WorldWideScience

Sample records for aircraft by ownership

  1. Optimization in fractional aircraft ownership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Septiani, R. D.; Pasaribu, H. M.; Soewono, E.; Fayalita, R. A.

    2012-05-01

    Fractional Aircraft Ownership is a new concept in flight ownership management system where each individual or corporation may own a fraction of an aircraft. In this system, the owners have privilege to schedule their flight according to their needs. Fractional management companies (FMC) manages all aspects of aircraft operations, including utilization of FMC's aircraft in combination of outsourced aircrafts. This gives the owners the right to enjoy the benefits of private aviations. However, FMC may have complicated business requirements that neither commercial airlines nor charter airlines faces. Here, optimization models are constructed to minimize the number of aircrafts in order to maximize the profit and to minimize the daily operating cost. In this paper, three kinds of demand scenarios are made to represent different flight operations from different types of fractional owners. The problems are formulated as an optimization of profit and a daily operational cost to find the optimum flight assignments satisfying the weekly and daily demand respectively from the owners. Numerical results are obtained by Genetic Algorithm method.

  2. 14 CFR 91.1411 - Continuous airworthiness maintenance program use by fractional ownership program manager.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... program use by fractional ownership program manager. 91.1411 Section 91.1411 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL... airworthiness maintenance program use by fractional ownership program manager. Fractional ownership program... through 91.1443. Any program manager who elects to maintain the program aircraft using a...

  3. Corporate Ownership by Industrial Foundations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Steen

    1999-01-01

    relatively inefficient since they lack monitoring by residual claimants and access to equity finance from the stock market. Nevertheless, empirical research (Thomsen 1996) has found that Danish foundation-owned companies do no worse in terms of profitability and growth than companies with dispersed ownership...

  4. Concentrated Ownership

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rose, Caspar

    2014-01-01

    This entry summarizes the main theoretical contributions and empirical findings in relation to concentrated ownership from a law and economics perspective. The various forms of concentrated ownership are described as well as analyzed from the perspective of the legal protection of investors......, especially minority shareholders. Concentrated ownership is associated with benefits and costs. Concentrated ownership may reduce agency costs by increased monitoring of top management. However, concentrated ownership may also provide dominating owners with private benefits of control....

  5. Long-Term Ownership by Industrial Foundations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Børsting, Christa Winther; Kuhn, Johan Moritz; Poulsen, Thomas;

    2016-01-01

    Short-termism has become a serious concern for businesses and policy makers and this has inspired a search for governance arrangement to promote long term decision making. In this paper we study a particularly long-term ownership structure, which is fairly common in Northern Europe, particularly in...... Denmark. Industrial foundations are independent legal entities without owners or members typically with the dual objective of preserving the company and using excess profits for charity. We use a unique Danish data set to examine the governance of foundation-owned companies. We show that they are long......-term in several respects. Foundations hold on to their shares for longer. Foundation-owned companies replace managers less frequently. They have more conservative capital structures with less leverage. Their companies survive longer. Their business decisions appear to be more long term. This paper...

  6. Changing motor perception by sensorimotor conflicts and body ownership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salomon, R.; Fernandez, N. B.; van Elk, M.; Vachicouras, N.; Sabatier, F.; Tychinskaya, A.; Llobera, J.; Blanke, O.

    2016-01-01

    Experimentally induced sensorimotor conflicts can result in a loss of the feeling of control over a movement (sense of agency). These findings are typically interpreted in terms of a forward model in which the predicted sensory consequences of the movement are compared with the observed sensory consequences. In the present study we investigated whether a mismatch between movements and their observed sensory consequences does not only result in a reduced feeling of agency, but may affect motor perception as well. Visual feedback of participants’ finger movements was manipulated using virtual reality to be anatomically congruent or incongruent to the performed movement. Participants made a motor perception judgment (i.e. which finger did you move?) or a visual perceptual judgment (i.e. which finger did you see moving?). Subjective measures of agency and body ownership were also collected. Seeing movements that were visually incongruent to the performed movement resulted in a lower accuracy for motor perception judgments, but not visual perceptual judgments. This effect was modified by rotating the virtual hand (Exp.2), but not by passively induced movements (Exp.3). Hence, sensorimotor conflicts can modulate the perception of one’s motor actions, causing viewed “alien actions” to be felt as one’s own. PMID:27225834

  7. Parcels and Land Ownership, Maintained by Dubuque County Assessor's Office, Published in 2007, City of Dubuque.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset, was produced all or in part from Published Reports/Deeds information as of 2007. It is described as 'Maintained by Dubuque...

  8. Black Economic Empowerment Disclosures by South African Listed Corporations: The Influence of Ownership and Board Characteristics

    OpenAIRE

    Ntim, Collins G.; Soobaroyen, Teerooven

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the extent to which South African listed corporations voluntarily disclose information on black economic empowerment (BEE) in their annual and sustainability reports using a sample of 75 listed corporations from 2003 to 2009. BEE is a form of socio-economic affirmative action championed by the African National Congress (ANC)-led government to address historical imbalances in business participation and ownership in South Africa. We find that block ownership and institut...

  9. Humanlike robot hands controlled by brain activity arouse illusion of ownership in operators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alimardani, Maryam; Nishio, Shuichi; Ishiguro, Hiroshi

    2013-08-01

    Operators of a pair of robotic hands report ownership for those hands when they hold image of a grasp motion and watch the robot perform it. We present a novel body ownership illusion that is induced by merely watching and controlling robot's motions through a brain machine interface. In past studies, body ownership illusions were induced by correlation of such sensory inputs as vision, touch and proprioception. However, in the presented illusion none of the mentioned sensations are integrated except vision. Our results show that during BMI-operation of robotic hands, the interaction between motor commands and visual feedback of the intended motions is adequate to incorporate the non-body limbs into one's own body. Our discussion focuses on the role of proprioceptive information in the mechanism of agency-driven illusions. We believe that our findings will contribute to improvement of tele-presence systems in which operators incorporate BMI-operated robots into their body representations.

  10. Employee ownership in Jamaica

    OpenAIRE

    Panton, David.

    1999-01-01

    In March 1994, the Jamaican Parliament passed the Employee Share Ownership Plan (ESOP) Act, to facilitate widespread employee share ownership by granting tax incentives to companies that offer shares to their employees (GOJ 1994). The primary aims of the legislation were to (a) strengthen Jamaica's economy by enabling workers to acquire an ownership stake in their employer and (b) improve the economic performance of Jamaican companies by encouraging employees to identify more ...

  11. 42 CFR 455.104 - Disclosure by providers and fiscal agents: Information on ownership and control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Disclosure by providers and fiscal agents: Information on ownership and control. 455.104 Section 455.104 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS PROGRAM...

  12. Employee Ownership Of Firms

    OpenAIRE

    Henry B. Hansmann

    1998-01-01

    Once widely considered just a theoretical curiosity or an ideological aspiration, employee ownership of enterprise has attracted considerable interest in recent years as a practical matter of organization. In the West, this interest derives in considerable part from the decline of unionism and the resulting search for other means of assuring efficiency and equity in labor contracting, while in the East, interest in employee ownership has been stimulated by the rapid market-oriented ownership ...

  13. Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hibbs, Bart D.; Lissaman, Peter B. S.; Morgan, Walter R.; Radkey, Robert L.

    1998-01-01

    This disclosure provides a solar rechargeable aircraft that is inexpensive to produce, is steerable, and can remain airborne almost indefinitely. The preferred aircraft is a span-loaded flying wing, having no fuselage or rudder. Travelling at relatively slow speeds, and having a two-hundred foot wingspan that mounts photovoltaic cells on most all of the wing's top surface, the aircraft uses only differential thrust of its eight propellers to turn. Each of five sections of the wing has one or more engines and photovoltaic arrays, and produces its own lift independent of the other sections, to avoid loading them. Five two-sided photovoltaic arrays, in all, are mounted on the wing, and receive photovoltaic energy both incident on top of the wing, and which is incident also from below, through a bottom, transparent surface. The aircraft is capable of a top speed of about ninety miles per hour, which enables the aircraft to attain and can continuously maintain altitudes of up to sixty-five thousand feet. Regenerative fuel cells in the wing store excess electricity for use at night, such that the aircraft can sustain its elevation indefinitely. A main spar of the wing doubles as a pressure vessel that houses hydrogen and oxygen gasses for use in the regenerative fuel cell. The aircraft has a wide variety of applications, which include weather monitoring and atmospheric testing, communications, surveillance, and other applications as well.

  14. Evidence for the “Suicide by Firearm” Proxy for Gun Ownership from Austria

    OpenAIRE

    Westphal, Christian

    2013-01-01

    When attempting to measure gun ownership in the United States, the problem of missing administrative data arises, making it necessary to find a valid proxy. Several such proxies are employed in economic studies, one of which is the fraction of “suicides by firearm” of “all suicides” (FSS). My work validates this proxy from out-of-sample data, namely, Austrian administrative data on firearm licenses. I also reevaluate, with appropriate statistical methods, a result on firearms and suicide from...

  15. Analysis on Capitalization of Rural Land Ownership in China by Law and Economics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hongjuan; LI

    2014-01-01

    To find solutions for legal system for capitalization of rural land ownership in China,this paper studied and analyzed existing problems in rural land system and legal environment using legal theory and transaction cost theory. Results indicated that(i) the restriction of institutional condition upon property right and transaction is more essential,and key points include the relationship of entities of right formed jointly by the state,collective and farmers,accurate positioning of property right structure,and security for land appreciation income right and allocation mechanism;(ii) the land property right structure should select a legal structure with minimum transaction cost. It is concluded that entitling the ownership to a single entity is an economical method to eliminate current conflict of rural land right.

  16. Psychologically induced cooling of a specific body part caused by the illusory ownership of an artificial counterpart

    OpenAIRE

    Moseley, G. Lorimer; Olthof, Nick; Venema, Annemeike; Don, Sanneke; Wijers, Marijke; Gallace, Alberto; Spence, Charles

    2008-01-01

    The sense of body ownership represents a fundamental aspect of our self-awareness, but is disrupted in many neurological, psychiatric, and psychological conditions that are also characterized by disruption of skin temperature regulation, sometimes in a single limb. We hypothesized that skin temperature in a specific limb could be disrupted by psychologically disrupting the sense of ownership of that limb. In six separate experiments, and by using an established protocol to induce the rubber h...

  17. Monitoring Aircraft Motion at Airports by LIDAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toth, C.; Jozkow, G.; Koppanyi, Z.; Young, S.; Grejner-Brzezinska, D.

    2016-06-01

    Improving sensor performance, combined with better affordability, provides better object space observability, resulting in new applications. Remote sensing systems are primarily concerned with acquiring data of the static components of our environment, such as the topographic surface of the earth, transportation infrastructure, city models, etc. Observing the dynamic component of the object space is still rather rare in the geospatial application field; vehicle extraction and traffic flow monitoring are a few examples of using remote sensing to detect and model moving objects. Deploying a network of inexpensive LiDAR sensors along taxiways and runways can provide both geometrically and temporally rich geospatial data that aircraft body can be extracted from the point cloud, and then, based on consecutive point clouds motion parameters can be estimated. Acquiring accurate aircraft trajectory data is essential to improve aviation safety at airports. This paper reports about the initial experiences obtained by using a network of four Velodyne VLP- 16 sensors to acquire data along a runway segment.

  18. Increased Use of Care Management Processes and Expanded Health Information Technology Functions by Practice Ownership and Medicaid Revenue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Hector P; McClellan, Sean R; Bibi, Salma; Casalino, Lawrence P; Ramsay, Patricia P; Shortell, Stephen M

    2016-06-01

    Practice ownership and Medicaid revenue may affect the use of care management processes (CMPs) for chronic conditions and expansion of health information technology (HIT). Using a national cohort of medical practices, we compared the use of CMPs and HIT from 2006/2008 to 2013 by practice ownership and level of Medicaid revenue. Poisson regression models estimated changes in CMP use, and linear regression estimated changes in HIT, by practice ownership and Medicaid patient revenue, controlling for other practice characteristics. Compared with physician-owned practices, system-owned practices adopted a greater number of CMPs and HIT functions over time (p revenue (≥30.0%) was associated with less adoption of CMPs (p revenue were more likely than physician-owned practices with high Medicaid revenue to adopt CMPs over time. System and community health center ownership appear to help high Medicaid practices overcome CMP adoption constraints. PMID:26577227

  19. Competition, Ownership and Productivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baghdasaryan, Delia; la Cour, Lisbeth

    2013-01-01

    Theoretical results support two concurrent views regarding the mediating role that ownership structure might play on the effect of competition on firm performance. According to one stream of literature, competition has a high, positive impact in companies that have an effective ownership structure....... On the contrary, inferences based on the x-inefficiency literature suggest the highest positive effect will be experienced by companies with inappropriate ownership structure. Our empirical analysis on a panel of Czech firms shows that the former view is supported if import competition is high...

  20. Psychologically induced cooling of a specific body part caused by the illusory ownership of an artificial counterpart

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moseley, G. Lorimer; Olthof, Nick; Venema, Annemeike; Don, Sanneke; Wijers, Marijke; Gallace, Alberto; Spence, Charles

    2008-01-01

    The sense of body ownership represents a fundamental aspect of our self-awareness, but is disrupted in many neurological, psychiatric, and psychological conditions that are also characterized by disruption of skin temperature regulation, sometimes in a single limb. We hypothesized that skin temperature in a specific limb could be disrupted by psychologically disrupting the sense of ownership of that limb. In six separate experiments, and by using an established protocol to induce the rubber hand illusion, we demonstrate that skin temperature of the real hand decreases when we take ownership of an artificial counterpart. The decrease in skin temperature is limb-specific: it does not occur in the unstimulated hand, nor in the ipsilateral foot. The effect is not evoked by tactile or visual input per se, nor by simultaneous tactile and visual input per se, nor by a shift in attention toward the experimental side or limb. In fact, taking ownership of an artificial hand slows tactile processing of information from the real hand, which is also observed in patients who demonstrate body disownership after stroke. These findings of psychologically induced limb-specific disruption of temperature regulation provide the first evidence that: taking ownership of an artificial body part has consequences for the real body part; that the awareness of our physical self and the physiological regulation of self are closely linked in a top-down manner; and that cognitive processes that disrupt the sense of body ownership may in turn disrupt temperature regulation in numerous states characterized by both. PMID:18725630

  1. Body ownership affects visual perception of object size by rescaling the visual representation of external space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Hoort, Björn; Ehrsson, H Henrik

    2014-07-01

    Size perception is most often explained by a combination of cues derived from the visual system. However, this traditional cue approach neglects the role of the observer's body beyond mere visual comparison. In a previous study, we used a full-body illusion to show that objects appear larger and farther away when participants experience a small artificial body as their own and that objects appear smaller and closer when they assume ownership of a large artificial body ("Barbie-doll illusion"; van der Hoort, Guterstam, & Ehrsson, PLoS ONE, 6(5), e20195, 2011). The first aim of the present study was to test the hypothesis that this own-body-size effect is distinct from the role of the seen body as a direct familiar-size cue. To this end, we developed a novel setup that allowed for occlusion of the artificial body during the presentation of test objects. Our results demonstrate that the feeling of ownership of an artificial body can alter the perceived sizes of objects without the need for a visible body. Second, we demonstrate that fixation shifts do not contribute to the own-body-size effect. Third, we show that the effect exists in both peri-personal space and distant extra-personal space. Finally, through a meta-analysis, we demonstrate that the own-body-size effect is independent of and adds to the classical visual familiar-size cue effect. Our results suggest that, by changing body size, the entire spatial layout rescales and new objects are now perceived according to this rescaling, without the need to see the body. PMID:24806404

  2. Modern trends of aircraft fly-by-wire systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    С. С. Юцкевич

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Specifics of civil aviation modern transport aircraft fly-by-wire control systems are described. A comparison of the systems-level hardware and software, expressed through modes of guidance, provision of aircraft Airbus A-320, Boeing B-777, Tupolev Tu-214, Sukhoi Superjet SSJ-100 are carried out. The possibility of transition from mechanical control wiring to control through fly-by-wire system in the backup channel is shown.

  3. 14 CFR 47.67 - Evidence of ownership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Evidence of ownership. 47.67 Section 47.67 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRCRAFT... than a manufacturer) must send to the FAA Aircraft Registry evidence satisfactory to the...

  4. Sharing ownership via employee stock ownership

    OpenAIRE

    Sesil, James C.; Douglas L. Kruse; Joseph R. Blasi

    2001-01-01

    Increased equity participation by employees has attracted substantial interest for its potential to affect both economic outcomes (e.g., worker and firm performance) and social outcomes (e.g., wealth and income inequality). This paper summarizes the findings from over 50 large-sample empirical studies that have been done on employee ownership and broad-based stock option plans in the past 25 years, covering studies on plan adoption, employee attitudes and behaviours, firm performance, and emp...

  5. 48 CFR 252.227-7038 - Patent Rights-Ownership by the Contractor (Large Business).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... corporate structure of which the Contractor is a part; (B) Includes the right to grant sublicenses to the... Contractor made in the performance of work under this contract. (b) Contractor's rights—(1) Ownership. The... subject invention pursuant to an application for an exclusive license submitted in accordance with 37...

  6. 32 CFR 256.6 - Runway classification by aircraft type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Runway classification by aircraft type. 256.6 Section 256.6 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS AIR INSTALLATIONS COMPATIBLE USE ZONES § 256.6 Runway classification by...

  7. Media ownership and news framing: an analysis of HIV/AIDS coverage by Ugandan press.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiwanuka-Tondo, James; Albada, Kelly F; Payton, Fay Cobb

    2012-12-01

    Applying framing theory, the present research analyzes trends in Ugandan news coverage and the prominent issue frames for HIV/AIDS-related stories. In order to determine the influence of other factors, such as media ownership and journalist origin, nearly 800 articles, from 2000 to 2004, were gathered from the major private newspaper and government-owned newspaper in Uganda. After systematic sampling, 365 articles constitute the sample. The results indicate that print news coverage of HIV and AIDS followed a non-linear trajectory, declining from 2000-2002 and then increasing from 2003-2004. Curative medicine emerged as the most prominent issue frame. Higher-risk behaviour was the least prominent issue frame overall. The 'solutions' issue frame nearly doubled in prominence from 2000-2004, while the HIV-prevention frame decreased from 2000-2002 and then rebounded from 2003-2004. Concerning HIV-related topics, the private newspaper included more features, printed lengthier articles, incorporated a greater variety of news frames, and published more articles by foreign journalists than the government-owned newspaper. The private newspaper employed the 'HIV-prevention,' 'action,' and 'victims' frames more often than the government-owned newspaper. Journalists at the government-owned newspaper adopted a 'solutions' frame more often than their private-press counterparts. Though foreign journalists were more likely than local journalists to employ the HIV-prevention frame, additional tests revealed that the news organisation for which the journalists worked contributed to issue framing to a greater extent than did either a local or foreign reporting origin. Local (Ugandan) journalists working for the two news organisations differed in their tendencies to apply the HIV-prevention, action, victims, and tragedy frames in news stories on HIV and AIDS, with journalists at the private newspaper using these frames more often than did journalists at the government-owned newspaper

  8. Parcels and Land Ownership, LandOwnership, Published in 2007, Daggett County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2007. It is described as 'LandOwnership'. Data by this publisher...

  9. 103 Real Estate Ownership by Non-Real Estate Firms: The Impact on Firm Returns

    OpenAIRE

    Yongheng Deng; Joseph Gyourko

    1999-01-01

    For many years operating companies around the world generally have owned their realestate assets. In the United States alone it is estimated that corporate users own nearly $2 trillion,or roughly half of all commercial property. Companies own not only their production facilities,but frequently their offices, warehouses, and retail outlets. Although many of these properties aresuitable for a broad range of users, these operating companies choose to commit their scarcecapital to the ownership a...

  10. 48 CFR 52.227-11 - Patent Rights-Ownership by the Contractor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... require licensing pursuant to 35 U.S.C. 203 and 210(c), and in accordance with the procedures in 37 CFR... the subject invention is assigned in accordance with 35 U.S.C. 202(e) and 37 CFR 401.10; (3) Use the... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Patent Rights-Ownership...

  11. Nuclear energy center finance and ownership considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finance and ownership alternatives for a nuclear energy center (NEC) in South Carolina are analyzed in the context of the capital market and tax differences among alternatives. The ownership alternatives considered are (1) the private or private/public joint venture, (2) full public ownership and (3) a hybrid ownership form featuring federal involvement in the initial site development and permit phase, followed by a transition to private ownership. Public ownership is associated with considerably lower out-of-pocket costs than private ownership; the difference between the two, however, is related to subsidies from other parts of society to electricity customers of a publicly owned NEC. The attitudes of participating utilities on ownership forms are examined, with the finding of general strong opposition to increased federal involvement in the electric utility industry through NEC ownership. The conclusion is that the private-private/public joint venture is the preferable ownership form and that public ownership should be employed only if the private sector fails to respond to future energy demand

  12. Corporate Ownership Around the World

    OpenAIRE

    Rafael La Porta; Florencio Lopez-de-Silane; Andrei Shleifer

    1998-01-01

    We present data on ownership structures of large corporations in 27 wealthy economies, making an effort to identify ultimate controlling shareholders of these firms. We find that, except in economies with very good shareholder protection, relatively few of these firms are widely-held, in contrast to the Berle and Means image of ownership of the modern corporation. Rather, these firms are typically controlled by families or the State. Equity control by financial institutions or other widely-he...

  13. Radiative forcing from particle emissions by future supersonic aircraft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Pitari

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available In this work we focus on the direct radiative forcing (RF of black carbon (BC and sulphuric acid particles emitted by future supersonic aircraft, as well as on the ozone RF due to changes produced by emissions of both gas species (NOx, H2O and aerosol particles capable of affecting stratospheric ozone chemistry. Heterogeneous chemical reactions on the surface of sulphuric acid stratospheric particles (SSA-SAD are the main link between ozone chemistry and supersonic aircraft emissions of sulphur precursors (SO2 and particles (H2O-H2SO4. Photochemical O3 changes are compared from four independent 3-D atmosphere-chemistry models (ACMs, using as input the perturbation of SSA-SAD calculated in the University of L'Aquila model, which includes on-line a microphysics code for aerosol formation and growth. The ACMs in this study use aircraft emission scenarios for the year 2050 developed by AIRBUS as a part of the EU project SCENIC, assessing options for fleet size, engine technology (NOx emission index, Mach number, range and cruising altitude. From our baseline modelling simulation, the impact of supersonic aircraft on sulphuric acid aerosol and BC mass burdens is 53 and 1.5 μg/m2, respectively, with a direct RF of −11.4 and 4.6 mW/m2 (net RF=−6.8 mW/m2. This paper discusses the similarities and differences amongst the participating models in terms of O3 precursors changes due to aircraft emissions (NOx, HOx,Clx,Brx and stratospheric ozone sensitivity to them. In the baseline case, the calculated global ozone change is −0.4±0.3 DU, with a net radiative forcing (IR+UV of −2.5±2 mW/m2. The fraction of this O3-RF attributable to SSA-SAD changes is, however, highly variable among the models, depending on the NOx removal efficiency from

  14. Radiative forcing from particle emissions by future supersonic aircraft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Pitari

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available In this work we focus on the direct radiative forcing (RF of black carbon (BC and sulphuric acid particles emitted by future supersonic aircraft, as well as on the ozone RF due to changes produced by emissions of both gas species (NOx, H2O and aerosol particles capable of affecting stratospheric ozone chemistry. Heterogeneous chemical reactions on the surface of sulphuric acid stratospheric particles (SSA-SAD are the main link between ozone chemistry and supersonic aircraft emissions of sulphur precursors (SO2 and particles (H2O–H2SO4. Photochemical O3 changes are compared from four independent 3-D atmosphere-chemistry models (ACMs, using as input the perturbation of SSA-SAD calculated in the University of L'Aquila model, which includes on-line a microphysics code for aerosol formation and growth. The ACMs in this study use aircraft emission scenarios for the year 2050 developed by AIRBUS as a part of the EU project SCENIC, assessing options for fleet size, engine technology (NOx emission index, Mach number, range and cruising altitude. From our baseline modeling simulation, the impact of supersonic aircraft on sulphuric acid aerosol and BC mass burdens is 53 and 1.5 μg/m2, respectively, with a direct RF of −11.4 and 4.6 mW/m2 (net RF=−6.8 mW/m2. This paper discusses the similarities and differences amongst the participating models in terms of changes to O3 precursors due to aircraft emissions (NOx, HOx,Clx,Brx and the stratospheric ozone sensitivity to them. In the baseline case, the calculated global ozone change is −0.4 ±0.3 DU, with a net radiative forcing (IR+UV of −2.5± 2 mW/m2. The fraction of this O3-RF attributable to SSA-SAD changes is, however, highly variable among the models, depending on the NOx removal

  15. Ownership, Control, and Collusion

    OpenAIRE

    Spagnolo, Giancarlo

    1996-01-01

    The paper addresses the effects of the separation of ownership and control on long-run competition in oligopolies. It finds that when managers have the preference for smooth time-paths of profits revealed by the evidence on "income smoothing," manager-led firms can sustain any collusive agreement at lower discount factors than owner-led ones. Most common managerial incentives - "low-powered" schemes with monetary bonuses and/or incumbency rents - make collusion supportable at any discount fac...

  16. Economics of Road Network Ownership

    OpenAIRE

    Lei Zhang; David Levinson

    2006-01-01

    This paper seeks to understand the economic impact of centralized and decentralized ownership structures and their corresponding pricing and investment strategies on transportation network performance and social welfare for travelers. In a decentralized network economic system, roads are owned by many agencies or companies that are responsible for pricing and investment strategies. The motivation of this study is two-fold. First, the question of which ownership structure, or industrial organi...

  17. Firm Ownership, FOEs, and POEs

    OpenAIRE

    Amsden, Alice H.

    2009-01-01

    Where the theory of free competition reigns, developing countries should open their arms to investments from all types of enterprises in order to maximize jobs. Ownership, measured by votes of shareholders or boards of directors, is immaterial to performance. Matters change drastically, though, when competition depends on monopolistic assets and market theory no longer rigorously holds. Then, ownership matters. Foreign owned enterprises from developed countries can 'crowd out' privately owned...

  18. The effect of managerial ownership on the demand for conservatism.

    OpenAIRE

    Eersteling, Gjalt

    2016-01-01

    In this paper the relation between managerial ownership and conservatism is examined. Managerial ownership decreases agency problems caused by the separation of ownership and control. Managerial ownership increases the time horizon of managers and decreases expropriating behaviour. Conservatism is hypothesized to have the same effect on managers due to the asymmetric timeliness of earnings. This suggest that in firms with lower managerial ownership a demand for conservatism arises to substitu...

  19. Government Policy and Ownership of Financial Assets

    OpenAIRE

    Kristian Rydqvist; Joshua Spizman; Strebulaev, Ilya A

    2011-01-01

    Since World War II, direct stock ownership by households across the globe has largely been replaced by indirect stock ownership by financial institutions. We argue that tax policy is the driving force. Using long time-series from eight countries, we show that the fraction of household ownership decreases with measures of the tax benefits of holding stocks inside tax-deferred plans. This finding is important for policy considerations on effective taxation and for financial economics research o...

  20. The evolution of aggregate stock ownership

    OpenAIRE

    Rydqvist, Kristian; Spizman, Joshua; Strebulaev, Ilya

    2011-01-01

    Since World War II, direct stock ownership by households has largely been replaced by indirect stock ownership by financial institutions. We argue that tax policy is the driving force. Using long time-series from eight countries, we show that the fraction of household ownership decreases with measures of the tax benefits of holding stocks inside a pension plan. This finding is important for policy considerations on effective taxation and for financial economics research on the long-term effec...

  1. Commentary: Ownership Neutrality and Practical Complications

    OpenAIRE

    Shay, Stephen E.

    2009-01-01

    In "Reconsidering the Taxation of Foreign Income," Jim Hines analyzes the consequences of taxing, as opposed to exempting, active foreign business income by comparing the expected effects on capital ownership of a "pure" worldwide income taxation system with the effects on capital ownership of a "pure" territorial taxation regime. Consistent with his earlier work, Hines asserts that a capital ownership neutrality analysis supports exempting foreign active business income from home country res...

  2. The new math of ownership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, B

    1998-01-01

    In 1994, when the software maker Knowledge Adventure decided to spin out a new venture--Worlds, Incorporated--founder Bill Gross expected the worst. He had argued with the board that it was in KA's best interests to maintain a controlling ownership stake in Worlds, whose powerful new software technology had enormous revenue potential. But the board prevailed, and KA took only a 20% ownership in the new company, giving the rest to Worlds' employees. Within a year, the company's performance had surpassed all expectations, and instead of owning 80% of a $5 million business, KA owned 20% of a $77 million business. The arithmetic may have been counterintuitive, but the lesson was clear. When KA let go of Worlds and gave its employees near total ownership, the company unleashed a new level of employee performance. That, in turn, led to the creation of economic value that more than made up for the equity KA had surrendered. So compelling was this "new math of ownership" that Gross founded a new company, Idealab, on this principle. The company, which develops ideas for Internet-based businesses and seeds the most promising ones, takes no more than a 49% equity stake in the new ventures and gives at least 1% of ownership to each employee. For Gross, this radical approach to ownership is the key to inspiring stellar performances. In part, employee-owners are motivated by their potential to earn great financial reward. But the drama of ownership, he argues, is even more important. In that drama, employees become personally involved in the struggle to outdo the competition and emerge victorious. PMID:10187247

  3. Atmospheric ozone levels encountered by commercial aircraft on transatlantic routes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Temporal and spatial patterns in northern midlatitude atmospheric ozone levels measured outside the cabin by MOZAIC aircraft are investigated to consider trends in human exposure to ozone during commercial flights. Average and 1 h peak ozone levels for flights during 2000 to 2005 range from 50 to 500 ppb, and 90 to 900 ppb, respectively, for flights between Munich and New York (N = 318), or Chicago (N = 372), or Los Angeles (N = 175). Ozone levels vary through the year as expected on the basis of known trends in tropopause height. Timing and amplitude of the mean annual cycle are consistent across routes. A linear regression model predicts flight average and 1 h peak levels that are, respectively, 180 ppb and 360 ppb higher in April than during October–November. High ozone outliers to the model occur in January–March in the western North Atlantic region and may be linked to episodic stratosphere-to-troposphere exchanges. No systematic variation in atmospheric ozone is observed with latitude for the routes surveyed. On average, ozone levels increase by 70 ppb per km increase in flight altitude, although the relationship between altitude and ozone level is highly variable. In US domestic airspace, ozone levels greater than 100 ppb are routinely encountered outside the aircraft cabin. (letter)

  4. Generalised Model for Aircraft Vulnerability by Different Weapon Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.P. Singh

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors earlier model for the vulnerability of aircraft where aircraft was considered as a combination of cylinder, cones and wedges has been extended to the case when structural data of aircraft as well as its vital parts are given in the form of three-dimensional curvilinear triangles. In the case of VT -fused ammunition, spherical normal distribution has been used to estimate the landing probability of the shell in a cylindrical vicinity region around the aircraft. Kill criteria of vital parts have been redefined.

  5. Unbundling Ownership and Control

    OpenAIRE

    Ferreira, Daniel; Ornelas, Emanuel; Turner, John L.

    2007-01-01

    Treating control as an asset that can be bought and sold, we introduce a model of the simultaneous and separable trading of ownership and control in a private information setting. The model provides a novel explanation for the prevalence and persistence of the separation of ownership from control in modern corporations: efficiency in the market for corporate control is more easily achieved when ownership is not concentrated in the hands of the manager. The central reason is that low manageria...

  6. Gun Control, Gun Ownership, and Suicide Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, David

    1988-01-01

    Explored relationship between the extent of gun ownership and the strictness of gun control laws to suicide and homicide rates in the nine major geographic regions of the United States. Found gun ownership, rather than the strictness of gun control laws, was the strongest correlate of the rates of suicide and homicide by guns. (Author)

  7. Ownership structure and initial public offerings

    OpenAIRE

    Aggarwal, Reena; Klapper, Leora

    2003-01-01

    The authors study the relationship between ownership structure, corporate governance, and the initial public offering (IPO) process. They examine equity ownership by different institutions, such as foreign and domestic financial institutions, banks with and without lending relationships, venture capitalists, and corporations prior to an IPO. The authors also analyze the relationship betwee...

  8. Planning of aircraft departure trajectories by using fuzzy logic and lexocographic optimization

    OpenAIRE

    Prats Menéndez, Xavier; Quevedo Casín, Joseba Jokin; Puig Cayuela, Vicenç; Nejjari Akhi-Elarab, Fatiha

    2007-01-01

    In this paper a strategy for planning aircraft departure trajectories for a given airport is presented. Noise annoyance produced by overflying aircraft is modelled by using fuzzy logic in function of the received noise level during the trajectory, the type and specific sensibility of the areas being overflyed and the time of the day when the aircraft departure takes place. Hence, an annoyance figure is obtained at different locations in the vicinity of the airport in function of a given traje...

  9. Specification and testing for power by wire aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Irving G.; Kenney, Barbara H.

    1993-01-01

    A power by wire aircraft is one in which all active functions other than propulsion are implemented electrically. Other nomenclature are 'all electric airplane,' or 'more electric airplane.' What is involved is the task of developing and certifying electrical equipment to replace existing hydraulics and pneumatics. When such functions, however, are primary flight controls which are implemented electrically, new requirements are imposed that were not anticipated by existing power system designs. Standards of particular impact are the requirements of ultra-high reliability, high peak transient bi-directional power flow, and immunity to electromagnetic interference and lightning. Not only must the electromagnetic immunity of the total system be verifiable, but box level tests and meaningful system models must be established to allow system evaluation. This paper discusses some of the problems, the system modifications involved, and early results in establishing wiring harness and interface susceptibility requirements.

  10. Specification and testing for power by wire aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Irving G.; Kenney, Barbara H.

    1993-08-01

    A power by wire aircraft is one in which all active functions other than propulsion are implemented electrically. Other nomenclature are 'all electric airplane,' or 'more electric airplane.' What is involved is the task of developing and certifying electrical equipment to replace existing hydraulics and pneumatics. When such functions, however, are primary flight controls which are implemented electrically, new requirements are imposed that were not anticipated by existing power system designs. Standards of particular impact are the requirements of ultra-high reliability, high peak transient bi-directional power flow, and immunity to electromagnetic interference and lightning. Not only must the electromagnetic immunity of the total system be verifiable, but box level tests and meaningful system models must be established to allow system evaluation. This paper discusses some of the problems, the system modifications involved, and early results in establishing wiring harness and interface susceptibility requirements.

  11. Parcels and Land Ownership, parcels - by municipality, Published in 2009, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Marathon County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset, published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Published Reports/Deeds information as of 2009....

  12. Modeling aircraft emmisions by flight [paper in Portuguese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel de Sá Meira de Araújo

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The following paper intends to develop a translog model of the pollutants emission in Brazilian air transportation according to the flight stages characteristics (flight distance, aircraft type, etc. The model will focus on the segment of passenger transportation in civil aviation and the statistical model of fuel consumption will be based in a historical Brazilian database from 1997 to 2004. The assessment is performed in two stages. In the first, the translog consumption model is defined and estiamted; in the second, the pollutants emission coefficients are calculated through FAA’s (Federal Aviation Administration spreadsheets. The developed model can be easily processed by computers and through the creation of an user interface can produce a brand new pollutants emission calculator.

  13. Ownership, Analyst Coverage, and Stock Synchronicity in China

    OpenAIRE

    Feng, Xunan; Hu, Na; Johansson, Anders C.

    2015-01-01

    This study examines how ownership structure affects the information environment of publicly traded firms in China. We hypothesize that concentrated ownership and the associated separation of ultimate control and ownership rights create agency conflicts between controlling shareholders and minority investors leading controlling owners to withhold firm-specific information from the market. We test this hypothesis by analyzing the effect of ultimate ownership structure and analyst coverage on st...

  14. Analysis of Technology Ownership and Selective Use among Undergraduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamanduros, Terry; Jenkins, Stephen J.; Downs, Elizabeth

    2007-01-01

    Extent of technology ownership and use has been documented for teens and even pre-teens. However, little is known as to whether such ownership and use patterns change over time. This study examined these issues by surveying a sample of undergraduates as to their ownership and selective use of technology. Compared to teens, undergraduates had…

  15. Ownership concentration, choice of auditors, and firm performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farooq, Omar; El Kacemi, Youssef

    2011-01-01

    How does ownership concentration effect firm performance in emerging markets? On one hand, concentrated ownership leads to higher agency problems, and on the other hand, it minimizes agency problems by removing the free-rider problem. Using a large dataset of ownership concentration from the MENA...

  16. Linguistic Analysis of Project Ownership for Undergraduate Research Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanauer, D. I.; Frederick, J.; Fotinakes, B.; Strobel, S. A.

    2012-01-01

    We used computational linguistic and content analyses to explore the concept of project ownership for undergraduate research. We used linguistic analysis of student interview data to develop a quantitative methodology for assessing project ownership and applied this method to measure degrees of project ownership expressed by students in relation…

  17. 14 CFR 119.53 - Wet leasing of aircraft and other arrangements for transportation by air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Wet leasing of aircraft and other arrangements for transportation by air. 119.53 Section 119.53 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION... Chapter § 119.53 Wet leasing of aircraft and other arrangements for transportation by air. (a)...

  18. Administrative regulations concerning the carriage of dangerous substances by civil aircraft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Regulations, which entered into force on the date they were adopted, apply to the transport of dangerous substances by civil aircraft in Norway and by aircraft registered in Norway for transport outside Norwegian territory. They provide that such substances, including radioactive materials, must be carried in accordance with the IATA Restricted Articles Regulations

  19. 49 CFR 1560.107 - Use of watch list matching results by covered aircraft operators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... SECURE FLIGHT PROGRAM Collection and Transmission of Secure Flight Passenger Data for Watch List Matching § 1560.107 Use of watch list matching results by covered aircraft operators. A covered aircraft operator... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Use of watch list matching results by...

  20. Firm Ownership and Philanthropy

    OpenAIRE

    Chai, D.H.

    2010-01-01

    This paper empirically examines the relationship between firm ownership structure and corporate charitable donations. Using a panel data set of 1,017 listed Korean firms, we find that larger firms with higher advertising intensity and lower export intensity 'give' relatively more, suggesting that charitable donations are both strategic and discretionary corporate expenditures. In addition, the study explores the effects of ownership structure on corporate philanthropy. We find a positive rela...

  1. Corrosion detection in aircraft by X-ray backscatter methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A limited-scan backscatter technique for detecting hidden corrosion and other flaws in aircraft has been demonstrated. Both simulation and experimental results indicate that as little as 5% material loss at depths up to 0.508 cm (0.200 in.) and 10% material loss at depths up to 0.635 cm (0.250 in.) beneath aircraft skin surfaces can be realiably detected. The technology involves analysis of backscattered photon data to yield a figure-of-merit whose value as a function of position indicates with high probability of detection whether or not flaws - such as corrosion, disbonding, macro-cracks, or voids - exist within scanned samples

  2. Parcels and Land Ownership, Ownership boundaries as defined by legal description and deeds, Published in 2012, 1:600 (1in=50ft) scale, Miami-Dade County, Information Technology Department.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset, published at 1:600 (1in=50ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Published Reports/Deeds information as of 2012. It is...

  3. Corporate Ownership and Control in Victorian Britain

    OpenAIRE

    Acheson, Graeme G.; Campbell, Gareth; Turner, John D.; Vanteeva, Nadia

    2014-01-01

    Using ownership and control data for 890 firm‐years, this article examines the concentration of capital and voting rights in British companies in the second half of the nineteenth century. We find that both capital and voting rights were diffuse by modern‐day standards. However, this does not necessarily mean that there was a modern‐style separation of ownership from control in Victorian Britain. One major implication of our findings is that diffuse ownership was present in the UK much earlie...

  4. Managerial Distance and Virtual Ownership

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansmann, Henry; Thomsen, Steen

    Industrial foundations are autonomous nonprofit entities that own and control one or more conventional business firms. These foundations are common in Northern Europe, where they own a number of internationally prominent companies. Previous studies have indicated, surprisingly, that companies...... controlled by industrial foundations are, on average, as profitable as companies with conventional patterns of investor ownership. In this article, we explore the reasons for this performance, not by comparing foundation-owned firms with conventional investor-owned firms, but rather by focusing...

  5. Ownership Structure and Corporate Performance: Australian Evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Julian Fishman; Gerard Gannon; Russell Vinning

    2007-01-01

    This paper seeks to analyse the relationship between ownership structure and corporate performance for fifty firms listed on the Australian Stock Exchange during 2002-2003. The study initially tests a two equation model similar to that in the existing literature, but is distinguished from prior literature by subsequently reclassifying leverage. By categorising leverage as an endogenous variable, an examination of the relationship between ownership and performance is undertaken through ordinar...

  6. 24 CFR 904.113 - Achievement of ownership by initial homebuyer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... currently or has been covered by a mortgage insured under another section of the National Housing Act. There... the Estimated Total Development Cost (including the full amount for contingencies as authorized by HUD) of the development as shown in the Development Cost Budget in effect upon award of the...

  7. Corporate risk taking and ownership structure

    OpenAIRE

    Paligorova, Teodora

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates the determinants of corporate risk taking. Shareholders with substantial equity ownership in a single company may advocate conservative investment policies due to greater exposure to firm risk. Using a large cross-country sample, I find a positive relationship between corporate risk taking and equity ownership of the largest shareholder. This result is entirely driven by investors holding the largest equity stakes in more than one company. Family shareholders avoid cor...

  8. Managerial incentives, financial constraints and ownership concentration

    OpenAIRE

    Marco Protopapa

    2011-01-01

    This work investigates the role of equity ownership for the purpose of committing the management to the pursuit of shareholder value in the presence of separation between ownership and control. By rooting the conflicts of interests between managers and shareholders upon the control of internal funds, a simple model allows to analyse the link between profit uncertainty, growth options and decisional powers. Implications are derived for the optimal degree of equity concentration, the effect of ...

  9. Emission of ions and charged soot particles by aircraft engines

    OpenAIRE

    Sorokin, A.; Vancassel, X.; P. Mirabel

    2003-01-01

    In this article, a model which examines the formation and evolution of chemiions in an aircraft engine is proposed. This model which includes chemiionisation, electron thermo-emission, electron attachment to soot particles and to neutral molecules, electron-ion and ion-ion recombination, ion-soot interaction, allows the determination of the ion concentration at the exit of the combustor and at the nozzle exit of the engine. It also allows the determination ...

  10. Onboard space - and aircraft dosimetry by means of different methods

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Spurný, František; Jadrníčková, Iva

    Buenos Aires: SAR, 2008. s. 478-478. [International Congress of the International Radiation Protection Association /12./. 19.10.2008-24.10.2008, Buenos Aires] Grant ostatní: Evropské společenství(XE) ILSRA - 2004 - 248 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10480505 Keywords : dosimetry onboard spacecraft * aircraft crew exposure * detectors Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders

  11. Ownership and Use of New Media by Teachers in Rural and Urban Areas of Croatia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topolovcan, Tomislav; Toplak, Tea; Matijevic, Milan

    2013-01-01

    The development and use of new media in the class emphasizes independent learning based on the activities of the students, constructivist learning and student-centred lessons in general. Using new media in the class does not prompt more efficient learning and teaching in itself, but can initiate the learning processes by didactically shaping the…

  12. Staffing in Ontario's Long-Term Care Homes: Differences by Profit Status and Chain Ownership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Amy T; Berta, Whitney; Coyte, Peter C; Laporte, Audrey

    2016-06-01

    Ontario has the highest proportion of for-profit nursing homes in Canada. These facilities, which are known in Ontario as long-term care (LTC) homes, offer 24-hour custodial as well as nursing care to individuals who cannot live independently. Increasingly, they are also operating as members of multi-facility chains. Using longitudinal data (1996-2011) from the Residential Care Facilities Survey (n = 627), our analysis revealed discernible differences in staffing levels by profit status and chain affiliation. We found for-profit LTC homes - especially those owned by a chain organization - provided significantly fewer hours of care, after adjusting for variation in the residents' care needs. Findings from this study offer new information on the impact of organizational structure on staffing levels in Ontario's LTC homes and have implications for other jurisdictions where a growing presence of private, chain-affiliated operators has been observed. PMID:27223577

  13. External and Internal Ownership Concentration and Debt Decisions in an Emerging Market: Evidence from Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Shahab u Din; Attiya Javid; Muhammad Imran

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the effect of concentration of ownership both external block ownership and managerial share ownership on capital structure decision of Pakistani non-financial firms. The panel data is used to investigate the relationship between capital structure with external and internal ownership structure and fixed effect model gives a better explanation of the model. The relationship suggested by analysis between external ownership concentration and leverage ratio, patronage the “pass...

