transfer alignment to reduce the misalignment between the MINS and SINS.Then the Triad alignment method was replaced by statistical Quaternion method based on the solution of Wahba problem,which improved the alignment accuracy and redundancy.Then based on the cascaded calibration method,a second time transfer alignment was presented.The first alignment was based on the nonlinear error model and adaptive fading extended Kalman filter(AFEKF),and a new method of calculating fading factor was presented.The second alignment based on the linear error model,adopting velocity-yaw matching method not only estimate and compensate the misalignment angles,but also estimated the gyrocompass drift.The simulation results show that this method can satisfy the requirement for the carrier aircraft transfer alignment.

  17. Information report presented in application of article 145 of the regulation by the commission of national defense and armed forces about the propulsion system of the second aircraft carrier; Rapport d'information depose en application de l'article 145 du reglement par la commission de la defense nationale et des forces armees sur le mode de propulsion du second porte-avions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-11-01

    In the framework of the project of launching of a sister-ship to the Charles de Gaulle aircraft carrier, this report makes an objective analysis of the different possible propulsion systems that can be considered for this battle ship according to different criteria: 1 - two possible energy sources and four possible configurations of aircraft carrier considered: alternative between nuclear propulsion and conventional propulsion, the two nuclear ships eventualities, the hypothesis of an entirely French-made classical propulsion ship, the opportunity of a French-British cooperation for a conventional aircraft carrier project; 2 - decision criteria: operational need, cost, industrial and technological stakes, constraints linked with daily ship and crew life; 3 - propulsion systems alternative: conventional propulsion and reinforcement of the European defense policy, nuclear propulsion for an operational superiority and for a complementarity with the Charles de Gaulle. (J.S.)

  18. 14 CFR 252.3 - Smoking ban: air carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Smoking ban: air carriers. 252.3 Section... PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS SMOKING ABOARD AIRCRAFT § 252.3 Smoking ban: air carriers. Air carriers shall prohibit smoking on all scheduled passenger flights....

  19. 14 CFR 252.5 - Smoking ban: foreign air carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Smoking ban: foreign air carriers. 252.5... PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS SMOKING ABOARD AIRCRAFT § 252.5 Smoking ban: foreign air carriers. (a) Foreign air carriers shall prohibit smoking on all scheduled passenger flight segments: (1) Between...

  20. China’s Aircraft Carrier Dilemma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    nothing developed from them. Empresa Nacional Bazán, which merged with Astilleros Españoles S.A. (AESA) to form Navantia in 2000, reportedly attempted...to market its SAC-200 and -220 light conventional-takeoff-and-landing (CTOL) designs to China in 1995–96, but apparently Beijing was interested in

  1. 舰载机变长度减振牵制装置动力学分析%Analysis on Anti-Vibration Holdback Device of Carrier-Based Aircraft

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏小辉; 贲亮亮; 聂宏; 张明

    2013-01-01

    舰载机弹射起飞过程中,由于牵制载荷突卸而产生的前起落架沿航向的快速振动对机体结构和设备都会带来严重的疲劳问题.本文建立了舰载机弹射起飞动力学模型,设计了具有减振功能的舰载机弹射起飞变长度牵制装置,分析了该装置的动力学特性,并对该装置的减振效果进行了参数分析.研究结果表明:牵制载荷沿下扭力臂轴向的载荷分量所造成的缓冲器活塞杆的向后弯曲是导致牵制载荷突卸后前起落架振动的主要原因;变长度减振牵制装置通过实时改变牵制杆长度和牵制角,可大幅降低牵制载荷突卸后前起落架振动以及各铰接点振荡载荷,该装置在解决牵制载荷突卸振动问题中效果明显.%The vibration of the nose landing gear caused by the sudden discharge of holdback load during catapult launch of a carrier-based aircraft could bring serious fatigue problem to the structure and airborne equipment. With the purpose to solve the vibration problem, a dynamics model of catapult launch is established. An anti-vibration holdback device is designed while the dynamic characteristic and the effect of the device are discussed. From the research, the conclusions show that; the aft bending of the strut is the primarily reason of the fore-aft vibration of nose landing gear; the anti-vibration device would reduce the vibration load at the joint of gear and fuselage sharply with changing the length of the holdbar and the hold angle. The anti-vibration hold back device is effective in solving the vibration phenomenon.

  2. Analysis of dynamic characteristics of catapult launch for a carrier-based aircraft with sudden load discharge%考虑载荷突卸的舰载机弹射起飞动力学分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱齐丹; 李新飞; 喻勇涛

    2012-01-01

    In order to study dynamic characteristics of catapult launch for a carrier-based aircraft, a simplified dynamic model of catapult launch with sudden load discharge of nose gear was constructed. Fast vibration in the vertical direction of nose gear caused by the sudden discharge of the holdback load in the beginning of catapult launch was studied, and the dynamic reason of this phenomenon was analyzed. The rules of fast extension of nose landing gear caused by the sudden discharge of the catapult bridle load at the end of catapult launch was researched, and the influence of all parameters on the extension of nose landing gear was analyzed. Two important conclusions were obtained: in order to reduce the vibration peak value of the strain of nose landing gear during catapult launch, the holdback and catapult bridle lengths should be increased appropriately, and the maximum holdback breaking load is suggested to increase properly. Secondly, in order to decrease the difficulties of catapult launch, the catapult bridle length is recommended to decrease moderately.%为了分析舰载机弹射起飞过程中的动力学特点,建立了一种考虑前起落架载荷突卸的弹射起飞动力学模型.研究了在弹射开始时由于牵制载荷突卸而引起的前起落架沿着垂直方向的快速振动现象,并分析了该现象的动力学成因;研究了在弹射末端由于弹射杆载荷突卸而引起的前起落架的快速突伸规律,分析了各种参数对前起落架突伸的影响.结果分析表明:为了减小前起落架支柱受力的波动峰值,应适当增加弹射杆长度和牵制杆长度,及牵制杆最大破坏力值;但为了降低弹射起飞难度,应适当减小弹射杆长度.

  3. 40 CFR 141.804 - Aircraft water system operations and maintenance plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Aircraft water system operations and... § 141.804 Aircraft water system operations and maintenance plan. (a) Each air carrier must develop and implement an aircraft water system operations and maintenance plan for each aircraft water system that...

  4. Leasing in low-cost carriers

    OpenAIRE

    Aleixo, José Frederico Pais

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to explore the use of aircraft leasing as a financing instrument in the low-cost carriers’ sector. These airlines have been showing a huge growth in the customers’ preferences, while aircraft leasing plays a relevant role in the financing options of airlines. In this study we determined that lease future commitments represent on average 80% of other debt commitments in low-cost carriers. Furthermore, we discovered that the leasing rate in low-cost ai...

  5. Aircraft Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowers, Albion H. (Inventor); Uden, Edward (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    The present invention is an aircraft wing design that creates a bell shaped span load, which results in a negative induced drag (induced thrust) on the outer portion of the wing; such a design obviates the need for rudder control of an aircraft.

  6. Amphibious Aircraft

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A brief self composed research article on Amphibious Aircrafts discussing their use, origin and modern day applications along with their advantages and disadvantages...

  7. A NASA study of the impact of technology on future multimission aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuels, Jeffrey J.

    1992-01-01

    A conceptual aircraft design study was recently completed which compared three supersonic multimission tactical aircraft. The aircraft were evaluated in two technology timeframes and were sized with consistent methods and technology assumptions so that the aircraft could be compared in operational utility or cost analysis trends. The three aircraft are a carrier-based Fighter/Attack aircraft, a land-based Multirole Fighter, and a Short Takeoff/Vertical Landing (STOVL) aircraft. This paper describes the design study ground rules used and the aircraft designed. The aircraft descriptions include weights, dimensions and layout, design mission and maneuver performance, and fallout mission performance. The effect of changing technology and mission requirements on the STOVL aircraft and the impact of aircraft navalization are discussed. Also discussed are the effects on the STOVL aircraft of both Thrust/Weight required in hover and design mission radius.

  8. Noise of High Performance Aircraft at Afterburner

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-10

    aircraft carrier, navy personnel work in close proximity to high performance jets at takeoffs and landings. The noise level emitted by these jets is...any major differences between the dominant noise components of these jets and those of a standard high temperature laboratory supersonic jet . It is...noise. For the F18E aircraft, we find that its noise, at high engine power settings, also includes new noise components in addition to the usual fine

  9. Hydrogen carriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Teng; Pachfule, Pradip; Wu, Hui; Xu, Qiang; Chen, Ping

    2016-12-01

    Hydrogen has the potential to be a major energy vector in a renewable and sustainable future energy mix. The efficient production, storage and delivery of hydrogen are key technical issues that require improvement before its potential can be realized. In this Review, we focus on recent advances in materials development for on-board hydrogen storage. We highlight the strategic design and optimization of hydrides of light-weight elements (for example, boron, nitrogen and carbon) and physisorbents (for example, metal-organic and covalent organic frameworks). Furthermore, hydrogen carriers (for example, NH3, CH3OH-H2O and cycloalkanes) for large-scale distribution and for on-site hydrogen generation are discussed with an emphasis on dehydrogenation catalysts.

  10. Aircraft cybernetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-01-01

    The use of computers for aircraft control, flight simulation, and inertial navigation is explored. The man-machine relation problem in aviation is addressed. Simple and self-adapting autopilots are described and the assets and liabilities of digital navigation techniques are assessed.

  11. 舰载机弹射起飞上升段控制律研究%Control Law for Climbing Stage of Carrier-Based Aircraft in Catapult-Assisted Take-Off

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱熠; 江驹; 甄子洋; 王新华; 焦鑫

    2012-01-01

    针对舰载机的安全弹射起飞要求,研究了弹射起飞上升段控制律设计问题.分析了常用弹射装置原理以及弹射起飞的工作流程.构建了弹射起飞过程中的上升段相关数学模型,包括某型舰载机的纵向模型、前起落架突伸结构和阵风模型.设计了舰载机起飞离舰后上升段的飞行姿态控制律,在仿真中将加速滑跑阶段的各种因素转化成初始条件,同时分析了阵风干扰对上升段飞机飞行特性的影响.仿真结果表明:设计的姿态控制律可以改善舰载机在离舰上升段的姿态,抵抗气流干扰等因素的影响,提高弹射起飞的安全性.%According to the safety requirements of catapult-assisted take-off,the control law design for the aircraft in the climbing stage was studied. The principle of a common catapult device was studied and the process of catapult-assisted take-off was introduced. The mathematic models in the climbing stage were established, including the model of longitudinal small perturbation equations of the aircraft, the sudden stretch structure of the nose gear and the gust disturbance. The attitude control law of the climbing stage was designed. In simulation, the initial value was based on the influence of different factors in speeding stage. The influence of the gust disturbance on flight performance of the aircraft in its climbing stage was also analyzed. The results of simulation showed that the designed control law can improve the aircraft attitude in the climbing stage, decrease the adverse effect of gust disturbance, and thus can enhance the security of the catapult-assisted take-off.

  12. Development of Longitudinal Equivalent System Models for Selected U.S. Navy Tactical Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-08-01

    revaraa side II nacaaaary and Identlly by block number) Aircraft Longitudinal Flying Qualities Equivalent Systems Frequency Response Matching...is a twin turbofan powered, land and carrier based, subsonic, anti- submarine warfare aircraft . Longitudinal control is accomplished via a...based, supersonic fighter aircraft . Longitudinal control is accomplished via an irreversible mechanical flight control system which transmits

  13. Robotics and Automation for Flight Deck Aircraft Servicing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chesser, J.B.; Draper, J.V.; Pin, F.G.

    1999-03-01

    One of the missions of the Future Aircraft Carriers Program is to investigate methods that would improve aircraft turnaround servicing activities on carrier decks. The major objectives and criteria for evaluating alternative aircraft servicing methods are to reduce workload requirements, turnaround times (TAT), and life-cycle costs (LCC). Technologies in the field of Robotics and Automation (R and A) have the potential to significantly contribute to these objectives. The objective of this study was to investigate aircraft servicing functions on carrier decks which would offer the potentially most significant payoff if improved by various R and A technologies. Improvement in this case means reducing workload, time and LCC. This objective was accomplished using a ''bottom-up'' formalized approach as described in the following.

  14. Carrier-based aircraft steam catapult system with feedback linearization control%舰载机蒸汽弹射反馈线性控制系统研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘恒; 朱齐丹; 李晓琳; 董然

    2016-01-01

    To study the states'change of accumulator and cylinder in steam catapult aircraft launch, aiming at the nonlinear coupling characteristics of the cylinder system, considering the flashing phenomenon in the steam accu⁃mulator, the pressure change of chamber with rod and without rod in the steam cylinder, and the relationship be⁃tween launching valve's core displacement and flow area, the steam accumulator and launching valve mathematical model, cylinder thermodynamic model and the aircraft six degrees of freedom dynamics model were established, and the launching valve controller of steam catapult system was accomplished. The simulation finds that the pres⁃sure⁃drop steam catapult system was extremely small, almost negligible in the catapult period; moreover, because of the nonlinear and coupling characteristics of the cylinder system, the traditional control method cannot accom⁃plish a stable launching valve, whose opening degree experiences strong mutations when opened and closed. Based on the feedback linearization theory, the steam cylinder model can be completely linearized and can decouple cylin⁃der state variables, contributing to the design of the launching valve controller. The simulation shows that using the feedback linearization method, the launching valve regulator can perform in a stable manner, achieving acceptable acceleration tracking effect during the catapult process.%为了研究舰载机蒸汽弹射过程中储汽筒与汽缸中各状态的变化,针对汽缸系统的非线性强耦合特点,考虑储汽筒内闪蒸现象、汽缸有杆腔与无杆腔压力变化以及发射阀芯位移与流通面积之间的关系,建立储汽筒、发射阀的数学模型,汽缸的热力学模型以及舰载机的六自由度运动模型,完成蒸汽弹射系统发射阀控制器设计。通过仿真研究发现,蒸汽弹射系统的储汽筒在弹射阶段压降很小,其影响可以忽略;并且,由于汽缸系统的各状态

  15. Fire Risk Assessment of Flight Deck of Aircraft Carrier Based on Petri Nets%基于 Petri 网的航母飞行甲板火灾评价方法*

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡容兵; 訾书宇; 谢君

    2014-01-01

    The aviation support operations of flight deck are very complicated ,in which there are a lot of interactive risk factors ,and the fire accidents are often arising ,so all of these bring serious hidden troubles on personnel ,aircrafts and e‐quipments .Until now ,some risk assessment methods have become mature ,but these methods are hard to analyze fire risk quantitatively and dynamically .Based on summarizing the current fire risk assessment methods ,according to fire safety char‐acteristics of flight deck ,the object‐oriented Petri Nets is adopted to deal with fire risk assessment of flight deck ,and a method based on Petri Nets modeling and simulation is put forward .The proposed method has great meanings in analyzing fire risk of flight deck quantitatively .%航母飞行甲板上的航空保障作业极为复杂,各种危险源互相交织,极易发生火灾事故,给人员、舰载机和系统设备安全造成了很大隐患。目前,火灾风险的随机性评价方法虽比较成熟,但难以对其进行定量和动态分析。在综合当前火灾风险评价方法的基础上,针对航母飞行甲板的火灾安全特性,提出使用面向对象的 Petri网建模和仿真方法,进行飞行甲板火灾风险评价,并建立了相应的评价模型,为飞行甲板定量评价提供了重要支撑。

  16. Automatic Carrier Landing System with Gust-rejection Capability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹东; 杨一栋; 余勇; 范彦铭

    2004-01-01

    A new direct-lift control carrier landing mode is advanced, and it is proved to be very effective to keep the attitude angle and path angle constant when the aircraft is in the blind area of tracking radar and the guidance system is shut off. The direct-lift control mode is achieved with the symmetric deflection of the flaps and dynamic decoupling for minor disturbance of the angle of attack. This mode changes an aircraft' s model from a short-period oscillation model to a non-oscillation one, which could evidently increase the gust-rejection capability of the aircraft.

  17. Aircraft Electric Secondary Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    Technologies resulted to aircraft power systems and aircraft in which all secondary power is supplied electrically are discussed. A high-voltage dc power generating system for fighter aircraft, permanent magnet motors and generators for aircraft, lightweight transformers, and the installation of electric generators on turbine engines are among the topics discussed.

  18. Portable catapult launcher for small aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbaum, Bernard J. (Inventor); Petter, George E. (Inventor); Gessler, Joseph A. (Inventor); Hughes, Michael G. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    An apparatus for launching an aircraft having a multiplicity of interconnected elongated tracks of rigid material forming a track system and wherein each elongated track has a predetermined elongated track cross-sectional design, a winch system connected to the track system wherein the winch system has a variable mechanical advantage, one or more elongated elastic members wherein one end of each of the one or more elongated elastic members is adjustably connected to the track system, and a carrier slidably mounted to the track system wherein the carrier is connected to the winch system and to the other end of each of the one or more elongated elastic members.

  19. The growth limits of the low cost carrier model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Wit, J.G.; Zuidberg, J.

    2012-01-01

    Today, many low cost carriers (LCCs) continue to enjoy rapid growth and still have a fair number of new aircraft on order. There are signs however that the market for LCCs is limited, owing to increasing route density problems, primarily in Europe but seemingly also in North America: the fact that a

  20. Propulsion controlled aircraft computer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cogan, Bruce R. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A low-cost, easily retrofit Propulsion Controlled Aircraft (PCA) system for use on a wide range of commercial and military aircraft consists of an propulsion controlled aircraft computer that reads in aircraft data including aircraft state, pilot commands and other related data, calculates aircraft throttle position for a given maneuver commanded by the pilot, and then displays both current and calculated throttle position on a cockpit display to show the pilot where to move throttles to achieve the commanded maneuver, or is automatically sent digitally to command the engines directly.

  1. Unmanned aircraft systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unmanned platforms have become increasingly more common in recent years for acquiring remotely sensed data. These aircraft are referred to as Unmanned Airborne Vehicles (UAV), Remotely Piloted Aircraft (RPA), Remotely Piloted Vehicles (RPV), or Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS), the official term used...

  2. 49 CFR 1546.202 - Persons and property onboard the aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Persons and property onboard the aircraft. 1546.202 Section 1546.202 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued... CARRIER SECURITY Operations § 1546.202 Persons and property onboard the aircraft. Each foreign air...

  3. Analysis of Aircraft Carrier Excess Material Offloaded to CARP Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    CAVCAL Unit Price Policy Adjustments.........................49 Table 8. CAVCAL UP $150 Threshold Transaction Cost Avoidance...51 Table 9. Model Outputs for EMV Thresholds Adjustments, Excluding DECOM........52 Table 10. SMART Offload EMV Threshold Transaction Cost Avoidance...54 Table 11. Summary of Combined Policy Effects on Records and Value of Inventory ...57 Table 12. Annualized Transaction Cost Avoidance

  4. A New Foodservice System Concept for Aircraft Carriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-12-01

    on the mess decks during mealtimes . The interviewer would approach a diner, ask his permission to be interviewed, and then proceed to ask the diner...considered a significant improve- ment; however, the 521 positive response is probably indicative that the blue color family used is not as popular for...to persuade sailors to adopt better eating habits. Publicity in home port newspapers and TV is also of interest to the crew and their families

  5. Implications of China’s Aircraft Carrier Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-16

    Taiwanese” instead of “Chinese” and want to release from China’s fetters. Former President Chen Shui -bian (2000-2008), the chairman of the...For instance, the Hsiung Feng III Anti-ship missile is in development by the Chungshan Institute of Science and Technology (CSIST) in Taiwan. After...weapon against the ex-Varyag.37 Another missile system that contributes to Taiwan security is the Hsiung Feng IIE surface-to-surface cruise missiles

  6. Analysis on the Dynamic Characteristics of Carrier-based Aircraft Nose Landing Gear with Sudden Holdback Load Discharge%舰载机弹射起飞前起落架牵制载荷突卸动力学分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于浩; 聂宏; 魏小辉

    2011-01-01

    舰载机弹射起飞过程中,由于牵制载荷突卸而产生的前起落架沿航向的快速振动会给机体结构和设备都带来严重的疲劳问题,为研究该振动现象并提出解决方案,建立了舰载机弹射起飞动力学模型,分析计算了前起落架的受载情况,并详细论述其动力学成因,推导了消除前起落架振动现象的充分必要条件.研究结果表明:牵制载荷沿下扭力臂轴向的载荷分量所造成的缓冲器活塞杆的向后弯曲是导致牵制载荷突卸后前起落架振动的主要原因;牵制载荷突卸后,起落架的前后振动导致起落架与机身铰接处的载荷快速、大幅的振荡,对机体结构以及机载设备的寿命和使用安全都会产生不利影响;牵制杆的长度直接影响牵制载荷沿下扭力臂轴向的载荷分量,降低该载荷分量可以有效地解决前起落架由于牵制载荷突卸所带来的振动问题.%The vibration of a nose landing gear caused by the sudden discharge of holdback load during the catapult launch of a carrier-based aircraft could bring serious fatigue both to the structure of the launch and the airborne equipment. To investigate the vibration and seek a solution, a dynamic model of the catapult launch is established. The load of the nose landing gear is calculated, while the kinetics and the way to deal with the phenomenon is also discussed in detail. From the catapult launch calculation, three important conclusions are obtained: during the tension stage, there is a long stroke and aft bending of the nose landing gear; once the holdback load suddenly discharges, the landing gear strut extends and springs forward rapidly; the fore-aft vibration of the nose landing gear produces a rapid and drastic load change at the joint of the gear and the fuselage. This vibration load has an adverse effect on the life and safety of the structure and the equipment of the aircraft. The length of the holdback bar influences the load

  7. Peptide-Carrier Conjugation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Paul Robert

    2015-01-01

    To produce antibodies against synthetic peptides it is necessary to couple them to a protein carrier. This chapter provides a nonspecialist overview of peptide-carrier conjugation. Furthermore, a protocol for coupling cysteine-containing peptides to bovine serum albumin is outlined....

  8. The ASAC Air Carrier Investment Model (Second Generation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wingrove, Earl R., III; Johnson, Jesse P.; Sickles, Robin C.; Good, David H.

    1997-01-01

    To meet its objective of assisting the U.S. aviation industry with the technological challenges of the future, NASA must identify research areas that have the greatest potential for improving the operation of the air transportation system. To accomplish this, NASA is building an Aviation System Analysis Capability (ASAC). The ASAC differs from previous NASA modeling efforts in that the economic behavior of buyers and sellers in the air transportation and aviation industries is central to its conception. To link the economics of flight with the technology of flight, ASAC requires a parametrically based mode with extensions that link airline operations and investments in aircraft with aircraft characteristics. This model also must provide a mechanism for incorporating air travel demand and profitability factors into the airlines' investment decisions. Finally, the model must be flexible and capable of being incorporated into a wide-ranging suite of economic and technical models that are envisioned for ASAC. We describe a second-generation Air Carrier Investment Model that meets these requirements. The enhanced model incorporates econometric results from the supply and demand curves faced by U.S.-scheduled passenger air carriers. It uses detailed information about their fleets in 1995 to make predictions about future aircraft purchases. It enables analysts with the ability to project revenue passenger-miles flown, airline industry employment, airline operating profit margins, numbers and types of aircraft in the fleet, and changes in aircraft manufacturing employment under various user-defined scenarios.

  9. Aircraft Noise Prediction

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    This contribution addresses the state-of-the-art in the field of aircraft noise prediction, simulation and minimisation. The point of view taken in this context is that of comprehensive models that couple the various aircraft systems with the acoustic sources, the propagation and the flight trajectories. After an exhaustive review of the present predictive technologies in the relevant fields (airframe, propulsion, propagation, aircraft operations, trajectory optimisation), the paper add...

  10. Composite cam carrier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wicks, Christopher Donald; Madin, Mark Michael

    2017-03-14

    A cam carrier assembly includes a cylinder head having valves and a camshaft having lobes. A cam carrier has a first side coupled with the cylinder head engaging around the valves and a second side with bearing surfaces supporting the camshaft. A series of apertures extend between the first and second sides for the lobes to interface with the valves. The cam carrier is made of carbon fiber composite insulating the camshaft from the cylinder head and providing substantial weight reduction to an upper section of an associated engine.

  11. Asymmetric Carrier Random PWM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathe, Laszlo; Lungeanu, Florin; Rasmussen, Peter Omand;

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a new fixed carrier frequency random PWM method, where a new type of carrier wave is proposed for modulation. Based on the measurements, it is shown that the spread effect of the discrete components from the motor current spectra is very effective independent of the modulation...... index. The flat motor current spectrum generates an acoustical noise close to the white noise, which may improve the acoustical performance of the drive. The new carrier wave is easy to implement digitally, without employing any external circuits. The modulation method can be used in open, as well...

  12. B-52 Launch Aircraft in Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    NASA's venerable B-52 mothership is seen here photographed from a KC-135 Tanker aircraft. The X-43 adapter is visible attached to the right wing. The B-52, used for launching experimental aircraft and for other flight research projects, has been a familiar sight in the skies over Edwards for more than 40 years and is also both the oldest B-52 still flying and the aircraft with the lowest flight time of any B-52. NASA B-52, Tail Number 008, is an air launch carrier aircraft, 'mothership,' as well as a research aircraft platform that has been used on a variety of research projects. The aircraft, a 'B' model built in 1952 and first flown on June 11, 1955, is the oldest B-52 in flying status and has been used on some of the most significant research projects in aerospace history. Some of the significant projects supported by B-52 008 include the X-15, the lifting bodies, HiMAT (highly maneuverable aircraft technology), Pegasus, validation of parachute systems developed for the space shuttle program (solid-rocket-booster recovery system and the orbiter drag chute system), and the X-38. The B-52 served as the launch vehicle on 106 X-15 flights and flew a total of 159 captive-carry and launch missions in support of that program from June 1959 to October 1968. Information gained from the highly successful X-15 program contributed to the Mercury, Gemini, and Apollo human spaceflight programs as well as space shuttle development. Between 1966 and 1975, the B-52 served as the launch aircraft for 127 of the 144 wingless lifting body flights. In the 1970s and 1980s, the B-52 was the launch aircraft for several aircraft at what is now the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, to study spin-stall, high-angle-of attack, and maneuvering characteristics. These included the 3/8-scale F-15/spin research vehicle (SRV), the HiMAT (Highly Maneuverable Aircraft Technology) research vehicle, and the DAST (drones for aerodynamic and structural testing). The aircraft supported

  13. Cable Tensiometer for Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunnelee, Mark (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    The invention is a cable tensiometer that can be used on aircraft for real-time, in-flight cable tension measurements. The invention can be used on any aircraft cables with high precision. The invention is extremely light-weight, hangs on the cable being tested and uses a dual bending beam design with a high mill-volt output to determine tension.

  14. Photoinduced Transformation between Charge Carrier and Spin Carrier in Polymers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MEI Yuan; ZHAO Chang; SUN Xin

    2006-01-01

    By dynamical simulations, we show a transforming process between neutral soliton (spin carrier) and charged soliton (charge carrier) in polymers via photo-excitation, taking a polaron as the transitional bridge. It is photoinduced transformation between spin carrier and charge carrier. In this way, we demonstrate an access for polymers to be applied to spintronics.

  15. Aircraft operations management manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    The NASA aircraft operations program is a multifaceted, highly diverse entity that directly supports the agency mission in aeronautical research and development, space science and applications, space flight, astronaut readiness training, and related activities through research and development, program support, and mission management aircraft operations flights. Users of the program are interagency, inter-government, international, and the business community. This manual provides guidelines to establish policy for the management of NASA aircraft resources, aircraft operations, and related matters. This policy is an integral part of and must be followed when establishing field installation policy and procedures covering the management of NASA aircraft operations. Each operating location will develop appropriate local procedures that conform with the requirements of this handbook. This manual should be used in conjunction with other governing instructions, handbooks, and manuals.

  16. Field of View Requirements for Carrier Landing Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-06-01

    Pilot Training ( ASPT ) at Williams Air Force Base. The visual image for the simulation was provided by a data base which crea&.ed the aircraft carrier...USS Forrestal (CVA-59) in the ASPT computer-image-generation systor.m. The pilots in these three groups’ were trained under different conditions. Two...Advanced Simalator for Pilot Training ( ASPT ) would be ideal for this effort, and later, Lt Col Samuel T. Hannan and Capt Ricky A. Perry were assigned

  17. The value of energy carriers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gool, W. van

    1987-01-01

    The value of energy carriers can be described thermodynamically by the amount of heat (enthalpy method) or work (exergy or availability method) that can be obtained from the carriers. Prices for energy carriers are used in economics to express their values. The prices for energy carriers are often r

  18. A NASA study of the impact of technology on future sea based attack aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Andrew S.

    1992-01-01

    A conceptual aircraft design study was recently completed evaluating carrier-based, subsonic attack aircraft using contemporary and future technology assumptions. The study examined a configuration matrix that was made up of light and medium bomb loads, one and two man crews, internal and external weapons carriage, as well as conventional and flying wing planforms. Use of common technology assumptions, engine cycle simulation code, design mission, and consistent application of methods allow for direct comparison of the aircraft. This paper describes the design study ground rules and the aircraft designed. The aircraft descriptions include weights, dimensions, layout, design mission, design constraints, maneuver performance, and fallout mission performance. The strengths, and weaknesses of each aircraft are highlighted.

  19. Predicting Visibility of Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Andrew; Ramirez, Cesar V.; Salud, Ellen

    2009-01-01

    Visual detection of aircraft by human observers is an important element of aviation safety. To assess and ensure safety, it would be useful to be able to be able to predict the visibility, to a human observer, of an aircraft of specified size, shape, distance, and coloration. Examples include assuring safe separation among aircraft and between aircraft and unmanned vehicles, design of airport control towers, and efforts to enhance or suppress the visibility of military and rescue vehicles. We have recently developed a simple metric of pattern visibility, the Spatial Standard Observer (SSO). In this report we examine whether the SSO can predict visibility of simulated aircraft images. We constructed a set of aircraft images from three-dimensional computer graphic models, and measured the luminance contrast threshold for each image from three human observers. The data were well predicted by the SSO. Finally, we show how to use the SSO to predict visibility range for aircraft of arbitrary size, shape, distance, and coloration. PMID:19462007

  20. Tropospheric sampling with aircraft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daum, P.H.; Springston, S.R.

    1991-03-01

    Aircraft constitute a unique environment which places stringent requirements on the instruments used to measure the concentrations of atmospheric trace gases and aerosols. Some of these requirements such as minimization of size, weight, and power consumption are general; others are specific to individual techniques. This review presents the basic principles and considerations governing the deployment of trace gas and aerosol instrumentation on an aircraft. An overview of common instruments illustrates these points and provides guidelines for designing and using instruments on aircraft-based measurement programs.

  1. Lightning hazards to aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corn, P. B.

    1978-01-01

    Lightning hazards and, more generally, aircraft static electricity are discussed by a representative for the Air Force Flight Dynamics Laboratory. An overview of these atmospheric electricity hazards to aircraft and their systems is presented with emphasis on electrical and electronic subsystems. The discussion includes reviewing some of the characteristics of lightning and static electrification, trends in weather and lightning-related mishaps, some specific threat mechanisms and susceptible aircraft subsystems and some of the present technology gaps. A roadmap (flow chart) is presented to show the direction needed to address these problems.

  2. SOLAR AIRCRAFT DESIGN

    OpenAIRE

    RAHMATI, Sadegh; GHASED, Amir

    2015-01-01

    Abstract. Generally domain Aircraft uses conventional fuel. These fuel having limited life, high cost and pollutant. Also nowadays price of petrol and other fuels are going to be higher, because of scarcity of those fuels. So there is great demand of use of non-exhaustible unlimited source of energy like solar energy. Solar aircraft is one of the ways to utilize solar energy. Solar aircraft uses solar panel to collect the solar radiation for immediate use but it also store the remaining part ...

  3. Numerical simulation of RCS for carrier electronic warfare airplanes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue Kuizhi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the radar cross section (RCS of carrier electronic warfare airplanes. Under the typical naval operations section, the mathematical model of the radar wave’s pitch angle incidence range analysis is established. Based on the CATIA software, considering dynamic deflections of duck wing leading edge flaps, flaperons, horizontal tail, and rudder, as well as aircraft with air-to-air missile, anti-radiation missile, electronic jamming pod, and other weapons, the 3D models of carrier electronic warfare airplanes Model A and Model B with weapons were established. Based on the physical optics method and the equivalent electromagnetic flow method, by the use of the RCSAnsys software, the characteristics of carrier electronic warfare airplanes’ RCS under steady and dynamic flights were simulated under the UHF, X, and S radar bands. This paper researches the detection probability of aircraft by radars under the condition of electronic warfare, and completes the mathematical statistical analysis of the simulation results. The results show that: The Model A of carrier electronic warfare airplane is better than Model B on stealth performance and on discover probability by radar detection effectively.

  4. Depreciation of aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Edward P

    1922-01-01

    There is a widespread, and quite erroneous, impression to the effect that aircraft are essentially fragile and deteriorate with great rapidity when in service, so that the depreciation charges to be allowed on commercial or private operation are necessarily high.

  5. Essentials of aircraft armaments

    CERN Document Server

    Kaushik, Mrinal

    2017-01-01

    This book aims to provide a complete exposure about armaments from their design to launch from the combat aircraft. The book details modern ammunition and their tactical roles in warfare. The proposed book discusses aerodynamics, propulsion, structural as well as navigation, control, and guidance of aircraft armament. It also introduces the various types of ammunition developed by different countries and their changing trends. The book imparts knowledge in the field of design, and development of aircraft armaments to aerospace engineers and covers the role of the United Nations in peacekeeping and disarmament. The book will be very useful to researchers, students, and professionals working in design and manufacturing of aircraft armaments. The book will also serve air force and naval aspirants, and those interested in working on defence research and developments organizations. .

  6. Solar thermal aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Charles L.

    2007-09-18

    A solar thermal powered aircraft powered by heat energy from the sun. A heat engine, such as a Stirling engine, is carried by the aircraft body for producing power for a propulsion mechanism, such as a propeller. The heat engine has a thermal battery in thermal contact with it so that heat is supplied from the thermal battery. A solar concentrator, such as reflective parabolic trough, is movably connected to an optically transparent section of the aircraft body for receiving and concentrating solar energy from within the aircraft. Concentrated solar energy is collected by a heat collection and transport conduit, and heat transported to the thermal battery. A solar tracker includes a heliostat for determining optimal alignment with the sun, and a drive motor actuating the solar concentrator into optimal alignment with the sun based on a determination by the heliostat.

  7. Aircraft electromagnetic compatibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Clifton A.; Larsen, William E.

    1987-06-01

    Illustrated are aircraft architecture, electromagnetic interference environments, electromagnetic compatibility protection techniques, program specifications, tasks, and verification and validation procedures. The environment of 400 Hz power, electrical transients, and radio frequency fields are portrayed and related to thresholds of avionics electronics. Five layers of protection for avionics are defined. Recognition is given to some present day electromagnetic compatibility weaknesses and issues which serve to reemphasize the importance of EMC verification of equipment and parts, and their ultimate EMC validation on the aircraft. Proven standards of grounding, bonding, shielding, wiring, and packaging are laid out to help provide a foundation for a comprehensive approach to successful future aircraft design and an understanding of cost effective EMC in an aircraft setting.

  8. Aircraft Fire Protection Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Navy Aircraft Protection Laboratory provides complete test support for all Navy air vehicle fire protection systems.The facility allows for the simulation of a...

  9. Aircraft Fire Protection Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Navy Aircraft Protection Laboratory provides complete test support for all Navy air vehicle fire protection systems. The facility allows for the simulation of a...

  10. Intestinal solute carriers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steffansen, Bente; Nielsen, Carsten Uhd; Brodin, Birger

    2004-01-01

    A large amount of absorptive intestinal membrane transporters play an important part in absorption and distribution of several nutrients, drugs and prodrugs. The present paper gives a general overview on intestinal solute carriers as well as on trends and strategies for targeting drugs and/or pro...

