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Sample records for air-shower experiment kascade-grande

  1. Results from KASCADE-Grande

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertaina, M., E-mail: bertaina@to.infn.it [Dipartimento di Fisica Generale dell' Universita, Torino (Italy); Apel, W.D. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, KIT - Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (Germany); Arteaga-Velazquez, J.C. [Universidad Michoacana, Instituto de Fisica y Matematicas, Morelia (Mexico); Bekk, K. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, KIT - Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (Germany); Bluemer, J. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, KIT - Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (Germany); Institut fuer Experimentelle Kernphysik, KIT - Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (Germany); Bozdog, H. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, KIT - Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (Germany); Brancus, I.M. [National Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering, Bucharest (Romania); Buchholz, P. [Fachbereich Physik, Universitaet Siegen (Germany); Cantoni, E. [Dipartimento di Fisica Generale dell' Universita, Torino (Italy); Istituto di Fisica dello Spazio Interplanetario, INAF Torino (Italy); Chiavassa, A. [Dipartimento di Fisica Generale dell' Universita, Torino (Italy); Cossavella, F. [Institut fuer Experimentelle Kernphysik, KIT - Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (Germany); and others

    2012-11-11

    The KASCADE-Grande experiment, located at Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (Germany) is a multi-component extensive air-shower experiment devoted to the study of cosmic rays and their interactions at primary energies 10{sup 14}-10{sup 18} eV. Main goals of the experiment are the measurement of the all-particle energy spectrum and mass composition in the 10{sup 16}-10{sup 18} eV range by sampling charged (N{sub ch}) and muon (N{sub {mu}}) components of the air shower. The method to derive the energy spectrum and its uncertainties, as well as the implications of the obtained result, is discussed. An overview of the analyses performed by KASCADE-Grande to derive the mass composition of the measured high-energy comic rays is presented as well.

  2. Restoring the azimuthal symmetry of lateral distributions of charged particles in the range of the KASCADE-Grande experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sima, O.; Rebel, H.; Haungs, A.; Toma, G.; Manailescu, C.; Morariu, C.; Arteaga, J.C.; Bekk, K.; Bertaina, M.; Bluemer, J.; Bozdog, H.; Brancus, I.M.; Chiavassa, A.; Cosavella, F.; Souza, V. de; Doll, P.; Engel, R.; Finger, M.; Glasstetter, R.; Grupen, C.

    2011-01-01

    The reconstruction of Extensive Air Showers (EAS) observed by particle detectors at the ground is based on the characteristics of observables like the lateral particle density and the arrival times. The lateral densities, inferred for different EAS components from detector data, are usually parameterised by applying various lateral distribution functions (LDFs). The LDFs are used in turn for evaluating quantities like the total number of particles or the density at particular radial distances. Typical expressions for LDFs anticipate azimuthal symmetry of the density around the shower axis. The deviations of the lateral particle density from this assumption arising from various reasons are smoothed out in the case of compact arrays like KASCADE, but not in the case of arrays like Grande, which only sample a smaller part of the azimuthal variation. KASCADE-Grande, an extension of the former KASCADE experiment, is a multi-component Extensive Air Shower (EAS) experiment located at the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (Campus North), Germany. The lateral distributions of charged particles are deduced from the basic information provided by the Grande scintillators - the energy deposits - first in the observation plane, then in the intrinsic shower plane. In all steps azimuthal dependences should be taken into account. As the energy deposit in the scintillators is dependent on the angles of incidence of the particles, azimuthal dependences are already involved in the first step: the conversion from the energy deposits to the charged particle density. This is done by using the Lateral Energy Correction Function (LECF) that evaluates the mean energy deposited by a charged particle taking into account the contribution of other particles (e.g. photons) to the energy deposit. By using a very fast procedure for the evaluation of the energy deposited by various particles we prepared realistic LECFs depending on the angle of incidence of the shower and on the radial and

  3. Test of hadronic interaction models with the KASCADE-Grande muon data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schieler H.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available KASCADE-Grande is an air-shower observatory devoted for the detection of cosmic rays with energies in the interval of 1014 – 1018 eV, where the Grande array is responsible for the higher energy range. The experiment comprises different detection systems which allow precise measurements of the charged, electron and muon numbers of extensive air-showers (EAS. These data is employed not only to reconstruct the properties of the primary cosmic-ray particle but also to test hadronic interaction models at high energies. In this contribution, predictions of the muon content of EAS from QGSJET II-2, SIBYLL 2.1 and EPOS 1.99 are confronted with the experimental measurements performed with the KASCADE-Grande experiment in order to test the validity of these hadronic models commonly used in EAS simulations.

  4. A comparison of the cosmic-ray energy scales of Tunka-133 and KASCADE-Grande via their radio extensions Tunka-Rex and LOPES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.D. Apel

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The radio technique is a promising method for detection of cosmic-ray air showers of energies around 100PeV and higher with an array of radio antennas. Since the amplitude of the radio signal can be measured absolutely and increases with the shower energy, radio measurements can be used to determine the air-shower energy on an absolute scale. We show that calibrated measurements of radio detectors operated in coincidence with host experiments measuring air showers based on other techniques can be used for comparing the energy scales of these host experiments. Using two approaches, first via direct amplitude measurements, and second via comparison of measurements with air shower simulations, we compare the energy scales of the air-shower experiments Tunka-133 and KASCADE-Grande, using their radio extensions, Tunka-Rex and LOPES, respectively. Due to the consistent amplitude calibration for Tunka-Rex and LOPES achieved by using the same reference source, this comparison reaches an accuracy of approximately 10% – limited by some shortcomings of LOPES, which was a prototype experiment for the digital radio technique for air showers. In particular we show that the energy scales of cosmic-ray measurements by the independently calibrated experiments KASCADE-Grande and Tunka-133 are consistent with each other on this level.

  5. The CYGNUS extensive air-shower experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexandreas, D.E.; Allen, R.C.; Biller, S.D.; Delay, R.S.; Dion, G.M.; Lu, X.Q.; Vishwanath, P.R.; Yodh, G.B. (Univ. of California, Irvine (United States)); Berley, D.; Chang, C.Y.; Dingus, B.L.; Goodman, J.A.; Haines, T.J.; Gupta, S.; Krakauer, D.A.; Stark, M.J.; Talaga, R.L. (Univ. of Maryland, College Park (United States)); Burman, R.L.; Butterfield, K.; Cady, R.; Hoffman, C.M.; Lloyd-Evans, J.; Nagle, D.E.; Potter, M.E.; Sandberg, V.D.; Sinnis, C.; Stanislaus, S.; Thompson, T.N.; Wilkinson, C.A.; Zhang, W. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)); Ellsworth, R.W. (George Mason Univ., Fairfax, VA (United States))

    1992-01-01

    The CYGNUS extensive air-shower experiment is described. The design criteria, construction and operation details, and performance characteristics are presented. A discussion of the data analysis techniques is given. Finally, several enhancements and improvements in the apparatus are described. (orig.).

  6. Monte Carlo calculation of the energy deposited in the KASCADE GRANDE detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mihai, Constantin

    2004-01-01

    The energy deposited by protons, electrons and positrons in the KASCADE GRANDE detectors is calculated with a simple and fast Monte Carlo method. The KASCADE GRANDE experiment (Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Germany), based on an array of plastic scintillation detectors, has the aim to study the energy spectrum of the primary cosmic rays around and above the 'knee' region of the spectrum. The reconstruction of the primary spectrum is achieved by comparing the data collected by the detectors with simulations of the development of the extensive air shower initiated by the primary particle combined with detailed simulations of the detector response. The simulation of the air shower development is carried out with the CORSIKA Monte Carlo code. The output file produced by CORSIKA is further processed with a program that estimates the energy deposited in the detectors by the particles of the shower. The standard method to calculate the energy deposit in the detectors is based on the Geant package from the CERN library. A new method that calculates the energy deposit by fitting the Geant based distributions with simpler functions is proposed in this work. In comparison with the method based on the Geant package this method is substantially faster. The time saving is important because the number of particles involved is large. (author)

  7. Simple ADC unit for cosmic ray air shower experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goswami, G C; Ghosh, B; Ghoshdastidar, M R; Sengupta, S K; Chaudhuri, N [North Bengal Univ., Darjeeling (India). Dept. of Physics

    1982-02-01

    The design of a new low cost analog-to-digital converter system is described. It is based upon the method of linearising the charging process of a storage condenser and is controlled by logic gates. Its tested characteristics have been found to be reliable for application in cosmic ray air shower experiments.

  8. The AMY experiment: Microwave emission from air shower plasmas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvarez-Muñiz J.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available You The Air Microwave Yield (AMY experiment investigate the molecular bremsstrahlung radiation emitted in the GHz frequency range from an electron beam induced air-shower. The measurements have been performed at the Beam Test Facility (BTF of Frascati INFN National Laboratories with a 510 MeV electron beam in a wide frequency range between 1 and 20 GHz. We present the apparatus and the results of the tests performed.

  9. The new South Pole air shower experiment - SPASE-2

    CERN Document Server

    Dickinson, J E; Gaisser, T K; Gill, J R; Hart, S P; Hinton, J A; Lloyd-Evans, J; Martello, D; Miller, T C; Ogden, P A; Patel, M; Rochester, K; Spiczak, G M; Stanev, T; Watson, A A

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes a new coincidence experiment designed to improve understanding of the composition of the primary cosmic-ray beam around the knee of the spectrum. The experiment consists of an air shower array on the surface (SPASE-2), which works in coincidence with an array of air-Cherenkov detectors (VULCAN), and the Antarctic Muon and Neutrino Detector Array (AMANDA) deep in the ice. The experiment must cover the energy range from approx 10 sup 1 sup 4 to approx 3x10 sup 1 sup 6 eV to overlap with direct measurements at lower energy and encompass the regions of the knee and beyond in the cosmic ray spectrum.

  10. Cosmic Ray Physics with the KASCADE-Grande Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arteaga-Velázquez, J. C.; Apel, W. D.; Bekk, K.; Bertaina, M.; Blümer, J.; Bozdog, H.; Brancus, I. M.; Cantoni, E.; Chiavassa, A.; Cossavella, F.; Daumiller, K.; de Souza, V.; Di Pierro, F.; Doll, P.; Engel, R.; Fuhrmann, D.; Gherghel-Lascu, A.; Gils, H. J.; Glasstetter, R.; Grupen, C.; Haungs, A.; Heck, D.; Hörandel, J. R.; Huege, T.; Kampert, K.-H.; Kang, D.; Klages, H. O.; Link, K.; Łuczak, P.; Mathes, H. J.; Mayer, H. J.; Milke, J.; Mitrica, B.; Morello, C.; Oehlschläger, J.; Ostapchenko, S.; Pierog, T.; Rebel, H.; Roth, M.; Schieler, H.; Schoo, S.; Schröder, F. G.; Sima, O.; Toma, G.; Trinchero, G. C.; Ulrich, H.; Weindl, A.; Wochele, J.; Zabierowski, J.

    The existence of a knee at a few PeV in the all-particle cosmic ray energy spectrum has been well established by several experiments but its physical origin has eluded researches for a long time. It is believed that keys to disentangle the mystery could be found in the spectrum and the composition of cosmic rays between 1 PeV and 1 EeV. A first detailed look into the elemental chemical abundances of cosmic rays in this energy regime was provided by both the KASCADE and the KASCADE-Grande experiments. Their measurements opened the door to a wealth of new data on the subject, which led to the discovery of new structures in the all-particle energy spectrum and the confirmation of knee-like features in the spectra of individual mass groups, as well as the observation of an unexpected ankle-like structure at around 100 PeV in the flux of the light component of cosmic rays. In this contribution, early findings with the KASCADE-Grande experiment will be reviewed and then a short update on the analyses currently performed with the data of the observatory will be presented.

  11. Microwave detection of air showers with the MIDAS experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Privitera, Paolo; Alekotte, I.; Alvarez-Muniz, J.; Berlin, A.; Bertou, X.; Bogdan, M.; Bohacova, M.; Bonifazi, C.; Carvalho, W.R.; Mello Neto, J.R.T. de; Facal San Luis, P.; Genat, J.F.; Hollon, N.; Mills, E.; Monasor, M.; Reyes, L.C.; Rouille d'Orfeuil, B.; Santos, E.M.; Wayne, S.; Williams, C.

    2011-01-01

    Microwave emission from Extensive Air Showers could provide a novel technique for ultra-high energy cosmic rays detection over large area and with 100% duty cycle. We describe the design, performance and first results of the MIDAS (MIcrowave Detection of Air Showers) detector, a 4.5 m parabolic dish with 53 feeds in its focal plane, currently installed at the University of Chicago.

  12. The 〈 ln A 〉 study with the Muon tracking detector in the KASCADE-Grande experiment – comparison of hadronic interaction models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Łuczak P.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available With the KASCADE-Grande Muon Tracking Detector it was possible to measure with high accuracy directions of EAS muons with energy above 0.8 GeV and up to 700 m distance from the shower centre. Reconstructed muon tracks allow investigation of muon pseudorapidity (η distributions. These distributions are nearly identical to the pseudorapidity distributions of their parent mesons produced in hadronic interactions. Comparison of the η distributions from measured and simulated showers can be used to test the quality of the high energy hadronic interaction models. The pseudorapidity distributions reflect the longitudinal development of EAS and, as such, are sensitive to the mass of the cosmic ray primary particles. With various parameters of the η distribution, obtained from the Muon Tracking Detector data, it is possible to calculate the average logarithm of mass of the primary cosmic ray particles. The results of the 〈 ln A 〉 analysis in the primary energy range 1016 eV–1017 eV with the 1st quartile and the mean value of the distributions will be presented for the QGSJet-II-2, QGSJet-II-4, EPOS 1.99 and EPOS LHC models in combination with the FLUKA model.

  13. Lateral particle density reconstruction from the energy deposits of particles in the KASCADE-Grande detector stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toma, G.; Brancus, I.M.; Mitrica, B.; Sima, O.; Rebel, H.

    2005-01-01

    The study of primary cosmic rays with energies greater than 10 14 eV is done mostly by indirect observation techniques such as the study of Extensive Air Showers (EAS). In the much larger framework effort of inferring data on the mass and energy of the primaries from EAS observables, the present study aims at delivering a versatile method and software tool that will be used to reconstruct lateral particle densities from the energy deposits of particles in the KASCADE-Grande detector stations. The study has been performed on simulated events, by taking into account the interaction of the EAS components with the detector array (energy deposits). The energy deposits have been parametrized for different incident energies and angles. Thus it is possible to reconstruct the particle densities in detectors from the energy deposits. A correlation between lateral particle density and primary mass and primary energy (at ∼ 600 m from shower core) has been established. The study puts great emphasis on the quality of reconstruction and also on the speed of the technique. The data obtained from the study on simulated events will be used soon on real events detected by the KASCADE-Grande array. (authors)

  14. A computerised recording and monitoring system for extensive air shower experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naranan, S.; Rao, M.V.S.; Sivaprasad, K.; Subramaniam, P.B.

    1975-01-01

    A digital computer, TDC-12, with a memory capacity of 8 K 12-bit words and memory cycle time of 2 μs has been installed at the Cosmic Ray Laboratory at Kolar Gold Fields, India for real time operation with the KGF Air Shower Experiment. The computer system records the selected events and monitors and calibrates all the 90 detectors of various types in real time. (orig./WL) [de

  15. Extensive air showers and diffused Cherenkov light detection: The ULTRA experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agnetta, G.; Assis, P.; Biondo, B.

    2007-01-01

    The Uv Light Transmission and Reflection in the Atmosphere (ULTRA) experiment has been designed to provide quantitative measurements of the backscattered Cherenkov signal associated to the Extensive Air Showers (EAS) at the impact point on the Earth surface. The knowledge of such information will test the possibility to detect the diffused Cherenkov light spot from space within the Ultra high-energy cosmic ray observation. The Cherenkov signal is necessary to give an absolute reference for the track, allowing the measurement of the shower maximum and easing the separation between neutrino and hadronic showers. In this paper we discuss the experimental set-up with detailed information on the detection method; the in situ and laboratory calibrations; the simulation of the expected detector response and finally the preliminary results on the detector performance

  16. Constraining Microwave Emission from Extensive Air Showers via the MIDAS Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Matthew; Privitera, Paolo

    2017-01-01

    Ultra high energy cosmic rays (UHECRs) are accelerated by the most energetic processes in the universe. Upon entering Earth’s atmosphere they produce particle showers known as extensive air showers (EASs). Observatories like the Pierre Auger Observatory sample the particles and light produced by the EASs through large particle detector arrays or nitrogen fluorescence detectors to ascertain the fundamental properties of UHECRs. The large sample of high quality data provided by the Pierre Auger Observatory can be attributed to the hybrid technique which utilizes the two aforementioned techniques simultaneously; however, the limitation of only being able to observe nitrogen fluorescence from EASs on clear moonless nights yields a limited 10% duty cycle for the hybrid technique. One proposal for providing high quality data at increased statistics is the observation of isotropic microwave emission from EASs, as such emission would be observed with a 100% duty cycle. Measurements of microwave emission from laboratory air plasmas conducted by Gorham et al. (2008) produced promising results indicating that the microwave emission should be observable using inexpensive detectors. The Microwave Detection of Air Showers (MIDAS) experiment was built at the University of Chicago to characterize the isotropic microwave emission from EASs and has collected 359 days of observational data at the location of the Pierre Auger experiment. We have performed a time coincidence analysis between this data and data from Pierre Auger and we report a null result. This result places stringent limits on microwave emission from EASs and demonstrates that the laboratory measurements of Gorham et al. (2008) are not applicable to EASs, thus diminishing the feasibility of using isotropic microwave emission to detect EASs.

  17. Simulating the energy deposits of particles in the KASCADE-grande detector stations as a preliminary step for EAS event reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toma, G.; Brancus, I.M.; Mitrica, B.; Sima, O.; Rebel, H.; Haungs, A.

    2005-01-01

    The study of primary cosmic rays with energies higher than 10 14 eV is done mostly by indirect observation techniques such as the study of Extensive Air Showers (EAS). In the much larger framework effort of inferring data on the mass and energy of the primaries from EAS observables, the present study aims at developing a versatile method and software tool that will be used to reconstruct lateral particle densities from the energy deposits of particles in the KASCADE-Grande detector stations. The study has been performed on simulated events, by taking into account the interaction of the EAS components with the detector array (energy deposits). The energy deposits have been simulated using the GEANT code and then the energy deposits have been parametrized for different incident energies and angles of EAS particles. Thus the results obtained for simulated events have the same level of consistency as the experimental data. This technique will allow an increased speed of lateral particle density reconstruction when studying real events detected by the KASCADE-Grande array. The particle densities in detectors have been reconstructed from the energy deposits. A correlation between lateral particle density and primary mass and primary energy (at ∼600 m from shower core) has been established. The study puts great emphasis on the quality of reconstruction and also on the speed of the technique. The data obtained from the study on simulated events creates the basis for the next stage of the study, the study of real events detected by the KASCADE-Grande array. (authors)

  18. Measurements in the Forward Phase-Space with the CMS Experiment and their Impact on Physics of Extensive Air Showers

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2083313; Quast, Günter; Ulrich, Ralf

    2015-11-18

    The astrophysical interpretation of ultra-high energy cosmic rays is based on detection of extensive air showers in indirect measurements. Hadronic interaction models that are needed for such analyses require parameters to be adjusted to collider data since soft particle production cannot be calculated from first principles. Within this work, the program CRMC was developed that unifies all air shower hadronic interaction models and supports the output formats used by collider experiments. Almost all LHC experiments have adopted the use these hadronic interaction models thanks to CRMC. The program can even be used in detector simulations to make direct comparison to reconstructed quantities from which the cosmic ray and the particle physics communities benefit immensely. Furthermore, nuclear effects were studied with the CMS experiments at the LHC. The production cross section was derived in recent proton-lead collision data at sqrt(s(NN)) = 5.02 TeV in order to study nuclear effects. The measurement constrain...

  19. The current status of the GRAPES-3 extensive air shower experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, S.K.; Antia, H.M.; Dugad, S.R.; Goswami, U.D.; Hayashi, Y.; Iyer, A.; Ito, N.; Jagadeesan, P.; Jain, A.; Karthikeyan, S.; Kawakami, S.; Minamino, M.; Mohanty, P.K.; Morris, S.D.; Nayak, P.K.; Nonaka, T.; Oshima, A.; Rao, B.S.; Ravindran, K.C.; Tanaka, H.

    2009-01-01

    The GRAPES-3 is a dense extensive air shower array operating with ∼400 scintillator detectors and it also contains a 560 m 2 tracking muon detector (E μ >1GeV), at Ooty in India. 25% of scintillator detectors are instrumented with two fast photomultiplier tubes (PMTs) for extending the dynamic range to ∼5x10 3 particles m -2 . The scintillators, signal processing electronics and data recording systems were fabricated in-house to cut costs and optimize performance. The muon multiplicity distribution of the EAS is used to probe the composition of primary cosmic rays below the 'knee', with an overlap with direct measurements. Search for multi-TeV γ-rays from point sources is done with the aid of the muon detector. A good angular resolution of 0.7 deg. at 30 TeV, is measured from the shadow of the Moon on the isotropic flux of cosmic rays. A sensitive limit on the diffuse flux of 100 TeV γ-rays is placed by using muon detector to filter the charged cosmic ray background. A tracking muon detector allows sensitive measurements on coronal mass ejections and solar flares through Forbush decrease events. We have major expansion plans to enhance the sensitivity of the GRAPES-3 experiment in the areas listed above.

  20. The cosmic ray spectrum and composition measured by KASCADE-Grande between 10{sup 16} eV and 10{sup 18} eV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertaina, M., E-mail: bertaina@to.infn.it [Department of Physics, University of Torino and INFN, Torino (Italy); Apel, W.D. [Institut für Kernphysik, KIT – Karlsruher Institut für Technologie (Germany); Arteaga-Velázquez, J.C. [Institute of Physics and Mathematics, Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolas de Hidalgo, Morelia (Mexico); Bekk, K. [Institut für Kernphysik, KIT – Karlsruher Institut für Technologie (Germany); Blümer, J. [Institut für Kernphysik, KIT – Karlsruher Institut für Technologie (Germany); Institut für Experimentelle Kernphysik, KIT – Karlsruher Institut für Technologie (Germany); Bozdog, H. [Institut für Kernphysik, KIT – Karlsruher Institut für Technologie (Germany); Brancus, I.M. [Horia Hulubei National Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering, Bucharest (Romania); Cantoni, E. [Department of Physics, University of Torino and INFN, Torino (Italy); Osservatorio Astrofisico di Torino, INAF Torino (Italy); Chiavassa, A. [Department of Physics, University of Torino and INFN, Torino (Italy); Cossavella, F. [Institut für Experimentelle Kernphysik, KIT – Karlsruher Institut für Technologie (Germany); Daumiller, K. [Institut für Kernphysik, KIT – Karlsruher Institut für Technologie (Germany); Souza, V. de [Universidade São Paulo, Instituto de Física de São Carlos (Brazil); and others

    2014-11-15

    The shape and composition of the primary spectrum of cosmic rays are key elements to understand the origin, acceleration and propagation of the Galactic cosmic rays. Besides the well known knee and ankle features, the recent results of KASCADE-Grande indicate that the measured energy spectrum exhibits also a less pronounced but still clear deviation from a single power law between the knee and the ankle, with a spectral hardening at 2 × 10{sup 16} eV and a steepening at 10{sup 17} eV. The average mass composition gets heavier after the knee till 10{sup 17} eV where a bending of the heavy component is observed. An indication of a hardening of the light component just above 10{sup 17} eV has been measured as well. In this paper the major results obtained so far by the KASCADE-Grande experiment are reviewed.

  1. Self-triggering of radio signals from cosmic ray air showers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asch, Thomas

    2009-02-01

    LOPES STAR is a prototype detector for future experiments on the observation of radio emission of ultra high energy cosmic rays. Absolutely calibrated measurements of the electric field strength with the LOPES STAR detector were performed in coincidence with the well-established air shower detector KASCADE-Grande. The experinmental configuration allowed a simultaneous observation of east-west and north-south polarised components of the electric field per antenna used. This thesis discusses in detail the influence of background sources on the detector configuration as well as the resulting self-trigger system. The implemented trigger suppresses strong background signals from the industrial environment on the site of the Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe (rejection >99.9 %) and is the basis for a hardware self-trigger. Therefore, the system is adequate for any other detector site. Two different calibration methods are performed and cross-checked to convert the measured raw data into an electric field strength. Both methods result in the same frequency dependent calibration values within their uncertainties. Furthermore, the probable scale parameter of d 0 =(137±18) m. The comparison of selected events with Monte Carlo simulations on an event-by-event basis points out a good correspondence within the given uncertainties and confirms the geosynchrotron model. The overall angular resolution of the arrival direction results in only a few degrees. The presented methods and algorithms are developed for the trigger system and the analysis and are now standard tools for the data analysis in the LOPES collaboration. (orig.)

  2. The effect of the atmospheric condition on the extensive air shower analysis at the Telescope Array experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Y.; Tsunesada, Y.; Tokuno, H.; Kakimoto, F.; Tomida, T.

    2011-01-01

    The accuracies in determination of air shower parameters such as longitudinal profiles or primary energies with the fluorescence detection technique are strongly dependent on atmospheric conditions of the molecular and aerosol components. Moreover, air fluorescence photon yield depends on the atmospheric density, and the transparency of the air for fluorescence photons depends on the atmospheric conditions from EAS to FDs. In this paper, we describe the atmospheric monitoring system in the Telescope Array (TA experiment), and the impact of the atmospheric conditions in air shower reconstructions. The systematic uncertainties of the determination of the primary cosmic ray energies and of the measurement of depth of maximum development (X max ) of EASs due to atmospheric variance are evaluated by Monte Carlo simulation.

  3. Cherenkov light based measurement of extensive air showers around the knee with the HEGRA experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aharonian, F.; Akhperjanian, A.G.; Barrio, J.A.; Belgarian, A.S.; Bernloehr, K.; Bojahr, H.; Contreras, J.L.; Cortina, J.; Daum, A.; Deckers, T.; Denninghoff, S.; Fernandez, J.; Fonseca, V.; Gonzales, J.C.; Heinzelmann, G.; Hemberger, M.; Hermann, G.; Hess, M.; Heusler, A.; Hofmann, W.; Hohl, H.; Horns, D.; Kankanyan, R.; Kestel, M.; Kirstein, O.; Koehler, C.; Konopelko, A.; Kornmayer, H.; Kranich, D.; Krawczynski, H.; Lampeitl, H.; Lindner, A.; Lorenz, E.; Magnussen, N.; Meyer, H.; Mirzoyan, R.; Moralejo, A.; Padilla, L.; Panter, M.; Petry, D.; Plaga, R.; Plyasheshnikov, A.; Prahl, J.; Prosch, C.; Puehlhofer, G.; Rauterberg, G.; Renault, C.; Rhode, W.; Roehring, A.; Sahakian, V.; Samorski, M.; Schmele, D.; Schroeder, F.; Stamm, W.; Voelk, H.J.; Wiebel-Sooth, B

    1999-03-01

    Data of the wide angle atmospheric Cherenkov light detector array AIROBICC and the scintillator matrix of the HEGRA air shower detector complex are combined to determine the energy spectrum and coarse composition of charged cosmic rays in the energy interval from 300 TeV to 10 PeV.

  4. Extensive air showers

    CERN Document Server

    Rao, M V S

    1997-01-01

    Ultrahigh energy cosmic rays carry information about their sources and the intervening medium apart from providing a beam of particles for studying certain features of high energy interactions currently inaccessible at man-made accelerators. They can at present be studied only via the extensive air showers (EAS's) they generate while passing through the Earth's atmosphere, since their fluxes are too low for the experiments of limited capability flown in balloons and satellites. The EAS is generated by a series of interactions of the primary cosmic ray and its progeny with the atmospheric nucle

  5. Instrumentation development for an array of water Cherenkov detectors for extensive air shower experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheidaei, F.; Bahmanabadi, M.; Keivani, A.; Samimi, J.

    2009-11-01

    A new small array of Cherenkov detectors has been deployed in Tehran, 1200 m above sea level. This array contains four tanks of distilled water with a diameter of 64 cm and a height of 130 cm. The effective area of each tank is about 1382 cm2. They are used to detect air showers and to record the arrival time of the secondary particles. We have collected about 640 000 extensive air showers (EAS) in 8298 h of observation time from November 2006 to October 2007. The distribution of air showers in zenith and azimuth angles has been studied and a cosnθ distribution with n = 6.02 ± 0.01 was obtained for the zenith angle distribution. An asymmetry has been observed in the azimuthal distribution of EAS of cosmic rays due to geomagnetic field. The first and second amplitudes of the asymmetry are AI = 0.183 ± 0.001 and AII = 0.038 ± 0.001. Since the recent results are in good agreement with our previous results of scintillation detectors, and tanks of distilled water are cheaper, we prefer to use them instead of scintillators in a future larger array. By simulation, we have improved the size of the detectors to yield the highest efficiency. The best dimensions for each tank with a photomultiplier tube in the center of its lid are 40 cm in diameter and 60 cm in height.

  6. Receiver system for radio observation of high-energy cosmic ray air showers and its behaviour in self trigger mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kroemer, Oliver

    2008-04-01

    on the site of the cosmic ray air shower experiment KASCADE-Grande at the Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe. They are receiving radio signals which are clearly in coincidence with cosmic ray air showers. Due to the calibration spanning the whole signal path and the polarization analysis it is possible to investigate radio emission from cosmic ray air showers and underlying emission models. An autonomous operation of the receiver stations requires a self trigger which identifies the cosmic ray air shower by its own radio signal only. Due to the superposition of noise and radio frequency interference an increasing false trigger rate is expected with decreasing trigger threshold. The self trigger conceived within this work allows suitably low thresholds at technically manageable false trigger rates. The behaviour and limitations of this self trigger concept are derived theoretically but also confirmed by measurements under real environmental conditions. On the radio-loud site of the Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, the electric field strength threshold is only a factor of 3 above the theoretical minimum which is given by the omnipresent galactic noise in an unpopulated environment. The resulting detection limits for cosmic rays are expected to be above 5.10 17 eV for the primary particle energies in an unpopulated environment and above 10 18 eV on the site of the Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe. (orig.)

  7. JASA: A prototype water-Cerenkov air-shower detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berley, D.; Dion, C.; Goodman, J.A.; Haines, T.J.; Kwok, P.W.; Stark, M.J.; Svoboda, R.C.; Ferguson, H.; Hoffman, C.M.; Horch, E.; Ellsworth, R.W.; Delay, R.S.; Lu, X.; Yodh, G.B.

    1991-01-01

    A small pilot experiment to examine the use of the water-Cerenkov technique for air shower detection was installed near the center of the CYGNUS air shower array. Preliminary results showing general agreement with simulations are presented. Thus, the technique promises to offer significant advances for VHE-UHE γ-ray astronomy

  8. Nitrogen fluorescence in air for observing extensive air showers

    CERN Document Server

    Keilhauer, B; Fraga, M; Matthews, J; Sakaki, N; Tameda, Y; Tsunesada, Y; Ulrich, A

    2012-01-01

    Extensive air showers initiate the fluorescence emissions from nitrogen molecules in air. The UV-light is emitted isotropically and can be used for observing the longitudinal development of extensive air showers in the atmosphere over tenth of kilometers. This measurement technique is well-established since it is exploited for many decades by several cosmic ray experiments. However, a fundamental aspect of the air shower analyses is the description of the fluorescence emission in dependence on varying atmospheric conditions. Different fluorescence yields affect directly the energy scaling of air shower reconstruction. In order to explore the various details of the nitrogen fluorescence emission in air, a few experimental groups have been performing dedicated measurements over the last decade. Most of the measurements are now finished. These experimental groups have been discussing their techniques and results in a series of \\emph{Air Fluorescence Workshops} commenced in 2002. At the 8$^{\\rm{th}}$ Air Fluoresc...

  9. Air shower measurements with LOFAR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horneffer, A.; Bähren, L.; Buitink, S.; Falcke, H.; Hörandel, J.R.; Kuijpers, J.; Lafebre, S.; Nigl, A.; Scholten, O.; Singh, K.

    2009-01-01

    Air showers from cosmic rays emit short, intense radio pulses. The Low Frequency Array (LOFAR) is a new radio telescope, that is being built in the Netherlands and Europe. Designed primarily as a radio interferometer, the core of LOFAR will have a high density of radio antennas, which will be

  10. Modelling of radio emission from cosmic ray air showers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, Marianne

    2011-06-01

    Cosmic rays entering the Earth's atmosphere induce extensive air showers consisting of up to billions of secondary particles. Among them, a multitude of electrons and positrons are generated. These get deflected in the Earth's magnetic field, creating time-varying transverse currents. Thereby, the air shower emits coherent radiation in the MHz frequency range measured by radio antenna arrays on the ground such as LOPES at the KIT. This detection method provides a possibility to study cosmic rays with energies above 1017 eV. At this time, the radio technique undergoes the change from prototype experiments to large scale application. Thus, a detailed understanding of the radio emission process is needed more than ever. Before starting this work, different models made conflicting predictions on the pulse shape and the amplitude of the radio signal. It turned out that a radiation component caused by the variation of the number of charged particles within the air shower was missed in several models. The Monte Carlo code REAS2 superposing the radiation of the individual air shower electrons and positrons was one of those. At this time, it was not known how to take the missing component into account. For REAS3, we developed and implemented the endpoint formalism, a universal approach, to calculate the radiation from each single particle. For the first time, we achieve a good agreement between REAS3 and MGMR, an independent and completely different simulation approach. In contrast to REAS3, MGMR is based on a macroscopic approach and on parametrisations of the air shower. We studied the differences in the underlying air shower models to explain the remaining deviations. For comparisons with LOPES data, we developed a new method which allows "top-down" simulations of air showers. From this, we developed an air shower selection criterion based on the number of muons measured with KASCADE to take shower-to-shower fluctuations for a single event analysis into account. With

  11. GREX/COVER-PLASTEX: an experiment to analyze the space-time structure of extensive air showers produced by primary cosmic rays of 1015 eV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agnetta, G.; Ambrosio, M.; Beaman, J.; Barbarino, G.C.; Biondo, B.; Catalano, O.; Colesanti, L.; Dali, G.; Guarino, F.; Lauro, A.; Lloyd-Evans, J.; Mangano, A.; Popova, L.; Watson, A.A.