  14. Flying qualities and flight control system design for a fly-by-wire transport aircraft

    OpenAIRE

    Gautrey, Jim

    1998-01-01

    Fly-by-wire flight control systems are becoming more common in both civil and military aircraft. These systems give many benefits, but also present a new set of problems due to their increased complexity compared to conventional systems and the larger choice of options that they provide. The work presented here considers the application of fly-by-wire to a generic regional transport aircraft. The flying qualities criteria used for typical flying qualities evaluations are described...

  15. Monitoring Disasters by Use of Instrumented Robotic Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegener, Steven S.; Sullivan, Donald V.; Dunagan, Steven E.; Brass, James A.; Ambrosia, Vincent G.; Buechel, Sally W.; Stoneburner, Jay; Schoenung, Susan M.

    2009-01-01

    Efforts are under way to develop data-acquisition, data-processing, and data-communication systems for monitoring disasters over large geographic areas by use of uninhabited aerial systems (UAS) robotic aircraft that are typically piloted by remote control. As integral parts of advanced, comprehensive disaster- management programs, these systems would provide (1) real-time data that would be used to coordinate responses to current disasters and (2) recorded data that would be used to model disasters for the purpose of mitigating the effects of future disasters and planning responses to them. The basic idea is to equip UAS with sensors (e.g., conventional video cameras and/or multispectral imaging instruments) and to fly them over disaster areas, where they could transmit data by radio to command centers. Transmission could occur along direct line-of-sight paths and/or along over-the-horizon paths by relay via spacecraft in orbit around the Earth. The initial focus is on demonstrating systems for monitoring wildfires; other disasters to which these developments are expected to be applicable include floods, hurricanes, tornadoes, earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, leaks of toxic chemicals, and military attacks. The figure depicts a typical system for monitoring a wildfire. In this case, instruments aboard a UAS would generate calibrated thermal-infrared digital image data of terrain affected by a wildfire. The data would be sent by radio via satellite to a data-archive server and image-processing computers. In the image-processing computers, the data would be rapidly geo-rectified for processing by one or more of a large variety of geographic-information- system (GIS) and/or image-analysis software packages. After processing by this software, the data would be both stored in the archive and distributed through standard Internet connections to a disaster-mitigation center, an investigator, and/or command center at the scene of the fire. Ground assets (in this case

  16. Aircraft optical cable plant: the physical layer for fly-by-light control networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Thomas L.

    1996-10-01

    A program was completed with joint industry and government funding to apply fiber optic technologies to aircraft. The technology offers many potential benefits. Among them are increased electromagnetic interference immunity and the possibility of reduced weight, increased reliability, and enlarged capability by redesigning architectures to use the large bandwidth of fiber optics. Those benefits can be realized if fiber optics meets the unique requirements of aircraft networks. Many independent efforts have been made in the development of the systems, known as cable plants, to link opto-electronic components. The FLASH program built on that work. Over the last two years, FLASH expanded on the cable plant efforts by building components based on a cohesive aircraft plant system concept. The concept was rooted in not just optical performance, but also cost, manufacturing, installation, maintenance, and support. To do that, the FLASH team evaluated requirements, delineated environmental and use conditions, designed, built, and tested components, such as cables, connectors, splices and backplanes for transport aircraft, tactical aircraft, and helicopters. In addition, the FLASH team developed installation and test methods, and support equipment for aircraft optical cable plants. The results of that design, development, and test effort are reported here.

  17. The Evolution of Aggregate Stock Ownership - A Unified Explanation

    OpenAIRE

    Rydqvist, Kristian; Spizman, Joshua; Strebulaev, Ilya

    2009-01-01

    Since World War II, direct stock ownership by households has largely been replaced by indirect stock ownership by financial institutions. We argue that tax policy is the driving force. Using long time-series from eight countries, we show that the fraction of household ownership decreases with measures of the tax benefits of holding stocks inside a pension plan. This finding is important for policy considerations on effective taxation and for financial economics research on the long-term effec...

  18. Total Cost of Ownership

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zachariassen, Frederik

    2007-01-01

    Total Cost of Ownership (TCO), som giver et bud på, hvordan virksomheder kan opnå en bedre indsigt i, hvilke leverandører der forårsager hvilke omkostninger og dermed danne et forbedret beslutningsgrundlag for besparelser i leverandørleddet. I artiklen argumenteres først og fremmest for, hvorfor TCO er...

  19. The latrine ownership ladder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Obeng, Peter Appiah; Keraita, Bernard; Oduro-Kwarteng, Sampson;

    2015-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to present the latrine ownership ladder as a conceptual policy framework to enhance sanitation uptake in low-income peri-urban areas. Design/methodology/approach – The paper draws from literature and a case study in a Ghanaian peri-urban community to highlig...

  20. Nitrous oxide pollution from aircraft to increase by 2050

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Atreyee

    2012-09-01

    The transportation industry is not only one of the biggest sources of air pollution and a significant player in greenhouse gas-induced global warming, but, as a new study shows, the industry could also be responsible for episodes of ozone (O3 ) pollution, particularly over the United States and northern Europe. Combustion of fuel in cars, shipping vessels, and low-flying aircraft produce nitrogen oxides (NOx), which not only decrease the lifetime of greenhouse gases such as methane but also react with other molecules in the atmosphere to form tropospheric O3, another, more lethal, air pollutant. Hauglustaine and Koff used a global three-dimensional chemistry-climate model to investigate how different components of the transportation industry—cars, ships, and low-flying aircraft—would contribute to NOx pollution over the next few decades under several projected emission scenarios. They found that as road transportation stagnates or even declines due to stricter regulations and congestion, NOx emissions from cars will decrease over time. However, aircraft will increase in number and could contribute between 25% and 48% of NOx emissions, which will be most severe over the United States and Europe—two regions with the highest growth rate in commercial aviation.

  1. Emission of ions and charged soot particles by aircraft engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Sorokin

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article, a model which examines the formation and evolution of chemiions in an aircraft engine is proposed. This model which includes chemiionisation, electron thermo-emission, electron attachment to soot particles and to neutral molecules, electron-ion and ion-ion recombination, ion-soot interaction, allows the determination of the ion concentration at the exit of the combustor and at the nozzle exit of the engine. It also allows the determination of the charge of the soot particles. For the engine considered, the upper limit for the ion emission index EIi is of the order of (2-5 x1016 ions/kg-fuel if ion-soot interactions are ignored and the introduction of ion-soot interactions lead about to a 50% reduction. The results also show that most of the soot particles are either positively or negatively charged, the remaining neutral particles representing approximately 20% of the total particles. A comparison of the model results with the available ground-based experimental data obtained on the ATTAS research aircraft engines during the SULFUR experiments (Schumann, 2002 shows an excellent agreement.

  2. The Direction of Causality between Insider Ownership and Market Valuation

    OpenAIRE

    Pedersen, Torben; Thomsen, Steen; Kvist, Hans Kurt

    2001-01-01

    The causal relationship between insider ownership and market valuation is tested on a database of the largest EU and US companies. Using a Granger causality test insider ownership (measured by the fraction of closely held shares) is found to have a negative effect on market valuation (measured as the simple Tobin's Q ratio). And market valuation is found to have a negative effect on insider ownership. Consistent with an overall non-linear relationship as hypothesised by Morck e...

  3. Corporate Ownership Structure and Firm Performance: Evidence from Greek Firms

    OpenAIRE

    Panayotis Kapopoulos; Sophia Lazaretou

    2006-01-01

    The Berle-Means thesis (1932) implies that diffuse ownership adversely affects firm performance. This paper tries to investigate whether there is strong evidence to support the notion that variations across firms in observed ownership structures result in systematic variations in observed firm performance. We test this hypothesis by assessing the impact of the structure of ownership on corporate performance, measured by profitability, using data for 175 Greek listed firms. Following Demsetz a...

  4. Insider ownership and corporate performance: evidence from Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Kaserer, Christoph; Moldenhauer, Benjamin

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we address the question whether insider ownership affects corporate performance. Evidence coming from studies dealing with Anglo-Saxon countries is rather inconclusive, especially because it seems that results are significantly affected by endogeneity. Economically, this is due to the fact that in these countries insider ownership seems to be mainly driven by management's compensation contracts. We argue that Germany is different in this regard, as insider ownership often is rel...

  5. Comparison of policies on vehicle ownership and use between Beijing and Shanghai and their impacts on fuel consumption by passenger vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The fast growth of vehicle population in China has caused problems such as traffic congestion and excessive fuel consumption. There have been demands for policy control on growth in private vehicle travel demand. Beijing and Shanghai are China's first two cities to implement policies on vehicle ownership and use. In this paper, we compared policies in the two cities and estimated their impacts on fuel consumption by passenger vehicles. The limitation of vehicle use in Beijing provides limited but immediate reduction in fuel consumption. The limitation of vehicle ownership in Shanghai provides large potential of fuel conservation in a longer term. Under current policy, fuel consumptions by passenger vehicles in Beijing and Shanghai in 2020 were estimated to reach 7.5 and 3.9 billion liters, respectively. The experiences of Beijing and Shanghai are highly relevant for cities in China and abroad that are facing the same problems. - Research Highlights: → Beijing and Shanghai are the first two cities in China to implement policies on vehicle ownership and use. This paper compared policies in the two cities and evaluated their effectiveness. → A bottom-up model was established to simulate the fuel consumption by passenger vehicles. By using this model, fuel consumptions by passenger vehicles in Beijing and Shanghai from 1990 to 2020 under two scenarios of current policy and no policy were estimated. Under current policy, fuel consumptions by passenger vehicles in Beijing and Shanghai in 2020 were estimated to reach 7.5 and 3.9 billion liters, respectively. → This paper discussed the benefits and negative impacts of policies in Beijing and Shanghai, which are highly relevant for cities in China and abroad that are facing the problems of traffic congestion and excessive vehicle fuel consumption.

  6. Control Rights, Pyramids, and the Measurement of Ownership Concentration

    OpenAIRE

    Edwards, Jeremy S.S.; Alfons J. Weichenrieder

    2009-01-01

    Abstract The recent corporate governance literature has emphasised the distinction between control and cash-flow rights but has disregarded measurement issues. Control rights may be measured by immediate shareholder votes, the voting rights as traced through ownership chains, or voting power indices that may or may not trace ownership through chains. We compare the ability of various measures to identify the effects of ownership concentration on share valuation using a German panel...

  7. Separation between ownership and control: where do we stand?

    OpenAIRE

    Chapelle, Ariane

    2004-01-01

    Complex structure of ownership like cross-ownership, rings, and pyramids are common in Continental Europe, Eastern Europe, and in Asia. This paper aims at dissecting these complex features by a proper measurement of direct and indirect holdings. Building on Brioschi et al. (1989), we use the input-output matrix methodology and we add control considerations in the matrix calculations to derive a straightforward method of quantifying the separation between ownership and control for a firm or a ...

  8. Ownership Structure, Governance, and Innovation: Evidence from Italy

    OpenAIRE

    Raoul Minetti; Pierluigi Murro; Monica Paiella

    2012-01-01

    This paper tests the impact of firms’ ownership structure on firms’ innovation decisions using a rich dataset of about 20,000 Italian manufacturers. After accounting for its possible endogeneity, we find that ownership concentration negatively affects the probability of innovation, especially by reducing firms’ R&D effort. The analysis reveals that conflicts of interest between large and minority shareholders are a determinant of the negative effect of ownership concentration on innovation. M...

  9. Stratospheric ozone destruction by aircraft-induced nitrogen oxides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alyea, F. N.; Cunnold, D. M.; Prinn, R. G.

    1975-01-01

    The preliminary results from a three-dimensional dynamic-chemical model applied to the SST-NOx (NO + NO2) problem are reported. Simulations indicate that a depletion of about 12 per cent in total stratospheric O3 would be realized for a continuous NOx injection rate of 1.8 x 10 to the sixth power metric tons per year from a hypothetical fleet of SST's flying at an altitude of 20 km in the midlatitudes of the Northern Hemisphere. Sixteen per cent of the existing O3 would be destroyed on an annual basis. The model assumes a fleet of about 500 aircraft of the now-canceled American Boeing 2707 type; if only present Anglo-French and Russian SST models, which fly at lower, less harmful altitudes, are built, it will take a fleet of a few thousand such craft to attain an effective injection rate equal to the one above.

  10. Short-term variation of cosmic radiation measured by aircraft under constant flight conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jaejin; Nam, Uk-Won; Pyo, Jeonghyun; Kim, Sunghwan; Kwon, Yong-Jun; Lee, Jaewon; Park, Inchun; Kim, Myung-Hee Y.; Dachev, Tsventan P.

    2015-11-01

    The temporal variations in cosmic radiation on aircraft under constant flight conditions were measured by a Liulin detector. Rather than a commercial long-distance aircraft, we used a military reconnaissance aircraft performing a circular flight at a constant altitude over the Korean Peninsula. At 9144 m (30,000 ft), the mean and standard deviation of the radiation dose rate (among 35 measurements) was 2.3 and 0.17 μSv/h, respectively. The experiment yielded two observational results. First, the dose rate changed over a flight time of 5-7 h; second, no strong correlation was revealed between the cosmic rays observed from the ground-based neutron monitor and the radiation doses at aircraft altitude. These observations can provide insight into the short-term variation of cosmic radiation at aviation altitudes. When discarding various negligible factors, it is postulated that the changes in the geomagnetic field and the air density still could affect the variation of cosmic radiation at aircraft altitude. However, various factors are less known about the dependence on the cosmic radiation. Therefore, investigations of possible factors are also warranted at the monitoring points of space weather.

  11. The role of cross-listing, foreign ownership and state ownership in dividend policy in an emerging market

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kevin C.K.Lam; Heibatollah Sami; Haiyan Zhou

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate if dividend policy is influenced by ownership type.Within the dividend literature, dividends have a signaling role regarding agency costs, such that dividends may diminish insider conflicts(reduce free cash flow) or may be used to extract cash from firms(tunneling effect)- which could be predominant in emerging markets. We expect firms with foreign ownership and those that are listed in overseas markets to have different dividend policies and practices than those that are not, and firms with more state ownership and less individual ownership to be more likely to pay cash dividends and less likely to pay stock dividends. Using firms from an emerging economy(China), we examine whether these effects exist in corporate dividend policy and practice. We find that both foreign ownership and cross-listing have significant negative effects on cash dividends, consistent with the signaling effect and the notion of reduced tunneling activities for firms with the ability to raise capital from outside of China. Consistent with the tunneling effect, we find that firms with higher state ownership tend to pay higher cash dividends and lower stock dividends, while the opposite is true for public(individual) ownership.Further analysis shows that foreign ownership mediates the effect of state ownership on dividend policy. Our results have significant implications for researchers, investors, policy makers and regulators in emerging markets.

  12. Inducing illusory ownership of a virtual body

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mel Slater

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available We discuss three experiments that investigate how virtual limbs and bodies can come to feel like real limbs and bodies. The first experiment shows that an illusion of ownership of a virtual arm appearing to project out of a person’s shoulder can be produced by tactile stimulation on a person’s hidden real hand and synchronous stimulation on the seen virtual hand. The second shows that the illusion can be produced by synchronous movement of the person’s hidden real hand and a virtual hand. The third shows that a weaker form of the illusion can be produced when a brain-computer interface is employed to move the virtual hand by means of motor imagery without any tactile stimulation. We discuss related studies that indicate that the ownership illusion may be generated for an entire body. This has important implications for the scientific understanding of body ownership and several practical applications.

  13. Propulsion controlled aircraft computer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cogan, Bruce R. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A low-cost, easily retrofit Propulsion Controlled Aircraft (PCA) system for use on a wide range of commercial and military aircraft consists of an propulsion controlled aircraft computer that reads in aircraft data including aircraft state, pilot commands and other related data, calculates aircraft throttle position for a given maneuver commanded by the pilot, and then displays both current and calculated throttle position on a cockpit display to show the pilot where to move throttles to achieve the commanded maneuver, or is automatically sent digitally to command the engines directly.

  14. Aircraft-on-ground path following control by dynamical adaptive backstepping

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Bihua; Jiao Zongxia; Shuzhi Sam Ge

    2013-01-01

    The necessity of improving the air traffic and reducing the aviation emissions drives to investigate automatic steering for aircraft to effectively roll on the ground.This paper addresses the path following control problem of aircraft-on-ground and focuses on the task that the aircraft is required to follow the desired path on the runway by nose wheel automatic steering.The proposed approach is based on dynamical adaptive backstepping so that the system model does not have to be transformed into a canonical triangular form which is necessary in conventional backstepping design.This adaptive controller performs well despite the lack of information on the aerodynamic load and the tire cornering stiffness parameters.Simulation results clearly demonstrate the advantages and effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  15. Combined Effect of Aircraft Noise and Pollutant Emissions by using ANN Model to Determine Healthy Risk Level

    OpenAIRE

    SETIA KURNIAWAN, Jermanto; KATILI, Irwan; MOERSIDIK, Setyo Sarwanto; Khardi, Salah

    2013-01-01

    Aircraft noise and pollutant emissions are an important part of the sources of pollution around airport that directly or indirectly will affect harmful to human health and ecosystems. The effects of aircraft noise and emissions on the populations around airport are deal with annoying and sometimes dangerous. In order to address this issue, the research propose an integrating model of aircraft noise and pollutant emissions by combining effects of both noise and pollutant emissions using Artifi...

  16. Gas and hydrogen isotopic analyses of volcanic eruption clouds in Guatemala sampled by aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, W.I., Jr.; Cadle, R.D.; Heidt, L.E.; Friedman, I.; Lazrus, A.L.; Huebert, B.J.

    1980-01-01

    Gas samples were collected by aircraft entering volcanic eruption clouds of three Guatemalan volcanoes. Gas chromatographic analyses show higher H2 and S gas contents in ash eruption clouds and lower H2 and S gases in vaporous gas plumes. H isotopic data demonstrate lighter isotopic distribution of water vapor in ash eruption clouds than in vaporous gas plumes. Most of the H2O in the vaporous plumes is probably meteoric. The data are the first direct gas analyses of explosive eruptive clouds, and demonstrate that, in spite of atmospheric admixture, useful compositional information on eruptive gases can be obtained using aircraft. ?? 1980.

  17. Thermodynamic correction of particle concentrations measured by underwing probes on fast flying aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weigel, R.; Spichtinger, P.; Mahnke, C.; Klingebiel, M.; Afchine, A.; Petzold, A.; Krämer, M.; Costa, A.; Molleker, S.; Jurkat, T.; Minikin, A.; Borrmann, S.

    2015-12-01

    Particle concentration measurements with underwing probes on aircraft are impacted by air compression upstream of the instrument body as a function of flight velocity. In particular for fast-flying aircraft the necessity arises to account for compression of the air sample volume. Hence, a correction procedure is needed to invert measured particle number concentrations to ambient conditions that is commonly applicable for different instruments to gain comparable results. In the compression region where the detection of particles occurs (i.e. under factual measurement conditions), pressure and temperature of the air sample are increased compared to ambient (undisturbed) conditions in certain distance away from the aircraft. Conventional procedures for scaling the measured number densities to ambient conditions presume that the particle penetration speed through the instruments' detection area equals the aircraft speed (True Air Speed, TAS). However, particle imaging instruments equipped with pitot-tubes measuring the Probe Air Speed (PAS) of each underwing probe reveal PAS values systematically below those of the TAS. We conclude that the deviation between PAS and TAS is mainly caused by the compression of the probed air sample. From measurements during two missions in 2014 with the German Gulfstream G-550 (HALO - High Altitude LOng range) research aircraft we develop a procedure to correct the measured particle concentration to ambient conditions using a thermodynamic approach. With the provided equation the corresponding concentration correction factor ξ is applicable to the high frequency measurements of each underwing probe which is equipped with its own air speed sensor (e.g. a pitot-tube). ξ-values of 1 to 0.85 are calculated for air speeds (i.e. TAS) between 60 and 260 m s-1. From HALO data it is found that ξ does not significantly vary between the different deployed instruments. Thus, for the current HALO underwing probe configuration a parameterisation of

  18. What Does Stock Ownership Breadth Measure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, James J; Jin, Li; Yan, Hongjun

    2013-07-01

    Using holdings data on a representative sample of all Shanghai Stock Exchange investors, we show that increases in ownership breadth (the fraction of market participants who own a stock) predict low returns: highest change quintile stocks underperform lowest quintile stocks by 23% per year. Small retail investors drive this result. Retail ownership breadth increases appear to be correlated with overpricing. Among institutional investors, however, the opposite holds: Stocks in the top decile of wealth-weighted institutional breadth change outperform the bottom decile by 8% per year, consistent with prior work that interprets breadth as a measure of short-sales constraints. PMID:24764801

  19. Energy use and appliance ownership in Ireland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leahy, Eimear; Lyons, Sean [Economic and Social Research Institute, Whitaker Square, Sir John Rogerson' s Quay, Dublin 2 (Ireland)

    2010-08-15

    This paper examines household energy use and appliance ownership in Ireland. Logit regression analyses on a large micro-dataset reveal how household characteristics can help explain the ownership of energy using appliances. Using OLS regression models, we explore the factors affecting residential energy demand conditional on appliance ownership. Results suggest that the methods of space and water heating employed by a household are even more important than electrical appliances in explaining domestic energy usage. However, the stock of appliances must be included in such models so that results will not be biased. The methods employed in this paper can be easily adopted for studies of household energy use in other countries where household expenditure survey data are available. (author)

  20. From Social to Private Ownership

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gregoric, Aleksandra; Masten, Arjana Brezigar; Zajc, Katarina

    2011-01-01

    This paper studies the ownership structures of unlisted privatized firms in Slovenia. On the basis of official ownership records for all nonfinancial firms over a six-year period (1999-2004), we explore the factors responsible for the concentration of ownership and for the dissolution of the...... firm blockholders. We also find that ownership concentrates less in larger, riskier, and better-performing firms. Multiple blockholders remain present in the firms in which the two largest owners are of the same type, which presumably makes it easier for them to control in coalition....

  1. Bringing "indigenous" ownership back

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragelund, Peter

    2012-01-01

    policies thrive again, this time disguised in terms such as ‘empowerment’, but just as politicised as in the 1970s. Zambia is at the heart of this development. In the light of liberalisation, booming commodity prices and the increasing importance of Chinese investors, this article seeks to further our...... understanding of how processes of exclusion interact with domestic politics in Zambia. It argues that the Citizens Economic Empowerment Commission, a new institution to bring ownership back to Zambians, builds on a long tradition of nationalist policies in Zambia, while its actual work is strictly related to...

  2. "You Fail": Plagiarism, the Ownership of Writing, and Transnational Conflicts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyon, Arabella

    2009-01-01

    Responding to cultural concerns about the ownership of writing and the nature of plagiarism, this article examines discourses about plagiarism by ESL students and argues for a plurality of approaches to understanding the ownership of language and textual appropriation. First, it uses speech act theory to explain the dynamics of plagiarism; second,…

  3. Ownership relations in the presence of cross-shareholding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dietzenbacher, Erik; Temurshoev, U.

    2008-01-01

    The direct ownership structure in a sector can be readily obtained from data on shareholding. Due to cross-shareholding, however, the true ownership structure may be hidden by a complex network of indirect relations. In studying the property structure, two important aspects are the size of the relat

  4. Database on aircraft accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Reactor Safety Subcommittee in the Nuclear Safety and Preservation Committee published the report 'The criteria on assessment of probability of aircraft crash into light water reactor facilities' as the standard method for evaluating probability of aircraft crash into nuclear reactor facilities in July 2002. In response to the report, Japan Nuclear Energy Safety Organization has been collecting open information on aircraft accidents of commercial airplanes, self-defense force (SDF) airplanes and US force airplanes every year since 2003, sorting out them and developing the database of aircraft accidents for latest 20 years to evaluate probability of aircraft crash into nuclear reactor facilities. This year, the database was revised by adding aircraft accidents in 2010 to the existing database and deleting aircraft accidents in 1991 from it, resulting in development of the revised 2011 database for latest 20 years from 1991 to 2010. Furthermore, the flight information on commercial aircrafts was also collected to develop the flight database for latest 20 years from 1991 to 2010 to evaluate probability of aircraft crash into reactor facilities. The method for developing the database of aircraft accidents to evaluate probability of aircraft crash into reactor facilities is based on the report 'The criteria on assessment of probability of aircraft crash into light water reactor facilities' described above. The 2011 revised database for latest 20 years from 1991 to 2010 shows the followings. The trend of the 2011 database changes little as compared to the last year's one. (1) The data of commercial aircraft accidents is based on 'Aircraft accident investigation reports of Japan transport safety board' of Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism. 4 large fixed-wing aircraft accidents, 58 small fixed-wing aircraft accidents, 5 large bladed aircraft accidents and 114 small bladed aircraft accidents occurred. The relevant accidents for evaluating

  5. Forest ownership in comparative law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Üstüner Birben

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Efficient and sustainable use of forest resources depend on various factors. However, one of the most emphasized and discussed topics among these factors is forest ownership. Comparative law is an important way of analyzing and understanding legal systems of different countries, and identifying different aspects of the current legal systems. This study tries to analyze forest ownership with regard to comparative law. France for the Continental-European legal system, Great Britain for the Anglo-Saxon legal system, and Russia Federation for the Socialist legal system are taken respectively as a base. Thus, how right to ownership is evaluated in different legal systems and what are the main features of that are indicated. As a result, private forest ownership is common in the Continental-European legal system and Anglo-Saxon legal system while state ownership is common in the Socialist legal system. Prevalence of private forest ownership in the Continental-European and the Anglo-Saxon legal systems is also closely related to the previous use rights transferred into right to ownership. In addition, it is concluded regarding the historical process that many changes occurred on forest ownership types without considering differences in legal systems.

  6. The effect of ownership structure on firm performance : a study of Norwegian listed firms

    OpenAIRE

    Klungland, Ådne; Sunde, Kenneth

    2009-01-01

    This paper empirically investigates the relationship between ownership structure and firm performance, treating ownership concentration and owner identity as separate, but dependent dimensions of ownership structure. We use a large sample of quarterly data from non-financial companies at the Oslo Stock Exchange in the period 2001-2007. Using three different econometric approaches motivated by previous studies, we cannot conclude (econometrically) that ownership concentration influences firm p...

  7. Employee Share Ownership in Australia: Theory, Evidence, Current Practice and Regulation

    OpenAIRE

    Landau, Ingrid; Mitchell, Richard; O'Connell, Ann; Ramsey, Ian

    2007-01-01

    Since at least the 1970s, employee share ownership has enjoyed bipartisan support in Australia. Despite broad and sustained public policy interest in employee share ownership, Australian literature on the subject remains scarce. There has also been very little in the way of comprehensive analysis of the regulatory framework. This paper provides an overview of employee share ownership from an Australian perspective. It begins by reviewing the literature on broad-based employee share ownership ...

  8. Revisiting the Gun Ownership and Violence Link; a multi- level analysis of victimisation survey data.

    OpenAIRE

    van Kesteren, J.N.

    2014-01-01

    The link between gun ownership victimisation by violent crime remains one of the most contested issues in criminology. Some authors claim that high gun availability facilitates serious violence. Others claim that gun ownership prevents crime. This article revisits these issues using individual and aggregate data on gun ownership and victimisation from the ICVS. Analysis at country level shows that the level of hand gun ownership is positively related to serious violence but not for lesser ser...

  9. Ownership Concentration and Market Value of European Banks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Busta, Ildura; Sinani, Evis; Thomsen, Steen

    2014-01-01

    concentration is positive in Scandinavia. We propose that, besides the legal protection of small investors, the differences in the impact of ownership concentration across the countries could be due to the identity of the predominant owners, i.e. financial institutions in Germany and trusts and foundations in......This paper investigates the relationship between ownership concentration and market value of European banks, and the role of the institutional environment in shaping this relationship. Using GMM dynamic estimator on a sample of European banks over a 13-year period (1993–2005) we find on average a...... negative effect of ownership concentration on bank value, measured by Tobin's Q. However, this effect varies across different institutional settings; while higher ownership concentration results in a lower bank value particularly in the countries belonging to German legal family, the impact of ownership...

  10. Standard Test Method to Determine Color Change and Staining Caused by Aircraft Maintenance Chemicals upon Aircraft Cabin Interior Hard Surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2001-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the determination of color change and staining from liquid solutions, such as cleaning or disinfecting chemicals or both, on painted metallic surfaces and nonmetallic surfaces of materials being used inside the aircraft cabin. The effects upon the exposed specimens are measured with the AATCC Gray Scale for Color Change and AATCC Gray Color Scale for Staining. Note 1—This test method is applicable to any colored nonmetallic hard surface in contact with liquids. The selected test specimens are chosen because these materials are present in the majority of aircraft cabin interiors. 1.2This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  11. Monitoring and forecasting of great radiation hazards for spacecraft and aircrafts by online cosmic ray data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We show that an exact forecast of great radiation hazard in space, in the magnetosphere, in the atmosphere and on the ground can be make by using high-energy particles (few GeV/nucleon and higher) whose transportation from the Sun is characterized by a much bigger diffusion coefficient then for small and middle energy particles. Therefore, high energy particles come from the Sun much earlier (8-20 min after acceleration and escaping onto solar wind) than the main part of smaller energy particles (more than 30-60min later), causing radiation hazard for electronics and personal health, as well as spacecraft and aircrafts. We describe here principles of an automatic set of programs that begin with ''FEP-Search'', used to determine the beginning of a large FEP event. After a positive signal from ''FEP-Research/Spectrum'', and then ''FEP-Research/Time of Ejection'', ''FEP-Research /Source'' and ''FEP-Research/Diffusion'', which online determine properties of FEP generation and propagation. On the basis of the Obtained information, the next set of programs immediately start to work: ''FEP-Forecasting/Spacecrafts'', ''FEP-Forecasting/Aircrafts'', ''FEP-Forecasting/Aircrafts'', ''FEP-Forecasting/Ground'', which determine the expected differential and integral fluxes and total fluency for spacecraft on different orbits, aircrafts on different airline, and on the ground, depending on altitude and cutoff rigidity. If the level of radiation hazard is expected to be dangerous for high level technology or/and personal health, the following programs will be used ''FEP=Alert/Spacecrafts'', ''FEP-Alert/Aircrafts'', ''FEP-Alert/Ground''. (orig.)

  12. Foreign Ownership and Long-term Survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kronborg, Dorte; Thomsen, Steen

    2006-01-01

    Does foreign ownership enhance or decrease a firm's chances of survival? Over the 100 year period 1895-2001 this paper compares the survival of foreign subsidiaries in Denmark to a control sample matched by industry and firm size. We find that foreign-owned companies have higher survival...

  13. ENFICA-FC: Design of transport aircraft powered by fuel cell & flight test of zero emission 2-seater aircraft powered by fuel cells fueled by hydrogen

    OpenAIRE

    Cestino, Enrico; Borello, Fabio; Romeo, Giulio

    2013-01-01

    Fuel cells could become the main power source for small general aviation aircraft or could replace APU and internal sub-systems on larger aircraft, to obtain all-electric or more-electric air vehicles. There are several potential advantages of using such a power source, that range from environmental and economic issues to performance and operability aspects. A preliminary design is reported. Also, the paper contains a description of testing activities related to experimental flights of an all...

  14. Ownership by Science China Press; Copyright2010 by Science China Press, Beijing, China and Springer-Verlag Heidelberg, Germany

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Submission of a manuscript implies: that the work described has not been published before (except in the form of an abstract or as part of a published lecture, review, or thesis); that it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere; that its publication has been approved by all

  15. Family-Concentrated Ownership in Chinese PLCs: Does Ownership Concentration Always Enhance Corporate Value?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Hui Luo

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we investigate the relationship between family ownership structure and corporate value across a sample of 1314 firm-year observations of China’s family publicly listed companies (PLCs, from 2004 to 2008. We find a significant inverse-U-shaped relationship between the controlling family’s ultimate cash-flow rights and corporate value; as measured by Tobin’s Q. That is, as family-ownership concentration increases, corporate value first increases and then decreases. This finding refreshes our understanding of the relationship between family-ownership concentration and corporate value in emerging economies such as found in China. We corroborate prior findings that when controlling families hold excess control over cash-flow rights, corporate value is significantly lowered, while multiple large shareholders structure is significantly associated with higher corporate value. In addition; board independence is found to significantly improve corporate value in the context of family-concentrated ownership. We also test for potential endogeneity between family ownership and corporate value and find our results to be robust.

  16. Treatment of multiple fractures in a patient wounded by aircraft bombing

    OpenAIRE

    Golubović Zoran; Stojiljković Predrag; Mitković Milorad; Trenkić Srbobran; Vukašinović Zoran; Lešić Aleksandar; Košutić Milomir; Milić Dragan; Najman Stevo; Golubović Ivan; Višnjić Aleksandar

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Aircraft cluster bombs can cause severe fractures characterized by extensive destruction of affected tissues and organs. Case Outline We present the methods and results of treatment of multiple fractures (left supracondilar humeral fracture, comminuted fracture of the distal right tibia, fracture of right trochanter major without dislocation and fracture of the right second metacarpal bone) in a 24-year old soldier after multiple wounding by a cluster bomb. After short pre-operat...

  17. MONITORING AND MODELLING OF AIR POLLUTION PRODUCED BY AIRCRAFT ENGINE EMISSION INSIDE THE ATHENS INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleksander I. Zaporozhets

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available  Experimental measuring of air pollution inside the airport, produced by aircraft engine emission during accelaration and take-off on the runway. Measurement data were used for verification of modelling results according to complex model «PolEmiCa». It consists of the following basic components: engine emission inventory calculation; transport of the contaminants by engine jets, dispersion of the contaminants in atmosphere due to wind and atmospheric turbulence.

  18. Parcels and Land Ownership, Tax parcel layer is maintained by the Tax Assessor's Office., Published in 2010, 1:600 (1in=50ft) scale, Lumpkin County, GA.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset, published at 1:600 (1in=50ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Published Reports/Deeds information as of 2010. It is...

  19. Parcels and Land Ownership, Wilkinson County Tax Parcels - Maintained by Southern Geographic, Published in 2000, 1:4800 (1in=400ft) scale, Wilkinson County Board of Commissioners.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset, published at 1:4800 (1in=400ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2000. It is described as...

  20. Ownership of Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, John W.

    2000-02-01

    As teachers of chemistry, we deal with information, knowledge, and, if we are fortunate, even wisdom. An important part of what we do involves giving students access to information and devising better ways to help them assimilate it. Beyond that, we can help them gain knowledge and understanding. Ultimately we hope that the knowledge they gain will help them to make wise choices about their own and society's collective futures. We often view ourselves as altruistic providers of information, but of course our students do pay tuition fees and thereby at least part of our salaries. In that sense we can think of ourselves as involved in an information industry. We provide what has come to be called intellectual property in return for a salary from a school, college, or university that in turn has collected fees from those who value that intellectual property. Those of us who write books or create multimedia materials are even more closely allied with the information industry. Computers and the Internet have produced a quantum jump in the ease of dissemination, reception, and reproduction of large quantities of information. That has stimulated reexamination of conventional thinking about intellectual property, making copyrights, patents, and trademarks a red-hot area for lawyers. Insofar as we teachers are disseminators of intellectual property, we are going to be affected by the changes that will certainly happen in the laws, customs, and ethics that apply to ownership of information and of the means by which it is exchanged among members of our society. In other words, we need to pay attention to the current ferment regarding intellectual property, doing our best to ensure that the decisions made do not prevent us from teaching in the best ways we know. Available options, all of which have vocal proponents, range from complete freedom of copying and disseminating information through a level of control in which essentially every bit or byte delivered carries with it a

  1. Ownership of Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, John W.

    2000-02-01

    As teachers of chemistry, we deal with information, knowledge, and, if we are fortunate, even wisdom. An important part of what we do involves giving students access to information and devising better ways to help them assimilate it. Beyond that, we can help them gain knowledge and understanding. Ultimately we hope that the knowledge they gain will help them to make wise choices about their own and society's collective futures. We often view ourselves as altruistic providers of information, but of course our students do pay tuition fees and thereby at least part of our salaries. In that sense we can think of ourselves as involved in an information industry. We provide what has come to be called intellectual property in return for a salary from a school, college, or university that in turn has collected fees from those who value that intellectual property. Those of us who write books or create multimedia materials are even more closely allied with the information industry. Computers and the Internet have produced a quantum jump in the ease of dissemination, reception, and reproduction of large quantities of information. That has stimulated reexamination of conventional thinking about intellectual property, making copyrights, patents, and trademarks a red-hot area for lawyers. Insofar as we teachers are disseminators of intellectual property, we are going to be affected by the changes that will certainly happen in the laws, customs, and ethics that apply to ownership of information and of the means by which it is exchanged among members of our society. In other words, we need to pay attention to the current ferment regarding intellectual property, doing our best to ensure that the decisions made do not prevent us from teaching in the best ways we know. Available options, all of which have vocal proponents, range from complete freedom of copying and disseminating information through a level of control in which essentially every bit or byte delivered carries with it a

  2. Numerical modelling of the internal mixing by coagulation of black carbon particles in aircraft exhaust

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohlsson, S.; Stroem, J. [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Meteorology

    1997-12-31

    When exhaust gases from an aircraft engine mix with ambient air the humidity may reach water saturation and water droplets will form on the available cloud condensation nuclei (CCN). It is still not resolved if the CCN, on which the cloud droplets form, are mainly particles present in the ambient air or particles emitted by the aircraft. It the exhaust from a jet engine the particles are believed to consist mainly of black carbon (BC) and sulfate. The aim is to study, with the help of a numerical model, how a two-component aerosol (i.e. BC and sulfate) in an exhaust trail may be transformed in terms of hygroscopicity by coagulation mixing and how this may depend on the sulfur content in the fuel. (R.P.) 15 refs.

  3. Determination of standards for transportation of radioactive material by aircrafts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The notification is defined under the provisions of the regulations for execution of the aviation law. Terms of exclusive loading and container are explained. Transportable radioactive materials hereunder exclude naturally igniting fluid materials, substances necessary to be contained in vessels which filtrate interior gas with filters or refrigerate contents with cooling devices, etc., or BM loads necessary to be continuously ventilated. Radioactive materials to be conveyed as radioactive loads and L loads are prescribed with tables attached. Technical standards for radioactive loads are stipulated for L, A, BM and BU loads respectively. Confirmation of safety of radioactive loads may be made by examiniation of documents prepared by persons acknowledged proper by the Minister of Transportation. Radioactive materials are uranium 233 and 235, plutonium 238, 239 and 241, their compounds and those materials which include one or more than two of such substances. Materials whose quantities or quantities of components are less than 15 grams and natural or depleted uranium are excluded. The maximum doses of containers with radioactive loads shall not exceed for an hour 200 mili-rem on the surface and 10 mili-rem at a distance of 1 meter from the surface. Confirmation of safety of transport, method of loading, prevention of criticality, restriction of mixed shipment, transport index, signals and others are provided for in detail. (Okada, K.)

  4. Executive Compensation Concentration and Institutional Ownership Power

    OpenAIRE

    Wei Li; Tingting Guo

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we examine whether institutional shareholders prefer concentrated or dispersed executive compensation structure. To address this question, we study the relationship between executive compensation concentration and institutional ownership power because institutional investors can influence executive compensation more when they have more power. We measure institutional ownership power using institutional ownership level and institutional ownership concentration. We find a signifi...

  5. Jet Noise Shielding Provided by a Hybrid Wing Body Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doty, Michael J.; Brooks, Thomas F.; Burley, Casey L.; Bahr, Christopher J.; Pope, Dennis S.

    2014-01-01

    One approach toward achieving NASA's aggressive N+2 noise goal of 42 EPNdB cumulative margin below Stage 4 is through the use of novel vehicle configurations like the Hybrid Wing Body (HWB). Jet noise measurements from an HWB acoustic test in NASA Langley's 14- by 22-Foot Subsonic Tunnel are described. Two dual-stream, heated Compact Jet Engine Simulator (CJES) units are mounted underneath the inverted HWB model on a traversable support to permit measurement of varying levels of shielding provided by the fuselage. Both an axisymmetric and low noise chevron nozzle set are investigated in the context of shielding. The unshielded chevron nozzle set shows 1 to 2 dB of source noise reduction (relative to the unshielded axisymmetric nozzle set) with some penalties at higher frequencies. Shielding of the axisymmetric nozzles shows up to 6.5 dB of reduction at high frequency. The combination of shielding and low noise chevrons shows benefits beyond the expected additive benefits of the two, up to 10 dB, due to the effective migration of the jet source peak noise location upstream for increased shielding effectiveness. Jet noise source maps from phased array results processed with the Deconvolution Approach for the Mapping of Acoustic Sources (DAMAS) algorithm reinforce these observations.

  6. Estimation Methods for Determination of Drag Characteristics of Fly-by-Wire Aircraft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Girija

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available "In this paper, several parameter/state estimation approaches for the determination of drag polars from flight data are described and evaluated for a fly-by-wire (FBW aircraft. Both model-based approaches (MBAs and non-model-based approaches (NMBAs are considered. Dynamic response data from roller coaster and wind- up-turn manoeuvres are generated in a FBW aircraft flight simulator at different flight conditions and the typical performance results are presented. A novel approach to estimate the drag polar has been evaluated. It has been found that the NMBAs perform better than the MBAs. Classically, the MBAs have been used for the determination of drag polars. The merits of an NMBA are that it does not require specification of the detailed model of the aerodynamic coefficients and it can be suitably used for online estimation of drag polars from the flight data of aerospace vehicles

  7. 14 CFR 39.23 - May I fly my aircraft to a repair facility to do the work required by an airworthiness directive?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false May I fly my aircraft to a repair facility... May I fly my aircraft to a repair facility to do the work required by an airworthiness directive? Yes... allow them to fly their aircraft to a repair facility to do the work required by an...

  8. Monitoring and forecasting of great radiation hazards for spacecraft and aircrafts by online cosmic ray data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. I. Dorman

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available We show that an exact forecast of great radiation hazard in space, in the magnetosphere, in the atmosphere and on the ground can be made by using high-energy particles (few GeV/nucleon and higher whose transportation from the Sun is characterized by a much bigger diffusion coefficient than for small and middle energy particles. Therefore, high energy particles come from the Sun much earlier (8-20 min after acceleration and escaping into solar wind than the main part of smaller energy particles (more than 30-60 min later, causing radiation hazard for electronics and personal health, as well as spacecraft and aircrafts. We describe here principles of an automatic set of programs that begin with "FEP-Search", used to determine the beginning of a large FEP event. After a positive signal from "FEP-Search", the following programs start working: "FEP-Research/Spectrum", and then "FEP-Research/Time of Ejection", "FEP-Research /Source" and "FEP-Research/Diffusion", which online determine properties of FEP generation and propagation. On the basis of the obtained information, the next set of programs immediately start to work: "FEP-Forecasting/Spacecrafts", "FEP-Forecasting/Aircrafts", "FEP-Forecasting/Ground", which determine the expected differential and integral fluxes and total fluency for spacecraft on different orbits, aircrafts on different airlines, and on the ground, depending on altitude and cutoff rigidity. If the level of radiation hazard is expected to be dangerous for high level technology or/and personal health, the following programs will be used "FEP-Alert/Spacecrafts", "FEP-Alert/ Aircrafts", "FEP-Alert/Ground".

  9. Cosmic radiation and airline pilots. Exposure patterns of Norwegian pilots flying aircraft not used by SAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tveten, U.

