WorldWideScience

Sample records for aircraft by ownership

  1. Corporate Ownership by Industrial Foundations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Steen

    1999-01-01

    Industrial foundations are self-governing non profit institutions that own business companies. This ownership structure is found in a fair number of Northern European companies, some of them successful world class competitors. Standard agency theory would predict foundation-owned companies...... to be relatively inefficient since they lack monitoring by residual claimants and access to equity finance from the stock market. Nevertheless, empirical research (Thomsen 1996) has found that Danish foundation-owned companies do no worse in terms of profitability and growth than companies with dispersed ownership...... or family ownership. The paper considers and tests alternative explanations of this paradox. Explanations based on tax incentives, alternative control mechanisms and product-market advantages are rejected, but some support is found for performance advantages related to family control and long term business...

  2. Engine Systems Ownership Cost Reduction - Aircraft Propulsion Subsystems Integration (APSI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-08-01

    INCO 792 (Radiographic Film). 97 S--I- Teledyne CAE Report No. 1467 ENVELOPE~~IE OFREWAFLC k1806ýý i-- -IS-RGONO NEFNDDT vigue4.2.93. Poder Meal Dic...34, Volume II, 1 August 1956, by members of the Compressor and Turbine Research Division - Lewis Flight Propulsion Laboratory. 15. Deleted. 1 Deleted. 17

  3. Concentrated Ownership

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rose, Caspar

    2014-01-01

    , especially minority shareholders. Concentrated ownership is associated with benefits and costs. Concentrated ownership may reduce agency costs by increased monitoring of top management. However, concentrated ownership may also provide dominating owners with private benefits of control....

  4. Long-Term Ownership by Industrial Foundations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Børsting, Christa Winther; Kuhn, Johan Moritz; Poulsen, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Short-termism has become a serious concern for businesses and policy makers and this has inspired a search for governance arrangement to promote long term decision making. In this paper we study a particularly long-term ownership structure, which is fairly common in Northern Europe, particularly...... in Denmark. Industrial foundations are independent legal entities without owners or members typically with the dual objective of preserving the company and using excess profits for charity. We use a unique Danish data set to examine the governance of foundation-owned companies. We show that they are long-term...... in several respects. Foundations hold on to their shares for longer. Foundation-owned companies replace managers less frequently. They have more conservative capital structures with less leverage. Their companies survive longer. Their business decisions appear to be more long term. This paper supports...

  5. 76 FR 31823 - Regulation of Fractional Aircraft Ownership Programs and On-Demand Operations; Technical Amendment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-02

    ... Afghanistan, Agriculture, Air traffic control, Aircraft, Airmen, Airports, Aviation safety, Canada, Cuba, Ethiopia, Freight, Mexico, Noise control, Political candidates, Reporting and recordkeeping...

  6. Estimating KC-137 Aircraft Ownership Costs in the Brazilian Air Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-06-01

    stability on the international market . Utilization Rate -- since the mission profiles of the KC-137 aircraft are expected to remain the same for the near...the international market . Utilization Rate -- since the mission profiles of the KC-137 aircraft are expected to remain the same for the near future...ocontrole? 2.3 Suprimentos recebidos do Parque Custo rn6dio de todo o material que o Parque envia para a Base por ano (ou rn6s, etc.) Inclui todo tipo de

  7. Compensation and Production in Family Medicine by Practice Ownership

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison C. Essary

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The increasing focus on high performance, patient-centered, team-based care calls for a strategy to evaluate cost-effective primary care. The trend toward physician practice consolidation further challenges the primary care health care system. Productivity measures establish provider value and help inform decision making regarding resource allocation in this evolving health care system. In this national survey of family medicine practices, physician assistant (PA productivity, as defined by mean annual patient encounters, exceeds that of both nurse practitioners (NPs and physicians in physician-owned practices and of NPs in hospital or integrated delivery system-owned practices. Total compensation, defined as salary, bonus, incentives, and honoraria for physicians, is significantly more compared to both PAs and NPs, regardless of practice ownership or productivity. Physician assistants and NPs earn equivalent compensation, regardless of practice ownership or productivity. Not only do these data support the value and role of PAs and NPs on the primary care team but also highlight differences in patient encounters between practice settings. Rural and underserved community practices, where physician-owned practices persist, also merit further consideration. Further research is needed to inform both organizational and policy decisions for the provision of high-quality, cost-effective, and accessible primary health care.

  8. 48 CFR 252.227-7038 - Patent Rights-Ownership by the Contractor (Large Business).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Contractor (Large Business). As prescribed in 227.303(2), use the following clause: Patent Rights—Ownership... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Patent Rights-Ownership by the Contractor (Large Business). 252.227-7038 Section 252.227-7038 Federal Acquisition...

  9. 14 CFR 91.1109 - Aircraft maintenance: Inspection program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... currently recommended by the manufacturer of the aircraft, aircraft engines, propellers, appliances, and... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Aircraft maintenance: Inspection program... Ownership Operations Program Management § 91.1109 Aircraft maintenance: Inspection program. Each...

  10. Parcels and Land Ownership, linkage by project only, Published in 2008, Yellow Medicine.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2008. It is described as 'linkage by project only'. The extent of these data is generally Yellow Medicine County, MN....

  11. Ownership and Agency of an Independent Supernumerary Hand Induced by an Imitation Brain-Computer Interface.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luke Bashford

    Full Text Available To study body ownership and control, illusions that elicit these feelings in non-body objects are widely used. Classically introduced with the Rubber Hand Illusion, these illusions have been replicated more recently in virtual reality and by using brain-computer interfaces. Traditionally these illusions investigate the replacement of a body part by an artificial counterpart, however as brain-computer interface research develops it offers us the possibility to explore the case where non-body objects are controlled in addition to movements of our own limbs. Therefore we propose a new illusion designed to test the feeling of ownership and control of an independent supernumerary hand. Subjects are under the impression they control a virtual reality hand via a brain-computer interface, but in reality there is no causal connection between brain activity and virtual hand movement but correct movements are observed with 80% probability. These imitation brain-computer interface trials are interspersed with movements in both the subjects' real hands, which are in view throughout the experiment. We show that subjects develop strong feelings of ownership and control over the third hand, despite only receiving visual feedback with no causal link to the actual brain signals. Our illusion is crucially different from previously reported studies as we demonstrate independent ownership and control of the third hand without loss of ownership in the real hands.

  12. Humanlike robot hands controlled by brain activity arouse illusion of ownership in operators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alimardani, Maryam; Nishio, Shuichi; Ishiguro, Hiroshi

    2013-08-01

    Operators of a pair of robotic hands report ownership for those hands when they hold image of a grasp motion and watch the robot perform it. We present a novel body ownership illusion that is induced by merely watching and controlling robot's motions through a brain machine interface. In past studies, body ownership illusions were induced by correlation of such sensory inputs as vision, touch and proprioception. However, in the presented illusion none of the mentioned sensations are integrated except vision. Our results show that during BMI-operation of robotic hands, the interaction between motor commands and visual feedback of the intended motions is adequate to incorporate the non-body limbs into one's own body. Our discussion focuses on the role of proprioceptive information in the mechanism of agency-driven illusions. We believe that our findings will contribute to improvement of tele-presence systems in which operators incorporate BMI-operated robots into their body representations.

  13. THE EFFECT OF COMPANY DIVERSIFICATION TOWARDS EARNING MANAGEMENT MODERATED BY MANAGERIAL OWNERSHIP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratih Kusumaningtyas

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to examine the effect of diversification towards earnings management moderated by managerial ownership. The sample in this research is 48 manufacturing companies listed in Indonesian Stock Exchange period 2009- 2013. Purposive sampling was utilized as a sampling technique in this study. This research used moderating regression analysis to examine the proposed of hypothesis. The result found that diversification has significant positive effect on earnings management. Managerial ownership also has significant positive effect in moderating the relationship between corporate diversification with earnings management. While the three control variables such as company size (size, the company’s growth (growth and leverage have no significant effect on earnings management.

  14. 24 CFR 904.115 - Achievement of ownership by subsequent homebuyers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Description § 904.115 Achievement of ownership by subsequent homebuyers. (a) Definition. In the event the... § 904.107(l)(2) is herein called a “subsequent homebuyer.” (b) Determination of initial purchase price. The initial purchase price for a subsequent homebuyer shall be an amount equal to (1) the...

  15. 48 CFR 52.227-13 - Patent Rights-Ownership by the Government.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... following clause: Patent Rights—Ownership by the Government (DEC 2007) (a) Definitions. As used in this clause— Invention means any invention or discovery that is or may be patentable or otherwise protectable... Variety Protection Act (7 U.S.C. 2321, et seq.) Made means— (1) When used in relation to any...

  16. Employee ownership

    OpenAIRE

    Mygind, Niels

    2007-01-01

    This paper gives an overview over some theory and empirical evidence on employee ownership and other forms of employee financial participation and answers the following questions: What is employee ownership and what is the relation to other forms of financial participation? Why is employee ownership widespread in some developed market economies like US and in Italy, France and Spain, while it has a quite rare occurrence in the Scandinavian countries? What are the conditions favouring and what...

  17. Psychological Ownership and Ownership Markers in Collaborative Working Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qian Ying

    2010-01-01

    Ownership is a fundamental human concern. It has been explored by various disciplines and within a variety of contexts. However, previous ownership researches focus primarily on physical objects such as toys, houses and stamps, while almost no research has been conducted about the psychological ownership toward digital entities. This dissertation…

  18. 76 FR 6525 - Airworthiness Directives; Cessna Aircraft Company (Type Certificate Previously Held by Columbia...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-07

    ... Company (Type Certificate Previously Held by Columbia Aircraft Manufacturing (Previously the Lancair... Aircraft Company (Type Certificate Previously Held by Columbia Aircraft Manufacturing (Previously The... Aircraft Company (type certificate previously held by Columbia Aircraft Manufacturing (previously...

  19. Ownership as a Social Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalish, Charles W.; Anderson, Craig D.

    2011-01-01

    The authors suggest that ownership may be one of the critical entry points into thinking about social constructions, a kind of laboratory for understanding status. They discuss the features of ownership that make it an interesting case to study developmentally. In particular, ownership is a consequential social fact that is alterable by an…

  20. Analysis on Capitalization of Rural Land Ownership in China by Law and Economics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hongjuan; LI

    2014-01-01

    To find solutions for legal system for capitalization of rural land ownership in China,this paper studied and analyzed existing problems in rural land system and legal environment using legal theory and transaction cost theory. Results indicated that(i) the restriction of institutional condition upon property right and transaction is more essential,and key points include the relationship of entities of right formed jointly by the state,collective and farmers,accurate positioning of property right structure,and security for land appreciation income right and allocation mechanism;(ii) the land property right structure should select a legal structure with minimum transaction cost. It is concluded that entitling the ownership to a single entity is an economical method to eliminate current conflict of rural land right.

  1. Parcels and Land Ownership, linkage by project only, Published in 2008, Upper Minnesota Valley Regional Development Commission.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2008. It is described as 'linkage by project only'. The extent of these data is generally Yellow Medicine County, MN....

  2. Increased Use of Care Management Processes and Expanded Health Information Technology Functions by Practice Ownership and Medicaid Revenue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Hector P; McClellan, Sean R; Bibi, Salma; Casalino, Lawrence P; Ramsay, Patricia P; Shortell, Stephen M

    2016-06-01

    Practice ownership and Medicaid revenue may affect the use of care management processes (CMPs) for chronic conditions and expansion of health information technology (HIT). Using a national cohort of medical practices, we compared the use of CMPs and HIT from 2006/2008 to 2013 by practice ownership and level of Medicaid revenue. Poisson regression models estimated changes in CMP use, and linear regression estimated changes in HIT, by practice ownership and Medicaid patient revenue, controlling for other practice characteristics. Compared with physician-owned practices, system-owned practices adopted a greater number of CMPs and HIT functions over time (p revenue (≥30.0%) was associated with less adoption of CMPs (p revenue were more likely than physician-owned practices with high Medicaid revenue to adopt CMPs over time. System and community health center ownership appear to help high Medicaid practices overcome CMP adoption constraints.

  3. Perception of Border Ownership by Multiple Gestalt Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shohei Matsuoka

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Gestalt factors such as convexity, closure, and size promote the perception of the direction of figure. Although recent studies have investigated the effects of the individual factors, it has not been clarified how these factors interact with each other, when the features coexist in a local contour. In the present study, we examined psychophysically the interaction of convexity and closure that coexist in a local contour of natural image. First, we established the quantification of convexity and closure (indices to represent the factors for contours of natural images. By using these quantities, we selected a set of local contours that includes a uniform and wide variation of convexity and closure. Second, we performed a psychophysical experiment to measure the apparent direction of figure for the set of local contours. The result showed that the perceived direction of figure tends to agree with the direction of closure when both convexity and closure coexist in a local contour. The result also showed that while the direction of closure dominates the perception of the direction of figure, the index of closure does not correlate linearly with the perceptual judgment. These results suggest that the perceptual judgment of the direction of figure depends mostly on closure when it coexists with convexity, and that the dependence is dichotomic; two contours with different degrees of closure do not evoke distinct perception. Closure appears to be a dominant and strong cue for the direction of figure.

  4. Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hibbs, B.D.; Lissaman, P.B.S.; Morgan, W.R.; Radkey, R.L.

    1998-09-22

    This disclosure provides a solar rechargeable aircraft that is inexpensive to produce, is steerable, and can remain airborne almost indefinitely. The preferred aircraft is a span-loaded flying wing, having no fuselage or rudder. Travelling at relatively slow speeds, and having a two-hundred foot wingspan that mounts photovoltaic cells on most all of the wing`s top surface, the aircraft uses only differential thrust of its eight propellers to turn. Each of five sections of the wing has one or more engines and photovoltaic arrays, and produces its own lift independent of the other sections, to avoid loading them. Five two-sided photovoltaic arrays, in all, are mounted on the wing, and receive photovoltaic energy both incident on top of the wing, and which is incident also from below, through a bottom, transparent surface. The aircraft is capable of a top speed of about ninety miles per hour, which enables the aircraft to attain and can continuously maintain altitudes of up to sixty-five thousand feet. Regenerative fuel cells in the wing store excess electricity for use at night, such that the aircraft can sustain its elevation indefinitely. A main spar of the wing doubles as a pressure vessel that houses hydrogen and oxygen gases for use in the regenerative fuel cell. The aircraft has a wide variety of applications, which include weather monitoring and atmospheric testing, communications, surveillance, and other applications as well. 31 figs.

  5. Is employee ownership so senseless ?

    OpenAIRE

    Aubert, Nicolas; Bernard, Grand; Lapied, André; Rousseau, Patrick

    2009-01-01

    Since Enron and the ruin of thousands of its employees, employee ownership is harshly criticized. Investing savings in employer's stock would be equivalent to bet on only one asset. Moreover, employee ownership's debated efficiency would not justify employers to grant company stock to their employees. Still, employee ownership is put in place by thousands of companies and withhold by millions of employees throughout the world. This paper considers a moral hazard setting where a risk neutral e...

  6. 48 CFR 252.209-7001 - Disclosure of ownership or control by the government of a terrorist country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Disclosure of ownership or control by the government of a terrorist country. 252.209-7001 Section 252.209-7001 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT...

  7. The latrine ownership ladder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Obeng, Peter Appiah; Keraita, Bernard; Oduro-Kwarteng, Sampson;

    2015-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to present the latrine ownership ladder as a conceptual policy framework to enhance sanitation uptake in low-income peri-urban areas. Design/methodology/approach – The paper draws from literature and a case study in a Ghanaian peri-urban community to highlight...... the challenges that undermine sanitation uptake in low-income peri-urban areas and the prospects of various levels of facility sharing as conceived in the latrine ownership ladder approach. Findings – The authors argue that the infrastructural and other socio-economic challenges of low-income peri-urban areas...... to the promotion of household latrines. The paper identifies provision of special concessions for peri-urban areas in policy formulation, education and technical support to households, regulation and enforcement of sanitation by-laws among complimentary policy interventions to make the latrine ownership ladder...

  8. Ownership structure of protected areas influences the patterns of seed removal by mammals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martínez-Sánchez, J.L.; Kampichler, C.

    2011-01-01

    In Mexico, nature reserves vary greatly in the size of the property, administration, financial budget and measures to protect against land use change and illegal hunting. We compared two private and two public reserves and observed an influence between the ownership structure and the patterns of rem

  9. Exploratory flight investigation of aircraft response to the wing vortex wake generated by the augmentor wing jet STOL research aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobsen, R. A.; Drinkwater, F. J., III

    1975-01-01

    A brief exploratory flight program was conducted at Ames Research Center to investigate the vortex wake hazard of a powered-lift STOL aircraft. The study was made by flying an instrumented Cessna 210 aircraft into the wake of the augmentor wing jet STOL research aircraft at separation distances from 1 to 4 n.mi. Characteristics of the wake were evaluated in terms of the magnitude of the upset of the probing aircraft. Results indicated that within 1 n.mi. separation the wake could cause rolling moments in excess of roll control power and yawing moments equivalent to rudder control power of the probe aircraft. Subjective evaluations by the pilots of the Cessna 210 aircraft, supported by response measurements, indicated that the upset caused by the wake of the STOL aircraft was comparable to that of a DC-9 in the landing configuration.

  10. Removal of proprioception by BCI raises a stronger body ownership illusion in control of a humanlike robot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alimardani, Maryam; Nishio, Shuichi; Ishiguro, Hiroshi

    2016-09-22

    Body ownership illusions provide evidence that our sense of self is not coherent and can be extended to non-body objects. Studying about these illusions gives us practical tools to understand the brain mechanisms that underlie body recognition and the experience of self. We previously introduced an illusion of body ownership transfer (BOT) for operators of a very humanlike robot. This sensation of owning the robot's body was confirmed when operators controlled the robot either by performing the desired motion with their body (motion-control) or by employing a brain-computer interface (BCI) that translated motor imagery commands to robot movement (BCI-control). The interesting observation during BCI-control was that the illusion could be induced even with a noticeable delay in the BCI system. Temporal discrepancy has always shown critical weakening effects on body ownership illusions. However the delay-robustness of BOT during BCI-control raised a question about the interaction between the proprioceptive inputs and delayed visual feedback in agency-driven illusions. In this work, we compared the intensity of BOT illusion for operators in two conditions; motion-control and BCI-control. Our results revealed a significantly stronger BOT illusion for the case of BCI-control. This finding highlights BCI's potential in inducing stronger agency-driven illusions by building a direct communication between the brain and controlled body, and therefore removing awareness from the subject's own body.

  11. Removal of proprioception by BCI raises a stronger body ownership illusion in control of a humanlike robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alimardani, Maryam; Nishio, Shuichi; Ishiguro, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    Body ownership illusions provide evidence that our sense of self is not coherent and can be extended to non-body objects. Studying about these illusions gives us practical tools to understand the brain mechanisms that underlie body recognition and the experience of self. We previously introduced an illusion of body ownership transfer (BOT) for operators of a very humanlike robot. This sensation of owning the robot’s body was confirmed when operators controlled the robot either by performing the desired motion with their body (motion-control) or by employing a brain-computer interface (BCI) that translated motor imagery commands to robot movement (BCI-control). The interesting observation during BCI-control was that the illusion could be induced even with a noticeable delay in the BCI system. Temporal discrepancy has always shown critical weakening effects on body ownership illusions. However the delay-robustness of BOT during BCI-control raised a question about the interaction between the proprioceptive inputs and delayed visual feedback in agency-driven illusions. In this work, we compared the intensity of BOT illusion for operators in two conditions; motion-control and BCI-control. Our results revealed a significantly stronger BOT illusion for the case of BCI-control. This finding highlights BCI’s potential in inducing stronger agency-driven illusions by building a direct communication between the brain and controlled body, and therefore removing awareness from the subject’s own body. PMID:27654174

  12. Parcels and Land Ownership, LandOwnership, Published in 2004, Millard County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2004. It is described as 'LandOwnership'. Data by this publisher...

  13. Media ownership and news framing: an analysis of HIV/AIDS coverage by Ugandan press.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiwanuka-Tondo, James; Albada, Kelly F; Payton, Fay Cobb

    2012-12-01

    Applying framing theory, the present research analyzes trends in Ugandan news coverage and the prominent issue frames for HIV/AIDS-related stories. In order to determine the influence of other factors, such as media ownership and journalist origin, nearly 800 articles, from 2000 to 2004, were gathered from the major private newspaper and government-owned newspaper in Uganda. After systematic sampling, 365 articles constitute the sample. The results indicate that print news coverage of HIV and AIDS followed a non-linear trajectory, declining from 2000-2002 and then increasing from 2003-2004. Curative medicine emerged as the most prominent issue frame. Higher-risk behaviour was the least prominent issue frame overall. The 'solutions' issue frame nearly doubled in prominence from 2000-2004, while the HIV-prevention frame decreased from 2000-2002 and then rebounded from 2003-2004. Concerning HIV-related topics, the private newspaper included more features, printed lengthier articles, incorporated a greater variety of news frames, and published more articles by foreign journalists than the government-owned newspaper. The private newspaper employed the 'HIV-prevention,' 'action,' and 'victims' frames more often than the government-owned newspaper. Journalists at the government-owned newspaper adopted a 'solutions' frame more often than their private-press counterparts. Though foreign journalists were more likely than local journalists to employ the HIV-prevention frame, additional tests revealed that the news organisation for which the journalists worked contributed to issue framing to a greater extent than did either a local or foreign reporting origin. Local (Ugandan) journalists working for the two news organisations differed in their tendencies to apply the HIV-prevention, action, victims, and tragedy frames in news stories on HIV and AIDS, with journalists at the private newspaper using these frames more often than did journalists at the government-owned newspaper.

  14. Modern trends of aircraft fly-by-wire systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    С. С. Юцкевич

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Specifics of civil aviation modern transport aircraft fly-by-wire control systems are described. A comparison of the systems-level hardware and software, expressed through modes of guidance, provision of aircraft Airbus A-320, Boeing B-777, Tupolev Tu-214, Sukhoi Superjet SSJ-100 are carried out. The possibility of transition from mechanical control wiring to control through fly-by-wire system in the backup channel is shown.

  15. AERODYNAMIC BEHAVIOR AIRCRAFT CAUSED BY RESIDUAL STRAIN WINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergiy Ishchenko

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. The influence of residual strain on the airframe aerodynamic characteristics of aircraft wasconsidered. The possibility of estimation of changes in deformation of airframe using data of leveling wasshown. The method of estimating the change of aerodynamic characteristics caused by the influence ofresidual strain airframe was proposed. Technique can be used in the operation and overhaul of aircraft withlarge operating time.Keywords: aerodynamic characteristics, residual strain construction asymmetric moments, thedistribution of circulation, the scheme of leveling, trigonometric series.

  16. AERODYNAMIC BEHAVIOR AIRCRAFT CAUSED BY RESIDUAL STRAIN WINGS

    OpenAIRE

    Ishchenko, Sergiy; Tofil, Arkadiush

    2011-01-01

    Abstract. The influence of residual strain on the airframe aerodynamic characteristics of aircraft wasconsidered. The possibility of estimation of changes in deformation of airframe using data of leveling wasshown. The method of estimating the change of aerodynamic characteristics caused by the influence ofresidual strain airframe was proposed. Technique can be used in the operation and overhaul of aircraft withlarge operating time.Keywords: aerodynamic characteristics, residual strain constr...

  17. [Labor law issues in hospitals by structural changes and changes in hospital ownership].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Peter

    2003-11-01

    The present article deals with the potential impact of structural changes and changes in hospital control or ownership on the employment contracts of the physicians concerned. While taking the applicable jurisdiction into consideration, the author examines the options of assigning new responsibilities or decreasing compensation opportunities, amending or even terminating employment contracts, outsourcing hospital-related services, or allowing physicians in the future to provide these services at their own risk. Furthermore, the article outlines the change in employer in various "change of control" scenarios such as in the case of hospital privatisation.

  18. The 1983 distribution of hospitals and hospital beds in the RSA by area, race, ownership and type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwarenstein, M F; Price, M R

    1990-05-05

    This study used published data to analyse the 1983 distribution of hospitals and hospital beds in South Africa by 'race', geographical area, type of hospital (academic, specialist, general or other) and the nature of ownership (e.g. state, for-profit). Hospitals and hospital beds were found to be inequitably distributed. Overall bed ratios were 150 whites per bed compared with 260 blacks/Asians/coloureds per bed. The distribution of beds by geographical area was 130 people per bed for urban whites, 260 for rural whites and 150, 460 and 300 for urban, rural non-'homeland', and 'homeland' blacks/Asians/coloureds respectively. These differentials are inefficient and unjust, and should be regularly documented to spur their decline. The continued collection of population group information from health service users is required to monitor changes in 'race' disparities. The analysis of distribution by ownership and type suggested that only the public sector is able to provide a hospital service with the appropriate balance of all levels of care for the entire population; but within this sector the dominant position of tertiary care needs to be re-examined. The study highlighted the absence of adequate information on health care resource allocation and utillisation. Appropriate studies in these areas are required and consideration should be given to unifying the planning and management of all hospital resources.

  19. Annoyance by aircraft noise and fear of overflying aircraft in relation to attitudes toward the environment and community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loeb, M.; Moran, S. V.

    1977-01-01

    It has been suggested that expressions of annoyance attributable to aircraft noise may reflect in part fear of aircraft overflights and possible crashes. If this is true, then residents of areas where crashes have occurred should express more annoyance. To test this hypothesis, 50 residents of an Albany, New York area where an aircraft crash producing fatalities recently occurred and 50 residents of a comparable nearby area without such a history, were asked to respond to a 'Quality of Life Questionnaire.' Among the items were some designed to test annoyance by noise and fear of aircraft overflights. It was predicted that those in the crash area would express more fear and would more often identify aircraft as a noise source. These hypotheses were sustained. A near-replication was carried out in Louisville, Kentucky; results were much the same. Analyses indicated that for the crash-area groups, there was associating of aircraft fear and noise annoyance responses; this was true to an apparently lesser extent for non-crash groups. The greater annoyance of crash groups by aircraft community noise apparently does not carry over to situations in which aircraft noise is assessed in the laboratory.

  20. Near-field commercial aircraft contribution to nitrogen oxides by engine, aircraft type, and airline by individual plume sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carslaw, David C; Ropkins, Karl; Laxen, Duncan; Moorcroft, Stephen; Marner, Ben; Williams, Martin L

    2008-03-15

    Nitrogen oxides (NOx) concentrations were measured in individual plumes from aircraft departing on the northern runway at Heathrow Airport in west London. Over a period of four weeks 5618 individual plumes were sampled by a chemiluminescence monitor located 180 m from the runway. Results were processed and matched with detailed aircraft movement and aircraft engine data using chromatographic techniques. Peak concentrations associated with 29 commonly used engines were calculated and found to have a good relationship with N0x emissions taken from the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) databank. However, it is found that engines with higher reported NOx emissions result in proportionately lower NOx concentrations than engines with lower emissions. We show that it is likely that aircraft operational factors such as takeoff weight and aircraftthrust setting have a measurable and important effect on concentrations of N0x. For example, NOx concentrations can differ by up to 41% for aircraft using the same airframe and engine type, while those due to the same engine type in different airframes can differ by 28%. These differences are as great as, if not greater than, the reported differences in NOx emissions between different engine manufacturers for engines used on the same airframe.

  1. Gun Control, Gun Ownership, and Suicide Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, David

    1988-01-01

    Explored relationship between the extent of gun ownership and the strictness of gun control laws to suicide and homicide rates in the nine major geographic regions of the United States. Found gun ownership, rather than the strictness of gun control laws, was the strongest correlate of the rates of suicide and homicide by guns. (Author)

  2. 7 CFR 1901.507 - Certificates of beneficial ownership issued by the FmHA or its successor agency under Public Law...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...HA or its successor agency under Public Law 103-354 Finance Office. 1901.507 Section 1901.507... Certificates of beneficial ownership issued by the FmHA or its successor agency under Public Law 103-354... its successor agency under Public Law 103-354, by a certified check or bank draft payable to...

  3. Competition, Ownership and Productivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baghdasaryan, Delia; la Cour, Lisbeth

    2013-01-01

    Theoretical results support two concurrent views regarding the mediating role that ownership structure might play on the effect of competition on firm performance. According to one stream of literature, competition has a high, positive impact in companies that have an effective ownership structur...

  4. 77 FR 14316 - Airworthiness Directives; Piper Aircraft, Inc. (Type Certificate Previously Held by The New Piper...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-09

    .... (Type Certificate Previously Held by The New Piper Aircraft Inc.) Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation... previously held by The New Piper Aircraft Inc.) Models PA-31T and PA- 31T1 airplanes. The existing AD... the Federal Register for certain Piper Aircraft, Inc. (type certificate previously held by The...

  5. Radiative forcing from particle emissions by future supersonic aircraft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Pitari

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available In this work we focus on the direct radiative forcing (RF of black carbon (BC and sulphuric acid particles emitted by future supersonic aircraft, as well as on the ozone RF due to changes produced by emissions of both gas species (NOx, H2O and aerosol particles capable of affecting stratospheric ozone chemistry. Heterogeneous chemical reactions on the surface of sulphuric acid stratospheric particles (SSA-SAD are the main link between ozone chemistry and supersonic aircraft emissions of sulphur precursors (SO2 and particles (H2O–H2SO4. Photochemical O3 changes are compared from four independent 3-D atmosphere-chemistry models (ACMs, using as input the perturbation of SSA-SAD calculated in the University of L'Aquila model, which includes on-line a microphysics code for aerosol formation and growth. The ACMs in this study use aircraft emission scenarios for the year 2050 developed by AIRBUS as a part of the EU project SCENIC, assessing options for fleet size, engine technology (NOx emission index, Mach number, range and cruising altitude. From our baseline modeling simulation, the impact of supersonic aircraft on sulphuric acid aerosol and BC mass burdens is 53 and 1.5 μg/m2, respectively, with a direct RF of −11.4 and 4.6 mW/m2 (net RF=−6.8 mW/m2. This paper discusses the similarities and differences amongst the participating models in terms of changes to O3 precursors due to aircraft emissions (NOx, HOx,Clx,Brx and the stratospheric ozone sensitivity to them. In the baseline case, the calculated global ozone change is −0.4 ±0.3 DU, with a net radiative forcing (IR+UV of −2.5± 2 mW/m2. The fraction of this O3-RF attributable to SSA-SAD changes is, however, highly variable among the models, depending on the NOx removal

  6. 77 FR 73461 - Commission Seeks Comment on Broadcast Ownership Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-10

    ... concerning ownership of commercial television, radio, Class A television, and low-power television stations... the Media Bureau's recently released report on the ownership of commercial broadcast stations, which provides detailed information by race, ethnicity, and gender concerning ownership of commercial...

  7. Analysis of Technology Ownership and Selective Use among Undergraduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamanduros, Terry; Jenkins, Stephen J.; Downs, Elizabeth

    2007-01-01

    Extent of technology ownership and use has been documented for teens and even pre-teens. However, little is known as to whether such ownership and use patterns change over time. This study examined these issues by surveying a sample of undergraduates as to their ownership and selective use of technology. Compared to teens, undergraduates had…

  8. 75 FR 82329 - Airworthiness Directives; Piper Aircraft, Inc. (Type Certificate Previously Held by The New Piper...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-30

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 39 RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Piper Aircraft, Inc. (Type Certificate Previously Held by The New Piper Aircraft, Inc.) Models PA-46-310P, PA- 46-350P, and... certain Piper Aircraft, Inc. Models PA-46-310P and PA-46-350P airplanes that are equipped with a Lewis...

  9. Corporate Ownership and Control in Victorian Britain

    OpenAIRE

    Acheson, Graeme G.; Campbell, Gareth; Turner, John D.; Vanteeva, Nadia

    2014-01-01

    Using ownership and control data for 890 firm‐years, this article examines the concentration of capital and voting rights in British companies in the second half of the nineteenth century. We find that both capital and voting rights were diffuse by modern‐day standards. However, this does not necessarily mean that there was a modern‐style separation of ownership from control in Victorian Britain. One major implication of our findings is that diffuse ownership was present in the UK much earlie...

  10. Ownership concentration, choice of auditors, and firm performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farooq, Omar; El Kacemi, Youssef

    2011-01-01

    How does ownership concentration effect firm performance in emerging markets? On one hand, concentrated ownership leads to higher agency problems, and on the other hand, it minimizes agency problems by removing the free-rider problem. Using a large dataset of ownership concentration from the MENA...... region during the period between 2004 and 2008, we document that ownership concentration, as itself, may not have a significant impact on firm performance. It is, rather, the way concentrated firms govern themselves that determine their performance. We argue that concentrated ownership firms, being aware...... of the agency problems embedded in their ownership structure, appoint one of big-four auditors as their external auditor to signal the market that they are disclosing reliable information. Our results also show a significantly positive relationship between ownership concentration and the choice of auditor. We...

  11. Parcels and Land Ownership, aolsa UTM27-The dataset represents the original data from BLM ownership maps with selected revisions performed by SITLA and SLFO. SLFO revisions reflect BLM ownership only and are based on master title plat maps and verified by the SLFO realty specialist., Published in 2007, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Tooele County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset, published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2007. It is described as...

  12. Open Rotor Noise Shielding by Blended-Wing-Body Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yueping; Czech, Michael J.; Thomas, Russell H.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of open rotor noise shielding by Blended Wing Body (BWB) aircraft by using model scale test data acquired in the Boeing Low Speed Aeroacoustic Facility (LSAF) with a legacy F7/A7 rotor model and a simplified BWB platform. The objective of the analysis is the understanding of the shielding features of the BWB and the method of application of the shielding data for noise studies of BWB aircraft with open rotor propulsion. By studying the directivity patterns of individual tones, it is shown that though the tonal energy distribution and the spectral content of the wind tunnel test model, and thus its total noise, may differ from those of more advanced rotor designs, the individual tones follow directivity patterns that characterize far field radiations of modern open rotors, ensuring the validity of the use of this shielding data. Thus, open rotor tonal noise shielding should be categorized into front rotor tones, aft rotor tones and interaction tones, not only because of the different directivities of the three groups of tones, but also due to the differences in their source locations and coherence features, which make the respective shielding characteristics of the three groups of tones distinctly different from each other. To reveal the parametric trends of the BWB shielding effects, results are presented with variations in frequency, far field emission angle, rotor operational condition, engine installation geometry, and local airframe features. These results prepare the way for the development of parametric models for the shielding effects in prediction tools.

  13. Mental activity and the sense of ownership

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alsmith, Adrian John Tetteh

    2015-01-01

    I introduce and defend the notion of a cognitive account of the sense of ownership. A cognitive account of the sense of ownership holds that one experiences something as one's own only if one thinks of something as one's own. By contrast, a phenomenal account of the sense of ownership holds...... that one can experience something as one's own without thinking about anything as one's own. I argue that we have no reason to favour phenomenal accounts over cognitive accounts, that cognitive accounts are plausible given that much of our mental activity has unnoticed effects on our mental life......, and that certain illusory experiences of body ownership sometimes described as thought-independent may be best explained as imaginative perceptual experiences....

  14. Bank Ownership and Credit over the Business Cycle : Is Lending by State Banks Less Procyclical?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bertay, A.C.; Demirgüc-Kunt, A.; Huizinga, H.P.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract: This paper finds that lending by state banks is less procyclical than lending by private banks, especially in countries with good governance. Lending by state banks in high income countries is even countercyclical. On the liability side, state banks expand potentially unstable non-deposit

  15. Bank ownership and credit over the business cycle : Is lending by state banks less procyclical?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bertay, A.C.; Demirguc-Kunt, Asli; Huizinga, Harry

    2015-01-01

    This paper finds that lending by state banks is less procyclical than lending by private banks, especially in countries with good governance. Lending by state banks in high income countries is even countercyclical. On the liability side, state banks expand their total liabilities and, in particular,

  16. Essays on Employee Ownership

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faigen, Benjamin

    and age are found to influence ownership status. Furthermore, some support is found for financial motives outweighing non-financial motives behind share purchases in minority employee-owned firms relative to majority employee-owned firms. Internal barriers to ownership, together with a lack of funds....... This work sets the stage for a focus on this form of ownership at the individual level of analysis, involving both conceptual and empirical explorations. Together, this constitutes three papers, put together with introductory and concluding chapters. The first thesis paper identifies the drivers of...... surrounding share acquisition, are less common at this level of analysis and this is the where the paper contributes to the literature. In order to conduct the empirical analysis, original material is gathered from six case study firms, the details of which are presented within the paper. Income, tenure...

  17. 48 CFR 52.227-11 - Patent Rights-Ownership by the Contractor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... invention is being utilized and that its benefits are, to the extent permitted by law or Government... subject invention. The disclosure shall also identify any publication, on sale (i.e., sale or offer for... the acceptance of any manuscript describing the subject invention for publication and any on sale...