    1995-01-01

    A novel experimental installation is described in which the traditional method of detecting extensive air showers with scintillation counters is significantly extended by the addition of limited streamer tube hodoscopes (LST) and layers of resistive plate counters (RPC). Runs with the scintillator array, GREX, at Haverah Park have demonstrated the power of the LST hodoscopes to determine the direction of arrival of muons, electrons and photons in air showers while the RPC system permits the relative arrival time of individual particles and the temporal thickness and structure of the shower disc to be obtained. The potential of these technical advances for studying the longitudinal profile of air showers produced by primaries of about 1000 TeV is briefly discussed. First measurements of thickness and time profile of EAS front are also reported. (orig.)

  12. Air shower density spectrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porter, M.R.; Foster, J.M.; Hodson, A.L.; Hazen, W.E.; Hendel, A.Z.; Bull, R.M.

    1982-01-01

    Measurements of the differential local density spectrum have been made using a 1 m 2 discharge chamber mounted in the Leeds discharge chamber array. The results are fitted to a power law of the form h(δ)dδ = kδsup(-ν)dδ, where ν=2.47+-0.04; k=0.21 s - 1 , for 7 m - 2 - 2 ; ν=2.90+-0.22; k=2.18 s - 1 , for δ > 200 m - 2 . Details of the measurement techniques are given with particular reference to the treatment of closely-spaced discharges. A comparison of these results with previous experiments using different techniques is made

  13. Delayed hadrons in air showers observed in Chacaltaya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kakimoto, Fumio

    1984-01-01

    Bolivian Air Shower Joint Experiment group has studied high energy interaction by measuring the aspect of vertical growth of air showers of 10 16 eV or more at Mt. Chacaltaya Space Physics Observatory at 5200 m above sea level and atmospheric depth of 550 g/cm 2 . The aspect of vertical growth of electrons from about 100 g/cm 2 to about 400 g/cm 2 of atmospheric depth obtained by the measured results of the time of arrival distribution of air Cherenkov radiation at Mt. Chacaltaya agreed with the one predicted from the enhanced 1/2 power of E model. Since the vertical growth of electrons and muons in about 10 17 eV air showers from the atmospheric apex was difficult to give the unified explanation with known interaction models, the University of Tokyo group has proposed a two-component model for air shower growth. If this second component is formed from heavy particles or heavy quantum state as parents, it should be observed as the component which arrives later in air shower. Thus, the measurement and experiment on the delayed hadrons in air showers have been started. In this paper, the experiment, analysis and results are reported. It is clear that the parent particles which caused such a phenomenon were not pions which were multiply generated by the interaction generally known. Therefore, an exact simulating calculation must be performed and compared with the experimental results to obtain the final conclusion from the measured results of this time. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  14. The ultimate air shower observatory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, L.W.

    1981-01-01

    The possibility of constructing an international air shower observatory in the Himalayas is explored. A site at about 6500 m elevation (450 g/cm 2 ) would provide more definitive measurements of composition and early interaction properties of primaries above 10 16 eV than can be achieved with existing arrays. By supplementing a surface array with a Fly's Eye and muon detectors, information on the highest energy cosmic rays may be gained which is not possible in any other way. Potential sites, technical aspects, and logistical problems are explored

  15. Microwave detection of air showers with MIDAS

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Facal San Luis, P.; Alekotte, I.; Alvarez, J.; Berlin, A.; Bertou, X.; Bogdan, M.; Boháčová, Martina; Bonifazi, C.; Carvalho, W.R.; de Mello Neto, J.R.T.; Genat, J.F.; Mills, E.; Monasor, M.; Privitera, P.; Reyes, I.C.; d´Orfeuil, B.R.; Santos, E.M.; Wayne, S.; Williams, C.; Zas, E.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 662, Sup. 1 (2012), "S118"-"S123" ISSN 0168-9002 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LA08016 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100502 Keywords : MIDAS (Microwave Detector of Air Showers) * extensive air showers Subject RIV: BF - Elementary Particles and High Energy Physics Impact factor: 1.142, year: 2012

  16. Microwave detection of air showers with MIDAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Facal San Luis, P., E-mail: facal@kicp.uchicago.edu [University of Chicago, Enrico Fermi Institue and Kavli Institute for Cosmological Physics, 5640 South Ellis Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Alekotte, I. [Centro Atomico Bariloche and Instituto Balseiro (CNEA-UNCuyo-CONICET), 8400 San Carlos de Bariloche, Rio Negro (Argentina); Alvarez, J. [Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, Departamento de Fisica de Particulas, Campus Sur, E-15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Berlin, A. [University of Chicago, Enrico Fermi Institue and Kavli Institute for Cosmological Physics, 5640 South Ellis Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Bertou, X. [Centro Atomico Bariloche and Instituto Balseiro (CNEA-UNCuyo-CONICET), 8400 San Carlos de Bariloche, Rio Negro (Argentina); Bogdan, M.; Bohacova, M. [University of Chicago, Enrico Fermi Institue and Kavli Institute for Cosmological Physics, 5640 South Ellis Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Bonifazi, C. [Univ. Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), Instituto de Fisica, Cidade Universitaria, Caixa Postal 68528, 21945-970 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Carvalho, W.R. [Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, Departamento de Fisica de Particulas, Campus Sur, E-15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Mello Neto, J.R.T. de [Univ. Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), Instituto de Fisica, Cidade Universitaria, Caixa Postal 68528, 21945-970 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Genat, J.F.; Mills, E.; Monasor, M.; Privitera, P.; Reyes, I.C.; Rouille d& #x27; Orfeuil, B. [University of Chicago, Enrico Fermi Institue and Kavli Institute for Cosmological Physics, 5640 South Ellis Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); and others

    2012-01-11

    MIDAS (MIcrowave Detector of Air Showers) is a prototype of a microwave telescope to detect extensive air showers: it images a 20{sup Degree-Sign } Multiplication-Sign 10{sup Degree-Sign} region of the sky with a 4.5 m parabolic reflector and 53 feeds in the focal plane. It has been commissioned in March 2010 and is currently taking data. We present the design, performance and first results of MIDAS.

  17. Microwave detection of air showers with MIDAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Facal San Luis, P.; Alekotte, I.; Alvarez, J.; Berlin, A.; Bertou, X.; Bogdan, M.; Bohacova, M.; Bonifazi, C.; Carvalho, W.R.; Mello Neto, J.R.T. de; Genat, J.F.; Mills, E.; Monasor, M.; Privitera, P.; Reyes, I.C.; Rouille d’Orfeuil, B.

    2012-01-01

    MIDAS (MIcrowave Detector of Air Showers) is a prototype of a microwave telescope to detect extensive air showers: it images a 20 ° ×10 ° region of the sky with a 4.5 m parabolic reflector and 53 feeds in the focal plane. It has been commissioned in March 2010 and is currently taking data. We present the design, performance and first results of MIDAS.

  18. Azimuthal asymmetries of the charged particle densities in EAS in the range of KASCADE-Grande

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sima, O.; Morariu, C.; Manailescu, C.; Rebel, H.; Haungs, A.

    2009-03-01

    The reconstruction of Extended Air Showers (EAS) observed by ground level particle detectors is based on the characteristics of observables like particle lateral density (PLD), arrival time signals etc. Lateral densities, inferred from detector data, are usually parameterized by applying various lateral distribution functions (LDF). The LDFs are used in turn for evaluating quantities like the total number of particles, the density at particular radial distances. Typical expressions for LDFs anticipate azimuthal symmetry of the density around the shower axis. The deviations of the particle lateral density from this assumption are smoothed out in the case of compact arrays like KASCADE, but not in the case of arrays like Grande, which only sample a smaller part of the azimuthal variation. In this report we discuss the origin of the asymmetry: geometric, attenuation and geomagnetic effects. Geometric effects occur in the case of inclined showers, due to the fact that the observations are made in a plane different from the intrinsic shower plane. Hence the projection procedure from the observational plane to the relevant normal shower plane plays a significant role. Attenuation effects arise from the differences between the distances travelled by particles that reach the ground at the same radial coordinate but with various azimuthal positions in the case of inclined showers. The influence of the geomagnetic field distorts additionally the charged particle distributions in a way specific to the geomagnetic location. Based on dedicated CORSIKA simulations we have evaluated the magnitude of the effects. Focused to geometric and attenuation effects, procedures for minimizing the effects of the azimuthal asymmetry of lateral density in the intrinsic shower plane were developed. The consequences of the reconstruction of the charge particle sizes determined with the Grande array are also discussed and a procedure for practical application of restoring the azimuthal symmetry

  19. Multiple production around 1000 TeV observed in the emulsion chamber experiments at Mt. Fuji and linkage experiments with air shower

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torii, Syoji

    1980-01-01

    The multiple production around 1000 TeV is discussed in this paper by using the experimental data at Mt. Fuji and the results of the Monte Carlo simulation. Six events with the total energy more than 1000 TeV were observed in the emulsion chamber (EC) exposed for 600 m 2 year at Mt. Fuji. Various Monte Carlo calculations with the scaling model were performed. The relation between the transverse momentum and The Feynman scaling law is discussed. The frequency of the total gamma energy spectrum and the lateral distribution of the family were compared with the calculation. In the case that protons are dominant in primary cosmic ray, the multiplicity in the interaction increased according to 1/4 th power of energy. In the case of heavy nuclei, the experimental results can be reproduced by assuming the increase of cross-section, when the scaling holds. It is still hard to make definite conclusion on the break of scaling. Simultaneous observation of air family and air shower is proposed. (Kato, T.)

  20. Large high altitude air shower observatory (LHAASO) project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Huihai

    2010-01-01

    The Large High Altitude Air Shower Observatory (LHAASO) project focuses mainly on the study of 40 GeV-1 PeV gamma ray astronomy and 10 TeV-1 EeV cosmic ray physics. It consists of a 1 km 2 extensive air shower array with 40 000 m 2 muon detectors, 90,000m 2 water Cerenkov detector array, 5 000 m 2 shower core detector array and an air Cerenkov/fluorescence telescope array. Prototype detectors are designed with some of them already in operation. A prototype array of 1% size of LHAASO will be built at the Yangbajing Cosmic Ray Observatory and used to coincidently measure cosmic rays with the ARGO-YBJ experiment. (authors)

  1. Application of an image intensifier to the study on hadrons in air shower, 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsushima, Itsuro; Kawasumi, Norio; Hashimoto, Katsumi; Machida, Masaharu

    1975-01-01

    As the apparatus for observing cosmic ray air shower, the particle detection apparatus combining spark chamber, scintillator and photomultiplier tube is frequently used, but the exact detection of particle number is impossible with it when particle density is large. The authors have carried out the experiment to measure nuclear active particles in air shower and to grasp the central part of air shower as energy flow by utilizing an image intensifier tube. On the roof of building S, a laboratory was built, and a core detector of 2 m x 2 m area, 13 AS detectors of 0.25 m 2 and an AS detector of 1 m 2 were installed. The gate of the II was opened by utilizing coincidence pulses, and the position and amount of scintillation in the core detector was taken into a camera through the II. The time of observation was 289 hours, and the time of II operation was 113 hours. Total number of air shower recorded was 218 cases, and the centers of 120 cases among them were determined in the AS detectors at four corners. The centers of 39 cases were within the area of the core detector. In the coincident counting of air shower and burst carried out in the present experiment, the total delay time from the arrival of air shower to the gate pulse actuating the II was 1.6 sec. The core of air shower of about 10 6 size and 1.3 age was caught by this method. The problems for future are the determination of core position for the air shower of smaller size, and the meaning of spot images of II. (Kako, I.)

  2. An air shower array for LOFAR: LORA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thoudam, S.; Aar, G. V.; Akker, M. V. D.; Bähren, L.; Corstanje, A.; Falcke, H.; Hörandel, J. R.; Horneffer, A.; James, C.; Mevius, M.; Scholten, O.; Singh, K.; Ter Veen, S.

    2011-01-01

    LOFAR is a new form of radio telescope which can detect radio emission from air showers induced by very high-energy cosmic rays. It can also look for radio emission from particle cascades on the Moon induced by ultra high-energy cosmic rays or neutrinos. To complement the radio detection, we are

  3. Cosmic Rays and Extensive Air Showers

    CERN Document Server

    Stanev, Todor

    2010-01-01

    We begin with a brief introduction of the cosmic ray energy spectrum and its main features. At energies higher than 105 GeV cosmic rays are detected by the showers they initiate in the atmosphere. We continues with a brief description of the energy spectrum and composition derived from air shower data.

  4. Penetrating particles in horizontal air showers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wohlenberg, J.; Boehm, E.

    1975-01-01

    Particle density and arrival time of muons has been measured in Horizontal Air Showers. 5,600 showers have been recorded in 7,800 hours. Using stringent selection criteria 155 showers have been found horizontal (zenith angle larger 70 0 ) in the size range 4.1 > lg N > 5.5. The muons observed in these showers can be explained by purely electromagnetic origin of horizontal showers. (orig.) [de

  5. Radar reflection off extensive air showers

    CERN Document Server

    Stasielak, J; Bertaina, M; Blümer, J; Chiavassa, A; Engel, R; Haungs, A; Huege, T; Kampert, K -H; Klages, H; Kleifges, M; Krömer, O; Ludwig, M; Mathys, S; Neunteufel, P; Pekala, J; Rautenberg, J; Riegel, M; Roth, M; Salamida, F; Schieler, H; Šmída, R; Unger, M; Weber, M; Werner, F; Wilczyński, H; Wochele, J

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the possibility of detecting extensive air showers by the radar technique. Considering a bistatic radar system and different shower geometries, we simulate reflection of radio waves off the static plasma produced by the shower in the air. Using the Thomson cross-section for radio wave reflection, we obtain the time evolution of the signal received by the antennas. The frequency upshift of the radar echo and the power received are studied to verify the feasibility of the radar detection technique.

  6. Use of a neutrino detector for muon identification by the CYGNUS air-shower array

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, R.C.; DeLay, R.S.; Lu, X.Q.; Yodh, G.B. (Univ. of California, Irvine (United States)); Burman, R.L.; Cady, D.R.; Lloyd-Evans, J.; Nagle, D.E.; Sandberg, V.D.; Sena, A.J. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)); Chang, C.Y.; Dingus, B.L.; Gupta, S.; Goodman, J.A.; Haines, T.J.; Krakauer, D.A.; Talaga, R.L. (Univ. of Maryland, College Park (United States)); Ellsworth, R.W. (George Mason Univ., Fairfax, VA (United States)); Potter, M.E.; Thompson, T.N. (Univ. of California, Irvine (United States) Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States))

    1992-01-01

    The muon content of extensive air showers observed by the CYGNUS experiment are measured by a well-shielded apparatus originally used for accelerator neutrino detection. Primary identification and counting of muons relies on a 44 m{sup 2} array of multiwire proportional counters that has operated continously since the experiment's inception to the present time. During the experiment's first 20 months, the central detector, consisting of flash-tube chambers, was used for high-resolution reconstruction of muon trajectories for a limited subsample of air showers. The ability to distinguish individual muons in the tracking device enabled verification and calibration of the muon counting by the proportional-counter system. The tracking capability was also used to verify the systematic pointing accuracy of the extensive air-shower arrival direction, as determined, as determined by the CYGNUS array, to better than 0.5{sup 0}. (orig.).

  7. Radar reflection off extensive air showers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Werner F.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the possibility of detecting extensive air showers by the radar technique. Considering a bistatic radar system and different shower geometries, we simulate reflection of radio waves off the static plasma produced by the shower in the air. Using the Thomson cross-section for radio wave reflection, we obtain the time evolution of the signal received by the antennas. The frequency upshift of the radar echo and the power received are studied to verify the feasibility of the radar detection technique.

  8. Search for neutrino generated air shower candidates with energy ≥ 1019 eV and Zenith angle θ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knurenko, Stanislav; Petrov, Igor; Sabourov, Artem

    2017-06-01

    The description of the methodology and results of searching for air showers generated by neutral particles such as high energy gamma quanta and astroneutrinos are presented. For this purpose, we conducted a comprehensive analysis of the data: the electron, the muon and the EAS Cerenkov light, and their response time in scintillation and Cherenkov detectors. Air showers with energy more than 5·1018 eV and zenith angle θ ≥ 55∘ are selected and analyzed. Search results indicate a lack of air shower events formed by gamma-rays or high-energy neutrinos, but it does not mean that such air showers do not exist in nature; for example, experiments that recorded showers having a marked low muon content, i.e., "Muonless", are likely to be candidates for showers produced by neutral primary particles.

  9. pp interactions in extended air showers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kendi Kohara A.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Applying the recently constructed analytic representation for the pp scattering amplitudes, we present a study of p-air cross sections, with comparison to the data from Extensive Air Shower (EAS measurements. The amplitudes describe with precision all available accelerator data at ISR, SPS and LHC energies, and its theoretical basis, together with the very smooth energy dependence of parameters controlled by unitarity and dispersion relations, permit reliable extrapolation to higher energies and to asymptotic ranges. The comparison with cosmic ray data is very satisfactory in the whole pp energy interval from 1 to 100 TeV. High energy asymptotic behaviour of cross sections is investigated in view of the geometric scaling property of the amplitudes. The amplitudes predict that the proton does not behave as a black disk even at asymptotically high enegies, and we discuss possible non-trivial consequences of this fact for pA collision cross sections at higher energies.

  10. Extensive Air Showers with unusual structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beznosko Dmitriy

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of 23500 Extensive Air Showers (EAS with energies above ∼ 1016 eV have been detected during the ∼3500 hours of the Horizon-T (HT detectors system operations before Aug. 2016. Among these EAS, more than a thousand had an unusual spatial and temporary structure that showed pulses with several maxima (modals or modes from several detection points of the HT at the same time. These modes are separated in time from each other starting from tens to thousands of ns. These EAS have been called multi-modal. Analysis shows that the multi-modal EAS that have been detected by Horizon-T have the following properties: 1. Multi-modal EAS have energy above ∼1017 eV. 2. Pulses with several modes are located at large distances from the EAS axis. An overview of the collected data will be provided. General comments about the unusual structure of the multi-modal EAS will be presented.

  11. Ultra-high energy cosmic rays: analysis of extensive air showers and their associated electromagnetic signal in the MHz domain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Revenu, B.

    2012-01-01

    In this HDR (accreditation to supervise research) report, the author proposes a review of the present results in the field of ultra-high energy cosmic rays. After a presentation of some results about the Fermi mechanism to accelerate cosmic rays, the author more particularly addresses the reconstruction of air showers, and the search for sources. He also addresses the radio signal emitted by air shower secondary positrons and electrons. He proposes an overview of the present knowledge on the basis of present experiments. Data show that the electric field is mainly due to the influence of the Earth magnetic field which acts on electrons and positrons, but more recently, the contribution due to electrons in excess seems to appear in data. The author reports the last advances in the field of simulation of the electric field, with notably the prediction of new signal produced by the disappearance of the air shower during its absorption by the soil [fr

  12. Simulation of the charge ratio of cosmic ray muons in extensive air showers using CORSIKA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ochilo, Livingstone [University of Siegen (Germany); Kenyatta University, Nairobi (Kenya); Hashim, Nadir; Okumu, John [Kenyatta University, Nairobi (Kenya)

    2013-07-01

    The interaction of primary cosmic rays in the atmosphere produces, among other particles, pions and kaons. They decay to muons, which form an important component of extensive air showers. The ratio of positively to negatively charged muons, called the muon charge ratio, provides important information about the cosmic ray interactions in the atmosphere. In this study, the theoretical hadronic interaction models in the cosmic ray simulation code CORSIKA have been used to study the charge ratio of cosmic ray muons simulated in extensive air showers. An East - West effect on the charge ratio of simulated cosmic ray muons is observed. It is more pronounced for inclined and low-energy muons (momentum less than 100 GeV/c and zenith angle greater than 80 ). Experimental data from ''MINOS Near'' experiment gives similar results.

  13. The Roland Maze Project - school-based extensive air shower network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feder, J.; Jedrzejczak, K.; Karczmarczyk, J.; Lewandowski, R.; Swarzynski, J.; Szabelska, B.; Szabelski, J.; Wibig, T.

    2006-01-01

    We plan to construct the large area network of extensive air shower detectors placed on the roofs of high school buildings in the city of Lodz. Detection points will be connected by INTERNET to the central server and their work will be synchronized by GPS. The main scientific goal of the project are studies of ultra high energy cosmic rays. Using existing town infrastructure (INTERNET, power supply, etc.) will significantly reduce the cost of the experiment. Engaging high school students in the research program should significantly increase their knowledge of science and modern technologies, and can be a very efficient way of science popularisation. We performed simulations of the projected network capabilities of registering Extensive Air Showers and reconstructing energies of primary particles. Results of the simulations and the current status of project realisation will be presented

  14. The arrival time distribution of muons in extensive air showers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van der Walt, D.J.

    1984-01-01

    An experiment was done to investigate the lateral dependence of the muon arrival time distribution in extensive air showers at small core distances. In the present experiment the muon arrival time distribution was investigated by measuring the relative arrival times between single muons in five fast Cerenkov detectors beneath 500g/cm 2 of concrete and at an atmospheric depth of 880g/cm 2 . It is shown that, although it is not possible to determine the arrival time distribution as such, it is possible to interpret the relative arrival times between muons in terms of the differences between the order statistics of a sample drawn from the arrival time distribution. The relationship between the arrival time distribution of muons relative to the first detected muon and the muon arrival time distribution is also derived. It was found that the dispersion of the muon arrival time distribution does not increase significantly with increasing core distance between 10m and 60m from the core. A comparison with theoretical distributions obtained from model calculations for proton initiated showers indicate that 1. the mean delay of muons with respect to the first detected muon is significantly larger than that expected from the model and 2. the observed dispersion is also significantly larger than the predicted dispersion for core distances between 10m and 60m

  15. Spatial structure of extensive air showers near the axis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alekseev, E N; Gal' perin, M D; Glemba, P Ya [AN SSSR, Moscow. Inst. Yadernykh Issledovanij; Moskovskij Gosudarstvennyj Univ. (USSR). Nauchno-Issledovatel' skij Inst. Yadernoj Fiziki; Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Turin (Italy). Lab. di Cosmo-Geofisica)

    1978-07-01

    The spatial structure of the extensive air showers has been investigated. The tests have been staged on the 400 scintillation counter installation. It has been shown, that spatial distribution of the extensive air showers in the vicinity of the axis does not vary in case of the Nsub(e) electron number showers in the 10/sup 5/-10/sup 6/ range. The share of the showers having a clear-cut multicore structure is approximately 3% with Nsub(e) >= 2x10/sup 5/.

  16. Cosmic ray radio emission as air shower detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curutiu, Alexandru; Rusu, Mircea; Isar, Gina; Zgura, Sorin

    2004-01-01

    The possibility of radio-detection of ultra-high energy cosmic rays (within the 10 to 100 MHz range) are discussed. Currently, air showers are detected by various methods, mainly based on particle detectors (KASCADE, Auger) or optical detection (Cerenkov radiation). Recently,to detect radio emission from cosmic ray air showers a method using electromagnetic radiation in low frequency domain (LOFAR) was proposed. We are investigating this possibility, using simulation codes created to investigate electromagnetic radiation of intricate antennae structure, for example fractal antennas. Some of the preliminary results will be communicated in this session. (authors)

  17. Radio morphing - towards a full parametrisation of the radio signal from air showers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zilles, A.; Charrier, D.; Kotera, K.; Le Coz, S.; Martineau-Huynh, O.; Medina, C.; Niess, V.; Tueros, M.; de Vries, K.

    2017-12-01

    Over the last decades, radio detection of air showers has been established as a detection technique for ultra-high-energy cosmic-rays impinging on the Earth's atmosphere with energies far beyond LHC energies. Today’s second-generation of digital radio-detection experiments, as e.g. AERA or LOFAR, are becoming competitive in comparison to already standard techniques e.g. fluorescence light detection. Thanks to a detailed understanding of the physics of the radio emission in extensive air showers, simulations of the radio signal are already successfully tested and applied in the reconstruction of cosmic rays. However the limits of the computational power resources are easily reached when it comes to computing electric fields at the numerous positions requested by large or dense antenna arrays. In the case of mountainous areas as e.g. for the GRAND array, where 3D shower simulations are necessary, the problem arises with even stronger acuity. Therefore we developed a full parametrisation of the emitted radio signal on the basis of generic shower simulations which will reduce the simulation time by orders of magnitudes. In this talk we will present this concept after a short introduction to the concept of the radio detection of air-shower induced by cosmic rays.

  18. Cosmic ray air showers in the knee energy region

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The cosmic ray extensive air showers in the knee energy region have been studied by the North Bengal University array. The differential size spectra at different atmospheric depths show a systematic shift of the knee towards smaller shower size with the increase in atmospheric depth. The measured values of spectral ...

  19. The search for extended air showers at the Jicamarca Radio Observatory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wahl, D.; Chau, J.; Galindo, F.; Huaman, A.; Solano, C. J.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the status of the project to detect extended air showers at the Jicamarca Radio Observatory. We report on detected anomalous signals and present a toy model to estimate at what altitudes we might expect to see air shower signals. According to this model, a significant number of high altitude horizontal air showers could be observed by radar techniques.

  20. Do cosmic ray air showers initiate lightning? : A statistical analysis of cosmic ray air showers and lightning mapping array data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hare, B. M.; Dwyer, J. R.; Winner, L. H.; Uman, M. A.; Jordan, D. M.; Kotovsky, D. A.; Caicedo, J. A.; Wilkes, R. A.; Carvalho, F. L.; Pilkey, J. T.; Ngin, T. K.; Gamerota, W. R.; Rassoul, H. K.

    2017-01-01

    It has been argued in the technical literature, and widely reported in the popular press, that cosmic ray air showers (CRASs) can initiate lightning via a mechanism known as relativistic runaway electron avalanche (RREA), where large numbers of high-energy and low-energy electrons can, somehow,

  1. New measurements and analysis of high-energy muons in cosmic ray extensive air showers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarkar, S.K.; Ghose, B.; Murkherjee, N.; Sanyal, S.; Chaudhuri, N.; Chhetri, R.; Basak, D.K.

    1991-01-01

    Cosmic ray air shower structure measurements and measurement of density and energy of air shower muons of a wide energy range simultaneously in individual air showers by two magnet spectrographs are presented. The measured muon densities have been used to compare with some of the previous measurements on muon densities in air showers of nearly the same size. The measured muon densities have also been applied for distinguishing between various interaction models and between light and heavier air shower primaries. In the air shower size range 10 4 -10 6 particles the present measurements do not provide evidence for iron primaries and the different interaction models seem not to be distinguishable by air shower observations. (Author)

  2. Investigation concerning the existence of quarks near the nuclei of great air showers with the help of a cloud chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiemken, U.

    1974-01-01

    In order to compare the results of McCusker's (1969) experiment, this paper presents an experiment with improved technical details. For this purpose, a large cloud chamber in connection with the Kiel air shower set-up was available. First, the expected quark induced ionisation has been determined by a calibration measurement on minimum ionising muons. These data are in extremely good agreement with values from the literature. Then, measurements in air showers with a mean primary energy of 10 16 eV have been performed during an effective measuring time of 66 days. The mean distance from the nucleus amounts to about 9 m. In contradiction to the quark abundance of McCusker, which predicts six quarks for the Kiel set-up, no track was found with 'quark suspicion'. Some tracks with low droplet densities could be explained already in a preliminary stage of the evaluation by normal cloud chamber effects. (orig.) [de

  3. Transition effect of extensive air showers in thick scintillators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lidvanskij, A.S.; Navarra, Dzh.; Chernyaev, A.V.

    1985-01-01

    Transition effect of extensive air showers has been measured by means of the ''Kover'' facility of the Baksan neutrino laboratory. The transition effect represents the ratio of ''scintillation'' particle density detected with detectors and particle density under the facility concrete roof (21 gxcm -2 ). Measurement results are compared with data obtained by means of the program of electron-photon cascade gaming. Good agreement of experimental and calculational data has been obtained. It follows from the data in the paper that the transition effect for one scintillator in the absence of roof can be produced by the gaming rather reliably

  4. Sidereal anisotropy of small air showers observed at Mt. Norikura

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagashima, K.; Sakakibara, S.; Fujimoto, K.; Fujii, Z.; Ueno, H.; Kondo, I.

    1977-01-01

    Observation of small air showers has been continued from August 1970, using a part of the multidirectional cosmic ray telescope at Mt. Norikura. Most significant result obtained from this observation was a sidereal diurnal anisotropy of amplitude 0.051 +- 0.004% with maximum at 1.0 +- 0.5 h, which showed a persistent trend over six years. Based on the results of the observation together with those obtained by Gombosi et al. and Fenton et al., a tentative model of sidereal anisotropies is presented. (author)

  5. Investigating cosmic rays and air shower physics with IceCube/IceTop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dembinski, Hans

    2017-06-01

    IceCube is a cubic-kilometer detector in the deep ice at South Pole. Its square-kilometer surface array, IceTop, is located at 2800 m altitude. IceTop is large and dense enough to cover the cosmic-ray energy spectrum from PeV to EeV energies with a remarkably small systematic uncertainty, thanks to being close to the shower maximum. The experiment offers new insights into hadronic physics of air showers by observing three components: the electromagnetic signal at the surface, GeV muons in the periphery of the showers, and TeV muons in the deep ice. The cosmic-ray flux is measured with the surface signal. The mass composition is extracted from the energy loss of TeV muons observed in the deep ice in coincidence with signals at the surface. The muon lateral distribution is obtained from GeV muons identified in surface signals in the periphery of the shower. The energy spectrum of the most energetic TeV muons is also under study, as well as special events with laterally separated TeV muon tracks which originate from high-pT TeV muons. A combination of all these measurements opens the possibility to perform powerful new tests of hadronic interaction models used to simulate air showers. The latest results will be reviewed from this perspective.

  6. Investigating cosmic rays and air shower physics with IceCube/IceTop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dembinski Hans

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available IceCube is a cubic-kilometer detector in the deep ice at South Pole. Its square-kilometer surface array, IceTop, is located at 2800 m altitude. IceTop is large and dense enough to cover the cosmic-ray energy spectrum from PeV to EeV energies with a remarkably small systematic uncertainty, thanks to being close to the shower maximum. The experiment offers new insights into hadronic physics of air showers by observing three components: the electromagnetic signal at the surface, GeV muons in the periphery of the showers, and TeV muons in the deep ice. The cosmic-ray flux is measured with the surface signal. The mass composition is extracted from the energy loss of TeV muons observed in the deep ice in coincidence with signals at the surface. The muon lateral distribution is obtained from GeV muons identified in surface signals in the periphery of the shower. The energy spectrum of the most energetic TeV muons is also under study, as well as special events with laterally separated TeV muon tracks which originate from high-pT TeV muons. A combination of all these measurements opens the possibility to perform powerful new tests of hadronic interaction models used to simulate air showers. The latest results will be reviewed from this perspective.

  7. Results from Pion-Carbon Interactions Measured by NA61/SHINE for Improved Understanding of Extensive Air Showers

    CERN Document Server

    Herve, Alexander

    2015-07-21

    The interpretation of extensive air shower measurements, produced by ultra-high energy cosmic rays, relies on the correct modeling of the hadron-air interactions that occur during the shower development. The majority of hadronic particles are produced at equivalent beam energies below the TeV range. NA61/SHINE is a fixed target experiment using secondary beams produced at CERN at the SPS. Hadron-hadron interactions have been recorded at beam momenta between 13 and 350 GeV/c with a wide-acceptance spectrometer. In this contribution we present measurements of the spectra of charged pions and the $\\rho^0$ production in pion-carbon interactions, which are essential for modeling of air showers.

  8. A new way of air shower detection: measuring the properties of cosmic rays with LOFAR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nelles, A.; Buitink, S.; Corstanje, A.; Enriquez, J. E.; Falcke, H.; Hörandel, J. R.; Rachen, J. P.; Schellart, P.; Scholten, O.; ter Veen, S.; Thoudam, S.; Trinh, T.N.G.

    2015-01-01

    High-energy cosmic rays impinging onto the atmosphere of the Earth initiate cascades of secondary particles: extensive air showers. Many of the particles in a shower are electrons and positrons. During the development of the air shower and by interacting with the geomagnetic field, the

  9. Macroscopic treatment of radio emission from cosmic ray air showers based on shower simulations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Werner, Klaus; Scholten, Olaf

    We present a macroscopic calculation of coherent electro-magnetic radiation from air showers initiated by ultra-high energy cosmic rays, based on currents obtained from Monte Carlo simulations of air showers in a realistic geo-magnetic field. We can clearly relate the time signal to the time

  10. Future Extensive Air Shower arrays: From Gamma-Ray Astronomy to Cosmic Rays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sciascio Giuseppe Di

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite large progresses in building new detectors and in the analysis techniques, the key questions concerning the origin, acceleration and propagation of Galactic Cosmic Rays are still open. A number of new EAS arrays is in progress. The most ambitious and sensitive project between them is LHAASO, a new generation multi-component experiment to be installed at very high altitude in China (Daocheng, Sichuan province, 4400 m a.s.l.. The experiment will face the open problems through a combined study of photon- and charged particle-induced extensive air showers in the wide energy range 1011 – 1018 eV. In this paper the status of the experiment will be summarized, the science program presented and the outlook discussed in comparison with leading new projects.