    1997-05-01

    The work which is presented in this report is part of a Norwegian epidemiological project, carried out in cooperation between Institutt for Energiteknikk (IFE), the Norwegian Cancer Registry (NCR) and the Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority (NRPA). The project has been partially financed by the Norwegian Research Council. Originating from the Norwegian project, a number of similar projects have been started or are in the planning stage in a number of European countries. The present report lays the ground for estimation of individual exposure histories to cosmic radiation of pilots flying a great diversity of different aircrafts. Aircrafts that appear in the time-tables of the Scandinavian Airline System (SAS) have been treated in an earlier report. The results presented in this report (radiation doserates for the different types of aircrafts in the different years) will, in a later stage of the project be utilized to estimate the individual radiation exposure histories. The major sources of information used as basis for the work in this report is information provided by several active pilots, members of the Pilots Associations, along with calculations performed using US Federal Aviation Administration`s computer code CARI-3N. 2 refs.

  10. Cosmic radiation and airline pilots. Exposure patterns of Norwegian pilots flying aircraft not used by SAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The work which is presented in this report is part of a Norwegian epidemiological project, carried out in cooperation between Institutt for Energiteknikk (IFE), the Norwegian Cancer Registry (NCR) and the Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority (NRPA). The project has been partially financed by the Norwegian Research Council. Originating from the Norwegian project, a number of similar projects have been started or are in the planning stage in a number of European countries. The present report lays the ground for estimation of individual exposure histories to cosmic radiation of pilots flying a great diversity of different aircrafts. Aircrafts that appear in the time-tables of the Scandinavian Airline System (SAS) have been treated in an earlier report. The results presented in this report (radiation doserates for the different types of aircrafts in the different years) will, in a later stage of the project be utilized to estimate the individual radiation exposure histories. The major sources of information used as basis for the work in this report is information provided by several active pilots, members of the Pilots Associations, along with calculations performed using US Federal Aviation Administration's computer code CARI-3N. 2 refs

  11. Sonic booms produced by US Air Force and US Navy aircraft: Measured data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, R. A.; Downing, J. M.

    1991-01-01

    A sonic measurement program was conducted at Edwards Air Force Base. Sonic boom signatures, produced by F-4, F-14, F-15, F-16, F-18, F-111, SR-71, and T-38 aircraft, were obtained under the flight track and at various lateral sites which were located up to 18 miles off-track. Thirteen monitors developed by Det 1 AL/BBE were used to collect full sonic boom waveforms, and nine modified dosimeters were used to collect supplemental peak overpressures and the C-weighted Sound Exposure Levels (CSEL) for 43 near steady supersonic flights of the above United States Air Force and United States Navy aircraft. This report describes the measured database (BOOMFILE) that contains sonic boom signatures and overpressures, aircraft tracking, and local weather data. These measured data highlight the major influences on sonic boom propagation and generation. The data from this study show that a constant offset of 26 from the peak overpressure expressed in dB gives a good estimate of the CSEL of a sonic boom.

  12. Self-Ownership, World-Ownership, and Initial Acquisition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tristan Rogers

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available G.A. Cohen was perhaps libertarianism’s most formidable critic. In Self-Ownership, Freedom, and Equality he levels several strong criticisms against Robert Nozick’s theory put forth in Anarchy, State, and Utopia. In this paper, I counter several of Cohen’s criticisms. The debate operates at three stages: (1 self-ownership, (2 world-ownership, and (3 initial acquisition. At the first stage, Cohen does not attempt to refute self-ownership, but weaken its force in providing moral grounds for capitalism. Here I argue that Cohen’s attempt to overturn Nozick’s slavery argument is unsuccessful because partial-slavery, while normatively different from full-slavery, is still normatively wrong. At the second stage, Cohen argues for a joint-ownership view of the world’s resources. In particular, he claims that self-ownership is rendered merely formal in a jointly-owned world and in a capitalist world. To rebut this challenge I show that even if Cohen is right about this, libertarian self-ownership is only formal in Cohen’s peculiar case where only two people exist and one owns everything. In contrast, self-ownership in a jointly-owned world is formal in all cases. Lastly, at the third stage, Cohen argues against Nozick’s interpretation of the Lockean proviso, claiming that it is impossible to satisfy. Granting Cohen’s argument here, I go on to defend Jan Narveson’s no-proviso view of acquisition from Cohen’s thus far unanswered criticism. I show that significantly, in his critique, Cohen equivocates between positive and negative rights. Taken jointly, my responses at these three stages ground the anti-egalitarian conclusion that, in Cohen’s words, ‘[e]xtensive inequality of condition is unavoidable, or avoidable only on pain of violating people’s rights to themselves and to things.’ The sequence, then, is from self-ownership, to world-ownership, via initial acquisition.

  13. Ownership, control and market liquidity.

    OpenAIRE

    Hamon, Jacques; Ginglinger, Edith

    2012-01-01

    We examine how ownership concentration and the separation of ownership and control affect secondary-market liquidity in France. We find that firms with a large insider blockholder exhibit significantly lower liquidity. However, different methods of enhancing control affect liquidity in different ways. Pyramid structures impair market liquidity. Double voting right shares, a French specific means of control enhancement rewarding long-term shareholders and restraining insiders from trading thei...

  14. Ownership structure and inventory policy

    OpenAIRE

    Tribó, Josep A.

    2007-01-01

    This paper explores the effect of a firm’s ownership structure on its inventory policy. We have argued that the presence of institutional investors like banks as blockholders, reduces a firm’s liquidity needs and prevents overinvestment policies. This, in turn, leads to lower inventory levels, especially for small and/or diversified firms. Also, we expect less inventory investment when bank equity financing is compared with bank debt financing. Finally, other components of ownership structure...

  15. A model of car ownership and use incorporating quality choice and ownership of multiple cars

    OpenAIRE

    Rouwendal, Jan; Pommer, John

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we develop and estimate a discrete-continuous model for car ownership and use that incorporates quality choice and the decision to own multiple cars. The basic model, used for instance in De Jong (1991), treats all cars as being equal (no differences in quality) and only considers ownership of a single car. In order to introduce quality into the model we assume that the marginal utility of driving is increased by a latent variable (interpreted as quality) that is related to the ...

  16. Bringing indigenous ownership back to the private sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragelund, Peter

    Driven by across-the-board liberalizations and the commodity price boom, Zambia has recently experienced an upsurge in foreign ownership over key parts of its economy. Albeit investors from all over the world have sought to make the most of the current situation in Zambia, Chinese investors have...... been particularly present in all sectors of the Zambian economy. Foreign ownership, however, is not new to African societies and several African countries pursued indigenisation policies in the wake of independence to bring ownership back to their own citizens. Now indigenisation policies thrive again...

  17. Parcels and Land Ownership, Parcels, Published in unknown, CLAY COUNTY.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of unknown. It is described as 'Parcels'. Data by this publisher are often provided in State Plane coordinate system; in...

  18. Parcels and Land Ownership, Parcels, Published in 2007, Daggett County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2007. It is described as 'Parcels'. Data by this publisher are...

  19. Preliminary Study on Effect of Aviation Fuel in the Safety Evaluation of Nuclear Power Plant Crashed by Aircraft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, Byeong Moo; Jeon, Se Jin; Lee, Yun Seok; Kim, Young Jin [Daewoo E and C Co., Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-10-15

    As the safety assessments of nuclear power plants for the hypothetical large civil aircraft crash should be made mandatory, studies on large aircraft-nuclear power plant impact analyses and assessments are actively in progress. The large civil aircraft are being operated with a large amount of fuel and the fuel can be assumed to contribute to the impact loads at the impact. The fuel, i.e., the internal liquid can be considered as added masses classically in the evaluation of the impact load. According to the recent experimental research, it has been shown that the impact load of high speed impacting body with internal liquid is much higher than that of the mass-equivalent impacting body. In this study, the impact loads according to the existence of the internal liquid are computed by numerical methods and the safety assessment of nuclear power plant crashed by large civil aircraft are performed as an application

  20. Fuzzy Q learning algorithm for dual-aircraft path planning to cooperatively detect targets by passive radars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiang Gao; Yangwang Fang; Youli Wu

    2013-01-01

    The problem of passive detection discussed in this paper involves searching and locating an aerial emitter by dual-aircraft using passive radars. In order to improve the detection probability and accuracy, a fuzzy Q learning algorithm for dual-aircraft flight path planning is proposed. The passive detection task model of the dual-aircraft is set up based on the partition of the target active radar’s radiation area. The problem is formulated as a Markov decision process (MDP) by using the fuzzy theory to make a generalization of the state space and defining the transition functions, action space and reward function properly. Details of the path planning algorithm are presented. Simulation results indicate that the algorithm can provide adaptive strategies for dual-aircraft to control their flight paths to detect a non-maneuvering or maneu-vering target.

  1. Self-ownership, Marxism, and Egalitarianism

    OpenAIRE

    Eric Mack

    2002-01-01

    Part I of this essay supports the anti-egalitarian conclusion that individuals may readily become entitled to substantially unequal extra-personal holdings by criticizing end-state and pattern theories of distributive justice and defending the historical entitlement doctrine of justice in holdings. Part II of this essay focuses on a second route to the anti-egalitarian conclusion. This route combines the self-ownership thesis with a contention that is especially advanced by G.A. Cohen. This i...

  2. Audit Fee Determinants in different Ownership Structures : The Swedish Setting

    OpenAIRE

    Ask, Joakim; LJ Holm, Mattias

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study is to test the audit fee determinants for companies listed on Nasdaq OMX Stockholm Stock Exchange and to examine whether the audit fee determinants diverge for ownership structures. By testing the audit fee determinants in a Swedish setting the study contributes to the research body in two ways; by testing a previously sparsely researched setting and examining the monitoring need for different ownership structures. The results indicate that audit fees are explained to a ...

  3. OWNERSHIP STRUCTURE AND CORPORATE GOVERNANCE IN LATIN AMERICA

    OpenAIRE

    FERNANDO LEFORT

    2005-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of corporate governance practices in Latin American countries, surveying the available empirical literature, reviewing the reports on the subject prepared by multinational organizations, and providing new data for ownership and control structures of companies in different Latin American economies. Like in other emerging economies corporate governance in Latin America is conditioned by the high level of ownership concentration and the profusion of industrial and...

  4. Does Ownership Structure Influence Firm Value? Evidence from India

    OpenAIRE

    Jayesh Kumar

    2004-01-01

    This paper examines the effect of ownership structure on the firm performance for an unbalanced panel of 2478 Indian corporate firms from 1994 to 2000. We examine the effect of interactions between corporate, foreign, institutional, and managerial ownership on firm performance. Using panel data framework, we show that a large fraction of cross- sectional variation, in firm performance can be explained by unobserved firm heterogeneity. We provide evidence that the shareholding by institutional...

  5. Fly-by-light flight control system architectures for tactical military aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrigan, Jack; Jones, Jack E.; Shaw, Brad

    1995-05-01

    Requirements for future advanced tactical aircraft identify the need for flight control system architectures that provide a higher degree of performance with regard to electromagnetic interference immunity, communication bus data rate, propulsion/utility subsystem integration, and affordability. Evolution of highly centralized, digital, fly-by-wire flight/propulsion/utility control system is achieved as modular functions are implemented and integrated by serial, digital, fiber optics communication links. These adaptable architectures allow the user to configure the fly-by-light system to meet unique safety requirements, system performance, and design to cost targets.

  6. Penetrating injury of the lungs and multiple injuries of lower extremities caused by aircraft bombs splinters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golubović Zoran

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Injuries caused by aircraft bombs cause severe damages to the human body. They are characterized by massive destruction of injured tissues and organs, primary contamination by polymorph bacterial flora and modified reactivity of the body. Upon being wounded by aircraft bombs projectiles a victim simultaneously sustains severe damages of many organs and organ systems due to the fact that a large number of projectiles at the same time injure the chest, stomach, head and extremities. Case report. We presented a patient, 41 years of age, injured by aircraft bomb with hemo-pneumothorax and destruction of the bone and soft tissue structures of the foot, as well as the treatment result of such heavy injuries. After receiving thoracocentesis and short reanimation, the patient underwent surgical procedure. The team performed thoracotomy, primary treatment of the wound and atypical resection of the left lung. Thoracic drains were placed. The wounds on the lower leg and feet were treated primarily. Due to massive destruction of bone tissue of the right foot by cluster bomb splinters, and impossibility of reconstruction of the foot, guillotine amputation of the right lower leg was performed. Twelve days after the wounding caused by cluster bomb splinters, soft tissue of the left lower leg was covered by Tirsch free transplantant and the defect in the area of the left foot was covered by dorsalis pedis flap. The transplant and flap were accepted and the donor sites were epithelized. Twenty-six days following the wounding reamputation was performed and amputation stump of the right lower leg was closed. The patient was given a lower leg prosthesis with which he could move. Conclusion. Upon being wounded by aircraft bomb splinters, the injured person sustains severe wounds of multiple organs and organ systems due to simultaneous injuries caused by a large number of projectiles. It is necessary to take care of the vital organs first because they

  7. 19 CFR 122.64 - Other aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Other aircraft. 122.64 Section 122.64 Customs... AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Clearance of Aircraft and Permission To Depart § 122.64 Other aircraft. Clearance or permission to depart shall be requested by the aircraft commander or agent for aircraft...

  8. Study on Foreign Property Ownership in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Z. Esha

    2007-01-01

    This paper is about foreign property ownership in Malaysia, focusing on Malaysia My Second Home Programme. Secondary data was collected by desk study. Primary data was collected via self administered postal questionnaires. A group of 100 participants of Malaysia My Second Home Programme were randomly selected for this purpose. The findings discovered that foreign second homebuyers are mainly those who are above 45 years old and married. Three main reasons for foreigner to buy second home in M...

  9. Optimal Ownership Structures in Asymmetric Joint Ventures

    OpenAIRE

    Paul Belleflamme; Francis Bloch

    2000-01-01

    This paper investigates the relation between asymmetries in the distribution of shares in joint ventures and asymmetries between the parent companies. When the joint venture and the parent companies are controlled by separate entities, we provide a simple formula to compute the optimal ownership structure. This formula is applied to various models of market interaction, showing that larger companies should have a larger fraction of shares, and so should companies whose goods are closer substi...

  10. Payment method and perceptions of ownership

    OpenAIRE

    Kamleitner, Bernadette; Erki, Berna

    2013-01-01

    How consumers pay influences how they feel about a transaction. In particular, paying by card has been argued to have an effect on the perception of cost; making it less salient and painful. We propose and show that payment method also influences how consumers feel about the acquired good. Specifically we focus on effects of the payment method on psychological ownership, i.e. the perception of an object as "mine". We propose that cash payment results in stronger psychological o...

  11. Lightning effects on aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-01-01

    Direct and indirect effects of lightning on aircraft were examined in relation to aircraft design. Specific trends in design leading to more frequent lightning strikes were individually investigated. These trends included the increasing use of miniaturized, solid state components in aircraft electronics and electric power systems. A second trend studied was the increasing use of reinforced plastics and other nonconducting materials in place of aluminum skins, a practice that reduces the electromagnetic shielding furnished by a conductive skin.

  12. The British 'Personal Capitalism': Some Evidence on Ownership and Control

    OpenAIRE

    Dong-Woon Kim

    1998-01-01

    By analysing the ownership and control structures of 23 Scottish textile companies of national importance this article suggests some hard evidence on the extent to )holm family influence did persist, well into the second half of the twentieth century, in both ownership and control in the British economy. The majority of the companies remained priwite• even in the companies which went public, characteristics of the private company status continued to be dominant Within these organisational f...

  13. How vestibular stimulation interacts with illusory hand ownership

    OpenAIRE

    Lopez, Christophe; Lenggenhager, Bigna; Blanke, Olaf

    2010-01-01

    Artificial stimulation of the peripheral vestibular system has been shown to improve ownership of body parts in neurological patients, suggesting vestibular contributions to bodily self-consciousness. Here, we investigated whether galvanic vestibular stimulation (GVS) interferes with the mechanisms underlying ownership, touch, and the localization of one's own hand in healthy participants by using the "rubber hand illusion" paradigm. Our results show that left anodal GVS increases illusory ow...

  14. A Rent-Protection Theory of Corporate Ownership and Control

    OpenAIRE

    Lucian Arye Bebchuk

    1999-01-01

    This paper develops a rent-protection theory of corporate ownership structure - and in particular, of the choice between concentrated and dispersed ownership of corporate shares and votes. The paper analyzes the decision of a company's initial owner whether to maintain a lock on control when the company goes public. This decision is shown to be very much influenced by the size that private benefits of control are expected to have. Most importantly, when private benefits of control are large -...

  15. Corporate ownership and initial training in Britain, Germany and Switzerland

    OpenAIRE

    Paul Ryan; Karin Wagner; Silvia Teuber; Uschi Backes-Gellner

    2010-01-01

    This paper considers whether listed companies with dispersed ownership invest less in training than do other firms, as part of a short-termist stance caused by pressure from the stock market. An analytical framework that supports the proposition involves three factors: high agency costs between the shareholders and managers of listed firms that have dispersed ownership; the use of highly geared performance-related pay to reward top managers; and accounting conventions that distort performance...

  16. THE EMPLOYEE STOCK OWNERSHIP PROGRAM PHENOMENA: EVIDENCE FROM INDONESIA

    OpenAIRE

    I Putu Sugiartha Sanjaya

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study is to explain the employee stock ownership program phenomenon in public companies in Indonesia. The ownership of companies in Indonesia is concentrated by a single controlling shareholder. Sometimes, the board of directors and board of commissioners of a company or his/her family are the controlling shareholders. This study is interested in describing the employment stock option program phenomenon. This study collects data from the Indonesian Stock Exchange databas...

  17. Gun utopias? Firearm access and ownership in Israel and Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbaum, Janet E

    2012-02-01

    The 2011 attempted assassination of a US representative renewed the national gun control debate. Gun advocates claim mass-casualty events are mitigated and deterred with three policies: (a) permissive gun laws, (b) widespread gun ownership, (c) and encouragement of armed civilians who can intercept shooters. They cite Switzerland and Israel as exemplars. We evaluate these claims with analysis of International Crime Victimization Survey (ICVS) data and translation of laws and original source material. Swiss and Israeli laws limit firearm ownership and require permit renewal one to four times annually. ICVS analysis finds the United States has more firearms per capita and per household than either country. Switzerland and Israel curtail off-duty soldiers' firearm access to prevent firearm deaths. Suicide among soldiers decreased by 40 per cent after the Israeli army's 2006 reforms. Compared with the United States, Switzerland and Israel have lower gun ownership and stricter gun laws, and their policies discourage personal gun ownership. PMID:22089893

  18. Aircraft optical cable plant program plan: the approach for the physical layer for fly-by-light control networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Thomas L.; Murdock, John K.

    1995-05-01

    A program was created with joint industry and government funding to apply fiber optic technologies to aircraft. The technology offers many potential benefits. Among them are increased electromagnetic interference immunity and the possibility of reduced weight, increased reliability, and enlarged capability by redesigning architectures to use the large bandwidth of fiber optics. Those benefits will only be realized if fiber optics meets the unique requirements of aircraft networks. Over the past two decades, considerable effort has been expended on applying photonic technologies to aircraft. Great successes have occurred in optoelectronic components development. In the development of these systems to link those components, known as the cable plant, progress has also been made, but only recently has it been organized in a coordinated, systems-oriented fashion. The FLASH program will expand on the nascent cable plant systems efforts by building upon recent work in individual components, and integrating that work into a cohesive aircraft cable plant. Therefore, the FLASH program will develop the low cost, reliable cables, connectors, splices, backplanes, manufacturing and installation methods, test methods, support equipment, and training systems needed to form a true optical cable plant for transport aircraft, tactical aircraft, and helicopters.

  19. Ownership unbundling; Ownership unbundling. Wesen und Vereinbarkeit mit Europarecht und Verfassungsrecht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baur, J.F.; Pritzsche, K.U.; Klauer, S.

    2006-07-01

    After it had ushered in the liberalisation of the energy economy through its initial enactment in 1998 the Energy Economy Law was fundamentally revised to stipulate the complete unbundling of integrated power supply companies in terms of their legal status, accounting and operations, in accordance with Directives 2003/54 and 2003/55. While this amended version has yet to take effect, the European Union has already set its sights on its next unbundling project. This is the project of maximum unbundling, also referred to as ownership unbundling. Its proponents expect of it that it will eliminate all incentives that encourage network operators to discriminate against interlinked production and distributive companies. Quite apart from a political assessment of such short-sighted energy policy this raises the question as to whether the introduction of ownership unbundling by the European legislature, and consequently also by the German government, is legally admissible at all. Any answer to this question must first clarify the precise meaning of ownership unbundling. For all the support behind it there is still no clear agreement as to what this dazzling term actually stands for. Save for few exceptions no definitions have as yet been offered for this instrument from the realm of science and politics. The present article therefore attempts to approach the concept of ownership unbundling, presenting possible options for its implementation. Based on these options it then goes on to address the legality of such measures under European and German constitutional law.

  20. Simulation of Hydrodynamic RAM of Aircraft Fuel Tank by Ballistic Penetration and Detonation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jong H.; Jun, Seung M.

    Airframe survivability and hydrodynamic ram effect of aircraft are investigated. Penetration and internal detonation of a simple tank and ICW(Intermediate Complexity Wing) are simulated by nonlinear explicit calculation. Structural rupture and fluid burst are analytically realized using general coupling of FSI(Fluid-Structure Interaction) and adaptive master-slave contact. Besides, multi-material Eulerian solver and porosity algorithm are employed to model explosive inside fuel and tank bays which are defined in multi-coupling surfaces. Structure and fluid results are animated on the same viewport for enhanced visualization.

  1. Managerial Ownership Influencing Tunnelling Behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agung Juliarto

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the extent and the determinants of tunnelling behaviour in five ASEAN countries (i.e. Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, and Thailand. Related party transactions (RPTs in the form of loans to related parties are used as the proxy for tunnelling. With 200 firm-year observations over the period 2006-2009, this study finds a positive association between managerial ownership and the extent of tunnelling.The other important findings are that business environment (BE, foreign ownership, and independent directors are ineffective governance mechanisms to rein in tunnelling behaviour. This suggests that regulators need to evolve more effective governance mechanisms.

  2. Local damage to Ultra High Performance Concrete structures caused by an impact of aircraft engine missiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riedel, Werner [Fraunhofer Institute for High-Speed Dynamics, Ernst-Mach-Institute, Eckerstrasse 4, D-79104 Freiburg (Germany); Noeldgen, Markus, E-mail: mnoeldgen@schuessler-plan.d [Fraunhofer Institute for High-Speed Dynamics, Ernst-Mach-Institute, Eckerstrasse 4, D-79104 Freiburg (Germany); Schuessler-Plan Engineering Ltd., St.-Franziskus-Str. 148, D-40470 Duesseldorf (Germany); Strassburger, Elmar; Thoma, Klaus [Fraunhofer Institute for High-Speed Dynamics, Ernst-Mach-Institute, Eckerstrasse 4, D-79104 Freiburg (Germany); Fehling, Ekkehard [University of Kassel, Chair of Structural Concrete, Kurt-Wolters Str. 3, D-34109 Kassel (Germany)

    2010-10-15

    Research highlights: {yields} Experimental series on UHPC panels subjected to aircraft engine impact. {yields} Improved ballistic limit of fiber reinforced UHPC in comparison to conventional R/C. {yields} Detailed investigation of failure mechanisms of fiber reinforced UHPC panel. - Abstract: The impact of an aircraft engine missile causes high stresses, deformations and a severe local damage to conventional reinforced concrete. As a consequence the design of R/C protective structural elements results in components with rather large dimensions. Fiber reinforced Ultra High Performance Concrete (UHPC) is a concrete based material which combines ultra high strength, high packing density and an improved ductility with a significantly increased energy dissipation capacity due to the addition of fiber reinforcement. With those attributes the material is potentially suitable for improved protective structural elements with a reduced need for material resources. The presented paper reports on an experimental series of scaled aircraft engine impact tests with reinforced UHPC panels. The investigations are focused on the material behavior and the damage intensity in comparison to conventional concrete. The fundamental work of is taken as reference for the evaluation of the results. The impactor model of a Phantom F4 GE-J79 engine developed and validated by Sugano et al. is used as defined in the original work. In order to achieve best comparability, the experimental configuration and method are adapted for the UHPC experiments. With 'penetration', 'scabbing' and 'perforation' all relevant damage modes defined in are investigated so that a full set of results are provided for a representative UHPC structural configuration.

  3. Local damage to Ultra High Performance Concrete structures caused by an impact of aircraft engine missiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research highlights: → Experimental series on UHPC panels subjected to aircraft engine impact. → Improved ballistic limit of fiber reinforced UHPC in comparison to conventional R/C. → Detailed investigation of failure mechanisms of fiber reinforced UHPC panel. - Abstract: The impact of an aircraft engine missile causes high stresses, deformations and a severe local damage to conventional reinforced concrete. As a consequence the design of R/C protective structural elements results in components with rather large dimensions. Fiber reinforced Ultra High Performance Concrete (UHPC) is a concrete based material which combines ultra high strength, high packing density and an improved ductility with a significantly increased energy dissipation capacity due to the addition of fiber reinforcement. With those attributes the material is potentially suitable for improved protective structural elements with a reduced need for material resources. The presented paper reports on an experimental series of scaled aircraft engine impact tests with reinforced UHPC panels. The investigations are focused on the material behavior and the damage intensity in comparison to conventional concrete. The fundamental work of is taken as reference for the evaluation of the results. The impactor model of a Phantom F4 GE-J79 engine developed and validated by Sugano et al. is used as defined in the original work. In order to achieve best comparability, the experimental configuration and method are adapted for the UHPC experiments. With 'penetration', 'scabbing' and 'perforation' all relevant damage modes defined in are investigated so that a full set of results are provided for a representative UHPC structural configuration.

  4. 7 CFR 1901.507 - Certificates of beneficial ownership issued by the FmHA or its successor agency under Public Law...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Finance Office. (a) Orders and payment. Orders for investment in certificates may be placed with the... the certificate will be the rate in effect on the date the Finance Office receives the payment. (b) Registration. (1) The registration used must express the actual ownership of a certificate and may not...

  5. OWNERSHIP AND CAPITAL STRUCTURE OF PAKISTANI NON-FINANCIAL FIRMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khan Shoaib

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Existi ng literature has not yet defi ned a clear-cut relati onship between ownership structure and capital structure. This study aims to contribute to this controversial argument by examining the impact of internal (managerial ownership and external ownership on fi nancing preferences using the case of non-fi nancial fi rms listed on Karachi stock exchange during the period of 2008-2012. Our results suggest that the external ownership has a signifi cant eff ect on capital structure in accordance with the presence of blockholders. In contrast, the internal ownership has a complicated eff ect; it shows signifi cant positi ve and negati ve relati onship to leverage at lower and certain higher proporti on of managerial shareholding respecti vely. Besides, the combined analyses suggest that the presence of blockholders negates the impact of managerial ownership on capital structure. This implies that the presence of large and dominant shareholders in Pakistani fi rms may have caused a bias for debt fi nancing to protect their voti ng power and returns.

  6. US Forest Service Surface Ownership Parcels, detailed

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — A map service on the www depicting ownership parcels of the surface estate. Each surface ownership parcel is tied to a particular legal transaction. The same...

  7. US Forest Service Surface Ownership Parcels

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — A map service on the www depicting areas as surface ownership parcels dissolved on the same ownership classification. This map service was prepared to describe...

  8. The development of a personal dosemeter for use by aircraft crew

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes preliminary work to develop a cosmic-radiation dosemeter for use by military aircraft crew. The dosemeter is based on a combination of CR-39 etched-track detectors and TLD-700 thermoluminescent detectors. It is intended that the CR-39 be used to assess the neutron dose, while the TLD-700 is used to assess the photon and charged particle dose. The sensitivity of CR-39 to the neutron component of cosmic radiation was estimated by irradiating samples of the plastic at the CERN-CEC High Energy Reference Field Facility. This facility produced a radiation field with a neutron spectrum resembling that of the neutron component of cosmic radiation a typical airflight altitudes. The response of the CR-39 was linear over the range of doses studied (0.2-6.0 mSv) and there was no significant fading in the six-month period after irradiation. The TLD-700 component of the dosemeter was calibrated using 137Cs gamma rays. The response of the TLD-700 was linear over the range of doses studied (0-1.1 mSv) with no significant fade in the six-month period after irradiation. It was concluded that a combination of CR-39 and TLD-700 detectors would provide an effective cosmic-radiation dosemeter for use by military aircraft crew. (author)

  9. Chemistry characterization of jet aircraft engine particulate matter by XPS: Results from APEX III

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vander Wal, Randy L.; Bryg, Victoria M.; Huang, Chung-Hsuan

    2016-09-01

    This paper reports X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis of jet exhaust particulate matter (PM) from a B737, Lear, ERJ and A300 aircraft during the APEX III NASA led field campaign. Carbon hybridization and bonding chemistry are identified by high-resolution scans about the C1s core-shell region. Significant organic content as gauged by the sp3/sp2 ratio is found across engines and powers. Polar oxygen functional groups include carboxylic, carbonyl and phenol with combined content of 20% or more. By survey scans various elements including transition metals are identified along with lighter elements such as S, N and O in the form of oxides. Additives within lubricants are probable sources of Na, Ba, Ca, Zn, P and possibly Sn. Elements present and their percentages varied significantly across all engines, not revealing any trend or identifiable cause for the differences, though the origin is likely the same for the same element when observed. This finding suggests that their collective presence could serve as an environmental tracer for identifying PM originating from aircraft engines and serving as a diagnostic for engine performance and wear.

  10. Chemistry Characterization of Jet Aircraft Engine Particulate by XPS: Results from APEX III

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vander Wal, Randy L.; Bryg, Victoria M.

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports XPS analysis of jet exhaust particulate from a B737, Lear, ERJ, and A300 aircraft during the APEX III NASA led field campaign. Carbon hybridization and bonding chemistry are identified by high-resolution scans about the C1s core-shell region. Significant organic content as gauged by the sp3/sp2 ratio is found across engines and platforms. Polar oxygen functional groups include carboxylic, carbonyl and phenol with combined content of 20 percent or more. By lower resolution survey scans various elements including transition metals are identified along with lighter elements such as S, N, and O in the form of oxides. Burning additives within lubricants are probable sources of Na, Ba, Ca, Zn, P and possibly Sn. Elements present and their percentages varied significantly across all engines, not revealing any trend or identifiable cause for the differences, though the origin is likely the same for the same element when observed. This finding suggests that their presence can be used as a tracer for identifying soots from aircraft engines as well as diagnostic for monitoring engine performance and wear.

  11. Psychological ownership: Development of an instrument

    OpenAIRE

    Chantal Olckers

    2013-01-01

    Orientation: Psychological ownership emerged recently as a positive psychological resource that could be measured and developed and that could affect the performance of organisations.Purpose: The purpose of this study was to develop an instrument to measure psychological ownership in a South African context.Motivation for the study: It was found that previous instruments for the measurement of psychological ownership lacked the ability to grasp the extensive reach of psychological ownership.R...

  12. Intensive probing of a clear air convective field by radar and instrumental drone aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowland, J. R.

    1973-01-01

    An instrumented drone aircraft was used in conjunction with ultrasensitive radar to study the development of a convective field in the clear air. Radar data are presented which show an initial constant growth rate in the height of the convective field of 3.8 m/min, followed by a short period marked by condensation and rapid growth at a rate in excess of 6.1 m/min. Drone aircraft soundings show general features of a convective field including progressive lifting of the inversion at the top of the convection and a cooling of the air at the top of the field. Calculations of vertical heat flux as a function of time and altitude during the early stages of convection show a linear decrease in heat flux with altitude to near the top of the convective field and a negative heat flux at the top. Evidence is presented which supports previous observations that convective cells overshoot their neutral buoyancy level into a region where they are cool and moist compared to their surroundings. Furthermore, only that portion of the convective cell that has overshot its neutral buoyancy level is generally visible to the radar.

  13. Choice of Ownership Structure and Firm Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jones, Derek C; Kalmi, Panu; Mygind, Niels

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we use rich panel data for a representative sample of Estonian enterprises to analysediverse issues related to the determinants of ownership structures and ownership changes afterprivatisation. A key focus is to determine whether ownership changes are related to economicefficiency. ...

  14. Firm ownership structures: dynamic development

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kočenda, Evžen; Valachy, Juraj

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 11, č. 3 (2002), s. 255-268. ISSN 1210-0455 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KSK9058117 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z7085904 Keywords : ownership structure * privatized firms * industry sector Subject RIV: AH - Economics

  15. Employee Ownership, Motivation and Productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michie, Jonathan; Oughton, Christine; Bennion, Yvonne

    The relationship between employee ownership, motivation, and productivity was explored. The main data collection activities were as follows: (1) a literature review; (2) interviews with management and employees from 10 selected companies across the United Kingdom; (3) surveys of ICOM (the federation of worker cooperatives) member companies and…

  16. The Causal Relationship between Insider Ownership, Owner Identity and Market Valuation among the Largest European Companies

    OpenAIRE

    Pedersen, Torben; Thomsen, Steen

    2001-01-01

    The causal relationship between insider ownership and market valuation is tested by simultaneous estimation of the causes and effect of insider ownership among the largest continental European companies. Controlling for nation and industry effects insider ownership (measured by the fraction of "closely held" shares) is found to have a positive effect on market valuation (market-to-book values). And market valuation is found to have a positive feedback effect on the level of ins...

  17. Ownership Structure, Financial Decisions, and Institutional Setting: An International Analysis through Simultaneous Equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Félix J. López-Iturriaga

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We analyze the mutual relations among firms’ capital structure, ownership structure, and valuation. Through the estimation of a system of simultaneous equations for a sample of 1,130 firms from 16 countries from both the common law and the civil law environments, our results confirm the differential effect of ownership structure on firms’ value in each setting. Whereas in civil law firms the higher ownership concentration results in an entrenchment and an alignment effect, in the common law firms higher ownership concentration increases the value of the firm. Second, we corroborate the endogeneity of ownership structure since we find that ownership structure is affected by the value of the firm and by the capital structure. Third, our results suggest that corporate finance decisions are taken simultaneously with other mechanisms of corporate governance and conditional on firms’ valuation.

  18. Demonstration results of fly-by-light flight control system architectures for tactical military aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrigan, Jack; Shaw, Brad; Jones, Jack E.

    1996-10-01

    Requirements for future advanced tactical aircraft identify the need for flight control system architectures that provide a higher degree of performance with regard to electromagnetic interference immunity, communication bus data rate, propulsion/utility subsystem integration, and affordability. Evolution for highly centralized, digital, fly-by-light flight/propulsion/utility control system is achieved as modular functions are implemented and integrated by serial digital fiberoptic communication links. These adaptable architectures allow the user to configure the fly- by-light system to meet unique safety requirements, system performance, and design-to-cost targets. This paper presents results of the open and closed loop system demonstrations of Fly-By-Light Advanced System Hardware architecture building blocks integrated with SAE AS-1773 communication bus at MDA.

  19. Amphibious Aircraft

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A brief self composed research article on Amphibious Aircrafts discussing their use, origin and modern day applications along with their advantages and...

  20. The stable isotopic composition of molecular hydrogen in the tropopause region probed by the CARIBIC aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batenburg, A. M.; Schuck, T. J.; Baker, A. K.; Zahn, A.; Brenninkmeijer, C. A. M.; Röckmann, T.

    2012-05-01

    More than 450 air samples that were collected in the upper troposphere - lower stratosphere (UTLS) region by the CARIBIC aircraft (Civil Aircraft for the Regular Investigation of the atmosphere Based on an Instrument Container) have been analyzed for molecular hydrogen (H2) mixing ratios (χ(H2)) and H2 isotopic composition (deuterium content, δD). More than 120 of the analyzed samples contained air from the lowermost stratosphere (LMS). These show that χ(H2) does not vary appreciably with O3-derived height above the thermal tropopause (TP), whereas δD does increase with height. The isotope enrichment is caused by H2 production and destruction processes that enrich the stratospheric H2 reservoir in deuterium (D); the exact shapes of the profiles are mainly determined by mixing of stratospheric with tropospheric air. Tight negative correlations are found between δD and the mixing ratios of methane (χ(CH4)) and nitrous oxide (χ(N2O)), as a result of the relatively long lifetimes of these three species. The correlations are described by δD[‰]=-0.35 · χ(CH4)[ppb]+768 and δD[‰]=-1.90· χ(N2O)[ppb]+745. These correlations are similar to previously published results and likely hold globally for the LMS. Samples that were collected from the Indian subcontinent up to 40° N before, during and after the summer monsoon season show no significant seasonal change in χ(H2), but δD is up to 12.3‰ lower in the July, August and September monsoon samples. This δD decrease is correlated with the χ(CH4) increase in these samples. The significant correlation with χ(CH4) and the absence of a perceptible χ(H2) increase that accompanies the δD decrease indicates that microbial production of very D-depleted H2 in the wet season may contribute to this phenomenon. Some of the samples have very high χ(H2) and very low δD values, which indicates a pollution effect. Aircraft engine exhaust plumes are a suspected cause, since the effect mostly occurs in samples

  1. The Effects of Foreign Ownership in Africa : Evidence from Ghana, Kenya and Zimbabwe

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    1988-01-01

    The effect of foreign ownership in Africa is based on an analysis of survey data of firms in Zimbabwe, Ghana, and Kenya compiled by the Regional program on Enterprise Development (RPED). This study attempts to show the relationship between foreign ownership and firm-level value added in Sub-Saharan Africa. The study finds a clear indication that majority foreign ownership has a positive in...

  2. The ownership-performance puzzle: agency issues in small and medium-sized family firms

    OpenAIRE

    STEIJVERS, Tensie; Voordeckers, Wim; VANDEMAELE, Sigrid

    2007-01-01

    1. The purpose / topic of the research During the last decade, the discussion about the relationship between ownership structure and performance has seen important evolutions on a theoretical as well as empirical level. Especially family ownership in public firms drew the attention of researchers. In this paper, we explore the relationship between family ownership and financial performance for small and medium-sized private family firms and extend the results by recent studies of Anderson...

  3. Bank Regulatory Capital Adjustment and Ultimate Ownership Structure: Evidence from European Commercial Banks

    OpenAIRE

    Lepetit, Laetitia; Tarazi, Amine; Zedek, Nadia

    2012-01-01

    We empirically investigate whether a bank's decision to recapitalize is influenced by its ownership characteristics, particularly the separation between voting and cash-flow rights of the bank's ultimate owner. We use a novel hand-collected dataset on bank ultimate control and ownership structure of 442 European commercial banks to estimate an ownership- augmented capital adjustment model. We find that when the ultimate owner's voting and cash-flow rights are identical, banks actively (as opp...

  4. French connection: interlocking directorates and the ownership-control nexus in an insider governance system

    OpenAIRE

    Tristan AUVRAY (LEREPS-GRES); Olivier BROSSARD (LEREPS-GRES)

    2013-01-01

    We reveal the non-separation of ownership and control for multiple blockholders in the French insider governance system. We show that overlapping directorships of large listed corporations are explained by their ownership connections. Both large and small stakes, from 20% to 1% of cash-flow rights or voting rights, have high explanatory power. Some shareholdings are control rather than monitoring related. We provide evidence also that cross-ownership allows CEOs to entrench themselves. Finall...

  5. What Ownership Society: Debating Housing and Social Security Reform in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel Béland

    2006-01-01

    This article explores President George W. Bush's "ownership society" blueprint in comparative and historical perspective. By taking the "ownership society" seriously, it is possible to understand how it is deeply rooted in the American cultural repertoire, and how it offers a coherent neo-liberal discourse aimed at constructing the "need to reform" existing social policy legacies in the sense of a greater reliance on private savings and ownership. Although grounded in the American repertoire,...

  6. The relationship between ownership concentration and firm performance: Empirical evidence from Thai IPOs

    OpenAIRE

    Sa-nguannam, Praphaporn

    2010-01-01

    This research provides an empirical analysis on the relationship between ownership concentration and firm performances in both short-term and long-term of 111 Thai initial public offerings (IPOs) during January 2003 to July 2010. The short-term and long-term performances are represented as initial returns (underpricing) and aftermarket returns, respectively. The ownership concentration is measured by the concentration ratio, the stock ownership of a single largest shareholder who holds at lea...

  7. A Method for Eletric Vehicle Ownership Forecast Considering Different Economic Factors

    OpenAIRE

    Hanwu Luo; Fang Li

    2013-01-01

    The construction of electric vehicles (EVs) charging station needs to be planed according to the ownership of EVs, traffic condition, population etc. Therefore a BP neural network based method to forecast the EV ownership for a city is presented in the paper, which considers the influence on the EV ownership caused by many related economy factors, including GDP of a city, vehicle production, per capita crude steel production, per capita generation capacity, road passenger traffic, highway mil...

  8. Corporate Governance Rating and Ownership Structure in the Case of Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Sevin Gurarda; Emre Ozsoz; Abidin Ates

    2016-01-01

    By using corporate governance data on 22 publicly traded Turkish companies we estimate the determinants of corporate governance ratings for these companies with a focus on ownership structure. Our results show that company earnings, financial risk and firm size positively influence the corporate governance ratings (CGR) that Turkish firms receive. In the meantime, we find some weak evidence that family ownership has a negative and foreign ownership has a positive impact on CGR scores.

  9. Auralization of novel aircraft configurations

    OpenAIRE

    Arntzen, M.; Bertsch, E.L.; Simons, D.G.

    2015-01-01

    A joint initiative of NLR, DLR, and TU Delft has been initiated to streamline the process of generating audible impressions of novel aircraft configurations. The integrated approach adds to the value of the individual tools and allows predicting the sound of future aircraft before they actually fly. Hence, an existing process for the aircraft design and system noise prediction at DLR has been upgraded to generate the required input data for an aircraft auralization framework developed by NLR ...

  10. Optical communications for transport aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stengel, Robert

    1994-01-01

    Optical communications for transport aircraft are discussed. The problem involves: increasing demand for radio-frequency bands from an enlarging pool of users (aircraft, ground and sea vehicles, fleet operators, traffic control centers, and commercial radio and television); desirability of providing high-bandwidth dedicated communications to and from every aircraft in the National Airspace System; need to support communications, navigation, and surveillance for a growing number of aircraft; and improved meteorological observations by use of probe aircraft. The solution involves: optical signal transmission support very high data rates; optical transmission of signals between aircraft, orbiting satellites, and ground stations, where unobstructed line-of-sight is available; conventional radio transmissions of signals between aircraft and ground stations, where optical line-of-sight is unavailable; and radio priority given to aircraft in weather.

  11. Intensive probing of clear air convective fields by radar and instrumented drone aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowland, J. R.

    1972-01-01

    Clear air convective fields were probed in three summer experiments (1969, 1970, and 1971) on an S-band monopulse tracking radar at Wallops Island, Virginia, and a drone aircraft with a takeoff weight of 5.2 kg, wingspan of 2.5 m, and cruising glide speed of 10.3 m/sec. The drone was flown 23.2 km north of the radar and carried temperature, pressure/altitude, humidity, and vertical and airspeed velocity sensors. Extensive time-space convective field data were obtained by taking a large number of RHI and PPI pictures at short intervals of time. The rapidly changing overall convective field data obtained from the radar could be related to the meteorological information telemetered from the drone at a reasonably low cost by this combined technique.

  12. Trends in Employee Ownership in Eastern Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mygind, Niels

    2012-01-01

    Employee-owned companies are those where the broad group of employees owns the majority of shares. They have been widespread in the early transition process in Eastern Europe. This raises the question of why this type of ownership was so frequently used in some of the countries involved, and why...... there was a subsequent rapid transfer to manager ownership or outside ownership. This article gives a theoretical overview of the factors driving and hampering employee ownership, and develops hypotheses about how the transition process provided specific conditions for the development of these firms...... important factors influencing employee ownership. The article concludes that privatization was the main determinant for the initial spread of employee ownership. However, other factors undermined the sustainability of employee-owned firms. No institutions created a framework for employee ownership. The long...