  18. From Social to Private Ownership

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gregoric, Aleksandra; Masten, Arjana Brezigar; Zajc, Katarina

    2011-01-01

    This paper studies the ownership structures of unlisted privatized firms in Slovenia. On the basis of official ownership records for all nonfinancial firms over a six-year period (1999-2004), we explore the factors responsible for the concentration of ownership and for the dissolution of the mult...

  19. Total Cost of Ownership

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zachariassen, Frederik

    2007-01-01

    Total Cost of Ownership (TCO), som giver et bud på, hvordan virksomheder kan opnå en bedre indsigt i, hvilke leverandører der forårsager hvilke omkostninger og dermed danne et forbedret beslutningsgrundlag for besparelser i leverandørleddet. I artiklen argumenteres først og fremmest for, hvorfor TCO er...

  20. MIPAS Ozone Validation by Stratospheric Balloon and Aircraft Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortesi, U.; Blom, C. E.; Camy-Peyret, C.; Chance, K.; Davies, J.; Goutail, F.; Kuttippurath, J.; McElroy, C. T.; Mencaraglia, F.; Oelhaf, H.; Petritoli, A.; Pirre, M.; Pommereau, J. P.; Ravegnani, F.; Renard, J. B.; Strong, K.

    2004-08-01

    A number of in situ and remote sensing techniques for the measurement of upper tropospheric and stratospheric O3 content was employed during dedicated experiments of the ESABC programme, aiming at the validation of the ENVISAT chemistry payload. In this paper, we will be focusing on the validation of MIPAS off-line products, by presenting the results of the intercomparison between MIPAS O3 vertical profiles and aircraft and balloon correlative measurements. First priority is given to the validation of processor v4.61 data, but individual results of 2002 and 2003 balloon observations are also compared with MIPAS O3 non operational data. Some general remarks are finally expressed, along with specific recommendation to fully exploit the available ESABC validation dataset

  1. Linguistic analysis of project ownership for undergraduate research experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanauer, D I; Frederick, J; Fotinakes, B; Strobel, S A

    2012-01-01

    We used computational linguistic and content analyses to explore the concept of project ownership for undergraduate research. We used linguistic analysis of student interview data to develop a quantitative methodology for assessing project ownership and applied this method to measure degrees of project ownership expressed by students in relation to different types of educational research experiences. The results of the study suggest that the design of a research experience significantly influences the degree of project ownership expressed by students when they describe those experiences. The analysis identified both positive and negative aspects of project ownership and provided a working definition for how a student experiences his or her research opportunity. These elements suggest several features that could be incorporated into an undergraduate research experience to foster a student's sense of project ownership.

  2. 26 CFR 48.4041-14 - Exemption for sale to or use by certain aircraft museums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... museums. 48.4041-14 Section 48.4041-14 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE....4041-14 Exemption for sale to or use by certain aircraft museums. (a) In general. (1) The tax imposed by section 4041 does not apply to liquids which are sold for use or used by an aircraft museum in...

  3. 19 CFR 122.28 - Private aircraft taken abroad by U.S. residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Private aircraft taken abroad by U.S. residents. 122.28 Section 122.28 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Private Aircraft § 122.28 Private...

  4. 76 FR 18033 - Airworthiness Directives; Piper Aircraft, Inc. (Type Certificate Previously Held by The New Piper...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    ...-060-AD; Amendment 39-16635; AD 2011-06-10] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Piper Aircraft, Inc. (Type Certificate Previously Held by The New Piper Aircraft, Inc.) Models PA-46-310P, PA- 46-350P, and...: We are superseding an existing airworthiness directive (AD) that applies to certain Piper...

  5. The role of cross-listing, foreign ownership and state ownership in dividend policy in an emerging market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin C.K. Lam

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we investigate if dividend policy is influenced by ownership type. Within the dividend literature, dividends have a signaling role regarding agency costs, such that dividends may diminish insider conflicts (reduce free cash flow or may be used to extract cash from firms (tunneling effect – which could be predominant in emerging markets. We expect firms with foreign ownership and those that are listed in overseas markets to have different dividend policies and practices than those that are not, and firms with more state ownership and less individual ownership to be more likely to pay cash dividends and less likely to pay stock dividends. Using firms from an emerging economy (China, we examine whether these effects exist in corporate dividend policy and practice. We find that both foreign ownership and cross-listing have significant negative effects on cash dividends, consistent with the signaling effect and the notion of reduced tunneling activities for firms with the ability to raise capital from outside of China. Consistent with the tunneling effect, we find that firms with higher state ownership tend to pay higher cash dividends and lower stock dividends, while the opposite is true for public (individual ownership. Further analysis shows that foreign ownership mediates the effect of state ownership on dividend policy. Our results have significant implications for researchers, investors, policy makers and regulators in emerging markets.

  6. The role of cross-listing, foreign ownership and state ownership in dividend policy in an emerging market

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kevin C.K.Lam; Heibatollah Sami; Haiyan Zhou

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate if dividend policy is influenced by ownership type.Within the dividend literature, dividends have a signaling role regarding agency costs, such that dividends may diminish insider conflicts(reduce free cash flow) or may be used to extract cash from firms(tunneling effect)- which could be predominant in emerging markets. We expect firms with foreign ownership and those that are listed in overseas markets to have different dividend policies and practices than those that are not, and firms with more state ownership and less individual ownership to be more likely to pay cash dividends and less likely to pay stock dividends. Using firms from an emerging economy(China), we examine whether these effects exist in corporate dividend policy and practice. We find that both foreign ownership and cross-listing have significant negative effects on cash dividends, consistent with the signaling effect and the notion of reduced tunneling activities for firms with the ability to raise capital from outside of China. Consistent with the tunneling effect, we find that firms with higher state ownership tend to pay higher cash dividends and lower stock dividends, while the opposite is true for public(individual) ownership.Further analysis shows that foreign ownership mediates the effect of state ownership on dividend policy. Our results have significant implications for researchers, investors, policy makers and regulators in emerging markets.

  7. Voluntary self-touch increases body ownership

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masayuki eHara

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Experimental manipulations of body ownership have indicated that multisensory integration is central to forming bodily self-representation. Voluntary self-touch is a unique multisensory situation involving corresponding motor, tactile and proprioceptive signals. Yet, even though self-touch is frequent in everyday life, its contribution to the formation of body ownership is not well understood. Here we investigated the role of voluntary self-touch in body ownership using a novel adaptation of the rubber hand illusion (RHI, in which a robotic system and virtual reality allowed participants self-touch of real and virtual hands. In the first experiment, active and passive self-touch were applied in the absence of visual feedback. In the second experiment, we tested the role of visual feedback in this bodily illusion. Finally, in the third experiment, we compared active and passive self-touch to the classical RHI in which the touch is administered by the experimenter. We hypothesized that active self-touch would increase ownership over the virtual hand through the addition of motor signals strengthening the bodily illusion. The results indicated that active self-touch elicited stronger illusory ownership compared to passive self-touch and sensory only stimulation, and indicate an important role of active self-touch in the formation of bodily self.

  8. Inducing illusory ownership of a virtual body

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mel Slater

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available We discuss three experiments that investigate how virtual limbs and bodies can come to feel like real limbs and bodies. The first experiment shows that an illusion of ownership of a virtual arm appearing to project out of a person’s shoulder can be produced by tactile stimulation on a person’s hidden real hand and synchronous stimulation on the seen virtual hand. The second shows that the illusion can be produced by synchronous movement of the person’s hidden real hand and a virtual hand. The third shows that a weaker form of the illusion can be produced when a brain-computer interface is employed to move the virtual hand by means of motor imagery without any tactile stimulation. We discuss related studies that indicate that the ownership illusion may be generated for an entire body. This has important implications for the scientific understanding of body ownership and several practical applications.

  9. "Is This Okay?" Developing Student Ownership in Artmaking through Feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, Sok Hui

    2015-01-01

    When used effectively, feedback promotes student ownership in artmaking by encouraging students to inject originality, persist, and improve. Feedback from teacher, self, and peers can also provide students with motivation. In this article, the author explores her students' understanding of the idea of ownership, observes how feedback…

  10. "You Fail": Plagiarism, the Ownership of Writing, and Transnational Conflicts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyon, Arabella

    2009-01-01

    Responding to cultural concerns about the ownership of writing and the nature of plagiarism, this article examines discourses about plagiarism by ESL students and argues for a plurality of approaches to understanding the ownership of language and textual appropriation. First, it uses speech act theory to explain the dynamics of plagiarism; second,…

  11. Measurement of Phase Difference for Micromachined Gyros Driven by Rotating Aircraft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Zhang

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an approach for realizing a phase difference measurement of a new gyro. A silicon micromachined gyro was mounted on rotating aircraft for aircraft attitude control. Aircraft spin drives the silicon pendulum of a gyro rotating at a high speed so that it can sense the transverse angular velocity of the rotating aircraft based on the gyroscopic precession principle when the aircraft has transverse rotation. In applications of the rotating aircraft single channel control system, such as damping in the attitude stabilization loop, the gyro signal must be kept in sync with the control signal. Therefore, the phase difference between both signals needs to be measured accurately. Considering that phase difference is mainly produced by both the micromachined part and the signal conditioning circuit, a mathematical model has been established and analyzed to determine the gyro’s phase frequency characteristics. On the basis of theoretical analysis, a dynamic simulation has been done for a case where the spin frequency is 15 Hz. Experimental results with the proposed measurement method applied to a silicon micromachined gyro driven by a rotating aircraft demonstrate that it is effective in practical applications. Measured curve and numerical analysis of phase frequency characteristic are in accordance, and the error between measurement and simulation is only 5.3%.

  12. 19 CFR 10.183 - Duty-free entry of civil aircraft, aircraft engines, ground flight simulators, parts, components...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Duty-free entry of civil aircraft, aircraft engines, ground flight simulators, parts, components, and... aircraft, aircraft engines, and ground flight simulators, including their parts, components, and... United States (HTSUS) by meeting the following requirements: (1) The aircraft, aircraft engines,...

  13. Emission of ions and charged soot particles by aircraft engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Sorokin

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available In this article, a model which examines the formation and evolution of chemiions in an aircraft engine is proposed. This model which includes chemiionisation, electron thermo-emission, electron attachment to soot particles and to neutral molecules, electron-ion and ion-ion recombination, ion-soot interaction, allows the determination of the ion concentration at the exit of the combustor and at the nozzle exit of the engine. It also allows the determination of the charge of the soot particles. A comparison of the model results with the available ground-based experimental data obtained on the ATTAS research aircraft engines during the SULFUR experiments (Schumann, 2002 shows an excellent agreement.

  14. Interference Cancellation in Aircraft Cockpit by Adaptive Filters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arun C.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates on the development and implementation of adaptive noise cancellation (ANC algorithm meant for mitigating the high level engine noise in the cockpit of an aircraft, which makes the speech signal unintelligible. Adaptive filters configured as interference canceller have the potential application in mitigating the above interference. A comparative study of Gradient based adaptive Infinite Impulse Response (IIR algorithm and its modified version is performed using MATLAB simulator in terms of converging speed. From the simulation result the best IIR algorithm is used for implementation in Performance Optimized with Enhanced RISC PC (Power PC 7448.

  15. Family-Concentrated Ownership in Chinese PLCs: Does Ownership Concentration Always Enhance Corporate Value?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Hui Luo

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we investigate the relationship between family ownership structure and corporate value across a sample of 1314 firm-year observations of China’s family publicly listed companies (PLCs, from 2004 to 2008. We find a significant inverse-U-shaped relationship between the controlling family’s ultimate cash-flow rights and corporate value; as measured by Tobin’s Q. That is, as family-ownership concentration increases, corporate value first increases and then decreases. This finding refreshes our understanding of the relationship between family-ownership concentration and corporate value in emerging economies such as found in China. We corroborate prior findings that when controlling families hold excess control over cash-flow rights, corporate value is significantly lowered, while multiple large shareholders structure is significantly associated with higher corporate value. In addition; board independence is found to significantly improve corporate value in the context of family-concentrated ownership. We also test for potential endogeneity between family ownership and corporate value and find our results to be robust.

  16. Ownership of Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, John W.

    2000-02-01

    As teachers of chemistry, we deal with information, knowledge, and, if we are fortunate, even wisdom. An important part of what we do involves giving students access to information and devising better ways to help them assimilate it. Beyond that, we can help them gain knowledge and understanding. Ultimately we hope that the knowledge they gain will help them to make wise choices about their own and society's collective futures. We often view ourselves as altruistic providers of information, but of course our students do pay tuition fees and thereby at least part of our salaries. In that sense we can think of ourselves as involved in an information industry. We provide what has come to be called intellectual property in return for a salary from a school, college, or university that in turn has collected fees from those who value that intellectual property. Those of us who write books or create multimedia materials are even more closely allied with the information industry. Computers and the Internet have produced a quantum jump in the ease of dissemination, reception, and reproduction of large quantities of information. That has stimulated reexamination of conventional thinking about intellectual property, making copyrights, patents, and trademarks a red-hot area for lawyers. Insofar as we teachers are disseminators of intellectual property, we are going to be affected by the changes that will certainly happen in the laws, customs, and ethics that apply to ownership of information and of the means by which it is exchanged among members of our society. In other words, we need to pay attention to the current ferment regarding intellectual property, doing our best to ensure that the decisions made do not prevent us from teaching in the best ways we know. Available options, all of which have vocal proponents, range from complete freedom of copying and disseminating information through a level of control in which essentially every bit or byte delivered carries with it a

  17. Emission of ions and charged soot particles by aircraft engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Sorokin

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article, a model which examines the formation and evolution of chemiions in an aircraft engine is proposed. This model which includes chemiionisation, electron thermo-emission, electron attachment to soot particles and to neutral molecules, electron-ion and ion-ion recombination, ion-soot interaction, allows the determination of the ion concentration at the exit of the combustor and at the nozzle exit of the engine. It also allows the determination of the charge of the soot particles. For the engine considered, the upper limit for the ion emission index EIi is of the order of (2-5 x1016 ions/kg-fuel if ion-soot interactions are ignored and the introduction of ion-soot interactions lead about to a 50% reduction. The results also show that most of the soot particles are either positively or negatively charged, the remaining neutral particles representing approximately 20% of the total particles. A comparison of the model results with the available ground-based experimental data obtained on the ATTAS research aircraft engines during the SULFUR experiments (Schumann, 2002 shows an excellent agreement.

  18. Ownership by Science China Press; Copyright2010 by Science China Press, Beijing, China and Springer-Verlag Heidelberg, Germany

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Submission of a manuscript implies: that the work described has not been published before (except in the form of an abstract or as part of a published lecture, review, or thesis); that it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere; that its publication has been approved by all

  19. Land market in Albania: Unresolved property ownership rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oltiana Muharremi

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available After the Independence of Albania in 1912, property ownership has gone through major reforms. During communism many agricultural lands were seized by the Agrarian Reform Law. In 1990, with the fall of communism there was a huge demographic movement of people from villages to urban areas, where they settled in lands that were used by the Cooperatives. This created a lot of problems with previous land owners whose land was seized and given to the Cooperativa. Today there is a problem with the rights to property ownership, and legal certificates of ownership.

  20. Self-Ownership, World-Ownership, and Initial Acquisition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tristan Rogers

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available G.A. Cohen was perhaps libertarianism’s most formidable critic. In Self-Ownership, Freedom, and Equality he levels several strong criticisms against Robert Nozick’s theory put forth in Anarchy, State, and Utopia. In this paper, I counter several of Cohen’s criticisms. The debate operates at three stages: (1 self-ownership, (2 world-ownership, and (3 initial acquisition. At the first stage, Cohen does not attempt to refute self-ownership, but weaken its force in providing moral grounds for capitalism. Here I argue that Cohen’s attempt to overturn Nozick’s slavery argument is unsuccessful because partial-slavery, while normatively different from full-slavery, is still normatively wrong. At the second stage, Cohen argues for a joint-ownership view of the world’s resources. In particular, he claims that self-ownership is rendered merely formal in a jointly-owned world and in a capitalist world. To rebut this challenge I show that even if Cohen is right about this, libertarian self-ownership is only formal in Cohen’s peculiar case where only two people exist and one owns everything. In contrast, self-ownership in a jointly-owned world is formal in all cases. Lastly, at the third stage, Cohen argues against Nozick’s interpretation of the Lockean proviso, claiming that it is impossible to satisfy. Granting Cohen’s argument here, I go on to defend Jan Narveson’s no-proviso view of acquisition from Cohen’s thus far unanswered criticism. I show that significantly, in his critique, Cohen equivocates between positive and negative rights. Taken jointly, my responses at these three stages ground the anti-egalitarian conclusion that, in Cohen’s words, ‘[e]xtensive inequality of condition is unavoidable, or avoidable only on pain of violating people’s rights to themselves and to things.’ The sequence, then, is from self-ownership, to world-ownership, via initial acquisition.

  1. Surface roughness measurement on a wing aircraft by speckle correlation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar, Félix; Barrientos, Alberto

    2013-09-05

    The study of the damage of aeronautical materials is important because it may change the microscopic surface structure profiles. The modification of geometrical surface properties can cause small instabilities and then a displacement of the boundary layer. One of the irregularities we can often find is surface roughness. Due to an increase of roughness and other effects, there may be extra momentum losses in the boundary layer and a modification in the parasite drag. In this paper we present a speckle method for measuring the surface roughness on an actual unmanned aircraft wing. The results show an inhomogeneous roughness distribution on the wing, as expected according to the anisotropic influence of the winds over the entire wing geometry. A calculation of the uncertainty of the technique is given.

  2. Flow rate and trajectory of water spray produced by an aircraft tire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daugherty, Robert H.; Stubbs, Sandy M.

    1986-01-01

    One of the risks associated with wet runway aircraft operation is the ingestion of water spray produced by an aircraft's tires into its engines. This problem can be especially dangerous at or near rotation speed on the takeoff roll. An experimental investigation was conducted in the NASA Langley Research Center Hydrodynamics Research Facility to measure the flow rate and trajectory of water spray produced by an aircraft nose tire operating on a flooded runway. The effects of various parameters on the spray patterns including distance aft of nosewheel, speed, load, and water depth were evaluated. Variations in the spray pattern caused by the airflow about primary structure such as the fuselage and wing are discussed. A discussion of events in and near the tire footprint concerning spray generation is included.

  3. Global contrail coverage simulated by CAM5 with the inventory of 2006 global aircraft emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheryl Craig

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper documents the incorporation of an inventory of the AEDT (Aviation Environmental Design Tool global commercial aircraft emissions for the year of 2006 into the National Center for Atmospheric Research Community Earth System Model (CESM version 1. The original dataset reports aircraft emission mass of ten specieson an hourly basis which is converted to monthly emission mixing ratio tendencies as the released version of the dataset. We also describe how the released aircraft emission dataset is incorporated into CESM.A contrail parameterization is implemented in the CESM in which it isassumed that persistent contrails initially form when aircraft water vapor emissions experience a favorable atmospheric environment. Both aircraft emissions and ambient humidity are attributed to the formation of contrails. The ice water content of contrails is assumed to follow an empirical function of atmospheric temperature which determines the cloud fraction associated with contrails.Our modeling study indicates that the simulated global contrail coverage is sensitive to the vertical resolution of the GCMsin the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere because of modelassumptions about the vertical overlap structure of clouds.Futhermore, the extent of global contrail coverage simulated by CESM exhibits a seasonal cycle which is in broad agreement with observations.

  4. Qualitative Research of AZ31 Magnesium Alloy Aircraft Brackets Produced by a New Forging Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dziubińska A.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper reports a selection of numerical and experimental results of a new closed-die forging method for producing AZ31 magnesium alloy aircraft brackets with one rib. The numerical modelling of the new forming process was performed by the finite element method.The distributions of stresses, strains, temperature and forces were examined. The numerical results confirmed that the forgings produced by the new forming method are correct. For this reason, the new forming process was verified experimentally. The experimental results showed good agreement with the numerical results. The produced forgings of AZ31 magnesium alloy aircraft brackets with one rib were then subjected to qualitative tests.

  5. Propulsion controlled aircraft computer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cogan, Bruce R. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A low-cost, easily retrofit Propulsion Controlled Aircraft (PCA) system for use on a wide range of commercial and military aircraft consists of an propulsion controlled aircraft computer that reads in aircraft data including aircraft state, pilot commands and other related data, calculates aircraft throttle position for a given maneuver commanded by the pilot, and then displays both current and calculated throttle position on a cockpit display to show the pilot where to move throttles to achieve the commanded maneuver, or is automatically sent digitally to command the engines directly.

  6. Dust emissions created by low-level rotary-winged aircraft flight over desert surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillies, J. A.; Etyemezian, V.; Kuhns, H.; McAlpine, J. D.; King, J.; Uppapalli, S.; Nikolich, G.; Engelbrecht, J.

    2010-03-01

    There is a dearth of information on dust emissions from sources that are unique to U.S. Department of Defense testing and training activities. Dust emissions of PM 10 and PM 2.5 from low-level rotary-winged aircraft travelling (rotor-blade ≈7 m above ground level) over two types of desert surfaces (i.e., relatively undisturbed desert pavement and disturbed desert soil surface) were characterized at the Yuma Proving Ground (Yuma, AZ) in May 2007. Fugitive emissions are created by the shear stress of the outflow of high speed air created by the rotor-blade. The strength of the emissions was observed to scale primarily as a function of forward travel speed of the aircraft. Speed affects dust emissions in two ways: 1) as speed increases, peak shear stress at the soil surface was observed to decline proportionally, and 2) as the helicopter's forward speed increases its residence time over any location on the surface diminishes, so the time the downward rotor-generated flow is acting upon that surface must also decrease. The state of the surface over which the travel occurs also affects the scale of the emissions. The disturbed desert test surface produced approximately an order of magnitude greater emission than the undisturbed surface. Based on the measured emission rates for the test aircraft and the established scaling relationships, a rotary-winged aircraft similar to the test aircraft traveling 30 km h -1 over the disturbed surface would need to travel 4 km to produce emissions equivalent to one kilometer of travel by a light wheeled military vehicle also traveling at 30 km h -1 on an unpaved road. As rotary-winged aircraft activity is substantially less than that of off-road vehicle military testing and training activities it is likely that this source is small compared to emissions created by ground-based vehicle movements.

  7. Aircraft-on-ground path following control by dynamical adaptive backstepping

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Bihua; Jiao Zongxia; Shuzhi Sam Ge

    2013-01-01

    The necessity of improving the air traffic and reducing the aviation emissions drives to investigate automatic steering for aircraft to effectively roll on the ground.This paper addresses the path following control problem of aircraft-on-ground and focuses on the task that the aircraft is required to follow the desired path on the runway by nose wheel automatic steering.The proposed approach is based on dynamical adaptive backstepping so that the system model does not have to be transformed into a canonical triangular form which is necessary in conventional backstepping design.This adaptive controller performs well despite the lack of information on the aerodynamic load and the tire cornering stiffness parameters.Simulation results clearly demonstrate the advantages and effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  8. How vestibular stimulation interacts with illusory hand ownership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Christophe; Lenggenhager, Bigna; Blanke, Olaf

    2010-03-01

    Artificial stimulation of the peripheral vestibular system has been shown to improve ownership of body parts in neurological patients, suggesting vestibular contributions to bodily self-consciousness. Here, we investigated whether galvanic vestibular stimulation (GVS) interferes with the mechanisms underlying ownership, touch, and the localization of one's own hand in healthy participants by using the "rubber hand illusion" paradigm. Our results show that left anodal GVS increases illusory ownership of the fake hand and illusory location of touch. We propose that these changes are due to vestibular interference with spatial and/or temporal mechanisms of visual-tactile integration leading to an enhancement of visual capture. As only left anodal GVS lead to such changes, and based on neurological data on body part ownership, we suggest that this vestibular interference is mediated by the right temporo-parietal junction and the posterior insula.

  9. Foreign Ownership and Long-term Survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kronborg, Dorte; Thomsen, Steen

    2006-01-01

    Does foreign ownership enhance or decrease a firm's chances of survival? Over the 100 year period 1895-2001 this paper compares the survival of foreign subsidiaries in Denmark to a control sample matched by industry and firm size. We find that foreign-owned companies have higher survival probabil......Does foreign ownership enhance or decrease a firm's chances of survival? Over the 100 year period 1895-2001 this paper compares the survival of foreign subsidiaries in Denmark to a control sample matched by industry and firm size. We find that foreign-owned companies have higher survival...... probability. On average exit risk for domestic companies is 2.3 times higher than for foreign companies. First movers like Siemens, Philips, Kodak, Ford, GM or Goodyear have been active in the country for almost a century. Relative foreign survival increases with company age. However, the foreign survival...

  10. Thermodynamic correction of particle concentrations measured by underwing probes on fast-flying aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weigel, Ralf; Spichtinger, Peter; Mahnke, Christoph; Klingebiel, Marcus; Afchine, Armin; Petzold, Andreas; Krämer, Martina; Costa, Anja; Molleker, Sergej; Reutter, Philipp; Szakáll, Miklós; Port, Max; Grulich, Lucas; Jurkat, Tina; Minikin, Andreas; Borrmann, Stephan

    2016-10-01

    Particle concentration measurements with underwing probes on aircraft are impacted by air compression upstream of the instrument body as a function of flight velocity. In particular, for fast-flying aircraft the necessity arises to account for compression of the air sample volume. Hence, a correction procedure is needed to invert measured particle number concentrations to ambient conditions that is commonly applicable to different instruments to gain comparable results. In the compression region where the detection of particles occurs (i.e. under factual measurement conditions), pressure and temperature of the air sample are increased compared to ambient (undisturbed) conditions in certain distance away from the aircraft. Conventional procedures for scaling the measured number densities to ambient conditions presume that the air volume probed per time interval is determined by the aircraft speed (true air speed, TAS). However, particle imaging instruments equipped with pitot tubes measuring the probe air speed (PAS) of each underwing probe reveal PAS values systematically below those of the TAS. We conclude that the deviation between PAS and TAS is mainly caused by the compression of the probed air sample. From measurements during two missions in 2014 with the German Gulfstream G-550 (HALO - High Altitude LOng range) research aircraft we develop a procedure to correct the measured particle concentration to ambient conditions using a thermodynamic approach. With the provided equation, the corresponding concentration correction factor ξ is applicable to the high-frequency measurements of the underwing probes, each of which is equipped with its own air speed sensor (e.g. a pitot tube). ξ values of 1 to 0.85 are calculated for air speeds (i.e. TAS) between 60 and 250 m s-1. For different instruments at individual wing position the calculated ξ values exhibit strong consistency, which allows for a parameterisation of ξ as a function of TAS for the current HALO

  11. 14 CFR 91.1041 - Aircraft proving and validation tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Aircraft proving and validation tests. 91... Ownership Operations Program Management § 91.1041 Aircraft proving and validation tests. (a) No program... tests. However, pilot flight training may be conducted during the proving tests. (d) Validation...

  12. 31 CFR 515.548 - Services rendered by Cuba to United States aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Services rendered by Cuba to United... REGULATIONS Licenses, Authorizations, and Statements of Licensing Policy § 515.548 Services rendered by Cuba to United States aircraft. Specific licenses are issued for payment to Cuba of charges for...

  13. How vestibular stimulation interacts with illusory hand ownership

    OpenAIRE

    Lopez, Christophe; Lenggenhager, Bigna; Blanke, Olaf

    2010-01-01

    Artificial stimulation of the peripheral vestibular system has been shown to improve ownership of body parts in neurological patients, suggesting vestibular contributions to bodily self-consciousness. Here, we investigated whether galvanic vestibular stimulation (GVS) interferes with the mechanisms underlying ownership, touch, and the localization of one's own hand in healthy participants by using the "rubber hand illusion" paradigm. Our results show that left anodal GVS increases illusory ow...

  14. Gun utopias? Firearm access and ownership in Israel and Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbaum, Janet E

    2012-02-01

    The 2011 attempted assassination of a US representative renewed the national gun control debate. Gun advocates claim mass-casualty events are mitigated and deterred with three policies: (a) permissive gun laws, (b) widespread gun ownership, (c) and encouragement of armed civilians who can intercept shooters. They cite Switzerland and Israel as exemplars. We evaluate these claims with analysis of International Crime Victimization Survey (ICVS) data and translation of laws and original source material. Swiss and Israeli laws limit firearm ownership and require permit renewal one to four times annually. ICVS analysis finds the United States has more firearms per capita and per household than either country. Switzerland and Israel curtail off-duty soldiers' firearm access to prevent firearm deaths. Suicide among soldiers decreased by 40 per cent after the Israeli army's 2006 reforms. Compared with the United States, Switzerland and Israel have lower gun ownership and stricter gun laws, and their policies discourage personal gun ownership.

  15. Bodily ownership and self-location

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Serino, Andrea; Alsmith, Adrian John Tetteh; Costantini, Marcello;

    2013-01-01

    Recent research on bodily self-consciousness has assumed that it consists of three distinct components: the experience of owning a body (body ownership); the experience of being a body with a given location within the environment (self-location); and the experience of taking a first-person, body...... conclude by providing a preliminary synthesis of the data on bodily self-consciousness and its neural correlates.......-centered, perspective on that environment (perspective). Here we review recent neuroimaging studies suggesting that at least two of these components—body ownership and self-location—are implemented in rather distinct neural substrates, located, respectively, in the premotor cortex and in the temporo-parietal junction...

  16. PM EMISSIONS PRODUCED BY AIRCRAFT UNDER THE OPERATIONS AT THE AIRPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleksandr Zaporozhets

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The effects of aircraft engine emissions within the planetary boundary layer under the landing/ take-off operations contribute sufficiently to deterioration of air pollution in the vicinity of the airports and nearby residential areas. Currently the primary object of airport air quality are the nitrogen oxides and particle matter (PM10, PM2.5 and ultrafine PM emissions from aircraft engine exhausts as initiators of photochemical smog and regional haze, which may further impact on human health. Analysis of PM emission inventory results at major European airports highlighted on sufficiently high contribution of aircraft engines and APU. The paper aims to summarize the knowledge on particle size distributions, particle effective density, morphology and internal structure of aircraft PM, these properties are critical for understanding of the fate and potential health impact of PM. It also aims to describe the basic methods for calculation of emission and dispersion of PM, produced by aircrafts under the LTO operations. Methods: analytical solution of the atmospheric diffusion equation is used to calculate the maximum PM concentration from point emission source. The PM concentration varies inversely proportional to the wind velocity u1 and directly proportional to the vertical component of the turbulent exchange coefficient k1/u1. The evaluation of non-volatile PM concentration includes the size and shape of PM. PolEmiCa calculates the distributions of PM fractions for aircraft and APU exhausts (height of installation was given H=4,5m like for Tupolev-154. Results: The maximum concentration of PM in exhaust from APU is higher and appropriate distance is less than in case for gas. PM polydispersity leads to the separation of maximums concentration in space for individual fractions on the wind direction and therefore it contributes to the reduction of maximum total concentration. Discussion:But although the APU has contributed significantly to

  17. Active aeroelastic control aspects of an aircraft wing by using synthetic jet actuators: modeling, simulations, experiments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donnell, K.O.; Schober, S.; Stolk, M.; Marzocca, P.; De Breuker, R.; Abdalla M.; Nicolini, E.; Gürdal, Z.

    2007-01-01

    This paper discusses modeling, simulations and experimental aspects of active aeroelastic control on aircraft wings by using Synthetic Jet Actuators (SJAs). SJAs, a particular class of zero-net mass-flux actuators, have shown very promising results in numerous aeronautical applications, such as boun

  18. OWNERSHIP AND CAPITAL STRUCTURE OF PAKISTANI NON-FINANCIAL FIRMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khan Shoaib

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Existi ng literature has not yet defi ned a clear-cut relati onship between ownership structure and capital structure. This study aims to contribute to this controversial argument by examining the impact of internal (managerial ownership and external ownership on fi nancing preferences using the case of non-fi nancial fi rms listed on Karachi stock exchange during the period of 2008-2012. Our results suggest that the external ownership has a signifi cant eff ect on capital structure in accordance with the presence of blockholders. In contrast, the internal ownership has a complicated eff ect; it shows signifi cant positi ve and negati ve relati onship to leverage at lower and certain higher proporti on of managerial shareholding respecti vely. Besides, the combined analyses suggest that the presence of blockholders negates the impact of managerial ownership on capital structure. This implies that the presence of large and dominant shareholders in Pakistani fi rms may have caused a bias for debt fi nancing to protect their voti ng power and returns.

  19. US Forest Service Surface Ownership Parcels (Generalized)

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — A map service on the www depicting areas as surface ownership parcels dissolved on the same ownership classification. This map service was prepared to describe...

  20. US Forest Service Surface Ownership Parcels

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — A map service on the www depicting areas as surface ownership parcels dissolved on the same ownership classification. This map service was prepared to describe...

  1. US Forest Service Surface Ownership Parcels, detailed

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — A map service on the www depicting ownership parcels of the surface estate. Each surface ownership parcel is tied to a particular legal transaction. The same...

  2. Racial Inequalities in Home Ownership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackman, Mary R.; Jackman, Robert W.

    1980-01-01

    Throughout the United States, the probability of home ownership is considerably lower for Blacks than for Whites who are comparable in terms of socioeconomic characteristics, family composition, and location. Outside the South, Black owner-occupied homes are worth considerably less than the homes of comparable Whites. (Author/GC)

  3. Standard Test Method to Determine Color Change and Staining Caused by Aircraft Maintenance Chemicals upon Aircraft Cabin Interior Hard Surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2001-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the determination of color change and staining from liquid solutions, such as cleaning or disinfecting chemicals or both, on painted metallic surfaces and nonmetallic surfaces of materials being used inside the aircraft cabin. The effects upon the exposed specimens are measured with the AATCC Gray Scale for Color Change and AATCC Gray Color Scale for Staining. Note 1—This test method is applicable to any colored nonmetallic hard surface in contact with liquids. The selected test specimens are chosen because these materials are present in the majority of aircraft cabin interiors. 1.2This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  4. Influence of Ownership Structure on Earning Quality in the Listed Firms of Tehran Stock Exchange

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Ali Moradi; Ahmad Nezami

    2011-01-01

    The main goal of this study is to analyze the relation between ownership centralization and institutional ownership with the earning quality. Studying factors which influence the earning quality can lead to better decision making by investors and it is finally arise by public awareness and also leads to proper resource allocation. Different ownership structures influence differently performance of company, earning quality, degree and manner of management control and so on. Research sample con...

  5. Ownership Structure, Financial Decisions, and Institutional Setting: An International Analysis through Simultaneous Equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Félix J. López-Iturriaga

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We analyze the mutual relations among firms’ capital structure, ownership structure, and valuation. Through the estimation of a system of simultaneous equations for a sample of 1,130 firms from 16 countries from both the common law and the civil law environments, our results confirm the differential effect of ownership structure on firms’ value in each setting. Whereas in civil law firms the higher ownership concentration results in an entrenchment and an alignment effect, in the common law firms higher ownership concentration increases the value of the firm. Second, we corroborate the endogeneity of ownership structure since we find that ownership structure is affected by the value of the firm and by the capital structure. Third, our results suggest that corporate finance decisions are taken simultaneously with other mechanisms of corporate governance and conditional on firms’ valuation.

  6. Aerodynamic derivatives for an oblique wing aircraft estimated from flight data by using a maximum likelihood technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maine, R. E.

    1978-01-01

    There are several practical problems in using current techniques with five degree of freedom equations to estimate the stability and control derivatives of oblique wing aircraft from flight data. A technique was developed to estimate these derivatives by separating the analysis of the longitudinal and lateral directional motion without neglecting cross coupling effects. Although previously applied to symmetrical aircraft, the technique was not expected to be adequate for oblique wing vehicles. The application of the technique to flight data from a remotely piloted oblique wing aircraft is described. The aircraft instrumentation and data processing were reviewed, with particular emphasis on the digital filtering of the data. A complete set of flight determined stability and control derivative estimates is presented and compared with predictions. The results demonstrated that the relatively simple approach developed was adequate to obtain high quality estimates of the aerodynamic derivatives of such aircraft.

  7. Corporate Governance Rating and Ownership Structure in the Case of Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sevin Gurarda

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available By using corporate governance data on 22 publicly traded Turkish companies we estimate the determinants of corporate governance ratings for these companies with a focus on ownership structure. Our results show that company earnings, financial risk and firm size positively influence the corporate governance ratings (CGR that Turkish firms receive. In the meantime, we find some weak evidence that family ownership has a negative and foreign ownership has a positive impact on CGR scores.

  8. High-resolution wind and temperature observations from aircraft tracked by Mode-S air traffic control radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Haan, S.