  11. Autonomous component carrier selection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garcia, Luis Guilherme Uzeda; Pedersen, Klaus; Mogensen, Preben

    2009-01-01

    in local areas, basing our study case on LTE-Advanced. We present extensive network simulation results to demonstrate that a simple and robust interference management scheme, called autonomous component carrier selection allows each cell to select the most attractive frequency configuration; improving...

  12. Automatic aircraft recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hmam, Hatem; Kim, Jijoong

    2002-08-01

    Automatic aircraft recognition is very complex because of clutter, shadows, clouds, self-occlusion and degraded imaging conditions. This paper presents an aircraft recognition system, which assumes from the start that the image is possibly degraded, and implements a number of strategies to overcome edge fragmentation and distortion. The current vision system employs a bottom up approach, where recognition begins by locating image primitives (e.g., lines and corners), which are then combined in an incremental fashion into larger sets of line groupings using knowledge about aircraft, as viewed from a generic viewpoint. Knowledge about aircraft is represented in the form of whole/part shape description and the connectedness property, and is embedded in production rules, which primarily aim at finding instances of the aircraft parts in the image and checking the connectedness property between the parts. Once a match is found, a confidence score is assigned and as evidence in support of an aircraft interpretation is accumulated, the score is increased proportionally. Finally a selection of the resulting image interpretations with the highest scores, is subjected to competition tests, and only non-ambiguous interpretations are allowed to survive. Experimental results demonstrating the effectiveness of the current recognition system are given.

  13. Quiet Short-Haul Research Aircraft Joint Navy/NASA Sea Trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queen, S.; Cochrane, J.

    1982-01-01

    The Quiet Short-Haul Research Aircraft (QSRA) is a flight facility which Ames Research Center is using to conduct a broad program of terminal area and low-speed, propulsive-life flight research. A joint Navy/NASA flight research program used the QSRA to investigate the application of advanced propulsive-lift technology to the naval aircraft-carrier environment. Flight performance of the QSRA is presented together with the results or the joint Navy/NASA flight program. During the joint program, the QSRA operated aboard the USS Kitty Hawk for 4 days, during which numerous unarrested landings and free deck takeoffs were accomplished. These operations demonstrated that a large aircraft incorporating upper-surface-blowing, propulsive-life technology can be operated in the aircraft-carrier environment without any unusual problems.

  14. A Micro-Machined Gyroscope for Rotating Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Qingwen; Zhang, Fuxue; Zhang, Wei

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we present recent work on the design, fabrication by silicon micromachining, and packaging of a new gyroscope for stabilizing the autopilot of rotating aircraft. It operates based on oscillation of the silicon pendulum between two torsion girders for detecting the Coriolis force. The oscillation of the pendulum is initiated by the rolling and deflecting motion of the rotating carrier. Therefore, the frequency and amplitude of the oscillation are proportional to the rolling frequency and deflecting angular rate of the rotating carrier, and are measured by the sensing electrodes. A modulated pulse with constant amplitude and unequal width is obtained by a linearizing process of the gyroscope output signal and used to control the deflection of the rotating aircraft. Experimental results show that the gyroscope has a resolution of 0.008 °/s and a bias of 56.18 °/h. PMID:23012572

  15. A Micro-Machined Gyroscope for Rotating Aircraft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuxue Zhang

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present recent work on the design, fabrication by silicon micromachining, and packaging of a new gyroscope for stabilizing the autopilot of rotating aircraft. It operates based on oscillation of the silicon pendulum between two torsion girders for detecting the Coriolis force. The oscillation of the pendulum is initiated by the rolling and deflecting motion of the rotating carrier. Therefore, the frequency and amplitude of the oscillation are proportional to the rolling frequency and deflecting angular rate of the rotating carrier, and are measured by the sensing electrodes. A modulated pulse with constant amplitude and unequal width is obtained by a linearizing process of the gyroscope output signal and used to control the deflection of the rotating aircraft. Experimental results show that the gyroscope has a resolution of 0.008 °/s and a bias of 56.18 °/h.

  16. Development of Passenger Air Carriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Diminik

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The work presents the development of carriers in passengerair traffic, and the focus is on the development and operationsof carriers in chartered passenger transport. After the SecondWorld War, there were only scheduled air carriers. The need formass transport of tourists resulted in the development of chartercarriers or usage of scheduled carriers under different commercialconditions acceptable for tourism. Eventually also low-costcarriers appeared and they realize an increasing share in thepassenger transport especially in the aviation developed countries.

  17. Identification of Aircraft Hazards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K. Ashley

    2006-12-08

    Aircraft hazards were determined to be potentially applicable to a repository at Yucca Mountain in ''Monitored Geological Repository External Events Hazards Screening Analysis'' (BSC 2005 [DIRS 174235], Section 6.4.1). That determination was conservatively based upon limited knowledge of flight data in the area of concern and upon crash data for aircraft of the type flying near Yucca Mountain. The purpose of this report is to identify specific aircraft hazards that may be applicable to a monitored geologic repository (MGR) at Yucca Mountain, using NUREG-0800, ''Standard Review Plan for the Review of Safety Analysis Reports for Nuclear Power Plants'' (NRC 1987 [DIRS 103124], Section 3.5.1.6), as guidance for the inclusion or exclusion of identified aircraft hazards. The intended use of this report is to provide inputs for further screening and analysis of identified aircraft hazards based upon the criteria that apply to Category 1 and Category 2 event sequence analyses as defined in 10 CFR 63.2 [DIRS 176544] (Section 4). The scope of this report includes the evaluation of military, private, and commercial use of airspace in the 100-mile regional setting of the repository at Yucca Mountain with the potential for reducing the regional setting to a more manageable size after consideration of applicable screening criteria (Section 7).

  18. IDENTIFICATION OF AIRCRAFT HAZARDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K.L. Ashley

    2005-03-23

    Aircraft hazards were determined to be potentially applicable to a repository at Yucca Mountain in the ''Monitored Geological Repository External Events Hazards Screening Analysis'' (BSC 2004, Section 6.4.1). That determination was conservatively based on limited knowledge of flight data in the area of concern and on crash data for aircraft of the type flying near Yucca Mountain. The purpose of this report is to identify specific aircraft hazards that may be applicable to a Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) at Yucca Mountain using NUREG-0800, ''Standard Review Plan for the Review of Safety Analysis Reports for Nuclear Power Plants'' (NRC 1987, Section 3.5.1.6), as guidance for the inclusion or exclusion of identified aircraft hazards. NUREG-0800 is being used here as a reference because some of the same considerations apply. The intended use of this report is to provide inputs for further screening and analysis of the identified aircraft hazards based on the criteria that apply to Category 1 and 2 event sequence analyses as defined in 10 CFR 63.2 (see Section 4). The scope of this technical report includes the evaluation of military, private, and commercial use of airspace in the 100-mile regional setting of the MGR at Yucca Mountain with the potential for reducing the regional setting to a more manageable size after consideration of applicable screening criteria (see Section 7).

  19. Aircraft Operations Classification System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harlow, Charles; Zhu, Weihong

    2001-01-01

    Accurate data is important in the aviation planning process. In this project we consider systems for measuring aircraft activity at airports. This would include determining the type of aircraft such as jet, helicopter, single engine, and multiengine propeller. Some of the issues involved in deploying technologies for monitoring aircraft operations are cost, reliability, and accuracy. In addition, the system must be field portable and acceptable at airports. A comparison of technologies was conducted and it was decided that an aircraft monitoring system should be based upon acoustic technology. A multimedia relational database was established for the study. The information contained in the database consists of airport information, runway information, acoustic records, photographic records, a description of the event (takeoff, landing), aircraft type, and environmental information. We extracted features from the time signal and the frequency content of the signal. A multi-layer feed-forward neural network was chosen as the classifier. Training and testing results were obtained. We were able to obtain classification results of over 90 percent for training and testing for takeoff events.

  20. Maintainable substrate carrier for electroplating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chen-An [Milpitas, CA; Abas, Emmanuel Chua [Laguna, PH; Divino, Edmundo Anida [Cavite, PH; Ermita, Jake Randal G [Laguna, PH; Capulong, Jose Francisco S [Laguna, PH; Castillo, Arnold Villamor [Batangas, PH; Ma,; Xiaobing, Diana [Saratoga, CA

    2012-07-17

    One embodiment relates to a substrate carrier for use in electroplating a plurality of substrates. The carrier includes a non-conductive carrier body on which the substrates are placed and conductive lines embedded within the carrier body. A plurality of conductive clip attachment parts are attached in a permanent manner to the conductive lines embedded within the carrier body. A plurality of contact clips are attached in a removable manner to the clip attachment parts. The contact clips hold the substrates in place and conductively connecting the substrates with the conductive lines. Other embodiments, aspects and features are also disclosed.

  1. Maintainable substrate carrier for electroplating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Chen-An; Abas, Emmanuel Chua; Divino, Edmundo Anida; Ermita, Jake Randal G.; Capulong, Jose Francisco S.; Castillo, Arnold Villamor; Ma, Diana Xiaobing

    2016-08-02

    One embodiment relates to a substrate carrier for use in electroplating a plurality of substrates. The carrier includes a non-conductive carrier body on which the substrates are placed and conductive lines embedded within the carrier body. A plurality of conductive clip attachment parts are attached in a permanent manner to the conductive lines embedded within the carrier body. A plurality of contact clips are attached in a removable manner to the clip attachment parts. The contact clips hold the substrates in place and conductively connecting the substrates with the conductive lines. Other embodiments, aspects and features are also disclosed.

  2. Advanced Aircraft Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivek Kumar Prince

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available There has been long debate on “advanced aircraft material” from past decades & researchers too came out with lots of new advanced material like composites and different aluminum alloys. Now days a new advancement that is in great talk is third generation Aluminum-lithium alloy. Newest Aluminum-lithium alloys are found out to have low density, higher elastic modulus, greater stiffness, greater cryogenic toughness, high resistance to fatigue cracking and improved corrosion resistance properties over the earlier used aircraft material as mentioned in Table 3 [1-5]. Comparison had been made with nowadays used composite material and is found out to be more superior then that

  3. Economics of technological change - A joint model for the aircraft and airline industries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kneafsey, J. T.; Taneja, N. K.

    1981-01-01

    The principal focus of this econometric model is on the process of technological change in the U.S. aircraft manufacturing and airline industries. The problem of predicting the rate of introduction of current technology aircraft into an airline's fleet during the period of research, development, and construction for new technology aircraft arises in planning aeronautical research investments. The approach in this model is a statistical one. It attempts to identify major factors that influence transport aircraft manufacturers and airlines, and to correlate them with the patterns of delivery of new aircraft to the domestic trunk carriers. The functional form of the model has been derived from several earlier econometric models on the economics of innovation, acquisition, and technological change.

  4. Aircraft Fuel Systems Career Ladder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-09-01

    type fittings remove and install fuel cells clean work areas inspect aircraft for safety pin installation purge tanks or cells using blow purge method...INSPECT AIRCRAFT FOR SAFETY PIN INSTALLATION 84 H254 PURGE TANKS OR CELLS USING BLOW PURGE METHOD 83 H227 CHECK AIRCRAFT FOR LIQUID OXYGEN (LOX...H243 INSPECT AIRCRAFT FOR SAFETY PIN INSTALLATION 52 M483 MIX SEALANTS BY HAND 48 K372 CONNECT OR DISCONNECT WIGGINS TYPE FITTINGS 48 H236 DISCONNECT

  5. Glycosylation of solute carriers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Nis Borbye; Carlsson, Michael C; Pedersen, Stine Helene Falsig

    2016-01-01

    as their posttranslational regulation, but only relatively little is known about the role of SLC glycosylation. Glycosylation is one of the most abundant posttranslational modifications of animal proteins and through recent advances in our understanding of protein-glycan interactions, the functional roles of SLC......Solute carriers (SLCs) are one of the largest groups of multi-spanning membrane proteins in mammals and include ubiquitously expressed proteins as well as proteins with highly restricted tissue expression. A vast number of studies have addressed the function and organization of SLCs as well...

  6. Aircraft Oxygen Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-01

    aircraft use some form of on-board oxygen generation provided by one of two corporations that dominate this market . A review of safety incident data...manufacture of synthetic resins (e.g., Bakelite), and for 161 making dyestuffs, flavorings, perfumes , and other chemicals. Some are used as

  7. Robots for Aircraft Maintenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    Marshall Space Flight Center charged USBI (now Pratt & Whitney) with the task of developing an advanced stripping system based on hydroblasting to strip paint and thermal protection material from Space Shuttle solid rocket boosters. A robot, mounted on a transportable platform, controls the waterjet angle, water pressure and flow rate. This technology, now known as ARMS, has found commercial applications in the removal of coatings from jet engine components. The system is significantly faster than manual procedures and uses only minimal labor. Because the amount of "substrate" lost is minimal, the life of the component is extended. The need for toxic chemicals is reduced, as is waste disposal and human protection equipment. Users of the ARMS work cell include Delta Air Lines and the Air Force, which later contracted with USBI for development of a Large Aircraft Paint Stripping system (LARPS). LARPS' advantages are similar to ARMS, and it has enormous potential in military and civil aircraft maintenance. The technology may also be adapted to aircraft painting, aircraft inspection techniques and paint stripping of large objects like ships and railcars.

  8. Aircraft noise prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filippone, Antonio

    2014-07-01

    This contribution addresses the state-of-the-art in the field of aircraft noise prediction, simulation and minimisation. The point of view taken in this context is that of comprehensive models that couple the various aircraft systems with the acoustic sources, the propagation and the flight trajectories. After an exhaustive review of the present predictive technologies in the relevant fields (airframe, propulsion, propagation, aircraft operations, trajectory optimisation), the paper addresses items for further research and development. Examples are shown for several airplanes, including the Airbus A319-100 (CFM engines), the Bombardier Dash8-Q400 (PW150 engines, Dowty R408 propellers) and the Boeing B737-800 (CFM engines). Predictions are done with the flight mechanics code FLIGHT. The transfer function between flight mechanics and the noise prediction is discussed in some details, along with the numerical procedures for validation and verification. Some code-to-code comparisons are shown. It is contended that the field of aircraft noise prediction has not yet reached a sufficient level of maturity. In particular, some parametric effects cannot be investigated, issues of accuracy are not currently addressed, and validation standards are still lacking.

  9. Aircraft Emissions Characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-03-01

    sample from each trap through a heated (1500C) six-port valve ’ Carle Instruments Model 5621) and onto the analytical column. The coLoponents in each...Environmental Protection, Vol. II. Aircraft Engine Emissions, Int. Civil Aviation Organ., 1981. 7. Nebel , G. J., "Benzene in Auto Exhaust," J. Air Poll

  10. Braking performance of aircraft tires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Satish K.

    This paper brings under one cover the subject of aircraft braking performance and a variety of related phenomena that lead to aircraft hydroplaning, overruns, and loss of directional control. Complex processes involving tire deformation, tire slipping, and fluid pressures in the tire-runway contact area develop the friction forces for retarding the aircraft; this paper describes the physics of these processes. The paper reviews the past and present research efforts and concludes that the most effective way to combat the hazards associated with aircraft landings and takeoffs on contaminated runways is by measuring and displaying in realtime the braking performance parameters in the aircraft cockpit.

  11. 19 CFR 10.183 - Duty-free entry of civil aircraft, aircraft engines, ground flight simulators, parts, components...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Duty-free entry of civil aircraft, aircraft engines, ground flight simulators, parts, components, and... aircraft, aircraft engines, and ground flight simulators, including their parts, components, and... United States (HTSUS) by meeting the following requirements: (1) The aircraft, aircraft engines,...

  12. LIQUIFIED NATURAL GAS (LNG CARRIERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Posavec

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Modern liquefied natural gas carriers are double-bottom ships classified according to the type of LNG tank. The tanks are specially designed to store natural gas cooled to -161°C, the boiling point of methane. Since LNG is highly flammable, special care must be taken when designing and operating the ship. The development of LNG carriers has begun in the middle of the twentieth century. LNG carrier storage space has gradually grown to the current maximum of 260000 m3. There are more than 300 LNG carriers currently in operation (the paper is published in Croatian.

  13. Examination of Aircraft Interior Emergency Lighting in a Postcrash Fire Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-06-01

    Evacuation from Air Carrier, (No. AAS-74-3) Adopted 11/13/74. 6. Bukowski , R. W., Instruction Manual for National Bureau of Standards Photo- meteric...Aircraft Cabin, Report No. FAA-NA-79-42, December 1979. 9. Crane, Charles R., Ph.D., Human Tolerance Limit to Elevated Temperature: An Empirical Approach to

  14. 49 CFR 1544.202 - Persons and property onboard an all-cargo aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Persons and property onboard an all-cargo aircraft. 1544.202 Section 1544.202 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued... SECURITY: AIR CARRIERS AND COMMERCIAL OPERATORS Operations § 1544.202 Persons and property onboard an...

  15. Aircraft Data Acquisition

    OpenAIRE

    Elena BALMUS

    2016-01-01

    The introduction of digital systems instead of analog ones has created a major separation in the aviation technology. Although the digital equipment made possible that the increasingly faster controllers take over, we should say that the real world remains essentially analogue [4]. Fly-by-wire designers attempting to control and measure the real feedback of an aircraft were forced to find a way to connect the analogue environment to their digital equipment. In order to manage the implications...

  16. Airline and Aircraft Reliability

    OpenAIRE

    Hauka, Maris; Paramonovs, Jurijs

    2014-01-01

    Development of the inspection programme of fatigue-prone aircraft construction under limitation of airline fatigue failure rate. The highest economical effectiveness of airline under limitation of fatigue failure rate and failure probability is discussed. For computing is used exponential regression, Monte Carlo method, Log Normal distribution, Markov chains and semi-Markov process theory. The minimax approach is offered for processing the results of full-scale fatigue approval test of an air...

  17. Slotted Aircraft Wing

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, James D. (Inventor); Witkowski, David P. (Inventor); Campbell, Richard L. (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    A swept aircraft wing includes a leading airfoil element and a trailing airfoil element. At least one full-span slot is defined by the wing during at least one transonic condition of the wing. The full-span slot allows a portion of the air flowing along the lower surface of the leading airfoil element to split and flow over the upper surface of the trailing airfoil element so as to achieve a performance improvement in the transonic condition.

  18. Interaction of Aircraft Wakes From Laterally Spaced Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proctor, Fred H.

    2009-01-01

    Large Eddy Simulations are used to examine wake interactions from aircraft on closely spaced parallel paths. Two sets of experiments are conducted, with the first set examining wake interactions out of ground effect (OGE) and the second set for in ground effect (IGE). The initial wake field for each aircraft represents a rolled-up wake vortex pair generated by a B-747. Parametric sets include wake interactions from aircraft pairs with lateral separations of 400, 500, 600, and 750 ft. The simulation of a wake from a single aircraft is used as baseline. The study shows that wake vortices from either a pair or a formation of B-747 s that fly with very close lateral spacing, last longer than those from an isolated B-747. For OGE, the inner vortices between the pair of aircraft, ascend, link and quickly dissipate, leaving the outer vortices to decay and descend slowly. For the IGE scenario, the inner vortices ascend and last longer, while the outer vortices decay from ground interaction at a rate similar to that expected from an isolated aircraft. Both OGE and IGE scenarios produce longer-lasting wakes for aircraft with separations less than 600 ft. The results are significant because concepts to increase airport capacity have been proposed that assume either aircraft formations and/or aircraft pairs landing on very closely spaced runways.

  19. Guidance Systems of Fighter Aircraft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.N. Rajanikanth

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Mission performance of a fighter aircraft is crucial for survival and strike capabilities in todays' aerial warfare scenario. The guidance functions of such an aircraft play a vital role inmeeting the requirements and accomplishing the mission success. This paper presents the requirements of precision guidance for various missions of a fighter aircraft. The concept ofguidance system as a pilot-in-loop system is pivotal in understanding and designing such a system. Methodologies of designing such a system are described.

  20. Guidance Systems of Fighter Aircraft

    OpenAIRE

    K.N. Rajanikanth; Rao, R S; P. S. Subramanyam; Ajai Vohra

    2005-01-01

    Mission performance of a fighter aircraft is crucial for survival and strike capabilities in todays' aerial warfare scenario. The guidance functions of such an aircraft play a vital role inmeeting the requirements and accomplishing the mission success. This paper presents the requirements of precision guidance for various missions of a fighter aircraft. The concept ofguidance system as a pilot-in-loop system is pivotal in understanding and designing such a system. Methodologies of designing s...

  1. Disorienting effects of aircraft catapult launchings: III. Cockpit displays and piloting performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, M M

    1977-09-01

    Accelerations closely approximating those encountered in catapult launchings of carrier-based aircraft were generated on the Naval Air Development Center's human centrifuge Dynamic Flight Simulator. Flight instruments, controls, and flight dynamics of an A-7 aircraft were provided to four experienced Naval Aviators, who exercised closed-loop control of a simulated climbout immediately after they were exposed to the accelerations. Four experimental conditions were employed for each aviator: 1) no operational flight instruments, 2) conventional flight instruments, 3) a single carrier takeoff director display operating concurrently. Measures of flight parameters, including indicated airspeed, angle of attack, rate of climb, altitude, pitch attitude, and pitch trim adjustment were monitored throughout the simulation. Subjective reactions and piloting performance were examined under each of the four conditions. Results indicate that the carrier takeoff director display significantly reduced pilot workload and enhanced performance during the climbout.

  2. 42 CFR 421.200 - Carrier functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Carrier functions. 421.200 Section 421.200 Public...) MEDICARE PROGRAM MEDICARE CONTRACTING Carriers § 421.200 Carrier functions. A contract between CMS and a carrier specifies the functions to be performed by the carrier. The contract may include any or all of...

  3. Scheduling of an aircraft fleet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paltrinieri, Massimo; Momigliano, Alberto; Torquati, Franco

    1992-01-01

    Scheduling is the task of assigning resources to operations. When the resources are mobile vehicles, they describe routes through the served stations. To emphasize such aspect, this problem is usually referred to as the routing problem. In particular, if vehicles are aircraft and stations are airports, the problem is known as aircraft routing. This paper describes the solution to such a problem developed in OMAR (Operative Management of Aircraft Routing), a system implemented by Bull HN for Alitalia. In our approach, aircraft routing is viewed as a Constraint Satisfaction Problem. The solving strategy combines network consistency and tree search techniques.

  4. Optics in aircraft engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vachon, James; Malhotra, Subhash

    The authors describe optical IR&D (independent research and development) programs designed to demonstrate and evaluate optical technologies for incorporation into next-generation military and commercial aircraft engines. Using a comprehensive demonstration program to validate this technology in an on-engine environment, problems encountered can be resolved early and risk can be minimized. In addition to specific activities related to the optics demonstration on the fighter engine, there are other optical programs underway, including a solenoid control system, a light off detection system, and an optical communication link. Research is also underway in simplifying opto-electronics and exploiting multiplexing to further reduce cost and weight.

  5. Aircraft propeller control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Stanley G. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    In the invention, the speeds of both propellers in a counterrotating aircraft propeller pair are measured. Each speed is compared, using a feedback loop, with a demanded speed and, if actual speed does not equal demanded speed for either propeller, pitch of the proper propeller is changed in order to attain the demanded speed. A proportional/integral controller is used in the feedback loop. Further, phase of the propellers is measured and, if the phase does not equal a demanded phase, the speed of one propeller is changed, by changing pitch, until the proper phase is attained.

  6. Commercial Aircraft Protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehst, David A. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2016-10-26

    This report summarizes the results of theoretical research performed during 3 years of P371 Project implementation. In results of such research a new scientific conceptual technology of quasi-passive individual infrared protection of heat-generating objects – Spatial Displacement of Thermal Image (SDTI technology) was developed. Theoretical substantiation and description of working processes of civil aircraft individual IR-protection system were conducted. The mathematical models and methodology were presented, there were obtained the analytical dependencies which allow performing theoretical research of the affect of intentionally arranged dynamic field of the artificial thermal interferences with variable contrast onto main parameters of optic-electronic tracking and homing systems.

  7. Chemistry in aircraft plumes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kraabol, A.G.; Stordal, F.; Knudsen, S. [Norwegian Inst. for Air Research, Kjeller (Norway); Konopka, P. [Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V. (DLR), Wessling (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik der Atmosphaere

    1997-12-31

    An expanding plume model with chemistry has been used to study the chemical conversion of NO{sub x} to reservoir species in aircraft plumes. The heterogeneous conversion of N{sub 2}O{sub 5} to HNO{sub 3}(s) has been investigated when the emissions take place during night-time. The plume from an B747 has been simulated. During a ten-hour calculation the most important reservoir species was HNO{sub 3} for emissions at noon. The heterogeneous reactions had little impact on the chemical loss of NO{sub x} to reservoir species for emissions at night. (author) 4 refs.

  8. Hydrogen aircraft technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, G. D.

    1991-01-01

    A comprehensive evaluation is conducted of the technology development status, economics, commercial feasibility, and infrastructural requirements of LH2-fueled aircraft, with additional consideration of hydrogen production, liquefaction, and cryostorage methods. Attention is given to the effects of LH2 fuel cryotank accommodation on the configurations of prospective commercial transports and military airlifters, SSTs, and HSTs, as well as to the use of the plentiful heatsink capacity of LH2 for innovative propulsion cycles' performance maximization. State-of-the-art materials and structural design principles for integral cryotank implementation are noted, as are airport requirements and safety and environmental considerations.

  9. Basic Stand Alone Carrier Line Items PUF

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This release contains the Basic Stand Alone (BSA) Carrier Line Items Public Use Files (PUF) with information from Medicare Carrier claims. The CMS BSA Carrier Line...

  10. MISSILES AND AIRCRAFT (PART1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.M. Meyer

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Many sources maintain that the role played by air power in the 1973 Yom Kippur War was important. Other interpretations state that control of air space over the battlefield areas, (either by aircraft or anti-aircraft defences, was vital.

  11. Characterization of the frequency and nature of bleed air contamination events in commercial aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shehadi, M; Jones, B; Hosni, M

    2016-06-01

    Contamination of the bleed air used to pressurize and ventilate aircraft cabins is of concern due to the potential health and safety hazards for passengers and crew. Databases from the Federal Aviation Administration, NASA, and other sources were examined in detail to determine the frequency of bleed air contamination incidents. The frequency was examined on an aircraft model basis with the intent of identifying aircraft make and models with elevated frequencies of contamination events. The reported results herein may help investigators to focus future studies of bleed air contamination incidents on smaller number of aircrafts. Incident frequency was normalized by the number of aircraft, number of flights, and flight hours for each model to account for the large variations in the number of aircraft of different models. The focus of the study was on aircraft models that are currently in service and are used by major airlines in the United States. Incidents examined in this study include those related to smoke, oil odors, fumes, and any symptom that might be related to exposure to such contamination, reported by crew members, between 2007 and 2012, for US-based carriers for domestic flights and all international flights that either originated or terminated in the US. In addition to the reported frequency of incidents for different aircraft models, the analysis attempted to identify propulsion engines and auxiliary power units associated with aircrafts that had higher frequencies of incidents. While substantial variations were found in frequency of incidents, it was found that the contamination events were widely distributed across nearly all common models of aircraft.

  12. Aircraft landing using GPS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, David Gary

    The advent of the Global Positioning System (GPS) is revolutionizing the field of navigation. Commercial aviation has been particularly influenced by this worldwide navigation system. From ground vehicle guidance to aircraft landing applications, GPS has the potential to impact many areas of aviation. GPS is already being used for non-precision approach guidance; current research focuses on its application to more critical regimes of flight. To this end, the following contributions were made: (1) Development of algorithms and a flexible software architecture capable of providing real-time position solutions accurate to the centimeter level with high integrity. This architecture was used to demonstrate 110 automatic landings of a Boeing 737. (2) Assessment of the navigation performance provided by two GPS-based landing systems developed at Stanford, the Integrity Beacon Landing System, and the Wide Area Augmentation System. (3) Preliminary evaluation of proposed enhancements to traditional techniques for GPS positioning, specifically, dual antenna positioning and pseudolite augmentation. (4) Introduction of a new concept for positioning using airport pseudolites. The results of this research are promising, showing that GPS-based systems can potentially meet even the stringent requirements of a Category III (zero visibility) landing system. Although technical and logistical hurdles still exist, it is likely that GPS will soon provide aircraft guidance in all phases of flight, including automatic landing, roll-out, and taxi.

  13. Content Distribution for Telecom Carriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Falchuk

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Distribution of digital content is a key revenue opportunity for telecommunications carriers. As media content moves from analog and physical media-based distribution to digital on-line distribution, a great opportunity exists for carriers to claim their role in the media value chain and grow revenue by enhancing their broadband “all you can eat” high speed Internet access offer to incorporate delivery of a variety of paid content. By offering a distributed peer to peer content delivery capability with authentication, personalization and payment functions, carriers can gain a larger portion of the revenue paid for content both within and beyond their traditional service domains. This paper describes an approach to digital content distribution that leverages existing Intelligent Network infrastructure that many carriers already possess, as well as Web Services.

  14. Census of U.S. Civil Aircraft. Calendar Year 1981.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-12-31

    A/E N/E CARRIER AVIATION AIRCRAFT AUSTIN BARBARA JEAN 2 41 1 0 1 1 F/W S-ENG REC. ENG 41 0 1 1 TOTAL 0 1 1 AVIONS FAIREY TIPSY NIPPER T-66 1 41 1 0 2...34 MARK V11200 2 410 4 K N 2 2 41 1 0 1 KNIGHT TWISTER 2 410 KNOB QUICKIE 11 1411 0 KOLB FEATHER 2 Al 1 KORNS CAPER 2 A1ll 01 KOSTOO- 3 I 4Al 0 1 K R

  15. Commercial aircraft composite technology

    CERN Document Server

    Breuer, Ulf Paul

    2016-01-01

    This book is based on lectures held at the faculty of mechanical engineering at the Technical University of Kaiserslautern. The focus is on the central theme of societies overall aircraft requirements to specific material requirements and highlights the most important advantages and challenges of carbon fiber reinforced plastics (CFRP) compared to conventional materials. As it is fundamental to decide on the right material at the right place early on the main activities and milestones of the development and certification process and the systematic of defining clear requirements are discussed. The process of material qualification - verifying material requirements is explained in detail. All state-of-the-art composite manufacturing technologies are described, including changes and complemented by examples, and their improvement potential for future applications is discussed. Tangible case studies of high lift and wing structures emphasize the specific advantages and challenges of composite technology. Finally,...

  16. Aircraft control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisoski, Derek L. (Inventor); Kendall, Greg T. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    A solar rechargeable, long-duration, span-loaded flying wing, having no fuselage or rudder. Having a two-hundred foot wingspan that mounts photovoltaic cells on most all of the wing's top surface, the aircraft uses only differential thrust of its eight propellers to turn, pitch and yaw. The wing is configured to deform under flight loads to position the propellers such that the control can be achieved. Each of five segments of the wing has one or more motors and photovoltaic arrays, and produces its own lift independent of the other segments, to avoid loading them. Five two-sided photovoltaic arrays, in all, are mounted on the wing, and receive photovoltaic energy both incident on top of the wing, and which is incident also from below, through a bottom, transparent surface.

  17. Aircraft recognition and pose estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hmam, Hatem; Kim, Jijoong

    2000-05-01

    This work presents a geometry based vision system for aircraft recognition and pose estimation using single images. Pose estimation improves the tracking performance of guided weapons with imaging seekers, and is useful in estimating target manoeuvres and aim-point selection required in the terminal phase of missile engagements. After edge detection and straight-line extraction, a hierarchy of geometric reasoning algorithms is applied to form line clusters (or groupings) for image interpretation. Assuming a scaled orthographic projection and coplanar wings, lateral symmetry inherent in the airframe provides additional constraints to further reject spurious line clusters. Clusters that accidentally pass all previous tests are checked against the original image and are discarded. Valid line clusters are then used to deduce aircraft viewing angles. By observing that the leading edges of wings of a number of aircraft of interest are within 45 to 65 degrees from the symmetry axis, a bounded range of aircraft viewing angles can be found. This generic property offers the advantage of not requiring the storage of complete aircraft models viewed from all aspects, and can handle aircraft with flexible wings (e.g. F111). Several aircraft images associated with various spectral bands (i.e. visible and infra-red) are finally used to evaluate the system's performance.

  18. Low-cost carriers fare competition effect

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carmona Benitez, R.B.; Lodewijks, G.

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the effects that low-cost carriers (LCC’s) produce when entering new routes operated only by full-service carriers (FSC’s) and routes operated by low-cost carriers in competition with full-service carriers. A mathematical model has been developed to determine what routes should b

  19. Pilot disorientation during aircraft catapult launchings at night - Historical and experimental perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Malcolm M.

    1992-01-01

    A review is presented of the investigations conducted into, and the recommendations made to avoid fatal A-7 Corsair II aircraft accidents during night carrier launchings in which the aircraft was apparently flown into the water. The investigating boards conjectured that the pilots were distracted from their normal cockpit procedures and that the distraction was of an insidious nature not previously experienced or expected in the night catapult/departure environment. A conference to discuss these accidents focused on aerodynamic and human factors analyses of the problem, with the goal of producing several recommendations for its resolution.

  20. QSRA Joint Navy/NASA sea trials. [Quiet Short Haul Research Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queen, S.; Cochrane, J.

    1981-01-01

    The Quiet Short-Haul Research Aircraft (QSRA), used to conduct a broad program of terminal area and low speed propulsive-lift flight research, is discussed. Flight performance of the QSRA is presented together with the results of the joint Navy/NASA flight program. It is found that both free-deck takeoffs and unarrested landings can be conducted with winds across the deck of zero to 35 knots on an aircraft carrier the size of the USS Kitty Hawk with all engines operating. QSRA characteristics and aerodynamic data are included.

  1. 40 CFR 87.6 - Aircraft safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Aircraft safety. 87.6 Section 87.6 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF AIR POLLUTION FROM AIRCRAFT AND AIRCRAFT ENGINES General Provisions § 87.6 Aircraft safety. The provisions...

  2. 14 CFR 21.6 - Manufacture of new aircraft, aircraft engines, and propellers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Manufacture of new aircraft, aircraft engines, and propellers. (a) Except as specified in paragraphs (b) and (c) of this section, no person may manufacture a new aircraft, aircraft engine, or propeller based on... provisions of §§ 21.183(c), 21.184(b), or 21.185(c); and (2) New aircraft engines or propellers...

  3. 78 FR 54385 - Airworthiness Directives; Various Aircraft Equipped With Rotax Aircraft Engines 912 A Series Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-04

    ... Aircraft Equipped With Rotax Aircraft Engines 912 A Series Engine AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration... directive (AD) for various aircraft equipped with Rotax Aircraft Engines 912 A Series Engine. This AD...; phone: +43 7246 601 0; fax: +43 7246 601 9130; Internet: http://www.rotax-aircraft-engines.com . You...

  4. VTOL to Transonic Aircraft Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The cyclogyro, an aircraft propulsion concept with the potential for VTOL to the lower bounds of transonic flight, is conceptually simple but structurally and...

  5. Western Pacific Typhoon Aircraft Fixes

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Western Pacific typhoon aircraft reconnaissance data from the years 1946 - 1965 and 1978, excluding 1952, were transcribed from original documents, or copy of...

  6. Fire resistant aircraft seat program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fewell, L. A.

    1979-01-01

    Foams, textiles, and thermoformable plastics were tested to determine which materials were fire retardant, and safe for aircraft passenger seats. Seat components investigated were the decorative fabric cover, slip covers, fire blocking layer, cushion reinforcement, and the cushioning layer.

  7. Causes of aircraft electrical failures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galler, Donald; Slenski, George

    1991-08-01

    The results of a survey of data on failures of aircraft electronic and electrical components that was conducted to identify problematic components are reported. The motivation for the work was to determine priorities for future work on the development of accident investigation techniques for aircraft electrical components. The primary source of data was the Airforce Mishap Database, which is maintained by the Directorate of Aerospace Safety at Norton Air Force Base. Published data from the Air Force Avionics Integrity Program (AVIP) and Hughes Aircraft were also reviewed. Statistical data from these three sources are presented. Two major conclusions are that problems with interconnections are major contributors to aircraft electrical equipment failures, and that environmental factors, especially corrosion, are significant contributors to connector problems.