  13. The influence of air duct geometry on air jet direction in aircraft cabin ventilated by mixing ventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fišer, J.; Jícha, M.

    2013-04-01

    The paper deals with instigation of influence of air duct geometry on air jet direction in aircraft cabin ventilated by mixing ventilation. CFD approach was used for investigation and model geometry was based on small aircraft cabin mock-up geometry. Model was also equipped by nine seats and five manikins that represent passengers. The air jet direction was observed for selected ambient environment parameters and several types of air duct geometry and influence of main air duct geometry on jets direction is discussed. The model was created in StarCCM+ ver. 6.04.014 software and polyhedral mesh was used.

  14. The influence of air duct geometry on air jet direction in aircraft cabin ventilated by mixing ventilation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jícha M.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with instigation of influence of air duct geometry on air jet direction in aircraft cabin ventilated by mixing ventilation. CFD approach was used for investigation and model geometry was based on small aircraft cabin mock-up geometry. Model was also equipped by nine seats and five manikins that represent passengers. The air jet direction was observed for selected ambient environment parameters and several types of air duct geometry and influence of main air duct geometry on jets direction is discussed. The model was created in StarCCM+ ver. 6.04.014 software and polyhedral mesh was used.

  15. Aircraft Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowers, Albion H. (Inventor); Uden, Edward (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    The present invention is an aircraft wing design that creates a bell shaped span load, which results in a negative induced drag (induced thrust) on the outer portion of the wing; such a design obviates the need for rudder control of an aircraft.

  16. Aircraft Noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, Ulf; Dobrzynski, Werner; Splettstoesser, Wolf; Delfs, Jan; Isermann, Ullrich; Obermeier, Frank

    Aircraft industry is exposed to increasing public pressure aiming at a continuing reduction of aircraft noise levels. This is necessary to both compensate for the detrimental effect on noise of the expected increase in air traffic and improve the quality of living in residential areas around airports.

  17. Topological structures of vortex flow on a flying wing aircraft, controlled by a nanosecond pulse discharge plasma actuator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Hai; Shi, Zhiwei; Cheng, Keming; Wei, Dechen; Li, Zheng; Zhou, Danjie; He, Haibo; Yao, Junkai; He, Chengjun

    2016-06-01

    Vortex control is a thriving research area, particularly in relation to flying wing or delta wing aircraft. This paper presents the topological structures of vortex flow on a flying wing aircraft controlled by a nanosecond plasma dielectric barrier discharge actuator. Experiments, including oil flow visualization and two-dimensional particle image velocimetry (PIV), were conducted in a wind tunnel with a Reynolds number of 0.5 × 106. Both oil and PIV results show that the vortex can be controlled. Oil topological structures on the aircraft surface coincide with spatial PIV flow structures. Both indicate vortex convergence and enhancement when the plasma discharge is switched on, leading to a reduced region of separated flow.

  18. Noise simulation of aircraft engine fans by the boundary element method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyatunin, K. R.; Arkharova, N. V.; Remizov, A. E.

    2016-07-01

    Numerical simulation results of the civil aircraft engine fan stage noise in the far field are presented. Non-steady-state rotor-stator interaction is calculated the commercial software that solves the Navier-Stokes equations using differentturbulence models. Noise propagation to the far acoustic field is calculated by the boundary element method using acoustic Lighthill analogies without taking into account the mean current in the air inlet duct. The calculated sound pressure levels at points 50 m from the engine are presented, and the directional patterns of the acoustic radiation are shown. The use of the eddy resolving turbulence model to calculate rotor-stator interaction increases the accuracy in predicting fan stage noise.

  19. Standard Test Method for Stress-Corrosion of Titanium Alloys by Aircraft Engine Cleaning Materials

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2006-01-01

    1.1 This test method establishes a test procedure for determining the propensity of aircraft turbine engine cleaning and maintenance materials for causing stress corrosion cracking of titanium alloy parts. 1.2 The evaluation is conducted on representative titanium alloys by determining the effect of contact with cleaning and maintenance materials on tendency of prestressed titanium alloys to crack when subsequently heated to elevated temperatures. 1.3 Test conditions are based upon manufacturer's maximum recommended operating solution concentration. This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. For specific precautionary statements, see and .

  20. Effective density measurements of fresh particulate matter emitted by an aircraft engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abegglen, Manuel; Durdina, Lukas; Mensah, Amewu; Brem, Benjamin; Corbin, Joel; Rindlisbacher, Theo; Wang, Jing; Lohmann, Ulrike; Sierau, Berko

    2014-05-01

    Introduction Carbonaceous particulate matter (commonly referred to as soot), once emitted into the atmosphere affects the global radiation budget by absorbing and scattering solar radiation. Furthermore, it can alter the formation, lifetime and distribution of clouds by acting as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) or ice nuclei (IN). The ability of soot particles to act as CCN and IN depends on their size, morphology and chemical composition. Soot particles are known to consist of spherical, primary particles that tend to arrange in chain-like structures. The structure of soot particles typically changes in the atmosphere when the particles are coated with secondary material, thus changing their radiative and cloud microphysical properties. Bond et al. (Journal of Geophysical Research, 2013: Bounding the Role of Black Carbon in the Climate System.) estimated the total industrial-era (1750 to 2005) climate forcing of black carbon to be 1.1 W/m2 ranging from the uncertainty bonds of 0.17 W/m2 to 2.1 W/m2. Facing the large uncertainty range, there is a need for a better characterization of soot particles abundant in the atmosphere. We provide experimental data on physical properties such as size, mass, density and morphology of freshly produced soot particles from a regularly used aircraft engine and from four laboratory generated soot types. This was done using a Differential Mobility Analyzer (DMA) and a Centrifugal Particle Mass Analyzer (CPMA), a relatively new instrument that records mass distributions of aerosol particles. Experimental Aircraft engine exhaust particles were collected and analysed during the Aviation Particle Regulatory Instrumentation Demonstration Experiments (A-PRIDE) campaigns in a test facility at the Zurich airport in November 2012 and August 2013. The engines were operated at different relative thrust levels spanning 7 % to 100 %. The sample was led into a heated line in order to prevent condensation of water and evolution of secondary

  1. The Core Issues of Open-Ended Funds in China: Conflicts of Interest and Ownership Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuzuo Yao

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Open-ended funds have been the subject of the important and ongoing reforms in China. The conflict of interest problem, facing the shareholders, the board of directors and the depositary, puts its roots in the ownership structure of fund management companies. This paper, firstly, argues that securities companies, trust companies and banks should not be the holding shareholders of the fund management companies, that is, the proportion of shares held by them should be limited. Secondly, the empirical findings are consistent with the view that ownership dispersion yields ownership concentration as ownership dispersion helps to minimize problems with conflicts of interest in most cases.

  2. Inducing illusory ownership of a virtual body

    OpenAIRE

    Mel Slater; Daniel Pérez Marcos; Henrik Ehrsson; Maria V. Sanchez-Vives

    2009-01-01

    We discuss three experiments that investigate how virtual limbs and bodies can come to feel like real limbs and bodies. The first experiment shows that an illusion of ownership of a virtual arm appearing to project out of a person’s shoulder can be produced by tactile stimulation on a person’s hidden real hand and synchronous stimulation on the seen virtual hand. The second shows that the illusion can be produced by synchronous movement of the person’s hidden real hand and a...

  3. Swiss legislation on dog ownership

    CERN Multimedia

    DSU Department

    2008-01-01

    The Swiss Permanent Mission in Geneva has requested CERN to inform the members of its personnel that a notice relating to Swiss legislation on dog ownership has been published on-line at the following address: http://www.eda.admin.ch/eda/en/home/topics/intorg/un/unge/gepri/pet.html This legislation is applicable to all international civil servants who own a dog. Relations with the Host States Service mailto:relations.secretariat@cern.ch http://www.cern.ch/relations/

  4. Complex ownership and capital structure

    OpenAIRE

    Paligorova, Teodora; Xu, Zhaoxia

    2009-01-01

    This paper investigates the impact of pyramid ownership structure and multiple controlling shareholders on firm leverage. Pyramids, having at least one controlling shareholder and a subsidiary, rely significantly more on debt financing than non-pyramid firms. Moreover, higher leverage is observed in pyramids where the second controlling shareholders have more voting rights. We also find that the disparity between the voting rights of the first two controlling shareholders is negatively relate...

  5. Protection by Face Masks against H1N1 Virus on Trans-Pacific Passenger Aircraft, 2009

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-07-10

    Dr. Mike Miller reads an abridged version of the Emerging Infectious Diseases’ article, Protection by Face Masks against H1N1 Virus on Trans-Pacific Passenger Aircraft, 2009.  Created: 7/10/2013 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 7/11/2013.

  6. A Method for Eletric Vehicle Ownership Forecast Considering Different Economic Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanwu Luo

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The construction of electric vehicles (EVs charging station needs to be planed according to the ownership of EVs, traffic condition, population etc. Therefore a BP neural network based method to forecast the EV ownership for a city is presented in the paper, which considers the influence on the EV ownership caused by many related economy factors, including GDP of a city, vehicle production, per capita crude steel production, per capita generation capacity, road passenger traffic, highway mileage and the total population.  A BP neural network is set up for the forecast of EV ownership, and the input layer contains seven neutrons, which represent different economic factors. There are three neurons in its hidden layer, and the output is the EV ownership.  Then the method to predict the EV ownership of a city is presented, which is based on the forecast of the civilian car ownership in a city and the country. The EV ownership in the city of Chongqing from the year 2013 to 2020 is predicted, and the accuracy of the model is verified firstly, then the EV ownership in Chongqing is obtained, which is helpful to make plans for the development of electric vehicle.

  7. Variable Geometry Aircraft Wing Supported by Struts And/Or Trusses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melton, John E. (Inventor); Dudley, Michael R. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    The present invention provides an aircraft having variable airframe geometry for accommodating efficient flight. The aircraft includes an elongated fuselage, an oblique wing pivotally connected with said fuselage, a wing pivoting mechanism connected with said oblique wing and said fuselage, and a brace operably connected between said oblique wing and said fuselage. The present invention also provides an aircraft having an elongated fuselage, an oblique wing pivotally connected with said fuselage, a wing pivoting mechanism connected with said oblique wing and said fuselage, a propulsion system pivotally connected with said oblique wing, and a brace operably connected between said propulsion system and said fuselage.

  8. Inclusion or Exclusion? Local Ownership and Security Sector Reform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy Donais

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the dynamics of security sector reform (SSR, a term used to refer to efforts made to reform the security structures of states emerging from conflict or authoritarianism. While "local ownership" is increasingly viewed as a necessary element of any sustainable SSR strategy, there remains a significant gap between international policy and practice in this area. In practice, the SSR agenda continues to be driven largely by international actors, with minimal input, let alone ownership, on the part of either governments or civil society within reforming states. Indeed, the notion of local ownership has come to serve as much as a disciplining mechanism as a tool to overcome exclusion in the making and execution of security policy, and the effectiveness and sustainability of SSR programming have suffered as a result. In light of this, the paper will explore both the potential for, and the limits of, rehabilitating the notion of local ownership to enable more participatory forms of SSR, and argues that any practical local ownership strategy requires a dual policy of negotiating with state actors and engaging with non-state actors.

  9. 41 CFR 102-33.275 - Are there restrictions on replacing aircraft by exchange or sale?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...). In your letter of request to GSA, you must include the full details of your situation and the... request and justify a waiver from GSA, Aircraft Management Policy Division (MTA), 1800 F Street,...

  10. Winter temperature, salinity, oxygen, nutrients and isotopes data sampled by aircraft, April 2003 (NODC Accession 0059129)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Winter sampling was performed in the eastern area of the Shelf-Basin Interactions Project using aircraft. Flights began on 1 April 2003 and finished on 15 April....

  11. 31 CFR 500.585 - Payments for services rendered by North Korea to United States aircraft authorized.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Payments for services rendered by North Korea to United States aircraft authorized. 500.585 Section 500.585 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL...

  12. Nuisance Caused by Aircraft Noise in the Vicinity of Tehran International Airport

    OpenAIRE

    Stan Frost; Khodabakhsh Karami

    1999-01-01

    Noise measurement and social questionnaire surveys in three residential areas around Mehrabad International Airport (Tehran, Iran) were based upon randomly selected dwellings in each area. A total of 193 individuals responded and many are annoyed and dissatisfied with aircraft noise and in consequence they would like to move. Aircraft noise is the strongest negative environmental factor affecting the residents in the vicinity of Mehrabad Airport and it could be a hazard for their health.

  13. Nuisance Caused by Aircraft Noise in the Vicinity of Tehran International Airport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stan Frost

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available Noise measurement and social questionnaire surveys in three residential areas around Mehrabad International Airport (Tehran, Iran were based upon randomly selected dwellings in each area. A total of 193 individuals responded and many are annoyed and dissatisfied with aircraft noise and in consequence they would like to move. Aircraft noise is the strongest negative environmental factor affecting the residents in the vicinity of Mehrabad Airport and it could be a hazard for their health.

  14. Development and testing of advanced redundancy management methods for the F-8 DFBW aircraft. [failure detection for Digital Fly By Wire systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deyst, J.; Deckert, J.; Desai, M.; Willsky, A.

    1977-01-01

    A reliable aircraft sensor failure detection and identification (FDI) technique is presented. The technique exploits the kinematic and dynamic relationships that exist between variables measured by dissimilar sensors to identify failures in the sensors. The method is applied to management of dual redundant sensors on the NASA F-8 digital fly-by-wire (DFBW) research aircraft.

  15. Performance assessment of Portuguese wind farms: Ownership and managerial efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper analyzes ownership and unobserved managerial ability as factors affecting the performance of a representative sample of Portuguese wind farms by means of frontier models. These farms are ranked according to their technical efficiency during the period 2004-2008 and homogenous and heterogeneous variables are disentangled in the cost function, which leads us to advise the implementation of common policies as well as policies by segments. Economic implications arising from the study are also considered. - Research highlights: → Wind farms are heterogeneous displaying distinct ownership and managerial characteristics that affect efficiency. → Managerial practices has a positive impact on the efficiency. → Ownership has a positive impact on the efficiency. Large wind farms are more efficient.

  16. Institutional Environment, Blockholder Characteristics and Ownership Concentration in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xingqiang Du; Zongfeng Xiu

    2009-01-01

    Using a sample of China’s A-share listed companies for the period 2001-2004,this paper investigates the influence of institutional environment variables,including the process of marketization,level of local government intervention,and local legal environment,on blockholder characteristics and ownership concentration,and the relation between the endogeneity of ownership structure and institutional environment.Our results indicate that the effects of these variables on ownership concentration are(1)positive for listed companies controlled by state asset management bureaus affiliated with local governments,(2)negative for listed companies controlled by state-owned enterprises affiliated with local governments and(3)unclear for listed private companies.These variables also positively affect the degree of privatization of listed companies in China.

  17. A high precision instrument to measure angular and binocular deviation introduced by aircraft windscreens by using a shadow casting technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objects viewed through transparent sheets with residual non-parallelism and irregularity appear shifted and distorted. This distortion is measured in terms of angular and binocular deviation of an object viewed through the transparent sheet. The angular and binocular deviations introduced are particularly important in the context of aircraft windscreens and canopies as they can interfere with decision making of pilots especially while landing, leading to accidents. In this work, we have developed an instrument to measure both the angular and binocular deviations introduced by transparent sheets. This instrument is especially useful in the qualification of aircraft windscreens and canopies. It measures the deviation in the geometrical shadow cast by a periodic dot pattern trans-illuminated by the distorted light beam from the transparent test specimen compared to the reference pattern. Accurate quantification of the shift in the pattern is obtained by cross-correlating the reference shadow pattern with the specimen shadow pattern and measuring the location of the correlation peak. The developed instrument is handy to use and computes both angular and binocular deviation with an accuracy of less than ±0.1 mrad (≈0.036 mrad) and has an excellent repeatability with an error of less than 2%.

  18. 14 CFR 141.39 - Aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Aircraft. 141.39 Section 141.39 Aeronautics... CERTIFICATED AGENCIES PILOT SCHOOLS Personnel, Aircraft, and Facilities Requirements § 141.39 Aircraft. (a... certificate or provisional pilot school certificate must show that each aircraft used by the school for...

  19. Using Fly-By-Wire Technology in Future Models of the UH-60 and Other Rotary Wing Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solem, Courtney K.

    2011-01-01

    Several fixed-winged airplanes have successfully used fly-by-wire (FBW) technology for the last 40 years. This technology is now beginning to be incorporated into rotary wing aircraft. By using FBW technology, manufacturers are expecting to improve upon the weight, maintenance time and costs, handling and reliability of the aircraft. Before mass production of this new system begins in new models such as the UH-60MU, testing must be conducted to insure the safety of this technology as well as to reassure others it will be worth the time and money to make such a dramatic change to a perfectly functional machine. The RASCAL JUH-60A has been modified for these purposes. This Black Hawk helicopter has already been equipped with the FBW technology and can be configured as a near perfect representation of the UH-60MU. Because both machines have very similar qualities, the data collected from the RASCAL can be used to make future decisions about the UH-60MU. The U.S. Army AFDD Flight Project Office oversees all the design modifications for every hardware system used in the RASCAL aircraft. This project deals with specific designs and analyses of unique RASCAL aircraft subsystems and their modifications to conduct flight mechanics research.

  20. Parcels and Land Ownership, Parcels and Ownership, Published in 2009, Norton County Appraisal Office.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset, was produced all or in part from Hardcopy Maps information as of 2009. It is described as 'Parcels and Ownership'. This...

  1. Aircraft Carriers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nødskov, Kim; Kværnø, Ole

    the majority of its foreign trade, as well as its oil imports, upon which the country is totally dependent. China therefore has good reasons for acquiring an aircraft carrier to enable it to protect its national interests. An aircraft carrier would also be a prominent symbol of China’s future status...... information is pieced together, then a picture is created of a Chinese aircraft carrier program, where Varyag will be made operational for training purposes. With this as the model, China will build a similar sized carrier themselves. If this project does become a reality, then it will take many years for...... Kuznetsov carrier. The SU-33 is, in its modernized version, technologically at the same level as western combat aircraft in both the offensive as well as the defensive roles. But Russia and China currently have an arms trade 6 dispute that is likely to prevent a deal, unless the dispute is resolved. As an...

  2. Home Ownership, Job Duration, and Wages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munch, Jakob Roland; Rosholm, Michael; Svarer, Michael

    We investigate the impact of home ownership on individual job mobility and wages in Denmark. We find that home ownership has a negative impact on job-to-job mobilityboth in terms of transition into new local jobs and new jobs outside the local labourmarket. In addition, there is a clear negative...... effect of home ownership on the unemployment risk and a positive impact on wages. These results are robust to differentstrategies for correcting for the possible endogeneity of the home owner variable....

  3. New evidence on ownership structures in Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Köke, Jens

    1999-01-01

    Ownership structures are an important element of the theory explaining corporate governance. This study presents detailed descriptive evidence on the ownership structures of German manufacturing firms. It addresses several shortcomings of the previous German empirical literature: First, we study all legal forms of a Kapitalgesellschaft, firms that generally have a separation of ownership and control. We do not focus exclusively on the listed Aktiengesellschaft (AG) but include many non-listed...

  4. Corporate ownership structure and performance in Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Grant, Jeremy; Kirchmaier, Thomas

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, we show that ownership structures vary considerably across Europe, and that the dominant form of ownership is not necessarily the most efficient one. These findings are in contradiction to similar research based on US samples. The results also demonstrate that firms without a dominant shareholder tend to outperform their country peer groups. We base our analysis on a new and unique dataset of uniform ownership data of the largest 100 firms in the five major European economies. ...

  5. The Equity Ownership Structure of Thai Firms

    OpenAIRE

    Wiwattanakantang, Yupana

    2001-01-01

    This paper examines the ownership structure of listed Thai firms in 1996. The ownership structure is concentrated. In 82.59 percent of the firms in the sample, the largest shareholders are also controlling shareholders. The controlling shareholders are mainly families. Foreign investors form the second largest group of controlling shareholders. More of the controlling shareholders use a simple ownership pattern to control the firms. Only in 21.27 percent of the firms, the controlling sharehol...

  6. Solar thermal aircraft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennett, Charles L. (Livermore, CA)

    2007-09-18

    A solar thermal powered aircraft powered by heat energy from the sun. A heat engine, such as a Stirling engine, is carried by the aircraft body for producing power for a propulsion mechanism, such as a propeller. The heat engine has a thermal battery in thermal contact with it so that heat is supplied from the thermal battery. A solar concentrator, such as reflective parabolic trough, is movably connected to an optically transparent section of the aircraft body for receiving and concentrating solar energy from within the aircraft. Concentrated solar energy is collected by a heat collection and transport conduit, and heat transported to the thermal battery. A solar tracker includes a heliostat for determining optimal alignment with the sun, and a drive motor actuating the solar concentrator into optimal alignment with the sun based on a determination by the heliostat.

  7. The stable isotopic composition of molecular hydrogen in the tropopause region probed by the CARIBIC aircraft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Batenburg

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available More than 450 air samples that were collected in the upper troposphere – lower stratosphere (UTLS region by the CARIBIC aircraft (Civil Aircraft for the Regular Investigation of the atmosphere Based on an Instrument Container have been analyzed for molecular hydrogen (H2 mixing ratios (χ(H2 and H2 isotopic composition (deuterium content, δD.

    More than 120 of the analyzed samples contained air from the lowermost stratosphere (LMS. These show that χ(H2 does not vary appreciably with O3-derived height above the thermal tropopause (TP, whereas δD does increase with height. The isotope enrichment is caused by H2 production and destruction processes that enrich the stratospheric H2 reservoir in deuterium (D; the exact shapes of the profiles are mainly determined by mixing of stratospheric with tropospheric air. Tight negative correlations are found between δD and the mixing ratios of methane (χ(CH4 and nitrous oxide (χ(N2O, as a result of the relatively long lifetimes of these three species. The correlations are described by δD[‰]=−0.35 · χ(CH4[ppb]+768 and δD[‰]=−1.90· χ(N2O[ppb]+745. These correlations are similar to previously published results and likely hold globally for the LMS.

    Samples that were collected from the Indian subcontinent up to 40° N before, during and after the summer monsoon season show no significant seasonal change in χ(H2, but δD is up to 12.3‰ lower in the July, August and September monsoon samples. This δD decrease is correlated with the χ(CH4 increase in these samples. The significant correlation with χ(CH4 and the absence of a perceptible χ(H2 increase that accompanies the δD decrease indicates that microbial production of

  8. The stable isotopic composition of molecular hydrogen in the tropopause region probed by the CARIBIC aircraft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Batenburg

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available More than 450 air samples that were collected in the upper troposphere – lower stratosphere (UTLS region around the tropopause (TP by the CARIBIC aircraft (Civil Aircraft for the Regular Investigation of the Atmosphere Based on an Instrument Container have been analyzed for molecular hydrogen (H2 mixing ratios (m(H2 and H2 isotopic composition (deuterium content, δD.

    More than 120 of the analysed samples consisted of air from the lowermost stratosphere (LMS. These show that m(H2 does not vary appreciably with O3-derived height above the thermal TP, whereas δD does increase with height. The isotope enrichment is caused by competing H2 production and destruction processes that enrich the stratospheric H2 reservoir in deuterium (D; the exact shapes of the profiles are mainly determined by mixing of stratospheric with tropospheric air. Tight negative correlations are found between δD and the mixing ratios of methane (CH4 and nitrous oxide (N2O, as a result of the relatively long lifetimes of these three species. The correlations are described by δ D [‰]=-0.35 · m(CH4[ppb]+768 and δD [‰]=-1.90 · m(N2O[ppb]+745. These correlations are similar to previously published results and likely hold globally.

    Samples that were collected from the Indian subcontinent up to 40° N before, during and after the summer monsoon season show no significant seasonal change in m(H2, but δD is up to 15‰ lower in the July, August and September monsoon samples. This δD lowering is correlated with m(CH4 increase. The significant correlation with m(CH4 and the absence of a perceptible m(H2 increase that accompanies the δD lowering indicates that microbial production

  9. Self-ownership and world-ownership: an egalitarian-independent argument for left-libertarianism

    OpenAIRE

    Ossenblok, Kasper

    2011-01-01

    This dissertation is a contribution to the contemporary left-libertarian debate. Instead of arguing for left-libertarianism in a traditional way, which would mean combining the intuitively attractive ideas of self-ownership and some kind of egalitarian distribution, I primarily focus on the concept of Nozickean self-ownership as an independent moral value. Contrary to what is commonly believed, I argue that a theory of ownership rights over worldly resources can be derived from self-ownership...

  10. Optimal Sizing of a Photovoltaic-Hydrogen Power System for HALE Aircraft by means of Particle Swarm Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor M. Sanchez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the last decade there has been a growing interest in the research of feasibility to use high altitude long endurance (HALE aircrafts in order to provide mobile communications. The use of HALEs for telecommunication networks has the potential to deliver a wide range of communication services (from high-quality voice to high-definition videos, as well as high-data-rate wireless channels cost effectively. One of the main challenges of this technology is to design its power supply system, which must provide the enough energy for long time flights in a reliable way. In this paper a photovoltaic/hydrogen system is proposed as power system for a HALE aircraft due its high power density characteristic. In order to obtain the optimal sizing for photovoltaic/hydrogen system a particle swarm optimizer (PSO is used. As a case study, theoretical design of the photovoltaic/hydrogen power system for three different HALE aircrafts located at 18° latitude is presented. At this latitude, the range of solar radiation intensity was from 310 to 450 Wh/sq·m/day. The results obtained show that the photovoltaic/hydrogen systems calculated by PSO can operate during one year with efficacies ranging between 45.82% and 47.81%. The obtained sizing result ensures that the photovoltaic/hydrogen system supplies adequate energy for HALE aircrafts.

  11. Treatment of multiple fractures in a patient wounded by aircraft bombing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golubović Zoran

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Aircraft cluster bombs can cause severe fractures characterized by extensive destruction of affected tissues and organs. Case Outline We present the methods and results of treatment of multiple fractures (left supracondilar humeral fracture, comminuted fracture of the distal right tibia, fracture of right trochanter major without dislocation and fracture of the right second metacarpal bone in a 24-year old soldier after multiple wounding by a cluster bomb. After short pre-operative preparation a surgical debridement of all wounds was done in general anesthesia and the fractures of the humerus and tibia were stabilized with the Mitkovic-type external fixator after adequate reposition. For the reconstruction of bone defect of the tibia we used the method of bone transport using the Ilizarov external fixator. Conclusion Radical wound debridement, abundant rinsing, leaving the wound open, administration of antibiotics and antitetanus immunization, external fixation and early reconstruction of soft tissue and bone defects are the basic elements of the treatment of serious fractures caused by war injuries and aimed at saving the extremities. .

  12. Revisiting the Gun Ownership and Violence Link; a multi- level analysis of victimisation survey data.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Kesteren, J.N.

    2014-01-01

    The link between gun ownership victimisation by violent crime remains one of the most contested issues in criminology. Some authors claim that high gun availability facilitates serious violence. Others claim that gun ownership prevents crime. This article revisits these issues using individual and a

  13. A PANEL-DATA SWITCHING REGRESSION-MODEL OF MOBILITY AND CAR OWNERSHIP

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MEURS, H

    1993-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to present a panel data model of car ownership and mobility. Unobserved heterogeneity is controlled for by including correlated random effects in the equations describing car ownership and mobility. A mass-points approach is adopted to control for unobserved heterogene

  14. 13 CFR 127.201 - What are the requirements for ownership of an EDWOSB and WOSB?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... interest. (e) Ownership of a limited liability company. In the case of a concern that is a limited liability company, at least 51 percent of each class of member interest must be unconditionally owned by one... entity or a trust (including employee stock ownership trusts) that is, in turn, owned and controlled...

  15. A dynamic random effects multinomial logit model of household car ownership

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bue Bjørner, Thomas; Leth-Petersen, Søren

    2007-01-01

    Using a large household panel we estimate demand for car ownership by means of a dynamic multinomial model with correlated random effects. Results suggest that the persistence in car ownership observed in the data should be attributed to both true state dependence and to unobserved heterogeneity ...

  16. Annoyance and acceptability judgements of noise produced by three types of aircraft by residents living near JFK Airport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borsky, P. N.

    1974-01-01

    A random sample of selected communities near JFK Airport were interviewed. Subsamples, with differing feelings of fear of aircraft crashes and different locations of residence were invited to participate in a laboratory experiment. The subjects were exposed to tape recordings of simulated flyovers of aircraft in approach and departure operations at nominal distances from the airport. The subjects judged the extent of noise annoyance and acceptability of the aircraft noises. Results indicate that level of noise is most significant in affecting annoyance judgements. Subjects with feelings of high fear report significantly more annoyance and less acceptability of aircraft noise than subjects with feelings of low fear.

  17. Managerial ownership and corporate performance in Slovenian post-privatisation period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marko Simoneti

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The Slovenian post-privatisation period has been characterised by a decline in the ownership by non-managerial owners (employees and state-controlled funds. On the other hand, domestic and foreign non-financial firms, Privatisation Investment Funds and managers have been increasing their holdings. The latter, namely the growing managerial ownership, is likely to feature in future ownership dynamics in Slovenia. In fact, in 2002 the desired (optimal ownership stakes estimated by Slovenian managers were 10.8 percentage points higher than their actual stakes. The aim of our paper is to describe the main trends in the ownership of Slovenian corporations in the post-privatisation period and to provide an answer to the basic economic question: what is the influence of the ongoing consolidation of managerial ownership on the performance of Slovenian firms. The empirical analysis testing this relationship is based on a panel of 182 Slovenian firms in the 1995-99 period and does not provide relevant evidence of any positive effects of the increasing managerial control on Slovenian firms’ performance. If any, a positive incentive effect is only observed in those firms whose managers’ holdings exceed 10-percent, only with regards to firms’ financial performance (but not total factor productivity and only in firms that are not listed on the capital market. Further, the negative effect of the current gap between the desired and actual managerial ownership seems to exceed any positive incentive effect arising out of managerial ownership

  18. Aircraft Data Acquisition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena BALMUS

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The introduction of digital systems instead of analog ones has created a major separation in the aviation technology. Although the digital equipment made possible that the increasingly faster controllers take over, we should say that the real world remains essentially analogue [4]. Fly-by-wire designers attempting to control and measure the real feedback of an aircraft were forced to find a way to connect the analogue environment to their digital equipment. In order to manage the implications of this division in aviation, data optimization and comparison has been quite an important task. The interest in using data acquisition boards is being driven by the technology and design standards in the new generation of aircraft and the ongoing efforts of reducing weight and, in some cases addressing the safety risks. This paper presents a sum of technical report data from post processing and diversification of data acquisition from Arinc 429 interface on a research aircraft platform. Arinc 429 is by far the most common data bus in use on civil transport aircraft, regional jets and executive business jets today. Since its introduction on the Boeing 757/767 and Airbus aircraft in the early 1980s hardly any aircraft has been produced without the use of this data bus. It was used widely by the air transport indu

  19. Parcels and Land Ownership, Monroe County Parcels- Created by UGA (ITOS) and maintained by the MGRC., Published in 2010, 1:4800 (1in=400ft) scale, Middle Georgia RC.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset, published at 1:4800 (1in=400ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2010. It is described as...

  20. Parcels and Land Ownership, This data layer was created by Flagship GIS, Inc. and is updated and maintained by them, Published in 2004, 1:12000 (1in=1000ft) scale, Twiggs County Board Of Commissioners.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset, published at 1:12000 (1in=1000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2004. It is described as...

  1. Aircraft systems design methodology and dispatch reliability prediction

    OpenAIRE

    Bineid, Mansour

    2005-01-01

    Aircraft despatch reliability was the main subject of this research in the wider content of aircraft reliability. The factors effecting dispatch reliability, aircraft delay, causes of aircraft delays, and aircraft delay costs and magnitudes were examined. Delay cost elements and aircraft delay scenarios were also studied. It concluded that aircraft dispatch reliability is affected by technical and non-technical factors, and that the former are under the designer's control. It showed that ...

  2. Effect of electromagnetic interference by neonatal transport equipment on aircraft operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nish, W A; Walsh, W F; Land, P; Swedenburg, M

    1989-06-01

    The number of civilian air ambulance services operating in the United States has been steadily increasing. The quantity and sophistication of electronic equipment used during neonatal transport have also increased. All medical equipment generates some electromagnetic interference (EMI). Excessive EMI can interfere with any of an aircraft's electrical systems, including navigation and communications. The United States military has strict standards for maximum EMI in transport equipment. Over the past 15 years, approximately 70% of neonatal transport monitors, ventilators, and incubators have failed testing due to excessive EMI. As neonatal transport equipment becomes more sophisticated, EMI is increased, and there is greater potential for aircraft malfunction. The Federal Aviation Administration should develop civilian standards for acceptable EMI, civilian aircraft operators must be aware of the possible dangers of excessive EMI, and equipment which does not meet future FAA standards should not be purchased. PMID:2751593

  3. Flux measurements by the NRC Twin Otter atmospheric research aircraft: 1987-2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desjardins, Raymond L.; Worth, Devon E.; MacPherson, J. Ian; Bastian, Matthew; Srinivasan, Ramesh

    2016-03-01

    Over the past 30 years, the Canadian Twin Otter research group has operated an aircraft platform for the study of atmospheric greenhouse gas fluxes (carbon dioxide, ozone, nitrous oxide and methane) and energy exchange (latent and sensible heat) over a wide range of terrestrial ecosystems in North America. Some of the acquired data from these projects have now been archived at the Flight Research Laboratory and Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada. The dataset, which contains the measurements obtained in eight projects from 1987 to 2011 are now publicly available. All these projects were carried out in order to improve our understanding of the biophysical controls acting on land-surface atmosphere fluxes. Some of the projects also attempted to quantify the impacts of agroecosystems on the environment. To provide information on the data available, we briefly describe each project and some of the key findings by referring to previously published relevant work. As new flux analysis techniques are being developed, we are confident that much additional information can be extracted from this unique data set.

  4. Greenhouse effects of aircraft emissions as calculated by a radiative transfer model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. P. F. Fortuin

    Full Text Available With a radiative transfer model, assessments are made of the radiative forcing in northern mid-latitudes due to aircraft emissions up to 1990. Considered are the direct climate effects from the major combustion products carbon dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, water vapor and sulphur dioxide, as well as the indirect effect of ozone production from NOx emissions. Our study indicates a local radiative forcing at the tropopause which should be negative in summer (–0.5 to 0.0 W/m2 and either negative or positive in winter (–0.3 to 0.2 W/m2. To these values the indirect effect of contrails has to be added, which for the North Atlantic Flight Corridor covers the range –0.2 to 0.3 W/m2 in summer and 0.0 to 0.3 W/m2 in winter. Apart from optically dense non-aged contrails during summer, negative forcings are due to solar screening by sulphate aerosols. The major positive contributions come from contrails, stratospheric water vapor in winter and ozone in summer. The direct effect of NO2 is negligible and the contribution of CO2 is relatively small.

  5. Aircraft Electric Propulsion Systems Applied Research at NASA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Sean

    2015-01-01

    Researchers at NASA are investigating the potential for electric propulsion systems to revolutionize the design of aircraft from the small-scale general aviation sector to commuter and transport-class vehicles. Electric propulsion provides new degrees of design freedom that may enable opportunities for tightly coupled design and optimization of the propulsion system with the aircraft structure and control systems. This could lead to extraordinary reductions in ownership and operating costs, greenhouse gas emissions, and noise annoyance levels. We are building testbeds, high-fidelity aircraft simulations, and the first highly distributed electric inhabited flight test vehicle to begin to explore these opportunities.

  6. The Relationship between Ownership Structure Dimensions and Corporate Performance: Evidence from Bahrain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reem Khamis

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study we examine the relation between ownership structure and corporate performance; the sample of the study included 42 out of 48 companies of all sectors in Bahrain Bourse in five years from 2007-2011. Several dimensions of ownership concentration were studied in addition to managerial and institutional ownership. Two different measurements of performance were used (ROA and Tobin’s Q. The study investigated this relation using several control variables and 2SLS statistical method to overcome the problem of endogeneity that may exist between the study variables. It was found that ownership concentration have a negative effect with statistical significance on company performance. Institutional ownership was found to have a positive effect on company performance. Managerial ownership was not found to have a significant effect on company performance, however it was found that managerial ownership has a positive effect on performance only in the case of declining ownership concentration. Other results were revealed by the study regarding company age, size, growth, board size and liquidity. The study is considered to have theoretical and practical implications. It contributes to the debate about agency theory and managerial entrenchment. It also may help officials in Bahrain in making laws and legislations concerning corporate governance improvement in Bahraini market. This

  7. The Effects of Ownership Structure on Corporate Environmental Responsibility Disclosure among Public-Listed Companies in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Rashdan Sallehuddin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Currently, there is a growth in demands by stakeholders for companies to demonstrate greater transparency on environmental disclosure. The findings revealed from research conducted on corporate accounting indicated that the relationship of the environmental factors influences the disclosures practices. This paper examines the effect of ownership structure characteristics namely managerial ownership, ownership concentration, government ownership and foreign ownership on the extent of Corporate Environmental Responsibility (CER disclosure in the annual reports among public-listed companies (PLCs in Malaysia. For the purpose of this study, 254 company annual reports for the year 2010 were analyzed. The multiple regressions analysis is utilized in this study in order to achieve the research objectives. The conduct of testing is controlled by company size and industry profile. The findings show that ownership concentration and government ownership influenced the level of CER disclosure. Moreover, the company size as control variable has positive significant impact on the CER disclosure.Nevertheless, the managerial ownership and foreign ownership do not appear to have a significant impact on the extent of CER disclosure. The research shows that the level of CER disclosure is different across sectors and is relatively low. Finally, this study can clearly integrate the relationship between ownership structure mechanisms and CER disclosure and it can assist the relevant authorities in Malaysia to look further the policies on environmental disclosure among public-listed companies in Malaysia.

  8. Foreign Ownership Wage Premia in Emerging Economies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Tor Viking; Pytlikova, Mariola

    In this paper we look the relationship between wages, labour productivity and ownership using a linked employer-employee dataset covering a large fraction of the Czech labor market during years 2005 and 2006. We distinguish different origins of ownership and study wage and productivity differences...

  9. Foreign Ownership Wage Premia in Emerging Economies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Tor; Pytlikova, Mariola

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we examine the relationship between wages, labour productivity and ownership using a linked employer-employee dataset covering a large fraction of the Czech labour market in 2006. We distinguish between different origins of ownership and study wage and productivity differences. The...

  10. Foreign Ownership Wage Premia in Emerging Economies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Tor Viking; Pytlikova, Mariola

    In this paper we examine the relationship between wages, labour productivity and ownership using a linked employer-employee dataset covering a large fraction of the Czech labour market in 2006. We distinguish between different origins of ownership and study wage and productivity differences. The...

  11. 47 CFR 73.855 - Ownership limits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ownership limits. 73.855 Section 73.855 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Low Power FM Broadcast Stations (LPFM) § 73.855 Ownership limits. (a) No authorization for an...

  12. Home Ownership, Job Duration, and Wages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munch, Jakob Roland; Rosholm, Michael; Svarer, Michael

    We investigate the impact of home ownership on individual job mobility and wages in Denmark. We find that home ownership has a negative impact on job-to-job mobility both in terms of transition into new local jobs and new jobs outside the local labour market. In addition, there is a clear negative...

  13. Home ownership, job duration, and wages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munch, Jakob Roland; Rosholm, Michael; Svarer, Michael

    2008-01-01

    We investigate the impact of home ownership on individual job mobility and wages in Denmark. We find that home ownership has a negative impact on job-to-job mobility both in terms of transition into new local jobs and new jobs outside the local labor market. In addition, there is a clear negative...

  14. Modal analysis by holographic interferometry of a turbine blade for aircraft engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caponero, Michele A.; De Angelis, Alberto; Filetti, V. R.; Gammella, S.

    1994-11-01

    Within the planning stage devoted to realize an innovative turbine for an aircraft engine, an experimental prototype has been made. Several measurements have been carried out to experimentally verify the expected structural and dynamic features of such a prototype. Expected properties were worked out by finite elements method, using the well-known Nastran software package. Natural frequencies and vibration modes of the designed prototype were computed assuming the turbine being in both `dynamic condition' (rotating turbine at running speed and temperature), and in `static condition' (still turbine at room temperature). We present the experimental modal analysis carried out by time average holographic interferometry, being the prototype in `static condition;' results show the modal behavior of the prototype. Experimental and computed modal features are compared to evaluate the reliability of the finite elements model of the turbine used for computation by the Nastran package; reliability of the finite elements model must be checked to validate results computed assuming the turbine blade is in hostile environments, such as `dynamic condition,' which could hardly be tested by experimental measurements. A piezoelectric transducer was used to excite the turbine blade by sine variable pressure. To better estimate the natural vibration modes, two holographic interferograms have been made for each identified natural frequency, being the sensitivity vector directions of the two interferograms perpendicular to each other. The first ten lower natural frequencies and vibration modes of the blade have been analyzed; experimental and computed results are compared and discussed. Experimental and computed values of natural frequencies are in good agrement between each other. Several differences are present between experimental and computed modal patterns; a possible cause of such discrepancies is identified in wrong structural constraints imposed at nodes of the finite elements

  15. Effects of Internationalization on Ownership Structure: Evidence from Latin American Firms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsia Hua Sheng

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available We analyze the direct and simultaneous effects of internationalization on the ownership structure of Latin American companies based on agency theory. Using a sample of 425 Latin American firms between 2007 and 2011, which corresponds to 1,776 observations, we use random effects and three-stage least squares panel data regression to test these effects. We find that the hypothesized positive effect of internationalization on ownership concentration is rejected. Our results support the negative relationship that is predicted by principal-agent theory when analyzing the effect of ownership on the degree of internationalization. Greater internationalization via the equity entry mode is associated with lower levels of ownership concentration. Finally, there is simultaneity in the determination of the relationship between the degree of internationalization and ownership concentration.

  16. Genetic and nonshared environmental factors predict handgun ownership in early adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, J C; Boutwell, Brian B; Beaver, Kevin M

    2014-01-01

    Handgun ownership has been the focus of much criminological research due to the over involvement of handguns in violent crime. This literature has, however, overlooked the potential role genetic factors play in the decision to purchase a handgun. The current study analyzed the genetic and environmental influences on handgun ownership among a large sample of young adult twins from the United States. Analyses revealed a stronger concordance for gun ownership among identical twins as compared to fraternal twins and univariate ACE model results indicated genetic (57%) and nonshared environmental (43%) factors explained the variance in handgun ownership. A mediation analysis was performed and the results indicated a portion of the genetic influence on handgun ownership may be mediated by victimization experiences. PMID:24524543

  17. GeoTrack: bio-inspired global video tracking by networks of unmanned aircraft systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barooah, Prabir; Collins, Gaemus E.; Hespanha, João P.

    2009-05-01

    Research from the Institute for Collaborative Biotechnologies (ICB) at the University of California at Santa Barbara (UCSB) has identified swarming algorithms used by flocks of birds and schools of fish that enable these animals to move in tight formation and cooperatively track prey with minimal estimation errors, while relying solely on local communication between the animals. This paper describes ongoing work by UCSB, the University of Florida (UF), and the Toyon Research Corporation on the utilization of these algorithms to dramatically improve the capabilities of small unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) to cooperatively locate and track ground targets. Our goal is to construct an electronic system, called GeoTrack, through which a network of hand-launched UAS use dedicated on-board processors to perform multi-sensor data fusion. The nominal sensors employed by the system will EO/IR video cameras on the UAS. When GMTI or other wide-area sensors are available, as in a layered sensing architecture, data from the standoff sensors will also be fused into the GeoTrack system. The output of the system will be position and orientation information on stationary or mobile targets in a global geo-stationary coordinate system. The design of the GeoTrack system requires significant advances beyond the current state-of-the-art in distributed control for a swarm of UAS to accomplish autonomous coordinated tracking; target geo-location using distributed sensor fusion by a network of UAS, communicating over an unreliable channel; and unsupervised real-time image-plane video tracking in low-powered computing platforms.