    2011-05-01

    Wind, temperature, and humidity observations from radiosonde and aircraft are the main sources of upper air information for meteorology. For mesoscale meteorology, the horizontal coverage of radiosondes is too sparse. Aircraft observations through Aircraft Meteorological Data Relay (AMDAR) sample an atmospheric profile in the vicinity of airports. However, not all aircraft are equipped with AMDAR or have the system activated. Observations inferred from an enhanced tracking and ranging (TAR) air traffic control radar can fill this gap. These radars follows all aircraft in the airspace visible to the radar for air traffic management. The TAR radar at Schiphol airport in Netherlands has a range of 270 km. This Mode-S radar contacts each aircraft every 4 s on which the transponder in the aircraft responds with a message that contains information on flight level, direction, and speed. Combined with the ground track of an aircraft, meteorological information on temperature and wind can be inferred from this information. Because all aircraft are required to respond to the TAR radar, the data volume is extremely large, being around 1.5 million observations per day. Note that there are no extra costs for this data link. The quality of these observations is assessed by comparison to numerical weather prediction (NWP) model information, AMDAR observations, and radiosonde observations. A preprocessing step is applied to enhance the quality of wind and temperature observations, albeit with a reduced time frequency of one observation of horizontal wind vector and temperature per aircraft per minute. Nevertheless, the number of observations per day is still very large. In this paper it is shown that temperature observations from Mode-S, even after corrections, are not very good; an RMS which is twice as large as AMDAR is observed when compared to NWP. In contrast to the temperature observations, the quality found for wind after correction and calibration is good; it is comparable

  9. Choice of Ownership Structure and Firm Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jones, Derek C; Kalmi, Panu; Mygind, Niels

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we use rich panel data for a representative sample of Estonian enterprises to analysediverse issues related to the determinants of ownership structures and ownership changes afterprivatisation. A key focus is to determine whether ownership changes are related to economicefficiency....... While employee owned firms are found to be much more prone than other firms toswitch ownership categories, often `employee owned' firms remain `insider-owned' as ownershippasses from current employees to managers and former employees. Logit analyses of thedeterminants of ownership structures...... and ownership changes provides mixed support for severalhypotheses. As predicted: (i) wealth and resource constraints play a crucial role in thedetermination of ownership, with foreigners buying firms with the highest equity levels andinsiders buying firms with the lowest equity valuations; (ii) risk aversion...

  10. Trends in Employee Ownership in Eastern Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mygind, Niels

    2012-01-01

    Employee-owned companies are those where the broad group of employees owns the majority of shares. They have been widespread in the early transition process in Eastern Europe. This raises the question of why this type of ownership was so frequently used in some of the countries involved, and why...... there was a subsequent rapid transfer to manager ownership or outside ownership. This article gives a theoretical overview of the factors driving and hampering employee ownership, and develops hypotheses about how the transition process provided specific conditions for the development of these firms. The predictions...... employee ownership. The article concludes that privatization was the main determinant for the initial spread of employee ownership. However, other factors undermined the sustainability of employee-owned firms. No institutions created a framework for employee ownership. The long and deep production crisis...

  11. Building vibrations induced by noise from rotorcraft and propeller aircraft flyovers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, Kevin P.; Hubbard, Harvey H.

    1992-01-01

    Noise and building vibrations were measured for a series of helicopter and propeller-driven aircraft flyovers at WFF during May 1978. The building response data are compared with similar data acquired earlier at sites near Dulles and Kennedy Airports for operation of commercial jet transports, including the Concorde supersonic transport. Results show that noise-induced vibration levels in windows and walls are directly proportional to sound pressure level and that for a given noise level, the acceleration levels induced by a helicopter or a propeller-driven aircraft flyover cannot be distinguished from the acceleration levels induced by a commercial jet transport flyover. Noise-induced building acceleration levels were found to be lower than those levels which might be expected to cause structural damage and were also lower than some acceleration levels induced by such common domestic events as closing windows and doors.

  12. Aircraft Engine Noise Scattering by Fuselage and Wings: A Computational Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanescu, D.; Hussaini, M. Y.; Farassat, F.

    2003-01-01

    The paper presents a time-domain method for computation of sound radiation from aircraft engine sources to the far-field. The effects of nonuniform flow around the aircraft and scattering of sound by fuselage and wings are accounted for in the formulation. The approach is based on the discretization of the inviscid flow equations through a collocation form of the Discontinuous Galerkin spectral element method. An isoparametric representation of the underlying geometry is used in order to take full advantage of the spectral accuracy of the method. Large-scale computations are made possible by a parallel implementation based on message passing. Results obtained for radiation from an axisymmetric nacelle alone are compared with those obtained when the same nacelle is installed in a generic configuration, with and without a wing.

  13. Numerical modelling of the internal mixing by coagulation of black carbon particles in aircraft exhaust

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohlsson, S.; Stroem, J. [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Meteorology

    1997-12-31

    When exhaust gases from an aircraft engine mix with ambient air the humidity may reach water saturation and water droplets will form on the available cloud condensation nuclei (CCN). It is still not resolved if the CCN, on which the cloud droplets form, are mainly particles present in the ambient air or particles emitted by the aircraft. It the exhaust from a jet engine the particles are believed to consist mainly of black carbon (BC) and sulfate. The aim is to study, with the help of a numerical model, how a two-component aerosol (i.e. BC and sulfate) in an exhaust trail may be transformed in terms of hygroscopicity by coagulation mixing and how this may depend on the sulfur content in the fuel. (R.P.) 15 refs.

  14. Validation of Aura OMI by Aircraft and Ground-Based Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPeters, R. D.; Petropavlovskikh, I.; Kroon, M.

    2006-12-01

    Both aircraft-based and ground-based measurements have been used to validate ozone measurements by the OMI instrument on Aura. Three Aura Validation Experiment (AVE) flights have been conducted, in November 2004 and June 2005 with the NASA WB57, and in January/February 2005 with the NASA DC-8. On these flights, validation of OMI was primarily done using data from the CAFS (CCD Actinic Flux Spectroradiometer) instrument, which is used to measure total column ozone above the aircraft. These measurements are used to differentiate changes in stratospheric ozone from changes in total column ozone. Also, changes in ozone over high clouds measured by OMI were checked in a flight over tropical storm Arlene on a flight on June 11th. Ground-based measurements were made during the SAUNA campaign in Sodankyla, Finland, in March and April 2006. Both total column ozone and the ozone vertical distribution were validated.

  15. A new principle and device for large aircraft components gaining accurate support by ball joint

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bao-gui QIU; Jun-xia JIANG; Ying-lin KE

    2011-01-01

    How to obtain an accurate support for large components by ball joint is a key process in aircraft digital assembly. A novel principle and device is developed to solve the problem. Firstly, the working principle of the device is introduced. When three or four displacement sensors installed in the localizer are touched by the ball-head, the spatial relation is calculated between the large aircraft component's ball-head and the localizer's ball-socket. The localizer is driven to achieve a new position by compensation. Relatively, a support revising algorithm is proposed. The localizer's ball-socket approaches the ball-head based on the displacement sensors. According to the points selected from its spherical surface, the coordinates of ball-head spherical center are computed by geometry. Finally, as a typical application, the device is used to conduct a test-fuselage's ball-head into a localizer's ball-socket. Positional deviations of the spherical centers between the ball-head and the ball-socket in the x, y, and z directions are all controlled within ±0.05 mm under various working conditions. The results of the experiments show that the device has the characteristics of high precision, excellent stability, strong operability, and great potential to be applied widely in the modern aircraft industry.

  16. NASA's advanced control law program for the F-8 digital fly-by-wire aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, J. R.

    1977-01-01

    This paper briefly describes the NASA F-8 Digital Fly-By-Wire (DFBW) and Langley Research Center's role in investigating and promoting advanced control laws for possible flight experimentation and also provides a brief description of the Phase II DFBW F-8 aircraft and its control system. Some of the advanced control law study objectives and guidelines are discussed, and some mathematical models which are useful in the control analysis problem are provided.

  17. The Juridical Management of the Noise Produced by Aircrafts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florin FAINISI

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Noise is a public health problem and, more than that, a source of discomfort perceived strongly by population. World Health Organization (WHO has undertaken studies that have underlined the harmful aspects of noise on the human body, and EU regulations have aligned their requirements to both WHO standards and the standards set by International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO. At national level, Romania has adopted rules on controlling noise, which transposed the European directives in the field. This study presents the legal measures taken by France to mitigate noise pollution around airports, of which the act establishing compensations for residents for soundproofing homes would be a good example for Romania.

  18. Ownership structure and earnings management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farooq, Omar; El Jai, Hind

    2012-01-01

    Does poor legal protection of minority shareholders provide enough incentives for majority shareholders to expropriate minority shareholders and hide their unscrupulous behavior through accounting manipulations? This paper attempts to study the effect of ownership structure (ownership of the larg...... effect and result in lower earnings management or cause entrenchment effect and result in higher earnings management....... of the largest shareholder and identity of the largest shareholder) on earnings management in Morocco. Using annual estimates of discretionary accruals, we document that the presence of institutions as the largest shareholder has a negative impact on earnings management. Our results show that firms with foreign...... or local institutions as the largest shareholders engage in significantly lower earnings management than other firms. Our results are consistent with prior literature that considers institutions – which have greater resources, more sophistication than individual investors, and more relevant expertise...

  19. Standard Practice for Corrosion of Aircraft Metals by Total Immersion in Maintenance Chemicals

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2009-01-01

    1.1 This practice covers the determination of the corrosiveness of tank-type aircraft maintenance chemicals on aircraft metals and the corrodibility of metals in these maintenance chemicals with time. The determination is made under conditions of total immersion by a combination of weight change measurements and visual qualitative determinations of change. 1.2 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard. The values given in parentheses are for information only. 1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. For specific precautions, see Section 6.

  20. Estimation Methods for Determination of Drag Characteristics of Fly-by-Wire Aircraft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Girija

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available "In this paper, several parameter/state estimation approaches for the determination of drag polars from flight data are described and evaluated for a fly-by-wire (FBW aircraft. Both model-based approaches (MBAs and non-model-based approaches (NMBAs are considered. Dynamic response data from roller coaster and wind- up-turn manoeuvres are generated in a FBW aircraft flight simulator at different flight conditions and the typical performance results are presented. A novel approach to estimate the drag polar has been evaluated. It has been found that the NMBAs perform better than the MBAs. Classically, the MBAs have been used for the determination of drag polars. The merits of an NMBA are that it does not require specification of the detailed model of the aerodynamic coefficients and it can be suitably used for online estimation of drag polars from the flight data of aerospace vehicles

  1. Swiss legislation on dog ownership

    CERN Multimedia

    DSU Department

    2008-01-01

    The Swiss Permanent Mission in Geneva has requested CERN to inform the members of its personnel that a notice relating to Swiss legislation on dog ownership has been published on-line at the following address: http://www.eda.admin.ch/eda/en/home/topics/intorg/un/unge/gepri/pet.html This legislation is applicable to all international civil servants who own a dog. Relations with the Host States Service mailto:relations.secretariat@cern.ch http://www.cern.ch/relations/

  2. Debt Shifting and Ownership Structure

    OpenAIRE

    Dirk Schindler; Guttorm Schjelderup

    2011-01-01

    Previous theoretical studies on the debt shifting behavior of multinationals have assumed affiliates of multinationals to be wholly owned. We develop a model that allows a multinational firm to determine both the leverage and ownership structure in affiliates endogenously. A main finding is that affiliates with minority owners have less debt than wholly owned affiliates and therefore a less tax efficient financing structure. This is due to an externality that arises endogenously in our model,...

  3. A Method for Eletric Vehicle Ownership Forecast Considering Different Economic Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanwu Luo

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The construction of electric vehicles (EVs charging station needs to be planed according to the ownership of EVs, traffic condition, population etc. Therefore a BP neural network based method to forecast the EV ownership for a city is presented in the paper, which considers the influence on the EV ownership caused by many related economy factors, including GDP of a city, vehicle production, per capita crude steel production, per capita generation capacity, road passenger traffic, highway mileage and the total population.  A BP neural network is set up for the forecast of EV ownership, and the input layer contains seven neutrons, which represent different economic factors. There are three neurons in its hidden layer, and the output is the EV ownership.  Then the method to predict the EV ownership of a city is presented, which is based on the forecast of the civilian car ownership in a city and the country. The EV ownership in the city of Chongqing from the year 2013 to 2020 is predicted, and the accuracy of the model is verified firstly, then the EV ownership in Chongqing is obtained, which is helpful to make plans for the development of electric vehicle.

  4. DETECTING DEFECTS IN AIRCRAFT MATERIALS BY NUCLEAR TECHNIQUE (PAS)

    OpenAIRE

    EMAD A. BADAWI

    2005-01-01

    Positron annihilation spectroscopy (PAS) is one of the nuclear techniques used in material science. The present measurements are used to study the behavior of defect concentration in one of the most important materials aluminum alloys which is the 7075 alloy. It has been shown that positrons can become trapped at imperfect locations in solids and their mean lifetime can be influenced by changes in the concentration of such defects. No changes have been observed in the mean lifetime values aft...

  5. Two-dimensional structure of mountain wave observed by aircraft during the PYREX experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. L. Attié

    Full Text Available This study presents an experimental analysis from aircraft measurements above the Pyrenees chain during the PYREX experiment. The Pyrenees chain, roughly WE oriented, is a major barrier for northerly and southerly airflows. We present a case of southerly flow (15 October 1990 and three successive cases of northerly flows above the Pyrenees (14, 15 and 16 November 1990 documented by two aircraft. The aircraft have described a vertical cross section perpendicular to the Pyrenean ridge. This area is described via the thermodynamical and dynamical fields which have a horizontal resolution of 10 km. Three methods for computing the vertical velocity of the air are presented. The horizontal advection terms which play a role in the budget equations are also evaluated. The altitude turbulence zone of 15 October are shown via turbulent fluxes, turbulent kinetic energy (TKE, dissipation rate of TKE and inertial length-scale. A comparison of results obtained by eddy-correlation and inertial-dissipation method is presented. The experimental results show a warm and dry downdraft for the southerly flow with large values for advection terms. All the mountain wave cases are also shown to present an important dynamical perturbation just above the Pyrenees at upper altitudes.

  6. Jet Noise Shielding Provided by a Hybrid Wing Body Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doty, Michael J.; Brooks, Thomas F.; Burley, Casey L.; Bahr, Christopher J.; Pope, Dennis S.

    2014-01-01

    One approach toward achieving NASA's aggressive N+2 noise goal of 42 EPNdB cumulative margin below Stage 4 is through the use of novel vehicle configurations like the Hybrid Wing Body (HWB). Jet noise measurements from an HWB acoustic test in NASA Langley's 14- by 22-Foot Subsonic Tunnel are described. Two dual-stream, heated Compact Jet Engine Simulator (CJES) units are mounted underneath the inverted HWB model on a traversable support to permit measurement of varying levels of shielding provided by the fuselage. Both an axisymmetric and low noise chevron nozzle set are investigated in the context of shielding. The unshielded chevron nozzle set shows 1 to 2 dB of source noise reduction (relative to the unshielded axisymmetric nozzle set) with some penalties at higher frequencies. Shielding of the axisymmetric nozzles shows up to 6.5 dB of reduction at high frequency. The combination of shielding and low noise chevrons shows benefits beyond the expected additive benefits of the two, up to 10 dB, due to the effective migration of the jet source peak noise location upstream for increased shielding effectiveness. Jet noise source maps from phased array results processed with the Deconvolution Approach for the Mapping of Acoustic Sources (DAMAS) algorithm reinforce these observations.

  7. Detecting Defects in Aircraft Materials by Nuclear Technique (pas)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badawi, Emad. A.

    Positron annihilation spectroscopy (PAS) is one of the nuclear techniques used in material science. The present measurements are used to study the behavior of defect concentration in one of the most important materials aluminum alloys which is the 7075 alloy. It has been shown that positrons can become trapped at imperfect locations in solids and their mean lifetime can be influenced by changes in the concentration of such defects. No changes have been observed in the mean lifetime values after the saturation of defect concentration. The mean lifetime and trapping rates are studied for samples deformed up to 58.3%. The concentration of defect range vary from 1015 to 1018cm-3 at the thickness reduction from 2.3 to 58.3%. The dislocation density varies from 108 to 1011cm/cm3.

  8. The social disutility of software ownership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, David M

    2011-09-01

    Software ownership allows the owner to restrict the distribution of software and to prevent others from reading the software's source code and building upon it. However, free software is released to users under software licenses that give them the right to read the source code, modify it, reuse it, and distribute the software to others. Proponents of free software such as Richard M. Stallman and Eben Moglen argue that the social disutility of software ownership is a sufficient justification for prohibiting it. This social disutility includes the social instability of disregarding laws and agreements covering software use and distribution, inequality of software access, and the inability to help others by sharing software with them. Here I consider these and other social disutility claims against withholding specific software rights from users, in particular, the rights to read the source code, duplicate, distribute, modify, imitate, and reuse portions of the software within new programs. I find that generally while withholding these rights from software users does cause some degree of social disutility, only the rights to duplicate, modify and imitate cannot legitimately be denied to users on this basis. The social disutility of withholding the rights to distribute the software, read its source code and reuse portions of it in new programs is insufficient to prohibit software owners from denying them to users. A compromise between the software owner and user can minimise the social disutility of withholding these particular rights from users. However, the social disutility caused by software patents is sufficient for rejecting such patents as they restrict the methods of reducing social disutility possible with other forms of software ownership.

  9. Annoyance caused by advanced turboprop aircraft flyover noise: Counter-rotating-propeller configuration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mccurdy, David A.

    1990-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to quantify the annoyance of people to flyover noise of advanced turboprop aircraft with counter rotating propellers. The first experiment examined configurations having an equal number of blades on each rotor and the second experiment examined configurations having an unequal number of blades on each rotor. The objectives were to determine the effects on annoyance of various tonal characteristics, and to compare annoyance to advanced turboprops with annoyance to conventional turboprops and turbofans. A computer was used to synthesize realistic, time-varying simulations of advanced turboprop aircraft takeoff noise. The simulations represented different combinations fundamental frequency and tone-to-broadband noise ratio. Also included in each experiment were recordings of 10 conventional turboprop and turbofan takeoffs. Each noise was presented at three sound pressure levels in an anechoic chamber. In each experiment, 64 subjects judged the annoyance of each noise stimulus. Analyses indicated that annoyance was significantly affected by the interaction of fundamental frequency with tone-to-broadband noise ratio. No significant differences in annoyance between the advanced turboprop aircraft and the conventional turbofans were found. The use of a duration correction and a modified tone correction improved the annoyance prediction for the stimuli.

  10. Inclusion or Exclusion? Local Ownership and Security Sector Reform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy Donais

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the dynamics of security sector reform (SSR, a term used to refer to efforts made to reform the security structures of states emerging from conflict or authoritarianism. While "local ownership" is increasingly viewed as a necessary element of any sustainable SSR strategy, there remains a significant gap between international policy and practice in this area. In practice, the SSR agenda continues to be driven largely by international actors, with minimal input, let alone ownership, on the part of either governments or civil society within reforming states. Indeed, the notion of local ownership has come to serve as much as a disciplining mechanism as a tool to overcome exclusion in the making and execution of security policy, and the effectiveness and sustainability of SSR programming have suffered as a result. In light of this, the paper will explore both the potential for, and the limits of, rehabilitating the notion of local ownership to enable more participatory forms of SSR, and argues that any practical local ownership strategy requires a dual policy of negotiating with state actors and engaging with non-state actors.

  11. A historical perspective on the economics of the ownership of mineral rights ownership

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cawood, F.T.; Minnitt, R.C.A. [Technikon SA, Florida (South Africa). Dept. of Engineering

    1998-11-01

    Inauguration of the new political dispensation in South Africa, initiated a dynamic period in the historical development of its minerals policy. The process of substituting the current South African mineral policy framework with an acceptable `post apartheid` system, started soon after the 1994 election of the African National Congress (ANC) government. The Green Paper on a Minerals and Mining Policy for South Africa released for public discussion in February 1998, calls for radical transformation in mineral rights ownership. A shift towards exclusive state ownership of mineral rights, away from the present dual system of private and state ownership, is the most significant proposal. The current holders of mineral rights, or their nominees, who lawfully enjoyed security of tenure under past and present mineral laws are opposed to this transformation because mineral rights were often acquired at considerable cost. The situation is compounded by poor public record-keeping and passive mineral rights administration over a very long period. This paper represents a summary of the historical developments leading to the current legislative environment and forms the basis for any discussion on which future sculpturing of South Africa`s policy regarding mineral rights can take place. One cannot plan for the future without considering the past. 21 refs.

  12. Performance assessment of Portuguese wind farms: Ownership and managerial efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pestana Barros, Carlos, E-mail: Cbarros@iseg.utl.pt [Instituto Superior de Economia e Gestao, Technical University of Lisbon Rua Miguel Lupi, 20, 1249-078 Lisbon (Portugal); UECE - Research Unit on Complexity and Economics, Technical University of Lisbon Rua Miguel Lupi, 20, 1249-078 Lisbon (Portugal); Sequeira Antunes, Olinda, E-mail: sequeira-antunes@sapo.pt [Instituto Superior de Economia e Gestao, Technical University of Lisbon Rua Miguel Lupi, 20, 1249-078 Lisbon (Portugal); UECE - Research Unit on Complexity and Economics, Technical University of Lisbon Rua Miguel Lupi, 20, 1249-078 Lisbon (Portugal)

    2011-06-15

    This paper analyzes ownership and unobserved managerial ability as factors affecting the performance of a representative sample of Portuguese wind farms by means of frontier models. These farms are ranked according to their technical efficiency during the period 2004-2008 and homogenous and heterogeneous variables are disentangled in the cost function, which leads us to advise the implementation of common policies as well as policies by segments. Economic implications arising from the study are also considered. - Research Highlights: > Wind farms are heterogeneous displaying distinct ownership and managerial characteristics that affect efficiency. > Managerial practices has a positive impact on the efficiency. > Ownership has a positive impact on the efficiency. Large wind farms are more efficient.

  13. Institutional Environment, Blockholder Characteristics and Ownership Concentration in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xingqiang Du; Zongfeng Xiu

    2009-01-01

    Using a sample of China’s A-share listed companies for the period 2001-2004,this paper investigates the influence of institutional environment variables,including the process of marketization,level of local government intervention,and local legal environment,on blockholder characteristics and ownership concentration,and the relation between the endogeneity of ownership structure and institutional environment.Our results indicate that the effects of these variables on ownership concentration are(1)positive for listed companies controlled by state asset management bureaus affiliated with local governments,(2)negative for listed companies controlled by state-owned enterprises affiliated with local governments and(3)unclear for listed private companies.These variables also positively affect the degree of privatization of listed companies in China.

  14. An investigation of an active landing gear system to reduce aircraft vibrations caused by landing impacts and runway excitations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haitao; Xing, J. T.; Price, W. G.; Li, Weiji

    2008-10-01

    A mathematical model is developed to control aircraft vibrations caused by runway excitation using an active landing gear system. Equations are derived to describe the integrated aircraft-active system. The nonlinear characteristics of the system are modelled and it is actively controlled using a Proportional Integral Derivative (PID) strategy. The performance of this system and its corresponding passive system are compared using numerical simulations. It is demonstrated that the impact loads and the vertical displacement of the aircraft's centre of gravity caused by landing and runway excitations are greatly reduced using the active system, which result in improvements to the performance of the landing gear system, benefits the aircraft's fatigue life, taxiing performance, crew/passenger comfort and reduces requirements on the unevenness of runways.

  15. Fuzzy Q learning algorithm for dual-aircraft path planning to cooperatively detect targets by passive radars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiang Gao; Yangwang Fang; Youli Wu

    2013-01-01

    The problem of passive detection discussed in this paper involves searching and locating an aerial emitter by dual-aircraft using passive radars. In order to improve the detection probability and accuracy, a fuzzy Q learning algorithm for dual-aircraft flight path planning is proposed. The passive detection task model of the dual-aircraft is set up based on the partition of the target active radar’s radiation area. The problem is formulated as a Markov decision process (MDP) by using the fuzzy theory to make a generalization of the state space and defining the transition functions, action space and reward function properly. Details of the path planning algorithm are presented. Simulation results indicate that the algorithm can provide adaptive strategies for dual-aircraft to control their flight paths to detect a non-maneuvering or maneu-vering target.

  16. Parcels and Land Ownership, Parcels and Ownership, Published in 2009, Norton County Appraisal Office.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset, was produced all or in part from Hardcopy Maps information as of 2009. It is described as 'Parcels and Ownership'. This data...

  17. Ownership and Object History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Ori; Neary, Karen R.; Defeyter, Margaret A.; Malcolm, Sarah L.

    2011-01-01

    Appropriate behavior in relation to an object often requires judging whether it is owned and, if so, by whom. The authors propose accounts of how people make these judgments. Our central claim is that both judgments often involve making inferences about object history. In judging whether objects are owned, people may assume that artifacts (e.g.,…

  18. Penetrating injury of the lungs and multiple injuries of lower extremities caused by aircraft bombs splinters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golubović Zoran

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Injuries caused by aircraft bombs cause severe damages to the human body. They are characterized by massive destruction of injured tissues and organs, primary contamination by polymorph bacterial flora and modified reactivity of the body. Upon being wounded by aircraft bombs projectiles a victim simultaneously sustains severe damages of many organs and organ systems due to the fact that a large number of projectiles at the same time injure the chest, stomach, head and extremities. Case report. We presented a patient, 41 years of age, injured by aircraft bomb with hemo-pneumothorax and destruction of the bone and soft tissue structures of the foot, as well as the treatment result of such heavy injuries. After receiving thoracocentesis and short reanimation, the patient underwent surgical procedure. The team performed thoracotomy, primary treatment of the wound and atypical resection of the left lung. Thoracic drains were placed. The wounds on the lower leg and feet were treated primarily. Due to massive destruction of bone tissue of the right foot by cluster bomb splinters, and impossibility of reconstruction of the foot, guillotine amputation of the right lower leg was performed. Twelve days after the wounding caused by cluster bomb splinters, soft tissue of the left lower leg was covered by Tirsch free transplantant and the defect in the area of the left foot was covered by dorsalis pedis flap. The transplant and flap were accepted and the donor sites were epithelized. Twenty-six days following the wounding reamputation was performed and amputation stump of the right lower leg was closed. The patient was given a lower leg prosthesis with which he could move. Conclusion. Upon being wounded by aircraft bomb splinters, the injured person sustains severe wounds of multiple organs and organ systems due to simultaneous injuries caused by a large number of projectiles. It is necessary to take care of the vital organs first because they

  19. A PANEL-DATA SWITCHING REGRESSION-MODEL OF MOBILITY AND CAR OWNERSHIP

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MEURS, H

    1993-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to present a panel data model of car ownership and mobility. Unobserved heterogeneity is controlled for by including correlated random effects in the equations describing car ownership and mobility. A mass-points approach is adopted to control for unobserved heterogene

  20. Revisiting the Gun Ownership and Violence Link; a multi- level analysis of victimisation survey data.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Kesteren, J.N.

    2014-01-01

    The link between gun ownership victimisation by violent crime remains one of the most contested issues in criminology. Some authors claim that high gun availability facilitates serious violence. Others claim that gun ownership prevents crime. This article revisits these issues using individual and a

  1. A dynamic random effects multinomial logit model of household car ownership

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bue Bjørner, Thomas; Leth-Petersen, Søren

    2007-01-01

    Using a large household panel we estimate demand for car ownership by means of a dynamic multinomial model with correlated random effects. Results suggest that the persistence in car ownership observed in the data should be attributed to both true state dependence and to unobserved heterogeneity ...

  2. Anticipated Effectiveness of Active Noise Control in Propeller Aircraft Interiors as Determined by Sound Quality Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Clemans A.; Sullivan, Brenda M.

    2004-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted, using sound quality engineering practices, to determine the subjective effectiveness of hypothetical active noise control systems in a range of propeller aircraft. The two tests differed by the type of judgments made by the subjects: pair comparisons in the first test and numerical category scaling in the second. Although the results of the two tests were in general agreement that the hypothetical active control measures improved the interior noise environments, the pair comparison method appears to be more sensitive to subtle changes in the characteristics of the sounds which are related to passenger preference.

  3. Managerial ownership and corporate performance in Slovenian post-privatisation period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marko Simoneti

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The Slovenian post-privatisation period has been characterised by a decline in the ownership by non-managerial owners (employees and state-controlled funds. On the other hand, domestic and foreign non-financial firms, Privatisation Investment Funds and managers have been increasing their holdings. The latter, namely the growing managerial ownership, is likely to feature in future ownership dynamics in Slovenia. In fact, in 2002 the desired (optimal ownership stakes estimated by Slovenian managers were 10.8 percentage points higher than their actual stakes. The aim of our paper is to describe the main trends in the ownership of Slovenian corporations in the post-privatisation period and to provide an answer to the basic economic question: what is the influence of the ongoing consolidation of managerial ownership on the performance of Slovenian firms. The empirical analysis testing this relationship is based on a panel of 182 Slovenian firms in the 1995-99 period and does not provide relevant evidence of any positive effects of the increasing managerial control on Slovenian firms’ performance. If any, a positive incentive effect is only observed in those firms whose managers’ holdings exceed 10-percent, only with regards to firms’ financial performance (but not total factor productivity and only in firms that are not listed on the capital market. Further, the negative effect of the current gap between the desired and actual managerial ownership seems to exceed any positive incentive effect arising out of managerial ownership

  4. Young Children's Understanding of the Limits and Benefits of Group Ownership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huh, Michelle; Friedman, Ori

    2017-02-20

    Group ownership is ubiquitous-property is owned by countries, corporations, families, and clubs. However, people cannot understand group ownership by simply relying on their conceptions of ownership by individuals, as group ownership is subject to complexities that do not arise when property is individually owned. We report 6 experiments investigating whether children ages 3 to 6 (N = 540) understand group ownership. In Experiments 1 and 2 children were asked who different objects belong to, and they appropriately judged that certain objects are more likely to belong to a group than to individual people. Experiments 3 and 4 investigated whether children understand the limits of group ownership. Children saw vignettes where agents modified or depleted property. Children ages 3 and older understood that individual members of a group should not deplete group-owned property, and children ages 5 and 6 understood that individual members should not modify group-owned property. Finally, Experiments 5 and 6 investigated whether children understand the benefits of group ownership. Children ages 5 and 6 judged that it is more acceptable for a group member to take group property than for a nonmember to do this, and children ages 4 to 6 judged that group members can take more group resources than can nonmembers. Together, these results are informative about how children conceive of group ownership rights, and about children's conceptions of groups. (PsycINFO Database Record

  5. Analytical study of interior noise control by fuselage design techniques on high-speed, propeller-driven aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revell, J. D.; Balena, F. J.; Koval, L. R.

    1980-01-01

    The acoustical treatment mass penalties required to achieve an interior noise level of 80 dBA for high speed, fuel efficient propfan-powered aircraft are determined. The prediction method used is based on theory developed for the outer shell dynamics, and a modified approach for add-on noise control element performance. The present synthesis of these methods is supported by experimental data. Three different sized aircraft are studied, including a widebody, a narrowbody and a business sized aircraft. Noise control penalties are calculated for each aircraft for two kinds of noise control designs: add-on designs, where the outer wall structure cannot be changed, and advanced designs where the outer wall stiffness level and the materials usage can be altered. For the add-on designs, the mass penalties range from 1.7 to 2.4 percent of the takeoff gross weight (TOGW) of the various aircraft, similar to preliminary estimates. Results for advanced designs show significant reductions of the mass penalties. For the advanced aluminum designs the penalties are 1.5% of TOGW, and for an all composite aircraft the penalties range from 0.74 to 1.4% of TOGW.

  6. The Relationship between Ownership Structure Dimensions and Corporate Performance: Evidence from Bahrain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reem Khamis

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study we examine the relation between ownership structure and corporate performance; the sample of the study included 42 out of 48 companies of all sectors in Bahrain Bourse in five years from 2007-2011. Several dimensions of ownership concentration were studied in addition to managerial and institutional ownership. Two different measurements of performance were used (ROA and Tobin’s Q. The study investigated this relation using several control variables and 2SLS statistical method to overcome the problem of endogeneity that may exist between the study variables. It was found that ownership concentration have a negative effect with statistical significance on company performance. Institutional ownership was found to have a positive effect on company performance. Managerial ownership was not found to have a significant effect on company performance, however it was found that managerial ownership has a positive effect on performance only in the case of declining ownership concentration. Other results were revealed by the study regarding company age, size, growth, board size and liquidity. The study is considered to have theoretical and practical implications. It contributes to the debate about agency theory and managerial entrenchment. It also may help officials in Bahrain in making laws and legislations concerning corporate governance improvement in Bahraini market. This

  7. How Ownership Structure Influences Firm Performance in Relation to Its Life Cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Firdaus

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Ownership structure is considered to be the most influential component in corporate govern-ance; it is also closely related to firm performance. The current research analyzes the effect of ownership structure (both insider ownership—board and managerial ownership, blockholder ownership—and institutional ownership concentration—pressure-insensitive and pres-sure-sensitive on firm performance (industry adjusted return on asset/IAROA based on its life cycle. Life cycle is incorporated into the research to examine whether the effect of own-ership structure on firm performance differs at each stage of the life cycle. The current re-search uses imbalanced panel data consisting of 695 observations of sample firms from the manufacturing, IT, and multimedia firms during the 2005-2010 period. The results show that: (1 insider ownership has a significantly non-linear influence on IAROA, indicated by a U-shaped curve (2 blockholders have a significantly positive effect on IAROA in firms at the mature stage; on the contrary, the effect is significantly negative in firms at the growth stage (3 institutional ownership concentration has a significantly negative effect on IAROA across the samples and a significantly positive effect on firms at the mature stage, and (4 pressure-insensitive and pressure-sensitive institutional ownerships have a positive and sig-nificant effect on IAROA in firms at the mature stage; on the contrary, the effect is negative and significant in firms at the growth stage.

  8. Dimensions of Corporate Ownership in For-Profit Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinser, Kevin

    2007-01-01

    The recent growth of for-profit higher education has been marked by the rising importance of institutional ownership by publicly traded corporations. This paper looks at 13 publicly traded corporations that own degree-granting for-profit institutions of higher education in the United States, examining corporate growth strategies and their…

  9. The Effects of Ownership Structure on Corporate Environmental Responsibility Disclosure among Public-Listed Companies in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Rashdan Sallehuddin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Currently, there is a growth in demands by stakeholders for companies to demonstrate greater transparency on environmental disclosure. The findings revealed from research conducted on corporate accounting indicated that the relationship of the environmental factors influences the disclosures practices. This paper examines the effect of ownership structure characteristics namely managerial ownership, ownership concentration, government ownership and foreign ownership on the extent of Corporate Environmental Responsibility (CER disclosure in the annual reports among public-listed companies (PLCs in Malaysia. For the purpose of this study, 254 company annual reports for the year 2010 were analyzed. The multiple regressions analysis is utilized in this study in order to achieve the research objectives. The conduct of testing is controlled by company size and industry profile. The findings show that ownership concentration and government ownership influenced the level of CER disclosure. Moreover, the company size as control variable has positive significant impact on the CER disclosure.Nevertheless, the managerial ownership and foreign ownership do not appear to have a significant impact on the extent of CER disclosure. The research shows that the level of CER disclosure is different across sectors and is relatively low. Finally, this study can clearly integrate the relationship between ownership structure mechanisms and CER disclosure and it can assist the relevant authorities in Malaysia to look further the policies on environmental disclosure among public-listed companies in Malaysia.

  10. Home Ownership, Job Duration, and Wages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roland-Munch, Jakob; Svarer, Michael; Rosholm, Michael

    2008-01-01

    We investigate the impact of home ownership on individual job mobility and wages in Denmark. We find that home ownership has a negative impact on job-to-job mobility both in terms of transition into new local jobs and new jobs outside the local labor market. In addition, there is a clear negative...

  11. Home Ownership, Job Duration, and Wages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munch, Jakob Roland; Rosholm, Michael; Svarer, Michael

    We investigate the impact of home ownership on individual job mobility and wages in Denmark. We find that home ownership has a negative impact on job-to-job mobility both in terms of transition into new local jobs and new jobs outside the local labour market. In addition, there is a clear negative...

  12. Foreign Ownership Wage Premia in Emerging Economies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Tor; Pytlikova, Mariola

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we examine the relationship between wages, labour productivity and ownership using a linked employer-employee dataset covering a large fraction of the Czech labour market in 2006. We distinguish between different origins of ownership and study wage and productivity differences...

  13. 47 CFR 73.855 - Ownership limits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ownership limits. 73.855 Section 73.855 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Low Power FM Broadcast Stations (LPFM) § 73.855 Ownership limits. (a) No authorization for an...

  14. Foreign Ownership Wage Premia in Emerging Economies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Tor Viking; Pytlikova, Mariola

    differential. Both white and blue collar workers as well as skilled and unskilled employees obtain a foreign ownership wage premium. Foreign ownership premia are more prevalent in older and less technologically advanced firms. Joint estimation of productivity and wage equations show that, controlling for human...