  8. Aircraft recognition and tracking device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filis, Dimitrios P.; Renios, Christos I.

    2011-11-01

    The technology of aircraft recognition and tracking has various applications in all areas of air navigation, be they civil or military, spanning from air traffic control and regulation at civilian airports to anti-aircraft weapon handling and guidance for military purposes.1, 18 The system presented in this thesis is an alternative implementation of identifying and tracking flying objects, which benefits from the optical spectrum by using an optical camera built into a servo motor (pan-tilt unit). More specifically, through the purpose-developed software, when a target (aircraft) enters the field of view of the camera18, it is both detected and identified.5, 22 Then the servo motor, being provided with data on target position and velocity, tracks the aircraft while it is in constant communication with the camera (Fig. 1). All the features are so designed as to operate under real time conditions.

  9. Structural Dynamics of Maneuvering Aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-09-01

    AD-RI92 376 STRUCTURAL DYNAMICS OF MANEUVERING RIRCRAFT(U) CONRAD I TECHNOLOGIES INC KING OF PRUSSIA PR M M REDDI SEP 97 CTI-8601 NRDC-88014-69...REPORT NO. NADC-8014-60 STRUCTURAL DYNAMICS OF MANEUVERING AIRCRAFT M. Mahadeva Reddi .4 Conrad Technologies, Inc. 650 S. Henderson Rd. D T IQ King of...NO A0 CCESSION NO. R02303001 107601 11. TITLE (Include Security Classfication) (u) STRUCTURAL DYNAMICS OF MANEUVERING AIRCRAFT 12. PERSONAL AUTHORS) M

  10. 75 FR 2923 - Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-19

    ... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee Public Meeting AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee Meeting. SUMMARY: FMCSA announces that its Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee (MCSAC)...

  11. 75 FR 72863 - Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-26

    ... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee Public Meeting AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration, DOT. ACTION: Notice of Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee Meeting. SUMMARY: FMCSA announces that the Agency's Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee...

  12. 75 FR 50797 - Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-17

    ... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee Public Meeting AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee Meeting. SUMMARY: FMCSA announces that its Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee (MCSAC)...

  13. 76 FR 12214 - Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-04

    ... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee Public Meeting AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration, DOT. ACTION: Notice: Announcement of Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee meeting; request for comment. SUMMARY: The Federal Motor Carrier Safety...

  14. 75 FR 29384 - Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-25

    ... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee Public Meeting AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee meeting. SUMMARY: FMCSA announces that its Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee (MCSAC)...

  15. Aircraft vibration and flutter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. R. Aggarwal

    1958-04-01

    Full Text Available "The paper outlines the theoretical and experimental procedure one has to adopt for flutter prevention during the various stages (project, design and prototype of the development of modern aircraft. With the advent of high speed, the aerodynamic coefficients have to be calculated with due regards to the effects of compressibility, finite aspect ratio of the lifting surfaces, sweep back and other peculiar shapes of the wings. The use of thin, small aspect ratio with external masses, necessitates the computation of higher frequency modes of vibration. Single degree of freedom flutter and the effect of control surface non-linearities has also become very important. Thus, it is shown how the availability of high speed computing machines, improved experimental technique for model and full scale testing has not kept pace with the uncertainties associated with the transonic speeds, low aspect ratio and the high frequency modes. Cross-checking of theoretical and experimental results at every stage seem to be the only answer."

  16. Aircraft exhaust sulfur emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, R.C.; Anderson, M.R.; Miake-Lye, R.C.; Kolb, C.E. [Aerodyne Research, Inc., Billerica, MA (United States). Center for Chemical and Environmental Physics; Sorokin, A.A.; Buriko, Y.I. [Scientific Research Center `Ecolen`, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1997-12-31

    The extent to which fuel sulfur is converted to SO{sub 3} during combustion and the subsequent turbine flow in supersonic and subsonic aircraft engines is estimated numerically. The analysis is based on: a flamelet model with non-equilibrium sulfur chemistry for the combustor, and a one-dimensional, two-stream model with finite rate chemical kinetics for the turbine. The results indicate that between 2% and 10% of the fuel sulfur is emitted as SO{sub 3}. It is also shown that, for a high fuel sulfur mass loading, conversion in the turbine is limited by the level of atomic oxygen at the combustor exit, leading to higher SO{sub 2} oxidation efficiency at lower fuel sulfur loadings. While SO{sub 2} and SO{sub 3} are the primary oxidation products, the model results further indicate H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} levels on the order of 0.1 ppm for supersonic expansions through a divergent nozzle. This source of fully oxidized S(6) (SO{sub 3} + H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}) exceeds previously calculated S(6) levels due to oxidation of SO{sub 2} by OH in the exhaust plume outside the engine nozzle. (author) 26 refs.

  17. Parabolic aircraft solidification experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Workman, Gary L. (Principal Investigator); Smith, Guy A.; OBrien, Susan

    1996-01-01

    A number of solidification experiments have been utilized throughout the Materials Processing in Space Program to provide an experimental environment which minimizes variables in solidification experiments. Two techniques of interest are directional solidification and isothermal casting. Because of the wide-spread use of these experimental techniques in space-based research, several MSAD experiments have been manifested for space flight. In addition to the microstructural analysis for interpretation of the experimental results from previous work with parabolic flights, it has become apparent that a better understanding of the phenomena occurring during solidification can be better understood if direct visualization of the solidification interface were possible. Our university has performed in several experimental studies such as this in recent years. The most recent was in visualizing the effect of convective flow phenomena on the KC-135 and prior to that were several successive contracts to perform directional solidification and isothermal casting experiments on the KC-135. Included in this work was the modification and utilization of the Convective Flow Analyzer (CFA), the Aircraft Isothermal Casting Furnace (ICF), and the Three-Zone Directional Solidification Furnace. These studies have contributed heavily to the mission of the Microgravity Science and Applications' Materials Science Program.

  18. ISS qualified thermal carrier equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deuser, Mark S.; Vellinger, John C.; Jennings, Wm. M.

    2000-01-01

    Biotechnology is undergoing a period of rapid and sustained growth, a trend which is expected to continue as the general population ages and as new medical treatments and products are conceived. As pharmaceutical and biomedical companies continue to search for improved methods of production and, for answers to basic research questions, they will seek out new avenues of research. Space processing on the International Space Station (ISS) offers such an opportunity! Space is rapidly becoming an industrial laboratory for biotechnology research and processing. Space bioprocessing offers exciting possibilities for developing new pharmaceuticals and medical treatments, which can be used to benefit mankind on Earth. It also represents a new economic frontier for the private sector. For over eight years, the thermal carrier development team at SHOT has been working with government and commercial sector scientists who are conducting microgravity experiments that require thermal control. SHOT realized several years ago that the hardware currently being used for microgravity thermal control was becoming obsolete. It is likely that the government, academic, and industrial bioscience community members could utilize SHOT's hardware as a replacement to their current microgravity thermal carrier equipment. Moreover, SHOT is aware of several international scientists interested in utilizing our space qualified thermal carrier. SHOT's economic financing concept could be extremely beneficial to the international participant, while providing a source of geographic return for their particular region. Beginning in 2000, flight qualified thermal carriers are expected to be available to both the private and government sectors. .

  19. Hot carrier degradation in semiconductor devices

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    This book provides readers with a variety of tools to address the challenges posed by hot carrier degradation, one of today’s most complicated reliability issues in semiconductor devices.  Coverage includes an explanation of carrier transport within devices and book-keeping of how they acquire energy (“become hot”), interaction of an ensemble of colder and hotter carriers with defect precursors, which eventually leads to the creation of a defect, and a description of how these defects interact with the device, degrading its performance. • Describes the intricacies of hot carrier degradation in modern semiconductor technologies; • Covers the entire hot carrier degradation phenomenon, including topics such as characterization, carrier transport, carrier-defect interaction, technological impact, circuit impact, etc.; • Enables detailed understanding of carrier transport, interaction of the carrier ensemble with the defect precursors, and an accurate assessment of how the newly created defects imp...

  20. Aircraft Loss of Control Causal Factors and Mitigation Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Steven R.

    2010-01-01

    Loss of control is the leading cause of jet fatalities worldwide. Aside from their frequency of occurrence, accidents resulting from loss of aircraft control seize the public s attention by yielding a large number of fatalities in a single event. In response to the rising threat to aviation safety, the NASA Aviation Safety Program has conducted a study of the loss of control problem. This study gathered four types of information pertaining to loss of control accidents: (1) statistical data; (2) individual accident reports that cite loss of control as a contributing factor; (3) previous meta-analyses of loss of control accidents; and (4) inputs solicited from aircraft manufacturers, air carriers, researchers, and other industry stakeholders. Using these information resources, the study team identified the causal factors that were cited in the greatest number of loss of control accidents, and which were emphasized most by industry stakeholders. This report describes the study approach, the key causal factors for aircraft loss of control, and recommended mitigation strategies to make near-term impacts, mid-term impacts, and Next Generation Air Transportation System impacts on the loss of control accident statistics

  1. Aircraft Cabin Environmental Quality Sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gundel, Lara; Kirchstetter, Thomas; Spears, Michael; Sullivan, Douglas

    2010-05-06

    The Indoor Environment Department at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) teamed with seven universities to participate in a Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) Center of Excellence (COE) for research on environmental quality in aircraft. This report describes research performed at LBNL on selecting and evaluating sensors for monitoring environmental quality in aircraft cabins, as part of Project 7 of the FAA's COE for Airliner Cabin Environmental Research (ACER)1 effort. This part of Project 7 links to the ozone, pesticide, and incident projects for data collection and monitoring and is a component of a broader research effort on sensors by ACER. Results from UCB and LBNL's concurrent research on ozone (ACER Project 1) are found in Weschler et al., 2007; Bhangar et al. 2008; Coleman et al., 2008 and Strom-Tejsen et al., 2008. LBNL's research on pesticides (ACER Project 2) in airliner cabins is described in Maddalena and McKone (2008). This report focused on the sensors needed for normal contaminants and conditions in aircraft. The results are intended to complement and coordinate with results from other ACER members who concentrated primarily on (a) sensors for chemical and biological pollutants that might be released intentionally in aircraft; (b) integration of sensor systems; and (c) optimal location of sensors within aircraft. The parameters and sensors were selected primarily to satisfy routine monitoring needs for contaminants and conditions that commonly occur in aircraft. However, such sensor systems can also be incorporated into research programs on environmental quality in aircraft cabins.

  2. An analysis of aircraft accidents involving fires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucha, G. V.; Robertson, M. A.; Schooley, F. A.

    1975-01-01

    All U. S. Air Carrier accidents between 1963 and 1974 were studied to assess the extent of total personnel and aircraft damage which occurred in accidents and in accidents involving fire. Published accident reports and NTSB investigators' factual backup files were the primary sources of data. Although it was frequently not possible to assess the relative extent of fire-caused damage versus impact damage using the available data, the study established upper and lower bounds for deaths and damage due specifically to fire. In 12 years there were 122 accidents which involved airframe fires. Eighty-seven percent of the fires occurred after impact, and fuel leakage from ruptured tanks or severed lines was the most frequently cited cause. A cost analysis was performed for 300 serious accidents, including 92 serious accidents which involved fire. Personal injury costs were outside the scope of the cost analysis, but data on personnel injury judgements as well as settlements received from the CAB are included for reference.

  3. Fatigue reliability for LNG carrier

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao Taoyun; Zhang Qin; Jin Wulei; Xu Shuai

    2011-01-01

    The procedure of reliability-based fatigue analysis of liquefied natural gas (LNG) carrier of membrane type under wave loads is presented. The stress responses of the hotspots in regular waves with different wave heading angles and wave lengths are evaluated by global ship finite element method (FEM). Based on the probabilistic distribution function of hotspots' short-term stress-range using spectral-based analysis, Weibull distribution is adopted and discussed for fitting the long-term probabilistic distribution of stress-range. Based on linear cumulative damage theory, fatigue damage is characterized by an S-N relationship, and limit state function is established. Structural fatigue damage behavior of several typical hotspots of LNG middle ship section is clarified and reliability analysis is performed. It is believed that the presented results and conclusions can be of use in calibration for practical design and initial fatigue safety evaluation for membrane type LNG carrier.

  4. A Customized Finger Brachytherapy Carrier

    OpenAIRE

    Wadhwa, Supneet Singh; Duggal, Nidhi

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, radiation therapy has been used with increasing frequency in the management of neoplasms of the head and neck region. Brachytherapy is a method of radiation treatment in which sealed radioactive sources are used to deliver the dose a short distance by interstitial (direct insertion into tissue), intracavitary (placement within a cavity) or surface application (molds). Mold brachytherapy is radiation delivered via a custom-fabricated carriers, designed to provide a more consta...

  5. Preventative maintenance of straddle carriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Si Li

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Robotic vehicles such as straddle carriers represent a popular form of cargo handling amongst container terminal operators.Objectives: The purpose of this industry-driven study is to model preventative maintenance (PM influences on the operational effectiveness of straddle carriers.Method: The study employs historical data consisting of 21 273 work orders covering a 27-month period. Two models are developed, both of which forecast influences of PM regimes for different types of carrier.Results: The findings of the study suggest that the reliability of the straddle fleet decreases with increased intervals of PM services. The study also finds that three factors – namely resources, number of new straddles, and the number of new lifting work centres – influence the performances of straddles.Conclusion: The authors argue that this collaborative research exercise makes a significant contribution to existing supply chain management literature, particularly in the area of operations efficiency. The study also serves as an avenue to enhance relevant management practice.

  6. Spacelab carrier complement thermal design and performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bancroft, S.; Key, R.; Kittredge, S.

    1992-01-01

    The present discussion of the Spacelab carrier complement, which encompasses a Module Carrier, a Module-Pallet Carrier, and a Multiplexer/Demultiplexer Pallet, gives attention to both active and passive thermal performance capabilities, and presents ground testing and analytical results obtained to date. An account is given of the prospective use of a Spacelab Multipurpose Experiment Support Structure.

  7. Responsible implementation of expanded carrier screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henneman, Lidewij; Borry, Pascal; Chokoshvili, Davit; Cornel, Martina C; van El, Carla G; Forzano, Francesca; Hall, Alison; Howard, Heidi C; Janssens, Sandra; Kayserili, Hülya; Lakeman, Phillis; Lucassen, Anneke; Metcalfe, Sylvia A; Vidmar, Lovro; de Wert, Guido; Dondorp, Wybo J; Peterlin, Borut

    2016-01-01

    This document of the European Society of Human Genetics contains recommendations regarding responsible implementation of expanded carrier screening. Carrier screening is defined here as the detection of carrier status of recessive diseases in couples or persons who do not have an a priori increased risk of being a carrier based on their or their partners' personal or family history. Expanded carrier screening offers carrier screening for multiple autosomal and X-linked recessive disorders, facilitated by new genetic testing technologies, and allows testing of individuals regardless of ancestry or geographic origin. Carrier screening aims to identify couples who have an increased risk of having an affected child in order to facilitate informed reproductive decision making. In previous decades, carrier screening was typically performed for one or few relatively common recessive disorders associated with significant morbidity, reduced life-expectancy and often because of a considerable higher carrier frequency in a specific population for certain diseases. New genetic testing technologies enable the expansion of screening to multiple conditions, genes or sequence variants. Expanded carrier screening panels that have been introduced to date have been advertised and offered to health care professionals and the public on a commercial basis. This document discusses the challenges that expanded carrier screening might pose in the context of the lessons learnt from decades of population-based carrier screening and in the context of existing screening criteria. It aims to contribute to the public and professional discussion and to arrive at better clinical and laboratory practice guidelines. PMID:26980105

  8. Responsible implementation of expanded carrier screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henneman, Lidewij; Borry, Pascal; Chokoshvili, Davit; Cornel, Martina C; van El, Carla G; Forzano, Francesca; Hall, Alison; Howard, Heidi C; Janssens, Sandra; Kayserili, Hülya; Lakeman, Phillis; Lucassen, Anneke; Metcalfe, Sylvia A; Vidmar, Lovro; de Wert, Guido; Dondorp, Wybo J; Peterlin, Borut

    2016-06-01

    This document of the European Society of Human Genetics contains recommendations regarding responsible implementation of expanded carrier screening. Carrier screening is defined here as the detection of carrier status of recessive diseases in couples or persons who do not have an a priori increased risk of being a carrier based on their or their partners' personal or family history. Expanded carrier screening offers carrier screening for multiple autosomal and X-linked recessive disorders, facilitated by new genetic testing technologies, and allows testing of individuals regardless of ancestry or geographic origin. Carrier screening aims to identify couples who have an increased risk of having an affected child in order to facilitate informed reproductive decision making. In previous decades, carrier screening was typically performed for one or few relatively common recessive disorders associated with significant morbidity, reduced life-expectancy and often because of a considerable higher carrier frequency in a specific population for certain diseases. New genetic testing technologies enable the expansion of screening to multiple conditions, genes or sequence variants. Expanded carrier screening panels that have been introduced to date have been advertised and offered to health care professionals and the public on a commercial basis. This document discusses the challenges that expanded carrier screening might pose in the context of the lessons learnt from decades of population-based carrier screening and in the context of existing screening criteria. It aims to contribute to the public and professional discussion and to arrive at better clinical and laboratory practice guidelines.

  9. 7 CFR 33.4 - Carrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Carrier. 33.4 Section 33.4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... ISSUED UNDER AUTHORITY OF THE EXPORT APPLE ACT Definitions § 33.4 Carrier. Carrier means any common...

  10. Modular Electric Propulsion Test Bed Aircraft Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — An all electric aircraft test bed is proposed to provide a dedicated development environment for the rigorous study and advancement of electrically powered aircraft....

  11. Versatile Electric Propulsion Aircraft Testbed Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — An all-electric aircraft testbed is proposed to provide a dedicated development environment for the rigorous study and advancement of electrically powered aircraft....

  12. Introduction to unmanned aircraft systems

    CERN Document Server

    Marshall, Douglas M; Hottman, Stephen B; Shappee, Eric; Most, Michael Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Introduction to Unmanned Aircraft Systems is the editors' response to their unsuccessful search for suitable university-level textbooks on this subject. A collection of contributions from top experts, this book applies the depth of their expertise to identify and survey the fundamentals of unmanned aircraft system (UAS) operations. Written from a nonengineering civilian operational perspective, the book starts by detailing the history of UASs and then explores current technology and what is expected for the future. Covering all facets of UAS elements and operation-including an examination of s

  13. Future aircraft networks and schedules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Yan

    2011-07-01

    Because of the importance of air transportation scheduling, the emergence of small aircraft and the vision of future fuel-efficient aircraft, this thesis has focused on the study of aircraft scheduling and network design involving multiple types of aircraft and flight services. It develops models and solution algorithms for the schedule design problem and analyzes the computational results. First, based on the current development of small aircraft and on-demand flight services, this thesis expands a business model for integrating on-demand flight services with the traditional scheduled flight services. This thesis proposes a three-step approach to the design of aircraft schedules and networks from scratch under the model. In the first step, both a frequency assignment model for scheduled flights that incorporates a passenger path choice model and a frequency assignment model for on-demand flights that incorporates a passenger mode choice model are created. In the second step, a rough fleet assignment model that determines a set of flight legs, each of which is assigned an aircraft type and a rough departure time is constructed. In the third step, a timetable model that determines an exact departure time for each flight leg is developed. Based on the models proposed in the three steps, this thesis creates schedule design instances that involve almost all the major airports and markets in the United States. The instances of the frequency assignment model created in this thesis are large-scale non-convex mixed-integer programming problems, and this dissertation develops an overall network structure and proposes iterative algorithms for solving these instances. The instances of both the rough fleet assignment model and the timetable model created in this thesis are large-scale mixed-integer programming problems, and this dissertation develops subproblem schemes for solving these instances. Based on these solution algorithms, this dissertation also presents

  14. 14 CFR 43.7 - Persons authorized to approve aircraft, airframes, aircraft engines, propellers, appliances, or...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., airframes, aircraft engines, propellers, appliances, or component parts for return to service after... Administrator, may approve an aircraft, airframe, aircraft engine, propeller, appliance, or component part for..., airframe, aircraft engine, propeller, appliance, or component part for return to service as provided...

  15. 77 FR 1626 - Airworthiness Directives; Various Aircraft Equipped With Rotax Aircraft Engines 912 A Series Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-11

    ... Equipped With Rotax Aircraft Engines 912 A Series Engine AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT... various aircraft equipped with Rotax Aircraft Engines 912 A series engine. This AD results from mandatory... Rotax Aircraft Engines BRP has issued Alert Service Bulletin ASB- 912-059 and ASB-914-042...

  16. 76 FR 31465 - Airworthiness Directives; Various Aircraft Equipped With Rotax Aircraft Engines 912 A Series Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    ... Aircraft Equipped With Rotax Aircraft Engines 912 A Series Engine AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration...://www.rotax-aircraft-engines.com . You may review copies of the referenced service information at the... by examining the MCAI in the AD docket. Relevant Service Information Rotax Aircraft Engines...

  17. 14 CFR 291.45 - BTS Schedule T-100, U.S. Air Carrier Traffic and Capacity Data by Nonstop Segment and On-Flight...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... between two direct air carriers. Examples of these joint-service operations are: blocked-space agreements; part-charter agreements; code-sharing agreements; wet-lease agreements, and similar arrangements. (i... agreements is reported on Schedule T-100 the same way as any other traffic on the aircraft. (ii) If there...

  18. Analyses of Aircraft Responses to Atmospheric Turbulence

    OpenAIRE

    Van Staveren, W.H.J.J.

    2003-01-01

    The response of aircraft to stochastic atmospheric turbulence plays an important role in aircraft-design (load calculations), Flight Control System (FCS) design and flight-simulation (handling qualities research and pilot training). In order to simulate these aircraft responses, an accurate mathematical model is required. Two classical models will be discussed in this thesis, that is the Delft University of Technology (DUT) model and the Four Point Aircraft (FPA) model. Although they are well...

  19. THE AIRPORT DE-ICING OF AIRCRAFTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert KONIECZKA

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This article provides a summary of the issues involved in de-icing several kinds of aircrafts before flight. The basic risks of an iced aircraft and the factors that can influence its intensity are stated. It discusses the methods for de-icing and protecting against ice formation on small aircrafts, helicopters, and large aircrafts. It also classifies the fluids and other methods used for these de-icing operations, and explains the characteristics and limitations of their use.

  20. Residents' Annoyance Responses to Aircraft Noise Events

    OpenAIRE

    United States, National Aeronautics and Space Administration

    1983-01-01

    In a study conducted in the vicinity of Salt Lake City International Airport, community residents reported their annoyance with individual aircraft flyovers during rating sessions conducted in their homes. Annoyance ratings were obtained at different times of the day. Aircraft noise levels were measured, and other characteristics of the aircraft were noted by trained observers. Metrics commonly used for assessing aircraft noise were compared, but none performed significantly better than A-...

  1. 49 CFR 376.22 - Exemption for private carrier leasing and leasing between authorized carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Exemption for private carrier leasing and leasing... MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS LEASE AND INTERCHANGE OF VEHICLES Exemptions for the Leasing Regulations § 376.22 Exemption for private carrier leasing and leasing between authorized carriers....

  2. Quantitative Inspection Technologies for Aging Military Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    177 Figure 133. Aircraft Mockup With EDM Notches Marked As Red Dots And Numbered In Magnified Photos...178 ix Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited Figure 134. First Test Of The Pantograph Scanner On The Mockup Aircraft...180 Figure 137. CAD Model Of Arc Scanner And Simulated Aircraft Fitting Mockup Panel ..................................... 181 Figure 138

  3. Policy and the evaluation of aircraft noise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kroesen, M.; Molin, E.J.E.; Van Wee, G.P.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we hypothesize and test the ideas that (1) people’s subjectivity in relation to aircraft noise is shaped by the policy discourse, (2) this results in a limited number of frames towards aircraft noise, (3) the frames inform people how to think and feel about aircraft noise and (4) the

  4. 19 CFR 122.37 - Precleared aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Precleared aircraft. 122.37 Section 122.37 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Landing Requirements § 122.37 Precleared aircraft. (a) Application. This section applies when aircraft carrying...

  5. 19 CFR 122.64 - Other aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Other aircraft. 122.64 Section 122.64 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Clearance of Aircraft and Permission To Depart § 122.64 Other aircraft. Clearance or permission to depart shall be...

  6. Analyses of Aircraft Responses to Atmospheric Turbulence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Staveren, W.H.J.J.

    2003-01-01

    The response of aircraft to stochastic atmospheric turbulence plays an important role in aircraft-design (load calculations), Flight Control System (FCS) design and flight-simulation (handling qualities research and pilot training). In order to simulate these aircraft responses, an accurate mathemat

  7. 14 CFR 91.117 - Aircraft speed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Aircraft speed. 91.117 Section 91.117... speed. (a) Unless otherwise authorized by the Administrator, no person may operate an aircraft below 10... than the maximum speed prescribed in this section, the aircraft may be operated at that minimum speed....

  8. Carrier synchronization for STBC OFDM systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cai Jueping; Song Wentao; Li Zan; Ge Jianhua

    2005-01-01

    All-digital carrier synchronization strategies and algorithms for space-time block coding (STBC) orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) are proposed in this paper. In our scheme, the continuous pilots (CP) are saved, and the complexity of carrier synchronization is reduced significantly by dividing the process into three steps. The coarse carrier synchronization and the fine carrier synchronization algorithms are investigated and analyzed in detail. Simulations show that the carrier can be locked into tracking mode quickly, and the residual frequency error satisfies the system requirement in both stationary and mobile environments.

  9. Low-cost carriers fare competition effect

    OpenAIRE

    Carmona Benitez, R.B.; Lodewijks, G.

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the effects that low-cost carriers (LCC’s) produce when entering new routes operated only by full-service carriers (FSC’s) and routes operated by low-cost carriers in competition with full-service carriers. A mathematical model has been developed to determine what routes should be operated by a low-cost carrier with better possibilities to subsist. The proposed model in this paper was set up by analyzing The United States domestic air transport market 2005 year database fr...

  10. Non-permeable substrate carrier for electroplating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abas, Emmanuel Chua; Chen, Chen-An; Ma, Diana Xiaobing; Ganti, Kalyana Bhargava

    2012-11-27

    One embodiment relates to a substrate carrier for use in electroplating a plurality of substrates. The substrate carrier comprises a non-conductive carrier body on which the substrates are to be held. Electrically-conductive lines are embedded within the carrier body, and a plurality of contact clips are coupled to the electrically-conductive lines embedded within the carrier body. The contact clips hold the substrates in place and electrically couple the substrates to the electrically-conductive lines. The non-conductive carrier body is continuous so as to be impermeable to flow of electroplating solution through the non-conductive carrier body. Other embodiments, aspects and features are also disclosed.

  11. Non-permeable substrate carrier for electroplating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abas, Emmanuel Chua; Chen, Chen-an; Ma, Diana Xiaobing; Ganti, Kalyana; Divino, Edmundo Anida; Ermita, Jake Randal G.; Capulong, Jose Francisco S.; Castillo, Arnold Villamor

    2015-12-29

    One embodiment relates to a substrate carrier for use in electroplating a plurality of substrates. The substrate carrier comprises a non-conductive carrier body on which the substrates are to be held. Electrically-conductive lines are embedded within the carrier body, and a plurality of contact clips are coupled to the electrically-conductive lines embedded within the carrier body. The contact clips hold the substrates in place and electrically couple the substrates to the electrically-conductive lines. The non-conductive carrier body is continuous so as to be impermeable to flow of electroplating solution through the non-conductive carrier body. Other embodiments, aspects and features are also disclosed.

  12. MATE. Multi Aircraft Training Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauland, G.; Bove, T.; Andersen, Henning Boje

    2002-01-01

    . The cockpit switches and instruments in MATE are computer-generated graphics. The graphics are back projected onto semi-transparent touch screen panels in a hybrid cockpit mock-up. Thus, the MATE is relativelycheap, it is always available, it is reconfigurable (e.g. between types of aircraft...

  13. Aircraft Lightning Electromagnetic Environment Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ely, Jay J.; Nguyen, Truong X.; Szatkowski, George N.

    2011-01-01

    This paper outlines a NASA project plan for demonstrating a prototype lightning strike measurement system that is suitable for installation onto research aircraft that already operate in thunderstorms. This work builds upon past data from the NASA F106, FAA CV-580, and Transall C-180 flight projects, SAE ARP5412, and the European ILDAS Program. The primary focus is to capture airframe current waveforms during attachment, but may also consider pre and post-attachment current, electric field, and radiated field phenomena. New sensor technologies are being developed for this system, including a fiber-optic Faraday polarization sensor that measures lightning current waveforms from DC to over several Megahertz, and has dynamic range covering hundreds-of-volts to tens-of-thousands-of-volts. A study of the electromagnetic emission spectrum of lightning (including radio wave, microwave, optical, X-Rays and Gamma-Rays), and a compilation of aircraft transfer-function data (including composite aircraft) are included, to aid in the development of other new lightning environment sensors, their placement on-board research aircraft, and triggering of the onboard instrumentation system. The instrumentation system will leverage recent advances in high-speed, high dynamic range, deep memory data acquisition equipment, and fiber-optic interconnect.

  14. Human Response to Aircraft Noise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kroesen, M.

    2011-01-01

    How can it be that one person is extremely annoyed by the sounds of aircrafts, while his neighbour claims not to be bothered at all? The present thesis attempts to explain this observation by applying a range of quantitative methods to field data gathered among residents living near large airports.

  15. Aircraft Natural/Artificial Icing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-02-12

    axial vibration is caused by an oscillator driving a coil in the probe to create a magnetostrictive force. A sensing coil within the probe senses the...Consequence TOP 7-3-537 12 February 2009 C-1 APPENDIX C. ICING TEST SITE SELECTION 1. INTRODUCTION Unlike large fixed-wing aircraft, helicopters

  16. Aircraft Simulators and Pilot Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caro, Paul W.

    Flight simulators are built as realistically as possible, presumably to enhance their training value. Yet, their training value is determined by the way they are used. Traditionally, simulators have been less important for training than have aircraft, but they are currently emerging as primary pilot training vehicles. This new emphasis is an…

  17. Survival analysis of aging aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benavides, Samuel

    This study pushes systems engineering of aging aircraft beyond the boundaries of empirical and deterministic modeling by making a sharp break with the traditional laboratory-derived corrosion prediction algorithms that have shrouded real-world failures of aircraft structure. At the heart of this problem is the aeronautical industry's inability to be forthcoming in an accurate model that predicts corrosion failures in aircraft in spite of advances in corrosion algorithms or improvements in simulation and modeling. The struggle to develop accurate corrosion probabilistic models stems from a multitude of real-world interacting variables that synergistically influence corrosion in convoluted and complex ways. This dissertation, in essence, offers a statistical framework for the analysis of structural airframe corrosion failure by utilizing real-world data while considering the effects of interacting corrosion variables. This study injects realism into corrosion failures of aging aircraft systems by accomplishing four major goals related to the conceptual and methodological framework of corrosion modeling. First, this work connects corrosion modeling from the traditional, laboratory derived algorithms to corrosion failures in actual operating aircraft. This work augments physics-based modeling by examining the many confounding and interacting variables, such as environmental, geographical and operational, that impact failure of airframe structure. Examined through the lens of censored failure data from aircraft flying in a maritime environment, this study enhances the understanding between the triad of the theoretical, laboratory and real-world corrosion. Secondly, this study explores the importation and successful application of an advanced biomedical statistical tool---survival analysis---to model censored corrosion failure data. This well-grounded statistical methodology is inverted from a methodology that analyzes survival to one that examines failures. Third, this

  18. Wuestite - a solar energy carrier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weidenkaff, A.; Nueesch, P.; Wokaun, A. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland); Reller, A. [Hamburg Univ., Hamburg (Germany)

    1997-06-01

    Hydrogen is produced when Wuestite (Fe{sub 1-y}O) is oxidised by water. This reaction is part of a two-step thermochemical metal oxide cycle for the storage of solar energy in the form of chemical energy carriers, characterised by a high chemical potential. The reaction was studied in a tubular furnace with on-line gas analysis and further characterised in detail by DTA und high-temperature X-ray powder diffraction. The influence of non-stoichiometry, morphology and temperature on the mechanism and kinetics of the water-splitting reaction was determined. (author) 3 figs., tabs., 3 refs.

  19. At What Cost a Carrier?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    brushed At What Cost a Carrier?M A R C H 2 0 1 3 4 | with interest, consequently pushing to convert the coal supply ship Jupiter into an American aircra...began to pay o!. By 1999 only 4 tons of bombs were needed to accomplish the mission, regardless of the weather at the target. Couple this fact with...there, how many bombs does it drop? | 7 #e &rst fact that needs to be understood in answer- ing these questions is that piloting an aircra" onto the

  20. Hydrogen - A sustainable energy carrier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasper T. Møller

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Hydrogen may play a key role in a future sustainable energy system as a carrier of renewable energy to replace hydrocarbons. This review describes the fundamental physical and chemical properties of hydrogen and basic theories of hydrogen sorption reactions, followed by the emphasis on state-of-the-art of the hydrogen storage properties of selected interstitial metallic hydrides and magnesium hydride, especially for stationary energy storage related utilizations. Finally, new perspectives for utilization of metal hydrides in other applications will be reviewed.

  1. 78 FR 66801 - Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee; Charter Renewal

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-06

    ... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee; Charter Renewal AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA), DOT. ACTION: Announcement of advisory... Committee that provides the Agency with advice and recommendations on motor carrier safety programs...

  2. Factors influencing aircraft ground handling performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yager, T. J.

    1983-01-01

    Problems associated with aircraft ground handling operations on wet runways are discussed and major factors which influence tire/runway braking and cornering traction capability are identified including runway characteristics, tire hydroplaning, brake system anomalies, and pilot inputs. Research results from tests with instrumented ground vehicles and aircraft, and aircraft wet runway accident investigation are summarized to indicate the effects of different aircraft, tire, and runway parameters. Several promising means are described for improving tire/runway water drainage capability, brake system efficiency, and pilot training to help optimize aircraft traction performance on wet runways.

  3. Hydrogen Storage for Aircraft Applications Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colozza, Anthony J.; Kohout, Lisa (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Advances in fuel cell technology have brought about their consideration as sources of power for aircraft. This power can be utilized to run aircraft systems or even provide propulsion power. One of the key obstacles to utilizing fuel cells on aircraft is the storage of hydrogen. An overview of the potential methods of hydrogen storage was compiled. This overview identifies various methods of hydrogen storage and points out their advantages and disadvantages relative to aircraft applications. Minimizing weight and volume are the key aspects to storing hydrogen within an aircraft. An analysis was performed to show how changes in certain parameters of a given storage system affect its mass and volume.

  4. Silicon ball grid array chip carrier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, David W.; Gassman, Richard A.; Chu, Dahwey

    2000-01-01

    A ball-grid-array integrated circuit (IC) chip carrier formed from a silicon substrate is disclosed. The silicon ball-grid-array chip carrier is of particular use with ICs having peripheral bond pads which can be reconfigured to a ball-grid-array. The use of a semiconductor substrate such as silicon for forming the ball-grid-array chip carrier allows the chip carrier to be fabricated on an IC process line with, at least in part, standard IC processes. Additionally, the silicon chip carrier can include components such as transistors, resistors, capacitors, inductors and sensors to form a "smart" chip carrier which can provide added functionality and testability to one or more ICs mounted on the chip carrier. Types of functionality that can be provided on the "smart" chip carrier include boundary-scan cells, built-in test structures, signal conditioning circuitry, power conditioning circuitry, and a reconfiguration capability. The "smart" chip carrier can also be used to form specialized or application-specific ICs (ASICs) from conventional ICs. Types of sensors that can be included on the silicon ball-grid-array chip carrier include temperature sensors, pressure sensors, stress sensors, inertia or acceleration sensors, and/or chemical sensors. These sensors can be fabricated by IC processes and can include microelectromechanical (MEM) devices.