  11. Extensive Air Showers: from the muonic smoking guns to the hadronic backbone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cazon L.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Extensive Air Showers are complex macroscopic objects initiated by single ultra-high energy particles. They are the result of millions of high energy reactions in the atmosphere and can be described as the superposition of hadronic and electromagnetic cascades. The hadronic cascade is the air shower backbone, and it is mainly made of pions. Decays of neutral pions initiate electromagnetic cascades, while the decays of charged pions produce muons which leave the hadronic core and travel many kilometers almost unaffected. Muons are smoking guns of the hadronic cascade: the energy, transverse momentum, spatial distribution and depth of production are key to reconstruct the history of the air shower. In this work, we overview the phenomenology of muons on the air shower and its relation to the hadronic cascade. We briefly review the experimental efforts to analyze muons within air showers and discuss possible paths to use this information.

  12. Results of fractal analysis of the Kiel extensive air shower data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kempa, J.; Samorski, M.

    1998-01-01

    For years there has been a problem in cosmic ray studies of how to distinguish individual extensive air showers (EAS) originating from primary protons, heavy nuclei or primary photons. In this paper results of experimental data obtained from the fractal analysis of particle density distributions in individual EAS detected in the range of shower sizes N e between 1.4x10 5 -5x10 6 by the old Kiel experiment are presented. The Lipschitz-Hoelder exponent distributions of EAS detected by the Kiel experiment are discussed. The examples of EAS most probably originating from primary protons, heavy nuclei and high-energy gamma-rays are presented. The lateral distributions of charged particle densities at small distances, angular and size spectra and the mass composition of primary cosmic ray particles around the 'knee' of the energy spectrum are discussed. The Monte Carlo simulation data illustrating the problem of interest are also shown. (author)

  13. What do we learn about hadronic interactions at ultrahigh energies from extensive air shower observations?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rebel, H.

    2002-01-01

    The interpretation of extensive air shower (EAS) observations needs a sufficiently accurate knowledge of the interactions driving the cascade development in the atmosphere. While the electromagnetic and weak interaction parts do not provide principal problems, the hadronic interaction is a subject of uncertainties and debates, especially in the ultrahigh energy region extending the energy limits of man made accelerators and experimental knowledge from collider experiments. Since the EAS development is dominantly governed by soft processes, which are presently not accessible to a perturbative QCD treatment, one has to rely on QCD inspired phenomenological interaction models, in particular on string-models based on the Gribov-Regge theory like QGSJET, VENUS and SYBILL. Recent results of the EAS experiments KASCADE are scrutinized in terms of such models used as generators in the Monte Carlo EAS simulation code CORSIKA. (author)

  14. Influence of diffractive interactions on cosmic ray air showers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luna, R.; Zepeda, A.; Garcia Canal, C.A.; Sciutto, S.J.

    2004-01-01

    A comparative study of commonly used hadronic collision simulation packages is presented. The characteristics of the products of hadron-nucleus collisions are analyzed from a general perspective, but focusing on their correlation with diffractive processes. One of the purposes of our work is to give quantitative estimations of the impact that different characteristics of the hadronic models have on air shower observables. Several sets of shower simulations using different settings for the parameters controlling the diffractive processes are used to analyze the correlations between diffractivity and shower observables. We find that the relative probability of diffractive processes during the shower development have a non-negligible influence over the longitudinal profile as well as the distribution of muons at ground level. The implications on experimental data analysis are discussed

  15. Depth Distribution Of The Maxima Of Extensive Air Shower

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, J. H.; Howell, L. W.

    2003-01-01

    Observations of the extensive air showers from space can be free from interference by low altitude clouds and aerosols if the showers develop at a sufficiently high altitude. In this paper we explore the altitude distribution of shower maxima to determine the fraction of all showers that will reach their maxima at sufficient altitudes to avoid interference from these lower atmosphere phenomena. Typically the aerosols are confined within a planetary boundary layer that extends from only 2-3 km above the Earth's surface. Cloud top altitudes extend above 15 km but most are below 4 km. The results reported here show that more than 75% of the showers that will be observed by EUSO have maxima above the planetary boundary layer. The results also show that more than 50% of the showers that occur on cloudy days have their maxima above the cloud tops.

  16. Cosmic Ray-Air Shower Measurement from Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Yoshiyuki

    1997-01-01

    A feasibility study has been initiated to observe from space the highest energy cosmic rays above 1021 eV. A satellite observatory concept, the Maximum-energy Auger (Air)-Shower Satellite (MASS), is recently renamed as the Orbital Wide-angle Collector (OWL) by taking its unique feature of using a very wide field-of-view (FOV) optics. A huge array of imaging devices (about 10(exp 6) pixels) is required to detect and record fluorescent light profiles of cosmic ray cascades in the atmosphere. The FOV of MASS could extend to as large as about 60 in. diameter, which views (500 - 1000 km) of earth's surface and more than 300 - 1000 cosmic ray events per year could be observed above 1020 eV. From far above the atmosphere, the MASS/OWL satellite should be capable of observing events at all angles including near horizontal tracks, and would have considerable aperture for high energy photon and neutrino observation. With a large aperture and the spatial and temporal resolution, MASS could determine the energy spectrum, the mass composition, and arrival anisotropy of cosmic rays from 1020 eV to 1022 eV; a region hitherto not explored by ground-based detectors such as the Fly's Eye and air-shower arrays. MASS/OWL's ability to identify cosmic neutrinos and gamma rays may help providing evidence for the theory which attributes the above cut-off cosmic ray flux to the decay of topological defects. Very wide FOV optics system of MASS/OWL with a large array of imaging devices is applicable to observe other atmospheric phenomena including upper atmospheric lightning. The wide FOV MASS optics being developed can also improve ground-based gamma-ray observatories by allowing simultaneous observation of many gamma ray sources located at different constellations.

  17. Studying High pT muons in Cosmic-Ray Air Showers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, Spencer R.

    2006-01-01

    Most cosmic-ray air shower arrays have focused on detecting electromagnetic shower particles and low energy muons. A few groups (most notably MACRO + EASTOP and SPASE + AMANDA) have studied the high energy muon component of showers. However, these experiments had small solid angles, and did not study muons far from the core. The IceTop + IceCube combination, with its 1 km 2 muon detection area can study muons far from the shower core. IceCube can measure their energy loss (dE/dx), and hence their energy. With the energy, and the known distribution of production heights, the transverse momentum (p T ) spectrum of high p T muons can be determined. The production of the semuons is calculable in perturbative QCD, so the measured muon spectra can be used to probe the composition of incident cosmic-rays

  18. GRASP. Development of an event reconstruction method using a gamma ray air shower parameterisation and applications to γ-ray sources with H.E.S.S

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hillert, Andreas

    2014-07-24

    The H.E.S.S. experiment, with its high sensitivity and large field-of-view, is an ideal instrument to survey the Milky Way in VHE γ-rays. An accurate reconstruction of the γ-ray direction as well as a strong reduction of the hadronic background is essential for the analysis of the data. In this work a reconstruction algorithm is developed that applies a fit of pixel amplitudes to an expected image obtained from a Gamma Ray Air Shower Parameterisation (GRASP). This parameterisation was obtained using Monte Carlo air shower simulations by parameterising the angular Cherenkov photon distribution with suitable analytical functions. Furthermore, it provides new classifying variables to differentiate γ-ray induced air showers from hadronic ones. The reconstruction of air shower parameters is achieved by a maximum likelihood fit and improves the angular resolution by 20-30% with respect to traditional image moment analysis methods. In combination with a MVA-based background rejection method using these new classifying variables the sensitivity can be improved by about 70%. An analysis of the Pulsar Wind Nebula MSH 15-5-2 and investigation of its morphology and spectral properties show an indication of energy dependent morphology in VHE γ-rays.

  19. Arrival time distributions of electrons in air showers with primary energies above 10 (18)eV observed at 900m above sea level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakimoto, F.; Tsuchimoto, I.; Enoki, T.; Suga, K.; Nishi, K.

    1985-01-01

    Detection of air showers with primary energies above 10 to the 19th power eV with sufficient statistics is extremely important in an astrophysical aspect related to the Greisen cut off and the origin of such high energy cosmic rays. Recently, a method is proposed to observe such giant air showers by measuring the arrival time distributions of air-shower particles at large core distances with a mini array. Experiments to measure the arrival time distributions of muons were started in 1981 and those of electrons in early 1983 in the Akeno air-shower array (930 gcm cm squared atmospheric depth, 900m above sea level). During the time of observation, the detection area of the Akeno array was expanded from 1 sq km to sq km in 1982 and to 20 sq km in 1984. Now the arrival time distribution of electrons and muons can be measured for showers with primary energies above 1019eV at large core distances.

  20. Studies of Muons in Extensive Air Showers from Ultra-High Energy Cosmic Rays Observed with the Telescope Array Surface Detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeishi, R.; Sagawa, H.; Fukushima, M.; Takeda, M.; Nonaka, T.; Kawata, K.; Kido, E.; Sakurai, N.; Okuda, T.; Ogio, S.; Matthews, J. N.; Stokes, B.

    The number of muons in the air shower induced by ultra-high energy cosmic rays (UHECRs) has been measured with surface detector (SD) arrays of various experiments. Monte Carlo (MC) prediction of the number of muons in air showers depends on hadronic interaction models and the primary cosmic ray composition. By comparing the measured number of muons with the MC prediction, hadronic interaction models can be tested. The Pierre Auger Observatory reported that the number of muons measured by water Cherenkov type SD is about 1.8 times larger than the MC prediction for proton with QGSJET II-03 model. The number of muons in the Auger data is also larger than the MC prediction for iron. The Telescope Array experiment adopts plastic scintillator type SD, which is sensitive to the electromagnetic component that is the major part of secondary particles in the air shower. To search for the high muon purity condition in air showers observed by the TA, we divided air shower events into subsets by the zenith angle θ, the azimuth angle ϕ relative to the shower arrival direction projected onto the ground, and the distance R from shower axis. As a result, we found subsets with the high muon purity 65%, and compared the charge density between observed data and MC. The typical ratios of the charge density of the data to that of the MC are 1.71 ± 0.10 at 1870 m muon purity. These results imply that the excess of the charge density in the data is partly explained by the muon excess.

  1. First upper limits on the radar cross section of cosmic-ray induced extensive air showers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasi, R. U.; Abe, M.; Abou Bakr Othman, M.; Abu-Zayyad, T.; Allen, M.; Anderson, R.; Azuma, R.; Barcikowski, E.; Belz, J. W.; Bergman, D. R.; Besson, D.; Blake, S. A.; Byrne, M.; Cady, R.; Chae, M. J.; Cheon, B. G.; Chiba, J.; Chikawa, M.; Cho, W. R.; Farhang-Boroujeny, B.; Fujii, T.; Fukushima, M.; Gillman, W. H.; Goto, T.; Hanlon, W.; Hanson, J. C.; Hayashi, Y.; Hayashida, N.; Hibino, K.; Honda, K.; Ikeda, D.; Inoue, N.; Ishii, T.; Ishimori, R.; Ito, H.; Ivanov, D.; Jayanthmurthy, C.; Jui, C. C. H.; Kadota, K.; Kakimoto, F.; Kalashev, O.; Kasahara, K.; Kawai, H.; Kawakami, S.; Kawana, S.; Kawata, K.; Kido, E.; Kim, H. B.; Kim, J. H.; Kim, J. H.; Kitamura, S.; Kitamura, Y.; Kunwar, S.; Kuzmin, V.; Kwon, Y. J.; Lan, J.; Lim, S. I.; Lundquist, J. P.; Machida, K.; Martens, K.; Matsuda, T.; Matsuyama, T.; Matthews, J. N.; Minamino, M.; Mukai, K.; Myers, I.; Nagasawa, K.; Nagataki, S.; Nakamura, T.; Nonaka, T.; Nozato, A.; Ogio, S.; Ogura, J.; Ohnishi, M.; Ohoka, H.; Oki, K.; Okuda, T.; Ono, M.; Oshima, A.; Ozawa, S.; Park, I. H.; Prohira, S.; Pshirkov, M. S.; Rezazadeh-Reyhani, A.; Rodriguez, D. C.; Rubtsov, G.; Ryu, D.; Sagawa, H.; Sakurai, N.; Sampson, A. L.; Scott, L. M.; Schurig, D.; Shah, P. D.; Shibata, F.; Shibata, T.; Shimodaira, H.; Shin, B. K.; Smith, J. D.; Sokolsky, P.; Springer, R. W.; Stokes, B. T.; Stratton, S. R.; Stroman, T. A.; Suzawa, T.; Takai, H.; Takamura, M.; Takeda, M.; Takeishi, R.; Taketa, A.; Takita, M.; Tameda, Y.; Tanaka, H.; Tanaka, K.; Tanaka, M.; Thomas, S. B.; Thomson, G. B.; Tinyakov, P.; Tkachev, I.; Tokuno, H.; Tomida, T.; Troitsky, S.; Tsunesada, Y.; Tsutsumi, K.; Uchihori, Y.; Udo, S.; Urban, F.; Vasiloff, G.; Venkatesh, S.; Wong, T.; Yamane, R.; Yamaoka, H.; Yamazaki, K.; Yang, J.; Yashiro, K.; Yoneda, Y.; Yoshida, S.; Yoshii, H.; Zollinger, R.; Zundel, Z.

    2017-01-01

    TARA (Telescope Array Radar) is a cosmic ray radar detection experiment colocated with Telescope Array, the conventional surface scintillation detector (SD) and fluorescence telescope detector (FD) near Delta, Utah, U.S.A. The TARA detector combines a 40 kW, 54.1 MHz VHF transmitter and high-gain transmitting antenna which broadcasts the radar carrier over the SD array and within the FD field of view, towards a 250 MS/s DAQ receiver. TARA has been collecting data since 2013 with the primary goal of observing the radar signatures of extensive air showers (EAS). Simulations indicate that echoes are expected to be short in duration (∼ 10 μs) and exhibit rapidly changing frequency, with rates on the order 1 MHz/μs. The EAS radar cross-section (RCS) is currently unknown although it is the subject of over 70 years of speculation. A novel signal search technique is described in which the expected radar echo of a particular air shower is used as a matched filter template and compared to waveforms obtained by triggering the radar DAQ using the Telescope Array fluorescence detector. No evidence for the scattering of radio frequency radiation by EAS is obtained to date. We report the first quantitative RCS upper limits using EAS that triggered the Telescope Array Fluorescence Detector. The transmitter is under the direct control of experimenters, and in a radio-quiet area isolated from other radio frequency (RF) sources. The power and radiation pattern are known at all times. Forward power up to 40 kW and gain exceeding 20 dB maximize energy density in the radar field. Continuous wave (CW) transmission gives 100% duty cycle, as opposed to pulsed radar. TARA utilizes a high sample rate DAQ (250 MS/s). TARA is colocated with a large state-of-the-art conventional CR observatory, allowing the radar data stream to be sampled at the arrival times of known cosmic ray events. Each of these attributes of the TARA detector has been discussed in detail in the literature [8]. A map

  2. Extensive Air Showers High Energy Phenomena and Astrophysical Aspects - A Tutorial, Reference Manual and Data Book

    CERN Document Server

    Grieder, Peter K.F

    2010-01-01

    Extensive air showers are a very unique phenomenon. In the more than six decades since their discovery by Auger et al. we have learned a great deal about these extremely energetic events and gained deep insights into high-energy phenomena, particle physics and astrophysics. In this Tutorial, Reference Manual and Data Book Peter K. F. Grieder provides the reader with a comprehensive view of the phenomenology and facts of the various types of interactions and cascades, theoretical background, experimental methods, data evaluation and interpretation, and air shower simulation. He discusses astrophysical aspects of the primary radiation and addresses the questions that continue to puzzle researchers. The book is divided into two parts, each in its own separate volume: Part I in Volume I deals mainly with the basic theoretical framework of the processes that determine an air shower and ends with a summary of ways to extract information on the primary radiation from air shower observations. It also presents a compi...

  3. Improving the angular resolution of existing air shower arrays by adding a thin layer of lead

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poirier, J.; Mikocki, S.

    1987-01-01

    Calculations show that placing a thin sheet of lead above conventional extensive air shower counters yields an additional signal which is earlier in time. This will improve the array's angular resolution. (orig.)

  4. Extensive air showers, lightnings and thunderstorm ground enhancements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chilingarian, A.; Hovsepyan, G.; Kozliner, L.

    2016-01-01

    For the lightning research, we monitor the particle fluxes from thunderclouds, the so called Thunderstorm Ground Enhancements (TGEs) initiated by the runaway electrons, and Extensive Air Showers (EASs) originated from high energy protons or fully stripped nuclei that enter the Earth’s atmosphere. Besides, we monitor the near-surface electric field and the atmospheric discharges with the help of a network of electric field mills. The Aragats “electron accelerator” produced plenty of TGE and lightning events in spring 2015. Using 1-sec time series, we investigated the relation of lightnings and particle fluxes. Lightning flashes often terminated the particle flux; during some of TGEs the lightning would terminate the particle flux 3 times after successive recovery. It was postulated that a lightning terminates a particle flux mostly in the beginning of TGE or on the decay phase of it; however, we observed two events (19 October 2013 and 20 April 2015) when the huge particle flux was terminated just on a maximum of its development. We discuss the possibility that a huge EAS facilitates lightning leader to find its path to the ground. (author)

  5. What the radio signal tells about the cosmic-ray air shower

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Werner Klaus

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The physics of radio emission from cosmic-ray induced air showers is shortly summarized. It will be shown that the radio signal at different distances from the shower axis provides complementary information on the longitudinal shower evolution, in particular the early part, and on the distribution of the electrons in the shower core. This complements the information obtained from surface, fluorescence, and muon detectors and is very useful in getting a comprehensive picture of an air shower.

  6. Extensive Air Showers Detected by Aragats Neutron Monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badalyan, A.; Chilingarian, A.; Hovsepyan, G.; Grigoryan, A.; Khanikyants, Y.; Manukyan, A.; Pokhsraryan, D.; Soghomonyan, S.

    2017-01-01

    Extensive Air Shower (EAS) duration as registered by the surface particle detectors does not exceed a few tens of nanosecond. However, Neutron monitors containing plenty of absorbing matter can respond to EAS core traversal during 1 ∼ms by registering secondary slow neutrons born by EAS hadrons in the soil, walls of buildings and in the matter of detector itself. Thus, the time distribution of the pulses from the proportional counters of the neutron monitor after EAS propagation extends to ∼l ms, ∼5 orders of magnitude larger than the EAS passing time. The Aragats Neutron Monitor (ArNM) has a special option for the EAS core detection. In general, the dead time of NM is ∼1 ms that provides the one-to-one relation of incident hadrons and detector counts. The pulses generated by the neutrons possibly entering the proportional chamber after the first one will be neglected. In ArNM, we use several “electronic” dead times, and with the shortest one, 400 ns, the detector counts all pulses that enter the proportional chambers. If ArNM one-second time series corresponding to the shortest dead time contain much more signals (a neutron burst) than with l-ms dead time, then we conclude that the EAS core hits the detector. We assume that he distribution of registered burst multiplicities is proportional to the energy of the primary particle. The primary cosmic ray energy spectrum was obtained by the frequency analysis through the counting frequencies of the multiplicities of different magnitudes and relating them to the integral energy spectrum measured by the MAKET array at the same place several years ago. (author)

  7. Radio detection of cosmic ray induced air showers at the Pierre Auger Observatory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fliescher, Stefan, E-mail: fliescher@physik.rwth-aachen.de [3. Physikalisches Institut A, RWTH Aachen, University (Germany)

    2012-01-11

    AERA - the Auger Engineering Radio Array - is currently being set up at the southern site of the Pierre Auger Observatory. AERA will explore the potential of the radio-detection technique to cosmic ray induced air showers with respect to the next generation of large-scale surface detectors. As AERA is co-located with the low-energy enhancements of the Pierre Auger Observatory, the observation of air showers in coincidence with the Auger surface and fluorescence detector will allow to study the radio emission processes in detail and to calibrate the radio signal. Finally, the combined reconstruction of shower parameters with three independent techniques promises new insights into the nature of cosmic rays in the transition region from 10{sup 17} to 10{sup 19} eV. Besides the detection of coherent radiation in the MHz frequency range, the setups AMBER - Air-shower Microwave Bremsstrahlung Experimental Radiometer - and MIDAS - MIcrowave Detection of Air Showers - prepare to check the possibility to detect air showers due the emission of molecular bremsstrahlung in the GHz range at the Auger site. This article presents the status of the radio-detection setups and discusses their physics potential as well as experimental challenges. Special focus is laid on the first stage of AERA which is the startup to the construction of a 20 km{sup 2} radio array.

  8. The Data Acquisition System of the Stockholm Educational Air Shower Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofverberg, P.; Johansson, H.; Pearce, M.; Rydstrom, S.; Wikstrom, C.

    2005-12-01

    The Stockholm Educational Air Shower Array (SEASA) project is deploying an array of plastic scintillator detector stations on school roofs in the Stockholm area. Signals from GPS satellites are used to time synchronise signals from the widely separated detector stations, allowing cosmic ray air showers to be identified and studied. A low-cost and highly scalable data acquisition system has been produced using embedded Linux processors which communicate station data to a central server running a MySQL database. Air shower data can be visualised in real-time using a Java-applet client. It is also possible to query the database and manage detector stations from the client. In this paper, the design and performance of the system are described

  9. Preliminary results from the Chicago air shower array and the Michigan muon array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krimm, H.A.; Cronin, J.W.; Fick, B.E.; Gibbs, K.G.; Mascarenhas, N.C.; McKay, T.A.; Mueller, D.; Newport, B.J.; Ong, R.A.; Rosenberg, L.J.; Wiedenbeck, M.E.; Green, K.D.; Matthews, J.; Nitz, D.; Sinclair, D.; van der Velde, J.C.

    1991-01-01

    The Chicago Air Shower Array (CASA) is a large area surface array designed to detect extensive air showers (EAS) produced by primaries with energy ∼100 TeV. It operates in coincidence with the underground Michigan Muon Array (MIA). Preliminary results are presented from a search for steady emission and daily emission from three astrophysical sources: Cygnus X-3, Hercules X-1, and the Crab nebula and pulsar. There is no evidence for a significant signal from any of these sources in the 1989 data

  10. The cosmic-ray energy spectrum above 1016 eV measured with the LOFAR radboud air shower array

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thoudam, S.; Buitink, S.; Corstanje, A.; Enriquez, J. E.; Falcke, H.; Hörandel, J. R.; Nelles, A.; Rachen, J. P.; Rossetto, L.; Schellart, P.; Scholten, O.; Ter Veen, S.; Trinh, T. N G; Van Kessel, L.

    2015-01-01

    The LOFAR Radboud Air Shower Array (LORA) is an array of 20 plastic scintillation detectors installed in the center of the LOFAR radio telescope in the Netherlands to measure extensive air showers induced by cosmic rays in the Earth's atmosphere. The primary goals of LORA are to trigger the read-out

  11. Analytic calculation of radio emission from parametrized extensive air showers : A tool to extract shower parameters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholten, O.; Trinh, T. N. G.; de Vries, K. D.; Hare, B. M.

    2018-01-01

    The radio intensity and polarization footprint of a cosmic-ray induced extensive air shower is determined by the time-dependent structure of the current distribution residing in the plasma cloud at the shower front. In turn, the time dependence of the integrated charge-current distribution in the

  12. The air shower maximum probed by Cherenkov effects from radio emission

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, Krijn D.; Scholten, Olaf; Werner, Klaus

    Radio detection of cosmic-ray-induced air showers has come to a flight the last decade. Along with the experimental efforts, several theoretical models were developed. The main radio-emission mechanisms are established to be the geomagnetic emission due to deflection of electrons and positrons in

  13. Interpretation of the cosmic-ray air shower signal in Askaryan radio detectors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, Krijn D.; Buitink, Stijn; van Eijndhoven, Nick; Meures, Thomas; O'Murchadha, Aongus; Scholten, Olaf

    2017-01-01

    We discuss the radio emission from a cosmic-ray air shower propagating in air before it hits an air-ice boundary after which it completes its propagation inside the ice. The in-air emission, the in-ice emission, as well as the transition radiation from the shower crossing the boundary is considered.

  14. Effects of massive photons from the dark sector on the muon content in extensive air showers

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ebr, Jan; Nečesal, Petr

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 725, 4-5 (2013), s. 185-189 ISSN 0370-2693 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LA08016 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : dark matter * bremsstrahlung * extensive air shower * muon production Subject RIV: BF - Elementary Particles and High Energy Physics Impact factor: 6.019, year: 2013

  15. Influence of atmospheric electric fields on the radio emission from extensive air showers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trinh, T. N. G.; Scholten, O.; Buitink, S.

    2016-01-01

    The atmospheric electric fields in thunderclouds have been shown to significantly modify the intensity and polarization patterns of the radio footprint of cosmic-ray-induced extensive air showers. Simulations indicated a very nonlinear dependence of the signal strength in the frequency window of ...

  16. Nanosecond-level time synchronization of autonomous radio detector stations for extensive air showers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aab, A.; Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Ahn, E. J.; Al Samarai, I.; Albuquerque, I. F. M.; Allekotte, I.; Messina, S.; Scholten, O.; van den Berg, A.M.

    To exploit the full potential of radio measurements of cosmic-ray air showers at MHz frequencies, a detector timing synchronization within 1 ns is needed. Large distributed radio detector arrays such as the Auger Engineering Radio Array (AERA) rely on timing via the Global Positioning System (GPS)

  17. Probing Atmospheric Electric Fields through Radio Emission from Cosmic-Ray-Induced Air Showers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholten, Olaf; Trinh, Gia; Buitink, Stijn; Corstanje, Arthur; Ebert, Ute; Enriquez, Emilio; Falcke, Heino; Hoerandel, Joerg; Nelles, Anna; Schellart, Pim; Rachen, Joerg; Rutjes, Casper; ter Veen, Sander; Rossetto, Laura; Thoudam, Satyendra

    2016-01-01

    Energetic cosmic rays impinging on the atmosphere create a particle avalanche called an extensive air shower. In the leading plasma of this shower electric currents are induced that generate coherent radio wave emission that has been detected with LOFAR, a large and dense array of simple radio

  18. High-precision measurements of extensive air showers with the SKA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huege, T.; Bray, J. D.; Buitink, S.; Dallier, R.; Ekers, R. D.; Falcke, H.; Haungs, A.; James, C. W.; Martin, L.; Revenu, B.; Scholten, O.; Schröder, F. G.; Zilles, A.

    2015-01-01

    As of 2023, the Square Kilometre Array will constitute the world's largest radio telescope, offering unprecedented capabilities for a diverse science programme in radio astronomy. At the same time, the SKA will be ideally suited to detect extensive air showers initiated by cosmic rays in the Earth's

  19. Calibrating the absolute amplitude scale for air showers measured at LOFAR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelles, A.; Hörandel, J. R.; Karskens, T.; Krause, M.; Corstanje, A.; Enriquez, J. E.; Falcke, H.; Rachen, J. P.; Rossetto, L.; Schellart, P.; Buitink, S.; Erdmann, M.; Krause, R.; Haungs, A.; Hiller, R.; Huege, T.; Link, K.; Schröder, F. G.; Norden, M. J.; Scholten, O.

    2015-01-01

    Air showers induced by cosmic rays create nanosecond pulses detectable at radio frequencies. These pulses have been measured successfully in the past few years at the LOw-Frequency ARray (LOFAR) and are used to study the properties of cosmic rays. For a complete understanding of this phenomenon and the underlying physical processes, an absolute calibration of the detecting antenna system is needed. We present three approaches that were used to check and improve the antenna model of LOFAR and to provide an absolute calibration of the whole system for air shower measurements. Two methods are based on calibrated reference sources and one on a calibration approach using the diffuse radio emission of the Galaxy, optimized for short data-sets. An accuracy of 19% in amplitude is reached. The absolute calibration is also compared to predictions from air shower simulations. These results are used to set an absolute energy scale for air shower measurements and can be used as a basis for an absolute scale for the measurement of astronomical transients with LOFAR

  20. Measurement of horizontal air showers with the Auger Engineering Radio Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kambeitz, Olga

    2017-03-01

    The Auger Engineering Radio Array (AERA), at the Pierre Auger Observatory in Argentina, measures the radio emission of extensive air showers in the 30-80 MHz frequency range. AERA consists of more than 150 antenna stations distributed over 17 km2. Together with the Auger surface detector, the fluorescence detector and the underground muon detector (AMIGA), AERA is able to measure cosmic rays with energies above 1017 eV in a hybrid detection mode. AERA is optimized for the detection of air showers up to 60° zenith angle, however, using the reconstruction of horizontal air showers with the Auger surface array, very inclined showers can also be measured. In this contribution an analysis of the AERA data in the zenith angle range from 62° to 80° will be presented. CoREAS simulations predict radio emission footprints of several km2 for horizontal air showers, which are now confirmed by AERA measurements. This can lead to radio-based composition measurements and energy determination of horizontal showers in the future and the radio detection of neutrino induced showers is possible.