  15. Ownership and Control in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, de Abe; Kabir, Rezaul; Marra, Teye; Röell, Ailsa

    1999-01-01

    This paper analyses ownership and control structures of Dutch listed companies. Legislation effective since 1992 mandates all shareholders with holdings of 5 percent or more in Dutch companies to disclose their holdings. Our analysis shows that the average ownership stakes of the largest and the thr

  16. Chemistry Characterization of Jet Aircraft Engine Particulate by XPS: Results from APEX III

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vander Wal, Randy L.; Bryg, Victoria M.

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports XPS analysis of jet exhaust particulate from a B737, Lear, ERJ, and A300 aircraft during the APEX III NASA led field campaign. Carbon hybridization and bonding chemistry are identified by high-resolution scans about the C1s core-shell region. Significant organic content as gauged by the sp3/sp2 ratio is found across engines and platforms. Polar oxygen functional groups include carboxylic, carbonyl and phenol with combined content of 20 percent or more. By lower resolution survey scans various elements including transition metals are identified along with lighter elements such as S, N, and O in the form of oxides. Burning additives within lubricants are probable sources of Na, Ba, Ca, Zn, P and possibly Sn. Elements present and their percentages varied significantly across all engines, not revealing any trend or identifiable cause for the differences, though the origin is likely the same for the same element when observed. This finding suggests that their presence can be used as a tracer for identifying soots from aircraft engines as well as diagnostic for monitoring engine performance and wear.

  17. Chemistry characterization of jet aircraft engine particulate matter by XPS: Results from APEX III

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vander Wal, Randy L.; Bryg, Victoria M.; Huang, Chung-Hsuan

    2016-09-01

    This paper reports X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis of jet exhaust particulate matter (PM) from a B737, Lear, ERJ and A300 aircraft during the APEX III NASA led field campaign. Carbon hybridization and bonding chemistry are identified by high-resolution scans about the C1s core-shell region. Significant organic content as gauged by the sp3/sp2 ratio is found across engines and powers. Polar oxygen functional groups include carboxylic, carbonyl and phenol with combined content of 20% or more. By survey scans various elements including transition metals are identified along with lighter elements such as S, N and O in the form of oxides. Additives within lubricants are probable sources of Na, Ba, Ca, Zn, P and possibly Sn. Elements present and their percentages varied significantly across all engines, not revealing any trend or identifiable cause for the differences, though the origin is likely the same for the same element when observed. This finding suggests that their collective presence could serve as an environmental tracer for identifying PM originating from aircraft engines and serving as a diagnostic for engine performance and wear.

  18. Intensive probing of a clear air convective field by radar and instrumental drone aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowland, J. R.

    1973-01-01

    An instrumented drone aircraft was used in conjunction with ultrasensitive radar to study the development of a convective field in the clear air. Radar data are presented which show an initial constant growth rate in the height of the convective field of 3.8 m/min, followed by a short period marked by condensation and rapid growth at a rate in excess of 6.1 m/min. Drone aircraft soundings show general features of a convective field including progressive lifting of the inversion at the top of the convection and a cooling of the air at the top of the field. Calculations of vertical heat flux as a function of time and altitude during the early stages of convection show a linear decrease in heat flux with altitude to near the top of the convective field and a negative heat flux at the top. Evidence is presented which supports previous observations that convective cells overshoot their neutral buoyancy level into a region where they are cool and moist compared to their surroundings. Furthermore, only that portion of the convective cell that has overshot its neutral buoyancy level is generally visible to the radar.

  19. Bank efficiency and foreign ownership : Do good institutions matter?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lensink, Robert; Meesters, Aljar; Naaborg, Ilko

    2008-01-01

    This paper contributes to the literature on foreign ownership and bank efficiency by examining whether the efficiency of foreign banks depends on the institutional quality of the host country and on institutional differences between the home and host country. Using stochastic frontier analysis for a

  20. Bringing indigenous ownership back to the private sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragelund, Peter

    Driven by across-the-board liberalizations and the commodity price boom, Zambia has recently experienced an upsurge in foreign ownership over key parts of its economy. Albeit investors from all over the world have sought to make the most of the current situation in Zambia, Chinese investors have ...

  1. Evaluation of the doses to aircrew members by considering the aircraft structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battistoni, G.; Ferrari, A.; Pelliccioni, M.; Villari, R.

    A mathematical model of an aircraft has been developed with the aim to investigate the influence of the aircraft structures and contents on the exposure of aircrew and passengers to the galactic component of cosmic rays. The irradiation of the mathematical model in the cosmic ray environment has been simulated using the Monte Carlo transport code FLUKA. Effective dose and ambient dose equivalent rates have been determined inside the aircraft at several locations along the fuselage at typical civil aviation altitudes.

  2. Alternative windpower ownership structures: Financing terms and project costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiser, R.; Kahn, E.

    1996-05-01

    Most utility-scale renewable energy projects in the United States are developed and financed by private renewable energy companies. Electric output is then sold to investor-owned and public utilities under long-term contracts. Limited partnerships, sale/leaseback arrangements, and project-financing have historically been the dominant forms of finance in the windpower industry, with project-finance taking the lead more recently. Although private ownership using project-finance is still the most popular form of windpower development, alternative approaches to ownership and financing are becoming more prevalent. U.S. public and investor-owned electric utilities (IOUs) have begun to participate directly in windpower projects by owning and financing their own facilities rather than purchasing windpower from independent non-utility generators (NUGs) through power purchase agreements (PPAs). In these utility-ownership arrangements, the wind turbine equipment vendor/developer typically designs and constructs a project under a turnkey contract for the eventual project owner (the utility). The utility will also frequently sign an operations and maintenance (O&M) contract with the project developer/equipment vendor. There appear to be a number of reasons for utility involvement in recent and planned U.S. wind projects. One important claim is that utility ownership and self-finance provides substantial cost savings compared to contracting with private NUGs to supply wind-generated power. In this report, we examine that assertion.

  3. Trust Ownership of the Tata Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Steen

    The Indian Tata Group is one of the largest and most admired business groups in the world. It has 28 listed subsidiaries and more than 80 operating businesses. It has shown strong financial performance and social responsibility for decades. Interestingly, it has a unique ownership structure......: the main holding company Tata Sons Limited is majority-owned by charitable trusts. We examine the governance of this remarkable entity. The Trusts own 66% of Tata Sons, the main holding company of the Group, while members of the founding Tata family are very small minority shareholders. The governance...... structure is characterized by managerial distance between trusts and Group companies. The Trusts are almost exclusively concerned with philanthropy, and according to the Articles of Association of Tata Sons Limited, their governance role is limited to nominating two members to the Selection Committee which...

  4. Cornering characteristics of a 40 by 14-16 type 7 aircraft tire and a comparison with characteristics of a C40 by 14-21 cantilever aircraft tire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, J. A.; Dreher, R. C.

    1973-01-01

    An investigation was conducted at the Langley aircraft landing loads and traction facility to determine the cornering characteristics of a 40 x 14-16 type VII aircraft tire. These characteristics, which include the cornering-force and drag-force friction coefficients and self-alining torque, were obtained for the tire operating on dry, damp and flooded runway surfaces over a range of yaw angles from 0 deg to 20 deg and at ground speeds from 5 to 100 knots, both with and without braking. The results of this investigation indicated that the cornering capability of the 40 x 14-16 type VII aircraft tire is degraded by high ground speeds, thin-film lubrication and tire hydroplaning effects on the wet surfaces, and brake torque. The cornering capability is greatly diminished when locked-wheel skids are encountered.

  5. Aircraft Fuel Systems Career Ladder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-09-01

    type fittings remove and install fuel cells clean work areas inspect aircraft for safety pin installation purge tanks or cells using blow purge method...INSPECT AIRCRAFT FOR SAFETY PIN INSTALLATION 84 H254 PURGE TANKS OR CELLS USING BLOW PURGE METHOD 83 H227 CHECK AIRCRAFT FOR LIQUID OXYGEN (LOX...H243 INSPECT AIRCRAFT FOR SAFETY PIN INSTALLATION 52 M483 MIX SEALANTS BY HAND 48 K372 CONNECT OR DISCONNECT WIGGINS TYPE FITTINGS 48 H236 DISCONNECT

  6. The effect of the degree of foreign ownership on firms' performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hintošová Aneta Bobenič

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A large number of studies have compared the performance of foreign-owned and domestic firms. However, only a limited number of studies have investigated the effect of the degree of foreign ownership on a firm's performance. We attempt to fill this gap in the literature by conducting research that distinguishes not only between domestic and foreign-owned firms, but also between wholly and partly foreign-owned firms. We also examine the possible non-linearity of the performance-ownership relationship. We divide the firms in our study into three groups by their ownership - domestic, foreign, and joint ventures. We use a regression analysis to explore whether foreign ownership influences the firms' performance, measured by several variables such as profitability, innovation performance (measured by gross expenditures on research and development activities, numbers of employees involved in research and development, production, value added, leverage and net working capital intensity. The results of our research indicate that there is a statistically significant difference in firms' performance as a result of foreign ownership in all variables except the number of research and development employees and leverage. Moreover, we show that foreign ownership and performance are linked by an inverted U-shaped relationship. A firm’s performance increases with greater foreign ownership up to the range of 61-65 %, and declines thereafter.

  7. The stable isotopic composition of molecular hydrogen in the tropopause region probed by the CARIBIC aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batenburg, A. M.; Schuck, T. J.; Baker, A. K.; Zahn, A.; Brenninkmeijer, C. A. M.; Röckmann, T.

    2012-05-01

    More than 450 air samples that were collected in the upper troposphere - lower stratosphere (UTLS) region by the CARIBIC aircraft (Civil Aircraft for the Regular Investigation of the atmosphere Based on an Instrument Container) have been analyzed for molecular hydrogen (H2) mixing ratios (χ(H2)) and H2 isotopic composition (deuterium content, δD). More than 120 of the analyzed samples contained air from the lowermost stratosphere (LMS). These show that χ(H2) does not vary appreciably with O3-derived height above the thermal tropopause (TP), whereas δD does increase with height. The isotope enrichment is caused by H2 production and destruction processes that enrich the stratospheric H2 reservoir in deuterium (D); the exact shapes of the profiles are mainly determined by mixing of stratospheric with tropospheric air. Tight negative correlations are found between δD and the mixing ratios of methane (χ(CH4)) and nitrous oxide (χ(N2O)), as a result of the relatively long lifetimes of these three species. The correlations are described by δD[‰]=-0.35 · χ(CH4)[ppb]+768 and δD[‰]=-1.90· χ(N2O)[ppb]+745. These correlations are similar to previously published results and likely hold globally for the LMS. Samples that were collected from the Indian subcontinent up to 40° N before, during and after the summer monsoon season show no significant seasonal change in χ(H2), but δD is up to 12.3‰ lower in the July, August and September monsoon samples. This δD decrease is correlated with the χ(CH4) increase in these samples. The significant correlation with χ(CH4) and the absence of a perceptible χ(H2) increase that accompanies the δD decrease indicates that microbial production of very D-depleted H2 in the wet season may contribute to this phenomenon. Some of the samples have very high χ(H2) and very low δD values, which indicates a pollution effect. Aircraft engine exhaust plumes are a suspected cause, since the effect mostly occurs in samples

  8. 2007: A Canadian Corporate Ownership Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valsan, Calin

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This study documents a decline in the levels of corporate ownership concentration between 1996 and 2007. When compared to previous studies, the incidence of ownership stakes of 20% or larger has decreased form 60% to 41% of the total population of publicly listed Canadian firms. Regional disparities among provinces remain important. Ontario, Alberta, and British Columbia have the most widely-held firms, while Quebec and Atlantic Canada show the most concentrated corporate ownership patterns. The interpretation of these results requires a complex understanding of historical, demographic, cultural, political and institutional factors.

  9. The influence of air duct geometry on air jet direction in aircraft cabin ventilated by mixing ventilation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jícha M.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with instigation of influence of air duct geometry on air jet direction in aircraft cabin ventilated by mixing ventilation. CFD approach was used for investigation and model geometry was based on small aircraft cabin mock-up geometry. Model was also equipped by nine seats and five manikins that represent passengers. The air jet direction was observed for selected ambient environment parameters and several types of air duct geometry and influence of main air duct geometry on jets direction is discussed. The model was created in StarCCM+ ver. 6.04.014 software and polyhedral mesh was used.

  10. The influence of air duct geometry on air jet direction in aircraft cabin ventilated by mixing ventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fišer, J.; Jícha, M.

    2013-04-01

    The paper deals with instigation of influence of air duct geometry on air jet direction in aircraft cabin ventilated by mixing ventilation. CFD approach was used for investigation and model geometry was based on small aircraft cabin mock-up geometry. Model was also equipped by nine seats and five manikins that represent passengers. The air jet direction was observed for selected ambient environment parameters and several types of air duct geometry and influence of main air duct geometry on jets direction is discussed. The model was created in StarCCM+ ver. 6.04.014 software and polyhedral mesh was used.

  11. Intensive probing of clear air convective fields by radar and instrumented drone aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowland, J. R.

    1972-01-01

    Clear air convective fields were probed in three summer experiments (1969, 1970, and 1971) on an S-band monopulse tracking radar at Wallops Island, Virginia, and a drone aircraft with a takeoff weight of 5.2 kg, wingspan of 2.5 m, and cruising glide speed of 10.3 m/sec. The drone was flown 23.2 km north of the radar and carried temperature, pressure/altitude, humidity, and vertical and airspeed velocity sensors. Extensive time-space convective field data were obtained by taking a large number of RHI and PPI pictures at short intervals of time. The rapidly changing overall convective field data obtained from the radar could be related to the meteorological information telemetered from the drone at a reasonably low cost by this combined technique.

  12. Corporate Governance, Ownership and Financial Distress of Publicly Listed Companies in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WangZhen; LiuLi; ChenChao

    2004-01-01

    This paper examines the effects of internal control mechanisms on the financial distress of publicly listed companies in China. Using t-test and Logistic regression analysis, we investigated the following aspects: ownership by top managers and the CEO, the number of directors, the percentage of inside directors, CEO duality, and ownership concentration. The empirical tests indicate a lower probability of financial distress when ownership by top managers and that by the CEO are higher. The evidence also shows that a combination of two parts, the CEO and the chairman of the board, may influence the internal control system of a publicly listed companies.

  13. Topological structures of vortex flow on a flying wing aircraft, controlled by a nanosecond pulse discharge plasma actuator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Hai; Shi, Zhiwei; Cheng, Keming; Wei, Dechen; Li, Zheng; Zhou, Danjie; He, Haibo; Yao, Junkai; He, Chengjun

    2016-06-01

    Vortex control is a thriving research area, particularly in relation to flying wing or delta wing aircraft. This paper presents the topological structures of vortex flow on a flying wing aircraft controlled by a nanosecond plasma dielectric barrier discharge actuator. Experiments, including oil flow visualization and two-dimensional particle image velocimetry (PIV), were conducted in a wind tunnel with a Reynolds number of 0.5 × 106. Both oil and PIV results show that the vortex can be controlled. Oil topological structures on the aircraft surface coincide with spatial PIV flow structures. Both indicate vortex convergence and enhancement when the plasma discharge is switched on, leading to a reduced region of separated flow.

  14. In-flight measurements of aircraft propeller deformation by means of an autarkic fast rotating imaging system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stasicki, Boleslaw; Boden, Fritz

    2015-03-01

    The non-intrusive in-flight measurement of the deformation and pitch of the aircraft propeller is a demanding task. The idea of an imaging system integrated and rotating with the aircraft propeller has been presented on the 30th International Congress on High-Speed Imaging and Photonics (ICHSIP30) in 2012. Since then this system has been constructed and tested in the laboratory as well as on the real aircraft. In this paper we outline the principle of Image Pattern Correlation Technique (IPCT) based on Digital Image Correlation (DIC) and describe the construction of a dedicated autarkic 3D camera system placed on the investigated propeller and rotating at its full speed. Furthermore, the results of the first ground and in-flight tests are shown and discussed. This development has been found by the European Commission within the 7th frame project AIM2 (contract no. 266107).

  15. Efficient super-resolution image reconstruction applied to surveillance video captured by small unmanned aircraft systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Qiang; Schultz, Richard R.; Chu, Chee-Hung Henry

    2008-04-01

    The concept surrounding super-resolution image reconstruction is to recover a highly-resolved image from a series of low-resolution images via between-frame subpixel image registration. In this paper, we propose a novel and efficient super-resolution algorithm, and then apply it to the reconstruction of real video data captured by a small Unmanned Aircraft System (UAS). Small UAS aircraft generally have a wingspan of less than four meters, so that these vehicles and their payloads can be buffeted by even light winds, resulting in potentially unstable video. This algorithm is based on a coarse-to-fine strategy, in which a coarsely super-resolved image sequence is first built from the original video data by image registration and bi-cubic interpolation between a fixed reference frame and every additional frame. It is well known that the median filter is robust to outliers. If we calculate pixel-wise medians in the coarsely super-resolved image sequence, we can restore a refined super-resolved image. The primary advantage is that this is a noniterative algorithm, unlike traditional approaches based on highly-computational iterative algorithms. Experimental results show that our coarse-to-fine super-resolution algorithm is not only robust, but also very efficient. In comparison with five well-known super-resolution algorithms, namely the robust super-resolution algorithm, bi-cubic interpolation, projection onto convex sets (POCS), the Papoulis-Gerchberg algorithm, and the iterated back projection algorithm, our proposed algorithm gives both strong efficiency and robustness, as well as good visual performance. This is particularly useful for the application of super-resolution to UAS surveillance video, where real-time processing is highly desired.

  16. Standard Test Method for Stress-Corrosion of Titanium Alloys by Aircraft Engine Cleaning Materials

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2006-01-01

    1.1 This test method establishes a test procedure for determining the propensity of aircraft turbine engine cleaning and maintenance materials for causing stress corrosion cracking of titanium alloy parts. 1.2 The evaluation is conducted on representative titanium alloys by determining the effect of contact with cleaning and maintenance materials on tendency of prestressed titanium alloys to crack when subsequently heated to elevated temperatures. 1.3 Test conditions are based upon manufacturer's maximum recommended operating solution concentration. This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. For specific precautionary statements, see and .

  17. Aircraft measurements of O3, HNO3, and N2O in the winter Arctic lower stratosphere during the Stratosphere-Troposphere Experiment by Aircraft Measurements (STREAM) 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bregman, A.; van Velthoven, P. F. J.; Wienhold, F. G.; Fischer, H.; Zenker, T.; Waibel, A.; Frenzel, A.; Arnold, F.; Harris, G. W.; Bolder, M. J. A.; Lelieveld, J.

    1995-06-01

    Simultaneous in situ measurements of O3, HNO3, and N2O were performed in the Arctic (68°-74°N) lower stratosphere during February 1993 on board a Cessna Citation aircraft up to 12.5 km altitude, during the first Stratosphere-Troposphere Experiment by Aircraft Measurements (STREAM) campaign. Strong variations in the concentrations, distributions, and ratios of these trace gases were found from the maximum altitude down to the tropopause. Close to the tropopause, vortex air was present with relatively low N2O concentrations. The observed N2O-HNO3 relation agrees with earlier measurements of total nitrogen and N2O inside the vortex, suggesting subsidence of vortex air across the bottom of the vortex. This air also contained low O3 concentrations relative to N2O, indicating enhanced O3 loss by chemical reactions involving stratospheric particles. Based on trajectory calculations and assuming a potential temperature cooling rate of 0.6 K d-1, we estimate an O3 loss of 4-7 ppbv d-1 (0.9-1.2% d-1), in the Arctic lower stratosphere for the period January-February 1993. Air parcels originating from middle latitudes, containing relatively low O3 and N2O concentrations, may have originated from the vortex earlier in the winter. In addition, the results also show high HNO3 concentrations relative to O3 and N2O. Air parcels originating from high latitudes may have been enriched in HNO3 by sedimentation and evaporation of nitric acid containing particles, which would explain the relatively high HNO3 concentrations and HNO3/O3 ratios measured. Heterogeneous chemistry on sulfuric acid particles, probably enhanced in concentration by gravitational settling of the Pinatubo aerosol, is the most plausible explanation for the observed high HNO3 concentrations relative to N2O in air parcels originating from midlatitudes.

  18. Protection by Face Masks against H1N1 Virus on Trans-Pacific Passenger Aircraft, 2009

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-07-10

    Dr. Mike Miller reads an abridged version of the Emerging Infectious Diseases’ article, Protection by Face Masks against H1N1 Virus on Trans-Pacific Passenger Aircraft, 2009.  Created: 7/10/2013 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 7/11/2013.

  19. The Impacts of State Ownership on Information Asymmetry: Evidence from an Emerging Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jongmoo Jay Choi

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the effect of corporate ownership on information asymmetry as measured by bid-ask spread in the emerging markets of China. Government ownership has significant and positive impacts on bid-ask spread during the period 1995–2000, but disappears afterward during 2001–2003. The finding that state ownership raised bid-ask spread in the early period is consistent with recent studies on emerging markets including China, which indicate that firms with higher state ownership tend to have a greater deviation between cash flow rights and control rights (eg, Wei et al., 2005. This implies that lower state ownership is associated with lower information asymmetry in the market, an economic consequence of significant economic reform and privatization regarding the market microstructure. However, with more active control transfers and emergence of private controlling shareholders, regulatory changes in ownership structure and corporate governance mechanisms, and thus an improved legal and institutional environment, the link between the government ownership and information asymmetry turns to be insignificant in the later period. These results have important implications for transparency and information disclosure policies as well as privatization in emerging markets.

  20. The Impacts of State Ownership on Information Asymmetry:Evidence from an Emerging Market

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jongmoo Jay Choi; Heibatollah Sami; Haiyan Zhou

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the effect of corporate ownership on information asymmetry as measured by bid-ask spread in the emerging markets of China. Government ownership has significant and positive impacts on bid-ask spread during the period 1995-2000, but disappears afterward during 2001-2003. The finding that state ownership raised bid-ask spread in the early period is consistent with recent studies on emerging markets including China, which indicate that firms with higher state ownership tend to have a greater deviation between cash flow rights and control rights(eg, Wei et al., 2005). This implies that lower state ownership is associated with lower information asymmetry in the market, an economic consequence of significant economic reform and privatization regarding the market microstructure. However, with more active control transfers andemergence of private controlling shareholders, regulatory changes in ownership structure and corporate governance mechanisms, and thus an improved legal and institutional environment, the link between the government ownership and information asymmetry turns to be insignificant in the later period. These results have important implications for transparency and information disclosure policies as well as privatization in emerging markets.

  1. Employee Ownership, Employee Attitudes, and Firm Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Douglas Kruse; Joseph Blasi

    1995-01-01

    Employee ownership in U.S. companies has grown substantially in the past 20 years. This paper reviews and provides some meta-analyses on the accumulated evidence concerning the prevalence, causes, and effects of employee ownership, covering 25 studies of employee attitudes and behaviors, and 27 studies of productivity and profitability (with both cross-sectional and pre/post comparisons). Attitudinal and behavioral studies tend to find higher employee commitment among employee-owners but mixe...

  2. Aircraft Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowers, Albion H. (Inventor); Uden, Edward (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    The present invention is an aircraft wing design that creates a bell shaped span load, which results in a negative induced drag (induced thrust) on the outer portion of the wing; such a design obviates the need for rudder control of an aircraft.

  3. Variable Geometry Aircraft Wing Supported by Struts And/Or Trusses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melton, John E. (Inventor); Dudley, Michael R. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    The present invention provides an aircraft having variable airframe geometry for accommodating efficient flight. The aircraft includes an elongated fuselage, an oblique wing pivotally connected with said fuselage, a wing pivoting mechanism connected with said oblique wing and said fuselage, and a brace operably connected between said oblique wing and said fuselage. The present invention also provides an aircraft having an elongated fuselage, an oblique wing pivotally connected with said fuselage, a wing pivoting mechanism connected with said oblique wing and said fuselage, a propulsion system pivotally connected with said oblique wing, and a brace operably connected between said propulsion system and said fuselage.

  4. Gun ownership and social gun culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalesan, Bindu; Villarreal, Marcos D; Keyes, Katherine M; Galea, Sandro

    2016-06-01

    We assessed gun ownership rates in 2013 across the USA and the association between exposure to a social gun culture and gun ownership. We used data from a nationally representative sample of 4000 US adults, from 50 states and District of Columbia, aged >18 years to assess gun ownership and social gun culture performed in October 2013. State-level firearm policy information was obtained from the Brady Law Center and Injury Prevention and Control Center. One-third of Americans reported owning a gun, ranging from 5.2% in Delaware to 61.7% in Alaska. Gun ownership was 2.25-times greater among those reporting social gun culture (PR=2.25, 95% CI 2.02 to 2.52) than those who did not. In conclusion, we found strong association between social gun culture and gun ownership. Gun cultures may need to be considered for public health strategies that aim to change gun ownership in the USA.

  5. An investigation into the impact of ownership structure on the level of cash holdings in the companies accepted in Tehran Stock Exchange Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaveh Azinfar

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Liquidity of a company is the ability to meet cash commitments before the deadline. Selecting from cash spending or cash holdings by the managers is of great importance for the owners of the company. Various factors can be effective in determining the level of company’s liquidity. Ownership structure of companies is one of these factors which may lead to companies’ behavioral change. This change is derived from monitoring activities by different investors in this structure. This study was an attempt to assess the impact of ownership structure on the level of companies’ cash holdings in creating appropriate ownership in connection with creating the level of cash holdings. In this study, ownership structure has been categorized into four types of institutional ownership, managerial ownership, corporate ownership, and foreign ownership. In this regard, the impact of institutional, managerial, corporate, and foreign variables on the level of cash holdings has been investigated. For every category of ownership, a hypothesis was proposed and its impact on the level of cash holdings was tested. The statistical sample of the research included 96 companies from 2004 to 2013. The statistical method of testing the hypotheses in this study was multiple regressions through panel data. The findings revealed a significant relationship between institutional, managerial, and foreign ownership and the level of cash holdings; however, there was no significant relationship between corporate ownership of the company and the level of cash holdings.

  6. Development and testing of advanced redundancy management methods for the F-8 DFBW aircraft. [failure detection for Digital Fly By Wire systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deyst, J.; Deckert, J.; Desai, M.; Willsky, A.

    1977-01-01

    A reliable aircraft sensor failure detection and identification (FDI) technique is presented. The technique exploits the kinematic and dynamic relationships that exist between variables measured by dissimilar sensors to identify failures in the sensors. The method is applied to management of dual redundant sensors on the NASA F-8 digital fly-by-wire (DFBW) research aircraft.

  7. 3D pressure imaging of an aircraft propeller blade-tip flow by phase-locked stereoscopic PIV

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ragni, D.; Van Oudheusden, B.W.; Scarano, F.

    2011-01-01

    The flow field at the tip region of a scaled DHC Beaver aircraft propeller, running at transonic speed, has been investigated by means of a multi-plane stereoscopic particle image velocimetry setup. Velocity fields, phase-locked with the blade rotational motion, are acquired across several planes pe

  8. Braking performance of aircraft tires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Satish K.

    This paper brings under one cover the subject of aircraft braking performance and a variety of related phenomena that lead to aircraft hydroplaning, overruns, and loss of directional control. Complex processes involving tire deformation, tire slipping, and fluid pressures in the tire-runway contact area develop the friction forces for retarding the aircraft; this paper describes the physics of these processes. The paper reviews the past and present research efforts and concludes that the most effective way to combat the hazards associated with aircraft landings and takeoffs on contaminated runways is by measuring and displaying in realtime the braking performance parameters in the aircraft cockpit.

  9. Winter temperature, salinity, oxygen, nutrients and isotopes data sampled by aircraft, April 2003 (NODC Accession 0059129)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Winter sampling was performed in the eastern area of the Shelf-Basin Interactions Project using aircraft. Flights began on 1 April 2003 and finished on 15 April....

  10. Predicting Visibility of Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Andrew; Ramirez, Cesar V.; Salud, Ellen

    2009-01-01

    Visual detection of aircraft by human observers is an important element of aviation safety. To assess and ensure safety, it would be useful to be able to be able to predict the visibility, to a human observer, of an aircraft of specified size, shape, distance, and coloration. Examples include assuring safe separation among aircraft and between aircraft and unmanned vehicles, design of airport control towers, and efforts to enhance or suppress the visibility of military and rescue vehicles. We have recently developed a simple metric of pattern visibility, the Spatial Standard Observer (SSO). In this report we examine whether the SSO can predict visibility of simulated aircraft images. We constructed a set of aircraft images from three-dimensional computer graphic models, and measured the luminance contrast threshold for each image from three human observers. The data were well predicted by the SSO. Finally, we show how to use the SSO to predict visibility range for aircraft of arbitrary size, shape, distance, and coloration. PMID:19462007

  11. Nuisance Caused by Aircraft Noise in the Vicinity of Tehran International Airport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stan Frost

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available Noise measurement and social questionnaire surveys in three residential areas around Mehrabad International Airport (Tehran, Iran were based upon randomly selected dwellings in each area. A total of 193 individuals responded and many are annoyed and dissatisfied with aircraft noise and in consequence they would like to move. Aircraft noise is the strongest negative environmental factor affecting the residents in the vicinity of Mehrabad Airport and it could be a hazard for their health.

  12. A high precision instrument to measure angular and binocular deviation introduced by aircraft windscreens by using a shadow casting technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shivananju, B. N.; Yamdagni, S. [Department of Instrumentation and Applied Physics, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012 (India); Vasu, R. M. [Department of Instrumentation and Applied Physics, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012 (India); Applied Photonics Initiative, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012 (India); Asokan, S. [Department of Instrumentation and Applied Physics, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012 (India); Applied Photonics Initiative, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012 (India); Robert Bosch Centre for Cyber Physical Systems, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012 (India)

    2012-12-15

    Objects viewed through transparent sheets with residual non-parallelism and irregularity appear shifted and distorted. This distortion is measured in terms of angular and binocular deviation of an object viewed through the transparent sheet. The angular and binocular deviations introduced are particularly important in the context of aircraft windscreens and canopies as they can interfere with decision making of pilots especially while landing, leading to accidents. In this work, we have developed an instrument to measure both the angular and binocular deviations introduced by transparent sheets. This instrument is especially useful in the qualification of aircraft windscreens and canopies. It measures the deviation in the geometrical shadow cast by a periodic dot pattern trans-illuminated by the distorted light beam from the transparent test specimen compared to the reference pattern. Accurate quantification of the shift in the pattern is obtained by cross-correlating the reference shadow pattern with the specimen shadow pattern and measuring the location of the correlation peak. The developed instrument is handy to use and computes both angular and binocular deviation with an accuracy of less than {+-}0.1 mrad ( Almost-Equal-To 0.036 mrad) and has an excellent repeatability with an error of less than 2%.

  13. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in Not Provided, Southwest Georgia RDC.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset, was produced all or in part from Hardcopy Maps information as of Not Provided. Data by this publisher are often provided in...

  14. Parcels and Land Ownership, 1s8w-36, Published in 2002, Duchesne County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2002. It is described as '1s8w-36'. Data by this publisher are...

  15. Parcels and Land Ownership, 1s3w-merged, Published in 2001, Duchesne County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2001. It is described as '1s3w-merged'. Data by this publisher are...

  16. Parcels and Land Ownership, Parcels, parcel numbers, parcel dimensions, parcel annotation, Published in unknown, Grinnell College.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of unknown. It is described as 'Parcels, parcel numbers, parcel dimensions, parcel annotation'. Data by this publisher are...

  17. Parcels and Land Ownership, Parcels, subparcels, Published in 2009, Central College.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset, was produced all or in part from Not Provided information as of 2009. It is described as 'Parcels, subparcels'. Data by this...

  18. Parcels and Land Ownership, Parcels2007, Published in 2007, Millard County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2007. It is described as 'Parcels2007'. Data by this publisher are...

  19. Parcels and Land Ownership, 1s7w-31, Published in 2002, Duchesne County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2002. It is described as '1s7w-31'. Data by this publisher are...

  20. Parcels and Land Ownership, 1n4w-indian, Published in 2002, Duchesne County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2002. It is described as '1n4w-indian'. Data by this publisher are...

  1. Parcels and Land Ownership, 1s9w-24, Published in 2002, Duchesne County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2002. It is described as '1s9w-24'. Data by this publisher are...

  2. Parcels and Land Ownership, 1n2w-36, Published in 2002, Duchesne County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2002. It is described as '1n2w-36'. Data by this publisher are often provided in UTM coordinate system; in a Transverse...

  3. Parcels and Land Ownership, CountyOwnedParcels0405, Published in 2005, Carbon County GIS.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2005. It is described as 'CountyOwnedParcels0405'. Data by this...

  4. Lightning hazards to aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corn, P. B.

    1978-01-01

    Lightning hazards and, more generally, aircraft static electricity are discussed by a representative for the Air Force Flight Dynamics Laboratory. An overview of these atmospheric electricity hazards to aircraft and their systems is presented with emphasis on electrical and electronic subsystems. The discussion includes reviewing some of the characteristics of lightning and static electrification, trends in weather and lightning-related mishaps, some specific threat mechanisms and susceptible aircraft subsystems and some of the present technology gaps. A roadmap (flow chart) is presented to show the direction needed to address these problems.

  5. 32 CFR 705.5 - Taking of photos on board naval ships, aircraft and installations by members of the general public.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Taking of photos on board naval ships, aircraft... Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY UNITED STATES NAVY REGULATIONS AND OFFICIAL RECORDS PUBLIC AFFAIRS REGULATIONS § 705.5 Taking of photos on board naval ships, aircraft and installations by...

  6. 31 CFR 515.558 - Bunkering of Cuban vessels and fueling of Cuban aircraft by American-owned or controlled foreign...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bunkering of Cuban vessels and... Licensing Policy § 515.558 Bunkering of Cuban vessels and fueling of Cuban aircraft by American-owned or... in transactions ordinarily incident to the bunkering of vessels and to the fueling of aircraft...

  7. Solar thermal aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Charles L.

    2007-09-18

    A solar thermal powered aircraft powered by heat energy from the sun. A heat engine, such as a Stirling engine, is carried by the aircraft body for producing power for a propulsion mechanism, such as a propeller. The heat engine has a thermal battery in thermal contact with it so that heat is supplied from the thermal battery. A solar concentrator, such as reflective parabolic trough, is movably connected to an optically transparent section of the aircraft body for receiving and concentrating solar energy from within the aircraft. Concentrated solar energy is collected by a heat collection and transport conduit, and heat transported to the thermal battery. A solar tracker includes a heliostat for determining optimal alignment with the sun, and a drive motor actuating the solar concentrator into optimal alignment with the sun based on a determination by the heliostat.

  8. The stable isotopic composition of molecular hydrogen in the tropopause region probed by the CARIBIC aircraft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Batenburg

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available More than 450 air samples that were collected in the upper troposphere – lower stratosphere (UTLS region by the CARIBIC aircraft (Civil Aircraft for the Regular Investigation of the atmosphere Based on an Instrument Container have been analyzed for molecular hydrogen (H2 mixing ratios (χ(H2 and H2 isotopic composition (deuterium content, δD.

    More than 120 of the analyzed samples contained air from the lowermost stratosphere (LMS. These show that χ(H2 does not vary appreciably with O3-derived height above the thermal tropopause (TP, whereas δD does increase with height. The isotope enrichment is caused by H2 production and destruction processes that enrich the stratospheric H2 reservoir in deuterium (D; the exact shapes of the profiles are mainly determined by mixing of stratospheric with tropospheric air. Tight negative correlations are found between δD and the mixing ratios of methane (χ(CH4 and nitrous oxide (χ(N2O, as a result of the relatively long lifetimes of these three species. The correlations are described by δD[‰]=−0.35 · χ(CH4[ppb]+768 and δD[‰]=−1.90· χ(N2O[ppb]+745. These correlations are similar to previously published results and likely hold globally for the LMS.

    Samples that were collected from the Indian subcontinent up to 40° N before, during and after the summer monsoon season show no significant seasonal change in χ(H2, but δD is up to 12.3‰ lower in the July, August and September monsoon samples. This δD decrease is correlated with the χ(CH4 increase in these samples. The significant correlation with χ(CH4 and the absence of a perceptible χ(H2 increase that accompanies the δD decrease indicates that microbial production of

  9. Parcels and Land Ownership, Parcel boundaries (both surveyed and for tax purposes) maintained by the department of Pulbic Works and Assessor's Office, Published in 2007, 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, County of Los Angeles.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset, published at 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Published Reports/Deeds information as of 2007. It...