  5. Aircraft Low Altitude Wind Shear Detection and Warning System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, Peter C.; Kuhn, Peter M.

    1991-01-01

    There is now considerable evidence to substantiate the causal relationship between low altitude wind shear (LAWS) and the recent increase in low-altitude aircraft accidents. The National Research Council has found that for the period 1964 to 1982, LAWS was involved in nearly all the weather-related air carrier fatalities. However, at present, there is no acceptable method, technique, or hardware system that provides the necessary safety margins, for spatial and timely detection of LAWS from an aircraft during the critical phases of landing and takeoff. The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has addressed this matter and supports the development of an airborne system for detecting hazardous LAWS with at least a one minute warning of the potential hazard to the pilot. One of the purposes of this paper is to show from some of our preliminary flight measurement research that a forward looking infrared radiometer (FLIR) system can be used to successfully detect the cool downdraft of downbursts [microbursts/macrobursts (MB)] and thunderstorm gust front outflows that are responsible for most of the LAWS events. The FLIR system provides a much greater safety margin for the pilot than that provided by reactive designs such as inertial-air speed systems that require the actual penetration of the MB before a pilot warning can be initiated. Our preliminary results indicate that an advanced airborne FLIR system could provide the pilot with remote indication of MB threat, location, movement, and predicted MB hazards along the flight path ahead of the aircraft.In a proof-of-concept experiment, we have flight tested a prototype FLIR system (nonscanning, fixed range) near and within Colorado MBs with excellent detectability. The results show that a minimum warning time of one-four minutes (5×10 km), depending on aircraft speed, is available to the pilot prior to a MB encounter. Analysis of the flight data with respect to a modified `hazard index' indicates the severe hazard

  6. Aircraft systems design methodology and dispatch reliability prediction

    OpenAIRE

    Bineid, Mansour

    2005-01-01

    Aircraft despatch reliability was the main subject of this research in the wider content of aircraft reliability. The factors effecting dispatch reliability, aircraft delay, causes of aircraft delays, and aircraft delay costs and magnitudes were examined. Delay cost elements and aircraft delay scenarios were also studied. It concluded that aircraft dispatch reliability is affected by technical and non-technical factors, and that the former are under the designer's control. It showed that ...

  7. Differential Analysis of the Nasal Microbiome of Pig Carriers or Non-Carriers of Staphylococcus aureus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Espinosa-Gongora, Carmen; Larsen, Niels; Schonning, Kristian;

    2016-01-01

    pathogen in animal carriers. The aim of this study was to determine whether the nasal microbiome of pig S. aureus carriers differs from that of non-carriers. The V3-V5 region of the 16S rRNA gene was sequenced from nasal swabs of 44 S. aureus carriers and 56 non-carriers using the 454 GS FLX titanium...... microbiome of pigs that are not colonized with S. aureus harbours several species/taxa that are significantly less abundant in pig carriers, suggesting that the nasal microbiota may play a role in the individual predisposition to S. aureus nasal carriage in pigs. Further research is warranted to isolate...

  8. Ultrafast carriers dynamics in filled-skutterudites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Liang; Xu, Xianfan, E-mail: xxu@purdue.edu [School of Mechanical Engineering and Birck Nanotechnology Center, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States); Salvador, James R. [Chemical and Materials Systems Laboratory, GM Global R and D, Warren, Michigan 48090 (United States)

    2015-06-08

    Carrier dynamics of filled-skutterudites, an important class of thermoelectric materials, is investigated using ultrafast optical spectroscopy. By tuning the wavelength of the probe laser, charge transfers at different electronic energy levels are interrogated. Analysis based on the Kramers-Kronig relation explains the complex spectroscopy data, which is mainly due to band filling caused by photo-excited carriers and free carrier absorption. The relaxation time of hot carriers is found to be about 0.4–0.6 ps, depending on the electronic energy level, and the characteristic time for carrier-phonon equilibrium is about 0.95 ps. These studies of carrier dynamics, which fundamentally determines the transport properties of thermoelectric material, can provide guidance for the design of materials.

  9. Impact of carriers in oral absorption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gram, Luise Kvisgaard; Rist, Gerda Marie; Lennernäs, Hans

    2009-01-01

    (APP) was not described by carrier kinetics. However, glipizide is affecting exsorption for ES, due to interactions on basolateral carrier. The study confirms that estrone-3-sulfate can be used to characterize anionic carrier kinetics. Furthermore it is suggested that estrone-3-sulfate may be used to identify compounds......Carriers may mediate the permeation across enterocytes for drug substances being organic anions. Carrier mediated permeation for the organic anions estrone-3-sulfate (ES) and glipizide across Caco-2 cells were investigated kinetically, and interactions on involved carriers evaluated. Initial...... uptakes (P(UP)) at apical and basolateral membranes, apparent permeabilities (P(APP)) and corresponding intracellular end-point accumulations (P(EPA)) of radioactive labeled compounds were studied. Possible effects of other anionic compounds were investigated. Apical P(UP) and absorptive P(APP) for ES...

  10. Ultrafast carriers dynamics in filled-skutterudites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Liang; Xu, Xianfan; Salvador, James R.

    2015-06-01

    Carrier dynamics of filled-skutterudites, an important class of thermoelectric materials, is investigated using ultrafast optical spectroscopy. By tuning the wavelength of the probe laser, charge transfers at different electronic energy levels are interrogated. Analysis based on the Kramers-Kronig relation explains the complex spectroscopy data, which is mainly due to band filling caused by photo-excited carriers and free carrier absorption. The relaxation time of hot carriers is found to be about 0.4-0.6 ps, depending on the electronic energy level, and the characteristic time for carrier-phonon equilibrium is about 0.95 ps. These studies of carrier dynamics, which fundamentally determines the transport properties of thermoelectric material, can provide guidance for the design of materials.

  11. Carriers of the astronomical 2175 ? extinction feature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradley, J; Dai, Z; Ernie, R; Browning, N; Graham, G; Weber, P; Smith, J; Hutcheon, I; Ishii, H; Bajt, S; Floss, C; Stadermann, F

    2004-07-20

    The 2175 {angstrom} extinction feature is by far the strongest spectral signature of interstellar dust observed by astronomers. Forty years after its discovery the origin of the feature and the nature of the carrier remain controversial. The feature is enigmatic because although its central wavelength is almost invariant its bandwidth varies strongly from one sightline to another, suggesting multiple carriers or a single carrier with variable properties. Using a monochromated transmission electron microscope and valence electron energy-loss spectroscopy we have detected a 5.7 eV (2175 {angstrom}) feature in submicrometer-sized interstellar grains within interplanetary dust particles (IDPs) collected in the stratosphere. The carriers are organic carbon and amorphous silicates that are abundant and closely associated with one another both in IDPs and in the interstellar medium. Multiple carriers rather than a single carrier may explain the invariant central wavelength and variable bandwidth of the astronomical 2175 {angstrom} feature.

  12. Harmonious OCEAN?: Chinese Aircraft Carriers and Australia’s U.S. Alliance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-10

    threaten their economic or security interests.40 This will be difficult to achieve within the current CCP context of introversion , sensitivity and...the Pacific Ocean. ―The People’s Liberation Navy: A Modern Navy with Chinese Characteristics,‖ The Office of Naval Intelligence (July, 2009): 5-6...Global Intelligence (March 8, 2002). 17 The Varyag is likely to be seaworthy between 2010 -2012 for use as a training ship to develop ‗basic

  13. 是航母?还是……%Is aircraft carrier or……?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏红宇

    2005-01-01

    2003年7月份世界多家军事媒体报道一则消息,澳大利亚Incat公司提出了一种微型航母的设想。该设想为建造一艘舰长112米,排水量3000吨的“多任务舰艇”。不过,与其它多任务舰艇不同的是,该舰为固定翼和旋转翼飞机作业增加了一个较长的飞行甲板。可以允许存放4架固定翼飞机。在如此小的舰艇上起降固定翼飞机,可以说是世界载机舰的一次革命性飞跃。

  14. 蒸汽弹射器揭秘%Towards Steam Catapult of Aircraft Carrier

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    舰群

    2008-01-01

    弹射器是航空母舰的关键装备,能够帮助各种舰载飞机快速起飞,提高航母的快速反应能力,扩大作战与预警范围,对航母战斗力起到“倍增器”的作用。本文简要介绍蒸汽弹射器的工作原理,披露弹射器关键部件的结构,包括汽缸、汽缸盖、活塞以及水刹等。

  15. Aircraft Carrier Flight and Hangar Deck Fire Protection: History and Current Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    authorized provided the rack is electrically disconnected and either the mechanical safety pin is installed or the IFOBRL mechanism is locked. FIGURE 40...cartridges may remain in the BRU-9/-10/-11 ejector bomb rack provided the rack is electrically disconnected and either the mechanical safety pin is

  16. CVN 78 Gerald R. Ford Class Nuclear Aircraft Carrier (CVN 78)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Preparation contract was awarded the same day. This modification included the remaining component and steel fabrication and selected construction unit...corrosion resistant steel piping, weld distortion, and the increased use of temporary structures and rigging). Additionally, increased supervision and...FY 2011 through FY 2014 efforts, a modification awarded on June 5, 2015 which includes the remaining component and steel fabrication and, multiple

  17. Navy Ford (CVN-78) Class Aircraft Carrier Program: Background and Issues for Congress

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-17

    provides berthing for visitors and Service members temporarily assigned to the ship. JPALS • As the Navy reformulates the JPALS Test and Evaluation Master... language —subsection (f) of Section 122 of P.L. 109-364, as amended by Section 121 of P.L. 113-66—states: (f) Requirements for CVN-79.-- (1) Quarterly

  18. Ford Class Aircraft Carrier: Poor Outcomes Are the Predictable Consequences of the Prevalent Acquisition Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    but cost significantly more, take longer, and perform less than advertised . The rules and policies are clear about what to do, but other incentives...additional information. Connect with GAO on Facebook , Flickr, Twitter, and YouTube. Subscribe to our RSS Feeds or E-mail Updates. Listen to our

  19. Deciphering Chinese Strategic Deception: The Middle Kingdom’s First Aircraft Carrier

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    stories through theatre and literature are now supplemented by websites, videogames and movies. New generations are exposed to it not just in school but...was disbanded in 1957 despite the renaissance for amphibious forces elsewhere brought on by the successful Incheon landings in 1950.57 The

  20. The Corrosion Control of Fastening Systems for Aircraft Carrier Steam Catapults

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-03-31

    as in the screening test, along with HY80 steel for the bottom plate as shown in Figure 18. Because of the three different tcp plate material and the...many months of laboratory tests. J B. CONCLUSIONS. 1. The normally supplied cadmium thickness on alloy steel fasteners for bridle arrester track use is...I I i I 1.1 [ L 4 A’ 2 NAEC-ENG 7868 PAGE viii 9 :1. ’.iS7 OF PhOTOGRAPHS - 1 Page Steel cloc, - Coatings 1 and 2 after 9 months at Ocean Cit

  1. Navy Nuclear Aircraft Carrier (CVN) Homeporting at Mayport: Background and Issues for Congress

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-08

    Dredging 46.3 Parking 30.9 Road improvements 15.9 Wharf F improvements 42.1 Controlled Industrial Facility ( CIF ) 150.7 Ship Maintenance Facility...SMF) 174.8 Subtotal MilCon Costs 490.7 Other One-Time Costs Initial outfitting for CIF and SMF 73.0 Personnel Change of Station (PCS) 26.0

  2. New Dimensions of Moving Bed Biofilm Carriers

    OpenAIRE

    Piculell, Maria

    2016-01-01

    The moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) is a biological wastewater treatment process in which microorganisms grow as biofilms on suspended carriers. Conventionally, MBBRs are mainly designed and optimized based on the carrier surface area, neglecting the dynamic relationship between carrier design, reactor operation and biofilm characteristics, such as biofilm thickness and the composition of the microbial community. The purpose of this research project was to learn more about the roles of the ...

  3. Perception of aircraft Deviation Cues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Lynne; Azuma, Ronald; Fox, Jason; Verma, Savita; Lozito, Sandra

    2005-01-01

    To begin to address the need for new displays, required by a future airspace concept to support new roles that will be assigned to flight crews, a study of potentially informative display cues was undertaken. Two cues were tested on a simple plan display - aircraft trajectory and flight corridor. Of particular interest was the speed and accuracy with which participants could detect an aircraft deviating outside its flight corridor. Presence of the trajectory cue significantly reduced participant reaction time to a deviation while the flight corridor cue did not. Although non-significant, the flight corridor cue seemed to have a relationship with the accuracy of participants judgments rather than their speed. As this is the second of a series of studies, these issues will be addressed further in future studies.

  4. CID Aircraft slap-down

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    In this photograph the B-720 is seen during the moments of initial impact. The left wing is digging into the lakebed while the aircraft continues sliding towards wing openers. In 1984 NASA Dryden Flight Research Facility and the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) teamed-up in a unique flight experiment called the Controlled Impact Demonstration (CID). The test involved crashing a Boeing 720 aircraft with four JT3C-7 engines burning a mixture of standard fuel with an additive, Anti-misting Kerosene (AMK), designed to supress fire. In a typical aircraft crash, fuel spilled from ruptured fuel tanks forms a fine mist that can be ignited by a number of sources at the crash site. In 1984 the NASA Dryden Flight Research Facility (after 1994 a full-fledged Center again) and the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) teamed-up in a unique flight experiment called the Controlled Impact Demonstration (CID), to test crash a Boeing 720 aircraft using standard fuel with an additive designed to supress fire. The additive, FM-9, a high-molecular-weight long-chain polymer, when blended with Jet-A fuel had demonstrated the capability to inhibit ignition and flame propagation of the released fuel in simulated crash tests. This anti-misting kerosene (AMK) cannot be introduced directly into a gas turbine engine due to several possible problems such as clogging of filters. The AMK must be restored to almost Jet-A before being introduced into the engine for burning. This restoration is called 'degradation' and was accomplished on the B-720 using a device called a 'degrader.' Each of the four Pratt & Whitney JT3C-7 engines had a 'degrader' built and installed by General Electric (GE) to break down and return the AMK to near Jet-A quality. In addition to the AMK research the NASA Langley Research Center was involved in a structural loads measurement experiment, which included having instrumented dummies filling the seats in the passenger compartment. Before the final flight on December 1

  5. Static Aeroelasticity in Combat Aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-01-01

    Simulation Maneuverability Performance System Integration Design Load Spectren FIG. 1 HIGH PERFORMANCE AIRCRAFT DESIGN Simulation has a great potential...Aeroelasticity has also a great effect on the flight control system design. If the basic control powers are reduced by increasing dynamic pressure...Components Flight Envelope Structure Concept a Total Aircraf Analysis FIG, 2 BASIC DATAS FOR AEROELASTIC DESIGN STUDIES Aeroelastic activities are now devided

  6. Aircraft Derived Data Validation Algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-06

    to be equipped with Flight Management Systems (FMSs) that use sophisticated digital computers to assist pilots, allowing them to fly more fuel...some basic data is prepared. These include calculations of aircraft position projeted on a three-dimensional Cartesian coordinate system, and...Administration FMS Flight Management System GA General Aviation NextGen Next Generation Air Transportation System NGA National Geospatial-Intelligence

  7. Carriers by chemical vapor deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mronga, Norbert; Adel, J.; Czech, Erwin

    1990-07-01

    Printed materials are affecting people's lives in a variety of ways and to a constantly increasing extent, both in the private and in the business spheres. In particular, the predicted reduction of printed materials resulting from electronic data processing - the so-called "paperless electronic office" - has not occured, indeed quite the reverse. In recent years electrophotographic reprography has established itself successfully as a competitor to conventional printing processes. In the office a photocopier is now a part of the standard equipment. Because of BASF's traditional intensive involvement with pigments and colored printing inks its interest in new technologies in these areas is especially great. BASF has therefore been engaged in research on carriers for some years now.

  8. Stochastic Methods for Aircraft Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelz, Richard B.; Ogot, Madara

    1998-01-01

    The global stochastic optimization method, simulated annealing (SA), was adapted and applied to various problems in aircraft design. The research was aimed at overcoming the problem of finding an optimal design in a space with multiple minima and roughness ubiquitous to numerically generated nonlinear objective functions. SA was modified to reduce the number of objective function evaluations for an optimal design, historically the main criticism of stochastic methods. SA was applied to many CFD/MDO problems including: low sonic-boom bodies, minimum drag on supersonic fore-bodies, minimum drag on supersonic aeroelastic fore-bodies, minimum drag on HSCT aeroelastic wings, FLOPS preliminary design code, another preliminary aircraft design study with vortex lattice aerodynamics, HSR complete aircraft aerodynamics. In every case, SA provided a simple, robust and reliable optimization method which found optimal designs in order 100 objective function evaluations. Perhaps most importantly, from this academic/industrial project, technology has been successfully transferred; this method is the method of choice for optimization problems at Northrop Grumman.

  9. AIRTV: Broadband Direct to Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorbello, R.; Stone, R.; Bennett, S. B.; Bertenyi, E.

    2002-01-01

    Airlines have been continuously upgrading their wide-body, long-haul aircraft with IFE (in-flight entertainment) systems that can support from 12 to 24 channels of video entertainment as well as provide the infrastructure to enable in-seat delivery of email and internet services. This is a direct consequence of increased passenger demands for improved in-flight services along with the expectations that broadband delivery systems capable of providing live entertainment (news, sports, financial information, etc.) and high speed data delivery will soon be available. The recent events of Sept. 11 have slowed the airline's upgrade of their IFE systems, but have also highlighted the compelling need for broadband aeronautical delivery systems to include operational and safety information. Despite the impact of these events, it is estimated that by 2005 more than 3000 long haul aircraft (servicing approximately 1 billion passengers annually) will be fully equipped with modern IFE systems. Current aircraft data delivery systems, which use either Inmarsat or NATS, are lacking in bandwidth and consequently are unsuitable to satisfy passenger demands for broadband email/internet services or the airlines' burgeoning data requirements. Present live video delivery services are limited to regional coverage and are not readily expandable to global or multiregional service. Faced with a compelling market demand for high data transport to aircraft, AirTV has been developing a broadband delivery system that will meet both passengers' and airlines' needs. AirTV is a global content delivery system designed to provide a range of video programming and data services to commercial airlines. When AirTV is operational in 2004, it will provide a broadband connection directly to the aircraft, delivering live video entertainment, internet/email service and essential operational and safety data. The system has been designed to provide seamless global service to all airline routes except for those

  10. Design Methods and Optimization for Morphing Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crossley, William A.

    2005-01-01

    This report provides a summary of accomplishments made during this research effort. The major accomplishments are in three areas. The first is the use of a multiobjective optimization strategy to help identify potential morphing features that uses an existing aircraft sizing code to predict the weight, size and performance of several fixed-geometry aircraft that are Pareto-optimal based upon on two competing aircraft performance objectives. The second area has been titled morphing as an independent variable and formulates the sizing of a morphing aircraft as an optimization problem in which the amount of geometric morphing for various aircraft parameters are included as design variables. This second effort consumed most of the overall effort on the project. The third area involved a more detailed sizing study of a commercial transport aircraft that would incorporate a morphing wing to possibly enable transatlantic point-to-point passenger service.

  11. 78 FR 65554 - Exhaust Emission Standards for New Aircraft Turbine Engines and Identification Plate for Aircraft...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    ... Aircraft Turbine Engines and Identification Plate for Aircraft Engines Correction In rule document 2013... for Subsonic Engines'', in the third column, in the last row, the entry ``rO > 26.7'' is corrected...

  12. A Qualitative Analysis of SAC Aircraft Maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-09-01

    A122 815 A QUALITATIVE ANALYSIS OF SAC AIRCRAFT MRINTENANCE(U) 112 AIR FORCE INST OF TECH WRIGHT-PRTTERSON AFB OH SCHOOL OF SYSTEMS AND LOGISTICS D...Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio ’ ; " ... ..... ... ... . .. .. A QUALITATIVE ANALYSIS OF SAC AIRCRAFT MAINTENANCE Douglas P. Cook, Captain... QUALITATIVE ANALYSIS OF SAC Master’s Thesis AIRCRAFT MAINTENANCE 6. PERFORMING ORG. REPORT NUMBER 7. AUTHOR(q) S. CONTRACT OR GRANT NUMBER(a) Douglas

  13. Visualization of Aircraft Longitudinal-Axis Motion

    OpenAIRE

    Peter Kvasnica

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, the use of continuous mathematical models of an aircraft in an aircraft simulator is described. The models are of lower degree and less time-consuming for calculation. Computer implementation of the models capable to work faster and more accurately and efficiently is also described. The suggested approach allows to achieve the required precision at accelerated simulation speed using the continuous mathematical models of an aircraft. Frequency of the computation of continuous ma...

  14. Advanced Aerostructural Optimization Techniques for Aircraft Design

    OpenAIRE

    Yingtao Zuo; Pingjian Chen; Lin Fu; Zhenghong Gao; Gang Chen

    2015-01-01

    Traditional coupled aerostructural design optimization (ASDO) of aircraft based on high-fidelity models is computationally expensive and inefficient. To improve the efficiency, the key is to predict aerostructural performance of the aircraft efficiently. The cruise shape of the aircraft is parameterized and optimized in this paper, and a methodology named reverse iteration of structural model (RISM) is adopted to get the aerostructural performance of cruise shape efficiently. A new mathematic...

  15. Aircraft Survivability. Susceptibility Reduction. Fall 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    to determine the degree of control available with manual manipulation of engine throttles for various transport aircraft. Simulations included...Boeing 727, 737, 747, 757, 767, 777, MD-11, MD-90, C-17, and Airbus A320 and A300 transport aircraft. Preliminary missile impact effects were...shown, for most aircraft tested, that using only manual TOC it is very difficult to make a safe runway landing due to difficulty in controlling the

  16. Carrier-carrier relaxation kinetics in quantum well semiconductor structures with nonparabolic energy bands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dery, H.; Tromborg, Bjarne; Eisenstein, G.

    2003-01-01

    We describe carrier-carrier scattering dynamics in an inverted quantum well structure including the nonparabolic nature of the valance band. A solution of the semiconductor Bloch equations yields strong evidence to a large change in the temporal evolution of the carrier distributions compared...

  17. Providing resilience for carrier ethernet multicast traffic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruepp, Sarah Renée; Wessing, Henrik; Zhang, Jiang

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the Carrier Ethernet technology with specific focus on resilience. In particular, we detail how multicast traffic, which is essential for e.g. IPTV can be protected. We present Carrier Ethernet resilience methods for linear and ring networks and show by simulation...

  18. Protection switching for carrier ethernet multicast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruepp, Sarah Renée; Wessing, Henrik; Berger, Michael Stübert

    2010-01-01

    This paper addresses network survivability for IPTV multicast transport in Carrier Ethernet networks. The impact of link failures is investigated and suggestions for intelligent multicast resilience schemes are proposed. In particular, functions of the multicast tree are integrated with the Carrier...

  19. Aircraft Wiring Support Equipment Integration Laboratory (AWSEIL)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Purpose:The Aircraft Wiring Support Equipment Integration Laboratory (AWSEIL) provides a variety of research, design engineering and prototype fabrication services...

  20. Research on Emerging and Descending Aircraft Noise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Bartkevičiūtė

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Along with an increase in the aircraft engine power and growth in air traffic, noise level at airports and their surrounding environs significantly increases. Aircraft noise is high level noise spreading within large radius and intensively irritating the human body. Air transport is one of the main sources of noise having a particularly strong negative impact on the environment. The article deals with activities and noises taking place in the largest nationwide Vilnius International Airport.The level of noise and its dispersion was evaluated conducting research on the noise generated by emerging and descending aircrafts in National Vilnius Airport. Investigation was carried out at 2 measuring points located in a residential area. There are different types of aircrafts causing different sound levels. It has been estimated the largest exceedances that occur when an aircraft is approaching. In this case, the noisiest types of aircrafts are B733, B738 and AT72. The sound level varies from 70 to 85 dBA. The quietest aircrafts are RJ1H and F70. When taking off, the equivalent of the maximum sound level value of these aircrafts does not exceed the authorized limits. The paper describes the causes of noise in aircrafts, the sources of origin and the impact of noise on humans and the environment.Article in Lithuanian

  1. Aircraft Wiring Support Equipment Integration Laboratory (AWSEIL)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Purpose: The Aircraft Wiring Support Equipment Integration Laboratory (AWSEIL) provides a variety of research, design engineering and prototype fabrication services...

  2. Kinetic Metallization. Repair of IVD Al Coatings and Mg Alloys Aircraft Components Using Portable Kinetic Metallization Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-02-27

    person shall be subject to a penalty for failing to comply with a collection of information if it does not display a currently valid OMB control number...aircraft carriers & depots Environmentally sustainable Meets Navy JTP-2003 Portable system & Handheld spray gun Robotic deployment for OEM Applications...Problem - Field & Depot Repair of Damaged IVD-Al & Mg Alloys NADEP Facilities PEO(T) F/A-18, EA-18G PMA -271 E-6B

  3. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF TRANSPORT AIRCRAFT, BACKROUND FOR SHORT/ MEDIUM COURIER TRANSPORT AIRCRAFT PROCUREMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matei POPA

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In accordance with Air Force requirements, the comparative analysis of short/medium transport aircraft comes to sustain procurement decision of short/medium transport aircraft. This paper presents, in short, the principles and the results of the comparative analysis for short/medium military transport aircraft.

  4. 75 FR 50865 - Airworthiness Directives; Various Aircraft Equipped With Rotax Aircraft Engines 912 A Series Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-18

    ... Equipped With Rotax Aircraft Engines 912 A Series Engines AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA... 912 A series engine installed in various aircraft does not have an engine type certificate; instead, the engine is part of the aircraft type design. Comments We gave the public the opportunity...

  5. 75 FR 32315 - Airworthiness Directives; Various Aircraft Equipped With Rotax Aircraft Engines 912 A Series Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-08

    ... Equipped With Rotax Aircraft Engines 912 A Series Engines AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA... certificated in the United States. However, the Model 912 A series engine installed in various aircraft does not have an engine type certificate; instead, the engine is part of the aircraft type design. You...

  6. 76 FR 40219 - Airworthiness Directives; Various Aircraft Equipped With Rotax Aircraft Engines 912 A Series Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-08

    ... Equipped With Rotax Aircraft Engines 912 A Series Engine AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT... Rotax Aircraft Engines Mandatory Service Bulletin SB-912-058 SB-914-041, dated April 15, 2011, listed in... 601 0; fax: +43 7246 601 9130; Internet: http://www.rotax-aircraft-engines.com . You may review...

  7. Selection of Carrier Waveforms for PWM Inverter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈国呈; 屈克庆; 许春雨; 孙承波

    2003-01-01

    In this paper the influence of different carrier waveforms upon the output characteristics of PWM inverter is described in detail. When a triangular carrier waveform is used in hard-switching PWM inverters, harmonics exist in the neighborhood of the output frequency of the inverter output voltage and current due to the dead time. The triangular carrier waveform used in soft-switching PWM inverter will cause difficulties in controlling resonance-trigger time, higher loss in the resonant circuit, and less utilization of the DC bus voltage. If a sawtooth carrier is used in hard-switching PWM inverter, there will be severe distortion in the current waveform. When sawtooth carriers with alternate positive and negative slopes are used in soft-switching PWM inverters, the resonancetrigger time is easy to control, and distortion in the output voltage and current caused by the dead time will not appear.

  8. The Kinetics of Carrier Transport Inhibition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenberg, T.; Wilbrandt, Robert Walter

    1962-01-01

    The kinetical treatment of enzymatic carrier transports as given in previous communications has been extended to conditions of inhibition. Various possible types of inhibitors have been considered differing in the site of attack (enzyme or carrier), in the mode of action (competing...... with the substrate for the enzyme or the carrier or for both, competing with the carrier for the enzyme, or non-competitive) and in the ability of penetrating the membrane. Experiments are reported on the inhibition of glucose and fructose transport across the human red cell membrane by phlorizine, phloretine...... the first order asymmetry severalfold (“second order asymmetry”). It was shown that a substrate competitive mode of action involving competition both for the enzyme and for the enzyme-bound carrier will result in a behaviour resembling the observed “second order asymmetry”. It is felt, therefore...

  9. Modeling of Carrier Dynamics in Electroabsorption Modulators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højfeldt, Sune

    2002-01-01

    and a phenomenological model for the carrier sweep-out dynamics, we investigate all-optical wavelength conversion, all-optical signal regeneration, and all-optical demultiplexing. A detailed drift-diffusion type model for the sweerp-out of photo-excited carriers in electroabsorption modulators is presented. We use...... the model to calclulate absorption spectra and steady-state carrier distributions in different modulator structures. This allows us to investigate a number of important properties of electroabsorption modulators, such as the electroabsorption effect and th saturation properties. We also investigate...... the influence that carrier recapture has on the device properties, and we discuss the recapture process on a more fundamental level. The model is also used to investigate in detail the carrier sweep-out process in electroabsorption modulators. We investigate how the intrinsic-region width, the separate...

  10. Hydrogen: the future energy carrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Züttel, Andreas; Remhof, Arndt; Borgschulte, Andreas; Friedrichs, Oliver

    2010-07-28

    Since the beginning of the twenty-first century the limitations of the fossil age with regard to the continuing growth of energy demand, the peaking mining rate of oil, the growing impact of CO2 emissions on the environment and the dependency of the economy in the industrialized world on the availability of fossil fuels became very obvious. A major change in the energy economy from fossil energy carriers to renewable energy fluxes is necessary. The main challenge is to efficiently convert renewable energy into electricity and the storage of electricity or the production of a synthetic fuel. Hydrogen is produced from water by electricity through an electrolyser. The storage of hydrogen in its molecular or atomic form is a materials challenge. Some hydrides are known to exhibit a hydrogen density comparable to oil; however, these hydrides require a sophisticated storage system. The system energy density is significantly smaller than the energy density of fossil fuels. An interesting alternative to the direct storage of hydrogen are synthetic hydrocarbons produced from hydrogen and CO2 extracted from the atmosphere. They are CO2 neutral and stored like fossil fuels. Conventional combustion engines and turbines can be used in order to convert the stored energy into work and heat.

  11. Methanol as an energy carrier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biedermann, P.; Grube, T.; Hoehlein, B. (eds.)

    2006-07-01

    For the future, a strongly growing energy demand is expected in the transport sector worldwide. Economically efficient oil production will run through a maximum in the next decade. Higher fuel prices and an environmentally desirable reduction of emissions will increase the pressure for reducing fuel consumption and emissions in road traffic. These criteria show the urgent necessity of structural changes in the fuel market. Due to its advantages concerning industrial-scale production, storage and global availability, methanol has the short- to medium-term potential for gaining increased significance as a substitution product in the energy market. Methanol can be produced both from fossil energy sources and from biomass or waste materials through the process steps of synthesis gas generation with subsequent methanol synthesis. Methanol has the potential to be used in an environmentally friendly manner in gasoline/methanol mixtures for flexible fuel vehicles with internal combustion engines and in diesel engines with pure methanol. Furthermore, it can be used in fuel cell vehicles with on-board hydrogen production in direct methanol fuel cell drives, and in stationary systems for electricity and heat generation as well as for hydrogen production. Finally, in portable applications it serves as an energy carrier for electric power generation. In this book, the processes for the production and use of methanol are presented and evaluated, markets and future options are discussed and issues of safety and environmental impacts are addressed by a team of well-known authors. (orig.)

  12. LCC-OPS: Life Cycle Cost Application in Aircraft Operations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suwondo, E.

    2007-01-01

    Observation of current practices in aircraft operations and maintenance shows limited consideration of cost savings applied by aircraft modifications, maintenance program optimisation and aircraft selection. This is due to hidden (maintenance dependent) costs and difficulties in quantifying the util

  13. 77 FR 58301 - Technical Amendment; Airworthiness Standards: Aircraft Engines; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-20

    ... Technical Amendment entitled, ``Airworthiness Standards: Aircraft Engine'' (77 FR 39623). In that technical... Administration 14 CFR Part 33 RIN 2120-AF57 Technical Amendment; Airworthiness Standards: Aircraft Engines... technical amendment, the FAA clarified aircraft engine vibration test requirements in the...

  14. 77 FR 39623 - Airworthiness Standards: Aircraft Engines; Technical Amendment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-05

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 33 Airworthiness Standards: Aircraft Engines; Technical.... SUMMARY: This amendment clarifies aircraft engine vibration test requirements in the airworthiness... 33--AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: AIRCRAFT ENGINES 0 1. The authority citation for part 33 continues...

  15. 77 FR 46555 - Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee: Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-03

    ... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee: Public Meeting AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of meeting of Motor Carrier... major motor carrier safety provisions of the recently enacted Moving Ahead for Progress in the...

  16. A novel hovering type of fixed wing aircraft with stealth capability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeriu DRĂGAN

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The tactical need for fixed wing aircraft with hovering capably has long been recognized bythe military for two reasons: increased safety when landing on aircraft carriers and higher velocitiesthat the ones obtainable with rotary wing aircraft.Thus far, the only concept governing the field of vertical flight was to use thrust either from a liftfan-F35, puffer ducts –Harrier or smaller jet engines-D0 31 or Yak-141, i.e. direct lift thrust.In this paper we will look at the prospect of using a combination of the Coanda effect with theVenturi effect to generate lift by so- called “supercirculation”. This novel approach can yield manyadvantages to conventional vertical lifting by providing a more stable platform and requiring lowerpower settings – and thus lower fuel consumption.The aircraft has a fixed, negatively sweped wing that uses circulation control to achieve lift atzero air speed. The fluid used for supercirculation will come from the fan thrust reversers – which, ifcorrectly managed, can give a sufficient flow for lifting the craft and also a negative thrust componentto compensate for the positive thrust of the primary flow (not diverted.

  17. Aircraft type influence on contrail properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Jeßberger

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The investigation of the impact of aircraft parameters on contrail properties helps to better understand the climate impact from aviation. Yet, in observations, it is a challenge to separate aircraft and meteorological influences on contrail formation. During the CONCERT campaign in November 2008, contrails from 3 Airbus passenger aircraft of type A319-111, A340-311 and A380-841 were probed at cruise under similar meteorological conditions with in-situ instruments on board the DLR research aircraft Falcon. Within the 2 min old contrails detected near ice saturation, we find similar effective diameters Deff (5.2–5.9 μm, but differences in particle number densities nice (162–235 cm−3 and in vertical contrail extensions (120–290 m, resulting in large differences in contrail optical depths τ (0.25–0.94. Hence larger aircraft produce optically thicker contrails. Based on the observations, we apply the EULAG-LCM model with explicit ice microphysics and in addition the Contrail and Cirrus Prediction model CoCiP to calculate the aircraft type impact on young contrails under identical meteorological conditions. The observed increase in τ for heavier aircraft is confirmed by the models, yet for generally smaller τ. An aircraft dependence of climate relevant contrail properties persists during contrail lifetime, adding importance to aircraft dependent model initialization. We finally derive an analytical relationship between contrail, aircraft and meteorological parameters. Near ice saturation, contrail width × τ scales linearly with fuel flow rate as confirmed by observations. For higher saturation ratios approximations from theory suggest a non-linear increase in the form (RHI–12/3. Summarized our combined results could help to more accurately assess the climate impact from aviation using an aircraft dependent contrail parameterization.

  18. Global Outsourcing of Aircraft Maintenance

    OpenAIRE

    McFadden, Michael; Worrells, D. Scott

    2012-01-01

    Before the airlines were deregulated, the majority of air carriers conducted their maintenance in-house. After deregulation, with competitive pressures mounting and airlines failing and starting up seemingly simultaneously, the outsourcing of maintenance became more prevalent. Not restricted to U.S. airlines, outsourcing maintenance has become a global practice. Factors involved in the outsourcing decision range from a startup not having the capital to develop their own in-house maintenance p...