  1. Muons in air showers at the Pierre Auger Observatory: Mean number in highly inclined events

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aab, A.; Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Ahn, E. J.; Al Samarai, I.; Albuquerque, I. F. M.; Allekotte, I.; Allen, J.; Allison, P.; Almela, A.; Alvarez Castillo, J.; Alvarez-Muñiz, J.; Alves Batista, R.; Ambrosio, M.; Aminaei, A.; Anchordoqui, L.; Andringa, S.; Aramo, C.; Aranda, V. M.; Arqueros, F.; Asorey, H.; Assis, P.; Aublin, J.; Ave, M.; Avenier, M.; Avila, G.; Badescu, A. M.; Barber, K. B.; Bäuml, J.; Baus, C.; Beatty, J. J.; Becker, K. H.; Bellido, J. A.; Berat, C.; Bertaina, M. E.; Bertou, X.; Biermann, P. L.; Billoir, P.; Blanco, M.; Bleve, C.; Blümer, H.; Boháčová, M.; Boncioli, D.; Bonifazi, C.; Bonino, R.; Borodai, N.; Brack, J.; Brancus, I.; Brogueira, P.; Brown, W. C.; Buchholz, P.; Bueno, A.; Buitink, S.; Buscemi, M.; Caballero-Mora, K. S.; Caccianiga, B.; Caccianiga, L.; Candusso, M.; Caramete, L.; Caruso, R.; Castellina, A.; Cataldi, G.; Cazon, L.; Cester, R.; Chavez, A. G.; Chiavassa, A.; Chinellato, J. A.; Chudoba, J.; Cilmo, M.; Clay, R. W.; Cocciolo, G.; Colalillo, R.; Coleman, A.; Collica, L.; Coluccia, M. R.; Conceição, R.; Contreras, F.; Cooper, M. J.; Cordier, A.; Coutu, S.; Covault, C. E.; Cronin, J.; Curutiu, A.; Dallier, R.; Daniel, B.; Dasso, S.; Daumiller, K.; Dawson, B. R.; de Almeida, R. M.; De Domenico, M.; de Jong, S. J.; de Mello Neto, J. R. T.; De Mitri, I.; de Oliveira, J.; de Souza, V.; del Peral, L.; Deligny, O.; Dembinski, H.; Dhital, N.; Di Giulio, C.; Di Matteo, A.; Diaz, J. C.; Díaz Castro, M. L.; Diogo, F.; Dobrigkeit, C.; Docters, W.; D'Olivo, J. C.; Dorofeev, A.; Dorosti Hasankiadeh, Q.; Dova, M. T.; Ebr, J.; Engel, R.; Erdmann, M.; Erfani, M.; Escobar, C. O.; Espadanal, J.; Etchegoyen, A.; Facal San Luis, P.; Falcke, H.; Fang, K.; Farrar, G.; Fauth, A. C.; Fazzini, N.; Ferguson, A. P.; Fernandes, M.; Fick, B.; Figueira, J. M.; Filevich, A.; Filipčič, A.; Fox, B. D.; Fratu, O.; Fröhlich, U.; Fuchs, B.; Fujii, T.; Gaior, R.; García, B.; Garcia Roca, S. T.; Garcia-Gamez, D.; Garcia-Pinto, D.; Garilli, G.; Gascon Bravo, A.; Gate, F.; Gemmeke, H.; Ghia, P. L.; Giaccari, U.; Giammarchi, M.; Giller, M.; Glaser, C.; Glass, H.; Gómez Berisso, M.; Gómez Vitale, P. F.; Gonçalves, P.; Gonzalez, J. G.; González, N.; Gookin, B.; Gordon, J.; Gorgi, A.; Gorham, P.; Gouffon, P.; Grebe, S.; Griffith, N.; Grillo, A. F.; Grubb, T. D.; Guardincerri, Y.; Guarino, F.; Guedes, G. P.; Hampel, M. R.; Hansen, P.; Harari, D.; Harrison, T. A.; Hartmann, S.; Harton, J. L.; Haungs, A.; Hebbeker, T.; Heck, D.; Heimann, P.; Herve, A. E.; Hill, G. C.; Hojvat, C.; Hollon, N.; Holt, E.; Homola, P.; Hörandel, J. R.; Horvath, P.; Hrabovský, M.; Huber, D.; Huege, T.; Insolia, A.; Isar, P. G.; Islo, K.; Jandt, I.; Jansen, S.; Jarne, C.; Josebachuili, M.; Kääpä, A.; Kambeitz, O.; Kampert, K. H.; Kasper, P.; Katkov, I.; Kégl, B.; Keilhauer, B.; Keivani, A.; Kemp, E.; Kieckhafer, R. M.; Klages, H. O.; Kleifges, M.; Kleinfeller, J.; Krause, R.; Krohm, N.; Krömer, O.; Kruppke-Hansen, D.; Kuempel, D.; Kunka, N.; LaHurd, D.; Latronico, L.; Lauer, R.; Lauscher, M.; Lautridou, P.; Le Coz, S.; Leão, M. S. A. B.; Lebrun, D.; Lebrun, P.; Leigui de Oliveira, M. A.; Letessier-Selvon, A.; Lhenry-Yvon, I.; Link, K.; López, R.; Louedec, K.; Lozano Bahilo, J.; Lu, L.; Lucero, A.; Ludwig, M.; Malacari, M.; Maldera, S.; Mallamaci, M.; Maller, J.; Mandat, D.; Mantsch, P.; Mariazzi, A. G.; Marin, V.; Mariş, I. C.; Marsella, G.; Martello, D.; Martin, L.; Martinez, H.; Martínez Bravo, O.; Martraire, D.; Masías Meza, J. J.; Mathes, H. J.; Mathys, S.; Matthews, J. J.; Matthews, A. J.; Matthiae, G.; Maurel, D.; Maurizio, D.; Mayotte, E.; Mazur, P. O.; Medina, C.; Medina-Tanco, G.; Melissas, M.; Melo, D.; Menshikov, A.; Messina, S.; Meyhandan, R.; Mićanović, S.; Micheletti, M. I.; Middendorf, L.; Minaya, I. A.; Miramonti, L.; Mitrica, B.; Molina-Bueno, L.; Mollerach, S.; Monasor, M.; Monnier Ragaigne, D.; Montanet, F.; Morello, C.; Mostafá, M.; Moura, C. A.; Muller, M. A.; Müller, G.; Münchmeyer, M.; Mussa, R.; Navarra, G.; Navas, S.; Necesal, P.; Nellen, L.; Nelles, A.; Neuser, J.; Newton, D.; Niechciol, M.; Niemietz, L.; Niggemann, T.; Nitz, D.; Nosek, D.; Novotny, V.; Nožka, L.; Ochilo, L.; Olinto, A.; Oliveira, M.; Olmos-Gilbaja, V. M.; Pacheco, N.; Pakk Selmi-Dei, D.; Palatka, M.; Pallotta, J.; Palmieri, N.; Papenbreer, P.; Parente, G.; Parra, A.; Paul, T.; Pech, M.; Pekala, J.; Pelayo, R.; Pepe, I. M.; Perrone, L.; Petermann, E.; Peters, C.; Petrera, S.; Petrov, Y.; Phuntsok, J.; Piegaia, R.; Pierog, T.; Pieroni, P.; Pimenta, M.; Pirronello, V.; Platino, M.; Plum, M.; Porcelli, A.; Porowski, C.; Prado, R. R.; Privitera, P.; Prouza, M.; Purrello, V.; Quel, E. J.; Querchfeld, S.; Quinn, S.; Rautenberg, J.; Ravel, O.; Ravignani, D.; Revenu, B.; Ridky, J.; Riggi, S.; Risse, M.; Ristori, P.; Rizi, V.; Roberts, J.; Rodrigues de Carvalho, W.; Rodriguez Fernandez, G.; Rodriguez Rojo, J.; Rodríguez-Frías, M. D.; Ros, G.; Rosado, J.; Rossler, T.; Roth, M.; Roulet, E.; Rovero, A. C.; Saffi, S. J.; Saftoiu, A.; Salamida, F.; Salazar, H.; Saleh, A.; Salesa Greus, F.; Salina, G.; Sánchez, F.; Sanchez-Lucas, P.; Santo, C. E.; Santos, E.; Santos, E. M.; Sarazin, F.; Sarkar, B.; Sarmento, R.; Sato, R.; Scharf, N.; Scherini, V.; Schieler, H.; Schiffer, P.; Scholten, O.; Schoorlemmer, H.; Schovánek, P.; Schröder, F. G.; Schulz, A.; Schulz, J.; Schumacher, J.; Sciutto, S. J.; Segreto, A.; Settimo, M.; Shadkam, A.; Shellard, R. C.; Sidelnik, I.; Sigl, G.; Sima, O.; Śmiałkowski, A.; Šmída, R.; Snow, G. R.; Sommers, P.; Sorokin, J.; Squartini, R.; Srivastava, Y. N.; Stanič, S.; Stapleton, J.; Stasielak, J.; Stephan, M.; Stutz, A.; Suarez, F.; Suomijärvi, T.; Supanitsky, A. D.; Sutherland, M. S.; Swain, J.; Szadkowski, Z.; Szuba, M.; Taborda, O. A.; Tapia, A.; Tartare, M.; Tepe, A.; Theodoro, V. M.; Timmermans, C.; Todero Peixoto, C. J.; Toma, G.; Tomankova, L.; Tomé, B.; Tonachini, A.; Torralba Elipe, G.; Torres Machado, D.; Travnicek, P.; Trovato, E.; Ulrich, R.; Unger, M.; Urban, M.; Valdés Galicia, J. F.; Valiño, I.; Valore, L.; van Aar, G.; van den Berg, A. M.; van Velzen, S.; van Vliet, A.; Varela, E.; Vargas Cárdenas, B.; Varner, G.; Vázquez, J. R.; Vázquez, R. A.; Veberič, D.; Verzi, V.; Vicha, J.; Videla, M.; Villaseñor, L.; Vlcek, B.; Vorobiov, S.; Wahlberg, H.; Wainberg, O.; Walz, D.; Watson, A. A.; Weber, M.; Weidenhaupt, K.; Weindl, A.; Werner, F.; Widom, A.; Wiencke, L.; Wilczyńska, B.; Wilczyński, H.; Will, M.; Williams, C.; Winchen, T.; Wittkowski, D.; Wundheiler, B.; Wykes, S.; Yamamoto, T.; Yapici, T.; Younk, P.; Yuan, G.; Yushkov, A.; Zamorano, B.; Zas, E.; Zavrtanik, D.; Zavrtanik, M.; Zaw, I.; Zepeda, A.; Zhou, J.; Zhu, Y.; Zimbres Silva, M.; Ziolkowski, M.; Zuccarello, F.; Pierre Auger Collaboration, [No Value

    2015-01-01

    We present the first hybrid measurement of the average muon number in air showers at ultrahigh energies, initiated by cosmic rays with zenith angles between 62° and 80°. The measurement is based on 174 hybrid events recorded simultaneously with the surface detector array and the fluorescence

  2. What the radio signal tells about the cosmic-ray air shower

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholten, Olaf; de Vries, Krijn D.; Werner, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    The physics of radio emission from cosmic-ray induced air showers is shortly summarized. It will be shown that the radio signal at different distances from the shower axis provides complementary information on the longitudinal shower evolution, in particular the early part, and on the distribution

  3. Reconstruction of inclined air showers detected with the Pierre Auger Observatory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pierre Auger Collaboration, [No Value; Aab, A.; Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Ahlers, M.; Ahn, E. J.; Samarai, I. Al; Albuquerque, I. F. M.; Allekotte, I.; Allen, J.; Allison, P.; Almela, A.; Alvarez Castillo, J.; Alvarez-Muñiz, J.; Alves Batista, R.; Ambrosio, M.; Aminaei, A.; Anchordoqui, L.; Andringa, S.; Aramo, C.; Arqueros, F.; Asorey, H.; Assis, P.; Aublin, J.; Ave, M.; Avenier, M.; Avila, G.; Badescu, A. M.; Barber, K. B.; Bäuml, J.; Baus, C.; Beatty, J. J.; Becker, K. H.; Bellido, J. A.; Berat, C.; Bertou, X.; Biermann, P. L.; Billoir, P.; Blanco, F.; Blanco, M.; Bleve, C.; Blümer, H.; Boháčová, M.; Boncioli, D.; Bonifazi, C.; Bonino, R.; Borodai, N.; Brack, J.; Brancus, I.; Brogueira, P.; Brown, W. C.; Buchholz, P.; Bueno, A.; Buscemi, M.; Caballero-Mora, K. S.; Caccianiga, B.; Caccianiga, L.; Candusso, M.; Caramete, L.; Caruso, R.; Castellina, A.; Cataldi, G.; Cazon, L.; Cester, R.; Chavez, A. G.; Cheng, S. H.; Chiavassa, A.; Chinellato, J. A.; Chudoba, J.; Cilmo, M.; Clay, R. W.; Cocciolo, G.; Colalillo, R.; Collica, L.; Coluccia, M. R.; Conceição, R.; Contreras, F.; Cooper, M. J.; Coutu, S.; Covault, C. E.; Criss, A.; Cronin, J.; Curutiu, A.; Dallier, R.; Daniel, B.; Dasso, S.; Daumiller, K.; Dawson, B. R.; de Almeida, R. M.; De Domenico, M.; de Jong, S. J.; de Mello Neto, J. R. T.; De Mitri, I.; de Oliveira, J.; de Souza, V.; del Peral, L.; Deligny, O.; Dembinski, H.; Dhital, N.; Di Giulio, C.; Di Matteo, A.; Diaz, J. C.; D\\'\\iaz Castro, M. L.; Diep, P. N.; Diogo, F.; Dobrigkeit, C.; Docters, W.; D'Olivo, J. C.; Dong, P. N.; Dorofeev, A.; Dorosti Hasankiadeh, Q.; Dova, M. T.; Ebr, J.; Engel, R.; Erdmann, M.; Erfani, M.; Escobar, C. O.; Espadanal, J.; Etchegoyen, A.; Facal San Luis, P.; Falcke, H.; Fang, K.; Farrar, G.; Fauth, A. C.; Fazzini, N.; Ferguson, A. P.; Fernandes, M.; Fick, B.; Figueira, J. M.; Filevich, A.; Filipčič, A.; Fox, B. D.; Fratu, O.; Fröhlich, U.; Fuchs, B.; Fuji, T.; Gaior, R.; Garc\\'\\ia, B.; Garcia Roca, S. T.; Garcia-Gamez, D.; Garcia-Pinto, D.; Garilli, G.; Gascon Bravo, A.; Gate, F.; Gemmeke, H.; Ghia, P. L.; Giaccari, U.; Giammarchi, M.; Giller, M.; Glaser, C.; Glass, H.; Gomez Albarracin, F.; Gómez Berisso, M.; Gómez Vitale, P. F.; Gonçalves, P.; Gonzalez, J. G.; Gookin, B.; Gorgi, A.; Gorham, P.; Gouffon, P.; Grebe, S.; Griffith, N.; Grillo, A. F.; Grubb, T. D.; Guardincerri, Y.; Guarino, F.; Guedes, G. P.; Hansen, P.; Harari, D.; Harrison, T. A.; Harton, J. L.; Haungs, A.; Hebbeker, T.; Heck, D.; Heimann, P.; Herve, A. E.; Hill, G. C.; Hojvat, C.; Hollon, N.; Holt, E.; Homola, P.; Hörandel, J. R.; Horvath, P.; Hrabovský, M.; Huber, D.; Huege, T.; Insolia, A.; Isar, P. G.; Islo, K.; Jandt, I.; Jansen, S.; Jarne, C.; Josebachuili, M.; Kääpä, A.; Kambeitz, O.; Kampert, K. H.; Kasper, P.; Katkov, I.; Kégl, B.; Keilhauer, B.; Keivani, A.; Kemp, E.; Kieckhafer, R. M.; Klages, H. O.; Kleifges, M.; Kleinfeller, J.; Krause, R.; Krohm, N.; Krömer, O.; Kruppke-Hansen, D.; Kuempel, D.; Kunka, N.; La Rosa, G.; LaHurd, D.; Latronico, L.; Lauer, R.; Lauscher, M.; Lautridou, P.; Le Coz, S.; Leão, M. S. A. B.; Lebrun, D.; Lebrun, P.; Leigui de Oliveira, M. A.; Letessier-Selvon, A.; Lhenry-Yvon, I.; Link, K.; López, R.; Lopez Agëra, A.; Louedec, K.; Lozano Bahilo, J.; Lu, L.; Lucero, A.; Ludwig, M.; Lyberis, H.; Maccarone, M. C.; Malacari, M.; Maldera, S.; Maller, J.; Mandat, D.; Mantsch, P.; Mariazzi, A. G.; Marin, V.; Mariş, I. C.; Marsella, G.; Martello, D.; Martin, L.; Martinez, H.; Mart\\'\\inez Bravo, O.; Martraire, D.; Mas\\'\\ias Meza, J. J.; Mathes, H. J.; Mathys, S.; Matthews, A. J.; Matthews, J.; Matthiae, G.; Maurel, D.; Maurizio, D.; Mayotte, E.; Mazur, P. O.; Medina, C.; Medina-Tanco, G.; Melissas, M.; Melo, D.; Menichetti, E.; Menshikov, A.; Messina, S.; Meyhandan, R.; Mićanović, S.; Micheletti, M. I.; Middendorf, L.; Minaya, I. A.; Miramonti, L.; Mitrica, B.; Molina-Bueno, L.; Mollerach, S.; Monasor, M.; Monnier Ragaigne, D.; Montanet, F.; Morello, C.; Moreno, J. C.; Mostafá, M.; Moura, C. A.; Muller, M. A.; Müller, G.; Münchmeyer, M.; Mussa, R.; Navarra, G.; Navas, S.; Necesal, P.; Nellen, L.; Nelles, A.; Neuser, J.; Newton, D.; Niechciol, M.; Niemietz, L.; Niggemann, T.; Nitz, D.; Nosek, D.; Novotny, V.; Nožka, L.; Ochilo, L.; Olinto, A.; Oliveira, M.; Olmos-Gilbaja, V. M.; Ortiz, M.; Pacheco, N.; Pakk Selmi-Dei, D.; Palatka, M.; Pallotta, J.; Palmieri, N.; Papenbreer, P.; Parente, G.; Parra, A.; Pastor, S.; Paul, T.; Pech, M.; Pȩkala, J.; Pelayo, R.; Pepe, I. M.; Perrone, L.; Pesce, R.; Petermann, E.; Peters, C.; Petrera, S.; Petrolini, A.; Petrov, Y.; Piegaia, R.; Pierog, T.; Pieroni, P.; Pimenta, M.; Pirronello, V.; Platino, M.; Plum, M.; Porcelli, A.; Porowski, C.; Privitera, P.; Prouza, M.; Purrello, V.; Quel, E. J.; Querchfeld, S.; Quinn, S.; Rautenberg, J.; Ravel, O.; Ravignani, D.; Revenu, B.; Ridky, J.; Riggi, S.; Risse, M.; Ristori, P.; Rizi, V.; Roberts, J.; Rodrigues de Carvalho, W.; Rodriguez Cabo, I.; Rodriguez Fernandez, G.; Rodriguez Rojo, J.; Rodr\\'\\iguez-Fr\\'\\ias, M. D.; Ros, G.; Rosado, J.; Rossler, T.; Roth, M.; Roulet, E.; Rovero, A. C.; Rühle, C.; Saffi, S. J.; Saftoiu, A.; Salamida, F.; Salazar, H.; Salesa Greus, F.; Salina, G.; Sánchez, F.; Sanchez-Lucas, P.; Santo, C. E.; Santos, E.; Santos, E. M.; Sarazin, F.; Sarkar, B.; Sarmento, R.; Sato, R.; Scharf, N.; Scherini, V.; Schieler, H.; Schiffer, P.; Schmidt, A.; Scholten, O.; Schoorlemmer, H.; Schovánek, P.; Schulz, A.; Schulz, J.; Sciutto, S. J.; Segreto, A.; Settimo, M.; Shadkam, A.; Shellard, R. C.; Sidelnik, I.; Sigl, G.; Sima, O.; Śmiał kowski, A.; Šm\\'\\ida, R.; Snow, G. R.; Sommers, P.; Sorokin, J.; Squartini, R.; Srivastava, Y. N.; Stanič, S.; Stapleton, J.; Stasielak, J.; Stephan, M.; Stutz, A.; Suarez, F.; Suomijärvi, T.; Supanitsky, A. D.; Sutherland, M. S.; Swain, J.; Szadkowski, Z.; Szuba, M.; Taborda, O. A.; Tapia, A.; Tartare, M.; Thao, N. T.; Theodoro, V. M.; Tiffenberg, J.; Timmermans, C.; Todero Peixoto, C. J.; Toma, G.; Tomankova, L.; Tomé, B.; Tonachini, A.; Torralba Elipe, G.; Torres Machado, D.; Travnicek, P.; Trovato, E.; Tueros, M.; Ulrich, R.; Unger, M.; Urban, M.; Valdés Galicia, J. F.; Valiño, I.; Valore, L.; van Aar, G.; van den Berg, A. M.; van Velzen, S.; van Vliet, A.; Varela, E.; Vargas Cárdenas, B.; Varner, G.; Vázquez, J. R.; Vázquez, R. A.; Veberič, D.; Verzi, V.; Vicha, J.; Videla, M.; Villaseñor, L.; Vlcek, B.; Vorobiov, S.; Wahlberg, H.; Wainberg, O.; Walz, D.; Watson, A. A.; Weber, M.; Weidenhaupt, K.; Weindl, A.; Werner, F.; Whelan, B. J.; Widom, A.; Wiencke, L.; Wilczyńska, B.; Wilczyński, H.; Will, M.; Williams, C.; Winchen, T.; Wittkowski, D.; Wundheiler, B.; Wykes, S.; Yamamoto, T.; Yapici, T.; Younk, P.; Yuan, G.; Yushkov, A.; Zamorano, B.; Zas, E.; Zavrtanik, D.; Zavrtanik, M.; Zaw, I.; Zepeda, A.; Zhou, J.; Zhu, Y.; Zimbres Silva, M.; Ziolkowski, M.

    2014-01-01

    We describe the method devised to reconstruct inclined cosmic-ray air showers with zenith angles greater than 60° detected with the surface array of the Pierre Auger Observatory. The measured signals at the ground level are fitted to muon density distributions predicted with atmospheric cascade

  4. ''Anomalous'' air showers from point sources: Mass limits and light curves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Domokos, G.; Elliott, B.; Kovesi-Domokos, S.

    1993-01-01

    We describe a method to obtain upper limits on the mass of the primaries of air showers associated with point sources. One also obtains the UHE pulse shape of a pulsar if its period is observed in the signal. As an example, we analyze the data obtained during a recent burst of Hercules-X1

  5. Radio detection of extensive air showers at the Pierre Auger Observatory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berat, C.

    2013-01-01

    The Pierre Auger Observatory explores the potential of radio-detection techniques to measure extensive air showers (EAS) induced by ultra-high energy cosmic rays. To study in detail the mechanisms responsible for radio emission in the MHz range, the Auger Engineering Radio Array has been installed at the Observatory. Presently consisting of 24 radio-detection stations, this number will grow to 150 units covering an area of almost 20 km 2 . Novel detection techniques based on the GHz emission from the EAS are currently being studied. AMBER (Air-shower Microwave Bremsstrahlung Experimental Radiometer) and MIDAS (Microwave Detection of Air Showers) are prototypes for a large imaging dish antenna. In EASIER (Extensive Air Shower Identification using Electron Radiometer), the microwave emission is detected by antenna horns located on each surface detector. MIDAS is a self-triggering system while AMBER and EASIER use the trigger from the Auger detectors to record the emission. The status of these radio-detection R and D efforts at the Pierre Auger Observatory will be reported

  6. Radio detection of extensive air showers at the Pierre Auger Observatory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berat, C., E-mail: berat@lpsc.in2p3.fr [LPSC, Université Joseph Fourier Grenoble 1, CNRS/IN2P3, Institut Polytechnique de Grenoble, 53 rue des Martyrs, 38000 Grenoble (France)

    2013-08-01

    The Pierre Auger Observatory explores the potential of radio-detection techniques to measure extensive air showers (EAS) induced by ultra-high energy cosmic rays. To study in detail the mechanisms responsible for radio emission in the MHz range, the Auger Engineering Radio Array has been installed at the Observatory. Presently consisting of 24 radio-detection stations, this number will grow to 150 units covering an area of almost 20 km{sup 2}. Novel detection techniques based on the GHz emission from the EAS are currently being studied. AMBER (Air-shower Microwave Bremsstrahlung Experimental Radiometer) and MIDAS (Microwave Detection of Air Showers) are prototypes for a large imaging dish antenna. In EASIER (Extensive Air Shower Identification using Electron Radiometer), the microwave emission is detected by antenna horns located on each surface detector. MIDAS is a self-triggering system while AMBER and EASIER use the trigger from the Auger detectors to record the emission. The status of these radio-detection R and D efforts at the Pierre Auger Observatory will be reported.

  7. Measurement of the circular polarization in radio emission from extensive air showers confirms emission mechanisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholten, O.; Trinh, T. N. G.; Bonardi, A.; Buitink, S.; Correa, P.; Corstanje, A.; Hasankiadeh, Q. Dorosti; Falcke, H.; Horandel, J. R.; Mitra, P.; Mulrey, K.; Nelles, A.; Rachen, J. P.; Rossetto, L.; Schellart, P.; Thoudam, S.; ter Veen, S.; de Vries, K. D.; Winchen, T.

    2016-01-01

    We report here on a novel analysis of the complete set of four Stokes parameters that uniquely determine the linear and/or circular polarization of the radio signal for an extensive air shower. The observed dependency of the circular polarization on azimuth angle and distance to the shower axis is a

  8. Determining Thunderstorm Electric Fields using Radio Emission from Cosmic-Ray Air Showers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hare, B.; Scholten, O.; Trinh, G. T. N.; Ebert, U.; Rutjes, C.

    2017-01-01

    We report on a novel non-intrusive way to investigate electric fields in thunderclouds.Energetic cosmic rays penetrating the atmosphere create a particle avalanche called an extensive air shower. The front of the shower is a plasma cloud that contains 10^6 or more free electrons and positrons moving

  9. Comparison of methods for determining the centers of extensive air showers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poirier, J.; Funk, E.; Mikocki, S.; Rohrer, N.

    1987-01-01

    Monte Carlo techniques are used to generate extensive air shower data. Two methods of determining the core location of the shower have been investigated: the method of least squares and the method of maximizing the likelihood function. The likelihood function method gives a precision of shower center location two times better than the χ 2 method for small numbers of detected particles. (orig.)

  10. Correlation of high energy muons with primary composition in extensive air shower

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, C.; Higashi, S.; Hiraoka, N.; Ozaki, S.; Sato, T.; Suwada, T.; Takahasi, T.; Umeda, H.

    1985-01-01

    An experimental investigation of high energy muons above 200 GeV in extensive air showers has been made for studying high energy interaction and primary composition of cosmic rays of energies in the range 10 to the 14th power approx. 10 to the 15th power eV. The muon energies are estimated from the burst sizes initiated by the muons in the rock, which are measured by four layers of proportional counters, each of area 5 x 2.6 sq m, placed at 30 m.w.e. deep, Funasaka tunnel vertically below the air shower array. These results are compared with Monte Carlo simulations based on the scaling model and the fireball model for two primary compositions, all proton and mixed.

  11. Studies of Cosmic Ray Composition and Air Shower Structure with the Pierre Auger Observatory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abraham, : J.; Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Aguirre, C.; Ahn, E.J.; Allard, D.; Allekotte, I.; Allen, J.; Alvarez-Muniz, J.; Ambrosio, M.; Anchordoqui, L.

    2009-06-01

    These are presentations to be presented at the 31st International Cosmic Ray Conference, in Lodz, Poland during July 2009. It consists of the following presentations: (1) Measurement of the average depth of shower maximum and its fluctuations with the Pierre Auger Observatory; (2) Study of the nuclear mass composition of UHECR with the surface detectors of the Pierre Auger Observatory; (3) Comparison of data from the Pierre Auger Observatory with predictions from air shower simulations: testing models of hadronic interactions; (4) A Monte Carlo exploration of methods to determine the UHECR composition with the Pierre Auger Observatory; (5) The delay of the start-time measured with the Pierre Auger Observatory for inclined showers and a comparison of its variance with models; (6) UHE neutrino signatures in the surface detector of the Pierre Auger Observatory; and (7) The electromagnetic component of inclined air showers at the Pierre Auger Observatory.

  12. Muons in air showers at the Pierre Auger Observatory: measurement of atmospheric production depth

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Aab, A.; Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Boháčová, Martina; Chudoba, Jiří; Ebr, Jan; Mandát, Dušan; Nečesal, Petr; Palatka, Miroslav; Pech, Miroslav; Prouza, Michael; Řídký, Jan; Schovánek, Petr; Trávníček, Petr; Vícha, Jakub

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 90, č. 1 (2014), "012012-1"-"012012-15" ISSN 1550-7998 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-17501S; GA MŠk(CZ) 7AMB14AR005; GA MŠk(CZ) LG13007 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : Pierre Auger Observatory * detector * cosmic rays * muons * air shower s Subject RIV: BF - Elementary Particles and High Energy Physics Impact factor: 4.643, year: 2014

  13. Muons in air showers at the Pierre Auger Observatory: mean number in highly inclined events

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Aab, A.; Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Boháčová, Martina; Chudoba, Jiří; Ebr, Jan; Mandát, Dušan; Nečesal, Petr; Palatka, Miroslav; Pech, Miroslav; Prouza, Michael; Řídký, Jan; Schovánek, Petr; Trávníček, Petr; Vícha, Jakub

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 91, č. 3 (2015), , "032003-1"-"032003-12" ISSN 1550-7998 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LG13007; GA MŠk(CZ) 7AMB14AR005; GA ČR(CZ) GA14-17501S Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : Pierre Auger Observatory * air shower s * ultrahigh energies * cosmic rays * detector Subject RIV: BF - Elementary Particles and High Energy Physics Impact factor: 4.643, year: 2014

  14. Depth of maximum of air-shower profiles at the Pierre Auger Observatory. II. Composition implications

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Aab, A.; Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Boháčová, Martina; Chudoba, Jiří; Ebr, Jan; Mandát, Dušan; Nečesal, Petr; Palatka, Miroslav; Pech, Miroslav; Prouza, Michael; Řídký, Jan; Schovánek, Petr; Trávníček, Petr; Vícha, Jakub

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 90, č. 12 (2014), "122006-1"-"122006-12" ISSN 1550-7998 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LG13007; GA MŠk(CZ) 7AMB14AR005; GA ČR(CZ) GA14-17501S Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : Pierre Auger Observatory * air- shower * fluorescence telescopes Subject RIV: BF - Elementary Particles and High Energy Physics Impact factor: 4.643, year: 2014

  15. Testing hadronic interactions at ultrahigh energies with air showers measured by the Pierre Auger Observatory

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Aab, A.; Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Blažek, Jiří; Boháčová, Martina; Chudoba, Jiří; Ebr, Jan; Mandát, Dušan; Nečesal, Petr; Palatka, Miroslav; Pech, Miroslav; Prouza, Michael; Řídký, Jan; Schovánek, Petr; Trávníček, Petr; Vícha, Jakub

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 117, č. 19 (2016), 1-9, č. článku 192001. ISSN 0031-9007 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LM2015038; GA MŠk LG15014; GA ČR(CZ) GA14-17501S Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : Pierre Auger Observatory * testing hadronic Interactions * ultrahigh energies * air showers Subject RIV: BF - Elementary Particles and High Energy Physics Impact factor: 8.462, year: 2016

  16. Time correlation measurements from extensive air showers detected by the EEE telescopes

    CERN Document Server

    Abbrescia, M; Fabbri, F L; Gnesi, I; Bressan, E; Tosello, F; Librizzi, F; Coccia, E; Paoletti, R; Yanez, G; Li, S; Votano, L; Scribano, A; Avanzini, C; Piragino, G; Perasso, L; Regano, A; Ferroli, R Baldini; De Gruttola, D; Sartorelli, G; Siddi, E; Cifarelli, L; Di Giovanni, A; Frolov, V; Serci, S; Selvi, M; Zouyevski, R; Dreucci, M; Squarcia, S; Righini, G C; Agocs, A; Zichichi, A; La Rocca, P; Pilo, F; Miozzi, S; Massai, M; Cicalo, C; D'Incecco, M; Panareo, M; Gemme, G; Garbini, M; Aiola, S; Riggi, F; Hatzifotiadou, D; Scapparone, E; Chiavassa, A; Maggiora, A; Bencivenni, G; Gustavino, C; Spandre, G; Taiuti, M; Williams, M C S; Bossini, E; De Pasquale, S

    2013-01-01

    Time correlated events due to cosmic muons from extensive air showers have been detected by means of telescope pairs of the EEE (Extreme Energy Events) Project array. The coincidence rate, properly normalized for detector acceptance, efficiency and altitude location, has been extracted as a function of the relative distance between the telescopes. The results have been also compared with additional measurements carried out by small scintillator detectors at various distances.

  17. A study of the air-shower response of current-limited spark chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porter, M.R.; Hodson, A.L.; Bull, R.M.

    1982-01-01

    The efficiency of current-limited spark chambers (discharge chambers) and their relative response to shower electrons and photons are investigated. A stack of six horizontal 1m x 10 cm discharge chambers, above one another, is triggered by air showers falling on an adjacent discharge-chamber array. Particular combinations of discharges show that the efficiency of the chambers is very high and that a significant fraction of the discharges is due to incident photons

  18. Measurement of the muon content in air showers at the Pierre Auger Observatory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veberič Darko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The muon content of extensive air showers produced by ultra-high energy cosmic rays is an observable sensitive to the composition of primary particles and to the properties of hadronic interactions governing the evolution of air-shower cascades. We present different methods for estimation of the number of muons at the ground and the muon production depth. These methods use measurements of the longitudinal, lateral, and temporal distribution of particles in air showers recorded by the detectors of the Pierre Auger Observatory. The results, obtained at about 140 TeV center-of-mass energy for proton primaries, are compared to the predictions of LHC-tuned hadronic-interaction models used in simulations with different primary masses. The models exhibit a deficitin the predicted muon content. The combination of these results with other independent mass composition analyses, such as those involving the depth of shower maximum observablemax, provide additional constraints on hadronic-interaction models for energies beyond the reach of the LHC.

  19. Analytic calculation of radio emission from parametrized extensive air showers: A tool to extract shower parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholten, O.; Trinh, T. N. G.; de Vries, K. D.; Hare, B. M.

    2018-01-01

    The radio intensity and polarization footprint of a cosmic-ray induced extensive air shower is determined by the time-dependent structure of the current distribution residing in the plasma cloud at the shower front. In turn, the time dependence of the integrated charge-current distribution in the plasma cloud, the longitudinal shower structure, is determined by interesting physics which one would like to extract, such as the location and multiplicity of the primary cosmic-ray collision or the values of electric fields in the atmosphere during thunderstorms. To extract the structure of a shower from its footprint requires solving a complicated inverse problem. For this purpose we have developed a code that semianalytically calculates the radio footprint of an extensive air shower given an arbitrary longitudinal structure. This code can be used in an optimization procedure to extract the optimal longitudinal shower structure given a radio footprint. On the basis of air-shower universality we propose a simple parametrization of the structure of the plasma cloud. This parametrization is based on the results of Monte Carlo shower simulations. Deriving the parametrization also teaches which aspects of the plasma cloud are important for understanding the features seen in the radio-emission footprint. The calculated radio footprints are compared with microscopic CoREAS simulations.

  20. QGSJET-II: physics, recent improvements, and results for air showers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ostapchenko S.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Modeling of high energy hadronic and nuclear interactions by the QGSJET-II generator is discussed. Recent updates related to the treatment of nonlinear effects inthe interaction dynamics and to the model calibration with new LHC data are described. A special attention is devoted to the predictions of the new model version forcharacteristics of extensive air showers initiated by high energy cosmic rays. In particular, an improved description of charge exchange processes in pion collisionsis discussed and the respective enhancement of the shower muon content is analyzed.

  1. Measuring the muon content of air showers with IceTop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Javier G.

    2015-08-01

    IceTop, the surface component of the IceCube detector, has been used to measure the energy spectrum of cosmic ray primaries in the range between 1.58 PeV and 1.26 EeV. It can also be used to study the low energy muons in air showers by looking at large distances (> 300 m) from the shower axis. We will show the muon lateral distribution function at large lateral distances as measured with IceTop and discuss the implications of this measurement. We will also discuss the prospects for low energy muon studies with IceTop.

  2. Measuring the muon content of air showers with IceTop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalez Javier G.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available IceTop, the surface component of the IceCube detector, has been used to measure the energy spectrum of cosmic ray primaries in the range between 1.58 PeV and 1.26 EeV. It can also be used to study the low energy muons in air showers by looking at large distances (> 300 m from the shower axis. We will show the muon lateral distribution function at large lateral distances as measured with IceTop and discuss the implications of this measurement. We will also discuss the prospects for low energy muon studies with IceTop.

  3. Microprocessor-based data acquisition system for extensive air shower studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazumdar, G.K.D.; Kalita, P.M.; Bordoloi, T.C.; Pathak, K.M.

    1989-01-01

    Studies on electromagnetic radiation from large extensive air showers (Esub(p) ≥> 10 16 eV) have been of recent importance in the investigation of properties of EAS in problems involving mass composition, arrival time, radio emission. Cerenkov radiation etc. Such studies need fast electronic circuitry preferably for digitisation. A microprocessor based data acquisition system having scintillation counters, PA, MA, Pd, S/H and control unit has been developed and is being used in the EAS studies at Gauhati University Cosmic Ray Research Laboratory. Description of the different units along with their functioning and method of standardisation is presented in this paper. (author). 3 figs

  4. Novel method for detecting the hadronic component of extensive air showers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gromushkin, D. M.; Volchenko, V. I.; Petrukhin, A. A.; Stenkin, Yu. V.; Stepanov, V. I.; Shchegolev, O. B.; Yashin, I. I.

    2015-01-01

    A novel method for studying the hadronic component of extensive air showers (EAS) is proposed. The method is based on recording thermal neutrons accompanying EAS with en-detectors that are sensitive to two EAS components: an electromagnetic (e) component and a hadron component in the form of neutrons (n). In contrast to hadron calorimeters used in some arrays, the proposed method makes it possible to record the hadronic component over the whole area of the array. The efficiency of a prototype array that consists of 32 en-detectors was tested for a long time, and some parameters of the neutron EAS component were determined

  5. Interpretation of the depths of maximum of extensive air showers measured by the Pierre Auger Observatory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abreu, Pedro; et al.