  10. Tropospheric ozone variability during the East Asian summer monsoon as observed by satellite (IASI), aircraft (MOZAIC) and ground stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safieddine, Sarah; Boynard, Anne; Hao, Nan; Huang, Fuxiang; Wang, Lili; Ji, Dongsheng; Barret, Brice; Ghude, Sachin D.; Coheur, Pierre-François; Hurtmans, Daniel; Clerbaux, Cathy

    2016-08-01

    Satellite measurements from the thermal Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI), aircraft data from the MOZAIC/IAGOS project, as well as observations from ground-based stations, are used to assess the tropospheric ozone (O3) variability during the East Asian Summer Monsoon (EASM). Six years 2008-2013 of IASI data analysis reveals the ability of the instrument to detect the onset and the progression of the monsoon seen by a decrease in the tropospheric 0-6 km O3 column due to the EASM, and to reproduce this decrease from one year to the other. The year-to-year variability is found to be mainly dependent on meteorology. Focusing on the period of May-August 2011, taken as an example year, IASI data show clear inverse relationship between tropospheric 0-6 km O3 on one hand and meteorological parameters such as cloud cover, relative humidity and wind speed, on the other hand. Aircraft data from the MOZAIC/IAGOS project for the EASM of 2008-2013 are used to validate the IASI data and to assess the effect of the monsoon on the vertical distribution of the tropospheric O3 at different locations. Results show good agreement with a correlation coefficient of 0.73 (12 %) between the 0-6 km O3 column derived from IASI and aircraft data. IASI captures very well the inter-annual variation of tropospheric O3 observed by the aircraft data over the studied domain. Analysis of vertical profiles of the aircraft data shows a decrease in the tropospheric O3 that is more important in the free troposphere than in the boundary layer and at 10-20° N than elsewhere. Ground station data at different locations in India and China show a spatiotemporal dependence on meteorology during the monsoon, with a decrease up to 22 ppbv in Hyderabad, and up to 5 ppbv in the North China Plain.

  11. Biodegradation of international jet A-1 aviation fuel by microorganisms isolated from aircraft tank and joint hydrant storage systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itah, A Y; Brooks, A A; Ogar, B O; Okure, A B

    2009-09-01

    Microorganisms contaminating international Jet A-1 aircraft fuel and fuel preserved in Joint Hydrant Storage Tank (JHST) were isolated, characterized and identified. The isolates were Bacillus subtillis, Bacillus megaterium, Flavobacterium oderatum, Sarcina flava, Micrococcus varians, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus licheniformis, Bacillus cereus and Bacillus brevis. Others included Candida tropicalis, Candida albicans, Saccharomyces estuari, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Schizosaccharomyces pombe, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus fumigatus, Cladosporium resinae, Penicillium citrinum and Penicillium frequentans. The viable plate count of microorganisms in the Aircraft Tank ranged from 1.3 (+/-0.01) x 104 cfu/mL to 2.2 (+/-1.6) x 104 cfu/mL for bacteria and 102 cfu/mL to 1.68 (+/-0.32) x 103 cfu/mL for fungi. Total bacterial counts of 1.79 (+/-0.2) x 104 cfu/mL to 2.58 (+/-0.04) x 104 cfu/mL and total fungal count of 2.1 (+/-0.1) x 103 cfu/mL to 2.28 (+/-0.5) x 103 cfu/mL were obtained for JHST. Selected isolates were re-inoculated into filter sterilized aircraft fuels and biodegradation studies carried out. After 14 days incubation, Cladosporium resinae exhibited the highest degradation rate with a percentage weight loss of 66 followed by Candida albicans (60.6) while Penicillium citrinum was the least degrader with a weight loss of 41.6%. The ability of the isolates to utilize the fuel as their sole source of carbon and energy was examined and found to vary in growth profile between the isolates. The results imply that aviation fuel could be biodegraded by hydrocarbonoclastic microorganisms. To avert a possible deterioration of fuel quality during storage, fuel pipe clogging and failure, engine component damage, wing tank corrosion and aircraft disaster, efficient routine monitoring of aircraft fuel systems is advocated.

  12. "Is there a gun in the home?" Assessing the risks of gun ownership in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinholt, Ellen M; Mitchell, Joshua D; Butler, Jane H; Kumar, Harjinder

    2014-06-01

    An important ethical and safety concern that geriatricians, primary care providers, and home health professionals need to address is gun ownership by elderly adults. Those aged 65 and older now have the highest rate of gun ownership in America, and they also have a high prevalence of depression and suicide. Dementia can add additional layers of risk. Even older gun owners who are otherwise intellectually intact may benefit from information about gun safety with the increasing numbers of children being cared for by grandparents. Health professionals should ask patients, "Is there a gun in the home?" in the clinic and during home visits. Healthcare professionals must have knowledge and skills to address safe gun ownership in elderly adults. The 5 L's (Locked, Loaded, Little children, feeling Low, Learned owner) will assist professionals in addressing all aspects of safe ownership.

  13. Negotiating ownership: Understanding the cultivation of student ownership in an urban science video project

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Tara Breckenridge

    The intention of this study is to define student ownership in an informal science learning setting in a low performing middle school in New York City, to investigate what characterizes such ownership, and to determine how to cultivate it. In addition, I am interested in investigating the effects of the students' sense of ownership on their sense of self, in relation to the study and the practice of science and the role of race in power in framing the context in which ownership is cultivated. This is a qualitative study; specifically I apply a critical ethnography framework for both data collection an analysis. This study is based in an informal science video project lasting three years in which two groups of sixth and seventh grade students, made three movies about their perceptions of science, who they felt knew science, and how science related to their lives. In chapter IV, I explain that students' expression of ownership is visible via five main themes. (1) Students viewed themselves in relation to science in ways that are positive, empowering, and full of self-awareness. (2) Students actively and purposefully chose to expend their capital. (3) Students expressed pride around the multiple contexts. (4) Students used the video project to effect positive changes in their lives. (5) Students expressed positive and realistic vision for the role that science played in their lives. In chapter V, I explain that student agency and student ownership share a dialectic relationship in which student agency must be valued to cultivate student ownership and the cultivation of student ownership expands student agency. Lastly, in chapter VII, I explore the role race and power play in framing the context in which ownership is cultivated. Specifically, I argue that in order to cultivate ownership in high-poverty urban science learning environments, the teacher in this environment must be critically reflective of her/his practice and pay particular attention to issues of race and

  14. Aircraft systems design methodology and dispatch reliability prediction

    OpenAIRE

    Bineid, Mansour

    2005-01-01

    Aircraft despatch reliability was the main subject of this research in the wider content of aircraft reliability. The factors effecting dispatch reliability, aircraft delay, causes of aircraft delays, and aircraft delay costs and magnitudes were examined. Delay cost elements and aircraft delay scenarios were also studied. It concluded that aircraft dispatch reliability is affected by technical and non-technical factors, and that the former are under the designer's control. It showed that ...

  15. Amphibious Aircraft

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A brief self composed research article on Amphibious Aircrafts discussing their use, origin and modern day applications along with their advantages and disadvantages...

  16. Secondary Privatisation: The Evolution of Ownership Structures of Privatised Enterprises

    OpenAIRE

    Barbara Blaszczyk; Richard Woodward

    2001-01-01

    This summary was prepared and edited by Barbara Blaszczyk and Richard Woodward of CASE - the Center for Social and Economic Research. In the project whose results are presented here, our team investigated the phenomenon of "secondary privatisation" (that is, the post-privatisation evolution of the ownership structures established as the result of initial privatisation) in three transition economies (the Czech Republic, Poland and Slovenia) in the years 1995-1999. Our research covered companie...

  17. Ownership by Science China Press; Copyright@2011 by Science China Press, Beijing,China and Springer-Verlag Heidelberg,Germany

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Submission of a manuscript implies: that the work described has not been published before (except in the form of an abstract or as part of a published lecture, review, or thesis); that it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere; that its publication has been approved by all

  18. Using history to help refine international business theory: ownership advantages and the eclectic paradigm.

    OpenAIRE

    da Silva Lopes, T.

    2010-01-01

    In John Dunning’s eclectic paradigm firms need to have ownership, location, and internalisation advantages in order to cross borders and engage in foreign direct investment. By drawing on historical evidence on the evolution of a group of leading marketing-based multinationals in consumer goods, this paper claims that, despite its richness, the eclectic paradigm, and in particular the concept of ‘ownership advantages’, needs to be revised and extended, to take into account different levels of...

  19. RFID Ownership Transfer with Positive Secrecy Capacity Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Munilla

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available RFID ownership transfer protocols (OTPs transfer tag ownership rights. Recently, there has been considerable interest in such protocols; however, guaranteeing privacy for symmetric-key settings without trusted third parties (TTPs is a challenge still unresolved. In this paper, we address this issue and show that it can be solved by using channels with positive secrecy capacity. We implement these channels with noisy tags and provide practical values, thus proving that perfect secrecy is theoretically possible. We then define a communication model that captures spatiotemporal events and describe a first example of symmetric-key based OTP that: (i is formally secure in the proposed communication model and (ii achieves privacy with a noisy tag wiretap channel without TTPs.

  20. Optimal Combination of Aircraft Maintenance Tasks by a Novel Simplex Optimization Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huaiyuan Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Combining maintenance tasks into work packages is not only necessary for arranging maintenance activities, but also critical for the reduction of maintenance cost. In order to optimize the combination of maintenance tasks by fuzzy C-means clustering algorithm, an improved fuzzy C-means clustering model is introduced in this paper. In order to reduce the dimension, variables representing clustering centers are eliminated in the improved cluster model. So the improved clustering model can be directly solved by the optimization method. To optimize the clustering model, a novel nonlinear simplex optimization method is also proposed in this paper. The novel method searches along all rays emitting from the center to each vertex, and those search directions are rightly n+1 positive basis. The algorithm has both theoretical convergence and good experimental effect. Taking the optimal combination of some maintenance tasks of a certain aircraft as an instance, the novel simplex optimization method and the clustering model both exhibit excellent performance.

  1. Tropical Cyclone Precipitation Types and Electrical Field Information Observed by High Altitude Aircraft Instrumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hood, Robbie E.; Blakeslee, Richard; Cecil, Daniel; LaFontaine, Frank J.; Heymsfield, Gerald; Marks, Frank

    2004-01-01

    During the 1998 and 200 1 hurricane seasons of the Atlantic Ocean Basin, the Advanced Microwave Precipitation Radiometer (AMPR), the ER-2 Doppler (EDOP) radar, and the Lightning Instrument Package (LIP) were flown aboard the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) ER-2 high altitude aircraft as part of the Third Convection And Moisture Experiment (CAMEX-3) and the Fourth Convection And Moisture Experiment (CAMEX-4). Several hurricanes and tropical storms were sampled during these experiments. A rainfall screening technique has been developed using AMPR passive microwave observations of these tropical cyclones (TC) collected at frequencies of 10.7, 19.35,37.1, and 85.5 GHz and verified using vertical profiles of EDOP reflectivity and lower altitude horizontal reflectivity scam collected by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOM) P-3 radar. Matching the rainfall classification results with coincident electrical field information collected by the LIP readily identifl convective rain regions within the TC precipitation fields. Strengths and weaknesses of the rainfall classification procedure will be discussed as well as its potential as a real-time analysis tool for monitoring vertical updrafl strength and convective intensity from a remotely operated or uninhabited aerial vehicle.

  2. Essentials of aircraft armaments

    CERN Document Server

    Kaushik, Mrinal

    2017-01-01

    This book aims to provide a complete exposure about armaments from their design to launch from the combat aircraft. The book details modern ammunition and their tactical roles in warfare. The proposed book discusses aerodynamics, propulsion, structural as well as navigation, control, and guidance of aircraft armament. It also introduces the various types of ammunition developed by different countries and their changing trends. The book imparts knowledge in the field of design, and development of aircraft armaments to aerospace engineers and covers the role of the United Nations in peacekeeping and disarmament. The book will be very useful to researchers, students, and professionals working in design and manufacturing of aircraft armaments. The book will also serve air force and naval aspirants, and those interested in working on defence research and developments organizations. .

  3. Annoyance caused by advanced turboprop aircraft flyover noise: Comparison of different propeller configurations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mccurdy, David A.

    1991-01-01

    A laboratory experiment was conducted to compare the annoyance of flyover noise from advanced turboprop aircraft having different propeller configurations with the annoyance of conventional turboprop and turbofan aircraft flyover noise. A computer synthesis system was used to generate 40 realistic, time varying simulations of advanced turboprop takeoff noise. Of the 40 noises, single-rotating propeller configurations (8) and counter-rotating propeller configurations with an equal (12) and unequal (20) number of blades on each rotor were represented. Analyses found that advanced turboprops with single-rotating propellers were, on average, slightly less annoying than the other aircraft. Fundamental frequency and tone-to-broadband noise ratio affected annoyance response to advanced turboprops, but the effects varied with propeller configuration and noise metric. The addition of duration corrections and corrections for tones above 500 Hz to the noise measurement procedures improved annoyance prediction ability.

  4. Efficiency, ownership, and financing of hospitals: the case of Austria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czypionka, Thomas; Kraus, Markus; Mayer, Susanne; Röhrling, Gerald

    2014-12-01

    While standard economic theory posits that privately owned hospitals are more efficient than their public counterparts, no clear conclusion can yet be drawn for Austria in this regard. As previous Austrian efficiency studies rely on data from the 1990s only and are based on small hospital samples, the generalizability of these results is questionable. To examine the impact of ownership type on efficiency, we apply a Data Envelopment Analysis which extends the existing literature in two respects: first, it evaluates the efficiency of the Austrian acute care sector, using data on 128 public and private non-profit hospitals from the year 2010; second, it additionally focusses on the inpatient sector alone, thus increasing the comparability between hospitals. Overall, the results show that in Austria, private non-profit hospitals outperform public hospitals in terms of technical efficiency. A multiple regression analysis confirms the significant association between efficiency and ownership type. This conclusive result contrasts some international evidence and can most likely be attributed to differences in financial incentives for public and private non-profit hospitals in Austria. Therefore, by drawing on the example of the Austrian acute care hospital sector and existing literature on the German acute care hospital sector, we also discuss the impact of hospital financing systems and their incentives on efficiency. This paper thus also aims at providing a proof of principle, pointing out the importance of the respective market conditions when internationally comparing hospital efficiency by ownership type.

  5. The Two Dimensions of Housing Inequality in EuropeAre High Home Ownership Rates an Indicator of Low Housing Values?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathrin Kolb

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Exploring inequalities in home ownership as an important component of household wealth contributes to the understanding of social stratification in modern societies. We argue that inequalities in housing are not only manifested by differential access to home ownership, but also by differences in housing values, a somewhat neglected aspect in research hitherto. Applying data from the “Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe” (SHARE, we compare home ownership rates and housing values between 13 European countries. Our results suggest that housing inequality is indeed a two-dimensional phenomenon. Most surprisingly, migration status has a negative impact on the probability of home ownership in European countries, but not on the mean housing value. In addition, we exploratively study the relationship between these two dimensions of housing inequality. Our analyses show a negative though not significant relationship between home ownership rates and housing values.

  6. Sliding Perspectives: dissociating ownership from self-location during full body illusions in virtual reality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonella eMaselli

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Bodily illusions have been used to study bodily self-consciousness and disentangle its various components, among other the sense of ownership and self-location. Congruent multimodal correlations between the real body and a fake humanoid body can in fact trigger the illusion that the fake body is one’s own and/or disrupt the unity between the perceived self-location and the position of the physical body. However, the extent to which changes in self-location entail changes in ownership is still matter of debate. Here we address this problem with the support of immersive virtual reality. Congruent visuotactile stimulation was delivered on healthy participants to trigger full body illusions from different visual perspectives, each resulting in a different degree of overlap between real and virtual body. Changes in ownership and self-location were measured with novel self posture assessment tasks and with an adapted version of the cross-modal congruency task. We found that, despite their strong coupling, self-location and ownership can be selectively altered: self-location was affected when having a third person perspective over the virtual body, while ownership toward the virtual body was experienced only in the conditions with total or partial overlap. Thus, when the virtual body is seen in the far extra-personal space, changes in self-location were not coupled with changes in ownership. If a partial spatial overlap is present, ownership was instead typically experienced with a boosted change in the perceived self-location. We discussed results in the context of the current knowledge of the multisensory integration mechanisms contributing to self-body perception. We argue that changes in the perceived self-location are associated to the dynamical representation of peripersonal space encoded by visuotactile neurons. On the other hand, our results speak in favor of visuo-proprioceptive neuronal populations being a driving trigger in full body

  7. RESEARCH OF NIGHT LIGHT EFFECTS ON COLORIMETRIC CHARACTERISTICS OF IMAGE PERCEIVED BY THE PILOT IN AN AIRCRAFT COCKPIT

    OpenAIRE

    I. O. Zharinov; O. O. Zharinov

    2015-01-01

    Subject of Research. The influence of radiation spectra from the source of artificial night light on colorimetric characteristics of image perceived by the pilot in the aircraft cockpit has been studied. The image is displayed on the LCD screen of multifunctional color indication equipment unit. Night illumination of the cockpit is performed with the use of artificial lamps of red, green, blue and, rarely, white light. Method. Any given color to be displayed on the screen is perceived by an o...

  8. Market Liquidity, Analysts Coverage, and Ownership Concentration: Evidence From ASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majd Iskandrani

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This research investigates the association between analyst coverage, ownership concentration and market liquidity in Amman Stock Exchange (ASE. Using a unique dataset about information asymmetry, several proxies related to the information asymmetry are used to clarify certain aspects of market liquidity. In a sample of 131 companies with comprehensive data collected from company guides and Datastream, information asymmetry measured by analysts’ coverage is found to be an important determinant of market liquidity. In particular, market liquidity is lower where firms have larger analysts coverage and where firms are denoted with high degree of ownership concentration. The effect of analysts coverage is, however, found to be more marked in firms with high levels of ownership concentration. The study provides theoretical and empirical improvement of market liquidity literature towards an understanding of the information asymmetry proxies in ASE. Policymakers, after the 2007-2009 scandal have formed governance codes that highlight the importance of disclosure requirements as key responsibility of financial analysts. The link between analysts coverage and market liquidity established in this research provides evidence for insider investors on the roles and potential effectiveness of analysts in carrying this responsibility.

  9. Automatic aircraft recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hmam, Hatem; Kim, Jijoong

    2002-08-01

    Automatic aircraft recognition is very complex because of clutter, shadows, clouds, self-occlusion and degraded imaging conditions. This paper presents an aircraft recognition system, which assumes from the start that the image is possibly degraded, and implements a number of strategies to overcome edge fragmentation and distortion. The current vision system employs a bottom up approach, where recognition begins by locating image primitives (e.g., lines and corners), which are then combined in an incremental fashion into larger sets of line groupings using knowledge about aircraft, as viewed from a generic viewpoint. Knowledge about aircraft is represented in the form of whole/part shape description and the connectedness property, and is embedded in production rules, which primarily aim at finding instances of the aircraft parts in the image and checking the connectedness property between the parts. Once a match is found, a confidence score is assigned and as evidence in support of an aircraft interpretation is accumulated, the score is increased proportionally. Finally a selection of the resulting image interpretations with the highest scores, is subjected to competition tests, and only non-ambiguous interpretations are allowed to survive. Experimental results demonstrating the effectiveness of the current recognition system are given.

  10. 42 CFR 405.2444 - Change of ownership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... corporation into the center corporation does not constitute change of ownership.) (3) Leasing. The lease of... applicable health and safety standards. (2) Compliance with the ownership and financial interest...

  11. Carbon balance of China constrained by CONTRAIL aircraft CO2 measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Jiang

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Terrestrial CO2 flux estimates in China using atmospheric inversion method are beset with considerable uncertainties because very few atmospheric CO2 concentration measurements are available. In order to improve these estimates, nested atmospheric CO2 inversion during 2002–2008 is performed in this study using passenger aircraft-based CO2 measurements over Eurasia from the Comprehensive Observation Network for Trace gases by Airliner (CONTRAIL project. The inversion system includes 43 regions with a focus on China, and is based on the Bayesian synthesis approach and the TM5 transport model. The terrestrial ecosystem carbon flux modeled by the BEPS model and the ocean exchange simulated by the OPA-PISCES-T model are considered as the prior fluxes. The impacts of CONTRAIL CO2 data on inverted China terrestrial carbon fluxes are quantified, the improvement of the inverted fluxes after adding CONTRAIL CO2 data are rationed against climate factors and evaluated by comparing the simulated atmospheric CO2 concentrations with three independent surface CO2 measurements in China. Results show that with the addition of CONTRAIL CO2 data, the inverted carbon sink in China increases while those in South and Southeast Asia decrease. Meanwhile, the posterior uncertainties over these regions are all reduced. CONTRAIL CO2 data also have a large effect on the inter-annual variation of carbon sinks in China, leading to a better correlation between the carbon sink and the annual mean climate factors. Evaluations against the CO2 measurements at three sites in China also show that the CONTRAIL CO2 measurements have improved the inversion results.

  12. Carbon balance of China constrained by CONTRAIL aircraft CO2 measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, F.; Wang, H. M.; Chen, J. M.; Machida, T.; Zhou, L. X.; Ju, W. M.; Matsueda, H.; Sawa, Y.

    2014-09-01

    Terrestrial carbon dioxide (CO2) flux estimates in China using atmospheric inversion method are beset with considerable uncertainties because very few atmospheric CO2 concentration measurements are available. In order to improve these estimates, nested atmospheric CO2 inversion during 2002-2008 is performed in this study using passenger aircraft-based CO2 measurements over Eurasia from the Comprehensive Observation Network for Trace gases by Airliner (CONTRAIL) project. The inversion system includes 43 regions with a focus on China, and is based on the Bayesian synthesis approach and the TM5 transport model. The terrestrial ecosystem carbon flux modeled by the Boreal Ecosystems Productivity Simulator (BEPS) model and the ocean exchange simulated by the OPA-PISCES-T model are considered as the prior fluxes. The impacts of CONTRAIL CO2 data on inverted China terrestrial carbon fluxes are quantified, the improvement of the inverted fluxes after adding CONTRAIL CO2 data are rationed against climate factors and evaluated by comparing the simulated atmospheric CO2 concentrations with three independent surface CO2 measurements in China. Results show that with the addition of CONTRAIL CO2 data, the inverted carbon sink in China increases while those in South and Southeast Asia decrease. Meanwhile, the posterior uncertainties over these regions are all reduced (2-12%). CONTRAIL CO2 data also have a large effect on the inter-annual variation of carbon sinks in China, leading to a better correlation between the carbon sink and the annual mean climate factors. Evaluations against the CO2 measurements at three sites in China also show that the CONTRAIL CO2 measurements may have improved the inversion results.

  13. 76 FR 31465 - Airworthiness Directives; Various Aircraft Equipped With Rotax Aircraft Engines 912 A Series Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    ... Aircraft Equipped With Rotax Aircraft Engines 912 A Series Engine AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration...://www.rotax-aircraft-engines.com . You may review copies of the referenced service information at the... by examining the MCAI in the AD docket. Relevant Service Information Rotax Aircraft Engines...

  14. Linear regulator design for stochastic systems by a multiple time scales method. [with application to F-8 aircraft longitudinal control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teneketzis, D.; Sandell, N. R., Jr.

    1976-01-01

    This paper develops a hierarchically-structured, suboptimal controller for a linear stochastic system composed of fast and slow subsystems. It is proved that the controller is optimal in the limit as the separation of time scales of the subsystems becomes infinite. The methodology is illustrated by design of a controller to suppress the phugoid and short period modes of the longitudinal dynamics of the F-8 aircraft.

  15. Lifetime and structures of TLEs captured by high-speed camera on board aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Y.; Sanmiya, Y.; Sato, M.; Kudo, T.; Inoue, T.

    2012-12-01

    Temporal development of sprite streamer is the manifestation of the local electric field and conductivity. Therefore, in order to understand the mechanisms of sprite, which show a large variety in temporal and spatial structures, the detailed analysis of both fine and macro-structures with high time resolution are to be the key approach. However, due to the long distance from the optical equipments to the phenomena and to the contamination by aerosols, it's not easy to get clear images of TLEs on the ground. In the period of June 27 - July 10, 2011, a combined aircraft and ground-based campaign, in support of NHK Cosmic Shore project, was carried with two jet airplanes under collaboration between NHK, Japan Broadcasting Corporation, and universities. On 8 nights out of 16 standing-by, the jets took off from the airport near Denver, Colorado, and an airborne high speed camera captured over 60 TLE events at a frame rate of 8000-10,000 /sec. Some of them show several tens of streamers in one sprite event, which repeat splitting at the down-going end of streamers or beads. The velocities of the bottom ends and the variations of their brightness are traced carefully. It is found that the top velocity is maintained only for the brightest beads and others become slow just after the splitting. Also the whole luminosity of one sprite event has short time duration with rapid downward motion if the charge moment change of the parent lightning is large. The relationship between diffuse glows such as elves and sprite halos, and subsequent discrete structure of sprite streamers is also examined. In most cases the halo and elves seem to show inhomogenous structures before being accompanied by streamers, which develop to bright spots or streamers with acceleration of the velocity. Those characteristics of velocity and lifetime of TLEs provide key information of their generation mechanism.

  16. A new diagnostic method for separating airborne and structureborne noise radiated by plates with applications for propeller driven aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcgary, Michael C.

    1988-01-01

    The anticipated application of advanced turboprop propulsion systems is expected to increase the interior noise of future aircraft to unacceptably high levels. The absence of technically and economically feasible noise source-path diagnostic tools has been a prime obstacle in the development of efficient noise control treatments for propeller-driven aircraft. A new diagnostic method that permits the separation and prediction of the fully coherent airborne and structureborne components of the sound radiated by plates or thin shells has been developed. Analytical and experimental studies of the proposed method were performed on an aluminum plate. The results of the study indicate that the proposed method could be used in flight, and has fewer encumbrances than the other diagnostic tools currently available.

  17. Foreign bank ownership and household credit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beck, T.H.L.; Brown, M.

    2015-01-01

    Theoretical and empirical work on banking emphasizes the role of banks in overcoming information asymmetries and agency problems between borrowers and lenders. This paper investigates the importance of bank ownership in determining the sorts of customers that a bank serves, and consequently, the sor

  18. The Identity of Ownership on Firm Internationalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strandskov, Jesper; Madsen, Tage Koed; Pedersen, Bent

    2016-01-01

    The paper develops an integrative ownership-internationalization model that explores the influences of various owner types (i.e. investor-owned firms, family-owned firms, employee-owned firms, cooperative–owned firms, and state-owned firms) on firm internationalization. Based on a comparative...

  19. Beyond home ownership: housing, welfare and society

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ronald, R.; Elsinga, M.

    2012-01-01

    In context of ongoing transformations in housing markets and socioeconomic conditions, this book focuses on past, current and future roles of home ownership in social policies and welfare practices. It considers owner-occupied housing in terms of diverse meanings and manifestations, but in particula

  20. Changing Law and Ownership Patterns in Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ringe, Wolf-Georg

    German corporate governance and corporate law are currently undergoing a major change. The old “Deutschland AG”, a nationwide network of firms, banks, and directors, is eroding, ownership is diffusing and the shareholder body is becoming more international than ever. This paper presents new data...

  1. Capital Punishment, Gun Ownership, and Homicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleck, Gary

    1979-01-01

    Examines two controversial questions related to the problem of interpersonal violence in America: (1) Does use of the death penalty exert any measurable influence on the rate of homicide in the United States? (2) What relationship, if any, exists between the level of gun ownership and the level of homicide violence? (Author)

  2. Exploring Ownership in a Developmental Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noles, Nicholaus S.; Keil, Frank C.

    2011-01-01

    Ownership and economic behaviors are highly salient elements of the human social landscape. Indeed, the human world is literally constructed of property. Individuals perceive and manipulate a complex web of people and property that is largely invisible and abstract. In this chapter, the authors focus on drawing together information from a variety…

  3. Characterization of non-methane hydrocarbons in Asian summer monsoon outflow observed by the CARIBIC aircraft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. K. Baker

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Between April and December 2008 the CARIBIC commercial aircraft conducted monthly measurement flights between Frankfurt, Germany and Chennai, India. These flights covered the period of the Asian summer monsoon (June–September, during which enhancements in a number of atmospheric species were observed in monsoon outflow. In addition to in situ measurements of trace gases and aerosols, whole air samples were collected during the flights, and these were subsequently analyzed for a suite of trace gases that included the non-methane hydrocarbons. Non-methane hydrocarbons are relatively short-lived compounds and the large enhancements in their mixing ratios in the upper troposphere over Southwest Asia between June and September, sometimes more than double their spring and fall means, provides qualitative evidence for the influence of convectively uplifted boundary layer air. The particularly large enhancements of the combustion tracers benzene and ethyne, along with the similarity of their ratios to carbon monoxide and emission ratios from the burning of household biofuels, indicate a strong influence of biofuel burning to NMHC emissions in this region. Conversely, the ratios of ethane and propane to carbon monoxide, along with the ratio between i-butane and n-butane, indicate a significant source of these compounds from the use of LPG and natural gas, and comparison to previous campaigns suggests that this source could be increasing. Photochemical aging patterns of NMHCs showed that the CARIBIC samples were collected in two distinctly different regions of the monsoon circulation: a southern region where air masses had been recently influenced by low level contact and a northern region, where air parcels had spent substantial time in transit in the upper troposphere before being probed. Estimates of age using ratios of individual NMHCs have ranges of 3–6 d in the south and 9–12 d in the north.

  4. Non-intrusive measurement of emission indices. A new approach to the evaluation of infrared spectra emitted by aircraft engine exhaust gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindermeir, E.; Haschberger, P.; Tank, V. [Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V. (DLR), Wessling (Germany). Inst. fuer Optoelektronik

    1997-12-31

    A non-intrusive method is used to determine the emission indices of a research aircraft`s engine in-flight. The principle is based on the Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometer MIROR which was specifically designed and built for operation aboard aircrafts. This device measures the spectrum of the infrared radiation emitted by the hot exhaust gas under cruise conditions. From these spectra mixing ratios and emission indices can be derived. An extension to previously applied evaluation schemes is proposed: Whereas formerly the plume was assumed a homogeneous layer of gas, temperature and concentration profiles are now introduced to the evaluation procedure. (author) 5 refs.

  5. Chinese Housing Reform and Social Sustainability: Evidence from Post-Reform Home Ownership

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lishan Xiao

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Since 1978, China has undergone an institutional reform, from a welfare-oriented housing allocation system to a market-oriented one. But with high housing prices, affordability is a major obstacle to home ownership for Chinese citizens. Now, the government has started to change the goal of housing policy from present economic benefits to sustainable housing, so future generations will have a decent place to live. Housing is an important indicator for social stratification, and home ownership, which is an important component of social sustainability in the Chinese context, is influenced by multiple factors that vary across countries. Although China has a long tradition of home ownership, there is a lack of comprehensive research on post-reform housing inequality. By undertaking a large-scale field study in the city of Xiamen, our research explored to what extent home ownership varies across socio-economic classes, and improves understanding of the reasons behind home ownership inequality. It was discovered that people have a variety of resources from which housing can be obtained, and that commercial housing served as the primary housing source, although, due to path dependence, public housing still comprises an important source of housing, as well as self-built houses. A structural equation model (SEM was used to further explore the driving forces of home ownership inequality. The model indicated that hukou (household registration status has the strongest effect on home ownership, followed by education, with family income and occupation as less important factors. Along with income and education, home ownership has a direct effect on people’s perception of their own socio-economic status (SES. A probability model of home ownership was developed, based on logistic regression. Local families with higher levels of income and education with at least one member working in a publicly owned organization had a higher probability of home ownership

  6. Interaction of Aircraft Wakes From Laterally Spaced Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proctor, Fred H.

    2009-01-01

    Large Eddy Simulations are used to examine wake interactions from aircraft on closely spaced parallel paths. Two sets of experiments are conducted, with the first set examining wake interactions out of ground effect (OGE) and the second set for in ground effect (IGE). The initial wake field for each aircraft represents a rolled-up wake vortex pair generated by a B-747. Parametric sets include wake interactions from aircraft pairs with lateral separations of 400, 500, 600, and 750 ft. The simulation of a wake from a single aircraft is used as baseline. The study shows that wake vortices from either a pair or a formation of B-747 s that fly with very close lateral spacing, last longer than those from an isolated B-747. For OGE, the inner vortices between the pair of aircraft, ascend, link and quickly dissipate, leaving the outer vortices to decay and descend slowly. For the IGE scenario, the inner vortices ascend and last longer, while the outer vortices decay from ground interaction at a rate similar to that expected from an isolated aircraft. Both OGE and IGE scenarios produce longer-lasting wakes for aircraft with separations less than 600 ft. The results are significant because concepts to increase airport capacity have been proposed that assume either aircraft formations and/or aircraft pairs landing on very closely spaced runways.

  7. Trenton ICES: demonstration of a grid-connected integrated community energy system. Phase II. Volumes 1 and 2. Preliminary design of ICES system and analysis of community ownership

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-03-22

    Preliminary design and evaluation for the system has been carried out. The findings of this study are: (1) it is technically feasible, utilizing commercially available hardware; (2) under utility ownership and operation, it will not be economically competitive with conventional alternatives for heating and cooling buildings (analysis contained in companion report under separate cover); (3) under utility ownership and operation, no restrictions have been identified that would prevent the project from proceeding; (4) under community ownership, preliminary analysis indicates that thermal energy produced by Trenton ICES will be approximately 12 percent less expensive than thermal energy produced by oil-fired boilers; and (5) a review and update of institutional analyses performed during Phase 2 has identified no factors that would preclude community ownership and operation of the Trenton ICES. The background data produced for the analysis of the Trenton ICES based on utility ownership and operation can, in large part, be used as the bases for a detailed analysis of community ownership.

  8. LCC-OPS: Life Cycle Cost Application in Aircraft Operations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suwondo, E.

    2007-01-01

    Observation of current practices in aircraft operations and maintenance shows limited consideration of cost savings applied by aircraft modifications, maintenance program optimisation and aircraft selection. This is due to hidden (maintenance dependent) costs and difficulties in quantifying the util

  9. Scheduling of an aircraft fleet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paltrinieri, Massimo; Momigliano, Alberto; Torquati, Franco

    1992-01-01

    Scheduling is the task of assigning resources to operations. When the resources are mobile vehicles, they describe routes through the served stations. To emphasize such aspect, this problem is usually referred to as the routing problem. In particular, if vehicles are aircraft and stations are airports, the problem is known as aircraft routing. This paper describes the solution to such a problem developed in OMAR (Operative Management of Aircraft Routing), a system implemented by Bull HN for Alitalia. In our approach, aircraft routing is viewed as a Constraint Satisfaction Problem. The solving strategy combines network consistency and tree search techniques.

  10. Aircraft cybernetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-01-01

    The use of computers for aircraft control, flight simulation, and inertial navigation is explored. The man-machine relation problem in aviation is addressed. Simple and self-adapting autopilots are described and the assets and liabilities of digital navigation techniques are assessed.

  11. Modelling of the automatic stabilization system of the aircraft course by a fuzzy logic method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamonova, T.; Syryamkin, V.; Vasilyeva, T.

    2016-04-01

    The problem of the present paper concerns the development of a fuzzy model of the system of an aircraft course stabilization. In this work modelling of the aircraft course stabilization system with the application of fuzzy logic is specified. Thus the authors have used the data taken for an ordinary passenger plane. As a result of the study the stabilization system models were realised in the environment of Matlab package Simulink on the basis of the PID-regulator and fuzzy logic. The authors of the paper have shown that the use of the method of artificial intelligence allows reducing the time of regulation to 1, which is 50 times faster than the time when standard receptions of the management theory are used. This fact demonstrates a positive influence of the use of fuzzy regulation.

  12. Identity and psychological ownership in chronic illness and disease state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karnilowicz, W

    2011-03-01

    Psychological ownership is rarely considered in health discourse related to chronic illness or disease state. Construction of identity is an important consideration within this framework. This autoethnographic study explores psychological ownership and identity related to prostate cancer and chronic illness. Conclusions about the nature of psychological ownership and identity were gathered from the relevant literature and personal experience. Themes include the patient-healthcare professional relationship and that psychological ownership is personal and grounded in an individual's sense of identity, control and perceived capacity to control illness or disease. Personal reflection through autoethnography guides discussion of psychological ownership and identity.