  18. Parcels and Land Ownership - Volusia County Parcels (Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — Parcel Ownership Polygon Layer: Polygons showing property ownership created from the "master" subdivision base map for Volusia County. Multiple lots and parcels...

  19. UAS in the NAS: Survey Responses by ATC, Manned Aircraft Pilots, and UAS Pilots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comstock, James R., Jr.; McAdaragh, Raymon; Ghatas, Rania W.; Burdette, Daniel W.; Trujillo, Anna C.

    2014-01-01

    NASA currently is working with industry and the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) to establish future requirements for Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) flying in the National Airspace System (NAS). To work these issues NASA has established a multi-center "UAS Integration in the NAS" project. In order to establish Ground Control Station requirements for UAS, the perspective of each of the major players in NAS operations was desired. Three on-line surveys were administered that focused on Air Traffic Controllers (ATC), pilots of manned aircraft, and pilots of UAS. Follow-up telephone interviews were conducted with some survey respondents. The survey questions addressed UAS control, navigation, and communications from the perspective of small and large unmanned aircraft. Questions also addressed issues of UAS equipage, especially with regard to sense and avoid capabilities. From the civilian ATC and military ATC perspectives, of particular interest are how mixed operations (manned / UAS) have worked in the past and the role of aircraft equipage. Knowledge gained from this information is expected to assist the NASA UAS Integration in the NAS project in directing research foci thus assisting the FAA in the development of rules, regulations, and policies related to UAS in the NAS.

  20. Decontamination of radioactive P32 and I131 from aircraft and car surfaces by detergent compositions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheets from aircrafts and cars having the same surfaces were contaminated with solutions of radioactive phosphorus salts and solutions of radioactive iodine salts. Different compositions from synthetic detergents and locally available complexing salts were prepared and their efficiencies in decontaminating the sheets were measured under the same conditions. The most effective compositions were those in which 'Berol Lanco' and 'Nestabon' were used. (orig.)

  1. Gift exchange and the separation of ownership and control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Maximiano; R. Sloof; J. Sonnemans

    2006-01-01

    Numerous gift exchange experiments have found a positive relationship between employers' wage offers and workers' effort levels. In (almost) all these experiments the employer both owns and controls the firm. Yet in reality many firms are characterized by the separation of ownership and control. In

  2. 26 CFR 1.552-3 - Stock ownership requirement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... the ownership thereof, since a corporation comes within the classification if the statutory conditions... corporate stock outstanding at such time (not including treasury stock). This value may be determined upon... which is used is greatly at variance with that reflected by the corporate books, the evidence of...

  3. 47 CFR 76.501 - Cross-ownership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... so certifies. An interest in a Limited Liability Company (“LLC”) or Registered Limited Liability... partnership and the relevant entity so certifies. (2) In the case of a limited partnership, in order for an... of this section, ownership and other interests in an entity or entities covered by this rule will...

  4. Treatment of open tibial shaft fracture with soft tissue and bone defect caused by aircraft bomb: Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golubović Zoran

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Aircraft bombs can cause severe orthopaedic injuries. Tibia shaft fractures caused by aircraft bombs are mostly comminuted and followed by bone defects, which makes the healing process extremely difficult and prone to numerous complications. The goal of this paper is to present the method of treatment and the end results of treatment of a serious open tibial fracture with soft and bone tissue defects resulting from aircraft bomb shrapnel wounds. Case Outline. A 26-year-old patient presented with a tibial fracture as the result of a cluster bomb shrapnel wound. He was treated applying the method of external bone fixation done two days after wounding, as well as of early coverage of the lower leg soft tissue defects done on the tenth day after the external fixation of the fracture. The external fixator was removed after five months, whereas the treatment was continued by means of functional plaster cast for another two months. The final functional result was good. Conclusion. Radical wound debridement, external bone fixation of the fracture, and early reconstruction of any soft tissue and bone defects are the main elements of the treatment of serious fractures.

  5. Alternative windpower ownership structures: Financing terms and project costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiser, R.; Kahn, E.

    1996-05-01

    Most utility-scale renewable energy projects in the United States are developed and financed by private renewable energy companies. Electric output is then sold to investor-owned and public utilities under long-term contracts. Limited partnerships, sale/leaseback arrangements, and project-financing have historically been the dominant forms of finance in the windpower industry, with project-finance taking the lead more recently. Although private ownership using project-finance is still the most popular form of windpower development, alternative approaches to ownership and financing are becoming more prevalent. U.S. public and investor-owned electric utilities (IOUs) have begun to participate directly in windpower projects by owning and financing their own facilities rather than purchasing windpower from independent non-utility generators (NUGs) through power purchase agreements (PPAs). In these utility-ownership arrangements, the wind turbine equipment vendor/developer typically designs and constructs a project under a turnkey contract for the eventual project owner (the utility). The utility will also frequently sign an operations and maintenance (O&M) contract with the project developer/equipment vendor. There appear to be a number of reasons for utility involvement in recent and planned U.S. wind projects. One important claim is that utility ownership and self-finance provides substantial cost savings compared to contracting with private NUGs to supply wind-generated power. In this report, we examine that assertion.

  6. 19 CFR 122.132 - Sealing of aircraft liquor kits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sealing of aircraft liquor kits. 122.132 Section... OF THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Aircraft Liquor Kits § 122.132 Sealing of aircraft liquor kits. (a) Sealing required. Aircraft liquor kits shall be sealed on board the aircraft by...

  7. Characterization of non-methane hydrocarbons in Asian summer monsoon outflow observed by the CARIBIC aircraft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. K. Baker

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Between April and December 2008 the CARIBIC commercial aircraft conducted monthly measurement flights between Frankfurt, Germany and Chennai, India. These flights covered the period of the Asian summer monsoon (June–September, during which enhancements in a number of atmospheric species were observed in monsoon outflow. In addition to in situ measurements of trace gases and aerosols, whole air samples were collected during the flights, and these were subsequently analyzed for a suite of trace gases that included the non-methane hydrocarbons. Non-methane hydrocarbons are relatively short-lived compounds and the large enhancements in their mixing ratios in the upper troposphere over Southwest Asia between June and September, sometimes more than double their spring and fall means, provides qualitative evidence for the influence of convectively uplifted boundary layer air. The particularly large enhancements of the combustion tracers benzene and ethyne, along with the similarity of their ratios to carbon monoxide and emission ratios from the burning of household biofuels, indicate a strong influence of biofuel burning to NMHC emissions in this region. Conversely, the ratios of ethane and propane to carbon monoxide, along with the ratio between i-butane and n-butane, indicate a significant source of these compounds from the use of LPG and natural gas, and comparison to previous campaigns suggests that this source could be increasing. Photochemical aging patterns of NMHCs showed that the CARIBIC samples were collected in two distinctly different regions of the monsoon circulation: a southern region where air masses had been recently influenced by low level contact and a northern region, where air parcels had spent substantial time in transit in the upper troposphere before being probed. Estimates of age using ratios of individual NMHCs have ranges of 3–6 d in the south and 9–12 d in the north.

  8. Aircraft cybernetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-01-01

    The use of computers for aircraft control, flight simulation, and inertial navigation is explored. The man-machine relation problem in aviation is addressed. Simple and self-adapting autopilots are described and the assets and liabilities of digital navigation techniques are assessed.

  9. Insights Into Precipitation Processes As Revealed By Profiling Radar, Disdrometer and Aircraft Observations During The MC3E Campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giangrande, S. E.; Toto, T.; Mishra, S.; Ryzhkov, A.; Bansemer, A.; Kumjian, M.

    2014-12-01

    The Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds Experiment (MC3E) was a collaborative campaign led by the National Aeronautic and Space Administration's (NASA's) Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program. This campaign was held at the DOE ARM Southern Great Plains (SGP) Central Facility (CF) in north-central Oklahoma, with the programs joining forces to deploy an extensive array of airborne, radiosonde and ground-based instrumentation towards an unprecedented set of deep convective environment and cloud property observations. An overarching motivation was to capitalize on the wealth of aircraft observations and new multi-frequency dual-polarization radars to provide insights for improving the treatments of cloud processes in convective models. This study considers a coupled aircraft, radar and surface disdrometer approach for identifying key cloud processes and linking those to possible radar-based microphysical fingerprints and/or cloud properties. Our emphasis is on the MC3E observations collected during aircraft spirals over the column of the ARM CF. We focus on those spirals associated with radar 'bright band' signatures and Doppler spectral anomalies observed within trailing stratifrom precipitation. Two cases are highlighted, one following a weaker convective event, and one following a stronger squall line. For each event, we investigate the usefulness of radar to inform on processes including aggregation and riming as viewed by the vertically-pointing ARM wind profiler (915 MHz) and cloud radar Doppler spectral observations (35 GHz). Matching dual-polarization radar signatures from nearby cm-wavelength radar are also consulted for complementary insights. For one event, the successive Citation II aircraft spirals through the melting layer and associated ground observations indicate a fortunate capture of the transition from a region of riming to one favoring aggregation

  10. Drift and ownership towards a distant virtual body

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ausias ePomes

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In body ownership illusions participants feel that a mannequin or virtual body (VB is their own. Earlier results suggest that body ownership over a body seen from behind in extra-personal space is possible when the surrogate body is visually stroked and tapped on its back, while spatially and temporal synchronous tactile stimulation is applied to the participant’s back. This result has been disputed with the claim that the results can be explained by self-recognition rather than somatic body ownership. We carried out an experiment with 30 participants in a between-groups design. They all saw the back of a VB 1.2m in front, that moved in real-time determined by upper body motion capture. All felt tactile stimulation on their back, and for 15 of them this was spatially and temporally synchronous with stimulation that they saw on the back of the VB, but asynchronous for the other 15. After 3 minutes a revolving fan above the VB descended and stopped at the position of the VB neck. A questionnaire assessed referral of touch to the VB, body ownership, the illusion of drifting forwards towards the VB, and the VB drifting backwards. Heart rate deceleration (HRD and the amount of head movement during the threat period were used to assess the response to the threat from the fan. Results showed that although referral of touch was significantly greater in the synchronous condition than the asynchronous, there were no other differences between the conditions. However, a further multivariate analysis revealed that in the visuotactile synchronous condition HRD and head movement increased with the illusion of forward drift and decreased with backwards drift. Body ownership contributed positively to these drift sensations. Our conclusion is that the setup results in a contradiction - somatic feelings associated with a distant body - that the brain attempts to resolve by generating drift illusions that would make the two bodies coincide.

  11. Non-intrusive measurement of emission indices. A new approach to the evaluation of infrared spectra emitted by aircraft engine exhaust gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindermeir, E.; Haschberger, P.; Tank, V. [Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V. (DLR), Wessling (Germany). Inst. fuer Optoelektronik

    1997-12-31

    A non-intrusive method is used to determine the emission indices of a research aircraft`s engine in-flight. The principle is based on the Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometer MIROR which was specifically designed and built for operation aboard aircrafts. This device measures the spectrum of the infrared radiation emitted by the hot exhaust gas under cruise conditions. From these spectra mixing ratios and emission indices can be derived. An extension to previously applied evaluation schemes is proposed: Whereas formerly the plume was assumed a homogeneous layer of gas, temperature and concentration profiles are now introduced to the evaluation procedure. (author) 5 refs.

  12. Modelling of the automatic stabilization system of the aircraft course by a fuzzy logic method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamonova, T.; Syryamkin, V.; Vasilyeva, T.

    2016-04-01

    The problem of the present paper concerns the development of a fuzzy model of the system of an aircraft course stabilization. In this work modelling of the aircraft course stabilization system with the application of fuzzy logic is specified. Thus the authors have used the data taken for an ordinary passenger plane. As a result of the study the stabilization system models were realised in the environment of Matlab package Simulink on the basis of the PID-regulator and fuzzy logic. The authors of the paper have shown that the use of the method of artificial intelligence allows reducing the time of regulation to 1, which is 50 times faster than the time when standard receptions of the management theory are used. This fact demonstrates a positive influence of the use of fuzzy regulation.

  13. Innovative production technology in aircraft construction: CIAM Forming 'made by MBB' - A highly productive example

    Science.gov (United States)

    A novel production technology in aircraft construction was developed for manufacturing parts of shapes and dimensions that involve only small quantities for one machine. The process, called computerized integrated and automated manufacturing (CIAM), makes it possible to make ready-to-install sheet-metal parts for all types of aircraft. All of the system's job sequences, which include milling the flat sheet-metal parts in stacks, deburring, heat treatment, and forming under the high-pressure rubber-pad press, are automated. The CIAM production center, called SIAM Forming, fulfills the prerequisites for the cost-effective production of sheet-metal parts made of aluminum alloys, titanium, or steel. The SIAM procedure results in negligible material loss through computerizing both component-contour nesting of the sheet-metal parts and contour milling.

  14. Privatization, Corporatization, Ownership Forms and their Effects on the Performance of the World’s Major Airports

    OpenAIRE

    Oum, Tae H.; Adler, Nicole; Yu, Chunyan

    2006-01-01

    This paper investigates the effects of ownership forms and management structure on the performance of airports around the world. Specifically, we focus on measuring and comparing productive efficiency and profitability among airports owned and operated by government departments, 100% government-owned corporations, independent airport authorities, mixed enterprises with government majority ownership and mixed enterprises with private majority ownership. The key results of our analysis based on...

  15. 2007: A Canadian Corporate Ownership Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valsan, Calin

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This study documents a decline in the levels of corporate ownership concentration between 1996 and 2007. When compared to previous studies, the incidence of ownership stakes of 20% or larger has decreased form 60% to 41% of the total population of publicly listed Canadian firms. Regional disparities among provinces remain important. Ontario, Alberta, and British Columbia have the most widely-held firms, while Quebec and Atlantic Canada show the most concentrated corporate ownership patterns. The interpretation of these results requires a complex understanding of historical, demographic, cultural, political and institutional factors.

  16. Greenhouse effects of aircraft emissions as calculated by a radiative transfer model

    OpenAIRE

    Fortuin, J.P.F.; Dorland, R.; Wauben, W. M. F.; Kelder, H.

    1995-01-01

    With a radiative transfer model, assessments are made of the radiative forcing in northern mid-latitudes due to aircraft emissions up to 1990. Considered are the direct climate effects from the major combustion products carbon dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, water vapor and sulphur dioxide, as well as the indirect effect of ozone production from NOx emissions. Our study indicates a local radiative forcing at the tropopause which should be negative in summe...

  17. Time series and correlation of pulsations observed simultaneously by two aircraft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geomagnetic pulsations are an interesting and ubiquitous component of the geomagnetic field and they have been studied extensively for several decades. Numerous comparisons have been made of pulsations at a variety of sites for various objectives. However, conductivity anomalies introduce a number of complexities into the interpretations of pulsations at ground sites through the action of the primary fields on the electrical properties of the local geologic structure. To avoid the difficulties associated with conductivity irregularities, Ochadlick et al. [1985] described an aeromagnetic approach using two aircraft for studying the relationship between pulsations observed over a deep ocean area. Relative to land regions, a deep sea is presumably a more uniform conductor. Using the dual aeromagnetic results, Ochadlick found that the correlation coefficient of pulsations remained relatively constant for observation points spaced apart from a few to about 150 km. Beyond 150 km the correlation coefficient was found to decrease. This letter summarizes the time series records of pulsations, totaling about 9 h, acquired during several dual aircraft flights performed between 20 May and 15 Aug 1985 and presents the associated correlation coefficient between the dual aircraft data sets. Apparently, those measurements show for the first time that a strong similarity of pulsations weakens quickly at a distance of ∼150 km which is remarkably close to the ionospheric height and is thus suggestive of a strong ionospheric control on the spatial coherence of pulsations

  18. Corporate Governance, Ownership and Financial Distress of Publicly Listed Companies in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WangZhen; LiuLi; ChenChao

    2004-01-01

    This paper examines the effects of internal control mechanisms on the financial distress of publicly listed companies in China. Using t-test and Logistic regression analysis, we investigated the following aspects: ownership by top managers and the CEO, the number of directors, the percentage of inside directors, CEO duality, and ownership concentration. The empirical tests indicate a lower probability of financial distress when ownership by top managers and that by the CEO are higher. The evidence also shows that a combination of two parts, the CEO and the chairman of the board, may influence the internal control system of a publicly listed companies.

  19. Cross-ownership among firms: Some determinants of the separation of ownership from control

    OpenAIRE

    Ritzberger, Klaus; Shorish, Jamsheed

    2002-01-01

    Abstract: This paper demonstrates that the current literature on cross-ownership among firms underestimates the true degree of separation between cash flow rights and voting rights. We use accounting identities to define coefficients of control, such that any (direct or indirect) control of a firm may be identified using these coefficients. This procedure is sufficient to show that under cross-ownership the voting rights associated with ownership are typically underestimated. We demonstrate b...

  20. MISSILES AND AIRCRAFT (PART1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.M. Meyer

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Many sources maintain that the role played by air power in the 1973 Yom Kippur War was important. Other interpretations state that control of air space over the battlefield areas, (either by aircraft or anti-aircraft defences, was vital.

  1. The Investigation of the Relationship among Analyst Following, Managerial Ownership and Firm Valuation: From the Perspective of Agency Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. J. Chen

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the relationship among analyst following, managerial ownership and firm valuation is investigated from the perspective of agency theory by using a nonlinear simultaneous equation model. The data from the Taiwan stock market verify the proposed hypotheses with a nonlinear three-stage least-square procedure. The empirical results show that managerial ownership (serving an internal monitoring function and number of analysts following (serving an external monitoring function are respectively nonlinear and linear increasing functions of firm valuation, while managerial ownership and analyst following are substitutes in the monitoring of the firm. The results generated from this study support an alignment effect and an entrenchment effect in the relationship between managerial ownership and firm valuation after controlling for the effect of analyst following. Evidence also shows that analyst coverage serves to enhance firm valuation after controlling for the effect of managerial ownership. In addition, a substitution effect between number of analysts following and managerial ownership is found to exist as well as a decreasing marginal value for managerial ownership. It is indicated that both security analysts and managerial ownership serve as monitoring forces in the firm and higher level of monitoring forces, whether internal or external, will enhance firm valuation. The results reveal that the security analysts serve the external monitoring function by reducing the agency cost associated with the separation of ownership and control in the Taiwan stock market.

  2. Directory of coal production ownership, 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, B.

    1981-10-01

    Ownership patterns in the coal industry are highly complex. Many producers are diversified into other lines of activity. The pattern and extent of this diversification has varied through time. In the past, steel and nonferrous metals companies had major coal industry involvement. This is still true today. However, other types of enterprises have entered the industry de novo or through merger. Those of greatest significance in recent times have involved petroleum and particularly public utility companies. This report attempts to identify, as accurately as possible, production ownership patterns in the coal industry. The audience for this Directory is anyone who is interested in accurately tracing the ownership of coal companies to parent companies, or who is concerned about the structure of ownership in the US coal industry. This audience includes coal industry specialists, coal industry policy analysts, economists, financial analysts, and members of the investment community.

  3. Ownership Concentration, Top Management and Board Compensation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Barbosa Pinto

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The degree of ownership concentration may influence executive and board compensation (Bebchuk & Fried, 2003. This article analyzes this relationship. Detailed information about top management and board compensation became available starting in 2010 through new Securities Commission filings. Linear regression models applied to a sample of 315 Brazilian companies traded on the national exchange indicate a negative and statistically significant economic correlation between executive compensation and the degree of ownership concentration. Ceteris paribus, companies with a lower degree of ownership concentration pay higher compensation to top executives. Family controlled companies pay more to their chief executive, but not to the managerial team as a whole, and the compensation of directors increases with a greater proportion of control group members or their relatives on the board. There was support for the Managerial Power Hypothesis in companies with a lower degree of ownership concentration and for the extraction of private benefits in companies where it is greater.

  4. The Impacts of State Ownership on Information Asymmetry:Evidence from an Emerging Market

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jongmoo Jay Choi; Heibatollah Sami; Haiyan Zhou

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the effect of corporate ownership on information asymmetry as measured by bid-ask spread in the emerging markets of China. Government ownership has significant and positive impacts on bid-ask spread during the period 1995-2000, but disappears afterward during 2001-2003. The finding that state ownership raised bid-ask spread in the early period is consistent with recent studies on emerging markets including China, which indicate that firms with higher state ownership tend to have a greater deviation between cash flow rights and control rights(eg, Wei et al., 2005). This implies that lower state ownership is associated with lower information asymmetry in the market, an economic consequence of significant economic reform and privatization regarding the market microstructure. However, with more active control transfers andemergence of private controlling shareholders, regulatory changes in ownership structure and corporate governance mechanisms, and thus an improved legal and institutional environment, the link between the government ownership and information asymmetry turns to be insignificant in the later period. These results have important implications for transparency and information disclosure policies as well as privatization in emerging markets.

  5. [Effects of forest ownership regime on landscape pattern and animal habitat: a review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yue-Hui; Wu, Wen; Li, Na-Na; Bu, Ren-Cang; Hu, Yuan-Man

    2013-07-01

    In some European and North American countries where forestry is highly developed, both public and private forest ownership regimes have being existed for a long time. Currently, the researches about both the dynamics of forest landscape and habitat pattern and the relationship between habitat pattern and biological conservation in multi-ownership forest landscape are increasingly becoming important. This paper reviewed the effects of multi-ownership regime on forest landscape pattern and animal habitat and emphasized on the ecological consequences of forest parcelization and land divestiture, including the provision of diverse habitats and fragmentation of the existing large-area habitat. This paper also summarized two ways (changing the ownership pattern and integrating the multi-ownership management by cross boundary coordination) for handling the conflicts between small-scaled multi-ownership management and biological conservation at large scale in forestry-developed countries and analyzed the reasons that those countries prefer to adopt the latter one. Furthermore, the methodological limitations in simulating ownership pattern were pointed out. Finally, the present status, challenges and opportunities in the above-mentioned research issues in China were discussed, and the suggestions for further researches were provided. PMID:24175540

  6. Ownership and Control in Colombian Corporations

    OpenAIRE

    Luis H. Gutiérrez; Carlos Pombo; Rodrigo Taborda

    2005-01-01

    This paper studies the separation of ownership and control for an average of 140 listed non-financial corporations in Colombia during the 1996-2002 period. Breaking down the sample according to corporations` listing status and economic activity shows that voting rights are greater than cash flow rights because of the presence of indirect ownership across firms that belong mainly to pyramidal and cross-share holdings. The study sample also includes an important set of non-affiliated firms. Own...

  7. Ownership and Control Structures: A Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Apostolov, Mico

    2015-01-01

    This is a study on separation of ownership and control in Southeast Europe, and in particular it is a case study of Macedonia. For structured analysis of this case study we use the World Bank Microdata Library, specifically the Enterprise Surveys which contains firm-level data of a representative sample of economies private sectors. What we are interested in are the ties of ownership and control and whether such linkages contribute to the development of domestic firms and the overall ec...

  8. Ownership Structure, independent directors and firm performance

    OpenAIRE

    KALLAMU, Basiru Salisu

    2016-01-01

    Abstract. The paper examined the moderating role of independent directors in the relationship between ownership structure and firm performance. Using a sample of 37 finance companies listed on the main market of Bursa Malaysia from 2007 to 2011, the result indicates a significant positive moderating effect of independent directors in the relationship between director ownership and ROA but a negative relationship based on Tobin’s Q.  The result means that in a company where directors have cont...

  9. Total Ownership Cost -- Tools and Discipline

    OpenAIRE

    Boudreau, Mike; Naegle, Brad

    2011-01-01

    Sponsored Report (for Acquisition Research Program) Control of total ownership cost (TOC) is a continuing initiative to manage costs over the entire life cycle of a weapon system. There are several major categories of costs that contribute to Total Ownership Cost but the principal categories are (1) R&D, (2) Production, (3) Operating and Support, and (4) Disposal. System TOC is the same as Life Cycle Cost (LCC) and must be planned and controlled from requirements definition, system develop...

  10. Ownership Structure and Corporate Firm Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Jayesh Kumar

    2003-01-01

    Corporate Governance deals with the issue, how suppliers of finance to corporations assure themselves of getting a return on their investment. Several Studies have examined the relationship between managerial ownership and firm performance. Using different samples most of the studies provide general support for the argument that increase in managerial ownership increases firm performance. However, these results have been questioned recently. This work examines empirically the effects of owner...

  11. Ownership structure, customer satisfaction and brand equity

    OpenAIRE

    Torres, Anna; Trib??, Josep A.

    2007-01-01

    This paper studies the interaction between ownership structure, taken as a proxy for shareholders? commitment, and customer satisfaction - the main driver of consumer loyalty - and their impact on a firm?s brand equity. The results show that customer satisfaction has a positive direct effect on brand equity but an indirect negative one because of reductions in ownership concentration. This latter effect emerges when managers are mainly customer-oriented. Such result gives out a warning signal...

  12. Effects of Ownership and Financial Status on Corporate Environmental Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Dietrich Earnhart; Lubomir Lizal

    2002-01-01

    This paper analyzes the effects of ownership structure on corporate environmental performance and examines the link between financial performance to environmental performance in a transition economy. In particular, it analyzes these ownership effects and this performance link using an unbalanced panel of Czech firms for the years 1993 to 1998. It considers state ownership and various types of private ownership, while contrasting concentrated and diffuse forms of private ownership. Additionall...

  13. Gun ownership and social gun culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalesan, Bindu; Villarreal, Marcos D; Keyes, Katherine M; Galea, Sandro

    2016-06-01

    We assessed gun ownership rates in 2013 across the USA and the association between exposure to a social gun culture and gun ownership. We used data from a nationally representative sample of 4000 US adults, from 50 states and District of Columbia, aged >18 years to assess gun ownership and social gun culture performed in October 2013. State-level firearm policy information was obtained from the Brady Law Center and Injury Prevention and Control Center. One-third of Americans reported owning a gun, ranging from 5.2% in Delaware to 61.7% in Alaska. Gun ownership was 2.25-times greater among those reporting social gun culture (PR=2.25, 95% CI 2.02 to 2.52) than those who did not. In conclusion, we found strong association between social gun culture and gun ownership. Gun cultures may need to be considered for public health strategies that aim to change gun ownership in the USA. PMID:26124073

  14. A Relationship Between Insider‘s Ownership and Firm Value: A Case of Pakistani Companies

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad Asad Khan; Rahman Ullah; Naveed Hussain Shah

    2012-01-01

    This research has examined the impact of insider’s ownership on firm value. This research has used the data of 44 nonfinancial companies of KSE-100 Index for five years 2006-2010. In this research insider’s ownership means the total shares held by directors (Executive/nonexecutives), CEO, Managers, their spouse and minor children. Insider’s ownership is classified into three categories i.e. 0% to 25%, 25.1% to 50% and 50.1% and above. Tobin’s Q ratio is used to measure the firm value. Two met...

  15. The Relationship between a Firm’s Value and Ownership Structure in Kuwait: Simultaneous Analyses Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Mejbel Al-Saidi; Bader Al-Shammari

    2014-01-01

    The study examined the impact of ownership structure on the value of listed firms in Kuwait using endogeneity theory as an analytical framework. Ownership structure was measured in terms of ownership concentration (percentage of shares owned by all top shareholders), while measures of value were Tobin’s Q and Return on Assets. In the study, we used panel data for 121 firms listed on the Kuwait Stock Exchange (KSE) from 2010 to 2012, and we specified a model that used simultaneous equations wi...

  16. The simulation of the transport of aircraft emissions by a three-dimensional global model

    OpenAIRE

    Velders, G.J.M.; Heijboer, L. C.; Kelder, H.

    1994-01-01

    A three-dimensional off-line tracer transport model coupled to the ECMWF analyses has been used to study the transport of trace gases in the atmosphere. The model gives a reasonable description of their general transport in the atmosphere. The simulation of the transport of aircraft emissions (as NOx) has been studied as well as the transport of passive tracers injected at different altitudes in the North Atlantic flight corridor. A large zonal variation in the NO

  17. A Survey of Jet Aircraft PM by TEM in APEX III

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanderWal, Randy L.; Bryg, Victoria M.

    2014-01-01

    Based upon field testing during the NASA led APEX III campaign conducted in November 2005 at the NASA Glenn Research Center in coordination with Continental Airlines and Cleveland Hopkins International Airport. This paper reports observations of particulate emissions collected from a suite of jet engine aircraft to assess differences and similarities in soot macro- micro- and nanostructure using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Aggregates are compact, primary particle sizes varied and nanostructure mixed. Comparisons are made to more familiar laboratory flame-generated soot as a well-studied point of reference. Results are interpreted in terms of turbulence interacting with the different stages of particle formation and growth.

  18. Assessment of aircraft structural integrity by detecting disbonds through ultrasonic scanning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abedin, M. N.; Prabhu, D. R.; Winfree, W. P.

    1992-01-01

    A study of nondestructive evaluation of aircraft bonded joints using the contact scanning technique is presented. Reflected signals acquired through the contacting transducer characterize the test region as being bonded or disbonded. Ultrasonic signals are attenuated more rapidly in the bonded regions when compared to disbonded regions. A peak amplitude based method and an artificial neural network are used to classify the signals. Results obtained using an artificial neural network exhibited significant insensitivity to signal variation when compared to the peak amplitude. Very good agreement is observed between results obtained using the present technique and those obtained using immersion scanning.

  19. An investigation into the impact of ownership structure on the level of cash holdings in the companies accepted in Tehran Stock Exchange Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaveh Azinfar

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Liquidity of a company is the ability to meet cash commitments before the deadline. Selecting from cash spending or cash holdings by the managers is of great importance for the owners of the company. Various factors can be effective in determining the level of company’s liquidity. Ownership structure of companies is one of these factors which may lead to companies’ behavioral change. This change is derived from monitoring activities by different investors in this structure. This study was an attempt to assess the impact of ownership structure on the level of companies’ cash holdings in creating appropriate ownership in connection with creating the level of cash holdings. In this study, ownership structure has been categorized into four types of institutional ownership, managerial ownership, corporate ownership, and foreign ownership. In this regard, the impact of institutional, managerial, corporate, and foreign variables on the level of cash holdings has been investigated. For every category of ownership, a hypothesis was proposed and its impact on the level of cash holdings was tested. The statistical sample of the research included 96 companies from 2004 to 2013. The statistical method of testing the hypotheses in this study was multiple regressions through panel data. The findings revealed a significant relationship between institutional, managerial, and foreign ownership and the level of cash holdings; however, there was no significant relationship between corporate ownership of the company and the level of cash holdings.

  20. APPLICATION FOR AIRCRAFT TRACKING

    OpenAIRE

    Ostroumov, Ivan; Kuz’menko, Natalia

    2011-01-01

    Abstract. In the article the important problems of software development for aircraft tracking have beendiscussed. Position reports of ACARS have been used for aircraft tracking around the world.An algorithm of aircraft coordinates decoding and visualization of aircraft position on the map has beenrepresented.Keywords: ACARS, aircraft, internet, position, software, tracking.

  1. Measurement of ozone and water vapor by Airbus in-service aircraft: The MOZAIC airborne program, An overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marenco, Alain; Thouret, ValéRie; NéDéLec, Philippe; Smit, Herman; Helten, Manfred; Kley, Dieter; Karcher, Fernand; Simon, Pascal; Law, Kathy; Pyle, John; Poschmann, Georg; von Wrede, Rainer; Hume, Chris; Cook, Tim

    1998-10-01

    Tentative estimates, using three-dimensional chemistry and transport models, have suggested small ozone increases in the upper troposphere resulting from current aircraft emissions, but have also concluded to significant deficiencies in today's models and to the need to improve them through comparison with extended data sets. The Measurement of Ozone and Water Vapor by Airbus In-Service Aircraft (MOZAIC) program was initiated in 1993 by European scientists, aircraft manufacturers, and airlines to collect experimental data. Its goal is to help understand the atmosphere and how it is changing under the influence of human activity, with particular interest in the effects of aircraft. MOZAIC consists of automatic and regular measurements of ozone and water vapor by five long range passenger airliners flying all over the world. The aim is not to detect direct effects of aircraft emissions on the ozone budget inside the air traffic corridors but to build a large database of measurements to allow studies of chemical and physical processes in the atmosphere, and hence to validate global chemistry transport models. MOZAIC data provide, in particular, detailed ozone and water vapor climatologies at 9-12 km where subsonic aircraft emit most of their exhaust and which is a very critical domain (e.g., radiatively and stratosphere/troposphere exchanges) still imperfectly described in existing models. This will be valuable to improve knowledge about the processes occuring in the upper troposphere and the lowermost stratosphere, and the model treatment of near tropopause chemistry and transport. During MOZAIC I (January 1993-September 1996), fully automatic devices were developed, installed aboard five commercial Airbus A340s, and flown in normal airline service. A second phase, MOZAIC II, started in October 1996 with the aim of continuing the O3 and H2O measurements and doing a feasibility study of new airborne devices (CO, NOy). Between September 1994 and December 1997, 7500

  2. The European Research Infrastructure IAGOS - From dedicated field studies to routine observations of the atmosphere by instrumented passenger aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petzold, Andreas; Volz-Thomas, Andreas; Gerbig, Christoph; Thouret, Valerie; Cammas, Jean-Pierre; Brenninkmeijer, Carl A. M.; Iagos Team

    2013-04-01

    The global distribution of trace species is controlled by a complex interplay between natural and anthropogenic sources and sinks, atmospheric short- to long-range transport, and in future by diverse, largely not yet quantified feedback mechanisms such as enhanced evaporation of water vapour in a warming climate or possibly the release of methane from melting marine clathrates. Improving global trace gas budgets and reducing the uncertainty of climate predictions crucially requires representative data from routine long-term observations as independent constraint for the evaluation and improvement of model parameterizations. IAGOS (In-service Aircraft for a Global Observing System; www.iagos.org) is a new European Research Infrastructure which operates a unique global observing system by deploying autonomous instruments aboard a fleet of passenger aircraft. IAGOS consists of two complementary building blocks: IAGOS-CORE deploys newly developed high-tech instrumentation for regular in-situ measurements of atmospheric chemical species (O3, CO, CO2, NOx, NOy, H2O, CH4), aerosols and cloud particles. Involved airlines ensure global operation of the network. In IAGOS-CARIBIC a cargo container is operated as a flying laboratory aboard one passenger aircraft. IAGOS aims at the provision of long-term, frequent, regular, accurate, and spatially resolved in-situ observations of the atmospheric chemical composition in the UTLS and the extra tropical troposphere and on vertical profiles of greenhouse gases, reactive trace gases and aerosols throughout the troposphere. It builds on almost 20 years of scientific and technological expertise gained in the research projects MOZAIC (Measurement of Ozone and Water Vapour on Airbus In-service Aircraft) and CARIBIC (Civil Aircraft for the Regular Investigation of the Atmosphere Based on an Instrument Container). The European consortium includes research centres, universities, national weather services, airline operators and aviation

  3. Model-based aviation advice on distal volcanic ash clouds by assimilating aircraft in situ measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Guangliang; Heemink, Arnold; Lu, Sha; Segers, Arjo; Weber, Konradin; Lin, Hai-Xiang

    2016-07-01

    The forecast accuracy of distal volcanic ash clouds is important for providing valid aviation advice during volcanic ash eruption. However, because the distal part of volcanic ash plume is far from the volcano, the influence of eruption information on this part becomes rather indirect and uncertain, resulting in inaccurate volcanic ash forecasts in these distal areas. In our approach, we use real-life aircraft in situ observations, measured in the northwestern part of Germany during the 2010 Eyjafjallajökull eruption, in an ensemble-based data assimilation system combined with a volcanic ash transport model to investigate the potential improvement on the forecast accuracy with regard to the distal volcanic ash plume. We show that the error of the analyzed volcanic ash state can be significantly reduced through assimilating real-life in situ measurements. After a continuous assimilation, it is shown that the aviation advice for Germany, the Netherlands and Luxembourg can be significantly improved. We suggest that with suitable aircrafts measuring once per day across the distal volcanic ash plume, the description and prediction of volcanic ash clouds in these areas can be greatly improved.

  4. Arousal from sleep by noises from aircraft with and without acoustically treated nacelles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukas, J. S.; Peeler, D. J.; Dobbs, M. E.

    1973-01-01

    The electroencephalographic and behavioral responses during sleep of four subjects, aged 46 to 58 years, to three types of noises were tested over 14 consecutive nights. The stimuli were two DC-8 jet landing noises (each 30 seconds in duration and coming from DC-8 aircraft with and without acoustical treatment on the engine nacelles) and a 4-second burst of pink noise. Each of the noises was tested at nominal intensities of 61 and 79 dBA. Other physical descriptors of the noises were measured or computed. The results indicate that for an equivalent degree of sleep disruption, noise form the jet aircraft with untreated nacelles must be about 6 dBA less intense than the jet with acoustically treated nacelles. Predictions of the effects of noise on sleep appear, tentatively, to attain the highest accuracy when the physical descriptor of noise intensity includes information about the impulsive characteristics of that noise as well as its long-term spectral content.

  5. The Dynamics of Household Travel Time Expenditures and Car Ownership Decisions

    OpenAIRE

    Golob, Thomas F.

    1990-01-01

    A dynamic (panel data) structural equations model is developed that links four dependent travel behavior variables at two points in time, one year apart. The four dependent variables are: car ownership, travel time per week by car, travel time by public transit, and travel time by nonmotorized modes. Exogenous variables include 13 household characteristics and variables accounting for period effects over the 1985 to 1987 time frame in the Netherlands. The model treats car ownership as ordered...

  6. A perspective on 15 years of proof-of-concept aircraft development and flight research at Ames-Moffett by the Rotorcraft and Powered-Lift Flight Projects Division, 1970-1985

    Science.gov (United States)

    Few, David D.

    1987-01-01

    A proof-of-concept (POC) aircraft is defined and the concept of interest described for each of the six aircraft developed by the Ames-Moffet Rotorcraft and Powered-Lift Flight Projects Division from 1970 through 1985; namely, the OV-10, the C-8A Augmentor Wing, the Quiet Short-Haul Research Aircraft (QSRA), the XV-15 Tilt Rotor Research Aircraft (TRRA), the Rotor Systems Research Aircraft (RSRA)-compound, and the yet-to-fly RSRA/X-Wing Aircraft. The program/project chronology and most noteworthy features of the concepts are reviewed. The paper discusses the significance of each concept and the project demonstrating it; it briefly looks at what concepts are on the horizon as potential POC research aircraft and emphasizes that no significant advanced concept in aviation technology has ever been accepted by civilian or military users without first completing a demonstration through flight testing.

  7. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in Not Provided, Southwest Georgia RDC.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset, was produced all or in part from Hardcopy Maps information as of Not Provided. Data by this publisher are often provided in...

  8. Parcels and Land Ownership, 3S8W, Published in 2007, Duchesne County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2007. It is described as '3S8W'. Data by this publisher are often provided in UTM coordinate system; in a Transverse...

  9. Parcels and Land Ownership, Parcels, parcel numbers, parcel dimensions, parcel annotation, Published in unknown, Grinnell College.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of unknown. It is described as 'Parcels, parcel numbers, parcel dimensions, parcel annotation'. Data by this publisher...

  10. Parcels and Land Ownership, 1s4w-18, Published in 2001, Duchesne County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2001. It is described as '1s4w-18'. Data by this publisher are...

  11. Parcels and Land Ownership, landown, Published in 2002, Carbon County GIS.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2002. It is described as 'landown'. Data by this publisher are...

  12. Parcels and Land Ownership, CountyOwnedParcels0405, Published in 2005, Carbon County GIS.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2005. It is described as 'CountyOwnedParcels0405'. Data by this...

  13. Parcels and Land Ownership, DutchJohnOwnerBoundary, Published in 2007, Daggett County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2007. It is described as 'DutchJohnOwnerBoundary'. Data by this...

  14. Tropospheric Ozone Variability during the East Asian Summer Monsoon as Observed by Satellite (IASI), Aircraft (MOZAIC) and Ground Stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safieddine, S.; Boynard, A.; Hao, N.; Huang, F.; Wang, L.; Ji, D.; Barret, B.; Ghude, S. D.; Coheur, P.-F.; Hurtmans, D.; Clerbaux, C.

    2015-11-01

    Satellite measurements from the thermal Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI), the Measurements of OZone and water vapor by in-service AIrbus airCraft (MOZAIC), as well as observations from ground based stations, are used to assess the tropospheric ozone (O3) variability during the East Asian Summer Monsoon (EASM). Six years [2008-2013] of IASI data analysis reveals the ability of the instrument to detect the onset and the progression of the monsoon reflected by a decrease in the tropospheric [0-6] km O3 column due to the EASM, and to reproduce this decrease from one year to the other. Focusing on the period of May-August 2011, taken as an example year, IASI data show clear inverse relationship between tropospheric [0-6] km O3 on one hand and meteorological parameters such as cloud cover, relative humidity and wind speed, on the other hand. Aircraft data from the MOZAIC project at Hyderabad, Nanjing and Guangzhou are used to validate the IASI data and to assess the effect of the monsoon on the vertical distribution of the tropospheric O3 at different locations. Results show good agreement with a correlation coefficient of 0.74 between the [0-6] km O3 column derived from IASI and MOZAIC. The aircraft data show a decrease in the tropospheric O3 that is more important in the free troposphere than in the boundary layer and at Hyderabad than at the other two Chinese cities. Ground station data at different locations in India and China show a spatiotemporal dependence on meteorology during the monsoon, with decrease up to 22 ppbv in Hyderabad, and up to 5 ppbv in the North China Plain.

  15. Parcels and Land Ownership, Parcel boundaries (both surveyed and for tax purposes) maintained by the department of Pulbic Works and Assessor's Office, Published in 2007, 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, County of Los Angeles.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset, published at 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Published Reports/Deeds information as of 2007. It...

  16. Ownership by Science China Press; Copyright@2011 by Science China Press, Beijing,China and Springer-Verlag Heidelberg,Germany

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Submission of a manuscript implies: that the work described has not been published before (except in the form of an abstract or as part of a published lecture, review, or thesis); that it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere; that its publication has been approved by all

  17. Residents' Annoyance Responses to Aircraft Noise Events

    OpenAIRE

    United States, National Aeronautics and Space Administration

    1983-01-01

    In a study conducted in the vicinity of Salt Lake City International Airport, community residents reported their annoyance with individual aircraft flyovers during rating sessions conducted in their homes. Annoyance ratings were obtained at different times of the day. Aircraft noise levels were measured, and other characteristics of the aircraft were noted by trained observers. Metrics commonly used for assessing aircraft noise were compared, but none performed significantly better than A-...

  18. Farmland Ownership and Leasing: Implications for Young and Beginning Farmers

    OpenAIRE

    Katchova, Ani L.; Ahearn, Mary Clare

    2014-01-01

    This study considers the issue of the transition of new farmers into U.S. agriculture, by examining land ownership and leasing trends. Our approach is to characterize the entire distribution by farmer age and farmer experience rather than using young versus old and beginning versus established farmer categories. We also use a linked-farms longitudinal approach instead of a repeated cross-sectional approach to show trends over time in farmland expansion and contraction. Differences in farm siz...

  19. Separation of Ownership and Control: Delegation as a Commitment Device

    OpenAIRE

    Boukouras, Aristotelis

    2013-01-01

    This paper provides a theoretical model for explaining the separation of ownership and control in firms. An entrepreneur hires a worker, whose eff ort is necessary for running a project. The worker\\'s eff ort determines the probability that the project will be completed on time, but the worker receives some unobservable benefi t by continuing his employment in the project. Thus, motivating the worker requires an efficiency wage which is inflated by the private benefit. The entrepreneur would ...

  20. Blockholder Identity, Equity Ownership Structures and Hostile Takeovers

    OpenAIRE

    Gary Gorton; Matthias Kahl

    1999-01-01

    We determine firms' equity ownership structures and provide a theory of hostile takeovers by distinguishing the roles of two types of blockholders: rich investors and institutional investors. We also distinguish the roles of two types of stock markets: the block market and the market with small investors. Rich investors have their own money at stake while institutional investors are run by proffessional managers and hence face agency conflicts. Because rich investors face no agency problems t...

