WorldWideScience

Sample records for airborne particulate threat

  1. Airborne Particulate Threat Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patrick Treado; Oksana Klueva; Jeffrey Beckstead

    2008-12-31

    Aerosol threat detection requires the ability to discern between threat agents and ambient background particulate matter (PM) encountered in the environment. To date, Raman imaging technology has been demonstrated as an effective strategy for the assessment of threat agents in the presence of specific, complex backgrounds. Expanding our understanding of the composition of ambient particulate matter background will improve the overall performance of Raman Chemical Imaging (RCI) detection strategies for the autonomous detection of airborne chemical and biological hazards. Improving RCI detection performance is strategic due to its potential to become a widely exploited detection approach by several U.S. government agencies. To improve the understanding of the ambient PM background with subsequent improvement in Raman threat detection capability, ChemImage undertook the Airborne Particulate Threat Assessment (APTA) Project in 2005-2008 through a collaborative effort with the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), under cooperative agreement number DE-FC26-05NT42594. During Phase 1 of the program, a novel PM classification based on molecular composition was developed based on a comprehensive review of the scientific literature. In addition, testing protocols were developed for ambient PM characterization. A signature database was developed based on a variety of microanalytical techniques, including scanning electron microscopy, FT-IR microspectroscopy, optical microscopy, fluorescence and Raman chemical imaging techniques. An automated particle integrated collector and detector (APICD) prototype was developed for automated collection, deposition and detection of biothreat agents in background PM. During Phase 2 of the program, ChemImage continued to refine the understanding of ambient background composition. Additionally, ChemImage enhanced the APICD to provide improved autonomy, sensitivity and specificity. Deliverables included a Final Report detailing our

  2. Particulate airborne impurities

    OpenAIRE

    Wilkinson, Kai

    2013-01-01

    The cumulative effects of air pollutants are of principal concern in research on environmental protection in Sweden. Post-industrial society has imposed many limits on emitted air pollutants, yet the number of reports on the negative effects from them is increasing, largely due to human activity in the form of industrial emissions and increased traffic flows. Rising concerns over the health effects from airborne particulate matter (PM) stem from in vitro, in vivo, and cohort studies revealing...

  3. Analysis of airborne particulate matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An airborne particulate matter (APM) consists of many kinds of solid and liquid particles in air. APM analysis methods and the application examples are explained on the basis of paper published after 1998. Books and general remarks, sampling and the measurement of concentration and particle distribution, elemental analysis methods and the present state of analysis of species are introduced. Tapered Element Oscillating Microbalance (TEOM) method can collect continuously the integrating mass, but indicates lower concentration. Cu, Ni, Zn, Co, Fe(2), Mn, Cd, Fe(3) and Pb, the water-soluble elements, are determined by ion-chromatography after ultrasonic extraction of the aqueous solution. The detection limit of them is from 10 to 15 ppb (30 ppb Cd and 60 ppb Pb). The elemental carbon (EC) and organic carbon (OC) are separated by the thermal mass measurement-differential scanning calorimeter by means of keeping at 430degC for 60 min. 11 research organizations compared the results of TC (Total Carbon) and EC by NIOSH method 5040 and the thermal method and obtained agreement of TC. ICP-MS has been developed in order to determine correctly and quickly the trace elements. The determination methods for distinction of chemical forms in the environment were developed. GC/MS, LC/MS and related technologies for determination of organic substances are advanced. Online real-time analysis of APN, an ideal method, is examined. (S.Y.)

  4. Modelling airborne dispersion of coarse particulate material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Methods of modelling the airborne dispersion and deposition of coarse particulates are presented, with the emphasis on the heavy particles identified as possible constituents of releases from damaged AGR fuel. The first part of this report establishes the physical characteristics of the irradiated particulate in airborne emissions from AGR stations. The second part is less specific and describes procedures for extending current dispersion/deposition models to incorporate a coarse particulate component: the adjustment to plume spread parameters, dispersion from elevated sources and dispersion in conjunction with building effects and plume rise. (author)

  5. Polarization signatures of airborne particulates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raman, Prashant; Fuller, Kirk A.; Gregory, Don A.

    2013-07-01

    Exploratory research has been conducted with the aim of completely determining the polarization signatures of selected particulates as a function of wavelength. This may lead to a better understanding of the interaction between electromagnetic radiation and such materials, perhaps leading to the point detection of bio-aerosols present in the atmosphere. To this end, a polarimeter capable of measuring the complete Mueller matrix of highly scattering samples in transmission and reflection (with good spectral resolution from 300 to 1100 nm) has been developed. The polarization properties of Bacillus subtilis (surrogate for anthrax spore) are compared to ambient particulate matter species such as pollen, dust, and soot. Differentiating features in the polarization signatures of these samples have been identified, thus demonstrating the potential applicability of this technique for the detection of bio-aerosol in the ambient atmosphere.

  6. Determination of leachable uranium in airborne particulates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The uranium content of airborne particulates collected on cellulose filters was investigated. As a case study, filter samples from the large area of Thessaloniki, Greece, were used. For the uranium determination instrumental neutron activation analysis was used. To obtain equal counting conditions for all samples after irradiation, independent from the initial matrix, uranium was leached from the filter by using a 0.1M NH4HCO3 solution, forming a stable uranyl complex [UO2(CO3)3]. This complex was absorbed in a batch process on a small amount of chelating ion exchanger Srafion NMRR, which was directly irradiated in the reactor of the NCSR Demokritos. Over the investigated time period in 1997 the mean concentration was found to be 0.047 ng U/m3. In relation to the collected amount of airborne particulates having a mean concentration of 0.52 μg/gU. It can be assumed as a natural uranium level in the environment. (author)

  7. Analysis of the origin and composition of airborne particulate pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Methods were developed for determination of airborne particulate pollution sources and origins from airborne particulate measurements, analyses of particulate constituents and routine meteorological measurements. The results obtained provide the basis for quantification of the long- and short-time impacts of these pollution sources on immission. The methods were tested in a densely populated urban area (West Berlin) and in a rural district (Waldhof, District of Uelzen) by collecting airborne particulates (fine and coarse particulates) at six measuring points by use of dichotomous collectors and high-volume collectors. The measurements were taken twice a day from November 1989 to November 1990. Analyses were made of the compounds and of the constituents Al, Fe, Si, Ca, Mg, K, Na, As, Cd, Cu, Ni, Sb, Se, V, Zn, Cl-, NO-3, SO2-4, NH+4, organic carbons (OC) and inorganic elementary (EC) carbons. (orig.). 104 refs., 66 tabs., 79 figs

  8. Evaluation of principal cannabinoids in airborne particulates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balducci, C., E-mail: balducci@iia.cnr.it [Italian National Research Council, Institute for Atmospheric Pollution (CNR-IIA), Monterotondo Stazione (Italy); Nervegna, G.; Cecinato, A. [Italian National Research Council, Institute for Atmospheric Pollution (CNR-IIA), Monterotondo Stazione (Italy)

    2009-05-08

    The determination of delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol ({Delta}{sup 9}-THC), cannabidiol (CND) and cannabinol (CNB), primary active components in cannabis preparation, was carried out on airborne particulates by applying a specific procedure consisting of soot extraction by ultrasonic bath, purification by solvent partitioning, derivatization with N-(t-butyldimethylsilyl)-N-methyl-trifluoroacetamide, and separation/detection through gas chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry. The optimized procedure was found suitable for measuring the three psychotropic substances at concentrations ranging from ca. 0.001 to ca. 5.0 ng cm{sup -3} of air, with recoveries always higher than 82%, accuracy >7.3% and precision >90%. Application of the procedure performed on field in Rome and Bari, Italy, demonstrated that all three compounds contaminate the air in Italian cities whereas in Algiers, Algeria, only cannabinol, the most stable in the atmosphere, exceeded the limit of quantification of the method. The relative percentages of the three cannabinoids in general reproduced those typical of the Cannabis sativa plant and were very different from those found in human blood, urine and sweat.

  9. Evaluation of principal cannabinoids in airborne particulates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The determination of delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC), cannabidiol (CND) and cannabinol (CNB), primary active components in cannabis preparation, was carried out on airborne particulates by applying a specific procedure consisting of soot extraction by ultrasonic bath, purification by solvent partitioning, derivatization with N-(t-butyldimethylsilyl)-N-methyl-trifluoroacetamide, and separation/detection through gas chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry. The optimized procedure was found suitable for measuring the three psychotropic substances at concentrations ranging from ca. 0.001 to ca. 5.0 ng cm-3 of air, with recoveries always higher than 82%, accuracy >7.3% and precision >90%. Application of the procedure performed on field in Rome and Bari, Italy, demonstrated that all three compounds contaminate the air in Italian cities whereas in Algiers, Algeria, only cannabinol, the most stable in the atmosphere, exceeded the limit of quantification of the method. The relative percentages of the three cannabinoids in general reproduced those typical of the Cannabis sativa plant and were very different from those found in human blood, urine and sweat.

  10. Analytical Methods INAA and PIXE Applied to Characterization of Airborne Particulate Matter in Bandung, Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    D.D. Lestiani; M. Santoso

    2011-01-01

    Urbanization and industrial growth have deteriorated air quality and are major cause to air pollution. Air pollution through fine and ultra-fine particles is a serious threat to human health. The source of air pollution must be known quantitatively by elemental characterization, in order to design the appropriate air quality management. The suitable methods for analysis the airborne particulate matter such as nuclear analytical techniques are hardly needed to solve the air pollution problem....

  11. Data quality in airborne particulate matter measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyslop, Nicole Marie

    Environmental measurements are complicated by uncontrollable natural variations in the environment, which cannot be reproduced in the laboratory. These variations affect the measurement uncertainty and detection capabilities -- two measures of data quality. Variations in a measurement series that arise from uncertainty in the measurements should not be interpreted as variations in the environment. Accurate estimates of measurement uncertainty are thus important inputs to data analyses. Collocated (duplicate) measurements are the most direct approach to characterizing uncertainty and detection capabilities because the observed differences reflect the actual measurement performance under the natural environmental variability. This dissertation uses collocated measurements of airborne particulate matter chemical speciation collected by the Interagency Monitoring of Protected Visual Environments (IMPROVE) and Speciation Trends Network (STN) to explore data quality issues. In addition to the complications introduced by uncontrollable environmental factors, the concepts of measurement precision and detection capabilities are often complicated by incomplete and inconsistent definitions. In this dissertation, collocated IMPROVE data are used to illustrate different formulations for precision and their ability to fit the observed differences. Collocated IMPROVE data are also used to show that measurement precision is typically better at concentrations well above the detection limit, when the analysis is performed on the whole filter instead of just a fraction of the filter, and for species predominantly in the smaller size fractions. For most species, the collocated differences are worse than the differences predicted by the current uncertainty model, suggesting that some sources of uncertainty are not accounted for or have been underestimated in the model. In addition, collocated measurement differences are shown to be correlated among several species. In both IMPROVE and

  12. Fine airborne particulate matter: secondary production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The chemical speciation of over 750 samples of PM2,5 collected in urban area of Milan, provides preliminary information about the role of the sources. In particular the research points out the large importance of the secondary source, i. e. the secondary production in atmosphere from gaseous precursors, that accounts for the 60- 70% of the total particulate. These findings affect the intervention policy, that must be oriented also to control the gaseous precursors of the fine particulate

  13. Small-angle light scattering by airborne particulates: Environnement S.A. continuous particulate monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Airborne particulate matter may have an effect on human health. It is therefore necessary to determine and control in real time the evolution of the concentration and mass of particulates in the ambient air. These parameters can be obtained using optical methods. We propose here a new instrument, 'CPM' (continuous particulate monitor), for the measurement of light scattered by ambient particulates at small angles. This geometry allows simultaneous and separate detections of PM10, PM2.5 and PM1 fractions of airborne particulate matter, with no influence of their chemical nature and without using theoretical calculations. The ambient air is collected through a standard sampling head (PM10 inlet according to EN 12341, PM2.5 inlet according to EN 14907; or PM1, TSP inlets, standard US EPA inlets). The analysis of the first measurements demonstrates that this new instrument can detect, for each of the seven defined size ranges, real-time variations of particulate content in the ambient air. The measured concentrations (expressed in number per liter) can be converted into total mass concentrations (expressed in micrograms per cubic meter) of all fractions of airborne particulate matters sampled by the system. Periodic comparison with a beta-attenuation mass monitor (MP101M Beta Gauge Analyzer from Environnement S.A. company) allows the calculation of a calibration factor as a function of the mean particulate density that is used for this conversion. It is then possible to provide real-time relative variations of aerosol mass concentration

  14. Quality assessment on airborne particulate matter of k0-INAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The analysis of airborne particulate matter (APM) by k0-NAA was assessed using: BCR reference material (RM) simulated air-filters, synthetic air-filters prepared by spiking blank filters with standard solutions, and real APM filters. k0-INAA is a suitable technique for the analysis of APM, delivering accurate and precise results. However, the quality assessment of APM analysis appears to be a difficult task. (author)

  15. Dispersion model for airborne particulates inside a building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An empirical model has been developed for the spread of airborne radioactive particles after they are released inside a building. The model has been useful in performing safety analyses of actinide materials facilities at the Savannah River Plant (SRP), operated for the US Department of Energy by the Du Pont Company. These facilities employ the multiple-air-zone concept; that is, ventilation air flows from rooms or areas of least radioactive material hazard, through zones of increasing hazard, to a treatment system. A composite of the data for dispersion of airborne activity during 12 actual case incidents at SRP forms the basis for this model. These incidents occurred during approximately 90 plant-years of experience at SRP with the chemical and metallurgical processing of purified neptunium and plutonium after their recovery from irradiated uranium. The model gives ratios of the airborne activity concentrations in rooms and corridors near the site of the release. All data are normalized to the data from the air sampler nearest the release point. The model can be applied in predicting airborne activity concentrations from particulate releases elsewhere, if the facility in question has similar features of floor plan, air velocity, and air flow direction. The multiple-air-zone concept has been applied to many designs of nuclear facilities as a safety feature to limit the spread of airborne activity from a release. The model illustrates the limitations of this concept: it predicts an apparently anomalous behavior of airborne particulates; namely, a small migration against the flow of the ventilation air. The following phenomena are suggested as possible mechanisms for this migration: eddy currents in the air flow; leaks of ventilation air between zones; open doors; movement of personnel during an incident; inadequate flow of ventilation air; and thermal gradients. 2 references, 12 figures, 4 tables

  16. Single Scattering Albedo Monitor for Airborne Particulates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onasch, Timothy; Massoli, Paola; Kebabian, Paul; Hills, Frank; Bacon, Fred; Freedman, Andrew

    2015-04-01

    We describe a robust, compact, field deployable instrument (the CAPS PMssa) that simultaneously measures airborne particle light extinction and scattering coefficients and thus the single scattering albedo (SSA) on the same sample volume. With an appropriate change in mirrors and light source, measurements have been made at wavelengths ranging from 450 to 780 nm. The extinction measurement is based on cavity attenuated phase shift (CAPS) techniques as employed in the CAPS PMex particle extinction monitor; scattering is measured using a integrating nephelometry by incorporating a Lambertian integrating sphere within the sample cell. The scattering measurement is calibrated using the extinction measurement. Measurements using ammonium sulfate particles of various sizes indicate that the response of the scattering channel with respect to measured extinction is linear to within 1% up to 1000 Mm-1 and can be extended further (4000 Mm-1) with additional corrections. The precision in both measurement channels is less than 1 Mm-1 (1s, 1σ). The truncation effect in the scattering channel, caused by light lost at extreme forward/backward scattering angles, was measured as a function of particle size using monodisperse polystyrene latex particles (n=1.59). The results were successfully fit using a simple geometric model allowing for reasonable extrapolation to a given wavelength, particle index of refraction and particle size distribution, assuming spherical particles. For sub-micron sized particles, the truncation corrections are comparable to those reported for commercial nephelometers. Measurements of the optical properties of ambient aerosol indicate that the values of the SSA of these particles measured with this instrument (0.91±0.03) using scattering and extinction agreed within experimental uncertainty with those determined using extinction measured by this instrument and absorption measured using a Multi-Angle Absorption Spectrometer (0.89±0.03) where the

  17. Dispersion model for airborne particulates inside a building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An empirical model has been developed for the spread of airborne radioactive particles after they are released inside a building. The model has been useful in performing safety analyses of actinide materials facilities at the Savannah River Plant (SRP). These facilities employ the multiple-air-zone concept; that is, ventilation air flows from rooms or areas of least radioactive material hazard, through zones of increasing hazard, to a treatment system. A composite of the data for dispersion of airborne activity during 12 actual case incidents at SRP forms the basis for this model. These incidents occurred during approximately 90 plant-years of experience at SRP with the chemical and metallurgical processing of purified neptunium and plutonium after their recovery from irradiated uranium. The model gives ratios of the airborne activity concentrations in rooms and corridors near the site of the release. The multiple-air-zone concept has been applied to many designs of nuclear facilities as a safety feature to limit the spread of airborne activity from a release. The model illustrates the limitations of this concept: it predicts an apparently anomalous behavior of airborne particulates; namely, a small migration against the flow of the ventilation air

  18. Ecological effect of airborne particulate matter on plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santosh Kumar Prajapati

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric particulate matter is a mixture of diverse elements. Deposition of particulate matter to vegetated surfaces depends on the size distribution of these particles and, to a lesser extent, on the chemistry. Effects of particulate matter on vegetation may be associated with the reduction in light required for photosynthesis and an increase in leaf temperature due to changed surface optical properties. Changes in energy exchange are more important than the diffusion of gases into and out of leaves which is influenced by dust load, color and particle size. Alkaline dust materials may cause leaf surface injury while other materials may be taken up across the cuticle. A more probable route for metabolic uptake and impact on vegetation and ecosystems is through the rhizosphere. Interception of dusts by vegetation makes an important contribution to the improvement of air quality in the vicinity of vegetation. Although the effect of particulate matter on ecosystem is linked to climate change, there is little threat due to un-speciated particulate matter on a regional scale.

  19. Source apportionment of airborne particulates through receptor modeling: Indian scenario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Tirthankar; Murari, Vishnu; Kumar, Manish; Raju, M. P.

    2015-10-01

    Airborne particulate chemistry mostly governed by associated sources and apportionment of specific sources is extremely essential to delineate explicit control strategies. The present submission initially deals with the publications (1980s-2010s) of Indian origin which report regional heterogeneities of particulate concentrations with reference to associated species. Such meta-analyses clearly indicate the presence of reservoir of both primary and secondary aerosols in different geographical regions. Further, identification of specific signatory molecules for individual source category was also evaluated in terms of their scientific merit and repeatability. Source signatures mostly resemble international profile while, in selected cases lack appropriateness. In India, source apportionment (SA) of airborne particulates was initiated way back in 1985 through factor analysis, however, principal component analysis (PCA) shares a major proportion of applications (34%) followed by enrichment factor (EF, 27%), chemical mass balance (CMB, 15%) and positive matrix factorization (PMF, 9%). Mainstream SA analyses identify earth crust and road dust resuspensions (traced by Al, Ca, Fe, Na and Mg) as a principal source (6-73%) followed by vehicular emissions (traced by Fe, Cu, Pb, Cr, Ni, Mn, Ba and Zn; 5-65%), industrial emissions (traced by Co, Cr, Zn, V, Ni, Mn, Cd; 0-60%), fuel combustion (traced by K, NH4+, SO4-, As, Te, S, Mn; 4-42%), marine aerosols (traced by Na, Mg, K; 0-15%) and biomass/refuse burning (traced by Cd, V, K, Cr, As, TC, Na, K, NH4+, NO3-, OC; 1-42%). In most of the cases, temporal variations of individual source contribution for a specific geographic region exhibit radical heterogeneity possibly due to unscientific orientation of individual tracers for specific source and well exaggerated by methodological weakness, inappropriate sample size, implications of secondary aerosols and inadequate emission inventories. Conclusively, a number of challenging

  20. Approach to predict partitioning of organic compounds from air into airborne particulate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Cong; FENG Liu

    2005-01-01

    Based on the theoretical linear solvation energy relationship and quantum chemical descriptors computed by AM1 Hamiltonian, a new approach was developed to predict the partitioning of some organic compounds between the airborne particulate and air. It could be successfully used to study the partitioning of organic compounds from air into airborne particulate, and evaluate the potential risk of organic compounds.

  1. Airborne endotoxin in fine particulate matter in Beijing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Tianjia; Yao, Maosheng; Wang, Junxia; Fang, Yanhua; Hu, Songhe; Wang, Yan; Dutta, Anindita; Yang, Junnan; Wu, Yusheng; Hu, Min; Zhu, Tong

    2014-11-01

    Endotoxin is an important biological component of particulate matter (PM) which, upon inhalation, can induce adverse health effects, and also possibly complicate the diseases in combination with other pollutants. From 1 March 2012 to 27 February 2013 we collected air samples using quartz filters daily for the quantification of airborne endotoxin and also fine PM (PM2.5) in Beijing, China. The geometric means for endotoxin concentration and the fraction of endotoxin in PM were 0.65 EU/m3 (range: 0.10-75.02) and 10.25 EU/mg PM2.5 (range: 0.38-1627.29), respectively. The endotoxin concentrations were shown to vary greatly with seasons, typically with high values in the spring and winter seasons. Temperature and relative humidity, as well as concentrations of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides were found to be significantly correlated with airborne endotoxin concentrations (p dithiothreitol (DTT) of PM. This study provided the first continuous time series of airborne endotoxin concentrations in Beijing, and identifies its potential associations with atmospheric factors. The information developed here can assist in the assessment of health effects of air pollution in Beijing.

  2. ASSESSMENT OF BAGGING OPERATORS EXPOSURE TO WITH PVC AIRBORNE PARTICULATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Asilian, M. Nasseri Nejad, S. B. Mortazavi, M. J. Jafari, A. Khavanin, A. R. Dehdashti

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Dust consists of tiny solid particles carried by air currents. These particles are formed by many different processes. One of these processes is polymerization of inert plastic such as Polyvinyl Chloride production plant. According to the Occupational Health and Safety Assessment Series requirements, section 4.4.6, occupational health and safety risks must be defined and controlled where needed. This field study was conducted to evaluate the occupational exposure of packaging operators to airborne polyvinyl chloride dust in order to health risk assessment and recommend feasible controlling methods. The mass concentration of polyvinyl chloride particulate was measured in two fractions according to the particle size that expressed as total and respirable particulates. The Air Sampling Methods, Methods for the Determination of Hazardous Substances 14/3, of Health and Safety Executive were used as a standard sampling protocol. The average mass concentrations for respirable and total particulates were measured 3.54±0.3 mg/m3 and 11.89±0.8 mg/m3 respectively. Also health risks of studied condition were estimated as significant level, category one, therefore the risk must be reduced below the standard level. According to the work requirements to reduce the emission rate and mitigate the health risk exposure, a local exhaust ventilation system design was recommended for bag-filters of hopper tank.

  3. Inhibition of intercellular communication by airborne particulate matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heussen, G.A.H. (Landbouwhogeschool Wageningen (Netherlands). Dept. of Toxicology)

    1991-04-01

    To investigate the inhibition of gap junction mediated intercellular communication (IC) by extracts of airborne particulate matter (APM), V79 cells were incubated with extracts of APM and subsequently microinjected with the fluorescent dye Lucifer Yellow, after which the number of fluorescent (= communicating) cells was determined. To compare inhibitory effects on IC with mutagenicity, APM was also tested in the Salmonella microsome assay. Six different extracts were tested, two outdoor extracts representing a heavily polluted and a relatively clean sample, and four indoor extracts, taken either in livingrooms with or without wood combustion in an open fire place, or in a room with or without cigarette smoking. Non-cytotoxic doses of outdoor and indoor APM inhibited IC in V79 cells in dose- and time-dependent manner. Mutagenicity data and IC data were correlated. These results suggest that APM has tumor promoter activity in addition to mutagenic activity. (orig.).

  4. Transport of airborne particulate matters originating from Mentougou, Beijing, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    In this study, a coupled regional air quality modeling system is applied to investigate the time spatial variations in airborne particulate matters (PM10), originating from Mentougou to Beijing municipal area in the period of April 1-7, 2004, and the influences of complex terrain and meteorological conditions upon boundary layer structure and PMio concentration distributions. An intercomparison of the performance with CALPUFF against the observed data is presented and an examination of scatter plots is provided. The statistics show that the correlation coefficient and STD between the modeled and observed data are 0.86 and 0.03, respectively. Analysis of model results illustrates that the pollutants emitted from Mentougou can be transported to Beijing municipal area along certain transport pathways, and PMio concentration distributions show heterogeneity characteristics. Contributions of the Mentougou sources to the PMio concentrations in Beijing municipal area are up to 0.1-15 μg/m3.

  5. Trueness, Precision, and Detectability for Sampling and Analysis of Organic Species in Airborne Particulate Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recovery. precision, limits of detection and quantitation, blank levels, calibration linearity, and agreement with certified reference materials were determined for two classes of organic components of airborne particulate matter, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and hopanes usin...

  6. Trace elements in airborne particulates in South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Airborne particulate materials were monitored continously with calendar month sampling periods at 5 rural/background, 4 rural/developing/peri-urban, 6 urban and 7 industrial sites in South Africa. Concentrations of Al, Br, Ca, Cs, Cd, Cl, Co, Cr, Cu, Eu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, Pb, Rb, S, Sb, Sc, Se, Ti, V and Zn were determined with neutron activation analysis (NAA), atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) and particle-induced X-ray emission spectroscopy (PIXE) employed on a complementary basis. A review of sources of airborne trace elements is given. The monitoring program, sampling, sample-handling procedures, as well as the analytical methods used, are discussed in detail. The results of related studies, i.e. effects of filter materials; sampling rates and geometry; determinations of collection efficiencies; particle size ranges; effects of internal flux monitors on the precision and accuracy of NAA; trace impurities in blank materials; quality control by routine analysis of reference materials; comparison of results obtained by NAA, AAS, and PIXE analysis; are given, as is a review of air-pollution control and research policy in South Africa and of ambient air quality standards. Results are discussed in terms of general patterns in trace-element concentrations and enrichments, the general pattern in population centres, the variability of monthly concentrations, and in terms of long-term trends at background, rural, developing, peri-urban, urban and industrial sites. Cases of concern in respect of increasing concentrations are pointed out, as are the constantly high Pb levels at urban sites

  7. Skin Damage Mechanisms Related to Airborne Particulate Matter Exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnani, Natalia D; Muresan, Ximena M; Belmonte, Giuseppe; Cervellati, Franco; Sticozzi, Claudia; Pecorelli, Alessandra; Miracco, Clelia; Marchini, Timoteo; Evelson, Pablo; Valacchi, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiological studies suggest a correlation between increased airborne particulate matter (PM) and adverse health effects. The mechanisms of PM-health effects are believed to involve oxidative stress and inflammation. To evaluate the ability of PM promoting skin tissue damage, one of the main organs exposed to outdoor pollutants, we analyzed the effect of concentrated ambient particles (CAPs) in a reconstructed human epidermis (RHE) model. RHE tissues were exposed to 25 or 100 µg/ml CAPs for 24 or 48 h. Data showed that RHE seems to be more susceptible to CAPs-induced toxicity after 48 h exposure than after 24 h. We found a local reactive O(2) species (ROS) production increase generated from metals present on the particle, which contributes to lipids oxidation. Furthermore, as a consequence of altered redox status, NFkB nucleus translocation was increase upon CAPs exposure, as well as cyclooxygenase 2 and cytochrome P450 levels, which may be involved in the inflammatory response initiated by PM. CAPs also triggered an apoptotic process in skin. Surprisingly, by transition electron microscopy analysis we showed that CAPs were able to penetrate skin tissues. These findings contribute to the understanding of the cutaneous pathophysiological mechanisms initiated by CAPs exposure, where oxidative stress and inflammation may play predominant roles. PMID:26507108

  8. Airborne particulate matter collection and analysis by XRF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Philippine Nuclear Research Institute (PNRI) continues to pursue its air pollution research in support of the implementation of the 1999 Clean Air Act. The primary tool for analysis is X-Ray Fluorescence spectrometry (XRF) since the PPP-I is still on extended shut down. Following the workplan approved during the 1991 Workshop on Utilization of Research Reactors, the PNRI collected airborne particulate matter using the Gent sampler. The sampling site selected for the program was Poveda Learning Center, located beside a major highway, the Epifanio delos Santos Avenue (EDSA) where the principal source of pollution is vehicular emissions. Samples collected up to August were analyzed by XRF using three sets of analytical parameters to allow optimized analysis of a wider range of elements including Na and Pb. Although the PNRI has no operating reactor, it has personnel who have trained in NAA but are unable to apply the technique. As mentioned in the 2001 Workshop, the PNRI is considering several options to resume reactor-related activities. Thus, it is necessary to ensure continuing availability of expertise in NAA in the PNRI. It looks forward to collaborating with other Institutes through the FNCA program for the analysis of samples by NAA and using reactor parameters from collaborating Institute, to obtain experience in the use of Ko. This would also allow validation of XRF data obtained for these samples. In return it can analyze samples for collaborating institutions to generate data on Pb and S, which are important for pollutant source apportionment. (author)

  9. Analytical Methods INAA and PIXE Applied to Characterization of Airborne Particulate Matter in Bandung, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.D. Lestiani

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Urbanization and industrial growth have deteriorated air quality and are major cause to air pollution. Air pollution through fine and ultra-fine particles is a serious threat to human health. The source of air pollution must be known quantitatively by elemental characterization, in order to design the appropriate air quality management. The suitable methods for analysis the airborne particulate matter such as nuclear analytical techniques are hardly needed to solve the air pollution problem. The objectives of this study are to apply the nuclear analytical techniques to airborne particulate samples collected in Bandung, to assess the accuracy and to ensure the reliable of analytical results through the comparison of instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA and particles induced X-ray emission (PIXE. Particle samples in the PM2.5 and PM2.5-10 ranges have been collected in Bandung twice a week for 24 hours using a Gent stacked filter unit. The result showed that generally there was a systematic difference between INAA and PIXE results, which the values obtained by PIXE were lower than values determined by INAA. INAA is generally more sensitive and reliable than PIXE for Na, Al, Cl, V, Mn, Fe, Br and I, therefore INAA data are preffered, while PIXE usually gives better precision than INAA for Mg, K, Ca, Ti and Zn. Nevertheless, both techniques provide reliable results and complement to each other. INAA is still a prospective method, while PIXE with the special capabilities is a promising tool that could contribute and complement the lack of NAA in determination of lead, sulphur and silicon. The combination of INAA and PIXE can advantageously be used in air pollution studies to extend the number of important elements measured as key elements in source apportionment.

  10. Analytical Methods INAA and PIXE Applied to Characterization of Airborne Particulate Matter in Bandung, Indonesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urbanization and industrial growth have deteriorated air quality and are major cause to air pollution. Air pollution through fine and ultra-fine particles is a serious threat to human health. The source of air pollution must be known quantitatively by elemental characterization, in order to design the appropriate air quality management. The suitable methods for analysis the airborne particulate matter such as nuclear analytical techniques are hardly needed to solve the air pollution problem. The objectives of this study are to apply the nuclear analytical techniques to airborne particulate samples collected in Bandung, to assess the accuracy and to ensure the reliable of analytical results through the comparison of instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and particles induced X-ray emission (PIXE). Particle samples in the PM2.5 and PM2.5-10 ranges have been collected in Bandung twice a week for 24 hours using a Gent stacked filter unit. The result showed that generally there was a systematic difference between INAA and PIXE results, which the values obtained by PIXE were lower than values determined by INAA. INAA is generally more sensitive and reliable than PIXE for Na, Al, Cl, V, Mn, Fe, Br and I, therefore INAA data are preferred, while PIXE usually gives better precision than INAA for Mg, K, Ca, Ti and Zn. Nevertheless, both techniques provide reliable results and complement to each other. INAA is still a prospective method, while PIXE with the special capabilities is a promising tool that could contribute and complement the lack of NAA in determination of lead, sulphur and silicon. The combination of INAA and PIXE can advantageously be used in air pollution studies to extend the number of important elements measured as key elements in source apportionment. (author)

  11. Magnetic Approaches to Measuring and Mitigating Airborne Particulate Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maher, B.

    2014-12-01

    Human exposure to airborne particulate matter (PM) generates adverse human health impacts at all life stages from the embryonic to the terminal, including damage to respiratory and cardiovascular health, and neurodevelopment and cognitive function. Detailed understanding of the causal links between PM exposure and specific health impacts, and possible means to reduce PM exposure require knowledge of PM concentrations, compositions and sources at the fine-scale; i.e. beyond the current resolution of spatially-sparse conventional PM monitoring, non-unique elemental analyses, or poorly-validated PM modelling. Magnetically-ordered iron oxide minerals appear to be a ubiquitous component of urban PM. These minerals derive partly from the presence of iron impurities in fuels, which form, upon combustion, a non-volatile residue, often dominated by magnetite, within glassy, spherical condensates. Iron-rich, magnetic PM also arises from abrasion from vehicle components, including disk brakes, and road dust. The ubiquity and diversity of these magnetic PM phases, and the speed and sensitivity of magnetic analyses (down to trace concentrations), makes possible rapid, cost-effective magnetic characterization and quantification of PM, a field of study which has developed rapidly across the globe over the last 2 decades. Magnetic studies of actively-sampled PM, on filters, and passively-sampled PM, on tree leaves and other depositional surfaces, can be used to: monitor and map at high spatial resolution ambient PM concentrations; address the controversial issue of the efficacy of PM capture by vegetation; and add a new, discriminatory dimension to PM source apportionment.

  12. Exposure to airborne particulate matter in the subway system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Vânia; Moreno, Teresa; Minguillón, María Cruz; Amato, Fulvio; de Miguel, Eladio; Capdevila, Marta; Querol, Xavier

    2015-04-01

    The Barcelona subway system comprises eight subway lines, at different depths, with different tunnel dimensions, station designs and train frequencies. An extensive measurement campaign was performed in this subway system in order to characterise the airborne particulate matter (PM) measuring its concentration and investigating its variability, both inside trains and on platforms, in two different seasonal periods (warmer and colder), to better understand the main factors controlling it, and therefore the way to improve air quality. The majority of PM in the underground stations is generated within the subway system, due to abrasion and wear of rail tracks, wheels and braking pads caused during the motion of the trains. Substantial variation in average PM concentrations between underground stations was observed, which might be associated to different ventilation and air conditioning systems, characteristics/design of each station and variations in the train frequency. Average PM2.5 concentrations on the platforms in the subway operating hours ranged from 20 to 51 and from 41 to 91 μg m(-3) in the warmer and colder period, respectively, mainly related to the seasonal changes in the subway ventilation systems. The new subway lines with platform screen doors showed PM2.5 concentrations lower than those in the conventional system, which is probably attributable not only to the more advanced ventilation setup, but also to the lower train frequency and the design of the stations. PM concentrations inside the trains were generally lower than those on the platforms, which is attributable to the air conditioning systems operating inside the trains, which are equipped with air filters. This study allows the analysis and quantification of the impact of different ventilation settings on air quality, which provides an improvement on the knowledge for the general understanding and good management of air quality in the subway system. PMID:25616190

  13. Elemental quantification of airborne particulate matter in Bandung and Lembang area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ELEMENTAL QUANTIFICATION OF AIRBORNE PARTICULATE MATTER IN BANDUNG AND LEMBANG REGION: The contaminated airborne particulates by toxic gases and elements have a potential affect to the human health. Some toxic elements related to air pollution have carcinogenic affect. The quantification of those elements is important to monitor a level of pollutant contained in the airborne particulate. The aim of this work is to analyze the air particulate sample using instrumental neutron activation analysis and other related technique. Two sampling points of Bandung and Lembang that represent and urban and rural area respectively have been chosen to collect the air particulate sample. The samplings were carried out using Gent Stacked Filter Unit Sampler for 24 hours, and two cellulose filters of 8 μm and 0.45 μm pore size were used. Trace elements in the sample collected were determined using NAA based on a comparative method. Elemental distribution on PM2.5 and PM10 fraction of airborne particulate was analyzed, the enrichment factor was calculated using Al as reference elements, and the black carbons contents were determined using FEL Smoke Stain Reflectometer analyzed. The results are presented and discussed. (author)

  14. Toxicity to chicken embryos of organic extracts from airborne particulates separated into five sizes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsumoto, H.

    1988-07-01

    The chicken embryo assay has been used for research on the toxicity of complex extracts derived from different environmental sources, as well as of individual compounds. However, only a few studies have been made on the toxicological effects of extracts derived from airborne particulate matter in chicken embryo. These studies showed that the toxic effect was due to the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the particles, although their structure and quantity were the factors determining the extent of the toxicity. Airborne particulate matter is composed of particles of different sizes, which can be separated into five classes according to their size by an Andersen high-volume sampler. Each class contained many kinds of compounds such as PAHs. In this study, airborne particulate matter was extracted according to particle size, the extracts analyzed for PAHs, and tested for embryotoxicity.

  15. Airborne volcanic ash; a global threat to aviation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neal, Christina A.; Guffanti, Marianne C.

    2010-01-01

    The world's busy air traffic corridors pass over or downwind of hundreds of volcanoes capable of hazardous explosive eruptions. The risk to aviation from volcanic activity is significant - in the United States alone, aircraft carry about 300,000 passengers and hundreds of millions of dollars of cargo near active volcanoes each day. Costly disruption of flight operations in Europe and North America in 2010 in the wake of a moderate-size eruption in Iceland clearly demonstrates how eruptions can have global impacts on the aviation industry. Airborne volcanic ash can be a serious hazard to aviation even hundreds of miles from an eruption. Encounters with high-concentration ash clouds can diminish visibility, damage flight control systems, and cause jet engines to fail. Encounters with low-concentration clouds of volcanic ash and aerosols can accelerate wear on engine and aircraft components, resulting in premature replacement. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with national and international partners, is playing a leading role in the international effort to reduce the risk posed to aircraft by volcanic eruptions.

  16. A Novel Two-Stage Dynamic Decision Support based Optimal Threat Evaluation and Defensive Resource Scheduling Algorithm for Multi Air-borne threats

    OpenAIRE

    Naeem, Huma; Masood, Asif; Hussain, Mukhtar; Shoab A. Khan

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a novel two-stage flexible dynamic decision support based optimal threat evaluation and defensive resource scheduling algorithm for multi-target air-borne threats. The algorithm provides flexibility and optimality by swapping between two objective functions, i.e. the preferential and subtractive defense strategies as and when required. To further enhance the solution quality, it outlines and divides the critical parameters used in Threat Evaluation and Weapon Assignment (T...

  17. Characterization of functional groups of airborne particulate matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Particulate matter of organic combustibles burning consists of various hydrocarbons and radicals, which may cause harmful impact to human health. In this study solid particulate matter were collected on the filters from burning of various combustibles in a burning chamber and from atmosphere of city of Riga by dichotomous impactor. FTIR spectra were obtained before and after samples' treatment. Absorptions associated with aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons and alcohol functional groups were observed in the FTIR spectra. Free radicals of particulate matter were detected by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR)

  18. Trace elements present in airborne particulate matter-Stressors of plant metabolism

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pavlík, Milan; Pavlíková, D.; Zemanová, V.; Hnilička, F.; Urbanová, V.; Száková, J.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 79, May 2012 (2012), s. 101-107. ISSN 0147-6513 Grant ostatní: GA ČR(CZ) GA521/09/1150 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : Airborne particulate matter * Amino acids * Gas- exchange parameters Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 2.203, year: 2012

  19. Application of 2D-GCMS reveals many industrial chemicals in airborne particulate matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Mohammed S.; West, Charles E.; Scarlett, Alan G.; Rowland, Steven J.; Harrison, Roy M.

    2013-02-01

    Samples of airborne particulate matter (PM2.5) have been collected in Birmingham, UK and extracted with dichloromethane prior to analysis by two-dimensional GC separation and TOFMS analysis. Identification of compounds using the NIST spectral library has revealed a remarkable diversity of compounds, some of which have not been previously reported in airborne analyses. Groups of compounds identified in this study include a large number of oxygenated VOC including linear and branched compounds, substituted aromatic compounds and alicyclic compounds, oxygenated polycyclic aromatic and alicyclic compounds, organic nitrogen compounds, branched chain VOC and substituted aromatic VOC, phthalates, organo-phosphates and organo-sulphate compounds. Many of the compounds identified are mass production chemicals, which due to their semi-volatility enter the atmosphere and subsequently partition onto pre-existing aerosol. Their contribution to the toxicity of airborne particulate matter is currently unknown but might be significant. The diverse industrial uses and potential sources of the identified compounds are reported.

  20. Mineralogical characterization of airborne individual particulates in Beijing PM10

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Sen-lin; SHAO Long-yi; WU Ming-hong; JIAO Zheng

    2006-01-01

    This work mainly focuses on the mineralogical study of particulate matter(PM10) in Beijing. Samples were collected on polycarbonate filter from April, 2002 to March, 2003 in Beijing urban area. Scanning electronic microscopy coupled with energy dispersive X-ray(SEM/EDX) was used to investigate individual mineral particles in Beijing PM10. 1454 individual mineral particulates from 48 samples were analysed by SEM/EDX. The results revealed that mineral particulates were complex and heterogeneous. 38kinds of minerals in PM10 were identified. The clay minerals, of annual average percentage of 30.1% , were the main composition among the identified minerals, and illite/smectite was the main composition in clay minerals, reaching up to 35%. Annual average percentage of quartz, calcite, compound particulates, carbonates were 13.5%, 10.9%, 11.95%, 10.31%, respectively. Annual average percentage less than 10% were gypsum, feldspar, dolomite, and so on. Fluorite, apatite, halite, barite and chloridize zinc (ZnCl2) were firstly identified in Beijing PM10. Sulfurization was found on surface of mineral particles, suggested extensive atmospheric reaction in air during summer.

  1. Qualitative and quantitative determination of water in airborne particulate matter

    OpenAIRE

    Canepari, S.; C. Farao; E. Marconi; C. Giovannelli; C. Perrino

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes the optimization and validation of a new simple method for the quantitative determination of water in atmospheric particulate matter (PM). The analyses are performed by using a coulometric Karl-Fisher system equipped with a controlled heating device; different water contributions are separated by the application of an optimized thermal ramp (three heating steps: 50–120 °C, 120–180 °C, 180–250 °C).

    The analytical performance...

  2. Qualitative and quantitative determination of water in airborne particulate matter

    OpenAIRE

    Canepari, S.; C. Farao; E. Marconi; C. Giovannelli; C. Perrino

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the optimization and validation of a new simple method for the quantitative determination of water in atmospheric particulate matter (PM). The analyses are performed by using a coulometric Karl-Fisher system equipped with a controlled heating device; different water contributions are separated by the application of an optimized thermal ramp (three heating steps: 50–120 °C, 120–180 °C, 180–250 °C). The analytical performance of the method was verif...

  3. Real-world exposure of airborne particulate matter triggers oxidative stress in an animal model

    OpenAIRE

    Wan, Guohui; Rajagopalan, Sanjay; Sun, Qinghua; Zhang, Kezhong

    2010-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have shown a strong link between air pollution and the increase of cardio-pulmonary mortality and morbidity. In particular, inhaled airborne particulate matter (PM) exposure is closely associated with the pathogenesis of air pollution-induced systemic diseases. In this study, we exposed C57BIV6 mice to environmentally relevant PM in fine and ultra fine ranges (diameter < 2.5 μm, PM2.5) using a “real-world” airborne PM exposure system. We investigated the pathophysiolog...

  4. A Novel Two-Stage Dynamic Decision Support based Optimal Threat Evaluation and Defensive Resource Scheduling Algorithm for Multi Air-borne threats

    CERN Document Server

    Naeem, Huma; Hussain, Mukhtar; Khan, Shoab A

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a novel two-stage flexible dynamic decision support based optimal threat evaluation and defensive resource scheduling algorithm for multi-target air-borne threats. The algorithm provides flexibility and optimality by swapping between two objective functions, i.e. the preferential and subtractive defense strategies as and when required. To further enhance the solution quality, it outlines and divides the critical parameters used in Threat Evaluation and Weapon Assignment (TEWA) into three broad categories (Triggering, Scheduling and Ranking parameters). Proposed algorithm uses a variant of many-to-many Stable Marriage Algorithm (SMA) to solve Threat Evaluation (TE) and Weapon Assignment (WA) problem. In TE stage, Threat Ranking and Threat-Asset pairing is done. Stage two is based on a new flexible dynamic weapon scheduling algorithm, allowing multiple engagements using shoot-look-shoot strategy, to compute near-optimal solution for a range of scenarios. Analysis part of this paper presents ...

  5. Elemental Composition In Airborne Particulate Sample Of Bandung and Lembang Region In 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Concentration of airborne particulate of Bandung higher than that of Lembang. The PM2.5 fraction was in the range of 4,3 μg/m3 to 21,1 μg/m3 for Bandung area, and 2,9 μg/m3 to 19,2 μg/m3 for Lembang area for 24 hours sampling time. The PM10 fraction of Bandung area was in the range of 12,1 μg/m3 to 44, 1 μg/m3, where a s the PM10 fraction of Lembang area was in the range of 5,2 μg/m3 to 30,6 μg/m3. The data much lower than that of National ambient air quality standard for 24 hours, 65 μg/m3 and 150 μg/m3 for PM2.5 fraction and PM10 fraction respectively. No clear correlation either concentration of fine or coarse particulate to rainfall. For teen elements, which were Al, Br, Ca, Ce, CI, Cr, Fe, I, Mn, Na, Sb, Sc, V and Zn, were detected. The elements of Br, Ce, CI, Cr, I, Sb and Zn were enriched in fine and coarse of Bandung and Lembang samples, where as AI, Ca, Mn, Na and V were not enriched. The special element of Fe was enriched in fine particulate of Lembang, where as in particulate of Bandung was not enriched. Analysis of coarse particulate samples indicated the similar results to fine particulate except for Ce. The results of analysis explained that pollutant source of Bandung and Lembang were the same. Some elements such as Br, CI and I possibly come from organic material burning; Br and CI could be from motor vehicle; Cr, and Zn could be from paint factory; Zn and Sb could be from refuse incineration; while Ce could be from electronic factory. The calculation results indicated that enrichment factor of elements in fine particulate higher than that of coarse particulate. Furthermore the enrichment factor of element in airborne particulate of Bandung area was higher than that of airborne particulate of Lembang

  6. Collaborative monitoring study of airborne particulate matters among seven Asian countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seven Asian countries have been collaborating in collecting airborne particulate matter (APM) in their individual countries and analyzing them by neutron activation analysis as a common analytical tool. APM samples were collected into two fractions of fine and coarse grains (PM2 and PM2- 10, respectively). Analytical data were compared from several viewpoints such as particulate sizes, locality of sampling sites (either urban or rural) and geographical location of participating countries. Chemical composition and their monthly variations as well as mass concentrations appear to be highly characteristic for individual sampling sites, suggesting that NAA data are suitable for evaluating the air quality in each site. (author)

  7. Biomonitoring of Toxic Compounds of Airborne Particulate Matter in Urban and Industriel Areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klumpp, Andreas; Ro-Poulsen, Helge

    The toxicity and ecotoxicity of airborne particulate matter is determined by its physical features, but also by its chemical composition. The standardised exposure of accumulative bioindicator plants is suggested as an efficient and reliable tool to assess and monitor effects of particulate matter...... on man and environment. Two widely applied biomonitoring procedures, namely the standardised ryegrass exposure for monitoring of trace metals, and the standardised exposure of curly kale for monitoring of PAH compounds, is presented taking examples from a Europe-wide biomonitoring study conducted in...... these methods in environmental monitoring programmes are made...

  8. Qualitative and quantitative determination of water in airborne particulate matter

    OpenAIRE

    Canepari, S.; C. Farao; E. Marconi; C. Giovannelli; C. Perrino

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the optimization and validation of a new simple method for the quantitative determination of water in atmospheric particulate matter (PM). The analyses are performed by using a coulometric Karl-Fisher system equipped with a controlled heating device; different water contributions are separated by the application of an optimized thermal ramp (three heating steps: 50–120 °C, 120–180 °C, 180–250 °C).

    The analytical performance of the method was verified ...

  9. PM 2.5 Airborne Particulates Near Frac Sand Operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, Kristin; Jacobson, Jeron; Kroening, Zachary; Pierce, Crispin

    2015-11-01

    The rapid growth of hydraulic fracturing for oil and gas extraction in the U.S. has led to 135 active "frac" sand mines, processing plants, and rail transfer stations in Wisconsin. Potential environmental health risks include increased truck traffic, noise, ecosystem loss, and groundwater, light, and air pollution. Emitted air contaminants include fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and respirable crystalline silica. Inhalation of fine dust particles causes increased mortality, cardiovascular disease, lung disease, and lung cancer. In the authors' pilot study, use of a filter-based ambient particulate monitor found PM2.5 levels of 5.82-50.8 µg/m3 in six 24-hour samples around frac sand mines and processing sites. Enforcement of the existing U.S. Environmental Protection Agency annual PM2.5 standard of 12 µg/m3 is likely to protect the public from silica exposure risks as well. PM2.5 monitoring around frac sand sites is needed to ensure regulatory compliance, inform nearby communities, and protect public health. PMID:26638669

  10. Cardiac Autonomic Effects of Acute Exposures to Airborne Particulates in Men and Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howarth, M. S.; Schlegel, T. T.; Knapp, C. F.; Patwardhan, A. R.; Jenkins, R. A.; Ilgner, R. H.; Evans, J. M.

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this research was to investigate cardiac autonomic changes associated with acute exposures to airborne particulates. Methods: High fidelity 12-lead ECG (CardioSoft, Houston, TX) was acquired from 19 (10 male / 9 female) non-smoking volunteers (age 33.6 +/- 6.6 yrs) during 10 minutes pre-exposure, exposure and post-exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), cooking oil fumes, wood smoke and sham (water vapor). To control exposure levels, noise, subject activity, and temperature, all studies were conducted inside an environmental chamber. Results: The short-term fractal scaling exponent (Alpha-1) and the ratio of low frequency to high frequency Heart Rate Variability (HRV) powers (LF/HF, a purported sympathetic index) were both higher in males (pcardiac responses to some acute airborne particulates are gender related.

  11. Sampling and analytical methodologies for instrumental neutron activation analysis of airborne particulate matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The IAEA supports a number of projects having to do with the analysis of airborne particulate matter by nuclear techniques. Most of this work involves the use of activation analysis in its various forms, particularly instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). This technique has been widely used in many different countries for the analysis of airborne particulate matter, and there are already many publications in scientific journals, books and reports describing such work. The present document represents an attempt to summarize the most important features of INAA as applied to the analysis of airborne particulate matter. It is intended to serve as a set of guidelines for use by participants in the IAEA's own programmes, and other scientists, who are not yet fully experienced in the application of INAA to airborne particulate samples, and who wish either to make a start on using this technique or to improve their existing procedures. The methodologies for sampling described in this document are of rather general applicability, although they are presented here in a way that takes account of the particular requirements arising from the use of INAA as the analytical technique. The analytical part of the document, however, is presented in a form that is applicable only to INAA. (Subsequent publications in this series are expected to deal specifically with other nuclear related techniques such as energy dispersive X ray fluorescence (ED-XRF) and particle induced X ray emission (PIXE) analysis). Although the methods and procedures described here have been found through experience to yield acceptable results, they should not be considered mandatory. Any other procedure used should, however, be chosen to be capable of yielding results at least of equal quality to those described

  12. SIZE DISTRIBUTION AND RATE OF PRODUCTION OF AIRBORNE PARTICULATE MATTER GENERATED DURING METAL CUTTING

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During deactivation and decommissioning activities, thermal cutting tools, such as plasma torch, laser, and gasoline torch, are used to cut metals. These activities generate fumes, smoke and particulates. These airborne species of matter, called aerosols, may be inhaled if suitable respiratory protection is not used. Inhalation of the airborne metallic aerosols has been reported to cause ill health effects, such as acute respiratory syndrome and chromosome damage in lymphocytes. In the nuclear industry, metals may be contaminated with radioactive materials. Cutting these metals, as in size reduction of gloveboxes and tanks, produces high concentrations of airborne transuranic particles. Particles of the respirable size range (size < 10 microm) deposit in various compartments of the respiratory tract, the fraction and the site in the respiratory tract depending on the size of the particles. The dose delivered to the respiratory tract depends on the size distribution of the airborne particulates (aerosols) and their concentration and radioactivity/toxicity. The concentration of airborne particulate matter in an environment is dependent upon the rate of their production and the ventilation rate. Thus, measuring aerosol size distribution and generation rate is important for (1) the assessment of inhalation exposures of workers, (2) the selection of respiratory protection equipment, and (3) the design of appropriate filtration systems. Size distribution of the aerosols generated during cutting of different metals by plasma torch was measured. Cutting rates of different metals, rate of generation of respirable mass, as well as the fraction of the released kerf that become respirable were determined. This report presents results of these studies. Measurements of the particles generated during cutting of metal plates with a plasma arc torch revealed the presence of particles with mass median aerodynamic diameters of particles close to 0.2 micro

  13. Sampling and analytical methodologies for energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence analysis of airborne particulate matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present document represents an attempt to summarize the most important features of the different forms of ED-XFR as applied to the analysis of airborne particulate matter. It is intended to serve as a set of guidelines for use by participants in the IAEA's own programmes, and other scientists, who are not yet fully experienced in the application of ED-XRF to airborne particulate samples, and who wish either to make a start on using this technique or to improve their existing procedures. The methodologies for sampling described in this document are of rather general applicability. Emphasis is also placed on the sources of errors affecting the sampling of airborne particulate matter. The analytical part of the document describes the different forms of ED-XRF and their potential applications. Spectrum evaluation, a key step in X-ray spectrometry, is covered in depth, including discussion on several calibration and peak fitting techniques and computer programs especially designed for this purpose. 148 refs, 25 figs, 13 tabs

  14. Interaction between ozone and airborne particulate matter in office air

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mølhave, Lars; Kjærgaard, Søren K.; Sigsgaard, Torben;

    2005-01-01

    This study investigated the hypotheses that humans are affected by air pollution caused by ozone and house dust, that the effect of simultaneous exposure to ozone and dust in the air is larger than the effect of these two pollutants individually, and that the effects can be measured as release of...... cytokines and changes of the respiratory function. Experimental exposures of eight atopic but otherwise healthy subjects were performed in a climate chamber under controlled conditions. The three controlled exposures were about 75 microg/m3 total suspended particulate matter, 0.3 p.p.m. ozone, and the...... combination of these. The exposure duration was 3 h. The outcome measures were interleukins and cells in nasal lavages (NAL), respiratory function, bronchial metacholine responsiveness, rhinometry symptoms and general well-being in a questionnaire and time course of general irritation on a visual analogue...

  15. Qualitative and quantitative determination of water in airborne particulate matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Canepari

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the optimization and validation of a new simple method for the quantitative determination of water in atmospheric particulate matter (PM. The analyses are performed by using a coulometric Karl-Fisher system equipped with a controlled heating device; different water contributions are separated by the application of an optimized thermal ramp (three heating steps: 50–120 °C, 120–180 °C, 180–250 °C.

    The analytical performance of the method was verified by using standard materials containing 5.55% and 1% by weight of water. The recovery was greater than 95%; the detection limit was about 20 μg. The method was then applied to NIST Reference Materials (NIST1649a, urban particulate matter and to real PM10 samples collected in different geographical areas. In all cases the repeatability was satisfactory (10–15%.

    When analyzing the Reference Material, the separation of four different types of water was obtained. In real PM10 samples the amount of water and its thermal profile differed as a function of the chemical composition of the dust. Mass percentages of 3–4% of water were obtained in most samples, but values up to about 15% were reached in areas where the chemical composition of PM is dominated by secondary inorganic ions and organic matter. High percentages of water were also observed in areas where PM is characterized by the presence of desert dust.

    A possible identification of the quality of water released from the samples was tried by applying the method to some hygroscopic compounds that are likely contained in PM (pure SiO2, Al2O3, ammonium salts, carbohydrates and dicarboxylic acids and by comparing the results with those obtained from field samples.

  16. Qualitative and quantitative determination of water in airborne particulate matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Canepari

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the optimization and validation of a new simple method for the quantitative determination of water in atmospheric particulate matter (PM. The analyses are performed by using a coulometric Karl-Fisher system equipped with a controlled heating device; different water contributions are separated by the application of an optimized thermal ramp (three heating steps: 50–120 °C, 120–180 °C, 180–250 °C.

    The analytical performance of the method was verified by using standard materials containing 5.55% and 1% by weight of water. The recovery was greater than 95%; the detection limit was about 20 μg. The method was then applied to NIST reference materials (NIST1649a, urban particulate matter and to real PM10 samples collected in different geographical areas. In all cases the repeatability was satisfactory (10–15%.

    When analyzing the reference material, the separation of four different types of water was obtained. In real PM10 samples the amount of water and its thermal profile differed as a function of the chemical composition of the dust. Mass percentages of 3–4% of water were obtained in most samples, but values up to about 15% were reached in areas where the chemical composition of PM is dominated by secondary inorganic ions and organic matter. High percentages of water were also observed in areas where PM is characterized by the presence of desert dust.

    A possible identification of the quality of water released from the samples was tried by applying the method to some hygroscopic compounds that are likely contained in PM (pure SiO2, Al2O3, ammonium salts, carbohydrates and dicarboxylic acids and by comparing the results with those obtained from field samples.

  17. Collection of airborne particulate matter for a subsequent analysis by total reflection X-ray fluorescence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klockenkaemper, R.; Bayer, H.; Bohlen, A. von; Schmeling, M.; Klockow, D. [Institut fuer Spektrochemie und Angewandte Spektroskopie, Dortmund (Germany)

    1995-06-01

    The collection of airborne particulate matter by filtration and impaction was adapted to total reflection X-ray fluorescence analysis (TXRF). Cellulose nitrate filters were used for collecting in a Berner impactor. Single filter spots were punched out, placed on quartz-glass carriers, dissolved by tetrahydrofuran and re-precipitated prior to element determinations by TXRF. In a Battelle-type impactor, airborne dust was collected on Plexiglass carriers coated with medical Vaseline. The loaded carriers were directly analyzed by TXRF. In both cases, quantification was simply performed by the addition of an internal standard after sampling. Impactors were made of a suitable material in order to investigate high blank values, collection losses and memory effects. It could be shown that stainless steel, even coated with TiN, is less suitable and should be avoided as an impactor material. Although aluminum is partly recommendable, titanium and the polymer Makrolon are quite appropriate. By using an impactor made of these materials, a reliable multielement determination in airborne dust is made possible with low detection limits as low as 1 ng/m{sup 3} and a satisfactory repeatability of a few %. Short sampling times of only 1 h or less can be realized. The total procedure is simple and time-saving, and can be recommended for routine investigations of airborne particulate matter. (author).