  13. Contamination and Distortion of Steady Flow Field Induced by Discrete Frequency in Aircraft Gas Turbines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-05-16

    Ranque - Hilsch ( vortex tube ) effect." 5. List of Professional Personnel Associated with the Research The recipient of advanced degrees awarded in...SUB. GR. AIRCRAFT ENGINES RANQUE - HILSCH EFFECT i UNSTEADY FLOW ENERGY SEPARATION IN FLOW(KARMAN VORTEX STREET ORGAINIZED REYNOLDS STRESSES 19. ABSTRACT...turbomachinery. Specific objectives are twofold: Task (A). To complete the investigation of the Ranque - Hilsch effect con- ducted under AFOSR Contract

  14. Assessing Aircraft Timeliness Variations By Major Airlines: Passenger Travel Practice In Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald Wesonga

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Flight delays do not only affect passenger satisfaction but also carry along costly consequences to airlines. The overall objective of the study was to assess aircraft timeliness variations by major airlines so as to determine passenger travel practice in Uganda. The study hypotheses were tested using a two-way ANOVA F-test and further measures of associations. The study found out that the number of schedules of each airline per day had a positive effect on the delay duration, whereby an additional schedule increased the average delay by a proportion of 11%. Whereas the day of the week F(16, 1129 = 1.36, p >0.01 had no significant difference in the delays amongst the airlines, the month of the year F(33, 1107 = 1.88, p < 0.001 showed a significant difference. However, the total variance of the delays was attributed to the airline (29%. It was also demonstrated from the analysis that Eagle Air (EA, Kenya Airways (KA and South African Airways (SAA experienced more delays than the British Airways (BAW by 33%, 62% and 55% respectively. Other than Wednesday, flights were delayed more on all the days of the week and less delayed in the months of October and November than in June by 26% and 3% respectively. On Saturdays and Sundays, flights were found to have longer periods of delay (p<0.05 that averaged 14 and 13 minutes respectively. The flights in January and March had longer delays (15 and 14 minutes than that recorded in the other months. Therefore, it can be concluded that the passengers who use BAW are less likely to delay than the other (EA, KA and SAA airlines and travelling in the months of October and November is highly recommended. Given that airline delay is positively correlated with the number of scheduled flights, a policy framework could be developed to optimise schedules and airline delays during departure at the airport. The template is used to format your paper and style the text. All margins, column widths, line spaces, and text

  15. Determinants of insecticide-treated net ownership and utilization among pregnant women in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankomah Augustine

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria during pregnancy is a major public health problem in Nigeria leading to increase in the risk of maternal mortality, low birth weight and infant mortality. This paper is aimed at highlighting key predictors of the ownership of insecticide treated nets (ITNs and its use among pregnant women in Nigeria. Methods A total of 2348 pregnant women were selected by a multi-stage probability sampling technique. Structured interview schedule was used to elicit information on socio-demographic characteristics, ITN ownership, use, knowledge, behaviour and practices. Logistic regression was used to detect predictors of two indicators: ITN ownership, and ITN use in pregnancy among those who owned ITNs. Results ITN ownership was low; only 28.8% owned ITNs. Key predictors of ITN ownership included women who knew that ITNs prevent malaria (OR = 3.85; p p = 0.003. The use of ITNs was equally low with only 7.5% of all pregnant women, and 25.7% of all pregnant women who owned ITNs sleeping under a net. The predictors of ITN use in pregnancy among women who owned ITNs (N = 677 identified by logistic regression were: urban residence (OR = 1.87; p = 0.001; knowledge that ITNs prevent malaria (OR = 2.93; p p = 0.036. Educational level was not significantly related to any of the two outcome variables. Although registration at ANC is significantly associated with ownership of a bednet (perhaps through free ITN distribution this does not translate to significant use of ITNs. Conclusions ITN use lagged well behind ITN ownership. This seems to suggest that the current mass distribution of ITNs at antenatal facilities and community levels may not necessarily lead to use unless it is accompanied by behaviour change interventions that address the community level perceptions, misconceptions and positively position ITN as an effective prevention device to prevent malaria

  16. A new proxy measure for state-level gun ownership in studies of firearm injury prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, Michael; Ross, Craig S; King, Charles

    2014-06-01

    Since many states are considering gun control laws, researchers need reliable data on rates of gun ownership at the state level. Survey measures of gun ownership in all 50 states, however, are only available for 3 years, and no state-level data have been collected since 2004. Consequently, the National Research Council has declared the development of a valid proxy that can be constructed from accessible, annual, state-level data to be a priority. While such a proxy does exist (the proportion of suicides in a state committed using a gun (FS/S), its correlation with state estimates of gun ownership in recent years is only 0.80. Using state-level data for the years 2001, 2002 and 2004, we developed an improved proxy for state-level gun ownership that uses FS/S (firearm suicides divided by all suicides) and also the per capita number of hunting licenses. We validated this measure using data from surveys of gun ownership conducted in 48 states during 1996 and 1999, and in 21 states during 1995-1998. Adding per capita hunting licenses to the proxy increased its correlation with survey-measured gun ownership from 0.80 to 0.95. The correlations of the new proxy with gun ownership in the two validation studies were 0.95 and 0.97. We conclude that the combination of FS/S and per capita hunting licenses improves substantially upon FS/S alone. This new proxy is easily computed from data that are available annually by state and may be useful for investigating the effect of gun prevalence on firearm-related morbidity and mortality.

  17. MISSILES AND AIRCRAFT (PART1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.M. Meyer

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Many sources maintain that the role played by air power in the 1973 Yom Kippur War was important. Other interpretations state that control of air space over the battlefield areas, (either by aircraft or anti-aircraft defences, was vital.

  18. Creep-fatigue interaction in aircraft gas turbine components by simulation and testing at scaled temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabour, Mohammad Hossein

    Advanced gas turbine engines, which use hot section airfoil cooling, present a wide range of design problems. The frequencies of applied loads and the natural frequencies of the blade also are important since they have significant effects on failure of the component due to fatigue phenomenon. Due to high temperature environment the thermal creep and fatigue are quite severe. One-dimensional creep model, using ANSYS has been formulated in order to predict the creep life of a gas turbine engine blade. Innovative mathematical models for the prediction of the operating life of aircraft components, specifically gas turbine blades, which are subjected to creep-fatigue at high temperatures, are proposed. The components are modeled by FEM, mathematically, and using similitude principles. Three models have been suggested and evaluated numerically and experimentally. Using FEM method for natural frequencies causes phenomena such as curve veering which is studied in more detail. The simulation studies on the life-limiting modes of failure, as well as estimating the expected lifetime of the blade, using the proposed models have been carried out. Although the scale model approach has been used for quite some time, the thermal scaling has been used in this study for the first time. The only thermal studies in literature using scaling for structures is by NASA in which materials of both the prototype and the model are the same, but in the present study materials also are different. The finite element method is employed to model the structure. Because of stress redistribution due to the creep process, it is necessary to include a full inelastic creep step in the finite element formulation. Otherwise over-conservative creep life predictions will be estimated if only the initial elastic stresses are considered. The experimental investigations are carried out in order to validate the models. The main contributions in the thesis are: (1) Using similitude theory for life prediction of

  19. Analytical redundancy management mechanization and flight data analysis for the F-8 digital fly-by-wire aircraft flight control sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deckert, J. C.

    1983-01-01

    The details are presented of an onboard digital computer algorithm designed to reliably detect and isolate the first failure in a duplex set of flight control sensors aboard the NASA F-8 digital fly-by-wire aircraft. The algorithm's successful flight test program is summarized, and specific examples are presented of algorithm behavior in response to software-induced signal faults, both with and without aircraft parameter modeling errors.

  20. Local ownership, smart energy systems and better wind power economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvelplund, Frede; Möller, Bernd; Sperling, Karl

    2013-01-01

    Increasing wind power shares enhances the need to integrate wind power into the energy system and to improve its economy. In this study we propose two ways of achieving this end. One is to increase the value of wind power by integrating the heat and power markets, and thus ensures that wind power...... is never sold at a lower price than the most expensive heat alternative. The other is to lower the average costs of wind power by building more onshore wind power capacity, and proportionally less offshore wind power. This is facilitated by local and regional majority ownership models that increase...

  1. Integrated autopilot/autothrottle for the NASA TSRV B-737 aircraft: Design and verification by nonlinear simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce, Kevin R.

    1989-01-01

    An integrated autopilot/autothrottle was designed for flight test on the NASA TSRV B-737 aircraft. The system was designed using a total energy concept and is attended to achieve the following: (1) fuel efficiency by minimizing throttle activity; (2) low development and implementation costs by designing the control modes around a fixed inner loop design; and (3) maximum safety by preventing stall and engine overboost. The control law was designed initially using linear analysis; the system was developed using nonlinear simulations. All primary design requirements were satisfied.

  2. Ownership, financing, and management strategies of the ten largest for-profit nursing home chains in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, Charlene; Hauser, Clarilee; Olney, Brian; Rosenau, Pauline Vaillancourt

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the ownership, financing, and management strategies of the 10 largest for-profit nursing home chains in the United States, including the four largest chains purchased by private equity corporations. Descriptive data were collected from Internet searches, company reports, and other sources for the decade 1998-2008. Since 1998, the largest chains have made many changes in their ownership and structure, and some have converted from publicly traded companies to private ownership. This study shows the increasing complexity of corporate nursing home ownership and the lack of public information about ownership and financial status. The chains have used strategies to maximize shareholder and investor value that include increasing Medicare revenues, occupancy rates, and company diversification, establishing multiple layers of corporate ownership, developing real estate investment trusts, and creating limited liability companies. These strategies enhance shareholder and investor profits, reduce corporate taxes, and reduce liability risk. There is a need for greater transparency in ownership and financial reporting and for more government oversight of the largest for-profit chains, including those owned by private equity companies.

  3. Ownership reform and the changing manufacturing landscape in Chinese cities: The case of Wuxi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Lei; Yang, Shan; Wang, Shuguang; Xiong, Liyang

    2017-01-01

    Since the economic transition, manufacturing in China has undergone profound changes not only in number of enterprises, but also in ownership structure and intra-urban spatial distribution. Investigating the changing manufacturing landscape from the perspective of ownership structure is critical to a deep understanding of the changing role of market and government in re-shaping manufacturing location behavior. Through a case study of Wuxi, a city experiencing comprehensive ownership reform, this paper presents a detailed analysis of the intra-urban spatial shift of manufacturing, identifies the location discrepancies, and examines the underlying forces responsible for the geographical differentiations. Through zone- and district-based analysis, a distinctive trend of decentralization and suburbanization, as well as an uneven distribution of manufacturing, is unveiled. The results of Location Quotient analysis show that the distribution of manufacturing by ownership exhibits distinctive spatial patterns, which is characterized by a historically-based, market-led, and institutionally-created spatial variation. By employing Hot Spot analysis, the role of development zones in attracting manufacturing enterprises of different ownerships is established. Overall, the location behavior of the diversified manufacturing has been increasingly based on the forces of market since the land marketization began. A proactive role played by local governments has also guided the enterprise location decision through spatial planning and regulatory policies.

  4. Demystifying the role of a state ownership in corporate governance and firm performance: Evidence from the manufacturing sector in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amran Rasli

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to examine the role of state ownership in corporate governance and firm performance. We employed ordinary least squares and two-stage least squares regressions to analyze the effects of state ownership on firm performance. We go beyond existing research on state ownership by carefully disentangle investment objectives of state-controlled financial institutions. Such state ownership can be classified as profit-oriented and non-profit-oriented, in which the former consider return on investment to be the primary investment objective, whereas the latter prioritizes socio-economic development. We found that profit-oriented state ownership is an effective corporate governance mechanism and provides political patronage to the firm in the form of firm’s specific resources and credit financing. Although nonprofit-oriented state ownership firms also receive similar political patronage, they tend to be associated with inefficiencies such as the free-rider problems, bureaucracies and political intervention in firm management. We conclude that state ownership consists of heterogeneous entities with respect to corporate governance and firm performance.

  5. Contested Cottage Landscapes: Host perspective to the increase of foreign second home ownership in Finland 1990-2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kati Pitkänen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Cross-border and international second home ownership is a worldwide phenomenon and growing in popularity as people seek for desirable environments further away than before. As the desired landscapes are also likely to possess a considerable local and national value, research is needed to find out how host societies perceive and receive the newcomers. This paper explores the Finnish public debate on foreign second home ownership from 1990 to 2008, a period that has witnessed a considerable growth in foreign property ownership. The paper uses the concept of cottage landscape to analyse how second homes are positioned nationally and how foreign second home ownership is debated in relation to the national definitions and valuations. Based on changing emphases and fears related to the phenomenon, three periods of public debate are distinguished. The results demonstrate the iconic image of cottage landscape in the Finnish society by showing how foreign second home ownership is perceived as a threat to the Finnish way of life, landownership rights and national identity. From the perspective of the host society, foreign second home ownership is a complicated and emotional matter with potential to arise opposition and even conflicts when the foreign demand focuses on locally or nationally valued landscapes. Therefore research on the internationalisation of second home ownership can no longer ignore the perspective of the host society.

  6. Family pet ownership during childhood: findings from a UK birth cohort and implications for public health research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westgarth, Carri; Heron, Jon; Ness, Andy R; Bundred, Peter; Gaskell, Rosalind M; Coyne, Karen P; German, Alexander J; McCune, Sandra; Dawson, Susan

    2010-10-01

    In developed nations, approximately half of household environments contain pets. Studies of Human-Animal Interaction (HAI) have proposed that there are health benefits and risks associated with pet ownership. However, accurately demonstrating and understanding these relationships first requires a better knowledge of factors associated with ownership of different pet types. A UK birth cohort, the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC), were used to collect pet ownership data from the mothers, from gestation to child age 10 years old. 14,663 children were included in the study, of which mothers of 13,557 reported pet information at gestation, and 7,800 by age 10. Pet types recorded include cat, dog, rabbit, rodent, bird, fish and tortoise/turtle. The dataset also contains a number of demographic, socioeconomic and behavioural variables relevant to human health behaviour. Logistic regression was used to build multivariable models for ownership of each pet type at age 7 years. Family pet ownership increased during childhood, in particular rabbits, rodents and fish. A number of socioeconomic and demographic factors were associated with ownership of different pet types and the effects differed depending on the pet type studied. Variables which require consideration by researchers include gender, presence of older siblings, ethnicity, maternal and paternal education, maternal and paternal social class, maternal age, number of people in the household, house type, and concurrent ownership of other pets. Whether the mother had pets during her childhood was a strong predictor of pet ownership in all models. In HAI studies, care should be taken to control for confounding factors, and to treat each pet type individually. ALSPAC and other similar birth cohorts can be considered a potential resource for research into the effects of pet ownership during childhood.

  7. Family Pet Ownership during Childhood: Findings from a UK Birth Cohort and Implications for Public Health Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jon Heron

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available In developed nations, approximately half of household environments contain pets. Studies of Human-Animal Interaction (HAI have proposed that there are health benefits and risks associated with pet ownership. However, accurately demonstrating and understanding these relationships first requires a better knowledge of factors associated with ownership of different pet types. A UK birth cohort, the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC, were used to collect pet ownership data from the mothers, from gestation to child age 10 years old. 14,663 children were included in the study, of which mothers of 13,557 reported pet information at gestation, and 7,800 by age 10. Pet types recorded include cat, dog, rabbit, rodent, bird, fish and tortoise/turtle. The dataset also contains a number of demographic, socioeconomic and behavioural variables relevant to human health behaviour. Logistic regression was used to build multivariable models for ownership of each pet type at age 7 years. Family pet ownership increased during childhood, in particular rabbits, rodents and fish. A number of socioeconomic and demographic factors were associated with ownership of different pet types and the effects differed depending on the pet type studied. Variables which require consideration by researchers include gender, presence of older siblings, ethnicity, maternal and paternal education, maternal and paternal social class, maternal age, number of people in the household, house type, and concurrent ownership of other pets. Whether the mother had pets during her childhood was a strong predictor of pet ownership in all models. In HAI studies, care should be taken to control for confounding factors, and to treat each pet type individually. ALSPAC and other similar birth cohorts can be considered a potential resource for research into the effects of pet ownership during childhood.

  8. The building blocks of the full body ownership illusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonella eMaselli

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Previous work has reported that it is not difficult to give people the illusion of ownership over an artificial body, providing a powerful tool for the investigation of the neural and cognitive mechanisms underlying body perception and self consciousness. We present an experimental study that uses immersive virtual reality focused on identifying the perceptual building blocks of this illusion. We systematically manipulated visuotactile and visual sensorimotor contingencies, visual perspective, and the appearance of the virtual body in order to assess their relative role and mutual interaction. Consistent results from subjective reports and physiological measures showed that a first person perspective over a fake humanoid body is essential for eliciting a body ownership illusion. We found that the level of realism of the virtual body, in particular the realism of skin tone, plays a critical role: when high enough, the illusion can be triggered by the sole effect of the spatial overlap between the real and virtual bodies, providing congruent visuoproprioceptive information, with no need for the additional contribution of congruent visuotactile and/or visual sensorimotor cues. Additionally, we found that the processing of incongruent perceptual cues can be modulated by the level of the illusion: when the illusion is strong, incongruent cues are not experienced as incorrect. Participants exposed to asynchronous visuotactile stimulation can experience the ownership illusion and perceive touch as originating from an object seen to contact the virtual body. Analogously, when the level of realism of the virtual body and/or the spatial overlap of the two bodies is not high enough, the contribution of congruent multisensory and/or sensorimotor cues is required for evoking the illusion. On the basis of these results and inspired by findings from neurophysiological recordings in the monkey, we propose a model that accounts for many of the results reported

  9. A survey of jet aircraft PM by TEM in APEX III

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chung-Hsuan; Bryg, Victoria M.; Vander Wal, Randy L.

    2016-09-01

    Results are reported for sampling non-volatile particulate matter from field tests during the NASA led APEX III campaign. This paper reports observations of particulate emissions collected from a suite of jet engine aircraft to assess differences and similarities in soot macro- micro- and nanostructure using TEM. Aggregates are compact, primary particle sizes varied and nanostructure is mixed. Comparisons are made to soot from a laboratory flame as a well-studied reference. Results are interpreted in terms of turbulence interacting with the different stages of particle formation and growth with implications for atmospheric processing and climate impact.

  10. A Survey of Jet Aircraft PM by TEM in APEX III

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanderWal, Randy L.; Bryg, Victoria M.

    2014-01-01

    Based upon field testing during the NASA led APEX III campaign conducted in November 2005 at the NASA Glenn Research Center in coordination with Continental Airlines and Cleveland Hopkins International Airport. This paper reports observations of particulate emissions collected from a suite of jet engine aircraft to assess differences and similarities in soot macro- micro- and nanostructure using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Aggregates are compact, primary particle sizes varied and nanostructure mixed. Comparisons are made to more familiar laboratory flame-generated soot as a well-studied point of reference. Results are interpreted in terms of turbulence interacting with the different stages of particle formation and growth.

  11. The European Research Infrastructure IAGOS - From dedicated field studies to routine observations of the atmosphere by instrumented passenger aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petzold, Andreas; Volz-Thomas, Andreas; Gerbig, Christoph; Thouret, Valerie; Cammas, Jean-Pierre; Brenninkmeijer, Carl A. M.; Iagos Team

    2013-04-01

    The global distribution of trace species is controlled by a complex interplay between natural and anthropogenic sources and sinks, atmospheric short- to long-range transport, and in future by diverse, largely not yet quantified feedback mechanisms such as enhanced evaporation of water vapour in a warming climate or possibly the release of methane from melting marine clathrates. Improving global trace gas budgets and reducing the uncertainty of climate predictions crucially requires representative data from routine long-term observations as independent constraint for the evaluation and improvement of model parameterizations. IAGOS (In-service Aircraft for a Global Observing System; www.iagos.org) is a new European Research Infrastructure which operates a unique global observing system by deploying autonomous instruments aboard a fleet of passenger aircraft. IAGOS consists of two complementary building blocks: IAGOS-CORE deploys newly developed high-tech instrumentation for regular in-situ measurements of atmospheric chemical species (O3, CO, CO2, NOx, NOy, H2O, CH4), aerosols and cloud particles. Involved airlines ensure global operation of the network. In IAGOS-CARIBIC a cargo container is operated as a flying laboratory aboard one passenger aircraft. IAGOS aims at the provision of long-term, frequent, regular, accurate, and spatially resolved in-situ observations of the atmospheric chemical composition in the UTLS and the extra tropical troposphere and on vertical profiles of greenhouse gases, reactive trace gases and aerosols throughout the troposphere. It builds on almost 20 years of scientific and technological expertise gained in the research projects MOZAIC (Measurement of Ozone and Water Vapour on Airbus In-service Aircraft) and CARIBIC (Civil Aircraft for the Regular Investigation of the Atmosphere Based on an Instrument Container). The European consortium includes research centres, universities, national weather services, airline operators and aviation

  12. Risk and Cooperation: Managing Hazardous Fuel in Mixed Ownership Landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, A. Paige; Charnley, Susan

    2012-06-01

    Managing natural processes at the landscape scale to promote forest health is important, especially in the case of wildfire, where the ability of a landowner to protect his or her individual parcel is constrained by conditions on neighboring ownerships. However, management at a landscape scale is also challenging because it requires cooperation on plans and actions that cross ownership boundaries. Cooperation depends on people's beliefs and norms about reciprocity and perceptions of the risks and benefits of interacting with others. Using logistic regression tests on mail survey data and qualitative analysis of interviews with landowners, we examined the relationship between perceived wildfire risk and cooperation in the management of hazardous fuel by nonindustrial private forest (NIPF) owners in fire-prone landscapes of eastern Oregon. We found that NIPF owners who perceived a risk of wildfire to their properties, and perceived that conditions on nearby public forestlands contributed to this risk, were more likely to have cooperated with public agencies in the past to reduce fire risk than owners who did not perceive a risk of wildfire to their properties. Wildfire risk perception was not associated with past cooperation among NIPF owners. The greater social barriers to private-private cooperation than to private-public cooperation, and perceptions of more hazardous conditions on public compared with private forestlands may explain this difference. Owners expressed a strong willingness to cooperate with others in future cross-boundary efforts to reduce fire risk, however. We explore barriers to cooperative forest management across ownerships, and identify models of cooperation that hold potential for future collective action to reduce wildfire risk.

  13. Aerial navigation : on the problem of guiding aircraft in a fog or by night when there is no visibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loth, William

    1922-01-01

    The use of magnetic fields and wire to navigate aircraft in conditions of poor visibility is presented. This field may be considered to be derived from a double lemniscate, considered in the particular case where the origin is a double point formed from the magnetic field of the slack wire, from the field produced by the return currents and from the field due to the currents induced in the conducting mass. These fields are dephased in two ways, one in the direction of the wire, the other in a direction perpendicular to it.

  14. Residents' Annoyance Responses to Aircraft Noise Events

    OpenAIRE

    United States, National Aeronautics and Space Administration

    1983-01-01

    In a study conducted in the vicinity of Salt Lake City International Airport, community residents reported their annoyance with individual aircraft flyovers during rating sessions conducted in their homes. Annoyance ratings were obtained at different times of the day. Aircraft noise levels were measured, and other characteristics of the aircraft were noted by trained observers. Metrics commonly used for assessing aircraft noise were compared, but none performed significantly better than A-...

  15. Policy and the evaluation of aircraft noise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kroesen, M.; Molin, E.J.E.; Van Wee, G.P.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we hypothesize and test the ideas that (1) people’s subjectivity in relation to aircraft noise is shaped by the policy discourse, (2) this results in a limited number of frames towards aircraft noise, (3) the frames inform people how to think and feel about aircraft noise and (4) the

  16. 14 CFR 91.117 - Aircraft speed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Aircraft speed. 91.117 Section 91.117... speed. (a) Unless otherwise authorized by the Administrator, no person may operate an aircraft below 10... than the maximum speed prescribed in this section, the aircraft may be operated at that minimum speed....

  17. Annoyance caused by advanced turboprop aircraft flyover noise: Single-rotating propeller configuration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mccurdy, David A.

    1988-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to quantify the annoyance of people to advanced turboprop (propfan) aircraft flyover noise. The objectives were to: (1) determine the effects on annoyance of various tonal characteristics; and (2) compare annoyance to advanced turboprops with annoyance to conventional turboprops and jets. A computer was used to produce realistic, time-varying simulations of advanced turboprop aircraft takeoff noise. In the first experiment, subjects judged the annoyance of 45 advanced turboprop noises in which the tonal content was systematically varied to represent the factorial combinations of five fundamental frequencies, three frequency envelope shapes, and three tone-to-broadband noise ratios. Each noise was presented at three sound levels. In the second experiment, 18 advanced turboprop takeoffs, 5 conventional turboprop takeoffs, and 5 conventional jet takeoffs were presented at three sound pressure levels to subjects. Analysis indicated that frequency envelope shape did not significantly affect annoyance. The interaction of fundamental frequency with tone-to-broadband noise ratio did have a large and complex effect on annoyance. The advanced turboprop stimuli were slightly less annoying than the conventional stimuli.

  18. Model-based aviation advice on distal volcanic ash clouds by assimilating aircraft in situ measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Guangliang; Heemink, Arnold; Lu, Sha; Segers, Arjo; Weber, Konradin; Lin, Hai-Xiang

    2016-07-01

    The forecast accuracy of distal volcanic ash clouds is important for providing valid aviation advice during volcanic ash eruption. However, because the distal part of volcanic ash plume is far from the volcano, the influence of eruption information on this part becomes rather indirect and uncertain, resulting in inaccurate volcanic ash forecasts in these distal areas. In our approach, we use real-life aircraft in situ observations, measured in the northwestern part of Germany during the 2010 Eyjafjallajökull eruption, in an ensemble-based data assimilation system combined with a volcanic ash transport model to investigate the potential improvement on the forecast accuracy with regard to the distal volcanic ash plume. We show that the error of the analyzed volcanic ash state can be significantly reduced through assimilating real-life in situ measurements. After a continuous assimilation, it is shown that the aviation advice for Germany, the Netherlands and Luxembourg can be significantly improved. We suggest that with suitable aircrafts measuring once per day across the distal volcanic ash plume, the description and prediction of volcanic ash clouds in these areas can be greatly improved.

  19. Non-urban area ownership structure. Case study of Southern Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glowacka, Agnieszka; Janus, Jaroslaw; Bożek, Piotr

    2016-12-01

    The study shows a possible way of analyzing the diversity of ownership forms in non-urban areas, with particular focus on land co-ownership. The data in cadastral databases was processed with the use of the relational model which applied information on the geometry of areal spatial objects and descriptive attributes. The paper presents also the results of the analysis of Nowy Sącz District with the area of 1.550 sq.km and containing approximately 200.000 parcels. The area is representative for many countries in Central and Eastern Europe, where unfavorable land fragmentation indices and complex ownership structures complicate investing processes and development of rural areas what results in progressive degradation of agricultural and cultural landscape. The results indicate that the co-ownership phenomenon affects 13% of parcels in the study area. However, it varies greatly depending on the village and ranges from 3 to 67% of total parcels number. Suggested methods of analyzing the ownership structure are of universal character. In spite of this, when used during analyses conducted in other countries, certain modifications are required. It is mainly caused by the differences in cadastral data models used in those countries.

  20. Non-urban area ownership structure. Case study of Southern Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glowacka Agnieszka

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The study shows a possible way of analyzing the diversity of ownership forms in non-urban areas, with particular focus on land co-ownership. The data in cadastral databases was processed with the use of the relational model which applied information on the geometry of areal spatial objects and descriptive attributes. The paper presents also the results of the analysis of Nowy Sącz District with the area of 1.550 sq.km and containing approximately 200.000 parcels. The area is representative for many countries in Central and Eastern Europe, where unfavorable land fragmentation indices and complex ownership structures complicate investing processes and development of rural areas what results in progressive degradation of agricultural and cultural landscape. The results indicate that the co-ownership phenomenon affects 13% of parcels in the study area. However, it varies greatly depending on the village and ranges from 3 to 67% of total parcels number. Suggested methods of analyzing the ownership structure are of universal character. In spite of this, when used during analyses conducted in other countries, certain modifications are required. It is mainly caused by the differences in cadastral data models used in those countries.

  1. 14 CFR 91.1089 - Qualifications: Check pilots (aircraft) and check pilots (simulator).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Qualifications: Check pilots (aircraft) and check pilots (simulator). 91.1089 Section 91.1089 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... RULES Fractional Ownership Operations Program Management § 91.1089 Qualifications: Check...

  2. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2008, 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, Harper County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset, published at 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Not Provided information as of 2008. Data by this...

  3. Meeting Air Transportation Demand in 2025 by Using Larger Aircraft and Alternative Routing to Complement NextGen Operational Improvements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jeremy C.; Guerreiro, Nelson M.; Viken, Jeffrey K.; Dollyhigh, Samuel M.; Fenbert, James W.

    2010-01-01

    A study was performed that investigates the use of larger aircraft and alternative routing to complement the capacity benefits expected from the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) in 2025. National Airspace System (NAS) delays for the 2025 demand projected by the Transportation Systems Analysis Models (TSAM) were assessed using NASA s Airspace Concept Evaluation System (ACES). The shift in demand from commercial airline to automobile and from one airline route to another was investigated by adding the route delays determined from the ACES simulation to the travel times used in the TSAM and re-generating new flight scenarios. The ACES simulation results from this study determined that NextGen Operational Improvements alone do not provide sufficient airport capacity to meet the projected demand for passenger air travel in 2025 without significant system delays. Using larger aircraft with more seats on high-demand routes and introducing new direct routes, where demand warrants, significantly reduces delays, complementing NextGen improvements. Another significant finding of this study is that the adaptive behavior of passengers to avoid congested airline-routes is an important factor when projecting demand for transportation systems. Passengers will choose an alternative mode of transportation or alternative airline routes to avoid congested routes, thereby reducing delays to acceptable levels for the 2025 scenario; the penalty being that alternative routes and the option to drive increases overall trip time by 0.4% and may be less convenient than the first-choice route.

  4. Effects of Family Ownership, Debt and Board Composition on Mexican Firms Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Manuel San Martin-Reyna

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the relationship between ownership structure and performance of public firms in Mexico, considering debt and the structure of the board of directors as contextual and institutional factors. This research seeks to explain the mixed results about the relationship of ownership and performance presented by other relevant studies in family and non-family businesses, mainly in emerging countries. The results confirm the positive association between family ownership concentration and performance, calculated by Tobin’s Q, showing how the participation of inside shareholders on the board and a low debt level contribute to higher performance. However, the association of these variables with performance shows a contrasting effect in the case of family as compared to non-family businesses. The particular corporate legal context in Mexico could be highlighted as one of the main reasons for these results.

  5. Issue ownership and party choice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brug, van der Wouter

    2004-01-01

    This study presents an empirical test of the extent to which the “issue ownership” model explains the electoral decisions of individual voters. The model has been tested mainly by its ability to predict aggregate election results by issue salience (e.g., Budge and Farlie, 1983 and Petrocik, 1996). A

  6. Aircraft Oxygen Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-01

    aircraft use some form of on-board oxygen generation provided by one of two corporations that dominate this market . A review of safety incident data...manufacture of synthetic resins (e.g., Bakelite), and for 161 making dyestuffs, flavorings, perfumes , and other chemicals. Some are used as

  7. Does improving Public Transport decrease Car Ownership? Evidence from the Copenhagen Metropolitan Area

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mulalic, Ismir; Pilegaard, Ninette; Rouwendal, Jan

    Car ownership is lower in urban areas, which is probably related to the availability of better publict ransport. Better public transport thus may offer the possibility to relieve the many problems (congestion,health, and parking) associated with the presence of cars in urban areas. To investigate...... this issue, wedevelop and estimate a model for the simultaneous choice of a residential area and car ownership. Themodel is estimated on Danish register data for single-earner and dual-earners households in the greaterCopenhagen metropolitan area. We pay special attention to accessibility of the metro...... network whichoffers particularly high quality public transport. Simulations based on the estimated model show that forthe greater Copenhagen area a planned extension of the metro network decreases car ownership by 2-3%.Our results suggest also a substantial increase in the interest for living in areas...

  8. Study on the Ownership of Plant Genetic Resources on Farmers’ Land

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fuyou; WANG; Hongyan; SONG; Yuanyuan; HUANG

    2013-01-01

    In order to protect Chinese farmers’ sharing benefits and make legal preparation for accession to the International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture, this paper analyzed differences between state sovereignty and ownership of genetic resources and between natural resources and plant genetic resources on farmers’ land. Then, it studied the regulations of the United States, European Union and Indian on the ownership of plant genetic resources on farmers’ land. On the basis of the analysis and study, the authors stated that the sovereignty of plant genetic resources can not replace the ownership system. The plant genetic resources on farmers’ (community) land should be in the possession of farmers or communities, which should be confirmed by the State.

  9. Agency elicits body-ownership: proprioceptive drift toward a synchronously acting external proxy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asai, Tomohisa

    2016-05-01

    Awareness of our own bodies (sense of body-ownership) and actions (sense of agency) is fundamental for self-consciousness. In the rubber hand illusion, watching a rubber hand being stroked synchronously as one's own unseen hand is also stroked causes the observer to attribute the rubber hand to their own body. The findings of the series of experiments reported here suggest that body-ownership, measured using proprioceptive drift, is elicited by the external acting proxy that drives the sense of agency. While participants clasped and unclasped their left hand for 60 s, they focused on video feedback on a monitor in front of them. Proprioceptive drift was observed only under the conditions, including synchronized conditions, where the sense of agency for the acting proxy occurred, suggesting an essential interaction between body-ownership and agency.

  10. Hospital ownership and medical services: market mix, spillover effects, and nonprofit objectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horwitz, Jill R; Nichols, Austin

    2009-09-01

    Hospitals operate in markets with varied demographic, competitive, and ownership characteristics, yet research on ownership tends to examine hospitals in isolation. Here we examine three hospital ownership types -- nonprofit, for-profit, and government -- and their spillover effects. We estimate the effects of for-profit market share in two ways, on the provision of medical services and on operating margins at the three types of hospitals. We find that nonprofit hospitals' medical service provision systematically varies by market mix. We find no significant effect of market mix on the operating margins of nonprofit hospitals, but find that for-profit hospitals have higher margins in markets with more for-profits. These results fit best with theories in which hospitals maximize their own output.

  11. Asset ownership among households caring for orphans and vulnerable children in rural Zimbabwe: the influence of ownership on children's health and social vulnerabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crea, Thomas M; Lombe, Margaret; Robertson, Laura A; Dumba, Lovemore; Mushati, Phyllis; Makoni, J C; Mavise, Gideon; Eaton, Jeffrey W; Munatsi, Brighton; Nyamukapa, Constance A; Gregson, Simon

    2013-01-01

    The high prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome in sub-Saharan Africa has resulted in a dramatic increase in orphans and vulnerable children (OVC) over the past decade. These children typically rely on extended family networks for support, but the magnitude of the crisis has resulted in traditional familial networks becoming overwhelmed and more economically and socially vulnerable. Previous research consistently demonstrates the positive influence of household asset ownership on children's well-being. Using data from impoverished households caring for OVC in rural Manicaland Province, Zimbabwe, this study explores the influence of household asset ownership on OVC health vulnerability (HV) and social vulnerability (SV). Findings indicate that asset ownership is associated with significantly lower SV, in terms of school attendance and birth registration. Yet, assets do not emerge as a direct influence of OVC HV as measured by disease and chronic illness, although having a chronically ill adult in the household increases HV. These findings suggest that asset ownership, specifically a combination of fixed and movable assets, may offset the influence of other risk factors for children's SV.

  12. 77 FR 42455 - Airworthiness Directives; Piper Aircraft, Inc. Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-19

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 39 RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Piper Aircraft, Inc... directive (AD) for all Piper Aircraft, Inc. (type certificate previously held by The New Piper Aircraft Inc... receive about this proposed AD. Discussion Three forced landings of Piper Aircraft, Inc. Model...

  13. Are movements necessary for the sense of body ownership? Evidence from the rubber hand illusion in pure hemiplegic patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalila Burin

    Full Text Available A question still debated within cognitive neuroscience is whether signals present during actions significantly contribute to the emergence of human's body ownership. In the present study, we aimed at answer this question by means of a neuropsychological approach. We administered the classical rubber hand illusion paradigm to a group of healthy participants and to a group of neurological patients affected by a complete left upper limb hemiplegia, but without any propriceptive/tactile deficits. The illusion strength was measured both subjectively (i.e., by a self-report questionnaire and behaviorally (i.e., the location of one's own hand is shifted towards the rubber hand. We aimed at examining whether, and to which extent, an enduring absence of movements related signals affects body ownership. Our results showed that patients displayed, respect to healthy participants, stronger illusory effects when the left (affected hand was stimulated and no effects when the right (unaffected hand was stimulated. In other words, hemiplegics had a weaker/more flexible sense of body ownership for the affected hand, but an enhanced/more rigid one for the healthy hand. Possible interpretations of such asymmetrical distribution of body ownership, as well as limits of our results, are discussed. Broadly speaking, our findings suggest that the alteration of the normal flow of signals present during movements impacts on human's body ownership. This in turn, means that movements have a role per se in developing and maintaining a coherent body ownership.

  14. Are movements necessary for the sense of body ownership? Evidence from the rubber hand illusion in pure hemiplegic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burin, Dalila; Livelli, Alessandro; Garbarini, Francesca; Fossataro, Carlotta; Folegatti, Alessia; Gindri, Patrizia; Pia, Lorenzo

    2015-01-01

    A question still debated within cognitive neuroscience is whether signals present during actions significantly contribute to the emergence of human's body ownership. In the present study, we aimed at answer this question by means of a neuropsychological approach. We administered the classical rubber hand illusion paradigm to a group of healthy participants and to a group of neurological patients affected by a complete left upper limb hemiplegia, but without any propriceptive/tactile deficits. The illusion strength was measured both subjectively (i.e., by a self-report questionnaire) and behaviorally (i.e., the location of one's own hand is shifted towards the rubber hand). We aimed at examining whether, and to which extent, an enduring absence of movements related signals affects body ownership. Our results showed that patients displayed, respect to healthy participants, stronger illusory effects when the left (affected) hand was stimulated and no effects when the right (unaffected) hand was stimulated. In other words, hemiplegics had a weaker/more flexible sense of body ownership for the affected hand, but an enhanced/more rigid one for the healthy hand. Possible interpretations of such asymmetrical distribution of body ownership, as well as limits of our results, are discussed. Broadly speaking, our findings suggest that the alteration of the normal flow of signals present during movements impacts on human's body ownership. This in turn, means that movements have a role per se in developing and maintaining a coherent body ownership.