  1. Does Bank Ownership Affect the Credit Channel of Monetary Policy?

    OpenAIRE

    Fatih Macit

    2012-01-01

    In this article I investigate whether bank ownership affects the credit channel of monetary policy by looking at the Turkish banking sector from the period 2006 to 2010. I analyze whether public banks, foreign banks, and private banks respond differently to changes in monetary policy by looking at the growth rate of their loan sizes. Controlling for certain bank-specific variables, I find that public banks show the smallest response to changes in monetary policy whereas foreign banks exhibit ...

  2. Managerial compensation, ownership structure and profitability in Norwegian hydroelectric energy companies : N/A

    OpenAIRE

    Frimanslund, Tore

    2009-01-01

    Today, the Norwegian energy sector is significantly dominated by public ownership, both directly and indirectly, and the sector has turned out to be very profitable compared to other sectors. This master thesis starts by introducing some concepts of corporate governance and the agency theory which will be the theoretical basis. The study attempts to determine the relationship between the level of fixed pay and profitability, and ownership structure and profitability of Norwegia...

  3. A Revisiting of Ownership Structures and Capital Structures Relationship: Evidence From East Asian Financial Crisis

    OpenAIRE

    Warokka, Ari; Herrera, Juan Jose Duran

    2011-01-01

    Some previous research findings indicate that the relationship between ownership structure and company performance which is assumed it is influence by the relationship between managers and shareholder of the company. This relationship would have the potential to affect the decision making in an organization which has an impact to company’s value. This purpose of this research is to extend and expand the existing empirical findings by testing the relationship between ownership structure and ca...

  4. Ownership and rent-seeking behavior in specialty health care practices

    OpenAIRE

    Dan Friesner; Chris Stevens

    2007-01-01

    Specialty health care practices are unique in that they exhibit a wide range of ownership types, from large corporations controlled by third parties to those directly owned by practitioners (physicians, therapists, etc.). Many of these practices also employ licensed assistants whose labor is partially substitutable with those of the practitioners. This paper presents a theoretical model that examines the impact that different levels of ownership have on rent-seeking behavior and efficiency wi...

  5. 14 CFR 91.117 - Aircraft speed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Aircraft speed. 91.117 Section 91.117... speed. (a) Unless otherwise authorized by the Administrator, no person may operate an aircraft below 10... than the maximum speed prescribed in this section, the aircraft may be operated at that minimum speed....

  6. Policy and the evaluation of aircraft noise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kroesen, M.; Molin, E.J.E.; Van Wee, G.P.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we hypothesize and test the ideas that (1) people’s subjectivity in relation to aircraft noise is shaped by the policy discourse, (2) this results in a limited number of frames towards aircraft noise, (3) the frames inform people how to think and feel about aircraft noise and (4) the

  7. HUMAN FACTOR IMPACT IN MILITARY AIRCRAFT MAINTENANCE

    OpenAIRE

    MARINKOVIC SRBOLJUB J.; DRENOVAC ALEKSANDAR Z.

    2015-01-01

    Aircraft maintenance, as a specific field of military materiel maintenance, is characterized by high reliability standards, based on regulations and technical standards. A system approach to maintenance represents the key element of maintenance quality, while aircraft maintenance staff has a crucial influence on the final outcome of aircraft maintenance.

  8. "Is there a gun in the home?" Assessing the risks of gun ownership in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinholt, Ellen M; Mitchell, Joshua D; Butler, Jane H; Kumar, Harjinder

    2014-06-01

    An important ethical and safety concern that geriatricians, primary care providers, and home health professionals need to address is gun ownership by elderly adults. Those aged 65 and older now have the highest rate of gun ownership in America, and they also have a high prevalence of depression and suicide. Dementia can add additional layers of risk. Even older gun owners who are otherwise intellectually intact may benefit from information about gun safety with the increasing numbers of children being cared for by grandparents. Health professionals should ask patients, "Is there a gun in the home?" in the clinic and during home visits. Healthcare professionals must have knowledge and skills to address safe gun ownership in elderly adults. The 5 L's (Locked, Loaded, Little children, feeling Low, Learned owner) will assist professionals in addressing all aspects of safe ownership. PMID:24898055

  9. The simulation of the transport of aircraft emissions by a three-dimensional global model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. J. M. Velders

    Full Text Available A three-dimensional off-line tracer transport model coupled to the ECMWF analyses has been used to study the transport of trace gases in the atmosphere. The model gives a reasonable description of their general transport in the atmosphere. The simulation of the transport of aircraft emissions (as NOx has been studied as well as the transport of passive tracers injected at different altitudes in the North Atlantic flight corridor. A large zonal variation in the NOx concentrations as well as large seasonal and yearly variations was found. The altitude of the flight corridor influences the amount of tracers transported into the troposphere and stratosphere to a great extent.

  10. Gift exchange and the separation of ownership and control

    OpenAIRE

    Maximiano, S.; Sloof, R.; Sonnemans, J.

    2013-01-01

    Numerous gift exchange experiments have found a positive relationship between employers' wage offers and workers' effort levels. In (almost) all these experiments the employer both owns and controls the firm. Yet in reality many firms are characterized by the separation of ownership and control. In this paper we explore to what extent this affects the wage-effort relationship observed. We compare the standard bilateral gift exchange game between an owner-manager and a worker with two trilater...

  11. Inclusion or Exclusion? Local Ownership and Security Sector Reform

    OpenAIRE

    Timothy Donais

    2009-01-01

    This paper explores the dynamics of security sector reform (SSR), a term used to refer to efforts made to reform the security structures of states emerging from conflict or authoritarianism. While "local ownership" is increasingly viewed as a necessary element of any sustainable SSR strategy, there remains a significant gap between international policy and practice in this area. In practice, the SSR agenda continues to be driven largely by international actors, with minimal input, let alone...

  12. The banking sector and media ownership: the case of Ecuador

    OpenAIRE

    Antonio Checa-Godoy

    2012-01-01

    The referendum called by President Rafael Correa in 2011 concludes a complex phase in the history of Ecuador, as it ratified the decision to make unlawful the participation of the banking sector in media ownership. The intense fight between the government and the financial sector started in 1999 when the banking crisis demonstrated the significant presence of bankers in the country’s media. This fight lasted twelve years during which two phases can be identified: 1999 to 2006, a period in whi...

  13. The ownership structure and control mechanisms in Sweden: Case study of leading pyramidal corporations

    OpenAIRE

    Sharifi, Nazanin

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT: This study describes the differences between the corporate governance systems and the ownership structures around the world. It concentrates on the ownership structure of the firms in continental European countries and examined control-enhancing mechanisms that are used to increase controlling power of dominated shareholders in selected developed countries such as Germany, France, Italy and the Netherlands. By using data collected from listed companies in Stockholm stock market, thi...

  14. Equity Ownership Determination in Foreign Direct Investments of Developing Economies: The Case of Korean Outward FDIs

    OpenAIRE

    Sung C. Bae; Kyungwon Ju; Kyoo H Kim; Taek Ho Kwon

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we develop an international joint venture model and examine the equity ownership determination of Korean outward FDIs, one of the major developing economies (DEs), into both developed countries (DCs) and other DEs. We do this by explicitly considering the cost of technology leakage and the potential profits from FDI projects. Our results show that the relation between equity ownership and technology level depends on both the host country and industry sector. Regarding the host ...

  15. ASPECTS CONCERNING THE PRIVATE OWNERSHIP RIGHT WITHIN THE CONTEXT OF THE NEW CIVIL CODE

    OpenAIRE

    Ana-Maria Lupulescu

    2012-01-01

    The new Civil Code introduces several important changes and clarifications regarding the ownership right in general, and the private ownership right, in particular, so that it becomes necessary, for both the analyst in law and the practitioner, to make a comparison between the old regulation contained in the Civil Code of 1864 and the current regulation provided by the new Civil Code. At least in theory, the new legal framework in this area shows greater consistency and legal precision, altho...

  16. Ownership Structure, Control and Firm Performance: The Effects of Vote Differentiated Shares

    OpenAIRE

    Bjuggren, Per-Olof; Eklund, Johan; Wiberg, Daniel

    2005-01-01

    This paper contributes to the literature on ownership, control and performance by exploring these relationships for Swedish listed companies (1997-2002). We find that firms, on average, are making inferior investment decisions and that the use of dual-class shares have a negative effect on performance. According to our results concentration of ownership has a negative impact on investment performance and firm value when control instruments that separate votes from capital share are used. Marg...

  17. Beneficial Ownership and Control: A Comparative Study - Disclosure, Information and Enforcement

    OpenAIRE

    Erik P.M. VERMEULEN

    2013-01-01

    Investor confidence in financial markets depends in large part on the existence of an accurate disclosure regime that provides transparency in the beneficial ownership and control structures of publicly listed companies. This is particularly true for corporate governance systems that are characterised by concentrated ownership. On the one hand, large investors with significant voting and cash-flow rights may encourage long-term growth and firm performance. On the other hand, however, controll...

  18. Legal-Economic Ownership and Generational Transfer in Family Business: Facets of Owner's Responsibility

    OpenAIRE

    Nemilentsev, Mikhail

    2010-01-01

    In the following paper a conceptual framework of the owner’s responsibility is created in order to study the transgenerational legal-economic ownership in the family business. Responsible ownership involves a sense of accountability and entrepreneurship to some extent. However, legal and social responsibilities naturally supplement each other in the family firm. Owners by means of personal relationships and financial guarantees are responsible for carrying out daily business operations and ma...

  19. The ownership of academic patents and their impact. Evidence from five European countries

    OpenAIRE

    Lissoni, Francesco; Montobbio, Fabio

    2012-01-01

    The paper compares the value and impact of academic patents in five European countries with different institutional frameworks : Denmark, France, Italy, the Netherlands, and Sweden. An academic patent is defined as such when at least one university professor appears among its inventors, irrespective of ownership. Most academic patents are assigned to business companies, followed by universities, public research organizations, and individual inventors. The distribution of ownership across thes...

  20. Board Structure, Ownership Structure and Firm Performance: A Study of New Zealand Listed-Firms

    OpenAIRE

    Fitriya Fauzi; Stuart Locke

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates the role of board structure and the effect of ownership structures on firm performance in New Zealand's listed firms. Several studies, the majority from the U.S., U.K. and Japan, have examined the relationship between corporate governance mechanisms, ownership structure and firm performance. Those studies yielded different results, affected by the nature of the prevailing governance system for each country. Investigating New Zealand's listed firms could enhance the div...

  1. On the Privacy of Two Tag Ownership Transfer Protocols for RFIDs

    OpenAIRE

    Abyaneh, Mohammad Reza Sohizadeh

    2012-01-01

    IEEE International Conference for Internet Technology and Secured Transactions (ICITST2011) in Abu Dhabi, UAE. In this paper, the privacy of two recent RFID tag ownership transfer protocols are investigated against the tag owners as adversaries. The first protocol called ROTIV is a scheme which provides a privacy-preserving ownership transfer by using an HMACbased authentication with public key encryption. However, our passive attack on this protocol shows that any leg...

  2. Do Asymmetric Information and Ownership Structure Matter for Dividend Payout Decisions? Evidence from European Banks

    OpenAIRE

    Lepetit, Laetitia; Meslier, Celine; Wardhana, Leo Indra

    2015-01-01

    We empirically examine whether banks' dividend decisions are influenced by their degree of opacity and ownership structure. We find that banks with concentrated or dispersed ownership structure pay lower dividends when they have high degrees of opacity. These results would be consistent with the entrenchment behavior hypothesis, with insiders (managers or majority shareholders) paying lower dividends to extract higher levels of private benefits when banks' opacity is high. Higher levels of sh...

  3. Ownership, Multiple Blockholders and Performance: A study of the Indonesian Banking Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Chalid, Dony Abdul

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study is to provide empirical evidence on how ownership structure and owner’s identity affect performance, in the banking industry by using a panel of Indonesia banks over the period 2000–2009. Firstly, we analysed the impact of the presence of multiple blockholders on bank ownership structure and performance. Building on multiple agency and principal-principal theories, we investigated whether the presence and shares dispersion across blockholders with different identit...

  4. Impact of Family Ownership concentration on the Firm’s Performance: Evidence from Pakistani Capital Market

    OpenAIRE

    Din, Shahab-u-Din; Javid, Attiya Yasmin

    2011-01-01

    This study evaluates the impact of family ownership on the firm’s performance during 2004 and 2009 considering a sample of 29 manufacturing firms listed at KSE-100 index in the Pakistani capital market. The dependent variable is performance which is measured by Return on Asset (ROA), Return on Equity (ROE) and Tobin’s Q of the sample firm and the independent variable is family ownership. Linear regression model is used for estimation along correlation analysis. The study reported positive rel...

  5. International correlations between gun ownership and rates of homicide and suicide.

    OpenAIRE

    Killias, M

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine international correlations between reported rates of household gun ownership and rates of homicide and suicide with a gun. DESIGN: Survey. POPULATION: People who responded to a telephone survey conducted by the 1989 International Crime Survey in 11 European countries, Australia, Canada and the United States. RESULTS: Positive correlations were obtained between the rates of household gun ownership and the national rates of homicide and suicide as well as the proportions o...

  6. The Effect of Ownership Structure and Corporate Governance on Capital Structure of Ghanaian Listed Manufacturing Companies

    OpenAIRE

    Albert Agyei; Appiah Richard Owusu

    2014-01-01

    The study explores the relationship between ownership structure and corporate governance on capital structure of some listed manufacturing companies in Ghana Stock Exchange. This study was motivated by the fact that although the concept of corporate governance has been researched on in literature, no clear evidence exist of its study in Ghana relating to ownership structure on leverage. The study covers the period 2007 to 2011 for which firm level data for eight (8) randomly selected manufact...

  7. DIRECT WORKER OWNERSHIP: THE RUSSIAN FORMULA FOR ECONOMIC REFORM (1984-1994 (ABSTRACT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter J. Piveronus, Jr.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Direct worker ownership in Russia, which is similar, in many ways, to employee ownership in the United States, constituted the centerpiece of the Yeltsin economic reform program which began in earnest in June 1992, and continued through the latter part of 1994. Its actual origins, however, preceded the Yeltsin program by several years, going back to the Gorbachev period. Direct worker ownership was not only successful in improving economic performance following the collapse of the Soviet Union, but may have been partly responsible for Russia’s slow but steady economic recovery between 1994 and 1997. With direct worker ownership as their model, Russian economic reformers are in the process of creating a unique form of capitalism in Russia that is neither capitalist nor socialist as those terms are commonly defined, but somewhere, “in between,” i.e., a “third way.”

  8. Forward Looking Radar Imaging by Truncated Singular Value Decomposition and Its Application for Adverse Weather Aircraft Landing

    OpenAIRE

    Yulin Huang; Yuebo Zha; Yue Wang; Jianyu Yang

    2015-01-01

    The forward looking radar imaging task is a practical and challenging problem for adverse weather aircraft landing industry. Deconvolution method can realize the forward looking imaging but it often leads to the noise amplification in the radar image. In this paper, a forward looking radar imaging based on deconvolution method is presented for adverse weather aircraft landing. We first present the theoretical background of forward looking radar imaging task and its application for aircraft la...

  9. Bodily ownership and self-location

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Serino, Andrea; Alsmith, Adrian John Tetteh; Costantini, Marcello; Mandrigin, Alisa; Tajadura-Jimenez, Ana; Lopez, Christoph

    2013-01-01

    Recent research on bodily self-consciousness has assumed that it consists of three distinct components: the experience of owning a body (body ownership); the experience of being a body with a given location within the environment (self-location); and the experience of taking a first-person, body......-centered, perspective on that environment (perspective). Here we review recent neuroimaging studies suggesting that at least two of these components—body ownership and self-location—are implemented in rather distinct neural substrates, located, respectively, in the premotor cortex and in the temporo-parietal junction...

  10. The impact of ownership on price-setting in retail-energy markets—The German case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper analyzes whether public ownership has an impact on providers' price-setting. Under the assumption of more efficient energy provision which benefits customers a large number of former energy monopolists have been privatized in line with the liberalization of energy markets in Germany at the end of the 1990s. However, current re-municipalizations are justified by similar arguments in the public debate. Based on a dataset on the ownership structure of energy providers we find that public property or private property itself is not the decisive factor for lower retail and wholesale prices. Rather, a high ownership concentration leads to low prices, regardless of the type of owner. As public investors often seek total ownership of a provider, households, which are less willing to switch, benefit at least indirectly from public ownership. Tests for robustness of our results applying different owner and concentration measures confirm the results independently from the underlying estimation specification. - Highlights: ► No difference between publicly or privately owned companies in retail price choice. ► The higher the ownership concentration the lower the retail price. ► No ownership impact on distribution charges, regulation effective against strategic ownership decisions.

  11. Market risks and oilfield ownership - Refining oil and gas disclosures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Market risk exposures of balance sheet asset values are becoming an increasingly important accounting issue. In oil and gas, oilfield exposures to oil prices are specific and contractual, presenting a contingency problem for investors, financial analysts, standard setting bodies and government agencies. Our paper uses an extensive sample of 292 oilfields to provide evidence that the US Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) supplementary disclosures do not capture the price sensitivities of oil and gas disclosures implicit in the two main forms of oilfield ownership, concession and production sharing contracts (PSCs). Current asset disclosures neither distinguish between global variations in oilfield ownership terms, nor on market risk implications for the value of oilfield assets. Importantly, we show that unlike concessions, reserve and production disclosures vary in response to oil price movements for PSC regimes. Our results highlight the need to differentiate PSC disclosures from concession fields, and to fully reflect price risks implicit in oilfield ownership contracts. We extend findings by Rajgopal [1999. Early evidence on the informativeness of the SEC's market risk disclosures: the case of commodity price risk exposure of oil and gas producers. The Accounting Review 74, 251-280] and propose refinements to capture market risk in financial reporting. (author)

  12. Disrupting Vestibular Activity Disrupts Body Ownership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoover, Adria E N; Harris, Laurence R

    2015-01-01

    People are more sensitive at detecting asynchrony between a self-generated movement and visual feedback concerning that movement when the movement is viewed from a first-person perspective. We call this the 'self-advantage' and interpret it as an objective measure of self. Here we ask if disruption of the vestibular system in healthy individuals affects the self-advantage. Participants performed finger movements while viewing their hand in a first-person ('self') or third-person ('other') perspective and indicated which of two periods (one with minimum delay and the other with an added delay of 33-264 ms) was delayed. Their sensitivity to the delay was calculated from the psychometric functions obtained. During the testing, disruptive galvanic vestibular stimulation (GVS) was applied in five-minute blocks interleaved with five minutes of no stimulation for a total of 40 min. We confirmed the self-advantage under no stimulation (31 ms). In the presence of disruptive GVS this advantage disappeared and there was no longer a difference in performance between perspectives. The threshold delay for the 'other' perspective was not affected by the GVS. These results suggest that an intact vestibular signal is required to distinguish 'self' from 'other' and to maintain a sense of body ownership. PMID:26595957

  13. Genetic resources, biotech patents and gene ownership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucchi, Nicola

    2014-01-01

    Human genetic resources are increasingly considered as ordinary commercial goods, but their value and utility go beyond the simple and immediate private profit. In contrast to other biological resources, commercial use does not focus upon the material itself but rather upon the genetic information it contains. Information goods are then usually subject to intellectual property rights, but in the biological and life science domains, property rights can have a negative influence upon the proper allocation of several goods, including genetic material or goods that are related to it. This scenario reflects the facts of recent litigations in the United States and Europe. In particular, these lawsuits have revived the debate over private ownership and control over genes. Within this context, the objective of the paper is to discuss how to recast the traditional right to access to and use of biochemical and human genetic material currently considered as part of the market framework. Looking beyond the protection of traditional public goods, the paper emphasizes the debate around the progressive commodification of human genetic resources facilitated by an improper use of intellectual property rights. Different scenarios are analyzed to evaluate alternative instruments and new regulatory approaches to avoid the private appropriation of human genetic resources and other natural assets. PMID:25845208

  14. Fly in Atmosphere by Drag Force - Easy Thrust Generation Aircraft Engine Based Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierre Celestin, Mwizerwa

    2013-11-01

    This paper aims to present to the science community another way to fly in atmosphere, a way which is much more cheaper, efficient, safe and easy. Over the years scientists have been trying to find a way to built the vertically taking off vehicles but there have been no satisfactory success(what have been found was very expensive), Even aircrafts we know now need very sophisticated and expensive engines and not efficient enough. This way of flying may help our governments to spend less money on technologies and will help people to travel at very low prices so that, it may be a solution to the crisis which the world faces nowadays. In other words, it is my proposal to the next generation technologies we was looking for for years because everything can fly from the car to the trucks, the spaceships and even the hotels maybe constructed and fly as we construct the ships which sail in the oceans. My way of flying will have many applications in all the aspect of travel as it is going to be explained.

  15. Aircraft recognition and pose estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hmam, Hatem; Kim, Jijoong

    2000-05-01

    This work presents a geometry based vision system for aircraft recognition and pose estimation using single images. Pose estimation improves the tracking performance of guided weapons with imaging seekers, and is useful in estimating target manoeuvres and aim-point selection required in the terminal phase of missile engagements. After edge detection and straight-line extraction, a hierarchy of geometric reasoning algorithms is applied to form line clusters (or groupings) for image interpretation. Assuming a scaled orthographic projection and coplanar wings, lateral symmetry inherent in the airframe provides additional constraints to further reject spurious line clusters. Clusters that accidentally pass all previous tests are checked against the original image and are discarded. Valid line clusters are then used to deduce aircraft viewing angles. By observing that the leading edges of wings of a number of aircraft of interest are within 45 to 65 degrees from the symmetry axis, a bounded range of aircraft viewing angles can be found. This generic property offers the advantage of not requiring the storage of complete aircraft models viewed from all aspects, and can handle aircraft with flexible wings (e.g. F111). Several aircraft images associated with various spectral bands (i.e. visible and infra-red) are finally used to evaluate the system's performance.

  16. Impact of ownership on the international involvement of SMEs

    OpenAIRE

    Zulima Fernández; María Jesús Nieto

    2006-01-01

    This paper analyses the relationship between the internationalisation strategies of SMEs and types of ownership. Different types of ownership affect firms, and this in turn will influence the internationalisation strategy adopted. Using a sample of Spanish SMEs, our results show that internationalisation is negatively related to family ownership and positively related to corporate ownership. We have also observed that the presence of a corporate blockholder in family firms encourages internat...

  17. Stock splits and changes in ownership structures : evidence from Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    Abrahamson, Martin; Kalström, Robert

    2009-01-01

    Stock splits are supposed to be financial cosmetics. However, this study shows that such corporate events have impact on ownership structure. This study exploits unique data from Swedish Central Security Registration regarding ownership and analyzes the ownership structures in stock splitting firms. Our data consists of exclu-sive semi-annually reported ownership structures of companies listed on Stockholm Stock Exchange. We categorize stock owners as domestic institutional investors, foreign...

  18. Beyond budgeting in Statoil : ownership towards ambition to action

    OpenAIRE

    Hjartåker, Stine; Kristiansen, Stine

    2012-01-01

    Beyond Budgeting is the concept of moving away from the traditional budget, and ownership is crucial when going beyond the budget. According to Pierce, Kostova and Dirks (2001, 2003), psychological ownership is when an individual feels psychologically tied to something. This thesis aims to enrich the ownership literature, and factors influencing...

  19. Device ownership, 'BYOD' & social media for learning

    OpenAIRE

    Grussendorf, Sonja

    2013-01-01

    Report on student usage of mobile devices & social media. The 2013 Survey asked about general ownership & usage; opinion on bringing in and using personal devices for learning; familiarity with and usage of social media; and attitude towards using social media in a teaching and learning context. This report summarises the results.

  20. 36 CFR 222.22 - Ownership claims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... claiming ownership under State branding and estray laws of branded or unbranded horses or burros within a wild horse or burro territory or range on the National Forest System where such animals are not... National Forest System after November 15, 1973, which become intermingled with wild horses or burros,...

  1. Capital Punishment, Gun Ownership, and Homicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleck, Gary

    1979-01-01

    Examines two controversial questions related to the problem of interpersonal violence in America: (1) Does use of the death penalty exert any measurable influence on the rate of homicide in the United States? (2) What relationship, if any, exists between the level of gun ownership and the level of homicide violence? (Author)

  2. Trust Ownership of the Tata Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Steen

    The Indian Tata Group is one of the largest and most admired business groups in the world. It has 28 listed subsidiaries and more than 80 operating businesses. It has shown strong financial performance and social responsibility for decades. Interestingly, it has a unique ownership structure: the...

  3. Reduction of aircraft noise in civil air transport by optimization of flight tracks and takeoff and approach procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rottmann, Uwe

    1988-08-01

    Noise optimized design of operational flight procedures for effective noise pollution reduction is analyzed. Power cutback during certain stages of approach and takeoff, extension of distance between sound source and sound receiver, as well as diminution of sound impact time are optimized for specific flight procedures and routings. Five takeoff and three landing procedures are analyzed in acoustic effects. Sound immission is computed by NOISIMSIS (NOISe IMpact SImulation System), a simulation system especially created for this task, under consideration of aircraft type specified sound emission characteristics and performance data as well as different meteorological conditions. The investigations for the example of Frankfurt airport result in formulating a planning guideline with notes and impulses for activities in operational noise abatement.

  4. Study on Size Distributions of Airborne Particles by Aircraft Observation in Spring over Eastern Coastal Areas of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Wei; LIU Hongjie; YUE Xin; LI Hong; CHEN Jianhua; TANG Dagang

    2005-01-01

    The authors studied the size distributions of particles at an altitude of 2000 m by aircraft observation over eastern costal areas of China from Zhuhai, Guangdong to Dalian, Liaoning (0.47-30 μm, 57 channels,including number concentration distribution, surface area concentration distribution and mass concentration distribution). In these cities, the average daily concentrations of PM10 are very high. They are among the most heavily polluted cities in China. The main pollution sources are anthropogenic activities such as wood, coal and oil burning. The observed size distributions show a broad spectrum and unique multi-peak characteristics, indicating no significant impacts of individual sources from urban areas. These results are far different from the distribution type at ground level. It may reflect the comprehensive effect of the regional pollution characteristics. Monitoring results over big cities could to some extent reflect their pollution characteristics.

  5. 75 FR 51953 - Notification and Reporting of Aircraft Accidents or Incidents and Overdue Aircraft, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-24

    ... applicability of these regulations to unmanned aircraft systems (UAS). The proposed definition stated... unmanned aircraft system that takes place between the time that the system is activated with the purpose of... notification and reporting of aircraft accidents or incidents by adding a definition of ``unmanned......

  6. Evaluation on the structural soundness of the transport package for low-level radioactive waste for subsurface disposal against aircraft impact by finite element method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The structural analysis of aircraft crush on the transport package for low-level radioactive waste was performed using the impact force which was already used for the evaluation of the high-level waste transport package by LSDYNA code. The transport package was deformed, and stresses due to the crush exceeded elastic range. However, plastic strains yieled in the package were far than the elongation of the materials and the body of the package did not contact the disposal packages due to the deformation of the package. Therefore, it was confirmed that the package keeps its integrity against aircraft crush. (author)

  7. Trenton ICES: demonstration of a grid-connected integrated community energy system. Phase II. Volumes 1 and 2. Preliminary design of ICES system and analysis of community ownership

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-03-22

    Preliminary design and evaluation for the system has been carried out. The findings of this study are: (1) it is technically feasible, utilizing commercially available hardware; (2) under utility ownership and operation, it will not be economically competitive with conventional alternatives for heating and cooling buildings (analysis contained in companion report under separate cover); (3) under utility ownership and operation, no restrictions have been identified that would prevent the project from proceeding; (4) under community ownership, preliminary analysis indicates that thermal energy produced by Trenton ICES will be approximately 12 percent less expensive than thermal energy produced by oil-fired boilers; and (5) a review and update of institutional analyses performed during Phase 2 has identified no factors that would preclude community ownership and operation of the Trenton ICES. The background data produced for the analysis of the Trenton ICES based on utility ownership and operation can, in large part, be used as the bases for a detailed analysis of community ownership.

  8. Challenges in Aircraft Noise Prediction

    OpenAIRE

    Filippone A

    2014-01-01

    This contribution addresses the problem of aircraft noise prediction using theoretical methods. The problem is set in context with the needs at several levels to produce noise characterisation from commercial aircraft powered by gas turbine engines. We describe very briefly the computational model (whilst referring the reader to the appropriate literature), and provide examples of noise predictions and comparisons with measured data, where possible. We focus on the issue of stochastic analysi...

  9. Special analysis of community annoyance with aircraft noise reported by residents in the vicinity of JFK Airport, 1972

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borsky, P. N.

    1975-01-01

    During the summer of 1972, about 1500 residents were interviewed twice in 11 communities near JFK airport. Detailed aircraft operations reports were also collected for this period, and an effort has been made to analyze recorded human response data in relation to a number of physical exposure parameters. A series of exposure indexes, based on an arithmetic integration of aircraft operations, were correlated with summated aircraft noise annoyance responses. None of these correlations were as good as the CNR index which assumes a logrithmetic integration of numbers of aircraft exposures and includes a day-night differential weighting of 10:1. There were substantial variations in average annoyance responses among communities with similar CNR exposures, substantiating previous findings that attitudinal and other personal variables also play an important role in determining annoyance differences.

  10. A new proxy measure for state-level gun ownership in studies of firearm injury prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, Michael; Ross, Craig S; King, Charles

    2014-06-01

    Since many states are considering gun control laws, researchers need reliable data on rates of gun ownership at the state level. Survey measures of gun ownership in all 50 states, however, are only available for 3 years, and no state-level data have been collected since 2004. Consequently, the National Research Council has declared the development of a valid proxy that can be constructed from accessible, annual, state-level data to be a priority. While such a proxy does exist (the proportion of suicides in a state committed using a gun (FS/S), its correlation with state estimates of gun ownership in recent years is only 0.80. Using state-level data for the years 2001, 2002 and 2004, we developed an improved proxy for state-level gun ownership that uses FS/S (firearm suicides divided by all suicides) and also the per capita number of hunting licenses. We validated this measure using data from surveys of gun ownership conducted in 48 states during 1996 and 1999, and in 21 states during 1995-1998. Adding per capita hunting licenses to the proxy increased its correlation with survey-measured gun ownership from 0.80 to 0.95. The correlations of the new proxy with gun ownership in the two validation studies were 0.95 and 0.97. We conclude that the combination of FS/S and per capita hunting licenses improves substantially upon FS/S alone. This new proxy is easily computed from data that are available annually by state and may be useful for investigating the effect of gun prevalence on firearm-related morbidity and mortality. PMID:23956369

  11. Flying and handling qualities of a fly-by-wire blended-wing-body civil transport aircraft

    OpenAIRE

    de Castro, Helena V.

    2003-01-01

    The blended-wing-body (BWB) configuration appears as a promising contender for the next generation of large transport aircraft. The idea of blending the wing with the fuselage and eliminating the tail is not new, it has long been known that tailless aircraft can suffer from stability and control problems that must be addressed early in the design. This thesis is concerned with identifying and then evaluating the flight dynamics, stability, flight controls and handling qualities of a generic B...

  12. Local ownership, smart energy systems and better wind power economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvelplund, Frede; Möller, Bernd; Sperling, Karl

    2013-01-01

    Increasing wind power shares enhances the need to integrate wind power into the energy system and to improve its economy. In this study we propose two ways of achieving this end. One is to increase the value of wind power by integrating the heat and power markets, and thus ensures that wind power...... is never sold at a lower price than the most expensive heat alternative. The other is to lower the average costs of wind power by building more onshore wind power capacity, and proportionally less offshore wind power. This is facilitated by local and regional majority ownership models that increase...

  13. Optimised Cockpit Heat Load Analysis using Skin Temperature Predicted by CFD and Validation by Thermal Mapping to Improve the Performance of Fighter Aircraft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paresh Gupta

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Designing of optimum environmental control system (ECS plays a major role for increasing performance of fighter aircraft depending upon requirement of engine bleed air for running of ECS. Accurate estimation of cockpit skin temperature for obtaining optimised cockpit heat load helps in estimation of engine bleed air for ECS. Present research evolved a methodology for comparing the theoretically calculated skin temperature with computational fluid dynamics (CFD analysis to obtain optimum skin temperature. Results are validated by flight tests under critical flight conditions using thermal crayons. Based on which the optimized heat load and bleed air requirements has been computed. Uncertainty analysis of skin temperature measurement for thermal crayons have been undertaken. The results indicate that the theoretical skin temperature is -26.70 per cent as that of CFD estimated skin temperature. Optimized average cockpit heat load at critical flight profiles is 0.74 times the theoretical cockpit heat load, leading to reduction of bleed air requirement by 26 per cent as compared to theoretical. Due to this literature survey has pridicted the increase in performance parameters like increase in bleed air pressure by 78 per cent, increase in thrust by 60 per cent, and decrease in specific fuel consumption (SFC by 40 per cent to improve the endurance of aircraft. The research has generated governing equations for variation of cockpit heat loads w.r.t aircraft skin temperatures.Defence Science Journal, Vol. 65, No. 1, January 2015, pp.12-24, DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.14429/dsj.65.7200

  14. Variations of GHGs from the lower-troposphere to the UT/LS revealed by two Japanese regular aircraft observation programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niwa, Yosuke; Machida, Toshinobu; Sawa, Yousuke; Tsuboi, Kazuhiro; Matsueda, Hidekazu; Imasu, Ryoichi

    2014-05-01

    A Japan-centered observation network consisting of two regular aircraft programs have revealed the greenhouse gases variations from the lower-troposphere to the upper-troposphere/lower-stratosphere (UT/LS) regions. In the Comprehensive Observation Network for Trace gases by Airliner (CONTRAIL) project, in-situ continuous measurement equipment (CME) onboard commercial passenger aircraft world-widely observes CO2 profiles in vertical over tens of airports and in horizontal in the UT/LS regions. The CONTRAIL-CME has revealed three-dimensional structure of the global CO2 distribution and has exposed significant inter-hemispheric transport of CO2 through the upper-troposphere. In inverse modeling, the CME data have provided strong constraints on CO2 flux estimation especially for the Asian tropics. Automatic flask air sampling equipment (ASE) is also onboard the CONTRAIL aircraft and has been observing CO2 mixing ratios as well as those of methane, carbon monoxide, nitrous oxide and other trace species in the upper-troposphere between Japan and Australia. The observation period of the ASE has reached 20 years. In recent years, the ASE program has extended to the northern subarctic UT/LS region and has given an insight of transport mechanisms in the UT/LS by observing seasonal GHGs variations. In the other aircraft observation program by Japan Meteorological Agency, variations of GHGs have been observed by flask-sampling onboard a C-130H aircraft horizontally in the mid-troposphere over the western North Pacific as well as vertically over Minamitorishima-Island. The C-130H aircraft has persistently observed high mixing ratios of CH4 in the mid-troposphere, which seems to be originated from fossil fuel combustion throughout the year as well as from biogenic sources during summer in the Asian regions. Those above aircraft observation programs have a significant role for constraining GHGs flux estimates by filling the data gap of the existing surface measurement network

  15. Demystifying the role of a state ownership in corporate governance and firm performance: Evidence from the manufacturing sector in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amran Rasli

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to examine the role of state ownership in corporate governance and firm performance. We employed ordinary least squares and two-stage least squares regressions to analyze the effects of state ownership on firm performance. We go beyond existing research on state ownership by carefully disentangle investment objectives of state-controlled financial institutions. Such state ownership can be classified as profit-oriented and non-profit-oriented, in which the former consider return on investment to be the primary investment objective, whereas the latter prioritizes socio-economic development. We found that profit-oriented state ownership is an effective corporate governance mechanism and provides political patronage to the firm in the form of firm’s specific resources and credit financing. Although nonprofit-oriented state ownership firms also receive similar political patronage, they tend to be associated with inefficiencies such as the free-rider problems, bureaucracies and political intervention in firm management. We conclude that state ownership consists of heterogeneous entities with respect to corporate governance and firm performance.

  16. Contested Cottage Landscapes: Host perspective to the increase of foreign second home ownership in Finland 1990-2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kati Pitkänen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Cross-border and international second home ownership is a worldwide phenomenon and growing in popularity as people seek for desirable environments further away than before. As the desired landscapes are also likely to possess a considerable local and national value, research is needed to find out how host societies perceive and receive the newcomers. This paper explores the Finnish public debate on foreign second home ownership from 1990 to 2008, a period that has witnessed a considerable growth in foreign property ownership. The paper uses the concept of cottage landscape to analyse how second homes are positioned nationally and how foreign second home ownership is debated in relation to the national definitions and valuations. Based on changing emphases and fears related to the phenomenon, three periods of public debate are distinguished. The results demonstrate the iconic image of cottage landscape in the Finnish society by showing how foreign second home ownership is perceived as a threat to the Finnish way of life, landownership rights and national identity. From the perspective of the host society, foreign second home ownership is a complicated and emotional matter with potential to arise opposition and even conflicts when the foreign demand focuses on locally or nationally valued landscapes. Therefore research on the internationalisation of second home ownership can no longer ignore the perspective of the host society.

  17. Ownership structure, profit maximization, and competitive behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Vroom, Govert; Mccann, Brian T.

    2009-01-01

    We question the broad applicability of the assumption of profit maximization as the goal of the firm and investigate how variance in objective functions across different ownership structures affects competitive behavior. While prior work in agency theory has argued that firms may fail to engage in profit maximizing behaviors due to misalignment between the goals of owners and managers, we contend that we are unlikely to observe pure profit maximizing behavior even in the case of the perfect a...

  18. EU Policy. Germany debates ownership unbundling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The European Commission has proposed an extensive overhaul of Europe's energy market with the aim to improve competition, spark infrastructure investments and create a cross-border European power market. However, ownership unbundling (OU), has been met with resistance, particularly in Germany, where four powerful energy companies rule over an oligopoly that many say is causing high energy prices. Several experts in this field have serious doubts if OU will drive down prices

  19. EU Policy. Germany debates ownership unbundling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicola, S.

    2008-01-15

    The European Commission has proposed an extensive overhaul of Europe's energy market with the aim to improve competition, spark infrastructure investments and create a cross-border European power market. However, ownership unbundling (OU), has been met with resistance, particularly in Germany, where four powerful energy companies rule over an oligopoly that many say is causing high energy prices. Several experts in this field have serious doubts if OU will drive down prices.

  20. Australian coal production marketing and ownership practices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, the author explains his belief that instability of coal pricing has led to ownership changes and, besides high costs, is one of the contributors to that low profitability has been the low prices achieved for coal versus other energy sources. These low prices are, in turn, a reflection of the underlying supply/demand cycle. This paper examines Australia's coal performance in world markets during the 1980's and then the other marketing factors which lead to the authors' conclusion

  1. Ownership Structure, Board Composition and Investment Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Palmberg, Johanna; Eklund, Johan; Wiberg, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    In this paper the relation between ownership structure, board composition and firm performance is explored. A panel of Swedish listed firms is used to investigate how board composition affects firm performance. Board heterogeneity is measured as board size, age and gender diversity. The results show that Swedish board of directors have become more diversified in terms of gender. Also, fewer firms have the CEO on the board which can be interpreted as a sign of increased independency. The regre...

  2. Two Essays on Ownership and Market Characteristics

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Honghui

    1999-01-01

    Theoretical models suggest that ownership structure may be an important determinant of securities' market characteristics. For example, the presence of informed traders leads to greater bid-ask spreads (Copeland and Galai (1983), and Glosten and Milgrom (1985)), and strategic trading of informed and discretionary liquidity traders leads to intertemporal variation in both trading volume and trading costs (Admati and Pfleiderer (1988), and Foster and Viswanathan (1990)). However, the empirica...

  3. Commune: Shared Ownership in an Agnostic Cloud

    OpenAIRE

    Soriente, Claudio; Karame, Ghassan; Ritzdorf, Hubert; Marinovic, Srdjan; Capkun, Srdjan

    2013-01-01

    Although cloud storage platforms promise a convenient way for users to share files and engage in collaborations, they require all files to have a single owner who unilaterally makes access control decisions. Existing clouds are, thus, agnostic to shared ownership. This can be a significant limitation in many collaborations because one owner can, for example, delete files and revoke access without consulting the other collaborators. In this paper, we first formally define a notion of shared ow...

  4. Family Pet Ownership during Childhood: Findings from a UK Birth Cohort and Implications for Public Health Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jon Heron

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available In developed nations, approximately half of household environments contain pets. Studies of Human-Animal Interaction (HAI have proposed that there are health benefits and risks associated with pet ownership. However, accurately demonstrating and understanding these relationships first requires a better knowledge of factors associated with ownership of different pet types. A UK birth cohort, the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC, were used to collect pet ownership data from the mothers, from gestation to child age 10 years old. 14,663 children were included in the study, of which mothers of 13,557 reported pet information at gestation, and 7,800 by age 10. Pet types recorded include cat, dog, rabbit, rodent, bird, fish and tortoise/turtle. The dataset also contains a number of demographic, socioeconomic and behavioural variables relevant to human health behaviour. Logistic regression was used to build multivariable models for ownership of each pet type at age 7 years. Family pet ownership increased during childhood, in particular rabbits, rodents and fish. A number of socioeconomic and demographic factors were associated with ownership of different pet types and the effects differed depending on the pet type studied. Variables which require consideration by researchers include gender, presence of older siblings, ethnicity, maternal and paternal education, maternal and paternal social class, maternal age, number of people in the household, house type, and concurrent ownership of other pets. Whether the mother had pets during her childhood was a strong predictor of pet ownership in all models. In HAI studies, care should be taken to control for confounding factors, and to treat each pet type individually. ALSPAC and other similar birth cohorts can be considered a potential resource for research into the effects of pet ownership during childhood.

  5. Alternative Contracting and Ownership Approaches for New Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This publication examines alternative contracting and ownership approaches for the development, construction, commissioning, operation, and decommissioning of new nuclear power plants. It identifies issues faced by IAEA Member States considering the applicability of such approaches to their respective national programmes. Two new approaches to nuclear project development are analysed. These are, firstly, the Build-Own-Operate (BOO)/Build-Own-Operate-Transfer (BOO(T)) and, secondly, Regional approaches. The information includes practical examples, current practices, and case studies, and reflects the presentations and discussions that took place in a series of IAEA meetings on this topic

  6. Hospital Ownership Mix Efficiency in the US: An Exploratory Study

    OpenAIRE

    Rexford E. Santerre; John A. Vernon

    2005-01-01

    This paper offers an empirical test of ownership mix efficiency in the U.S. hospital services industry. The test compares the benefits of quality assurance with the costs from the attenuation of property rights that result from an increased presence of nonprofit organizations. The empirical results suggest that too many not-for-profit and public hospitals may exist in the typical market area of the U.S. The policy implication is that more quality of care per dollar might be obtained by attrac...

  7. Structural Diagnostics of CFRP Composite Aircraft Components by Ultrasonic Guided Waves and Built-In Piezoelectric Transducers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howard M. Matt

    2007-02-15

    To monitor in-flight damage and reduce life-cycle costs associated with CFRP composite aircraft, an autonomous built-in structural health monitoring (SHM) system is preferred over conventional maintenance routines and schedules. This thesis investigates the use of ultrasonic guided waves and piezoelectric transducers for the identification and localization of damage/defects occurring within critical components of CFRP composite aircraft wings, mainly the wing skin-to-spar joints. The guided wave approach for structural diagnostics was demonstrated by the dual application of active and passive monitoring techniques. For active interrogation, the guided wave propagation problem was initially studied numerically by a semi-analytical finite element method, which accounts for viscoelastic damping, in order to identify ideal mode-frequency combinations sensitive to damage occurring within CFRP bonded joints. Active guided wave tests across three representative wing skin-to-spar joints at ambient temperature were then conducted using attached Macro Fiber Composite (MFC) transducers. Results from these experiments demonstrate the importance of intelligent feature extraction for improving the sensitivity to damage. To address the widely neglected effects of temperature on guided wave base damage identification, analytical and experimental analyses were performed to characterize the influence of temperature on guided wave signal features. In addition, statistically-robust detection of simulated damage in a CFRP bonded joint was successfully achieved under changing temperature conditions through a dimensionally-low, multivariate statistical outlier analysis. The response of piezoceramic patches and MFC transducers to ultrasonic Rayleigh and Lamb wave fields was analytically derived and experimentally validated. This theory is useful for designing sensors which possess optimal sensitivity toward a given mode-frequency combination or for predicting the frequency dependent

  8. HALO aircraft measurements of East Asian anthropogenic SO2 import into the lower stratosphere by a warm conveyor belt uplift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlager, H.; Arnold, F.; Aufmhoff, H.; Baumann, R.; Pirjola, L.; Roiger, A.; Sailer, T.; Wirth, M.; Schumann, U.