  19. Differential Analysis of the Nasal Microbiome of Pig Carriers or Non-Carriers of Staphylococcus aureus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Espinosa-Gongora, Carmen; Larsen, Niels; Schonning, Kristian;

    2016-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is presently regarded as an emerging zoonotic agent due to the spread of specific methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) clones in pig farms. Studying the microbiota can be useful for the identification of bacteria that antagonize such opportunistic veterinary and zoonotic...... pathogen in animal carriers. The aim of this study was to determine whether the nasal microbiome of pig S. aureus carriers differs from that of non-carriers. The V3-V5 region of the 16S rRNA gene was sequenced from nasal swabs of 44 S. aureus carriers and 56 non-carriers using the 454 GS FLX titanium...... system. Carriers and non-carriers were selected on the basis of quantitative longitudinal data on S. aureus carriage in 600 pigs sampled at 20 Danish herds included in two previous studies in Denmark. Raw sequences were analysed with the BION meta package and the resulting abundance matrix was analysed...

  20. A Turbo-Brayton Cryocooler for Aircraft Superconducting Systems Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Hybrid turboelectric aircraft with gas turbines driving electric generators connected to electric propulsion motors have the potential to transform the aircraft...

  1. An Instrument to Measure Aircraft Sulfate Particle Emissions Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Aircraft particle emissions contribute a modest, but growing, portion of the overall particle emissions budget. Characterizing aircraft particle emissions is...

  2. 14 CFR 91.209 - Aircraft lights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...; or (iii) is in an area that is marked by obstruction lights; (3) Anchor an aircraft unless the aircraft— (i) Has lighted anchor lights; or (ii) Is in an area where anchor lights are not required on vessels; or (b) Operate an aircraft that is equipped with an anticollision light system, unless it...

  3. The longitudinal static stability of tailless aircraft

    OpenAIRE

    de Castro, Helena V.

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a simple theory of the longitudinal controls fixed static stability of tailless aeroplanes. The classical theory, as developed for the conventional aircraft, is modified to accommodate the particular features of the tailless aeroplanes. The theory was then applied to a particular blended-wing-body tailless civil transport aircraft, BWB-98. Cranfield University

  4. Trajectory Control for Very Flexible Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-10-30

    total airspeed and the classic aircraft longitudinal , lateral, and vertical velocity components are u positive out the nose, v positive out the right...wing flexibility is a secondary and minimal contribution to aircraft longitudinal motion. Using this assumption and the previous assumptions of

  5. A Wind Tunnel Captive Aircraft Testing Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-04-01

    Flight/Wind Tunnel Correlation of Aircraft Longitudinal Motion ....................................... 14 10. Fright/Wind Tunnel Correlation of...I 2 3 4 5 6 T IME, s e c Figure 9. Flight/wind tunnel correla- tion of aircraft longitudinal motion. ’ D A n ~ v i i i | ~ 0 0 - 4 0

  6. Maintenance of air worthiness of aircrafts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    В. А. Горячев

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available Described are modem conditions of operation of Russian civil aviation, state of aircraft stock, the main principles of maintaining air worthiness of airplanes and helicopters. Considered is a stage by stage prolongation of the service life of each specimen of aircraft with certification being obligatory

  7. Intraocular lens in a fighter aircraft pilot.

    OpenAIRE

    Loewenstein, A; Geyer, O; Biger, Y; Bracha, R; Shochat, I; Lazar, M.

    1991-01-01

    A pseudophakic pilot of the Israeli air force flying an F-15 (Eagle) aircraft was followed up for three years. He experienced about 100 flying hours, 5% of the time under high g stress. The intraocular lens did not dislocate and no complications were observed. It seems that flying high performance fighter aircraft is not contraindicated in pseudophakic pilots.

  8. Noise Control in Propeller-Driven Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rennison, D. C.; Wilby, J. F.

    1983-01-01

    Analytical model predicts noise levels inside propeller-driven aircraft during cruise at mach 0.8. Double wall sidewalls minimize interior noise and weight. Model applied to three aircraft with fuselages of different size (wide-body, narrow-body, and small-diameter) to determine noise reductions required to achieve A-weighted sound level not to exceed 80 dB.

  9. Study on Impedance Characteristics of Aircraft Cables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weilin Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Voltage decrease and power loss in distribution lines of aircraft electric power system are harmful to the normal operation of electrical equipment and may even threaten the safety of aircraft. This study investigates how the gap distance (the distance between aircraft cables and aircraft skin and voltage frequency (variable frequency power supply will be adopted for next generation aircraft will affect the impedance of aircraft cables. To be more precise, the forming mechanism of cable resistance and inductance is illustrated in detail and their changing trends with frequency and gap distance are analyzed with the help of electromagnetic theoretical analysis. An aircraft cable simulation model is built with Maxwell 2D and the simulation results are consistent with the conclusions drawn from the theoretical analysis. The changing trends of the four core parameters of interest are analyzed: resistance, inductance, reactance, and impedance. The research results can be used as reference for the applications in Variable Speed Variable Frequency (VSVF aircraft electric power system.

  10. Lift augmentation for highly swept wing aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Dhanvada M. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A pair of spaced slots, disposed on each side of an aircraft centerline and spaced well inboard of the wing leading edges, are provided in the wing upper surfaces and directed tangentially spanwise toward thin sharp leading wing edges of a highly swept, delta wing aircraft. The slots are individually connected through separate plenum chambers to separate compressed air tanks and serve, collectively, as a system for providing aircraft lift augmentation. A compressed air supply is tapped from the aircraft turbojet power plant. Suitable valves, under the control of the aircraft pilot, serve to selective provide jet blowing from the individual slots to provide spanwise sheets of jet air closely adjacent to the upper surfaces and across the aircraft wing span to thereby create artificial vortices whose suction generate additional lift on the aircraft. When desired, or found necessary, unequal or one-side wing blowing is employed to generate rolling moments for augmented lateral control. Trailing flaps are provided that may be deflected differentially, individually, or in unison, as needed for assistance in take-off or landing of the aircraft.

  11. 14 CFR 121.538 - Aircraft security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Aircraft security. 121.538 Section 121.538..., FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Flight Operations § 121.538 Aircraft security. Certificate holders conducting operations under this part must comply with the applicable security requirements in 49 CFR...

  12. 14 CFR 135.125 - Aircraft security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Aircraft security. 135.125 Section 135.125....125 Aircraft security. Certificate holders conducting operators conducting operations under this part must comply with the applicable security requirements in 49 CFR chapter XII....

  13. Cycle Counting Methods of the Aircraft Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedorchenko, Dmitrii G.; Novikov, Dmitrii K.

    2016-01-01

    The concept of condition-based gas turbine-powered aircraft operation is realized all over the world, which implementation requires knowledge of the end-of-life information related to components of aircraft engines in service. This research proposes an algorithm for estimating the equivalent cyclical running hours. This article provides analysis…

  14. 19 CFR 122.42 - Aircraft entry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Aircraft entry. 122.42 Section 122.42 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Aircraft Entry and Entry Documents; Electronic Manifest Requirements...

  15. Unmanned aircraft systems as wingmen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Richard; Barnes, Laura; Fields, MaryAnne

    2010-04-01

    This paper introduces a concept towards integrating manned and Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UASs) into a highly functional team though the design and implementation of 3-D distributed formation/flight control algorithms with the goal to act as wingmen for a manned aircraft. This method is designed to minimize user input for team control, dynamically modify formations as required, utilize standard operating formations to reduce pilot resistance to integration, and support splinter groups for surveillance and/or as safeguards between potential threats and manned vehicles. The proposed work coordinates UAS members by utilizing artificial potential functions whose values are based on the state of the unmanned and manned assets including the desired formation, obstacles, task assignments, and perceived intentions. The overall unmanned team geometry is controlled using weighted potential fields. Individual UAS utilize fuzzy logic controllers for stability and navigation as well as a fuzzy reasoning engine for flight path intention prediction. Approaches are demonstrated in simulation using the commercial simulator X-Plane and controllers designed in Matlab/Simulink. Experiments include trail and right echelon formations as well as splinter group surveillance.

  16. Multispectral imaging of aircraft exhaust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkson, Emily E.; Messinger, David W.

    2016-05-01

    Aircraft pollutants emitted during the landing-takeoff (LTO) cycle have significant effects on the local air quality surrounding airports. There are currently no inexpensive, portable, and unobtrusive sensors to quantify the amount of pollutants emitted from aircraft engines throughout the LTO cycle or to monitor the spatial-temporal extent of the exhaust plume. We seek to thoroughly characterize the unburned hydrocarbon (UHC) emissions from jet engine plumes and to design a portable imaging system to remotely quantify the emitted UHCs and temporally track the distribution of the plume. This paper shows results from the radiometric modeling of a jet engine exhaust plume and describes a prototype long-wave infrared imaging system capable of meeting the above requirements. The plume was modeled with vegetation and sky backgrounds, and filters were selected to maximize the detectivity of the plume. Initial calculations yield a look-up chart, which relates the minimum amount of emitted UHCs required to detect the presence of a plume to the noise-equivalent radiance of a system. Future work will aim to deploy the prototype imaging system at the Greater Rochester International Airport to assess the applicability of the system on a national scale. This project will help monitor the local pollution surrounding airports and allow better-informed decision-making regarding emission caps and pollution bylaws.

  17. Subsonic Ultra Green Aircraft Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Marty K.; Droney, Christopher K.

    2011-01-01

    This Final Report summarizes the work accomplished by the Boeing Subsonic Ultra Green Aircraft Research (SUGAR) team in Phase 1, which includes the time period of October 2008 through March 2010. The team consisted of Boeing Research and Technology, Boeing Commercial Airplanes, General Electric, and Georgia Tech. The team completed the development of a comprehensive future scenario for world-wide commercial aviation, selected baseline and advanced configurations for detailed study, generated technology suites for each configuration, conducted detailed performance analysis, calculated noise and emissions, assessed technology risks, and developed technology roadmaps. Five concepts were evaluated in detail: 2008 baseline, N+3 reference, N+3 high span strut braced wing, N+3 gas turbine battery electric concept, and N+3 hybrid wing body. A wide portfolio of technologies was identified to address the NASA N+3 goals. Significant improvements in air traffic management, aerodynamics, materials and structures, aircraft systems, propulsion, and acoustics are needed. Recommendations for Phase 2 concept and technology projects have been identified.

  18. Carrier scattering in metals and semiconductors

    CERN Document Server

    Gantmakher, VF

    1987-01-01

    The transport properties of solids, as well as the many optical phenomena in them are determined by the scattering of current carriers. ``Carrier Scattering in Metals and Semiconductors'' elucidates the state of the art in the research on the scattering mechanisms for current carriers in metals and semiconductors and describes experiments in which these mechanisms are most dramatically manifested.The selection and organization of the material is in a form to prepare the reader to reason independently and to deal just as independently with available theoretical results and experimental

  19. Flux Sampling Errors for Aircraft and Towers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahrt, Larry

    1998-01-01

    Various errors and influences leading to differences between tower- and aircraft-measured fluxes are surveyed. This survey is motivated by reports in the literature that aircraft fluxes are sometimes smaller than tower-measured fluxes. Both tower and aircraft flux errors are larger with surface heterogeneity due to several independent effects. Surface heterogeneity may cause tower flux errors to increase with decreasing wind speed. Techniques to assess flux sampling error are reviewed. Such error estimates suffer various degrees of inapplicability in real geophysical time series due to nonstationarity of tower time series (or inhomogeneity of aircraft data). A new measure for nonstationarity is developed that eliminates assumptions on the form of the nonstationarity inherent in previous methods. When this nonstationarity measure becomes large, the surface energy imbalance increases sharply. Finally, strategies for obtaining adequate flux sampling using repeated aircraft passes and grid patterns are outlined.

  20. Scorpion: Close Air Support (CAS) aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Chris; Cheng, Rendy; Koehler, Grant; Lyon, Sean; Paguio, Cecilia

    1991-01-01

    The objective is to outline the results of the preliminary design of the Scorpion, a proposed close air support aircraft. The results obtained include complete preliminary analysis of the aircraft in the areas of aerodynamics, structures, avionics and electronics, stability and control, weight and balance, propulsion systems, and costs. A conventional wing, twin jet, twin-tail aircraft was chosen to maximize the desirable characteristics. The Scorpion will feature low speed maneuverability, high survivability, low cost, and low maintenance. The life cycle cost per aircraft will be 17.5 million dollars. The maximum takeoff weight will be 52,760 pounds. Wing loading will be 90 psf. The thrust to weight will be 0.6 lbs/lb. This aircraft meets the specified mission requirements. Some modifications have been suggested to further optimize the design.

  1. 76 FR 6525 - Airworthiness Directives; Cessna Aircraft Company (Type Certificate Previously Held by Columbia...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-07

    ... Company (Type Certificate Previously Held by Columbia Aircraft Manufacturing (Previously the Lancair... Aircraft Company (Type Certificate Previously Held by Columbia Aircraft Manufacturing (Previously The... Aircraft Company (type certificate previously held by Columbia Aircraft Manufacturing (previously...

  2. Physician Fee Schedule Carrier Specific Files

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) has condensed all 56 Physician Fee Schedule (PFS) carrier specific pricing files into one zip file. It is...

  3. What It Means to be a Carrier

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Life Planning Daily Living Strategies Genetic Counselor Research Biomarker Research Program News, Reports and Commentaries Previously Funded ... with the premutation are at increased risk for depression. It is therefore recommended that any premutation carrier ...

  4. Simulation of dual transponder carrier ranging measurements

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiang-yu ZHAO; Xiao-jun JIN; Zhong-he JIN

    2009-01-01

    The most dominant error source for microwave ranging is the frequency instability of the oscillator that generates the carrier phase signal. The oscillator noise is very difficult to filter due to its extremely low frequency. A dual transponder carrier ranging method can effectively minimize the oscillator noise by combing the reference phase and the to-and-fro measurement phase from the same single oscillator. This method does not require an accurate time tagging system, since it extracts phases on the same satellite. This paper analyzes the dual transponder carrier ranging system by simulation of the phase measurements with comprehensive error models. Both frequency domain and time domain noise transfer characteristics were simulated to compare them with dual one-way ranging. The simulation results in the two domains conformed to each other and demonstrated that a high level of accuracy can also be achieved by use of the dual transponder carrier ranging system, with relatively simple instruments.

  5. Towards 100 gigabit carrier ethernet transport networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Anders; Zhang, Jiang; Yu, Hao;

    2010-01-01

    Ethernet as a transport technology has, up to now, lacked the features such as network layer architecture, customer separation and manageability that carriers require for wide-scale deployment. However, with the advent of PBB-TE and TMPLS, it is now possible to use Ethernet as a transport...... technology, making the use of Ethernet as a convergence layer for Next Generation Networks a distinct possibility. Triple Play services, in particular IPTV, are expected to be a main drivers for carrier Ethernet, however, a number of challenges must be addressed including QoS enabled control plane, enhanced...... OAM functions, survivability and the increased bandwidth requirements of carrier class systems. This article provides an overview of PBB-TE and T-MPLS and demonstrates how IPTV services can be realized in the framework of Carrier Ethernet. In addition we provide a case study on performing bit error...

  6. High capacity carrier ethernet transport networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Anders; Zhang, Jiang; Yu, Hao;

    2009-01-01

    Ethernet as a transport technology has, up to now, lacked the features such as network layer architecture, customer separation and manageability that carriers require for wide-scale deployment. However, with the advent of PBB-TE and T-MPLS, it is now possible to use Ethernet as a transport...... technology, making the use of Ethernet as a convergence layer for Next Generation Networks a distinct possibility. Triple Play services, in particular IPTV, are expected to be a main drivers for carrier Ethernet, however, a number of challenges must be addressed including QoS enabled control plane, enhanced...... OAM functions, survivability and the increased bandwidth requirements of carrier class systems. This article provides an overview of PBB-TE and T-MPLS and demonstrates how IPTV services can be realized in the framework of Carrier Ethernet. In addition we provide a case study on performing bit error...

  7. Evaluating multicast resilience in carrier ethernet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruepp, Sarah Renée; Wessing, Henrik; Zhang, Jiang;

    2010-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of the Carrier Ethernet technology with specific focus on resilience. In particular, we show how multicast traffic, which is essential for IPTV can be protected. We detail the ackground for resilience mechanisms and their control and e present Carrier Ethernet...... resilience methods for linear nd ring networks. By simulation we show that the vailability of a multicast connection can be significantly increased by applying protection methods....

  8. Hiding secret data into a carrier image

    OpenAIRE

    Ovidiu COSMA

    2012-01-01

    The object of steganography is embedding hidden information in an appropriate multimedia carrier, e.g., image, audio, or video. There are several known methods of solving this problem, which operate either in the space domain or in the frequency domain, and are distinguished by the following characteristics: payload, robustness and strength. The payload is the amount of secret data that can be embedded in the carrier without inducing suspicious artefacts, robustness indicates the degree in wh...

  9. Minority carrier lifetime in indium phosphide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Phillip; Landis, Geoffrey A.; Weinberg, Irving; Kneisel, Keith

    1991-01-01

    Transient photoluminescence is used to measure the minority carrier lifetime on n-type and p-type InP wafers. The measurements show that unprocessed InP wafers have very high minority carrier lifetimes. Lifetimes of 200 ns and 700 ns were observed for lightly-doped p- and n-type material respectively. Lifetimes over 5 ns were found in heavily doped n-type material.

  10. A reappraisal of transport aircraft needs 1985 - 2000: Perceptions of airline management in a changing economic, regulatory, and technological environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, F. A.

    1982-01-01

    Views of the executives of 24 major, national, regional, and commuter airlines concerning the effect of recent regulatory, economic, and technological changes on the roles they see for their airlines, and consequent changes in their plans for acquiring aircraft for the 1985 to 2000 period were surveyed. Differing perceptions on the economic justification for new-technology jets in the context of the carriers' present and projected financial conditions are outlined. After examining the cases for new or intermediate size jets, the study discusses turboprop powered transports, including the carriers' potential interest in an advanced technology, high-speed turboprop or prop-fan. Finally, the implications of foreign competition are examined in terms of each carrier's evaluation of the quality and financial offerings, as well as possible 'Buy American' policy predisposition.

  11. Hot-Carrier Seebeck Effect: Diffusion and Remote Detection of Hot Carriers in Graphene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sierra, Juan F; Neumann, Ingmar; Costache, Marius V; Valenzuela, Sergio O

    2015-06-10

    We investigate hot carrier propagation across graphene using an electrical nonlocal injection/detection method. The device consists of a monolayer graphene flake contacted by multiple metal leads. Using two remote leads for electrical heating, we generate a carrier temperature gradient that results in a measurable thermoelectric voltage V(NL) across the remaining (detector) leads. Due to the nonlocal character of the measurement, V(NL) is exclusively due to the Seebeck effect. Remarkably, a departure from the ordinary relationship between Joule power P and V(NL), V(NL) ∼ P, becomes readily apparent at low temperatures, representing a fingerprint of hot-carrier dominated thermoelectricity. By studying V(NL) as a function of bias, we directly determine the carrier temperature and the characteristic cooling length for hot-carrier propagation, which are key parameters for a variety of new applications that rely on hot-carrier transport.

  12. Hot-Carrier Seebeck Effect: Diffusion and Remote Detection of Hot Carriers in Graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sierra, Juan F.; Neumann, Ingmar; Costache, Marius V.; Valenzuela, Sergio O.

    2015-06-01

    We investigate hot carrier propagation across graphene using an electrical nonlocal injection/detection method. The device consists of a monolayer graphene flake contacted by multiple metal leads. Using two remote leads for electrical heating, we generate a carrier temperature gradient that results in a measurable thermoelectric voltage VNL across the remaining (detector) leads. Due to the nonlocal character of the measurement, VNL is exclusively due to the Seebeck effect. Remarkably, a departure from the ordinary relationship between Joule power P and VNL, VNL ~ P, becomes readily apparent at low temperatures, representing a fingerprint of hot-carrier dominated thermoelectricity. By studying VNL as a function of bias, we directly determine the carrier temperature and the characteristic cooling length for hot-carrier propagation, which are key parameters for a variety of new applications that rely on hot-carrier transport.

  13. Turboprop aircraft against terrorism: a SWOT analysis of turboprop aircraft in CAS operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yavuz, Murat; Akkas, Ali; Aslan, Yavuz

    2012-06-01

    Today, the threat perception is changing. Not only for countries but also for defence organisations like NATO, new threat perception is pointing terrorism. Many countries' air forces become responsible of fighting against terorism or Counter-Insurgency (COIN) Operations. Different from conventional warfare, alternative weapon or weapon systems are required for such operatioins. In counter-terrorism operations modern fighter jets are used as well as helicopters, subsonic jets, Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS), turboprop aircraft, baloons and similar platforms. Succes and efficiency of the use of these platforms can be determined by evaluating the conditions, the threats and the area together. Obviously, each platform has advantages and disadvantages for different cases. In this research, examples of turboprop aircraft usage against terrorism and with a more general approach, turboprop aircraft for Close Air Support (CAS) missions from all around the world are reviewed. In this effort, a closer look is taken at the countries using turboprop aircraft in CAS missions while observing the fields these aircraft are used in, type of operations, specifications of the aircraft, cost and the maintenance factors. Thus, an idea about the convenience of using these aircraft in such operations can be obtained. A SWOT analysis of turboprop aircraft in CAS operations is performed. This study shows that turboprop aircraft are suitable to be used in counter-terrorism and COIN operations in low threat environment and is cost benefical compared to jets.

  14. Radio Science Measurements with Suppressed Carrier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asmar, Sami; Divsalar, Dariush; Oudrhiri, Kamal

    2013-01-01

    Radio Science started when it became apparent with early Solar missions that occultations by planetary atmospheres would affect the quality of radio communications. Since then the atmospheric properties and other aspects of planetary science, solar science, and fundamental physics were studied by scientists. Radio Science data was always extracted from a received pure residual carrier (without data modulation). For some missions, it is very desirable to obtain Radio Science data from a suppressed carrier modulation. In this paper we propose a method to extract Radio Science data when a coded suppressed carrier modulation is used in deep space communications. Type of modulation can be BPSK, QPSK, OQPSK, MPSK or even GMSK. However we concentrate mostly on BPSK modulation. The proposed method for suppressed carrier simply tries to wipe out data that acts as an interference for Radio Science measurements. In order to measure the estimation errors in amplitude and phase of the Radio Science data we use Cramer-Rao bound (CRB). The CRB for the suppressed carrier modulation with non-ideal data wiping is then compared with residual carrier modulation under the same noise condition. The method of derivation of CRB for non-ideal data wiping is an innovative method that presented here. Some numerical results are provided for coded system.

  15. Propeller aircraft interior noise model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, L. D.; Wilby, E. G.; Wilby, J. F.

    1984-01-01

    An analytical model was developed to predict the interior noise of propeller-driven aircraft. The fuselage model is that of a cylinder with a structurally-integral floor. The cabin sidewall is stiffened by stringers and ring frames, and the floor by longitudinal beams. The cabin interior is covered with a sidewall treatments consisting of layers of porous material and an impervious trim septum. Representation of the propeller pressure field is utilized as input data in the form of the propeller noise signature at a series of locations on a grid over the fuselage structure. Results obtained from the analytical model are compared with test data measured by NASA in a scale model cylindrical fuselage excited by a model propeller.

  16. Aircraft measurements of wave cloud

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Cui

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, aircraft measurements are presented of liquid phase (ice-free wave clouds made at temperatures greater than −5 °C that formed over Scotland, UK. The horizontal variations of the vertical velocity across wave clouds display a distinct pattern. The maximum updraughts occur at the upshear flanks of the clouds and the strong downdraughts at the downshear flanks. The cloud droplet concentrations were a couple of hundreds per cubic centimetres, and the drops generally had a mean diameter between 15–45 μm. A small proportion of the drops were drizzle. A new definition of a mountain-wave cloud is given, based on the measurements presented here and previous studies. The results in this paper provide a case for future numerical simulation of wave cloud and the interaction between wave and clouds.

  17. SMACK - SMOOTHING FOR AIRCRAFT KINEMATICS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bach, R.

    1994-01-01

    The computer program SMACK (SMoothing for AirCraft Kinematics) is designed to provide flightpath reconstruction of aircraft forces and motions from measurements that are noisy or incomplete. Additionally, SMACK provides a check on instrument accuracy and data consistency. The program can be used to analyze data from flight-test experiments prior to their use in performance, stability and control, or aerodynamic modeling calculations. It can also be used in the analysis of aircraft accidents, where the actual forces and motions may have to be determined from a very limited data set. Application of a state-estimation method for flightpath reconstruction is possible because aircraft forces and motions are related by well-known equations of motion. The task of postflight state estimation is known as a nonlinear, fixed-interval smoothing problem. SMACK utilizes a backward-filter, forward-smoother algorithm to solve the problem. The equations of motion are used to produce estimates that are compared with their corresponding measurement time histories. The procedure is iterative, providing improved state estimates until a minimum squared-error measure is achieved. In the SMACK program, the state and measurement models together represent a finite-difference approximation for the six-degree-of-freedom dynamics of a rigid body. The models are used to generate time histories which are likely to be found in a flight-test measurement set. These include onboard variables such as Euler angles, angular rates, and linear accelerations as well as tracking variables such as slant range, bearing, and elevation. Any bias or scale-factor errors associated with the state or measurement models are appended to the state vector and treated as constant but unknown parameters. The SMACK documentation covers the derivation of the solution algorithm, describes the state and measurement models, and presents several application examples that should help the analyst recognize the potential

  18. Performance Evaluation Method for Dissimilar Aircraft Designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, H. J.

    1979-01-01

    A rationale is presented for using the square of the wingspan rather than the wing reference area as a basis for nondimensional comparisons of the aerodynamic and performance characteristics of aircraft that differ substantially in planform and loading. Working relationships are developed and illustrated through application to several categories of aircraft covering a range of Mach numbers from 0.60 to 2.00. For each application, direct comparisons of drag polars, lift-to-drag ratios, and maneuverability are shown for both nondimensional systems. The inaccuracies that may arise in the determination of aerodynamic efficiency based on reference area are noted. Span loading is introduced independently in comparing the combined effects of loading and aerodynamic efficiency on overall performance. Performance comparisons are made for the NACA research aircraft, lifting bodies, century-series fighter aircraft, F-111A aircraft with conventional and supercritical wings, and a group of supersonic aircraft including the B-58 and XB-70 bomber aircraft. An idealized configuration is included in each category to serve as a standard for comparing overall efficiency.

  19. Aircraft emission research within ISTC project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dedesh, V.; Leut, A.; Boris, S. [Scientific Research Center at the Gromov Flight, Research Institute (Russian Federation)

    2001-08-01

    This research is aimed at obtaining experimental data on contamination of the atmosphere by emissions from aircraft engines in cruise flight conditions, to establish and improve models of the physical and chemical processes which take place in the aircraft wake and in the general zone of air traffic corridors. An Su-24 'sounder' aircraft equipped with an air sampling and collection system has been established to obtain the necessary atmospheric samples in flight, and procedures have been developed for performing the research flights. Techniques have also been developed for chemical analysis of the samples. (authors)

  20. Moving towards a more electric aircraft

    OpenAIRE

    Rosero García, Javier Alveiro; Ortega Redondo, Juan Antonio; Aldabas Rubira, Emiliano; Romeral Martínez, José Luis

    2007-01-01

    Harry Rowe Mimno Award for the March 2007 AESS Magazine Paper: “Moving Towards A More Electric Aircraft” The latest advances in electric and electronic aircraft technologies from the point of view of an "all-electric" aircraft are presented herein. Specifically, we describe the concept of a "more electric aircraft" (MEA), which involves removing the need for on-engine hydraulic power generation and bleed air off-takes, and the increasing use of power electronics in the starter/generation s...

  1. Research related to variable sweep aircraft development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polhamus, E. C.; Toll, T. A.

    1981-01-01

    Development in high speed, variable sweep aircraft research is reviewed. The 1946 Langley wind tunnel studies related to variable oblique and variable sweep wings and results from the X-5 and the XF1OF variable sweep aircraft are discussed. A joint program with the British, evaluation of the British "Swallow", development of the outboard pivot wing/aft tail configuration concept by Langley, and the applied research program that followed and which provided the technology for the current, variable sweep military aircraft is outlined. The relative state of variable sweep as a design option is also covered.

  2. Multidisciplinary Techniques and Novel Aircraft Control Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padula, Sharon L.; Rogers, James L.; Raney, David L.

    2000-01-01

    The Aircraft Morphing Program at NASA Langley Research Center explores opportunities to improve airframe designs with smart technologies. Two elements of this basic research program are multidisciplinary design optimization (MDO) and advanced flow control. This paper describes examples where MDO techniques such as sensitivity analysis, automatic differentiation, and genetic algorithms contribute to the design of novel control systems. In the test case, the design and use of distributed shape-change devices to provide low-rate maneuvering capability for a tailless aircraft is considered. The ability of MDO to add value to control system development is illustrated using results from several years of research funded by the Aircraft Morphing Program.

  3. Hail damage to typical aircraft surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayduk, R. J.

    1972-01-01

    Severe structural damage can occur when aircraft collide with hailstones. Consequently, methods of predicting hail damage to airplane surfaces are needed by the aircraft designer. This paper describes an analytical method of predicting the dent depth and final deformed shape for simple structural components impacted by hailstones. The solution was accomplished by adapting the DEPROSS computer program to the problem of normal impact of hail on flat metallic sheets and spherical metallic caps. Experimental data and analytical predictions are presented for hail damage to typical aircraft surfaces along with a description of the hail gun and hail simulation technique used in the experimental study.

  4. 14 CFR 91.1109 - Aircraft maintenance: Inspection program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... currently recommended by the manufacturer of the aircraft, aircraft engines, propellers, appliances, and... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Aircraft maintenance: Inspection program... Ownership Operations Program Management § 91.1109 Aircraft maintenance: Inspection program. Each...

  5. 77 FR 42455 - Airworthiness Directives; Piper Aircraft, Inc. Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-19

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 39 RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Piper Aircraft, Inc... directive (AD) for all Piper Aircraft, Inc. (type certificate previously held by The New Piper Aircraft Inc... receive about this proposed AD. Discussion Three forced landings of Piper Aircraft, Inc. Model...

  6. Impact of Advanced Propeller Technology on Aircraft/Mission Characteristics of Several General Aviation Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keiter, I. D.

    1982-01-01

    Studies of several General Aviation aircraft indicated that the application of advanced technologies to General Aviation propellers can reduce fuel consumption in future aircraft by a significant amount. Propeller blade weight reductions achieved through the use of composites, propeller efficiency and noise improvements achieved through the use of advanced concepts and improved propeller analytical design methods result in aircraft with lower operating cost, acquisition cost and gross weight.

  7. Innovative Aircraft Design – Options for a New Medium Range Aircraft

    OpenAIRE

    Scholz, Dieter

    2015-01-01

    Task was to find an innovative aircraft design for a new medium range aircraft. The aircraft design methodology is based on equations (in contrast to numeric methods) and formal optimization with a genetic algorithm called differential evolution. Airbus has postponed an all-new A320 to 2025 or even 2030. This allows including also unconventional configurations into the search. Economic requirements are extreme: 25 % to 40 % reduction in fuel consumption, 35 % reduction in Cash Operating Costs...

  8. Conceptual design and optimization methodology for box wing aircraft

    OpenAIRE

    Jemitola, Paul Olugbeji

    2012-01-01

    A conceptual design optimization methodology was developed for a medium range box wing aircraft. A baseline conventional cantilever wing aircraft designed for the same mis- sion and payload was also optimized alongside a baseline box wing aircraft. An empirical formula for the mass estimation of the fore and aft wings of the box wing aircraft was derived by relating conventional cantilever wings to box wing aircraft wings. The results indicate that the fore and aft wings would ...

  9. Aircraft Noise and Quality of Life around Frankfurt Airport

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas Eikmann; Christin Peschel; Cara Kahl; Dirk Schreckenberg; Markus Meis

    2010-01-01

    In a survey of 2,312 residents living near Frankfurt Airport aircraft noise annoyance and disturbances as well as environmental (EQoL) and health-related quality of life (HQoL) were assessed and compared with data on exposure due to aircraft, road traffic, and railway noise. Results indicate higher noise annoyance than predicted from general exposure-response curves. Beside aircraft sound levels source-related attitudes were associated with reactions to aircraft noise. Furthermore, aircraft n...

  10. Performance of Uplink Carrier Aggregation in LTE-Advanced Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Hua; Rosa, Claudio; Pedersen, Klaus

    2010-01-01

    Carrier aggregation (CA) has been proposed to aggregate two or more component carriers (CCs) to support a much wider transmission bandwidth for LTE-Advanced systems. With carrier aggregation, it is possible to schedule a user equipment (UE) on multiple component carriers simultaneously. In this p...

  11. 47 CFR 64.1140 - Carrier liability for slamming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Carrier liability for slamming. 64.1140 Section 64.1140 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES... Providers § 64.1140 Carrier liability for slamming. (a) Carrier Liability for Charges. Any...

  12. 76 FR 32390 - Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-06

    ... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee Public Meeting AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of Motor Carrier Safety Advisory... MCSAC will complete action on Task 11-01, regarding Patterns of Safety Violations by Motor...

  13. Investigation of aircraft vortex wake structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranov, N. A.; Turchak, L. I.

    2014-11-01

    In this work we analyze the mechanisms of formation of the vortex wake structure of aircraft with different wing shape in the plan flying close to or away from the underlying surface cleaned or released mechanization wing.

  14. Titanium in fatigue critical military aircraft structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gillespie, F.

    1999-07-01

    This paper discusses the effect of fatigue requirements on titanium structure in military aircraft applications, specifically, fighter aircraft. The discussion covers how fatigue affects the design and analysis of detail parts, and how manufacturing processes affect the fatigue performance of titanium structure. Criteria for designing fighter aircraft have evolved from simple strength calculations to extremely complex computer generated analyses involving strength, durability, damage tolerance and fatigue. Fatigue life prediction is an important part of these analyses and dramatically affects the design and weight of fighter aircraft. Manufacturing processes affect fatigue performance both in a positive and negative manner. Designers must allow for the effect of these processes on titanium structure and consider the efficiency and economy of adding processes that increase fatigue life.

  15. Aircraft Electronics Maintenance Training Simulator. Curriculum Outlines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackhawk Technical Coll., Janesville, WI.

    Instructional materials are provided for nine courses in an aircraft electronics maintenance training program. Courses are as follows: aviation basic electricity, direct current and alternating current electronics, basic avionic installations, analog electronics, digital electronics, microcomputer electronics, radio communications, aircraft…

  16. Aircraft Test & Evaluation Facility (Hush House)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Aircraft Test and Evaluation Facility (ATEF), or Hush House, is a noise-abated ground test sub-facility. The facility's controlled environment provides 24-hour...

  17. Emerging nondestructive inspection methods for aging aircraft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beattie, A; Dahlke, L; Gieske, J [and others

    1994-01-01

    This report identifies and describes emerging nondestructive inspection (NDI) methods that can potentially be used to inspect commercial transport and commuter aircraft for structural damage. The nine categories of emerging NDI techniques are: acoustic emission, x-ray computed tomography, backscatter radiation, reverse geometry x-ray, advanced electromagnetics, including magnetooptic imaging and advanced eddy current techniques, coherent optics, advanced ultrasonics, advanced visual, and infrared thermography. The physical principles, generalized performance characteristics, and typical applications associated with each method are described. In addition, aircraft inspection applications are discussed along with the associated technical considerations. Finally, the status of each technique is presented, with a discussion on when it may be available for use in actual aircraft maintenance programs. It should be noted that this is a companion document to DOT/FAA/CT-91/5, Current Nondestructive Inspection Methods for Aging Aircraft.

  18. Thermal Management System for Superconducting Aircraft Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Aircraft powered by hydrogen power plants or gas turbines driving electric generators connected to distributed electric motors for propulsion have the potential to...

  19. Aircraft Nodal Data Acquisition System (ANDAS) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Development of an Aircraft Nodal Data Acquisition System (ANDAS) is proposed. The proposed methodology employs the development of a very thin (135m) hybrid...