  18. Effects of airborne particulate matter on alternative pre-mRNA splicing in colon cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buggiano, Valeria; Petrillo, Ezequiel; Alló, Mariano; Lafaille, Celina [Laboratorio de Fisiología y Biología Molecular, Departamento de Fisiología, Biología Molecular y Celular, IFIBYNE-CONICET, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Ciudad Universitaria, Pabellón 2, C1428EHA Buenos Aires (Argentina); Redal, María Ana [Instituto de Ciencias Básicas y Medicina Experimental, Hospital Italiano de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Alghamdi, Mansour A. [Department of Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Meteorology, Environment and Arid Land Agriculture, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia); Khoder, Mamdouh I. [Department of Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Meteorology, Environment and Arid Land Agriculture, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia); Center of Excellence in Environmental Studies, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia); Shamy, Magdy [Department of Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Meteorology, Environment and Arid Land Agriculture, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia); Muñoz, Manuel J., E-mail: mmunoz@fbmc.fcen.uba.ar [Laboratorio de Fisiología y Biología Molecular, Departamento de Fisiología, Biología Molecular y Celular, IFIBYNE-CONICET, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Ciudad Universitaria, Pabellón 2, C1428EHA Buenos Aires (Argentina); and others

    2015-07-15

    Alternative pre-mRNA splicing plays key roles in determining tissue- and species-specific cell differentiation as well as in the onset of hereditary disease and cancer, being controlled by multiple post- and co-transcriptional regulatory mechanisms. We report here that airborne particulate matter, resulting from industrial pollution, inhibits expression and specifically affects alternative splicing at the 5′ untranslated region of the mRNA encoding the bone morphogenetic protein BMP4 in human colon cells in culture. These effects are consistent with a previously reported role for BMP4 in preventing colon cancer development, suggesting that ingestion of particulate matter could contribute to the onset of colon cell proliferation. We also show that the underlying mechanism might involve changes in transcriptional elongation. This is the first study to demonstrate that particulate matter causes non-pleiotropic changes in alternative splicing. - Highlights: • Airborne particulate matter (PM10) affects alternative splicing in colon cells. • PM10 upregulates one of the two mRNA variants of the growth factor BMP-4. • This variant has a longer 5′ unstranslated region and introduces an upstream AUG. • By regulating BMP-4 mRNA splicing PM10 inhibits total expression of BMP-4 protein. • BMP-4 downregulation was previously reported to be associated to colon cancer.

  19. Effects of airborne particulate matter on alternative pre-mRNA splicing in colon cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alternative pre-mRNA splicing plays key roles in determining tissue- and species-specific cell differentiation as well as in the onset of hereditary disease and cancer, being controlled by multiple post- and co-transcriptional regulatory mechanisms. We report here that airborne particulate matter, resulting from industrial pollution, inhibits expression and specifically affects alternative splicing at the 5′ untranslated region of the mRNA encoding the bone morphogenetic protein BMP4 in human colon cells in culture. These effects are consistent with a previously reported role for BMP4 in preventing colon cancer development, suggesting that ingestion of particulate matter could contribute to the onset of colon cell proliferation. We also show that the underlying mechanism might involve changes in transcriptional elongation. This is the first study to demonstrate that particulate matter causes non-pleiotropic changes in alternative splicing. - Highlights: • Airborne particulate matter (PM10) affects alternative splicing in colon cells. • PM10 upregulates one of the two mRNA variants of the growth factor BMP-4. • This variant has a longer 5′ unstranslated region and introduces an upstream AUG. • By regulating BMP-4 mRNA splicing PM10 inhibits total expression of BMP-4 protein. • BMP-4 downregulation was previously reported to be associated to colon cancer

  20. Characterization of airborne particulate matter collected at Jakarta roadside of an arterial road

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A total of 44 pairs of airborne particulate matter samples were collected in the intersection of Simprug, Pondok Indah, South Jakarta. Sampling of airborne particulate matter was conducted in July 2008-July 2009 using a Gent stacked filter unit sampler in two size fractions of <2.5 μm (fine) and 2.5-10 μm (coarse). Mass concentrations, black carbon as well as elemental concentrations were investigated as a pre-study in step to the evaluation of air quality in these roadside areas. Black carbon was determined by reflectance and elemental analysis was performed using proton induced X-ray emission, PIXE. The data set of fine particulate matters obtained from the characterization was then analyzed using receptor modeling EPA PMF3 for source apportionment. Source apportionment identified 5 factors, i.e. soil (9.2 %), construction mixed with road dust (20.9 %), motor vehicles (31.5 %), biomass burning mixed with seasalt (30.9 %), and industry (7.5 %). Motor vehicles is the dominant sources that contributes to the fine particulate matter in Jakarta. (author)

  1. On the removal of airborne particulate radioactivity under accident conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the case of an accident, the filter elements in the ventilation systems of a nuclear facility may become a part of the remaining fission product barrier. Within the framework of the Project Nuclear Safety of the Karlsruhe Nuclear Research Center, contributions are made to an increase in reliability of the air cleaning systems under accident conditions. These include the development and verification of computer programs for the estimation of those conditions prevailing inside the air cleaning systems in the case of an accident. Experimental investigations into the response of HEPA filters to differential pressures involving both dry and moist air have demonstrated the occurence of structural failures with subsequent loss of efficiency at relatively low values of differential pressures. With regard to further investigations, a new test facility was put into operation for the realization of superimposed challenges. A new method for testing particulate removal efficiency under high temperature or high humidity was developed. Finally, first results of code development work and of the corresponding verification experiments are reported on. (orig.)

  2. Chernobylsk accident: radioactivity measurement of airborn particulate in the AM/CNR network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results are presented of the radioactivity measurements performed on samples of airborne particulates taken at the station of the AM/CNR network after the Chernobylsk accident. In particular for the 16 operating stations are reported tables and trends referred to the beta total measurements performed on two samples per day per station and the activity of some gamma emitting radionuclides deriving from the analysis made on concentrations of filters referred to North-Central and Southrn Italy plus Islands. The presentation of data is preceded by a short description of the AM/CNR network and the sampling system as well as the methodology of total beta measurement and gamma analysis

  3. Workbook on reactor neutron activation analysis (NAA) of airborne particulate matter (APM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This publication presents general aspects of reactor neutron activation analysis (NAA) applied to measurement of elemental composition of airborne particulate matter. It presents an introduction to the NAA, its' basic principles and brief history of the method and discusses its' advantages and disadvantages. This publication also presents experimental procedures of NAA including sampling and sample preparation; preparation of calibration standard samples; reactor neutron irradiation; gamma-spectroscopy of the irradiated samples; quantification and presentation of analytical results. The publication pays attention to the quality assurance and quality control procedures including internal quality control, analysis of certified reference materials, and interlaboratory and multi-method comparison studies, control charts

  4. Characterization of airborne particulate matter in the metropolitan region of Belo Horizonte

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work soil samples, iron ore and airborne atmospheric particulate matter (PM) in the Metropolitan Region of Belo Horizonte (MRBH), State of Minas Gerais, Brazil, are investigated with the aim of identifying if the sources of the particulate matter are of natural origin, such as, resuspension of particles from soil, or due to anthropogenic origins from mining and processing of iron ore. Samples were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction, X-ray fluorescence and 57Fe-Moessbauer spectroscopy. The results showed that soil samples studied are rich in quartz and have low contents of iron mainly iron oxide with low crystallinity. The samples of iron ore and PM have high concentration of iron, predominantly well crystallized hematite. 57Fe-Moessbauer spectroscopy confirmed the presence of similar iron oxides in samples of PM and in the samples of iron ore, indicating the anthropogenic origin in the material present in atmosphere of the study area. (author)

  5. Characterization of airborne particulate matter in the metropolitan region of Belo Horizonte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tavares, Fernanda V.F.; Ardisson, Jose Domingos; Rodrigues, Paulo Cesar H.; Brito, Walter de; Macedo, Waldemar Augusto A.; Jacomino, Vanusa Maria F., E-mail: ferufv@yahoo.com.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    In this work soil samples, iron ore and airborne atmospheric particulate matter (PM) in the Metropolitan Region of Belo Horizonte (MRBH), State of Minas Gerais, Brazil, are investigated with the aim of identifying if the sources of the particulate matter are of natural origin, such as, resuspension of particles from soil, or due to anthropogenic origins from mining and processing of iron ore. Samples were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction, X-ray fluorescence and {sup 57}Fe-Moessbauer spectroscopy. The results showed that soil samples studied are rich in quartz and have low contents of iron mainly iron oxide with low crystallinity. The samples of iron ore and PM have high concentration of iron, predominantly well crystallized hematite. {sup 57}Fe-Moessbauer spectroscopy confirmed the presence of similar iron oxides in samples of PM and in the samples of iron ore, indicating the anthropogenic origin in the material present in atmosphere of the study area. (author)

  6. Accuracy of chemical analysis of airborne particulates: results of an intercomparison exercise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since suitable standard reference materials for chemical analysis of airborne particulates are not available, an intercomparison exercise was carried out among 40 interested laboratories in order to evaluate the accuracy of various trace analysis techniques for this specific application. Six hundred grams of airborne particulates were collected from the inlet filters of the air conditioning installation of a hotel in the center of Milan. The sample was sieved to remove coarser particles, thoroughly mixed, and distributed in 1 to 5 gram aliquots. The homogeneity was checked by relative measurements carried out by three independent techniques. For 40 elements no inhomogeneity was found to exceed the analytical error, which was estimated to be approximately 10 percent. The data of the analytical exercise are being collected and evaluated. Results are available for 56 elements, but to date only 33 have been determined by more than one technique. Activation analysis, emission spectroscopy, atomic absorption, x-ray fluorescence and various wet chemical methods contributed to the intercomparison. No result was received from mass spectroscopic methods and, although analyses were specifically encouraged, very few results were received on the organic components. From a first approximate evaluation a good agreement was found for Al, Fe, Zn, Mn, Ca, Pb, Cl, S, Si, Ti, Mn, while for the other elements no definite conclusion can yet be drawn. An attempt will be made to interpret important cases of systematic errors, a few of which are already evident

  7. First study of airborne particulate pollution using PIXE analysis in Habana city, Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present work reports the results of a first study of elemental composition in airborne particulate matter (fine and coarse) collected at the Municipality of Centro Habana, Havana City, Cuba, using the PIXE technique. At present, there is not any information available about element contents in airborne particulate from this region. A five months sampling campaign was carried out, collecting the samples under an air flux of 20 l/min with a Gent SFU Sampler equipped with a system which allows the aerosol collection in both size fractions simultaneously. A total of 144 aerosol samples were collected. For the PIXE analysis, the samples were irradiated by 2.0 MeV energy protons from a 2 MV Tandetron Accelerator. A total of 14 elements (S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Br and Pb) were consistently detected with minimum detection limits from 1 ng/m3 to 10 ng/m3 for most of the elements. Enrichment factors were also calculated for both fractions in order to identify the natural and anthropogenic group of elements. The quantitative results obtained have revealed important information that has been used in a first attempt to understand and to characterize the atmospheric pollution of this area. (author)

  8. PIXE analysis of airborne particulate matter from Monterrey, Mexico. A first survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A first survey of elemental contents in airborne particulate matter from Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico, was performed using PIXE. This second largest industrial city is located 715 km north of Mexico City, and counts with a population of nearly three million inhabitants in its conurbation. Air pollution in the place comes from a great variety of industries ranging from iron smelters to furniture manufacturing, as well as from fuel combustion in vehicles and industries. This study presents results of elemental contents in airborne particulate matter in two particle size fractions: PM2.5 and PM15. The samples were collected during five weeks on working days, Monday-Friday, from 9 December 1996 to 14 January 1997. Two samples a day were collected, 12 h each, night-time and day-time. These first results show local pollution as typical from a large urban area in conjunction with an active industry. Thirteen elements were consistently detected in most of the samples and some episodes due to both industrial and human activities were identified. A general discussion about the results obtained is presented

  9. Application for airborne particulate matter as a demonstration using k0-NAA method in Dalat nuclear research institute of Vietnam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The airborne particulate samples have been collected using two types of polycarbonate membrane filter PM2.5 and PM2-5-10 in two typical sites of industrial (Ho Chi Minh City) and rural (Dateh) regions in south of Vietnam. The concentration of trace elements in the samples has been determined by the k0-NAA procedure developed in Dalat NRI. In order to check the developed k0-NAA procedure for the airborne particulate matter, two standard reference materials (SRMs) Urban Particulate NIST-1648 and Vehicle Exhaust Particulates NIES-8 were analyzed and the obtained results have been compared and interpreted in term of deviation between experimental results and the certified values. (author)

  10. Morphology, chemical composition, and bacterial concentration of airborne particulate matter in rabbit farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Adell

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Livestock houses are major sources of airborne particulate matter (PM, which can originate from manure, feed, feathers, skin and bedding and may contain and transport microorganisms. Improved knowledge of particle size, morphology, chemical and microbiological composition of PM in livestock houses can help identify major sources of PM and contribute to the development of appropriate source-specific reduction techniques. In rabbit production systems, however, there is limited information on specific particle characteristics. The objective of this study was to characterise airborne PM in rabbit farms in terms of morphology, chemical compositions and bacterial concentration in different size fractions. Size-fractioned PM was sampled in the air of 2 rabbit farms, 1 for fattening rabbits and 1 for reproductive does, using a virtual cascade impactor, which simultaneously collected total suspended PM (TSP, PM10 and PM2.5 size fractions. Airborne PM samples were examined by light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy combined with energy dispersive X-ray analysis. Representative samples from potential sources of PM were also collected and examined. Additionally, a methodology to extract bacteria from the collected samples of airborne PM was developed to determine the bacterial concentration per PM size fraction. Results showed that airborne PM in rabbit farms is highly complex in particle morphology, especially in size. Broken skin flakes, disintegrated particles from feed or faecal material from mechanical fracture are the main sources of airborne PM in rabbit farms. Major elements found in rabbit airborne PM were S, Ca, Mg, Na and Cl. Bacterial concentrations ranged from 1.7×104 to 1.6×106 colony forming units (CFU/m3 (TSP; from 3.6×103 to 3.0×104 CFU/m3 (PM10; and from 3.1×103 to 1.6×104 CFU/m3 (PM2.5. Our results will improve the knowledge on essential particle characteristics necessary to understand PM’s origin in rabbit farms and

  11. Honey Bees (Apis mellifera, L. as Active Samplers of Airborne Particulate Matter.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilaria Negri

    Full Text Available Honey bees (Apis mellifera L. are bioindicators of environmental pollution levels. During their wide-ranging foraging activity, these hymenopterans are exposed to pollutants, thus becoming a useful tool to trace the environmental contaminants as heavy metals, pesticides, radionuclides and volatile organic compounds. In the present work we demonstrate that bees can also be used as active samplers of airborne particulate matter. Worker bees were collected from hives located in a polluted postmining area in South West Sardinia (Italy that is also exposed to dust emissions from industrial plants. The area is included in an official list of sites of national interest for environmental remediation, and has been characterized for the effects of pollutants on the health of the resident population. The head, wings, hind legs and alimentary canal of the bees were investigated with Scanning Electron Microscopy coupled with X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDX. The analyses pointed to specific morphological and chemical features of the particulate, and resulted into the identification of three categories of particles: industry-, postmining-, and soil-derived. With the exception of the gut, all the analyzed body districts displayed inorganic particles, mostly concentrated in specific areas of the body (i.e. along the costal margin of the fore wings, the medial plane of the head, and the inner surface of the hind legs. The role of both past mining activities and the industrial activity close to the study area as sources of the particulate matter is also discussed. We conclude that honey bees are able to collect samples of the main airborne particles emitted from different sources, therefore could be an ideal tool for monitoring such a kind of pollutants.

  12. Exposure to airborne metals and particulate matter and risk for youth adjudicated for criminal activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antisocial behavior is a product of multiple interacting sociohereditary variables, yet there is increasing evidence that metal exposure, particularly, manganese and lead, play a role in its epigenesis. Other metals, such as arsenic, cadmium, chromium, and mercury, and exposure to traffic-related air pollution, such as fine particulate matter (≤2.5 μm) have been associated with neurological deficits, yet largely unexplored with respect to their relationship with delinquent behavior. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the ecological relationship between county-wide reported airborne emissions of air metals, particulate matter, and youth adjudicated for criminal activity. Metal exposure data were collected from the Environmental Protection Agency AirData. Population statistics were obtained from the United States Census 2000 and adjudication data was obtained from the Courts of Common Pleases from each Ohio County. Simple correlations were calculated with the percentage of adjudications, all covariates, and estimated metal air emissions. Separate negative binomial regression models for each pollutant were used to provide an estimated risk ratio of pollutant emissions on the risk of adjudication for all Ohio counties adjusting for urban–rural residence, percentage of African Americans, median family income, percentage of family below poverty, percentage of high school graduation in 25 years and older populations, and population density. Metal emissions and PM in 1999 were all correlated with adjudication rate (2003–2005 average). Metal emissions were associated with slightly higher risk of adjudication, with about 3–4% increased risk per natural log unit of metal emission except chromium. The associations achieved statistical significance for manganese and mercury. The particulate matter ≤2.5 and ≤10 μm emissions had a higher risk estimate, with 12% and 19% increase per natural log unit emission, respectively, and also achieved statistical

  13. Exposure to airborne metals and particulate matter and risk for youth adjudicated for criminal activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haynes, Erin N., E-mail: Erin.Haynes@uc.edu [College of Medicine, Department of Environmental Health, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45267 (United States); Chen, Aimin, E-mail: Aimin.Chen@uc.edu [College of Medicine, Department of Environmental Health, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45267 (United States); Ryan, Patrick, E-mail: Patrick.Ryan@uc.edu [College of Medicine, Department of Environmental Health, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45267 (United States); Succop, Paul, E-mail: Paul.Succop@uc.edu [College of Medicine, Department of Environmental Health, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45267 (United States); Wright, John, E-mail: John.Wright@uc.edu [College of Education, Criminal Justice, and Human Services, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45221 (United States); Dietrich, Kim N., E-mail: Kim.Dietrich@uc.edu [College of Medicine, Department of Environmental Health, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45267 (United States)

    2011-11-15

    Antisocial behavior is a product of multiple interacting sociohereditary variables, yet there is increasing evidence that metal exposure, particularly, manganese and lead, play a role in its epigenesis. Other metals, such as arsenic, cadmium, chromium, and mercury, and exposure to traffic-related air pollution, such as fine particulate matter ({<=}2.5 {mu}m) have been associated with neurological deficits, yet largely unexplored with respect to their relationship with delinquent behavior. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the ecological relationship between county-wide reported airborne emissions of air metals, particulate matter, and youth adjudicated for criminal activity. Metal exposure data were collected from the Environmental Protection Agency AirData. Population statistics were obtained from the United States Census 2000 and adjudication data was obtained from the Courts of Common Pleases from each Ohio County. Simple correlations were calculated with the percentage of adjudications, all covariates, and estimated metal air emissions. Separate negative binomial regression models for each pollutant were used to provide an estimated risk ratio of pollutant emissions on the risk of adjudication for all Ohio counties adjusting for urban-rural residence, percentage of African Americans, median family income, percentage of family below poverty, percentage of high school graduation in 25 years and older populations, and population density. Metal emissions and PM in 1999 were all correlated with adjudication rate (2003-2005 average). Metal emissions were associated with slightly higher risk of adjudication, with about 3-4% increased risk per natural log unit of metal emission except chromium. The associations achieved statistical significance for manganese and mercury. The particulate matter {<=}2.5 and {<=}10 {mu}m emissions had a higher risk estimate, with 12% and 19% increase per natural log unit emission, respectively, and also achieved statistical

  14. Elemental analysis of airborne particulate by using thermal and epithermal neutron activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thermal neutron activation analysis was used to determine Al, Br, Ca, Cl, Mn, Na, V, and Ti concentrations, whereas epithermal neutron activation analysis was used to determine Cu, I and Si concentrations. Counting by Compton suppression both in thermal neutron activation and epithermal neutron activation analysis showed the significantly different on detection limit of element compare with normal counting system. It revealed counting by Compton suppression gave better result. The enrichment factor of elements indicated that V and Mn were enriched in several fine particulate samples. Ca, Si and Na were not enriched, whereas Br, I and Cl were enriched in fine airborne particulate or in coarse one. It was found that Cl and Na did not have correlation, while Br and I showed the same enrichment the same enrichment trend and high correlation (0,9). It means that Br and I were from the same pollutant source. It could concluded that the thermal neutron and epithermal neutron activations analysis combined with counting by Compton suppression could enhance sensitivity of analysis of elemental air bone particulate that was very useful in air pollution study. Key words : activation analysis, thermal neutron, epithermal neutron, Compton

  15. Trace element determination in the airborne particulate matter of Bangkok and Samutprakan by INAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During October 1995 - January 1996, 66 samples of airborne particulate matter were collected from Bangkok and Samutprakan provinces. Samples of the particle sizes of 2.5 - 10 microns (33 samples) and less than 2.5 microns (33 samples) were determined for elemental concentration of 34 elements. A comparative study of the data from both sampling size was initiated to investigate the trends, source and origin of the aerosols by comparing the concentration, enrichment factor (E F) and coarse/ fine ratio. The results show Al, Fe, Sc are from crustal elements, Ca, K, Mn, V has moderate high E F and As, Br, Cd, Cu, Ni, Sb, Se and Zn has rather high E F. Comparison between the two sites yields higher levels of As and Sb at Samutprakan appearly due to smelting or other industries nearby. Higher level of Br might be due to the heavier of transportation of trucks in and out of the city

  16. Assessment of Elemental Content in Airborne Particulate Matter in Bratislava Atmosphere using INAA and AAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meresova, J.; Florek, M.; Frontasyeva, M. V.; Pavlov, S. S.; Holy, K.; Sykora, I.

    2007-11-01

    The wide range concentration of elements including heavy metals, halogens and rare earths in airborne particulate matter were investigated. Sixteen samples were collected on filters in Meteorological station, Comenius University Bratislava (Slovak Republic) in different seasons. Using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) the concentrations of 29 elements (Na, Al, Cl, K, Ca, Sc, Ti, V, Mn, Fe, Ga, As, Se, Br, Rb, In, Sb, I, Cs, Ba, La, Sm, Dy, Tm, W, Au, Hg, Th, U) were determined. The concentrations of other 6 elements (Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb) were measured by atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS). The obtained results allow us to better understand the dynamic processes in the atmosphere and to quantify the air pollution and its trends.

  17. Assessment of bacterial pathogens in fresh rainwater and airborne particulate matter using Real-Time PCR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaushik, Rajni; Balasubramanian, Rajasekhar

    2012-01-01

    Bacterial pathogens in airborne particulate matter (PM) and in rainwater (RW) were detected using a robust and sensitive Real-Time PCR method. Both RW and PM were collected simultaneously in the tropical atmosphere of Singapore, which were then subjected to analysis for the presence of selected bacterial pathogens and potential pathogen of health concern ( Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Aeromonas hydrophila). These pathogens were found to be prevalent in both PM and RW samples with E. coli being the most prevalent potential pathogen in both types of samples. The temporal distribution of these pathogens in PM and RW was found to be similar to each other. Using the proposed microbiological technique, the atmospheric deposition (dry and wet deposition) of bacterial pathogens to lakes and reservoirs can be studied in view of growing concerns about the outbreak of waterborne diseases.

  18. Natural and anthropogenic radionuclides in airborne particulate samples collected in Barcelona (Spain)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results for naturally occurring 7Be, 210Pb, 40K, 214Bi, 214Pb, 212Pb, 228Ac and 208Tl and anthropogenic 137Cs in airborne particulate matter in the Barcelona area during the period from January 2001 to December 2005 are presented and discussed. The 212Pb and 208Tl, 214Bi and 214Pb, 7Be and 210Pb radionuclide levels showed a significant correlation with each other, with correlation coefficients of 0.99, 0.78 and 0.69, respectively, suggesting similar origin/behaviour of these radionuclides in the air. Caessium-137 and Potassium-40 were transported to the air as resuspended particle from the soil. The 7Be and 210Pb concentrations showed similar seasonal variations, with a tendency for maximum concentrations during the summer months. An inverse relationship was observed between the 7Be, 210Pb, 40K and 137Cs concentrations and weekly rainfall, indicating washout of atmospheric aerosols carrying these radionuclides

  19. Preliminary study on airborne particulate matter from three sampling sites in Beijing area by INAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three sampling sites, Chegongzhuang (downtown), Liangxiang-1 and Liangxiang-2 (suburb), are set up in Beijing. PM2.5 (diameter<2.5 μm, fine) and PM10 (diameter<10 μm, coarse) airborne particulate matter (APM) samples are collected using the same Gent stacked filter unit samplers. The APM samples of both size categories were analyzed for some 40 elements by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). The differences in average mass ratios of PM2.5/PM10 APM from the 3 sampling sites indicate the difference in composition and source of APM from urban and suburb areas. Seasonable variation and special weather conditions variation are found for Liang Xiang samples taken during 2004, 3-2004, 8. Major pollution elements are preliminarily identified by enrichment factor analysis. (authors)

  20. Genotoxicity of organic extracts of urban airborne particulate matter: an assessment within a personal exposure study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abou Chakra, Oussama R; Joyeux, Michel; Nerrière, Eléna; Strub, Marie-Pierre; Zmirou-Navier, Denis

    2007-01-01

    Airborne particulate matter, PM(10) and PM(2.5), are associated with a range of health effects including lung cancer. Their complex organic fraction contains genotoxic and carcinogenic compounds such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and their derivatives. This study evaluates the genotoxicity of the PM(10) and PM(2.5) organic extracts that were sampled in the framework of a personal exposure study in three French metropolitan areas (Paris, Rouen and Strasbourg), using the comet assay, performed on HeLa S3 cells. In each city, 60-90 non-smoking volunteers composed of two groups of equal size (adults and children) carried the personal Harvard Chempass multi-pollutant sampler during 48h along two different seasons ('hot' and 'cold'). Volunteers were selected so as to live (home and work/school) in 3 different urban sectors contrasted in terms of air pollution within each city (one highly exposed to traffic emissions, one influenced by local industrial sources, and a background urban environment). Genotoxic effects are stronger for PM(2.5) extracts than for PM(10), and greater in winter than in summer. Fine particles collected by subjects living within the traffic proximity sector present the strongest genotoxic responses, especially in the Paris metropolitan area. This work confirms the genotoxic potency of particulate matter (PM(10) and PM(2.5)) organic extracts to which urban populations are exposed. PMID:16901531

  1. New tabletop SEM-EDS-based approach for cost-efficient monitoring of airborne particulate matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent developments in scanning electron microscopy (SEM) have produced tabletop instruments capable of reasonable imaging resolution at less cost compared to conventional equipment. Combining the SEM with energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) allows the possibility of elemental analysis through detection of X-rays emitted from interaction between individual particles and the SEM electron beam, revealing their atomic composition. It's well known that exposure to inhalable particulate matter (PM) poses health risks and routine monitoring of the chemical content of these has been realized. Exposure information is of a general character but by combining the chemical build-up of monitored particles and knowledge of their inherent health effects will allow better risk assessment. An analysis technique using a tabletop SEM with EDS is demonstrated on particles collected onto nucleopore filters from urban, industrial and rural areas. Detailed characterization of the instruments analysis capabilities as applied to PM are described. - Demonstration of method for novel scanning electron microscopy in environmental monitoring of chemical constituents of particulate airborne impurities.

  2. Evaluation of Airborne Particulate Matter and Metals Data in Personal, Indoor and Outdoor Environments using ED-XRF and ICP-MS and Co-located Duplicate Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Factors and sources affecting measurement uncertainty in airborne particulate matter (PM) gravimetric measurements and elemental analyses were investigated as part of the Windsor Ontario Exposure Assessment Study (WOEAS). The assessment was made using co-located duplicate sample...

  3. Airborne particulate matter, platinum group elements and human health: a review of recent evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiseman, Clare L S; Zereini, Fathi

    2009-04-01

    Environmental concentrations of the platinum group elements (PGE) platinum (Pt), palladium (Pd) and rhodium (Rh) have been on the rise, due largely to the use of automobile catalytic converters which employ these metals as exhaust catalysts. It has generally been assumed that the health risks associated with environmental exposures to PGE are minimal. More recent studies on PGE toxicity, environmental bioavailability and concentrations in biologically relevant media indicate however that environmental exposures to these metals may indeed pose a health risk, especially at a chronic, subclinical level. The purpose of this paper is to review the most recent evidence and provide an up-to-date assessment of the risks related to environmental exposures of PGE, particularly in airborne particulate matter (PM). This review concludes that these metals may pose a greater health risk than once thought for several reasons. First, emitted PGE may be easily mobilised and solubilised by various compounds commonly present in the environment, thereby enhancing their bioavailability. Second, PGE may be transformed into more toxic species upon uptake by organisms. The presence of chloride in lung fluids, for instance, may lead to the formation of halogenated PGE complexes that have a greater potential to induce cellular damage. Third, a significant proportion of PGE found in airborne PM is present in the fine fraction that been found to be associated with increases in morbidity and mortality. PGE are also a concern to the extent that they contribute to the suite of metals found in fine PM suspected of eliciting a variety of health effects, especially in vulnerable populations. All these factors highlight the need to monitor environmental levels of PGE and continue research on their bioavailability, behaviour, speciation and associated toxicity to enable us to better assess their potential to elicit health effects in humans. PMID:19181366

  4. Characterization of airborne particulate matter at urban and rural area in Bandung and Lembang Indonesia using instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) as one of nuclear techniques utilizing research reactor provides a very good, simultaneous, multi-elemental analysis methods for airborne particulate studies. In particular, INAA is known to be a reliable analysis technique with low detection limits and effective for a large number of samples. The ability to provide elemental concentration information on all of the most significant elements enables statistical techniques to be applied in the data and determine the source contribution of the pollutant. Analysis the airborne particulate samples collected in Bandung and Lembang were reported to demonstrate the advantage of INAA method, especially to get a better understanding about the condition of atmosphere in Indonesia due to air pollution

  5. Analysis of airborne particulate matter collected in urban and rural area by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ANALYSIS OF AIRBORNE PARTICULATE MATTER COLLECTED IN URBAND AND RURAL AREA BY INSTRUMENTAL NEUTRON ACTIVATION ANALYSIS. This report presents the work of monitoring study on air particulate matter (PMs) in Indonesia on the period of 2002 to 2004. The PMs were collected at two sampling site that represented an urban and rural area using Gent stacked air sampler for 24 hours, once a month for each sampling point. Fine and coarse fractions of PMs were collected. The PMs deposited on a filter were measured for mass concentration and were analyzed for elemental concentration by using INAA. Irradiation of filters were carried out at GA. Siwabessy reactor and were counted by high-resolution HPGe detector coupled to a multichannel analyzer. The PM10 analysis resulted shows that the range of PM10 for rural site was 5.5 μg.m-3 to 46.9 μg.m-3 while PM10 for urban site was 12.0 μg.m-3 to 93.1 μg.m-3. About 17 elements of Al, Br, Cl, Cr, Co, Cs, Fe, I, La, Mn, Na, Sb, Sc, Se, Sm, V and Zn were analyzed through short and long irradiation of INAA. Among, the elements of Al, Br, Cl, Fe and Na were found at mayor component. The pollutants of Fe, V, Sb, Cr, Zn and Co were higher at urban site compare to the rural site. It could be conclude that the mean of 24 hours PM10 and mean annual of fine fraction were still below the PMs National Standard for both sampling sites. The INAA technique could be used to control the pollutant concentration on environmental sample. (author)

  6. Measured and modelled concentrations and vertical profiles of airborne particulate matter within the boundary layer of a street canyon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Concentrations and vertical profiles of various fractions of airborne particulate matter (suspended particulate matter (SPM), PM10 and PM2.5) have been measured over the first three metres from ground in a street canyon. Measurements were carried out using automated near real-time apparatus called the Kinetic Sequential Sampling (KSS) system. KSS system is essentially an electronically-controlled lift carrying a real-time particle monitor for sampling air sequentially, at different heights within the breathing zone, which includes all heights within the surface layer of a street canyon at which people may breathe. Data is automatically logged at the different receptor levels, for the determination of the average vertical concentration profile of airborne particulate matter. For measuring the airborne particle concentration, a Grimm Dust Monitor 1.104/5 was used. The recorded data also allows for time series analysis of airborne particulate matter concentration at different heights. Time series data and hourly-average vertical concentration profiles in the boundary layer of the confines of a street are thought to be mainly determined by traffic emissions and traffic associated processes. Hence the measured data were compared with results of a street canyon emission-dispersion model in time and space. This Street Level Air Quality (SLAQ) model employs the plume-box technique and includes modules for simulating vehicle-generated effects such as thermally- and mechanically-generated turbulence and resuspension of road dust. Environmental processes, such as turbulence resulting from surface sensible heat and the formation of sulphate aerosol from sulphur dioxide exhaust emissions, are taken into account. The paper presents an outline description of the measuring technique and model used, and a comparison of the measured and modelled data

  7. Study on the behavior of trace elements and radionuclides in airborne particulate matters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Airborne particulate matters (PM) are collected by HV-1000 high volume air sampler in Musashi Institute of Technology in Japan from October, 2002, to November, 2003. The elements were determined by a neutron activation analysis and radioactive nuclides were detected by γ-ray spectrometry. The concentration of PM decreased with increasing amount of precipitation. The amount of PM was affected by wash out depend on rain a day before. 12 to 17 kinds of elements are determined in the samples. The correlation coefficient of Br and Sb was 0.81 of the concentration of element and 0.60 of concentration of composition. The same tendency was observed among Sc, Fe and La. Na is thought to be affected by sea salt particles. Sc and Th in PM were originated by wikipedia in Asia. The concentration of Sc, V, La and Th are smaller than the earth's crust. However, its Br and Sb were larger than it. Pb-210 and Be-7 are determined and both average concentrations were increased by north wind. (S.Y.)

  8. Correlation analysis of size-resolved airborne particulate matter with classified meteorological conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Minh-Viet; Park, Gee-Hyeong; Lee, Byeong-Kyu

    2016-05-01

    This study analyzed correlations between classified meteorological conditions and size-resolved particulate matter (PM) concentrations over year. Seasonal measurements of airborne PM were conducted on the roof of a university building located in an urban residential area in Ulsan, Korea. A total of 267 daily PM samples were obtained using a nine-stage cascade impactor during the 12-month sampling period (March 2011-March 2012). Among this period, the average PM1.0, PM2.5, PM2.5-10, and PM10 concentrations were the lowest during the summer. The highest and lowest monthly average PM concentrations for all particle size ranges were observed in dry April and humid July, respectively. The PM1.0, PM2.5, PM2.5-10, and PM10 concentrations were negatively correlated (p 80 %) and under moderate humidity conditions (50-80 %) only during the winter season. PM concentrations also negatively correlated with precipitation (p 30 mm) and moderate (10-30 mm) rainfall conditions and only under light rainfall (speed [strong (>7 m/s) and moderate (3-7 m/s) wind]. Most PM concentrations correlated positively with ambient temperature, however, only on days with an average temperature above 20 °C. High and moderate temperatures negatively correlated with high and moderate humid conditions, while low and extra low temperatures in winter period showed positive correlation with high and moderate humidity.

  9. Embryotoxicity of organic extracts from airborne particulates in ambient air in the chicken embryo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsumoto, H.; Kashimoto, T.

    1986-07-01

    A fraction containing polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), prepared from an organic extract of airborne particulate matter, was separated into nine subfractions by high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC). The embryotoxicity of each of these fractions was investigated and analysis for PAHs by capillary gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was performed. The ninth subfraction, with coronene as its main component, had the strongest toxic effects on chicken embryos per m/sup 3/ of air. Of the remaining eight subfractions, three had the greatest toxicity: the second fraction with benzofluoranthenes and benzo(e)pyrene as the main components, the fourth fraction having PAH-estimated compounds in small amounts, and the fifth fraction with indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene and benzo(ghi)perylene as the main ingredients had the greatest toxicity. These findings indicate PAHs to be responsible for embryotoxicity but the total amounts were not necessarily proportional to it. For further characterization of toxicity, the effects of each PAH and/or quantification of other embryotoxic compounds possibly present in small amounts should be investigated.

  10. Spatio-temporal variability of airborne bacterial communities and their correlation with particulate matter chemical composition across two urban areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandolfi, I; Bertolini, V; Bestetti, G; Ambrosini, R; Innocente, E; Rampazzo, G; Papacchini, M; Franzetti, A

    2015-06-01

    The study of spatio-temporal variability of airborne bacterial communities has recently gained importance due to the evidence that airborne bacteria are involved in atmospheric processes and can affect human health. In this work, we described the structure of airborne microbial communities in two urban areas (Milan and Venice, Northern Italy) through the sequencing, by the Illumina platform, of libraries containing the V5-V6 hypervariable regions of the 16S rRNA gene and estimated the abundance of airborne bacteria with quantitative PCR (qPCR). Airborne microbial communities were dominated by few taxa, particularly Burkholderiales and Actinomycetales, more abundant in colder seasons, and Chloroplasts, more abundant in warmer seasons. By partitioning the variation in bacterial community structure, we could assess that environmental and meteorological conditions, including variability between cities and seasons, were the major determinants of the observed variation in bacterial community structure, while chemical composition of atmospheric particulate matter (PM) had a minor contribution. Particularly, Ba, SO4 (2-) and Mg(2+) concentrations were significantly correlated with microbial community structure, but it was not possible to assess whether they simply co-varied with seasonal shifts of bacterial inputs to the atmosphere, or their variation favoured specific taxa. Both local sources of bacteria and atmospheric dispersal were involved in the assembling of airborne microbial communities, as suggested, to the one side by the large abundance of bacteria typical of lagoon environments (Rhodobacterales) observed in spring air samples from Venice and to the other by the significant effect of wind speed in shaping airborne bacterial communities at all sites. PMID:25592734

  11. Study on the Adsorption Capacities for Airborne Particulates of Landscape Plants in Different Polluted Regions in Beijing (China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Kang Zhang

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Urban landscape plants are an important component of the urban ecosystem, playing a significant role in the adsorption of airborne particulates and air purification. In this study, six common landscape plants in Beijing were chosen as research subjects, and the adsorption capacities for each different plant leaf and the effects of the leaf structures for the adsorption capacities for particulates were determined. Preliminary results show that needle-leaved tree species adsorbed more airborne particulates than broad-leaved tree species for the same leaf area. Pinus tabuliformis exhibits the highest adsorption capacity, at 3.89 ± 0.026 μg·cm−2, almost two times as much as that of Populus tomentosa (2.00 ± 0.118 μg·cm−2. The adsorption capacities for PM10 of the same tree species leaves, in different polluted regions had significant differences, and the adsorption capacities for PM10 of the tree species leaf beside the Fifth Ring Road were higher than those of the tree species leaves in the Botanical Garden, although the adsorption capacities for PM2.5 of the same tree species in different polluted regions had no significant differences. By determining the soluble ion concentrations of the airborne particulates in two regions, it is suggested that the soluble ion concentrations of PM10 in the atmosphere in the Botanical Garden and beside the Fifth Ring Road have significant differences, while those of PM2.5 in the atmosphere had no significant differences. In different polluted regions there are significant adaptive changes to the leaf structures, and when compared with slightly polluted region, in the seriously polluted region the epidermis cells of the plant leaves shrinked, the surface textures of the leaves became rougher, and the stomas’ frequency and the pubescence length increased. Even though the plant leaves exposed to the seriously polluted region changed significantly, these plants can still grow normally and healthily.

  12. Quantifying population exposure to airborne particulate matter during extreme events in California due to climate change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Mahmud

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The effect of climate change on population-weighted concentrations of particulate matter (PM during extreme events was studied using the Parallel Climate Model (PCM, the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF model and the UCD/CIT 3-D photochemical air quality model. A "business as usual" (B06.44 global emissions scenario was dynamically downscaled for the entire state of California between the years 2000–2006 and 2047–2053. Air quality simulations were carried out for 1008 days in each of the present-day and future climate conditions using year-2000 emissions. Population-weighted concentrations of PM0.1, PM2.5, and PM10 total mass, components species, and primary source contributions were calculated for California and three air basins: the Sacramento Valley air basin (SV, the San Joaquin Valley air basin (SJV and the South Coast Air Basin (SoCAB. Results over annual-average periods were contrasted with extreme events.

    Climate change between 2000 vs. 2050 did not cause a statistically significant change in annual-average population-weighted PM2.5 mass concentrations within any major sub-region of California in the current study. Climate change did alter the annual-average composition of the airborne particles in the SoCAB, with notable reductions of elemental carbon (EC; −3% and organic carbon (OC; −3% due to increased annual-average wind speeds that diluted primary concentrations from gasoline combustion (−3% and food cooking (−4%. In contrast, climate change caused significant increases in population-weighted PM2.5 mass concentrations in central California during extreme events. The maximum 24-h average PM2.5 concentration experienced by an average person during a ten-year period in the SJV increased by 21% due to enhanced production of secondary particulate matter (manifested as NH4NO3. In general, climate change caused increased

  13. Maternal exposure to airborne particulate matter causes postnatal immunological dysfunction in mice offspring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evidence suggests that prenatal exposure to air pollution affects the ontogeny and development of the fetal immune system. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of maternal exposure to airborne particulate matter (PM) on immune function in postnatal offspring. Pregnant female ICR mice were intralaryngopharyngeally administered with 30 μl of phosphate buffered solution (the control group) or resuspended PM of Standard Reference Material 1649a at 0.09 (low), 0.28 (medium), 1.85 (high) or 6.92 (overdose) μg/μl once every three days from day 0 to 18 of pregnancy (n = 8–10). Offspring were sacrificed on postnatal day 30. Interleukin-4 and interferon-γ levels in plasma and splenocytes, splenic lymphocyte proliferation, and expressions of GATA-3 and T-bet mRNA in the spleen were tested. The spleen and thymus were histopathologically examined. The offspring of the medium, high and overdose PM-exposed dams showed significantly suppressed splenocyte proliferation. Decreased interferon-γ and increased interleukin-4 levels in the blood and splenocytes, and lowered T-bet and elevated GATA-3 mRNA expressions were found in the spleen in the medium, high and overdose groups when compared with the control or low dose group (P < 0.05). Histopathology revealed prominent tissue damage in the spleen and thymus in the overdose group. These results suggest that exposure of pregnant mice to PM modulates the fetal immune system, resulting in postnatal immune dysfunction by exacerbation of Thl/Th2 deviation. This deviation is associated with altered T-bet and GATA-3 gene expressions

  14. Diversity and Composition of Airborne Fungal Community Associated with Particulate Matters in Beijing during Haze and Non-haze Days

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Dong; Zhang, Tao; Su, Jing; Zhao, Li-Li; Wang, Hao; Fang, Xiao-Mei; Zhang, Yu-Qin; Liu, Hong-Yu; Yu, Li-Yan

    2016-01-01

    To assess the diversity and composition of airborne fungi associated with particulate matters (PMs) in Beijing, China, a total of 81 PM samples were collected, which were derived from PM2.5, PM10 fractions, and total suspended particles during haze and non-haze days. The airborne fungal community in these samples was analyzed using the Illumina Miseq platform with fungi-specific primers targeting the internal transcribed spacer 1 region of the large subunit rRNA gene. A total of 797,040 reads belonging to 1633 operational taxonomic units were observed. Of these, 1102 belonged to Ascomycota, 502 to Basidiomycota, 24 to Zygomycota, and 5 to Chytridiomycota. The dominant orders were Pleosporales (29.39%), Capnodiales (27.96%), Eurotiales (10.64%), and Hypocreales (9.01%). The dominant genera were Cladosporium, Alternaria, Fusarium, Penicillium, Sporisorium, and Aspergilus. Analysis of similarities revealed that both particulate matter sizes (R = 0.175, p = 0.001) and air quality levels (R = 0.076, p = 0.006) significantly affected the airborne fungal community composition. The relative abundance of many fungal genera was found to significantly differ among various PM types and air quality levels. Alternaria and Epicoccum were more abundant in total suspended particles samples, Aspergillus in heavy-haze days and PM2.5 samples, and Malassezia in PM2.5 samples and heavy-haze days. Canonical correspondence analysis and permutation tests showed that temperature (p air pollution in Beijing. PMID:27148180

  15. Redox activity of airborne particulate matter at different sites in the Los Angeles Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epidemiologic studies have shown associations between ambient particulate matter (PM) and adverse health outcomes including increased mortality, emergency room visits, and time lost from school and work. The mechanisms of PM-related health effects are still incompletely understood, but a hypothesis under investigation is that many of the adverse health effects may derive from oxidative stress, initiated by the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) within affected cells. While the adverse effects from PM have historically been associated with the airborne concentration of PM and more recently fine-particle PM, we considered it relevant to develop an assay to quantitatively measure the ability of PM to catalyze ROS generation as the initial step in the induction of oxidative stress. This ability of PM could then be related to different sources, chemical composition, and physical and spatial/temporal characteristics in the ambient environment. The measurement of ROS-forming ability in relation to sources and other factors will have potential relevance to control of redox-active PM. If oxidative stress represents a relevant mechanism of toxicity from PM, the measurement of redox activity represents a first step in the elucidation of the subsequent downstream processes. We have developed an assay for PM redox activity, utilizing the reduction of oxygen by dithiothreitol which serves as an electron source. We have found that PM will catalyze the reduction of oxygen and have examined the distribution and chemical characteristics of the redox activity of PM fractions collected in different sites in the Los Angeles Basin. Samples of concentrated coarse, fine, and ultrafine PM, obtained with aerosol concentrators, were studied with regard to their chemical properties and redox activity. Redox activity was highest in the ultrafine fraction, in agreement with results indicating ultrafines were the most potent toward inducing that heme oxygenase expression and depleting

  16. The use of nuclear and related techniques for the studies of possible health impact of airborne particulate matter in a metal industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Possible health effects of airborne particulate matter in the workplace were investigated by searching the correlation between the enriched elements in the airborne particulate matter and elemental levels of blood, nail and hair of workers in a metal industry. Blood, hair and nail samples were collected from 58 workers of a metal industry, and airborne particulate matter (APM) samples were collected from halls or buildings where the workers were carrying out their work. The workers were subjected to medical examination comprising medical history recording, physical examination and routine blood check. The collected biological and APM samples were analysed for trace elements by neutron activation analysis. A general tendency of higher zinc levels in serum and erythrocytes in workers than in healthy individuals (controls) was observed. However, more examinations on a larger population need to be carried out in order to confirm this finding on a statistically sound basis. (author)

  17. The exposure assessment of airborne particulates matter (PM10 and PM2.5) towards building occupants: A case study at KL Sentral, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Airborne particulates have been recognized as a crucial pollutant of indoor air. These pollutants can contribute towards poor indoor air quality (IAQ), which may affect human health in immediate or long term. This study aims to determine the level of IAQ and the effects of particulate towards occupants of office buildings (the office buildings selected for the case study are SSM, KTMB and MRCB at KL Sentral). The objectives of study are (i) to measure the level of airborne particulates that contribute to the IAQ during working hours, (ii) to compare the level of airborne particulates with the existing guidelines and standards of IAQ in Malaysia and other Asian countries and (iii) to assess the symptoms associated with airborne particulates among the building occupants, which were achieved through primary data collection (case study or site survey, structured interview and questionnaire survey) and supported by literature reviews. The results showed that the mass concentration level of airborne particulates within the areas has exceeded the allowable limit of 0.15mg/m3 by IAQ Code of Practice, 2005 of the Department of Safety and Health (DOSH), Malaysia and 0.05mg/m3 by the Department of Environmental (DOE) (outdoor) of 8 hours continuous sampling. Based on the findings, the highest mass concentration values measured is 2.581 mg/m3 at lobby of SSM building which is the highest recorded 17 times higher from the maximum limit recommended by DOSH than the others. This is due to the nearby construction works and the high numbers of particulates are generated from various types of vehicles for transportation surrounding KL Sentral. Therefore, the development of Malaysian Ambient Air Quality Guidelines on PM2.5 as one of the crucial parameters is highly recommended

  18. The exposure assessment of airborne particulates matter (PM10 & PM2.5) towards building occupants: A case study at KL Sentral, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohddin, S. A.; Aminuddin, N. M.

    2014-02-01

    Airborne particulates have been recognized as a crucial pollutant of indoor air. These pollutants can contribute towards poor indoor air quality (IAQ), which may affect human health in immediate or long term. This study aims to determine the level of IAQ and the effects of particulate towards occupants of office buildings (the office buildings selected for the case study are SSM, KTMB and MRCB at KL Sentral). The objectives of study are (i) to measure the level of airborne particulates that contribute to the IAQ during working hours, (ii) to compare the level of airborne particulates with the existing guidelines and standards of IAQ in Malaysia and other Asian countries and (iii) to assess the symptoms associated with airborne particulates among the building occupants, which were achieved through primary data collection (case study or site survey, structured interview and questionnaire survey) and supported by literature reviews. The results showed that the mass concentration level of airborne particulates within the areas has exceeded the allowable limit of 0.15mg/m3 by IAQ Code of Practice, 2005 of the Department of Safety and Health (DOSH), Malaysia and 0.05mg/m3 by the Department of Environmental (DOE) (outdoor) of 8 hours continuous sampling. Based on the findings, the highest mass concentration values measured is 2.581 mg/m3 at lobby of SSM building which is the highest recorded 17 times higher from the maximum limit recommended by DOSH than the others. This is due to the nearby construction works and the high numbers of particulates are generated from various types of vehicles for transportation surrounding KL Sentral. Therefore, the development of Malaysian Ambient Air Quality Guidelines on PM2.5 as one of the crucial parameters is highly recommended.

  19. Mutagenic activity of airborne particulate matter from the urban area of Porto Alegre, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Maria Ferrão Vargas

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available The mutagenic activity of airborne particulate matter collected from three different sites within the urban area of Porto Alegre, Brazil, was investigated using a Salmonella/microsome assay. Samples were extracted by sonication, sequentially, with cyclohexane (CX, and dichloromethane (DCM, for a rough fractionation by polarity. The different fractions were tested for mutagenicity using Salmonella typhimurium strains TA98, with and without metabolic activation (S9 mix fraction, and TA98NR and TA98/1,8-DNP6, without metabolic activation. Mutagenic response was observed for frameshift strain TA98 in assays with and without metabolization for two sites (sites 2 and 3, which had considerable risk of environmental contamination by nonpolar (CX and/or moderately polar (DCM compounds. However, the values of revertants/m3 (rev/m3 were highest on the site subject to automobile exhaust (site 3 in assays without (9.56 rev/m3 and with metabolization (5.08 rev/m3. Maximum mutagenic activity was detected in the moderately polar fraction, decreasing after metabolization. Nevertheless, the nonpolar fractions (CX gave higher mutagenic activity in the presence of metabolization than in the absence of the S9 mix fraction. The responses observed for TA98NR and TA98/1,8-DNP6 strains suggest the activity of nitrocompounds.Foi investigada a atividade mutagênica de material particulado de amostras de ar coletadas em três diferentes locais dentro da área urbana da cidade de Porto Alegre, Brasil, através do ensaio Salmonella/microssoma. As amostras foram extraídas, em ultra-som, por fracionamento seqüencial de acordo com a polaridade, utilizando os solventes ciclohexano (CX e diclorometano (DCM. As diferentes frações foram testadas para mutagenicidade com as linhagens de Salmonella typhimurium TA98, em presença e ausência de ativação metabólica, e TA98NR e TA98/1,8-DNP6 em ausência de metabolização. Observou-se resposta mutagênica positiva, do tipo erro

  20. Tonopah Test Range Air Monitoring: CY2012 Meteorological, Radiological, and Airborne Particulate Observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mizell, Steve A; Nikolich, George; Shadel, Craig; McCurdy, Greg; Miller, Julianne J

    2013-07-01

    401. This difference may be the result of using filter media at Station 400 with a smaller pore size than the media used at the other two stations. Average annual gamma exposure at Station 401 is slightly greater than at Station 400 and 402. Average annual gamma exposure at all three TTR stations are in the upper range to slightly higher than values reported for the CEMP stations surrounding the TTR. At higher wind speeds, the saltation counts are greater at Station 401 than at Station 402 while the suspended particulate concentrations are greater at Station 402 than at Statin 401. Although these observations seem counterintuitive, they are likely the result of differences in the soil material present at the two sites. Station 401 is located on an interfluve elevated above two adjacent drainage channels where the soil surface is likely to be composed of coarser material. Station 402 is located in finer sediments at the playa edge and is also subject to dust from a dirt road only 500 m to the north. During prolonged high wind events, suspended dust concentrations at Station 401 peaked with the initial winds then decreased whereas dust concentrations at Station 402 peaked with each peak in the wind speed. This likely reflects a limited PM10 source that is quickly expended at Station 401 relative to an abundant PM10 source at Station 402. In CY2013, to facilitate comparisons between radiological analyses of collected dust, the filter media at all three stations will be standardized. In addition, a sequence of samples will be collected at Station 400 using both types of filter media to enable development of a mathematical relationship between the results derived from the two filter types. Additionally, having acquired approximately four years of observations at Stations 400 and 401 and a year of observations at Station 402, a period-of-record analysis of the radiological and airborne dust conditions will be undertaken.

  1. Preliminary studies of airborne particulate emmisions from the Ampellum S.A. copper smelter, Zlatna, Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben J. Williamson

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Preliminary studies have been carried on the characterization of particulate emissions from the Ampellum S.A. copper smelter in the town of Zlatna, Romania. The particulates studied were collected on polycarbonate filters using air pump apparatus and on the surfaces of lichens. Mass of total suspended particulates (TSP and PM10 varied from 19 to 230 μg/m3 and 3 to 146 μg/m3, respectively (PM10/TSP = 0.14 to 1.0, depending on wind direction and proximity to the smelter. Particulates on collection filters from a site directly downwind from the smelter have a mean equivalent spherical diameter (ESD of 0.94 μm (s.d. 1.1 and are dominantly made up of material with the composition of anglesite (PbSO4. The remainder of the material is a heterogeneous mixture of silicates and Fe-, Pb- and Cu-bearing phases. Particulates > 5 μm ESD are rare on the TSP filters, mainly due to the restricted sampling durations possible with the equipment used (<3 hours. Particulates have therefore been studied in the lichen Acarospora smaragdula, which was growing on posts downwind from the smelter and which was found to contain high levels and a broader range of particulates compared with the filters (<5 to 100 μm in diameter. Larger particles include 20-30 μm diameter Fe-rich spherules, which occasionally have Pb- and S-rich encrustations on their surfaces. The nature and possible health effects of the particulates are discussed and recommendations made for future studies.

  2. A new approach for determination of soluble trace metal fractions in airborne particulate matter using a dynamic extraction procedure coupled to ICP-AES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Complete text of publication follows. The current interest in atmospheric particulate matter (PM) is mainly due to its effect on human health. A fraction that is associated with several adverse health effects - including cancer - is the metallic portion. For this reason, a great deal of research has focused on the metal composition of airborne particulate matter. Until now in most studies total elemental concentrations were determined. However, toxic effects of trace metals in airborne PM are only expected if the metals are biologically available. Thus for risk assessment detailed knowledge about the solubility of the investigated metals is required since bioavailability depends thereon. Recently various extraction schemes have been developed for batch-wise fractionation of various metals in airborne particulate matter. Although these batch-wise liquid/solid extraction methods have gained widespread acceptance in literature the eco-toxicological relevance of the information provided with these techniques is questionable, since naturally occurring processes occur always under dynamic conditions. In this study a procedure for the sequential extraction of airborne particulate matter with various leaching solutions and the subsequent on-line ICP-AES measurement of selected trace metals in the derived extracts is presented. For analysis several punches of the filter substrate were packed into indigenously developed micro-columns and treated successively with the different extraction solutions. Evaluation of the derived elution profiles provided information about the kinetics of the extraction process and allowed differentiation between individual soluble fractions.

  3. Mutagenic and recombinagenic activity of airborne particulates, PM10 and TSP, organic extracts in the Drosophila wing-spot test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The genotoxicity associated with air pollution in the city of Canoas, Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil), was assessed in November (spring) and January (summer). We applied the somatic mutation and recombination test (SMART) in Drosophila melanogaster in its standard version with normal bioactivation (ST) and in its variant with increased cytochrome P450-dependent biotransformation capacity (HB). The data indicated the genotoxicity of TSP and PM10 collected in November, in both ST and HB crosses. The genotoxic activity of the PM10 material in the spring sample was exclusively associated with the induction of mitotic recombination, whereas the TSP genetic toxicity was due to both recombinational as well as point and/or chromosomal mutation events. Considering PM10 collected in January, a positive response-100% (17.10 m3/ml) concentration-was observed in the HB cross, which was not detected in the ST cross. - Drosophila Wing-Spot Test can be used for detection of airborne particulates mutagenesis

  4. Stopped-flow injection liquid-liquid extraction spectrophotometric determination of palladium in airborne particulate matter and automobile catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anthemidis, A.N.; Themelis, D.G.; Stratis, J.A. [Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54006 Thessaloniki (Greece)

    2001-03-30

    A stopped-flow injection liquid-liquid extraction (SF-EX-FIA) spectrophotometric method is reported for the determination of palladium(II), using the 2,2'-dipyridyl-2-pyridylhydrazone (DPPH) as a color forming reagent. The colored complex Pd(II)-DPPH was extracted in CHCl{sub 3} and the absorbance was monitored at 560 nm. An injection valve was used as a commutator in order to combine the stopped-flow technique with liquid-liquid extraction FI system. The calibration graph was linear up to 12 mg l{sup -1} (s{sub r}=0.27%; r=0.9999) with a detection limit of c{sub L}=0.007 mg l{sup -1}. The sampling rate was 20 injections per hour. The proposed method has been successfully applied to the determination of palladium in airborne particulate matter (APM) and in automobile exhaust gas converter catalysts.

  5. Short-term mechanisms of toxic action of airborne particulates underlie dose-rate dependent health risks and support control of one-hour airborne particle levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michaels, R.A.; Kleinman, M.T.

    1999-07-01

    Twenty-four-hour airborne particle mass levels permissible under the NAAQS have been associated with mortality and morbidity in communities, motivating reconsideration of the standard. Reports of shorter-term mechanisms of toxic action exerted by airborne PM and PM constituents are emerging. The mechanisms are diverse, but have in common a short time frame of toxic action, from minutes to hours. In view of documented PM excursions also lasting minutes to hours, this study inquires whether such short-term mechanisms might contribute to explaining daily morbidity and mortality. Toxicology experiments have demonstrated the harmfulness of brief exposure to PM levels in the range of observed excursions. This suggests that toxicological processes initiated by short-term inhalation of PM may exert clinically important effects, and that weak associations of 24-hour-average particle mass with mortality and morbidity may represent artifacts of stronger, shorter-term associations whose full magnitude remains to be quantified. In one study, the area of lung surface developing lesions was elevated in rats breathing the same four-hour dose of aerosols, when the four-hour average rate of aerosol delivery included a short-term (five-minute) burst fifty percent above the average dose rate. Elevations were observed with each of two aerosols tested. The magnitude of the effect was higher with one of the two aerosols, whose dose rate included four excursions rather than just one excursion. Particulate matter inhaled or instilled intratracheally has produced morbidity in animals, including apnea and electrophysiological effects in dogs. Other studies reveal that PM can kill rats via electrophysiological and possibly other mechanisms. PM has also adversely affected asthmatic people in controlled clinical settings during exercise or, in one study, at rest.