    2012-04-01

    We report on a case study of anthropogenic SO2 pollution transport into the lower stratosphere from East Asian source regions. The pollution layer was observed over Central Europe by measurements from the new German research aircraft HALO. The layer contained enhanced SO2, HNO3 and water vapor and caused increased Lidar backscatter radiation. Meteorological analysis and air mass transport and dispersion model simulations reveal that the detected pollutants were released from ground-based sources in East-China, South-Korea, and Japan. The pollution plume was uplifted by a warm conveyor belt associated with a West-Pacific cyclone and finally injected into the lower stratosphere. Our HALO measurements were performed 5 days after the air mass uplift event, when significant parts of the Northern Hemisphere were already covered by the pollution plume. Accompanying trajectory chemistry and aerosol box model simulations indicate that H2SO4/H2O aerosol droplets were generated in the SO2-rich plume and grew to sizes large enough to explain the observed increased Lidar backscatter signal. Implications of the SO2 transport pathway into the lower stratosphere presented in this study will be discussed.

  9. Advanced technology for future regional transport aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, L. J.

    1982-01-01

    In connection with a request for a report coming from a U.S. Senate committee, NASA formed a Small Transport Aircraft Technology (STAT) team in 1978. STAT was to obtain information concerning the technical improvements in commuter aircraft that would likely increase their public acceptance. Another area of study was related to questions regarding the help which could be provided by NASA's aeronautical research and development program to commuter aircraft manufacturers with respect to the solution of technical problems. Attention is given to commuter airline growth, current commuter/region aircraft and new aircraft in development, prospects for advanced technology commuter/regional transports, and potential benefits of advanced technology. A list is provided of a number of particular advances appropriate to small transport aircraft, taking into account small gas turbine engine component technology, propeller technology, three-dimensional wing-design technology, airframe aerodynamics/propulsion integration, and composite structure materials.

  10. 3D pressure imaging of an aircraft propeller blade-tip flow by phase-locked stereoscopic PIV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ragni, D.; Oudheusden, B.W. van; Scarano, F. [Delft University of Technology, Faculty of Aerospace Engineering, Delft (Netherlands)

    2012-02-15

    The flow field at the tip region of a scaled DHC Beaver aircraft propeller, running at transonic speed, has been investigated by means of a multi-plane stereoscopic particle image velocimetry setup. Velocity fields, phase-locked with the blade rotational motion, are acquired across several planes perpendicular to the blade axis and merged to form a 3D measurement volume. Transonic conditions have been reached at the tip region, with a revolution frequency of 19,800 rpm and a relative free-stream Mach number of 0.73 at the tip. The pressure field and the surface pressure distribution are inferred from the 3D velocity data through integration of the momentum Navier-Stokes equation in differential form, allowing for the simultaneous flow visualization and the aerodynamic loads computation, with respect to a reference frame moving with the blade. The momentum and pressure data are further integrated by means of a contour-approach to yield the aerodynamic sectional force components as well as the blade torsional moment. A steady Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes numerical simulation of the entire propeller model has been used for comparison to the measurement data. (orig.)

  11. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2009, 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, Candler County GIS.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset, published at 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Hardcopy Maps information as of 2009. Data by this...

  12. Forward Looking Radar Imaging by Truncated Singular Value Decomposition and Its Application for Adverse Weather Aircraft Landing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulin Huang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The forward looking radar imaging task is a practical and challenging problem for adverse weather aircraft landing industry. Deconvolution method can realize the forward looking imaging but it often leads to the noise amplification in the radar image. In this paper, a forward looking radar imaging based on deconvolution method is presented for adverse weather aircraft landing. We first present the theoretical background of forward looking radar imaging task and its application for aircraft landing. Then, we convert the forward looking radar imaging task into a corresponding deconvolution problem, which is solved in the framework of algebraic theory using truncated singular decomposition method. The key issue regarding the selecting of the truncated parameter is addressed using generalized cross validation approach. Simulation and experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method is effective in achieving angular resolution enhancement with suppressing the noise amplification in forward looking radar imaging.

  13. Forward Looking Radar Imaging by Truncated Singular Value Decomposition and Its Application for Adverse Weather Aircraft Landing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yulin; Zha, Yuebo; Wang, Yue; Yang, Jianyu

    2015-01-01

    The forward looking radar imaging task is a practical and challenging problem for adverse weather aircraft landing industry. Deconvolution method can realize the forward looking imaging but it often leads to the noise amplification in the radar image. In this paper, a forward looking radar imaging based on deconvolution method is presented for adverse weather aircraft landing. We first present the theoretical background of forward looking radar imaging task and its application for aircraft landing. Then, we convert the forward looking radar imaging task into a corresponding deconvolution problem, which is solved in the framework of algebraic theory using truncated singular decomposition method. The key issue regarding the selecting of the truncated parameter is addressed using generalized cross validation approach. Simulation and experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method is effective in achieving angular resolution enhancement with suppressing the noise amplification in forward looking radar imaging. PMID:26094627

  14. Staff ownership would revolutionize patient safety - if we let it.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balding, Cathy

    2013-01-01

    Healthcare has failed to make the same progress as other high-risk industries when it comes to creating safety - despite over a decade of research, education and implementation of safety systems in health services. Safe care is created by systems and standardization, and also by proactive, thinking staff working in partnership with consumers and each other; but the healthcare industry appears to struggle to reconcile these concepts. Even with our evolved knowledge of how human beings operate in organizations, and the best intentions, the dominant change paradigm in healthcare is still hierarchical, based on top-down policies implemented by managers and staff. Although the power spread in health services is being tested through generational change, we have a long way to go before proactivity and initiative at the front line are universally fostered and welcomed by healthcare managers and senior clinicians. "Front Line Ownership: Generating a Cure Mindset for Patient Safety," by Zimmerman et al., presents a persuasive example of how staff ownership of improving consumer safety is a powerful tool for change, one that deserves its place at the front line of safety and quality improvement methods. PMID:23803355

  15. Modeled black carbon radiative forcing and atmospheric lifetime in AeroCom Phase II constrained by aircraft observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. H. Samset

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric black carbon (BC absorbs solar radiation, and exacerbates global warming through exerting positive radiative forcing (RF. However, the contribution of BC to ongoing changes in global climate is under debate. Anthropogenic BC emissions, and the resulting distribution of BC concentration, are highly uncertain. In particular, long range transport and processes affecting BC atmospheric lifetime are poorly understood. Here we discuss whether recent assessments may have overestimated present day BC radiative forcing in remote regions. We compare vertical profiles of BC concentration from four recent aircraft measurement campaigns to simulations by 13 aerosol models participating in the AeroCom Phase II intercomparision. An atmospheric lifetime of BC of less than 5 days is shown to be essential for reproducing observations in remote ocean regions, in line with other recent studies. Adjusting model results to measurements in remote regions, and at high altitudes, leads to a 25% reduction in AeroCom Phase II median direct BC forcing, from fossil fuel and biofuel burning, over the industrial era. The sensitivity of modeled forcing to BC vertical profile and lifetime highlights an urgent need for further flight campaigns, close to sources and in remote regions, to provide improved quantification of BC effects for use in climate policy.

  16. Impact of the chosen turbulent flow empirical model on the prediction of sound radiation and vibration by aircraft panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Joana

    2016-07-01

    A precise definition of the turbulent boundary layer excitation is required to accurately predict the sound radiation and surface vibration levels, produced by an aircraft panel excited turbulent flow during flight. Hence, any existing inaccuracy on turbulent boundary layer excitation models leads to an inaccurate prediction of the panel response. A number of empirical models have been developed over the years to provide the turbulent boundary layer wall pressure spectral density. However, different empirical models provide dissimilar predictions for the wall pressure spectral density. The objective of the present study is to investigate and quantify the impact of the chosen empirical model on the predicted radiated sound power, and on the predicted panel surface acceleration levels. This study provides a novel approach and a detailed analysis on the use of different turbulent boundary layer wall pressure empirical models, and impact on mathematical predictions. Closed-form mathematical relationships are developed, and recommendations are provided for the level of deviation and uncertainty associated to different models, in relation to a baseline model, both for panel surface acceleration and radiated sound power.

  17. Effects of Family Ownership, Debt and Board Composition on Mexican Firms Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Manuel San Martin-Reyna

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the relationship between ownership structure and performance of public firms in Mexico, considering debt and the structure of the board of directors as contextual and institutional factors. This research seeks to explain the mixed results about the relationship of ownership and performance presented by other relevant studies in family and non-family businesses, mainly in emerging countries. The results confirm the positive association between family ownership concentration and performance, calculated by Tobin’s Q, showing how the participation of inside shareholders on the board and a low debt level contribute to higher performance. However, the association of these variables with performance shows a contrasting effect in the case of family as compared to non-family businesses. The particular corporate legal context in Mexico could be highlighted as one of the main reasons for these results.

  18. Policy and the evaluation of aircraft noise

    OpenAIRE

    Kroesen, M.; Molin, E.J.E.; Van Wee, G.P.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we hypothesize and test the ideas that (1) people’s subjectivity in relation to aircraft noise is shaped by the policy discourse, (2) this results in a limited number of frames towards aircraft noise, (3) the frames inform people how to think and feel about aircraft noise and (4) the distribution of the frames in the population is dependent on structural variables related to the individual. To reveal subjects’ frames of aircraft noise a latent class model is estimated based on ...

  19. Challenges for the aircraft structural integrity program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lincoln, John W.

    1994-01-01

    Thirty-six years ago the United States Air Force established the USAF Aircraft Structural Integrity Program (ASIP) because flight safety had been degraded by fatigue failures of operational aircraft. This initial program evolved, but has been stable since the issuance of MIL-STD-1530A in 1975. Today, the program faces new challenges because of a need to maintain aircraft longer in an environment of reduced funding levels. Also, there is increased pressure to reduce cost of the acquisition of new aircraft. It is the purpose of this paper to discuss the challenges for the ASIP and identify the changes in the program that will meet these challenges in the future.

  20. Aircraft Cabin Environmental Quality Sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gundel, Lara; Kirchstetter, Thomas; Spears, Michael; Sullivan, Douglas

    2010-05-06

    The Indoor Environment Department at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) teamed with seven universities to participate in a Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) Center of Excellence (COE) for research on environmental quality in aircraft. This report describes research performed at LBNL on selecting and evaluating sensors for monitoring environmental quality in aircraft cabins, as part of Project 7 of the FAA's COE for Airliner Cabin Environmental Research (ACER)1 effort. This part of Project 7 links to the ozone, pesticide, and incident projects for data collection and monitoring and is a component of a broader research effort on sensors by ACER. Results from UCB and LBNL's concurrent research on ozone (ACER Project 1) are found in Weschler et al., 2007; Bhangar et al. 2008; Coleman et al., 2008 and Strom-Tejsen et al., 2008. LBNL's research on pesticides (ACER Project 2) in airliner cabins is described in Maddalena and McKone (2008). This report focused on the sensors needed for normal contaminants and conditions in aircraft. The results are intended to complement and coordinate with results from other ACER members who concentrated primarily on (a) sensors for chemical and biological pollutants that might be released intentionally in aircraft; (b) integration of sensor systems; and (c) optimal location of sensors within aircraft. The parameters and sensors were selected primarily to satisfy routine monitoring needs for contaminants and conditions that commonly occur in aircraft. However, such sensor systems can also be incorporated into research programs on environmental quality in aircraft cabins.

  1. Support Schemes and Ownership Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ropenus, Stephanie; Schröder, Sascha Thorsten; Costa, Ana;

    In recent years, fuel cell based micro‐combined heat and power has received increasing attention due to its potential contribution to energy savings, efficiency gains, customer proximity and flexibility in operation and capacity size. The FC4Home project assesses technical and economic aspects of...... the ongoing fuel cell based micro‐combined heat and power (mCHP) demonstration projects by addressing the socio‐economic and systems analyses perspectives of a large‐scale promotion scheme of fuel cells. This document constitutes the deliverable of Work Package 1 of the FC4Home project and provides an...... introduction to the policy context for mCHP. Section 1 describes the rationale for the promotion of mCHP by explaining its potential contribution to European energy policy goals. Section 2 addresses the policy context at the supranational European level by outlining relevant EU Directives on support schemes...

  2. The Influence of Employee Ownership on Intrapreneurship and Growth

    OpenAIRE

    Klaneček, Alojz; Antončièč, Boštjan

    2007-01-01

    Programmes of workers’ participation and profit-sharing may not be as powerful a motivation as ownership. Owners of the majority of shares might like to include managers, experts and routine workers among the shareholders. This study empirically examines the relationship between employee ownership, intrapreneurship, and firm growth. Results of the empirical analysis do not completely support the hypothesis of a positive association between employee ownership and intrapreneurship nor the hypot...

  3. Ownership Structure, Corporate Governance, and Firms' Performance: Konka Group Illustration

    OpenAIRE

    Zhihua Dai

    2009-01-01

    Starts with the basic analysis that ownership structure determines corporate governance, which finally determines firm’s performance, and based on the up to date
    corporate governance theory, the paper investigates Shenzhen Konka’s 12 years long development of being a listed company and makes an analytic demonstration. The author discovers the truth that the ownership exchange occurred in 1997 was the turning point for Konka. The exchange not only altered the original ownership stru...

  4. Corporate Ownership, Control, and Firm Performance in Victorian Britain

    OpenAIRE

    Acheson, Graeme G.; Campbell, Gareth; Turner, John D; Vanteeva, Nadia

    2016-01-01

    Scholars have long debated whether ownership structure matters for firm performance. The standard view with respect to Victorian Britain is that family-controlled companies had a detrimental effect on operating profit and shareholder value. Here, we examine this view using a hand-collected corporate ownership dataset. Our main finding is that it was not necessarily the broad structure of corporate ownership that mattered for performance, but whether family blockholders had a governance role. ...

  5. Ownership Structure, Board Characteristics and Corporate Performance in Tunisia

    OpenAIRE

    Amira Turki; Nadia Ben Sedrine

    2012-01-01

    Drawing upon prior empirical research on the potential endogeneity of both ownership structure and firmperformance in developed markets, this study examines the reverse causations that can exist between corporateperformance and ownership structure in Tunisian listed companies. The study was extended to include boardcharacteristics as a principal internal control mechanism for monitoring managers and an assessment of itspotential effects on firm performance and ownership structure. Our finding...

  6. Knowledge sharing and affective commitment: the mediating role of psychological ownership

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Jian; Yuan, Ling; Ning, Lutao;

    2015-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to investigate the meditating role of psychological ownership which includes both organisation-based psychological ownership (OPO) and knowledge-based psychological ownership (KPO) on the relationship between affective commitment and knowledge sharing. Design....../methodology/approach – This paper is an empirical study based on structural equation modelling, with a sample of 293 employees from 31 high-technology firms in China. Findings – The result indicated that affective commitment had a significant positive effect on OPO but no effect on KPO; OPO was positively related to both...... common and key knowledge sharing, while KPO exerted a negative impact on both; common knowledge sharing was positively related to key knowledge sharing; the relationship between affective commitment and key knowledge sharing was multi-mediated by OPO and common knowledge sharing. Originality/value – OPO...

  7. Does improving Public Transport decrease Car Ownership? Evidence from the Copenhagen Metropolitan Area

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mulalic, Ismir; Pilegaard, Ninette; Rouwendal, Jan

    Car ownership is lower in urban areas, which is probably related to the availability of better publict ransport. Better public transport thus may offer the possibility to relieve the many problems (congestion,health, and parking) associated with the presence of cars in urban areas. To investigate...... this issue, wedevelop and estimate a model for the simultaneous choice of a residential area and car ownership. Themodel is estimated on Danish register data for single-earner and dual-earners households in the greaterCopenhagen metropolitan area. We pay special attention to accessibility of the metro...... network whichoffers particularly high quality public transport. Simulations based on the estimated model show that forthe greater Copenhagen area a planned extension of the metro network decreases car ownership by 2-3%.Our results suggest also a substantial increase in the interest for living in areas...

  8. Study on the Ownership of Plant Genetic Resources on Farmers’ Land

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fuyou; WANG; Hongyan; SONG; Yuanyuan; HUANG

    2013-01-01

    In order to protect Chinese farmers’ sharing benefits and make legal preparation for accession to the International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture, this paper analyzed differences between state sovereignty and ownership of genetic resources and between natural resources and plant genetic resources on farmers’ land. Then, it studied the regulations of the United States, European Union and Indian on the ownership of plant genetic resources on farmers’ land. On the basis of the analysis and study, the authors stated that the sovereignty of plant genetic resources can not replace the ownership system. The plant genetic resources on farmers’ (community) land should be in the possession of farmers or communities, which should be confirmed by the State.

  9. Hospital ownership and medical services: market mix, spillover effects, and nonprofit objectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horwitz, Jill R; Nichols, Austin

    2009-09-01

    Hospitals operate in markets with varied demographic, competitive, and ownership characteristics, yet research on ownership tends to examine hospitals in isolation. Here we examine three hospital ownership types -- nonprofit, for-profit, and government -- and their spillover effects. We estimate the effects of for-profit market share in two ways, on the provision of medical services and on operating margins at the three types of hospitals. We find that nonprofit hospitals' medical service provision systematically varies by market mix. We find no significant effect of market mix on the operating margins of nonprofit hospitals, but find that for-profit hospitals have higher margins in markets with more for-profits. These results fit best with theories in which hospitals maximize their own output. PMID:19781802

  10. Research on Emerging and Descending Aircraft Noise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Bartkevičiūtė

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Along with an increase in the aircraft engine power and growth in air traffic, noise level at airports and their surrounding environs significantly increases. Aircraft noise is high level noise spreading within large radius and intensively irritating the human body. Air transport is one of the main sources of noise having a particularly strong negative impact on the environment. The article deals with activities and noises taking place in the largest nationwide Vilnius International Airport.The level of noise and its dispersion was evaluated conducting research on the noise generated by emerging and descending aircrafts in National Vilnius Airport. Investigation was carried out at 2 measuring points located in a residential area. There are different types of aircrafts causing different sound levels. It has been estimated the largest exceedances that occur when an aircraft is approaching. In this case, the noisiest types of aircrafts are B733, B738 and AT72. The sound level varies from 70 to 85 dBA. The quietest aircrafts are RJ1H and F70. When taking off, the equivalent of the maximum sound level value of these aircrafts does not exceed the authorized limits. The paper describes the causes of noise in aircrafts, the sources of origin and the impact of noise on humans and the environment.Article in Lithuanian

  11. An evaluation of the performance of chemistry transport models by comparison with research aircraft observations. Part 1: Concepts and overall model performance

    OpenAIRE

    Brunner, D.; Staehelin, J; Rogers, H. L.; Köhler, M. O.; Pyle, J.A.; Hauglustaine, D.; Jourdain, L.; Berntsen, T. K.; Gauss, M.; I. S. A. Isaksen; MEIJER E.; Van Velthoven, P.; Pitari, G.; Mancini, E; Grewe, V

    2003-01-01

    A rigorous evaluation of five global Chemistry-Transport and two Chemistry-Climate Models operated by several different groups in Europe was performed by comparing the models with trace gas observations from a number of research aircraft measurement campaigns. Whenever possible the models were run over the four-year period 1995–1998 and at each simulation time step the instantaneous tracer fields were interpolated to all coinciding observation points. This approach allows for a ...

  12. An evaluation of the performance of chemistry transport models by comparison with research aircraft observations. Part 1: Concepts and overall model performance

    OpenAIRE

    Brunner, D.; Staehelin, J; Rogers, H. L.; Köhler, M. O.; Pyle, J.A.; Hauglustaine, D.; Jourdain, L.; Berntsen, T. K.; Gauss, M.; I. S. A. Isaksen; MEIJER E.; Van Velthoven, P.; Pitari, G.; Mancini, E; Grewe, V

    2003-01-01

    International audience A rigorous evaluation of five global Chemistry-Transport and two Chemistry-Climate Models operated by several different groups in Europe was performed by comparing the models with trace gas observations from a number of research aircraft measurement campaigns. Whenever possible the models were run over the four-year period 1995–1998 and at each simulation time step the instantaneous tracer fields were interpolated to all coinciding observation points. This approach a...

  13. Foreign Ownership and Corporate Income Taxation: An Empirical Evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Harry Huizinga; Gaetan Nicodeme

    2003-01-01

    Economic integration in Europe has not led to a ‘race to the bottom' regarding corporate income taxes. This paper documents trends in the foreign ownership of companies in Europe and it examines whether foreign ownership has exerted a positive influence on corporate income tax levels. Using company-level data, we document that the foreign ownership share in Europe stood at around 21.5 percent in the year 2000. The estimation suggests that a one percentage point increase in foreign ownership...

  14. Ownership Concentration, Monitoring and Optimal Board Structure

    OpenAIRE

    Graziano, Clara; Luporini, Annalisa

    2005-01-01

    The paper analyzes the optimal structure of board of directors in a firm with ownership concentrated in the hands of a large shareholder who sits on the board. We focus our attention on the choice between one-tier board who performs all tasks and two-tier board where the management board is in charge of project selection and the supervisory board is in charge of monitoring. We consider the case in which the large shareholder sits on (and controls) the supervisory board but not the management ...

  15. The Social Costs of Gun Ownership

    OpenAIRE

    Phillip J. Cook; Jens Ludwig

    2004-01-01

    This paper provides new estimates of the effect of household gun prevalence on homicide rates, and infers the marginal external cost of handgun ownership. The estimates utilize a superior proxy for gun prevalence, the percentage of suicides committed with a gun, which we validate. Using county- and state-level panels for 20 years, we estimate the elasticity of homicide with respect to gun prevalence as between +.1 and +.3. All of the effect of gun prevalence is on gun homicide rates. Under ce...

  16. Experimental analysis of buckling in aircraft skin panels by fibre optic sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güemes, J. A.; Menendez, J. M.; Frövel, M.; Fernandez, I.; Pintado, J. M.

    2001-06-01

    Three blade-stiffened CFRP panels with co-cured stiffener webs, manufactured by means of an elastomeric mould, have been tested under compressive load. Several Bragg grating sensors have been surface bonded on two of the stiffened panels and have been embedded into the stiffener webs of the third panel. The Bragg grating sensors measured the strain distribution in the stiffener web and in the skin panels. The bucking onset was clearly detected in every case, the post-buckling behaviour can be tracked, but the information is heavily dependent on the right choice of the sensor position and the buckling mode. To calibrate the system, and to evaluate the influence of different curing pressures, and the use of unidirectional or fabric prepreg material, tensile test specimens were made on flat panels. The strain measurements provided by the optical fibre sensors in tensile tests were compared with the strain measurements provided by conventional clamp extensometers.

  17. Ecological Risk Assessment Framework for Low-Altitude Overflights by Fixed-Wing and Rotary-Wing Military Aircraft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Efroymson, R.A.

    2001-01-12

    This is a companion report to the risk assessment framework proposed by Suter et al. (1998): ''A Framework for Assessment of Risks of Military Training and Testing to Natural Resources,'' hereafter referred to as the ''generic framework.'' The generic framework is an ecological risk assessment methodology for use in environmental assessments on Department of Defense (DoD) installations. In the generic framework, the ecological risk assessment framework of the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA 1998) is modified for use in the context of (1) multiple and diverse stressors and activities at a military installation and (2) risks resulting from causal chains, e.g., effects on habitat that indirectly impact wildlife. Both modifications are important if the EPA framework is to be used on military installations. In order for the generic risk assessment framework to be useful to DoD environmental staff and contractors, the framework must be applied to specific training and testing activities. Three activity-specific ecological risk assessment frameworks have been written (1) to aid environmental staff in conducting risk assessments that involve these activities and (2) to guide staff in the development of analogous frameworks for other DoD activities. The three activities are: (1) low-altitude overflights by fixed-wing and rotary-wing aircraft (this volume), (2) firing at targets on land, and (3) ocean explosions. The activities were selected as priority training and testing activities by the advisory committee for this project.

  18. The Investigation of the Relationship among Analyst Following, Managerial Ownership and Firm Valuation: From the Perspective of Agency Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, I. J.

    2005-01-01

    In this study, the relationship among analyst following, managerial ownership and firm valuation is investigated from the perspective of agency theory by using a nonlinear simultaneous equation model. The data from the Taiwan stock market verify the proposed hypotheses with a nonlinear three-stage least-square procedure. The empirical results show that managerial ownership (serving an internal monitoring function) and number of analysts following (serving an external monitoring function) are ...

  19. An Empirical Analysis of the 2000 Corporate Tax Reform in Germany: Effects on Ownership and Control in Listed Companies

    OpenAIRE

    Weber, Anke

    2005-01-01

    This paper is a first attempt to analyse the implications of the 2000 corporate tax reform on ownership concentration in Germany. The empirical results document a fall in ownership concentration and a decrease in the power of top institutional owners including the big banks. The description of German corporate governance as a bank-based system may hence no longer apply. However, contrary to what was expected by proponents of the reform, the corporate tax reform did not revolutionise German co...

  20. Renewable energy finance and project ownership. The impact of alternative development structures on the cost of wind power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper uses traditional financial cash flow techniques to examine the impact of different ownership and financing structures on the cost of renewable energy, specifically wind power. Most large, non-hydroelectric, renewable energy projects are developed, owned and financed by private non-utility generators. Recently, however, US utilities have begun to consider owning and financing their own wind power facilities rather than purchasing power from independent renewable energy suppliers. Utilities in other countries have also expressed interest in direct renewable energy investments. A primary justification for utility ownership of wind turbine power plants is that utility self-financing and ownership is cheaper than purchasing wind energy from non-utility renewable energy suppliers. The results presented in this paper support that justification, although some of the estimated cost savings associated with utility ownership are a result of suboptimal utility analysis procedures and implicit risk shifting. Financing terms and variables are shown to significantly impact wind power costs. (author)

  1. Survey of Ownership and Use of Mobile Phones among Medical Science Students in Yazd

    OpenAIRE

    S.S. Mazloomy Mahmoodabad; A Barkhordari; H Nadrian; O. Moshiri; M.T. Yavari

    2009-01-01

    As the use of mobile phones is increasing every day, public concern about possible adverse health effects of exposure to radio frequency electromagnetic fields (rf-emf) is also growing. Despite the extensive use of mobile phones, little is known about the pattern of mobile phone ownership and its use by the general population and students. The aim of this study was to assess the pattern of ownership and use of mobile phones in medical science students and their views about any possible negati...

  2. Risk of transmitting meningococcal infection by transient contact on aircraft and other transport

    OpenAIRE

    Rachael, T.; Schubert, K.; Hellenbrand, Wiebke; Krause, Gérard; Stuart, J. M.

    2009-01-01

    Contact tracing of persons with meningococcal disease who have travelled on aeroplanes or other multi-passenger transport is not consistent between countries. We searched the literature for clusters of meningococcal disease linked by transient contact on the same plane, train, bus or boat. We found reports of two clusters in children on the same school bus and one in passengers on the same plane. Cases within each of these three clusters were due to strains that were genetically indistinguish...

  3. The Attenuation of a Detonation Wave by an Aircraft Engine Axial Turbine Stage

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanZante, Dale; Envia, Edmane; Turner, Mark G.

    2007-01-01

    A Constant Volume Combustion Cycle Engine concept consisting of a Pulse Detonation Combustor (PDC) followed by a conventional axial turbine was simulated numerically to determine the attenuation and reflection of a notional PDC pulse by the turbine. The multi-stage, time-accurate, turbomachinery solver TURBO was used to perform the calculation. The solution domain consisted of one notional detonation tube coupled to 5 vane passages and 8 rotor passages representing 1/8th of the annulus. The detonation tube was implemented as an initial value problem with the thermodynamic state of the tube contents, when the detonation wave is about to exit, provided by a 1D code. Pressure time history data from the numerical simulation was compared to experimental data from a similar configuration to verify that the simulation is giving reasonable results. Analysis of the pressure data showed a spectrally averaged attenuation of about 15 dB across the turbine stage. An evaluation of turbine performance is also presented.

  4. An evaluation of the performance of chemistry transport models by comparison with research aircraft observations. Part 1: Concepts and overall model performance

    OpenAIRE

    Brunner, D.; Staehelin, J; Rogers, H. L.; Köhler, M. O.; Pyle, J.A.; Hauglustaine, D.; Jourdain, L.; Berntsen, T. K.; Gauss, M.; I. S. A. Isaksen; MEIJER E.; Van Velthoven, P.; Pitari, G.; Mancini, E; Grewe, G.

    2003-01-01

    A rigorous evaluation of five global Chemistry-Transport and two Chemistry-Climate Models operated by several different groups in Europe, was performed. Comparisons were made of the models with trace gas observations from a number of research aircraft measurement campaigns during the four-year period 1995-1998. Whenever possible the models were run over the same four-year period and at each simulation time step the instantaneous tracer fields were interpolated to all coinciding observati...

  5. An evaluation of the performance of chemistry transport models by comparison with research aircraft observations. Part 1: Concepts and overall model performance

    OpenAIRE

    Brunner, D.; Staehelin, J; Rogers, H. L.; Köhler, M. O.; Pyle, J.A.; Hauglustaine, D.; Jourdain, L.; Berntsen, T. K.; Gauss, M.; I. S. A. Isaksen; MEIJER E.; Van Velthoven, P.; Pitari, G.; Mancini, E; Grewe, G.

    2003-01-01

    International audience A rigorous evaluation of five global Chemistry-Transport and two Chemistry-Climate Models operated by several different groups in Europe, was performed. Comparisons were made of the models with trace gas observations from a number of research aircraft measurement campaigns during the four-year period 1995-1998. Whenever possible the models were run over the same four-year period and at each simulation time step the instantaneous tracer fields were interpolated to all...

  6. An evaluation of the performance of chemistry transport models by comparison with research aircraft observations. Part 1: Concepts and overall model performance

    OpenAIRE

    Brunner, D.; Staehelin, J; Rogers, H. L.; Köhler, M. O.; Pyle, J.A.; Hauglustaine, D.; Jourdain, L.; Berntsen, T. K.; Gauss, M.; I. S. A. Isaksen; MEIJER E.; Van Velthoven, P.; Pitari, G.; Mancini, E; Grewe, G.

    2003-01-01

    A rigorous evaluation of five global Chemistry-Transport and two Chemistry-Climate Models operated by several different groups in Europe, was performed. Comparisons were made of the models with trace gas observations from a number of research aircraft measurement campaigns during the four-year period 1995-1998. Whenever possible the models were run over the same four-year period and at each simulation time step the instantaneous tracer fields were interpol...

  7. Corrosion of aluminum alloy 2024 by microorganisms isolated from aircraft fuel tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, Christopher J; Perry, Thomas D; Leard, Ryan; Bearce, Ktisten; Dante, James; Mitchell, Ralph

    2005-01-01

    Microorganisms frequently contaminate jet fuel and cause corrosion of fuel tank metals. In the past, jet fuel contaminants included a diverse group of bacteria and fungi. The most common contaminant was the fungus Hormoconis resinae. However, the jet fuel community has been altered by changes in the composition of the fuel and is now dominated by bacterial contaminants. The purpose of this research was to determine the composition of the microbial community found in fuel tanks containing jet propellant-8 (JP-8) and to determine the potential of this community to cause corrosion of aluminum alloy 2024 (AA2024). Isolates cultured from fuel tanks containing JP-8 were closely related to the genus Bacillus and the fungi Aureobasidium and Penicillium. Biocidal activity of the fuel system icing inhibitor diethylene glycol monomethyl ether is the most likely cause of the prevalence of endospore forming bacteria. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and metallographic analysis of AA2024 exposed to the fuel tank environment indicated that the isolates caused corrosion of AA2024. Despite the limited taxonomic diversity of microorganisms recovered from jet fuel, the community has the potential to corrode fuel tanks. PMID:16522539

  8. Nondestructive damage characterization of complex aircraft structures by inverse methods: Advances in multiscale models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, R. Kim; Sabbagh, Harold A.; Sabbagh, Elias H.; Zhou, Liming; Bernacchi, William; Aldrin, John C.; Forsyth, David; Lindgren, Eric

    2016-02-01

    The use of coupled integral equations and anomalous currents allows us to efficiently remove `background effects' in either forward or inverse modeling. This is especially true when computing the change in impedance due to a small flaw in the presence of a larger background anomaly. It is more accurate than simply computing the response with and without the flaw and then subtracting the two nearly equal values to obtain the small difference due to the flaw. The problem that we address in this paper involves a 'SplitD' probe that includes complex, noncircular coils, as well as ferrite cores, inserted within a bolt hole, and exciting both the bolt hole and an adjacent flaw. This introduces three coupled anomalies, each with its on 'scale.' The largest, of course, is the bolt hole, followed (generally) by the probe, and then the flaw. The overall system is represented mathematically by three coupled volume-integral equations. We describe the development of the model and its code, which is a part of the general eddy-current modeling code, VIC-3D®. We present initial validation results, as well as a number of model computations with flaws located at various places within the bolt hole.

  9. Literature study of climate effects of contrails caused by aircraft emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pultau, V.E.

    1998-07-01

    By order of EUROCONTROL, a study of the most recent literature concerning contrails was performed. Attention was paid to the latest research findings concerning the formation, the lifetime, the frequency, the microphysical properties and the radiative forcing of contrails and their climate effects. Contrails form when saturation with respect to water is temporarily reached in the plume and they persist in ice supersaturated air masses. The ambient temperature necessary for contrail formation can be predicted accurately. Contrail particles consist of ice crystals. Young persistent contrails are composed of more, but smaller ice crystals than typical cirrus. Persistent contrails develop towards cirrus clouds in the course of time. The average contrail coverage exhibits a value of around 0.5% over Europe. The mean global contrail cover is estimated to be of order of 0.1%. The net radiation effect of contrails is believed to enhance warming of the troposphere on average. 59 refs.

  10. The structure of the unstable marine boundary layer viewed by lidar and aircraft observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atlas, D.; Walter, B.; Chou, S.-H.; Sheu, P. J.

    1986-01-01

    The marine atmospheric boundary layer (MABL) during a cold-air outbreak off the Atlantic coast between New York and Virginia on January 20, 1983 is characterized on the basis of airborne lidar observations, vertical soundings (potential temperature, vapor mixing ratio, relative humidity, and wind), and horizontal (770-m) temperature records. The data are presented in tables and graphs and analyzed in detail. The organization of the MABL is defined by 1-2-km-scale roll vortices with up and downdrafts of 2-4 m/s at 210 m; north-south orientation of the roll axes (parallel to the low-level winds); rising arms coinciding with updrafts rich in moisture, aerosols, and heat; and 150-200-m (peak-to-trough) undulations of the inversion. Consideration is given to problems inherent in the interpretation of lidar data for MABL studies.

  11. Distributed Data Mining for Aircraft Health Management Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Aircraft Flight Operations Quality Assurance (FOQA) programs are implemented by most of the aircraft operators. Vast amounts of FOQA data are distributed between...

  12. Altus aircraft on runway

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    The remotely piloted Altus aircraft flew several developmental test flights from Rogers Dry Lake adjacent to NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, Calif., in 1996. The Altus--the word is Latin for 'high'--is a variant of the Predator surveillance drone built by General Atomics/Aeronautical Systems, Inc. It is designed for high-altitude, long-duration scientific sampling missions, and is powered by a turbocharged four-cylinder piston engine. The first Altus was developed under NASA's Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology program, while a second Altus was built for a Naval Postgraduate School/Department of Energy program. A pilot in a control station on the ground flew the craft by radio signals, using visual cues from a video camera in the nose of the Altus and information from the craft's air data system. Equipped with a single-stage turbocharger during the 1996 test flights, the first Altus reached altitudes in the 37,000-foot range, while the similarly-equipped second Altus reached 43,500 feet during developmental flights at Dryden in the summer of 1997. The NASA Altus also set an endurance record of more than 26 hours while flying a science mission in late 1996 and still had an estimated 10 hours of fuel remaining when it landed. Now equipped with a two-stage turbocharger, the NASA Altus maintained an altitude of 55,000 feet for four hours during flight tests in 1999.

  13. Aircraft type influence on contrail properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Jeßberger

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The investigation of the impact of aircraft parameters on contrail properties helps to better understand the climate impact from aviation. Yet, in observations, it is a challenge to separate aircraft and meteorological influences on contrail formation. During the CONCERT campaign in November 2008, contrails from 3 Airbus passenger aircraft of type A319-111, A340-311 and A380-841 were probed at cruise under similar meteorological conditions with in-situ instruments on board the DLR research aircraft Falcon. Within the 2 min old contrails detected near ice saturation, we find similar effective diameters Deff (5.2–5.9 μm, but differences in particle number densities nice (162–235 cm−3 and in vertical contrail extensions (120–290 m, resulting in large differences in contrail optical depths τ (0.25–0.94. Hence larger aircraft produce optically thicker contrails. Based on the observations, we apply the EULAG-LCM model with explicit ice microphysics and in addition the Contrail and Cirrus Prediction model CoCiP to calculate the aircraft type impact on young contrails under identical meteorological conditions. The observed increase in τ for heavier aircraft is confirmed by the models, yet for generally smaller τ. An aircraft dependence of climate relevant contrail properties persists during contrail lifetime, adding importance to aircraft dependent model initialization. We finally derive an analytical relationship between contrail, aircraft and meteorological parameters. Near ice saturation, contrail width × τ scales linearly with fuel flow rate as confirmed by observations. For higher saturation ratios approximations from theory suggest a non-linear increase in the form (RHI–12/3. Summarized our combined results could help to more accurately assess the climate impact from aviation using an aircraft dependent contrail parameterization.

  14. Risk of transmitting meningococcal infection by transient contact on aircraft and other transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachael, T; Schubert, K; Hellenbrand, W; Krause, G; Stuart, J M

    2009-08-01

    Contact tracing of persons with meningococcal disease who have travelled on aeroplane or other multi-passenger transport is not consistent between countries. We searched the literature for clusters of meningococcal disease linked by transient contact on the same plane, train, bus or boat. We found reports of two clusters in children on the same school bus and one in passengers on the same plane. Cases within each of these three clusters were due to strains that were genetically indistinguishable. In the aeroplane cluster the only link between the two cases was through a single travel episode. The onset of illness (2 and 5 days after the flight) is consistent with infection from an unidentified carrier around the time of air travel. In contrast to the established risk of transmission from a case of tuberculosis, it is likely that the risk from a case of meningococcal disease to someone who is not identified as a close contact is exceedingly low. This should be considered in making international recommendations for passenger contact tracing after a case of meningococcal disease on a plane or other multi-passenger transport. PMID:19296869

  15. Turboprop aircraft against terrorism: a SWOT analysis of turboprop aircraft in CAS operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yavuz, Murat; Akkas, Ali; Aslan, Yavuz

    2012-06-01

    Today, the threat perception is changing. Not only for countries but also for defence organisations like NATO, new threat perception is pointing terrorism. Many countries' air forces become responsible of fighting against terorism or Counter-Insurgency (COIN) Operations. Different from conventional warfare, alternative weapon or weapon systems are required for such operatioins. In counter-terrorism operations modern fighter jets are used as well as helicopters, subsonic jets, Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS), turboprop aircraft, baloons and similar platforms. Succes and efficiency of the use of these platforms can be determined by evaluating the conditions, the threats and the area together. Obviously, each platform has advantages and disadvantages for different cases. In this research, examples of turboprop aircraft usage against terrorism and with a more general approach, turboprop aircraft for Close Air Support (CAS) missions from all around the world are reviewed. In this effort, a closer look is taken at the countries using turboprop aircraft in CAS missions while observing the fields these aircraft are used in, type of operations, specifications of the aircraft, cost and the maintenance factors. Thus, an idea about the convenience of using these aircraft in such operations can be obtained. A SWOT analysis of turboprop aircraft in CAS operations is performed. This study shows that turboprop aircraft are suitable to be used in counter-terrorism and COIN operations in low threat environment and is cost benefical compared to jets.

  16. Hydrogen aircraft and airport safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    First flight tests with a hydrogen demonstrator aircraft, currently under investigation in the scope of the German-Russia Cryoplane project, are scheduled for 1999. Regular service with regional aircraft may begin around 2005, followed by larger Airbus-type airliners around 2010-2015. The fuel storage aboard such airliners will be of the order of 15 t or roughly 200 m3 LH2. This paper investigates a number of safety problems associated with the handling and air transport of so much hydrogen. The same is done for the infrastructure on the airport. Major risks are identified, and appropriate measures in design and operation are recommended. It is found that hydrogen aircraft are no more dangerous than conventional ones - safer in some respects. (author)

  17. Aircraft Stand Allocation with Associated Resource Scheduling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Justesen, Tor Fog; Larsen, Jesper; Lusby, Richard Martin;

    different ground handling resources (taxiways, aircraft stands, gates, etc) at different times. Each resource can be claimed by at most one turn-round at a time. The aircraft stand allocation problem with associated resource scheduling is the problem of allocating the required ground handling resources to...

  18. A high ozone episode in winter 2013 in the Uinta Basin oil and gas region characterized by aircraft measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. J. Oltmans

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available During the winter of 2012–2013 atmospheric surface ozone mole fractions exceeded the US 8 h standard of 75 ppb on 39 days in the Uinta Basin of Utah. As part of the Uinta Basin Winter Ozone Study (UBWOS aircraft flights were conducted throughout the basin with continuous measurements of ozone (O3, methane (CH4, carbon dioxide (CO2, carbon monoxide (CO, nitrogen dioxide (NO2, and discrete whole air flask samples for determination of ∼50 trace gases including a number of non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs. During the course of seven flights conducted between 31 January and 7 February 2013, coinciding with strong, multi-day temperature inversions, O3 levels gradually built up in the shallow boundary layer from ∼45 ppb to ∼140 ppb. Near-surface CH4 mole fractions increased during the episode from near background levels of ∼2 ppm to over 10 ppm. Based on elevated levels of CH4 across the basin and high correlations of CH4 with NMHCs from the discrete air samples, O3 precursor NMHCs were also inferred to be elevated throughout the basin. Discrete plumes of high NO2 were observed in the gas production region of the basin suggesting that gas processing plants and compressor facilities were important point sources of reactive nitrogen oxides (NOx. Vertical profiles obtained during the flights showed that the high O3 mole fractions (as well as other elevated constituents were confined to a shallow layer from near the ground to 300–400 m above ground level (m a.g.l. capped by a strong temperature inversion. The highest mole fractions of the measured constituents during the study period were in an isothermal cold layer that varied from ∼300 m depth on 4 February to ∼150 m on 5 February. A gradient layer with declining mole fractions with altitude extended above the isothermal layer to ∼1900 m a.s.l. (300–400 m a.g.l. indicative of some mixing of air out of the boundary layer. O3 mole fractions continued to increase within the basin as the

  19. Light shaping diffusers{trademark} improve aircraft inspection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shagam, R.N. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Shie, R.; Lerner, J. [Physical Optics Corp., Torrance, CA (United States)

    1994-11-01

    Physical Optical Corporation has introduced a Light Shaping Diffuser{trademark} (LSD) for the specialized illumination requirements of aircraft inspection. Attached to a handheld, battery-powered flashlight, this light-weight, holographic diffuser element provides bright, even illumination as aircraft inspectors perform the important task of visually examining aircraft for possible structural defects. Field trials conducted by the Aging Aircraft Program at Sandia National Laboratories confirm that the LSD-equipped flashlights are preferred by visual inspectors over stock flashlights.

  20. Ownership and technical efficiency of microfinance institutions: Empirical evidence from Latin America

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Servin Juarez, R.; Lensink, B.W.; Berg, van den M.M.