  20. Aircraft Nodal Data Acquisition System (ANDAS) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Development of an Aircraft Nodal Data Acquisition System (ANDAS) based upon the short haul Zigbee networking standard is proposed. It employs a very thin (135 um)...

  1. Design of heavy lift cargo aircraft

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This is the bird of the skies of the future. The heavy lift cargo aircraft which is currently being developed by me has twice the payload capacity of an Antonov...

  2. Modular Electric Propulsion Test Bed Aircraft Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A hybrid electric aircraft simulation system and test bed is proposed to provide a dedicated development environment for the rigorous study and advancement of hybrid...

  3. Nondestructive Evaluation of Aircraft and Spacecraft Wiring

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, John E.; Tucholski, Edward J.; Green, Robert E., Jr.

    2004-01-01

    Spacecraft, and especially aircraft, often fry well past their original design lives and, therefore, the need to develop nondestructive evaluation procedures for inspection of vital structures in these craft is extremely important. One of the more recent problems is the degradation of wiring and wiring insulation. The present paper describes several nondestructive characterization methods which afford the possibility to detect wiring and insulation degradation in-situ prior to major problems with the safety of aircraft and spacecraft.

  4. Aircraft Pitch Attitude Control using Backstepping

    OpenAIRE

    Härkegård, Ola; Glad, Torkel

    2000-01-01

    A nonlinear approach to the automatic pitch attitude control problem for a generic fighter aircraft is presented. A nonlinear model describing the longitudinal equations of motion in strict feedback form is derived. Backstepping is utilized for the construction of a globally stabilizing controller with a number of free design parameters. Two tuning schemes are proposed based on the desired locally linear controller properties. The controller is evaluated using the HIRM fighter aircraft model.

  5. An Optimization Model for Aircraft Service Logistics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Angus; Cheung; W; H; Ip; Angel; Lai; Eva; Cheung

    2002-01-01

    Scheduling is one of the most difficult issues in t he planning and operations of the aircraft services industry. In this paper, t he various scheduling problems in ground support operation of an aircraft mainte nance service company are addressed. The authors developed a set of vehicle rout ings to cover each schedule flights; the objectives pursued are the maximization of vehicle and manpower utilization and minimization of operation time. To obta in the goals, an integer-programming model with geneti...

  6. The Demand for Single Engine Piston Aircraft,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-08-01

    composites more quickly because of the absence of certi- ficatjcr: requirements. Less conventional configurations such as carar( wings and winglets are...smooth contours and surfaces. Composites offer much promise and are already in use in winos of a number of aircraft. Winglets reduce vortex drag by...Vore Aviation Corporation in Albuquerque, NM. It is a high-wing, composite , tricycle-gear aircraft designed primarily for the training and personal

  7. Integrated lift/drag controller for aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olcott, J. W.; Seckel, E.; Ellis, D. R. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    A system for altering the lift/drag characteristics of powered aircraft to provide a safe means of glide path control includes a control device integrated for coordination action with the aircraft throttle. Such lift/drag alteration devices as spoilers, dive brakes, and the like are actuated by manual operation of a single lever coupled with the throttle for integrating, blending or coordinating power control. Improper operation of the controller is inhibited by safety mechanisms.

  8. Aircraft Wake Vortex Deformation in Turbulent Atmosphere

    OpenAIRE

    Hennemann, Ingo; Holzaepfel, Frank

    2007-01-01

    Large-scale distortion of aircraft wake vortices appears to play a crucial role for aircraft safety during approach and landing. Vortex distortion is investigated based on large eddy simulations of wake vortex evolution in a turbulent atmosphere. A vortex identification method is developed that can be adapted to the vortex scales of interest. Based on the identified vortex center tracks, a statistics of vortex curvature radii is established. This statistics constitutes the basis for understan...

  9. Handling Qualities Evaluations of Unmanned Aircraft Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-04

    Control Loop – Manned Platform Ai rc ra ft Pilot Flight Computer Control Surface Deflection Aircraft Response Inertia Measurements Visual Cues Aural...dynamics, ergonomics in the control station, and the control surfaces and actuators in the air- craft. The software may contain displays, behaviors...compare with the latency of manned aircraft that exhibit imperceptible time delays, usually less than 5 millisec- onds , which is considered a minimum

  10. Hot Carrier extraction with plasmonic broadband absorbers

    CERN Document Server

    Ng, Charlene; Dligatch, Svetlana; Roberts, Ann; Davis, Timothy J; Mulvaney, Paul; Gomez, Daniel E

    2016-01-01

    Hot charge carrier extraction from metallic nanostructures is a very promising approach for applications in photo-catalysis, photovoltaics and photodetection. One limitation is that many metallic nanostructures support a single plasmon resonance thus restricting the light-to-charge-carrier activity to a spectral band. Here we demonstrate that a monolayer of plasmonic nanoparticles can be assembled on a multi-stack layered configuration to achieve broad-band, near-unit light absorption, which is spatially localised on the nanoparticle layer. We show that this enhanced light absorbance leads to $\\sim$ 40-fold increases in the photon-to-electron conversion efficiency by the plasmonic nanostructures. We developed a model that successfully captures the essential physics of the plasmonic hot-electron charge generation and separation in these structures. This model also allowed us to establish that efficient hot carrier extraction is limited to spectral regions where the photons possessing energies higher than the S...

  11. Development of radioisotope labeled polymeric carriers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Seung Jin; Jeong, Jea Min; Hwang, Hyun Jeong [Ewha Womans University, Seoul (Korea)

    2000-04-01

    This research was performed with the aim of developing polymeric radioisotope or drug carriers for obtaining efficient diagnostic therapeutic efficacy. As polymers, polyethylene oxides, polylactides, polycaprolactone were chosen to prepare the devices including micelle system, microemulsion, nanospheres. In addition, anticancer drug loaded polylactide microparticulates were fabricated as a regional chemotherapeutics for the treatment of cancer. Technetium or radioactive iodine was labeled to the polymeric carriers via ligands such as DTPA and HPP, respectively. Labeling efficiency was above 90% and stable enough up to 24 hours. Moreover, injected polymer carriers demonstrated higher blood maintenance and bone uptake than Tin colloid, a control. These results suggested that radioisotope carrying polymeric particulate are promising tools for diagnosing blood vessels or bones. Besides, anticancer drug loaded particulates demonstrated appropriate maintenance of therapeutic concentration and localization. Therefore it was proposed that this therapeutic system may be potential as a cancer therapy modality. 20 refs., 24 figs.,5 tabs. (Author)

  12. Hiding secret data into a carrier image

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ovidiu COSMA

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The object of steganography is embedding hidden information in an appropriate multimedia carrier, e.g., image, audio, or video. There are several known methods of solving this problem, which operate either in the space domain or in the frequency domain, and are distinguished by the following characteristics: payload, robustness and strength. The payload is the amount of secret data that can be embedded in the carrier without inducing suspicious artefacts, robustness indicates the degree in which the secret data is affected by the normal processing of the carrier e.g., compression, and the strength indicate how easy the presence of hidden data can be detected by steganalysis techniques. This paper presents a new method of hiding secret data into a digital image compressed by a technique based on the Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT [2] and the Set Partitioning In Hierarchical Trees (SPIHT subband coding algorithm [6]. The proposed method admits huge payloads and has considerable strength.

  13. Carrier lifetimes in thin-film photovoltaics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, Dohyun

    2015-09-01

    The carrier lifetimes in thin-film solar cells are reviewed and discussed. Shockley-Read-Hall recombination is dominant at low carrier density, Auger recombination is dominant under a high injection condition and high carrier density, and surface recombination is dominant under any conditions. Because the surface photovoltage technique is insensitive to the surface condition, it is useful for bulk lifetime measurements. The photoconductance decay technique measures the effective recombination lifetime. The time-resolved photoluminescence technique is very useful for measuring thin-film semiconductor or solar-cell materials lifetime, because the sample is thin, other techniques are not suitable for measuring the lifetime. Many papers have provided time-resolved photoluminescence (TRPL) lifetimes for copper-indium-gallium-selenide (CIGS) and CdTe thin-film solar cell. The TRPL lifetime strongly depends on open-circuit voltage and conversion efficiency; however, the TRPL life time is insensitive to the short-circuit current.

  14. [Therapy of hepatitis B virus carriers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bereza, N M; Petiĭ, S I

    1986-01-01

    Examination of 200 gastroenterological patients with a suspected chronic diffuse liver disease has demonstrated that only in 18.9% of the patients with chronic hepatitis, the disease was induced by the virus. Based on the experience gained with the treatment of 7 patients with chronic hepatitis B it is concluded that sanitation may be performed with levamisole. However, the data obtained in the course of the 5-year observation over sanitation of HBsAg carriers (25 subjects) do not provide any convincing evidence in favour of levamisole sanitation. The authors hold that at the blood transfusion stations the prophylaxis of serum hepatitis falls short of ideal. Selection of the donors according to CCIE does not give any guarantee against the viral hepatitis B carrier state. Like patients with viral hepatitis B, the HBsAg carriers badly need active prophylactic-and-treatment medical examination with the use of the antiviral agents.

  15. Hot-carrier effects in MOS devices

    CERN Document Server

    Takeda, Eiji; Miura-Hamada, Akemi

    1995-01-01

    The exploding number of uses for ultrafast, ultrasmall integrated circuits has increased the importance of hot-carrier effects in manufacturing as well as for other technological applications. They are rapidly movingout of the research lab and into the real world.This book is derived from Dr. Takedas book in Japanese, Hot-Carrier Effects, (published in 1987 by Nikkei Business Publishers). However, the new book is much more than a translation. Takedas original work was a starting point for developing this much more complete and fundamental text on this increasingly important topic. The new work

  16. Effective Charge Carrier Utilization in Photocatalytic Conversions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Peng; Wang, Tuo; Chang, Xiaoxia; Gong, Jinlong

    2016-05-17

    Continuous efforts have been devoted to searching for sustainable energy resources to alleviate the upcoming energy crises. Among various types of new energy resources, solar energy has been considered as one of the most promising choices, since it is clean, sustainable, and safe. Moreover, solar energy is the most abundant renewable energy, with a total power of 173 000 terawatts striking Earth continuously. Conversion of solar energy into chemical energy, which could potentially provide continuous and flexible energy supplies, has been investigated extensively. However, the conversion efficiency is still relatively low since complicated physical, electrical, and chemical processes are involved. Therefore, carefully designed photocatalysts with a wide absorption range of solar illumination, a high conductivity for charge carriers, a small number of recombination centers, and fast surface reaction kinetics are required to achieve a high activity. This Account describes our recent efforts to enhance the utilization of charge carriers for semiconductor photocatalysts toward efficient solar-to-chemical energy conversion. During photocatalytic reactions, photogenerated electrons and holes are involved in complex processes to convert solar energy into chemical energy. The initial step is the generation of charge carriers in semiconductor photocatalysts, which could be enhanced by extending the light absorption range. Integration of plasmonic materials and introduction of self-dopants have been proved to be effective methods to improve the light absorption ability of photocatalysts to produce larger amounts of photogenerated charge carriers. Subsequently, the photogenerated electrons and holes migrate to the surface. Therefore, acceleration of the transport process can result in enhanced solar energy conversion efficiency. Different strategies such as morphology control and conductivity improvement have been demonstrated to achieve this goal. Fine-tuning of the

  17. Biogenesis of the mitochondrial phosphate carrier

    OpenAIRE

    Zara, Vincenzo; Rassow, Joachim; Wachter, Elmar; Tropschug, Maximilian; Palmieri, Ferdinando; Neupert, Walter; Pfanner, Nikolaus

    1991-01-01

    The mitochondrial phosphate carrier (PiC) is a member of the family of inner-membrane carrier proteins which are generally synthesized without a cleavable presequence. Surprisingly, the cDNA sequences of bovine and rat PiC suggested the existence of an amino-terminal extension sequence in the precursor of PiC. By expressing PiC in vitro, we found that PiC is indeed synthesized as a larger precursor. This precursor was imported and proteolytically processed by mitochondria, whereby the correct...

  18. Line broadening caused by Coulomb carrier-carrier correlations and dynamics of carrier capture and emission in quantum dots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uskov, Alexander V; Magnúsdóttir, Ingibjörg; Tromborg, Bjarne;

    2001-01-01

    Mechanisms of pure dephasing in quantum dots due to Coulomb correlations and the dynamics of carrier capture and emission are suggested, and a phenomenological model for the dephasing is developed. It is shown that, if the rates of these capture and emission processes are sufficiently high...

  19. Modeling Programs Increase Aircraft Design Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Flutter may sound like a benign word when associated with a flag in a breeze, a butterfly, or seaweed in an ocean current. When used in the context of aerodynamics, however, it describes a highly dangerous, potentially deadly condition. Consider the case of the Lockheed L-188 Electra Turboprop, an airliner that first took to the skies in 1957. Two years later, an Electra plummeted to the ground en route from Houston to Dallas. Within another year, a second Electra crashed. In both cases, all crew and passengers died. Lockheed engineers were at a loss as to why the planes wings were tearing off in midair. For an answer, the company turned to NASA s Transonic Dynamics Tunnel (TDT) at Langley Research Center. At the time, the newly renovated wind tunnel offered engineers the capability of testing aeroelastic qualities in aircraft flying at transonic speeds near or just below the speed of sound. (Aeroelasticity is the interaction between aerodynamic forces and the structural dynamics of an aircraft or other structure.) Through round-the-clock testing in the TDT, NASA and industry researchers discovered the cause: flutter. Flutter occurs when aerodynamic forces acting on a wing cause it to vibrate. As the aircraft moves faster, certain conditions can cause that vibration to multiply and feed off itself, building to greater amplitudes until the flutter causes severe damage or even the destruction of the aircraft. Flutter can impact other structures as well. Famous film footage of the Tacoma Narrows Bridge in Washington in 1940 shows the main span of the bridge collapsing after strong winds generated powerful flutter forces. In the Electra s case, faulty engine mounts allowed a type of flutter known as whirl flutter, generated by the spinning propellers, to transfer to the wings, causing them to vibrate violently enough to tear off. Thanks to the NASA testing, Lockheed was able to correct the Electra s design flaws that led to the flutter conditions and return the

  20. 2015年全球宽体客机航线网络分析%The Analysis of Global Wide-body Aircraft Network in 2015

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈烁

    2016-01-01

    2015年,全球宽体客机运营航线数量较上年有较大增长。承运人积极调整运营策略、优化资源配置以提高市场份额,世界著名低成本航空公司也有向宽体航线市场进军的趋势,这些为宽体客机的发展提供了更广阔的市场空间。%In 2015,the number of global route increased greatly compared with the previous year. Carriers positively adapt their operation strategy and optimize resources to improve market share.World famous low-cost carriers also tend to enter the wide-body aircraft network market.These all provide broad prospects for the development of wide-body aircraft.

  1. Conceptual design of high speed supersonic aircraft: A brief review on SR-71 (Blackbird) aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Hui; Khawaja, H.; Moatamedi, M.

    2014-12-01

    The paper presents the conceptual design of high-speed supersonic aircraft. The study focuses on SR-71 (Blackbird) aircraft. The input to the conceptual design is a mission profile. Mission profile is a flight profile of the aircraft defined by the customer. This paper gives the SR-71 aircraft mission profile specified by US air force. Mission profile helps in defining the attributes the aircraft such as wing profile, vertical tail configuration, propulsion system, etc. Wing profile and vertical tail configurations have direct impact on lift, drag, stability, performance and maneuverability of the aircraft. A propulsion system directly influences the performance of the aircraft. By combining the wing profile and the propulsion system, two important parameters, known as wing loading and thrust to weight ratio can be calculated. In this work, conceptual design procedure given by D. P. Raymer (AIAA Educational Series) is applied to calculate wing loading and thrust to weight ratio. The calculated values are compared against the actual values of the SR-71 aircraft. Results indicates that the values are in agreement with the trend of developments in aviation.

  2. Advanced two-way satellite frequency transfer by carrier-phase and carrier-frequency measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujieda, Miho; Gotoh, Tadahiro; Amagai, Jun

    2016-06-01

    Carrier-phase measurement is one of the ways to improve the measurement resolution of two-way satellite frequency transfer. We introduce two possible methods for carrier-phase measurement: direct carrier-phase detection identified by Two-Way Carrier-Phase (TWCP) and the use of carrier-frequency information identified by Two-Way Carrier Frequency (TWCF). We performed the former using an arbitrary waveform generator and an analog-to-digital sampler and the latter using a conventional modem. The TWCF measurement using the modem had a resolution of 10-13 and the result agreed with that obtained by GPS carrier-phase frequency transfer in a 1500 km baseline. The measurement accuracy may have been limited by the poor frequency resolution of the modem; however, the TWCF measurement was able to improve the stability of conventional two-way satellite frequency transfer. Additionally, we show that the TWCP measurement system has the potential to achieve a frequency stability of 10-17.

  3. Carrier Aggregation for LTE-Advanced

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Klaus Ingemann; Frederiksen, Frank; Rosa, Claudio

    2011-01-01

    Carrier aggregation (CA) is one of the key features for LTE-Advanced. By means of CA, users gain access to a total bandwidth of up to 100 MHz in order to meet the IMT-Advanced requirements. The system bandwidth may be contiguous, or composed of several non-contiguous bandwidth chunks, which are a...

  4. Roch Carrier, Popular Language, and Joual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walkley, Max

    1997-01-01

    Discusses the language problems in Roch Carrier's French Canadian short stories, as well as his concise, nostalgic writing style. The article gives examples of vocabulary in his characters' dialogue; reviews the evolvement of French in Quebec and the question of "joual," in particular; and focuses on expressions posing difficulty for…

  5. A NEW SYNTHETIC FUNCTIONALIZED ANTIGEN CARRIER

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DRIJFHOUT, JW; BLOEMHOFF, W

    1991-01-01

    A new synthetic functionalized antigen carrier is described. It consists of a core of seven branched lysine residues, of which each of the four N-terminal lysine residues contains two N-(S-acetylmercaptoacetyl)-glutamyl residues. After removal of the protecting S-acetyl groups affording eight thiol

  6. Microemulsions as Potential Carriers of Nisin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chatzidaki, Maria D; Papadimitriou, Konstantinos; Alexandraki, Voula

    2016-01-01

    Water-in-oil (W/O) microemulsions based on either refined olive oil (ROO) or sunflower oil (SO), distilled monoglycerides (DMG), and ethanol were used as nisin carriers in order to ensure its effectiveness as a biopreservative. This work presents experimental evidence on the effects of ethanol...

  7. Polyester Dendrimers: Smart Carriers for Drug Delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean–d’Amour K. Twibanire

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Polyester dendrimers have been shown to be outstanding candidates for biomedical applications. Compared to traditional polymeric drug vehicles, these biodegradable dendrimers show excellent advantages especially as drug delivery systems because they are non-toxic. Here, advances on polyester dendrimers as smart carriers for drug delivery applications have been surveyed. Both covalent and non-covalent incorporation of drugs are discussed.

  8. Dextran: A promising macromolecular drug carrier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhaneshwar Suneela

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the past three decades intensive efforts have been made to design novel systems able to deliver the drug more effectively to the target site. The ongoing intense search for novel and innovative drug delivery systems is predominantly a consequence of the well-established fact that the conventional dosage forms are not sufficiently effective in conveying the drug compound to its site of action and once in the target area, in releasing the active agent over a desired period of time. The potential use of macromolecular prodrugs as a means of achieving targeted drug delivery has attracted considerable interest in recent years. Macromolecules such as antibodies, lipoproteins, lectins, proteins, polypeptides, polysaccharides, natural as well as synthetic polymers offer potential applicabilities as high molecular weight carriers for various therapeutically active compounds. Dextrans serve as one of the most promising macromolecular carrier candidates for a wide variety of therapeutic agents due to their excellent physico-chemical properties and physiological acceptance. The present contribution attempts to review various features of the dextran carrier like its source, structural and physico-chemical characteristics, pharmacokinetic fate and its applications as macromolecular carrier with special emphasis on dextran prodrugs.

  9. A universal thermal conductance of charge carriers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greiner, A.; Reggiani, L. [Lecce, Univ. (Italy). Ist. Nazionale di Fisica della Materia. Dipt. di Scienza dei Materiali; Kuhn, T. [Munster, Westfalische Wilhelms-Univ. (Germany). Inst. fur Theoretische Physik II; Varani, L. [Montpellier, Univ. Montpellier II (France). Centre d`Electronique et de Micro-optoelectronique

    1996-12-01

    A universal thermal conductance of charge carriers K = 2{pi}{sup 2}k{sub B}{sup 2}T / (3h) is rigorously derived within a correlation-function formalism. Similar to the case of the universal electrical conductance G = 2e{sup 2} / h this result pertains to one-dimensional, ballistic, and degenerate conditions for non-interacting particles.

  10. Itaconic acid carrier ampholytes for isoelectric focusing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenna, O

    1977-04-11

    Commercial carrier ampholytes, obtained by coupling polyethylene polyamines to acrylic acid, exhibit a conductivity minimum in the pH range 5.5-6.5 owing to the lack of appropriate pK values of the polyamine in this pH region. By replacing acrylic with itaconic acid, it has been possible to effect substantial improvements in the pH range 5.5-6.5 as itaconic acid has a pK2 value of 5.45. Upon coupling, the pK of the gramma-carboxyl group remains virtually unaltered. With itoconic acid carrier ampholytes it has been possible to improve the conductivity in the pH range 5.5-6.5 by as much as 400% compared with conventional carrier ampholytes. It is suggected that the commercial products should be supplemented with itaconic acid carrier ampholytes in order to obtain a more uniform conductivity and buffering capacity in the pH range 3-10.

  11. 7 CFR 35.4 - Carrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Carrier. 35.4 Section 35.4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS EXPORT...

  12. Terahertz carrier dynamics and dielectric properties of GaN epilayers with different carrier concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, H. C.; Zhang, X. H.; Liu, W.; Yong, A. M.; Tang, S. H.

    2009-09-01

    Using terahertz time-domain spectroscopy, we measured the complex conductivity and dielectric function of n-type GaN with various carrier concentrations on sapphire substrate. The measured complex conductivity, which is due to the free carriers, is well fitted by simple Drude model. The contribution from the lattice vibration to the complex dielectric function increases with the decrease in free carrier concentration. A better fitting of the frequency-dependent complex dielectric response was obtained by considering both of the Drude and the classical damped oscillator model.

  13. Aircraft Combat Survivability Estimation and Synthetic Tradeoff Methods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Shu-lin; LI Shou-an; LI Wei-ji; LI Dong-xia; FENG Feng

    2005-01-01

    A new concept is proposed that susceptibility, vulnerability, reliability, maintainability and supportability should be essential factors of aircraft combat survivability. A weight coefficient method and a synthetic method are proposed to estimate aircraft combat survivability based on the essential factors. Considering that it takes cost to enhance aircraft combat survivability, a synthetic tradeoff model between aircraft combat survivability and life cycle cost is built. The aircraft combat survivability estimation methods and synthetic tradeoff with a life cycle cost model will be helpful for aircraft combat survivability design and enhancement.

  14. Improvements in Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines for the 90s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arun Prasad

    1993-10-01

    Full Text Available The gas turbine propulsion system has been playing the most significant role in the evolution and development of present-day aircraft, and has become the limiting technology for developing most new aircraft. However, the jet engine still remains the preferred propulsion choice. Aircraft gas turbines in one form or the other, viz. turbojet, turbofan, turboprop or turboshaft, have been used in commercial passenger aircraft, high performance military aircraft and in rotary wing aircraft (helicopters. The emphasis in engine development programmes world over seems to be in reducing fuel consumption, increasing thrust and in reducing weight.

  15. Small Autonomous Aircraft Servo Health Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintero, Steven

    2008-01-01

    Small air vehicles offer challenging power, weight, and volume constraints when considering implementation of system health monitoring technologies. In order to develop a testbed for monitoring the health and integrity of control surface servos and linkages, the Autonomous Aircraft Servo Health Monitoring system has been designed for small Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle (UAV) platforms to detect problematic behavior from servos and the air craft structures they control, This system will serve to verify the structural integrity of an aircraft's servos and linkages and thereby, through early detection of a problematic situation, minimize the chances of an aircraft accident. Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University's rotary-winged UAV has an Airborne Power management unit that is responsible for regulating, distributing, and monitoring the power supplied to the UAV's avionics. The current sensing technology utilized by the Airborne Power Management system is also the basis for the Servo Health system. The Servo Health system measures the current draw of the servos while the servos are in Motion in order to quantify the servo health. During a preflight check, deviations from a known baseline behavior can be logged and their causes found upon closer inspection of the aircraft. The erratic behavior nay include binding as a result of dirt buildup or backlash caused by looseness in the mechanical linkages. Moreover, the Servo Health system will allow elusive problems to be identified and preventative measures taken to avoid unnecessary hazardous conditions in small autonomous aircraft.

  16. Control strategies for aircraft airframe noise reduction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Yong; Wang Xunnian; Zhang Dejiu

    2013-01-01

    With the development of low-noise aircraft engine,airframe noise now represents a major noise source during the commercial aircraft's approach to landing phase.Noise control efforts have therefore been extensively focused on the airframe noise problems in order to further reduce aircraft overall noise.In this review,various control methods explored in the last decades for noise reduction on airframe components including high-lift devices and landing gears are summarized.We introduce recent major achievements in airframe noise reduction with passive control methods such as fairings,deceleration plates,splitter plates,acoustic liners,slat cove cover and side-edge replacements,and then discuss the potential and control mechanism of some promising active flow control strategies for airframe noise reduction,such as plasma technique and air blowing/suction devices.Based on the knowledge gained throughout the extensively noise control testing,a few design concepts on the landing gear,high-lift devices and whole aircraft are provided for advanced aircraft low-noise design.Finally,discussions and suggestions are given for future research on airframe noise reduction.

  17. Dynamics and control of morphing aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seigler, Thomas Michael

    The following work is directed towards an evaluation of aircraft that undergo structural shape change for the purpose of optimized flight and maneuvering control authority. Dynamical equations are derived for a morphing aircraft based on two primary representations; a general non-rigid model and a multi-rigid-body. A simplified model is then proposed by considering the altering structural portions to be composed of a small number of mass particles. The equations are then extended to consider atmospheric flight representations where the longitudinal and lateral equations are derived. Two aspects of morphing control are considered. The first is a regulation problem in which it is desired to maintain stability in the presence of large changes in both aerodynamic and inertial properties. From a baseline aircraft model various wing planform designs were constructed using Datcom to determine the required aerodynamic contributions. Based on nonlinear numerical evaluations adequate stabilization control was demonstrated using a robust linear control design. In maneuvering, divergent characteristics were observed at high structural transition rates. The second aspect considered is the use of structural changes for improved flight performance. A variable span aircraft is then considered in which asymmetric wing extension is used to effect the rolling moment. An evaluation of the variable span aircraft is performed in the context of bank-to-turn guidance in which an input-output control law is implemented.

  18. Longitudinal dynamics of a perching aircraft concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickenheiser, Adam; Garcia, Ephrahim; Waszak, Martin

    2005-05-01

    This paper introduces a morphing aircraft concept whose purpose is to demonstrate a new bio-inspired flight capability: perching. Perching is a maneuver that utilizes primarily aerodynamics -- as opposed to thrust generation -- to achieve a vertical or short landing. The flight vehicle that will accomplish this is described herein with particular emphasis on its addition levels of actuation beyond the traditional aircraft control surfaces. A computer model of the aircraft is developed in order to predict the changes in applied aerodynamic loads as it morphs and transitions through different flight regimes. The analysis of this model is outlined, including a lifting-line-based analytical technique and a trim and stability analysis. These analytical methods -- compared to panel or computational fluid dynamics (CFD) methods -- are considered desirable for the analysis of a large number of vehicle configurations and flight conditions. The longitudinal dynamics of this aircraft are studied, and several interesting results are presented. Of special interest are the changes in vehicle dynamics as the aircraft morphs from a cruise configuration to initiate the perching maneuver. Changes in trim conditions and stability are examined as functions of vehicle geometry. The time response to changes in vehicle configuration is also presented.

  19. FLIGHT/THRUST INTEGRATED CONTROL USINGH∞SYNTHESIS IN AUTOMATIC CARRIER LANDING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YuYong; YangYidong; DaiShijun

    2002-01-01

    The landing task of an aircraft under low aerodynamic pressure on carrier requires precise airplane control,A flight/thrust integrated control system(FTICS)with constant ad,actual angle of attack,is developed using LMI-based H∞synthesis.The typical single input/outputspecifications are translated into the weighting functions of an H∞output-feedback synthesis problem.The motiva-tion of the work is to improve the key performance of dy-namic tracking and air disturbance attenuation.The FTICS can keep the attitude andgle and the path angle un-changeable as the airplane is passing through the ramp at which the tracking radar doesnot work and the guidance signal is terminated.For engineering application,an or-der-reduction method of the H∞controller is also pro-posed,Simulational results indicate that the system satis-fies the design requirements quite well.

  20. PAPR Reduction in OFDM Systems with Large Number of Sub-Carriers by Carrier Interferometry Approaches

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Jian-hui; QUAN Zi-yi; MEN Ai-dong

    2004-01-01

    High Peak-to-Average Power Ratio (PAPR) is one of the major drawbacks of Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing ( OFDM) systems. This paper presents the structures of the particular bit sequences leading to the maximum PAPR (PAPRmax) in Carrier-Interferometry OFDM (CI/OFDM) and Pseudo Orthogonal Carrier-Interferometry OFDM (PO-CI/OFDM) systems for Binary Phase Shift Keying (BPSK) modulation. Furthermore, the simulation and analysis of PAPRmax and PAPR cumulative distribution in CI/OFDM and PO-CI/OFDM systems with 2048 sub-carriers are presented in this paper. The results show that the PAPR of OFDM system with large number of sub-carriers reduced evidently via CI approaches.

  1. LWS/SET Technology Experiment Carrier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, Barry; Giffin, Geoff

    2002-01-01

    This paper examines the approach taken to building a low-cost, modular spacecraft bus that can be used to support a variety of technology experiments in different space environments. It describes the techniques used and design drivers considered to ensure experiment independence from as yet selected host spacecraft. It describes the technology experiment carriers that will support NASA's Living With a Star Space Environment Testbed space missions. NASA has initiated the Living With a Star (LWS) Program to develop a better scientific understanding to address the aspects of the connected Sun-Earth system that affect life and society. A principal goal of the program is to bridge the gap between science, engineering, and user application communities. The Space Environment Testbed (SET) Project is one element of LWS. The Project will enable future science, operational, and commercial objectives in space and atmospheric environments by improving engineering approaches to the accommodation and/or mitigation of the effects of solar variability on technological systems. The SET Project is highly budget constrained and must seek to take advantage of as yet undetermined partnering opportunities for access to space. SET will conduct technology validation experiments hosted on available flight opportunities. The SET Testbeds will be developed in a manner that minimizes the requirements for accommodation, and will be flown as flight opportunities become available. To access the widest range of flight opportunities, two key development requirements are to maintain flexibility with respect to accommodation constraints and to have the capability to respond quickly to flight opportunities. Experiments, already developed to the technology readiness level of needing flight validation in the variable Sun-Earth environment, will be selected on the basis of the need for the subject technology, readiness for flight, need for flight resources and particular orbit. Experiments will be

  2. Resistivity, carrier concentration, and carrier mobility of electrochemically deposited CdTe films

    OpenAIRE

    Takahashi, Makoto; Uosaki, Kohei; Kita, Hideaki; Yamaguchi, Shoji

    1986-01-01

    The electrical type, resistivity, and donor or acceptor concentration of CdTe films deposited electrochemically at various potentials were measured. The carrier mobilities of the films were determined from these results. The deposition potential dependence of the mobility was small and the deposition potential dependence of the resistivity was mainly controlled by the deposition potential dependence of the donor or acceptor concentration. The carrier mobilities were very small compared with t...

  3. Carrier-interleaved orthogonal multi-electrode multi-carrier resistivity-measurement tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Yu; Sha, Shuang

    2016-09-01

    This paper proposes a new carrier-interleaved orthogonal multi-electrode multi-carrier resistivity-measurement tool used in a cylindrical borehole environment during oil-based mud drilling processes. The new tool is an orthogonal frequency division multiplexing access-based contactless multi-measurand detection tool. The tool can measure formation resistivity in different azimuthal angles and elevational depths. It can measure many more measurands simultaneously in a specified bandwidth than the legacy frequency division multiplexing multi-measurand tool without a channel-select filter while avoiding inter-carrier interference. The paper also shows that formation resistivity is not sensitive to frequency in certain frequency bands. The average resistivity collected from N subcarriers can increase the measurement of the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) by N times given no amplitude clipping in the current-injection electrode. If the clipping limit is taken into account, with the phase rotation of each single carrier, the amplitude peak-to-average ratio can be reduced by 3 times, and the SNR can achieve a 9/N times gain over the single-carrier system. The carrier-interleaving technique is also introduced to counter the carrier frequency offset (CFO) effect, where the CFO will cause inter-pad interference. A qualitative analysis and simulations demonstrate that block-interleaving performs better than tone-interleaving when coping with a large CFO. The theoretical analysis also suggests that increasing the subcarrier number can increase the measurement speed or enhance elevational resolution without sacrificing receiver performance. The complex orthogonal multi-pad multi-carrier resistivity logging tool, in which all subcarriers are complex signals, can provide a larger available subcarrier pool than other types of transceivers.

  4. Rapid Parameterization Schemes for Aircraft Shape Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wu

    2012-01-01

    A rapid shape parameterization tool called PROTEUS is developed for aircraft shape optimization. This tool can be applied directly to any aircraft geometry that has been defined in PLOT3D format, with the restriction that each aircraft component must be defined by only one data block. PROTEUS has eight types of parameterization schemes: planform, wing surface, twist, body surface, body scaling, body camber line, shifting/scaling, and linear morphing. These parametric schemes can be applied to two types of components: wing-type surfaces (e.g., wing, canard, horizontal tail, vertical tail, and pylon) and body-type surfaces (e.g., fuselage, pod, and nacelle). These schemes permit the easy setup of commonly used shape modification methods, and each customized parametric scheme can be applied to the same type of component for any configuration. This paper explains the mathematics for these parametric schemes and uses two supersonic configurations to demonstrate the application of these schemes.

  5. Static aeroelastic analysis for generic configuration aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, IN; Miura, Hirokazu; Chargin, Mladen K.

    1987-01-01

    A static aeroelastic analysis capability that can calculate flexible air loads for generic configuration aircraft was developed. It was made possible by integrating a finite element structural analysis code (MSC/NASTRAN) and a panel code of aerodynamic analysis based on linear potential flow theory. The framework already built in MSC/NASTRAN was used and the aerodynamic influence coefficient matrix is computed externally and inserted in the NASTRAN by means of a DMAP program. It was shown that deformation and flexible airloads of an oblique wing aircraft can be calculated reliably by this code both in subsonic and supersonic speeds. Preliminary results indicating importance of flexibility in calculating air loads for this type of aircraft are presented.