    2013-02-01

    To interpret the mean depth of cosmic ray air shower maximum and its dispersion, we parametrize those two observables as functions of the first two moments of the ln A distribution. We examine the goodness of this simple method through simulations of test mass distributions. The application of the parameterization to Pierre Auger Observatory data allows one to study the energy dependence of the mean ln A and of its variance under the assumption of selected hadronic interaction models. We discuss possible implications of these dependences in term of interaction models and astrophysical cosmic ray sources.

  6. The UCD/FLWO extensive air shower array at Mt. Hopkins Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillanders, G. H.; Fegan, D. J.; McKeown, P. K.; Weekes, T. C.

    The design and operation of an extensive air shower (EAS) array being installed around the 10-m optical Cerenkov reflector at F.L. Whipple Observatory on Mt. Hopkins for high-energy gamma-ray astronomy are described. The advantages of an EAS array colocated with a Cerenkov facility at a mountain location are reviewed; the arrangement of the 13 1-sq m scintillation detectors in the array is indicated; the signal-processing and data-acquisition procedures are explained; and preliminary calibration data indicating an effective energy threshold of 60 TeV are presented.

  7. A method of simulation of large air showers of cosmic radiation. Application to High Energy Physics and to Astrophysics (10"1"3 - 10"2"1 eV)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capdevielle, Jean-Noel

    1972-01-01

    This research thesis addresses the study of large air showers and the field of high energy physics and of astrophysics. The author discusses fluctuations undergone by large showers, and reports the development of a simulation method which is used for the determination of the morphology of these large air showers, that is their longitudinal and lateral development. Simulation results are compared with experimental results, and the influence of fluctuations is discussed. The author reports the application of the simulation method to high energy physics and to astrophysics, notably through an example of use of the simulation method in application to the Kiel Group experiment performed at the Pic du Midi. Possible developments are then discussed [fr

  8. Measurement of the Muon Content of Air Showers with IceTop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, JG; IceCube Collaboration

    2016-05-01

    IceTop, the surface component of the IceCube detector, has measured the energy spectrum of cosmic ray primaries in the range between 1.6 PeV and 1.3 EeV. IceTop can also be used to measure the average density of GeV muons in the shower front at large radial distances (> 300 m) from the shower axis. Wei present the measurement of the muon lateral distribution function for primary cosmic rays with energies between 1.6 PeV and about 0.1 EeV, and compare it to proton and iron simulations. We also discuss how this information can be exploited in the reconstruction of single air shower events. By combining the information on the muon component with that of the electromagnetic component of the air shower, we expect to reduce systematic uncertainties in the inferred mass composition of cosmic rays arising from theoretical uncertainties in hadronic interaction models.

  9. Fγ: A new observable for photon-hadron discrimination in hybrid air shower events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niechciol, M.; Risse, M.; Ruehl, P.; Settimo, M.; Younk, P. W.; Yushkov, A.

    2018-01-01

    To search for ultra-high-energy photons in primary cosmic rays, air shower observables are needed that allow a good separation between primary photons and primary hadrons. We present a new observable, Fγ, which can be extracted from ground-array data in hybrid events, where simultaneous measurements of the longitudinal and the lateral shower profile are performed. The observable is based on a template fit to the lateral distribution measured by the ground array with the template taking into account the complementary information from the measurement of the longitudinal profile, i.e. the primary energy and the geometry of the shower. Fγ shows a very good photon-hadron separation, which is even superior to the separation given by the well-known Xmax observable (the atmospheric depth of the shower maximum). At energies around 1 EeV (10 EeV), Fγ provides a background rejection better than 97.8 % (99.9 %) at a signal efficiency of 50 %. Advantages of the observable Fγ are its technical stability with respect to irregularities in the ground array (i.e. missing or temporarily non-operating stations) and that it can be applied over the full energy range accessible to the air shower detector, down to its threshold energy. Furthermore, Fγ complements nicely to Xmax such that both observables can well be combined to achieve an even better discrimination power, exploiting the rich information available in hybrid events.

  10. Determining Thunderstorm Electric Fields using Radio Emission from Cosmic-Ray Air Showers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hare, B.; Scholten, O.; Trinh, G. T. N.; Ebert, U.; Rutjes, C.

    2017-12-01

    We report on a novel non-intrusive way to investigate electric fields in thunderclouds.Energetic cosmic rays penetrating the atmosphere create a particle avalanche called an extensive air shower. The front of the shower is a plasma cloud that contains 10^6 or more free electrons and positrons moving towards the Earth's surface at the speed of light. The electric fields that exists in thunderclouds induces electric currents in the plasma cloud that emit radio waves. The radio footprint for intensity, linear and circular polarization thus contains the finger print of the atmospheric electric fields along the path of the air shower.Here we report on the analysis of many cosmic-ray radio footprints as have been measured at LOFAR, a dense array of simple radio antennas (several thousands of dual-polarized antennas) primarily developed for radio-astronomy observations. We show that this method can be used to determine the charge structure in thunderclouds and discuss the accuracy of the method. We have observed seasonal dependencies.

  11. Reconstruction of extensive air showers using the MIDAS molecular Bremsstrahlung detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro, Andre Ramos de; Bonifazi, Carla; Santos, Edivaldo Moura; Soares, Elvis do Amaral; Mello Neto, Joao Ramos Torres de; Almeida, Rogerio Menezes de

    2011-01-01

    Full text: The weakly ionized plasma created in the atmosphere after the passage of an Extensive Air Shower (EAS) gives rise to the emission of continuous radiation known as Molecular Bremsstrahlung Radiation (MBR) as free electrons scatter off neutral nitrogen (and less frequently oxygen) molecules. The isotropic and unpolarized nature of MBR rises the possibility of an EAS detection similar to that using fluorescence telescopes to capture the ultraviolet light emitted by the ionized nitrogen molecules. The MBR emission, however, falls into the centimeter wavelength range, requiring the use of radio/microwave antennas instead of optical telescopes. In order to test the feasibility of the technique, the MIDAS (Microwave Detection of Air Showers) Collaboration has built a prototype detector where a parabolical reflector illuminates a multi-pixel camera of commercial TV satellite C-band (3.4-4.2 GHz) feeds. This work addresses the geometrical reconstruction of EAS induced by Ultra High Energy Cosmic Rays (UHECR) using the MIDAS detector. The reconstruction chain is similar to that currently applied to the Auger Fluorescence detector events. We have simulated the shower MBR emission assuming two different scenarios: coherent and incoherent emission, i.e., radiation intensity scaling quadratically and linearly with the energy of the primary particle. The MIDAS prototype detector's response is then simulated. Finally, given the simulated events in real data format, we reconstruct the shower's arrival direction, including direction uncertainties and estimate the expected rate of observed events. (author)

  12. A multi-transputer system for parallel Monte Carlo simulations of extensive air showers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gils, H.J.; Heck, D.; Oehlschlaeger, J.; Schatz, G.; Thouw, T.

    1989-01-01

    A multiprocessor computer system has been brought into operation at the Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe. It is dedicated to Monte Carlo simulations of extensive air showers induced by ultra-high energy cosmic rays. The architecture consists of two independently working VMEbus systems each with a 68020 microprocessor as host computer and twelve T800 transputers for parallel processing. The two systems are linked via Ethernet for data exchange. The T800 transputers are equipped with 4 Mbyte RAM each, sufficient to run rather large codes. The host computers are operated under UNIX 5.3. On the transputers compilers for PARALLEL FORTRAN, C, and PASCAL are available. The simple modular architecture of this parallel computer reflects the single purpose for which it is intended. The hardware of the multiprocessor computer is described as well as the way how the user software is handled and distributed to the 24 working processors. The performance of the parallel computer is demonstrated by well-known benchmarks and by realistic Monte Carlo simulations of air showers. Comparisons with other types of microprocessors and with large universal computers are made. It is demonstrated that a cost reduction by more than a factor of 20 is achieved by this system as compared to universal computer. (orig.)

  13. First results from the TUS orbital detector in the extensive air shower mode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khrenov, B.A.; Klimov, P.A.; Panasyuk, M.I.; Sharakin, S.A.; Zotov, M.Yu.; Chirskaya, N.P.; Eremeev, V.E.; Garipov, G.K.; Kalmykov, N.N. [Lomonosov Moscow State University, GSP-1, Leninskie Gory, Moscow, 119991 (Russian Federation); Tkachev, L.G.; Biktemerova, S.V.; Grebenyuk, V.M.; Grinyuk, A.A.; Lavrova, M.V. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Joliot-Curie, 6, Dubna, Moscow region, Russia, 141980 (Russian Federation); Botvinko, A.A. [Space Regatta Consortium, ul. Lenina, 4a, 141070 Korolev, Moscow region (Russian Federation); Jeong, S.; Kim, M.; Lee, J.; Park, I.H. [Department of Physics and ISTS, Sungkyunkwan University, Seobu-ro 2066, Suwon, \\mbox440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Martinez, O., E-mail: zotov@eas.sinp.msu.ru [Benemérita Universidad Autónoma de Puebla, 4 sur 104 Centro Histórico C.P. 72000, Puebla (Mexico); and others

    2017-09-01

    TUS (Tracking Ultraviolet Set-up), the first orbital detector of extreme energy cosmic rays (EECRs), those with energies above 50 EeV, was launched into orbit on April 28, 2016, as a part of the Lomonosov satellite scientific payload. The main aim of the mission is to test a technique of registering fluorescent and Cherenkov radiation of extensive air showers generated by EECRs in the atmosphere with a space telescope. We present preliminary results of its operation in a mode dedicated to registering extensive air showers in the period from August 16, 2016, to November 4, 2016. No EECRs have been conclusively identified in the data yet, but the diversity of ultraviolet emission in the atmosphere was found to be unexpectedly rich. We discuss typical examples of data obtained with TUS and their possible origin. The data is important for obtaining more accurate estimates of the nocturnal ultraviolet glow of the atmosphere, necessary for successful development of more advanced orbital EECR detectors including those of the KLYPVE (K-EUSO) and JEM-EUSO missions.

  14. Cooperative observations of air showers in Tasmania looking for anisotropies in 1013 - 1014 eV primaries (COALA project)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fenton, A.G.; Fenton, K.B.; Humble, J.E.

    1981-01-01

    Observations of cosmic ray air showers (median primary energy: 5.10 13 eV) in Tasmania have been planned to start during 1981. The observations will be carried out through collaboration of the Hobart and Nagoya groups, in order to catch cosmic ray flows in a somewhat stereoscopic manner with simultaneous observations in the northern hemisphere (Mt. Norikura). The air shower array consists of 18 unit trays of 4 m 2 proportional counters deployed over an area of 20 m x 160 m. The shower frequency in a fundamental coincidence mode is expected to be about 16,000 events per hour

  15. The radio emission pattern of air showers as measured with LOFAR—a tool for the reconstruction of the energy and the shower maximum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nelles, A.; Buitink, S.; Corstanje, A.; Enriquez, J. E.; Falcke, H.; Hörandel, J. R.; Rachen, J. P.; Rossetto, L.; Schellart, P.; Scholten, O.; ter Veen, S.; Thoudam, S.; Trinh, Gia

    2015-01-01

    The pattern of the radio emission of air showers is finely sampled with the Low-Frequency ARray (LOFAR). A set of 382 measured air showers is used to test a fast, analytic parameterization of the distribution of pulse powers. Using this parameterization we are able to reconstruct the shower axis and

  16. Measurement of the cosmic-ray energy spectrum above 1016 eV with the LOFAR Radboud Air Shower Array

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thoudam, S.; Buitink, S.; Corstanje, A.; Enriquez, J. E.; Falcke, H.; Hörandel, J. R.; Nelles, A.; Rachen, J. P.; Rossetto, L.; Schellart, P.; Scholten, O.; ter Veen, S.; Trinh, T.N.G.; van Kessel, L.

    2016-01-01

    The energy reconstruction of extensive air showers measured with the LOFAR Radboud Air Shower Array (LORA) is presented in detail. LORA is a particle detector array located in the center of the LOFAR radio telescope in the Netherlands. The aim of this work is to provide an accurate and independent

  17. Small changes in the atmospheric electric field from extensive air showers. [E > 10/sup 16/ eV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonino, G; Dardo, M [Turin Univ. (Italy); Pavese, P; Piano, A [Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Turin (Italy). Lab. di Cosmo-Geofisica

    1977-05-28

    The authors present data on small changes in the atmospheric electric field related to the passage of extensive air showers initiated by primary particles of energy >=10/sup 16/ eV. Such changes were detected by electrometric methods in conjunction with a particle shower array.

  18. Measurement of the Depth of Maximum of Extensive Air Showers above 10(18) eV

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abraham, J.; Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Ahn, E. J.; Allard, D.; Allekotte, I.; Allen, J.; Alvarez-Muniz, J.; Ambrosio, M.; Anchordoqui, L.; Andringa, S.; Anticic, T.; Anzalone, A.; Aramo, C.; Arganda, E.; Arisaka, K.; Arqueros, F.; Asorey, H.; Assis, P.; Aublin, J.; Ave, M.; Avila, G.; Baecker, T.; Badagnani, D.; Balzer, M.; Barber, K. B.; Barroso, S. L. C.; Barbosa, A. F.; Baughman, B.; Bauleo, P.; Beatty, J. J.; Becker, B. R.; Becker, K. H.; Belletoile, A.; Bellido, J. A.; BenZvi, S.; Berat, C.; Bergmann, T.; Bertou, X.; Biermann, P. L.; Billoir, P.; Blanch-Bigas, O.; Blanco, F.; Blanco, M.; Bleve, C.; Bluemer, H.; Bohacova, M.; Boncioli, D.; Bonifazi, C.; Bonino, R.; Borodai, N.; Brack, J.; Brogueira, P.; Brown, W. C.; Bruijn, R.; Buchholz, P.; Bueno, A.; Burton, R. E.; Busca, N. G.; Caballero-Mora, K. S.; Caramete, L.; Caruso, R.; Castellina, A.; Catalano, O.; Cataldi, G.; Cazon, L.; Cester, R.; Chauvin, J.; Chiavassa, A.; Chinellato, J. A.; Chou, A.; Chudoba, J.; Clay, R. W.; Colombo, E.; Coluccia, M. R.; Conceicao, R.; Contreras, F.; Cook, H.; Cooper, M. J.; Coppens, J.; Cordier, A.; Cotti, U.; Coutu, S.; Covault, C. E.; Creusot, A.; Criss, A.; Cronin, J.; Curutiu, A.; Dagoret-Campagne, S.; Dallier, R.; Daumiller, K.; Dawson, B. R.; de Almeida, R. M.; De Domenico, M.; De Donato, C.; de Jong, S. J.; De la Vega, G.; de Mello Junior, W. J. M.; de Mello Neto, J. R. T.; De Mitri, I.; de Souza, V.; de Vries, K. D.; Decerprit, G.; del Peral, L.; Deligny, O.; Della Selva, A.; Delle Fratte, C.; Dembinski, H.; Di Giulio, C.; Diaz, J. C.; Diaz Castro, M. L.; Diep, P. N.; Dobrigkeit, C.; D'Olivo, J. C.; Dong, P. N.; Dorofeev, A.; dos Anjos, J. C.; Dova, M. T.; D'Urso, D.; Dutan, I.; DuVernois, M. A.; Ebr, J.; Engel, R.; Erdmann, M.; Escobar, C. O.; Etchegoyen, A.; Facal San Luis, P.; Falcke, H.; Farrar, G.; Fauth, A. C.; Fazzini, N.; Ferrero, A.; Fick, B.; Filevich, A.; Filipcic, A.; Fleck, I.; Fliescher, S.; Fracchiolla, C. E.; Fraenkel, E. D.; Froehlich, U.; Fulgione, W.; Gamarra, R. F.; Gambetta, S.; Garcia, B.; Garcia Gamez, D.; Garcia-Pinto, D.; Garrido, X.; Gelmini, G.; Gemmeke, H.; Ghia, P. L.; Giaccari, U.; Giller, M.; Glass, H.; Goggin, L. M.; Gold, M. S.; Golup, G.; Gomez Albarracin, F.; Gomez Berisso, M.; Goncalves, P.; Gonzalez, D.; Gonzalez, J. G.; Gora, D.; Gorgi, A.; Gouffon, P.; Gozzini, S. R.; Grashorn, E.; Grebe, S.; Grigat, M.; Grillo, A. F.; Guardincerri, Y.; Guarino, F.; Guedes, G. P.; Hague, J. D.; Halenka, V.; Hansen, P.; Harari, D.; Harmsma, S.; Harton, J. L.; Haungs, A.; Hebbeker, T.; Heck, D.; Herve, A. E.; Hojvat, C.; Holmes, V. C.; Homola, P.; Horandel, J. R.; Horneffer, A.; Hrabovsky, M.; Huege, T.; Hussain, M.; Iarlori, M.; Insolia, A.; Ionita, F.; Italiano, A.; Jiraskova, S.; Kadija, K.; Kaducak, M.; Kampert, K. H.; Karova, T.; Kasper, P.; Kegl, B.; Keilhauer, B.; Keivani, A.; Kelley, J.; Kemp, E.; Kieckhafer, R. M.; Klages, H. O.; Kleifges, M.; Kleinfeller, J.; Knapik, R.; Knapp, J.; Koang, D. -H.; Krieger, A.; Kroemer, O.; Kruppke-Hansen, D.; Kuehn, F.; Kuempel, D.; Kulbartz, K.; Kunka, N.; Kusenko, A.; La Rosa, G.; Lachaud, C.; Lago, B. L.; Lautridou, P.; Leao, M. S. A. B.; Lebrun, D.; Lebrun, P.; Lee, J.; Leigui de Oliveira, M. A.; Lemiere, A.; Letessier-Selvon, A.; Lhenry-Yvon, I.; Lopez, R.; Lopez Agueera, A.; Louedec, K.; Lozano Bahilo, J.; Lucero, A.; Ludwig, M.; Lyberis, H.; Maccarone, M. C.; Macolino, C.; Maldera, S.; Mandat, D.; Mantsch, P.; Mariazzi, A. G.; Marin, V.; Maris, I. C.; Marquez Falcon, H. R.; Marsella, G.; Martello, D.; Martinez Bravo, O.; Mathes, H. J.; Matthews, J.; Matthews, J. A. J.; Matthiae, G.; Maurizio, D.; Mazur, P. O.; McEwen, M.; Medina-Tanco, G.; Melissas, M.; Melo, D.; Menichetti, E.; Menshikov, A.; Meurer, C.; Micanovic, S.; Micheletti, M. I.; Miller, W.; Miramonti, L.; Mollerach, S.; Monasor, M.; Ragaigne, D. Monnier; Montanet, F.; Morales, B.; Morello, C.; Moreno, E.; Moreno, J. C.; Morris, C.; Mostafa, M.; Mueller, S.; Muller, M. A.; Mussa, R.; Navarra, G.; Navarro, J. L.; Navas, S.; Necesal, P.; Nellen, L.; Nhung, P. T.; Nierstenhoefer, N.; Nitz, D.; Nosek, D.; Nozka, L.; Nyklicek, M.; Oehlschlaeger, J.; Olinto, A.; Oliva, P.; Olmos-Gilbaja, V. M.; Ortiz, M.; Pacheco, N.; Pakk Selmi-Dei, D.; Palatka, M.; Pallotta, J.; Palmieri, N.; Parente, G.; Parizot, E.; Parlati, S.; Parra, A.; Parrisius, J.; Parsons, R. D.; Pastor, S.; Paul, T.; Pavlidou, V.; Payet, K.; Pech, M.; Pekala, J.; Pelayo, R.; Pepe, I. M.; Perrone, L.; Pesce, R.; Petermann, E.; Petrera, S.; Petrinca, P.; Petrolini, A.; Petrov, Y.; Petrovic, J.; Pfendner, C.; Piegaia, R.; Pierog, T.; Pimenta, M.; Pirronello, V.; Platino, M.; Ponce, V. H.; Pontz, M.; Privitera, P.; Prouza, M.; Quel, E. J.; Rautenberg, J.; Ravel, O.; Ravignani, D.; Redondo, A.; Revenu, B.; Rezende, F. A. S.; Ridky, J.; Riggi, S.; Risse, M.; Ristori, P.; Riviere, C.; Rizi, V.; Robledo, C.; Rodriguez, G.; Rodriguez Martino, J.; Rodriguez Rojo, J.; Rodriguez-Cabo, I.; Rodriguez-Frias, M. D.; Ros, G.; Rosado, J.; Rossler, T.; Roth, M.; Rouille-d'Orfeuil, B.; Roulet, E.; Rovero, A. C.; Salamida, F.; Salazar, H.; Salina, G.; Sanchez, F.; Santander, M.; Santo, C. E.; Santos, E.; Santos, E. M.; Sarazin, F.; Sarkar, S.; Sato, R.; Scharf, N.; Scherini, V.; Schieler, H.; Schiffer, P.; Schmidt, A.; Schmidt, F.; Schmidt, T.; Scholten, O.; Schoorlemmer, H.; Schovancova, J.; Schovanek, P.; Schroeder, F.; Schulte, S.; Schuessler, F.; Schuster, D.; Sciutto, S. J.; Scuderi, M.; Segreto, A.; Semikoz, D.; Settimo, M.; Shadkam, A.; Shellard, R. C.; Sidelnik, I.; Siffert, B. B.; Sigl, G.; Smialkowski, A.; Smida, R.; Snow, G. R.; Sommers, P.; Sorokin, J.; Spinka, H.; Squartini, R.; Stasielak, J.; Stephan, M.; Strazzeri, E.; Stutz, A.; Suarez, F.; Suomijarvi, T.; Supanitsky, A. D.; Susa, T.; Sutherland, M. S.; Swain, J.; Szadkowski, Z.; Tamashiro, A.; Tamburro, A.; Tapia, A.; Tarutina, T.; Tascau, O.; Tcaciuc, R.; Tcherniakhovski, D.; Tegolo, D.; Thao, N. T.; Thomas, D.; Tiffenberg, J.; Timmermans, C.; Tkaczyk, W.; Todero Peixoto, C. J.; Tome, B.; Tonachini, A.; Travnicek, P.; Tridapalli, D. B.; Tristram, G.; Trovato, E.; Tueros, M.; Ulrich, R.; Unger, M.; Urban, M.; Valdes Galicia, J. F.; Valino, I.; Valore, L.; van den Berg, A. M.; Vazquez, J. R.; Vazquez, R. A.; Veberic, D.; Venters, T.; Verzi, V.; Videla, M.; Villasenor, L.; Vorobiov, S.; Voyvodic, L.; Wahlberg, H.; Wahrlich, P.; Wainberg, O.; Warner, D.; Watson, A. A.; Westerhoff, S.; Whelan, B. J.; Wieczorek, G.; Wiencke, L.; Wilczynska, B.; Wilczynski, H.; Williams, C.; Winchen, T.; Winnick, M. G.; Wundheiler, B.; Yamamoto, T.; Younk, P.; Yuan, G.; Yushkov, A.; Zas, E.; Zavrtanik, D.; Zavrtanik, M.; Zaw, I.; Zepeda, A.; Ziolkowski, M.

    2010-01-01

    We describe the measurement of the depth of maximum, X-max, of the longitudinal development of air showers induced by cosmic rays. Almost 4000 events above 10(18) eV observed by the fluorescence detector of the Pierre Auger Observatory in coincidence with at least one surface detector station are

  19. The influence of the atmospheric refractive index on radio Xmax measurements of air showers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corstanje Arthur

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The refractive index of the atmosphere, which is n ≈ 1:0003 at sea level, varies with altitude and with local temperature, pressure and humidity. When performing radio measurements of air showers, natural variations in n will change the radio lateral intensity distribution, by changing the Cherenkov angle. Using CoREAS simulations, we have evaluated the systematic error on measurements of the shower maximum Xmax due to variations in n. It was found that a 10% increase in refractivity (n – 1 leads to an underestimation of Xmax between 8 and 22 g/cm2 for proton-induced showers at zenith angles from 15 to 45 degrees, respectively.

  20. Air shower array designed for cosmic ray variation measurements and high energy gamma ray astronomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morello, C; Navarra, G [Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Turin (Italy). Lab. di Cosmo-Geofisica

    1981-08-15

    We describe an array for performing measurements of counting rates and arrival directions of extensive air showers at primary energy E/sub 0/ approx. equal to 3 x 10/sup 9/ eV. The aim of the research is to study the time variations and the anisotropies of cosmic rays and the observable gamma ray sources in the high energy region. The installation, composed of four large area scintillation counters and completely controlled by a microcomputer system, operates at mountain altitude (3500 m a.s.l.). The preanalysis of data, stability tests and periodic calibrations are performed by on-line programs. The method for obtaining the required stability and the corrections on temperature and gain variations are also described.

  1. A discrimination technique for extensive air showers based on multiscale, lacunarity and neural network analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pagliaro, Antonio; D'Ali Staiti, G.; D'Anna, F.

    2011-01-01

    We present a new method for the identification of extensive air showers initiated by different primaries. The method uses the multiscale concept and is based on the analysis of multifractal behaviour and lacunarity of secondary particle distributions together with a properly designed and trained artificial neural network. In the present work the method is discussed and applied to a set of fully simulated vertical showers, in the experimental framework of ARGO-YBJ, to obtain hadron to gamma primary separation. We show that the presented approach gives very good results, leading, in the 1-10 TeV energy range, to a clear improvement of the discrimination power with respect to the existing figures for extended shower detectors.

  2. Reconstruction of inclined air showers detected with the Pierre Auger Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierre Auger Collaboration; Aab, A.; Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Ahlers, M.; Ahn, E. J.; Samarai, I. Al; Albuquerque, I. F. M.; Allekotte, I.; Allen, J.; Allison, P.; Almela, A.; Alvarez Castillo, J.; Alvarez-Muñiz, J.; Alves Batista, R.; Ambrosio, M.; Aminaei, A.; Anchordoqui, L.; Andringa, S.; Aramo, C.; Arqueros, F.; Asorey, H.; Assis, P.; Aublin, J.; Ave, M.; Avenier, M.; Avila, G.; Badescu, A. M.; Barber, K. B.; Bäuml, J.; Baus, C.; Beatty, J. J.; Becker, K. H.; Bellido, J. A.; Berat, C.; Bertou, X.; Biermann, P. L.; Billoir, P.; Blanco, F.; Blanco, M.; Bleve, C.; Blümer, H.; Boháčová, M.; Boncioli, D.; Bonifazi, C.; Bonino, R.; Borodai, N.; Brack, J.; Brancus, I.; Brogueira, P.; Brown, W. C.; Buchholz, P.; Bueno, A.; Buscemi, M.; Caballero-Mora, K. S.; Caccianiga, B.; Caccianiga, L.; Candusso, M.; Caramete, L.; Caruso, R.; Castellina, A.; Cataldi, G.; Cazon, L.; Cester, R.; Chavez, A. G.; Cheng, S. H.; Chiavassa, A.; Chinellato, J. A.; Chudoba, J.; Cilmo, M.; Clay, R. W.; Cocciolo, G.; Colalillo, R.; Collica, L.; Coluccia, M. R.; Conceição, R.; Contreras, F.; Cooper, M. J.; Coutu, S.; Covault, C. E.; Criss, A.; Cronin, J.; Curutiu, A.; Dallier, R.; Daniel, B.; Dasso, S.; Daumiller, K.; Dawson, B. R.; de Almeida, R. M.; De Domenico, M.; de Jong, S. J.; de Mello Neto, J. R. T.; De Mitri, I.; de Oliveira, J.; de Souza, V.; del Peral, L.; Deligny, O.; Dembinski, H.; Dhital, N.; Di Giulio, C.; Di Matteo, A.; Diaz, J. C.; D\\'\\iaz Castro, M. L.; Diep, P. N.; Diogo, F.; Dobrigkeit, C.; Docters, W.; D'Olivo, J. C.; Dong, P. N.; Dorofeev, A.; Dorosti Hasankiadeh, Q.; Dova, M. T.; Ebr, J.; Engel, R.; Erdmann, M.; Erfani, M.; Escobar, C. O.; Espadanal, J.; Etchegoyen, A.; Facal San Luis, P.; Falcke, H.; Fang, K.; Farrar, G.; Fauth, A. C.; Fazzini, N.; Ferguson, A. P.; Fernandes, M.; Fick, B.; Figueira, J. M.; Filevich, A.; Filipčič, A.; Fox, B. D.; Fratu, O.; Fröhlich, U.; Fuchs, B.; Fuji, T.; Gaior, R.; Garc\\'\\ia, B.; Garcia Roca, S. T.; Garcia-Gamez, D.; Garcia-Pinto, D.; Garilli, G.; Gascon Bravo, A.; Gate, F.; Gemmeke, H.; Ghia, P. L.; Giaccari, U.; Giammarchi, M.; Giller, M.; Glaser, C.; Glass, H.; Gomez Albarracin, F.; Gómez Berisso, M.; Gómez Vitale, P. F.; Gonçalves, P.; Gonzalez, J. G.; Gookin, B.; Gorgi, A.; Gorham, P.; Gouffon, P.; Grebe, S.; Griffith, N.; Grillo, A. F.; Grubb, T. D.; Guardincerri, Y.; Guarino, F.; Guedes, G. P.; Hansen, P.; Harari, D.; Harrison, T. A.; Harton, J. L.; Haungs, A.; Hebbeker, T.; Heck, D.; Heimann, P.; Herve, A. E.; Hill, G. C.; Hojvat, C.; Hollon, N.; Holt, E.; Homola, P.; Hörandel, J. R.; Horvath, P.; Hrabovský, M.; Huber, D.; Huege, T.; Insolia, A.; Isar, P. G.; Islo, K.; Jandt, I.; Jansen, S.; Jarne, C.; Josebachuili, M.; Kääpä, A.; Kambeitz, O.; Kampert, K. H.; Kasper, P.; Katkov, I.; Kégl, B.; Keilhauer, B.; Keivani, A.; Kemp, E.; Kieckhafer, R. M.; Klages, H. O.; Kleifges, M.; Kleinfeller, J.; Krause, R.; Krohm, N.; Krömer, O.; Kruppke-Hansen, D.; Kuempel, D.; Kunka, N.; La Rosa, G.; LaHurd, D.; Latronico, L.; Lauer, R.; Lauscher, M.; Lautridou, P.; Le Coz, S.; Leão, M. S. A. B.; Lebrun, D.; Lebrun, P.; Leigui de Oliveira, M. A.; Letessier-Selvon, A.; Lhenry-Yvon, I.; Link, K.; López, R.; Lopez Agëra, A.; Louedec, K.; Lozano Bahilo, J.; Lu, L.; Lucero, A.; Ludwig, M.; Lyberis, H.; Maccarone, M. C.; Malacari, M.; Maldera, S.; Maller, J.; Mandat, D.; Mantsch, P.; Mariazzi, A. G.; Marin, V.; Mariş, I. C.; Marsella, G.; Martello, D.; Martin, L.; Martinez, H.; Mart\\'\\inez Bravo, O.; Martraire, D.; Mas\\'\\ias Meza, J. J.; Mathes, H. J.; Mathys, S.; Matthews, A. J.; Matthews, J.; Matthiae, G.; Maurel, D.; Maurizio, D.; Mayotte, E.; Mazur, P. O.; Medina, C.; Medina-Tanco, G.; Melissas, M.; Melo, D.; Menichetti, E.; Menshikov, A.; Messina, S.; Meyhandan, R.; Mićanović, S.; Micheletti, M. I.; Middendorf, L.; Minaya, I. A.; Miramonti, L.; Mitrica, B.; Molina-Bueno, L.; Mollerach, S.; Monasor, M.; Monnier Ragaigne, D.; Montanet, F.; Morello, C.; Moreno, J. C.; Mostafá, M.; Moura, C. A.; Muller, M. A.; Müller, G.; Münchmeyer, M.; Mussa, R.; Navarra, G.; Navas, S.; Necesal, P.; Nellen, L.; Nelles, A.; Neuser, J.; Newton, D.; Niechciol, M.; Niemietz, L.; Niggemann, T.; Nitz, D.; Nosek, D.; Novotny, V.; Nožka, L.; Ochilo, L.; Olinto, A.; Oliveira, M.; Olmos-Gilbaja, V. M.; Ortiz, M.; Pacheco, N.; Pakk Selmi-Dei, D.; Palatka, M.; Pallotta, J.; Palmieri, N.; Papenbreer, P.; Parente, G.; Parra, A.; Pastor, S.; Paul, T.; Pech, M.; Pȩkala, J.; Pelayo, R.; Pepe, I. M.; Perrone, L.; Pesce, R.; Petermann, E.; Peters, C.; Petrera, S.; Petrolini, A.; Petrov, Y.; Piegaia, R.; Pierog, T.; Pieroni, P.; Pimenta, M.; Pirronello, V.; Platino, M.; Plum, M.; Porcelli, A.; Porowski, C.; Privitera, P.; Prouza, M.; Purrello, V.; Quel, E. J.; Querchfeld, S.; Quinn, S.; Rautenberg, J.; Ravel, O.; Ravignani, D.; Revenu, B.; Ridky, J.; Riggi, S.; Risse, M.; Ristori, P.; Rizi, V.; Roberts, J.; Rodrigues de Carvalho, W.; Rodriguez Cabo, I.; Rodriguez Fernandez, G.; Rodriguez Rojo, J.; Rodr\\'\\iguez-Fr\\'\\ias, M. D.; Ros, G.; Rosado, J.; Rossler, T.; Roth, M.; Roulet, E.; Rovero, A. C.; Rühle, C.; Saffi, S. J.; Saftoiu, A.; Salamida, F.; Salazar, H.; Salesa Greus, F.; Salina, G.; Sánchez, F.; Sanchez-Lucas, P.; Santo, C. E.; Santos, E.; Santos, E. M.; Sarazin, F.; Sarkar, B.; Sarmento, R.; Sato, R.; Scharf, N.; Scherini, V.; Schieler, H.; Schiffer, P.; Schmidt, A.; Scholten, O.; Schoorlemmer, H.; Schovánek, P.; Schulz, A.; Schulz, J.; Sciutto, S. J.; Segreto, A.; Settimo, M.; Shadkam, A.; Shellard, R. C.; Sidelnik, I.; Sigl, G.; Sima, O.; Śmiał kowski, A.; Šm\\'\\ida, R.; Snow, G. R.; Sommers, P.; Sorokin, J.; Squartini, R.; Srivastava, Y. N.; Stanič, S.; Stapleton, J.; Stasielak, J.; Stephan, M.; Stutz, A.; Suarez, F.; Suomijärvi, T.; Supanitsky, A. D.; Sutherland, M. S.; Swain, J.; Szadkowski, Z.; Szuba, M.; Taborda, O. A.; Tapia, A.; Tartare, M.; Thao, N. T.; Theodoro, V. M.; Tiffenberg, J.; Timmermans, C.; Todero Peixoto, C. J.; Toma, G.; Tomankova, L.; Tomé, B.; Tonachini, A.; Torralba Elipe, G.; Torres Machado, D.; Travnicek, P.; Trovato, E.; Tueros, M.; Ulrich, R.; Unger, M.; Urban, M.; Valdés Galicia, J. F.; Valiño, I.; Valore, L.; van Aar, G.; van den Berg, A. M.; van Velzen, S.; van Vliet, A.; Varela, E.; Vargas Cárdenas, B.; Varner, G.; Vázquez, J. R.; Vázquez, R. A.; Veberič, D.; Verzi, V.; Vicha, J.; Videla, M.; Villaseñor, L.; Vlcek, B.; Vorobiov, S.; Wahlberg, H.; Wainberg, O.; Walz, D.; Watson, A. A.; Weber, M.; Weidenhaupt, K.; Weindl, A.; Werner, F.; Whelan, B. J.; Widom, A.; Wiencke, L.; Wilczyńska, B.; Wilczyński, H.; Will, M.; Williams, C.; Winchen, T.; Wittkowski, D.; Wundheiler, B.; Wykes, S.; Yamamoto, T.; Yapici, T.; Younk, P.; Yuan, G.; Yushkov, A.; Zamorano, B.; Zas, E.; Zavrtanik, D.; Zavrtanik, M.; Zaw, I.; Zepeda, A.; Zhou, J.; Zhu, Y.; Zimbres Silva, M.; Ziolkowski, M.