  6. Airborne Particulate Matter in Two Multi-Family Green Buildings: Concentrations and Effect of Ventilation and Occupant Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patton, Allison P; Calderon, Leonardo; Xiong, Youyou; Wang, Zuocheng; Senick, Jennifer; Sorensen Allacci, MaryAnn; Plotnik, Deborah; Wener, Richard; Andrews, Clinton J; Krogmann, Uta; Mainelis, Gediminas

    2016-01-01

    There are limited data on air quality parameters, including airborne particulate matter (PM) in residential green buildings, which are increasing in prevalence. Exposure to PM is associated with cardiovascular and pulmonary diseases, and since Americans spend almost 90% of their time indoors, residential exposures may substantially contribute to overall airborne PM exposure. Our objectives were to: (1) measure various PM fractions longitudinally in apartments in multi-family green buildings with natural (Building E) and mechanical (Building L) ventilation; (2) compare indoor and outdoor PM mass concentrations and their ratios (I/O) in these buildings, taking into account the effects of occupant behavior; and (3) evaluate the effect of green building designs and operations on indoor PM. We evaluated effects of ventilation, occupant behaviors, and overall building design on PM mass concentrations and I/O. Median PMTOTAL was higher in Building E (56 µg/m³) than in Building L (37 µg/m³); I/O was higher in Building E (1.3-2.0) than in Building L (0.5-0.8) for all particle size fractions. Our data show that the building design and occupant behaviors that either produce or dilute indoor PM (e.g., ventilation systems, combustion sources, and window operation) are important factors affecting residents' exposure to PM in residential green buildings. PMID:26805862

  7. Airborne Particulate Matter in Two Multi-Family Green Buildings: Concentrations and Effect of Ventilation and Occupant Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allison P. Patton

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available There are limited data on air quality parameters, including airborne particulate matter (PM in residential green buildings, which are increasing in prevalence. Exposure to PM is associated with cardiovascular and pulmonary diseases, and since Americans spend almost 90% of their time indoors, residential exposures may substantially contribute to overall airborne PM exposure. Our objectives were to: (1 measure various PM fractions longitudinally in apartments in multi-family green buildings with natural (Building E and mechanical (Building L ventilation; (2 compare indoor and outdoor PM mass concentrations and their ratios (I/O in these buildings, taking into account the effects of occupant behavior; and (3 evaluate the effect of green building designs and operations on indoor PM. We evaluated effects of ventilation, occupant behaviors, and overall building design on PM mass concentrations and I/O. Median PMTOTAL was higher in Building E (56 µg/m3 than in Building L (37 µg/m3; I/O was higher in Building E (1.3–2.0 than in Building L (0.5–0.8 for all particle size fractions. Our data show that the building design and occupant behaviors that either produce or dilute indoor PM (e.g., ventilation systems, combustion sources, and window operation are important factors affecting residents’ exposure to PM in residential green buildings.

  8. ENVIRONMENTAL METHODOLOGY FOR AIRBORNE PARTICULATE MATTER USING MICROWAVE EXTRACTION AND ANALYSIS BY ELECTROSPRAY MASS SPECTROMETRY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Air quality in rural agricultural settings has been largely overlooked. Characterization of organic contaminants as VOC's and/or particulate material released from agricultural production operations represent a variety of challenges to the environmental analytical community. In this study, we pres...

  9. APPLYING DATA ASSIMILATION AND ADJOINT SENSITIVITY TO EPIDEMIOLOGICAL AND POLICY STUDIES OF AIRBORNE PARTICULATE MATTER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Source-resolved fine particulate matter (PM) concentrations are needed at high spatial and temporal resolutions for epidemiological studies aimed at identifying more- and less-harmful types of PM. Building on recent advances in air quality modeling, data assimilation, and s...

  10. Analysis of Airborne Particulate Matter (PM2.5 over Hong Kong Using Remote Sensing and GIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanling Zhao

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Airborne fine particulates (PM2.5; particulate matter with diameter less than 2.5 µm are receiving increasing attention for their potential toxicities and roles in visibility and health. In this study, we interpreted the behavior of PM2.5 and its correlation with meteorological parameters in Hong Kong, during 2007–2008. Significant diurnal variations of PM2.5 concentrations were observed and showed a distinctive bimodal pattern with two marked peaks during the morning and evening rush hour times, due to dense traffic. The study observed higher PM2.5 concentrations in winter when the northerly and northeasterly winds bring pollutants from the Chinese mainland, whereas southerly monsoon winds from the sea bring fresh air to the city in summer. In addition, higher concentrations of PM2.5 were observed in rush hours on weekdays compared to weekends, suggesting the influence of anthropogenic activities on fine particulate levels, e.g., traffic-related local PM2.5 emissions. To understand the spatial pattern of PM2.5 concentrations in the context of the built-up environment of Hong Kong, we utilized MODerate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS Aerosol Optical Thickness (AOT 500 m data and visibility data to derive aerosol extinction profile, then converted to aerosol and PM2.5 vertical profiles. A Geographic Information Systems (GIS prototype was developed to integrate atmospheric PM2.5 vertical profiles with 3D GIS data. An example of the query function in GIS prototype is given. The resulting 3D database of PM2.5 concentrations provides crucial information to air quality regulators and decision makers to comply with air quality standards and in devising control strategies.

  11. Elemental quantification of airborne particulate matter by instrumental neutron activation analysis and induced coupled plasma mass spectrometry analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Airborne particulate were collected using Gent sampler for PM 10 and using high volume sampler for total suspended particulate (TSP). PM 10 sampling was carried out in Bandung during period of January to December 1997. Whereas TSP samples were collected at Serpong (rural area) and Jakarta (urban area) during period of May and July 1995. The concentration of the PM 10 in the air is independent to the level of the rainfall. The levels of the PM 10 and the PM 2.5 are lower than the maximum permissible levels set by the US Environmental Protection Agency in July 1997. The element detected using short lived radioactivity measurement in PM 10 and PM 2.5 were Al, Na, V, Mn, Br and Cl. Bromine concentration in both coarse and fine fractions was high, and the enrichment factor for bromine in these fraction was found between 2,000 - 10,000. The elemental concentrations of particulate matter obtained by ICP-MS was found that the Ag, Al, As, Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Cs, Cu, Fe, In, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, Pb, Rb, V and Zn in samples from Serpong area, were lower than those in samples taken from Jakarta area. The level of Pb concentrations in TSP samples from Serpong and Jakarta area were lower than Pb concentration proposed Indonesian standard of 2 μg/m3. The data obtained by INAA no significant different to those obtained by ICP-MS. Therefore comparative data can be obtained by these techniques. (author)

  12. The use of nuclear and related techniques for the studies of possible health impact of airborne particulate matter in a metal industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Various processes in an industry may produce gases and fine airborne particulate matters. Elements and hazardous chemicals in the fine particulate matters may enter the human body through inhalation and direct contact with the skin. Excessive inhalation and contact with the fine airborne particulate matter may lead to intoxication due to excessive intake of the hazardous chemicals and toxic elements. The elements will be accumulated in human organs, such as liver, kidneys and brain, manifest in clinical syndromes such as hypertension, renal failure and neurological symptoms and signs. The absorbed elements are excreted through the urinary tract as urine. They also can be excreted through hair and nails. Elevated blood and urinary aluminum levels have been observed after occupational exposure to various aluminum compounds. This phenomenon indicates the absorption through inhalation, as there are no data indicating significant dermal absorption for aluminum. Absorption of chromium compounds in the workplace occurs mainly through inhalation. The absorption is dependent on the valence and solubility of the particular chromium species. Some elements such as trivalent chromium ions are readily cleared from the blood, but hexavalent chromium ions are retained much longer in the blood. The aluminum compounds vary greatly in their toxic and carcinogenic effects. Although the trivalent chromium is readily excreted, continuous intake may cause the blood chromium level to be higher than normal. These elements may either have an deleterious effect on, or be considered essential for human health. In this study, the levels and health effects of airborne particulate matter in the workplace are assessed by elemental quantification of blood, hair and nail of workers in a metal industry and in airborne particulate samples that are collected at the workplace. The present report represents progress of activities following the first Research Co-ordination Meeting 1997 in Vienna

  13. Characterization of airborne particulates by pyrolysis/mass spectrometry and carbon-14 analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voorhees, K.J. (Colorado School of Mines, Golden); Durfee, S.L.; Currie, L.A.; Klouda, G.A.

    1981-08-01

    Pyrolysis/mass spectrometry (Py/MS) has been used to characterize the composition of organics in an ambient air particulate sample from the eastern Utah oil shale lands. The procedure involved collection of the individual contributors, pyrolysis of these samples, and finally a least-squares fitting of the individual contributor spectra to the pyrolysis mass spectrum of the ambient sample. The Py/MS results were verified by using /sup 14/C analysis.

  14. Speciation of Sb in airborne particulate matter, vehicle brake linings, and brake pad wear residues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varrica, D.; Bardelli, F.; Dongarrà, G.; Tamburo, E.

    2013-01-01

    Insights into the speciation of Sb in samples of brake linings, brake pad wear residues, road dust, and atmospheric particulate matter PM10 and PM2.5 were obtained combining several well established and advanced characterization techniques, such as scanning electron microscopy - energy dispersive spectrometry (SEM-EDS), inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and synchrotron radiation X-ray absorption spectroscopy (SR-XAS). The advantage of SR-XAS is that samples do not undergo any chemical treatment prior to measurements, thus excluding possible alterations. These analyses revealed that the samples of wheel rims dust, road dust, and atmospheric particulate matter are composed by an admixture of Sb(III) and Sb(V) in different relative abundances. Brake linings turned out to be composed by Sb(III) oxide (Sb2O3) and stibnite (Sb2S3). Stibnite was also detected in some of the particulate matter samples. The obtained data suggest that Sb2S3 during the brake abrasion process is easily decomposed forming more stable compounds such as antimony mixed oxidic forms. Sb redox speciation, in particular and well studied circumstances, may enhance the potential and selectivity of this element as a tracer of motor vehicle emissions in apportioning studies.

  15. A Novel High-Throughput Approach to Measure Hydroxyl Radicals Induced by Airborne Particulate Matter

    OpenAIRE

    Yeongkwon Son; Vladimir Mishin; William Welsh; Shou-En Lu; Laskin, Jeffrey D.; Howard Kipen; Qingyu Meng

    2015-01-01

    Oxidative stress is one of the key mechanisms linking ambient particulate matter (PM) exposure with various adverse health effects. The oxidative potential of PM has been used to characterize the ability of PM induced oxidative stress. Hydroxyl radical (•OH) is the most destructive radical produced by PM. However, there is currently no high-throughput approach which can rapidly measure PM-induced •OH for a large number of samples with an automated system. This study evaluated four existing mo...

  16. Piezoelectric properties of quartz and cristobalite airborne particulates as a cause of adverse health effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, B. J.; Pastiroff, S.; Cressey, G.

    Inhalation of quartz and cristobalite dusts is commonly linked with health effects although the mechanisms involved are poorly understood. Grinding of these piezoelectric silica polymorphs produces particulates with transient piezoelectric charges. This is likely to cause vigorous reaction with atmospheric gases and, through interaction with surface charges and 'dangling bonds', may lead to the formation of highly deleterious ozonide, superoxide and hydroxyl radicals. It is hoped that this study will encourage experimental work to quantify piezoelectric effects in silica dusts and to develop a method for their neutralisation during cutting and grinding processes.

  17. Composition of airborne particulate matter in the industrial area versus mountain area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbora Sýkorová

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with research of air pollution in two different locations on the Moravian-Silesian Region, Czech Republic. These are the sites Ostrava-Radvanice, which is located in the area affected by the industry and Ostravice in the mountains (without significant effect of the industry. The dust particles collected at these locations were subjected to a wide range of analyses. The mass concentration, the mass-size distribution, mineralogical composition, the concentration of PAHs (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and the concentrations of selected metals (Cd, Pb, Zn, Fe, Mn, As, Ni, Co, and Cr were observed at the particulate matter.

  18. Elemental composition of airborne particulate matter from Santiago City, Chile, 1976

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prendez, M.; Ortiz, J.L.; Cortes, E.; Cassorla, V.

    1984-01-01

    In Chile, the State Public Health Office (Ministerio de Salud Publica) is responsible for pollution control and for air quality. This office has been monitoring only toxic gases and total suspended particulate matter. The present work is the first study in Chile designed to determine trace elements and their concentrations in particulate matter in the air. By use of enrichment factors, 25 trace elements were classified according to natural or anthropogenic origin. There were two sampling periods: July (winter) and September (spring) 1976. Four sites were studied, located about 6 km north, south, west and east of downtown Santiago. The south, north and west sites are urban and 55 m above sea level. The east site is suburban and approximately 270 m higher than the others. Twenty-four-hour samples were collected on Whatman-41 cellulose filter paper, in a modified stainless steel Buchner funnel. Approximately 10 m/sup 3/ were used at the urban sites and 200 m/sup 3/ at the suburban site. Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) was used as the analytical technique.

  19. Characterization of the finest and coarse airborne particulate matter in Kuala Lumpur's ambient air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We will report the mass concentration of the finest (PM2.5) and coarse (PM2.5-10) airborne particles in ambient air of Kuala Lumpur area collected using GENT Stack filter unit fitted with appropriate polycarbonate filters. The sampling site (Lat: 03deg 10' 30'' Long: 101deg 43' 24.2'') is about 1 km from Kuala Lumpur City Center. Elemental concentration in the samples collected once every month throughout the year 2002 has been analyzed using the currently available NAA facilities at MINT. Elements determined in the study include Al, As, Br, Co, Cr, K, Lu, Mn, NA, Sb, Sc, Ti, V, and Zn. Quality control material used to control the quality of the analytical procedures was NBS 1633a. (author)

  20. Trace element composition of airborne particulate matter in urban and rural areas of Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Size fractionated aerosol samples were collected at an urban site (Dhaka) in Bangladesh for a period of 17 months and at a rural site for six months. The samples were collected using a 'Gent' stacked filter unit in two fractions of 0-2 μm and 2-10 μm sizes. Proton induced x-ray emission (PIXE) spectroscopy has been used to determine the concentrations of 18 elements in the range of ng/m3. The elements range from Si to Sr and include Pb. The results of analysis of 292 air particulate samples of course and fine types from the urban site are presented. The results are discussed in the context of air pollution specially that of Pb. 6 refs., 7 tables., 2 figs

  1. Space and time resolved monitoring of airborne particulate matter in proximity of a traffic roundabout in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Concerns over exposure to airborne particulate matter (PM) are on the rise. Currently monitoring of PM is done on the basis of interpolating a mass of PM by volume (μg/m3) but has the drawback of not taking the chemical nature of PM into account. Here we propose a method of collecting PM at its emission source and employing automated analysis with scanning electron microscopy associated with EDS-analysis together with light scattering to discern the chemical composition, size distribution, and time and space resolved structure of PM emissions in a heavily trafficated roundabout in Sweden. Multivariate methods (PCA, ANOVA) indicate that the technogenic marker Fe follows roadside dust in spreading from the road, and depending on time and location of collection, a statistically significant difference can be seen, adding a useful tool to the repertoiré of detailed PM monitoring and risk assessment of local emission sources. Highlights: •PM monitoring analysis method of the chemical constituents of individual particles. •Automated analysis provides a large output of data concerning chemical nature of PM. •Multivariate statistical methods used to visualize the analysis. •Chemical nature of PM leads to a complete risk assessment of PM exposure. -- Automated SEM–EDS analysis of captured roadside PM at a traffic roundabout in Sweden displaying the time- and space-resolved chemical differences of the captured particles

  2. Determination of Cr(VI) in ambient airborne particulate matter by a species-preserving scrubber-sampling technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metze, Detlef; Herzog, Helmut; Gosciniak, Bernhard; Jakubowski, Norbert [Institute for Spectrochemistry and Applied Spectroscopy (ISAS), PO Box 10 13 52, 44013, Dortmund (Germany); Gladtke, Dieter [Landesumweltamt Nordrhein-Westfalen, PO Box 10 23 63, 45023 Essen (Germany)

    2004-01-01

    Airborne particulate matter has been sampled at a location close to a metallurgical plant in North-Rhine-Westphalia, Germany, and first results on the chromium(VI) content in the collected dust are presented. A special procedure using a scrubber as sampling device was used to preserve Cr(VI) during the sampling procedure. The scrubber solution which consisted of 0.1 mol L{sup -1} TRIS-buffer solution was adjusted to a slightly alkaline pH of 8.6 to reduce the oxidation potential of Cr(VI) and to avoid possible oxidation of Cr(III) to Cr(VI), for example by oxygen (or ozone at ambient concentrations). After sampling Cr(VI) was pre-concentrated on an anion-exchange material and eluted with aqueous 0.6 mol L{sup -1} sodium perchlorate solution. After elution, a species-selective complex of Cr(VI) with diphenylcarbazide (DPC) was prepared; this was extracted into n-hexanol and quantified by UV-visible spectrophotometry. A detection limit of 0.9 ng m{sup -3} for Cr(VI) in ambient aerosols can be achieved with this method. (orig.)

  3. Mutagenic and recombinagenic activity of airborne particulates, PM10 and TSP, organic extracts in the Drosophila wing-spot test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodrigues Dihl, Rafael [Programa de Pos Graduacao em Genetica e Biologia Molecular (PPGBM), Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Grazielli Azevedo da Silva, Carla [Instituto de Quimica, Departamento de Quimica Organica, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Souza do Amaral, Viviane; Reguly, Maria Luiza [Laboratorio de Diagnostico da Toxicidade Genetica (TOXIGEN), Programa de Pos Graduacao em Genetica e Toxicologia Aplicada (PPGGTA), Universidade Luterana do Brasil - ULBRA, Avenida Farroupilha 8001, 92420280 Canoas, RS (Brazil); Rodrigues de Andrade, Heloisa Helena [Laboratorio de Diagnostico da Toxicidade Genetica (TOXIGEN), Programa de Pos Graduacao em Genetica e Toxicologia Aplicada (PPGGTA), Universidade Luterana do Brasil -ULBRA, Avenida Farroupilha 8001, 92420280 Canoas, RS (Brazil)], E-mail: heloisa@ulbra.br

    2008-01-15

    The genotoxicity associated with air pollution in the city of Canoas, Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil), was assessed in November (spring) and January (summer). We applied the somatic mutation and recombination test (SMART) in Drosophila melanogaster in its standard version with normal bioactivation (ST) and in its variant with increased cytochrome P450-dependent biotransformation capacity (HB). The data indicated the genotoxicity of TSP and PM10 collected in November, in both ST and HB crosses. The genotoxic activity of the PM10 material in the spring sample was exclusively associated with the induction of mitotic recombination, whereas the TSP genetic toxicity was due to both recombinational as well as point and/or chromosomal mutation events. Considering PM10 collected in January, a positive response-100% (17.10 m{sup 3}/ml) concentration-was observed in the HB cross, which was not detected in the ST cross. - Drosophila Wing-Spot Test can be used for detection of airborne particulates mutagenesis.

  4. Gene expression profiling and pathway analysis of human bronchial epithelial cells exposed to airborne particulate matter collected from Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epidemiological studies have established a positive correlation between human mortality and increased concentration of airborne particulate matters (PM). However, the mechanisms underlying PM related human diseases, as well as the molecules and pathways mediating the cellular response to PM, are not fully understood. This study aims to investigate the global gene expression changes in human cells exposed to PM10 and to identify genes and pathways that may contribute to PM related adverse health effects. Human bronchial epithelial cells were exposed to PM10 collected from Saudi Arabia for 1 or 4 days, and whole transcript expression was profiled using the GeneChip human gene 1.0 ST array. A total of 140 and 230 genes were identified that significantly changed more than 1.5 fold after PM10 exposure for 1 or 4 days, respectively. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis revealed that different exposure durations triggered distinct pathways. Genes involved in NRF2-mediated response to oxidative stress were up-regulated after 1 day exposure. In contrast, cells exposed for 4 days exhibited significant changes in genes related to cholesterol and lipid synthesis pathways. These observed changes in cellular oxidative stress and lipid synthesis might contribute to PM related respiratory and cardiovascular disease. -- Highlights: ► PM exposure modulated gene expression and associated pathways in BEAS-2B cells. ► One-day exposure to PM induced genes involved in responding to oxidative stress. ► 4-day exposure to PM changed genes associated to cholesterol and lipid synthesis.

  5. X-ray fluorescence analysis of airborn particulates in an industrial Greek city

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Photon-induced X-ray fluorescence is used at a medium-sized Greek industrial city to detect trace elements with 20(109Cd source which emits mainly Ag X-rays, has been used in a π-geometry. The source in the form of a ring was housed in an aluminium shield backed with iron. In the center of the ring a small hole allowed viewing of the sample by a Si(Li) detector. The latter had a resolution of about 0.18 keV FWHM for the Mn Kα X-ray. The calibration of the system was made by using targets of well known thicknesses. Samples of airborn dust were collected by drawing with a pump about 10 m3 of air through a Whatman 41 filter paper. The volume of the air passed was measured with a gas meter. Efficiency of the air filtration was estimated by using two filters in series during air sampling. The efficiency of collection for each element was then estimated from the measured amount of each element at the two filters. Tabulated data are given. (T.G.)

  6. Observations of the effect of atmospheric processes on the genotoxic potency of airborne particulate matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feilberg, A.; Nielsen, T.; Poulsen, M.W.B. [Riso National Laboratory, Roskilde (Denmark); Binderup, M.-L. [Institute of Food Safety and Toxicology, Danish Veterinary and Food Administration, Soeborg (Denmark); Skov, H. [National Environmental Research Institute, Roskilde (Denmark)

    2002-10-01

    In this study, the relationship between genotoxic potency and the occurrence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), including benzo(a)pyrene (BaP), and nitro-PAH in urban and semi-rural air masses has been investigated. The Salmonella/microsome assay has been used as a measure of genotoxic potency. We find that the ratios of BaP/mutagenicity and PAH/mutagenicity are highly variable. The processes responsible for the variation are formation and degradation of mutagens and transport of polluted air masses from heavily industrialized regions. Air masses from Central Europe are shown to be highly enriched in mutagens as well as in PAH and nitro-PAH. However, the mutagenic activity is much more elevated than the PAH levels when these air masses are mixed with local urban air. Part of the variation in the PAH/mutagenicity ratio can be explained by photochemical transformation. Since BaP has been used in the past as an indicator of the carcinogenic risk of airborne particles, it is suggested that the cancer risk of air pollution has to be re-evaluated. (author)

  7. Characterisation of airborne particulates in the Cu smelter and former mining town of Karabash, South Ural Mountains of Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, B. J.; Udachin, V.; Purvis, O. W.; Spiro, B.; Cressey, G.; Jones, G. C.

    2003-04-01

    Atmospheric airborne total suspended particulates (TSP) have been characterised in the Cu smelter and former mining town of Karabash, south Ural mountains of Russia. TSP was collected on filters using air-pump apparatus at sampling sites up- and down-wind of the smelter and large waste dumps and tailings. Particle size, mineralogy and elemental compositions have been determined using a combination of SEM/EDX, image analysis, XRD and ICP-OES and ICP-MS. The results have been compared with those for dusts collected from the smelter blast furnace and converter stacks and filtrates of snow melt waters. TSP concentrations in samples downwind from the smelter were 90 and 156 ug/m3, well below the Russian recommended maximum (500 ug/m3, 24 hr average). However, with a mean equivalent spherical diameter (ESD) of 0.5 um (s.d. = 0.2), the particles are respirable, and therefore able to penetrate into the unciliated (alveolar) airways of the lung. Such particles fall within the size class known as PM10, for which the EU target maximum is 50 ug/m3 (24-h mean value). Pb concentrations (16-30 ug/m3) were well above Russian maximum permitted levels in air (1 ug/m3, averaged over any time period) and the samples contain elevated Cd, As, S, Sn and Zn. Individual particulates downwind from the smelter consist of complex aggregates mainly made up of anglesite (PbSO4), Zn2SnO4 and poorly ordered or amorphous Zn sulphates. A smelter source for these phases is likely as anglesite and Zn2SnO4 form a major component of converter dusts, along with gunningite (ZnSO4(H2O)), zincite (ZnO), sphalerite and galena, and with anglesite also being contained in the blast furnace dust, along with hematite, pyrite, chalcopyrite, sphalerite and galena. Also, samples taken upwind of the smelter, but downwind of large waste dumps and tailings, have very different particle size (mean ESD > 1.3 um) and compositions, being dominated by silicates and Fe-rich phases. With the exception of gunningite, which is

  8. Air pollution and skin diseases: Adverse effects of airborne particulate matter on various skin diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyung Eun; Cho, Daeho; Park, Hyun Jeong

    2016-05-01

    Environmental air pollution encompasses various particulate matters (PMs). The increased ambient PM from industrialization and urbanization is highly associated with morbidity and mortality worldwide, presenting one of the most severe environmental pollution problems. This article focuses on the correlation between PM and skin diseases, along with related immunological mechanisms. Recent epidemiological studies on the cutaneous impacts of PM showed that PM affects the development and exacerbation of skin diseases. PM induces oxidative stress via production of reactive oxygen species and secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as TNF-α, IL-1α, and IL-8. In addition, the increased production of ROS such as superoxide and hydroxyl radical by PM exposure increases MMPs including MMP-1, MMP-2, and MMP-9, resulting in the degradation of collagen. These processes lead to the increased inflammatory skin diseases and skin aging. In addition, environmental cigarette smoke, which is well known as an oxidizing agent, is closely related with androgenetic alopecia (AGA). Also, ultrafine particles (UFPs) including black carbon and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) enhance the incidence of skin cancer. Overall, increased PM levels are highly associated with the development of various skin diseases via the regulation of oxidative stress and inflammatory cytokines. Therefore, anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory drugs may be useful for treating PM-induced skin diseases. PMID:27018067

  9. Confinement of airborne particulate radioactivity in the case of an accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the case of an accident, the filter elements on the inlets and exhausts of the air-cleaning systems of a nuclear facility may become a part of the remaining fission product barrier. Among others, the Project Nuclear Safety is pursuing the information necessary to insure safe operation of air-cleaning systems under accident conditions. Experimental investigations into the response of HEPA filters to differential presssures involving both dry and moist air have demonstrated the occurrence of structural failure with subsequent loss of efficiency at low values of differential pressures. Contributions are being made to the development and verification of computer codes used to calculate those fluid-dynamic and thermodynamic conditions expected to prevail in an air-cleaning system as a result of potential accident situations. With regard to further investigations, a new test facility was put into operation for the realization of superimposed challenges and a new method for testing particulate removal efficiency under high temperature or high humidity was developed. (orig./HP)

  10. A Novel High-Throughput Approach to Measure Hydroxyl Radicals Induced by Airborne Particulate Matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeongkwon Son

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress is one of the key mechanisms linking ambient particulate matter (PM exposure with various adverse health effects. The oxidative potential of PM has been used to characterize the ability of PM induced oxidative stress. Hydroxyl radical (•OH is the most destructive radical produced by PM. However, there is currently no high-throughput approach which can rapidly measure PM-induced •OH for a large number of samples with an automated system. This study evaluated four existing molecular probes (disodium terephthalate, 3′-p-(aminophenylfluorescein, coumarin-3-carboxylic acid, and sodium benzoate for their applicability to measure •OH induced by PM in a high-throughput cell-free system using fluorescence techniques, based on both our experiments and on an assessment of the physicochemical properties of the probes reported in the literature. Disodium terephthalate (TPT was the most applicable molecular probe to measure •OH induced by PM, due to its high solubility, high stability of the corresponding fluorescent product (i.e., 2-hydroxyterephthalic acid, high yield compared with the other molecular probes, and stable fluorescence intensity in a wide range of pH environments. TPT was applied in a high-throughput format to measure PM (NIST 1648a-induced •OH, in phosphate buffered saline. The formed fluorescent product was measured at designated time points up to 2 h. The fluorescent product of TPT had a detection limit of 17.59 nM. The soluble fraction of PM contributed approximately 76.9% of the •OH induced by total PM, and the soluble metal ions of PM contributed 57.4% of the overall •OH formation. This study provides a promising cost-effective high-throughput method to measure •OH induced by PM on a routine basis.

  11. Assessing the performance of methods to detect and quantify African dust in airborne particulates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viana, Mar; Salvador, Pedro; Artíñano, Begoña; Querol, Xavier; Alastuey, Andrés; Pey, Jorge; Latz, Achim J; Cabañas, Mercè; Moreno, Teresa; García dos Santos, Saúl; Herce, María Dolores; Diez Hernández, Pablo; Romero García, Dolores; Fernández-Patier, Rosalía

    2010-12-01

    African dust (AD) contributions to particulate matter (PM) levels may be reported by Member States to the European Commission during justification of exceedances of the daily limit value (DLV). However, the detection and subsequent quantification of the AD contribution to PM levels is complex, and only two measurement-based methods are available in the literature: the Spanish-Portuguese reference method (SPR), and the Tel Aviv University method (TAU). In the present study, both methods were assessed. The SPR method was more conservative in the detection of episodes (71 days identified as AD by SPR, vs 81 by TAU), as it is less affected by interferences with local dust sources. The mean annual contribution of AD was lower with the TAU method than with SPR (2.7 vs 3.5 ± 1.5 μg/m(3)). The SPR and TAU AD time series were correlated with daily aluminum levels (a known tracer of AD), as well as with an AD source identified by the Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) receptor model. Higher r(2) values were obtained with the SPR method than with TAU in both cases (r(2) = 0.72 vs 0.56, y = 0.05x vs y = 0.06x with aluminum levels; r(2)=0.79 vs 0.43, y = 0.8x vs y = 0.4x with the PMF source). We conclude that the SPR method is more adequate from an EU policy perspective (justification of DLV exceedances) due to the fact that it is more conservative than the TAU method. Based on our results, the TAU method requires adaptation of the thresholds in the algorithm to refine detection of low-impact episodes and avoid misclassification of local events as AD. PMID:21049991

  12. Tonopah Test Range Air Monitoring. CY2014 Meteorological, Radiological, and Airborne Particulate Observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikoloch, George [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Las Vegas, NV (United States); Shadel, Craig [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Las Vegas, NV (United States); Chapman, Jenny [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Las Vegas, NV (United States); Mizell, Steve A. [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Las Vegas, NV (United States); McCurdy, Greg [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Las Vegas, NV (United States); Etyemezian, Vicken [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Las Vegas, NV (United States); Miller, Julianne J. [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    2015-10-01

    In 1963, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) (formerly the Atomic Energy Commission [AEC]), implemented Operation Roller Coaster on the Tonopah Test Range (TTR) and an adjacent area of the Nevada Test and Training Range (NTTR) (formerly the Nellis Air Force Range). This test resulted in radionuclide-contaminated soils at Clean Slate I, II, and III. This report documents observations made during ongoing monitoring of radiological, meteorological, and dust conditions at stations installed adjacent to Clean Slate I and Clean Slate III and at the TTR Range Operations Control center. The primary objective of the monitoring effort is to determine if winds blowing across the Clean Slate sites are transporting particles of radionuclide-contaminated soils beyond both the physical and administrative boundaries of the sites. Results for the calendar year (CY) 2014 monitoring are: (1) the gross alpha and gross beta values from the monitoring stations are approximately equivalent to the highest values observed during the CY2014 reporting at the surrounding Community Environmental Monitoring Program (CEMP) stations; (2) only naturally occurring radionuclides were identified in the gamma spectral analyses; (3) the ambient gamma radiation measurements indicate that the average annual gamma exposure is similar at all three monitoring stations and periodic intervals of increased gamma values appear to be associated with storm fronts passing through the area; and (4) the concentrations of both resuspended dust and saltated sand particles generally increase with increasing wind speed. Differences in the observed dust concentrations are likely the result of differences in the soil characteristics immediately adjacent to the monitoring stations. Neither the resuspended particulate radiological analyses nor the ambient gamma radiation measurements suggest wind transport of radionuclide-contaminated soils.

  13. Tonopah Test Range Air Monitoring: CY2013 Meteorological, Radiological, and Airborne Particulate Observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mizell, Steve A [DRI; Nikolich, George [DRI; Shadel, Craig [DRI; McCurdy, Greg [DRI; Etyemezian, Vicken [DRI; Miller, Julianne J [DRI

    2014-10-01

    In 1963, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) (formerly the Atomic Energy Commission [AEC]), implemented Operation Roller Coaster on the Tonopah Test Range (TTR) and an adjacent area of the Nevada Test and Training Range (NTTR) (formerly the Nellis Air Force Range). This test resulted in radionuclide-contaminated soils at Clean Slate I, II, and III. This report documents observations made during on-going monitoring of radiological, meteorological, and dust conditions at stations installed adjacent to Clean Slate I and Clean Slate III and at the TTR Range Operations Control center. The primary objective of the monitoring effort is to determine if winds blowing across the Clean Slate sites are transporting particles of radionuclide-contaminated soils beyond both the physical and administrative boundaries of the sites. Results for the calendar year (CY) 2013 monitoring include: (1) the gross alpha and gross beta values from the monitoring stations are approximately equivalent to the highest values observed during the CY2012 reporting at the surrounding Community Environmental Monitoring Program (CEMP) stations (this was the latest documented data available at the time of this writing); (2) only naturally occurring radionuclides were identified in the gamma spectral analyses; (3) the ambient gamma radiation measurements indicate that the average annual gamma exposure is similar at all three monitoring stations and periodic intervals of increased gamma values appear to be associated with storm fronts passing through the area; and (4) the concentrations of both resuspended dust and saltated sand particles generally increase with increasing wind speed. However, differences in the observed dust concentrations are likely due to differences in the soil characteristics immediately adjacent to the monitoring stations. Neither the resuspended particulate radiological analyses nor the ambient gamma radiation measurements suggest wind transport of radionuclide-contaminated soils.

  14. Assessment of occupational exposure and contamination by Means of airborne particulate matter and bio monitors using Nuclear technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To make an occupational diagnosis is complex because of the difficulty to identify and characterise the expositions. Physicians do not usually have access to the quantity of raw material managed by the worker, dates, period of exposure to the substance. Besides this the onset of occupational diseases is similar to other chronic diseases. Then, this project aimed at assessing metal levels in a galvanising industry by means of biomonitors, scalp hair and toenails donated by workers, and particulate matter collected on air filter. The analysis of the samples was carried out by k0 instrumental neutron activation analysis, k0-INAA. The project was conducted together with the physicians of the Secretariat Municipal de Saude (Municipal Department of Health) and it was inserted in a Worker's Health Awareness Program. Belo Horizonte and surrounding areas are an important industrial centre, concentrating many industries in several areas. Only in Belo Horizonte there are more than 20 galvanising industries ranging from home factories to well equipped ones. This industry was chosen as Object of this project because it is responsible for the majority of patients who look for medical assistance because of metal contamination. Stationary air sampling was carried out in order to evaluate the level of elemental concentration in the indoor environment of the plant. Comparative Group sampling was carried out the same way as the Work Group for scalp hair and toenails. The irradiations were performed in the reactor TRIGA MARK I IPR-R1 in the CDTN. Elemental concentration results determined in the samples from non-exposed people were compared to values in the literature and there were no significant differences between the values. The airborne particulate matter results showed the high level of pollutants which the workers are exposed to inside the galvanising factory. The results obtained confirmed the medical suspicions of workers' contamination and the medical recommendations aimed

  15. Airborne particulate endocrine disrupting compounds in China: Compositions, size distributions and seasonal variations of phthalate esters and bisphenol A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jianjun; Wang, Gehui

    2015-03-01

    Phthalate esters and bisphenol A (BPA) are endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) and ubiquitously occur in the environment. In the past decade we have characterized atmospheric organic aerosols from various environments (e.g., urban, rural, mountain and marine) of East Asia on a molecular level, but not investigated EDCs in the samples. In the current study we re-analyzed our database for concentrations, compositions and size distributions of phthalates and BPA and compared with those in the literature to improve the understanding on air pollution status in China. Our results showed that airborne particulate phthalates and BPA are 63-1162 ng m- 3 and 1.0-20 ng m- 3 in the urban regions in China, respectively, being one to two orders of magnitude higher than those in the developed countries. Among the detected phthalates in Chinese urban areas, bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (BEHP) is the predominant congener, contributing to 23-79% (ave. 53 ± 15%) of the total phthalates. Concentrations of phthalates and bisphenol A in Shanghai and Xi'an (two mega-cities in China) in 2009 were 3-84% lower than those in 2003, probably indicating a positive effect of the government's air pollution control in the recent years. Phthalates are higher in summer than in winter, because they are not chemically bonded to the polymeric matrix and more easily evaporate into the air under higher temperature conditions. Based on the size distribution observation, we found that diisobutyl and dibutyl phthalates mainly exist in coarse particles because of high volatilities, in contrast to BEHP and BPA, which are dominant in fine particles due to less volatility. Our results also indicate that BPA is mostly derived from the open burning of solid waste while phthalates are derived from both direct evaporation from the matrix and solid waste combustion.

  16. Airborne particulates. European directives and standardization; Matieres particulaires dans l`air ambiant directives europeennes et normalisation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Houdret, J.L. [Ecole Nationale Superieure des Mines, 59 - Douai (France)

    1996-12-31

    The development of future European directives concerning atmospheric dusts and particulates, organization of the in-charge committee, measurement requirements and limit value determination processes are presented. Various measuring methods and instruments used for particulate and aerosol measurements are reviewed

  17. Assessing deposition of airborne particulates and gases in the Selkirk area using lichens growing on tree trunks : non-technical summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An independent study was conducted to address the public concern regarding airborne emissions from Manitoba Hydro's coal-fired electricity generating station located in the Selkirk area. This document is a non-technical summary of the report issued by Ecostem Ltd. Since there are no air quality monitoring stations in the study area which covers more than 1,000 square km, Ecostem used lichens as biological indicators of historical deposition of airborne dust and gases. The sources of airborne dust and gases include urban centres, agriculture, pesticides, fertilizers, waste burning, vehicle use and manufacturing. Lichens have been commonly used as indicators since 1866. They provide useful information because they are long-lived, are not mobile, acquire most of their nutrients from the atmosphere, retain the airborne deposition they initially trap, and they can accumulate airborne particles year round. It is possible to obtain a record of the chemicals that have been present in the air by simply analyzing the lichen tissue. This study used the concentrations of various chemical elements in lichen tissue and the distribution and abundance of lichen species to see if airborne particulates were substantially elevated in the Selkirk area and if so, to determine if the coal-fired generating station was the apparent source of the pollution. A total of 62 stations and lichens on more than 400 trees were sampled. Sulphur, a fingerprint for gaseous emissions from the generating station, had tissue concentrations that were 1.32 times higher. Statistical analysis suggests that barium, boron and strontium were the clearest fingerprint elements for generating station emissions. Tissue concentrations of antimony, arsenic, cadmium, chromium, copper, iron, lead, manganese, mercury, molybdenum, nickel, selenium, silver, thallium, tin, vanadium and zinc were examined further because they are considered to be toxic. It was noted that a conclusion regarding human health cannot be made

  18. Monitoring and Method development of Hg in Istanbul Airborne Particulates by Solid Sampling Continuum Source-High Resolution Electrothermal Atomic Absorption Spectromerty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soydemir E.

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In this work, a method has been developed and monitoring for the determination of mercury in PM2.5 airborne particulates by solid sampling high-resolution continuum source electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry. The PM2.5 airborne particulates were collected on quartz filters using high volume samplers (500 L/min in Istanbul (Turkey for 96 hours every month in one year. At first, experimental conditions as well as the validation tests were optimized using collected filter. For this purpose, the effects of atomization temperature, amount of sample intoduced in to the furnace, addition of acids and/or KMnO4 on the sample, covering of graphite tube and platform or using of Ag nanoparticulates, Au nanoparticulates, and Pd solutions on the accuracy and precision were investigated. After optimization of the experimental conditions, the mercury concentrations were determined in the collected filter. The filters with PM2.5 airborne particulates were dried, divided into small fine particles and then Hg concentrations were determined directly. In order to eliminate any error due to the sensitivity difference between aqueous standards and solid samples, the quantification was performed using solid calibrants. The limit of detection, based on three times the standard deviations for ten atomizations of an unused filter, was 30 ng/g. The Hg content was dependent on the sampling site, season etc, ranging from

  19. Determination of heavy metals concentrations in airborne particulates matter (APM) from Manjung district, Perak using energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arshad, Nursyairah; Hamzah, Zaini; Wood, Ab. Khalik; Saat, Ahmad; Alias, Masitah

    2015-04-01

    Airborne particulates trace metals are considered as public health concern as it can enter human lungs through respiratory system. Generally, any substance that has been introduced to the atmosphere that can cause severe effects to living things and the environment is considered air pollution. Manjung, Perak is one of the development districts that is active with industrial activities. There are many industrial activities surrounding Manjung District area such as coal fired power plant, quarries and iron smelting which may contribute to the air pollution into the environment. This study was done to measure the concentrations of Hg, U, Th, K, Cu, Fe, Cr, Zn, As, Se, Pb and Cd in the Airborne Particulate Matter (APM) collected at nine locations in Manjung District area within 15 km radius towards three directions (North, North-East and South-East) in 5 km intervals. The samples were collected using mini volume air sampler with cellulose filter through total suspended particulate (TSP). The sampler was set up for eight hours with the flow rate of 5 L/min. The filter was weighed before and after sample collection using microbalance, to get the amount of APM and kept in desiccator before analyzing. The measurement was done using calibrated Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence (EDXRF) Spectrometer. The air particulate concentrations were found below the Malaysia Air Quality Guidelines for TSP (260 µg/m3). All of the metals concentrations were also lower than the guidelines set by World Health Organization (WHO), Ontario Ministry of the Environment and Argonne National Laboratory, USA NCRP (1975). From the concentrations, the enrichment factor were calculated.

  20. Carcinogenicity of airborne fine particulate benzo(a)pyrene: an appraisal of the evidence and the need for control.

    OpenAIRE

    PERERA, F.

    1981-01-01

    Benzo(a)pyrene(BaP) originating from fossil fuel and other organic combustion processes is largely adsorbed on fine particulate and hence is a widespread atmospheric pollutant. Available emissions and air quality data are based on the total weight of particulate matter without reference to size and give little information on trends and concentrations of fine particulate BaP. Greater reliance on coal, synfuels and diesel fuel for energy production and transportation will significantly increase...

  1. The “geotoxicology” of airborne particulate matter: implications for public health, public policy, and environmental security (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plumlee, G. S.; Morman, S. A.

    2009-12-01

    Exposures to airborne particulate matter (PM) have been documented and hypothesized as the cause of a wide variety of adverse health effects. Most attention has focused on potential health effects of occupational and environmental exposures to many types of anthropogenic PM, such as mineral dusts or combustion byproducts of fossil fuels. However, geogenic PM (produced from the Earth by natural processes) and geoanthropogenic PM (produced from natural sources but modified by human activities) are also increasingly of concern as potential agents of toxicity and disease, via both environmental and occupational exposures. Geotoxicology can be defined as the study of the toxicological characteristics and potential health effects of geogenic and geoanthropogenic earth materials. Acute exposures to high PM concentrations are associated with exacerbated asthma, other pulmonary inflammatory responses, cardiovascular problems, and other issues. Some diseases can result from inhalation of dust-borne pathogens. PM can contain bioaccessible (readily dissolved in the body’s fluids) contaminants that, if absorbed in sufficient doses, can trigger toxicity. Acutely bioreactive PM, such as alkaline wildfire ash or acidic volcanic fog, can trigger acute irritation or damage of the respiratory tract, eyes, and skin. Biodurable PM such as asbestos fibers and crystalline silica are poorly cleared by lung macrophages, do not readily dissolve in the fluids lining the lungs, and can therefore persist in the lungs for decades. In sufficient dose, pneumoconioses can result from exposure to biodurable minerals, and chronic fluid-mineral reactions in the body (such as redox cycling and formation of free radicals) are thought to help promote cancers such as lung cancer and (in the case of asbestos) mesothelioma. Many key research questions remain, such as the exact mechanisms by which many types of PM cause disease, or the levels of exposure above which various types of PM begin to pose a

  2. RECOVERY OF SEMI-VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS DURING SAMPLE PREPARATION: IMPLICATIONS FOR CHARACTERIZATION OF AIRBORNE PARTICULATE MATTER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semi-volatile compounds present special analytical challenges not met by conventional methods for analysis of ambient particulate matter (PM). Accurate quantification of PM-associated organic compounds requires validation of the laboratory procedures for recovery over a wide v...

  3. A multivariate receptor modeling study of air-borne particulate PAHs: Regional contributions in a roadside environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Bong Mann; Lee, Seung-Bok; Kim, Jin Young; Kim, Sunwha; Seo, Jihoon; Bae, Gwi-Nam; Lee, Ji Yi

    2016-02-01

    Understanding the geographic source contributions by particulate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) is important for the Korean peninsula due to its downwind location from source areas. Regional influence of particulate PAHs was previously identified using diagnostic ratios applied to mobile source dominated roadside sampling data (Kim et al., 2012b). However, no study has yet been conducted to quantify the regional source contributions. We applied a multivariate receptor modeling tool to identify and quantify the regional source contributions to particulate PAHs in Seoul. Sampling of roadside particulate PAHs was conducted in Seoul, Korea for four years between May 2005 and April 2009, and data analysis was performed with a new multivariate receptor model, Solver for Mixture Problem (SMP). The SMP model identified two sources, local mobile source and transported regional source, and quantified their source contributions. Analysis of the particulate PAHs data reveals three types of episodic periods: a high regional source contribution period with one case, a high mobile source contribution period with three cases, and a normal contribution period with eight cases. Four-year average particulate PAHs source contributions from the two sources are 4.6 ng m(-3) and 10.7 ng m(-3) for regional and mobile sources, respectively and equivalent to 30% and 70% of the total estimated contribution from each of these sources. PMID:26473551

  4. The use of nuclear and related techniques for the studies of airborne particulate matter in workplace including tissue analysis and possible impacts on human health in a metal industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Various processes in a metal industry may produce gases and fine airborne particulate matter that hazardous to human health. The present study deals with assessment of levels and health effects of airborne particulate matter in a metal industry. The objective is achieved by determination of elemental levels in blood, nail and hair of workers and airborne particulate matter that are collected from their workplace. The elemental levels in blood, nail and hair of the workers will be compared to those of control. Their health condition are examined by medical examination and biochemical analysis of their blood. The blood was drawn following an overnight fast before breakfast, by means of I.V. catheter into three polyethylene tubes. The blood samples in the first tubes were sent to clinical laboratory for biochemical examination. Those in the second and third tubes, which are considered free from metal contamination by the needle of the catheter, are used for trace element study. Sera in the polyethylene tubes were separated from erythrocyte by centrifugation, then cooled by liquid nitrogen and freeze dried. Approximately 1 g of toe nail and hair samples were taken respectively from every worker. To eliminate grease and surface contamination the hair samples were rinse with acetone. Airborne particulate samples were collected from the workplace using Gent sampler. These samples are ready for elemental analysis. Results of biochemical analysis and medical examinations of the workers are presented in this report. The correlation among various parameters will be determined by statistical analysis. (author)

  5. Measurement of airborne 131I, 134Cs, and 137Cs nuclides due to the Fukushima reactors accident in air particulate in Milan (Italy)

    CERN Document Server

    Clemenza, Massimiliano; Previtali, Ezio; Sala, Elena

    2011-01-01

    After the earthquake and the tsunami occurred in Japan on 11th March 2011, four of the Fukushima reactors had released in air a large amount of radioactive isotopes that had been diffused all over the world. The presence of airborne 131I, 134Cs, and 137Cs in air particulate due to this accident has been detected and measured in the Low Radioactivity Laboratory operating in the Department of Environmental Sciences of the University of Milano-Bicocca. The sensitivity of the detecting apparatus is of 0.2 \\mu Bq/m3 of air. Concentration and time distribution of these radionuclides were determined and some correlations with the original reactor releases were found. Radioactive contaminations ranging from a few to 400 \\mu Bq/m3 for the 131I and of a few tens of \\mu Bq/m3 for the 137Cs and 134Cs have been detected

  6. Tillandsia stricta Sol (Bromeliaceae) leaves as monitors of airborne particulate matter-A comparative SEM methods evaluation: Unveiling an accurate and odd HP-SEM method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Martha Lima; de Melo, Edésio José Tenório; Miguens, Flávio Costa

    2016-09-01

    Airborne particulate matter (PM) has been included among the most important air pollutants by governmental environment agencies and academy researchers. The use of terrestrial plants for monitoring PM has been widely accepted, particularly when it is coupled with SEM/EDS. Herein, Tillandsia stricta leaves were used as monitors of PM, focusing on a comparative evaluation of Environmental SEM (ESEM) and High-Pressure SEM (HPSEM). In addition, specimens air-dried at formaldehyde atmosphere (AD/FA) were introduced as an SEM procedure. Hydrated specimen observation by ESEM was the best way to get information from T. stricta leaves. If any artifacts were introduced by AD/FA, they were indiscernible from those caused by CPD. Leaf anatomy was always well preserved. PM density was determined on adaxial and abaxial leaf epidermis for each of the SEM proceedings. When compared with ESEM, particle extraction varied from 0 to 20% in air-dried leaves while 23-78% of particles deposited on leaves surfaces were extracted by CPD procedures. ESEM was obviously the best choice over other methods but morphological artifacts increased in function of operation time while HPSEM operation time was without limit. AD/FA avoided the shrinkage observed in the air-dried leaves and particle extraction was low when compared with CPD. Structural and particle density results suggest AD/FA as an important methodological approach to air pollution biomonitoring that can be widely used in all electron microscopy labs. Otherwise, previous PM assessments using terrestrial plants as biomonitors and performed by conventional SEM could have underestimated airborne particulate matter concentration. PMID:27357408

  7. Determination of mercury in airborne particulate matter collected on glass fiber filters using high-resolution continuum source graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry and direct solid sampling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study has been undertaken to assess the capability of high-resolution continuum source graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry for the determination of mercury in airborne particulate matter (APM) collected on glass fiber filters using direct solid sampling. The main Hg absorption line at 253.652 nm was used for all determinations. The certified reference material NIST SRM 1648 (Urban Particulate Matter) was used to check the accuracy of the method, and good agreement was obtained between published and determined values. The characteristic mass was 22 pg Hg. The limit of detection (3σ), based on ten atomizations of an unexposed filter, was 40 ng g-1, corresponding to 0.12 ng m-3 in the air for a typical air volume of 1440 m3 collected within 24 h. The limit of quantification was 150 ng g-1, equivalent to 0.41 ng m-3 in the air. The repeatability of measurements was better than 17% RSD (n = 5). Mercury concentrations found in filter samples loaded with APM collected in Buenos Aires, Argentina, were between -1 and 381 ± 24 ng g-1. These values correspond to a mercury concentration in the air between -3 and 1.47 ± 0.09 ng m-3. The proposed procedure was found to be simple, fast and reliable, and suitable as a screening procedure for the determination of mercury in APM samples.

  8. Analysis of palladium concentrations in airborne particulate matter with reductive co-precipitation, He collision gas, and ID-ICP-Q-MS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alsenz, H.; Zereini, F.; Puettmann, W. [J.W. Goethe-University, Institute for Atmospheric and Environmental Sciences, Department of Environmental Analytical Chemistry, Frankfurt/Main (Germany); Wiseman, C.L.S. [University of Toronto, Centre for Environment, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2009-11-15

    The concentration of platinum group elements (PGE) in the environment has increased significantly in the last 20 years mainly due to their use as catalysts in automotive catalytic converters. The quantitation of these metals in different environmental compartments is, however, challenging due to their very low concentrations and the presence of interfering matrix constituents when inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) is used for analysis. Previously, the research focus was on the analysis of platinum (Pt) and rhodium (Rh). However, due to the increasing use of palladium (Pd) in automotive catalytic converters, quantitation of this element in airborne particulate matter (PM) is also needed. Compared to Pt and Rh, measurements of Pd using ICP-MS are plagued by greater molecular interferences arising from elements such as copper (Cu), zinc (Zn) strontium (Sr), yttrium (Y), and zirconium (Zr). The aim of this study was to evaluate the applicability of reductive co-precipitation procedures using both mercury (Hg) and tellurium (Te) for the pre-concentration of Pd from airborne PM. Furthermore, helium (He) was tested as a collision gas for isotope dilution-inductively coupled plasma-quadrupole-mass spectrometry (ID-ICP-Q-MS) to measure Pd in the Hg and Te precipitates. Airborne PM samples (PM{sub 10}) were collected from Neuglobsow (Brandenburg, north-eastern Germany) and Deuselbach (Rhineland-Palatinate, south-western Germany), considered to represent background levels, and from the city Frankfurt am Main (Hesse, Germany), a high-traffic area. Samples were first digested with aqua regia in a high-pressure asher (HPA) at 320 C and 130 bar prior to the application of reductive co-precipitation procedures. The method was validated with road dust reference material BCR-723 and the CANMET-CCRMP reference material TDB-1 and WPR-1. In airborne PM collected at the background areas Neuglobsow and Deuselbach, Pd was detected with median concentrations values of 0

  9. Analysis of palladium concentrations in airborne particulate matter with reductive co-precipitation, He collision gas, and ID-ICP-Q-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsenz, H; Zereini, F; Wiseman, C L S; Püttmann, W

    2009-11-01

    The concentration of platinum group elements (PGE) in the environment has increased significantly in the last 20 years mainly due to their use as catalysts in automotive catalytic converters. The quantitation of these metals in different environmental compartments is, however, challenging due to their very low concentrations and the presence of interfering matrix constituents when inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) is used for analysis. Previously, the research focus was on the analysis of platinum (Pt) and rhodium (Rh). However, due to the increasing use of palladium (Pd) in automotive catalytic converters, quantitation of this element in airborne particulate matter (PM) is also needed. Compared to Pt and Rh, measurements of Pd using ICP-MS are plagued by greater molecular interferences arising from elements such as copper (Cu), zinc (Zn) strontium (Sr), yttrium (Y), and zirconium (Zr). The aim of this study was to evaluate the applicability of reductive co-precipitation procedures using both mercury (Hg) and tellurium (Te) for the pre-concentration of Pd from airborne PM. Furthermore, helium (He) was tested as a collision gas for isotope dilution-inductively coupled plasma-quadrupole-mass spectrometry (ID-ICP-Q-MS) to measure Pd in the Hg and Te precipitates. Airborne PM samples (PM10) were collected from Neuglobsow (Brandenburg, north-eastern Germany) and Deuselbach (Rhineland-Palatinate, south-western Germany), considered to represent background levels, and from the city Frankfurt am Main (Hesse, Germany), a high-traffic area. Samples were first digested with aqua regia in a high-pressure asher (HPA) at 320 degrees C and 130 bar prior to the application of reductive co-precipitation procedures. The method was validated with road dust reference material BCR-723 and the CANMET-CCRMP reference material TDB-1 and WPR-1. In airborne PM collected at the background areas Neuglobsow and Deuselbach, Pd was detected with median concentrations values of

  10. Comparison of Lead Species in Household Dust Wipes, Soil, and Airborne Particulate Matter in El Paso, Texas, by X-Ray Absorption Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pingitore, N. E.; Clague, J.; Amaya, M. A.

    2006-12-01

    Understanding the interplay of indoor and outdoor sources of lead in an urban setting is one foundation in establishing risk for lead exposure in children in our cities. A household may be the source for lead contamination due to the deterioration of interior lead-based paint, or a sink if lead particles are tracked or blown into the home from such potential ambient sources as yard soil or urban street dust. In addressing this issue, X-Ray Absorption Spectroscopy (XAS) presents the opportunity to directly and quantitatively speciate lead at low concentrations in bulk samples. We performed XAS analyses on dust wipes from window sills or floors from 8 houses that exceeded Federal standards for lead in dust. We entered these data into a Principal Components Analysis (PCA) that also included El Paso environmental samples: lead-based paints, soils, and airborne particulate matter. A simple two-component mixing system accounted for more than 95% of the variance of this data set. Paint and lead oxide appear to be the principal components, with all the samples falling in a compositional range from pure paint to 75% paint, 25% lead oxide. Note that several different lead compounds are possible constituents of a given lead-based paint. The paints spread from one end out along perhaps a fifth of the range of the compositional axis, followed closely, but not overlapped, by the soil samples, which covered the remainder of the compositional range. Two of the dust wipes plotted within the paint range, and the remaining 6 dust wipes plotted randomly through the soil range. Samples of airborne particulate matter plotted in both the paint and soil ranges. These observations suggest that the lead on most of the dust wipes originated outside the house, probably from deteriorated exterior lead-based paint deposited in adjacent yards. This paint mixed with lead oxide present in the soil and entered the houses by the airborne route. The probable source of the oxide in the soil is former

  11. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the airborne particulate matter at a location 40 km north of Bangkok, Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim Oanh, N. T.; Bætz Reutergårdh, L.; Dung, N. Tr.; Yu, M.-H.; Yao, W.-X.; Co, H. X.

    Total suspended particulate matter in ambient air was sampled by high-volume samplers at four sites at the Asian Institute of Technology campus, west of the Phahonyothin Road, Phathumthani Province, 40 km North of Bangkok, Thailand. The concentrations of 18 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), were measured by gas chromatography with flame ionisation and/or liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection. The PAH profile with relatively high concentrations of benzo(ghi)perylene and coronene, decreasing with the distance from the road, suggested a substantial contribution from the traffic. The concentrations in the core of the campus were in the same range as those reported for residential areas in the Bangkok Metropolitan.