  6. Aircraft System Design and Integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. P. Coldbeck

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available In the 1980's the British aircraft industry changed its approach to the management of projects from a system where a project office would manage a project and rely on a series of specialist departments to support them to a more process oriented method, using systems engineering models, whose most outwardly visible signs were the introduction of multidisciplinary product teams. One of the problems with the old method was that the individual departments often had different priorities and projects would get uneven support. The change in the system was only made possible for complex designs by the electronic distribution of data giving instantaneous access to all involved in the project. In 1997 the Defence and Aerospace Foresight Panel emphasised the need for a system engineering approach if British industry was to remain competitive. The Royal Academy of Engineering recognised that the change in working practices also changed what was required of a chartered engineer and redefined their requirements in 1997 [1]. The result of this is that engineering degree courses are now judged against new criteria with more emphasis placed on the relevance to industry rather than on purely academic content. At the University of Glasgow it was realized that the students ought to be made aware of current working practices and that there ought to be a review to ensure that the degrees give students the skills required by industry. It was decided to produce a one week introduction course in systems engineering for Masters of Engineering (MEng students to be taught by both university lecturers and practitioners from a range of companies in the aerospace industry with the hope of expanding the course into a module. The reaction of the students was favourable in terms of the content but it seems ironic that the main criticism was that there was not enough discussion involving the students. This paper briefly describes the individual teaching modules and discusses the

  7. View of QF-106 aircraft cockpit

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    View of the cockpit and instrument panel of the QF-106 airplane used in the Eclipse project. In 1997 and 1998, the Dryden Flight Research Center at Edwards, California, supported and hosted a Kelly Space & Technology, Inc. project called Eclipse, which sought to demonstrate the feasibility of a reusable tow-launch vehicle concept. The project goal was to successfully tow, inflight, a modified QF-106 delta-wing aircraft with an Air Force C-141A transport aircraft. This would demonstrate the possibility of towing and launching an actual launch vehicle from behind a tow plane. Dryden was the responsible test organization and had flight safety responsibility for the Eclipse project. Dryden provided engineering, instrumentation, simulation, modification, maintenance, range support, and research pilots for the test program. The Air Force Flight Test Center (AFFTC), Edwards, California, supplied the C-141A transport aircraft and crew and configured the aircraft as needed for the tests. The AFFTC also provided the concept and detail design and analysis as well as hardware for the tow system and QF-106 modifications. Dryden performed the modifications to convert the QF-106 drone into the piloted EXD-01 (Eclipse eXperimental Demonstrator-01) experimental aircraft. Kelly Space & Technology hoped to use the results gleaned from the tow test in developing a series of low-cost, reusable launch vehicles. These tests demonstrated the validity of towing a delta-wing aircraft having high wing loading, validated the tow simulation model, and demonstrated various operational procedures, such as ground processing of in-flight maneuvers and emergency abort scenarios.

  8. A Turbo-Brayton Cryocooler for Aircraft Superconducting Systems Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Hybrid turbo-electric aircraft with gas turbines driving electric generators connected to electric propulsion motors have the potential to transform the aircraft...

  9. Aircraft detection based on probability model of structural elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Long; Jiang, Zhiguo

    2014-11-01

    Detecting aircrafts is important in the field of remote sensing. In past decades, researchers used various approaches to detect aircrafts based on classifiers for overall aircrafts. However, with the development of high-resolution images, the internal structures of aircrafts should also be taken into consideration now. To address this issue, a novel aircrafts detection method for satellite images based on probabilistic topic model is presented. We model aircrafts as the connected structural elements rather than features. The proposed method contains two major steps: 1) Use Cascade-Adaboost classier to identify the structural elements of aircraft firstly. 2) Connect these structural elements to aircrafts, where the relationships between elements are estimated by hierarchical topic model. The model places strict spatial constraints on structural elements which can identify differences between similar features. The experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of the approach.

  10. Distributed Data Mining for Aircraft Health Management Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Aircraft Flight Operations Quality Assurance (FOQA) programs are implemented by most of the aircraft operators. Vast amounts of FOQA data are distributed between...

  11. Cosmic Radiation - An Aircraft Manufacturer's View

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hume, C

    1999-07-01

    The relevance and context of cosmic radiation to an aircraft maker Airbus Industrie are outlined. Some future developments in aircraft and air traffic are described, along with their possible consequences for exposure. (author)

  12. Distributed Data Mining for Aircraft Health Management Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA, DoD, and commercial aircraft operators need to transform vast amounts of aircraft data accumulated in distributed databases into actionable knowledge. We...

  13. Fault Tolerance, Diagnostics, and Prognostics in Aircraft Flight

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Abstract In modern fighter aircraft with statically unstable airframe designs, the flight control system is considered flight critical, i.e. the aircraft will...

  14. Practical Voice Recognition for the Aircraft Cockpit Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This proposal responds to the urgent need for improved pilot interfaces in the modern aircraft cockpit. Recent advances in aircraft equipment bring tremendous...

  15. High performance forward swept wing aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, David G. (Inventor); Aoyagi, Kiyoshi (Inventor); Dudley, Michael R. (Inventor); Schmidt, Susan B. (Inventor)

    1988-01-01

    A high performance aircraft capable of subsonic, transonic and supersonic speeds employs a forward swept wing planform and at least one first and second solution ejector located on the inboard section of the wing. A high degree of flow control on the inboard sections of the wing is achieved along with improved maneuverability and control of pitch, roll and yaw. Lift loss is delayed to higher angles of attack than in conventional aircraft. In one embodiment the ejectors may be advantageously positioned spanwise on the wing while the ductwork is kept to a minimum.

  16. A computer application for parametric aircraft design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraqueiro, Filipe R.; Albuquerque, Pedro F.; Gamboa, Pedro V.

    2016-11-01

    The present work describes the development and final result of a graphical user interface tailored for a mission-based parametric aircraft design optimization code which targets the preliminary design phase of unmanned aerial vehicles. This development was built from the XFLR5 open source platform and further benefits from two-dimensional aerodynamic data obtained from XFOIL. For a better understanding, the most important graphical windows are shown. In order to demonstrate the graphical user interface interaction with the aircraft designer, the results of a case study which maximizes payload are presented.

  17. Titanium alloys Russian aircraft and aerospace applications

    CERN Document Server

    Moiseyev, Valentin N

    2005-01-01

    This text offers previously elusive information on state-of-the-art Russian metallurgic technology of titanium alloys. It details their physical, mechanical, and technological properties, as well as treatments and applications in various branches of modern industry, particularly aircraft and aerospace construction. Titanium Alloys: Russian Aircraft and Aerospace Applications addresses all facets of titanium alloys in aerospace and aviation technology, including specific applications, fundamentals, composition, and properties of commercial alloys. It is useful for all students and researchers interested in the investigation and applications of titanium.

  18. Small unmanned aircraft ballistic impact speed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    La Cour-Harbo, Anders

    2018-01-01

    A study of how smaller unmanned aircraft will fall in case of failure. The aim is to determine the impact speed of a drone givens its general shape and aerodynamic behavior. This will include both CFD simulations and real world test of ballistic drops of smaller drones.......A study of how smaller unmanned aircraft will fall in case of failure. The aim is to determine the impact speed of a drone givens its general shape and aerodynamic behavior. This will include both CFD simulations and real world test of ballistic drops of smaller drones....

  19. High-Speed Propeller for Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagerser, D. A.; Gatzen, B. S.

    1986-01-01

    Engine efficiency increased. Propeller blades required to be quite thin and highly swept to minimize compressibility losses and propeller noise during high-speed cruise. Use of 8 or 10 blades with highpropeller-power loading allows overall propeller diameter to be kept relatively small. Area-ruled spinner and integrated nacelle shape reduce compressibility losses in propeller hub region. Finally, large modern turboshaft engine and gearbox provide power to advanced propeller. Fuel savings of 30 to 50 percent over present systems anticipated. Propfan system adaptable to number of applications, such as highspeed (subsonic) business and general-aviation aircraft, and military aircraft including V/STOL.

  20. A strategic planning methodology for aircraft redesign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romli, Fairuz Izzuddin

    Due to a progressive market shift to a customer-driven environment, the influence of engineering changes on the product's market success is becoming more prominent. This situation affects many long lead-time product industries including aircraft manufacturing. Derivative development has been the key strategy for many aircraft manufacturers to survive the competitive market and this trend is expected to continue in the future. Within this environment of design adaptation and variation, the main market advantages are often gained by the fastest aircraft manufacturers to develop and produce their range of market offerings without any costly mistakes. This realization creates an emphasis on the efficiency of the redesign process, particularly on the handling of engineering changes. However, most activities involved in the redesign process are supported either inefficiently or not at all by the current design methods and tools, primarily because they have been mostly developed to improve original product development. In view of this, the main goal of this research is to propose an aircraft redesign methodology that will act as a decision-making aid for aircraft designers in the change implementation planning of derivative developments. The proposed method, known as Strategic Planning of Engineering Changes (SPEC), combines the key elements of the product redesign planning and change management processes. Its application is aimed at reducing the redesign risks of derivative aircraft development, improving the detection of possible change effects propagation, increasing the efficiency of the change implementation planning and also reducing the costs and the time delays due to the redesign process. To address these challenges, four research areas have been identified: baseline assessment, change propagation prediction, change impact analysis and change implementation planning. Based on the established requirements for the redesign planning process, several methods and

  1. Serial Escape System For Aircraft Crews

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Kenneth E.

    1990-01-01

    Emergency escape system for aircraft and aerospace vehicles ejects up to seven crewmembers, one by one, within 120 s. Intended for emergencies in which disabled craft still in stable flight at no more than 220 kn (113 m/s) equivalent airspeed and sinking no faster than 110 ft/s (33.5 m/s) at altitudes up to 50,000 ft (15.2 km). Ejection rockets load themselves from magazine after each crewmember ejected. Jumpmaster queues other crewmembers and helps them position themselves on egress ramp. Rockets pull crewmembers clear of aircraft structure. Provides orderly, controlled exit and avoids ditching at sea or landing in rough terrain.

  2. Advanced materials for aircraft engine applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backman, D G; Williams, J C

    1992-02-28

    A review of advances for aircraft engine structural materials and processes is presented. Improved materials, such as superalloys, and the processes for making turbine disks and blades have had a major impact on the capability of modern gas turbine engines. New structural materials, notably composites and intermetallic materials, are emerging that will eventually further enhance engine performance, reduce engine weight, and thereby enable new aircraft systems. In the future, successful aerospace manufacturers will combine product design and materials excellence with improved manufacturing methods to increase production efficiency, enhance product quality, and decrease the engine development cycle time.

  3. Improving transient analysis technology for aircraft structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melosh, R. J.; Chargin, Mladen

    1989-01-01

    Aircraft dynamic analyses are demanding of computer simulation capabilities. The modeling complexities of semi-monocoque construction, irregular geometry, high-performance materials, and high-accuracy analysis are present. At issue are the safety of the passengers and the integrity of the structure for a wide variety of flight-operating and emergency conditions. The technology which supports engineering of aircraft structures using computer simulation is examined. Available computer support is briefly described and improvement of accuracy and efficiency are recommended. Improved accuracy of simulation will lead to a more economical structure. Improved efficiency will result in lowering development time and expense.

  4. Conversion of the dual training aircraft (DC into single control advanced training aircraft (SC. Part I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioan ŞTEFĂNESCU

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Converting the DC school jet aircraft into SC advanced training aircraft - and use them forthe combat training of military pilots from the operational units, has become a necessity due to thebudget cuts for Air Force, with direct implications on reducing the number of hours of flight assignedto operating personnel for preparing and training.The purpose of adopting such a program is to reduce the number of flight hours allocated annuallyfor preparing and training in advanced stages of instruction, for every pilot, by more intensive use ofthis type of aircraft, which has the advantage of lower flight hour costs as compared to a supersoniccombat plane.

  5. Flight Control Design for a Tailless Aircraft Using Eigenstructure Assignment

    OpenAIRE

    Clara Nieto-Wire; Kenneth Sobel

    2011-01-01

    We apply eigenstructure assignment to the design of a flight control system for a wind tunnel model of a tailless aircraft. The aircraft, known as the innovative control effectors (ICEs) aircraft, has unconventional control surfaces plus pitch and yaw thrust vectoring. We linearize the aircraft in straight and level flight at an altitude of 15,000 feet and Mach number 0.4. Then, we separately design flight control systems for the longitudinal and lateral dynamics. We use a control allocation ...

  6. F-35 Joint Strike Fighter Aircraft (F-35)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Joint Strike Fighter Aircraft (F-35) Program will develop and field an affordable, highly common family of next- generation strike aircraft for the...the O&S account, with U.S. Services’ changes in aircraft life expectancy and bed down plans overshadowing real reductions in O&S costs. Business ...aircraft subprogram and engine subprogram (Navy). (Estimating) -44.4 -46.2 Revised estimate for Small Business Innovation Research in FY 2015 (Navy

  7. Experimental distribution of entanglement with separable carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedrizzi, A; Zuppardo, M; Gillett, G G; Broome, M A; Almeida, M P; Paternostro, M; White, A G; Paterek, T

    2013-12-01

    The key requirement for quantum networking is the distribution of entanglement between nodes. Surprisingly, entanglement can be generated across a network without direct transfer-or communication-of entanglement. In contrast to information gain, which cannot exceed the communicated information, the entanglement gain is bounded by the communicated quantum discord, a more general measure of quantum correlation that includes but is not limited to entanglement. Here, we experimentally entangle two communicating parties sharing three initially separable photonic qubits by exchange of a carrier photon that is unentangled with either party at all times. We show that distributing entanglement with separable carriers is resilient to noise and in some cases becomes the only way of distributing entanglement through noisy environments.

  8. Solid lipid nanoparticles: A drug carrier system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashmi R Kokardekar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN are a type of nanoparticles. They are submicron colloidal carriers which are composed of physiological lipids, dispersed in water or in aqueous surfactant solutions. SLN have wide range of advantages over other types of nanoparticles. These include availability of large-scale production methods and no signs of cytotoxicity, which are main hindrances in the application of other types of nanoparticles. Hot and cold homogenization techniques are mainly employed for its production. They are mainly evaluated on the basis of their drug release profile and particle internal structure. The products based on SLN are under development. They have a very wide range of applications in cosmetics and pharmaceuticals. They can be applied for any purpose, for which nanoparticles have a distinct advantage. Thus, SLN can be used extensively as an alternative to the existing drug carrier systems, providing more flexibility with respect to the area of applications and also aspects for commercialization.

  9. Controlling carrier dynamics at the nanoscale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cánovas, Enrique; Bonn, Mischa

    2016-10-01

    This Special issue is motivated by the occasion of the International Conference on Charge Carrier Dynamics at the Nanoscale (CCDNano), held in Santiago de Compostela (Spain) in September 2015. As chairs for the CCDNano meeting, we aimed at bringing together experts from different scientific fields in order to trigger interdisciplinary discussions and collaborations; the ultimate goal of the conference was to serve as a platform to advance and help unifying methodologies and theories from different research sub-fields. We also aimed at a deeper understanding of charge dynamics to contribute to the development of improved or novel nanostructured devices. This special issue keeps that spirit, and intends to provide an overview of ongoing research efforts regarding charge carrier dynamics at the nanoscale.

  10. Energy carriers in Norway; Energibaerere i Norge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2008-01-15

    Within the Norwegian energy consumption, electricity is by far the most dominant energy carrier. In the last thirty years electricity has had an increased significance, while oil has been reduce. A trend that is likely to continue. Energy politics has among others these objectives: environment, reliability of supply and effective energy supply. These objectives are somewhat contradictory. In agreement with the environmental politic phasing out oil leads to a reduction in greenhouse gases. However this politic will have a local impact only effecting Norway, in a larger European connection it might lead to a larger net emission of CO{sub 2}. A political intervention in the energy market might also lead to a reduction in the energy markets effectiveness and flexibility. This report addresses this problem: If a total phase out of the stationary oil consumption is conducted, what energy carriers will this consumption convert to?

  11. Superconductivity in carrier-doped silicon carbide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takahiro Muranaka, Yoshitake Kikuchi, Taku Yoshizawa, Naoki Shirakawa and Jun Akimitsu

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available We report growth and characterization of heavily boron-doped 3C-SiC and 6H-SiC and Al-doped 3C-SiC. Both 3C-SiC:B and 6H-SiC:B reveal type-I superconductivity with a critical temperature Tc=1.5 K. On the other hand, Al-doped 3C-SiC (3C-SiC:Al shows type-II superconductivity with Tc=1.4 K. Both SiC:Al and SiC:B exhibit zero resistivity and diamagnetic susceptibility below Tc with effective hole-carrier concentration n higher than 1020 cm−3. We interpret the different superconducting behavior in carrier-doped p-type semiconductors SiC:Al, SiC:B, Si:B and C:B in terms of the different ionization energies of their acceptors.

  12. Terahertz transport dynamics of graphene charge carriers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buron, Jonas Christian Due

    The electronic transport dynamics of graphene charge carriers at femtosecond (10-15 s) to picosecond (10-12 s) time scales are investigated using terahertz (1012 Hz) time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS). The technique uses sub-picosecond pulses of electromagnetic radiation to gauge the electrodynamic...... response of thin conducting films at up to multi-terahertz frequencies. In this thesis THz-TDS is applied towards two main goals; (1) investigation of the fundamental carrier transport dynamics in graphene at femtosecond to picosecond timescales and (2) application of terahertz time-domain spectroscopy...... to rapid and non-contact electrical characterization of large-area graphene, relevant for industrial integration. We show that THz-TDS is an accurate and reliable probe of graphene sheet conductance, and that the technique provides insight into fundamental aspects of the nanoscopic nature of conduction...

  13. DETECTION OF COMPLEXES OLIGODEOXYNUCLEOTIDES WITH POLYMERIC CARRIERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Vlizlo

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The new method for detection of cationic oligoelectrolytes conjugates with oligodeoxyonucleotides, based on free diffusion of these substances in 0.8% agarose gels is developed. It enables to simplify and reduce the cost of visual identification of the best carrier among various polymer compounds and to uncover the fact of complex formation between the interacting agents resulting in formation of a ring precipitation. The universality of the proposed methodological approach is confirmed by interaction of coligodeoxynucleotides with other cationic polymer of natural origin, namely chitosan. Comparative analysis of our approach applicationto turbidimetry data concerning coligodeoxynucleotides complexes and their electrophoresis showed some advantages, among them are the ability to screen simultaneously a large number of polymeric carriers and no need for using of more expensive equipment and materials. To conclude the complexing occurrence it is enough nanomol amounts of oligodeoxynucleotide.

  14. Formic Acid as a Hydrogen Energy Carrier

    KAUST Repository

    Eppinger, Jorg

    2016-12-15

    The high volumetric capacity (S3 g H-2/L) and its low toxicity and flammability under ambient conditions make formic acid a promising hydrogen energy carrier. Particularly, in the past decade, significant advancements have been achieved in catalyst development for selective hydrogen generation from formic acid. This Perspective highlights the advantages of this approach with discussions focused on potential applications in the transportation sector together with analysis of technical requirements, limitations, and costs.

  15. Polymeric micellar drug carriers with fluorescent properties

    OpenAIRE

    Abreu, Ana Sofia Lemos Machado; Sá, Arsénio Vasconcelos; Oliveira, Manuel; Moura, I; Machado, A.V.

    2015-01-01

    Self-assembling polymeric surfactants, based on amphiphilic block copolymers into nanosized aggregates in aqueous solution, are of great interest in the biomedical fields as one class of promising carrier systems, for drug delivery, gene therapy and diagnostic biosensors.[1] The incorporation of fluorescent probes into polymeric micelles has been fulfilled either by physically encapsulation or chemically attachment of fluorophores. [2] These micelle-based fluorescent probes not only facili...

  16. Commercial Air Carrier Vulnerabilities to Information Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    GMO /ENS/02E-11 DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE AIR UNIVERSITY AIR FORCE INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio...AFIT/ GMO /ENS/02E-11 COMMERCIAL AIR CARRIER VULNERABILITIES TO INFORMATION OPERATIONS...networks that without them, “there is no water coming out of your tap; there is no electricity lighting your room; there is no food being transported to

  17. Carrier-free, continuous primary beer fermentation

    OpenAIRE

    Pires, Eduardo J.; Teixeira, J. A; Brányik, Tomáš; A.A. Vicente

    2014-01-01

    Developing a sustainable continuous fermentation reactor is one of the most ambitious tasks in brewing science, but it could bring great benefits regarding volumetric productivity to modern breweries. Immobilized cell technology is often applied to reach the large densities of yeast needed in a continuous fermentation process. However, the financial cost associated with the use of carriers for yeast immobilization is one of the major drawbacks in the technology. This work suggests that yeast ...

  18. Photoinduced carrier annihilation in silicon pn junction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sameshima, Toshiyuki; Motoki, Takayuki; Yasuda, Keisuke; Nakamura, Tomohiko; Hasumi, Masahiko; Mizuno, Toshihisa

    2015-08-01

    We report analysis of the photo-induced minority carrier effective lifetime (τeff) in a p+n junction formed on the top surfaces of a n-type silicon substrate by ion implantation of boron and phosphorus atoms at the top and bottom surfaces followed by activation by microwave heating. Bias voltages were applied to the p+ boron-doped surface with n+ phosphorus-doped surface kept at 0 V. The values of τeff were lower than 1 × 10-5 s under the reverse-bias condition. On the other hand, τeff markedly increased to 1.4 × 10-4 s as the forward-bias voltage increased to 0.7 V and then it leveled off when continuous-wave 635 nm light was illuminated at 0.74 mW/cm2 on the p+ surface. The carrier annihilation velocity S\\text{p + } at the p+ surface region was numerically estimated from the experimental τeff. S\\text{p + } ranged from 4000 to 7200 cm/s under the reverse-bias condition when the carrier annihilation velocity S\\text{n + } at the n+ surface region was assumed to be a constant value of 100 cm/s. S\\text{p + } markedly decreased to 265 cm/s as the forward-bias voltage increased to 0.7 V.

  19. 76 FR 45011 - Control of Air Pollution From Aircraft and Aircraft Engines; Proposed Emission Standards and Test...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-27

    ... procedures. EPA actively participated in the United Nation's International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO... Regulation of Aircraft Engine Emissions E. Brief History of ICAO Regulation of Aircraft Engine Emissions II... under consideration by the United Nation's International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO)....

  20. Navy’s Advanced Aircraft Armament System Program Concept Objectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-10-01

    growth. For the ground crew, the task complexity growth is even greater and the effects appear in downed aircraft and lower aircraft availabilty . To...aircraft or coaaercial usage . Many suppliers and high annual deaand rate - ; unliaitad opportunity coapetition. 12-15 Table 4 STANDARDIZATION

  1. Development and experimental characterization of a fuel cell powered aircraft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradley, Thomas H.; Moffitt, Blake A.; Mavris, Dimitri N.; Parekh, David E. [Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332-0405 (United States)

    2007-09-27

    This paper describes the characteristics and performance of a fuel cell powered unmanned aircraft. The aircraft is novel as it is the largest compressed hydrogen fuel cell powered airplane built to date and is currently the only fuel cell aircraft whose design and test results are in the public domain. The aircraft features a 500 W polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell with full balance of plant and compressed hydrogen storage incorporated into a custom airframe. Details regarding the design requirements, implementation and control of the aircraft are presented for each major aircraft system. The performances of the aircraft and powerplant are analyzed using data from flights and laboratory tests. The efficiency and component power consumption of the fuel cell propulsion system are measured at a variety of flight conditions. The performance of the aircraft powerplant is compared to other 0.5-1 kW-scale fuel cell powerplants in the literature and means of performance improvement for this aircraft are proposed. This work represents one of the first studies of fuel cell powered aircraft to result in a demonstration aircraft. As such, the results of this study are of practical interest to fuel cell powerplant and aircraft designers. (author)

  2. Northwest to Accelerate Retirement of Dc10 Aircraft

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ Northwest Airlines announced that it will accelerate the retirement of its remaining 12DC10-30 aircraft in service. The airline said that during the next seven months,it will replace DC10 aircraft with new Airbus A330s and Boeing 747-400aircraft being returned to service.Currently, seven routes are served with the DC10.

  3. ASDAR (aircraft to satellite data relay) flight test report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domino, E. J.; Lovell, R. R.; Conroy, M. J.; Culp, D. H.

    1977-01-01

    The aircraft to Satellite Data Relay (ASDAR), an airborne data collection system that gathers meteorological data from existing aircraft instrumentation and relays it to ground user via a geo-synchronous meteorological satellite, is described and the results of the first test flight on a commercial Boeing 747 aircraft are presented. The flight test was successful and verified system performance in the anticipated environment.

  4. 14 CFR 45.31 - Marking of export aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Marking of export aircraft. 45.31 Section 45.31 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT IDENTIFICATION AND REGISTRATION MARKING Nationality and Registration Marks § 45.31 Marking of export aircraft....

  5. Licencing and Training Reform in the Australian Aircraft Maintenance Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampson, Ian; Fraser, Doug

    2016-01-01

    The training and licencing of aircraft maintenance engineers fulfils a crucial protective function since it is they who perform and supervise aircraft maintenance and certify that planes are safe afterwards. In Australia, prior to training reform, a trades-based system of aircraft maintenance engineer training existed in an orderly relation with…

  6. 75 FR 70074 - Consensus Standards, Light-Sport Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-16

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Consensus Standards, Light-Sport Aircraft AGENCY: Federal Aviation... provisions of the Sport Pilot and Light-Sport Aircraft rule issued July 16, 2004, and effective September 1, 2004. ASTM International Committee F37 on Light Sport Aircraft developed the revised standards...

  7. 76 FR 45647 - Consensus Standards, Light-Sport Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-29

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Consensus Standards, Light-Sport Aircraft AGENCY: Federal Aviation... to the provisions of the Sport Pilot and Light-Sport Aircraft rule issued July 16, 2004, and effective September 1, 2004. ASTM International Committee F37 on Light Sport Aircraft developed the...

  8. 14 CFR 135.145 - Aircraft proving and validation tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Aircraft proving and validation tests. 135... Aircraft and Equipment § 135.145 Aircraft proving and validation tests. (a) No certificate holder may... safely and in compliance with applicable regulatory standards. Validation tests are required for...

  9. Smart Sensor System for NDE or Corrosion in Aging Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar-Cohen, Y.; Marzwell, N.; Osegueda, R.; Ferregut, C.

    1998-01-01

    The extension of the operation life of military and civilian aircraft rather than replacing them with new ones is increasing the probability of aircraft component failure as a result of aging. Aircraft that already have endured a long srvice life of more than 40 years are now being considered for another 40 years of service.

  10. 14 CFR 21.128 - Tests: aircraft engines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Tests: aircraft engines. 21.128 Section 21.128 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT... engines. (a) Each person manufacturing aircraft engines under a type certificate only shall subject...

  11. 78 FR 7642 - Airworthiness Directives; Piper Aircraft, Inc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-04

    ...-020-AD; Amendment 39-17334; AD 2013-02-13] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Piper Aircraft, Inc... airworthiness directive (AD) for certain Piper Aircraft, Inc. (type certificate previously held by The New Piper... information identified in this AD, contact Piper Aircraft, Inc., 2926 Piper Drive, Vero Beach, Florida...

  12. 77 FR 31169 - Airworthiness Directives; Piper Aircraft, Inc. Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-25

    ...-002-AD; Amendment 39-17058; AD 2012-10-09] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Piper Aircraft, Inc... superseding an existing airworthiness directive (AD) for certain Piper Aircraft, Inc. (type certificate previously held by The New Piper Aircraft Inc.) Models PA-31T and PA-31T1 airplanes. That AD...

  13. 78 FR 26556 - Airworthiness Directives; Piper Aircraft, Inc. Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-07

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 39 RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Piper Aircraft, Inc...: This document withdraws a notice of proposed rulemaking (NPRM) that would have applied to all Piper Aircraft, Inc. (type certificate previously held by The New Piper Aircraft Inc.) Models PA-18 and...

  14. 78 FR 41277 - Airworthiness Directives; Piper Aircraft, Inc. Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-10

    ...-018-AD; Amendment 39-17489; AD 2013-13-01] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Piper Aircraft, Inc.... SUMMARY: We are adopting a new airworthiness directive (AD) for certain Piper Aircraft, Inc. Models PA-46... information identified in this AD, contact Piper Aircraft, Inc., 2926 Piper Drive, Vero Beach, FL...

  15. 78 FR 35110 - Airworthiness Directives; Piper Aircraft, Inc. Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-12

    ...-001-AD; Amendment 39-17457; AD 2013-10-04] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Piper Aircraft, Inc... superseding an existing airworthiness directive (AD) for all Piper Aircraft, Inc. Models PA-31, PA-31-325, and.... ADDRESSES: For service information identified in this AD, contact Piper Aircraft, Inc., 2926 Piper...

  16. 49 CFR 373.101 - Motor carrier bills of lading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Motor carrier bills of lading. 373.101 Section 373.101 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS RECEIPTS...

  17. Carrier peptide-mediated transepithelial permeation of biopharmaceuticals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Mie; Nielsen, Hanne Mørck

    2015-01-01

    of the molar mixing ratio between the carrier peptide and the therapeutic cargo, whereas the direct conjugation approach ensures an inherent proximity of the carrier peptide to its therapeutic cargo. So far studies addressing the choice of using the co-administration approach over the conjugation approach......-34)) and the widely studied CPP penetratin were employed as therapeutic cargo and carrier peptide, respectively....

  18. Terahertz carrier dynamics in graphene and graphene nanostructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Søren A.; Turchinovich, Dmitry; Tielrooij, Klaas Jan

    2014-01-01

    Photoexcited charge carriers in 2D graphene and in 1D graphene nanostructures were studied with optical pump-THz probe spectroscopy. We find efficient hot-carrier multiplication in 2D graphene, and predominantly free carrier early time response in 1D nanostructures. © 2014 OSA....

  19. 19 CFR 18.2 - Receipt by carrier; manifest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... TREASURY TRANSPORTATION IN BOND AND MERCHANDISE IN TRANSIT General Provisions § 18.2 Receipt by carrier... Carrier (or Exporter) Attorney-in-fact or Agent of Carrier (or Exporter) Date (3) Merchandise delivered... prescribed in subpart D of part 123 of this chapter, relating to merchandise in transit through the...

  20. Joint Iterative Carrier Synchronization and Signal Detection for Dual Carrier 448 Gb/s PDM 16-QAM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zibar, Darko; Carvalho, Luis; Estaran Tolosa, Jose Manuel;

    2013-01-01

    Soft decision driven joint carrier synchronization and signal detection, employing expectation maximization, is experimentally demonstrated. Employing soft decisions offers an improvement of 0.5 dB compared to hard decision digital PLL based carrier synchronization and demodulation....

  1. Literature review of the passenger airline business models: Full service carrier, low-cost carrier and charter airlines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carmona Benitez, R.B.; Lodewijks, G.

    2008-01-01

    The deregulation and liberalization of the air transportation industry have developed three main passenger business models: full service carriers, low-cost carriers, and charter airlines. Deregulation removed regulated fares and routes increasing competition and yields. Airlines business models main

  2. Emergency Landing Planning for Damaged Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meuleau, Nicolas; Plaunt, Christian John; Smith, David E.

    2008-01-01

    Considerable progress has been made over the last 15 years on building adaptive control systems to assist pilots in flying damaged aircraft. Once a pilot has regained control of a damaged aircraft, the next problem is to determine the best site for an emergency landing. In general, the decision depends on many factors including the actual control envelope of the aircraft, distance to the site, weather en route, characteristics of the approach path, characteristics of the runway or landing site, and emergency facilities at the site. All of these influence the risk to the aircraft, to the passengers and crew, and to people and property on the ground. We describe an ongoing project to build and demonstrate an emergency landing planner that takes these various factors into consideration and proposes possible routes and landing sites to the pilot, ordering them according to estimated risk. We give an overview of the system architecture and input data, describe our preliminary modeling of risk, and describe how we search the space of landing sites and routes.

  3. Recognition of aircraft using HRR features

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kossen, A.S.

    2008-01-01

    Automated target recognition (ATR) based on high resolution radar (HRR) features can be used to increase the confidence in aircraft class. Standard radar systems are not designed for performing classification and uses additional identification systems. It is shown that with the use of features the a

  4. Congestion Pricing for Aircraft Pushback Slot Allocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lihua; Zhang, Yaping; Liu, Lan; Xing, Zhiwei

    2017-01-01

    In order to optimize aircraft pushback management during rush hour, aircraft pushback slot allocation based on congestion pricing is explored while considering monetary compensation based on the quality of the surface operations. First, the concept of the "external cost of surface congestion" is proposed, and a quantitative study on the external cost is performed. Then, an aircraft pushback slot allocation model for minimizing the total surface cost is established. An improved discrete differential evolution algorithm is also designed. Finally, a simulation is performed on Xinzheng International Airport using the proposed model. By comparing the pushback slot control strategy based on congestion pricing with other strategies, the advantages of the proposed model and algorithm are highlighted. In addition to reducing delays and optimizing the delay distribution, the model and algorithm are better suited for use for actual aircraft pushback management during rush hour. Further, it is also observed they do not result in significant increases in the surface cost. These results confirm the effectiveness and suitability of the proposed model and algorithm.

  5. Aircraft Infrared Principles, Signatures, Threats, and Countermeasures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-26

    aircraft stabilizes at the ambient air temperature plus aerodynamic heating. Aero heating increases as the square of Mach number. The formula below gives...pattern of transparent and opaque segments on the reticle impresses a modulation on the radiation by acting as a kind of shutter . A reticle can be

  6. 36 CFR 327.4 - Aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... used in emergency rescue in accordance with the directions of the District Commander or aircraft forced... Aeronautical Agency, or the Federal Aviation Administration, including, but not limited to, regulations and... emergencies threatening human life or serious property loss, the air delivery or retrieval of any...

  7. Method of making counterrotating aircraft propeller blades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Joey L. (Inventor); Elston, III, Sidney B. (Inventor); Tseng, Wu-Yang (Inventor); Hemsworth, Martin C. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    An aircraft propeller blade is constructed by forming two shells of composite material laminates and bonding the two shells to a metallic spar with foam filler pieces interposed between the shells at desired locations. The blade is then balanced radially and chordwise.

  8. Some Microphysical Processes Affecting Aircraft Icing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-05-08

    1978) Messung , Darstellung, and Auswertung meteorologischer Vereisungs parameter, Berich te Fuiden Geophysicalischern Beratungdienst der Bundeswehr...de-icing of the Hot Rod. The aircraft experienced light to moderate rime icing until its slight descent at 09:03. It then continued to experience ...1978) Messung . Darstellung, and Auswertung meteorologischer Vereisungs parameter, Benich te Fuiden Geophysicalischern Beratungydienst der Bundeswehr

  9. Electromagnetic-Repulsion Systems For Deicing Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Samuel O.; Zieve, Peter

    1994-01-01

    Improved eddy-current electromagnetic-repulsion deicing systems developed for use on variety of exterior aircraft surfaces like leading edges of wings, engine inlets, propellers, and helicopter rotors. Fit to exterior surfaces, as retrofits or original equipment. Systems light in weight, consume little average power, and capable of protecting against severe icing conditions.

  10. Perspectives of civil aircraft avionics development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А. В. Наумов

    1999-05-01

    Full Text Available Considered are main directions for civil avionics development. General requirements for airborne equipment functions. Analysis of airborne avionics selection per architecture and economical effectiveness in made. Proposed is the necessity of new approach to integrated avionics complex design, first of all, on basis of mathematical method for aircraft equipment and technical characteristics definition

  11. Aircraft Environmental Systems Mechanic. Part 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanute AFB Technical Training Center, IL.

    This packet contains learning modules for a self-paced course in aircraft environmental systems mechanics that was developed for the Air Force. Each learning module consists of some or all of the following: objectives, instructions, equipment, procedures, information sheets, handouts, self-tests with answers, review section, tests, and response…

  12. Aircraft Integral Fuel Tank Corrosion Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    biology of Amorphoteca resinae . Materials und Organismen, 6, (3), p. 161, (1971). 8. D. Cabral. Corrosion by microorganisms of jet aircraft integral fuel...the mycelium of the fungus Hormoconis resinae in the MIC of Al alloys. Proc. XI Int. Corrosion Congress, Houston, USA, 5B, p. 3773, (1993). 14. M

  13. Lectures on Composite Materials for Aircraft Structures,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-10-01

    lectures are related to structural applications of composites . In Lecture 7, the basic theory that is needed for composite structural analysis is...which composites have been taken up for aeronautical applications. Several specific applications of composites in aircraft structures am described in

  14. Automation tools for flexible aircraft maintenance.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prentice, William J.; Drotning, William D.; Watterberg, Peter A.; Loucks, Clifford S.; Kozlowski, David M.