    2014-08-01

    We describe the method devised to reconstruct inclined cosmic-ray air showers with zenith angles greater than 60° detected with the surface array of the Pierre Auger Observatory. The measured signals at the ground level are fitted to muon density distributions predicted with atmospheric cascade models to obtain the relative shower size as an overall normalization parameter. The method is evaluated using simulated showers to test its performance. The energy of the cosmic rays is calibrated using a sub-sample of events reconstructed with both the fluorescence and surface array techniques. The reconstruction method described here provides the basis of complementary analyses including an independent measurement of the energy spectrum of ultra-high energy cosmic rays using very inclined events collected by the Pierre Auger Observatory.

  3. Muons in air showers at the Pierre Auger Observatory: Measurement of atmospheric production depth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aab, A.; Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Ahlers, M.; Ahn, E. J.; Al Samarai, I.; Albuquerque, I. F. M.; Allekotte, I.; Allen, J.; Allison, P.; Almela, A.; Alvarez Castillo, J.; Alvarez-Muñiz, J.; Alves Batista, R.; Ambrosio, M.; Aminaei, A.; Anchordoqui, L.; Andringa, S.; Aramo, C.; Arqueros, F.; Asorey, H.; Assis, P.; Aublin, J.; Ave, M.; Avenier, M.; Avila, G.; Badescu, A. M.; Barber, K. B.; Bäuml, J.; Baus, C.; Beatty, J. J.; Becker, K. H.; Bellido, J. A.; Berat, C.; Bertou, X.; Biermann, P. L.; Billoir, P.; Blanco, F.; Blanco, M.; Bleve, C.; Blümer, H.; Boháčová, M.; Boncioli, D.; Bonifazi, C.; Bonino, R.; Borodai, N.; Brack, J.; Brancus, I.; Brogueira, P.; Brown, W. C.; Buchholz, P.; Bueno, A.; Buscemi, M.; Caballero-Mora, K. S.; Caccianiga, B.; Caccianiga, L.; Candusso, M.; Caramete, L.; Caruso, R.; Castellina, A.; Cataldi, G.; Cazon, L.; Cester, R.; Chavez, A. G.; Cheng, S. H.; Chiavassa, A.; Chinellato, J. A.; Chudoba, J.; Cilmo, M.; Clay, R. W.; Cocciolo, G.; Colalillo, R.; Collica, L.; Coluccia, M. R.; Conceição, R.; Contreras, F.; Cooper, M. J.; Coutu, S.; Covault, C. E.; Criss, A.; Cronin, J.; Curutiu, A.; Dallier, R.; Daniel, B.; Dasso, S.; Daumiller, K.; Dawson, B. R.; de Almeida, R. M.; De Domenico, M.; de Jong, S. J.; de Mello Neto, J. R. T.; De Mitri, I.; de Oliveira, J.; de Souza, V.; del Peral, L.; Deligny, O.; Dembinski, H.; Dhital, N.; Di Giulio, C.; Di Matteo, A.; Diaz, J. C.; Díaz Castro, M. L.; Diep, P. N.; Diogo, F.; Dobrigkeit, C.; Docters, W.; D'Olivo, J. C.; Dong, P. N.; Dorofeev, A.; Dorosti Hasankiadeh, Q.; Dova, M. T.; Ebr, J.; Engel, R.; Erdmann, M.; Erfani, M.; Escobar, C. O.; Espadanal, J.; Etchegoyen, A.; Facal San Luis, P.; Falcke, H.; Fang, K.; Farrar, G.; Fauth, A. C.; Fazzini, N.; Ferguson, A. P.; Fernandes, M.; Fick, B.; Figueira, J. M.; Filevich, A.; Filipčič, A.; Fox, B. D.; Fratu, O.; Fröhlich, U.; Fuchs, B.; Fuji, T.; Gaior, R.; García, B.; Garcia Roca, S. T.; Garcia-Gamez, D.; Garcia-Pinto, D.; Garilli, G.; Gascon Bravo, A.; Gate, F.; Gemmeke, H.; Ghia, P. L.; Giaccari, U.; Giammarchi, M.; Giller, M.; Glaser, C.; Glass, H.; Gomez Albarracin, F.; Gómez Berisso, M.; Gómez Vitale, P. F.; Gonçalves, P.; Gonzalez, J. G.; Gookin, B.; Gorgi, A.; Gorham, P.; Gouffon, P.; Grebe, S.; Griffith, N.; Grillo, A. F.; Grubb, T. D.; Guardincerri, Y.; Guarino, F.; Guedes, G. P.; Hansen, P.; Harari, D.; Harrison, T. A.; Harton, J. L.; Haungs, A.; Hebbeker, T.; Heck, D.; Heimann, P.; Herve, A. E.; Hill, G. C.; Hojvat, C.; Hollon, N.; Holt, E.; Homola, P.; Hörandel, J. R.; Horvath, P.; Hrabovský, M.; Huber, D.; Huege, T.; Insolia, A.; Isar, P. G.; Islo, K.; Jandt, I.; Jansen, S.; Jarne, C.; Josebachuili, M.; Kääpä, A.; Kambeitz, O.; Kampert, K. H.; Kasper, P.; Katkov, I.; Kégl, B.; Keilhauer, B.; Keivani, A.; Kemp, E.; Kieckhafer, R. M.; Klages, H. O.; Kleifges, M.; Kleinfeller, J.; Krause, R.; Krohm, N.; Krömer, O.; Kruppke-Hansen, D.; Kuempel, D.; Kunka, N.; La Rosa, G.; LaHurd, D.; Latronico, L.; Lauer, R.; Lauscher, M.; Lautridou, P.; Le Coz, S.; Leão, M. S. A. B.; Lebrun, D.; Lebrun, P.; Leigui de Oliveira, M. A.; Letessier-Selvon, A.; Lhenry-Yvon, I.; Link, K.; López, R.; Lopez Agüera, A.; Louedec, K.; Lozano Bahilo, J.; Lu, L.; Lucero, A.; Ludwig, M.; Lyberis, H.; Maccarone, M. C.; Malacari, M.; Maldera, S.; Maller, J.; Mandat, D.; Mantsch, P.; Mariazzi, A. G.; Marin, V.; Mariş, I. C.; Marsella, G.; Martello, D.; Martin, L.; Martinez, H.; Martínez Bravo, O.; Martraire, D.; Masías Meza, J. J.; Mathes, H. J.; Mathys, S.; Matthews, A. J.; Matthews, J.; Matthiae, G.; Maurel, D.; Maurizio, D.; Mayotte, E.; Mazur, P. O.; Medina, C.; Medina-Tanco, G.; Melissas, M.; Melo, D.; Menichetti, E.; Menshikov, A.; Messina, S.; Meyhandan, R.; Mićanović, S.; Micheletti, M. I.; Middendorf, L.; Minaya, I. A.; Miramonti, L.; Mitrica, B.; Molina-Bueno, L.; Mollerach, S.; Monasor, M.; Monnier Ragaigne, D.; Montanet, F.; Morello, C.; Moreno, J. C.; Mostafá, M.; Moura, C. A.; Muller, M. A.; Müller, G.; Münchmeyer, M.; Mussa, R.; Navarra, G.; Navas, S.; Necesal, P.; Nellen, L.; Nelles, A.; Neuser, J.; Niechciol, M.; Niemietz, L.; Niggemann, T.; Nitz, D.; Nosek, D.; Novotny, V.; Nožka, L.; Ochilo, L.; Olinto, A.; Oliveira, M.; Ortiz, M.; Pacheco, N.; Pakk Selmi-Dei, D.; Palatka, M.; Pallotta, J.; Palmieri, N.; Papenbreer, P.; Parente, G.; Parra, A.; Pastor, S.; Paul, T.; Pech, M.; PÈ©kala, J.; Pelayo, R.; Pepe, I. M.; Perrone, L.; Pesce, R.; Petermann, E.; Peters, C.; Petrera, S.; Petrolini, A.; Petrov, Y.; Piegaia, R.; Pierog, T.; Pieroni, P.; Pimenta, M.; Pirronello, V.; Platino, M.; Plum, M.; Porcelli, A.; Porowski, C.; Prado, R. R.; Privitera, P.; Prouza, M.; Purrello, V.; Quel, E. J.; Querchfeld, S.; Quinn, S.; Rautenberg, J.; Ravel, O.; Ravignani, D.; Revenu, B.; Ridky, J.; Riggi, S.; Risse, M.; Ristori, P.; Rizi, V.; Roberts, J.; Rodrigues de Carvalho, W.; Rodriguez Cabo, I.; Rodriguez Fernandez, G.; Rodriguez Rojo, J.; Rodríguez-Frías, M. D.; Ros, G.; Rosado, J.; Rossler, T.; Roth, M.; Roulet, E.; Rovero, A. C.; Rühle, C.; Saffi, S. J.; Saftoiu, A.; Salamida, F.; Salazar, H.; Saleh, A.; Salesa Greus, F.; Salina, G.; Sánchez, F.; Sanchez-Lucas, P.; Santo, C. E.; Santos, E.; Santos, E. M.; Sarazin, F.; Sarkar, B.; Sarmento, R.; Sato, R.; Scharf, N.; Scherini, V.; Schieler, H.; Schiffer, P.; Schmidt, A.; Scholten, O.; Schoorlemmer, H.; Schovánek, P.; Schulz, A.; Schulz, J.; Sciutto, S. J.; Segreto, A.; Settimo, M.; Shadkam, A.; Shellard, R. C.; Sidelnik, I.; Sigl, G.; Sima, O.; Śmiałkowski, A.; Šmída, R.; Snow, G. R.; Sommers, P.; Sorokin, J.; Squartini, R.; Srivastava, Y. N.; Stanič, S.; Stapleton, J.; Stasielak, J.; Stephan, M.; Stutz, A.; Suarez, F.; Suomijärvi, T.; Supanitsky, A. D.; Sutherland, M. S.; Swain, J.; Szadkowski, Z.; Szuba, M.; Taborda, O. A.; Tapia, A.; Tartare, M.; Thao, N. T.; Theodoro, V. M.; Tiffenberg, J.; Timmermans, C.; Todero Peixoto, C. J.; Toma, G.; Tomankova, L.; Tomé, B.; Tonachini, A.; Torralba Elipe, G.; Torres Machado, D.; Travnicek, P.; Trovato, E.; Tueros, M.; Ulrich, R.; Unger, M.; Urban, M.; Valdés Galicia, J. F.; Valiño, I.; Valore, L.; van Aar, G.; van den Berg, A. M.; van Velzen, S.; van Vliet, A.; Varela, E.; Vargas Cárdenas, B.; Varner, G.; Vázquez, J. R.; Vázquez, R. A.; Veberič, D.; Verzi, V.; Vicha, J.; Videla, M.; Villaseñor, L.; Vlcek, B.; Vorobiov, S.; Wahlberg, H.; Wainberg, O.; Walz, D.; Watson, A. A.; Weber, M.; Weidenhaupt, K.; Weindl, A.; Werner, F.; Whelan, B. J.; Widom, A.; Wiencke, L.; Wilczyńska, B.; Wilczyński, H.; Will, M.; Williams, C.; Winchen, T.; Wittkowski, D.; Wundheiler, B.; Wykes, S.; Yamamoto, T.; Yapici, T.; Younk, P.; Yuan, G.; Yushkov, A.; Zamorano, B.; Zas, E.; Zavrtanik, D.; Zavrtanik, M.; Zaw, I.; Zepeda, A.; Zhou, J.; Zhu, Y.; Zimbres Silva, M.; Ziolkowski, M.; Pierre Auger Collaboration

    2014-07-01

    The surface detector array of the Pierre Auger Observatory provides information about the longitudinal development of the muonic component of extensive air showers. Using the timing information from the flash analog-to-digital converter traces of surface detectors far from the shower core, it is possible to reconstruct a muon production depth distribution. We characterize the goodness of this reconstruction for zenith angles around 60° and different energies of the primary particle. From these distributions, we define Xmaxμ as the depth along the shower axis where the production of muons reaches maximum. We explore the potentiality of Xmaxμ as a useful observable to infer the mass composition of ultrahigh-energy cosmic rays. Likewise, we assess its ability to constrain hadronic interaction models.

  4. Investigating the physics performance of air shower universality at the Pierre Auger Observatory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bridgeman, Ariel; Schulz, Alexander; Roth, Markus [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (Germany); Collaboration: Pierre-Auger-Collaboration

    2016-07-01

    Recent updates to the air shower universality reconstruction of surface detector data at the Pierre Auger Observatory have reduced the bias and improved the resolution of mass-sensitive variables: the depth of shower maximum and the relative number of muons. For better-informed studies of a possible anisotropy in the arrival direction of ultra-high-energy cosmic rays, a quantification of the power of these parameters to separate a proton-like signal from background is presented. The analysis is furthered with an outlook to the detector's overall sensitivity to a proton-like signal as well as a projection of our ability to distinguish between different astrophysical flux scenarios.

  5. Reconstruction of inclined air showers detected with the Pierre Auger Observatory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    We describe the method devised to reconstruct inclined cosmic-ray air showers with zenith angles greater than 60° detected with the surface array of the Pierre Auger Observatory. The measured signals at the ground level are fitted to muon density distributions predicted with atmospheric cascade models to obtain the relative shower size as an overall normalization parameter. The method is evaluated using simulated showers to test its performance. The energy of the cosmic rays is calibrated using a sub-sample of events reconstructed with both the fluorescence and surface array techniques. The reconstruction method described here provides the basis of complementary analyses including an independent measurement of the energy spectrum of ultra-high energy cosmic rays using very inclined events collected by the Pierre Auger Observatory

  6. The implication of charged particle lateral distribution function for extensive air shower studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fomin, Yu.A.; Kalmykov, N.N.; Kempa, J.; Kulikov, G.V.; Sulakov, V.P.

    2008-01-01

    The knowledge of charged particle lateral distribution function (LDF) is of prime importance in extensive air shower (EAS) investigations. This function is necessary for the determination of the total number of particles as well as some other classification parameters. The Nishimura-Kamata-Greisen (NKG) function is being actively employed by many researchers in spite of the fact that it was derived under rather crude assumptions (in so-called B Approximation of the electromagnetic cascade theory). Our paper discusses the dependence of the EAS size spectrum on the LDF form adopted and compares two LDFs: the traditional NKG-function and the scaling function suggested recently. Prominence is given to the EAS MSU data but the results of other EAS arrays (AGASA, Yakutsk and KASCADE) are also considered

  7. A deep learning-based reconstruction of cosmic ray-induced air showers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdmann, M.; Glombitza, J.; Walz, D.

    2018-01-01

    We describe a method of reconstructing air showers induced by cosmic rays using deep learning techniques. We simulate an observatory consisting of ground-based particle detectors with fixed locations on a regular grid. The detector's responses to traversing shower particles are signal amplitudes as a function of time, which provide information on transverse and longitudinal shower properties. In order to take advantage of convolutional network techniques specialized in local pattern recognition, we convert all information to the image-like grid of the detectors. In this way, multiple features, such as arrival times of the first particles and optimized characterizations of time traces, are processed by the network. The reconstruction quality of the cosmic ray arrival direction turns out to be competitive with an analytic reconstruction algorithm. The reconstructed shower direction, energy and shower depth show the expected improvement in resolution for higher cosmic ray energy.

  8. Air shower simulation for background estimation in muon tomography of volcanoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Béné

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the main sources of background for the radiography of volcanoes using atmospheric muons comes from the accidental coincidences produced in the muon telescopes by charged particles belonging to the air shower generated by the primary cosmic ray. In order to quantify this background effect, Monte Carlo simulations of the showers and of the detector are developed by the TOMUVOL collaboration. As a first step, the atmospheric showers were simulated and investigated using two Monte Carlo packages, CORSIKA and GEANT4. We compared the results provided by the two programs for the muonic component of vertical proton-induced showers at three energies: 1, 10 and 100 TeV. We found that the spatial distribution and energy spectrum of the muons were in good agreement for the two codes.

  9. Study of the lateral and temporal distributions of particles in the extensive air shower front

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toma, G.; Brancus, I. M.; Mitrica, B.; Badea, A. F.; Rebel, H.; Haungs, A.; Sima, O.

    2004-01-01

    To understand the influence of the primary particle (mass and energy) on the development of the Extensive Air Showers (EAS) a study has been performed on simulated events. A number of showers have been simulated using CORSIKA simulation program for different primary particles (p, C, Fe) and different energies (5.62x10 16 and 10 17 eV). The arrival time distributions of particles arriving at ground (detector level) have been studied for different primary energies and masses. Arrival time quartiles have been calculated and compared for different primaries. Arrival time distributions for different distances to shower core and different threshold energies have been compared. To obtain information about the influence of the primary particle on the shape of the lateral distribution of detected shower particles, the simulated lateral density distribution has been approximated with a parametric Lateral Density Function (LDF). The interaction of the shower particles with the detectors has been simulated and the energy deposited in the detectors has been evaluated. This method was used for obtaining the reconstructed (equivalent to the experimental) lateral density distribution, afterwards approximated with the same LDF. To check the quality of the fit and to investigate the sensitivity to fitting conditions, the study was done for three radial ranges, 40-200 m, 350-650 m, 0-1000 m. The total number of particles in the shower front and the truncated number of particles (in the fitting range) have been reconstructed to be compared with the real number of particles from CORSIKA simulations and to investigate the potential use of these parameters in a multiparametric study of extensive air showers. (authors)

  10. Air shower simulation for WASAVIES: warning system for aviation exposure to solar energetic particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, T.; Kataoka, R.; Yasuda, H.; Yashiro, S.; Kuwabara, T.; Shiota, D.; Kubo, Y.

    2014-01-01

    WASAVIES, a warning system for aviation exposure to solar energetic particles (SEPs), is under development by collaboration between several institutes in Japan and the USA. It is designed to deterministically forecast the SEP fluxes incident on the atmosphere within 6 h after flare onset using the latest space weather research. To immediately estimate the aircrew doses from the obtained SEP fluxes, the response functions of the particle fluxes generated by the incidence of monoenergetic protons into the atmosphere were developed by performing air shower simulations using the Particle and Heavy Ion Transport code system. The accuracy of the simulation was well verified by calculating the increase count rates of a neutron monitor during a ground-level enhancement, combining the response function with the SEP fluxes measured by the PAMELA spectrometer. The response function will be implemented in WASAVIES and used to protect air crews from additional SEP exposure. When galactic cosmic rays (GCRs) or solar energetic particles (SEPs) are incident on the atmosphere, they can induce air showers by producing various secondary particles. These secondary particles can reach conventional flight altitudes (∼12 km); hence, air crews are exposed to enhanced levels of radiation. The most important difference between GCR and SEP exposure arises from their temporal variations and dose rates; GCRs induce continuous exposure with low dose rates, usually up to several μSv h -1 , whereas SEPs produce pulsed exposure with high dose rates, occasionally >1 mSv h -1 , though such severe events rarely occur. Thus, subsequent evaluation is sufficient for estimating the aircrew dose due to GCR exposure, whereas forecasting is desirable for SEP exposure. Several calculation codes, e.g. CARI-6(3), EPCARD(4), JISCARD-EX(5), and PCAIRE(6), have been developed for post-exposure evaluation of GCR doses. On the other hand, empirical and phenomenological models have been developed for real-time or

  11. The longitudinal development of showers induced by high-energy hadrons in an iron-sampling calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Milke, J; Apel, W D; Badea, F; Bekk, K; Bercuci, A; Bertaina, M; Blümer, H; Bozdog, H; Büttner, C; Chiavassa, A; Daumiller, K; Di Pierro, F; Dolla, P; Engel, R; Engler, J; Fessler, F; Ghia, P L; Gils, H J; Glasstetter, R; Haungs, A; Heck, D; Hörandel, J R; Kampert, K H; Klages, H O; Kolotaev, Yu; Maier, G; Mathes, H J; Mayer, H J; Mitrica, B; Morello, C; Müller, M; Navarra, G; Obenland, R; Oehlschläger, J; Ostapchenko, S; Over, S; Petcu, M; Plewnia, S; Rebel, H; Risse, A; Roth, M; Schieler, H; Scholz, J; Stümpert, M; Thouw, T; Toma, G; Trinchero, G C; Ulrich, H; Valchierotti, S; Van Buren, J; Walkowiak, W; Weindl, A; Wochele, J; Zabierowski, J; Zagromski, S; Zimmermann, D

    2005-01-01

    Occasionally cosmic-ray induced air showers result in single, unaccompanied hadrons at ground level. Such events are investigated with the 300 m2 hadron calorimeter of the KASCADE-Grande experiment. It is an iron sampling calorimeter with a depth of 11 hadronic interaction lengths read out by warm-liquid ionization chambers. The longitudinal shower development is discussed as function of energy up to 30 TeV and the results are compared with simulations using the GEANT/FLUKA code. In addition, results of test measurements at a secondary particle beam of the Super Proton Synchrotron at CERN up to 350 GeV are discussed.

  12. Measurement of muon content in inclined air showers above 4 x 10{sup 18} eV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dembinski, Hans; Roth, Markus [IKP, Karlsruhe Institut of Technology (KIT) (Germany); Collaboration: Pierre-Auger-Collaboration

    2013-07-01

    The Pierre Auger Observatory in Malarguee, Argentina, is sensitive to air showers up to almost horizontal angles of incidence. Air showers with zenith angles between 60 and 80 degrees are suited to measure the muon component of the shower with the Auger Surface Detector since the primary electromagnetic component gets absorbed in the atmosphere before the shower reaches ground. Some of those events are also observed by the Fluorescence Detector which allows us to determine the total energy of the shower independent of the Surface Detector. Based on these hybrids events the size of muon component for a given cosmic ray energy is determined, which can then be compared to model predictions. We present an update of this analysis.

  13. IceVeto. An extension of IceTop to veto air showers for neutrino astronomy with IceCube

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Auffenberg, Jan; Kemp, Julian; Raedel, Leif; Rongen, Martin; Schaufel, Merlin; Stahlberg, Martin; Hansmann, Bengt; Wiebusch, Christopher [RWTH Aachen University, Physikalische Institut III b (Germany); Collaboration: IceCube-Collaboration

    2015-07-01

    IceCube is the world's largest high-energy neutrino observatory, built at the geographic South Pole. For neutrino astronomy, a large background-free sample of well-reconstructed astrophysical neutrinos is essential. The main background for this signal are muons and neutrinos which are produced in cosmic-ray air showers in the Earth's atmosphere. The coincident detection of these air showers by the surface detector IceTop has been proven to be a powerful veto for atmospheric neutrinos and muons in the field of view of the southern hemisphere. This motivates a significant extension of IceTop. First estimates indicate that such a veto detector will more than double the discovery potential of current point source analyses. Here, we present the motivation and capabilities of different technologies based on simulations and measurements.

  14. Longitudinal development of air-shower electrons studied from the arrival time distributions of atmospheric Cerenkov light measured at 5200 m above sea level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, N.; Kaneko, T.; Yoshii, H.

    1985-01-01

    The longitudinal development of electrons in extensive air showers before the maximum has been studied by measuring the arrival time distributions of atmospheric Cerenkov light from air showers, with primary energies in the range 6 x 10 15 to 2 x 10 17 eV, in the Chacaltaya air-shower array. These arrival time distributions are consistent with those calculated using a model of particle interactions which contain Feynman scaling in the fragmentation region, an Esup(1/2) multiplicity law in the pionisation region and a rising cross section for primary protons. Such a model also reproduces the arrival time distributions of Cerenkov light measured in the Akeno air-shower array as described in the preceding paper, which implies a very fast development before the maximum and a slow development after the maximum. (author)

  15. An optimized method for the reconstruction of the direction of air showers for scintillator arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krawczynski, H.; Prahl, J.; Arqueros, F.; Bradbury, S.; Cortina, J.; Deckers, T.; Eckmann, R.; Feigl, E.; Fernandez, J.; Fonseca, V.; Funk, B.; Gebauer, J.; Gonzalez, J.C.; Haustein, V.; Heinzelmann, G.; Holl, I.; Kirstein, O.; Kornmeyer, H.; Krennrich, F.; Lindner, A.; Lorenz, E.; Magnussen, N.; Martinez, S.; Merck, M.; Meyer, H.; Mirzoyan, R.; Moeller, H.; Moralejo, A.; Mueller, N.; Padilla, L.; Petry, D.; Plaga, R.; Prosch, C.; Rauterberg, G.; Rhode, W.; Samorski, M.; Sanchez, J.A.; Schmele, D.; Sooth, R.N.; Stamm, W.; Westerhoff, S.; Wiebel-Sooth, B.; Willmer, M. [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). 2. Inst. fuer Experimentalphys.]|[Universidad Complutense, Facultad de Ciencias Fisicas, Ciudad Universitaria, E-28040 Madrid (Spain)]|[Max Planck Institut fuer Physik, Foehringer Ring 6, D-80805 Muenchen (Germany)]|[Universitaet Kiel, Institut fuer Kernphysik, Olshausenstr. 40, D-24118 Kiel (Germany)]|[Universitaet Wuppertal, Fachbereich Physik, Gaussstr.20, D-42097 Wuppertal (Germany)

    1996-12-11

    An optimized method is presented for the reconstruction of air shower directions for scintillator arrays. The method takes into account that both the expectation value and the spread of the measured arrival times not only depend on the distance of a counter from the shower axis, but also on the number of particles registered in that counter. It also takes into account that the distributions of the measured arrival times are not Gaussian. For showers recorded with the HEGRA scintillator array above the threshold energy of E{sub thres}= 20 TeV the mean angular resolution obtained with this method is left angle {sigma}{sup {theta}}{sub 63%} right angle =1.0 {sup circle}, and above a threshold E{sub thres}= 50 TeV it is left angle {sigma}{sup {theta}}{sub 63%} right angle =0.6 {sup circle}. Comparing the new procedure with the HEGRA standard procedure the angular resolution has improved on average by a factor of 1.33. The mis-pointing has been determined with an accuracy of 0.15 {sup circle}. The method is developed using experimental data. (orig.).