  15. Detection of Aircraft Embedded in Ground Clutter by Means of Non-Doppler X-band Radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Seongin; Ishii, Seishiro; Sayama, Shuji; Sekine, Matsuo

    It is reported that various radar clutter obey a Weibull distribution under certain conditions. To suppress such Weibull-distributed clutter, a new adaptive method was proposed by the present author. In this method, the parameters of the Weibull distribution and the threshold level for an adaptive Constant False Alarm Rate (CFAR) detector are determined by calculating the variance before it passes through a logarithmic amplifier. To apply this new method to practical problems observed by an X-band radar, a computer simulation are made for a finite number of samples in order to obtain the CFAR maintenance in Weibull radar clutter. Finally an improvement value of target-to-clutter ratio 30.07 dB was obtained for the detection of an aircraft embedded in ground clutter.

  16. Aircraft Carriers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nødskov, Kim; Kværnø, Ole

    in Asia and will balance the carrier acquisitions of the United States, the United Kingdom, Russia and India. China’s current military strategy is predominantly defensive, its offensive elements being mainly focused on Taiwan. If China decides to acquire a large carrier with offensive capabilities......, then the country will also acquire the capability to project military power into the region beyond Taiwan, which it does not possess today. In this way, China will have the military capability to permit a change of strategy from the mainly defensive, mainland, Taiwan-based strategy to a more assertive strategy...... catapult with which to launch the fi ghter aircraft, not to mention the possible development of a nuclear power plant for the ship. The Russian press has indicated that China is negotiating to buy SU-33 fi ghters, which Russia uses on the Kuznetsov carrier. The SU-33 is, in its modernized version...

  17. Aircraft recognition and pose estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hmam, Hatem; Kim, Jijoong

    2000-05-01

    This work presents a geometry based vision system for aircraft recognition and pose estimation using single images. Pose estimation improves the tracking performance of guided weapons with imaging seekers, and is useful in estimating target manoeuvres and aim-point selection required in the terminal phase of missile engagements. After edge detection and straight-line extraction, a hierarchy of geometric reasoning algorithms is applied to form line clusters (or groupings) for image interpretation. Assuming a scaled orthographic projection and coplanar wings, lateral symmetry inherent in the airframe provides additional constraints to further reject spurious line clusters. Clusters that accidentally pass all previous tests are checked against the original image and are discarded. Valid line clusters are then used to deduce aircraft viewing angles. By observing that the leading edges of wings of a number of aircraft of interest are within 45 to 65 degrees from the symmetry axis, a bounded range of aircraft viewing angles can be found. This generic property offers the advantage of not requiring the storage of complete aircraft models viewed from all aspects, and can handle aircraft with flexible wings (e.g. F111). Several aircraft images associated with various spectral bands (i.e. visible and infra-red) are finally used to evaluate the system's performance.

  18. Aircraft Electric Secondary Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    Technologies resulted to aircraft power systems and aircraft in which all secondary power is supplied electrically are discussed. A high-voltage dc power generating system for fighter aircraft, permanent magnet motors and generators for aircraft, lightweight transformers, and the installation of electric generators on turbine engines are among the topics discussed.

  19. Effects of Ownership Rights on Conflicts between Toddler Peers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Hildy S.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined property conflicts in thirty-two 20-and 30-month-old peer dyads during eighteen 40-min play sessions. Ownership influenced conflicts. Both 20- and 30-month-old owners claimed ownership ("mine") and instigated and won property conflicts more often than non-owners. At 30 months, owners also resisted peers' instigations more often…

  20. Ownership of heritage resources in South Africa: challenges and opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ndukuyakhe Ndlovu

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The concept of ownership is highly political. Ownership provides power to the one legally seen as an owner or those tasked with the responsibility to protect and preserve heritage resources. This is no different when it comes to heritage resources, whose ownership is always contentious. The main reason for such contention is because ownership impacts on those who value objects in different ways. For example, the nature of access to heritage resources approved for people who may still attach spiritual values. As a direct result, the relevance of such heritage resources to such people may be brought into question, as the need to have them available to all citizens gain momentum. Heritage resources in South Africa have been subject to legislation since 1911, when the Bushmen Relics Act was passed. Since then, much other legislation and amendments have been passed over the years. They all aim to protect different kinds of heritage resources. Central to protection efforts is a decision to have the ownership of heritage resources put under the national estate. Ownership of heritage under South African heritage legislation will be discussed in this article. Drawing on case studies from southern Africa, the main aim of the article is to identify the challenges and opportunities attached to such a form of ownership. Opinions relating to the best approach to ownership of heritage resources are offered.

  1. 26 CFR 1.468B-9 - Disputed ownership funds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... not a transferor-claimant uses the cash receipts and disbursements method of accounting and transfers... transferor-claimant using the cash receipts and disbursements method, however, the disputed ownership fund... of a transfer of disputed property to the disputed ownership fund. However, the accrual or receipt...

  2. Dog Ownership, Dog Walking, and Children's and Parents' Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmon, Jo; Timperio, Anna; Chu, Binh; Veitch, Jenny

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed to determine cross-sectional associations of dog ownership, dog walking, and physical activity (PA) among children and their parents. Objective measures of PA were obtained for children ages 5-6 and 10-12 years from 19 primary schools across Melbourne, Australia. Parents self-reported their PA, dog ownership, and frequency of dog…

  3. Ownership of Stocks and Mutual Funds : A Panel Data Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alessie, R.J.M.; Hochgürtel, S.; van Soest, A.H.O.

    2001-01-01

    In many industrial countries, ownership rates of risky assets have risen substantially over the past decade.This trend has potentially wide-ranging implications for the intertemporal and cross-sectional allocation of risk, and for the macro economy, establishing the need for understanding ownership

  4. 13 CFR 120.475 - Change of ownership or control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    .... 120.475 Section 120.475 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION BUSINESS LOANS Lenders Small Business Lending Companies (sblc) § 120.475 Change of ownership or control. (a) Any change... ownership or control is subject to the approval of any State or Federal chartering, licensing, or...

  5. Marketized State Ownership and Foreign Expansion of Emerging Market Multinationals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Ming Hua; Cui, Lin; Lu, Jiangyong

    2017-01-01

    direct investment. We argue that firms with marketized state ownership may derive institutional competitive advantages from their dual responsiveness to shifting global market conditions and home government expectations which has a positive impact on their foreign investment decisions. However......The emergence of marketized shareholders through corporate ownership reform and their impact on the foreign entry of emerging market firms is a critical but understudied issue. Our study investigates the effect of marketized state ownership on emerging market firms' propensity to engage in foreign......, such advantages are likely to vary in magnitude for firms with marketized state ownership at central and local levels of government due to different patterns of corporate restructuring. We predict that such ownership effects are contingent on firms' affiliation to meso-level institutional structures such as state...

  6. Conceptual design and optimization methodology for box wing aircraft

    OpenAIRE

    Jemitola, Paul Olugbeji

    2012-01-01

    A conceptual design optimization methodology was developed for a medium range box wing aircraft. A baseline conventional cantilever wing aircraft designed for the same mis- sion and payload was also optimized alongside a baseline box wing aircraft. An empirical formula for the mass estimation of the fore and aft wings of the box wing aircraft was derived by relating conventional cantilever wings to box wing aircraft wings. The results indicate that the fore and aft wings would ...

  7. Ownership, intra-industry trade and factor intensities: the case of Poland 1993-2002

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jørgen Ulff-Møller; Pawlik, Konrad

    Using a unique database on imports and exports from public, private domestic and foreign-owned companies in Poland 1993-2002, this paper presents an analysis of the relation between intra-industry trade (IIT, measured by the Grubel-Lloyd index) and the ownership structure of Poland. Using a pooled...

  8. Ownership, Intra-industry trade and factor Intensities: The Case of Poland 1993-2002

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jørgen Ulff-Møller; Pawlik, Konrad

    2004-01-01

    Using a unique database on imports and exports from public, private domestic and foreign-owned companies in Poland 1993-2002, this paper presents an analysis of the relation between intra-industry trade (IIT, measured by the Grubel-Lloyd index) and the ownership structure of Poland. Using a pooled...

  9. Children and Adults Use Gender and Age Stereotypes in Ownership Judgments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malcolm, Sarah; Defeyter, Margaret A.; Friedman, Ori

    2014-01-01

    In everyday life, we are often faced with the problem of judging who owns an object. The current experiments show that children and adults base ownership judgments on group stereotypes, which relate kinds of people to kinds of objects. Moreover, the experiments show that reliance on stereotypes can override another means by which people make…

  10. 75 FR 65881 - Ownership Limitations and Governance Requirements for Security-Based Swap Clearing Agencies...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-26

    ... structures relating to ownership, voting, and governance of security- based swap clearing agencies, SB SEFs...: Comments may be submitted by any of the following methods: Electronic Comments Use the Commission's... and transparency in the financial system.\\2\\ Title VII of the Dodd-Frank Act provides the...

  11. Organizational learning and entrepreneurship in family firms: exploring the moderating effect of ownership and cohesion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zahra, S.A.

    2012-01-01

    Organizational learning can significantly improve family firms’ ability to counter by stimulating entrepreneurship. Applying the behavioral theory of the firm, this study empirically examines the effect of family ownership on the breadth, depth, and speed of organizational learning. Each of these di

  12. 42 CFR 455.102 - Determination of ownership or control percentages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Determination of ownership or control percentages. 455.102 Section 455.102 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH... multiplied by the percentage of the disclosing entity's assets used to secure the obligation. For example,...

  13. The Effect Of The Original Acquisition Of Ownership Of Immovable Property On Existing Limited Real Rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerrit Pienaar

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available It is an accepted principle in South African law that movable property acquired in an original way (by operation of law is not burdened by any limited real rights, as previous limited real rights are extinguished on the vesting of ownership (mobilia non habent sequelam. It is assumed by some South African writers that the same principles are applicable to the original acquisition of immovable property and that all existing limited real rights fall away on original acquisition of ownership. In this article the nature of limited real rights to immovable property is examined, and the notion that ownership is the "mother" right on which all limited real rights are based is scrutinised critically. The nature and establishment of limited real rights are used to distinguish between the essence and effect of limited real rights in the case of immovable property. The recognition of limited real rights as constitutional property is used as a further argument that limited real rights cannot be extinguished automatically by the original acquisition of immovable property, as such common law or statutory measures will constitute an arbitrary deprivation of property in terms of section 25 of the Constitution. The statutory provisions regarding limited real rights in the case of prescription and expropriation are then analysed as an indication that it is not a general principle that limited real rights are extinguished automatically on the original acquisition of ownership of immovable property.

  14. Corporate Ownership Reform and Foreign Market Entry of Emerging Market Firms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Ming Hua; Cui, Lin; Lu, Jiangyong

    2013-01-01

    Few studies have examined the effects of corporate ownership reform on emerging market firms’ advantages and capabilities for outward FDI. By linking the implications of such reform to the configuration of resources, organizational attributes, and strategic orientation of firms we advance an exte...

  15. Financial intermediaries, ownership structure and the provision of venture capital to SMEs: Evidence from Japan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cumming, D.; Fleming, G.; Schwienbacher, A.

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines how the provision of venture capital to small- and medium-sized businesses (SMEs) is influenced by the ownership structure of the venture capital provider. We introduce a new and unique dataset from the Japanese venture capital market, comprising data on investment and venture ca

  16. The consumption values' influence on smartphone's ownership

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petrovcikova, Katarina; Sudzina, Frantisek

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the paper was to analyze impact of factors on adoption of smartphones using the Theory of Consumption Values framework. The Theory of Consumption Values provides a framework to categorize customer's motives for buying; it divides them into five groups: functional values, social values......, epistemic values, hedonic values and conditional values. This theory was used to investigate the adoption of smartphones among target groups of consumers. Factor analysis was used to generate one factor for each value. The factors were used as independent variables in binary logistic regression, alongside...... age and gender to predict dependent variable The results showed that functional and social values significantly influenced ownership of smartphones. Although in many technology studies, men are found to be higher adopters, impact of gender was not significant in the presented research....

  17. Causes of aircraft electrical failures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galler, Donald; Slenski, George

    1991-08-01

    The results of a survey of data on failures of aircraft electronic and electrical components that was conducted to identify problematic components are reported. The motivation for the work was to determine priorities for future work on the development of accident investigation techniques for aircraft electrical components. The primary source of data was the Airforce Mishap Database, which is maintained by the Directorate of Aerospace Safety at Norton Air Force Base. Published data from the Air Force Avionics Integrity Program (AVIP) and Hughes Aircraft were also reviewed. Statistical data from these three sources are presented. Two major conclusions are that problems with interconnections are major contributors to aircraft electrical equipment failures, and that environmental factors, especially corrosion, are significant contributors to connector problems.

  18. Aircraft recognition and tracking device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filis, Dimitrios P.; Renios, Christos I.

    2011-11-01

    The technology of aircraft recognition and tracking has various applications in all areas of air navigation, be they civil or military, spanning from air traffic control and regulation at civilian airports to anti-aircraft weapon handling and guidance for military purposes.1, 18 The system presented in this thesis is an alternative implementation of identifying and tracking flying objects, which benefits from the optical spectrum by using an optical camera built into a servo motor (pan-tilt unit). More specifically, through the purpose-developed software, when a target (aircraft) enters the field of view of the camera18, it is both detected and identified.5, 22 Then the servo motor, being provided with data on target position and velocity, tracks the aircraft while it is in constant communication with the camera (Fig. 1). All the features are so designed as to operate under real time conditions.

  19. How Do Differences in Land Ownership Types in China Affect Land Development? A Case from Beijing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daquan Huang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available China has a unique land use system in which there are two types of land ownership, namely, state-owned urban land and farmer collective-owned rural land. Despite strict restrictions on the use rights of farmer collective-owned land, rural land is, in fact, developed along two pathways: it is formally acquired by the state and transferred into state ownership, or it is informally developed while remaining in collective ownership. Taking Beijing, the capital, as an example, and using data from land use surveys in the Changping district of the city, this paper examines the spatial patterns and characteristics of land development along these two pathways, and sets up a multinomial logit model to test whether land development with and without ownership change was affected by the same factors. The findings suggest that: (1 development on collective-owned land is more spatially scattered, and its links to public infrastructure are weaker; (2 transportation infrastructure, farmer income, spatial location, and previous land usage are the major factors that affect land development; nevertheless, the influences of the factors are different for the two pathways.

  20. Aircraft Data Acquisition

    OpenAIRE

    Elena BALMUS

    2016-01-01

    The introduction of digital systems instead of analog ones has created a major separation in the aviation technology. Although the digital equipment made possible that the increasingly faster controllers take over, we should say that the real world remains essentially analogue [4]. Fly-by-wire designers attempting to control and measure the real feedback of an aircraft were forced to find a way to connect the analogue environment to their digital equipment. In order to manage the implications...

  1. Slotted Aircraft Wing

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, James D. (Inventor); Witkowski, David P. (Inventor); Campbell, Richard L. (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    A swept aircraft wing includes a leading airfoil element and a trailing airfoil element. At least one full-span slot is defined by the wing during at least one transonic condition of the wing. The full-span slot allows a portion of the air flowing along the lower surface of the leading airfoil element to split and flow over the upper surface of the trailing airfoil element so as to achieve a performance improvement in the transonic condition.

  2. Synoptic tracer gradients in the upper troposphere over central Canada during the Stratosphere-Troposphere Experiments by Aircraft Measurements 1998 summer campaign

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fischer, H.; Brunner, D; Harris, GW; Hoor, P; Lelieveld, J; McKenna, DS; Rudolph, J; Scheeren, HA; Siegmund, P; Wernli, H; Williams, J; Wong, S

    2002-01-01

    [1] During the July 1998 Stratosphere-Troposphere Experiments by Aircraft Measurements (STREAM) intensive campaign, eight measurement flights were conducted from Timmins airport (Ontario, Canada, 48.2degreesN, 79.3degreesW). In situ measurements of ozone, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and nonmeth

  3. Ownership Structure and Earnings Management in periods of Executive Changes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sommer, Rasmus S.

    This paper reports evidence of earnings management associated with non-routine executive changes in a Danish context. It is hypothesised that incoming executives in non-owner-controlled companies decrease earnings by means of discretionary accruals in the financial statements relating to the period...... this is not the case for owner-controlled companies. Also, a test shows a significant difference in earnings management in owner- versus non-owner-controlled companies around executive changes. The study elaborates on the research in the area by including ownership structure. Furthermore, the study is carried out...... of the executive change. A modified, modified Jones model is used to divide income before tax into discretionary and non-discretionary components. The empirical evidence is consistent with the hypothesis. Non-owner-controlled companies significantly decrease earnings around executive changes, while...

  4. Optimised Cockpit Heat Load Analysis using Skin Temperature Predicted by CFD and Validation by Thermal Mapping to Improve the Performance of Fighter Aircraft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paresh Gupta

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Designing of optimum environmental control system (ECS plays a major role for increasing performance of fighter aircraft depending upon requirement of engine bleed air for running of ECS. Accurate estimation of cockpit skin temperature for obtaining optimised cockpit heat load helps in estimation of engine bleed air for ECS. Present research evolved a methodology for comparing the theoretically calculated skin temperature with computational fluid dynamics (CFD analysis to obtain optimum skin temperature. Results are validated by flight tests under critical flight conditions using thermal crayons. Based on which the optimized heat load and bleed air requirements has been computed. Uncertainty analysis of skin temperature measurement for thermal crayons have been undertaken. The results indicate that the theoretical skin temperature is -26.70 per cent as that of CFD estimated skin temperature. Optimized average cockpit heat load at critical flight profiles is 0.74 times the theoretical cockpit heat load, leading to reduction of bleed air requirement by 26 per cent as compared to theoretical. Due to this literature survey has pridicted the increase in performance parameters like increase in bleed air pressure by 78 per cent, increase in thrust by 60 per cent, and decrease in specific fuel consumption (SFC by 40 per cent to improve the endurance of aircraft. The research has generated governing equations for variation of cockpit heat loads w.r.t aircraft skin temperatures.Defence Science Journal, Vol. 65, No. 1, January 2015, pp.12-24, DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.14429/dsj.65.7200

  5. The power of community : the role of ownership in social marketing of wind projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roscoe, D. [Scotian Windfields, Dartmouth, NS (Canada)

    2008-07-01

    This paper discussed the benefits of community ownership for wind power projects in Nova Scotia. The community economic development investment fund (CEDIF) is a pool of capital funds formed by selling shares to people within a defined community. CEDIFs are created to operate or invest in local business as part of a government initiative to provide incentives for local business development. Those eligible for CEDIFs include incorporated organizations with a minimum of 25 investors, and when 6 of the maximum 12 directors are from the local community. No investors may own more than 20 per cent. CEDIF incentives include pre-approved holdings for registered savings plans; a 30 per cent non-refundable equity tax credit against Nova Scotia taxes, and additional credits for maintaining investment. Local WindFields investors have invested in the Scotian WindFields in order to develop renewable energy projects. Community ownership of wind power projects can result in greater acceptance of wind power as well as increased economic prosperity and employment. Community ownership can also lead to improved land lease opportunities and relationships between contractors, local businesses, and federal and provincial governments. Details of wind power projects in Nova Scotia were provided. It was concluded that wind power developers should consider community ownership of wind projects. tabs., figs.

  6. Elusive accountabilities in the HIV scale-up: 'ownership' as a functional tautology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esser, Daniel E

    2014-01-01

    Mounting concerns over aid effectiveness have rendered 'ownership' a central concept in the vocabulary of development assistance for health (DAH). The article investigates the application of both 'national ownership' and 'country ownership' in the broader development discourse as well as more specifically in the context of internationally funded HIV/AIDS interventions. Based on comprehensive literature reviews, the research uncovers a multiplicity of definitions, most of which either divert from or plainly contradict the concept's original meaning and intent. During the last 10 years in particular, it appears that both public and private donors have advocated for greater 'ownership' by recipient governments and countries to hedge their own political risk rather than to work towards greater inclusion of the latter in agenda-setting and programming. Such politically driven semantic dynamics suggest that the concept's salience is not merely a discursive reflection of globally skewed power relations in DAH but a deliberate exercise in limiting donors' accountabilities. At the same time, the research also finds evidence that this conceptual contortion frames current global public health scholarship, thus adding further urgency to the need to critically re-evaluate the international political economy of global public health from a discursive perspective.

  7. Spontaneous centralization of control in a network of company ownerships

    CERN Document Server

    Krause, Sebastian M; Bornholdt, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    We introduce a model for the adaptive evolution of a network of company ownerships. In a recent work it has been shown that the empirical global network of corporate control is marked by a central, tightly connected "core" made of a small number of large companies which control a significant part of the global economy. Here we show how a simple, adaptive "rich get richer" dynamics can account for this characteristic, which incorporates the increased buying power of more influential companies, and in turn results in even higher control. We conclude that this kind of centralized structure can emerge without it being an explicit goal of these companies, or as a result of a well-organized strategy.

  8. Spontaneous centralization of control in a network of company ownerships.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian M Krause

    Full Text Available We introduce a model for the adaptive evolution of a network of company ownerships. In a recent work it has been shown that the empirical global network of corporate control is marked by a central, tightly connected "core" made of a small number of large companies which control a significant part of the global economy. Here we show how a simple, adaptive "rich get richer" dynamics can account for this characteristic, which incorporates the increased buying power of more influential companies, and in turn results in even higher control. We conclude that this kind of centralized structure can emerge without it being an explicit goal of these companies, or as a result of a well-organized strategy.

  9. Cost and technical efficiency of German hospitals: does ownership matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herr, Annika

    2008-09-01

    This paper is the first to investigate both the technical and cost efficiency of more than 1500 German general hospitals. More specifically, it deals with the question how hospital efficiency varies with ownership, patient structure, and other exogenous factors, which are neither inputs to nor outputs of the production process. The empirical results for the years from 2001 to 2003 indicate that private and non-profit hospitals are on average less cost efficient and less technically efficient than publicly owned hospitals. The hospital rankings based on estimated efficiency scores turn out to be negatively correlated with average length of stay, which is highest in private hospitals. The results are derived by conducting a Stochastic Frontier Analysis assuming both Cobb-Douglas and translog production technologies and using a newly available and multifaceted administrative German data set.

  10. Total Ownership Cost - Tools and Discipline

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-16

    developing the Single Integrated Air Picture ( SIAP ) as a system means that all the Services’ manned and unmanned aircraft, many guided and unguided...command and control systems are now at least a part of SIAP . Changes to any of the platforms (especially software changes) could result in changes...to others, impacting the TOC of the individual weapon platforms and of the SIAP system. How do we account for SoS or net-centric system-driven

  11. The Interactive Influence of Perceived Ownership and Perceived Choosership of Stocks on Brain Response to Stock Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Zhe; Wang, Lei; Wu, Han

    2017-01-01

    The present research examined the influence of perceived ownership (self/other) and perceived chooser (self/other) of stocks on brain activity, and investigated whether differential brain responses to stock outcomes as a result of perceived differences in ownership of stock would be modulated by perceived chooser of stock. We used a 2 (stock chooser: self, other) × 2 (stock owner: self, other) within-subject design to represent four types of chooser-owner relationships. Brain potentials were recorded while participants observed increasing and decreasing stock prices. Results showed that observations of stock outcomes among four types of chooser-owner relationships elicited differentiated feedback-related negativity (d-FRN: differences in FRN waves between losses and gains, reflecting violations of expectancy to stock outcomes): (1) Self-chosen-other-owned stocks evoked significantly larger d-FRN discrepancies than self-chosen-self-owned stocks, indicating a greater expectancy violation to others' losses than to one's own, demonstrating a reversed ownership effect. Moreover, people high in conscientiousness showed an increase in this trend, suggesting a stronger other-consideration; (2) Self-chosen-self-owned stocks and other-chosen-self-owned stocks revealed no significant d-FRN discrepancy, showing no choosership effect beyond the ownership effect; (3) Other-chosen-self-owned stocks evoked a significantly stronger d-FRN discrepancy than other-chosen-other-owned stocks, demonstrating an ownership effect; (4) Self-chosen-other-owned stocks evoked a significantly stronger d-FRN discrepancy than other-chosen-other-owned stocks, revealing a choosership effect. These findings suggest that the ownership effect could be reversed by conscientiousness induced by perceived choosership in the agency relationship, while the choosership effect is attenuated and even disappears under the influence of perceived ownership. PMID:28194118

  12. Charity and community: the role of nonprofit ownership in a managed health care system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlesinger, M; Gray, B; Bradley, E

    1996-01-01

    As American medicine has been transformed by the growth of managed care, so too have questions about the appropriate role of nonprofit ownership in the health care system. The standards for community benefit that are increasingly applied to nonprofit hospitals are, at best, only partially relevant to expectations for nonprofit managed care plans. Can we expect nonprofit ownership to substantially affect the behavior of an increasingly competitive managed care industry dealing with insured populations? Drawing from historical interpretations of tax exemption in health care and from the theoretical literature on the implications of ownership for organizational behavior, we identify five forms of community benefit that might be associated with nonprofit forms of managed care. Using data from a national survey of firms providing third-party utilization review services in 1993, we test for ownership-related differences in these five dimensions. Nonprofit utilization review firms generally provide more public goods, such as information dissemination, and are more "community oriented" than proprietary firms, but they are not distinguishable from their for-profit counterparts in addressing the implications of medical quality or the cost of the review process. However, a subgroup of nonprofit review organizations with medical origins are more likely to address quality issues than are either for-profit firms or other nonprofit agencies. Evidence on responses to information asymmetries is mixed but suggests that some ownership related differences exist. The term "charitable" is thus capable of a definition far broader than merely the relief of the poor. While it is true that in the past Congress and the federal courts have conditioned the hospital's charitable status on the level of free or below cost care that it provided for indigents, there is no authority for the conclusion that the determination of "charitable" status was always so limited. Such an inflexible

  13. Corporate boards and ownership structure: Evidence from Sub-Saharan Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Munisi, Gibson; Hermes, Niels; Randoy, Trond

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between board structure and ownership structure for firms listed on the stock exchanges of twelve Sub-Saharan African countries, using data for the period 2006–2009. We find that ownership concentration, foreign ownership and managerial ownership are negatively a

  14. Structural Diagnostics of CFRP Composite Aircraft Components by Ultrasonic Guided Waves and Built-In Piezoelectric Transducers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matt, Howard M. [Univ. of California, San Diego, CA (United States)

    2006-01-01

    To monitor in-flight damage and reduce life-cycle costs associated with CFRP composite aircraft, an autonomous built-in structural health monitoring (SHM) system is preferred over conventional maintenance routines and schedules. This thesis investigates the use of ultrasonic guided waves and piezoelectric transducers for the identification and localization of damage/defects occurring within critical components of CFRP composite aircraft wings, mainly the wing skin-to-spar joints. The guided wave approach for structural diagnostics was demonstrated by the dual application of active and passive monitoring techniques. For active interrogation, the guided wave propagation problem was initially studied numerically by a semi-analytical finite element method, which accounts for viscoelastic damping, in order to identify ideal mode-frequency combinations sensitive to damage occurring within CFRP bonded joints. Active guided wave tests across three representative wing skin-to-spar joints at ambient temperature were then conducted using attached Macro Fiber Composite (MFC) transducers. Results from these experiments demonstrate the importance of intelligent feature extraction for improving the sensitivity to damage. To address the widely neglected effects of temperature on guided wave base damage identification, analytical and experimental analyses were performed to characterize the influence of temperature on guided wave signal features. In addition, statistically-robust detection of simulated damage in a CFRP bonded joint was successfully achieved under changing temperature conditions through a dimensionally-low, multivariate statistical outlier analysis. The response of piezoceramic patches and MFC transducers to ultrasonic Rayleigh and Lamb wave fields was analytically derived and experimentally validated. This theory is useful for designing sensors which possess optimal sensitivity toward a given mode-frequency combination or for predicting the frequency dependent

  15. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, Evans County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally Evans County, GA. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona GIS...

  16. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, Gilpin County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally Gilpin County, CO. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona GIS...

  17. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2008, Mecosta County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2008. The extent of these data is generally Mecosta County, MI. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona...

  18. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2008, Wayne County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2008. The extent of these data is generally Wayne County, MI. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona GIS...

  19. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2008, Saginaw County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2008. The extent of these data is generally Saginaw County, MI. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona...

  20. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, Murray County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally Murray County, OK. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona GIS...

  1. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, Murray County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally Murray County, GA. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona GIS...

  2. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, Kenosha County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally Kenosha County, WI. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona GIS...

  3. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, Rutherford County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally Rutherford County, TN. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona...

  4. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, Howell County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally Howell County, MO. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona GIS...

  5. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, Rice County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally Rice County, KS. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona GIS...

  6. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2008, Rice County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2008. The extent of these data is generally Rice County, MN. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona GIS...

  7. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, Slop County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally Smith County, MS. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona GIS...

  8. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, Smith County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally Smith County, TX. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona GIS...

  9. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, Phillips County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally Phillips County, CO. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona...

  10. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, Humboldt County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally Humphreys County, MS. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona...

  11. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, Prowers County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally Prowers County, CO. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona GIS...

  12. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, Buffalo County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally Buffalo County, WI. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona...

  13. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, Steele County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally Steele County, ND. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona GIS...

  14. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2008, Steele County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2008. The extent of these data is generally Steele County, MN. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona GIS...

  15. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2008, Sheridan County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2008. The extent of these data is generally Sheridan County, WY. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona...

  16. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, Sheridan County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally Sheridan County, ND. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona...

  17. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, Sherburne County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally Sheridan County, KS. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona...

  18. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, Itawamba County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally Izard County, AR. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona GIS...

  19. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, Knott County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally Knott County, KY. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona GIS...

  20. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in unknown, Pasco County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of unknown. The extent of these data is generally Pasco County, FL. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona...

  1. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, Pasco County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally Pasquotank County, NC. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona...

  2. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in unknown, Manatee County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of unknown. The extent of these data is generally Manatee County, FL. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona...

  3. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, Turner County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally Turner County, SD. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona GIS...

  4. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, Turner County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally Turner County, GA. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona GIS...

  5. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, Porter County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally Porter County, IN. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona GIS...

  6. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, Story County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally Story County, IA. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona GIS...

  7. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, Winnebago County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally Winnebago County, WI. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona...

  8. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, Madison County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally Madison County, NE. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona GIS...

  9. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2007, Mineral County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2007. The extent of these data is generally Mineral County, NV. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona GIS...

  10. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, Mineral County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally Mineral County, CO. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona GIS...

  11. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, Cameron County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally Cameron County, TX. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona GIS...

  12. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, Cameron County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally Cameron County, PA. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona GIS...

  13. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, Cameron County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally Cameron Parish County, LA. This metadata was auto-generated through the...

  14. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, Taos County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally Tate County, MS. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona GIS...

  15. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in unknown, Weld County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of unknown. The extent of these data is generally Weld County, CO. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona GIS...

  16. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in unknown, Webster County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of unknown. The extent of these data is generally Weld County, CO. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona GIS...

  17. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, Dolores County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally Dolores County, CO. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona GIS...

  18. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, Loving County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally Lucas County, IA. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona GIS...

  19. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, Loving County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally Lowndes County, MS. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona...

  20. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, Loving County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally Loving County, TX. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona GIS...

  1. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, Love County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally Love County, OK. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona GIS...

  2. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, Klickitat County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally Klickitat County, WA. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona...

  3. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, Hoke County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally Hoke County, NC. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona GIS...

  4. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, Pulaski County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally Pulaski County, IN. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona...

  5. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in unknown, Sanpete County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of unknown. The extent of these data is generally Sanpete County, UT. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona...

  6. 15 CFR 971.206 - Statement of ownership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., including: (i) Whether the citizen is a natural person, partnership, corporation, joint venture, or other... of the association, partnership, or joint venture, including information about the participation and/or ownership of stock of each partner or joint venturer....

  7. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, Lamar County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally Lamar County, MS. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona GIS...

  8. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, Wheeler County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally Wheeler County, OR. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona GIS...

  9. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, Butler County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally Butler County, AL. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona GIS...

  10. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, Campbell County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally Campbell County, KY. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona...

  11. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, Campbell County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally Campbell County, TN. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona...

  12. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, Smith County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally Smith County, TN. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona GIS...

  13. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, Phelps County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally Phelps County, MO. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona GIS...

  14. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, Phelps County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally Phelps County, NE. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona GIS...

  15. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, Colbert County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally Colbert County, AL. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona GIS...

  16. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, Walker County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally Walker County, TX. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona GIS...

  17. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2008, Cerro Gordo County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset, was produced all or in part from Published Reports/Deeds information as of 2008. This data set includes internal links to...

  18. >Problems and Countermeasures of Collective Land Ownership Disputes in Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ying; QIAO; Kening; WU; Hongjuan; WANG; Qi; ZHANG

    2013-01-01

    In 2010, No.1 document of central government demanded strengthening mediation and settlement of ownership of rural collective land, to complete confirmation of right and registration and issue of certificate of rural collective land in 3 years. However, the mediation and settlement of land ownership in China still remain at starting stage, and there are many problems in both theory and practice. In this situation, this paper summarizes current situations of disputes about ownership of collective land in Beijing, analyzes causes of disputes, introduces existing working mechanism, methods and problems of dispute mediation and settlement, and finally presents feasible recommendations, in the hope of providing guidance for mediation and settlement of land ownership disputes.

  19. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, Sampson County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally Sampson County, NC. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona GIS...

  20. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, Schuyler County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally Schuyler County, MO. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona...

  1. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, Sabine Parish Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally Sabine Parish County, LA. This metadata was auto-generated through the...

  2. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, Sabine County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally Sabine County, TX. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona GIS...

  3. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, Huntington County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally Huntington County, IN. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona...

  4. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, OBrien County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally O'brien County, IA. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona GIS...

  5. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, Butler County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally Butler County, IA. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona GIS...

  6. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, Hancock County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally Hancock County, IA. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona GIS...

  7. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, Montgomery County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally Montgomery County, IA. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona...

  8. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, Lee County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally Lee County, IA. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona GIS...

  9. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, Greene County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally Greene County, IA. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona GIS...

  10. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, Carroll County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally Carroll County, IA. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona GIS...

  11. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, Calhoun County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally Calhoun County, IA. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona GIS...

  12. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, Warren County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally Warren County, IA. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona GIS...

  13. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, Coles County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally Coles County, IL. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona GIS...

  14. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, Cole County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally Cole County, MO. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona GIS...

  15. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, Limestone County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally Limestone County, AL. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona...

  16. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, Limstone County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally Limestone County, TX. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona...

  17. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, Gentry County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally George County, MS. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona GIS...

  18. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, Gentry County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally Gentry County, MO. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona GIS...

  19. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2008, Becker County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2008. The extent of these data is generally Becker County, MN. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona GIS...

  20. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in unknown, Hernando County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of unknown. The extent of these data is generally Hernando County, FL. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona...

  1. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, Conejos County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally Conejos County, CO. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona...

  2. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, Crawford County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally Crawford County, IA. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona...

  3. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, Shelby County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally Shelby County, IA. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona GIS...

  4. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, Pocahontas County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally Pocahontas County, IA. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona...

  5. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, Scott County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally Scott County, IA. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona GIS...

  6. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, Jefferson County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally Jefferson County, IA. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona...

  7. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, Madison County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally Madison County, IA. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona GIS...

  8. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, Ida County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally Ida County, IA. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona GIS...

  9. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, Johnson County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally Johnson County, IA. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona GIS...

  10. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, Poweshiek County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally Poweshiek County, IA. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona...

  11. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, Henry County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally Henry County, IA. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona GIS...

  12. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, Codington County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally Coffee County, GA. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona GIS...

  13. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, Christian County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally Christian County, MO. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona...

  14. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, Christian County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally Christian County, KY. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona...

  15. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, Dolores County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally Dolores County, CO. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona...

  16. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, Esmeralda City Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally Esmeralda County, NV. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona...

  17. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, Macon County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally Macon County, IL. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona GIS...

  18. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, Tangipahoa Parish Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally Tangipahoa Parish County, LA. This metadata was auto-generated through the...