  12. Salmonella mutagenicity assessment of airborne particulate matter collected from urban areas of Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil, differing in anthropogenic influences and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Tatiana S; Gotor, Gemma N; Beltrami, Laiana S; Nolla, Celia G; Rocha, Jocelita A V; Broto, Francesc P; Comellas, Lluis R; Vargas, Vera M F

    2010-09-30

    Urban areas are both major sources and major targets of air pollution. The atmospheric environment receives diverse chemical substances, including genotoxic agents that may affect human health. The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare the atmospheric quality in two urban areas in Rio Grande do Sul State (Brazil), under the influence of greater (Site 1) or lesser (Site 2) anthropogenic sources. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) of environmental interest were quantified and the Salmonella/microsome assay was used for the measurement of mutagenicity. Organic compounds extracted from the airborne particulate matter were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) to detect PAHs of interest (known or possible carcinogens). The organic extracts were also tested for mutagenic and cytotoxic activity in the Salmonella/microsome assay with strains TA98, TA100, YG1021 and YG1024, with or without S9 activation. At Site 1, benzo[ghi]perylene (BghiP) and indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene (IP) were found at higher concentrations and mutagenicity (revertants per μg extract) varied from 1.0±0.25 (TA98, no S9) to 5.2±0.45 (TA98, S9). At Site 2, BghiP and IP were present in larger amounts and the mutagenic responses ranged from 0.6 to 3.7 revertants per μg (both in TA98, S9). The occurrence of BghiP and IP may be related to vehicular emissions. These and the other PAHs studied, as well as the nitro compounds, may contribute to the mutagenicity found in these airborne particles. PMID:20643224

  13. Assessment of levels and 'health-effects' of airborne particulate matter in mining, metal refining and metal working industries using nuclear and related analytical techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has been supporting, over the years, several coordinated research programmes (CRPs) on various research topics related to environmental issues impacting human health. The primary aim of these CRPs has been to help enhance the research and development capabilities in the Member States, particularly among developing countries; to identify the sources of various environmental contaminants and evaluate their fate; and to provide for the basis of improved health among human populations by the use of nuclear and related analytical techniques. The CRP on Assessment of Levels and Health-Effects of Airborne Particulate Matter in Mining, Metal Refining and Metal Working Industries using nuclear and related analytical techniques focused on improving the competence for research on workplace monitoring in a variety of industrial environments. The personal monitoring of the APM (airborne particulate matter) of the exposed workforce was carried out for the first time by many participants. Nuclear and related analytical techniques, including the application of proton micro-beam, were used to generate the trace element concentration profiles in various biomarkers tissues of the exposed workers. The quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC) aspects related to the CRP were addressed through intercomparison analyses of APM on filter paper samples and freeze dried human urine samples to generate validated data. These data have helped to generate correlations between the occupational exposure measured and the magnitude of the biological response. Such new information is essential to evolve procedures to considerably reduce/eliminate the pollutants in the workplace environment and to make informed decisions on the evolution of standards in working environments aimed at preserving the health of workers. The purpose of this TECDOC is to provide an overview of the activities performed under the CRP by the participants. The overall achievements

  14. Determination of water-soluble inorganic species in airborne atmospheric particulate matter in an Urban Area in Jordan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Major water soluble cations and anions in inhalable (INP) and noninhalable (Nip) airbome particulate matter samples have been determined in an urban area of Amman city of Jordan during Winter, 1996 by ion chromatography. The total average level of F-, CI+, NO3+, SO42- and total suspended particles (Tsp) were 1.48, 3.84, 6.40, 45.85 and 221μg/m3, respectively. For cations, the total average levels were 25.42, 6.68, 4.06, 5.84, and 25.05 μg/m3 for Na+, NH4+, Mg2+, and Ca2+, respectively. This study show ss that the concentrations of FΛ, NO3Λ, SO42, Na+, K+, Mg2+, and Ca2+ in the INP fraction were significantly greater than in the Nip fraction while the CI+ and NH4+ levels are greater than in the Nip, In the same sampling site, it was found that the nitrate and sulfate concentrations in air particulate matter are significantly higher in winter, 1996 than in summer season, 1995. However, the levels of fluoride and chloride are greater in summer than in winter. (authors). 24 refs., 5 figs., 2 table

  15. Determination of mercury in airborne particulate matter collected on glass fiber filters using high-resolution continuum source graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry and direct solid sampling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo, Rennan G.O., E-mail: rgoa01@terra.com.br [Laboratorio de Quimica Analitica Ambiental, Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal de Sergipe, Campus Sao Cristovao, 49.100-000, Sao Cristovao, SE (Brazil); Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, 88040-900, Florianopolis, SC (Brazil); Vignola, Fabiola; Castilho, Ivan N.B. [Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, 88040-900, Florianopolis, SC (Brazil); Borges, Daniel L.G.; Welz, Bernhard [Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, 88040-900, Florianopolis, SC (Brazil); Instituto Nacional de Ciencia e Tecnologia do CNPq, INCT de Energia e Ambiente, Universidade Federal da Bahia, 40170-115 Salvador, BA (Brazil); Vale, Maria Goreti R. [Instituto Nacional de Ciencia e Tecnologia do CNPq, INCT de Energia e Ambiente, Universidade Federal da Bahia, 40170-115 Salvador, BA (Brazil); Instituto de Quimica, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, 91501-970 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Smichowski, Patricia [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica (CNEA) and Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas (CONICET), Buenos Aires (Argentina); Ferreira, Sergio L.C. [Instituto Nacional de Ciencia e Tecnologia do CNPq, INCT de Energia e Ambiente, Universidade Federal da Bahia, 40170-115 Salvador, BA (Brazil); Instituto de Quimica, Universidade Federal da Bahia, 40170-290, Salvador, BA (Brazil); Becker-Ross, Helmut [Leibniz-Institut fuer Analytische Wissenschaften-ISAS-e.V., Department Berlin, 12489 Berlin (Germany)

    2011-05-15

    A study has been undertaken to assess the capability of high-resolution continuum source graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry for the determination of mercury in airborne particulate matter (APM) collected on glass fiber filters using direct solid sampling. The main Hg absorption line at 253.652 nm was used for all determinations. The certified reference material NIST SRM 1648 (Urban Particulate Matter) was used to check the accuracy of the method, and good agreement was obtained between published and determined values. The characteristic mass was 22 pg Hg. The limit of detection (3{sigma}), based on ten atomizations of an unexposed filter, was 40 ng g{sup -1}, corresponding to 0.12 ng m{sup -3} in the air for a typical air volume of 1440 m{sup 3} collected within 24 h. The limit of quantification was 150 ng g{sup -1}, equivalent to 0.41 ng m{sup -3} in the air. The repeatability of measurements was better than 17% RSD (n = 5). Mercury concentrations found in filter samples loaded with APM collected in Buenos Aires, Argentina, were between < 40 ng g{sup -1} and 381 {+-} 24 ng g{sup -1}. These values correspond to a mercury concentration in the air between < 0.12 ng m{sup -3} and 1.47 {+-} 0.09 ng m{sup -3}. The proposed procedure was found to be simple, fast and reliable, and suitable as a screening procedure for the determination of mercury in APM samples.

  16. [In vitro study of genotoxic and oxidative effects induced on human pulmonary cells by exposure to PAHs extracted from airborne particulate matter collected in a coke plant].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavallo, D; Ursini, C L; Pira, E; Romano, C; Ciervo, A; Maiello, R; Caglieri, A; Iavicoli, S

    2007-01-01

    Genotoxic and oxidative effect of airborne particulate matter collected in a coke plant were evaluated on lung epithelial cells (A549). We aimed to clarify the mechanism of action of complex mixtures of PAHs and to identify biomarkers of effect of lung cancer. Particulate matter was analysed by GC/MS. Genotoxic and oxidative effects induced by the exposure to the extract were evaluated by Fpg comet assay. The cells were exposed for 30 min, 2h and 4h to 0.01%, 0.02% and 0.05% of the extract. We evaluated comet percentage and analysed tail moment values of exposed and unexposed cells treated with Fpg enzyme (TMenz) and untreated (TM) that indicate respectively oxidative and direct DNA damage. We found 0.328 ng/m3 of pyrene, 0.33 ng/m3 of benzo(a)anthracene, 1.073 ng/m3 of benzo(b)fluoranthene, 0.22 ng/m3 of benzo(k)fluoranthene, 0.35 ng/m3 of benzo(a)pyrene, 0.079 ng/m3 of dibenzo(a,h)anthracene and 0.40 ng/m3 of benzo(g,h,i)perylene. A dose-dependent increase, although not significant, of TM and TMenz in the exposed cells in respect to controls was found that indicates a slight increase of both direct and oxidative damage in exposed cells. A slight increase of comet percentage was found at the highest dose. We show the high sensibility of comet assay to measure early DNA damage also at low doses suggesting the use of such test on A549 to evaluate on target organ the effects of complex mixtures of genotoxic substances. PMID:18409689

  17. Spatial and temporal variations in airborne particulate matter (PM 10 and PM 2.5) across Spain 1999-2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Querol, X.; Alastuey, A.; Moreno, T.; Viana, M. M.; Castillo, S.; Pey, J.; Rodríguez, S.; Artiñano, B.; Salvador, P.; Sánchez, M.; Garcia Dos Santos, S.; Herce Garraleta, M. D.; Fernandez-Patier, R.; Moreno-Grau, S.; Negral, L.; Minguillón, M. C.; Monfort, E.; Sanz, M. J.; Palomo-Marín, R.; Pinilla-Gil, E.; Cuevas, E.; de la Rosa, J.; Sánchez de la Campa, A.

    Average ranges of particulate matter (PM 10 and PM 2.5) concentrations and chemical composition in Spain show significant variations across the country, with current PM 10 levels at several industrial and traffic hotspots exceeding recommended pollution limits. Such variations and exceedances are linked to patterns of anthropogenic and natural PM emissions, climate, and reactivity/stability of particulate species. PM 10 and PM 2.5 concentrations reach 14-22 μg PM 10 m -3 and 8-12 μg PM 2.5 m -3 at most rural/regional background sites, 25-30 μg PM 10 m -3 and 15-20μg PM 2.5 m -3 at suburban sites, 30-46 μg PM 10 m -3 and 20-30 μg PM 2.5 m -3 at urban background and industrial sites, and 46-50 μg PM 10 m -3 and 30-35 μg PM 2.5 m -3 at heavy traffic hotpots. Spatial distributions show sulphate and carbon particle levels reach maxima in industrialised areas and large cities (where traffic emissions are higher), and nitrate levels increase from the Atlantic to the Mediterranean (independent of the regional NO x emissions). African dust outbreaks have an influence on the number of exceedances of the daily limit value, but its additional load on the mean annual PM 10 levels is only highly significant in Southern Iberia and Canary and Balearic islands. The marine aerosol contribution is near one order of magnitude higher in the Canaries compared to the other regions. Important temporal influences include PM intrusion events from Africa (more abundant in February-March and spring-summer), regional-scale pollution episodes, and weekday versus weekend activity. Higher summer insolation enhances (NH 4) 2SO 4 but depletes particulate NO 3- (as a consequence of the thermal instability of ammonium nitrate in summer) and Cl - (due to HCl volatilisation resulting from the interaction of gaseous HNO 3 with the marine NaCl), as well as generally increasing dry dust resuspension under a semi-arid climate. Average trace metal concentrations rise with the highest levels at

  18. Characterization and source identification of trace elements in airborne particulates at urban and suburban atmospheres of Tabriz, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gholampour, Akbar; Nabizadeh, Ramin; Hassanvand, Mohammad Sadegh; Taghipour, Hasan; Rafee, Mohammad; Alizadeh, Zahra; Faridi, Sasan; Mahvi, Amir Hossein

    2016-01-01

    Concentration of particulate matter (PM10 and total suspended particulate (TSP)) and their elemental constituents were measured to identify the major sources of elements in urban and industrial suburban sites in Tabriz, Iran, from September 2012 to June 2013. TSP and PM10 samples were collected using high-volume samplers. Concentrations of 31 elements in aerosols and crustal soil were determined by ICPMS. The most abundant detected metals in the urban sampling sites were Al (217.5-4019.9 ng m(-3)), Fe (272.5-7658.0 ng m(-3)), Pt (4.7-1994.4 ng m(-3)), and P (13.6-2054.8 ng m(-3) (for TSP and Al (217.6-3687.3 ng m(-3)), Fe (197.1-3724.9 ng m(-3)), Pt (65.9-2054.5 ng m(-3)), and P (11.0-756.6 ng m(-3)( for PM10. In the suburban sampling site, the most abundant detected metals were Al (2083.0-9664.0 ng m(-3)), Fe (360.0-7221.5 ng m(-3)), P (229.4-870.5 ng m(-3)), and Ti (137.3-849.7 ng m(-3)) for TSP and Al (218.5-4179.6 ng m(-3)), Fe (106.3-2005.1 ng m(-3)), P (251.9-908.4 ng m(-3)), and Ba (10.6-584.9 ng m(-3)) for PM10. For the crustal soil, the most abundant detected elements included Al (60,088-60,694 ppm), Fe (19,886-20,474 ppm), Ti (894-3481 ppm), and Si (365-4246 ppm). Key emission sources were identified, and the concentrations contributed from individual sources were estimated. Enrichment factor (EF) explaining a preponderance of the variance in the data was applied to the datasets. EF calculations revealed that non-crustal trace elements were more enriched in the urban than suburban sampling sites. Results of the factor analysis on the elements showed that emissions from road traffic (involving oil and fuel combustions by vehicles, platinum group elements from vehicle exhaust, and resuspension of particulate matter from polluted soil) and construction dust from nearby construction sites and electricity generation plant were the major contributors of anthropogenic metals at ambient atmosphere in Tabriz. Results of this study elucidated the need for

  19. Determination of lead isotopic composition of airborne particulate matter by ICPMS: implications for lead atmospheric emissions in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Quadrupole ICPMS was used for determination of trace metal concentrations and lead isotopic composition in fine particulate matter (PM2.5) collected at selected sites within the Canadian National Air Pollution Surveillance network, from February 2005 to February 2007. High enrichment factors indicated that lead is mostly of anthropogenic origin and consequently, the lead isotopic composition is directly related to that of pollution sources. The 206Pb/207Pb and 208Pb/207Pb ratios were measured and the results were compared to the isotopic signatures of lead from different sources. Various approaches were used to assess the impact of relevant sources and the meteorological conditions in the occurrence and distribution of lead in Canadian atmospheric aerosols. (author)

  20. Assessment of AMAD and MMAD for airborne particulate matter in the beach mineral separation plants - modification of ALI and DAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mineral separation process at IRE plants has undergone changes with the introduction of dredge mining and wet concentration process. These steps have necessitated re-assessment of the inhalation hazards in these plants. Air samples were collected using an eight stage Anderson cascade impactor sampler. Activity median aerodynamic diameter of the particulates ranged from 2.7 to 15 μm with an average of 7 μm. GSD varied from 2.6 to 4.6. Based on the ICRP dose conversion factors and taking into consideration the equilibrium status of 232Th and 228Th in monazite, a combined annual limit of intake of 534 Bq and corresponding DAC of 0.22 Bq m-3 is arrived at for the mineral processing plants. The prevailing air activity in the plants indicate individual inhalation exposures due to Th in the range of 1.5 to 2 mSv per year. (author)

  1. Exposure to particulate hexavalent chromium exacerbates allergic asthma pathology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, Brent C. [Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Tropical Medicine, The George Washington University, Washington, DC 20037 (United States); Department of Pharmacology and Physiology, The George Washington University, Washington, DC 20037 (United States); Constant, Stephanie L. [Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Tropical Medicine, The George Washington University, Washington, DC 20037 (United States); Patierno, Steven R. [Department of Pharmacology and Physiology, The George Washington University, Washington, DC 20037 (United States); GW Cancer Institute, The George Washington University, Washington, DC 20037 (United States); Jurjus, Rosalyn A. [Department of Anatomy and Regenerative Biology, The George Washington University, Washington, DC 20037 (United States); Ceryak, Susan M., E-mail: phmsmc@gwumc.edu [Department of Pharmacology and Physiology, The George Washington University, Washington, DC 20037 (United States)

    2012-02-15

    Airborne hexavalent chromate, Cr(VI), has been identified by the Environmental Protection Agency as a possible health threat in urban areas, due to the carcinogenic potential of some of its forms. Particulate chromates are produced in many different industrial settings, with high levels of aerosolized forms historically documented. Along with an increased risk of lung cancer, a high incidence of allergic asthma has been reported in workers exposed to certain inhaled particulate Cr(VI) compounds. However, a direct causal association between Cr(VI) and allergic asthma has not been established. We recently showed that inhaled particulate Cr(VI) induces an innate neutrophilic inflammatory response in BALB/c mice. In the current studies we investigated how the inflammation induced by inhaled particulate Cr(VI) might alter the pathology of an allergic asthmatic response. We used a well-established mouse model of allergic asthma. Groups of ovalbumin protein (OVA)-primed mice were challenged either with OVA alone, or with a combination of OVA and particulate zinc chromate, and various parameters associated with asthmatic responses were measured. Co-exposure to particulate Cr(VI) and OVA mediated a mixed form of asthma in which both eosinophils and neutrophils are present in airways, tissue pathology is markedly exacerbated, and airway hyperresponsiveness is significantly increased. Taken together these findings suggest that inhalation of particulate forms of Cr(VI) may augment the severity of ongoing allergic asthma, as well as alter its phenotype. Such findings may have implications for asthmatics in settings in which airborne particulate Cr(VI) compounds are present at high levels. -- Highlights: ► Allergic asthma correlated with exposure to certain inhaled particulate chromates. ► Direct causal association between Cr(VI) and allergic asthma not established. ► Cr exacerbated pathology and airway hyperresponsiveness in an OVA-challenged mouse. ► Particulate Cr

  2. Exposure to particulate hexavalent chromium exacerbates allergic asthma pathology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Airborne hexavalent chromate, Cr(VI), has been identified by the Environmental Protection Agency as a possible health threat in urban areas, due to the carcinogenic potential of some of its forms. Particulate chromates are produced in many different industrial settings, with high levels of aerosolized forms historically documented. Along with an increased risk of lung cancer, a high incidence of allergic asthma has been reported in workers exposed to certain inhaled particulate Cr(VI) compounds. However, a direct causal association between Cr(VI) and allergic asthma has not been established. We recently showed that inhaled particulate Cr(VI) induces an innate neutrophilic inflammatory response in BALB/c mice. In the current studies we investigated how the inflammation induced by inhaled particulate Cr(VI) might alter the pathology of an allergic asthmatic response. We used a well-established mouse model of allergic asthma. Groups of ovalbumin protein (OVA)-primed mice were challenged either with OVA alone, or with a combination of OVA and particulate zinc chromate, and various parameters associated with asthmatic responses were measured. Co-exposure to particulate Cr(VI) and OVA mediated a mixed form of asthma in which both eosinophils and neutrophils are present in airways, tissue pathology is markedly exacerbated, and airway hyperresponsiveness is significantly increased. Taken together these findings suggest that inhalation of particulate forms of Cr(VI) may augment the severity of ongoing allergic asthma, as well as alter its phenotype. Such findings may have implications for asthmatics in settings in which airborne particulate Cr(VI) compounds are present at high levels. -- Highlights: ► Allergic asthma correlated with exposure to certain inhaled particulate chromates. ► Direct causal association between Cr(VI) and allergic asthma not established. ► Cr exacerbated pathology and airway hyperresponsiveness in an OVA-challenged mouse. ► Particulate Cr

  3. The distribution characteristics of trace elements in airborne particulates from an urban industrial complex area of Korea using instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An instrumental neutron activation analysis was used to measure the concentrations of about 24 elements associated with airborne particulates (PM10) that were collected in the most polluted urban region of Daejeon city, Korea from 2000 to 2002. Using the measurement data for various elements, both the extent of elemental pollution in the study area and the seasonality in their distribution characteristics were examined. Examinations of their distribution patterns indicated that most elements with crustal origin tend to exhibit seasonal peaks during spring, while most elements with anthropogenic origin tend to exhibit seasonal peaks during fall or winter. In order to explain the factors regulating their mobilization properties, the data were processed by a factor analysis. Results of the factor analysis suggested competing roles of both industrial and natural source processes, despite that the study site is located at a downwind position of the industrial complex. Based on the overall results of this study, it is concluded that the site may be strongly impacted by man-made sources but the general patterns of elemental distributions in the study area inspected over a seasonal scale are quite consistent with those typically observed from natural environment

  4. Monitoring of radioactive cesium in Kawasaki derived from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident by a sequential leaching method for airborne particulate matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Fukushima daiichi nuclear power plant (FDNPP) was seriously damaged by the huge earthquake and subsequent tsunami on 11 March 2011, and has released large amounts of radioactive materials into the environment. Since the accident, radioactive cesium originating from the FDNPP accident was detected over a wide range of the northeastern half of Honshu, the main island of Japan, including the Kanto region. The long-term monitoring of the activities of FDNPP-derived radioactive cesium in surface air must provide important knowledge concerning the dispersion processes of radioactive cesium and its supply to the atmosphere. In this study, we focused on airborne particulate matters (APM) collected at Kawasaki city, Kanagawa. The aim of this study was to obtain the time series date of radioactive cesium activities and to characterize the chemical properties of radioactive cesium in the APM. Consequently, we obtained the following information. Until the spring of 2014, both of the FDNPP-derived 134Cs and the 137Cs activities in the APM, which were still detected, decreased to ca. 10-5 times those observed just after the FDNPP accident. Specifically, their activities decreased rapidly until September, 2011, and then their decrease rates slowed down. Sequential leaching experiments revealed that the chemical properties of radioactive cesium in the APM differed from those in soil; significant amounts of radioactive cesium in the APM existed as a water-soluble form, whereas most of the radioactive cesium in soil was insoluble in water. (author)

  5. Comparison of the extraction efficiencies of different leaching agents for reliable assessment of bio-accessible trace metal fractions in airborne particulate matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukhtar A.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In present study, an in-vitro physiologically based extraction test has been applied for extraction of bio-accessible trace metal fractions in airborne particulate matter (APM samples collected from different urban sites in Austria and Pakistan using the leaching agents H2O, sodium chloride, ammonium acetate, ammonium citrate, synthetic gastric juice and artificial lung fluids. Obtained extracts were then measured using an ETV-ICP-OES procedure which allowed highly sensitive measurement of dissolved analytes even in the presence of leaching agents. Derived results indicated that the investigated leaching agents extract different amounts of trace metals. In general, leaching agents with organic nature yielded comparatively greater extractable and thus bio-accessible trace metal fractions to that of simple solvents like H2O or aqueous NaCl solution. With water, only 26.3±4.0% of Cd was found to be bio-accessible whereas 88.4±24.8 of Cd was obtained as bio-accessible fraction with the use of synthetic gastric juice. The concentrations of bio-accessible metal fractions varied from 0.4 ng m−3 (Cd to 714 ng m−3 (Zn and 0.3 ng m−3 (Cd to 190 ng m−3 (Zn for PM10 samples collected from Karachi (Pakistan and Graz (Austria respectively.

  6. Chemical characterization of a polar portion in the neutral fraction derived from airborne particulate extracts responsible for the embryotoxicity in the chicken embryo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsumoto, H.

    1988-01-01

    Airborne particulate matter was collected with a high-volume air sampler between June 1984 and May 1985 on the roof top of the authors institute. The tar material extracted was separated into six fractions by liquid-liquid partition and silica gel column chromatography. These fractions were then tested for their embryotoxicities by a chicken embryo assay. A moderately polar fraction per weight and a fraction containing polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) had the greatest toxicity for chicken embryos. When the polar fraction was purified by high-pressure liquid chromatography, the purified fraction was 3.7 times more toxic than the original polar fraction. To determine the responsible components for the toxicity, the purified fraction as well as the original fraction was analyzed by capillary gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The characterized components were classified into oxygenated PAHs (containing ketones, quinones, and aldehydes), nitrogen-containing PAHS, diphenyl-substituted aliphatic ketones (or diketones), and esters of aliphatic acids.

  7. Implementation of a near-real time cross-border web-mapping platform on airborne particulate matter (PM) concentration with open-source software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knörchen, Achim; Ketzler, Gunnar; Schneider, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    Although Europe has been growing together for the past decades, cross-border information platforms on environmental issues are still scarce. With regard to the establishment of a web-mapping tool on airborne particulate matter (PM) concentration for the Euregio Meuse-Rhine located in the border region of Belgium, Germany and the Netherlands, this article describes the research on methodical and technical backgrounds implementing such a platform. An open-source solution was selected for presenting the data in a Web GIS (OpenLayers/GeoExt; both JavaScript-based), applying other free tools for data handling (Python), data management (PostgreSQL), geo-statistical modelling (Octave), geoprocessing (GRASS GIS/GDAL) and web mapping (MapServer). The multilingual, made-to-order online platform provides access to near-real time data on PM concentration as well as additional background information. In an open data section, commented configuration files for the Web GIS client are being made available for download. Furthermore, all geodata generated by the project is being published under public domain and can be retrieved in various formats or integrated into Desktop GIS as Web Map Services (WMS).

  8. Cocaine and other illicit drugs in airborne particulates in urban environments: A reflection of social conduct and population size

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levels of cocaine and other psychoactive substances in atmospheric particulate matter (PM) were determined in urban environments representing distinct social behaviours with regard to drug abuse: night-life, university and residential areas. Three cities (with population >1 million and 3 for cocaine, 23-34 pg/m3 for cannabinoids, and 5-90 pg/m3 for heroin. The highest levels were recorded on weekends, with factors with respect to weekdays of 1-3 for cocaine, 1-2 for cannabinoids and 1.1-1.7 for heroin. Higher levels were detected in the night-life areas, pointing towards consumption and trafficking as major emission sources, and possibly ruling out drug manufacture. The similarities in temporal trends at all sites suggested a city-scale transport of psychoactive substances. Correlations were detected between cocaine and amphetamine consumption (r2 = 0.98), and between heroin and cannabinoids (r2>0.82). - Highlights: → Cocaine, heroin, cannabis and related illicit drugs are found in detectable amounts in urban air. → Illicit drug consumption and small-scale trafficking are the major emission sources. → Illicit drugs remain in atmospheric particles and are transported across cities during at least 5 days. → Levels of illicit drugs increase from residential to night-life areas, and maximise on weekends. → Correlations between illicit drugs were detected, suggesting differences in consumer groups. - The presence of illicit drugs in atmospheric particles can be used to track illicit drug abuse.

  9. Population vulnerability due to the exposure to radon and airborne particulate matter (PM{sub 10}), in Mexico City

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Espinosa, G., E-mail: espinosa@fisica.unam.m [Instituto de Fisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Apartado Postal 20364, 01000 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Golzarri, J.I. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Apartado Postal 20364, 01000 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Ponciano-Rodriguez, G. [Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Ciudad Universitaria, 04510 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Gaso, M.I. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Apartado Postal 18-1027, 11801 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Mena, M.; Segovia, N. [Instituto de Geofisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Ciudad Universitaria, 04510 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Vazquez-Lopez, C. [Departamento de Fisica, CINVESTAV (Mexico); Sajo-Bohus, L. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad Simon Bolivar (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of)

    2009-10-15

    Exposure to indoor radon and suspended particulate matter (SPM) is considered a high risk in lung cancer aetiology. In this paper indoor radon and SPM concentration measurements and their correlations, associated with lung cancer cases are given. Mexico City suffers high concentration of SPM as well as other photochemical pollutants such as ozone. During the last decade in Mexico City, radon and SPM have been monitored. The indoor radon measurements were done using the Nuclear Track Methodology, basically the close-end-cup device with polyallyldiglycol carbonate as detector material, followed of an established chemical etching protocol, and automatic digital image analyzer system for counting. SPM size and concentration were obtained from monitoring stations located along the city. The results show that the central-north part of Mexico City has a large concentration of SPM and the vulnerable population (older than 65 years and younger than 14 years) is located essentially in the same region. In this area, a large number of lung cancer cases were found, even if indoor radon levels were below the recommended limits.

  10. The complementarity of PIXE and PIGE techniques: A case study of size segregated airborne particulates collected from a Nigeria city.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezeh, G C; Obioh, I B; Asubiojo, O I; Chiari, M; Nava, S; Calzolai, G; Lucarelli, F; Nuviadenu, C

    2015-09-01

    The Proton Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) technique is a reliable ion beam analytical tool for the characterization of thin aerosol samples, but it can underestimate the lightest measurable elements (such as Na, Mg, Al and Si) owing to the absorption of their X-rays inside the sample. The Proton Induced Gamma-ray Emission (PIGE) technique could be employed as avalid means to determine corrections for such an effect. Hence, in this study, Fine (PM(2.5)) and Coarse (PM(10-2.5)) particulate matter samples collected at Ikeja, Lagos-Nigeria, using a double staged 'Gent' stacked sampler were analyzed for their elemental concentrations using an external beam set-up for simultaneous PIXE and PIGE measurements. The measured PIXE concentrations as well as the PIGE correction factors for Na and Al detected in the PM(10-2.5) samples (collected on polycarbonate Nuclepore membranes) are reported. The concentrations of 24 elements (Na, Mg, Al, Si, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Se, Br, Rb, Sr, Zr, Cs and Pb) detected in both fractions were displayed, discussed and likely sources of these elements were also identified. PMID:26070174

  11. The Effect of Seasonal Variations in Airborne Particulate Matter on Asthma-Related Airway Inflammation in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurai, Jun; Watanabe, Masanari; Sano, Hiroyuki; Hantan, Degejirihu; Shimizu, Eiji

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of winter and spring particulate matter (PM) on airway inflammation and allergies in a mouse asthma model. PM was collected during 7–28 February 2013 (winter) and during 7–28 April 2013 (spring) in Yonago, Japan. NC/Nga mice were co-sensitized using intranasal instillation of the PMs and Dermatophagoides farinae (Df) for 5 consecutive days, and were subsequently challenged using intranasal Df at 7 days after the last sensitization. At 24 h after the challenge, serum immunoglobulin levels, differential leukocyte counts, and inflammatory cytokines levels were measured in the mice’s bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF). Compared to co-sensitization using spring PM and Df, winter PM and Df induced greater increases in the BALF neutrophil and eosinophil counts and total serum IgE and IgG2a levels. Furthermore, winter PM-sensitized mice exhibited higher BALF levels of interleukin-5, interleukin-13, interleukin-6, and keratinocyte-derived chemokine. Therefore, we observed seasonal variations in the effects of PM on asthma-related airway inflammation. These findings suggest that the compositions of PM vary according to season, and that it is important to evaluate PM compositions in order to understand the associations between asthma and PM. PMID:27294946

  12. Cocaine and other illicit drugs in airborne particulates in urban environments: A reflection of social conduct and population size

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viana, M., E-mail: mar.viana@idaea.csic.es [Institute for Environmental Assessment and Water Research (IDAEA-CSIC), C/Jordi Girona 18, 08034 Barcelona (Spain); Postigo, C., E-mail: cprqam@cid.csic.es [Institute for Environmental Assessment and Water Research (IDAEA-CSIC), C/Jordi Girona 18, 08034 Barcelona (Spain); Querol, X., E-mail: xavier.querol@idaea.csic.es [Institute for Environmental Assessment and Water Research (IDAEA-CSIC), C/Jordi Girona 18, 08034 Barcelona (Spain); Alastuey, A., E-mail: andres.alastuey@idaea.csic.es [Institute for Environmental Assessment and Water Research (IDAEA-CSIC), C/Jordi Girona 18, 08034 Barcelona (Spain); Lopez de Alda, M.J., E-mail: mlaqam@cid.csic.es [Institute for Environmental Assessment and Water Research (IDAEA-CSIC), C/Jordi Girona 18, 08034 Barcelona (Spain); Barcelo, D., E-mail: dbcqam@cid.csic.es [Institute for Environmental Assessment and Water Research (IDAEA-CSIC), C/Jordi Girona 18, 08034 Barcelona (Spain); King Saud University, Box 2454, Riyadh 11451 (Saudi Arabia); Artinano, B., E-mail: b.artinano@ciemat.es [Centre for Energy, Environment and Technology Research (CIEMAT), Av. Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Lopez-Mahia, P., E-mail: purmahia@udc.es [Department of Analytical Chemistry, University of A Coruna, Campus A Zapateira, 15071 A Coruna (Spain); Garcia Gacio, D., E-mail: dgarcia@udc.es [Department of Analytical Chemistry, University of A Coruna, Campus A Zapateira, 15071 A Coruna (Spain); Cots, N., E-mail: nuria.cots@gencat.ca [Department of the Environment, Catalonia Regional Government, Av. Diagonal 525, 08193 Barcelona (Spain)

    2011-05-15

    Levels of cocaine and other psychoactive substances in atmospheric particulate matter (PM) were determined in urban environments representing distinct social behaviours with regard to drug abuse: night-life, university and residential areas. Three cities (with population >1 million and <0.3 million inhabitants) were selected. Mean daily levels of drugs in PM were 11-336 pg/m{sup 3} for cocaine, 23-34 pg/m{sup 3} for cannabinoids, and 5-90 pg/m{sup 3} for heroin. The highest levels were recorded on weekends, with factors with respect to weekdays of 1-3 for cocaine, 1-2 for cannabinoids and 1.1-1.7 for heroin. Higher levels were detected in the night-life areas, pointing towards consumption and trafficking as major emission sources, and possibly ruling out drug manufacture. The similarities in temporal trends at all sites suggested a city-scale transport of psychoactive substances. Correlations were detected between cocaine and amphetamine consumption (r{sup 2} = 0.98), and between heroin and cannabinoids (r{sup 2}>0.82). - Highlights: > Cocaine, heroin, cannabis and related illicit drugs are found in detectable amounts in urban air. > Illicit drug consumption and small-scale trafficking are the major emission sources. > Illicit drugs remain in atmospheric particles and are transported across cities during at least 5 days. > Levels of illicit drugs increase from residential to night-life areas, and maximise on weekends. > Correlations between illicit drugs were detected, suggesting differences in consumer groups. - The presence of illicit drugs in atmospheric particles can be used to track illicit drug abuse.

  13. The complementarity of PIXE and PIGE techniques: A case study of size segregated airborne particulates collected from a Nigeria city

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Proton Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) technique is a reliable ion beam analytical tool for the characterization of thin aerosol samples, but it can underestimate the lightest measurable elements (such as Na, Mg, Al and Si) owing to the absorption of their X-rays inside the sample. The Proton Induced Gamma-ray Emission (PIGE) technique could be employed as avalid means to determine corrections for such an effect. Hence, in this study, Fine (PM2.5) and Coarse (PM10–2.5) particulate matter samples collected at Ikeja, Lagos-Nigeria, using a double staged ‘Gent’ stacked sampler were analyzed for their elemental concentrations using an external beam set-up for simultaneous PIXE and PIGE measurements. The measured PIXE concentrations as well as the PIGE correction factors for Na and Al detected in the PM10–2.5 samples (collected on polycarbonate Nuclepore membranes) are reported. The concentrations of 24 elements (Na, Mg, Al, Si, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Se, Br, Rb, Sr, Zr, Cs and Pb) detected in both fractions were displayed, discussed and likely sources of these elements were also identified. - Highlights: • Daily mass concentrations of PM2.5 and PM10–2.5 aerosols from a Nigerian city were established. • External Ion Beam Experiments of Proton Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) and Proton Induced Gamma-ray Emission performed on Nigerian urban aerosol. • PIGE correction factors for Na and Al detected by PIXE in the PM10–2.5 fraction were determined and correction factors established. • Twenty-four elements as well as their concentrations in and enrichment factors PM2.5 and PM10–2.5 aerosol fractions were revealed. • Emission sources contributing to PM2.5 and PM10–2.5 elemental pollutants was investigated and indentified

  14. Physical characteristics and solubility of long-lived airborne particulates in uranium producing and manufacturing facilities Phase IV - Part III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The rates of dissolution in simulated lung fluid of uranium, thorium-230, radium-226 and lead-210 from six aerosol samples associated with mining operations at Cluff Lake, Saskatchewan were determined. Parallel studies were carried out for uranium aerosol samples collected directly on open-face filters at the Port Hope refinery and from four aerosol samples generated in the laboratory from yellowcake dusts obtained from the Blind River mill in Ontario. Bulk dusts were collected from surfaces in workplace locations. These dusts were resuspended in the laboratory and collected on glass fibre substrates using cascade impactor sampling methods. Two particle size fractions, less than 7 microns and 7-10 microns were collected. In all, 18 samples were subjected to parallel extractions by simulated lung fluid under continuous flow, at 37 deg C at pH 7.4, over a period of 66 days. For each extraction, 10 lung fluid fractions were collected at predetermined intervals and analyzed for uranium to estimate uranium dissolution rates as a function of time. For the Cluff Lake ore dust samples, analyses and dissolution rates estimates for thorium-230, radium-226 and lead-210 were also performed. The samples taken from Cluff Lake were found to be relatively insoluble. Uranium dissolution rates of about 20% were measured over 66 days. No measurable Th-228 dissolution was found during the experiments. Ra-226 and Pb-210 were most soluble as a fine particulate (less than 7 μm), with complete dissolution for some samples. Aerosol samples from Blind River and Port Hope were more readily soluble (complete dissolution over 66 days). The Blind River aerosols dissolved more slowly than the Port Hope aerosols. In both cases, the majority of the dissolution occurred within the first week. There was no effect of particle size on dissolution rate. (author). 12 refs., 6 tabs., 1 fig

  15. Nuclear and atomic techniques in air pollution studies by transplant lichen exposure, bulk deposition and airborne particulate matter collection after 6 month exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work presents the preliminary results obtained in the study 'Air pollution monitoring by sampling airborne particulate matter combined with lichen bioaccumulator exposure', in progress at IDRANAP Center of Excellence EU Project, ICA1-CT-2000-70023, WP2. Transplants of Evernia prunastri and Pseudevernia furfuracea lichen species from the Italian Prealps were exposed for 6 and 12 months at six locations with different degrees and types of industrial activity, as well as on a background site with relatively clean air (Fundata). At each investigated location, bulk deposition was collected for the same periods, while airborne particulate matter was sequentially collected during 2 months, in parallel with those at a reference station (Afumati). Pollution in the investigated areas is mainly due to the following industrial activities: steel manufacturing (Galati); non-ferrous ore processing (Baia Mare); chemicals and non-ferrous industry (Copsa Mica); coal-fired power plant and cement factory (Deva); traffic, coal-fired power plants, inorganic dyes and galvanic treatment factories (Oradea); agriculture, mixed industry and traffic (Afumati). The lichen material was analyzed by INAA, XRFA, and ICP-MS, while the aerosol filters were analyzed by INAA and XRFA. The bulk deposition was analyzed only by INAA. XRFA was carried out at Stuttgart, ICP-MS at Trondheim, while INAA at Bucharest (long lifetime radionuclides) and Delft (short lifetime radionuclides, and, in the case of bulk deposition, short and long lifetime radionuclides). The investigated elements having relevant role in environmental studies were: As, Br, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mn, Ni, Pb, S, Sb, Sc, Se, V, and Zn. Cd, Co, Sb, and Sc could only be determined by INAA and ICP-MS, while Pb and S only by XRFA and ICP-MS. After 6-month exposure, both lichen species showed significant enrichment factors (relative to 'zero level', before exposure) for all the measured elements, except Br, Ca, K, and Mn. Small lichen

  16. Electrospray Collection of Airborne Contaminants Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In stark contrast to current stagnation-based methods for capturing airborne particulates and biological aerosols, our demonstrated, cost-effective electrospray...

  17. Revising Australia's Design Basis Threat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Australia’s Design Basis Threat (DBT) was revised in 2012, ten years after the previous review. Using the IAEA’s Nuclear Security Series Guidance document on DBTs the Australian Safeguards and Non-Proliferation Office used an interagency process to devise a series of threat profiles which were distilled into the final DBT. Challenges to the review process included setting the scope, treating insider, cyber and air-borne threats, and interpretation of the final product. (author)

  18. China Threat, What Threat?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Since the end of the Cold War, China has become the candidate of choice among "illusionist" hawks looking to justify Pentagon spending. Henry Rosemont, a professor emeritus at St Mary’s CoUege of Maryland and a visiting scholar in the Religious Studies Department at Brown University, recently wrote an article for Asia Times Online, saying that facts belie the claims of China’s military threat

  19. The Concentrations and Reduction of Airborne Particulate Matter (PM10, PM2.5, PM1) at Shelterbelt Site in Beijing

    OpenAIRE

    Jungang Chen; Xinxiao Yu; Fenbing Sun; Xiaoxiu Lun; Yanlin Fu; Guodong Jia; Zhengming Zhang; Xuhui Liu; Li Mo; Huaxing Bi

    2015-01-01

    Particulate matter is a serious source of air pollution in urban areas, where it exerts adverse effects on human health. This article focuses on the study of subduction of shelterbelts for atmospheric particulates. The results suggest that (1) the PM mass concentration is higher in the morning or both morning and noon inside the shelterbelts and lower mass concentrations at other times; (2) the particle mass concentration inside shelterbelt is higher than outside; (3) the particle interceptio...

  20. Evaluating airborne and ground based gamma spectrometry methods for detecting particulate radioactivity in the environment: A case study of Irish Sea beaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In several places, programmes are in place to locate and recover radioactive particles that have the potential to cause detrimental health effects in any member of the public who may encounter them. A model has been developed to evaluate the use of mobile gamma spectrometry systems within such programmes, with particular emphasis on large volume (16 l) NaI(Tl) detectors mounted in low flying helicopters. This model uses a validated Monte Carlo code with assessment of local geochemistry and natural and anthropogenic background radiation concentrations and distributions. The results of the model, applied to the example of particles recovered from beaches in the vicinity of Sellafield, clearly show the ability of rapid airborne surveys conducted at 75 m ground clearance and 120 kph speeds to demonstrate the absence of sources greater than 5 MBq 137Cs within large areas (10–20 km2 h−1), and identify areas requiring further ground based investigation. Lowering ground clearance for airborne surveys to 15 m whilst maintaining speeds covering 1–2 km2 h−1 can detect buried 137Cs sources of 0.5 MBq or greater activity. A survey design to detect 100 kBq 137Cs sources at 10 cm depth has also been defined, requiring surveys at −1 ground speed. The response of airborne systems to the Sellafield particles recovered to date has also been simulated, and the proportion of the existing radiocaesium background in the vicinity of the nuclear site has been established. Finally the rates of area coverage and sensitivities of both airborne and ground based approaches are compared, demonstrating the ability of airborne systems to increase the rate of particle recovery in a cost effective manner. The potential for equipment and methodological developments to improve performance are discussed. -- Highlights: ► Validated Monte Carlo simulations used to model mobile gamma spectrometry response to radioactive particless. ► Detection limits for airborne and ground based surveys

  1. Biological Threats

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Workplace Plans School Emergency Plans Main Content Biological Threats Biological agents are organisms or toxins that can ... for Disease Control and Prevention . Before a Biological Threat Unlike an explosion, a biological attack may or ...

  2. Environmental Public Health Survelliance for Exposure to Respiratory Health Hazards: A Joint NASA/CDC Project to Use Remote Sensing Data for Estimating Airborne Particulate Matter Over the Atlanta, Georgia Metropolitan Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quattrochi, Dale A.; Rickman, Douglas; Mohammad, Al-Hamdan; Crosson, William; Estes, Maurice, Jr.; Limaye, Ashutosh; Qualters, Judith

    2008-01-01

    Describes the public health surveillance efforts of NASA, in a joint effort with the Center for Disease Control (CDC). NASA/MSFC and the CDC are partners in linking nvironmental and health data to enhance public health surveillance. The use of NASA technology creates value - added geospatial products from existing environmental data sources to facilitate public health linkages. The venture sought to provide remote sensing data for the 5-country Metro-Atlanta area and to integrate this environmental data with public health data into a local network, in an effort to prevent and control environmentally related health effects. Remote sensing data used environmental data (Environmental Protection Agency [EPA] Air Quality System [AQS] ground measurements and MODIS Aerosol Optical Depth [AOD]) to estimate airborne particulate matter over Atlanta, and linked this data with health data related to asthma. The study proved the feasibility of linking environmental data (MODIS particular matter estimates and AQS) with health data (asthma). Algorithms were developed for QC, bias removal, merging MODIS and AQS particulate matter data, as well as for other applications. Additionally, a Business Associate Agreement was negotiated for a health care provider to enable sharing of Protected Health Information.

  3. Characterisation of airborne particulates and associated trace metals deposited on tree bark by ICP-OES, ICP-MS, SEM-EDX and laser ablation ICP-MS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Keiko

    Particulate matter accumulated on tree bark specimens was examined in order to investigate its potential use as a natural monitor to study the impact on local atmospheric conditions. Tree bark from sargent cherry ( Prunus sargentii) and sugar maple ( Acer saccharum Marsh) trees was collected from four locations: Drax (North Yorkshire), Darley Dale (Derbyshire), Galway (Ireland) and Tristan da Cunha. Particulates accumulated on tree bark were prepared for analysis using a microwave-assisted HNO 3 digestion. The bulk elemental content was determined by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) and trace metals were analysed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Analysis of bulk tree bark samples revealed that the highest mean Pb concentration was obtained in Darley Dale samples, 1069 ng g -1, with 147 and 3.2 ng g -1 Pb in Drax and Galway samples, respectively. In Tristan da Cunha samples 0.12 ng g -1 of Pb was detected. Pb, As, Cr, Sb, Sn and Zn were enriched by factors of 10-8650 relative to the background elemental abundance in tree bark obtained from Tristan da Cunha. Particulates accumulated on the tree bark were characterised by SEM-EDX and LA-ICP-MS to provide information on the particle composition and morphology. This study supports the suggestion that the major particulate sources are high-temperature combustion processes. Direct analysis by LA-ICP-MS revealed the potential of this alternative method to investigate the distribution of suspended particulates and their elemental association on the bark specimen.

  4. The Concentrations and Reduction of Airborne Particulate Matter (PM10, PM2.5, PM1 at Shelterbelt Site in Beijing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jungang Chen

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Particulate matter is a serious source of air pollution in urban areas, where it exerts adverse effects on human health. This article focuses on the study of subduction of shelterbelts for atmospheric particulates. The results suggest that (1 the PM mass concentration is higher in the morning or both morning and noon inside the shelterbelts and lower mass concentrations at other times; (2 the particle mass concentration inside shelterbelt is higher than outside; (3 the particle interception efficiency of the two forest belts over the three months in descending order was PM10 > PM1 > PM2.5; and (4 the two shelterbelts captured air pollutants at rates of 1496.285 and 909.075 kg/month and the major atmospheric pollutant in Beijing city is PM10. Future research directions are to study PM mass concentration variation of shelterbelt with different tree species and different configuration.

  5. A quantitative study of air-borne particulate matter collected on membrane filters by means of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The capability of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, XPS or ESCA, in analysing oxidation states and measuring the concentration of elements present in air pollution particulates collected on membrane filters is evaluated. Semi-quantitative data are compared with those from XRF and wet chemical analysis. Differences of about a factor of 2.0-2.5 are found which are critically discussed in relation to particle size and the distribution of ionic species. The importance of intrinsic properties of matrix materials and instrumental factors is also discussed. (orig.)

  6. Stereotype Threat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Steven J; Logel, Christine; Davies, Paul G

    2016-01-01

    When members of a stigmatized group find themselves in a situation where negative stereotypes provide a possible framework for interpreting their behavior, the risk of being judged in light of those stereotypes can elicit a disruptive state that undermines performance and aspirations in that domain. This situational predicament, termed stereotype threat, continues to be an intensely debated and researched topic in educational, social, and organizational psychology. In this review, we explore the various sources of stereotype threat, the mechanisms underlying stereotype-threat effects (both mediators and moderators), and the consequences of this situational predicament, as well as the means through which society and stigmatized individuals can overcome the insidious effects of stereotype threat. Ultimately, we hope this review alleviates some of the confusion surrounding stereotype threat while also sparking further research and debate. PMID:26361054

  7. Multi-residue analysis of 30 currently used pesticides in fine airborne particulate matter (PM 2.5) by microwave-assisted extraction and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coscollà, Clara; Yusà, Vicent; Beser, Ma Isabel; Pastor, Agustin

    2009-12-18

    A confirmatory and rapid procedure has been developed for the determination of 30 currently used pesticides (CUP) in fine airborne particulate matter (PM 2.5) at trace level. The proposed method includes extraction of PM 2.5-bound pesticides by microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) followed by a direct injection into LC-MS/MS. The main parameters affecting the MAE extraction (time, temperature and volume of solvent) were optimised using statistical design of experiments (DoE). The matrix effect was also evaluated. Recoveries ranged from 72 to 109% and the limit of quantification (LoQ) was 32.5 pg m(-3) for chlorpyrifos, 13.5 pg m(-3) for fenhexamid, imazalil and prochloraz, and 6.5 pg m(-3) for the rest of pesticides, when air volumes of 760 m(3) were collected. The method was applied to 54 samples collected from three stations of the atmospheric monitoring network of the Regional Valencia Government (Spain) during April-July 2009. Nineteen out of 30 pesticides investigated were found in at least one sample: omethoate, carbendazim, acetamiprid, thiabendazole, malathion, flusilazole, metalaxyl, azoxystrobin, iprovalicarb, myclobutanil, tebuconazole, triflumizole, cyprodinil, tebufenpyrad, buprofezin, pyriproxyfen, hexythiazox, flufenoxuron and fenazaquin. The measured concentrations ranged from 6.5 to 1208 pg m(-3). To our knowledge, 11 of the pesticides detected have been reported for the first time in ambient air. PMID:19913234

  8. Concentrations of Platinum Group Elements (Pt, Pd, Rh in Airborne Particulate Matter (PM2.5 and PM10-2.5 Collected at Selected Canadian Urban Sites: a Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celo V.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Increasing environmental concentrations of platinum group elements (PGEs, in particular platinum (Pt, palladium (Pd and rhodium (Rh, from catalytic converters has been reported worldwide. Initially it was believed that the emitted PGEs remain in the roadside environment, but recent studies have shown that fine PGE-containing particles can be transported and distributed at regional and long-range levels. Therefore, the monitoring of PGEs in airborne particulate matter (PM is important for the estimation of potential risks to human health and to the ecosystem. The aim of this study is to present the first results from an analysis on the concentration and distribution of Pt, Pd and Rh in PM collected on Teflon filters at two selected urban sites (Toronto, Ontario; Edmonton, Alberta collected within the Canadian National Air Pollution Surveillance (NAPS network. In this work, a quadruple inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS, combined with microwave assisted acid digestion using aqua regia was used. A cation exchange separation was used to alleviate the matrix-induced spectral and nonspectral interferences prior to ICP-MS analysis. To obtain sufficient material needed for PGEs analysis, fine PM (particles with aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 mm; PM2.5 and coarse PM (with aerodynamic diameter between 2.5 and 10 mm; PM10-2.5 samples were combined into composite samples on a seasonal basis. The obtained results will be discussed and compared with literature data.

  9. Quantification of PAHs and oxy-PAHs on airborne particulate matter in Chiang Mai, Thailand, using gas chromatography high resolution mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walgraeve, Christophe; Chantara, Somporn; Sopajaree, Khajornsak; De Wispelaere, Patrick; Demeestere, Kristof; Van Langenhove, Herman

    2015-04-01

    An analytical method using gas chromatography high resolution mass spectrometry was developed for the determination of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and 12 oxygenated PAHs (of which 4 diketones, 3 ketones, 4 aldehydes and one anhydride) on atmospheric particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter less than 10 μm (PM10). The magnetic sector mass spectrometer was run in multiple ion detection mode (MID) with a mass resolution above 10 000 (10% valley definition) and allows for a selective accurate mass detection of the characteristic ions of the target analytes. Instrumental detection limits between 0.04 pg and 1.34 pg were obtained for the PAHs, whereas for the oxy-PAHs they ranged between 0.08 pg and 2.13 pg. Pressurized liquid extraction using dichloromethane was evaluated and excellent recoveries ranging between 87% and 98% for the PAHs and between 74% and 110% for 10 oxy-PAHs were obtained, when the optimum extraction temperature of 150 °C was applied. The developed method was finally used to determine PAHs and oxy-PAHs concentration levels from particulate matter samples collected in the wet season at 4 different locations in Chiang Mai, Thailand (n = 72). This study brings forward the first concentration levels of oxy-PAHs in Thailand. The median of the sum of the PAHs and oxy-PAHs concentrations was 3.4 ng/m3 and 1.1 ng/m3 respectively, which shows the importance of the group of the oxy-PAHs as PM10 constituents. High molecular weight PAHs contributed the most to the ∑PAHs. For example, benzo[ghi]perylene was responsible for 30-44% of the ∑PAHs. The highest contribution to ∑oxy-PAHs came from 1,8-napthalic anhydride (26-78%), followed by anthracene-9,10-dione (4-27%) and 7H-benzo[de]anthracene-7-one (6-26%). Indications of the degradation of PAHs and/or formation of oxy-PAHs were observed.

  10. [Chemical characteristics in airborne particulate matter (PM10) during a high pollution spring dust storm episode in Beijing, Tianjin and Zhangjiakou, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qing-Yang; Liu, Yan-Ju; Zhao, Qiang; Zhang, Ting-Ting; Zhang, Mei-Gen; Wang, Cun-Mei

    2014-08-01

    Atmospheric particulate matter (PM10) was collected at sampling locations of Beijing, Tianjin and Zhangjiakou from April 1st to May 24th, 2012. The mass concentration of PM10 and concentrations of ions, elemental carbon (EC) and organic carbon (OC) in PM10 were determined. The results showed that average mass concentration of PM10 were 233.82 microg x m(-3) for Beijing, 279.64 microg x (-3) for Tianjin and 238.13 microg x m(-3) for Zhangjiakou, respectively. Backward trajectories results confirmed dust storm events occurred from 27th to 29th April. The maximum daily mass concentrations of PM10 were 755.54 microg x m(-3) for Beijing, 831.32 microg x m(-3) for Tianjin and 582.82 microg x m(-3) for Zhangjiakou during the dust storm episodes, respectively. Water-soluble ions (Na+, NH4+, Ca2+, K+, F-, Cl-, NO3-, SO4(2-)), organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC) were major aerosol components during the dust storm episodes, and their concentrations were higher than non-dust storm days. In addition, dust storm caused increases in NO3-, SO4(2-) and enrichment of secondary organic carbon (SOC) concentration relative to OC, suggesting that chemical reaction processes involving gas-particle conversion occurred during the long-distance transport of aerosol particles. PMID:25338350

  11. Airborne radioactive contamination monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Current technologies for the detection of airborne radioactive contamination do not provide real-time capability. Most of these techniques are based on the capture of particulate matter in air onto filters which are then processed in the laboratory; thus, the turnaround time for detection of contamination can be many days. To address this shortcoming, an effort is underway to adapt LRAD (Long-Range-Alpha-Detection) technology for real-time monitoring of airborne releases of alpa-emitting radionuclides. Alpha decays in air create ionization that can be subsequently collected on electrodes, producing a current that is proportional to the amount of radioactive material present. Using external fans on a pipe containing LRAD detectors, controlled samples of ambient air can be continuously tested for the presence of radioactive contamination. Current prototypes include a two-chamber model. Sampled air is drawn through a particulate filter and then through the first chamber, which uses an electrostatic filter at its entrance to remove ambient ionization. At its exit, ionization that occurred due to the presence of radon is collected and recorded. The air then passes through a length of pipe to allow some decay of short-lived radon species. A second chamber identical to the first monitors the remaining activity. Further development is necessary on air samples without the use of particulate filtering, both to distinguish ionization that can pass through the initial electrostatic filter on otherwise inert particulate matter from that produced through the decay of radioactive material and to separate both of these from the radon contribution. The end product could provide a sensitive, cost-effective, real-time method of determining the presence of airborne radioactive contamination

  12. Airborne particulate matter PM2.5 from Mexico City affects the generation of reactive oxygen species by blood neutrophils from asthmatics: an in vitro approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ceballos Guillermo

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Mexico City Metropolitan Area is densely populated, and toxic air pollutants are generated and concentrated at a higher rate because of its geographic characteristics. It is well known that exposure to particulate matter, especially to fine and ultra-fine particles, enhances the risk of cardio-respiratory diseases, especially in populations susceptible to oxidative stress. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of fine particles on the respiratory burst of circulating neutrophils from asthmatic patients living in Mexico City. Methods In total, 6 subjects diagnosed with mild asthma and 11 healthy volunteers were asked to participate. Neutrophils were isolated from peripheral venous blood and incubated with fine particles, and the generation of reactive oxygen species was recorded by chemiluminescence. We also measured plasma lipoperoxidation susceptibility and plasma myeloperoxidase and paraoxonase activities by spectrophotometry. Results Asthmatic patients showed significantly lower plasma paraoxonase activity, higher susceptibility to plasma lipoperoxidation and an increase in myeloperoxidase activity that differed significantly from the control group. In the presence of fine particles, neutrophils from asthmatic patients showed an increased tendency to generate reactive oxygen species after stimulation with fine particles (PM2.5. Conclusion These findings suggest that asthmatic patients have higher oxidation of plasmatic lipids due to reduced antioxidant defense. Furthermore, fine particles tended to increase the respiratory burst of blood human neutrophils from the asthmatic group. On the whole, increased myeloperoxidase activity and susceptibility to lipoperoxidation with a concomitant decrease in paraoxonase activity in asthmatic patients could favor lung infection and hence disrupt the control of asthmatic crises.

  13. Mutagenicity profile of atmospheric particulate matter in a small urban center subjected to airborne emission from vehicle traffic and sugar cane burning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Debora Kristina M; Kummrow, Fábio; Cardoso, Arnaldo A; Morales, Daniel A; Umbuzeiro, Gisela A

    2016-01-01

    Atmospheric particulate matter (PM) is genotoxic and recently was classified as carcinogenic to humans by the International Agency for Research on Cancer. PM chemical composition varies depending on source and atmospheric conditions. The Salmonella/microsome assay is the most used mutagenicity test and can identify the major chemical classes responsible for observed mutagenicity. The objective of this work was to characterize the mutagenicity of PM samples from a countryside city, Limeira, Brazil, which is influenced by heavy traffic and sugar cane biomass burning. Six samples of total PM were collected. Air mass backward trajectories were calculated. Organic extracts were assayed using the Salmonella/microsome microsuspension mutagenicity assay using TA98, YG1041, and TA1538, with and without metabolic activation (S9). YG1041 was the most sensitive strain and mutagenicity reached 9,700 revertants per m(3) without metabolic activation. Potency for TA1538 was higher than TA98, indicating that this strain should be considered in air mutagenicity studies. The increased response to YG1041 relative to TA98, and the decreased response with S9, suggests that nitroaromatics are the major contributors. Limeira is among the most mutagenic cities in the world. High mutagenicity in Limeira seems to occur when the air mass from the area of sugarcane production is mixed with air from the region impacted by anthropogenic activities such as traffic. An increase in the formation of nitro-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons may result from longer contact time between the aromatic compounds and the atmosphere with high NOx and ozone concentration, although more studies are required to confirm this hypothesis. PMID:26289646

  14. Determination of chemical composition of individual airborne particles by SEM/EDX and micro-Raman spectrometry: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefaniak, E. A.; Buczynska, A.; Novakovic, V.; Kuduk, R.; Van Grieken, R.

    2009-04-01

    The strategies for sampling and analysis by SEM/EDX and micro-Raman spectrometry for individual airborne particles analysis as applied at the University of Antwerp (Belgium) by the MITAC group have been reviewed. Microbeam techniques provide detailed information concerning the origin, formation, transport, reactivity, transformation reactions and environmental impact of particulate matter. Moreover, some particles of certain chemical properties have been recognized as a threat for human health and cultural heritage objects. However, the small sizes of particles result in specific problems with respect to single particle analysis. Development of equipment and software for improvement of analysis and quantification are reported.