  16. Muons in air showers at the Pierre Auger Observatory: Mean number in highly inclined events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aab, A.; Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Ahn, E. J.; Al Samarai, I.; Albuquerque, I. F. M.; Allekotte, I.; Allen, J.; Allison, P.; Almela, A.; Alvarez Castillo, J.; Alvarez-Muñiz, J.; Alves Batista, R.; Ambrosio, M.; Aminaei, A.; Anchordoqui, L.; Andringa, S.; Aramo, C.; Aranda, V. M.; Arqueros, F.; Asorey, H.; Assis, P.; Aublin, J.; Ave, M.; Avenier, M.; Avila, G.; Badescu, A. M.; Barber, K. B.; Bäuml, J.; Baus, C.; Beatty, J. J.; Becker, K. H.; Bellido, J. A.; Berat, C.; Bertaina, M. E.; Bertou, X.; Biermann, P. L.; Billoir, P.; Blanco, M.; Bleve, C.; Blümer, H.; Boháčová, M.; Boncioli, D.; Bonifazi, C.; Bonino, R.; Borodai, N.; Brack, J.; Brancus, I.; Brogueira, P.; Brown, W. C.; Buchholz, P.; Bueno, A.; Buitink, S.; Buscemi, M.; Caballero-Mora, K. S.; Caccianiga, B.; Caccianiga, L.; Candusso, M.; Caramete, L.; Caruso, R.; Castellina, A.; Cataldi, G.; Cazon, L.; Cester, R.; Chavez, A. G.; Chiavassa, A.; Chinellato, J. A.; Chudoba, J.; Cilmo, M.; Clay, R. W.; Cocciolo, G.; Colalillo, R.; Coleman, A.; Collica, L.; Coluccia, M. R.; Conceição, R.; Contreras, F.; Cooper, M. J.; Cordier, A.; Coutu, S.; Covault, C. E.; Cronin, J.; Curutiu, A.; Dallier, R.; Daniel, B.; Dasso, S.; Daumiller, K.; Dawson, B. R.; de Almeida, R. M.; De Domenico, M.; de Jong, S. J.; de Mello Neto, J. R. T.; De Mitri, I.; de Oliveira, J.; de Souza, V.; del Peral, L.; Deligny, O.; Dembinski, H.; Dhital, N.; Di Giulio, C.; Di Matteo, A.; Diaz, J. C.; Díaz Castro, M. L.; Diogo, F.; Dobrigkeit, C.; Docters, W.; D'Olivo, J. C.; Dorofeev, A.; Dorosti Hasankiadeh, Q.; Dova, M. T.; Ebr, J.; Engel, R.; Erdmann, M.; Erfani, M.; Escobar, C. O.; Espadanal, J.; Etchegoyen, A.; Facal San Luis, P.; Falcke, H.; Fang, K.; Farrar, G.; Fauth, A. C.; Fazzini, N.; Ferguson, A. P.; Fernandes, M.; Fick, B.; Figueira, J. M.; Filevich, A.; Filipčič, A.; Fox, B. D.; Fratu, O.; Fröhlich, U.; Fuchs, B.; Fujii, T.; Gaior, R.; García, B.; Garcia Roca, S. T.; Garcia-Gamez, D.; Garcia-Pinto, D.; Garilli, G.; Gascon Bravo, A.; Gate, F.; Gemmeke, H.; Ghia, P. L.; Giaccari, U.; Giammarchi, M.; Giller, M.; Glaser, C.; Glass, H.; Gómez Berisso, M.; Gómez Vitale, P. F.; Gonçalves, P.; Gonzalez, J. G.; González, N.; Gookin, B.; Gordon, J.; Gorgi, A.; Gorham, P.; Gouffon, P.; Grebe, S.; Griffith, N.; Grillo, A. F.; Grubb, T. D.; Guardincerri, Y.; Guarino, F.; Guedes, G. P.; Hampel, M. R.; Hansen, P.; Harari, D.; Harrison, T. A.; Hartmann, S.; Harton, J. L.; Haungs, A.; Hebbeker, T.; Heck, D.; Heimann, P.; Herve, A. E.; Hill, G. C.; Hojvat, C.; Hollon, N.; Holt, E.; Homola, P.; Hörandel, J. R.; Horvath, P.; Hrabovský, M.; Huber, D.; Huege, T.; Insolia, A.; Isar, P. G.; Islo, K.; Jandt, I.; Jansen, S.; Jarne, C.; Josebachuili, M.; Kääpä, A.; Kambeitz, O.; Kampert, K. H.; Kasper, P.; Katkov, I.; Kégl, B.; Keilhauer, B.; Keivani, A.; Kemp, E.; Kieckhafer, R. M.; Klages, H. O.; Kleifges, M.; Kleinfeller, J.; Krause, R.; Krohm, N.; Krömer, O.; Kruppke-Hansen, D.; Kuempel, D.; Kunka, N.; LaHurd, D.; Latronico, L.; Lauer, R.; Lauscher, M.; Lautridou, P.; Le Coz, S.; Leão, M. S. A. B.; Lebrun, D.; Lebrun, P.; Leigui de Oliveira, M. A.; Letessier-Selvon, A.; Lhenry-Yvon, I.; Link, K.; López, R.; Louedec, K.; Lozano Bahilo, J.; Lu, L.; Lucero, A.; Ludwig, M.; Malacari, M.; Maldera, S.; Mallamaci, M.; Maller, J.; Mandat, D.; Mantsch, P.; Mariazzi, A. G.; Marin, V.; Mariş, I. C.; Marsella, G.; Martello, D.; Martin, L.; Martinez, H.; Martínez Bravo, O.; Martraire, D.; Masías Meza, J. J.; Mathes, H. J.; Mathys, S.; Matthews, J. J.; Matthews, A. J.; Matthiae, G.; Maurel, D.; Maurizio, D.; Mayotte, E.; Mazur, P. O.; Medina, C.; Medina-Tanco, G.; Melissas, M.; Melo, D.; Menshikov, A.; Messina, S.; Meyhandan, R.; Mićanović, S.; Micheletti, M. I.; Middendorf, L.; Minaya, I. A.; Miramonti, L.; Mitrica, B.; Molina-Bueno, L.; Mollerach, S.; Monasor, M.; Monnier Ragaigne, D.; Montanet, F.; Morello, C.; Mostafá, M.; Moura, C. A.; Muller, M. A.; Müller, G.; Münchmeyer, M.; Mussa, R.; Navarra, G.; Navas, S.; Necesal, P.; Nellen, L.; Nelles, A.; Neuser, J.; Newton, D.; Niechciol, M.; Niemietz, L.; Niggemann, T.; Nitz, D.; Nosek, D.; Novotny, V.; Nožka, L.; Ochilo, L.; Olinto, A.; Oliveira, M.; Olmos-Gilbaja, V. M.; Pacheco, N.; Pakk Selmi-Dei, D.; Palatka, M.; Pallotta, J.; Palmieri, N.; Papenbreer, P.; Parente, G.; Parra, A.; Paul, T.; Pech, M.; Pekala, J.; Pelayo, R.; Pepe, I. M.; Perrone, L.; Petermann, E.; Peters, C.; Petrera, S.; Petrov, Y.; Phuntsok, J.; Piegaia, R.; Pierog, T.; Pieroni, P.; Pimenta, M.; Pirronello, V.; Platino, M.; Plum, M.; Porcelli, A.; Porowski, C.; Prado, R. R.; Privitera, P.; Prouza, M.; Purrello, V.; Quel, E. J.; Querchfeld, S.; Quinn, S.; Rautenberg, J.; Ravel, O.; Ravignani, D.; Revenu, B.; Ridky, J.; Riggi, S.; Risse, M.; Ristori, P.; Rizi, V.; Roberts, J.; Rodrigues de Carvalho, W.; Rodriguez Fernandez, G.; Rodriguez Rojo, J.; Rodríguez-Frías, M. D.; Ros, G.; Rosado, J.; Rossler, T.; Roth, M.; Roulet, E.; Rovero, A. C.; Saffi, S. J.; Saftoiu, A.; Salamida, F.; Salazar, H.; Saleh, A.; Salesa Greus, F.; Salina, G.; Sánchez, F.; Sanchez-Lucas, P.; Santo, C. E.; Santos, E.; Santos, E. M.; Sarazin, F.; Sarkar, B.; Sarmento, R.; Sato, R.; Scharf, N.; Scherini, V.; Schieler, H.; Schiffer, P.; Scholten, O.; Schoorlemmer, H.; Schovánek, P.; Schröder, F. G.; Schulz, A.; Schulz, J.; Schumacher, J.; Sciutto, S. J.; Segreto, A.; Settimo, M.; Shadkam, A.; Shellard, R. C.; Sidelnik, I.; Sigl, G.; Sima, O.; Śmiałkowski, A.; Šmída, R.; Snow, G. R.; Sommers, P.; Sorokin, J.; Squartini, R.; Srivastava, Y. N.; Stanič, S.; Stapleton, J.; Stasielak, J.; Stephan, M.; Stutz, A.; Suarez, F.; Suomijärvi, T.; Supanitsky, A. D.; Sutherland, M. S.; Swain, J.; Szadkowski, Z.; Szuba, M.; Taborda, O. A.; Tapia, A.; Tartare, M.; Tepe, A.; Theodoro, V. M.; Timmermans, C.; Todero Peixoto, C. J.; Toma, G.; Tomankova, L.; Tomé, B.; Tonachini, A.; Torralba Elipe, G.; Torres Machado, D.; Travnicek, P.; Trovato, E.; Ulrich, R.; Unger, M.; Urban, M.; Valdés Galicia, J. F.; Valiño, I.; Valore, L.; van Aar, G.; van den Berg, A. M.; van Velzen, S.; van Vliet, A.; Varela, E.; Vargas Cárdenas, B.; Varner, G.; Vázquez, J. R.; Vázquez, R. A.; Veberič, D.; Verzi, V.; Vicha, J.; Videla, M.; Villaseñor, L.; Vlcek, B.; Vorobiov, S.; Wahlberg, H.; Wainberg, O.; Walz, D.; Watson, A. A.; Weber, M.; Weidenhaupt, K.; Weindl, A.; Werner, F.; Widom, A.; Wiencke, L.; Wilczyńska, B.; Wilczyński, H.; Will, M.; Williams, C.; Winchen, T.; Wittkowski, D.; Wundheiler, B.; Wykes, S.; Yamamoto, T.; Yapici, T.; Younk, P.; Yuan, G.; Yushkov, A.; Zamorano, B.; Zas, E.; Zavrtanik, D.; Zavrtanik, M.; Zaw, I.; Zepeda, A.; Zhou, J.; Zhu, Y.; Zimbres Silva, M.; Ziolkowski, M.; Zuccarello, F.; Pierre Auger Collaboration

    2015-02-01

    We present the first hybrid measurement of the average muon number in air showers at ultrahigh energies, initiated by cosmic rays with zenith angles between 62° and 80°. The measurement is based on 174 hybrid events recorded simultaneously with the surface detector array and the fluorescence detector of the Pierre Auger Observatory. The muon number for each shower is derived by scaling a simulated reference profile of the lateral muon density distribution at the ground until it fits the data. A 1019 eV shower with a zenith angle of 67°, which arrives at the surface detector array at an altitude of 1450 m above sea level, contains on average (2.68 ±0.04 ±0.48 (sys))×107 muons with energies larger than 0.3 GeV. The logarithmic gain d ln Nμ/d ln E of muons with increasing energy between 4 ×1018 eV and 5 ×1019 eV is measured to be (1.029 ±0.024 ±0.030 (sys)) .

  17. Gamma-ray astronomy by the air shower technique: performance and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cronin, J.W.

    1996-01-01

    The techniques for γ-ray astronomy at energies ≥10 TeV using air shower detectors are discussed. The results, based on a number of large arrays, are negative, with no point sources being identified. While the contributions to γ-ray astronomy so far have been only upper limits, these arrays in the future will make significant progress in the understanding of cosmic rays in the energy range 10 13 eV to 10 16 eV. Also, contributions to solar physics are being made by observations of shape and time dependence of the shadow of the Sun as observed in cosmic rays. For the advancement of γ-ray astronomy a greater sensitivity is required in the energy region of 10 TeV. A number of promising techniques to accomplish a greater sensitivity are discussed. They include the enlargement of the Tibet array at 4300 meters altitude, the array of open photomultipliers at La Palma (AIROBICC), which views the shower by the Cherenkov photons produced in the atmosphere, and the instrumentation of a pond at Los Alamos with photomultipliers (Milagro)

  18. OBSERVATION OF COSMIC-RAY ANISOTROPY WITH THE ICETOP AIR SHOWER ARRAY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aartsen, M. G. [School of Chemistry and Physics, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, SA 5005 Australia (Australia); Abbasi, R.; Ahlers, M.; Andeen, K.; Auffenberg, J.; Baker, M. [Department of Physics and Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophysics Center, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Abdou, Y. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Gent, B-9000 Gent (Belgium); Ackermann, M. [DESY, D-15735 Zeuthen (Germany); Adams, J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Canterbury, Private Bag 4800, Christchurch (New Zealand); Aguilar, J. A. [Departement de physique nucleaire et corpusculaire, Universite de Geneve, CH-1211 Geneve (Switzerland); Altmann, D. [Institut fuer Physik, Humboldt-Universitaet zu Berlin, D-12489 Berlin (Germany); Bai, X. [Bartol Research Institute and Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19716 (United States); Barwick, S. W. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States); Baum, V. [Institute of Physics, University of Mainz, Staudinger Weg 7, D-55099 Mainz (Germany); Bay, R. [Department of Physics, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Beattie, K. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Beatty, J. J. [Department of Physics and Center for Cosmology and Astro-Particle Physics, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Bechet, S. [Science Faculty CP230, Universite Libre de Bruxelles, B-1050 Brussels (Belgium); Tjus, J. Becker [Fakultaet fuer Physik and Astronomie, Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum, D-44780 Bochum (Germany); Becker, K.-H. [Department of Physics, University of Wuppertal, D-42119 Wuppertal (Germany); Collaboration: IceCube Collaboration; and others

    2013-03-01

    We report on the observation of anisotropy in the arrival direction distribution of cosmic rays at PeV energies. The analysis is based on data taken between 2009 and 2012 with the IceTop air shower array at the south pole. IceTop, an integral part of the IceCube detector, is sensitive to cosmic rays between 100 TeV and 1 EeV. With the current size of the IceTop data set, searches for anisotropy at the 10{sup -3} level can, for the first time, be extended to PeV energies. We divide the data set into two parts with median energies of 400 TeV and 2 PeV, respectively. In the low energy band, we observe a strong deficit with an angular size of about 30 Degree-Sign and an amplitude of (- 1.58 {+-} 0.46{sub stat} {+-} 0.52{sub sys}) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -3} at a location consistent with previous observations of cosmic rays with the IceCube neutrino detector. The study of the high energy band shows that the anisotropy persists to PeV energies and increases in amplitude to (- 3.11 {+-} 0.38{sub stat} {+-} 0.96{sub sys}) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -3}.

  19. Gamma-ray astronomy by the air shower technique: performance and perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cronin, J.W. [Chicago, Univ. of Chicago (United States). Dept. of Phisycs and Enrico Fermi Inst.

    1996-11-01

    The techniques for {gamma}-ray astronomy at energies {>=}10 TeV using air shower detectors are discussed. The results, based on a number of large arrays, are negative, with no point sources being identified. While the contributions to {gamma}-ray astronomy so far have been only upper limits, these arrays in the future will make significant progress in the understanding of cosmic rays in the energy range 10{sup 13} eV to 10{sup 16} eV. Also, contributions to solar physics are being made by observations of shape and time dependence of the shadow of the Sun as observed in cosmic rays. For the advancement of {gamma}-ray astronomy a greater sensitivity is required in the energy region of 10 TeV. A number of promising techniques to accomplish a greater sensitivity are discussed. They include the enlargement of the Tibet array at 4300 meters altitude, the array of open photomultipliers at La Palma (AIROBICC), which views the shower by the Cherenkov photons produced in the atmosphere, and the instrumentation of a pond at Los Alamos with photomultipliers (Milagro).

  20. An optimized method for the reconstruction of the direction of air showers for scintillator arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krawczynski, H.; Prahl, J.; Arqueros, F.; Bradbury, S.; Cortina, J.; Deckers, T.; Eckmann, R.; Feigl, E.; Fernandez, J.; Fonseca, V.; Funk, B.; Gebauer, J.; Gonzalez, J.C.; Haustein, V.; Heinzelmann, G.; Holl, I.; Kirstein, O.; Kornmeyer, H.; Krennrich, F.; Lindner, A.; Lorenz, E.; Magnussen, N.; Martinez, S.; Merck, M.; Meyer, H.; Mirzoyan, R.; Moeller, H.; Moralejo, A.; Mueller, N.; Padilla, L.; Petry, D.; Plaga, R.; Prosch, C.; Rauterberg, G.; Rhode, W.; Samorski, M.; Sanchez, J.A.; Schmele, D.; Sooth, R.N.; Stamm, W.; Westerhoff, S.; Wiebel-Sooth, B.; Willmer, M.

    1996-01-01

    An optimized method is presented for the reconstruction of air shower directions for scintillator arrays. The method takes into account that both the expectation value and the spread of the measured arrival times not only depend on the distance of a counter from the shower axis, but also on the number of particles registered in that counter. It also takes into account that the distributions of the measured arrival times are not Gaussian. For showers recorded with the HEGRA scintillator array above the threshold energy of E thres = 20 TeV the mean angular resolution obtained with this method is left angle σ θ 63% right angle =1.0 circle , and above a threshold E thres = 50 TeV it is left angle σ θ 63% right angle =0.6 circle . Comparing the new procedure with the HEGRA standard procedure the angular resolution has improved on average by a factor of 1.33. The mis-pointing has been determined with an accuracy of 0.15 circle . The method is developed using experimental data. (orig.)

  1. New estimates of extensive-air-shower energies on the basis of signals in scintillation detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anyutin, N. V.; Dedenko, L. G., E-mail: ddn@dec1.sinp.msu.ru [Moscow State University, Faculty of Physics (Russian Federation); Roganova, T. M.; Fedorova, G. F. [Moscow State University, Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics (Russian Federation)

    2017-03-15

    New formulas for estimating the energy of inclined extensive air showers (EASs) on the basis of signals in detectors by means of an original method and detailed tables of signals induced in scintillation detectors by photons, electrons, positrons, and muons and calculated with the aid of the GEANT4 code package were proposed in terms of the QGSJETII-04, EPOS LHC, and GHEISHA models. The parameters appearing in the proposed formulas were calculated by employing the CORSIKA code package. It is shown that, for showers of zenith angles in the range of 20◦–45◦, the standard constant-intensity-cut method, which is used to interpret data from the Yakutsk EAS array, overestimates the shower energy by a factor of 1.2 to 1.5. It is proposed to employ the calculated VEM (Vertical Equivalent Muon) signal units of 10.8 and 11.4 MeV for, respectively, ground-based and underground scintillation detectors and to take into account the dependence of signals on the azimuthal angle of the detector position and fluctuations in the development of showers.

  2. Mass production of extensive air showers for the Pierre Auger Collaboration using Grid Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozano Bahilo, Julio; Pierre Auger Collaboration

    2012-06-01

    When ultra-high energy cosmic rays enter the atmosphere they interact producing extensive air showers (EAS) which are the objects studied by the Pierre Auger Observatory. The number of particles involved in an EAS at these energies is of the order of billions and the generation of a single simulated EAS requires many hours of computing time with current processors. In addition, the storage space consumed by the output of one simulated EAS is very high. Therefore we have to make use of Grid resources to be able to generate sufficient quantities of showers for our physics studies in reasonable time periods. We have developed a set of highly automated scripts written in common software scripting languages in order to deal with the high number of jobs which we have to submit regularly to the Grid. In spite of the low number of sites supporting our Virtual Organization (VO) we have reached the top spot on CPU consumption among non LHC (Large Hadron Collider) VOs within EGI (European Grid Infrastructure).

  3. Search for PeVatrons at the Galactic Center using a radio air-shower array at the South Pole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balagopal V, A.; Schroeder, F.G. [Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (KIT), Institut fuer Experimentelle Teilchenphysik, Karlsruhe (Germany); Haungs, A.; Huege, T. [Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (KIT), Institut fuer Kernphysik, Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2018-02-15

    The South Pole, which hosts the IceCube Neutrino Observatory, has a complete and around-the-clock exposure to the Galactic Center. Hence, it is an ideal location to search for gamma rays of PeV energy coming from the Galactic Center. However, it is hard to detect air showers initiated by these gamma rays using cosmic-ray particle detectors due to the low elevation of the Galactic Center. The use of antennas to measure the radio footprint of these air showers will help in this case, and would allow for a 24/7 operation time. So far, only air showers with energies well above 10{sup 16} eV have been detected with the radio technique. Thus, the energy threshold has to be lowered for the detection of gamma-ray showers of PeV energy. This can be achieved by optimizing the frequency band in order to obtain a higher level of signal-to-noise ratio. With such an approach, PeV gamma-ray showers with high inclination can be measured at the South Pole. (orig.)

  4. Nanosecond-level time synchronization of autonomous radio detector stations for extensive air showers

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Pierre Auger Collaboration

    2016-01-01

    To exploit the full potential of radio measurements of cosmic-ray air showers at MHz frequencies, a detector timing synchronization within 1 ns is needed. Large distributed radio detector arrays such as the Auger Engineering Radio Array (AERA) rely on timing via the Global Positioning System (GPS) for the synchronization of individual detector station clocks. Unfortunately, GPS timing is expected to have an accuracy no better than about 5 ns. In practice, in particular in AERA, the GPS clocks exhibit drifts on the order of tens of ns. We developed a technique to correct for the GPS drifts, and an independent method is used to cross-check that indeed we reach a nanosecond-scale timing accuracy by this correction. First, we operate a ``beacon transmitter'' which emits defined sine waves detected by AERA antennas recorded within the physics data. The relative phasing of these sine waves can be used to correct for GPS clock drifts. In addition to this, we observe radio pulses emitted by commercial airplanes, the position of which we determine in real time from Automatic Dependent Surveillance Broadcasts intercepted with a software-defined radio. From the known source location and the measured arrival times of the pulses we determine relative timing offsets between radio detector stations. We demonstrate with a combined analysis that the two methods give a consistent timing calibration with an accuracy of 2 ns or better. Consequently, the beacon method alone can be used in the future to continuously determine and correct for GPS clock drifts in each individual event measured by AERA.

  5. Nanosecond-level time synchronization of autonomous radio detector stations for extensive air showers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aab, A.; Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Ahn, E.J.; Al Samarai, I.; Albuquerque, I.F.M.; Allekotte, I.; Allison, P.; Almela, A.; Alvarez Castillo, J.; Alvarez-Muñiz, J.; Alves Batista, R.; Ambrosio, M.; Aminaei, A.

    2016-01-01

    To exploit the full potential of radio measurements of cosmic-ray air showers at MHz frequencies, a detector timing synchronization within 1 ns is needed. Large distributed radio detector arrays such as the Auger Engineering Radio Array (AERA) rely on timing via the Global Positioning System (GPS) for the synchronization of individual detector station clocks. Unfortunately, GPS timing is expected to have an accuracy no better than about 5 ns. In practice, in particular in AERA, the GPS clocks exhibit drifts on the order of tens of ns. We developed a technique to correct for the GPS drifts, and an independent method is used to cross-check that indeed we reach a nanosecond-scale timing accuracy by this correction. First, we operate a ''beacon transmitter'' which emits defined sine waves detected by AERA antennas recorded within the physics data. The relative phasing of these sine waves can be used to correct for GPS clock drifts. In addition to this, we observe radio pulses emitted by commercial airplanes, the position of which we determine in real time from Automatic Dependent Surveillance Broadcasts intercepted with a software-defined radio. From the known source location and the measured arrival times of the pulses we determine relative timing offsets between radio detector stations. We demonstrate with a combined analysis that the two methods give a consistent timing calibration with an accuracy of 2 ns or better. Consequently, the beacon method alone can be used in the future to continuously determine and correct for GPS clock drifts in each individual event measured by AERA

  6. The wavefront of the radio signal emitted by cosmic ray air showers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apel, W.D.; Bekk, K.; Blümer, J.; Bozdog, H.; Daumiller, K.; Doll, P.; Engel, R. [Institut für Kernphysik, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Arteaga-Velázquez, J.C. [Instituto de Física y Matemáticas, Universidad Michoacana, Edificio C-3, Cd. Universitaria, C.P. 58040 Morelia, Michoacán (Mexico); Bähren, L.; Falcke, H. [ASTRON, Oude Hoogeveensedijk 4, 7991 PD Dwingeloo (Netherlands); Bertaina, M.; Cantoni, E.; Chiavassa, A.; Pierro, F. Di [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università degli Studi di Torino, Via Giuria 1, 10125 Torino (Italy); Biermann, P.L. [Max-Planck-Institut für Radioastronomie, Auf dem Hügel 69, 53121 Bonn (Germany); Brancus, I.M. [National Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering, Str. Reactorului no. 30, P.O. Box MG-6, Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); De Souza, V. [Instituto de Física de São Carlos, Universidade de São Paulo, Av. Trabalhador São-Carlense 400, Pq. Arnold Schmidt, São Carlos (Brazil); Fuchs, B. [Institut für Experimentelle Kernphysik, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Gemmeke, H. [Institut für Prozessdatenverarbeitung und Elektronik, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Grupen, C., E-mail: frank.schroeder@kit.edu [Faculty of Natural Sciences and Engineering, Universität Siegen, Walter-Flex-Straße 3, 57072 Siegen (Germany); and others

    2014-09-01

    Analyzing measurements of the LOPES antenna array together with corresponding CoREAS simulations for more than 300 measured events with energy above 10{sup 17} eV and zenith angles smaller than 45{sup o}, we find that the radio wavefront of cosmic-ray air showers is of approximately hyperbolic shape. The simulations predict a slightly steeper wavefront towards East than towards West, but this asymmetry is negligible against the measurement uncertainties of LOPES. At axis distances ∼> 50 m, the wavefront can be approximated by a simple cone. According to the simulations, the cone angle is clearly correlated with the shower maximum. Thus, we confirm earlier predictions that arrival time measurements can be used to study the longitudinal shower development, but now using a realistic wavefront. Moreover, we show that the hyperbolic wavefront is compatible with our measurement, and we present several experimental indications that the cone angle is indeed sensitive to the shower development. Consequently, the wavefront can be used to statistically study the primary composition of ultra-high energy cosmic rays. At LOPES, the experimentally achieved precision for the shower maximum is limited by measurement uncertainties to approximately 140 g/c {sup 2}. But the simulations indicate that under better conditions this method might yield an accuracy for the atmospheric depth of the shower maximum, X{sub max}, better than 30 g/c {sup 2}. This would be competitive with the established air-fluorescence and air-Cherenkov techniques, where the radio technique offers the advantage of a significantly higher duty-cycle. Finally, the hyperbolic wavefront can be used to reconstruct the shower geometry more accurately, which potentially allows a better reconstruction of all other shower parameters, too.

  7. ON TEMPORAL VARIATIONS OF THE MULTI-TeV COSMIC RAY ANISOTROPY USING THE TIBET III AIR SHOWER ARRAY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amenomori, M.; Bi, X. J.; Ding, L. K.; Fan, C.; Feng Zhaoyang; Gou, Q. B.; He, H. H.; Chen, D.; Cui, S. W.; Danzengluobu; Ding, X. H.; Guo, H. W.; Hu Haibing; Feng, C. F.; He, M.; Feng, Z. Y.; Gao, X. Y.; Geng, Q. X.; Hibino, K.; Hotta, N.

    2010-01-01

    We analyze the large-scale two-dimensional sidereal anisotropy of multi-TeV cosmic rays (CRs) by the Tibet Air Shower Array, with the data taken from 1999 November to 2008 December. To explore temporal variations of the anisotropy, the data set is divided into nine intervals, each with a time span of about one year. The sidereal anisotropy of magnitude, about 0.1%, appears fairly stable from year to year over the entire observation period of nine years. This indicates that the anisotropy of TeV Galactic CRs remains insensitive to solar activities since the observation period covers more than half of the 23rd solar cycle.

  8. The “Carpet-3” air shower array to search for diffuse gamma rays with energy Eγ>100TeV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzhappuev, D. D.; I, V. B. Petkov V.; Kudzhaev, A. U.; Lidvansky, A. S.; Volchenko, V. I.; Volchenko, G. V.; Gorbacheva, E. A.; Dzaparova, I. M.; Klimenko, N. F.; Kurenya, A. N.; Mikhilova, O. I.; Khadzhiev, M. M.; Yanin, A. F.

    2017-12-01

    At present an experiment for measuring the flux of cosmic diffuse gamma rays with energy higher than 100 TeV (experiment “Carpet-3”) is being prepared at the Baksan Neutrino Observatory of the Institute for Nuclear Research, Russian Academy of Sciences. The preparation of the experiment implies considerable enlargement of the area of both muon detector and surface part of the shower array. At the moment the plastic scintillation counters with a total continuous area of 410 m2 are installed in the muon detector (MD) underground tunnels, and they are totally equipped with electronics. Adjusting of the counters and their electronic circuits is in progress. Six modules of shower detectors (out of twenty planned to be installed) have already been placed on the surface of the MD absorber. A new liquid scintillation detector is developed for modules of the ground -surface part of the array, whose characteristics are presented. It is shown that the “Carpet-3” air shower array will have the best sensitivity to the flux of primary gamma rays with energies in the range 100TeV - 1PeV, being quite competitive in gamma-ray astronomy at such energies.

  9. Proposed experiment to detect air showers with the Jicamarca radar system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vinogradova, T.; Chapin, E.; Gorham, P.; Saltzberg, D.

    2001-01-01

    When an extremely high energy particle interacts in the atmosphere, the collision induces a multiplicative cascade of charged particles, which grows exponentially until the energy per secondary degrades enough to dissipate in ionization of the surrounding air. During this process the compact cloud of energetic secondary particles travels 10-20 km through the atmosphere, leaving a column of ionization behind it. This ionized column quickly recombines, but for a period of order 0.1 ms it is highly reflective at frequencies below 100 MHz. This ionization trail, which is comparable in ionization density to that of a micro-meteor, should be clearly detectable using standard radar methods. We propose radar measurements using the facilities operated by Cornell University and the Instituto Geofisico del Peru (IGP) at the Jicamarca Radio Observatory near Lima, Peru. This facility's primary instrument is 49.92 MHz incoherent scatter radar, transmitting up to 1.5 MW of pulse power

  10. Measuring extensive air showers with Cherenkov light detectors of the Yakutsk array: the energy spectrum of cosmic rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, A A; Knurenko, S P; Sleptsov, I Ye

    2009-01-01

    The energy spectrum of cosmic rays in the range E∼10 15 eV to 6x10 19 eV is studied in this paper using air Cherenkov light detectors of the Yakutsk array. The total flux of photons produced by the relativistic electrons (including positrons as well, hereafter) of extensive air showers in the atmosphere is used as an energy estimator of the primary particle initiating a shower. The resultant differential flux of cosmic rays exhibits, in agreement with previous measurements, a knee and ankle feature at energies of 3x10 15 and ∼10 19 eV, respectively. A comparison of observational data with simulations is made in the knee and ankle regions in order to choose the models of galactic and extragalactic components of cosmic rays that describe well the energy spectrum measured.

  11. Measuring extensive air showers with Cherenkov light detectors of the Yakutsk array: the energy spectrum of cosmic rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivanov, A A; Knurenko, S P; Sleptsov, I Ye [Shafer Institute for Cosmophysical Research and Aeronomy, Yakutsk 677980 (Russian Federation)], E-mail: ivanov@ikfia.ysn.ru

    2009-06-15

    The energy spectrum of cosmic rays in the range E{approx}10{sup 15} eV to 6x10{sup 19} eV is studied in this paper using air Cherenkov light detectors of the Yakutsk array. The total flux of photons produced by the relativistic electrons (including positrons as well, hereafter) of extensive air showers in the atmosphere is used as an energy estimator of the primary particle initiating a shower. The resultant differential flux of cosmic rays exhibits, in agreement with previous measurements, a knee and ankle feature at energies of 3x10{sup 15} and {approx}10{sup 19} eV, respectively. A comparison of observational data with simulations is made in the knee and ankle regions in order to choose the models of galactic and extragalactic components of cosmic rays that describe well the energy spectrum measured.

  12. Investigating the Cherenkov light lateral distribution function for primary proton and iron nuclei in extensive air showers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Rubaiee, A.A.; Hashim, U.; Al-Douri, Y.

    2015-01-01

    The lateral distribution function (LDF) of Cherenkov radiation in extensive air showers (EAS) was simulated by CORSIKA program for the conditions of Yakutsk Cherenkov array at high energy range (10 13 -10 16 eV) for two primary particles (p and Fe) for different zenith angles. Using Breit-Wigner function for analyzing Cherenkov light LDF, a parameterization of Cherenkov light LDF was reconstructed by depending on CORSIKA simulation as a function of primary energy. The comparison between the estimated Cherenkov light LDF and the LDF that was measured on the Yakutsk EAS array gives the ability of particle identification that initiated the shower and determination of particle's energy around the knee region. The extrapolation of approximated Cherenkov light LDF for energies 20 and 30 PeV was obtained for primary particles (p and Fe)

  13. Measurement of the Depth of Maximum of Extensive Air Showers above 10^18 eV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abraham, J.; /Buenos Aires, CONICET; Abreu, P.; /Lisbon, IST; Aglietta, M.; /Turin U. /INFN, Turin; Ahn, E.J.; /Fermilab; Allard, D.; /APC, Paris; Allekotte, I.; /Centro Atomico Bariloche /Buenos Aires, CONICET; Allen, J.; /New York U.; Alvarez-Muniz, J.; /Santiago de Compostela U.; Ambrosio, M.; /Naples U.; Anchordoqui, L.; /Wisconsin U., Milwaukee; Andringa, S.; /Lisbon, IST /Boskovic Inst., Zagreb

    2010-02-01

    We describe the measurement of the depth of maximum, X{sub max}, of the longitudinal development of air showers induced by cosmic rays. Almost 4000 events above 10{sup 18} eV observed by the fluorescence detector of the Pierre Auger Observatory in coincidence with at least one surface detector station are selected for the analysis. The average shower maximum was found to evolve with energy at a rate of (106{sub -21}{sup +35}) g/cm{sup 2}/decade below 10{sup 18.24 {+-} 0.05}eV, and (24 {+-} 3) g/cm{sup 2}/decade above this energy. The measured shower-to-shower fluctuations decrease from about 55 to 26 g/cm{sup 2}. The interpretation of these results in terms of the cosmic ray mass composition is briefly discussed.

  14. Separation of gamma and hadron initiated air showers with energies between 20 and 500 TeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arqueros, F. [Universidad Complutense de Madrid (Spain). Facultad de Ciencias Fisicas; Karle, A. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Muenchen (Germany); Lorenz, E. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Muenchen (Germany); Martinez, S. [Universidad Complutense de Madrid (Spain). Facultad de Ciencias Fisicas; Plaga, R. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Muenchen (Germany); Rozanska, M. [Institute of Nuclear Physics, Cracow (Poland)

    1994-04-24

    The discrimination between air showers initiated by {gamma} rays and by hadrons is one of the fundamental problems in experimental cosmic-ray physics. The physics of this `{gamma}/hadron separation` is discussed in this paper. We restrict ourselves to the energy range from about 20 to 500 TeV, and take only the information contained in the lateral Cerenkov light distribution and the number of electrons at the detector level into consideration. An understanding of the differences between air showers generated by {gamma} rays and those due to hadrons leads us to formulate suitable observables for the separation process. Angle integrating Cerenkov arrays (AICA) offer a promising new approach to ground-based {gamma}-ray astronomy in the energy region from about 20 to 500 TeV. In order to establish this technique, an efficient suppression of the overwhelming hadronic background radiation is required. As an example for our general discussion, we present one method for {gamma}/hadron separation in AICAs called ``LES``. It is based on the simultaneous determination of the shower size and some characteristic parameters of the lateral distribution of the Cerenkov light. The potential inherent within this technique is demonstrated in quantitative detail for the existing ``AIROBICC`` AICA. We also propose an objective measure of the intrinsic sensitivity of a detection scheme in ground-based {gamma}-ray astronomy, the ``reduced quality factor``. It is shown that AICAs may reach a sensitivity to {gamma}-ray point sources in the high VHE range similar to that of the Cerenkov-telescope imaging technique in the low VHE region. (orig.)

  15. Optimization of an FPGA Trigger Based on an Artificial Neural Network for the Detection of Neutrino-Induced Air Showers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szadkowski, Zbigniew; Głas, Dariusz; Pytel, Krzysztof; Wiedeński, Michał

    2017-06-01

    Neutrinos play a fundamental role in the understanding of the origin of ultrahigh-energy cosmic rays. They interact through charged and neutral currents in the atmosphere generating extensive air showers. However, the very low rate of events potentially generated by neutrinos is a significant challenge for detection techniques and requires both sophisticated algorithms and high-resolution hardware. Air showers initiated by protons and muon neutrinos at various altitudes, angles, and energies were simulated in CORSIKA and the Auger OffLine event reconstruction platforms, giving analog-to-digital convertor (ADC) patterns in Auger water Cherenkov detectors on the ground. The proton interaction cross section is high, so proton “old” showers start their development early in the atmosphere. In contrast to this, neutrinos can generate “young” showers deeply in the atmosphere relatively close to the detectors. Differences between “old” proton and “young” neutrino showers are visible in attenuation factors of ADC waveforms. For the separation of “old” proton and “young” neutrino ADC traces, many three-layer artificial neural networks (ANNs) were tested. They were trained in MATLAB (in a dedicated way -only “old” proton and “young” neutrino showers as patterns) by simulated ADC traces according to the Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm. Unexpectedly, the recognition efficiency is found to be almost independent of the size of the networks. The ANN trigger based on a selected 8-6-1 network was tested in the Cyclone V E FPGA 5CEFA9F31I7, the heart of prototype front-end boards developed for testing new algorithms in the Pierre Auger surface detectors.

  16. Separation of gamma and hadron initiated air showers with energies between 20 and 500 TeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arqueros, F.; Lorenz, E.; Martinez, S.; Rozanska, M.

    1995-01-01

    The discrimination between air showers initiated by γ rays and by hadrons is one of the fundamental problems in experimental cosmic-ray physics. The physics of this 'γ/hadron separation' is discussed in this paper. We restrict ourselves to the energy range from about 20 to 500 TeV, and take only the information contained in the lateral Cerenkov light distribution and the number of electrons at the detector level into consideration. An understanding of the differences between air showers generated by γ rays and those due to hadrons leads us to formulate suitable observables for the separation process. Angle integrating Cerenkov arrays (AICA) offer a promising new approach to ground-based γ-ray astronomy in the energy region from about 20 to 500 TeV. In order to establish this technique, an efficient suppression of the overwhelming hadronic background radiation is required. As an example for our general discussion, we present one method for γ/hadron separation in AICAs called ''LES''. It is based on the simultaneous determination of the shower size and some characteristic parameters of the lateral distribution of the Cerenkov light. The potential inherent within this technique is demonstrated in quantitative detail for the existing ''AIROBICC'' AICA. We also propose an objective measure of the intrinsic sensitivity of a detection scheme in ground-based γ-ray astronomy, the ''reduced quality factor''. It is shown that AICAs may reach a sensitivity to γ-ray point sources in the high VHE range similar to that of the Cerenkov-telescope imaging technique in the low VHE region. (orig.)