  19. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, Butler County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally Butler County, KS. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona GIS...

  20. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, Pitkin County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally Pitkin County, CO. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona GIS...

  1. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, Armstrong County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally Armstrong County, PA. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona...

  2. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, Honolulu County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally Honolulu County, HI. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona...

  3. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, Kauai County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally Kauai County, HI. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona GIS...

  4. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, Maui County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally Maui County, HI. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona GIS...

  5. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2007, Churchill County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2007. The extent of these data is generally Churchill County, NV. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona...

  6. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, Kent County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally Kent County, TX. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona GIS...

  7. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2008, Kent County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2008. The extent of these data is generally Kent County, MI. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona GIS...

  8. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, Wayne County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally Wayne County, PA. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona GIS...

  9. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in unknown, Wayne County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of unknown. The extent of these data is generally Wayne County, OH. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona...

  10. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, Ritchie County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally Ritchie County, WV. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona...

  11. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, Jasper County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally Jasper County, GA. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona GIS...

  12. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, Andrew County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally Andrew County, MO. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona GIS...

  13. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, Harper County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally Harper County, KS. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona GIS...

  14. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, Newton County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally Newton County, IN. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona GIS...

  15. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, Benson County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally Benson County, ND. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona GIS...

  16. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in unknown, Darke County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of unknown. The extent of these data is generally Darke County, OH. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona...

  17. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in unknown, Garfield County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of unknown. The extent of these data is generally Garfield County, UT. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona...

  18. Yampa coal field land status and Federal mineral ownership (yamowng)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This is a shapefile and unioned polygon ownership coverage used to calculate coal resources of the A through D coal zones, Yampa coal field, northwestern Colorado....

  19. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in unknown, Madison County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset, was produced all or in part from Hardcopy Maps information as of unknown. This data set includes internal links to Building...

  20. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, Conway County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally Conway County, AR. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona GIS...

  1. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, Parke County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally Parke County, IN. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona GIS...

  2. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, Otoe County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally Otoe County, NE. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona GIS...

  3. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, Washington County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally Washington County, OK. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona...

  4. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, Texas County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally Texas County, OK. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona GIS...

  5. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, Jefferson County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally Jefferson County, OK. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona...

  6. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, Greer County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally Greer County, OK. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona GIS...

  7. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, Norton County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally Norton County, KS. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona GIS...

  8. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, Norton City Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally Norton City County, VA. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona...

  9. Unmanned aircraft systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unmanned platforms have become increasingly more common in recent years for acquiring remotely sensed data. These aircraft are referred to as Unmanned Airborne Vehicles (UAV), Remotely Piloted Aircraft (RPA), Remotely Piloted Vehicles (RPV), or Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS), the official term used...

  10. 3D pressure imaging of an aircraft propeller blade-tip flow by phase-locked stereoscopic PIV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ragni, D.; Oudheusden, B.W. van; Scarano, F. [Delft University of Technology, Faculty of Aerospace Engineering, Delft (Netherlands)

    2012-02-15

    The flow field at the tip region of a scaled DHC Beaver aircraft propeller, running at transonic speed, has been investigated by means of a multi-plane stereoscopic particle image velocimetry setup. Velocity fields, phase-locked with the blade rotational motion, are acquired across several planes perpendicular to the blade axis and merged to form a 3D measurement volume. Transonic conditions have been reached at the tip region, with a revolution frequency of 19,800 rpm and a relative free-stream Mach number of 0.73 at the tip. The pressure field and the surface pressure distribution are inferred from the 3D velocity data through integration of the momentum Navier-Stokes equation in differential form, allowing for the simultaneous flow visualization and the aerodynamic loads computation, with respect to a reference frame moving with the blade. The momentum and pressure data are further integrated by means of a contour-approach to yield the aerodynamic sectional force components as well as the blade torsional moment. A steady Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes numerical simulation of the entire propeller model has been used for comparison to the measurement data. (orig.)

  11. Handler, bystander and reentry exposure to TCDD from application of Agent Orange by C-123 aircraft during the Vietnam War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, John H; Hewitt, Andrew; Armitage, James; Solomon, Keith; Watkins, Deborah K; Ginevan, Michael E

    2015-02-01

    Using validated models and methods routinely employed by pesticide regulatory agencies, the absorbed dosages of Agent Orange (AO) herbicide contaminant 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) were estimated for mixer/loaders, applicators, and individuals in the vicinity of applications of AO by C-123 aircraft during the Vietnam War. Resulting dosages of TCDD were then transformed to estimates of adipose residues, and compared to population biomonitoring of known mixer/loaders and applicators as well as ground troops in Vietnam and civilians in the U.S. Results demonstrate that mixer/loaders and applicators had the greatest exposures and their measured residues of TCDD in adipose were consistent with the estimated exposures. Further, the potentially exposed ground troops, including those who could have been directly sprayed during aerial defoliation, had measured adipose residues that were consistent with those in civilian U.S. populations with no defined source of exposure exposures and both of those cohorts had orders of magnitude less exposure than the mixer/loaders or applicators. Despite the availability of validated exposure modeling methods for decades, the quantitative TCDD dose estimates presented here are the first of their kind for the Vietnam conflict.

  12. Backup Power Cost of Ownership Analysis and Incumbent Technology Comparison

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurtz, J.; Saur, G.; Sprik, S.; Ainscough, C.

    2014-09-01

    This cost of ownership analysis identifies the factors impacting the value proposition for fuel cell backup power and presents the estimated annualized cost of ownership for fuel cell backup power systems compared with the incumbent technologies of battery and diesel generator systems. The analysis compares three different backup power technologies (diesel, battery, and fuel cell) operating in similar circumstances in four run time scenarios (8, 52, 72, and 176 hours).

  13. Determinants of health insurance ownership among South African women

    OpenAIRE

    Mwabu Germano M; Nganda Benjamin; Sambo Luis G; Kirigia Joses M; Chatora Rufaro; Mwase Takondwa

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Background Studies conducted in developed countries using economic models show that individual- and household- level variables are important determinants of health insurance ownership. There is however a dearth of such studies in sub-Saharan Africa. The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between health insurance ownership and the demographic, economic and educational characteristics of South African women. Methods The analysis was based on data from a cross-secti...

  14. Mapping Strategy, Structure, Ownership and Performance in European Corporations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Martin; Colli, Andrea; de Jong, Abe

    2011-01-01

    This paper is the introduction to the Business History special issue on European Business Models. The volume presents results of the international project about mapping European corporations, within the strategy, structure, ownership and performance (SSOP) framework. The paper describes the histo......This paper is the introduction to the Business History special issue on European Business Models. The volume presents results of the international project about mapping European corporations, within the strategy, structure, ownership and performance (SSOP) framework. The paper describes...

  15. Robust copyright protection using multiple ownership watermarks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiao-Wei; Lee, In-Kwon

    2015-02-01

    Generally, conventional transform (DWT and DFT, etc.) -based watermarking techniques provide only one spectrum plane for embedding the watermark, thus the embedding watermark information can be easily removed. To solve this problem, we propose an efficient cellular automata (CA) based watermarking method that CA transform (CAT) with various gateway values can provide many transform planes for watermark embedding according to various CA rules. In this paper, multiple ownership watermarks are first recorded in the form of an elemental image array (EIA), simultaneously, and then the recorded EIA as the watermark data is embedded into the CAT coefficient. An additional advantage of this proposed method is that EIA is composed of many elemental images and each elemental image has its own property of watermarks. Even though most data of elemental images are lost, the watermarks can be reconstructed from the remaining elemental images successfully. Experimental results show that the proposed technique provides good image quality and is robust in varying degree to some image processing attacks.

  16. Impact of the Ownership Structure on Corporate Management in Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dieieva Nataliia E.

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses impact of the ownership structure on corporate management in the engineering industry of Ukraine. In order to detect impact of the structure of corporate ownership on corporate management the article uses general scientific and special methods of study: method of critical analysis and generalisation of theoretical studies, comparison method and statistical method. Analysis of engineering enterprises confirmed availability of impact of the structure of corporate ownership on corporate management. The article also shows that the engineering industry of Ukraine is characterised with the concentrated ownership structure, which has the following features: restriction of rights of minority shareholders with respect to management and control in a joint stock company; availability of corporate conflicts between majority and minority shareholders; availability of intense control of owners over management, which influences efficiency of making managerial decisions; hired managers and enterprise employees have no possibility to acquire stock of a joint stock company including in the form of bonuses and incentives; the controlling owner is interested in efficient activity of the enterprise and tries to create necessary conditions for this. The conducted studies give a possibility to establish that a share of stock that belongs to a hired executive body is smaller in those joint stock companies in which concentration of ownership is higher. The article also shows that the higher ownership concentration the higher is the probability that the owner would be a part of controlling bodies.

  17. Functional Connectivity Analysis of NIRS Data under Rubber Hand Illusion to Find a Biomarker of Sense of Ownership

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoki Arizono

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The self-identification, which is called sense of ownership, has been researched through methodology of rubber hand illusion (RHI because of its simple setup. Although studies with neuroimaging technique, such as fMRI, revealed that several brain areas are associated with the sense of ownership, near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS has not yet been utilized. Here we introduced an automated setup to induce RHI, measured the brain activity during the RHI with NIRS, and analyzed the functional connectivity so as to understand dynamical brain relationship regarding the sense of ownership. The connectivity was evaluated by multivariate Granger causality. In this experiment, the peaks of oxy-Hb on right frontal and right motor related areas during the illusion were significantly higher compared with those during the nonillusion. Furthermore, by analyzing the NIRS recordings, we found a reliable connectivity from the frontal to the motor related areas during the illusion. This finding suggests that frontal cortex and motor related areas communicate with each other when the sense of ownership is induced. The result suggests that the sense of ownership is related to neural mechanism underlying human motor control, and it would be determining whether motor learning (i.e., neural plasticity will occur. Thus RHI with the functional connectivity analysis will become an appropriate biomarker for neurorehabilitation.

  18. The body fades away: investigating the effects of transparency of an embodied virtual body on pain threshold and body ownership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martini, Matteo; Kilteni, Konstantina; Maselli, Antonella; Sanchez-Vives, Maria V

    2015-09-29

    The feeling of "ownership" over an external dummy/virtual body (or body part) has been proven to have both physiological and behavioural consequences. For instance, the vision of an "embodied" dummy or virtual body can modulate pain perception. However, the impact of partial or total invisibility of the body on physiology and behaviour has been hardly explored since it presents obvious difficulties in the real world. In this study we explored how body transparency affects both body ownership and pain threshold. By means of virtual reality, we presented healthy participants with a virtual co-located body with four different levels of transparency, while participants were tested for pain threshold by increasing ramps of heat stimulation. We found that the strength of the body ownership illusion decreases when the body gets more transparent. Nevertheless, in the conditions where the body was semi-transparent, higher levels of ownership over a see-through body resulted in an increased pain sensitivity. Virtual body ownership can be used for the development of pain management interventions. However, we demonstrate that providing invisibility of the body does not increase pain threshold. Therefore, body transparency is not a good strategy to decrease pain in clinical contexts, yet this remains to be tested.

  19. Relationships between major ownerships, forest aboveground biomass distributions, and landscape dynamics in the New England region of USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Daolan; Heath, Linda S; Ducey, Mark J; Butler, Brett

    2010-02-01

    This study utilizes remote sensing derived forest aboveground biomass (AGB) estimates and ownership information obtained from the Protected Areas Database (PAD), combining landscape analyses and GIS techniques to demonstrate how different ownerships (public, regulated private, and other private) relate to the spatial distribution of AGB in New England states of the USA. "Regulated private" lands were dominated by lands in Maine covered by a Land Use Regulatory Commission. The AGB means between all pairs of the identified ownership categories were significantly different (P 200 Mg/ha were located outside the area designated in the PAD and concentrated in western MA, southern VT, southwestern NH, and northwestern CT. While relatively unfragmented and high-AGB forests (>200 Mg/ha) accounted for about 8% of total forested land, they were unevenly proportioned among the three major ownership groups across the region: 19.6% of the public land, 0.8% of the regulated private land, and 11.0% of the other private land. Mean disturbance rates (in absolute value) between 1992 and 2001 were 16, 66, and 19 percent, respectively, on public, regulated private, and other private land. This indicates that management practices from different ownerships have a strong impact on dynamic changes of landscape structures and AGB distributions. Our results may provide insight information for policy makers on issues regarding forest carbon management, conservation biology, and biodiversity studies at regional level.

  20. Experimental investigation on dynamic response of aircraft panels excited by high-intensity acoustic loads in thermal environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    WU, Z. Q.; LI, H. B.; ZHANG, W.; CHENG, H.; KONG, F. J.; LIU, B. R.

    2016-09-01

    Metallic and composite panels are the major components for thermal protection system of aircraft vehicles, which are exposed to a severe combination of aerodynamic, thermal and acoustic environments during hypersonic flights. A thermal-acoustic testing apparatus which simulates thermal and acoustic loads was used to validate the integrity and the reliability of these panels. Metallic and ceramic matrix composite flat panels were designed. Dynamic response tests of these panels were carried out using the thermal acoustic apparatus. The temperature of the metallic specimen was up to 400 °C, and the temperature of the composite specimen was up to 600 °C. Moreover, the acoustic load was over 160 dB. Acceleration responses of these testing panels were measured using high temperature instruments during the testing process. Results show that the acceleration root mean square values are dominated by sound pressure level of acoustic loads. Compared with testing data in room environment, the peaks of the acceleration dynamic response shifts obviously to the high frequency in thermal environment.

  1. Arc reattachment driven by a turbulent boundary layer: implications for the sweeping of lightning arcs along aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra-Garcia, C.; Nguyen, N. C.; Peraire, J.; Martinez-Sanchez, M.

    2016-09-01

    A lightning channel attached to an aircraft in flight will be swept along the aircraft’s surface in response to the relative velocity between the arc’s root (attached to a moving electrode) and the bulk of the arc, which is stationary with respect to the air. During this process, the reattachment of the arc to new locations often occurs. The detailed description of this swept stroke is still at an early stage of research, and it entails the interaction between an electrical arc and the flow boundary layer. In this paper we examine the implications of the structure of the boundary layer for the arc sweeping and reattachment process by considering different velocity profiles, both for laminar and turbulent flow, as well as a high fidelity description, using large eddy simulation, of transitional flow over an airfoil. It is found that the local velocity fluctuations in a turbulent flow may be important contributors to the reattachment of the arc, through a combination of an increased potential drop along the arc and local approaches of the arc to the surface. Specific flow features, such as the presence of a laminar recirculation bubble, can also contribute to the possibility of reattachment.

  2. Modelled black carbon radiative forcing and atmospheric lifetime in AeroCom Phase II constrained by aircraft observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samset, B. H.; Myhre, G.; Herber, A.; Kondo, Y.; Li, S.-M.; Moteki, N.; Koike, M.; Oshima, N.; Schwarz, J. P.; Balkanski, Y.; Bauer, S. E.; Bellouin, N.; Berntsen, T. K.; Bian, H.; Chin, M.; Diehl, T.; Easter, R. C.; Ghan, S. J.; Iversen, T.; Kirkevåg, A.; Lamarque, J.-F.; Lin, G.; Liu, X.; Penner, J. E.; Schulz, M.; Seland, Ø.; Skeie, R. B.; Stier, P.; Takemura, T.; Tsigaridis, K.; Zhang, K.

    2014-11-01

    Atmospheric black carbon (BC) absorbs solar radiation, and exacerbates global warming through exerting positive radiative forcing (RF). However, the contribution of BC to ongoing changes in global climate is under debate. Anthropogenic BC emissions, and the resulting distribution of BC concentration, are highly uncertain. In particular, long-range transport and processes affecting BC atmospheric lifetime are poorly understood. Here we discuss whether recent assessments may have overestimated present-day BC radiative forcing in remote regions. We compare vertical profiles of BC concentration from four recent aircraft measurement campaigns to simulations by 13 aerosol models participating in the AeroCom Phase II intercomparison. An atmospheric lifetime of BC of less than 5 days is shown to be essential for reproducing observations in remote ocean regions, in line with other recent studies. Adjusting model results to measurements in remote regions, and at high altitudes, leads to a 25% reduction in AeroCom Phase II median direct BC forcing, from fossil fuel and biofuel burning, over the industrial era. The sensitivity of modelled forcing to BC vertical profile and lifetime highlights an urgent need for further flight campaigns, close to sources and in remote regions, to provide improved quantification of BC effects for use in climate policy.

  3. Modeled black carbon radiative forcing and atmospheric lifetime in AeroCom Phase II constrained by aircraft observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. H. Samset

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric black carbon (BC absorbs solar radiation, and exacerbates global warming through exerting positive radiative forcing (RF. However, the contribution of BC to ongoing changes in global climate is under debate. Anthropogenic BC emissions, and the resulting distribution of BC concentration, are highly uncertain. In particular, long range transport and processes affecting BC atmospheric lifetime are poorly understood. Here we discuss whether recent assessments may have overestimated present day BC radiative forcing in remote regions. We compare vertical profiles of BC concentration from four recent aircraft measurement campaigns to simulations by 13 aerosol models participating in the AeroCom Phase II intercomparision. An atmospheric lifetime of BC of less than 5 days is shown to be essential for reproducing observations in remote ocean regions, in line with other recent studies. Adjusting model results to measurements in remote regions, and at high altitudes, leads to a 25% reduction in AeroCom Phase II median direct BC forcing, from fossil fuel and biofuel burning, over the industrial era. The sensitivity of modeled forcing to BC vertical profile and lifetime highlights an urgent need for further flight campaigns, close to sources and in remote regions, to provide improved quantification of BC effects for use in climate policy.

  4. Impact of the chosen turbulent flow empirical model on the prediction of sound radiation and vibration by aircraft panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Joana

    2016-07-01

    A precise definition of the turbulent boundary layer excitation is required to accurately predict the sound radiation and surface vibration levels, produced by an aircraft panel excited turbulent flow during flight. Hence, any existing inaccuracy on turbulent boundary layer excitation models leads to an inaccurate prediction of the panel response. A number of empirical models have been developed over the years to provide the turbulent boundary layer wall pressure spectral density. However, different empirical models provide dissimilar predictions for the wall pressure spectral density. The objective of the present study is to investigate and quantify the impact of the chosen empirical model on the predicted radiated sound power, and on the predicted panel surface acceleration levels. This study provides a novel approach and a detailed analysis on the use of different turbulent boundary layer wall pressure empirical models, and impact on mathematical predictions. Closed-form mathematical relationships are developed, and recommendations are provided for the level of deviation and uncertainty associated to different models, in relation to a baseline model, both for panel surface acceleration and radiated sound power.

  5. Experimental investigation of the cornering characteristics of 18 by 5.5, type 7, aircraft tires with different tread patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreher, R. C.; Tanner, J. A.

    1974-01-01

    The characteristics, which include the cornering-force and drag-force friction coefficients and self-alining torque, were obtained on dry, damp, and flooded runway surfaces over a range of yaw angles from 0 deg to 12 deg and at ground speeds from approximately 5 to 90 knots. The results indicate that a tread pattern with pinholes in the ribs reduces the tire cornering capability at high yaw angles on a damp surface but improves cornering on a dry surface. A tread pattern which has transverse grooves across the entire width of the tread improves the tire cornering performance slightly at high speeds on the flooded runway surface. The cornering capability of all the tires is degraded at high ground speeds by thin film lubrication and/or tire hydroplaning effects. Alterations to the conventional tread pattern provide only marginal improvements in the tire cornering capability which suggests that runway surface treatments may be a more effective way of improving aircraft ground performance during wet operations.

  6. Developing Large-Scale Bayesian Networks by Composition: Fault Diagnosis of Electrical Power Systems in Aircraft and Spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mengshoel, Ole Jakob; Poll, Scott; Kurtoglu, Tolga

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the use of Bayesian networks to construct large-scale diagnostic systems. In particular, we consider the development of large-scale Bayesian networks by composition. This compositional approach reflects how (often redundant) subsystems are architected to form systems such as electrical power systems. We develop high-level specifications, Bayesian networks, clique trees, and arithmetic circuits representing 24 different electrical power systems. The largest among these 24 Bayesian networks contains over 1,000 random variables. Another BN represents the real-world electrical power system ADAPT, which is representative of electrical power systems deployed in aerospace vehicles. In addition to demonstrating the scalability of the compositional approach, we briefly report on experimental results from the diagnostic competition DXC, where the ProADAPT team, using techniques discussed here, obtained the highest scores in both Tier 1 (among 9 international competitors) and Tier 2 (among 6 international competitors) of the industrial track. While we consider diagnosis of power systems specifically, we believe this work is relevant to other system health management problems, in particular in dependable systems such as aircraft and spacecraft. (See CASI ID 20100021910 for supplemental data disk.)

  7. Euler Technology Assessment for Preliminary Aircraft Design: Compressibility Predictions by Employing the Cartesian Unstructured Grid SPLITFLOW Code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finley, Dennis B.; Karman, Steve L., Jr.

    1996-01-01

    The objective of the second phase of the Euler Technology Assessment program was to evaluate the ability of Euler computational fluid dynamics codes to predict compressible flow effects over a generic fighter wind tunnel model. This portion of the study was conducted by Lockheed Martin Tactical Aircraft Systems, using an in-house Cartesian-grid code called SPLITFLOW. The Cartesian grid technique offers several advantages, including ease of volume grid generation and reduced number of cells compared to other grid schemes. SPLITFLOW also includes grid adaption of the volume grid during the solution to resolve high-gradient regions. The SPLITFLOW code predictions of configuration forces and moments are shown to be adequate for preliminary design, including predictions of sideslip effects and the effects of geometry variations at low and high angles-of-attack. The transonic pressure prediction capabilities of SPLITFLOW are shown to be improved over subsonic comparisons. The time required to generate the results from initial surface data is on the order of several hours, including grid generation, which is compatible with the needs of the design environment.

  8. Modeled black carbon radiative forcing and atmospheric lifetime in AeroCom Phase II constrained by aircraft observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samset, B. H.; Myhre, G.; Herber, A.; Kondo, Y.; Li, S.-M.; Moteki, N.; Koike, M.; Oshima, N.; Schwarz, J. P.; Balkanski, Y.; Bauer, S. E.; Bellouin, N.; Berntsen, T. K.; Bian, H.; Chin, M.; Diehl, T.; Easter, R. C.; Ghan, S. J.; Iversen, T.; Kirkevåg, A.; Lamarque, J.-F.; Lin, G.; Liu, X.; Penner, J. E.; Schulz, M.; Seland, Ø.; Skeie, R. B.; Stier, P.; Takemura, T.; Tsigaridis, K.; Zhang, K.

    2014-08-01

    Atmospheric black carbon (BC) absorbs solar radiation, and exacerbates global warming through exerting positive radiative forcing (RF). However, the contribution of BC to ongoing changes in global climate is under debate. Anthropogenic BC emissions, and the resulting distribution of BC concentration, are highly uncertain. In particular, long range transport and processes affecting BC atmospheric lifetime are poorly understood. Here we discuss whether recent assessments may have overestimated present day BC radiative forcing in remote regions. We compare vertical profiles of BC concentration from four recent aircraft measurement campaigns to simulations by 13 aerosol models participating in the AeroCom Phase II intercomparision. An atmospheric lifetime of BC of less than 5 days is shown to be essential for reproducing observations in remote ocean regions, in line with other recent studies. Adjusting model results to measurements in remote regions, and at high altitudes, leads to a 25% reduction in AeroCom Phase II median direct BC forcing, from fossil fuel and biofuel burning, over the industrial era. The sensitivity of modeled forcing to BC vertical profile and lifetime highlights an urgent need for further flight campaigns, close to sources and in remote regions, to provide improved quantification of BC effects for use in climate policy.

  9. Aircraft Cabin Environmental Quality Sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gundel, Lara; Kirchstetter, Thomas; Spears, Michael; Sullivan, Douglas

    2010-05-06

    The Indoor Environment Department at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) teamed with seven universities to participate in a Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) Center of Excellence (COE) for research on environmental quality in aircraft. This report describes research performed at LBNL on selecting and evaluating sensors for monitoring environmental quality in aircraft cabins, as part of Project 7 of the FAA's COE for Airliner Cabin Environmental Research (ACER)1 effort. This part of Project 7 links to the ozone, pesticide, and incident projects for data collection and monitoring and is a component of a broader research effort on sensors by ACER. Results from UCB and LBNL's concurrent research on ozone (ACER Project 1) are found in Weschler et al., 2007; Bhangar et al. 2008; Coleman et al., 2008 and Strom-Tejsen et al., 2008. LBNL's research on pesticides (ACER Project 2) in airliner cabins is described in Maddalena and McKone (2008). This report focused on the sensors needed for normal contaminants and conditions in aircraft. The results are intended to complement and coordinate with results from other ACER members who concentrated primarily on (a) sensors for chemical and biological pollutants that might be released intentionally in aircraft; (b) integration of sensor systems; and (c) optimal location of sensors within aircraft. The parameters and sensors were selected primarily to satisfy routine monitoring needs for contaminants and conditions that commonly occur in aircraft. However, such sensor systems can also be incorporated into research programs on environmental quality in aircraft cabins.

  10. RESEARCH OF NIGHT LIGHT EFFECTS ON COLORIMETRIC CHARACTERISTICS OF IMAGE PERCEIVED BY THE PILOT IN AN AIRCRAFT COCKPIT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. O. Zharinov

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Subject of Research. The influence of radiation spectra from the source of artificial night light on colorimetric characteristics of image perceived by the pilot in the aircraft cockpit has been studied. The image is displayed on the LCD screen of multifunctional color indication equipment unit. Night illumination of the cockpit is performed with the use of artificial lamps of red, green, blue and, rarely, white light. Method. Any given color to be displayed on the screen is perceived by an observer differently with presence and absence of external illumination. When external light of white color is used, perceived color depends upon color temperature of the light source; if illumination source has any arbitrary spectral characteristics, then perceivable color depends upon whole spectral content of the used source. The color, perceived by an observer, is formed as the mixture of the color displayed on the screen (image element color with the color presented by diffuse reflection of external illumination source from the surface of the screen. The brightness of both colors is added. Mathematical expressions, that define calculation rule for chromaticity coordinates of color perceived by an observer, are based on the Grassmann’s law of additive color mixing. Quantitative analysis of the effect, caused by radiation spectra from an external source of artificial light on color gamut area, corresponding to image, perceived by an observer, has been performed through simulation in MathCad 15.0. Main Results. It was shown, that the color palette of on-board indication equipment, obtained on automated working place for any preset source of external illumination of fluorescent spectrum, corresponding to white light, is not usable correctly in the aircraft night flight mode. An observer loses ability to perceive properly saturated primary colors of red and blue in the case of green-blue light source of external illumination; and the same issue occurs with

  11. Research on Emerging and Descending Aircraft Noise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Bartkevičiūtė

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Along with an increase in the aircraft engine power and growth in air traffic, noise level at airports and their surrounding environs significantly increases. Aircraft noise is high level noise spreading within large radius and intensively irritating the human body. Air transport is one of the main sources of noise having a particularly strong negative impact on the environment. The article deals with activities and noises taking place in the largest nationwide Vilnius International Airport.The level of noise and its dispersion was evaluated conducting research on the noise generated by emerging and descending aircrafts in National Vilnius Airport. Investigation was carried out at 2 measuring points located in a residential area. There are different types of aircrafts causing different sound levels. It has been estimated the largest exceedances that occur when an aircraft is approaching. In this case, the noisiest types of aircrafts are B733, B738 and AT72. The sound level varies from 70 to 85 dBA. The quietest aircrafts are RJ1H and F70. When taking off, the equivalent of the maximum sound level value of these aircrafts does not exceed the authorized limits. The paper describes the causes of noise in aircrafts, the sources of origin and the impact of noise on humans and the environment.Article in Lithuanian

  12. Who owns what? Private ownership and the public interest in recombinant DNA technology in the 1970s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Doogab

    2011-09-01

    This essay analyzes how academic institutions, government agencies, and the nascent biotech industry contested the legal ownership of recombinant DNA technology in the name of the public interest. It reconstructs the way a small but influential group of government officials and university research administrators introduced a new framework for the commercialization of academic research in the context of a national debate over scientific research's contributions to American economic prosperity and public health. They claimed that private ownership of inventions arising from public support would provide a powerful means to liberate biomedical discoveries for public benefit. This articulation of the causal link between private ownership and the public interest, it is argued, justified a new set of expectations about the use of research results arising from government or public support, in which commercialization became a new public obligation for academic researchers. By highlighting the broader economic and legal shifts that prompted the reconfiguration of the ownership of public knowledge in late twentieth-century American capitalism, the essay examines the threads of policy-informed legal ideas that came together to affirm private ownership of biomedical knowledge as germane to the public interest in the coming of age of biotechnology and genetic medicine.

  13. OWNERSHIP CONCENTRATION AND CORPORATE GOVERNANCE DISCLOSURE – THE CASE OF FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanescu Cristina Alexandrina

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Disclosure and the quality of corporate governance system are more often appreciated as closely related concepts - the higher the level of transparency, the better the quality corporate governance practices. As regards disclosure, if in a widely held company (ownership dispersion its role is to signal that the managers are acting in the best interests of the principals, in a highly concentrated company (ownership concentration, it comes to annihilate the conflicts of interest between “insiders” (controlling shareholders and managers and outside investors. Basing on this background, we focused on corporate governance disclosure, analyzing possible influences over it coming from corporate governance dimensions. Therefore, the objective of our paper is to identify possible associations between corporate governance features and the level of disclosure through annual reports in case of banking institutions listed at London Stock Exchange focusing on ownership concentration. Most empirical studies that have tested the correlation between ownership concentration and the level of disclosure reached to a negative relationship (Barako et al., 2006; Tsamenyi, et al., 2007; Haniffa and Cooke, 2002; Huafang and Jianguo, 2007; Patelli and Prencipe, 2007; Chau and Gray, 2002; Cooke, 1989. However, there are also studies that could not find any association (Arcay and Vazquez, 2005; Ghazali and Weetman, 2006; Holm and Scholer, 2010; Parsa, et al., 2007; Baek, et al., 2009; Makhija and Patton, 2004; Depoers, 2000. Basing both on assertions supported by the agency theory that companies with concentrated ownership do not have to rely on external disclosures to the same extent as companies with dispersed ownership, as well as on most prior empirical findings that provide evidence in this respect, we proposed the following hypothesis: “(H: There is a negative association between ownership concentration and the extent of disclosure”. The

  14. Distributed Data Mining for Aircraft Health Management Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Aircraft Flight Operations Quality Assurance (FOQA) programs are implemented by most of the aircraft operators. Vast amounts of FOQA data are distributed between...

  15. The Design Of Equity Ownership Structure In Inter-Firm Relationships: Do Managers Choose According To Theory?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasahant Kale

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Theories explaining the equity ownership structure of inter-firm relationships, such as the resource-based view or transaction cost economics, commonly assume a significant role for managerial choice, but this assumption is rarely assessed for its realism. In this study, we use the policy capture methodology to directly assess whether managers choose according to theory (and which theory. In a sample of 66 experienced managers, we find that managerial choices of equity ownership are indeed influenced both by competitive advantage and transaction hazards, though to a greater extent by competitive advantage. Further, only competitive advantage influences managers’ choices about the extent of equity ownership in their partner; transaction hazards motivate the choice of some equity over none. We discuss implications for how inter-firm relationships are and ought to be designed.

  16. Aircraft propeller control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Stanley G. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    In the invention, the speeds of both propellers in a counterrotating aircraft propeller pair are measured. Each speed is compared, using a feedback loop, with a demanded speed and, if actual speed does not equal demanded speed for either propeller, pitch of the proper propeller is changed in order to attain the demanded speed. A proportional/integral controller is used in the feedback loop. Further, phase of the propellers is measured and, if the phase does not equal a demanded phase, the speed of one propeller is changed, by changing pitch, until the proper phase is attained.

  17. Inverse modeling of the (137)Cs source term of the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident constrained by a deposition map monitored by aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yumimoto, Keiya; Morino, Yu; Ohara, Toshimasa; Oura, Yasuji; Ebihara, Mitsuru; Tsuruta, Haruo; Nakajima, Teruyuki

    2016-11-01

    The amount of (137)Cs released by the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident of 11 March 2011 was inversely estimated by integrating an atmospheric dispersion model, an a priori source term, and map of deposition recorded by aircraft. An a posteriori source term refined finer (hourly) variations comparing with the a priori term, and estimated (137)Cs released 11 March to 2 April to be 8.12 PBq. Although time series of the a posteriori source term was generally similar to those of the a priori source term, notable modifications were found in the periods when the a posteriori source term was well-constrained by the observations. Spatial pattern of (137)Cs deposition with the a posteriori source term showed better agreement with the (137)Cs deposition monitored by aircraft. The a posteriori source term increased (137)Cs deposition in the Naka-dori region (the central part of Fukushima Prefecture) by 32.9%, and considerably improved the underestimated a priori (137)Cs deposition. Observed values of deposition measured at 16 stations and surface atmospheric concentrations collected on a filter tape of suspended particulate matter were used for validation of the a posteriori results. A great improvement was found in surface atmospheric concentration on 15 March; the a posteriori source term reduced root mean square error, normalized mean error, and normalized mean bias by 13.4, 22.3, and 92.0% for the hourly values, respectively. However, limited improvements were observed in some periods and areas due to the difficulty in simulating accurate wind fields and the lack of the observational constraints.

  18. Ecological Risk Assessment Framework for Low-Altitude Overflights by Fixed-Wing and Rotary-Wing Military Aircraft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Efroymson, R.A.

    2001-01-12

    This is a companion report to the risk assessment framework proposed by Suter et al. (1998): ''A Framework for Assessment of Risks of Military Training and Testing to Natural Resources,'' hereafter referred to as the ''generic framework.'' The generic framework is an ecological risk assessment methodology for use in environmental assessments on Department of Defense (DoD) installations. In the generic framework, the ecological risk assessment framework of the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA 1998) is modified for use in the context of (1) multiple and diverse stressors and activities at a military installation and (2) risks resulting from causal chains, e.g., effects on habitat that indirectly impact wildlife. Both modifications are important if the EPA framework is to be used on military installations. In order for the generic risk assessment framework to be useful to DoD environmental staff and contractors, the framework must be applied to specific training and testing activities. Three activity-specific ecological risk assessment frameworks have been written (1) to aid environmental staff in conducting risk assessments that involve these activities and (2) to guide staff in the development of analogous frameworks for other DoD activities. The three activities are: (1) low-altitude overflights by fixed-wing and rotary-wing aircraft (this volume), (2) firing at targets on land, and (3) ocean explosions. The activities were selected as priority training and testing activities by the advisory committee for this project.

  19. 混合所有制中的员工持股探索%The Exploration of Employee Stock Ownership in Mixed-ownership Economy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘雨青; 傅帅雄

    2015-01-01

    国有企业改革的目标是在股份多元化的基础上建立独立的法人治理结构,通过混合所有制的发展进一步优化资源整合,提高资源配置效率,增强企业的活力与实力。其中,员工持股作为混合所有制的一种体现形式,也是国有企业股权激励制度改革的方向。首先,在理论层面上,物质财富是由资本投入者和劳动力投入者共同创造的,创造出来的物质财富应该由二者共同分享。其次,通过股权激励,让企业管理和技术骨干以主人翁精神和使命感,主动将自我的职业发展、收入增加与企业效益和长远发展联系起来。另外,混合所有制中,管理人员和技术骨干持股,有利于股权结构优化,避免国有资本一股独大,可以在国有资本、民营资本及员工持股之间形成相互的利益制衡。%The goal of reform in state-owned enterprise is to establish the independent corporate governance of enterprise base on the stock diversification,further optimize resources distribution by the development of mixed-ownership economy, improve the efficiency of resources allocation,and enhance the vitality and strength of enterprises. The employee stock ownership is also a form of mixed ownership and the direction of reform in state-owned enterprises. In theory,material wealth is created by capital input and labor input,so the material wealth created should be shared by capital input and labor input. Second,the incentive of stock option can give the managers and technical backbones the feeling of being the master of the enterprises and the sense of mission and encourage them to initially connect their own occupation development and income increase with the effectiveness and long-term development of enterprises. In addition,with the mixed ownership,employee stock ownership can optimize the structure of ownership,avoid the state-owned capital to be the single big holder,and form a balanced

  20. Experimental study of mountain lee—waves by means of satellite photographs and aircraft measurements

    OpenAIRE

    Cruette, Denise

    2011-01-01

    This paper is a summary of a Ph.D. Thesis1 which was a systematic study of the influence of various meteorological factors on the occurrence and characteristics of mountain waves, more specifically of lee-waves of great horizontal extent. The data used are, beside classical meteorological informations, that given by satellite pictures completed by quasi-simultaneous measurements from planes or gliders. The analysis of many satellite pictures received at the french station of Lannion (Brittany...