    2003-11-01

    This report summarizes the accomplishments of the Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project 26546 at Sandia, during the period FY01 through FY03. The project team visited four DoD depots that support extensive aircraft maintenance in order to understand critical needs for automation, and to identify maintenance processes for potential automation or integration opportunities. From the visits, the team identified technology needs and application issues, as well as non-technical drivers that influence the application of automation in depot maintenance of aircraft. Software tools for automation facility design analysis were developed, improved, extended, and integrated to encompass greater breadth for eventual application as a generalized design tool. The design tools for automated path planning and path generation have been enhanced to incorporate those complex robot systems with redundant joint configurations, which are likely candidate designs for a complex aircraft maintenance facility. A prototype force-controlled actively compliant end-effector was designed and developed based on a parallel kinematic mechanism design. This device was developed for demonstration of surface finishing, one of many in-contact operations performed during aircraft maintenance. This end-effector tool was positioned along the workpiece by a robot manipulator, programmed for operation by the automated planning tools integrated for this project. Together, the hardware and software tools demonstrate many of the technologies required for flexible automation in a maintenance facility.

  15. Incident response monitoring technologies for aircraft cabin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Havermans, J.B.G.A.; Houtzager, M.M.G.; Jacobs, P.

    2015-01-01

    The Netherlands Organization for Applied Scientific Research (TNO) was granted by ASHRAE (1306-RP) to conduct scientfic review and feasibility analysis of technologies and methods for measuring aircraft power system contaminants in the cabin air during unanticipated adverse incidents. In particular,

  16. Using Synthetic Kerosene in Civil Jet Aircraft

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snijders, T.A.; Melkert, J.A.

    2008-01-01

    TU Delft in the Netherlands is performing research into the effects of the use of synthetic kerosene in aircraft. The research program consists of both desk research and tests. In the desk research gas turbine simulations will be combined with payload range performance calculations to show engine ef

  17. Aircraft Survivability: Susceptibility Reduction, Summer 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    Next Frontier (Dr. Joel D. Williamsen and Dr. Jeffery R. Calcaterra) u The Modeling & Simulation Information Analysis Center (Mr. Phil L. Abold) u...Aircraft Safe from MANPADS (Ms. Linda Lou Crosby ) u Fragment-Target Flash Experiments for the Validation of the Fire Protection Model (FPM) (Dr. R. Reed

  18. A Critique of Aircraft Airframe Cost Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-09-01

    rframes Aircraft Cost Analysis 2C *3Si PACT [’Cor.rinu* an r+vrmm »lam ti omc +mmmfy mr.J tffonUtf t>f Met.* riutnfcor) see reverse side...numbers, however, the ASD Cost Escalation Re- ft port 110-C would give a factor of 1.44.) 6 Historiaal and Forecasted Aeronautical Cost Indices

  19. Nonlinear dynamics of a vectored thrust aircraft

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, C.B; Mosekilde, Erik

    1996-01-01

    With realistic relations for the aerodynamic coefficients, numerical simulations are applied to study the longitudional dynamics of a thrust vectored aircraft. As function of the thrust magnitude and the thrust vectoring angle the equilibrium state exhibits two saddle-node bifurcations and three ...

  20. Stratospheric aircraft: Impact on the stratosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnston, H.

    1992-02-01

    The steady-state distribution of natural stratospheric ozone is primarily maintained through production by ultraviolet photolysis of molecular oxygen, destruction by a catalytic cycle involving nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}), and relocation by air motions within the stratosphere. Nitrogen oxides from the exhausts of a commercially viable fleet of supersonic transports would exceed the natural source of stratospheric nitrogen oxides if the t should be equipped with 1990 technology jet engines. This model-free comparison between a vital natural global ingredient and a proposed new industrial product shows that building a large fleet of passenger stratospheric aircraft poses a significant global problem. NASA and aircraft industries have recognized this problem and are studying the redesign of jet aircraft engines in order to reduce the nitrogen oxides emissions. In 1989 atmospheric models identified two other paths by which the ozone destroying effects of stratospheric aircraft might be reduced or eliminated: (1) Use relatively low supersonic Mach numbers and flight altitudes. For a given rate of nitrogen oxides injection into the stratosphere, the calculated reduction of total ozone is a strong function of altitude, and flight altitudes well below 20 kilometers give relatively low calculated ozone reductions. (2) Include heterogeneous chemistry in the two-dimensional model calculations. Necessary conditions for answering the question on the title above are to improve the quality of our understanding of the lower stratosphere and to broaden our knowledge of hetergeneous stratospheric chemistry. This article reviews recently proposed new mechanisms for heterogeneous reactions on the global stratospheric sulfate aerosols.

  1. Stratospheric aircraft: Impact on the stratosphere?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnston, H.

    1992-02-01

    The steady-state distribution of natural stratospheric ozone is primarily maintained through production by ultraviolet photolysis of molecular oxygen, destruction by a catalytic cycle involving nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}), and relocation by air motions within the stratosphere. Nitrogen oxides from the exhausts of a commercially viable fleet of supersonic transports would exceed the natural source of stratospheric nitrogen oxides if the t should be equipped with 1990 technology jet engines. This model-free comparison between a vital natural global ingredient and a proposed new industrial product shows that building a large fleet of passenger stratospheric aircraft poses a significant global problem. NASA and aircraft industries have recognized this problem and are studying the redesign of jet aircraft engines in order to reduce the nitrogen oxides emissions. In 1989 atmospheric models identified two other paths by which the ozone destroying effects of stratospheric aircraft might be reduced or eliminated: (1) Use relatively low supersonic Mach numbers and flight altitudes. For a given rate of nitrogen oxides injection into the stratosphere, the calculated reduction of total ozone is a strong function of altitude, and flight altitudes well below 20 kilometers give relatively low calculated ozone reductions. (2) Include heterogeneous chemistry in the two-dimensional model calculations. Necessary conditions for answering the question on the title above are to improve the quality of our understanding of the lower stratosphere and to broaden our knowledge of hetergeneous stratospheric chemistry. This article reviews recently proposed new mechanisms for heterogeneous reactions on the global stratospheric sulfate aerosols.

  2. Developing aircraft photonic networks for airplane systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    White, Henry J.; Brownjohn, Nick; Baptista, João;

    2013-01-01

    Achieving affordable high speed fiber optic communication networks for airplane systems has proved to be challenging. In this paper we describe a summary of the EU Framework 7 project DAPHNE (Developing Aircraft Photonic Networks). DAPHNE aimed to exploit photonic technology from terrestrial comm...

  3. Direct effects of lightning on an aircraft during intentional penetrations of thunderstorms. [T-28 aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musil, D. J.; Prodan, J.

    1980-01-01

    An armored T-28 aircraft was struck by lightning on two different days while participating in the 1979 severe environmental storm and mesoscale experiment in Oklahoma. The T-28, which is specially armored and instrumented, was making intentional penetrations of thunderstorms and was struck twice on 30 May and once on 5 June. Various degrees of damage, mainly in the form of large burn spots and holes, resulted to the aircraft.

  4. Joint Technical Coordinating Group on Aircraft Survivability (JTCG/AS). Bibliography of Joint Aircraft Survivability Reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-07-01

    Repair (EBDR) Study 74 Final Report Volume HI Engine Battle Damage Repair (EBDR) Study 75 Final Report VOLUME II Ablative and Thermal Barriers for... Thermal Barriers for Aircraft Dry Bays Issued: September 1995 Progress - Oct 1992 - June 1995 Report Classification: UNCLASSIFIED Sponsor: JTCG...Shipman, Mr. David O’Brian. Mr. Chris Parmley, P&W; Mr. Les Throndson, NAWCWPNS China Lake (Govt Coordinator) Ablative and Thermal Barriers for Aircraft

  5. Aircraft family design using enhanced collaborative optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Brian Douglas

    Significant progress has been made toward the development of multidisciplinary design optimization (MDO) methods that are well-suited to practical large-scale design problems. However, opportunities exist for further progress. This thesis describes the development of enhanced collaborative optimization (ECO), a new decomposition-based MDO method. To support the development effort, the thesis offers a detailed comparison of two existing MDO methods: collaborative optimization (CO) and analytical target cascading (ATC). This aids in clarifying their function and capabilities, and it provides inspiration for the development of ECO. The ECO method offers several significant contributions. First, it enhances communication between disciplinary design teams while retaining the low-order coupling between them. Second, it provides disciplinary design teams with more authority over the design process. Third, it resolves several troubling computational inefficiencies that are associated with CO. As a result, ECO provides significant computational savings (relative to CO) for the test cases and practical design problems described in this thesis. New aircraft development projects seldom focus on a single set of mission requirements. Rather, a family of aircraft is designed, with each family member tailored to a different set of requirements. This thesis illustrates the application of decomposition-based MDO methods to aircraft family design. This represents a new application area, since MDO methods have traditionally been applied to multidisciplinary problems. ECO offers aircraft family design the same benefits that it affords to multidisciplinary design problems. Namely, it simplifies analysis integration, it provides a means to manage problem complexity, and it enables concurrent design of all family members. In support of aircraft family design, this thesis introduces a new wing structural model with sufficient fidelity to capture the tradeoffs associated with component

  6. “航母 Style”的流行对当代大学生爱国主义教育的启示%Indication of the Popularity of Carrier Style to Patriotism Education among College Students

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    舒智勇

    2014-01-01

    Since China's first aircraft carrier the Liaoning launched its service,a gesture nicknamed Carrier Style,which is the command of carrier-based aircrafts'take-off,has been swept the country.The popularity of Carrier Style shows Chinese people's passion of patriotism and their movement for China's stronger power. College teachers,who engage in teaching of ideological and political theory courses,should make good use of the passion of patriotism of college students through Carrier Style and guide them to rational patriotism.%我国第一艘航母“辽宁舰”下水服役后,一个被称为“航母 Style”的指挥舰载机起飞的手势风靡全国。“航母 Style”走红的背后折射出的是我国广大网友朴素的爱国主义热情和对于国家日益强大的激动之情。高校思想政治理论课教师可以因势利导,充分肯定大学生在“航母 Style”走红背后涌现出来的爱国热情,正面引导大学生树立理性的爱国主义观念。

  7. Transmission line model for strained quantum well lasers including carrier transport and carrier heating effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Mingjun; Ghafouri-Shiraz, H

    2016-03-01

    This paper reports a new model for strained quantum well lasers, which are based on the quantum well transmission line modeling method where effects of both carrier transport and carrier heating have been included. We have applied this new model and studied the effect of carrier transport on the output waveform of a strained quantum well laser both in time and frequency domains. It has been found that the carrier transport increases the turn-on, turn-off delay times and damping of the quantum well laser transient response. Also, analysis in the frequency domain indicates that the carrier transport causes the output spectrum of the quantum well laser in steady state to exhibit a redshift which has a narrower bandwidth and lower magnitude. The simulation results of turning-on transients obtained by the proposed model are compared with those obtained by the rate equation laser model. The new model has also been used to study the effects of pump current spikes on the laser output waveforms properties, and it was found that the presence of current spikes causes (i) wavelength blueshift, (ii) larger bandwidth, and (iii) reduces the magnitude and decreases the side-lobe suppression ratio of the laser output spectrum. Analysis in both frequency and time domains confirms that the new proposed model can accurately predict the temporal and spectral behaviors of strained quantum well lasers.

  8. Aircraft Design Analysis, CFD And Manufacturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haifa El-Sadi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Aircraft design, manufacturing and CFD analysis as part of aerodynamic course, the students achieve sizing from a conceptual sketch, select the airfoil geometry and the tail geometry, calculate thrust to weight ratio and wing loading, use initial sizing and calculate the aerodynamic forces. The students design their aircraft based on the geometrical dimensions resulted from the calculations and use the model to build a prototype, test it in wind tunnel and achieve CFD analysis to be compared with the experimental results. The theory of aerodynamic is taught and applied as a project based. In this paper, the design process, aircraft manufacturing and CFD analysis are presented to show the effect of project based on student’s learning of aerodynamic course. This project based learning has improved and accelerated students understanding of aerodynamic concepts and involved students in a constructive exploration. The analysis of the aircraft resulted in a study that revolved around the lift and drag generation of this particular aircraft. As to determine the lift and drag forces generated by this plane, a model was created in Solidworks a 3-D model-rendering program. After this model was created it was 3-D printed in a reduced scale, and subjected to wind tunnel testing. The results from the wind tunnel lab experiment were recorded. For accuracy, the same 3-D model was then simulated using CFD simulation software within Solidworks and compared with the results from the wind tunnel test. The values derived from both the simulation and the wind tunnel tests were then compared with the theoretical calculations for further proof of accuracy.

  9. Review of factors affecting aircraft wet runway performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yager, T. J.

    1983-01-01

    Problems associated with aircraft operations on wet runways are discussed and major factors which influence tire/runway braking and cornering traction capability are identified including runway characteristics, tire hydroplaning, brake system anomalies, and pilot inputs. Research results from investigations conducted at the Langley Aircraft Landing Loads and Traction Facility and from tests with instrumented ground vehicles and aircraft are summarized to indicate the effects of different aircraft, tire, and runway parameters. Several promising means are described for improving tire/runway water drainage capability, brake system efficiency, and pilot training to help optimize aircraft traction performance on wet runways.

  10. Review of Aircraft Electric Power Systems and Architectures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Xin; Guerrero, Josep M.; Wu, Xiaohao

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, the electrical power capacity is increasing rapidly in more electric aircraft (MEA), since the conventional mechanical, hydraulic and pneumatic energy systems are partly replaced by electrical power system. As a consequence, capacity and complexity of aircraft electric power...... systems (EPS) will increase dramatically and more advanced aircraft EPSs need to be developed. This paper gives a brief description of the constant frequency (CF) EPS, variable frequency (VF) EPS and advanced high voltage (HV) EPS. Power electronics in the three EPS is overviewed. Keywords: Aircraft Power...... System, More Electric Aircraft, Constant Frequency, Variable Frequency, High Voltage....

  11. The Aviation System Analysis Capability Air Carrier Cost-Benefit Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaier, Eric M.; Edlich, Alexander; Santmire, Tara S.; Wingrove, Earl R.., III

    1999-01-01

    wide-ranging suite of economic and technical models that comprise ASAC. This report describes an Air Carrier Cost-Benefit Model (CBM) that meets these requirements. The ASAC CBM is distinguished from many of the aviation cost-benefit models by its exclusive focus on commercial air carriers. The model considers such benefit categories as time and fuel savings, utilization opportunities, reliability and capacity enhancements, and safety and security improvements. The model distinguishes between benefits that are predictable and those that occur randomly. By making such a distinction, the model captures the ability of air carriers to reoptimize scheduling and crew assignments for predictable benefits. In addition, the model incorporates a life-cycle cost module for new technology, which applies the costs of nonrecurring acquisitions, recurring maintenance and operation, and training to each aircraft equipment type independently.

  12. SOLID LIPID NANOPARTICLES AND NANO LIPID CARRIERS: AS NOVEL SOLID LIPID BASED DRUG CARRIER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Girish B. Singhal

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Interest in lipid based drug delivery has developed over the past decade fuelled by a better understanding of the multiple roles lipids may play in enhancing oral bioavailability. Moreover, the emergence of novel excipients with acceptable regulatory and safety profiles coupled with advances in formulation technologies have greatly improved the potential for successful lipid based formulations. Solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN introduced in 1991 represent an alternative carrier system to traditional colloidal carriers, such as emulsions, liposomes and polymeric micro- and nanoparticles. SLN combine advantages of the traditional systems but avoid some of their major disadvantages. This paper reviews the present state of the art regarding production techniques for SLN/ nanostructured lipid carrier (NLC, drug incorporation method and types, stability. The potential of SLN/NLC to be exploited for the different administration routes is also highlighted.

  13. Aircraft Noise and Quality of Life around Frankfurt Airport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreckenberg, Dirk; Meis, Markus; Kahl, Cara; Peschel, Christin; Eikmann, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    In a survey of 2,312 residents living near Frankfurt Airport aircraft noise annoyance and disturbances as well as environmental (EQoL) and health-related quality of life (HQoL) were assessed and compared with data on exposure due to aircraft, road traffic, and railway noise. Results indicate higher noise annoyance than predicted from general exposure-response curves. Beside aircraft sound levels source-related attitudes were associated with reactions to aircraft noise. Furthermore, aircraft noise affected EQoL in general, although to a much smaller extent. HQoL was associated with aircraft noise annoyance, noise sensitivity and partly with aircraft noise exposure, in particular in the subgroup of multimorbid residents. The results suggest a recursive relationship between noise and health, yet this cannot be tested in cross-sectional studies. Longitudinal studies would be recommendable to get more insight in the causal paths underlying the noise-health relationship. PMID:20948931

  14. Control of Next Generation Aircraft and Wind Turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, Susan

    2010-01-01

    The first part of this talk will describe some of the exciting new next generation aircraft that NASA is proposing for the future. These aircraft are being designed to reduce aircraft fuel consumption and environmental impact. Reducing the aircraft weight is one approach that will be used to achieve these goals. A new control framework will be presented that enables lighter, more flexible aircraft to maintain aircraft handling qualities, while preventing the aircraft from exceeding structural load limits. The second part of the talk will give an overview of utility-scale wind turbines and their control. Results of collaboration with Dr. Balas will be presented, including new theory to adaptively control the turbine in the presence of structural modes, with the focus on the application of this theory to a high-fidelity simulation of a wind turbine.

  15. Aircraft Noise and Quality of Life around Frankfurt Airport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Eikmann

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available In a survey of 2,312 residents living near Frankfurt Airport aircraft noise annoyance and disturbances as well as environmental (EQoL and health-related quality of life (HQoL were assessed and compared with data on exposure due to aircraft, road traffic, and railway noise. Results indicate higher noise annoyance than predicted from general exposure-response curves. Beside aircraft sound levels source-related attitudes were associated with reactions to aircraft noise. Furthermore, aircraft noise affected EQoL in general, although to a much smaller extent. HQoL was associated with aircraft noise annoyance, noise sensitivity and partly with aircraft noise exposure, in particular in the subgroup of multimorbid residents. The results suggest a recursive relationship between noise and health, yet this cannot be tested in cross-sectional studies. Longitudinal studies would be recommendable to get more insight in the causal paths underlying the noise-health relationship.

  16. How Europe's Low-Cost Carriers Sidestepped Traditional Carriers' Competitive Advantages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvass, Kristian Anders

    The initial appearance of U.S. low-cost carriers forced incumbents to create new forms of competitive advantage. These were successful hindrances for nearly two decades. Concurrently, incumbents in Europe implemented similar tools, although within a regulated market. However, Europe's low-cost...... airlines were more successful and had a greater initial impact in their early years than their U.S. compatriots. This paper will attempt to highlight some of the differences between the two markets and explain why European low-cost airlines had more advantages following their market deregulation...... and sidestepped traditional carriers' competitive advantages....

  17. Aging analyses of aircraft wire insulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    GILLEN,KENNETH T.; CLOUGH,ROGER LEE; CELINA,MATHIAS C.; AUBERT,JAMES H.; MALONE,G. MICHAEL

    2000-05-08

    Over the past two decades, Sandia has developed a variety of specialized analytical techniques for evaluating the long-term aging and stability of cable insulation and other related materials. These techniques have been applied to cable reliability studies involving numerous insulation types and environmental factors. This work has allowed the monitoring of the occurrence and progression of cable material deterioration in application environments, and has provided insights into material degradation mechanisms. It has also allowed development of more reliable lifetime prediction methodologies. As a part of the FAA program for intrusive inspection of aircraft wiring, they are beginning to apply a battery of techniques to assessing the condition of cable specimens removed from retired aircraft. It is anticipated that in a future part of this program, they may employ these techniques in conjunction with accelerated aging methodologies and models that the authros have developed and employed in the past to predict cable lifetimes. The types of materials to be assessed include 5 different wire types: polyimide, PVC/Glass/Nylon, extruded XL-polyalkene/PVDF, Poly-X, and XL-ETFE. This presentation provides a brief overview of the main techniques that will be employed in assessing the state of health of aircraft wire insulation. The discussion will be illustrated with data from their prior cable aging studies, highlighting the methods used and their important conclusions. A few of the techniques that they employ are widely used in aging studies on polymers, but others are unique to Sandia. All of their techniques are non-proprietary, and maybe of interest for use by others in terms of application to aircraft wiring analysis. At the end of this report is a list showing some leading references to papers that have been published in the open literature which provide more detailed information on the analytical techniques for elastomer aging studies. The first step in the

  18. A new lubricant carrier for metal forming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arentoft, Mogens; Bay, Niels; Tang, Peter Torben

    2009-01-01

    A lubricant carrier for metal forming processes is developed. Surfaces with pores of micrometer size for entrapping lubricant are generated by electrochemical deposition of an alloy, consisting of two immiscible metals, of which one metal subsequently is etched away leaving 5 mu m layers...... with a sponge-like structure, The pores will actas lubricant reservoirs during severe forming processes. The deposited microporous layer is evaluated by friction tests in the form of ring compression tests and double cup extrusion tests. Furthermore the anti-seizure properties are investigated by single cup...

  19. Hardware Trojan by Hot Carrier Injection

    CERN Document Server

    Shiyanovskii, Y; Papachristou, C; Weyer, D; Clay, W

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses how hot carrier injection (HCI) can be exploited to create a trojan that will cause hardware failures. The trojan is produced not via additional logic circuitry but by controlled scenarios that maximize and accelerate the HCI effect in transistors. These scenarios range from manipulating the manufacturing process to varying the internal voltage distribution. This new type of trojan is difficult to test due to its gradual hardware degradation mechanism. This paper describes the HCI effect, detection techniques and discusses the possibility for maliciously induced HCI trojans.

  20. Carbon-neutral fuels and energy carriers

    CERN Document Server

    Muradov, Nazim Z

    2011-01-01

    Concerns over an unstable energy supply and the adverse environmental impact of carbonaceous fuels have triggered considerable efforts worldwide to find carbon-free or low-carbon alternatives to conventional fossil fuels. Carbon-Neutral Fuels and Energy Carriers emphasizes the vital role of carbon-neutral energy sources, transportation fuels, and associated technologies for establishing a sustainable energy future. Each chapter draws on the insight of world-renowned experts in such diverse fields as photochemistry and electrochemistry, solar and nuclear energy, biofuels and synthetic fuels, ca

  1. The solute carrier 6 family of transporters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bröer, Stefan; Gether, Ulrik

    2012-01-01

    The solute carrier 6 (SLC6) family of the human genome comprises transporters for neurotransmitters, amino acids, osmolytes and energy metabolites. Members of this family play critical roles in neurotransmission, cellular and whole body homeostasis. Malfunction or altered expression...... of these transporters is associated with a variety of diseases. Pharmacological inhibition of the neurotransmitter transporters in this family is an important strategy in the management of neurological and psychiatric disorders. This review provides an overview of the biochemical and pharmacological properties...... of the SLC6 family transporters....

  2. 78 FR 5243 - Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee (MCSAC): Public Meeting of Subcommittees

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-24

    ... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee (MCSAC): Public Meeting of Subcommittees AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of meeting of Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee (MCSAC). SUMMARY: FMCSA announces that...

  3. 76 FR 62496 - Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee Series of Public Subcommittee Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-07

    ... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee Series of Public Subcommittee Meetings AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The FMCSA's Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee (MCSAC) will hold working group...

  4. 76 FR 5424 - Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee; Request for Nominations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-31

    ... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee; Request for Nominations AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA), DOT. ACTION: Request for Nominations to the Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee (MCSAC). SUMMARY: The FMCSA solicits nominations...

  5. 77 FR 60507 - Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee (MCSAC): Public Subcommittee Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-03

    ... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee (MCSAC): Public Subcommittee Meeting AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of Meeting of Compliance, Safety, Accountability (CSA) Subcommittee of Motor Carrier Safety...

  6. Structural analysis at aircraft conceptual design stage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansouri, Reza

    In the past 50 years, computers have helped by augmenting human efforts with tremendous pace. The aircraft industry is not an exception. Aircraft industry is more than ever dependent on computing because of a high level of complexity and the increasing need for excellence to survive a highly competitive marketplace. Designers choose computers to perform almost every analysis task. But while doing so, existing effective, accurate and easy to use classical analytical methods are often forgotten, which can be very useful especially in the early phases of the aircraft design where concept generation and evaluation demands physical visibility of design parameters to make decisions [39, 2004]. Structural analysis methods have been used by human beings since the very early civilization. Centuries before computers were invented; the pyramids were designed and constructed by Egyptians around 2000 B.C, the Parthenon was built by the Greeks, around 240 B.C, Dujiangyan was built by the Chinese. Persepolis, Hagia Sophia, Taj Mahal, Eiffel tower are only few more examples of historical buildings, bridges and monuments that were constructed before we had any advancement made in computer aided engineering. Aircraft industry is no exception either. In the first half of the 20th century, engineers used classical method and designed civil transport aircraft such as Ford Tri Motor (1926), Lockheed Vega (1927), Lockheed 9 Orion (1931), Douglas DC-3 (1935), Douglas DC-4/C-54 Skymaster (1938), Boeing 307 (1938) and Boeing 314 Clipper (1939) and managed to become airborne without difficulty. Evidencing, while advanced numerical methods such as the finite element analysis is one of the most effective structural analysis methods; classical structural analysis methods can also be as useful especially during the early phase of a fixed wing aircraft design where major decisions are made and concept generation and evaluation demands physical visibility of design parameters to make decisions

  7. Exploratory flight investigation of aircraft response to the wing vortex wake generated by the augmentor wing jet STOL research aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobsen, R. A.; Drinkwater, F. J., III

    1975-01-01

    A brief exploratory flight program was conducted at Ames Research Center to investigate the vortex wake hazard of a powered-lift STOL aircraft. The study was made by flying an instrumented Cessna 210 aircraft into the wake of the augmentor wing jet STOL research aircraft at separation distances from 1 to 4 n.mi. Characteristics of the wake were evaluated in terms of the magnitude of the upset of the probing aircraft. Results indicated that within 1 n.mi. separation the wake could cause rolling moments in excess of roll control power and yawing moments equivalent to rudder control power of the probe aircraft. Subjective evaluations by the pilots of the Cessna 210 aircraft, supported by response measurements, indicated that the upset caused by the wake of the STOL aircraft was comparable to that of a DC-9 in the landing configuration.

  8. The effect of carrier surface and bulk properties on drug particle detachment from crystalline lactose carrier particles during inhalation, as function of carrier payload and mixing time

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dickhoff, B.H.J.; de Boer, Anne; Lambregts, D.; Frijlink, H.W.

    2003-01-01

    The effect of carrier payload and mixing time on the redispersion of drug particles from adhesive mixtures during inhalation for two different drugs (budesonide and disodium cromoglycate) has been investigated. A special test inhaler which retains carrier crystals during inhalation was used at 30 an

  9. Facilitated transport near the carrier saturation limit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anawat Sungpet

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available Permeation of ethylbenzene, styrene and 1-hexene through perfluorosulfonate ionomer membranes was carried out with the feed concentrations ranging from 1 M to pure. On comparison, fluxes of ethylbenzene through the Ag+-form membrane were the lowest. Only a small increase in ethylbenzene flux was observed after the feed concentration exceeded 3 M, indicating the existence of carrier saturation. The increase in styrene flux was suppressed to some degree at high concentration driving forces. In contrast, 1-hexene flux was the highest and continued to increase even at very high feed concentrations. After the experiments with pure feeds, extraction of the solutes from the membranes revealed that 62.5% of Ag+ ions reacted with 1-hexene as against 40.6% for styrene and 28.9% for ethylbenzene. Equilibrium constants, determined by distribution method, of 1-hexene, styrene and ethylbenzene were 129, 2.2 and 0.7 M-1 respectively, which suggested that stability of the complex was a key factor in the carrier saturation phenomenon.

  10. Theory of Carrier Phase Ambiguity Resolution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    P. J. G. Teunissen

    2003-01-01

    Carrier phase ambiguity resolution is the key to high precision Global Navigation Satellite System(GNSS) positioning and navigation. It applies to a great variety of current and future models of GPS, modernized GPS and Galileo. A proper handling of carrier phase ambiguity resolution requires a proper understanding of the underlying theory of integer inference. In this contribution a brief review is given of the probabilistic theory of integer ambiguity estimation. We describe the concept of ambiguity pull-in regions, introduce the class of admissible integer estimators, determine their probability mass functions and show how their variability solution. The theory is worked out in more detail for integer least-squares and integer bootstrapping. It is shown that the integer least-squares principle maximizes the probability of correct integer estimation. Sharp and easy-to-compute bounds are given for both the ambiguity success rate and the baseline's probability of concentration. Finally the probability density function of the ambiguity residuals is determined. This allows one for the first time to formulate rigorous tests for the integerness of the parameters.

  11. Localized charge carriers in graphene nanodevices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bischoff, D., E-mail: dominikb@phys.ethz.ch; Varlet, A.; Simonet, P.; Eich, M.; Overweg, H. C.; Ihn, T.; Ensslin, K. [Solid State Physics Laboratory, ETH Zurich, 8093 Zurich (Switzerland)

    2015-09-15

    Graphene—two-dimensional carbon—is a material with unique mechanical, optical, chemical, and electronic properties. Its use in a wide range of applications was therefore suggested. From an electronic point of view, nanostructured graphene is of great interest due to the potential opening of a band gap, applications in quantum devices, and investigations of physical phenomena. Narrow graphene stripes called “nanoribbons” show clearly different electronical transport properties than micron-sized graphene devices. The conductivity is generally reduced and around the charge neutrality point, the conductance is nearly completely suppressed. While various mechanisms can lead to this observed suppression of conductance, disordered edges resulting in localized charge carriers are likely the main cause in a large number of experiments. Localized charge carriers manifest themselves in transport experiments by the appearance of Coulomb blockade diamonds. This review focuses on the mechanisms responsible for this charge localization, on interpreting the transport details, and on discussing the consequences for physics and applications. Effects such as multiple coupled sites of localized charge, cotunneling processes, and excited states are discussed. Also, different geometries of quantum devices are compared. Finally, an outlook is provided, where open questions are addressed.

  12. High charge-carrier mobility enables exploitation of carrier multiplication in quantum-dot films

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suchand Sandeep, C.S.; Ten Cate, S.; Schins, J.M.; Savenije, T.J.; Liu, Y.; Law, M.; Kinge, S.; Houtepen, A.J.; Siebbeles, L.D.A.

    2013-01-01

    Carrier multiplication, the generation of multiple electron–hole pairs by a single photon, is of great interest for solar cells as it may enhance their photocurrent. This process has been shown to occur efficiently in colloidal quantum dots, however, harvesting of the generated multiple charges has

  13. Graphene, a material for high temperature devices; intrinsic carrier density, carrier drift velocity, and lattice energy

    CERN Document Server

    Yin, Yan; Wang, Li; Jin, Kuijuan; Wang, Wenzhong

    2016-01-01

    Heat has always been a killing matter for traditional semiconductor machines. The underlining physical reason is that the intrinsic carrier density of a device made from a traditional semiconductor material increases very fast with a rising temperature. Once reaching a temperature, the density surpasses the chemical doping or gating effect, any p-n junction or transistor made from the semiconductor will fail to function. Here, we measure the intrinsic Fermi level (|E_F|=2.93k_B*T) or intrinsic carrier density (n_in=3.87*10^6 cm^-2 K^-2*T^2), carrier drift velocity, and G mode phonon energy of graphene devices and their temperature dependencies up to 2400 K. Our results show intrinsic carrier density of graphene is an order of magnitude less sensitive to temperature than those of Si or Ge, and reveal the great potentials of graphene as a material for high temperature devices. We also observe a linear decline of saturation drift velocity with increasing temperature, and identify the temperature coefficients of ...

  14. Artificial Intelligence for Controlling Robotic Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnakumar, Kalmanje

    2005-01-01

    A document consisting mostly of lecture slides presents overviews of artificial-intelligence-based control methods now under development for application to robotic aircraft [called Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) in the paper] and spacecraft and to the next generation of flight controllers for piloted aircraft. Following brief introductory remarks, the paper presents background information on intelligent control, including basic characteristics defining intelligent systems and intelligent control and the concept of levels of intelligent control. Next, the paper addresses several concepts in intelligent flight control. The document ends with some concluding remarks, including statements to the effect that (1) intelligent control architectures can guarantee stability of inner control loops and (2) for UAVs, intelligent control provides a robust way to accommodate an outer-loop control architecture for planning and/or related purposes.

  15. Fundamentals of aircraft and rocket propulsion

    CERN Document Server

    El-Sayed, Ahmed F

    2016-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive basics-to-advanced course in an aero-thermal science vital to the design of engines for either type of craft. The text classifies engines powering aircraft and single/multi-stage rockets, and derives performance parameters for both from basic aerodynamics and thermodynamics laws. Each type of engine is analyzed for optimum performance goals, and mission-appropriate engines selection is explained. Fundamentals of Aircraft and Rocket Propulsion provides information about and analyses of: thermodynamic cycles of shaft engines (piston, turboprop, turboshaft and propfan); jet engines (pulsejet, pulse detonation engine, ramjet, scramjet, turbojet and turbofan); chemical and non-chemical rocket engines; conceptual design of modular rocket engines (combustor, nozzle and turbopumps); and conceptual design of different modules of aero-engines in their design and off-design state. Aimed at graduate and final-year undergraduate students, this textbook provides a thorough grounding in th...

  16. Nonlinear feedback control of highly manoeuvrable aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrard, William L.; Enns, Dale F.; Snell, S. A.

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes the application of nonlinear quadratic regulator (NLQR) theory to the design of control laws for a typical high-performance aircraft. The NLQR controller design is performed using truncated solutions of the Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman equation of optimal control theory. The performance of the NLQR controller is compared with the performance of a conventional P + I gain scheduled controller designed by applying standard frequency response techniques to the equations of motion of the aircraft linearized at various angles of attack. Both techniques result in control laws which are very similar in structure to one another and which yield similar performance. The results of applying both control laws to a high-g vertical turn are illustrated by nonlinear simulation.

  17. Analysis of aircraft longitudinal handling qualities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, R. A.

    1981-01-01

    The optimal control model (OCM) of the human pilot is applied to the study of aircraft handling qualities. Attention is focused primarily on longitudinal tasks. The modeling technique differs from previous applications of the OCM in that considerable effort is expended in simplifying the pilot/vehicle analysis. After briefly reviewing the OCM, a technique for modeling the pilot controlling higher order systems is introduced. Following this, a simple criterion for determining the susceptibility of an aircraft to pilot induced oscillations (PIO) is formulated. Finally, a model-based metric for pilot rating prediction is discussed. The resulting modeling procedure provides a relatively simple, yet unified approach to the study of a variety of handling qualities problems.

  18. Aircraft propeller induced structure-borne noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unruh, James F.

    1989-01-01

    A laboratory-based test apparatus employing components typical of aircraft construction was developed that would allow the study of structure-borne noise transmission due to propeller induced wake/vortex excitation of in-wake structural appendages. The test apparatus was employed to evaluate several aircraft installation effects (power plant placement, engine/nacelle mass loading, and wing/fuselage attachment methods) and several structural response modifications for structure-borne noise control (the use of wing blocking mass/fuel, wing damping treaments, and tuned mechanical dampers). Most important was the development of in-flight structure-borne noise transmission detection techniques using a combination of ground-based frequency response function testing and in-flight structural response measurement. Propeller wake/vortex excitation simulation techniques for improved ground-based testing were also developed to support the in-flight structure-borne noise transmission detection development.

  19. Military Airlift: C-17 Aircraft Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    out such a mission led Congress to ask DOD to conduct a study of the entire long- For more information on MRS-05, see CRS Report RS20915 . 22 Jonathan...many should be retired. Rising maintenance costs have led some to argue that more C-5s should be retired sooner, and the savings be applied to...34lighter-than-air" aircraft . Also known as airships, blimps, dirigibles, or zeppelins , these potentially large, helium-filled balloons offer many

  20. Identifying tacit strategies in aircraft maneuvers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Charles M.; Heidorn, P. B.

    1991-01-01

    Two machine-learning methods are presently used to characterize the avoidance strategies used by skilled pilots in simulated aircraft encounters, and a general framework for the characterization of the strategic components of skilled behavior via qualitative representation of situations and responses is presented. Descriptions of pilot maneuvers that were 'conceptually equivalent' were ascertained by a concept-learning algorithm in conjunction with a classifier system that employed a generic algorithm; satisficing and 'buggy' strategies were thereby revealed.