  15. Co-ordinated research project on assessment of levels and health-effects of airborne particulate matter in mining, metal refining and metal working industries using nuclear and related analytical techniques. Report on the second research co-ordination meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Overall objectives: To demonstrate the applicability of nuclear and related techniques in studies that may impact on human health, giving emphasis to the solution of problems that have been identified to be of high priority in national and international programmes for sustainable development. Specific objectives: To develop strategies and techniques for sampling of workplace airborne particulate matter (APM) and of human tissues and body fluids (hair, blood, etc.) of exposed and non-exposed persons; To development suitable analytical procedures for analysis of such types of samples, using nuclear and related analytical techniques; To carry out workplace and personal monitoring of APM and characterise the health effects of such exposure in terms of the observed elemental concentration; To carry out tissue analyses of the workers so exposed for biological monitoring and the health effects studies. Achievements: a) Specific industries not previously monitored in individual countries have been targeted in respect of pollution assessment. Some examples are: Stainless steel processing and construction; Galvanising industry; Zinc smelting operations; Mineral fertiliser industry. b) Validation of analytical techniques through quality control exercises: NAT-3 Interlaboratory comparison for the determination of trace and minor elements in urban dust artificially loaded on air filters; NAT-4 Proficiency test on selected trace elements in lyophilised urine and air filters. c) Capacity building through the establishment of new multidisciplinary teams, personnel training and laboratory expertise. d) The sampling procedures have been harmonised through: The application of the ''Gent'' sampler for APM collection, IAEA procedures and IUPAC guidelines for sampling and sample handling of hair, blood and urine. e) All participants performed surveys on targeted industries and selected pollutants. f) The scientific output of the CRP is materialised in various national and international

  16. Co-ordinated research project on assessment of levels and health-effects of airborne particulate matter in mining, metal refining and metal working industries using nuclear and related analytical techniques. Report on the first research co-ordination meeting (RCM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objectives of the CRP are to: (1) improve competence for research on workplace monitoring in terms of proper sampling and analytical procedures, (2) obtain relevant and reliable data on sources and levels of workplace pollution in various countries, (3) promote a better understanding of methods for the interpretation of such data including occupational heath studies, and (4) encourage closer collaboration between analytical scientists and researchers in the field of occupational health in the countries concerned. The CRP focuses on the use of nuclear and related analytical techniques for the following kinds of studies: (1) strategies and techniques for sampling of workplace airborne particulate matter and of human tissues and body fluids (hair, blood, etc.) sampling of exposed and non-exposed persons; (2) development of suitable analytical procedures for analysis of such types of samples; (3) workplace and personal monitoring of airborne particulate matter in the mining, refining and metal working industries, and the health effects of such exposure; and (4) tissue analysis of the workers exposed for biological monitoring and the health effects studies. This report includes the core and supplementary programme of the CRP; technical aspects of sampling, analysis, data processing, and quality assurance; and organizational aspects. The report includes also 10 papers contributed by the participants. Each individual contribution was indexed and provided with an abstract

  17. Ozone threat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozone hole was first discovered in 1980. Thus 15 years even after the first warming, the world is no where near to the elimination of man made gases that threaten to destroy the ozone layer. Ozone depletion has become a matter of enormous threat which remains to be solved by the Scientists and intelligentia of the world. Ozone (O3) is a pungent poisonous gas. It forms a layer at a distance of about 15 miles above the earth's surface which helps shield living things from the sun shearing ultra violet light. If ozone is lost, more ultra violet light reaches the earth, which can lead to increasing rate of skin cancer, the death of micro organisms and the failure of crops and plants. It was in 1974 when it was discovered that Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) cold rise slowly to the upper atmosphere and destroy the earth's fragile ozone shield. Chlorofluorocarbons are commonly used as coolants (such as Freon) for home and automobile air conditioners and in the making of fast food containers. CFCs take about 100 years or more to reach he stratosphere to damage the ozone layers. In 1988, Scientists confirmed that upto 3% of the ozone layer over the more populated Northern Hemisphere has been destroyed. it is believed that for every 1% decrease in ozone, skin cancers are expected to rise 5 to 6 per cent due to the increase of ultraviolet light. Cases of cataracts and certain human immune system diseases are also expected to rise. (author)

  18. Is the Hybrid Threat a True Threat?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David L. Raugh

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Does the “hybrid threat” discussed in General Marty Dempsey’s 2015 United States National Military Strategy make logical sense? In this paper I define the national security threat risk assessment process, examine the most significant US security threats, and study the hybrid threat. I conclude that the hybrid threat is the one that could most exploit our nation’s critical vulnerabilities- both from a security and foreign policy perspective. I conclude with a study of security and economic methods to reduce this threat.

  19. Cyber threat metrics.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frye, Jason Neal; Veitch, Cynthia K.; Mateski, Mark Elliot; Michalski, John T.; Harris, James Mark; Trevino, Cassandra M.; Maruoka, Scott

    2012-03-01

    Threats are generally much easier to list than to describe, and much easier to describe than to measure. As a result, many organizations list threats. Fewer describe them in useful terms, and still fewer measure them in meaningful ways. This is particularly true in the dynamic and nebulous domain of cyber threats - a domain that tends to resist easy measurement and, in some cases, appears to defy any measurement. We believe the problem is tractable. In this report we describe threat metrics and models for characterizing threats consistently and unambiguously. The purpose of this report is to support the Operational Threat Assessment (OTA) phase of risk and vulnerability assessment. To this end, we focus on the task of characterizing cyber threats using consistent threat metrics and models. In particular, we address threat metrics and models for describing malicious cyber threats to US FCEB agencies and systems.

  20. Indoor and outdoor airborne particles. An in vitro study on mutagenic potential and toxicological implications.

    OpenAIRE

    Houdt, van, R.

    1988-01-01

    IntroductionAir pollution components are present as gases and as particulate matter. As particle deposition takes place in various parts of the respiratory system particulate matter may have other toxicological implications than gaseous pollutants, which all may penetrate in the lower part of the respiratory tract. In addition, suspended particulate matter represents a group of pollutants of variable physical as well as chemical composition. Therefore airborne particulate matter cannot be reg...

  1. The origin of ambient particulate matter concentrations in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks, C.; Kranenburg, R.; Kuenen, J.; Gijlswijk, R. van; Wichink Kruit, R.; Segers, A.; Denier van der Gon, H.; Schaap, M.

    2013-01-01

    Particulate matter poses a significant threat to human health. To be able to develop effective mitigation strategies, the origin of particulate matter needs to be established. The regional air quality model LOTOS-EUROS, equipped with a newly developed labeling routine, was used to establish the orig

  2. Carbon in Atmospheric Particulate Matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbon compounds account for a large fraction of airborne particulate matter ('carbonaceous aerosols'). Their presence raises a number of scientific questions dealing with climate issues and possible effects on human health. This review describes the current state of knowledge with respect to the ambient concentrations levels (elemental carbon, organic carbon and organic matter) and the various emission sources, and summarizes the role of atmospheric carbon in the various environmental issues. The report finishes by identifying the actual gaps in knowledge and gives (related) suggestions for future research

  3. Attenuation of airborne debris from LMFBR accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experimental and theoretical studies have been performed to characterize the behavior of airborne particulates (aerosols) expected to be produced by hypothetical core disassembly accidents (HCDA's) in liquid metal fast breeder reactors (LMFBR's). These aerosol studies include work on aerosol transport in a 20-m high, 850-m3 closed vessel at moderate concentrations; aerosol transport in a small vessel under conditions of high concentration (approx. 1000 g/m3), high turbulence, and high temperature (approx. 20000C); and aerosol transport through various leak paths. These studies have shown that little, if any, airborne debris from LMFBR HCDA's would reach the atmosphere exterior to an intact reactor containment building

  4. Attenuation of airborne debris from LMFBR accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experimental and theoretical studies have been performed to characterize the behavior of airborne particulates (aerosols) expected to be produced by hypothetical core disassembly accidents (HCDA's) in liquid metal fast breeder reactors (LMFBR's). These aerosol studies include work on aerosol transport in a 20-m high, 850-m3 closed vessel at moderate concentrations; aerosol transport in a small vessel under conditions of high concentration (approximately 1,000 g/m3), high turbulence, and high temperature (approximately 20000C); and aerosol transport through various leak paths. These studies have shown that tittle, if any, airborne debris from LMFBR HCDA's would reach the atmosphere exterior to an intact reactor containment building. (author)

  5. 公路两侧大气颗粒物中的重金属污染特征及其影响因素%Pollution characterization and controlling factors of heavy metals in airborne particulate matter near expressway

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵莉; 肖化云

    2012-01-01

    Metal concentrations were measured in different size airborne particles collected near two expressways with different traffic densities from April 2009 to June 2009.The pollution characterization and distribution mode of Zn,Pb,Mn,Cu,Cd,Sb in airborne particles were studied to discuss the influence of traffic volume,particle size,weather and distance.The results show that Zn concentration in airborne particles was the highest,followed by Pb,Mn,Cu,Cd,and Sb concentration was the lowest.The metal concentration was highly dependent on traffic volume,indicating that traffic was the main source of these metals.The high concentrations of Zn and Mn in PM10(possibly originated from gas exhaust) and 10 μmDa50≤100 μm particles(possibly associated with tire wear) suggest that gas exhaust and tire wear were the main sources of Zn and Mn.Antimony(Sb) existed mostly in PM10 and originated mainly from the wear of brake linings.The concentration of Cu was high in both PM10 and 10 μmDa50≤100 μm particles,suggesting that Cu had other sources than the wear of brake linings.Lead(Pb) and Cd existed mainly in PM10.Weather mainly influenced the Zn concentration,but not other metals.Within 10 meters from the expressway,the metal concentration decreased little.The concentrations of Pb,Sb in the countryside was noticeably lower as compared with their concentrations near the expressway,which may be explained by the fact that the main source of airborne Pb,Sb was traffic.%选择昌九高速公路(赣粤高速公路南昌至九江段)、昌樟高速公路(赣粤高速公路南昌至樟树段)为研究对象,采集了公路两侧10μm

  6. Threats to Bitcoin Software

    OpenAIRE

    Kateraas, Christian H

    2014-01-01

    Collect and analyse threat models to the Bitcoin ecosystem and its software. The create misuse case, attack trees, and sequence diagrams of the threats. Create a malicious client from the gathered threat models. Once the development of the client is complete, test the client and evaluate its performance. From this, assess the security of the Bitcoin software.

  7. Modeling for Airborne Contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of Modeling for Airborne Contamination (referred to from now on as ''this report'') is to provide a documented methodology, along with supporting information, for estimating the release, transport, and assessment of dose to workers from airborne radioactive contaminants within the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) subsurface during the pre-closure period. Specifically, this report provides engineers and scientists with methodologies for estimating how concentrations of contaminants might be distributed in the air and on the drift surfaces if released from waste packages inside the repository. This report also provides dose conversion factors for inhalation, air submersion, and ground exposure pathways used to derive doses to potentially exposed subsurface workers. The scope of this report is limited to radiological contaminants (particulate, volatile and gaseous) resulting from waste package leaks (if any) and surface contamination and their transport processes. Neutron activation of air, dust in the air and the rock walls of the drift during the preclosure time is not considered within the scope of this report. Any neutrons causing such activation are not themselves considered to be ''contaminants'' released from the waste package. This report: (1) Documents mathematical models and model parameters for evaluating airborne contaminant transport within the MGR subsurface; and (2) Provides tables of dose conversion factors for inhalation, air submersion, and ground exposure pathways for important radionuclides. The dose conversion factors for air submersion and ground exposure pathways are further limited to drift diameters of 7.62 m and 5.5 m, corresponding to the main and emplacement drifts, respectively. If the final repository design significantly deviates from these drift dimensions, the results in this report may require revision. The dose conversion factors are further derived by using concrete of sufficient thickness to simulate the drift

  8. Pavement wear and airborne dust pollution in Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Snilsberg, Brynhild

    2008-01-01

    In several large cities in Norway the traffic volume is high. The use of studded tires and other friction enhancing measures during winter leads to significant pavement wear, which in turn leads to an increase in the amount of airborne particulate matter, often exceeding the limits set in the ambient air regulation. This represents a nuisance or health risk for people being exposed to the pollution. According to regulations set by the European Union particulate matter is measured and regulate...

  9. Characterization of airborne uranium from test firing of XM774 ammunition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory conducted experiments at Aberdeen Proving Grounds, Maryland, to characterize the airborne depleted uranium (DU) resulting from the test firings of 105-mm, APFSDS-T XM774 ammunition. The goal was to obtain data pertinent to evaluations of human inhalation exposure to the airborne DU. Data was desired concerning the following: (1) size distribution of airborne DU; (2) quantity of airborne DU; (3) dispersion of airborne DU from the target vicinity; (4) amount of DU deposited on the ground; (5) solubility of airborne DU compounds in lung fluid; and (6) oxide forms of airborne and fallout DU. The experiments involved extensive air sampling for total airborne DU particulates and respirable DU particles both above the targets and at distances downwind. Fallout and fragments were collected around the target area. High-speed movies of the smoke generated from the impact of the penetrators were taken to estimate the cloud volumes. Results of the experiments are presented

  10. Characterisation of carbonaceous particulate matter in Edinburgh

    OpenAIRE

    Hammonds, Mark David

    2012-01-01

    Airborne particulate matter (PM) has important harmful effects on human health, as well as a number of other important atmospheric effects. Although progress has been made in understanding the sources and effects of PM, there remains considerable uncertainty on a number of issues, including the nature of a lot of the carbonaceous material, which comprises 30{50% on average of PM mass. This project aims to compare different methods of PM measurement, and contribute understanding...

  11. Challenges and Opportunities of Airborne Metagenomics

    KAUST Repository

    Behzad, H.

    2015-05-06

    Recent metagenomic studies of environments, such as marine and soil, have significantly enhanced our understanding of the diverse microbial communities living in these habitats and their essential roles in sustaining vast ecosystems. The increase in the number of publications related to soil and marine metagenomics is in sharp contrast to those of air, yet airborne microbes are thought to have significant impacts on many aspects of our lives from their potential roles in atmospheric events such as cloud formation, precipitation, and atmospheric chemistry to their major impact on human health. In this review, we will discuss the current progress in airborne metagenomics, with a special focus on exploring the challenges and opportunities of undertaking such studies. The main challenges of conducting metagenomic studies of airborne microbes are as follows: 1) Low density of microorganisms in the air, 2) efficient retrieval of microorganisms from the air, 3) variability in airborne microbial community composition, 4) the lack of standardized protocols and methodologies, and 5) DNA sequencing and bioinformatics-related challenges. Overcoming these challenges could provide the groundwork for comprehensive analysis of airborne microbes and their potential impact on the atmosphere, global climate, and our health. Metagenomic studies offer a unique opportunity to examine viral and bacterial diversity in the air and monitor their spread locally or across the globe, including threats from pathogenic microorganisms. Airborne metagenomic studies could also lead to discoveries of novel genes and metabolic pathways relevant to meteorological and industrial applications, environmental bioremediation, and biogeochemical cycles.

  12. Airborne infections and modern building technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaForce, F.M.

    1986-01-01

    Over the last 30 yr an increased appreciation of the importance of airborne infection has evolved. The concept of droplet nuclei, infectious particles from 0.5 to 3 ..mu.. which stay suspended in air for long periods of time, has been accepted as an important determinant of infectivity. Important airborne pathogens in modern buildings include legionella pneumophila, Aspergillus sp., thermophilic actinomycetes, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, measles, varicella and rubella. Perhaps, the most important microbiologic threat to most buildings is L. pneumophila. This organism can multiply in water cooling systems and contaminate effluent air which can be drawn into a building and efficiently circulated throughout by existing ventilation systems. Hospitals are a special problem because of the concentration of immunosuppressed patients who are uniquely susceptible to airborne diseases such as aspergillosis, and the likelihood that patients ill from diseases that can be spread via the airborne route will be concentrated. Humidifiers are yet another problem and have been shown to be important in several outbreaks of allergic alveolitis and legionellosis. Control of airborne infections is largely an effort at identifying and controlling reservoirs of infection. This includes regular biocide treatment of cooling towers and evaporative condensers and identification and isolation of patients with diseases that may be spread via the airborne route.

  13. Insiders and Insider Threats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hunker, Jeffrey; Probst, Christian W.

    2011-01-01

    Threats from the inside of an organization’s perimeters are a significant problem, since it is difficult to distinguish them from benign activity. In this overview article we discuss defining properties of insiders and insider threats. After presenting definitions of these terms, we go on to disc......Threats from the inside of an organization’s perimeters are a significant problem, since it is difficult to distinguish them from benign activity. In this overview article we discuss defining properties of insiders and insider threats. After presenting definitions of these terms, we go...

  14. Threat Model Design for new GNSS signals

    OpenAIRE

    Pagot, Jean-Baptiste; Thevenon, Paul; Julien, Olivier; Amarillo-Fernández, Francisco; Maillard, Denis

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes threat models (TM) for Galileo E1C, the pilot component of the E1 Open Service signal, (CBOC(6,1,111⁄) modulation) and Galileo E5a (BPSK(10) modulation) signals, as they are the Galileo signals that will be used by civil aviation airborne receivers for pseudorange computation. The advent of new GNSS signals requests new definitions for prospective signal distortions. Indeed, new signals and/or new tracking methods change the conception of hazardous signal distortion. The p...

  15. QUANTITATION, DETECTION AND MEASUREMENT PRECISION OF ORGANIC MOLECULAR MARKERS IN URBAN PARTICULATE MATTER FROM PHILADELPHIA, PA

    Science.gov (United States)

    This work focuses on analysis of organic molecular markers in airborne particulate matter (PM) by Gas Chromatography/Ion Trap Mass Spectrometry (GC/IT MS). The particulate samples used in the method development were collected as PM10 in metropolitan Philadelphia during...

  16. Identifying and Mitigating Insider Threats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Probst, Christian W.

    2011-01-01

    Organisations face many threats that coarsely can be separated in inside threats and outside threats. Threats from insiders are especially hard to counter since insiders have special knowledge and privileges. Therefore, malicious insider actions are hard to distinguish from benign actions. After ...... discussing new definitions of insiders and insider threats, this article gives an overview of how to mitigate insider threats and discusses conflicting goals when dealing with insider threats....

  17. Active airborne contamination control using electrophoresis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In spite of our best efforts, radioactive airborne contamination continues to be a formidable problem at many of the Department of Energy (DOE) weapons complex sites. For workers that must enter areas with high levels of airborne contamination, personnel protective equipment (PPE) can become highly restrictive, greatly diminishing productivity. Rather than require even more restrictive PPE for personnel in some situations, the Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) is actively researching and developing methods to aggressively combat airborne contamination hazards using electrophoretic technology. With appropriate equipment, airborne particulates can be effectively removed and collected for disposal in one simple process. The equipment needed to implement electrophoresis is relatively inexpensive, highly reliable, and very compact. Once airborne contamination levels are reduced, less PPE is required and a significant cost savings may be realized through decreased waste and maximized productivity. Preliminary ''cold,'' or non-radioactive, testing results at the RFP have shown the technology to be effective on a reasonable scale, with several potential benefits and an abundance of applications

  18. Environmental Public Health Surveillance for Exposure to Respiratory Health Hazards: A Joint NASA/CDC Project to Use Remote Sensing Data for Estimating Airborne Particulate Matter Over the Atlanta, Georgia Metropolitan Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quattrochi, Dale A.; Al-Hamdan, Mohammad; Estes, Maurice; Crosson, William

    2007-01-01

    As part of the National Environmental Public Health Tracking Network (EPHTN) the National Center for Environmental Health (NCEH) at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) is leading a project called Health and Environment Linked for Information Exchange (HELiX-Atlanta). The goal of developing the National Environmental Public Health Tracking Network is to improve the health of communities. Currently, few systems exist at the state or national level to concurrently track many of the exposures and health effects that might be associated with environmental hazards. An additional challenge is estimating exposure to environmental hazards such as particulate matter whose aerodynamic diameter is less than or equal to 2.5 micrometers (PM2.5). HELIX-Atlanta's goal is to examine the feasibility of building an integrated electronic health and environmental data network in five counties of Metropolitan Atlanta, GA. NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (NASA/MSFC) is collaborating with CDC to combine NASA earth science satellite observations related to air quality and environmental monitoring data to model surface estimates of PM2.5 concentrations that can be linked with clinic visits for asthma. While use of the Air Quality System (AQS) PM2.5 data alone could meet HELIX-Atlanta specifications, there are only five AQS sites in the Atlanta area, thus the spatial coverage is not ideal. We are using NASA Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) satellite Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) data for estimating daily ground level PM2.5 at 10 km resolution over the metropolitan Atlanta area supplementing the AQS ground observations and filling their spatial and temporal gaps.

  19. Development of Novel Instrumentation and Methodologies for Particulate Bound Phthalate Measurements

    OpenAIRE

    Angelstad, Martin Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Presented is the development of a method to generate reproducible gaseous phthalate standards, a setup for generating airborne particulate matter and a membrane introduction mass spectrometry system suitable for the online measurement of gaseous phthalates. Upon development of appropriate standards and instrumentation, particulate-phthalate adsorption/desorption experiments were performed using dimethyl phthalate and two particulate species. Initial adsorption/desorption experiments were cond...

  20. Modeling air quality during the California Regional PM 10/PM 2.5 Air Quality Study (CPRAQS) using the UCD/CIT source-oriented air quality model - Part III. Regional source apportionment of secondary and total airborne particulate matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, Qi; Lu, Jin; Kleeman, Michael

    A comprehensive air quality modeling project was carried out to simulate regional source contributions to secondary and total (=primary + secondary) airborne particle concentrations in California's Central Valley. A three-week stagnation episode lasting from December 15, 2000 to January 7, 2001, was chosen for study using the air quality and meteorological data collected during the California Regional PM 10/PM 2.5 Air Quality Study (CRPAQS). The UCD/CIT mechanistic air quality model was used with explicit decomposition of the gas phase reaction chemistry to track source contributions to secondary PM. Inert artificial tracers were used with an internal mixture representation to track source contributions to primary PM. Both primary and secondary source apportionment calculations were performed for 15 size fractions ranging from 0.01 to 10 μm particle diameters. Primary and secondary source contributions were resolved for fugitive dust, road dust, diesel engines, catalyst equipped gasoline engines, non-catalyst equipped gasoline engines, wood burning, food cooking, high sulfur fuel combustion, and other anthropogenic sources. Diesel engines were identified as the largest source of secondary nitrate in central California during the study episode, accounting for approximately 40% of the total PM 2.5 nitrate. Catalyst equipped gasoline engines were also significant, contributing approximately 20% of the total secondary PM 2.5 nitrate. Agricultural sources were the dominant source of secondary ammonium ion. Sharp gradients of PM concentrations were predicted around major urban areas. The relative source contributions to PM 2.5 from each source category in urban areas differ from those in rural areas, due to the dominance of primary OC in urban locations and secondary nitrate in the rural areas. The source contributions to ultra-fine particle mass PM 0.1 also show clear urban/rural differences. Wood smoke was found to be the major source of PM 0.1 in urban areas while

  1. Alternative Threat Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles B. King III

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Of the many challenges facing risk analysis practitioners, perhaps the most difficult to overcome is in the field of terrorist threat analysis. When estimating the threat associated with naturally occurring events, historical data provides a great deal of insight into the frequency of those events. Threat associated with accidents applies many operations research tools to gauge future failure-rates (Failure Mode and Effects Analysis being perhaps the most widely known. However, estimating the probability of an individual's or group's attacking a specific (or even a generic target is an element of risk analysis in which art and intuition are applied far more regularly than is science.

  2. Airborne geoid determination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forsberg, René; Olesen, Arne Vestergaard; Bastos, L.; Gidskehaug, A.; Meyer, U.; Timmen, L.

    2000-01-01

    Airborne geoid mapping techniques may provide the opportunity to improve the geoid over vast areas of the Earth, such as polar areas, tropical jungles and mountainous areas, and provide an accurate "seam-less" geoid model across most coastal regions. Determination of the geoid by airborne methods...... relies on the development of airborne gravimetry, which in turn is dependent on developments in kinematic GPS. Routine accuracy of airborne gravimetry are now at the 2 mGal level, which may translate into 5-10 cm geoid accuracy on regional scales. The error behaviour of airborne gravimetry is well...

  3. Assessment of Containment Structures Against Missile Impact Threats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Q M

    2006-01-01

    In order to ensure the highest safety requirements,nuclear power plant structures (the containment structures,the fuel storages and transportation systems) should be assessed against all possible internal and external impact threats.The internal impact threats include kinetic missiles generated by the failure of high pressure vessels and pipes,the failure of high speed rotating machineries and accidental drops.The external impact threats may come from airborne missiles,aircraft impact,explosion blast and fragments.The impact effects of these threats on concrete and steel structures in a nuclear power plant are discussed.Methods and procedures for the impact assessment of nuclear power plants are introduced.Recent studies on penetration and perforation mechanics as well as progresses on dynamic properties of concrete-like materials are presented to increase the understanding of the impact effects on concrete containment structures.

  4. Facing ambiguous threats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberto, Michael A; Bohmer, Richard M J; Edmondson, Amy C

    2006-11-01

    On February 1, 2003, the world watched in horror as the Columbia space shuttle broke apart while reentering the earth's atmosphere, killing all seven astronauts. Some have argued that NASA's failure to respond with appropriate intensity to the so-called foam strike that led to the accident was evidence of irresponsible or incompetent management. The authors' research, however, suggests that NASA was exhibiting a natural, albeit unfortunate, pattern of behavior common in many organizations. The foam strike is a prime example of what the authors call an ambiguous threat-a signal that may or may not portend future harm. Ambiguous threats differ from threats with obvious causes-say, a fire in the building-for which the response is clear. They also differ from unmistakable threats that may lack straightforward response paths (such as the frightening oxygen-tank explosion aboard Apollo 13). However, when the warning sign is ambiguous and the threat's potential effect is unclear, managers may choose to ignore or discount the risk. Such an approach can be catastrophic. Firms that do a good job of dealing with ambiguous threats do not improvise during a crisis; rather, they apply a rigorous set of detection and response capabilities that they have developed and practiced beforehand. In this article, the authors outline how to put such capabilities in place long before a crisis strikes. First, companies need to hone their teamwork and rapid problem-solving skills through practice. Second, they must learn to recognize weak signals, amplify the threat, and encourage employees to ask disconcerting "what if" questions in a safe environment. Finally, they should explore possible responses to threats through quick, low-cost experimentation. PMID:17131567

  5. The Changing Threat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Siboni

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this conference is to try to understand the changes in the threat against the State of Israel that have taken place in recent years, and to examine the components of the optimal response to the threat. Today’s seminar is organized within the framework of the INSS Military and Strategic Affairs Program, which aims to enhance the public discourse on subjects relevant to this discipline through conferences and the Military and Strategic Affairs journal.

  6. Present and potential security threats posed to civil aviation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislav SZABO

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Aircraft presents ideal object for terrorist attack. Apart from the risks posed by possible terrorist attacks on airborne aircraft, air terrorism includes the threats to general aviation on the ground, including airports and surrounding infrastructure. Air oriented terrorism in all of its forms can undermine public confidence in the safety of air travel, which could result in negative effects for certain airlines and other firms in aviation industry due to decline in passenger travel and cargo shipment. This article is giving an overview about the redoubtable present and potential future threats posed to in-flight security, and possibilities and solutions how to mitigate the risks on acceptable level.

  7. Particulate Matter (PM) Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Environmental Protection Agency Search Search Particulate Matter (PM) Pollution Share Facebook Twitter Google+ Pinterest Contact Us Most ... issues final PM Implementation Rule Particulate Matter (PM) Pollution PM Basics What is PM, and how does ...

  8. Expert workshop traffic-caused airborne particles in urban areas; Experten-Workshop 'Verkehrsbedingte Feinstaeube in der Stadt'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lanzendorf, Martin; Birmili, Wolfram; Franke, Patrick

    2006-07-15

    The proceedings of the expert workshop on traffic-caused airborne particulates in urban regions include the following contributions: epidemiology of ultra-fine particulates, ultra-fine particulates and their impacts in human health, environmental particulates in the urban atmosphere: properties and future requirement of measuring methods; ultra-fine particulates from traffic emissions - problems of measuring site selection for the evaluation of human exposure, modeling of PMx emissions in the context of environmental compatibility assessments and mitigation planning, traffic-caused particulates - need for action and remedial actions from the sight of the Federal environment Agency, traffic-related measures for the reduction of urban particulate exposure and their impact on the planning of air pollution prevention, strategic environmental assessment as an instrument for the airborne particulate consideration within the traffic and regional planning.

  9. Microwaves in Airborne Surveillance

    OpenAIRE

    Christopher, S.

    2013-01-01

    The use of microwave spectrum is widespread due to its convenience. Therefore, enormous amount of information is available in the free space channel. Obviously, mining this channel for surveillance is quite common. Airborne surveillance offers significant advantages in military operations. This paper talks of the usage of microwaves in airborne surveillance systems, in general, and in the Indian airborne early warning and control (AEW&C) System, in particular. It brings out the multiple s...

  10. Ethical Proactive Threat Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aycock, John; Sullins, John

    Through a provocative examination of the positive effects of computer security research on regular users, we argue that traditional security research is insufficient. Instead, we turn to a largely untapped alternative, proactive threat research, a fruitful research area but an ethical minefield. We discuss practices for ethical research and dissemination of proactive research.

  11. Chemical and biological characterization of urban particulate matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Airborne particulate matter has been collected on glass fiber filter by high volume sampling in the Goeteborg urban area. The samples were, after extraction with respect to organic components, tested for biological effect in the Salmonella mutagenicity assay, affinity to the cytosol TCDD receptor and toxicity towards a mammalian cell system and analysed chemically for selected polycyclic aromatic compounds. A series of samples collected simultaneously at a street level location and a rooftop site showed that most parameters associated with the organic compounds adsorbed to airborne particulate matter has similar concentrations at the two levels. The differences observed for the mutagenic effect in different strains and conditions showed that the rooftop samples had a different composition compared to the street samples indicating that atmospheric transformations have occurred. Chemical fractionation of representative samples showed that the distribution of mutagenic activity among different fractions is dissimilar to the distribution obtained in the fractionation of both gasoline and diesel engine exhaust particles. Partial least squares regression analysis showed qualitatively that diesel exhaust is a major source of airborne particulate mutagenic activity and source apportionment with chemical mass balance and multilinear regression corroborated this quantitatively. The multilinear regression analysis gave the result that the airborne activity in Salmonella TA90-S9 originated to 54±4% from diesel exhaust and to 26±3% from gasoline exhaust. The contribution is more equal for the activity measured with TA98+S9. The usefulness of short-term bioassays as an addition to chemical analysis of airborne particulate matter depends on whether only polycylic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are major carcinogens, as has been suggested in the literature, or whether also other polycyclic aromatic compound (PAC) are of importance. (au)

  12. GIMRAD, a fully automatic monitoring concept for airborne particulate radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Chernobyl incident and its aftermath has given a strong impulse to the implementation of large-area environmental radiation-monitoring networks. On a governmental level, it resulted in a number of improved regulations and notification duties toward neighboring countries. To this extent, measuring networks are installed or will be installed in most European countries. To provide early warning and to give a complete picture of the isotopes involved in case of a nuclear accident, a new generation of monitors was developed. The first ones on the market had, although already equipped with state-if-the-art high-purity geranium (HPGe) detectors, serious drawbacks to operating as stand-alone systems. Areas that needed further improvement were the fine turning of spectroscopy analysis methods and algorithms, the implementing of telecommunication drivers and software, and tailoring laboratory-style equipment for industrial housing

  13. Characterization of polar organics in airborne particulate matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokouchi, Y.; Ambe, Y.

    The methanol-extractable highly polar organics in atmospheric aerosol were characterized using GC-MS. Dicarboxylic acids having 2-16 carbon numbers were detected with a total concentration of 172 ng m -3. Azelaic acid ( C9) was the most abundant diacid and it possibly originated from the ozonolysis of unsaturated carboxylic acids such as oleic acid and linoleic acid, which mainly originate from terrestrial plants. A compound, which was tentatively identified as tetrahydrofuroic acid, contributed to about 10% of the highly polar organics. Other polyfunctional compounds found in the samples included some ketocarboxylic acids and aromatic acids such as phthalic acids, anisic acid and vanillic acid.

  14. Determination of trace elements in airborne particulate matter. Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several trace elements are being introduced into the atmosphere from various sources. Since many of the trace elements are highly toxic, the concentrations of them should be measured and controlled continuously for public health. Concentrations of trace elements have been determined in air samples collected from seven different districts of Ankara by the use of instrumental neutron activation analysis and atomic absorption spectrophotometer. (Pamuk, F.; Kahraman, N.; Kut, D.)

  15. Patient Safety Threat - Syringe Reuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... HAIs HICPAC One & Only Campaign A Patient Safety Threat – Syringe Reuse Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... need to be aware of a very serious threat to their health - the reuse of needles or ...

  16. Concentrations and Sources of Airborne Particles in a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit

    OpenAIRE

    Licina, Dusan; Bhangar, Seema; Brooks, Brandon; Baker, Robyn; Firek, Brian; Tang, Xiaochen; Morowitz, Michael J; Banfield, Jillian F; Nazaroff, William W.

    2016-01-01

    Premature infants in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) have underdeveloped immune systems, making them susceptible to adverse health consequences from air pollutant exposure. Little is known about the sources of indoor airborne particles that contribute to the exposure of premature infants in the NICU environment. In this study, we monitored the spatial and temporal variations of airborne particulate matter concentrations along with other indoor environmental parameters and human occupanc...

  17. Concentrations and Sources of Airborne Particles in a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit.

    OpenAIRE

    Licina, D; Bhangar, S; Brooks, B.; Baker, R; Firek, B; Tang, X; Morowitz, MJ; Banfield, JF; Nazaroff, WW

    2016-01-01

    Premature infants in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) have underdeveloped immune systems, making them susceptible to adverse health consequences from air pollutant exposure. Little is known about the sources of indoor airborne particles that contribute to the exposure of premature infants in the NICU environment. In this study, we monitored the spatial and temporal variations of airborne particulate matter concentrations along with other indoor environmental parameters and human occupanc...

  18. Comprehensive Simultaneous Shipboard and Airborne Characterization of Exhaust from a Modern Container Ship at Sea

    OpenAIRE

    Murphy, Shane M.; Agrawal, Harshit; Sorooshian, Armin; Padro, Luz T.; Gates, Harmony; S. Hersey; Welch, W. A.; Jung, H.; Miller, J. W.; Cocker, David R.; Nenes, Athanasios; Jonsson, H.; R. C. Flagan; Seinfeld, J. H.

    2009-01-01

    We report the first joint shipboard and airborne study focused on the chemical composition and water-uptake behavior of particulate ship emissions. The study focuses on emissions from the main propulsion engine of a Post-Panamax class container ship cruising off the central coast of California and burning heavy fuel oil. Shipboard sampling included micro-orifice uniform deposit impactors (MOUDI) with subsequent off-line analysis, whereas airborne measurements involved a number of real-time an...

  19. Airborne wind energy

    CERN Document Server

    Ahrens, Uwe; Schmehl, Roland

    2013-01-01

    This reference offers an overview of the field of airborne wind energy. As the first book of its kind, it provides a consistent compilation of the fundamental theories, a compendium of current research and development activities as well as economic and regulatory aspects. In five parts, the book demonstrates the relevance of Airborne Wind Energy and the role that this emerging field of technology can play for the transition towards a renewable energy economy. Part I on 'Fundamentals' contains seven general chapters explaining the principles of airborne wind energy and its different variants, o

  20. Airborne Nanoparticle Concentrations in the Manufacturing of Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) Apparel

    OpenAIRE

    Vosburgh, Donna J. H.; Boysen, Dane A.; Oleson, Jacob J; Peters, Thomas M.

    2011-01-01

    One form of waterproof, breathable apparel is manufactured from polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) membrane laminated fabric, using a specific process to seal seams that have been sewn with traditional techniques. The sealing process involves applying waterproof tape to the seam by feeding the seam through two rollers while applying hot air (600°C). This study addressed the potential for exposure to particulate matter from this sealing process, by characterizing airborne particles in a facility t...

  1. Threat modeling designing for security

    CERN Document Server

    Shostack, Adam

    2014-01-01

    Adam Shostack is responsible for security development lifecycle threat modeling at Microsoft and is one of a handful of threat modeling experts in the world. Now, he is sharing his considerable expertise into this unique book. With pages of specific actionable advice, he details how to build better security into the design of systems, software, or services from the outset. You'll explore various threat modeling approaches, find out how to test your designs against threats, and learn effective ways to address threats that have been validated at Microsoft and other top companies. Systems secur

  2. The airborne laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamberson, Steven; Schall, Harold; Shattuck, Paul

    2007-05-01

    The Airborne Laser (ABL) is an airborne, megawatt-class laser system with a state-of-the-art atmospheric compensation system to destroy enemy ballistic missiles at long ranges. This system will provide both deterrence and defense against the use of such weapons during conflicts. This paper provides an overview of the ABL weapon system including: the notional operational concept, the development approach and schedule, the overall aircraft configuration, the technologies being incorporated in the ABL, and the current program status.

  3. Toxicogenomic analysis of susceptibility to inhaled urban particulate matter in mice with chronic lung inflammation

    OpenAIRE

    Yauk Carole L; Williams Andrew; Thomson Errol M; Vincent Renaud

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Individuals with chronic lung disease are at increased risk of adverse health effects from airborne particulate matter. Characterization of underlying pollutant-phenotype interactions may require comprehensive strategies. Here, a toxicogenomic approach was used to investigate how inflammation modifies the pulmonary response to urban particulate matter. Results Transgenic mice with constitutive pulmonary overexpression of tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α under the control of ...

  4. MITAS: multisensor imaging technology for airborne surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, John D.

    1991-08-01

    MITAS, a unique and low-cost solution to the problem of collecting and processing multisensor imaging data for airborne surveillance operations has been developed, MITAS results from integrating the established and proven real-time video processing, target tracking, and sensor management software of TAU with commercially available image exploitation and map processing software. The MITAS image analysis station (IAS) supports airborne day/night reconnaissance and surveillance missions involving low-altitude collection platforms employing a suite of sensors to perform reconnaissance functions against a variety of ground and sea targets. The system will detect, locate, and recognize threats likely to be encountered in support of counternarcotic operations and in low-intensity conflict areas. The IAS is capable of autonomous, near real-time target exploitation and has the appropriate communication links to remotely located IAS systems for more extended analysis of sensor data. The IAS supports the collection, fusion, and processing of three main imaging sensors: daylight imagery (DIS), forward looking infrared (FLIR), and infrared line scan (IRLS). The MITAS IAS provides support to all aspects of the airborne surveillance mission, including sensor control, real-time image enhancement, automatic target tracking, sensor fusion, freeze-frame capture, image exploitation, target data-base management, map processing, remote image transmission, and report generation.

  5. Inversely tracking indoor airborne particles to locate their release sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tengfei (Tim); Li, Hongzhu; Wang, Shugang

    2012-08-01

    Airborne particles can have numerous adverse effects on human health. Knowing the release locations of airborne particulate sources is helpful in minimizing pollutant exposure. This paper describes a proposal to locate indoor particulate sources by two inverse models: the quasi-reversibility (QR) model and the zone prescription of contaminant sources with the Lagrangian-reversibility (LR) model. The QR model reverses the time marching direction of the Eulerian governing equation and replaces the second-order diffusion term with a fourth-order stabilization term. The zone prescription LR model traces individual particulate motion in a Lagrangian reference frame after reversing the flow field. The particle trajectories are solved backward to the initial release once the conservative forces acting on particles are reversed. The tracked particles are proposed to be placed at the zone boundary of the largest concentration contour within the domain at a given time, which is provided as the initially known information. By connecting all particles at t = 0, a zone is formed that can prescribe the actual contaminant source. This study finds that both models can accurately locate particulate sources released instantaneously at a spot. The QR model performs slightly better than the LR model but is much more computationally demanding.

  6. Categorizing threat : building and using a generic threat matrix.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woodard, Laura; Veitch, Cynthia K.; Thomas, Sherry Reede; Duggan, David Patrick

    2007-09-01

    The key piece of knowledge necessary for building defenses capable of withstanding or surviving cyber and kinetic attacks is an understanding of the capabilities posed by threats to a government, function, or system. With the number of threats continuing to increase, it is no longer feasible to enumerate the capabilities of all known threats and then build defenses based on those threats that are considered, at the time, to be the most relevant. Exacerbating the problem for critical infrastructure entities is the fact that the majority of detailed threat information for higher-level threats is held in classified status and is not available for general use, such as the design of defenses and the development of mitigation strategies. To reduce the complexity of analyzing threat, the threat space must first be reduced. This is achieved by taking the continuous nature of the threat space and creating an abstraction that allows the entire space to be grouped, based on measurable attributes, into a small number of distinctly different levels. The work documented in this report is an effort to create such an abstraction.

  7. Characterization of the particulate air pollution in contrasted mega cities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work aims at characterizing the physics and the chemistry that govern particulate air pollution in two mega cities (Paris and Cairo) for which the size distribution and the chemical composition of airborne particles were poorly documented. Seasonal variations of the main aerosol sources and transformation processes are investigated in these two urban centres, with a particular attention to semi-volatile material and secondary organic aerosols. Short-term health effects of Paris size-segregated aerosols, as well as particulate pollution during the Cairo 'Black Cloud' season, are also emphasized here. Finally, the comparison of results obtained for the two mega cities and for another one (Beijing) allows investigating main factors responsible for particulate air pollution in urban centres with contrasted climatic conditions and development levels. Notably, this work also allows the build-up of an experimental dataset which is now available for the modelling of urban air quality and of environmental impacts of mega city air pollution. (author)

  8. Recurrent dreams: Recurring threat simulations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valli, K; Revonsuo, A

    2006-06-01

    Zadra, Desjardins, and Marcotte (2006) have made a valuable contribution to the empirical testing of the Threat Simulation Theory (TST) (Revonsuo, 2000a) in recurrent dreams. For the most part, their results are in accordance with the theory, while some findings seem to conflict with the predictions of TST. In our commentary, we consider some alternative ways to interpret the results, and we conclude that many prominent features of most recurrent dreams seem to be manifestations of a threat simulation function, leading to repeated rehearsal of threat perception and avoidance, but a minority of recurrent dreams seem to have origins unrelated to threat simulation. PMID:16019227

  9. Efficiency of Airborne Sample Analysis Platform (ASAP) bioaerosol sampler for pathogen detection

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma, Anurag; Clark, Elizabeth; McGlothlin, James D.; Mittal, Suresh K.

    2015-01-01

    The threat of bioterrorism and pandemics has highlighted the urgency for rapid and reliable bioaerosol detection in different environments. Safeguarding against such threats requires continuous sampling of the ambient air for pathogen detection. In this study we investigated the efficacy of the Airborne Sample Analysis Platform (ASAP) 2800 bioaerosol sampler to collect representative samples of air and identify specific viruses suspended as bioaerosols. To test this concept, we aerosolized an...

  10. Detection of Coxiella burnetii DNA in Inhalable Airborne Dust Samples from Goat Farms after Mandatory Culling

    OpenAIRE

    Hogerwerf, Lenny; Borlée, Floor; Still, Kelly; Heederik, Dick; van Rotterdam, Bart; de Bruin, Arnout; Nielen, Mirjam; Wouters, Inge M.

    2012-01-01

    Coxiella burnetii is thought to infect humans primarily via airborne transmission. However, air measurements of C. burnetii are sparse. We detected C. burnetii DNA in inhalable and PM10 (particulate matter with an aerodynamic size of 10 μm or less) dust samples collected at three affected goat farms, demonstrating that low levels of C. burnetii DNA are present in inhalable size fractions.

  11. Toxic effects of indoor and outdoor airborne particles relevant to carcinogenesis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heussen, G.A.H.

    1993-01-01

    The mutagenicity of indoor and outdoor airborne particulate matter (APM) has been demonstrated by previous in vitro studies (Alink et al., 1983; Van Houdt et al., 1984, 1986, 1987). The aim of the present thesis was to contribute to a better understanding of the mode of action of AIM in the pathogen

  12. Savannah River Site Ingestion Pathway Methodology Manual for Airborne Radioactive Releases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vincent, A.W. III

    2001-01-03

    This manual documents a recommended methodology for determining the ingestion pathway consequences of hypothetical accidental airborne radiological releases from facilities at the Savannah River Site. Both particulate and tritiated radioactive contaminants are addressed. Other approaches should be applied for evaluation of routine releases.

  13. The indoor as a scene for biological threats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storgaard, Kresten; Gunnarsen, Lars; Bräuner, Elvira

    2014-01-01

    The paper presents the result of involving users in developing a user-friendly device for easy and fast detection of bio-threats in indoor settings. Bio-protect is a project supported by the European Commission, with the concept of developing a fast-alert, mobile, easy-to-use device to detect and...... identify airborne pathogens. In the development phase of the Bio-protect project the main focus was on the optimization of the device detection limits and sensitivity, which overshadowed an adequate degree of user-friendliness. Two generations of technical prototype-solutions were developed. Based on the...... user-interface of the first prototype, a second user-interface was developed. We tested the first generation prototype in combination with the second generation user interface on two types of users: A) First responders with experience in bio-threat action and B) Facility Management operators with no...

  14. Linking Stereotype Threat and Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborne, Jason W.

    2007-01-01

    Claude Steele's stereotype threat hypothesis has attracted significant attention in recent years. This study tested one of the main tenets of his theory--that stereotype threat serves to increase individual anxiety levels, thus hurting performance--using real-time measures of physiological arousal. Subjects were randomly assigned to either high or…

  15. Bomb Threat Assessments. Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunkel, Ronald F.

    2010-01-01

    This information provides a brief, summary outline of how investigators should assess anonymous bomb threats at schools. Applying these principles may help administrators and law enforcement personnel accurately assess the viability and credibility of a threat and appropriately gauge their response. Any credible evidence provided by teachers or…

  16. Bio-threat microparticle simulants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farquar, George Roy; Leif, Roald N

    2012-10-23

    A bio-threat simulant that includes a carrier and DNA encapsulated in the carrier. Also a method of making a simulant including the steps of providing a carrier and encapsulating DNA in the carrier to produce the bio-threat simulant.

  17. Threat Modelling for Active Directory

    OpenAIRE

    Chadwick, David W

    2004-01-01

    This paper analyses the security threats that can arise against an Active Directory server when it is included in a Web application. The approach is based on the STRIDE classification methodology. The paper also provides outline descriptions of countermeasures that can be deployed to protect against the different threats and vulnerabilities identified here.

  18. The nuclear threat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For a long time, a small group of big powers has been the only holder of nuclear weapons (US, USSR, Great Britain, France and China). Since then, new weapons have come out on the geopolitical scene: Israel, India, Pakistan, and some others remain uncertain and generate a worrying atmosphere (North Korea, Iran..). But what is the real risk with nuclear proliferation? Should we dread about it? Is nuclear terrorism a real threat? What are the political stakes of nuclear weapons? Is disarmament a real solution? These are some of the questions that the author answers in a precise and clear manner in this book. Contents: 1 - from monopoly to proliferation: who owns nuclear weapons today, why is it so coveted, is it easy to make one?; 2 - the newcomers: what do we really know about the Iranian nuclear programme, Iran and North Korea: between negotiation and confrontation; 3 - international control and regulation: do we have reliable information, how do we know what we know, Iraq: was there a 'lie' somewhere, who are the states who have renounced nuclear weapons?; 4 - the future: is there still a nuclear warfare risk, what if Pakistani weapons fall into islamic hands, is nuclear terrorism a fantasy or a real risk?

  19. Psychoanalysis and the nuclear threat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levine, H.B.; Jacobs, D.; Rubin, L.J.

    1988-01-01

    {ital Psychoanalysis and the Nuclear Threat} provides coverage of the dynamic and clinical considerations that follow from life in the nuclear age. Of special clinical interest are chapters dealing with the developmental consequences of the nuclear threat in childhood, adolescence, and adulthood, and those exploring the technical issues raised by the occurrence in analytic and psychotherapeutic hours of material related to the nuclear threat. Additional chapters bring a psychoanalytic perspective to bear on such issues as the need to have enemies, silence as the real crime, love, work, and survival in the nuclear age, the relationship of the nuclear threat to issues of mourning and melancholia, apocalyptic fantasies, the paranoid process, considerations of the possible impact of gender on the nuclear threat, and the application of psychoanalytic thinking to nuclear arms strategy. Finally, the volume includes the first case report in the English language---albeit a brief psychotherapy---involving the treatment of a Hiroshima survivor.

  20. Microwaves in Airborne Surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Christopher

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The use of microwave spectrum is widespread due to its convenience. Therefore, enormous amount of information is available in the free space channel. Obviously, mining this channel for surveillance is quite common. Airborne surveillance offers significant advantages in military operations. This paper talks of the usage of microwaves in airborne surveillance systems, in general, and in the Indian airborne early warning and control (AEW&C System, in particular. It brings out the multiple sub-systems onboard the aircraft comprising the AEW&C system and their spectral coverage. Co-location of several systems has its own problems and resolving them in terms of geometric location, frequency band and time of operation are covered. AEW&C, being an airborne system, has several other requirements  including minimal weight, volume and power considerations, lightning protection, streamlining, structural integrity, thermal management, vibration tolerance, corrosion prevention, erosion resistance, static charge discharge capability, bird strike resilience, etc. The methods adopted to cater to all these requirements in the microwave systems that are used in the AEW&C system are discussed. Paper ultimately speaks of the microwave systems that are designed and developed for the Indian AEW&C system to surmount these unusual constraints.Defence Science Journal, 2013, 63(2, pp.138-144, DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.14429/dsj.63.4255

  1. International Symposium on Airborne Geophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogi, Toru; Ito, Hisatoshi; Kaieda, Hideshi; Kusunoki, Kenichiro; Saltus, Richard W.; Fitterman, David V.; Okuma, Shigeo; Nakatsuka, Tadashi

    2006-05-01

    Airborne geophysics can be defined as the measurement of Earth properties from sensors in the sky. The airborne measurement platform is usually a traditional fixed-wing airplane or helicopter, but could also include lighter-than-air craft, unmanned drones, or other specialty craft. The earliest history of airborne geophysics includes kite and hot-air balloon experiments. However, modern airborne geophysics dates from the mid-1940s when military submarine-hunting magnetometers were first used to map variations in the Earth's magnetic field. The current gamut of airborne geophysical techniques spans a broad range, including potential fields (both gravity and magnetics), electromagnetics (EM), radiometrics, spectral imaging, and thermal imaging.

  2. Mobbing, threats to employees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatjana Vene

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available RQ: Is there a connection among perception of hostile and unethical communication, timely removal of causes and employee satisfaction?Purpose: Perceived mobbing in the organization, analysing causes and timely removal of them without any effect; achieve an environment of satisfied employees. The purpose is to study the relationship amongthe categories: perceiving mobbing, removing the effects, employee satisfaction.Methods: Qualitative research approach, method of interview by using the seven steps principles.Results: The findings clearly state that being aware of the negative factors and psychological abuse in organizations was present. The interview participants perceived different negative behaviours especially by the female population and from the side of superiors. In some organizations perceived negative factors are insults,insinuations, low wages, inadequate working day, competition, lobbying, and verbal threats. All negative factors lead to serious implications for employees, in which the organization can lose its reputation, productivity is reduced, costs of employment can increase with more sick leaves and in extreme cases, the results can be soserious that the organization can end in bankruptcy or liquidation.Organization: The result of the study warns management to acceptcertain actions and remediate the situation in organizations. The employer and managers must do everything to protect their subordinates from violence and potential offenders.Society: The research study warns on the seriousness of mobbing among employees, the aim is to bring the issue to individuals and society. The victim usually needs help (health costs, losses in the pension system, increased unemployment, and lower productivity of the whole society.Originality: In view of the sensitivity of the issues, the author concludes that the existing research studies are based especially on closed questions (questionnaires; however, interviews create mutual trust between

  3. Stereotype Threat as Validity Threat: The Anxiety-Sex-Threat Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, Ana R.; Prieto, Gerardo

    2008-01-01

    Stereotype threat has been invoked to explain underperformance on a variety of groups for whom the stereotypes allege inferior cognitive abilities. In math testing, stereotype threat has been used to explain sex differences in test performance. This paper describes an experimental study on a large sample (n = 313), in which the role of anxiety and…

  4. Forage: A sensitive indicator for airborne radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a part of the radiological environmental monitoring program at the Joseph M. Parley Nuclear Plant to meet the requirements of NRC Regulations 10 CRF 50, Appendix I, routine sampling of forage was implemented. Indicator plots of forage (grass) were established at the plant site boundary in the two Meteorological sectors having the highest X/Q values for ground-level dispersion of airborne radioactivity. Likewise, a control plot was established in a sector having a significantly lower X/Q value at a distance of 18 miles. Procedures for maintenance of the grass plots, sampling of forage, and sample preparation for measurement of gamma radioactivity with a Ge (Li) detector were developed during the reported three year measurement period. Three atmospheric nuclear tests by the Peoples Republic of China in 1976 and 1977 has proven forage sampling to be convenient, sensitive, and in the judgement of the authors gives results which are superior to most other media sampled for airborne radioactivity. Typical measured levels of radioactivity from 150 to greater than 10,000 pCi/kg (dry weight) were obtained for the principal fission products in the Chinese bomb fallout, which included 95Zr-95Nb, 103Ru, 131I, 140Ba-140La, 141Ce, and 144Ce. On a unit weight basis the level of radioactivity measured was consistently higher for forage than for green leafy vegetables. This was attributed to the higher surface area for the forage. For comparison, plots of airborne concentrations for gross beta and particulate gamma emitters are shown during the time periods that include the Chinese nuclear tests. (author)

  5. Global Threats to Child Safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mace, Sharon E

    2016-02-01

    Children have rights, as enumerated in the Declaration of the Rights of the Child, and need protection from violence, exploitation, and abuse. Global threats to child safety exist. These threats include lack of basic needs (food, clean water, sanitation), maltreatment, abandonment, child labor, child marriage, female genital mutilation, child trafficking, disasters, and armed conflicts/wars. Recent disasters and armed conflicts have led to a record number of displaced people especially children and their families. Strategies and specific programs can be developed and implemented for eliminating threats to the safety of children. PMID:26613687

  6. Krypton-85 and other airborne radioactivity measurements throughout Ireland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In compliance with articles 35 and 36 of the EURATOM Treaty, the Radiological Protection Institute of Ireland (RPII) undertakes a comprehensive programme of radioactivity monitoring in the Irish terrestrial environment. Radioactivity is present in the terrestrial environment due to natural processes, the testing of nuclear weapons in the atmosphere, accidents such as the Chernobyl accident and the routine discharge of radionuclides from nuclear installations. The RPII monitors airborne radioactivity concentrations at ten stations throughout Ireland, of which, nine are equipped with low volume particulate samplers and one, in Dublin, with a high volume particulate sampler. The low volume particulate samples are assessed for total beta activity and high volume samples for gamma emitting radionuclides such as caesium-137 and beryllium-7. In addition, air sampled at the RPII laboratory in Dublin, is monitored for krypton-85, a radioactive noble gas, released into the environment primarily as a result of the reprocessing of nuclear fuel at installations such as Sellafield in the UK and La Hague in France. Since the inception of the krypton measurements in 1993 a trend of increasing atmospheric concentrations has been observed. The results of the krypton-85 monitoring, as well as the airborne radioactivity concentration measurements, will be presented and discussed in this paper. (author)

  7. New Methods for Personal Exposure Monitoring for Airborne Particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koehler, Kirsten A; Peters, Thomas M

    2015-12-01

    Airborne particles have been associated with a range of adverse cardiopulmonary outcomes, which has driven its monitoring at stationary central sites throughout the world. Individual exposures, however, can differ substantially from concentrations measured at central sites due to spatial variability across a region and sources unique to the individual, such as cooking or cleaning in homes, traffic emissions during commutes, and widely varying sources encountered at work. Personal monitoring with small, battery-powered instruments enables the measurement of an individual's exposure as they go about their daily activities. Personal monitoring can substantially reduce exposure misclassification and improve the power to detect relationships between particulate pollution and adverse health outcomes. By partitioning exposures to known locations and sources, it may be possible to account for variable toxicity of different sources. This review outlines recent advances in the field of personal exposure assessment for particulate pollution. Advances in battery technology have improved the feasibility of 24-h monitoring, providing the ability to more completely attribute exposures to microenvironment (e.g., work, home, commute). New metrics to evaluate the relationship between particulate matter and health are also being considered, including particle number concentration, particle composition measures, and particle oxidative load. Such metrics provide opportunities to develop more precise associations between airborne particles and health and may provide opportunities for more effective regulations. PMID:26385477

  8. Univers de Particules

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Video Productions

    2010-01-01

    Dans l’Univers, tout est fait de particules. Mais d’où viennent-elles? Quelle est l’origine des lois de la nature? Au rez-de-chaussée du Globe de la science et de l’innovation, l’exposition permanente « Univers de particules » vous invite à un voyage vers le Big Bang en explorant le CERN. Avec à la clé des réponses aux questions: pourquoi cette recherche ? Comment accélérer des particules ? Comment les détecter ? Quelles sont les théories sur la matière et sur l’Univers aujourd’hui ? Quelles retombées pour notre vie quotidienne ?

  9. Airborne silica levels in an urban area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to evaluate the exposure levels of the general population we studied the concentrations of silica particles in the inhalable particulate fraction (PM10) in different meteorological-climate periods in an urban area of Rome. In order to determine the concentration and the granulometric spectrum of silica particles, PM10 sampled by a cascade impactor was analysed by X-ray diffractometry (XRD) and by scanning electron microscopy equipped with a thin-window system for X-ray microanalysis (SEM/EDX). Over the period September 2004-October 2005 the abundance of silica particles as evaluated by SEM/EDX ranged from 1.6 to 10.4% of the total PM10 particulate, with a weight concentration of free crystalline silica, evaluated by XRD, in the range 0.25-2.87 μg/m3. The mean diameter of silica particles ranged from 0.3 to 10.5 μm, with more than 87% of particles having a diameter of less than 2.5 μm. The correlations between SEM/EDX and XRD data seem to suggest that the airborne silica particles in the urban location studied were mainly in the form crystalline silica. A strong relationship was found between the meteorological-climate conditions and the concentration level of free crystalline silica. This result suggests that the Southern winds from the Sahara desert carry an important amount of silica particles into Mediterranean Europe

  10. Microwave regenerated particulate trap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDonald, A.C. Jr.; Yonushonis, T.M. [Cummins Engine Co., Inc., Columbus, IN (United States); Haberkamp, W.C.; Mako, F.; Len, L.K,; Silberglitt, R.; Ahmed, I. [FM Technologies, Inc., Fairfax, VA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    It has been demonstrated that a fibrous particulate filter can extract particulate matter from the diesel exhaust. However, additional engineering efforts remains to achieve the design target of 90%. It has also be shown that with minor modifications magnetrons produced for home ovens can endure a simulated diesel operating environment. Much work remains to develop a robust product ready to complete extensive engine testing and evaluation. These efforts include: (1) additional environmental testing of magnetrons; (2) vibration testing of the filter in the housing; (3) evaluating alternative methods/designs to seal the center bore; and (4) determining the optimum coating thickness that provides sufficient structural integrity while maintaining rapid heating rates.

  11. Heat Waves Are Health Threats

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_159694.html Heat Waves Are Health Threats Drink plenty of water and ... 2016 SATURDAY, July 2, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Heat waves are more than uncomfortable, they can be deadly. ...

  12. Today's threat and tomorrow's reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The events of September 11 have only confirmed our past nightmares and warnings to industries, agencies, and governments. The threat of even more significant catastrophic attacks, using nuclear materials, was just as real ten years ago, as it is today. In many cases, our vulnerability remains the same as years ago. There is a dire need for all organizations to agree upon threats and vulnerabilities, and to implement appropriate protections, for nuclear materials or other 'means' to achieve an event of mass destruction. All appropriate organizations (industries, agencies, and governments) should be able to define, assess, and recognize international threats and vulnerabilities in the same manner. In complimentary fashion, the organizations should be able to implement safeguards against this consistent generic threat. On an international scale the same threats, and most vulnerabilities, pose high risks to all of these organizations and societies. Indeed, in today's world, the vulnerabilities of one nation may clearly pose great risk to another nation. Once threats and vulnerabilities are consistently recognized, we can begin to approach their mitigation in a more 'universal' fashion by the application of internationally recognized and accepted security measures. The path to recognition of these security measures will require agreement on many diverse issues. However, once there is general agreement, we can then proceed to the acquisition of diverse national and international resources with which to implement the security measures 'universally' to eliminate 'weak-links' in the chain of nuclear materials, on a truly international scale. I would like to discuss: developing a internationally acceptable 'generic' statement of threat, vulnerability assessment process, and security measure; proposing this international statement of threat, vulnerability assessment process, and appropriate security measures to organizations (industries, agencies, and governments

  13. Bioaccessibility of palladium and platinum in urban aerosol particulates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puls, Christoph; Limbeck, Andreas; Hann, Stephan

    2012-08-01

    To evaluate potential health hazards caused by environmental Platinum Group Elements (PGEs), bioaccessibility of the metals in question needs to be assessed. To gain appropriate data, airborne particulate matter samples of different size fractions (total suspended particles as well as PM10 and PM2.5) were taken in downtown Vienna, an urban site primarily polluted by traffic. Total PGE concentrations in these samples were in the low picogram per cubic meter range, as determined by ID-ICP-MS after microwave digestion. For elimination of elements interfering with the accurate quantification, the digested samples were subjected to a cleaning procedure involving cation exchange. For determination of the bioaccessible fraction, it was assumed that inhaled particles are removed from the respiratory system by mucociliary clearance and subsequently ingested. Accordingly, the solubility of PGE in synthetic gastric juice was investigated by batch extraction of particulate matter samples followed by microwave assisted UV-digestion, cation exchange cleanup and ID-ICP-MS. The acquired data was used to calculate the bioaccessible fraction of Pd and Pt in airborne particulate matter. Average GIT-extractable fractions for Pd and Pt in TSP were 41% and 27%, in PM10 34% and 26%, respectively, thus exceeding previously determined values for bioaccessibility of PGE from ground catalyst materials by up to an order of magnitude.