    2012-01-01

    By using stochastic frontier analysis, this article examines the technical efficiency of different types of microfinance institutions in Latin America. In particular, it tests whether differences in technical efficiency, both intra- and interfirm, can be explained by differences in ownership. With a

  1. Ownership and technical efficiency of microfinance institutions : Empirical evidence from Latin America

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Servin, R.; Lensink, B.W.; van den Berg, Marrit

    2012-01-01

    By using stochastic frontier analysis, this article examines the technical efficiency of different types of microfinance institutions in Latin America. In particular, it tests whether differences in technical efficiency, both intra- and interfirm, can be explained by differences in ownership. With a

  2. Faculty Distance Courseware Ownership and the "Wal-Mart" Approach to Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talab, Rosemary

    2007-01-01

    Whether by choice or necessity, colleges and universities are in competition with each other for the burgeoning web-based course market. Spurred by the growth of the for-profits such as the University of Phoenix, institutions have reasons, both practical and philosophical,"...to secure a position in ownership and control of faculty-produced…

  3. An e-Portfolio Design Supporting Ownership, Social Learning, and Ease of Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett, Nathan

    2011-01-01

    This project attempts to improve electronic portfolio software through the creation of a design model using ownership, ease of use, and social learning variables to predict user adoption. The pilot software attempts to encourage student learning by enhancing peer interaction. The software was used by two groups of students. The first group used it…

  4. Designing A Conventional Aircraft

    OpenAIRE

    Sonei, Arash

    2014-01-01

    This paper is explaining the important design phases of dimensioning an unmanned conventional aircraft from scratch and will also design one according to a few chosen requirements. The design phases discussed will be all from wing dimensioning to stability and spin recovery, aircraft performance requirements and how to select a motor which overcomes these. As well as the optimal rate of climb for improved efficiency is discussed. In the end an aircraft which manages the set requirements and i...

  5. Introduction to unmanned aircraft systems

    CERN Document Server

    Marshall, Douglas M; Hottman, Stephen B; Shappee, Eric; Most, Michael Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Introduction to Unmanned Aircraft Systems is the editors' response to their unsuccessful search for suitable university-level textbooks on this subject. A collection of contributions from top experts, this book applies the depth of their expertise to identify and survey the fundamentals of unmanned aircraft system (UAS) operations. Written from a nonengineering civilian operational perspective, the book starts by detailing the history of UASs and then explores current technology and what is expected for the future. Covering all facets of UAS elements and operation-including an examination of s

  6. Absorption of solar radiation by the atmosphere as determined using satellite, aircraft, and surface data during the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Enhanced Shortwave Experiment (ARESE)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Data sets acquired during the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Enhanced Shortwave Experiment (ARESE) using simultaneous measurements from five independent platforms (GOES 8 geostationary satellite, ER-2, Egrett and Twin Otter aircraft, and surface) are analyzed and compared. A consistent data set can be built for selected days during ARESE on the basis of the observations from these platforms. The GOES 8 albedos agree with the ER 2, Egrett, and Twin Otter measured instantaneous albedos within 0.013±0.016, 0.018±0.032, and 0.006±0.011, respectively. It is found that for heavy overcast conditions the aircraft measurements yield an absorptance of 0.32±0.03 for the layer between the aircraft (0.5-13 km), while the GOES 8 albedo versus surface transmittance analysis gives an absorptance of 0.33±0.04 for the total atmosphere (surface to top). The absorptance of solar radiation estimated by model calculations for overcast conditions varies between 0.16 and 0.24, depending on the model used and on cloud and aerosol implementation. These results are in general agreement with recent findings for cloudy skies, but here a data set that brings together independent simultaneous observations (satellite, surface, and aircraft) is used. Previous ARESE results are reexamined in light of the new findings, and it is concluded that the overcast absorptance in the 0.224-0.68 μm spectral region ranges between 0.04±0.06 and 0.08±0.06, depending on the particular case analyzed. No evidence of excess clear-sky absorption beyond model and experimental errors is found. (c) 2000 American Geophysical Union

  7. 36 CFR 72.36 - Land ownership, control and conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., Rehabilitation and Innovation § 72.36 Land ownership, control and conversion. Section 1010 of the Act provides... Acquisition Policies Act (See 41 CFR parts 114-50). ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Land ownership, control...

  8. Dog Ownership, Dog Walking, and Children's and Parents' Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmon, Jo; Timperio, Anna; Chu, Binh; Veitch, Jenny

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed to determine cross-sectional associations of dog ownership, dog walking, and physical activity (PA) among children and their parents. Objective measures of PA were obtained for children ages 5-6 and 10-12 years from 19 primary schools across Melbourne, Australia. Parents self-reported their PA, dog ownership, and frequency of dog…

  9. The Importance of Fostering Ownership During Medical Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubov, Alex; Fraenkel, Liana; Seng, Elizabeth

    2016-09-01

    There is a need to consider the impact of the new resident-hours regulations on the variety of aspects of medical education and patient care. Most existing literature about this subject has focused on the role of fatigue in resident performance, education, and health care delivery. However, there are other possible consequences of these new regulations, including a negative impact on decision ownership. Our main assumption of is that increased shift work in medicine can decrease ownership of treatment decisions and impact negatively on quality of care. We review some potential components of decision ownership in treatment context and suggest possible ways in which the absence of decision ownership may decrease the quality of medical decision making. The article opens with the definition of decision ownership and the overview of some contextual factors that may contribute to the development of ownership in medical residency. The following section discusses decision ownership in medical care from the perspective of "diffusion of responsibility." We question the quality of choices made within narrow decisional frames. We also compare isolated and interrelated choices, assuming that residents make more isolated decisions during their shifts. Lastly, we discuss the consequences of decreased decision ownership impacting the delivery of health care. PMID:27471927

  10. 26 CFR 53.4943-8 - Business holdings; constructive ownership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 17 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Business holdings; constructive ownership. 53... Business Holdings § 53.4943-8 Business holdings; constructive ownership. (a) Constructive ownership—(1) In general. For purposes of section 4943, in computing the holdings in a business enterprise of a...

  11. Ownership of heritage resources in South Africa: challenges and opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ndukuyakhe Ndlovu

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The concept of ownership is highly political. Ownership provides power to the one legally seen as an owner or those tasked with the responsibility to protect and preserve heritage resources. This is no different when it comes to heritage resources, whose ownership is always contentious. The main reason for such contention is because ownership impacts on those who value objects in different ways. For example, the nature of access to heritage resources approved for people who may still attach spiritual values. As a direct result, the relevance of such heritage resources to such people may be brought into question, as the need to have them available to all citizens gain momentum. Heritage resources in South Africa have been subject to legislation since 1911, when the Bushmen Relics Act was passed. Since then, much other legislation and amendments have been passed over the years. They all aim to protect different kinds of heritage resources. Central to protection efforts is a decision to have the ownership of heritage resources put under the national estate. Ownership of heritage under South African heritage legislation will be discussed in this article. Drawing on case studies from southern Africa, the main aim of the article is to identify the challenges and opportunities attached to such a form of ownership. Opinions relating to the best approach to ownership of heritage resources are offered.

  12. 42 CFR 9.5 - Chimpanzee ownership, fees, and studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Chimpanzee ownership, fees, and studies. 9.5... PROVISIONS STANDARDS OF CARE FOR CHIMPANZEES HELD IN THE FEDERALLY SUPPORTED SANCTUARY SYSTEM § 9.5 Chimpanzee ownership, fees, and studies. (a) Who owns the chimpanzees in the federally supported...

  13. 12 CFR 701.36 - FCU ownership of fixed assets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false FCU ownership of fixed assets. 701.36 Section... ORGANIZATION AND OPERATION OF FEDERAL CREDIT UNIONS § 701.36 FCU ownership of fixed assets. (a) Investment in Fixed Assets. (1) No Federal credit union with $1,000,000 or more in assets may invest in any...

  14. Human Response to Aircraft Noise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kroesen, M.

    2011-01-01

    How can it be that one person is extremely annoyed by the sounds of aircrafts, while his neighbour claims not to be bothered at all? The present thesis attempts to explain this observation by applying a range of quantitative methods to field data gathered among residents living near large airports.

  15. NASA/RAE collaboration on nonlinear control using the F-8C digital fly-by-wire aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, G. F.; Corbin, M. J.; Mepham, S.; Stewart, J. F.; Larson, R. R.

    1983-01-01

    Design procedures are reviewed for variable integral control to optimize response (VICTOR) algorithms and results of preliminary flight tests are presented. The F-8C aircraft is operated in the remotely augmented vehicle (RAV) mode, with the control laws implemented as FORTRAN programs on a ground-based computer. Pilot commands and sensor information are telemetered to the ground, where the data are processed to form surface commands which are then telemetered back to the aircraft. The RAV mode represents a singlestring (simplex) system and is therefore vulnerable to a hardover since comparison monitoring is not possible. Hence, extensive error checking is conducted on both the ground and airborne computers to prevent the development of potentially hazardous situations. Experience with the RAV monitoring and validation procedures is described.

  16. Nonlinear transient vibrations and coexistences of multi-instabilities induced by friction in an aircraft braking system

    OpenAIRE

    Chevillot, Fabrice; Sinou, Jean-Jacques; Hardouin, Nicolas

    2009-01-01

    International audience Friction-induced vibration is still a cause for concern in a wide variety of mechanical systems, because it can lead to structural damage if high vibration levels are reached. Another effect is the noise produced that can be very unpleasant for end-users, thereby making it a major problem in the field of terrestrial transport. In this work the case of an aircraft braking system is examined. An analytical model with polynomial nonlinearity in the contact between rotor...

  17. Impact of Advanced Propeller Technology on Aircraft/Mission Characteristics of Several General Aviation Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keiter, I. D.

    1982-01-01

    Studies of several General Aviation aircraft indicated that the application of advanced technologies to General Aviation propellers can reduce fuel consumption in future aircraft by a significant amount. Propeller blade weight reductions achieved through the use of composites, propeller efficiency and noise improvements achieved through the use of advanced concepts and improved propeller analytical design methods result in aircraft with lower operating cost, acquisition cost and gross weight.

  18. Marine mammal observations collected by aircraft and ship and submitted as part of the ConocoPhillips and Shell Joint Monitoring Program in the Chukchi and Beaufort Seas, 2006-2007 (NODC Accession 0120531)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set was collected as part of the Joint Monitoring Program during seismic activities in the Chukchi Sea. The 2006 data was collected by ship and aircraft...

  19. Role of convective transport on tropospheric ozone chemistry revealed by aircraft observations during the wet season of the AMMA campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Ancellet

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available During the wet season of the African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analyses (AMMA campaign, airborne measurements of several chemical species were made onboard the French Falcon-20 (FF20 aircraft. The scientific flights were planned in order to document, on one hand the regional distribution of trace gas species related to the oxidizing capacity of the troposphere, and on the other hand their spatial variability in the outflow of mesoscale convective systems (MCSs. The main objectives of this paper are the analysis of the main transport processes responsible for the observed variability, and the discussion of differences and similarities related to the convective transport by 4 different MCSs. This work is needed before using this data set for future studies of the convective transport of chemical species or for modeling work in the frame of the AMMA project. Regarding the regional distribution, five air masses types have been identified using the Lagrangian particle dispersion model FLEXPART, and by considering relationship between the measured trace gas concentrations (O3, CO, NOx, H2O, and hydroperoxides. This paper specifically discusses the advantage of hydroperoxide measurements in order to document the impact of recent or aged convection. The highest values of O3 are found to be related to transport from the subtropical tropopause region into the mid-troposphere at latitudes as low as 10° N. The lowest ozone values have been always explained by recent uplifting from the monsoon layer where O3 is photochemically destroyed. Regarding the analysis of the MCS outflow, the CO and H2O2 enhancements are related to the age and the southernmost position of the MCS. The analysis of the long range transport of the air masses where convection occurred, shows a connection with the Persian Gulf emissions for the largest CO concentrations in MCS outflow. However for our

  20. Small Scale Motions Observed by Aircraft in the Tropical Tropopause Layer - Convective and Non-Convective Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfister, Leonhard; Bui, T. P.; Dean-Day, J.

    2016-01-01

    Indirect evidence indicates a role for vertical mixing in the Tropical Tropopause Layer (TTL). In particular, detailed model studies suggest that such vertical mixing may be required to explain the value of the water vapor minimum in the TTL. There have been previous observations during the STEP Tropical aircraft campaign (1987) of bursts of high frequency activity associated with convectively generated gravity waves in the tropical western Pacific. Higher frequency, higher quality measurements from NASA high altitude aircraft (ER-2, WB-57, and Global Hawk) have been made available in the last 20 years. These include measurements of vertical velocity and other meteorological parameters. Most recently, during the ATTREX Global Hawk aircraft mission (Airborne Tropical TRopopause EXperiment), there have been extensive measurements at all altitudes of the TTL in both convective (winter western Pacific) and less convective (winter eastern Pacific) regions. This presentation represents an initial analysis of high frequency small scale (a few km max) meteorological measurements from the ATTREX dataset. We obtain some basic information about the distribution and character of high frequency activity in vertical velocity in the TTL. In particular, we focus on relating the high frequency activity to nearby tropical convection and to vertical shears associated with gravity and inertia-gravity waves.

  1. The contribution of aircraft emissions to the atmospheric sulfur budget

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kjellstroem, E. [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Meteorology; Feichter, J. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Meteorologie, Hamburg (Germany); Sausen, R.; Hein, R. [Deutsches Zentrum fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt (DLR), Oberpfaffenhofen (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik der Atmosphaere

    1998-01-01

    An atmospheric general circulation model including the atmospheric sulfur cycle has been used to investigate the impact of aircraft sulfur emissions on the global sulfur budget of the atmosphere. The relative contribution from aircraft sulfur to the atmospheric sulfate burden is larger than the ratio between aircraft emissions and surface emissions due to the calculated long turn-over time of aircraft sulfate (about 12 days). However, in terms of the sulfate mass balance, aircraft emissions are small, contributing about 1% of the total sulfate mass north of 40 deg C where the aircraft emissions are largest. Despite this small contribution to sulfate mass, the aircraft emissions could potentially significantly enhance the background number concentration of aerosol particles. Based on the model calculations the increased stratospheric background aerosol mass observed during the last decades can not be explained by increased aircraft sulfur emissions 50 refs, 9 figs, 4 tabs

  2. Corporate Ownership Reform and Foreign Market Entry of Emerging Market Firms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Ming Hua; Cui, Lin; Lu, Jiangyong

    2013-01-01

    Few studies have examined the effects of corporate ownership reform on emerging market firms’ advantages and capabilities for outward FDI. By linking the implications of such reform to the configuration of resources, organizational attributes, and strategic orientation of firms we advance an...

  3. Car Ownership and Private Car Use A Microeconometric Analysis Based on Norwegian Data

    OpenAIRE

    Dag G. Wetterwald

    1994-01-01

    In this paper we analyze household's car ownership and private car use decisions in a model proposed by de Jong (1990). The model, which incorporates variable and fixed costs of car use, can be used to predict the effects of changes in policy measures on the car stock and aggregate use. The model is estimated on Norwegian household data for 1985.

  4. Children and Adults Use Gender and Age Stereotypes in Ownership Judgments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malcolm, Sarah; Defeyter, Margaret A.; Friedman, Ori

    2014-01-01

    In everyday life, we are often faced with the problem of judging who owns an object. The current experiments show that children and adults base ownership judgments on group stereotypes, which relate kinds of people to kinds of objects. Moreover, the experiments show that reliance on stereotypes can override another means by which people make…

  5. For Sale--Scotland's Most Famous Mountain Range: Land "Ownership" in Scotland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slattery, Deirdre

    2005-01-01

    The nature of land ownership is infrequently discussed by practitioners of outdoor education, though it is often central to the way they work. The recent controversy over the proposed sale of the Cuillin mountain range on the Isle of Skye in Scotland provoked heated discussion over rights to and benefits of this important place. The main point at…

  6. Ownership, intra-industry trade and factor intensities: the case of Poland 1993-2002

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jørgen Ulff-Møller; Pawlik, Konrad

    Using a unique database on imports and exports from public, private domestic and foreign-owned companies in Poland 1993-2002, this paper presents an analysis of the relation between intra-industry trade (IIT, measured by the Grubel-Lloyd index) and the ownership structure of Poland. Using a pooled...

  7. Contrary to popular opinion, home ownership may actually make workers less economically mobile

    OpenAIRE

    Gregory, James

    2011-01-01

    Ahead of the launch of the TUC’s new report , ‘Can Housing Work For Workers?’, James Gregory of the Fabian Society finds that home ownership and economic ‘independence’ do not necessarily go hand in hand. In many cases, economic immobility is a problem shared by working home owners and those in the socially rented sector.

  8. The Effects of Creating Psychological Ownership on Physicians' Acceptance of Clinical Information Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Paré, Guy; Sicotte, Claude; Jacques, Hélène

    2006-01-01

    Objective: Motivated by the need to push further our understanding of physicians' acceptance of clinical information systems, we propose a relatively new construct, namely, psychological ownership. We situated the construct within a nomological net using a prevailing and dominant information technology adoption behavior model as a logical starting point.

  9. 78 FR 31451 - Pet Ownership for the Elderly or Persons With Disabilities in Multifamily Rental Housing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-24

    ... ] accumulation of the pet deposit by the pet owner.'' HUD's March 8, 1996, final rule (61 FR 9536) establishing... URBAN DEVELOPMENT 24 CFR Part 5 RIN 2501-AD60 Pet Ownership for the Elderly or Persons With Disabilities... housing for the elderly or persons with disabilities allow for the residents of such housing to own...

  10. The Effect Of The Original Acquisition Of Ownership Of Immovable Property On Existing Limited Real Rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerrit Pienaar

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available It is an accepted principle in South African law that movable property acquired in an original way (by operation of law is not burdened by any limited real rights, as previous limited real rights are extinguished on the vesting of ownership (mobilia non habent sequelam. It is assumed by some South African writers that the same principles are applicable to the original acquisition of immovable property and that all existing limited real rights fall away on original acquisition of ownership. In this article the nature of limited real rights to immovable property is examined, and the notion that ownership is the "mother" right on which all limited real rights are based is scrutinised critically. The nature and establishment of limited real rights are used to distinguish between the essence and effect of limited real rights in the case of immovable property. The recognition of limited real rights as constitutional property is used as a further argument that limited real rights cannot be extinguished automatically by the original acquisition of immovable property, as such common law or statutory measures will constitute an arbitrary deprivation of property in terms of section 25 of the Constitution. The statutory provisions regarding limited real rights in the case of prescription and expropriation are then analysed as an indication that it is not a general principle that limited real rights are extinguished automatically on the original acquisition of ownership of immovable property.

  11. The Identity of Corporate Ownership in the Industrialized world: Size, industry and country effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, E. de; Semenov, R.

    2006-01-01

    This paper provides a new and unique dataset, which contains information about ownership, size and industry for 6668 companies in 24 industrial countries. The shares of larger firms are more often widely held or controlled by listed non-financial companies (in particular, widely held companies) and

  12. Small Aircraft RF Interference Path Loss Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Truong X.; Koppen, Sandra V.; Ely, Jay J.; Szatkowski, George N.; Mielnik, John J.; Salud, Maria Theresa P.

    2007-01-01

    Interference to aircraft radio receivers is an increasing concern as more portable electronic devices are allowed onboard. Interference signals are attenuated as they propagate from inside the cabin to aircraft radio antennas mounted on the outside of the aircraft. The attenuation level is referred to as the interference path loss (IPL) value. Significant published IPL data exists for transport and regional category airplanes. This report fills a void by providing data for small business/corporate and general aviation aircraft. In this effort, IPL measurements are performed on ten small aircraft of different designs and manufacturers. Multiple radio systems are addressed. Along with the typical worst-case coupling values, statistical distributions are also reported that could lead to more meaningful interference risk assessment.

  13. Small Aircraft RF Interference Path Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Truong X.; Koppen, Sandra V.; Ely, Jay J.; Szatkowski, George N.; Mielnik, John J.; Salud, Maria Theresa P.

    2007-01-01

    Interference to aircraft radio receivers is an increasing concern as more portable electronic devices are allowed onboard. Interference signals are attenuated as they propagate from inside the cabin to aircraft radio antennas mounted on the outside of the aircraft. The attenuation level is referred to as the interference path loss (IPL) value. Significant published IPL data exists for transport and regional category airplanes. This report fills a void by providing data for small business/corporate and general aviation aircraft. In this effort, IPL measurements are performed on ten small aircraft of different designs and manufacturers. Multiple radio systems are addressed. Along with the typical worst-case coupling values, statistical distributions are also reported that could lead to better interference risk assessment.

  14. Risky changes: transformation of ownership in contemporary Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Transformation of economic and political course in the last decade in Russia has evoked big changes in the main agent of techno-genic risk, companies concerned with production, storage, recycling, and transportation of chemical, biological, energetic, etc. products. The basic aspect of the changes is the 'denationalizing' transformation of ownership, from state to shareholder or private, providing instability both during and, mainly, after the process of transformation, in cases of 'refreezing' the inadequate 'new order of things'. The transformation is hindered by compressed and indefinite terms of transformation, worsening of financial level of companies due to their 'transitional' status, struggle for power within and outside the companies initiated by provocative and dangerous actions by different fighting groups and forces in the firms, factories, and industry branches. The paper is written on the basis of in-depth expert interviews and clarifies the peculiarities of the risky transformation. (author)

  15. Risky changes: transformation of ownership in contemporary Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feofanov, K. [Visiting Scientist, Institute of Sociology, Free University of Berlin (Germany)

    1998-07-01

    Transformation of economic and political course in the last decade in Russia has evoked big changes in the main agent of techno-genic risk, companies concerned with production, storage, recycling, and transportation of chemical, biological, energetic, etc. products. The basic aspect of the changes is the 'denationalizing' transformation of ownership, from state to shareholder or private, providing instability both during and, mainly, after the process of transformation, in cases of 'refreezing' the inadequate 'new order of things'. The transformation is hindered by compressed and indefinite terms of transformation, worsening of financial level of companies due to their 'transitional' status, struggle for power within and outside the companies initiated by provocative and dangerous actions by different fighting groups and forces in the firms, factories, and industry branches. The paper is written on the basis of in-depth expert interviews and clarifies the peculiarities of the risky transformation. (author)

  16. Aircraft Mechanics: Scope and Sequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nashville - Davidson County Metropolitan Public Schools, TN.

    This scope and sequence guide, developed for an aircraft mechanics vocational education program, represents an initial step in the development of a systemwide articulated curriculum sequence for all vocational programs within the Metropolitan Nashville Public School System. It was developed as a result of needs expressed by teachers, parents, and…

  17. Subsonic Aircraft Safety Icing Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Sharon Monica; Reveley, Mary S.; Evans, Joni K.; Barrientos, Francesca A.

    2008-01-01

    NASA's Integrated Resilient Aircraft Control (IRAC) Project is one of four projects within the agency s Aviation Safety Program (AvSafe) in the Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate (ARMD). The IRAC Project, which was redesigned in the first half of 2007, conducts research to advance the state of the art in aircraft control design tools and techniques. A "Key Decision Point" was established for fiscal year 2007 with the following expected outcomes: document the most currently available statistical/prognostic data associated with icing for subsonic transport, summarize reports by subject matter experts in icing research on current knowledge of icing effects on control parameters and establish future requirements for icing research for subsonic transports including the appropriate alignment. This study contains: (1) statistical analyses of accident and incident data conducted by NASA researchers for this "Key Decision Point", (2) an examination of icing in other recent statistically based studies, (3) a summary of aviation safety priority lists that have been developed by various subject-matter experts, including the significance of aircraft icing research in these lists and (4) suggested future requirements for NASA icing research. The review of several studies by subject-matter experts was summarized into four high-priority icing research areas. Based on the Integrated Resilient Aircraft Control (IRAC) Project goals and objectives, the IRAC project was encouraged to conduct work in all of the high-priority icing research areas that were identified, with the exception of the developing of methods to sense and document actual icing conditions.

  18. Uranium enrichment capacity: public versus private ownership

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Continual growth of conventional nuclear capacity requires an assured supply of enriched uranium and, hence, potential expansion of domestic uranium enrichment capacity. The question of ownership of new enrichment capacity, i.e., public or private, entails not only the social-opportunity costs of alternative investments but also technical parameters of uranium utilization and advanced reactor development. Inclusion of risk preferences in both the public and private sectors produces interesting results in terms of optimal investment strategies with respect to choice of technology and scale of investment. Utilization of a nuclear fuel cycle requirements process model allows explicit specification of production technology. Integration of process model output with a least-cost investment model permits flexibility in parametric analysis. Results indicate minimum incentive for Government subsidy of a private enrichment sector through 2000 given moderate to low nuclear growth assumptions. The long-run scenario, to 2020, exhibits potentially greater incentives for private enrichment investment

  19. Changing Law and Ownership Patterns in Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ringe, Wolf-Georg

    to facilitating competition. Notably, a taxation law reform enabled and accelerated the competition process already underway. Legal rules and market competition may thus be understood as not operating in isolation, but as forces that can be working in dialog. Secondly, the paper highlights the importance......German corporate governance and corporate law are currently undergoing a major change. The old “Deutschland AG”, a nationwide network of firms, banks, and directors, is eroding, ownership is diffusing and the shareholder body is becoming more international than ever. This paper presents new data...... to support this development and explores the consequences in governance and in law that have been taken or that need to be drawn from this finding. Consistent with market-based theoretical accounts on corporate law, it finds that the changes currently underway are mainly a response to global market pressure...

  20. Control and participation for employees within geriatric care: does ownership make a difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höckertin, Chatrine

    2008-01-01

    The welfare sector in Sweden has undergone extensive changes during the last 15 years, and private and cooperative actors have entered the public market. In the light of high sick-leave rates, especially in female-dominated professions, it is important to identify factors that can help to improve the working conditions and promote health among employees. The purpose of this study was to compare how two of these factors, participation and control, are perceived by employees in three different forms of ownership: public, cooperative and private. In all, 186 employees working at seven geriatric care institutions with three ownership forms were invited to participate in the study. 82% responded to a questionnaire containing issues related to working conditions, e.g. control and participation. The one-way ANOVA and Kruskal-Wallis were used to analyse the findings among the three groups of employees working in public, cooperative or private setting. Results showed that employees in cooperatives experienced more participation than employees working in the public and private sectors in two out of four variables - employee's voice concerning work environment issues and sympathetic response from the manager and decision-making concerning work activities at large. As expected, there were no difference in perceived control between ownership forms, which might be explained by the fact that the work nature in geriatric care is rather regulated, restricted and formalized, regardless of ownership form, resulting in limited freedom over the work situation for the individual employee. PMID:18413929

  1. Geography versus topology in the European Ownership Network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, we investigate the network of ownership relationships among European firms and its embedding in the geographical space. We carry out a detailed analysis of geographical distances between pairs of nodes, connected by edges or by shortest paths of varying length. In particular, we study the relation between geographical distance and network distance in comparison with a random spatial network model. While the distribution of geographical distance can be fairly well reproduced, important deviations appear in the network distance and in the size of the largest strongly connected component. Our results show that geographical factors allow us to capture several features of the network, while the deviations quantify the effect of additional economic factors at work in shaping the topology. The analysis is relevant to other types of geographically embedded networks and sheds light on the link formation process in the presence of spatial constraints.

  2. Elusive accountabilities in the HIV scale-up: 'ownership' as a functional tautology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esser, Daniel E

    2014-01-01

    Mounting concerns over aid effectiveness have rendered 'ownership' a central concept in the vocabulary of development assistance for health (DAH). The article investigates the application of both 'national ownership' and 'country ownership' in the broader development discourse as well as more specifically in the context of internationally funded HIV/AIDS interventions. Based on comprehensive literature reviews, the research uncovers a multiplicity of definitions, most of which either divert from or plainly contradict the concept's original meaning and intent. During the last 10 years in particular, it appears that both public and private donors have advocated for greater 'ownership' by recipient governments and countries to hedge their own political risk rather than to work towards greater inclusion of the latter in agenda-setting and programming. Such politically driven semantic dynamics suggest that the concept's salience is not merely a discursive reflection of globally skewed power relations in DAH but a deliberate exercise in limiting donors' accountabilities. At the same time, the research also finds evidence that this conceptual contortion frames current global public health scholarship, thus adding further urgency to the need to critically re-evaluate the international political economy of global public health from a discursive perspective. PMID:24498888

  3. The power of community : the role of ownership in social marketing of wind projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roscoe, D. [Scotian Windfields, Dartmouth, NS (Canada)

    2008-07-01

    This paper discussed the benefits of community ownership for wind power projects in Nova Scotia. The community economic development investment fund (CEDIF) is a pool of capital funds formed by selling shares to people within a defined community. CEDIFs are created to operate or invest in local business as part of a government initiative to provide incentives for local business development. Those eligible for CEDIFs include incorporated organizations with a minimum of 25 investors, and when 6 of the maximum 12 directors are from the local community. No investors may own more than 20 per cent. CEDIF incentives include pre-approved holdings for registered savings plans; a 30 per cent non-refundable equity tax credit against Nova Scotia taxes, and additional credits for maintaining investment. Local WindFields investors have invested in the Scotian WindFields in order to develop renewable energy projects. Community ownership of wind power projects can result in greater acceptance of wind power as well as increased economic prosperity and employment. Community ownership can also lead to improved land lease opportunities and relationships between contractors, local businesses, and federal and provincial governments. Details of wind power projects in Nova Scotia were provided. It was concluded that wind power developers should consider community ownership of wind projects. tabs., figs.

  4. Semi-Ownership and Sterilisation of Cats and Dogs in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grahame J. Coleman

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to identify the prevalence of cat and dog semi-ownership in Thailand and factors that predict sterilisation. Semi-ownership was defined as interacting/caring for a companion animal that the respondent does not own, such as a stray cat or dog. A randomised telephone survey recruited 494 Thai nationals residing in Thailand. The findings revealed that 14% of respondents (n = 71 engaged in dog semi-ownership and only 17% of these dogs had been sterilised. Similarly, 11% of respondents (n = 55 engaged in cat semi-ownership and only 7% were known to be sterilised. Using Hierarchical Multiple Regression, the findings showed that 62% and 75% of the variance in intentions to sterilise semi-owned dogs and cats, respectively, was predicted by religious beliefs, and psychosocial factors such as attitudes, perceived pressure from others, and perceived behavioural control. Community awareness campaigns that approach the issue of sterilisation in a way that is consistent with cultural and religious traditions using Thai role models, such as veterinarians, may go some way in reducing stray animal population growth.

  5. Informed Consent at Gunpoint: When Psychiatry Affects Gun Ownership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candilis, Philip J; Khurana, Gagandeep; Leong, Gregory B; Weinstock, Robert

    2015-06-01

    As states take more steps to connect patients' gun ownership to their mental health, psychiatrists are being asked to provide mental health information after clinical interviews as well as after confiscation. This move into the patient-physician relationship raises new questions about how psychiatrists should obtain informed consent when interviews may result in reports to legal authorities. Consent warnings are already practiced more in the breach than in the observance and informed consent is imperfect at its best. In communities torn by controversies surrounding gun control, vehement political views will further influence these established themes to result in unprecedented pressures on patient confidentiality. This analysis draws on new movements in ethical theory and behavioral medicine that go beyond balancing principles to question the use of psychiatry in firearm reporting, and support a vigorous practice of informed consent to protect both individuals and the communities they live in. PMID:25640524

  6. Spontaneous centralization of control in a network of company ownerships.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian M Krause

    Full Text Available We introduce a model for the adaptive evolution of a network of company ownerships. In a recent work it has been shown that the empirical global network of corporate control is marked by a central, tightly connected "core" made of a small number of large companies which control a significant part of the global economy. Here we show how a simple, adaptive "rich get richer" dynamics can account for this characteristic, which incorporates the increased buying power of more influential companies, and in turn results in even higher control. We conclude that this kind of centralized structure can emerge without it being an explicit goal of these companies, or as a result of a well-organized strategy.

  7. Spontaneous centralization of control in a network of company ownerships

    CERN Document Server

    Krause, Sebastian M; Bornholdt, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    We introduce a model for the adaptive evolution of a network of company ownerships. In a recent work it has been shown that the empirical global network of corporate control is marked by a central, tightly connected "core" made of a small number of large companies which control a significant part of the global economy. Here we show how a simple, adaptive "rich get richer" dynamics can account for this characteristic, which incorporates the increased buying power of more influential companies, and in turn results in even higher control. We conclude that this kind of centralized structure can emerge without it being an explicit goal of these companies, or as a result of a well-organized strategy.

  8. Efficiency, R&D and ownership - some empirical evidence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dilling-Hansen, Mogens; Madsen, Erik Strøjer; Smith, Valdemar

    2003-01-01

    Investments in R&D create an immaterial capital asset, which is expected to have a positive influence on firms' efficiency and consequently on their profit. Nonetheless, the short-term effects of current investments in R&D are difficult to prove. Therefore, this paper focuses on analyses based on....... The legal form of ownership also affects the efficiency significantly, whereas firms owned by large shareholders - who are expected to exert a disciplinary influence on the managers of the firm - do not seem to be more efficient than other firms. Udgivelsesdato: JAN 25......Investments in R&D create an immaterial capital asset, which is expected to have a positive influence on firms' efficiency and consequently on their profit. Nonetheless, the short-term effects of current investments in R&D are difficult to prove. Therefore, this paper focuses on analyses based on...

  9. Improved portable lighting for visual aircraft inspection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shagam, R.N. [Sandia National Lab., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Lerner, J.; Shie, R. [Physical Optics Corp., Torrance, CA (United States)

    1995-04-01

    The most common tool used by aircraft inspectors is the personal flashlight. While it is compact and very portable, it is generally typified by poor beam quality which can interfere with the ability for an inspector to detect small defects and anomalies, such as cracks and corrosion sites, which may be indicators of major structural problems. A Light Shaping Diffuser{trademark} (LSD) installed in a stock flashlight as a replacement to the lens can improve the uniformity of an average flashlight and improve the quality of the inspection. Field trials at aircraft maintenance facilities have demonstrated general acceptance of the LSD by aircraft inspection and maintenance personnel.

  10. Improved portable lighting for visual aircraft inspection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shagam, Richard N.; Lerner, Jeremy M.; Shie, Rick

    1995-07-01

    The most common tool used by aircraft inspectors is the personal flashlight. While it is compact and very portable, it is generally typified by poor beam quality which can interfere with the ability for an inspector to detect small defects and anomalies, such as cracks and corrosion sites, which may be indicators of major structural problems. A Light Shaping Diffuser TM (LSD) installed in a stock flashlight as a replacement to the lens can improve the uniformity of an average flashlight and improve the quality of the inspection. Field trials at aircraft maintenance facilities have demonstrated general acceptance of the LSD by aircraft inspection and maintenance personnel.

  11. Survival analysis of aging aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benavides, Samuel

    This study pushes systems engineering of aging aircraft beyond the boundaries of empirical and deterministic modeling by making a sharp break with the traditional laboratory-derived corrosion prediction algorithms that have shrouded real-world failures of aircraft structure. At the heart of this problem is the aeronautical industry's inability to be forthcoming in an accurate model that predicts corrosion failures in aircraft in spite of advances in corrosion algorithms or improvements in simulation and modeling. The struggle to develop accurate corrosion probabilistic models stems from a multitude of real-world interacting variables that synergistically influence corrosion in convoluted and complex ways. This dissertation, in essence, offers a statistical framework for the analysis of structural airframe corrosion failure by utilizing real-world data while considering the effects of interacting corrosion variables. This study injects realism into corrosion failures of aging aircraft systems by accomplishing four major goals related to the conceptual and methodological framework of corrosion modeling. First, this work connects corrosion modeling from the traditional, laboratory derived algorithms to corrosion failures in actual operating aircraft. This work augments physics-based modeling by examining the many confounding and interacting variables, such as environmental, geographical and operational, that impact failure of airframe structure. Examined through the lens of censored failure data from aircraft flying in a maritime environment, this study enhances the understanding between the triad of the theoretical, laboratory and real-world corrosion. Secondly, this study explores the importation and successful application of an advanced biomedical statistical tool---survival analysis---to model censored corrosion failure data. This well-grounded statistical methodology is inverted from a methodology that analyzes survival to one that examines failures. Third, this

  12. A real-time digital program for estimating aircraft stability and control parameters from flight test data by using the maximum likelihood method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grove, R. D.; Mayhew, S. C.

    1973-01-01

    A computer program (Langley program C1123) has been developed for estimating aircraft stability and control parameters from flight test data. These parameters are estimated by the maximum likelihood estimation procedure implemented on a real-time digital simulation system, which uses the Control Data 6600 computer. This system allows the investigator to interact with the program in order to obtain satisfactory results. Part of this system, the control and display capabilities, is described for this program. This report also describes the computer program by presenting the program variables, subroutines, flow charts, listings, and operational features. Program usage is demonstrated with a test case using pseudo or simulated flight data.

  13. Commercial aircraft composite technology

    CERN Document Server

    Breuer, Ulf Paul

    2016-01-01

    This book is based on lectures held at the faculty of mechanical engineering at the Technical University of Kaiserslautern. The focus is on the central theme of societies overall aircraft requirements to specific material requirements and highlights the most important advantages and challenges of carbon fiber reinforced plastics (CFRP) compared to conventional materials. As it is fundamental to decide on the right material at the right place early on the main activities and milestones of the development and certification process and the systematic of defining clear requirements are discussed. The process of material qualification - verifying material requirements is explained in detail. All state-of-the-art composite manufacturing technologies are described, including changes and complemented by examples, and their improvement potential for future applications is discussed. Tangible case studies of high lift and wing structures emphasize the specific advantages and challenges of composite technology. Finally,...

  14. Method of radial velocities for the estimation of aircraft wake vortex parameters from data measured by coherent Doppler lidar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smalikho, I N; Banakh, V A; Holzäpfel, F; Rahm, S

    2015-09-21

    The method of radial velocities (RV) is applied to estimate aircraft wake vortex parameters from measurements conducted with pulsed coherent Doppler lidar (PCDL). Operations of the Stream Line lidar and the 2-µm PCDL are simulated numerically to analyze the accuracy of the estimated wake vortex parameters with the RV method. The RV method is also used to estimate wake vortex trajectories and circulation from lidar measurements at Tomsk and Munich airports. The method of velocity envelopes and the RV method are compared employing data gathered with the 2-µm PCDL. The domain of applicability of the RV method is determined. PMID:26406749

  15. Influence of inter-annual variations of stratospheric dynamics in model simulations of ozone losses by aircraft emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jadin, E.A. [Central Aerological Observatory, Dolgoprudny (Russian Federation)

    1997-12-31

    The questions of model predictions of aircraft emission impacts on the ozone variations are considered. Using the NMC data it is shown that the stratospheric circulation underwent the abrupt transition to a new regime in summer 1980. The strong correlations are found between the monthly mean total ozone and stratospheric angular momentum anomalies during 1979-1991. The natural long-term changes of transport processes are necessary to take into account in model simulations of anthropogenic impacts on the ozone layer. (author) 12 refs.

  16. Comparison of the chemical evolution and characteristics of 495 biomass burning plumes intercepted by the NASA DC-8 aircraft during the ARCTAS/CARB-2008 field campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hecobian, A.; Liu, Z.; Hennigan, C. J.; Huey, L. G.; Jimenez, J. L.; Cubison, M. J.; Vay, S.; Diskin, G. S.; Sachse, G. W.; Wisthaler, A.; Mikoviny, T.; Weinheimer, A. J.; Liao, J.; Knapp, D. J.; Wennberg, P. O.; Kürten, A.; Crounse, J. D.; St. Clair, J.; Wang, Y.; Weber, R. J.

    2011-06-01

    This paper compares measurements of gaseous and particulate emissions from a wide range of biomass-burning plumes intercepted by the NASA DC-8 research aircraft during the three phases of the ARCTAS-2008 experiment: ARCTAS-A, based out of Fairbanks, Alaska USA (3 April to 19 April 2008); ARCTAS-B based out of Cold Lake, Alberta, Canada (29 June to 13 July 2008); and ARCTAS-CARB, based out of Palmdale, California, USA (18 June to 24 June 2008). Extensive investigations of boreal fire plume evolution were undertaken during ARCTAS-B, where four distinct fire plumes that were intercepted by the aircraft over a range of down-wind distances (0.1 to 16 hr transport times) were studied in detail. Based on these analyses, there was no evidence for ozone production and a box model simulation of the data confirmed that net ozone production was slow (on average 1 ppbv h-1 in the first 3 h and much lower afterwards) due to limited NOx. Peroxyacetyl nitrate concentrations (PAN) increased with plume age and the box model estimated an average production rate of ~80 pptv h-1 in the first 3 h. Like ozone, there was also no evidence for net secondary inorganic or organic aerosol formation. There was no apparent increase in aerosol mass concentrations in the boreal fire plumes due to secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation; however, there were indications of chemical processing of the organic aerosols. In addition to the detailed studies of boreal fire plume evolution, about 500 smoke plumes intercepted by the NASA DC-8 aircraft were segregated by fire source region. The normalized excess mixing ratios (i.e. ΔX/ΔCO) of gaseous (carbon dioxide, acetonitrile, hydrogen cyanide, toluene, benzene, methane, oxides of nitrogen (NOx), ozone, PAN) and fine aerosol particulate components (nitrate, sulfate, ammonium, chloride, organic aerosols and water soluble organic carbon) of these plumes were compared.

  17. OWNERSHIP STRUCTURE AND COMPANY PERFORMANCE – RESEARCH AND LITERATURE REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Varcholova

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to summarize the results of published researches conducted in the area of influence of ownership forms on companies and financial performance and to highlight the specifics of these relations in the environment of transition economies. Several authors have documented greater efficiency of private companies compared to state-owned. According to different studies, an alternative option for transition economies is foreign ownership. Recent studies show that the effect of ownership forms on companies and financial performance is more significant in Eastern European countries compared to developed countries. However, study results are often contradictory, therefore they require additional research.

  18. Aircraft impact on a spherical shell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For nuclear power plants located in the immediate vicinity of cities and airports safeguarding against an accidental aircraft strike is important. Because of the complexity of such an aircraft crash the building is ordinarily designed for loading by an idealized dynamical load F(t), which follows from measurements (aircraft striking a rigid wall). The extent to which the elastic displacements of a structure influence the impact load F(t) is investigatd in this paper. The aircraft is idealized by a linear mass-spring-dashpot combination which can easily be treated in computations and which can suffer elastic as well as plastic deformations. This 'aircraft' normally strikes a spherical shell at the apex. The time-dependent reactions of the shell as a function of the unknown impact load F(t) are expanded in terms of the normal modes, which are Legendre functions. The continuity condition at the impact point leads to an integral equation for F(t) which may be solved by Laplace transformation. F(t) is computed for hemispheres with several ratios of thickness to radius, several edge conditions and several 'aircraft' parameters. In all cases F(t) differs very little from that function obtained for the case of the aircraft striking a rigid wall. (Auth.)

  19. Hydrogen fueled subsonic aircraft - A prospective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witcofski, R. D.

    1977-01-01

    The performance characteristics of hydrogen-fueled subsonic transport aircraft are compared with those of aircraft using conventional aviation kerosene. Results of the Cryogenically Fueled Aircraft Technology Program sponsored by NASA indicate that liquid hydrogen may be particularly efficient for subsonic transport craft when ranges of 4000 km or more are involved; however, development of advanced cryogenic tanks for liquid hydrogen fuel is required. The NASA-sponsored program also found no major technical obstacles for international airports converting the liquid hydrogen fueling systems. Resource utilization efficiency and fuel production costs for hydrogen produced by coal gasification or for liquid methane or synthetic aviation kerosene are also assessed.

  20. Case study: readiness and total ownership cost analyses for new fighter aircraft, F-XX

    OpenAIRE

    Kang, Keebom; Doerr, Kenneth H.

    2012-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution in unlimited. Acquisition Research Case Study Disclaimer: The views represented in this report are those of the author and do not reflect the official policy position of the Navy, the Department of Defense, or the Federal Government. This case is intended to illustrate key trade-offs in planning the acquisition of a major weapon system. In particular, the impact of logistics and maintenance decisions on life-cycle costs and readiness ar...