  14. Identity, Power, and Threat Perception

    OpenAIRE

    David L. Rousseau; Rocio Garcia-Retamero

    2007-01-01

    Realists in international relations and realistic conflict theorists in social psychology argue that the perception of threat in intergroup conflict is a function of power asymmetries between groups. In contrast, social constructivists and social identity theorists argue that a shared sense of identity can reduce perceptions of intergroup threat. In this article, we test these competing arguments using three laboratory experiments conducted in two different countries (Spain and the United Sta...

  15. Affirmative Action and Stereotype Threat

    OpenAIRE

    Cohen, Alma

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides experimental evidence on the effect of affirmative action (AA). In particular, we investigate whether affirmative action has a ”stereotype threat effect” – that is, whether AA cues a negative stereotype that leads individuals to conform to the stereotype and adversely affects their performance. Stereotype threat has been shown in the literature to be potentially significant for individuals who identify strongly with the domain of the stereotype and who engage in complex st...

  16. Airborne forest fire research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattingly, G. S.

    1974-01-01

    The research relating to airborne fire fighting systems is reviewed to provide NASA/Langley Research Center with current information on the use of aircraft in forest fire operations, and to identify research requirements for future operations. A literature survey, interview of forest fire service personnel, analysis and synthesis of data from research reports and independent conclusions, and recommendations for future NASA-LRC programs are included.

  17. GRYPHON : Airborne lifestyle concept

    OpenAIRE

    Evers, Erik

    2014-01-01

    The result of the project, the Gryphon, is a helicopter concept designed for private use. The intention of the project has been to investigate how safe, personal airborne mobility could be an attractive transportation alternative in the future. As an aspirational concept the goal has been to inspire and show an exciting way to enjoy a modern, sustainable lifestyle close to nature without the need for conventional infrastructure.

  18. End the nuclear threat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    's promises and commitments. Fulfilling our promises in the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty, now with 189 member States, must be a primary aim. This Treaty, essential to our security, will be reviewed formally in 2005 at the UN. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) performs a vital role under the Treaty - it's the world's nuclear inspectorate to check that countries are not pursuing nuclear weapons. I've had the chance to visit the UN and IAEA at their headquarters in Vienna, Austria, and know how tough the job can be. We need to back the IAEA and make sure it stays strong in our fight against nuclear weapons. At the 2000 Review of the Treaty, the US along with all other parties to the Treaty made a pledge. Let me remind you of what was promised, and I quote: 'an unequivocal undertaking by the nuclear weapons States to accomplish the total elimination of their nuclear arsenals. leading to nuclear disarmament.' There are tens of thousands of nuclear weapons in the world, over 90% are possessed by Russia and the US. Most are many times more devastating than those used on Hiroshima. The arsenals of Russia and the US are armed, targeted and poised, waiting for three short computer signals to fire. These hair trigger devices represent the devastation of approximately 100,000 Hiroshimas and pose a horrific threat to life. The use of a nuclear weapon could take place by accident or design by States, or even terrorists. These weapons pose an unacceptable risk to the planet. We must demonstrate our unambiguous commitment to fulfill our promises. Other-wise, the prospect of more nuclear weapons States, and the construction of new nuclear weapons, will only increase human peril. The world needs a more effective non-proliferation and disarmament regime and is looking to us for leadership

  19. Airborne wireless communication systems, airborne communication methods, and communication methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deaton, Juan D.; Schmitt, Michael J.; Jones, Warren F.

    2011-12-13

    An airborne wireless communication system includes circuitry configured to access information describing a configuration of a terrestrial wireless communication base station that has become disabled. The terrestrial base station is configured to implement wireless communication between wireless devices located within a geographical area and a network when the terrestrial base station is not disabled. The circuitry is further configured, based on the information, to configure the airborne station to have the configuration of the terrestrial base station. An airborne communication method includes answering a 911 call from a terrestrial cellular wireless phone using an airborne wireless communication system.

  20. Methods to assess airborne concentrations of cotton dust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corn, M

    1987-01-01

    Assessment of concentrations of airborne cotton dust in the factory is necessary to determine adherence to applicable Permissible Exposure Limits (PELs) on a day-to-day basis, as well as for investigatory studies of an epidemiological nature. The latter are required on an ongoing basis to determine the adequacy of PELs to prevent disease in the exposed population. A strategy of sampling includes considerations of the numbers of samples to be obtained for statistical validity and the locations of samples. Current practice is to obtain more "personal samples" of exposure wherever possible, but with regard to cotton dust, instrumentation is not available for such sampling. In the U.S., the vertical elutriator is the instrument of choice for determining the concentrations of cotton dust in air. Results are expressed as milligrams of airborne particulate (cotton dust) per cubic meter. PMID:3434562

  1. Population exposure to airborne thorium at the high natural radiation areas in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High natural radiation areas in the coastal and peninsular India were studied for airborne thorium and resultant population exposure due to inhalation. Four locations covering three states viz., Ayiramthengu and Neendakara in Kerala, Kudiraimozhi in Tamil Nadu and Bhimilipatnam in Andhra Pradesh were investigated. External gamma radiation fields 1 m above the monazite ore bodies ranged from 200 to 3000 nGy h-1. Soil samples showed 232Th specific activity varying from 0·1 to 1·5 Bq g-1 with surface alpha activity in the range of 1·0-12·5 Bq cm-2. Suspended particulates in the samples ranged from 60-140 μg m-3 with 232Th showing a wider variation of -3. There was poor correlation between suspended particulates and long-lived alpha airborne activity (r=-0·3). The resuspension factors for 232Th were in the range of 1·5x10-8-7·9x10-7 cm-1. Higher resuspension was correlated with dry sand dunes. The upper limits for Committed Effective Dose (CED) due to inhalation of airborne 232Th at the respective high natural radiation areas were estimated to range from 50±30 to 300±130 μSv (5-30 mrem) per year per adult member of public assuming an activity median aerodynamic diameter of 1 μm for the airborne particulates. (Copyright (c) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  2. Characterization of particulate matter concentrations and bioaerosol on each floor at a building in Seoul, Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Hyeon-Ju; Jeong, Na-Na; Chi, Woo-Bae; Seo, Ji-Hoon; Jun, Si-Moon; Sohn, Jong-Ryeul

    2015-10-01

    Particulate matter (PM) in buildings are mostly sourced from the transport of outdoor particles through a heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) system and generation of particle within the building itself. We investigated the concentrations and characteristic of indoor and outdoor particles and airborne bacteria concentrations across four floors of a building located in a high-traffic area. In all the floors we studied (first, second, fifth, and eighth), the average concentrations of particles less than 10 μm (PM10) in winter for were higher than those in summer. On average, a seasonal variation in the PM10 level was found for the first, fifth, and eighth floors, such that higher values occurred in the winter season, compared to the summer season. In addition, in winter, the indoor concentrations of PM10 on the first, fifth, and eighth floors were higher than those of the outdoor PM10. The maximum level of airborne bacteria concentration was found in a fifth floor office, which held a private academy school consisting of many students. Results indicated that the airborne bacteria remained at their highest concentration throughout the weekday period and varied by students' activity. The correlation coefficient (R (2)) and slope of linear approximation for the concentrations of particulate matter were used to evaluate the relationship between the indoor and outdoor particulate matter. These results can be used to predict both the indoor particle levels and the risk of personal exposure to airborne bacteria. PMID:26062466

  3. Activation analysis of particulates emitted from aircraft jet engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Particulate matter in emission gas from aircraft jet engines was subjected to instrumental neutron activation analysis and the compositions of trace elements, such as Na, Al, Cl, Sc, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Cu, Zn, Br, Sb and Th were determined. For comparison, airborne dust samples collected in and around the airport and a soot sample collected in a jet nozzle were also analyzed. The analytical results obtained involve some ambiguous points mainly resulting from the imperfect sampling method. The analytical sensitivity was insufficient because of the too small amount of collected samples. These should be improved in future studies. (auth.)

  4. Airborne field strength monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Bredemeyer

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available In civil and military aviation, ground based navigation aids (NAVAIDS are still crucial for flight guidance even though the acceptance of satellite based systems (GNSS increases. Part of the calibration process for NAVAIDS (ILS, DME, VOR is to perform a flight inspection according to specified methods as stated in a document (DOC8071, 2000 by the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO. One major task is to determine the coverage, or, in other words, the true signal-in-space field strength of a ground transmitter. This has always been a challenge to flight inspection up to now, since, especially in the L-band (DME, 1GHz, the antenna installed performance was known with an uncertainty of 10 dB or even more. In order to meet ICAO's required accuracy of ±3 dB it is necessary to have a precise 3-D antenna factor of the receiving antenna operating on the airborne platform including all losses and impedance mismatching. Introducing precise, effective antenna factors to flight inspection to achieve the required accuracy is new and not published in relevant papers yet. The authors try to establish a new balanced procedure between simulation and validation by airborne and ground measurements. This involves the interpretation of measured scattering parameters gained both on the ground and airborne in comparison with numerical results obtained by the multilevel fast multipole algorithm (MLFMA accelerated method of moments (MoM using a complex geometric model of the aircraft. First results will be presented in this paper.

  5. 28 CFR 36.208 - Direct threat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Direct threat. 36.208 Section 36.208... ACCOMMODATIONS AND IN COMMERCIAL FACILITIES General Requirements § 36.208 Direct threat. (a) This part does not... individual poses a direct threat to the health or safety of others. (b) Direct threat means a...

  6. Comparative Environmental Threat Analysis: Three Case Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latour, J. B.; Reiling, R.

    1994-01-01

    Reviews how carrying capacity for different environmental problems is operationalized. Discusses whether it is possible to compare threats, using the exceeding of carrying capacity as a yardstick. Points out problems in comparative threat analysis using three case studies: threats to European groundwater resources, threats to ecosystems in Europe,…

  7. Particulate matter and health - from air to human lungs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this project is to search for respiratory system particular aggressors to which workers are submitted in their labouring activity. The work plan under the current IAEA contract comprise a prospective study to identify particulate matter deposited in the human respiratory ducts and lung tissue and workers respiratory health status survey at a steel plant, Siderurgia Nacional (SN). So far, the selection of areas of interest at SN, workers exposed, airborne particulate monitoring sites according to the periodicity of labouring cycles, and the beginning of workers medical survey have been achieved and/or initiated. The SN selected area, where steel is processed and steel casting is achieved, involve approximately 80 workers, most of them working at that location for more than 15 years. Blood elemental content data determined by PIXE and INAA and a preliminary health status evaluation from 32 of the 80 workers included in this survey are presented and discussed. (author)

  8. Study for particulate sampling, sizing and analysis for composition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, A.M.; Jones, A.M. [IMC Technical Services Ltd., Burton-on-Trent (United Kingdom); Dorling, S.R. [University of East Angila (United Kingdom); Merefield, J.R.; Stone, I.M. [Exeter Univ. (United Kingdom); Hall, K.; Garner, G.V.; Hall, P.A. [Hall Analytical Labs., Ltd. (United Kingdom); Stokes, B. [CRE Group Ltd. (United Kingdom)

    1999-07-01

    This report summarises the findings of a study investigating the origin of particulate matter by analysis of the size distribution and composition of particulates in rural, semi-rural and urban areas of the UK. Details are given of the sampling locations; the sampling; monitoring, and inorganic and organic analyses; the review of archive material. The analysis carried out at St Margaret's/Stoke Ferry, comparisons of data with other locations, and the composition of ambient airborne matter are discussed, and recommendations are given. Results of PM2.5/PM10 samples collected at St Margaret's and Stoke Ferry in 1998, and back trajectories for five sites are considered in appendices.

  9. Particulate matter dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Cionco, Rodolfo G; Caligaris, Marta G

    2012-01-01

    A substantial fraction of the particulate matter released into the atmosphere by industrial or natural processes corresponds to particles whose aerodynamic diameters are greater than 50 mm. It has been shown that, for these particles, the classical description of Gaussian plume diffusion processes, is inadequate to describe the transport and deposition. In this paper we present new results concerning the dispersion of coarse particulate matter. The simulations are done with our own code that uses the Bulirsch Stoer numerical integrator to calculate threedimensional trajectories of particles released into the environment under very general conditions. Turbulent processes are simulated by the Langevin equation and weather conditions are modeled after stable (Monin-Obukhov length L> 0) and unstable conditions (L <0). We present several case studies based on Monte Carlo simulations and discusses the effect of weather on the final deposition of these particles.

  10. Compositae dermatitis from airborne parthenolide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulsen, E; Christensen, Lars Porskjær; Andersen, Klaus Ejner

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Compositae dermatitis confined to exposed skin has often been considered on clinical grounds to be airborne. Although anecdotal clinical and plant chemical reports suggest true airborne allergy, no proof has been procured. Feverfew (Tanacetum parthenium) is a European Compositae plant...

  11. ADVANCED HYBRID PARTICULATE COLLECTOR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stanley J. Miller; Grant L. Schelkoph; Grant E. Dunham

    2000-12-01

    A new concept in particulate control, called an advanced hybrid particulate collector (AHPC), is being developed under funding from the US Department of Energy. The AHPC combines the best features of electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) and baghouses in an entirely novel manner. The AHPC concept combines fabric filtration and electrostatic precipitation in the same housing, providing major synergism between the two methods, both in the particulate collection step and in transfer of dust to the hopper. The AHPC provides ultrahigh collection efficiency, overcoming the problem of excessive fine-particle emissions with conventional ESPs, and solves the problem of reentrainment and recollection of dust in conventional baghouses. Phase I of the development effort consisted of design, construction, and testing of a 5.7-m{sup 3}/min (200-acfm) working AHPC model. Results from both 8-hour parametric tests and 100-hour proof-of-concept tests with two different coals demonstrated excellent operability and greater than 99.99% fine-particle collection efficiency.

  12. Airborne transmission of lyssaviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, N; Phillpotts, R; Fooks, A R

    2006-06-01

    In 2002, a Scottish bat conservationist developed a rabies-like disease and subsequently died. This was caused by infection with European bat lyssavirus 2 (EBLV-2), a virus closely related to Rabies virus (RABV). The source of this infection and the means of transmission have not yet been confirmed. In this study, the hypothesis that lyssaviruses, particularly RABV and the bat variant EBLV-2, might be transmitted via the airborne route was tested. Mice were challenged via direct introduction of lyssavirus into the nasal passages. Two hours after intranasal challenge with a mouse-adapted strain of RABV (Challenge Virus Standard), viral RNA was detectable in the tongue, lungs and stomach. All of the mice challenged by direct intranasal inoculation developed disease signs by 7 days post-infection. Two out of five mice challenged by direct intranasal inoculation of EBLV-2 developed disease between 16 and 19 days post-infection. In addition, a simple apparatus was evaluated in which mice could be exposed experimentally to infectious doses of lyssavirus from an aerosol. Using this approach, mice challenged with RABV, but not those challenged with EBLV-2, were highly susceptible to infection by inhalation. These data support the hypothesis that lyssaviruses, and RABV in particular, can be spread by airborne transmission in a dose-dependent manner. This could present a particular hazard to personnel exposed to aerosols of infectious RABV following accidental release in a laboratory environment. PMID:16687600

  13. Airborne monitoring system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A complete system for tracking, mapping, and performing a composition analysis of a radioactive plume and contaminated area was developed at the NRCN. The system includes two major units : An airborne unit for monitoring and a ground station for analyzing. The airborne unit is mounted on a helicopter and includes file following. Four radiation sensor, two 2'' x 2'' Nal (Tl) sensors horizontally separated by lead shield for mapping and spectroscopy, and two Geiger Mueller (GM) tubes as part of the safety system. A multichannel analyzer card is used for spectroscopy. A navigation system, based on GPS and a barometric altitude meter, is used to locate the plume or ground data. The telemetry system, consisting of a transceiver and a modem, transfers all the data in real time to the ground station. An industrial PC (Field Works) runs a dedicated C++ Windows application to manage the acquired data. An independent microprocessor based backup system includes a recorder, display, and key pad. The ground station is based on an industrial PC, a telemetry system, a color printer and a modem to communicate with automatic meteorology stations in the relevant area. A special software controls the ground station. Measurement results are analyzed in the ground station to estimate plume parameters including motion, location, size, velocity, and perform risk assessment. (authors)

  14. Countering the nuclear terrorist threat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: An IND, as its name implies, is a nuclear explosive device. It produces nuclear yield, and this nuclear yield has catastrophic effects. An IND is the ultimate terrorist weapon. If a terrorist group decides not to pursue an actual nuclear device, it might well turn to a RDD. RDDs, or 'dirty bombs' as they are often called, spread radioactivity but they do not generate nuclear yield. The fabrication of a RDD requires radioactive material and a dispersal mechanism. Standards for safe handling and accountability of radioactive material vary around the world. Terrorist acquisition and use of an IND is a low-probability but high-consequence threat. Terrorist use of a RDD is a threat of higher probability but lower consequence. Two threats need to be considered for civil radiological and nuclear facilities. One is the theft of materials by terrorists, and the other is an attack on a facility to disperse radiological or nuclear materials. Facilities may include reactors as well as nuclear waste and storage areas. While important elements of a layered defense against these threats are already in place, improved international cooperation and a sustained investment in the science and technology needed to win the war on terrorism is necessary. (author)

  15. Measuring Vulnerability to Stereotype Threat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnard, Lucy; Burley, Hansel; Olivarez, Arturo; Crooks, Steven

    2008-01-01

    Introduction: In this study, we examined the psychometric properties of an instrument intended to measure vulnerability to stereotype threat. Method: We revised the instrument through assessing score reliability and then examined a domain specific model using confirmatory factor analyses. After examining the responses of the total sample…

  16. Threat from Emerging Vectorborne Viruses

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2016-06-09

    Reginald Tucker reads an abridged version of the commentary by CDC author Ronald Rosenberg, Threat from Emerging Vectorborne Viruses.  Created: 6/9/2016 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 6/9/2016.

  17. Cyber Threats to Nuclear Infrastructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear facility personnel expend considerable efforts to ensure that their facilities can maintain continuity of operations against both natural and man-made threats. Historically, most attention has been placed on physical security. Recently however, the threat of cyber-related attacks has become a recognized and growing world-wide concern. Much attention has focused on the vulnerability of the electric grid and chemical industries to cyber attacks, in part, because of their use of Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) systems. Lessons learned from work in these sectors indicate that the cyber threat may extend to other critical infrastructures including sites where nuclear and radiological materials are now stored. In this context, this white paper presents a hypothetical scenario by which a determined adversary launches a cyber attack that compromises the physical protection system and results in a reduced security posture at such a site. The compromised security posture might then be malevolently exploited in a variety of ways. The authors conclude that the cyber threat should be carefully considered for all nuclear infrastructures.

  18. Cyber Threats to Nuclear Infrastructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert S. Anderson; Paul Moskowitz; Mark Schanfein; Trond Bjornard; Curtis St. Michel

    2010-07-01

    Nuclear facility personnel expend considerable efforts to ensure that their facilities can maintain continuity of operations against both natural and man-made threats. Historically, most attention has been placed on physical security. Recently however, the threat of cyber-related attacks has become a recognized and growing world-wide concern. Much attention has focused on the vulnerability of the electric grid and chemical industries to cyber attacks, in part, because of their use of Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) systems. Lessons learned from work in these sectors indicate that the cyber threat may extend to other critical infrastructures including sites where nuclear and radiological materials are now stored. In this context, this white paper presents a hypothetical scenario by which a determined adversary launches a cyber attack that compromises the physical protection system and results in a reduced security posture at such a site. The compromised security posture might then be malevolently exploited in a variety of ways. The authors conclude that the cyber threat should be carefully considered for all nuclear infrastructures.

  19. Particulate contamination in ampoules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, D M; Veltman, A M

    1985-01-01

    The particulate contamination in 19 formulations of solutions in ampoules supplied by eight South African manufacturers, thirty-three batches in all, was analysed using a HIAC PC 320 light blockage particle analyser linked to a CMB 60 sensor. Results showed that the level of contamination was generally low and that, where comparisons could be made, manufacturers both of the ampoules and the solutions maintained similarly high standards. Problems in this field appeared to be related to the formulation or the quality of the raw material. PMID:2858528

  20. Airborne Cloud Computing Environment (ACCE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardman, Sean; Freeborn, Dana; Crichton, Dan; Law, Emily; Kay-Im, Liz

    2011-01-01

    Airborne Cloud Computing Environment (ACCE) is JPL's internal investment to improve the return on airborne missions. Improve development performance of the data system. Improve return on the captured science data. The investment is to develop a common science data system capability for airborne instruments that encompasses the end-to-end lifecycle covering planning, provisioning of data system capabilities, and support for scientific analysis in order to improve the quality, cost effectiveness, and capabilities to enable new scientific discovery and research in earth observation.

  1. A Quantitative Dynamic Simulation of Bremia lactucae Airborne Conidia Concentration above a Lettuce Canopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fall, Mamadou Lamine; Van der Heyden, Hervé; Carisse, Odile

    2016-01-01

    Lettuce downy mildew, caused by the oomycete Bremia lactucae Regel, is a major threat to lettuce production worldwide. Lettuce downy mildew is a polycyclic disease driven by airborne spores. A weather-based dynamic simulation model for B. lactucae airborne spores was developed to simulate the aerobiological characteristics of the pathogen. The model was built using the STELLA platform by following the system dynamics methodology. The model was developed using published equations describing disease subprocesses (e.g., sporulation) and assembled knowledge of the interactions among pathogen, host, and weather. The model was evaluated with four years of independent data by comparing model simulations with observations of hourly and daily airborne spore concentrations. The results show an accurate simulation of the trend and shape of B. lactucae temporal dynamics of airborne spore concentration. The model simulated hourly and daily peaks in airborne spore concentrations. More than 95% of the simulation runs, the daily-simulated airborne conidia concentration was 0 when airborne conidia were not observed. Also, the relationship between the simulated and the observed airborne spores was linear. In more than 94% of the simulation runs, the proportion of the linear variation in the hourly-observed values explained by the variation in the hourly-simulated values was greater than 0.7 in all years except one. Most of the errors came from the deviation from the 1:1 line, and the proportion of errors due to the model bias was low. This model is the only dynamic model developed to mimic the dynamics of airborne inoculum and represents an initial step towards improved lettuce downy mildew understanding, forecasting and management. PMID:26953691

  2. Detection of Coxiella burnetii DNA in Inhalable Airborne Dust Samples from Goat Farms after Mandatory Culling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogerwerf, Lenny; Still, Kelly; Heederik, Dick; van Rotterdam, Bart; de Bruin, Arnout; Nielen, Mirjam; Wouters, Inge M.

    2012-01-01

    Coxiella burnetii is thought to infect humans primarily via airborne transmission. However, air measurements of C. burnetii are sparse. We detected C. burnetii DNA in inhalable and PM10 (particulate matter with an aerodynamic size of 10 μm or less) dust samples collected at three affected goat farms, demonstrating that low levels of C. burnetii DNA are present in inhalable size fractions. PMID:22582072

  3. Risk assessment of inhalation exposure for airborne toxic metals using instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to study the effects of air pollution, about 1,300 samples of airborne particulate matter (APM) were collected at suburban and industrial sites, in Daejeon, Korea from 1998 to 2006. The concentrations of carcinogenic (As and Cr) and non-carcinogenic metals (Al, Mn, and Zn) were determined by using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). These long-term metal concentration data were applied to a risk assessment of inhalation exposure using Monte Carlo analysis (MCA). (author)

  4. Is China Threat a Hoax?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Niu Weigan; Ma Zongshi

    2008-01-01

    The Beijing Olympics has focused unprecedented world attention on China this year. Many people hail the Games as an occasion that showcases China's growing contribution to world development and harmony. But intent on politicizing this global event, a few modern Cassandras still cling to the flawed China Threat theory. In this paper, the author traces the origins of this fallacious theory. He sees it as a product of Western empiricism viewed through an historical and philosophical prism. He argues that the assertion of threat arises from a generalization of historical facts. The assertion links China's growing clout with declining Western dominance in international affairs. Starting with the myth that peace is possible only among democracies, the theory predicts the inevitability of conflict between the West and China, a country with an alleged expansionist tradition and under an authoritarian system.

  5. Countering 21st Century Threats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scharling Pedersen, Peter; Pillai, Chad M.; Hun, Lee Jae

    2015-01-01

    The United States and its Allies confront an increasingly volatile world where threats range from traditional state-on-state challenges to non-state transnational networks. To successfully combat these 21st Century problems, in an era of resource and geo-political power constraints, the U.S. and......), Counter-Terrorism (CT), and Security and Stability Operations (SSO). • Establishing a construct that allows a strategic Whole-of-Government capacity for operations coordinated by joint interagency task forces. • Continue to developing the Global SOF network. • Increased intelligence sharing in areas of...... shared interests pre-crisis. • Establish political agreements and/or intentions with partners to address potential threats. • Establishing mutual trust through Building Partnership Capacity with capable SOF and intelligence organizations....

  6. Sea Level Threat in Tuvalu

    OpenAIRE

    Than Aung; Awnesh Singh; Uma Prasad

    2009-01-01

    Problem statement: Recently the impacts of climate change, in particular, sea level rise, had been a major concern for many Pacific island countries. In early 2000, there were a series of media coverage over sea level rise issues using Tuvalu as an example. The daily life of Tuvalu revolves around the ocean and the immediate threat on the islands people, economy, environment and its islands is of concern to the Tuvalu government. The Tuvalu government has concluded that Tuvalu was destined to...

  7. Affirmative action and stereotype threat

    OpenAIRE

    Bracha, Anat; Cohen, Alma; Conell-Price, Lynn

    2013-01-01

    In spite of the apparent success of affirmative action (AA) in the past, many oppose such policies. Opponents argue that the cost of attaining proportional representation by preferential policies is too high, reducing the quality of selected groups and stigmatizing members of the protected class. One way in which preferential policies might harm groups they are designed to benefit is by producing stereotype threat; that is, cueing a negative stereotype may lead individuals to conform to it. A...

  8. Cyber Terrorism– Global Security Threat

    OpenAIRE

    Bogdanoski, Mitko; Petreski, Drage

    2013-01-01

    It is more than obvious that the way of conducting terrorism with the time is becoming more sophisticated. The cyber terrorism is real threat to fast technology development. Potential targets are systems which control the nation’s defenses and critical infrastructure. The terrorist of the future will win the wars without firing a shot - just by destroying infrastructure that significantly relies on information technology. The fast growth of the Internet users and Internet dependence dramat...

  9. Symbian `vulnerability' and Mobile Threats

    OpenAIRE

    Gharibi, Wajeb

    2012-01-01

    Modern technologies are becoming ever more integrated with each other. Mobile phones are becoming increasing intelligent, and handsets are growing ever more like computers in functionality. We are entering a new era - the age of smart houses, global advanced networks which encompass a wide range of devices, all of them exchanging data with each other. Such trends clearly open new horizons to malicious users, and the potential threats are self evident. In this paper, we study and discuss one o...

  10. Filling in biodiversity threat gaps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joppa, Lucas; O'Connor, Brian; Visconti, Piero;

    2016-01-01

    he diversity of life on Earth—which provides vital services to humanity (1)—stems from the difference between rates of evolutionary diversification and extinction. Human activities have shifted the balance (2): Species extinction rates are an estimated 1000 times the “background” rate (3) and cou...... United Nations' 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development and its 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). We identify major gaps in data available for assessing global biodiversity threats and suggest mechanisms for closing them....

  11. Subordinates as Threats to Leaders

    OpenAIRE

    Glazer, Amihai; Segendorff, Björn

    2001-01-01

    A leader of an organization may view a subordinate as threatening or weakening the leader's position. The threat may increase with the subordinate's ability and reduce the rents the leader wins. In particular, a leader who trains his subordinate reduces the cost to the owner of a firm in replacing the leader, and so reduces the leader's bargaining power. The leader therefore provides inefficiently low training for the subordinate.

  12. Antibiotic and Antimicrobial Resistance: Threat Report 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Antibiotic Resistance Threats in the United States, 2013 Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir This report, Antibiotic resistance threats in the United States, 2013 gives a first- ...

  13. Gravimetric Analysis of Particulate Matter using Air Samplers Housing Internal Filtration Capsules

    OpenAIRE

    O'Connor, Sean; O'Connor, Paula Fey; Feng, H. Amy; Ashley, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    An evaluation was carried out to investigate the suitability of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) internal capsules, housed within air sampling devices, for gravimetric analysis of airborne particles collected in workplaces. Experiments were carried out using blank PVC capsules and PVC capsules spiked with 0,1 – 4 mg of National Institute of Standards and Technology Standard Reference Material® (NIST SRM) 1648 (Urban Particulate Matter) and Arizona Road Dust (Air Cleaner Test Dust). The capsules were ...

  14. A Microfluidic Paper-Based Analytical Device for Rapid Quantification of Particulate Chromium

    OpenAIRE

    Rattanarat, Poomrat; Dungchai, Wijitar; Cate, David M.; Siangproh, Weena; Volckens, John; Chailapakul, Orawon; Charles S. Henry

    2013-01-01

    Occupational exposure to Cr is concerning because of its myriad of health effects. Assessing chromium exposure is also cost and resource intensive because the analysis typically uses sophisticated instrumental techniques like Inductively-Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). Here, we report a novel, simple, inexpensive microfluidic paper-based analytical device (µPAD) for measuring total Cr in airborne particulate matter. In the µPAD, tetravalent cerium (Ce(IV)) was used in a pretreatmen...

  15. DETERMINATION OF MOBILITY AND BIOAVAILABILITY OF HEAVY METALS IN THE URBAN AIR PARTICULATES MATTER OF ISFAHAN

    OpenAIRE

    Kalantari, A.; M. Talebi; B BINA

    2001-01-01

    Introduction: In addition to, Carbohyrates, Lipids, Amino acids and vitamins, some of the trace metals are known vital for biological activity. But some of them not only are not necessary, but also they are very toxic and carcinogen. In this research the rate of Mobility and Bioavailability of heavy metals associated with airborne particulates matter such as Zn, Pb, Cd, Cu, Fe, Ni and Cr have been measured. Methods: The sequential extraction has been used for releasing of heavy metales f...

  16. The input of gaseous and particulate sulfur to a forest ecosystem

    OpenAIRE

    EATON, JOHN S.; Likens, Gene E.; Bormann, F.Herbert

    2011-01-01

    Sulfate is the predominant anion in precipitation entering the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest, a northern hardwood forest in north-central New Hampshire. Sulfur is also the dominant element in airborne particulate matter. Losses of sulfur from the ecosystem in stream water exceed inputs in precipitation plus that released from weathering. Using the ecosystem method, it is possible to estimate (by difference) that 6.1 kg/ha/yr of sulfur is obtained from dry deposition on the ecosystem. The ...

  17. Beryllium Concentrations at European Workplaces: Comparison of ‘Total’ and Inhalable Particulate Measurements

    OpenAIRE

    Kock, Heiko; Civic, Terence; Koch, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    A field study was carried out in order to derive a factor for the conversion of historic worker exposure data on airborne beryllium (Be) obtained by sampling according to the 37-mm closed faced filter cassette (CFC) ‘total’ particulate method into exposure concentration values to be expected when sampling using the ‘Gesamtstaubprobenahmesystem’ (GSP) inhalable sampling convention. Workplaces selected to represent the different copper Be work processing operations that typically occur in Germa...

  18. Stereotype Threat and Survey Response Bias

    OpenAIRE

    King, Kenya Latonya

    2014-01-01

    Stereotype threat is the threat of confirming a negative stereotype about a group with which a person identifies. Researchers have found that stereotype threat can result in underperformance in multiple domains, shifts in social behavior, and shifts in assessed implicit attitudes, the likelihood of which increases as an individual's concern about the domain of interest increases. According to theory, this threat can be "alleviated",thereby diminishing or eliminating its impact. In this projec...

  19. The role of threats in animal cooperation

    OpenAIRE

    Cant, Michael A.

    2010-01-01

    In human societies, social behaviour is strongly influenced by threats of punishment, even though the threats themselves rarely need to be exercised. Recent experimental evidence suggests that similar hidden threats can promote cooperation and limit within-group selfishness in some animal systems. In other animals, however, threats appear to be ineffective. Here I review theoretical and empirical studies that help to understand the evolutionary causes of these contrasting patterns, and identi...

  20. Security of radioactive sources: Threats and answers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The general issue of the security of radioactive sources is presented as a prime but constitutive element of radiation safety, focusing particularly on the perceived threats for the malevolent use of radioactive sources and on the possible answers to these threats. The paper discusses the source security threat and the possible international response, and presents an overall outlook for the future. (author)

  1. Stereotype Threat, Test Anxiety, and Mathematics Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tempel, Tobias; Neumann, Roland

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the combined effects of stereotype threat and trait test anxiety on mathematics test performance. Stereotype threat and test anxiety interacted with each other in affecting performance. Trait test anxiety predicted performance only in a diagnostic condition that prevented stereotype threat by stereotype denial. A state measure of…

  2. 24 CFR 9.131 - Direct threat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Direct threat. 9.131 Section 9.131... DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT § 9.131 Direct threat. (a) This part does not require the agency..., privileges, advantages and accommodations of that agency when that individual poses a direct threat to...

  3. Diversity and seasonal dynamics of airborne Archaea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Fröhlich-Nowoisky

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Archaea are widespread and abundant in many terrestrial and aquatic environments, accounting for up to ∼10% of the prokaryotes. Compared to Bacteria and other microorganisms, however, very little is known about the abundance, diversity, and dispersal of Archaea in the atmosphere. By DNA analysis targeting the 16S rRNA and amoA genes in samples of air particulate matter collected over one year at a continental sampling site in Germany, we obtained first insights into the seasonal dynamics of airborne Archaea. The detected Archaea were identified as Thaumarchaeota or Euryarchaeota, with soil Thaumarchaeota (group I.1b being present in all samples. The normalized species richness of Thaumarchaeota correlated positively with relative humidity and negatively with temperature. This together with an increase of bare agricultural soil surfaces may explain the diversity peaks observed in fall and winter. The detected Euryarchaeota were mainly methanogens with a low relative frequency of occurrence. A slight increase in their frequency during spring may be linked to fertilization processes in the surrounding agricultural fields. Comparison with samples from the Cape Verde islands and from other coastal and continental sites indicates that the proportions of Euryarchaeota are enhanced in coastal air, which is consistent with their suggested abundance in marine surface waters. We conclude that air transport may play an important role for the dispersal of Archaea, including ammonia-oxidizing Thaumarchaeota and methanogens. Also, anthropogenic activities might influence the atmospheric abundance and diversity of Archaea.

  4. Diversity and seasonal dynamics of airborne archaea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fröhlich-Nowoisky, J.; Ruzene Nespoli, C.; Pickersgill, D. A.; Galand, P. E.; Müller-Germann, I.; Nunes, T.; Gomes Cardoso, J.; Almeida, S. M.; Pio, C.; Andreae, M. O.; Conrad, R.; Pöschl, U.; Després, V. R.

    2014-11-01

    Archaea are widespread and abundant in many terrestrial and aquatic environments, and are thus outside extreme environments, accounting for up to ~10% of the prokaryotes. Compared to bacteria and other microorganisms, however, very little is known about the abundance, diversity, and dispersal of archaea in the atmosphere. By means of DNA analysis and Sanger sequencing targeting the 16S rRNA (435 sequences) and amoA genes in samples of air particulate matter collected over 1 year at a continental sampling site in Germany, we obtained first insights into the seasonal dynamics of airborne archaea. The detected archaea were identified as Thaumarchaeota or Euryarchaeota, with soil Thaumarchaeota (group I.1b) being present in all samples. The normalized species richness of Thaumarchaeota correlated positively with relative humidity and negatively with temperature. This together with an increase in bare agricultural soil surfaces may explain the diversity peaks observed in fall and winter. The detected Euryarchaeota were mainly predicted methanogens with a low relative frequency of occurrence. A slight increase in their frequency during spring may be linked to fertilization processes in the surrounding agricultural fields. Comparison with samples from the Cape Verde islands (72 sequences) and from other coastal and continental sites indicates that the proportions of Euryarchaeota are enhanced in coastal air, which is consistent with their suggested abundance in marine surface waters. We conclude that air transport may play an important role in the dispersal of archaea, including assumed ammonia-oxidizing Thaumarchaeota and methanogens.

  5. Guidelines for calculating radiation doses to the public from a release of airborne radioactive material under hypothetical accident conditions in nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Standard provides guidelines and a methodology for calculating effective doses and thyroid doses to people (either individually or collectively) in the path of airborne radioactive material released from a nuclear facility following a hypothetical accident. The specific radionuclides considered in the Standard are those associated with substances having the greatest potential for becoming airborne in reactor accidents (eg, tritium (HTO), noble gases and their daughters (Kr-Rb, Xe-Cs), and radioiodines (I)); and certain radioactive particulates (eg, Cs, Ru, Sr, Te) that may become airborne under exceptional circumstances

  6. Receptor modeling of airborne pollutants in the State of Maryland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Ming

    A total of 132 sets of airborne particulate and acidic gas samples were collected simultaneously at Lewes, DE, from July 24, 1989, to January 18, 1990, and 24 sets at Beltsville, MD, from September 21, to December 7, 1990. The samples were analyzed for >40 elements by instrumental neutron activation analysis, for particulate S by inductively-coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy and for gas phase SO_2, NO _{rm x}, and Cl by ion chromatography. The concentration patterns of airborne particles at Lewes and Beltsville were interpreted using principal component analysis (PCA) which revealed 6 principal components (PCs) for both sites. At Lewes, PC1 was heavily loaded with crustal elements and elements usually associated with high-temperature combustion sources; PC2 was mainly loaded with Na and Cl and represents marine aerosol; PC3 had a distinctive V signature and was attributed to oil-fired power plants; PC4 was loaded with particulate and gaseous S, and possibly represents nearby coal-fired power plants; PC5 contained Cr, Zn and Sb, which is indicative of an incinerator component; PC6 was loaded with particulate S and Se, and is attributed to regional sulfate. A similar pattern was observed at Beltsville, where the 6 PCs resolved were: soil and coal combustion (PC1); an industrial component loaded with many metal elements (PC2); marine aerosol (PC3); regional sulfate (PC4); oil-burning (PC5); and incinerators (PC6). All components, except for marine aerosol, were more or less mixed with one another. Chemical mass balances (CMB) with 10 sources, i.e., steel, seasalt, lime, motor vehicles, regional sulfate, incinerators, oil refineries, soil, oil and coal combustion, were performed on the Lewes, DE. and Beltsville, MD. data, the data from Deep Creek Lake (DCL), MD. (August 1983, collected by the United States Environmental Protection Agency) and College Park, MD. (1983-1986). Regional sulfate, which is thought to be formed by conversion of SO _2 released from

  7. South African Airborne Operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McGill Alexander

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Airborne operations entail the delivery of ground troops and their equipment by air to their area of operations. They can also include the subsequent support of these troops and their equipment by air. Historically, and by definition, this would encompass delivery by fixed-wing powered aircraft, by glider, by parachute or by helicopter. Almost any troops can be delivered by most of these means. However, the technical expertise and physical as well as psychological demands required by parachuting have resulted in specialist troops being selected and trained for this role. Some of the material advantages of using parachute troops, or paratroops, are: the enormous strategic reach provided by the long-distance transport aircraft used to convey them; the considerable payload which these aircraft are capable of carrying; the speed with which the parachute force can deploy; and the fact that no infrastructure such as airfields are required for their arrival. Perhaps most attractively to cash-strapped governments, the light equipment scales of parachute units’ makes them economical to establish and maintain. There are also less tangible advantages: the soldiers selected are invariably volunteers with a willingness or even desire to tackle challenges; their selection and training produces tough, confident and aggressive troops, psychologically geared to face superior odds and to function independently from other units; and their initiative and self-reliance combined with a high level of physical fitness makes them suitable for a number of different and demanding roles.

  8. The nuclear threat and the Nuclear Threat Initiative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: President and chief operating officer of the Nuclear Threat Initiative (NTI), was invited by the IAEA Director General to speak about NTI and its mission at the IAEA Safeguards Symposium. Established by CNN founder Ted Turner and former U.S. Senator Sam Nunn, NTI is a charitable organization working to strengthen global security by reducing the risk of use and preventing the spread of nuclear, biological and chemical weapons. The foundation is global, concentrating not just on the United States, Russia, and other nations of the former Soviet Union, but also on those regions of greatest proliferation concern in Asia and the Middle East. NTI is working to close what it perceives as an increasingly dangerous gap between the threat from nuclear, biological and chemical weapons and the global response. NTI is supported by a pledge from Mr. Turner of at least $250 million over five years, among the largest sums any private individual has ever invested in these security issues. NTI's Board of Directors, an international team of experienced and knowledgeable experts, determines the overall direction of the foundation. (author)

  9. Stereotype threat prevents perceptual learning

    OpenAIRE

    Rydell, Robert J.; Shiffrin, Richard M.; Boucher, Kathryn L.; Van Loo, Katie; Rydell, Michael T.

    2010-01-01

    Stereotype threat (ST) refers to a situation in which a member of a group fears that her or his performance will validate an existing negative performance stereotype, causing a decrease in performance. For example, reminding women of the stereotype “women are bad at math” causes them to perform more poorly on math questions from the SAT and GRE. Performance deficits can be of several types and be produced by several mechanisms. We show that ST prevents perceptual learning, defined in our task...

  10. New Threat to World Economy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The aggregate amount of money and credit in the global economy has risen sharply over the past 30 years,with its growth rate and stock far exceeding that of the real economy or real assets of the world.This is the view of Xiang Songzuo,professor at the Huazhong University of Science and Technology,whose opinion was first published in a recent article in China Business News.Xiang said this situation is a real threat to the world economy.Excerpts of his article are reprinted below:

  11. Symbian `vulnerability' and Mobile Threats

    CERN Document Server

    Gharibi, Wajeb

    2012-01-01

    Modern technologies are becoming ever more integrated with each other. Mobile phones are becoming increasing intelligent, and handsets are growing ever more like computers in functionality. We are entering a new era - the age of smart houses, global advanced networks which encompass a wide range of devices, all of them exchanging data with each other. Such trends clearly open new horizons to malicious users, and the potential threats are self evident. In this paper, we study and discuss one of the most famous mobile operating systems 'Symbian'; its vulnerabilities and recommended protection technologies.

  12. Wireless LAN Security Threats & Vulnerabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Waliullah

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Wireless LANs are everywhere these days from home to large enterprise corporate networks due to the ease of installation, employee convenience, avoiding wiring cost and constant mobility support. However, the greater availability of wireless LANs means increased danger from attacks and increased challenges to an organisation, IT staff and IT security professionals. This paper discusses the various security issues and vulnerabilities related to the IEEE 802.11 Wireless LAN encryption standard and common threats/attacks pertaining to the home and enterprise Wireless LAN system and provide overall guidelines and recommendation to the home users and organizations.

  13. A unique facility to test the infectivity of human-generated airborne infections / Sidney A. Parsons

    OpenAIRE

    Parsons, Sidney Andrew

    2006-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB), one of the world's greatest killers, is predominantly spread by the airborne route. Drug-resistant M. tuberculosis has emerged as a global public health threat despite effective drugs and disease control strategies. Little is known about M. tuberculosis transmission and the efficacy of necessary environmental (engineering) interventions for infection control; particularly in light of the global HIV/Aids epidemic. This thesis covers the development, validation...

  14. The threat of illicit trafficking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Intelligence services, the army, the navy, the air force and the police together work to avoid illicit trafficking around the world by taking actions as follows: examining the risks and threats of illicit trafficking of radioactive material by terrorists or criminals; gaining a better understanding of current and future patterns and trends in the illicit trafficking of radioactive material; determining progress on efforts to establish detection capabilities at borders and to exchange information on developments in detection technology and response methodologies through installation of radiation detection equipment; strengthening existing networks and cooperation for sharing information on illicit trafficking reports on incidents involving smuggling, theft, loss and illegal disposal, illegal possession and transfer, and attempted illegal sales of the material; examining how an enhanced export/import regime can assist in combating illicit trafficking control through unauthorized movement of radioactive material; sharing information on activities intended to implement international obligations, recommendations and guidance relevant to nuclear security; suggest actions by which the international effort, through the IAEA, would be strengthened. This paper examines the threat and context of illicit nuclear trafficking of radioactive material, what is being done to combat such trafficking and highlights where more needs to be done

  15. Threat sensitivity in bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhtadie, Luma; Johnson, Sheri L

    2015-02-01

    Life stress is a major predictor of the course of bipolar disorder. Few studies have used laboratory paradigms to examine stress reactivity in bipolar disorder, and none have assessed autonomic reactivity to laboratory stressors. In the present investigation we sought to address this gap in the literature. Participants, 27 diagnosed with bipolar I disorder and 24 controls with no history of mood disorder, were asked to complete a complex working memory task presented as "a test of general intelligence." Self-reported emotions were assessed at baseline and after participants were given task instructions; autonomic physiology was assessed at baseline and continuously during the stressor task. Compared to controls, individuals with bipolar disorder reported greater increases in pretask anxiety from baseline and showed greater cardiovascular threat reactivity during the task. Group differences in cardiovascular threat reactivity were significantly correlated with comorbid anxiety in the bipolar group. Our results suggest that a multimethod approach to assessing stress reactivity-including the use of physiological parameters that differentiate between maladaptive and adaptive profiles of stress responding-can yield valuable information regarding stress sensitivity and its associations with negative affectivity in bipolar disorder. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:25688436

  16. Microdosimetry of internal, particulate sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The theory of microdosimetry is extended to include particulate and non-uniformly distributed sources typical of internally deposited radioisotopes. An example is presented in which stationary particulates of 239Pu of negligible physical size are distributed at random in a tissue in which the sensitive sites are also assumed to be randomly distributed. Preliminary calculations are reported for this model of the probability density in specific energy of all the sites and of the fraction of sites in which no energy is deposited for particulates that emit between 1 and 100,000 alpha particles

  17. ADVANCED HYBRID PARTICULATE COLLECTOR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ye Zhuang; Stanley J. Miller; Michelle R. Olderbak; Rich Gebert

    2001-12-01

    A new concept in particulate control, called an advanced hybrid particulate collector (AHPC), is being developed under funding from the U.S. Department of Energy. The AHPC combines the best features of electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) and baghouses in an entirely novel manner. The AHPC concept combines fabric filtration and electrostatic precipitation in the same housing, providing major synergism between the two methods, both in the particulate collection step and in transfer of dust to the hopper. The AHPC provides ultrahigh collection efficiency, overcoming the problem of excessive fine-particle emissions with conventional ESPs, and solves the problem of reentrainment and re-collection of dust in conventional baghouses. Phase I of the development effort consisted of design, construction, and testing of a 5.7-m{sup 3}/min (200-acfm) working AHPC model. Results from both 8-hr parametric tests and 100-hr proof-of-concept tests with two different coals demonstrated excellent operability and greater than 99.99% fine-particle collection efficiency. Since all of the developmental goals of Phase I were met, the approach was scaled up in Phase II to a size of 255 m{sup 3}/min (9000 acfm) (equivalent in size to 2.5 MW) and was installed on a slipstream at the Big Stone Power Plant. For Phase II, the AHPC at Big Stone Power Plant was operated continuously from late July 1999 until mid-December 1999. The Phase II results were highly successful in that ultrahigh particle collection efficiency was achieved, pressure drop was well controlled, and system operability was excellent. For Phase III, the AHPC was modified into a more compact configuration, and components were installed that were closer to what would be used in a full-scale commercial design. The modified AHPC was operated from April to July 2000. While operational results were acceptable during this time, inspection of bags in the summer of 2000 revealed some membrane damage to the fabric that appeared to be

  18. Countering the Nuclear Terrorist Threat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nuclear/radioactive threat to homeland security posed by terrorists can be broken into four categories. Of highest concern is the use of an improvised nuclear device (IND). An IND, as its name implies, is a nuclear explosive device. It produces nuclear yield, and this nuclear yield has catastrophic effects. An IND is the ultimate terrorist weapon, and terrorist groups are actively attempting to acquire nuclear weapons. Detonation of an IND could dwarf the devastation of the September 11 attack on the World Trade Center. Dealing with the aftermath of an IND would be horrific. Rescue efforts and cleanup would be hazardous and difficult. Workers would have to wear full protection suits and self-contained breathing apparatus. Because of the residual radioactivity, in certain locations they could only work short times before acquiring their ''lifetime'' dose. As with the Chernobyl event, some rescue workers might well expose themselves to lethal doses of radiation, adding to the casualty toll. Enormous volumes of contaminated debris would have to be removed and disposed. If a terrorist group decides not to pursue an actual nuclear device, it might well turn to Radiological Dispersal Devices (RDDs) or ''dirty bombs'' as they are often called. RDDs spread radioactivity but they do not generate nuclear yield. The fabrication of an RDD requires radioactive material and a dispersal mechanism. Radioactive materials are used all over the world for medical, industrial, and research applications. Standards for safe handling and accountability of radioactive material vary around the world. Stories in the press suggest inadequate controls on radiological materials in parts of the world. The effects of an RDD vary widely, and are measured in terms of contamination area, health effects to the exposed population, and economic consequences. Even a negligible, but measurable, exposure would exploit the general public's fear of things radioactive and would have significant

  19. Spacecraft Cabin Particulate Monitor Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to design, build and test an optical extinction monitor for the detection of spacecraft cabin particulates. This monitor will be sensitive to particle...

  20. Spacecraft Cabin Particulate Monitor Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We have built and tested an optical extinction monitor for the detection of spacecraft cabin particulates. This sensor sensitive to particle sizes ranging from a...

  1. Electrically heated particulate filter restart strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI; Ament, Frank [Troy, MI

    2011-07-12

    A control system that controls regeneration of a particulate filter is provided. The system generally includes a propagation module that estimates a propagation status of combustion of particulate matter in the particulate filter. A regeneration module controls current to the particulate filter to re-initiate regeneration based on the propagation status.

  2. Stereotype threat and executive functions: which functions mediate different threat-related outcomes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rydell, Robert J; Van Loo, Katie J; Boucher, Kathryn L

    2014-03-01

    Stereotype threat research shows that women's math performance can be reduced by activating gender-based math stereotypes. Models of stereotype threat assert that threat reduces cognitive functioning, thereby accounting for its negative effects. This work provides a more detailed understanding of the cognitive processes through which stereotype threat leads women to underperform at math and to take risks, by examining which basic executive functions (inhibition, shifting, and updating) account for these outcomes. In Experiments 1 and 2, women under threat showed reduced inhibition, reduced updating, and reduced math performance compared with women in a control condition (or men); however, only updating accounted for women's poor math performance under threat. In Experiment 3, only updating accounted for stereotype threat's effect on women's math performance, whereas only inhibition accounted for the effect of threat on risk-taking, suggesting that distinct executive functions can account for different stereotype threat-related outcomes. PMID:24345711

  3. Chemical characterization of particulate air pollutants Case studies on indoor air quality, cultural heritage and the marine environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horemans, Benjamin

    When attempting to discuss the effects of airborne particulate matter (PM), it is important to address both physical and chemical aspects of this pollutant. This work reports on the results of three separate case studies, each approaching a specific problem of air pollution by evaluating the chemical composition of PM. 1. In the US and Europe, office workers often complain about work-related health symptoms. These symptoms are collectively referred as the 'sick building syndrome'. This work could be considered as one of the largest data collections on particulate pollutants in Belgian offices. It helps to understand the sources as well as the behavior and fate of PM at our workplace environments. Especially the chemical information on PM makes the results unique, since it enables a better evaluation of the health risks connected to office dust. 2. The Alhambra and Generalife bring every year more than 3 million people to Granada in Southern Spain. Recently, the increasing urbanization of Granada and the immense pressure of mass tourism form a threat for this heritage. Despite the fact that atmospheric pollutants are known to he potentially aggressive for our cultural patrimony. this case study is the first to assess the effects of environmental aerosols on the Alhambra monument. The results of this study could help decision-makers at the Alhambra and the city of Granada with the formulation of preventive conservation measures. They show how local vehicular traffic is the main source for atmospheric pollution in and around the Alhambra monument. Targeted strategies are necessary in order to maximally preserve these monuments and their UNESCO world cultural heritage label. 3. Excessive input of nitrogen-containing atmospheric nutrients via dry and wet deposition can cause entrophication of marine regions, which is also a common, seasonal phenomenon along the coasts of the North Sea. This study is the first to give a complete quantitative description of the

  4. Enhanced Memory for both Threat and Neutral Information Under Conditions of Intergroup Threat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong eZhu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Few studies have examined the effect of intergroup threat on cognitive outcomes such as memory. Different theoretical perspectives can inform how intergroup threat should affect memory for threat-relevant and neutral information, such as the mood-congruency approach, Yerkes-Dodson law, Easterbrook’s theory, and also evolutionary perspectives. To test among these, we conducted two experiments to examine how exposure to intergroup threats affected memory compared to control conditions. In study 1, we manipulated symbolic threat and examined participants’ memory for threat and neutral words. In study 2, memory performance was assessed following the induction of realistic threat. Across the studies, in the control condition participants showed better memory for threat-related than neutral information. However, participants under threat remembered neutral information as well as threat-related information. In addition, participants in the threat condition remembered threat-related information as well as participants in the control condition. The findings are discussed in terms of automatic vigilance processes but also the effects of threat on arousal and its effect on information processing. This latter perspective, suggests paradoxically, that under some circumstances involving an outgroup threat, non-threatening information about outgroups can be extensively processed.

  5. Enhanced Memory for both Threat and Neutral Information Under Conditions of Intergroup Threat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yong; Zhao, Yufang; Ybarra, Oscar; Stephan, Walter G; Yang, Qing

    2015-01-01

    Few studies have examined the effect of intergroup threat on cognitive outcomes such as memory. Different theoretical perspectives can inform how intergroup threat should affect memory for threat-relevant and neutral information, such as the mood-congruency approach, Yerkes-Dodson law, Easterbrook's theory, and also evolutionary perspectives. To test among these, we conducted two experiments to examine how exposure to intergroup threats affected memory compared to control conditions. In study 1, we manipulated symbolic threat and examined participants' memory for threat and neutral words. In study 2, memory performance was assessed following the induction of realistic threat. Across the studies, in the control condition participants showed better memory for threat-related than neutral information. However, participants under threat remembered neutral information as well as threat-related information. In addition, participants in the threat condition remembered threat-related information as well as participants in the control condition. The findings are discussed in terms of automatic vigilance processes but also the effects of threat on arousal and its effect on information processing. This latter perspective, suggests paradoxically, that under some circumstances involving an outgroup threat, non-threatening information about outgroups can be extensively processed. PMID:26635669

  6. Chemical characteristic of respirable particulates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Respirable particulates are particulates which having diameter size at 2-5 µm, due to aerodynamically may be inhaled through respiratory tract and having ability to deposit into lungs, causing damage of the alveolar tissues and inducing health problems. Health Department of Bandung have reported that prevalency of acute respiratory tract infection disease having increasing tendency every year. Measurement of PM10 in period of 2002-2005 have done by BPLH Bandung city which pointed that in some places the concentration of PM10 was higher than daily threshold limit values. This research having intend to understand of respirable particulates exposure in society with characterization of chemical materials contained as hazard identification. Location of research have done in four regions of Bandung City. Personal sampler has used for collection of respirable particulates from human breathing zone. Chemical characteristic were done using neutron activation analysis, atomic absorption spectrometer and reflectance methods. The useful of this procedure as the baseline to calculate IEC (Inhalation Exposure Concentration) values for estimate the exposure of respirable particulates which inhaled during period of time. Calculating of IEC is the earlier step from epidemiological study or risk assessment which connecting prevalency of tract respiratory disease with characteristic of respirable particulates. Elements Br, Mn, Al, I, V, Cl, Ti, Na, Hg, Pb, and black carbon (BC), are the elements which identified. The results showed that respirable particulates which inhaled by citizen as receptor at Tegalega, Aria Graha, Dago Pakar, and Cisaranten Wetan are relatively higher than PM2,5 ambient air at the same places. Almost whole of such elements which contained in respirable particulates was found in highest concentration at Cisaranten Wetan. (author)

  7. Real threat of nuclear smuggling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trade in uranium and plutonium during the past five years has given smuggling unprecedented relevance to international security. Yet there is considerable controversy over the threat nuclear smuggling poses. Even though serious efforts are being made to attack the problem at the source, the international community has been slow to respond to the dangers that nuclear smuggling presents. We suggest that systematic multinational measures be taken as soon as possible to inhibit theft at the source, to disrupt trafficking and to deter buyers. The U.S., Germany, Russia and other nations with an interest in the nuclear problem should set up a 'flying squad' with an investigative arm, facilities for counter terrorist and counter extortion actions and a disaster management team. This paper discusses these issues. 3 refs

  8. World's soils are under threat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montanarella, Luca; Pennock, Daniel Jon; McKenzie, Neil; Badraoui, Mohamed; Chude, Victor; Baptista, Isaurinda; Mamo, Tekalign; Yemefack, Martin; Singh Aulakh, Mikha; Yagi, Kazuyuki; Hong, Suk Young; Vijarnsorn, Pisoot; Zhang, Gan-Lin; Arrouays, Dominique; Black, Helaina; Krasilnikov, Pavel; Sobocká, Jaroslava; Alegre, Julio; Henriquez, Carlos Roberto; de Lourdes Mendonça-Santos, Maria; Taboada, Miguel; Espinosa-Victoria, David; AlShankiti, Abdullah; Kazem AlaviPanah, Sayed; El Mustafa Elsheikh, Elsiddig Ahmed; Hempel, Jon; Camps Arbestain, Marta; Nachtergaele, Freddy; Vargas, Ronald

    2016-02-01

    The Intergovernmental Technical Panel on Soils has completed the first State of the World's Soil Resources Report. Globally soil erosion was identified as the gravest threat, leading to deteriorating water quality in developed regions and to lowering of crop yields in many developing regions. We need to increase nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizer use in infertile tropical and semi-tropical soils - the regions where the most food insecurity among us are found - while reducing global use of these products overall. Stores of soil organic carbon are critical in the global carbon balance, and national governments must set specific targets to stabilize or ideally increase soil organic carbon stores. Finally the quality of soil information available for policy formulation must be improved - the regional assessments in the State of the World's Soil Resources Report frequently base their evaluations on studies from the 1990s based on observations made in the 1980s or earlier.

  9. Sensor-guided threat countermeasure system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart, Brent C.; Hackel, Lloyd A.; Hermann, Mark R.; Armstrong, James P.

    2012-12-25

    A countermeasure system for use by a target to protect against an incoming sensor-guided threat. The system includes a laser system for producing a broadband beam and means for directing the broadband beam from the target to the threat. The countermeasure system comprises the steps of producing a broadband beam and directing the broad band beam from the target to blind or confuse the incoming sensor-guided threat.

  10. Beeinflusst Stereotype Threat die Leseleistung von Jungen?

    OpenAIRE

    Eckert, Christine

    2012-01-01

    Ein durchgängiger Befund internationaler Schulleistungsvergleichsstudien bezieht sich auf die niedrigere Lesekompetenz von Jungen im Vergleich zu Mädchen (OECD, 2010). Ziel der vorliegenden Arbeit war, zu prüfen, welchen Einfluss negative Stereotype – im Sinne der Stereotype Threat-Theorie (Steele & Aronson, 1995) – auf die Leseleistung von Jungen haben. Basierend auf Befunden aus der Lese- und Stereotype Threat-Forschung wurde ein Mediator-Moderator-Modell des Stereotype Threat-Effekts (vgl....

  11. Gender, Stereotype Threat and Mathematics Test Scores

    OpenAIRE

    Ming Tsui; Xu, Xiao Y.; Edmond Venator

    2011-01-01

    Problem statement: Stereotype threat has repeatedly been shown to depress womens scores on difficult math tests. An attempt to replicate these findings in China found no support for the stereotype threat hypothesis. Our math test was characterized as being personally important for the student participants, an atypical condition in most stereotype threat laboratory research. Approach: To evaluate the effects of this personal demand, we conducted three experiments. Results: ...

  12. Reaction to New Security Threat Class

    OpenAIRE

    Elovici, Yuval; Rokach, Lior

    2014-01-01

    Each new identified security threat class triggers new research and development efforts by the scientific and professional communities. In this study, we investigate the rate at which the scientific and professional communities react to new identified threat classes as it is reflected in the number of patents, scientific articles and professional publications over a long period of time. The following threat classes were studied: Phishing; SQL Injection; BotNet; Distributed Denial of Service; ...

  13. DOE site-specific threat assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A facility manager faced with the challenges of protecting a nuclear facility against potential threats must consider the likelihood and consequences of such threats, know the capabilities of the facility safeguards and security systems, and make informed decisions about the cost-effectivness of safeguards and security upgrades. To help meet these challenges, the San Francisco Operations Office of the Department of Energy, in conjunction with the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory, has developed a site-specific threat assessment approach and a quantitative model to improve the quality and consistency of site-specific threat assessment and resultant security upgrade decisions at sensitive Department of Energy facilities. 5 figs

  14. Exposure assessment to airborne endotoxin, dust, ammonia, hydrogen sulfide and carbon dioxide in open style swine houses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, C W; Chung, H; Huang, C F; Su, H J

    2001-08-01

    Information is limited for the exposure levels of airborne hazardous substances in swine feed buildings that are not completely enclosed. Open-style breeding, growing and finishing swine houses in six farms in subtropical Taiwan were studied for the airborne concentrations of endotoxin, dust, ammonia, hydrogen sulfide and carbon dioxide. The air in the farrowing and nursery stalls as partially enclosed was also simultaneously evaluated. Three selected gases and airborne dusts were quantified respectively by using Drager diffusion tubes and a filter-weighing method. Endotoxin was analyzed by the Limulus amoebocyte lysate assay. Average concentration of airborne total endotoxin among piggeries was between 36.8 and 298 EU/m(3), while that for respirable endotoxin was 14.1-129 EU/m(3). Mean concentration of total dust was between 0.15 and 0.34 mg/m(3), with average level of respirable dust of 0.14 mg/m(3). The respective concentrations of NH3, CO2 and H2S were less than 5 ppm, 600-895 ppm and less than 0.2 ppm. Airborne concentrations of total dust and endotoxin in the nursery house were higher than in the other types of swine houses. The finishing house presented the highest exposure risk to NH3, CO2 and H2S. Employees working in the finishing stalls were also exposed to the highest airborne levels of respirable endotoxin and dust. On the other hand, the air of the breeding units was the least contaminated in terms of airborne endotoxin, dust, NH3, CO2 and H2S. The airborne concentrations of substances measured in the present study were all lower than most of published studies conducted in mainly enclosed swine buildings. Distinct characteristics, including maintaining swine houses in an open status and frequent spraying water inside the stalls, significantly reduce accumulation of gases and airborne particulates. PMID:11513795

  15. Airborne gamma-ray spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hovgaard, Jens

    A new method - Noise Adjusted Singular Value Decomposition, NASVD - for processing gamma-ray spectra has been developed as part of a Ph.D. project. By using this technique one is able to decompose a large set of data - for example from airborne gamma-ray surveys - into a few spectral components. ...

  16. Advanced Methods for Air Distribution in Occupied Spaces for Reduced Risk from Air-Borne Diseases and Improved Air Quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bolashikov, Zhecho Dimitrov

    airborne pathogens. The threat from possible bio-terrorist attacks in the last decade makes the topic quite important. So far the existing methods of indoor air cleaning rely on several basic strategies: dilution, filtration and Ultra Violet Germicidal Irradiation (UVGI). Dilution utilizes ventilation at...... Ventilation Cleansing Unit (the device is part of a patient application in Europe (EP 09165736.1) and in the United States of America (US 61/226,542). The HBIVCU helped to provide improved protection to doctor and other patients, present in a space, from a sick individual with highly contagious airborne...

  17. Are All Interventions Created Equal? A Multi-Threat Approach to Tailoring Stereotype Threat Interventions

    OpenAIRE

    Shapiro, Jenessa R.; Williams, Amy M.; Hambarchyan, Mariam

    2012-01-01

    To date, stereotype threat interventions have been considered interchangeable. Across 4 experiments, the present research demonstrates that stereotype threat interventions need to be tailored to the specific form of experienced stereotype threat to be effective. The Multi-Threat Framework (Shapiro & Neuberg, 2007) distinguishes between group-as-target stereotype threats—concerns that a stereotype-relevant performance will reflect poorly on the abilities of one’s group—and self-as-target stere...

  18. Enhanced Memory for both Threat and Neutral Information Under Conditions of Intergroup Threat

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Yong; ZHAO Yufang; Ybarra, Oscar; Stephan, Walter G.; Yang, Qing

    2015-01-01

    Few studies have examined the effect of intergroup threat on cognitive outcomes such as memory. Different theoretical perspectives can inform how intergroup threat should affect memory for threat-relevant and neutral information, such as the mood-congruency approach, Yerkes–Dodson law, Easterbrook’s theory, and also evolutionary perspectives. To test among these, we conducted two experiments to examine how exposure to intergroup threats affected memory compared to control conditions. In study...

  19. Particulate matter and health - From air to human lungs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work reports on the environmental influence in the respiratory health of workers exposed to metal pollutants in their labour activities (metal processing industry). The clinical, respiratory functional and morphological changes were related with blood elemental concentrations in order to evaluate the influence of exposure to inhaled metal airborne particles. In addition, the deposition of particulate matter in the respiratory system was assessed in humans and in an animal model to infer possible mechanisms of interaction of metals with the respiratory tissue. The respiratory affections encountered for the exposure group through clinical, functional and morphological data are related with the number of years of exposure and with high levels of Zn in blood. Methodologies applied have into account the quality of results produced. Interlaboratory checks were carried out using certified reference materials and standard procedures were initiated to assure traceability in chemical analysis of biological matrices using analytical techniques based on X ray spectrometry. (author)

  20. Hydrocarbon-enhanced particulate filter regeneration via microwave ignition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonze, Eugene V.; Brown, David B.

    2010-02-02

    A regeneration method for a particulate filter includes estimating a quantity of particulate matter trapped within the particulate filter, comparing the quantity of particulate matter to a predetermined quantity, heating at least a portion of the particulate filter to a combustion temperature of the particulate matter, and introducing hydrocarbon fuel to the particulate filter. The hydrocarbon fuel facilitates combustion of the particulate matter to regenerate the particulate filter.

  1. Impact of the 2002 Canadian Forest Fires on Particulate Matter Air Quality in Baltimore City

    OpenAIRE

    Sapkota, A.; Symons, J. M.; J. Kleissl; Wang, L.; Parlange, M. B.; Ondov, J.; Breysse, P. N.; Diette, G B; Eggleston, P.A.; T. J. Buckley, 2005

    2005-01-01

    With increasing evidence of adverse health effects associated with particulate matter (PM), the exposure impact of natural sources, such as forest fires, has substantial public health relevance. In addition to the threat to nearby communities, pollutants released from forest fires can travel thousands of kilometers to heavily populated urban areas. There was a dramatic increase in forest fire activity in the province of Quebec, Canada, during July 2002. The transport of PM released from these...

  2. Game Theoretic Risk Analysis of Security Threats

    CERN Document Server

    Bier, Vicki M

    2008-01-01

    Introduces reliability and risk analysis in the face of threats by intelligent agents. This book covers applications to networks, including problems in both telecommunications and transportation. It provides a set of tools for applying game theory TO reliability problems in the presence of intentional, intelligent threats

  3. The Smallpox Threat: The School Nurse's Role

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Mary E.; Didion, Judy

    2003-01-01

    Today, with the threat of bioterrorism and war, there is a new dimension to the traditional role of the school nurse. The smallpox threat to public health will invoke the school nurse's role as an educator, liaison, and consultant in the community. This article discusses smallpox, the vaccination process, adverse effects, and postvaccination care.…

  4. Gender, Stereotype Threat and Mathematics Test Scores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Tsui

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Stereotype threat has repeatedly been shown to depress women’s scores on difficult math tests. An attempt to replicate these findings in China found no support for the stereotype threat hypothesis. Our math test was characterized as being personally important for the student participants, an atypical condition in most stereotype threat laboratory research. Approach: To evaluate the effects of this personal demand, we conducted three experiments. Results: Experiment 1, where in Chinese students were tested with the added independent variable of test importance. Our results produced only marginally significant stereotype threat effects. Experiment 2, a replication of experiment 1, yielded completely different results, with no threat effects at all. Math-test scores were significantly higher in the threat condition for both men and women, consistent with the phenomena of stereotype lift and stereotype reactance. Experiment 3, which did not include the test-important variable, yielded no significant effects. Conclusion: Stereotype threat, in the mathematics domain, does not seem to be a problem for women in China. We discuss our results in terms of factors which moderate stereotype threat and societal differences in the U.S. and China.

  5. Development of the Academic Stereotype Threat Inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pseekos, A. Chantelle; Dahlen, Eric R.; Levy, Jacob J.

    2008-01-01

    The authors describe the development and preliminary validation of the Academic Stereotype Threat Inventory, a self-report measurement of math-related stereotype threat among women. A preliminary version of the instrument was administered to 308 undergraduate women. Principal component analysis yielded a 3-factor solution. Convergent and…

  6. Stereotype Threat, Identity Salience, and Spatial Reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGlone, Matthew S.; Aronson, Joshua

    2006-01-01

    Stereotype threat research provides insight into how the low standardized test scores of students from stigmatized social groups may derive in part from the negative performance expectations about these groups. Because these students belong to many social groups, one means of mitigating the threat is to remind them of their membership in groups…

  7. How you perceive threat determines your behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane Volchan

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The prioritization of processing emotional stimuli usually produces deleterious effects on task performance when it distracts from a task. One common explanation is that brain resources are consumed by emotional stimuli, diverting resources away from executing the task. Viewing unpleasant stimuli also generates defensive reactions, and these responses may be at least partially responsible for the effect of the emotional modulation observed in various reaction time (RT paradigms. We investigated whether modulatory effects on RT vary if we presented threat stimuli to prompt different defensive responses. To trigger different responses, we manipulated threat perception by moving the direction of threatening stimuli. Threatening or neutral stimuli were presented as distractors during a bar orientation discrimination task. The results demonstrated that threat stimuli directed towards the observer produced a decrease in RT; in contrast, threat stimuli directed away from the observer produced an increase in RT, when compared to neutral stimuli. Accelerated RT during direct threat stimuli was attributed to increased motor preparation resulting from strong activation of the defense response cascade. In contrast, no direct threat stimuli likely activated the defense cascade, but less intensively, prompting immobility. Different threat stimuli produced varying effects, which was interpreted as evidence that the modulation of RT by emotional stimuli represents the summation of attentional and motivational effects. Additionally, participants who had been previously exposed to diverse types of violent crime were more strongly influenced by direct threat stimuli. In sum, our data support the concept that emotions are indeed action tendencies.

  8. The Nature of the Bioterrorism Threat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Regens, J. L.

    2003-02-25

    This analysis provides an overview of the nature of the bioterrorism threat. It identifies potential CDC Class A biological agents that are likely candidates for use in a terrorist incident and describes the known sources of vulnerability. The paper also summarizes S&T resources/needs and assesses response options for achieving effective biodefense against terrorist threats.

  9. In Brief: Forecasting meningitis threats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showstack, Randy

    2008-12-01

    The University Corporation for Atmospheric Research (UCAR), in conjunction with a team of health and weather organizations, has launched a project to provide weather forecasts to medical officials in Africa to help reduce outbreaks of meningitis. The forecasts will enable local health care providers to target vaccination programs more effectively. In 2009, meteorologists with the National Center for Atmospheric Research, which is managed by UCAR, will begin issuing 14-day forecasts of atmospheric conditions in Ghana. Later, UCAR plans to work closely with health experts from several African countries to design and test a decision support system to provide health officials with useful meteorological information. ``By targeting forecasts in regions where meningitis is a threat, we may be able to help vulnerable populations. Ultimately, we hope to build on this project and provide information to public health programs battling weather-related diseases in other parts of the world,'' said Rajul Pandya, director of UCAR's Community Building Program. Funding for the project comes from a $900,000 grant from Google.org, the philanthropic arm of the Internet search company.

  10. [Counterfeit medicines: a growing threat].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbereau, S

    2006-12-01

    The medical drug market has undergone considerable transformation in recent years. Like other products, medicines have been affected by globalization. Free trade policies have had a number of negative effects including a reduction in quality control not only for some products but also for raw materials and finished products. The global environment has also created conditions conducive to counterfeit medicines. The term counterfeit medicine is defined differently from one country to another in terms of quality, legality and fraudulent intent. This situation prompted the WHO to propose the following definition: "A counterfeit medicine is one which is deliberately and fraudulently mislabeled with respect to identity and/or source. Counterfeiting can apply to both branded and generic products and counterfeit products may include products with the correct ingredients or with the wrong ingredients, without active ingredients, with insufficient active ingredients or with fake packaging." Weak pharmaceutical regulation often compounded by widespread corruption in developing countries has greatly facilitated the development of this illicit market with harmful and costly effects on public health. Due to the lack of pharmocovigilance accidents involving use of counterfeit drugs go unreported. For this reason it is not possible to measure the economic impact. While counterfeiting has become a major threat in developing countries, it also affects industrialized countries. Fraudulent behavior occurs all over the world. PMID:17286014

  11. Airborne polarized lidar detection of scattering layers in the ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasilkov, A P; Goldin, Y A; Gureev, B A; Hoge, F E; Swift, R N; Wright, C W

    2001-08-20

    A polarized lidar technique based on measurements of waveforms of the two orthogonal-polarized components of the backscattered light pulse is proposed to retrieve vertical profiles of the seawater scattering coefficient. The physical rationale for the polarized technique is that depolarization of backscattered light originating from a linearly polarized laser beam is caused largely by multiple small-angle scattering from particulate matter in seawater. The magnitude of the small-angle scattering is determined by the scattering coefficient. Therefore information on the vertical distribution of the scattering coefficient can be derived potentially from measurements of the time-depth dependence of depolarization in the backscattered laser pulse. The polarized technique was verified by field measurements conducted in the Middle Atlantic Bight of the western North Atlantic Ocean that were supported by in situ measurements of the beam attenuation coefficient. The airborne polarized lidar measured the time-depth dependence of the backscattered laser pulse in two orthogonal-polarized components. Vertical profiles of the scattering coefficient retrieved from the time-depth depolarization of the backscattered laser pulse were compared with measured profiles of the beam attenuation coefficient. The comparison showed that retrieved profiles of the scattering coefficient clearly reproduce the main features of the measured profiles of the beam attenuation coefficient. Underwater scattering layers were detected at depths of 20-25 m in turbid coastal waters. The improvement in dynamic range afforded by the polarized lidar technique offers a strong potential benefit for airborne lidar bathymetric applications. PMID:18360476

  12. Airborne atmospheric monitoring system proposed configuration and capability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    EG and G/EM has been tasked to develop an aerial measuring system for monitoring airborne radiation material. The Airborne Atmospheric Monitoring Systems (AAMS) will provide the DOE with a credible emergency response to situations such as Three Mile Island or the Baneberry venting. A study to establish measurement requirements and to review current technology has been completed. Present work focuses on design details of the AAMS. This section reviews the capabilities, configuration, and instrumentation of the system. The concept being developed provides the following capabilities: (1) identification of gamma and alpha emitting radionuclides; (2) particulate sampling; (3) measurement of alpha, beta, and gamma emitter concentrations (including iodine); (4) measurement of gamma exposure rate; (5) estimates of alpha and beta exposure rates; (6) whole gas sampling; and (7) mapping and tracking of radioactive clouds or plumes. A Convair 580 will be used as an aerial platform. A subset of these capabilities and the required instrumentation can be provided for use on any helicopter or aircraft

  13. Airborne Measurements of Coarse Mode Aerosol Composition and Abundance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froyd, K. D.; Murphy, D. M.; Brock, C. A.; Ziemba, L. D.; Anderson, B. E.; Wilson, J. C.

    2015-12-01

    Coarse aerosol particles impact the earth's radiative balance by direct scattering and absorption of light and by promoting cloud formation. Modeling studies suggest that coarse mode mineral dust and sea salt aerosol are the dominant contributors to aerosol optical depth throughout much of the globe. Lab and field studies indicate that larger aerosol particles tend to be more efficient ice nuclei, and recent airborne measurements confirm the dominant role of mineral dust on cirrus cloud formation. However, our ability to simulate coarse mode particle abundance in large scale models is limited by a lack of validating measurements above the earth's surface. We present airborne measurements of coarse mode aerosol abundance and composition over several mid-latitude, sub-tropical, and tropical regions from the boundary layer to the stratosphere. In the free troposphere the coarse mode constitutes 10-50% of the total particulate mass over a wide range of environments. Above North America mineral dust typically dominates the coarse mode, but biomass burning particles and sea salt also contribute. In remote environments coarse mode aerosol mainly consists of internally mixed sulfate-organic particles. Both continental and marine convection can enhance coarse aerosol mass through direct lofting of primary particles and by secondary accumulation of aerosol material through cloud processing.

  14. The Threat of Terrorist Organizations in Cyberspace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabi Siboni

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the threat of terrorism in cyberspace and examines the truth of the perceptions of this threat that have formed in recent years. It examines the capabilities that a non-state actor can achieve and whether these can constitute a real threat to the national security of states. For an analysis of the main threats facing a state from a multi-year perspective and in light of anticipated changes in a state’s strategic balance, the factors that threaten the state are presented and the roots of the threat are identified. The article thus examines whether terrorism, whose impact is generally tactical, could make (or perhaps has already made the transition to a cyber weapon capability with strategic impact. Specifically, the question is could terrorists develop cyber weapon capabilities that could inflict widespread damage or damage over time, of the sort that brings states to their knees and causes critical systems to crash.

  15. Insider threat to secure facilities: data analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-12-07

    This report is the culmination of a project in which data from several industries confronting internal security threats were collected and analyzed. The industries and threats involved are deemed to be analogous in one or more respects to potential threats confronting decision makers in the nuclear industry. The analog internal threats consist of bank frauds and embezzlements over $10,000, computer crimes of various types and insider drug thefts from drug manufactures and distributors. These data have been subjected to careful analysis utilizing both descriptive and formal statistical techniques. A number of findings are quite suggestive as to the general nature of the internal threat and are discussed and interpreted in terms of thenuclear industry analogy.

  16. Chemical characterization of urban air particulate matter of Kuala Lumpur 2002-2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urban air particulate samples of Kuala Lumpur ambient air have been collected characterize according to fine and coarse airborne particulates. The air filters containing particulate matter were collected using GENT stack filter unit fitted with appropriate polycarbonate filters. The sampling location site (Lat: 03deg 10'30''; Long: 101deg 43'24.2'') is approximately 1 km from the Kuala Lumpur city center. All the sampling conducted from January 2002 until October 2004 was included in the analysis and results were reported. The mass loading for finest air particulate matter (PM 2.5) in Kuala Lumpur are 199±55 μg (2002), 171±53 μg (2003), and 171±61 μg (2004), respectively. The mass loading for coarse air particulate matter (PM 10) in Kuala Lumpur were 125±29 μg (2002), 134±48 μg (2003), and 137 ± 57 μg (2004), respectively. The elemental concentration of the air filters were determined using INAA technique utilizing both short and long irradiation facilities at MINT's TRIGA MKII reactor. Upon irradiation the air filters were counted at suitable counting time using HPGe gamma-ray detectors. The elements reported for this monitoring are Al, As, Br, Co, Cr, K, Lu, Mn, Na, Sb, Sc, Ti, V, and Zn. Certified reference materials were also included in the sample analysis function as quality control materials. (author)

  17. Les effets environnementaux des particules

    OpenAIRE

    Brignon, Jean-Marc

    2003-01-01

    En dehors de leur effet sur la santé humaine, les particules interviennent dans de nombreuses problématiques environnementales, dont le changement climatique, la formation d'ozone troposphérique, la réduction de la visibilité, et les régimes hydrologiques. L'effet des particules en termes de changement climatique est complexe et emprunte plusieurs voies. Il se traduit par des effets opposés de réchauffement ou de refroidissement de l'atmosphère, notamment selon la composition chimique des par...

  18. The threat of nuclear terrorism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: There have always been enormous gaps between the potential of a weapon and the abilities and/or the will to employ it by terrorists. New means and methods of violence with unknown outcomes could be less appealing for sub-national groups. Conventional 'off the shelf' weaponry is thus likely to remain the major tools for traditional terrorists. However, the analysis show that while the risk of nuclear terrorism may be remote, it should not and cannot be excluded. Rigorous standards and means the protection, control and accounting of fissile materials are thus needed. 'Nuclear terrorism' can be defined as acts of violence and destruction where the means applied are nuclear devices, or threats of use of such means, to create a condition of fear, to get attention, or to blackmail to have wider effect on others than the directly targeted victim(s). Nuclear terrorism is a subset of radiological terrorism, were the means (or threats) applied are radioactive substances. While being distinctly dissimilar in terms of technical approaches and damage potentials, many of the features with regards to public threat perception are likely to be similar. No non-state actors have ever deployed or used a nuclear device, and the number of (publicly known) nuclear bomb treats has been limited. However, there is a disturbing interest among some terrorist organizations in acquiring nuclear weapon capabilities, probably for tactical purposes. The biological and chemical programs of the Japanese 'Aum Shinrikyo' cult that culminated in the Tokyo metro attack is highly publicized. Less well-known is the nuclear weapon program of the group. Nuclear material was acquired from the sect's properties in Australia and markets were explored to purchase nuclear technology via straw trading companies. Another highly profiled terrorist group with obvious nuclear intentions is the 'Al- Qa'ida', the group of bin Laden. The recent trail for the bombings of the U.S. embassies in Nairobi, Kenya

  19. The distribution features of the airborne fine particulate matter (PM2.5) ingredients and source analysis in Urumqi%乌鲁木齐市大气细颗粒物(PM2.5)污染成分特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    玛依热·热夏提; 晓开提·依不拉音; 康宏; 徐涛; 纪元

    2016-01-01

    目的:分析研究乌鲁木齐市2014-2015年空气大气细颗粒物(PM2.5)样品中主要的重金属和离子的浓度及分布特征。方法利用智能大流量PM2.5空气颗粒物采样器采集61个大气细颗粒物样品,对其主要的重金属和阴离子浓度的分布特征进行研究分析。结果所采集的样品中 PM2.5超标率高达100%,且采暖期 PM2.5浓度高于非采暖期。成分分析发现 Na、K、Mg、Ca、Pb、Zn、Fe 和 Cu 是 PM2.5中主要的重金属污染物,其中 Na、Mg、Ca、Zn、Fe 5种重金属相对比较固定,且所占比例最高,占总成分的90%以上。非采暖期这5种重金属污染浓度依次为Ca>Fe>Zn>Mg>Na;采暖期为 Ca>Zn>Fe>Na>Mg。PM2.5中的主要阴离子为 F-、Cl-、NO-3和SO2-4。在不同月份检测的细颗粒物阴离子中,不同阴离子所占比例相对比较稳定,且均为 SO2-4>NO-3>Cl->F-。结论乌鲁木齐市大气污染浓度较高,大气中 PM2.5超标严重。污染来源主要与交通尾气排放和含硫燃煤的燃烧有关,应加强大气中PM2.5污染的治理。%Objective To investigate the space distribution features of major heavy metals and ions as well as their concentration in atmospheric fine particles (PM2.5 )by collecting samples of atmospheric fine parti-cles (PM2.5 )in Urumqi from 2014 to 2015.Methods 63 atmospheric fine particle samples were collected by using TH-1000CII type intelligent flow PM2.5 particulate air sampler.Results Firstly,among the sam-ples of atmospheric fine particles (PM2.5 ),the over standard rate reaches 100%.Secondly,the concentra-tions of the atmospheric fine particles (PM2.5 )was higher in heating period than that in non-heating period. Thirdly,the results showed that Na,K,Mg,Ca,Pb,Zn,Fe and Cu are the main pollution elements of PM2.5 .Among those mental pollutants,Na,Mg,Ca,Zn and Fe were relatively fixed and they had the highest proportion

  20. Occupational exposure to airborne chemical substances in paintings conservators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Jeżewska

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: This paper presents the results of the quantitative study of the airborne chemical substances detected in the conservator's work environment. Material and Methods: The quantitative tests were carried out in 6 museum easel paintings conservation studios. The air test samples were taken at various stages of restoration works, such as cleaning, doubling, impregnation, varnishing, retouching, just to name a few. The chemical substances in the sampled air were measured by the GC-FID (gas chromatography with flame ionization detector test method. Results: The study results demonstrated that concentrations of airborne substances, e.g., toluene, 1,4-dioxane, turpentine and white spirit in the work environment of paintings conservators exceeded the values allowed by hygiene standards. It was found that exposure levels to the same chemical agents, released during similar activities, varied for different paintings conservation studios. It is likely that this discrepancy resulted from the indoor air exchange system for a given studio (e.g. type of ventilation and its efficiency, the size of the object under maintenance, and also from the methodology and protection used by individual employees. Conclusions: The levels of organic solvent vapors, present in the workplace air in the course of painting conservation, were found to be well above the occupational exposure limits, thus posing a threat to the worker's health. Med Pr 2014;65(1:33–41

  1. Airborne Ultrasonic Tactile Display BCI

    OpenAIRE

    Hamada, Katsuhiko; Mori, Hiromu; Shinoda, Hiroyuki; Rutkowski, Tomasz M.

    2015-01-01

    This chapter presents results of our project, which studied whether contactless and airborne ultrasonic tactile display (AUTD) stimuli delivered to a user's palms could serve as a platform for a brain computer interface (BCI) paradigm. We used six palm positions to evoke combined somatosensory brain responses to implement a novel contactless tactile BCI. This achievement was awarded the top prize in the Annual BCI Research Award 2014 competition. This chapter also presents a comparison with a...

  2. Particulate Emission Abatement for Krakow Boilerhouses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Environmental clean-up and pollution control are considered the foremost national priorities in Poland. The target of this cleanup is the Polish coal industry, which supplies the fuel to generate over 78% of Poland's primary energy production. This project addresses the problem of airborne dust and uncontrolled particulate emissions from boilerhouses, which represent a large fraction of the total in Poland. In Krakow alone, there are more than 2,000 uncontrolled boilers accounting for about half the total fuel use. The large number of low-capacity boilers poses both technical and economic challenges, since the cost of control equipment is a significant factor in the reduction of emissions. A new concept in dust collection, called a Core Separator, is proposed for this important application. The Core Separator is an advanced technology developed through research sponsored by the Department of Energy. It utilizes a highly efficient collector, which functions on the principle of inertial separation. The system is able to control fine particulate matter, as in the PMIO regulations, which limit the emission of dust particles below 10 microns in diameter. Its dust removal performance has been shown to be comparable to that of a medium-efficiency electrostatic precipitator (ESP). Yet, its cost is substantially lower than that of either an ESP or fabric filter. While the Core Separator achieves high efficiency, its power consumption is just slightly higher than that of a cyclone. It functions dry and without the aid of energy-consuming enhancements. It is simple, reliable, and unlike the ESP and fabric filter, easy to maintain. This combination of features make it ideal for the small boiler market in the City of Krakow. A highly qualified team has been assembled to execute this project. LSR Technologies, Inc., a technology-based company located in Acton, Massachusetts, is the developer of the Core Separator and holder of its patent rights. LSR has sold several of these

  3. CDC WONDER: Daily Fine Particulate Matter

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Daily Fine Particulate Matter data available on CDC WONDER are geographically aggregated daily measures of fine particulate matter in the outdoor air, spanning...

  4. NASA Student Airborne Research Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaller, E. L.; Shetter, R. E.

    2012-12-01

    The NASA Student Airborne Research Program (SARP) is a unique summer internship program for advanced undergraduates and early graduate students majoring in the STEM disciplines. SARP participants acquire hands-on research experience in all aspects of an airborne research campaign, including flying onboard an major NASA resource used for studying Earth system processes. In summer 2012, thirty-two participants worked in four interdisciplinary teams to study surface, atmospheric, and oceanographic processes. Participants assisted in the operation of instruments onboard the NASA P-3B aircraft where they sampled and measured atmospheric gases and imaged land and water surfaces in multiple spectral bands. Along with airborne data collection, students participated in taking measurements at field sites. Mission faculty and research mentors helped to guide participants through instrument operation, sample analysis, and data reduction. Over the eight-week program, each student developed an individual research project from the data collected and delivered a conference-style final presentation on his/her results. We will discuss the results and effectiveness of the program from the first four summers and discuss plans for the future.

  5. Insider threat to secure facilities: data analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three data sets drawn from industries that have experienced internal security breaches are analyzed. The industries and the insider security breaches are considered analogous in one or more respects to insider threats potentially confronting managers in the nuclear industry. The three data sets are: bank fraud and embezzlement (BF and E), computer-related crime, and drug theft from drug manufacturers and distributors. A careful analysis by both descriptive and formal statistical techniques permits certain general conclusions on the internal threat to secure industries to be drawn. These conclusions are discussed and related to the potential insider threat in the nuclear industry. 49 tabs

  6. THE BIOTERRORISM THREAT: TECHNOLOGICAL AND POLITICAL CONSIDERATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. F. PILAT

    2000-03-01

    Bioterrorism--along with biowarfare, from which it may not always be distinguishable in practice--will be a feature of the strategic landscape in the 21st century and is high on the US national security agenda. Bioterrorism poses a potential threat to the US population, agriculture, interests, friends and allies, and military forces (asymmetric threats). Yet these possibilities have not been widely pursued or realized by terrorists. The perceived threat is far worse than anything experienced to date, and is largely technologically driven.

  7. Transport phenomena in particulate systems

    CERN Document Server

    Freire, José Teixeira; Ferreira, Maria do Carmo

    2012-01-01

    This volume spans 10 chapters covering different aspects of transport phenomena including fixed and fluidized systems, spouted beds, electrochemical and wastewater treatment reactors. This e-book will be valuable for students, engineers and researchers aiming to keep updated on the latest developments on particulate systems.

  8. Sea Level Threat in Tuvalu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Than Aung

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Recently the impacts of climate change, in particular, sea level rise, had been a major concern for many Pacific island countries. In early 2000, there were a series of media coverage over sea level rise issues using Tuvalu as an example. The daily life of Tuvalu revolves around the ocean and the immediate threat on the islands people, economy, environment and its islands is of concern to the Tuvalu government. The Tuvalu government has concluded that Tuvalu was destined to become the first nation to be sunk by global warming because it is one of the smallest and lowest-lying countries in the world. Approach: In this study, sea level data from the Australian project will be focussed on despite the fact that the length of data is not sufficiently long. The AusAID funded South Pacific Sea Level and climate monitoring project was set up in response to concerns raised by Pacific island countries over the potential impacts of an enhanced greenhouse effect on climate and sea levels in the South Pacific for 20 years. Results: Based upon the 15½ years of sea level data from the project, the sea level rise rate in Tuvalu as at september 2008 was 5.9 mM year-1. This was about four times higher than the global average of 1-2 mm year-1. Sea level in the Tuvalu area had risen approximately 9.14 cm since the inception of the project 15½ years ago. However, it was to be noted that the land is quite stable and the rate of land sinking is -0.06 mM year-1 only. Accordingly, there was no significant impact on the sea level trends. Conclusion: Although the data length is just over 15 years, the sea level trend values do not fluctuate significantly since 1999. It simply indicated that the rate of sea level rise in the Tuvalu region was not accelerating as anticipated by the community.

  9. Monitoring and evaluation techniques for airborne contamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xia Yihua [China Inst. of Atomic Energy, Beijing (China)

    1997-06-01

    Monitoring and evaluation of airborne contamination are of great importance for the purpose of protection of health and safety of workers in nuclear installations. Because airborne contamination is one of the key sources to cause exposure to individuals by inhalation and digestion, and to cause diffusion of contaminants in the environment. The main objectives of monitoring and evaluation of airborne contamination are: to detect promptly a loss of control of airborne material, to help identify those individuals and predict exposure levels, to assess the intake and dose commitment to the individuals, and to provide sufficient documentation of airborne radioactivity. From the viewpoint of radiation protection, the radioactive contaminants in air can be classified into the following types: airborne aerosol, gas and noble gas, and volatile gas. In this paper, the following items are described: sampling methods and techniques, measurement and evaluation, and particle size analysis. (G.K.)

  10. Direct Measurement of Atmospheric Ammonia from an Airborne Miniature Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometer (miniCIMS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casados, K.; Schill, S.; Freeman, S.; Zoerb, M.; Bertram, T. H.; Lefer, B. L.

    2015-12-01

    Ammonia is emitted into the atmosphere from a variety of sources such as trees, ocean, diary fields, biomass burning, and fuel emissions. Previous studies have investigated the environmental impacts of atmospheric ammonia which can include chemical reactivity, nucleation of fine particulate matter 2.5 (PM 2.5 ), and implications for human health, but its chemical nature and relatively short lifetime make direct measurement of atmospheric ammonia difficult. During the 2015 NASA Student Airborne Research Program (SARP) an airborne miniature Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometer (miniCIMS) was deployed on the NASA DC-8 flying laboratory in the Southern California region. The spatial and temporal variability of measured atmospheric ammonia concentrations will be discussed.

  11. Airborne lidar measurements of smoke plume distribution, vertical transmission, and particle size

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Observations were made of a dense smoke plume downwind from a forest using the ALPHA-1 two-wavelength downward-looking airborne lidar system. Facsimile displays derived from lidar signatures depict plume dimensions, boundary layer height, and underlying terrain elevation. Surface returns are interpreted in terms of vertical transmissions as function of cross-plume distance. Results show significantly greater plume attenuation at 0.53-μm wavelength than at 1.06-μm, indicating approx.0.1-μm mean particle diameters of the presence of gaseous constituents that absorb the visible radiation. These results demonstrate the potential of multiple-wavelength airborne lidar for quantitative analysis of atmospheric particulate and gaseous constituents

  12. Acid Rain: The Silent Environmental Threat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zmud, Mia

    1992-01-01

    Describes the silent environmental threat posed by acid rain. Caused mainly by manmade pollutants, acid rain damages water and trees, decreases visibility, corrodes monuments, and threatens public health. The article includes guidelines for action. (SM)

  13. Heat Waves Pose Big Health Threats

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_159744.html Heat Waves Pose Big Health Threats Kids, elderly among those ... can be inherently dangerous, but the initial heat waves every summer can be particularly perilous to those ...

  14. Cyber Threats In Social Networking Websites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wajeb Ghari

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available A social network is a social structure made up of individuals or organizations called nodes, which areconnected by one or more specific types of interdependency, such as friendship, common interest, and exchange of finance, relationships of beliefs, knowledge or prestige. A cyber threat can be both unintentional and intentional, targeted or non targeted, and it can come from a variety of sources, including foreign nations engaged in espionage and information warfare, criminals, hackers, virus writers, disgruntled employees and contractors working within an organization. Social networking sitesare not only to communicate or interact with other people globally, but also one effective way for business promotion. In this paper, we investigate and study the cyber threats in social networking websites. We go through the amassing history of online social websites, classify their types and also discuss the cyber threats, suggest the anti-threats strategies and visualize the future trends of such hoppy popular websites.

  15. Cyber threats in social networking websites

    CERN Document Server

    Gharibi, Wajeb

    2012-01-01

    A social network is a social structure made up of individuals or organizations called nodes, which are connected by one or more specific types of interdependency, such as friendship, common interest, and exchange of finance, relationships of beliefs, knowledge or prestige. A cyber threat can be both unintentional and intentional, targeted or non targeted, and it can come from a variety of sources, including foreign nations engaged in espionage and information warfare, criminals, hackers, virus writers, disgruntled employees and contractors working within an organization. Social networking sites are not only to communicate or interact with other people globally, but also one effective way for business promotion. In this paper, we investigate and study the cyber threats in social networking websites. We go through the amassing history of online social websites, classify their types and also discuss the cyber threats, suggest the anti-threats strategies and visualize the future trends of such hoppy popular websi...

  16. Counter-terrorism threat prediction architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehman, Lynn A.; Krause, Lee S.

    2004-09-01

    This paper will evaluate the feasibility of constructing a system to support intelligence analysts engaged in counter-terrorism. It will discuss the use of emerging techniques to evaluate a large-scale threat data repository (or Infosphere) and comparing analyst developed models to identify and discover potential threat-related activity with a uncertainty metric used to evaluate the threat. This system will also employ the use of psychological (or intent) modeling to incorporate combatant (i.e. terrorist) beliefs and intent. The paper will explore the feasibility of constructing a hetero-hierarchical (a hierarchy of more than one kind or type characterized by loose connection/feedback among elements of the hierarchy) agent based framework or "family of agents" to support "evidence retrieval" defined as combing, or searching the threat data repository and returning information with an uncertainty metric. The counter-terrorism threat prediction architecture will be guided by a series of models, constructed to represent threat operational objectives, potential targets, or terrorist objectives. The approach would compare model representations against information retrieved by the agent family to isolate or identify patterns that match within reasonable measures of proximity. The central areas of discussion will be the construction of an agent framework to search the available threat related information repository, evaluation of results against models that will represent the cultural foundations, mindset, sociology and emotional drive of typical threat combatants (i.e. the mind and objectives of a terrorist), and the development of evaluation techniques to compare result sets with the models representing threat behavior and threat targets. The applicability of concepts surrounding Modeling Field Theory (MFT) will be discussed as the basis of this research into development of proximity measures between the models and result sets and to provide feedback in support of model

  17. Accident Generated Particulate Materials and Their Characteristics -- A Review of Background Information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutter, S. L.

    1982-05-01

    Safety assessments and environmental impact statements for nuclear fuel cycle facilities require an estimate of the amount of radioactive particulate material initially airborne (source term) during accidents. Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) has surveyed the literature, gathering information on the amount and size of these particles that has been developed from limited experimental work, measurements made from operational accidents, and known aerosol behavior. Information useful for calculating both liquid and powder source terms is compiled in this report. Potential aerosol generating events discussed are spills, resuspension, aerodynamic entrainment, explosions and pressurized releases, comminution, and airborne chemical reactions. A discussion of liquid behavior in sprays, sparging, evaporation, and condensation as applied to accident situations is also included.

  18. Monitoring the distribution and dynamics of an invasive grass in tropical savanna using airborne LiDAR

    OpenAIRE

    Levick, Shaun R.; Setterfield, Samantha A.; Rossiter-Rachor, Natalie A.; Hutley, Lindsay B; Damien MacMaster; Jorg M. Hacker

    2015-01-01

    The spread of an alien invasive grass (gamba grass—Andropogon gayanus) in the tropical savannas of Northern Australia is a major threat to habitat quality and biodiversity in the region, primarily through its influence on fire intensity. Effective control and eradication of this invader requires better insight into its spatial distribution and rate of spread to inform management actions. We used full-waveform airborne LiDAR to map areas of known A. gayanus invasion in the Batchelor region of ...

  19. Reducing stereotype threat by blurring intergroup boundaries.

    OpenAIRE

    Rosenthal, H. E. S.; Crisp, R. J.

    2006-01-01

    The authors aimed to establish whether interventions designed to reduce intergroup bias could be applied to the stereotype threat domain. In three experiments, the hypothesis was tested that blurring intergroup boundaries would reduce stereotype threat. In the first study, it was found that female participants who thought about characteristics shared between the genders tended to show less preference for stereotypical female careers than did participants in the baseline condition. In. Experim...

  20. Stereotype Threat and the Student-Athlete

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas S. Dee

    2009-01-01

    Achievement gaps may reflect the cognitive impairment thought to occur in evaluative settings (e.g., classrooms) where a stereotyped identity is salient (i.e., stereotype threat). This study presents an economic model of stereotype threat that reconciles prior evidence on how student effort and performance are influenced by this social-identity phenomenon. This study also presents empirical evidence from a laboratory experiment in which students at a selective college were randomly assigned t...

  1. Environmental Health: Threats and their Interactions

    OpenAIRE

    Holdstock, Douglas

    2008-01-01

    Improvements in the provision of an acceptable standard of health care, particularly in the developing world, will be undermined by three ongoing processes: ongoing armed conflicts; the threat of global warming due to rising levels of greenhouse gases, particularly carbon dioxide emitted by developed countries; and by rapidly rising populations. The key features of these three threats are summarised, and it is shown that interactions between them increase both the likelihood of their occurren...

  2. Contemporary terrorism as a global threat

    OpenAIRE

    Smolarek, Mirosław; Żuber, Marian

    2013-01-01

    Terrorism has been present in human history since ancient times, but it was not considered a serious threat for global security. The attacks on the World Trade Center have demonstrated that it is a threat of a global nature. It is an effective weapon used by the "weaker" against the stronger opponents. The subject of terrorism is very complex, difficult and elusive. There is a divergence among the scholars in understanding terrorism studies due to the lack of uniform criteria for the deter...

  3. WIRELESS NETWORKS: DEVELOPMENTS, THREATS AND COUNTERMEASURES

    OpenAIRE

    Mardiana Mohamad Noor; Wan Haslina Hassan

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses current threats in wireless networks and some academia research reviews regarding the matters. Significant and persistent threats discussed are sniffing, Man In the Middle Attack (MITM), Rogue Access Points (RAP), Denial Of Services (DoS) and social engineering attacks. Some current developments of wireless communication technology such as short range communication, cloud computing, bring your own device policy (BYOD), devices tethering and convergences of WiFi and cellul...

  4. Security Solutions against Computer Networks Threats

    OpenAIRE

    Fatemeh Soleimani Roozbahani; Reihaneh Azad

    2015-01-01

    The spread of information networks in communities and organizations have led to a daily huge volume of information exchange between different networks which, of course, has resulted in new threats to the national organizations. It can be said that information security has become today one of the most challenging areas. In other words, defects and disadvantages of computer network security address irreparable damage for enterprises. Therefore, identification of security threats and ways of dea...

  5. Intervention study of airborne fungal spora in homes with portable HEPA filtration units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheong, C D; Neumeister-Kemp, H G; Dingle, P W; Hardy, G St J

    2004-11-01

    The concentrations and composition of airborne fungal spores in homes fitted with portable HEPA filtration units were examined to provide information to evaluate the importance of varying levels of fungal spores in residential environments in Perth, Australia. A novel method for simulating activity/impaction on carpeted environments was also investigated. Reductions in fungal (35%) and particulate (38%) levels were achieved in the air filter homes. Penicillium, Cladosporium and yeasts were the most common and widespread fungi recovered indoors and outdoors. Fungal range decreased over the study period but this could be due to an overall reduced dissemination of spores (less spores in the air). PMID:15536499

  6. Biomass Burning Airborne and Spaceborne Experiment in the Amazonas (BASE-A)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, Y. J.; Setzer, A.; Ward, D.; Tanre, D.; Holben, B. N.; Menzel, P.; Pereira, M. C.; Rasmussen, R.

    1992-01-01

    Results are presented on measurements of the trace gas and particulate matter emissions due to biomass burning during deforestation and grassland fires in South America, conducted as part of the Biomass Burning Airborne and Spaceborne Experiment in the Amazonas in September 1989. Field observations by an instrumented aircraft were used to estimate concentrations of O3, CO2, CO, CH4, and particulate matter. Fires were observed from satellite imagery, and the smoke optical thickness, particle size, and profiles of the extinction coefficient were measured from the aircraft and from the ground. Four smoke plumes were sampled, three vertical profiles were measured, and extensive ground measurements of smoke optical characteristics were carried out for different smoke types. The simultaneous measurements of the trace gases, smoke particles, and the distribution of fires were used to correlate biomass burning with the elevated levels of ozone.

  7. Fear, threat and efficacy in threat appeals: message involvement as a key mediator to message acceptance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cauberghe, Verolien; De Pelsmacker, Patrick; Janssens, Wim; Dens, Nathalie

    2009-03-01

    In a sample of 170 youngsters, the effect of two versions of a public service announcement (PSA) threat appeal against speeding, placed in four different contexts, on evoked fear, perceived threat (severity and probability of occurrence), perceived response efficacy and self-efficacy, message involvement and anti-speeding attitude and anti-speeding intention is investigated. Evoked fear and perceived threat and efficacy independently influence message involvement. Message involvement is a full mediator between evoked fear, perceived threat and efficacy perception on the one hand, and attitudes towards the message and behavioral intention to accept the message on the other. Speeding experience has a significantly negative impact on anti-speeding attitudes. Message and medium context threat levels and context thematic congruency have a significant effect on evoked fear and to a lesser extent on perceived threat. PMID:19245886

  8. Examining Perceived Stereotype Threat among Overweight/Obese Adults Using a Multi-Threat Framework

    OpenAIRE

    Carels, Robert A.; Domoff, Sarah E.; Burmeister, Jacob M; Koball, Afton M.; Hinman, Nova G.; Davis, Alan K.; Oehlhof, Marissa Wagner; LeRoy, Michelle; Bannon, Erin; Hoffmann, Debra A

    2013-01-01

    Objective The Multi-Threat Framework accounts for potentially different forms of stereotype threat that differ in target (i.e., the individual or the group) and source (i.e., the self or others). This investigation examined how these different forms of perceived stereotype threat were related to concepts, such as group identity, stereotype endorsement, stigma consciousness, etc., among overweight and obese individuals. Method 216 adults completed an online survey. Participants’ mean age was 2...

  9. Dispersion and Deposition of Fine Particulates, Heavy Metals and Nitrogen in Urban Landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitlow, T. H.; Tong, Z.

    2015-12-01

    Cities are characterized by networks of heavily trafficked roads, abrupt environmental gradients and local sources of airborne pollutants. Because urban dwellers are inevitably in close proximity to near ground pollution, there has been recent interest in using trees and green roofs to reduce human exposure yet there have been few empirical studies documenting the effect of vegetation and spatial heterogeneity on pollution concentration, human exposure and food safety. In this paper we describe the results of 2 studies in the New York metropolitan area. The first describes the effect of roadside trees on the concentration of fine particulates downwind of a major highway. The second examines vertical attenuation of fine particulates between street level and a rooftop vegetable farm and the deposition of nitrogen and heavy metals to vegetables and soil on the roof.

  10. Chemical Microsensor Instrument for UAV Airborne Atmospheric Measurements Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Makel Engineering, Inc. (MEI) proposes to develop a miniaturized Airborne Chemical Microsensor Instrument (ACMI) suitable for real-time, airborne measurements of...

  11. Geophex airborne unmanned survey system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this effort is to design, construct, and evaluate a portable, remotely-piloted, airborne, geophysical survey system. This nonintrusive system will provide open-quotes stand-offclose quotes capability to conduct surveys and detect buried objects, structures, and conditions of interest at hazardous locations. This system permits two operators to rapidly conduct geophysical characterization of hazardous environmental sites. During a survey, the operators remain remote from, but within visual distance, of, the site. The sensor system never contacts the Earth, but can be positioned near the ground so that weak anomalies can be detected

  12. Airborne Research Experience for Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, V. B.; Albertson, R.; Smith, S.; Stockman, S. A.

    2009-12-01

    The Airborne Research Experience for Educators (AREE) Program, conducted by the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center Office of Education in partnership with the AERO Institute, NASA Teaching From Space Program, and California State University Fullerton, is a complete end-to-end residential research experience in airborne remote sensing and atmospheric science. The 2009 program engaged ten secondary educators who specialize in science, technology, engineering or mathematics in a 6-week Student Airborne Research Program (SARP) offered through NSERC. Educators participated in collection of in-flight remote sensor data during flights aboard the NASA DC-8 as well as in-situ research on atmospheric chemistry (bovine emissions of methane); algal blooms (remote sensing to determine location and degree of blooms for further in-situ analysis); and crop classification (exploration of how drought conditions in Central California have impacted almond and cotton crops). AREE represents a unique model of the STEM teacher-as-researcher professional development experience because it asks educators to participate in a research experience and then translate their experiences into classroom practice through the design, implementation, and evaluation of instructional materials that emphasize the scientific research process, inquiry-based investigations, and manipulation of real data. Each AREE Master Educator drafted a Curriculum Brief, Teachers Guide, and accompanying resources for a topic in their teaching assignment Currently, most professional development programs offer either a research experience OR a curriculum development experience. The dual nature of the AREE model engaged educators in both experiences. Educators’ content and pedagogical knowledge of STEM was increased through the review of pertinent research articles during the first week, attendance at lectures and workshops during the second week, and participation in the airborne and in-situ research studies, data

  13. Geophex Airborne Unmanned Survey System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Won, I.J.; Keiswetter, D. [Geophex, Ltd., Raleigh, NC (United States)

    1995-10-01

    The purpose of this effort is to design, construct, and evaluate a portable, remotely-piloted, airborne, geophysical survey system. This non-intrusive system will provide {open_quotes}stand-off{close_quotes} capability to conduct surveys and detect buried objects, structures, and conditions of interest at hazardous locations. This system permits rapid geophysical characterization of hazardous environmental sites. During a survey, the operators remain remote from, but within visual distance of, the site. The sensor system never contacts the Earth, but can be positioned near the ground so that weak geophysical anomalies can be detected.

  14. Environmental assessment of three egg production systems - Part III: Airborne bacteria concentrations and emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Y; Zhao, D; Ma, H; Liu, K; Atilgan, A; Xin, H

    2016-07-01

    Airborne microorganism level is an important indoor air quality indicator, yet it has not been well documented for laying-hen houses in the United States. As a part of the Coalition for Sustainable Egg Supply (CSES) environmental monitoring project, this study comparatively monitored the concentrations and emissions of airborne total and Gram-negative (Gram(-)) bacteria in three types of commercial laying-hen houses, i.e., conventional cage (CC), aviary (AV), and enriched colony (EC) houses, over a period of eight months covering the mid and late stages of the flock cycle. It also delineated the relationship between airborne total bacteria and particulate matter smaller than 10 μm in aerodynamic diameter (PM10). The results showed airborne total bacteria concentrations (log CFU/m(3)) of 4.7 ± 0.3 in CC, 6.0 ± 0.8 in AV, and 4.8 ± 0.3 in EC, all being higher than the level recommended for human environment (3.0 log CFU/m(3)). The much higher concentrations in AV arose from the presence of floor litter and hen activities on it, as evidenced by the higher concentrations in the afternoon (with litter access) than in the morning (without litter access). The overall means and standard deviation of airborne total bacteria emission rates, in log CFU/[h-hen] (or log CFU/[h-AU], AU = animal unit or 500 kg live weight) were 4.8 ± 0.4 (or 7.3 ± 0.4) for CC, 6.1 ± 0.7 (or 8.6 ± 0.7) for AV, and 4.8 ± 0.5 (or 7.3 ± 0.5) for EC. Both concentration and emission rate of airborne total bacteria were positively related to PM10 Gram(-) bacteria were present at low concentrations in all houses; and only 2 samples (6%) in CC, 7 (22%) samples in AV, and 2 (6%) samples in EC out of 32 air samples collected in each house were found positive with Gram(-) bacteria. The concentration of airborne Gram(-) bacteria was estimated to be <2% of the total bacteria. Total bacteria counts in manure on belt (in all houses) and floor litter (only in AV) were similar; however, the manure had

  15. Emissivity of rocket plume particulates.

    OpenAIRE

    Whisman, Curtis D.

    1992-01-01

    The optical properties of motor aluminum oxide are required inputs to current plume signature prediction codes, such as SIRRM. Accurate predictions are possible only if variations in the particle emissivity due to changes in particle size, contamination, and changing temperature, etc. , are known . This investigation demonstrated a simplified method for determination of the emissivity of rocket motor generated alumina. Plume particulate material was collected on ...

  16. Composition of Indoor Particulate Matter

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Smolík, Jiří; Schwarz, Jaroslav; Dohányosová, Pavla

    -: -, 2006 - (Fernandes, D.), s. 283-286. (Indoor Climate. II). [Healthy Buildings 2006. Lisboa (PT), 04.06.2006-08.06.2006] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA101/04/1190; GA ČR(CZ) GA205/03/1560 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : indoor particulate matter * chemical composition Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry

  17. Airborne Oceanographic Lidar (AOL) (Global Carbon Cycle)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    This bimonthly contractor progress report covers the operation, maintenance and data management of the Airborne Oceanographic Lidar and the Airborne Topographic Mapper. Monthly activities included: mission planning, sensor operation and calibration, data processing, data analysis, network development and maintenance and instrument maintenance engineering and fabrication.

  18. A system for airborne SAR interferometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Søren Nørvang; Skou, Niels; Granholm, Johan;

    1996-01-01

    Interferometric synthetic aperture radar (INSAR) systems have already demonstrated that elevation maps can be generated rapidly with single pass airborne across-track interferometry systems (XTT), and satellite repeat track interferometry (RTT) techniques have been used to map both elevation and......) the status of the airborne interferometry activities at DCRS, including the present system configuration, recent results, and some scientific applications of the system....

  19. Impact of an interactive anti-speeding threat appeal: how much threat is too much?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panić, Katarina; Cauberghe, Verolien; De Pelsmacker, Patrick

    2011-05-01

    This study investigates the impact of an interactive television public-service announcement (PSA) containing an anti-speeding threat appeal on feelings of telepresence and behavioral intention. In a 2 × 2 × 2 between-subjects factorial design with 213 participants, the level of threat evoked by a traditional PSA, by the interactive part of the PSA (dedicated advertising location or DAL) and by the preceding program context are manipulated to be either low or high. The results support the assumptions of the Extended Parallel Processing Model with regard to the effect of the level of perceived threat and perceived efficacy in an interactive media environment, and the important role of telepresence as a processing variable. The results of the three-way interaction effect of threat evoked by the program, the PSA and the DAL on telepresence show that when the threat levels of the program and the PSA are both either low or high, exposure to the threatening information in the DAL does not generate a significantly higher feeling of telepresence. However, when a low-threat program is followed by a high-threat PSA, the threat level of the DAL has a positive effect on telepresence. The same trend is found with a high-threat program and a low-threat PSA, although the effect of the threat evoked by the DAL on telepresence is not significant at conventional levels. Finally, there is a positive effect of telepresence on the behavioral intention to reduce speeding, which is partly mediated by the viewer's perceived efficacy to follow the recommended behavior. PMID:21204691

  20. Black carbon and elemental concentration of ambient particulate matter in Makassar Indonesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Airborne particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter of less or equal to 10 um or PM10, has been collected on a weekly basis for one year from February 2012 to January 2013 at one site of Makassar, Province of South Sulawesi Indonesia. The samples were collected using a size selective high volume air sampler sited at Daya, a mixed urban, commercial and industrial area in the city of Makassar. The concentration of black carbon (BC) along with a total of 14 elements (i.e Al, Ba, Ca, Cr, Fe, K, Mg, Ba, Na, Ni, Pb, Si, Ti and Zn) were determined from the sample. Results showed that the average particulate mass concentration was 32.9 ± 11.6 μg/m3 with BC and elemental concentration constituted 6.1% and 10.6% of the particulate concentration, respectively. Both BC and elemental constituents contributed 16.7% while 83.3% of the particulate matter remained to be counted for. The black carbon concentration was higher during the dry months which may be attributed to rampant biomass burning during hot and dry weather conditions, apart from other possible sources. Most of the elements were enriched relative to soil origin illustrating of their possible associations with other sources such as marine and anthropogenic derived aerosols, particularly Cr, Ni, Pb, and Zn, which are known to originate from man-made activities

  1. Geophex Airborne Unmanned Survey System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ground-based surveys place personnel at risk due to the proximity of buried unexploded ordnance (UXO) items or by exposure to radioactive materials and hazardous chemicals. The purpose of this effort is to design, construct, and evaluate a portable, remotely-piloted, airborne, geophysical survey system. This non-intrusive system will provide stand-off capability to conduct surveys and detect buried objects, structures, and conditions of interest at hazardous locations. During a survey, the operators remain remote from, but within visual distance of, the site. The sensor system never contacts the Earth, but can be positioned near the ground so that weak geophysical anomalies can be detected. The Geophex Airborne Unmanned Survey System (GAUSS) is designed to detect and locate small-scale anomalies at hazardous sites using magnetic and electromagnetic survey techniques. The system consists of a remotely-piloted, radio-controlled, model helicopter (RCH) with flight computer, light-weight geophysical sensors, an electronic positioning system, a data telemetry system, and a computer base-station. The report describes GAUSS and its test results

  2. Airborne fourier infrared spectrometer system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A commercial Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectrometer has been interfaced to a 35 cm aperture telescope and a digital data processing and display system and flown in a downward-viewing configuration on a Queen Air aircraft. Real-time spectral analysis and display software were developed to provide the means to direct aircraft flight operations based on atmospheric and/or surface features identified on 1 to 8 cm-1 resolution infrared spectra. Data are presented from ground-based tests consisting of simultaneous horizontal path measurements by the FTIR system and an infrared differential absorption lidar (DIAL) observing gas volumes generated in an open-ended chamber. Airborne FUR data are presented on the tracking of a surface-released puff of SF6 gas to a downwind distance of 45 km in a time period of 1.5 hours. The experiment demonstrated the real time tracking of a gas tracer cloud to provide atmospheric transport and diffusion information and for directing airborne in-situ sensors for optimum cloud sampling. 5 refs., 5 figs

  3. Comparative performance of three sampling techniques to detect airborne [i]Salmonella[/i] species in poultry farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Adell

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Sampling techniques to detect airborne [i]Salmonella[/i] species (spp. in two pilot scale broiler houses were compared. Broilers were inoculated at seven days of age with a marked strain of [i]Salmonella[/i] enteritidis. The rearing cycle lasted 42 days during the summer. Airborne [i]Salmonella[/i] spp. were sampled weekly using impaction, gravitational settling, and impingement techniques. Additionally, [i]Salmonella[/i] spp. were sampled on feeders, drinkers, walls, and in the litter. Environmental conditions (temperature, relative humidity, and airborne particulate matter (PM concentration were monitored during the rearing cycle. The presence of [i]Salmonella[/i] spp. was determined by culture-dependent and molecular methods. No cultivable [i]Salmonella[/i] spp. were recovered from the poultry houses’ surfaces, the litter, or the air before inoculation. After inoculation, cultivable [i]Salmonella[/i] spp. were recovered from the surfaces and in the litter. Airborne cultivable [i]Salmonella[/i] spp. Were detected using impaction and gravitational settling one or two weeks after the detection of [i]Salmonella[/i] spp. in the litter. No cultivable [i]Salmonella[/i] spp. were recovered using impingement based on culture-dependent techniques. At low airborne concentrations, the use of impingement for the quantification or detection of cultivable airborne Salmonella spp. is not recommended. In these cases, a combination of culture-dependent and culture-independent methods is recommended. These data are valuable to improve current measures to control the transmission of pathogens in livestock environments and for optimising the sampling and detection of airborne[i] Salmonella[/i] spp. in practical conditions.

  4. Atmospheric Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) Coupled With Point Measurement Air Quality Samplers to Measure Fine Particulate Matter (PM) Emissions From Agricultural Operations: The Los Banos CA Fall 2007 Tillage Campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Airborne particles, especially fine particulate matter 2.5 micrometers (μm) or less in aerodynamic diameter (PM2.5), are microscopic solids or liquid droplets that can cause serious health problems, including increased respiratory symptoms such as coughing or difficulty breathing...

  5. Cardiovascular changes in workers exposed to fine particulate dust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicja Bortkiewicz

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Epidemiological studies provide evidence that airborne particulate matter may contribute to the increased incidence and mortality rates due to pulmonary and cardiovascular diseases. Only some of them address the problem of occupational exposure to particulate air pollution. The aim of our study was to assess cardiovascular reaction and autonomic regulation in workers exposed to fine particles. Materials and Methods: All workers had medical examination, resting ECG with heart rate variability analysis (HRV, 24-h ECG, and ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM performed. The subjects were 20 male workers (mean age: 32.14.0 year of a ceramic ware factory exposed to the dust and 20 workers who were not exposed (mean age: 39.4±7.8 year. The period of employment under exposure amounted to 5.6±2.1 year. Dust exposure was measured using individual dosimeters. Results: The geometric mean total dust concentration was 44±1.5 mg/m3 and the FPD (fine particulate dust concentration amounted to 11.5±1.6 mg/m3. No abnormalities were noted in the resting ECG in both groups, in 24-h ECG 2 subjects, both from exposed and control groups, had ventricular heart rhythm and repolarization disturbances. Blood pressure in ABPM, both systolic as well as diastolic, was normal and did not differ between the groups. Resting heart rate in the exposed group was significantly lower (p = 0.038 than in the control group. In the exposed group STD R-R from short-term records was significantly higher (p = 0.01. Fast Fourier Transform (FFT analysis showed that the low frequency power spectrum (LF did not differ in the exposed and the control group, while high frequency (HF was significantly higher in the exposed group. LF/HF ratio was significantly lower in the exposed in comparison with the control group. Conclusions: Although we did not reveal significant abnormalities in ECG as well as in ABPM in the exposed group, it seems that neurovegetative disturbances

  6. Threat navigator: grouping and ranking malicious external threats to current and future urban smart grids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vasenev, Alexandr; Montoya, Lorena; Ceccarelli, Andrea; Le, Anhtuan; Ionita, Dan

    2016-01-01

    Deriving value judgements about threat rankings for large and entangled systems, such as those of urban smart grids, is a challenging task. Suitable approaches should account for multiple threat events posed by different classes of attackers who target system components. Given the complexity of the

  7. 49 CFR 1544.303 - Bomb or air piracy threats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Bomb or air piracy threats. 1544.303 Section 1544... AND COMMERCIAL OPERATORS Threat and Threat Response § 1544.303 Bomb or air piracy threats. (a) Flight... upon receiving information that an act or suspected act of air piracy has been committed, the...

  8. 49 CFR 1546.301 - Bomb or air piracy threats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Bomb or air piracy threats. 1546.301 Section 1546... Threat Response § 1546.301 Bomb or air piracy threats. No foreign air carrier may land or take off an airplane in the United States after receiving a bomb or air piracy threat against that airplane, unless...

  9. 49 CFR 1540.203 - Security threat assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... check conducted by TSA. (2) A security threat assessment conducted under 49 CFR part 1572 for the... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Security threat assessment. 1540.203 Section 1540... Security Threat Assessments § 1540.203 Security threat assessment. (a) Each operator subject to...

  10. 49 CFR 1572.5 - Standards for security threat assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standards for security threat assessments. 1572.5... CREDENTIALING AND SECURITY THREAT ASSESSMENTS Procedures and General Standards § 1572.5 Standards for security threat assessments. (a) Standards. TSA determines that an applicant poses a security threat...

  11. 49 CFR 1540.209 - Fees for security threat assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fees for security threat assessment. 1540.209...: GENERAL RULES Security Threat Assessments § 1540.209 Fees for security threat assessment. This section describes the payment process for completion of the security threat assessments required under subpart....

  12. Satellite Threat Warning and Attack Reporting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hilland, D. [Kirkland AFB, NM (United States). Air Force Research Lab.; Phipps, G. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Optics & Technologies Dept.; Jingle, C.; Newton, G. [Schafer Corp., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The Air Force Research Laboratory`s Satellite Threat Warning and Attack Reporting (STW/AR) program will provide technologies for advanced threat warning and reporting of radio frequency (RF) and laser threats. The STW/AR program objectives are: (a) develop cost- effective technologies to detect, identify, locate, characterize, and report attacks or interference against U.S. and Allied satellites. (b) demonstrate innovative, light-weight, low-power, laser and RF sensors. The program focuses on the demonstration of RF and laser sensors. The RF sensor effort includes the investigation of interferometric antenna arrays, multi-arm spiral and butler matrix antennas, wideband receivers, adaptive processors, and improved processing algorithms. The laser sensor effort includes the investigation of alternative detectors, broadband grating and optical designs, active pixel sensing, and improved processing algorithms.

  13. On the special status of "ego threats".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schotte, D E

    1992-05-01

    This article comments on a recent article by Heatherton, Herman, and Polivy (1991) in which they suggest that ego threats are a prerequisite to affectively induced disinhibition of food intake in restrained eaters and current dieters. In contrast, the present review suggests that mood induction procedures that involve no apparent threat (e.g., viewing a frightening film) can also prompt disinhibition in restrained eaters. Thus, any mood induction procedure that does not directly physically threaten the S may disinhibit restrained eaters. It is concluded that recommendations to focus future research on ego threats are premature and may serve to obscure the mechanisms by which changes in affective state influence food intake in dieters. PMID:1507070

  14. Left-Wing Extremism: The Current Threat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karl A. Seger

    2001-04-30

    Left-wing extremism is ''alive and well'' both in the US and internationally. Although the current domestic terrorist threat within the U. S. is focused on right-wing extremists, left-wing extremists are also active and have several objectives. Leftist extremists also pose an espionage threat to U.S. interests. While the threat to the U.S. government from leftist extremists has decreased in the past decade, it has not disappeared. There are individuals and organizations within the U.S. who maintain the same ideology that resulted in the growth of left-wing terrorism in this country in the 1970s and 1980s. Some of the leaders from that era are still communicating from Cuba with their followers in the U.S., and new leaders and groups are emerging.

  15. The Range of Threats against Israel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaakov Amidror

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This essay focuses primarily on the threats against the State of Israel and touches little on the responses to these threats. Over the last sixty years, the threats Israel has been forced to tackle have assumed different emphases, but the fundamental principle for understanding them has not changed, namely: the world around us, the Arab world, most of the Muslim world – not necessarily “most” in the numerical-statistical terms, but in terms of those determining the outlook of that world – does not consent to the existence of an independent, sovereign Jewish state in the heart of the Middle East and will do whatever it takes to destroy it.

  16. Efficiency of Airborne Sample Analysis Platform (ASAP) bioaerosol sampler for pathogen detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Anurag; Clark, Elizabeth; McGlothlin, James D; Mittal, Suresh K

    2015-01-01

    The threat of bioterrorism and pandemics has highlighted the urgency for rapid and reliable bioaerosol detection in different environments. Safeguarding against such threats requires continuous sampling of the ambient air for pathogen detection. In this study we investigated the efficacy of the Airborne Sample Analysis Platform (ASAP) 2800 bioaerosol sampler to collect representative samples of air and identify specific viruses suspended as bioaerosols. To test this concept, we aerosolized an innocuous replication-defective bovine adenovirus serotype 3 (BAdV3) in a controlled laboratory environment. The ASAP efficiently trapped the surrogate virus at 5 × 10(3) plaque-forming units (p.f.u.) [2 × 10(5) genome copy equivalent] concentrations or more resulting in the successful detection of the virus using quantitative PCR. These results support the further development of ASAP for bioaerosol pathogen detection. PMID:26074900

  17. Intergroup threat and outgroup attitudes: a meta-analytic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riek, Blake M; Mania, Eric W; Gaertner, Samuel L

    2006-01-01

    This article examines the relationship between intergroup threat and negative outgroup attitudes. We first qualitatively review the intergroup threat literature, describing the shift from competing theories toward more integrated approaches, such as the integrated threat theory (ITT; W. G. Stephan and Stephan, 2000). The types of threats discussed include: realistic threat, symbolic threat, intergroup anxiety, negative stereotypes, group esteem threat, and distinctiveness threat. We then conducted a quantitative meta-analysis examining the relationships between various intergroup threats and outgroup attitudes. The meta-analysis, involving 95 samples, revealed that 5 different threat types had a positive relationship with negative outgroup attitudes. Additionally, outgroup status moderated some of these relationships. Implications and future directions are considered. PMID:17201592

  18. GLOBAL WARMING: IS A NEW THREAT?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ayca Eminoglu

    2008-09-30

    In the Post Cold War era, the concepts of ''security'', ''national security'', and ''international security'' have changed with regard to their contents and meanings. Such developments made states to renew their national security policies. Security is a special form of politics as well. All security issues are political problems but not all political conflicts are security issues. In the Post Cold War era, differentiating and increasing numbers of elements that constitutes threat changed the concept of threat and widen the capacity of security. In this term, many elements lost its effect of being a threat but also new threatening elements emerged. Environmental problems, human rights, mass migration, micro nationalism, ethnic conflicts, religious fundamentalism, contagious diseases, international terrorism, economic instabilities, drug and weapon smuggling and human trafficking are the new problems emerged in international security agenda. Environmental problems no longer take place in security issues and can be mentioned as a ''low security'' issue. They are threats to the global commons i.e. the oceans, the seas, the ozone layer and the climate system, which are life supports for mankind as a whole. Global warming is one of the most important environmental issues of our day that effects human life in every field and can be defined as a 'serious threat to international security'. Because of global warming, environmental changes will occur and these changes will cause conflicting issues in international relations. Because of global warming dwindling freshwater supplies, food shortages, political instability and other conflicts may take place. Some IR scholars see a need for global cooperation in order to face the threat. At the background of global warming and its effects, states have to get preventive measures and normally, each state form its own measures, therefore as a

  19. Terrorism: the threat of a radiological device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: This paper will discuss terrorism from the perspective of a terrorist organization building and detonating a 'dirty bomb' with a radiological component. The paper will discuss how such devices are made and how security of radiological material world wide will minimize the risk of such devices being used. It will discuss the threat assessments against nuclear waste processing and storage sites, threats to nuclear plants and other sites and the adequacy of current security. It will also discuss the phenomenon of suicide attacks by the bomb carriers and the role of the media in informing and educating the general public of the consequences should such a device be detonated. (author)

  20. Bio-Terrorism Threat and Casualty Prevention

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NOEL,WILLIAM P.

    2000-01-01

    The bio-terrorism threat has become the ''poor man's'' nuclear weapon. The ease of manufacture and dissemination has allowed an organization with only rudimentary skills and equipment to pose a significant threat with high consequences. This report will analyze some of the most likely agents that would be used, the ease of manufacture, the ease of dissemination and what characteristics of the public health response that are particularly important to the successful characterization of a high consequence event to prevent excessive causalities.

  1. Genotoxicity biomarkers for airborne particulate matter (PM2.5) in an area under petrochemical influence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemos, Andréia Torres; Lemos, Clarice Torres de; Flores, Andressa Negreiros; Pantoja, Eduarda Ozório; Rocha, Jocelita Aparecida Vaz; Vargas, Vera Maria Ferrão

    2016-09-01

    The effects of fine inhalable particles (PM2.5) were evaluated in an area under the influence of a petrochemical industry, investigating the sensitivity of different genotoxicity biomarkers. Organic extracts were obtained from PM2.5 samples at two sites, positioned in the first and second preferential wind direction in the area. The extracts were evaluated with Salmonella/microsome assay, microsuspension method, strains TA98, YG1021 and YG1024. The mammalian metabolization fraction (S9) was used to evaluate metabolite mutagenicity. The Comet Assay (CA) and Micronuclei Test were used in a Chinese hamster lung cell line (V79). All extracts showed mutagenicity in Salmonella, and nitrogenated compounds were strongly present. Genotoxicity were found in CA in almost all extracts and the micronuclei induction at the Site in the first (Autumn 1, Winter 1), and in the second (Spring 2) wind direction. V79 showed cytotoxicity in all samples. The three biomarkers were concordant in characterization Site NO with worse quality, compatible with the greater pollutants dispersion in the first wind direction. All PM2.5 concentrations were lower than those recommended by air quality standards but genotoxic effects were detected in all samples, corroborating that these standards are inadequate as quality indicators. The Salmonella/microsome assay proved sensitive to PM2.5 mutagenicity, with an outstanding influence of nitroarenes and aromatic amines. Analyses using CA and the micronucleus test broadened the levels of response that involve different damage induction mechanisms. Results show that the complex PM2.5 composition can provoke various genotoxic effects and the use of different bioassays is essential to understand its effects. PMID:27343868

  2. Total reflection X-ray fluorescence analysis of airborne particulate matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klockenkaemper, R.; Bayer, H.; Bohlen, A. von [Institut fuer Spektrochemie und Angewandte Spektroskopie, Dortmund (Germany)

    1995-03-01

    The collection of air dust by a `Berner`- and a `Battelle`-impactor was adapted to the subsequent analysis by Total reflection X-Ray Fluorescence (TXRF). A suitable impactor material has to be chosen in order to avoid high blank values, collection losses and memory effects. Stainless steel even coated by TiN is not at all suitable. Titanium and aluminium are less favourable than makrolon or another high polymer which may even be antistatic. Small sampling volumes of only 1 m{sup 3} and short sampling times of about 1 h are sufficient for a multielement analysis by TXRF. Low detection limits of ng/m{sup 3} and a repeatability of some % can be realized. (author).

  3. An airborne assessment of atmospheric particulate emissions from the processing of Athabasca oil sands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. G. Howell

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available During the Arctic Research of the Composition of the Troposphere from Aircraft and Satellites (ARCTAS campaign, two NASA research aircraft, a DC-8 and a P-3B, were outfitted with extensive trace gas (the DC-8 and aerosol (both aircraft instrumentation. Each aircraft spent about a half hour sampling air around the oil sands mining and upgrading facilities near Ft. McMurray, Alberta, Canada. The DC-8 circled the area, while the P-3B flew directly over the upgrading plants, sampling close to the exhaust stacks, then headed downwind to monitor the aerosol as it aged. At short range, the plume from the oil sands is a complex mosaic of freshly nucleated ultrafine particles from a SO2 and NO2-rich plume, fly ash and soot from industrial processes, and dust from dirt roads and mining operations. Shortly downwind, organic aerosol appears in quantities that rival SO4=, either as volatile organic vapors condense or as they react with the H2SO4. The DC-8 pattern allowed us to integrate total flux from the oil sands facilities within about a factor of two uncertainty that spanned values consistent with 2008 estimates from reported SO2 and NO2 emissions. In contrast, CO fluxes exceeded reported regional emissions, due either to variability in production or sources missing from the emissions inventory. The conversion rate of SO2 to aerosol SO4= of ~6% per hour is consistent with earlier reports, though OH concentrations are insufficient to accomplish this. Other oxidation pathways must be active. Altogether, organic aerosol and black carbon emissions from the oil sands operations are small compared with the forest fires present in the region during the summer. The oil sands do contribute significant sulfate and exceed fire production of SO2 by an order of magnitude.

  4. Determination of basic azaarenes and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons in airborne particulate matter by gas chromatography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Torben; Clausen, Peraxel; Jensen, Finn Palmgren

    1986-01-01

    phase (adjusted to pH 14 with potassium hydroxide) with dichloromethane, and determined by capillary gas chromatography (g.c.) with a nitrogen-sensitive detector. The PAH in the toluene phase are isolated by means of semipreparative high-performance liquid chromatography and liquid-liquid extraction and...

  5. Design procedure for sizing a submerged-bed scrubber for airborne particulate removal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Performance correlations to design and operate the submerged bed scrubber were developed for various applications. Structural design procedure outlined in this report focuses on off-gas scrubbing for HLW vitrification applications; however, the method is appropriate for other applications

  6. Chemistry of Airborne Particulate Matter in the Western Plains of Texas Using PIXE Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aerosol samples on polycarbonate filters were collected daily (for 24 hour periods) over several years in Lubbock, Reese Center, and Big Spring in the Southern High Plains region of western Texas, a region known for frequent dust storms. Twenty-seven filter samples representing a variety of particle...

  7. Biomonitoring of airborne particulate matter emitted from a cement plant and comparison with dispersion modelling results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abril, Gabriela A.; Wannaz, Eduardo D.; Mateos, Ana C.; Pignata, María L.

    2014-01-01

    The influence of a cement plant that incinerates industrial waste on the air quality of a region in the province of Córdoba, Argentina, was assessed by means of biomonitoring studies (effects of immission) and atmospheric dispersion (effects of emission) of PM10 with the application of the ISC3 model (Industrial Source Complex) developed by the USEPA (Environmental Protection Agency). For the biomonitoring studies, samples from the epiphyte plant Tillandsia capillaris Ruíz & Pav. f. capillaris were transplanted to the vicinities of the cement plant in order to determine the physiological damage and heavy metal accumulation (Ca, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb). For the application of the ISC3 model, point and area sources from the cement plant were considered to obtain average PM10 concentration results from the biomonitoring exposure period. This model permitted it to be determined that the emissions from the cement plant (point and area sources) were confined to the vicinities, without significant dispersion in the study area. This was also observed in the biomonitoring study, which identified Ca, Cd and Pb, pH and electric conductivity (EC) as biomarkers of this cement plant. Vehicular traffic emissions and soil re-suspension could be observed in the biomonitors, giving a more complete scenario. In this study, biomonitoring studies along with the application of atmospheric dispersion models, allowed the atmospheric pollution to be assessed in more detail.

  8. Observations of the effect of atmospheric processes on the genotoxic potency of airborne particulate matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feilberg, Anders; Nielsen, Torben; Binderup, Mona-Lise; Skov, Henrik; Poulsen, Morten

    2002-01-01

    potency. We find that the ratios of BaP/ mutagenicity and PAH/mutagenicity are highly variable. The processes responsible for the variation are formation and degradation of mutagens and transport of polluted air masses from heavily industrialized regions, Air masses from Central Europe are shown to be...... highly enriched in mutagens as well as in PAH and nitro-PAH. However, the mutagenic activity is much more elevated than the PAH levels when these air masses are mixed with local urban air. Part of the variation in the PAH/mutagenicity ratio can be explained by photochemical transformation. Since BaP has...

  9. Stable Isotopes of Sr and Pb as Tracers of Sources of Airborne Particulate Matter in Kyrgyzstan

    Science.gov (United States)

    ConclusionsElemental concentrations were higher at the LIDAR site compared to the Bishkek site. Also, concentrations were higher during dust than non-dust events at both sites.The Sr isotopic ratios suggest dust from another region, such as from Western China, Africa, or Middle E...

  10. Stable isotopes of lead and strontium as tracers of sources of airborne particulate matter in Kyrgyzstan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Central Asia is dominated by an arid climate and desert-like conditions, leading to the potential of long-range transport of desert dust. One potential source of dust to Central Asia is the Aral Sea, the surface area of which has receded in size from 68,000 km2 to 14,280 km2, lar...

  11. Platinum group metals in airborne particulate matter of Ostrava city, Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sikorová, L.; Šucmanová, M.; Mikuška, Pavel; Wiltsche, H.; Štěpnička, J.

    Sofia: STEF92 Technology Ltd., 2013, s. 741-748. ISBN 978-619-7105-03-2. ISSN 1314-2704. [International Multidisciplinary Scientific Geoconference SGEM 2013 /13./. Albena (BG), 16.06.2013-22.06.2013] Institutional support: RVO:68081715 Keywords : platinum group metals * transport * air pollution * urban Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation

  12. Airborne gamma ray spectrometer surveying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) in its role as collector and disseminator of information on nuclear techniques has long had an interest in gamma ray spectrometer methods and has published a number of Technical Reports on various aspects of the subject. At an Advisory Group Meeting held in Vienna in November 1986 to review appropriate activities the IAEA could take following the Chernobyl accident, it was recommended that preparation begin on a new Technical Report on airborne gamma ray spectrometer surveying, taking into account the use of the technique for environmental monitoring as well as for nuclear emergency response requirements. Shortly thereafter the IAEA became the lead organization in the Radioelement Geochemical Mapping section of the International Geological Correlation Programme/United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) Project on International Geochemical Mapping. These two factors led to the preparation of the present Technical Report. 18 figs, 4 tabs

  13. Airborne synthetic aperture acoustic imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soumekh, M

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents a system model and inversion for airborne synthetic aperture acoustic (SAA) imaging. The system model accurately represents the intercation of the acoustic source and the target region at near range values. Moreover, the model incorporates the fact that the relative speed of the vehicle's (transmitter/receiver) with respect to the target region is comparable to the acoustic wave propagation speed. The inversion utilizes the principle of spectral decomposition of spherical phase functions to develop a wavefront reconstruction method from SAA data. Processing issues and selection of appropriate acoustic FM-CW sources are discussed. Results are provided that exhibit the superior accuracy of the proposed SAA system model and inversion over their synthetic aperture radar (SAR) counterpart in which the vehicle's speed is assumed to be much smaller than the wave propagation speed. PMID:18282912

  14. Particulate Organic Matter (POM) Separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Information on soil organic matter (SOM) pools is of vital importance for studying the impact of soil management and environmental factors on soil organic carbon, an important part of the global carbon cycle. Several conceptual SOM pools with different turnover rates are available to feed models or to study carbon cycles. The fractionation scheme of Zimmermann allows isolating the labile particulate organic matter (POM) pool. Besides its use in conventional soil organic carbon dynamics studies and modelling, this pool can be determining as well in the evaluation of soil organic carbon stability based on the use of stable 15N and 13C isotopes

  15. Particulate residue separators for harvesting devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoskinson, Reed L.; Kenney, Kevin L.; Wright, Christopher T.; Hess, John R.

    2010-06-29

    A particulate residue separator and a method for separating a particulate residue stream may include a plenum borne by a harvesting device, and have a first, intake end and a second, exhaust end; first and second particulate residue air streams which are formed by the harvesting device and which travel, at least in part, along the plenum and in a direction of the second, exhaust end; and a baffle assembly which is located in partially occluding relation relative to the plenum, and which substantially separates the first and second particulate residue air streams.

  16. Methods of separating particulate residue streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoskinson, Reed L.; Kenney, Kevin L.; Wright, Christopher T.; Hess, J. Richard

    2011-04-05

    A particulate residue separator and a method for separating a particulate residue stream may include an air plenum borne by a harvesting device, and have a first, intake end and a second, exhaust end; first and second particulate residue air streams that are formed by the harvesting device and that travel, at least in part, along the air plenum and in a direction of the second, exhaust end; and a baffle assembly that is located in partially occluding relation relative to the air plenum and that substantially separates the first and second particulate residue air streams.

  17. Particulate Matter (Environmental Health Student Portal)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Air Pollution Home Indoor Air Pollution Outdoor Air Pollution Particulate Matter Ozone Chemicals Chemicals Home Mercury Lead Arsenic Volatile Organic Compounds Plastics Pesticides Climate Change Climate ...

  18. Comprehensive airborne characterization of aerosol from a major bovine source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Jonsson

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available We report an extensive airborne characterization of aerosol downwind of a massive bovine source in the San Joaquin Valley (California on two flights during July 2007. The Center for Interdisciplinary Remotely-Piloted Aircraft Studies (CIRPAS Twin Otter probed chemical composition, particle size distribution, mixing state, sub- and supersaturated water uptake behavior, light scattering properties, and the interrelationship between these parameters and meteorology. Total PM1.0 levels and concentrations of organics, nitrate, and ammonium were enhanced in the plume from the source as compared to the background aerosol. Organics dominated the plume aerosol mass (~56–64%, followed either by sulfate or nitrate, and then ammonium. Particulate amines were detected in the plume aerosol by a particle-into-liquid sampler (PILS and via mass spectral markers in the Aerodyne C-ToF-AMS. Amines were found to be a significant atmospheric base even in the presence of ammonia; particulate amine concentrations are estimated as at least 14–23% of that of ammonium in the plume. Enhanced sub- and supersaturated water uptake and reduced refractive indices were coincident with lower organic mass fractions, higher nitrate mass fractions, and the detection of amines. The likelihood of suppressed droplet growth owing to kinetic limitations from hydrophobic organic material is explored. After removing effects associated with size distribution and mixing state, the normalized activated fraction of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN increased as a function of the subsaturated hygroscopic growth factor, with the highest activated fractions being consistent with relatively lower organic mass fractions and higher nitrate mass fractions. Subsaturated hygroscopic growth factors for the organic fraction of the aerosol are estimated based on employing the Zdanovskii-Stokes Robinson (ZSR mixing rule. Representative values for a parameterization treating particle water

  19. Comprehensive airborne characterization of aerosol from a major bovine source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Sorooshian

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available We report an extensive airborne characterization of aerosol downwind of a massive bovine source in the San Joaquin Valley (California on two flights during July 2007. The Center for Interdisciplinary Remotely-Piloted Aircraft Studies (CIRPAS Twin Otter probed chemical composition, particle size distribution, mixing state, sub- and supersaturated water uptake behavior, light scattering properties, and the interrelationship between these parameters and meteorology. Total PM1.0 levels and concentrations of organics, nitrate, and ammonium were enhanced in the plume from the source as compared to the background aerosol. Organics dominated the plume aerosol mass (~56–64%, followed either by sulfate or nitrate, and then ammonium. Particulate amines were detected in the plume aerosol by a particle-into-liquid sampler (PILS and via mass spectral markers in the Aerodyne cToF-AMS. Amines were found to be a significant atmospheric base even in the presence of ammonia; particulate amine concentrations are estimated as at least 14–23% of that of ammonium in the plume. Enhanced sub- and supersaturated water uptake and reduced refractive indices were coincident with lower organic mass fractions, higher nitrate mass fractions, and the detection of amines. Kinetic limitations due to hydrophobic organic material are shown to have likely suppressed droplet growth. After removing effects associated with size distribution and mixing state, the normalized activated fraction of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN increased as a function of the subsaturated hygroscopic growth factor, with the highest activated fractions being consistent with relatively lower organic mass fractions and higher nitrate mass fractions. Subsaturated hygroscopic growth factors for the organic fraction of the aerosol are estimated based on employing the Zdanovskii-Stokes Robinson (ZSR mixing rule. Representative values for a parameterization treating particle water uptake in both the

  20. Predictors of airborne endotoxin in the home.

    OpenAIRE

    Park, J. H.; Spiegelman, D L; Gold, D R; Burge, H A; Milton, D K

    2001-01-01

    We identified home characteristics associated with the level of airborne endotoxin in 111 Boston-area homes enrolled in a cohort study of home exposures and childhood asthma, and we developed a predictive model to estimate airborne endotoxin. We measured endotoxin in family-room air and in dust from the baby's bed, family room, bedroom, and kitchen floor. Level of airborne endotoxin was weakly correlated (r < 0.3) with level of endotoxin in each of the four types of dust samples and was signi...

  1. Threats and Vulnerabilities of RFID and Beyond

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoepman, J.H.; Veugen, P.J.M.

    2009-01-01

    This chapter discusses both security and privacy threats to RFID systems, in a balanced way. We first outline the general architecture of an RFID system, the stakeholders managing the different components, and identify the specific properties of RFID systems relevant for privacy and security. We the

  2. The Missing Piece in Threat Intelligence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Denis

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Common systems for sharing intelligence on security threats have not been designed to efficiently process feedback from infrastructure providers. In order to fill this gap, we introduce DIP, a new description language to expose changes being made on a network that are relevant to security research and prevention.

  3. Global threat to agriculture from invasive species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paini, Dean R.; Sheppard, Andy W.; Cook, David C.; De Barro, Paul J.; Worner, Susan P.; Thomas, Matthew B.

    2016-01-01

    Invasive species present significant threats to global agriculture, although how the magnitude and distribution of the threats vary between countries and regions remains unclear. Here, we present an analysis of almost 1,300 known invasive insect pests and pathogens, calculating the total potential cost of these species invading each of 124 countries of the world, as well as determining which countries present the greatest threat to the rest of the world given their trading partners and incumbent pool of invasive species. We find that countries vary in terms of potential threat from invasive species and also their role as potential sources, with apparently similar countries sometimes varying markedly depending on specifics of agricultural commodities and trade patterns. Overall, the biggest agricultural producers (China and the United States) could experience the greatest absolute cost from further species invasions. However, developing countries, in particular, Sub-Saharan African countries, appear most vulnerable in relative terms. Furthermore, China and the United States represent the greatest potential sources of invasive species for the rest of the world. The analysis reveals considerable scope for ongoing redistribution of known invasive pests and highlights the need for international cooperation to slow their spread. PMID:27325781

  4. Global threat to agriculture from invasive species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paini, Dean R; Sheppard, Andy W; Cook, David C; De Barro, Paul J; Worner, Susan P; Thomas, Matthew B

    2016-07-01

    Invasive species present significant threats to global agriculture, although how the magnitude and distribution of the threats vary between countries and regions remains unclear. Here, we present an analysis of almost 1,300 known invasive insect pests and pathogens, calculating the total potential cost of these species invading each of 124 countries of the world, as well as determining which countries present the greatest threat to the rest of the world given their trading partners and incumbent pool of invasive species. We find that countries vary in terms of potential threat from invasive species and also their role as potential sources, with apparently similar countries sometimes varying markedly depending on specifics of agricultural commodities and trade patterns. Overall, the biggest agricultural producers (China and the United States) could experience the greatest absolute cost from further species invasions. However, developing countries, in particular, Sub-Saharan African countries, appear most vulnerable in relative terms. Furthermore, China and the United States represent the greatest potential sources of invasive species for the rest of the world. The analysis reveals considerable scope for ongoing redistribution of known invasive pests and highlights the need for international cooperation to slow their spread. PMID:27325781

  5. 'NRBC' threat: is this concept still valid?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    About 10 years ago, after the Sarin attack in Tokyo, the world discover that terrorists could use again radio-nuclear, chemical or biological agents to launch attacks, just to cause terror and disruption of western economies. This has forged the acronym 'NRBC'. In terms of likelihood, nuclear and radiological attacks could be considered among the most easy to prepare, and some possible acts are listed in this paper. A considerable amount of work has been prepared for the preparedness against radio-nuclear attacks, during the last 3 years, by World Health Organization (WHO), International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), the Atomic Energy Agency (AEN) as well as by the International Commission of Radio Protection (ICRP). A series of documents have been issued from international cooperation. These documents shows specificities to the R/N threat in terms of health consequences, that make this threat less prone to international cooperative efforts than biological threats. In addition, the Ministers of Health of the G7 countries have created an 'Global Health Security Initiative' (GHSI) in 2002 to anticipate crisis such as the anthrax problem, or other possible NRBC threats

  6. Diversity, Racial Threat and Metropolitan Housing Segregation

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeFina, Robert; Hannon, Lance

    2009-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that as the percent black or percent Hispanic grows, that group's residential segregation from whites tends to increase as well. Typically, these findings are explained in terms of white discriminatory reaction to the perceived threat associated with minority population growth. The present analysis examines whether…

  7. Reemerging Threat of Epidemic Typhus in Algeria

    OpenAIRE

    Mokrani, K.; Fournier, P E; Dalichaouche, M.; Tebbal, S.; Aouati, A.; Raoult, D

    2004-01-01

    We report a case of epidemic typhus in a patient from the Batna region of Algeria, who presented with generalized febrile exanthema. The clinical diagnosis was confirmed by serological cross-adsorption followed by Western blotting. Our report emphasizes the threat of epidemic typhus in the highlands of Algeria.

  8. Extensible threat taxonomy for critical infrastructures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luiijf, H.A.M.; Nieuwenhuijs, A.H.

    2008-01-01

    The European Union-sponsored project Vital Infrastructure Threats and Assurance (VITA) has the objective of exploring and showing new paths in Critical Infrastructure Protection (CIP) R&D. This paper describes one of VITA’s results: the idea and the development of a novel extensible and generic thre

  9. After Heart Attack, New Threat: Heart Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_159007.html After Heart Attack, New Threat: Heart Failure 1 in 4 survivors develops this serious ... TUESDAY, May 24, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Risk of heart failure appears high within a few years of ...

  10. Threats and countermeasures for network security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denning, Peter J.

    1991-01-01

    In the late 1980's, the traditional threat of anonymous break-ins to networked computers was joined by viruses and worms, multiplicative surrogates that carry out the bidding of their authors. Technologies for authentication and secrecy, supplemented by good management practices, are the principal countermeasures. Four articles on these subjects are presented.

  11. Relationship between redox activity and chemical speciation of size-fractionated particulate matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cho Arthur K

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although the mechanisms of airborne particulate matter (PM related health effects remain incompletely understood, one emerging hypothesis is that these adverse effects derive from oxidative stress, initiated by the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS within affected cells. Typically, ROS are formed in cells through the reduction of oxygen by biological reducing agents, with the catalytic assistance of electron transfer enzymes and redox active chemical species such as redox active organic chemicals and metals. The purpose of this study was to relate the electron transfer ability, or redox activity, of the PM samples to their content in polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and various inorganic species. The redox activity of the samples has been shown to correlate with the induction of the stress protein, hemeoxygenase-1. Results Size-fractionated (i.e. Conclusion The results of this work demonstrate the utility of the dithiothreitol assay for quantitatively assessing the redox potential of airborne particulate matter from a wide range of sources. Studies to characterize the redox activity of PM from various sources throughout the Los Angeles basin are currently underway.

  12. Human health risk evaluation of selected VOC, SVOC and particulate emissions from scented candles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petry, Thomas; Vitale, Danielle; Joachim, Fred J; Smith, Ben; Cruse, Lynn; Mascarenhas, Reuben; Schneider, Scott; Singal, Madhuri

    2014-06-01

    Airborne compounds in the indoor environment arise from a wide variety of sources such as environmental tobacco smoke, heating and cooking, construction materials as well as outdoor sources. To understand the contribution of scented candles to the indoor load of airborne substances and particulate matter, candle emission testing was undertaken in environmentally controlled small and large emission chambers. Candle emission rates, calculated on the basis of measured chamber concentrations of volatile and semi-volatile organic compounds (VOC, SVOC) and particulate matter (PM), were used to predict their respective indoor air concentrations in a standard EU-based dwelling using 2 models: the widely accepted ConsExpo 1-box inhalation model and the recently developed RIFM 2-box indoor air dispersion model. The output from both models has been used to estimate more realistic consumer exposure concentrations of specific chemicals and PM in candle emissions. Potential consumer health risks associated with the candle emissions were characterized by comparing the exposure concentrations with existing indoor or ambient air quality guidelines or, where not existent, to established toxicity thresholds. On the basis of this investigation it was concluded that under normal conditions of use scented candles do not pose known health risks to the consumer. PMID:24582651

  13. Recent advances in the development of a novel aerosol sorting and deposition system for bio-threat sensing applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pletcher, Timothy; McGinn, Joseph; Keller, David; Huston, Alan; Eversole, Jay; Sivaprakasum, Vasanthi

    2007-10-01

    Sarnoff Corporation and the Naval Research Laboratory, through support of the U.S. Department of Homeland Security, are developing an automated, high throughput bio-aerosol physical enrichment system designed for use as part of a biological-threat protection system. The Biological Aerosol-Capture-Enrichment (BioACE) system is a bio-aerosol collection system that combines three unique technologies to create physically enriched aerosol samples that can be subsequently interrogated by any number of bio-threat detection systems for the presence of threat agents. An air-to-air concentrator uses an inertial separation technique to highly concentrate an aerosol sample presented to a dual wavelength ultra-violet laser induced fluorescence (UVLIF) optical trigger used to discriminate potential threat particles from non-threat particles conveyed in a collimated particle stream. This particle classification information is used to trigger an electrostatic deposition mechanism to deposit only those particles determined to be potential bio-threats onto a stainless steel substrate. Non-threat particles are discarded with the exiting airflow. The goal for the most recent development effort has been the integration and optimization of these technologies into a unit capable of producing highly enriched particulate samples from ambient air containing variable background aerosol loading and type. Several key technical and engineering challenges were overcome during the course of this development including a unique solution for compensating particle velocity dispersion within the airflow, development of a real-time signal acquisition and detection algorithm for determining material type on a particle by particle basis at rates greater than 2000 particles per second, and the introduction of a robust method for transferring deposited particulate into a 50ul wet sample suitable for most advanced bio-detection techniques. This paper will briefly describe the overall system architecture and

  14. Insider Threat - Material Control and Accountability Mitigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Powell, Danny H [ORNL; Elwood Jr, Robert H [ORNL; Roche, Charles T [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    The technical objectives of nuclear safeguards are (1) the timely detection of diversion of significant quantities of nuclear material from peaceful uses to the manufacture of nuclear weapons or other nuclear explosive devices or for purposes unknown and (2) the deterrence of such diversion by the risk of early detection. The safeguards and security program must address both outsider threats and insider threats. Outsider threats are primarily addressed by the physical protection system. Insider threats can be any level of personnel at the site including passive or active insiders that could attempt protracted or abrupt diversion. This could occur by an individual acting alone or by collusion between an individual with material control and accountability (MC&A) responsibilities and another individual who has responsibility or control within both the physical protection and the MC&A systems. The insider threat is one that must be understood and incorporated into the safeguards posture. There have been more than 18 documented cases of theft or loss of plutonium or highly enriched uranium. The insider has access, authority, and knowledge, as well as a set of attributes, that make him/her difficult to detect. An integrated safeguards program is designed as a defense-in-depth system that seeks to prevent the unauthorized removal of nuclear material, to provide early detection of any unauthorized attempt to remove nuclear material, and to rapidly respond to any attempted removal of nuclear material. The program is also designed to support protection against sabotage, espionage, unauthorized access, compromise, and other hostile acts that may cause unacceptable adverse impacts on national security, program continuity, the health and safety of employees, the public, or the environment. Nuclear MC&A play an essential role in the capabilities of an integrated safeguards system to deter and detect theft or diversion of nuclear material. An integrated safeguards system with

  15. Protective coatings for commercial particulates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kindl, B.; Teng, Y.H.; Liu, Y.L.

    1994-01-01

    SiC/Al composites are in large-scale production with Al-Si alloy matrices. The same composites with pure Al or low Si matrices need diffusion barriers on the SiC reinforcement to control the interfacial reaction. The present paper describes various approaches taken to obtain protective coatings of...... alumina and zirconia on SiC particulates by sol-gel techniques. Aqueous and organic precursors have been used. The extent of the reaction, i.e., the Si and Al4C3 content in the matrix, was determined by differential thermal analysis and X-ray diffraction. The reaction rates of some coated particulates in...... liquid Al are decreased by as much as one order of magnitude during the first 15 min of immersion. Pretreatments of the SiC surface, the composition and thickness of the coating interphase and heat treatments of the coated materials have been studied, and are discussed in relation to their effect on the...

  16. Dans le tourbillon des particules

    CERN Document Server

    Zito, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Accélérateurs géants, détecteurs complexes, particules énigmatiques... La physique subatomique peut sembler bien intimidante pour le novice. Et pourtant, qui n a jamais entendu parler du boson de Higgs et du CERN, le laboratoire européen où il a été découvert en 2012 ? Nul besoin d être un spécialiste pour comprendre de quoi il s agit. Aujourd hui, une théorie extraordinairement élégante, le Modèle Standard, décrit tous les résultats des expériences dans le domaine. Trente-sept particules élémentaires et quatre forces fondamentales : c est tout ce dont nous avons besoin pour expliquer la matière et l Univers ! Ce livre, destiné à un large public, raconte sans équations le long parcours qui a abouti au Modèle Standard. Ce parcours, parfois sinueux, a été entamé lorsque les Grecs anciens, et peut-être d autres avant eux, ont imaginé que la matière est composée de petites « billes ». Il faudra attendre plusieurs siècles pour qu on réalise que la matière, à l échelle micros...

  17. Determination of airborne cadmium in environmental tobacco smoke by instrumental neutron activation analysis with a compton suppression system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landsberger, S; Larson, S; Wu, D

    1993-06-01

    Concentrations of cadmium, a toxic trace element, were measured in the indoor air of several public places where environmental tobacco smoke was present. Particulate-phase cadmium concentrations were determined by analyzing air filter samples using epithermal instrumental neutron activation analysis in conjunction with a Compton suppression gamma-ray detection system, in which the detection limit for cadmium was reduced to a few nanograms per filter. A cascade impactor and a personal filter sampler were used to collect the indoor suspended particulate matter for size-fractionated mass as well as total mass, respectively. Results show that where environmental tobacco smoke is present, cadmium concentrations are significantly higher than background and that about 80% of the cadmium found in indoor airborne particulate matter is associated with particles with aerodynamic diameters less than 1.8 microns. In one instance, airborne cadmium concentrations in a music club were found to be 38 ng/m, which is at least 30 times higher than background. PMID:8328669

  18. Interim report: airborne plutonium studies for the HEDL Plutonium Fuels Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes data and findings for two studies. The objective of the first is to provide a valid estimate of the alpha activity concentration of the gaseous effluents emitted from the Plutonium Fuels Laboratory. Particulates from large volume samples (millions of cubic ft.) continuously extracted from the E4 duct have shown the alpha activity concentrations to be greater than 2 orders of magnitude below the most restrictive limits for plutonium isotopes listed in Appendix B 10 CFR 20. Currently, samples are continuously extracted at approximately 50 cm for 90 days and indicate alpha activity concentrations of around 5 x 10-6 dpm per ft3. The second study proposes to evaluate the behavior of particles airborne in ''inerted'' gloveboxes. The size distributions and alpha activity concentrations of airborne activity in the Mixing-Blending glovebox have been evaluated during selected fuel fabrication operations. Samples were collected by inserting the collection equipment (cascade impactors or filters) into the glovebox. Samples were collected during mixing blending operations during 2 periods with varying enrichment levels. A maximum airborne concentration of 2.4 x 108 dpm/ft3 was measured with concentrations decaying to 102 to 103 dpm/ft3 after a few days of inactivity

  19. Turbulent dispersivity under conditions relevant to airborne disease transmission between laboratory animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halloran, Siobhan; Wexler, Anthony; Ristenpart, William

    2014-11-01

    Virologists and other researchers who test pathogens for airborne disease transmissibility often place a test animal downstream from an inoculated animal and later determine whether the test animal became infected. Despite the crucial role of the airflow in modulating the pathogen transmission, to date the infectious disease community has paid little attention to the effect of airspeed or turbulence intensity on the probability of transmission. Here we present measurements of the turbulent dispersivity under conditions relevant to experimental tests of airborne disease transmissibility between laboratory animals. We used time lapse photography to visualize the downstream transport and turbulent dispersion of smoke particulates released from a point source downstream of a standard axial fan, thus mimicking the release and transport of expiratory aerosols exhaled by an inoculated animal. We demonstrate that the fan speed counterintuitively has no effect on the downstream plume width, a result replicated with a variety of different fan types and configurations. The results point toward a useful simplification in modeling of airborne disease transmission via fan-generated flows.

  20. Concentration and emission of airborne contaminants in a laboratory animal facility housing rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ooms, Tara G; Artwohl, James E; Conroy, Lorraine M; Schoonover, Todd M; Fortman, Jeffrey D

    2008-03-01

    Characterization of animal housing conditions can determine the frequency of bedding and cage changes, which are not standardized from facility to facility. Rabbits produce noticeable odors, and their excreta can scald and stain cages. Our facility wanted to document measurable airborne contaminants in a laboratory rabbit room in which excreta pans were changed weekly and cages changed biweekly. Contaminants included particulate, endotoxin, ammonia, carbon dioxide, and a rabbit salivary protein as a marker for rabbit allergen. Concentrations were measured daily over a 2-wk period in a laboratory animal facility to determine whether they increased over time and on days considered to be the dirtiest. Except for ammonia, concentrations of all airborne contaminants did not differ between clean and dirty days. Concentrations were lower than occupational health exposure guidelines for all contaminants studied, including ammonia. After measurement of concentration, a model was applied to calculate mean emission factors in this rabbit room. Examples of emission factor utilization to determine airborne contaminant concentration in rabbit rooms under various environmental conditions and housing densities are provided. PMID:18351721

  1. Airborne Digital Camera. A digital view from above; Airborne Digital Camera. Der digitale Blick von oben

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roeser, H.P. [DLR Deutsches Zentrum fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V., Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Weltraumsensorik und Planetenerkundung

    1999-09-01

    The Airborne Digital Camera is based on the WAOSS camera of the MARS-96 mission. The camera will provide a new basis for airborne photogrammetry and remote exploration. The ADC project aims at the development of the first commercial digital airborne camera. [German] Die Wurzeln des Projektes Airborne Digital Camera (ADC) liegen in der Mission MARS-96. Die hierfuer konzipierte Marskamera WAOSS lieferte die Grundlage fuer das innovative Konzept einer digitalen Flugzeugkamera. Diese ist auf dem Weg, die flugzeuggestuetzte Photogrammetrie und Fernerkundung auf eine technologisch voellig neue Basis zu stellen. Ziel des Projektes ADC ist die Entwicklung der ersten kommerziellen digitalen Luftbildkamera. (orig.)

  2. Sexual harassment under social identity threat: the computer harassment paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maass, Anne; Cadinu, Mara; Guarnieri, Gaia; Grasselli, Annalisa

    2003-11-01

    Two laboratory experiments investigated the hypothesis that threat to male identity would increase the likelihood of gender harassment. In both experiments, using the computer harassment paradigm, male university students (N=80 in Experiment 1, N=90 in Experiment 2) were exposed to different types of identity threat (legitimacy threat and threat to group value in Experiment 1 and distinctiveness threat and prototypicality threat in Experiment 2) or to no threat and were then given the opportunity to send pornographic material to a virtual female interaction partner. Results show that (a) participants harassed the female interaction partner more when they were exposed to a legitimacy, distinctiveness, or prototypicality threat than to no threat; (b) this was mainly true for highly identified males; and (c) harassment enhanced postexperimental gender identification. Results are interpreted as supporting a social identity account of gender harassment. PMID:14599249

  3. Annual distribution of allergenic fungal spores in atmospheric particulate matter in the Eastern Mediterranean; a comparative study between ergosterol and quantitative PCR analysis

    OpenAIRE

    N. Lang-Yona; Dannemiller, K.; Yamamoto, N; N. Burshtein; Peccia, J; O. Yarden; Rudich, Y.

    2012-01-01

    Airborne fungal spores are an important fraction of atmospheric particulate matter and are major causative agents of allergenic and infectious diseases. Predicting the variability and species of allergy-causing fungal spores requires detailed and reliable methods for identification and quantification. There are diverse methods for their detection in the atmosphere and in the indoor environments; yet, it is important to optimize suitable methods for characterization of fungal spores in atmosph...

  4. Annual distribution of allergenic fungal spores in atmospheric particulate matter in the Eastern Mediterranean; a comparative study between ergosterol and quantitative PCR analysis

    OpenAIRE

    N. Lang-Yona; Dannemiller, K.; Yamamoto, N; N. Burshtein; Peccia, J; O. Yarden; Rudich, Y.

    2012-01-01

    Airborne fungal spores are an important fraction of atmospheric particulate matter and are major causative agents of allergenic and infectious diseases. Predicting the variability and species of allergy-causing fungal spores requires detailed and reliable methods for identification and quantification. There are diverse methods for their detection in the atmosphere and in the indoor environments; yet, it is important to optimize suitable methods for characterization of fungal...

  5. Annual distribution of allergenic fungal spores in atmospheric particulate matter in the eastern mediterranean; a comparative study between ergosterol and quantitative PCR analysis

    OpenAIRE

    N. Lang-Yona; Dannemiller, K.; Yamamoto, N; N. Burshtein; Peccia, J; O. Yarden; Rudich, Y.

    2011-01-01

    Airborne fungal spores are an important fraction of atmospheric particulate matter and are major causative agents of allergenic and infectious diseases. Predicting the variability and species of allergy-causing fungal spores requires detailed and reliable methods for identification and quantification. There are diverse methods for their detection in the atmosphere and in the indoor environments; yet, it is important to optimize suitable methods for characterization of fungal spores in atmosph...

  6. Miniaturized Airborne Imaging Central Server System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The innovation is a miniaturized airborne imaging central server system (MAICSS). MAICSS is designed as a high-performance computer-based electronic backend that...

  7. Miniaturized Airborne Imaging Central Server System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The innovation is a miniaturized airborne imaging central server system (MAICSS). MAICSS is designed as a high-performance-computer-based electronic backend that...

  8. Airborne Multi-Gas Sensor Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Mesa Photonics proposes to develop an Airborne Multi-Gas Sensor (AMUGS) based upon two-tone, frequency modulation spectroscopy (TT-FMS). Mesa Photonics has...

  9. Software for airborne radiation monitoring system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Airborne Radiation Monitoring System monitors radioactive contamination in the air or on the ground. The contamination source can be a radioactive plume or an area contaminated with radionuclides. This system is composed of two major parts: Airborne Unit carried by a helicopter, and Ground Station carried by a truck. The Airborne software is intended to be the core of a computerized airborne station. The software is written in C++ under MS-Windows with object-oriented methodology. It has been designed to be user-friendly: function keys and other accelerators are used for vital operations, a help file and help subjects are available, the Human-Machine-Interface is plain and obvious. (authors)

  10. Reconfigurable Weather Radar for Airborne Applications Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Intelligent Automation, Inc (IAI) and its university partner, University of Oklahoma (OU), Norman, propose a forward-looking airborne environment sensor based on...

  11. Voxel inversion of airborne EM data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fiandaca, Gianluca G.; Auken, Esben; Christiansen, Anders Vest C A.V.C.;

    2013-01-01

    jointly inverting airborne and ground-based geophysical data. Furthermore, geological and groundwater models most often refer to a regular voxel grid not correlated to the geophysical model space, and incorporating the geophysical data into the geological/hydrological modelling grids is problematic. We...... of prior information. Inversion of geophysical data usually refers to a model space being linked to the actual observation points. For airborne surveys the spatial discretization of the model space reflects the flight lines. Often airborne surveys are carried out in areas where other ground......-based geophysical data are available. The model space of geophysical inversions is usually referred to the positions of the measurements, and ground-based model positions do not generally coincide with the airborne model positions. Consequently, a model space based on the measuring points is not well suited for...

  12. Regenerable Lunar Airborne Dust Filter Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Effective methods are needed to control pervasive Lunar Dust within spacecraft and surface habitations. Once inside, airborne transmission is the primary mode of...

  13. Airborne Infrared Search and Track Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hari Babu Srivastava

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Infrared search and track (IRST systems are required for fighter aircraft to enable them to passively search, detect, track, classify, and prioritise multiple airborne targets under all aspects, look-up, look-down, and co-altitude conditions and engage them at as long ranges as possible. While the IRST systems have been proven in performance for ground-based and naval-based platforms, it is still facing some technical problems for airborne applications. These problems arise from uncertainty in target signature, atmospheric effects, background clutter (especially dense and varying clouds, signal and data processing algorithms to detect potential targets at long ranges and some hardware limitations such as large memory requirement to store and process wide field of view data. In this paper, an overview of airborne IRST as a system has been presented with detailed comparative simulation results of different detectionitracking algorithms and the present status of airborne IRSTs

  14. A threat in the computer: the race implicit association test as a stereotype threat experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frantz, Cynthia M; Cuddy, Amy J C; Burnett, Molly; Ray, Heidi; Hart, Allen

    2004-12-01

    Three experiments test whether the threat of appearing racist leads White participants to perform worse on the race Implicit Association Test (IAT) and whether self-affirmation can protect from this threat. Experiments 1 and 2 suggest that White participants show a stereotype threat effect when completing the race IAT, leading to stronger pro-White scores when the test is believed to be diagnostic of racism. This effect increases for domain-identified (highly motivated to control prejudice) participants (Experiment 2). In Experiment 3, self-affirmation inoculates participants against stereotype threat while taking the race IAT. These findings have methodological implications for use of the race IAT and theoretical implications concerning the malleability of automatic prejudice and the potential interpersonal effects of the fear of appearing racist. PMID:15536243

  15. Physical‐chemical and microbiological characterization, and mutagenic activity of airborne PM sampled in a biomass‐fueled electrical production facility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cohn, Corey A.; Lemieux, Christine L.; Long, Alexandra S.;

    2011-01-01

    Biomass combustion is used in heating and electric power generation in many areas of the world. Airborne particulate matter (PM) is released when biomass is brought to a facility, stored, and combusted. Occupational exposure to airborne PM within biomass‐fueled facilities may lead to health...... problems. In March and August of 2006, airborne PM was collected from a biomass‐fueled facility located in Denmark. In addition, source‐specific PM was generated from straw and wood pellets using a rotating drum. The PM was analyzed for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), metals, microbial components......, mutagenic activity, and ability to generate highly reactive oxygen species (hROS) in cell‐free aqueous suspensions. PM collected from the boiler room and the biomass storage hall had higher levels of mutagenic activity, PAHs and metals, and a higher hROS generating potential than the source specific PM. The...

  16. The JAC airborne EM system : AEM-05

    OpenAIRE

    Levaniemi, H.; Beamish, D; Hautaniemi, H.; Kurimo, M.; Suppala, I.; Vironmaki, J.; Cuss, R.J.; Lahti, M; Tartaras, E.

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the airborne electromagnetic (AEM) system operated by the Joint Airborne geoscience Capability (JAC), a partnership between the Finnish and British Geological Surveys. The system is a component of a 3-in-1, fixed-wing facility acquiring magnetic gradiometer and full spectrum radiometric data alongside the wing-tip, frequency-domain AEM measurements. The AEM system has recently (2005) been upgraded from 2 to 4 frequencies and now provides a bandwidth from 900 Hz to 25 kHz....

  17. Externality costs by emission. E. Particulates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fossil-fuel-fired electricity generating systems, particularly coal and oil-fired facilities, are significant emitters of particulate matter. The major components of particulate emissions from a power plant include ash, which is made up of heavy metals, radioactive isotopes and hydrocarbons, and sulfates (SO4) and nitrates (NO3), which are formed by reaction of sulfur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) in the atmosphere. The smallest ash particulates (including sulfates and nitrates) cause human respiratory effects and impaired visibility. Other effects may include materials damage due to soiling and possibly corrosion, damage to domestic and wild flora through deposition of particulates on foliage, and possible health effects on domestic animals and wild fauna. Several studies focus on the direct effects of high ambient levels of small particulates. This chapter reviews the available literature on the effects of particulate emissions on humans and their environment, and attempts to assign a cost figure to the environmental effects and human health impairments associated with particulate matter emissions. Specifically, this report focuses on the effects of particulates related to human health, visibility, flora, fauna and materials

  18. Advanced Fine Particulate Characterization Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steven Benson; Lingbu Kong; Alexander Azenkeng; Jason Laumb; Robert Jensen; Edwin Olson; Jill MacKenzie; A.M. Rokanuzzaman

    2007-01-31

    The characterization and control of emissions from combustion sources are of significant importance in improving local and regional air quality. Such emissions include fine particulate matter, organic carbon compounds, and NO{sub x} and SO{sub 2} gases, along with mercury and other toxic metals. This project involved four activities including Further Development of Analytical Techniques for PM{sub 10} and PM{sub 2.5} Characterization and Source Apportionment and Management, Organic Carbonaceous Particulate and Metal Speciation for Source Apportionment Studies, Quantum Modeling, and High-Potassium Carbon Production with Biomass-Coal Blending. The key accomplishments included the development of improved automated methods to characterize the inorganic and organic components particulate matter. The methods involved the use of scanning electron microscopy and x-ray microanalysis for the inorganic fraction and a combination of extractive methods combined with near-edge x-ray absorption fine structure to characterize the organic fraction. These methods have direction application for source apportionment studies of PM because they provide detailed inorganic analysis along with total organic and elemental carbon (OC/EC) quantification. Quantum modeling using density functional theory (DFT) calculations was used to further elucidate a recently developed mechanistic model for mercury speciation in coal combustion systems and interactions on activated carbon. Reaction energies, enthalpies, free energies and binding energies of Hg species to the prototype molecules were derived from the data obtained in these calculations. Bimolecular rate constants for the various elementary steps in the mechanism have been estimated using the hard-sphere collision theory approximation, and the results seem to indicate that extremely fast kinetics could be involved in these surface reactions. Activated carbon was produced from a blend of lignite coal from the Center Mine in North Dakota and

  19. Particulate filtration in nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The removal of particulate radioactive material from exhaust air or gases is an essential feature of virtually all nuclear facilities. Recent IAEA publications have covered the broad designs of off-gas and air cleaning systems for the range of nuclear power plants and other facilities. This report is a complementary guidebook that examines in detail the latest developments in the design, operation, maintenance and testing of fibrous air filters. The original draft of the report was prepared by three consultants, M.W. First, of the School of Public Health, Harvard University, United States of America, K.S. Robinson, from the UKAEA Harwell Laboratory, United Kingdom, and H.G. Dillmann, of the Kernforschungzentrum, Karlsruhe, Germany. The Technical Committee Meeting (TCM), at which the report was reviewed and much additional information contributed, was attended by 11 experts and was held in Vienna, from 30 May to 3 June 1988. 64 refs, 41 figs, 10 tabs

  20. Methods for Coating Particulate Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littman, Howard (Inventor); Plawsky, Joel L. (Inventor); Paccione, John D. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    Methods and apparatus for coating particulate material are provided. The apparatus includes a vessel having a top and a bottom, a vertically extending conduit having an inlet in the vessel and an outlet outside of the vessel, a first fluid inlet in the bottom of the vessel for introducing a transfer fluid, a second fluid inlet in the bottom of the vessel for introducing a coating fluid, and a fluid outlet from the vessel. The method includes steps of agitating a material, contacting the material with a coating material, and drying the coating material to produce a coated material. The invention may be adapted to coat aerogel beads, among other materials. A coated aerogel bead and an aerogel-based insulation material are also disclosed.