  17. Extensive air showers accompanied by γ-ray families with summationE/sub γ//sub ,//sub H/≥10 TeV and general extensive air showers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukushima, Y.; Hamayasu, C.; Mitsumune, T.

    1989-01-01

    Extensive air showers (EAS's) accompanied by families of high-energy cascade showers were observed at Mt. Norikura (738 g cm/sup -2/). 99 families of γ-ray- and hadron-origin showers with total energies summationE/sub γ//sub ,//sub H/≥10 TeV were obtained. The success rate of the combination between families and EAS's reaches to almost 90% (87 events). The families are associated with young EAS's, with mean age parameter s∼0.7, whose sizes distribute widely over three orders of magnitude up to 10 8 . The size spectrum of the family-associated EAS's coincides with the general EAS's in the size region above 5 x 10 6 but the former drops rapidly from the latter below this critical size. From the absolute intensity of summationE/sub γ//sub ,//sub H/ spectrum the proton fraction in the primary cosmic rays is deduced to be (14 +- 5)%, with an error of one standard deviation, in the primary energies (5 x 10/sup 14/)--10/sup 16/ eV, in comparison with a Monte Carlo simulation assuming an adequate interaction model. This agrees with the result obtained by the work with other mountain data and is also compatible with the result inferred from the size spectrum gap between the family-associated EAS's and the general EAS's in the region below the critical size

  18. Longitudinal development of muons in large air showers studies from the arrival time distributions measured at 900m above sea level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakimoto, F.; Tsuchimoto, I.; Enoki, T.; Suga, K.; Nishi, K.

    1985-01-01

    The arrival time distributions of muons with energies above 1.0GeV and 0.5GeV have been measured in the Akeno air-shower array to study the longitudinal development of muons in air showers with primary energies in the range 10 to the 17th power to 10 to the 18th power ev. The average rise times of muons with energies above 1.0GeV at large core distances are consistent with those expected from very high multiplicity models and, on the contrary, with those expected from the low multiplicity models at small core distances. This implies that the longitudinal development at atmospheric depth smaller than 500 cm square is very fast and that at larger atmospheric depths is rather slow.

  19. World's largest air shower array now on track of super-high-energy cosmic-rays Pierre Auger Observatory seeks source of highest-energy extraterrestrial particles

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    "With the completion of its hundredth surface detector, the Pierre Auger Observatory, under construction in Argentina, this week became the largest cosmic-ray air shower array in the world. Managed by scientists at the Department of Energy's Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, the Pierre Auger project so far encompasses a 70-square-mile array of detectors that are tracking the most violent-and perhaps most puzzling- processes in the entire universe" (1 page).

  20. Measurement of the radiation energy in the radio signal of extensive air showers as a universal estimator of cosmic-ray energy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Aab, A.; Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Blažek, Jiří; Boháčová, Martina; Chudoba, Jiří; Ebr, Jan; Mandát, Dušan; Nečesal, Petr; Palatka, Miroslav; Pech, Miroslav; Prouza, Michael; Řídký, Jan; Schovánek, Petr; Trávníček, Petr; Vícha, Jakub

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 116, č. 24 (2016), 1-9, č. článku 241101. ISSN 0031-9007 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LG13007; GA MŠk(CZ) 7AMB14AR005; GA ČR(CZ) GA14-17501S Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : Pierre Auger Observatory * detector * cosmic rays * air showers Subject RIV: BF - Elementary Particles and High Energy Physics Impact factor: 8.462, year: 2016

  1. Simulation studies of the information content of muon arrival time observations of high energy extensive air showers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brancus, I.; Duma, M.; Badea, A. F.; Aiftimiei, C.; Rebel, M. H.; Oehlschlaeger, J.

    2001-01-01

    By extensive Monte Carlo calculations, using the air shower simulation code CORSIKA, EAS muon arrival time distributions and EAS time profiles up to 320 m distances from the shower centre have been generated, for proton, oxygen and iron induced showers using different hadronic interaction models as Monte Carlo generators. The model dependence and mass discriminating features have been scrutinized for three energy ranges, (1-1.7783) 10 15 eV, (1.-1.78) 10 16 eV and (1.78-3.16) 10 16 eV, by use of non-parametric statistical inference method applied to multidimensional distributions, correlating the EAS time quantities with different other EAS observables. The correlations of local muon arrival times with the local muon density and the shower age indicate a good mass separation quality at larger shower distances. The best discrimination was obtained by adding the correlation with N μ tr quantity. The comparison between 'local times', with reference to the first registered muon and 'global times' with reference to the arrival time of the shower core, indicates a slightly better mass discrimination in the case of muon 'global' time distributions. (authors)

  2. Northern Sky Galactic Cosmic Ray Anisotropy between 10 and 1000 TeV with the Tibet Air Shower Array

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amenomori, M. [Department of Physics, Hirosaki University, Hirosaki 036-8561 (Japan); Bi, X. J.; Chen, W. Y.; Ding, L. K.; Feng, Zhaoyang; Gou, Q. B.; Guo, Y. Q.; He, H. H.; Hu, H. B.; Huang, J. [Key Laboratory of Particle Astrophysics, Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Chen, D. [National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); Chen, T. L.; Danzengluobu; Hu, Haibing [Department of Mathematics and Physics, Tibet University, Lhasa 850000 (China); Cui, S. W.; He, Z. T. [Department of Physics, Hebei Normal University, Shijiazhuang 050016 (China); Feng, C. F. [Department of Physics, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Feng, Z. Y. [Institute of Modern Physics, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu 610031 (China); Hibino, K. [Faculty of Engineering, Kanagawa University, Yokohama 221-8686 (Japan); Hotta, N. [Faculty of Education, Utsunomiya University, Utsunomiya 321-8505 (Japan); Collaboration: Tibet AS γ Collaboration; and others

    2017-02-20

    We report on the analysis of the 10–1000 TeV large-scale sidereal anisotropy of Galactic cosmic rays (GCRs) with the data collected by the Tibet Air Shower Array from 1995 October to 2010 February. In this analysis, we improve the energy estimate and extend the decl. range down to −30°. We find that the anisotropy maps above 100 TeV are distinct from that at a multi-TeV band. The so-called tail-in and loss-cone features identified at low energies get less significant, and a new component appears at ∼100 TeV. The spatial distribution of the GCR intensity with an excess (7.2 σ pre-trial, 5.2 σ post-trial) and a deficit (−5.8 σ pre-trial) are observed in the 300 TeV anisotropy map, in close agreement with IceCube’s results at 400 TeV. Combining the Tibet results in the northern sky with IceCube’s results in the southern sky, we establish a full-sky picture of the anisotropy in hundreds of TeV band. We further find that the amplitude of the first order anisotropy increases sharply above ∼100 TeV, indicating a new component of the anisotropy. All these results may shed new light on understanding the origin and propagation of GCRs.

  3. Numerical simulations of compact intracloud discharges as the Relativistic Runaway Electron Avalanche-Extensive Air Shower process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arabshahi, S.; Dwyer, J. R.; Nag, A.; Rakov, V. A.; Rassoul, H. K.

    2014-01-01

    Compact intracloud discharges (CIDs) are sources of the powerful, often isolated radio pulses emitted by thunderstorms. The VLF-LF radio pulses are called narrow bipolar pulses (NBPs). It is still not clear how CIDs are produced, but two categories of theoretical models that have previously been considered are the Transmission Line (TL) model and the Relativistic Runaway Electron Avalanche-Extensive Air Showers (RREA-EAS) model. In this paper, we perform numerical calculations of RREA-EASs for various electric field configurations inside thunderstorms. The results of these calculations are compared to results from the other models and to the experimental data. Our analysis shows that different theoretical models predict different fundamental characteristics for CIDs. Therefore, many previously published properties of CIDs are highly model dependent. This is because of the fact that measurements of the radiation field usually provide information about the current moment of the source, and different physical models with different discharge currents could have the same current moment. We have also found that although the RREA-EAS model could explain the current moments of CIDs, the required electric fields in the thundercloud are rather large and may not be realistic. Furthermore, the production of NBPs from RREA-EAS requires very energetic primary cosmic ray particles, not observed in nature. If such ultrahigh-energy particles were responsible for NBPs, then they should be far less frequent than is actually observed.

  4. Reconstruction of extensive air showers and measurement of the cosmic ray energy spectrum in the range of 1 - 80 PeV at the South Pole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klepser, Stefan

    2008-06-24

    IceTop is a km{sup 2} scale detector array for highly energetic cosmic radiation. It is a part of the IceCube Observatory that is presently being built at the geographic South Pole. It aims for the detection of huge particle cascades induced by PeV cosmic rays in the atmosphere. These extensive air showers are detected by cylindrical ice tanks that collect the Cherenkov light produced by penetrating particles. The main goal of IceTop is the investigation of the energy distribution and chemical composition of PeV to EeV cosmic rays. This thesis presents the first analysis of highly energetic cosmic ray data taken with IceTop. First, the light response of the IceTop tanks is parametrised as a function of energy and particle type. An expectation function for the distribution of shower signals in the detector plane is developed. The likelihood fit based on that can reconstruct the recorded shower events with resolutions of 1.5 in direction, 9m in location of the shower center, and 12% in energy. This is well competitive with other experiments. The resulting energy response of the array is studied to set up response matrices for different primary nuclei and inclinations. These allow for a deconvolution of the distribution of reconstructed energies to derive the real energy spectrum. Two unfolding algorithms are implemented and studied, and response matrices are modeled for four different composition assumptions. With each assumption, energy spectra are unfolded for three different bins in inclination, using a data sample with an exposure of 3.86.10{sup 11} m{sup 2} s sr, taken in August 2007. The range of the spectrum is 1-80 PeV. Finally, a new analysis method is developed that uses the fact that cosmic rays in the PeV range are expected to be isotropic. It is shown that this requirement can be used for a likelihood estimation that is sensitive to composition without using additional information from other detector components. The analysis shows a clear preference of

  5. Reconstruction of extensive air showers and measurement of the cosmic ray energy spectrum in the range of 1 - 80 PeV at the South Pole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klepser, Stefan

    2008-01-01

    IceTop is a km 2 scale detector array for highly energetic cosmic radiation. It is a part of the IceCube Observatory that is presently being built at the geographic South Pole. It aims for the detection of huge particle cascades induced by PeV cosmic rays in the atmosphere. These extensive air showers are detected by cylindrical ice tanks that collect the Cherenkov light produced by penetrating particles. The main goal of IceTop is the investigation of the energy distribution and chemical composition of PeV to EeV cosmic rays. This thesis presents the first analysis of highly energetic cosmic ray data taken with IceTop. First, the light response of the IceTop tanks is parametrised as a function of energy and particle type. An expectation function for the distribution of shower signals in the detector plane is developed. The likelihood fit based on that can reconstruct the recorded shower events with resolutions of 1.5 in direction, 9m in location of the shower center, and 12% in energy. This is well competitive with other experiments. The resulting energy response of the array is studied to set up response matrices for different primary nuclei and inclinations. These allow for a deconvolution of the distribution of reconstructed energies to derive the real energy spectrum. Two unfolding algorithms are implemented and studied, and response matrices are modeled for four different composition assumptions. With each assumption, energy spectra are unfolded for three different bins in inclination, using a data sample with an exposure of 3.86.10 11 m 2 s sr, taken in August 2007. The range of the spectrum is 1-80 PeV. Finally, a new analysis method is developed that uses the fact that cosmic rays in the PeV range are expected to be isotropic. It is shown that this requirement can be used for a likelihood estimation that is sensitive to composition without using additional information from other detector components. The analysis shows a clear preference of the mixed

  6. The present status of the Telescope Array experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nonaka, T. [Institute for Cosmic Ray Research University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha Kashiwa Chiba (Japan); Abu-Zayyad, T.; Allen, M. [University of Utah - High Energy Astrophysics Institute, 115 S 1400 E 201, Salt Lake City, UT 84112-0830 (United States); Azuma, R. [Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1 Ohokayama Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8550 (Japan); Belz, J.W. [University of Utah - High Energy Astrophysics Institute, 115 S 1400 E 201, Salt Lake City, UT 84112-0830 (United States); Bergman, D.R. [Rutgers University, 136 Frelinghuysen Road, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Blake, S.A.; Brusova, O.; Cady, R.; Cao, Z. [University of Utah - High Energy Astrophysics Institute, 115 S 1400 E 201, Salt Lake City, UT 84112-0830 (United States); Chiba, J. [Tokyo University of Science, 2641 Yamazaki Noda-shi, Chiba 278-8510 (Japan); Chikawa, M. [Kinki University, 3-4-1 Kowakae, Higashiosaka-shi, Osaka 577-8582 (Japan); Cho, I.S. [Yonsei University, 134 Sinchon-dong, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Fujii, H. [KEK - Institute of Particle And Nuclear Studies, 1-1 Oho Tsukuba-shi, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Fujii, T. [Osaka City University, 3-3-138 Sugimoto-cho, Sumiyoshi-ku, Osaka 558-8585 (Japan); Fukuda, T. [Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1 Ohokayama Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8550 (Japan); Fukushima, M. [Institute for Cosmic Ray Research University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha Kashiwa Chiba (Japan); Hayashi, K. [Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1 Ohokayama Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8550 (Japan); Hayashida, N. [Institute for Cosmic Ray Research University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha Kashiwa Chiba (Japan); Hibino, K. [Kanagawa University, 3-27-1 Rokkakubashi Kanagawa-ku, Yokohama-shi, Kanagawa 221-8686 (Japan)

    2009-05-15

    The Telescope Array(TA) experiment located at western desert in Utah USA (N39.3,W112.9) is designed for observation of air shower from extreme high energy cosmic rays. The TA detector consists of 2 types of detector to enable a cross check on systematic difference from the two main methods of observation for the energy region. One is a Fluorescence detector (FD) for detecting fluorescence light from air shower and another is surface detector (SD) array for detecting air shower particles at ground level. Each SD consists of 2 layers of plastic scintillator with 3m{sup 2} of surface and more sensitive to electromagnetic component in air shower. The full operation using 3FD stations and full SD array has started. Here we present the updated status of Telescope Array experiment.

  7. Stereo-scopy of γ-ray air showers with the H.E.S.S. telescopes: first images of the supernova remnants at TeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemoine-Goumard, Marianne

    2006-05-01

    The H.E.S.S. (High Energy Stereoscopic System) experiment in gamma-ray Astronomy consists of four imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes devoted to the observation of the gamma-ray sky in the energy domain above 100 GeV and extending up to several tens of TeV. This thesis presents a new reconstruction method of gamma-ray induced air showers which takes full advantage of the stereo-scopy and of the fine-grain imaging of the H.E.S.S. cameras. This new method provides an angular resolution better than 0.1 angle, an energy resolution of about 15% at zenith and a very efficient hadronic rejection based on a cut on the lateral spread of the electromagnetic shower which does not depend on simulations. A new background subtraction method, well adapted to the study of extended sources, was also developed. No assumption, either on the distribution of gamma-rays in the field of view, or on the distribution of hadrons are necessary. It provides two sky maps obtained from a maximum likelihood fit: one for γ-rays and the other for hadrons. These two analysis methods were applied to the study of the shell-type supernova remnants RX J1713.7-3946 and RX J0852.0-4622 (Vela Junior), allowing for the first time to resolve their morphology in the gamma-ray domain. The study of these sources should answer the question: 'can shell-type supernova remnants accelerate cosmic-rays up to the knee (5 x 10 15 eV)?'. A morphological and spectral study of these sources combined with a comparison of a simple model of emission processes (from electrons and protons accelerated in supernova remnants) provides some constraints on the parameters of the leptonic process. Nevertheless, this scenario cannot be excluded. The different results obtained are discussed and compared with a third shell-type supernova remnant observed by H.E.S.S. but not detected: SN 1006. (author)

  8. Reconstruction of inclined air showers detected with the Pierre Auger Observatory

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Aab, A.; Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Boháčová, Martina; Chudoba, Jiří; Ebr, Jan; Mandát, Dušan; Nečesal, Petr; Palatka, Miroslav; Pech, Miroslav; Prouza, Michael; Řídký, Jan; Schovánek, Petr; Trávníček, Petr; Vícha, Jakub

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 8, AUG (2014), 1-33 ISSN 1475-7516 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-17501S; GA MŠk(CZ) 7AMB14AR005; GA MŠk(CZ) LG13007 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : ultra high energy cosmic rays * cosmic ray experiments Subject RIV: BF - Elementary Particles and High Energy Physics Impact factor: 5.810, year: 2014 http://iopscience.iop.org/1475-7516/2014/08/019/pdf/1475-7516_2014_08_019.pdf

  9. Interpretation of the depths of maximum of extensive air showers measured by the Pierre Auger Observatory

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Ahlers, M.; Boháčová, Martina; Chudoba, Jiří; Ebr, Jan; Mandát, Dušan; Nečesal, Petr; Nožka, Libor; Palatka, Miroslav; Pech, Miroslav; Prouza, Michael; Řídký, Jan; Schovancová, Jaroslava; Schovánek, Petr; Tománková, L.; Trávníček, Petr; Vícha, Jakub

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 2013, č. 2 (2013), s. 1-21 ISSN 1475-7516 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LA08015; GA TA ČR TA01010517; GA MŠk(CZ) MEB111003; GA AV ČR KJB100100904; GA MŠk(CZ) LA08016 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100502; CEZ:AV0Z10100522 Keywords : ultra high energy cosmic rays * cosmic ray experiments Subject RIV: BF - Elementary Particles and High Energy Physics Impact factor: 5.877, year: 2013 http://iopscience.iop.org/1475-7516/2013/02/026/pdf/1475-7516_2013_02_026.pdf

  10. Simulation Study on Identifiability of UHE Gamma-ray Air Showers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wada, Y.; Inoue, N.; Miyazawa, K.; Vankov, H.P.

    2008-01-01

    The chemical composition of Ultra-High-Energy (UHE) comic rays is one of unsolved mysteries, and its study will give us fruitful information on the origin and acceleration mechanism of UHE cosmic rays. Especially, a detection of UHE gamma-rays by hybrid experiments, such as AUGER and TA, will be a key to solve these questions. The characteristics of UHE gamma-ray showers have been studied by comparing the lateral and longitudinal structures of shower particles calculated with AIRES and our own simulation code, so far. There are apparent differences in a slope of lateral distribution (η) and a depth of shower maximum (Xmax) between gamma-ray and proton induced showers because UHE gamma-ray showers are affected by the LPM effect and the geomagnetic cascading process in an energy region of >10 19.5 eV. Different features between gamma-ray and proton showers are pointed out from the simulation study and an identifiability of gamma-ray showers from proton ones is also discussed by the method of Neural-Network-Analysis

  11. Simulation Study on Identifiability of UHE Gamma-ray Air Showers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wada, Y.; Inoue, N.; Miyazawa, K. [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Saitama University, Saitama 338-8570 (Japan); Vankov, H.P. [Institute for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy, Bulgaria Academy, Sofia (Bulgaria)

    2008-01-15

    The chemical composition of Ultra-High-Energy (UHE) comic rays is one of unsolved mysteries, and its study will give us fruitful information on the origin and acceleration mechanism of UHE cosmic rays. Especially, a detection of UHE gamma-rays by hybrid experiments, such as AUGER and TA, will be a key to solve these questions. The characteristics of UHE gamma-ray showers have been studied by comparing the lateral and longitudinal structures of shower particles calculated with AIRES and our own simulation code, so far. There are apparent differences in a slope of lateral distribution ({eta}) and a depth of shower maximum (Xmax) between gamma-ray and proton induced showers because UHE gamma-ray showers are affected by the LPM effect and the geomagnetic cascading process in an energy region of >10{sup 19.5}eV. Different features between gamma-ray and proton showers are pointed out from the simulation study and an identifiability of gamma-ray showers from proton ones is also discussed by the method of Neural-Network-Analysis.

  12. Energy spectrum of primary cosmic rays from 1016eV to 1019eV determined from air showers observed at 5200 m a.s.l

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguirre, C.; Mejia, G.R.; Yoshii, H.; Toyoda, Y.

    1977-01-01

    Energy spectra of primary cosmic rays from 10 16 eV to 10 19 eV have been determined from electron-sizes as well as from muon-sizes of the same air showers observed at Mt. Chacaltaya. The spectrum from electron-sizes is significantly higher than that from muon-sizes. The discrepancy is discussed and an explanation is given under the assumption of possible existence of copious direct production of photons besides the production of charged and neutral pions at these high energies. The spectra are also compared with those by other groups and the discrepancies are discussed. (author)

  13. The angular distributions of charged secondaries in electromagnetic and hadronic extensive air showers at 10, 100, 1000 and 10 000 TeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trzupek, A.; Mikocki, S.; Gress, J.; Kochocki, J.; Poirier, J.

    1991-01-01

    The angular distributions of secondary electrons and muons in extensive air showers (EAS) initiated by 10, 100, 1000 and 10 000 TeV gamma rays and protons are obtained with the aid of a new, hybrid Monte Carlo simulation method. In this method, a three-dimensional program is constructed out of two existing software codes: SHOWERSIM and EGS4. This procedure allows for fast, yet precise, calculations down to low secondary particle energies. The dependence of the angular distributions for different threshold energies is presented for 1000 TeV primary gamma ray and proton energy. (author)

  14. Cooperative observations of air showers in Tasmania looking for anisotropies in 10 to the 13th - 10 to the 14th eV primaries /COALA project/

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenton, A. G.; Fenton, K. B.; Humble, J. E.; Jacklyn, R. M.; Vrana, A.; Murakami, K.; Fujii, Z.; Yamada, T.; Sakakibara, S.; Fujimoto, K.; Ueno, H.; Nagashima, K.; Kondo, I.

    Observations of cosmic ray air showers in Tasmania beginning in 1981 are discussed. The shower array consists of 18 unit trays of 4-sq m proportional counters deployed over an area of 20 m x 160 m, and showers around a median primary energy of 5 x 10 to the 13th are to be observed. The observations are carried out in order to catch cosmic ray flows in a stereoscopic manner with simultaneous observations in the northern hemisphere, and the shower frequency in a fundamental coincidence mode is expected to be about 16,000 events per year.

  15. The cosmic ray primary composition between $10^{15}$ and $10^{16}$ ev from Extensive Air Showers electromagnetic and TeV muon data

    CERN Document Server

    Aglietta, M; Ambrosio, M; Antolini, R; Antonioli, P; Arneodo, F; Baldini, A; Barbarino, G C; Barish, B C; Battistoni, G; Becherini, Y; Bellotti, R; Bemporad, C; Bergamasco, L; Bernardini, P; Bertaina, M; Bilokon, H; Bower, C; Brigida, M; Bussino, S; Cafagna, F; Calicchio, M; Campana, D; Carboni, M; Caruso, R; Castagnoli, C; Castellina, A; Cecchini, S; Cei, F; Chiarella, V; Chiavassa, A; Choudhary, B C; Cini, G; Coutu, S; Cozzi, M; D'Ettorre-Piazzoli, B; De Cataldo, G; De Marzo, C; De Mitri, I; De Vincenzi, M; Dekhissi, H; Derkaoui, J; Di Credico, A; Di Sciascio, G; Erriquez, O; Favuzzi, C; Forti, C; Fulgione, W; Fusco, P; Galeotti, P; Ghia, P L; Giacomelli, G; Giannini, G; Giglietto, N; Giorgini, M; Grassi, M; Grillo, A; Guarino, F; Gustavino, C; Habig, A; Hanson, K; Heinz, R; Iacovacci, M; Iarocci, E; Katsavounidis, E; Katsavounidis, I; Kearns, E; Kim, H; Kyriazopoulou, S; Lamanna, E; Lane, C; Levin, D S; Lipari, P; Longley, N P; Longo, M J; Loparco, F; Maaroufi, F; Mancarella, G; Mandrioli, G; Mannocchi, G; Margiotta, A; Marini, A; Martello, D; Marzari-Chiesa, A; Mazziotta, M N; Michael, D G; Monacelli, P; Montaruli, T; Monteno, M; Morello, C; Mufson, S; Musser, J; Navarra, G; Nicolò, D; Nolty, R; Orth, C; Osteria, G; Palamara, O; Patera, V; Patrizii, L; Pazzi, R; Peck, C W; Perrone, L; Petrera, S; Popa, V; Rainó, A; Reynoldson, J; Ronga, F; Saavedra, O; Satriano, C; Scapparone, E; Scholberg, K; Sciubba, A; Serra, P; Sioli, M; Sirri, G; Sitta, M; Spinelli, P; Spinetti, M; Spurio, M; Stamerra, A; Steinberg, R; Stone, J L; Sulak, L R; Surdo, A; Tarle, G; Togo, V; Trinchero, G C; Vakili, M; Valchierotti, S; Vallania, P; Vernetto, S; Vigorito, C; Walter, C W; Webb, R; 10.1016/j.astropartphys.2003.10.004

    2004-01-01

    The cosmic ray primary composition in the energy range between 10/sup 15/ and 10/sup 16/ eV, i.e., around the "knee" of the primary spectrum, has been studied through the combined measurements of the EAS-TOP air shower array (2005 m a.s.l., 10/sup 5/ m/sup 2/ collecting area) and the MACRO underground detector (963 m a.s.l., 3100 m w.e. of minimum rock overburden, 920 m/sup 2/ effective area) at the National Gran Sasso Laboratories. The used observables are the air shower size (N/sub e/) measured by EAS-TOP and the muon number (N /sub mu /) recorded by MACRO, The two detectors are separated on average by 1200 m of rock, and located at a respective zenith angle of about 30 degrees . The energy threshold at the surface for muons reaching the MACRO depth is approximately 1.3 TeV. Such muons are produced in the early stages of the shower development and in a kinematic region quite different from the one relevant for the usual N/sub mu /-N/sub e/ studies. The measurement leads to a primary composition becoming hea...

  16. A Halo Event observed by the Hybrid Experiment at Mt. Chacaltaya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoki, H.; Hashimoto, K.; Honda, K.; Inoue, N.; Kawasumi, N.; Martinic, N.; Navia O, C.; Ochi, N.; Ohmori, N.; Ohsawa, A.; Oliveira, C.; Shinozaki, K.; Tamada, M.; Ticona, R.; Tsushima, I.

    2006-01-01

    An experiment using an air shower array, a hadron calorimeter and an emulsion chamber is under way at Mt. Chacaltaya (5200 m, Bolivia). One of the highest energy events, having a halo (∼ 1 cm) in the centre of the family together with many γ-ray and hadron showers, is analyzed in detail. Available data for the event are on the halo (E halo =750 TeV) and on the high energy particles of electron/photon components by the emulsion chamber, and on the characteristics of the accompanied air shower (Ne=7.0x10 7 , s=0.59) by the air shower array. The diagram of the air shower size and the total energy of electron/photon components in the family, which shows discrepancy between the experimental data and simulated events (QGSJET code for nuclear collisions) in our previous reports, is discussed including the present event

  17. Method of separation of air showers initiated by γ-quanta and protons using Cherenkov light angular characteristics in combination and angular resolution estimate for an array of several optical telescopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anokhina, A.M.; Galkin, V.I.; Ivanenko, I.P.; Roganova, T.M.

    1990-01-01

    Computer simulation of optical characteristics of air showers was carried out. On the basis of multidimensional analysis of Cherenkov light angular distribution possibility is considered to distinguish γ-showers from proton showers. Also an estimate for angular resolution is given for an array of five optical telescopes situated at Mt.Aragats. 7 refs.; 10 figs.; 11 tabs

  18. A large air shower array to search for astrophysical sources emitting γ-rays with energies ≥1014 eV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borione, A.; Covault, C.E.; Cronin, J.W.; Fick, B.E.; Gibbs, K.G.; Krimm, H.A.; Mascarenhas, N.C.; McKay, T.A.; Mueller, D.; Newport, B.J.; Ong, R.A.; Rosenberg, L.J.; Sanders, H.; Catanese, M.; Ciampa, D.; Green, K.D.; Kolodziejczak, J.; Matthews, J.; Nitz, D.; Sinclair, D.; Van der Velde, J.C.

    1994-01-01

    We describe the technical details and the performance of a large array which detects both the electron and muon components in extensive air showers with energies ≥10 14 eV. The array was designed to search for γ-rays from astrophysical sources. The background of cosmic rays is reduced by the selection of muon poor events. The array consists of 1089 scintillation detectors on the surface covering an area of 0.23 km 2 and 1024 scintillation counters of 2.5 m 2 each, buried 3 m below the surface for muon detection. Each of the surface detectors has its own local electronics and local data storage controlled by a microprocessor. The array is located at Dugway, Utah USA (40.2 N, 112.8 W) where the average atmospheric depth is 870 g/cm 2 . ((orig.))

  19. Arrival-time distribution of muons in extensive air showers at energies of 1017 eV to 1018 eV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blake, P.R.; Mann, D.M.; Nash, W.F.; O'Connell, B.; Strutt, R.B.

    1982-01-01

    The results of measurements of the rise-time of muon scintillator responses recorded from extensive air showers detected at Haverah Park are described. A high-speed storage oscilloscope recording system has been used to study both the average characteristics of muon time spreads and the fluctuations in arrival-time distributions between individual showers. The average muon time spreads are found to be a function of core distance, zenith angle and muon threshold energy. There is evidence that velocity delays are an important contribution to the muon rise-times for detectors with threshold energies < approximately 500 MeV. Significant fluctuations in the muon time spreads between individual showers are found. The average characteristics of the muon arrival-time distributions are also compared with the shower computer simulations. (author)

  20. Separation of γ-ray, electron and proton induced air showers applied to diffuse emission studies with H.E.S.S

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, Tanya

    2017-01-18

    A fundamental issue in ground-based gamma-ray astronomy is the identification of γ-ray events among the overwhelming background of air showers induced by charged cosmic rays. Reconstruction techniques exist to distinguish most of the background of hadrons but an irreducible background of electrons and gamma-like protons still remain. I present here a new technique making use of high-altitude Cherenkov light emitted by the charged primary particle and air shower development properties. This method provides a way to distinguish between electrons and gamma rays on a statistical basis. In addition to this, the remaining proton background can also be identified. The technique was developed, tested and applied to studies using the High Energy Stereoscopic System (H.E.S.S.) located in Namibia. The analysis method is especially important in the detection of diffuse signals and eliminates the necessity of a background region in the field of view. The technique was applied to three scientific studies. The latitude profile of the Galactic diffuse γ-ray emission was analysed. A width of σ=0.25±0.05 (0.20±0.06 ) for energies of 380 to 900 GeV(1 to 6 TeV) was determined. The cosmic electron spectrum was measured between 0.38 and 14 TeV and a broken power law was fit to the data. The spectrum steepens from Γ=3.08±0.06 to Γ=3.72±0.12 at a break in energy of 1.11±0.04 TeV. In addition, upper limits on the maximum γ-ray contamination from the Isotropic γ-Ray Background was placed at 4 x 10{sup -3}(5 x 10{sup -3}) MeVcm{sup -2}s{sup -1}sr{sup -1} for energies of 1 to 6 TeV(380 to 900 GeV).

  1. The Track Imaging Cerenkov Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wissel, S. A.; Byrum, K.; Cunningham, J. D.; Drake, G.; Hays, E.; Horan, D.; Kieda, D.; Kovacs, E.; Macgill, S.; Nodulman, L.; hide

    2012-01-01

    We describe a dedicated cosmic-ray telescope that explores a new method for detecting Cerenkov radiation from high-energy primary cosmic rays and the large particle air shower they induce upon entering the atmosphere. Using a camera comprising 16 multi-anode photomultiplier tubes for a total of 256 pixels, the Track Imaging Cerenkov Experiment (TrICE) resolves substructures in particle air showers with 0.086deg resolution. Cerenkov radiation is imaged using a novel two-part optical system in which a Fresnel lens provides a wide-field optical trigger and a mirror system collects delayed light with four times the magnification. TrICE records well-resolved cosmic-ray air showers at rates ranging between 0.01-0.1 Hz.

  2. Status of the UMC cosmic ray experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nitz, D.

    1989-01-01

    The UMC Ultra High Energy cosmic ray experiment is a collaboration among the University of Utah, the University of Michigan, and the University of Chicago. It is located at the site of the Fly's Eye II experiment at Dugway, Utah, at latitude 40.2 0 and an atmospheric depth of 850 gm/cm 2 . Extensive air shower (EAS) surface arrays, a large area muon counter array, tracking Cerenkov telescopes, and the Fly's Eye detector constitute the elements of a versatile cosmic ray observatory for > or approx. 10 14 eV extensive air showers. (orig.)

  3. Depth of maximum of air-shower profiles at the Pierre Auger Observatory. I. Measurements at energies above 10.sup.17.8./sup.  eV

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Aab, A.; Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Boháčová, Martina; Chudoba, Jiří; Ebr, Jan; Mandát, Dušan; Nečesal, Petr; Palatka, Miroslav; Pech, Miroslav; Prouza, Michael; Řídký, Jan; Schovánek, Petr; Trávníček, Petr; Vícha, Jakub

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 90, č. 12 (2014), "122005-1"-"122005-25" ISSN 1550-7998 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 7AMB14AR005; GA MŠk(CZ) LG13007; GA ČR(CZ) GA14-17501S Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : astroparticle physics * Pierre Auger Observatory * cosmic rays * air showers * depth of maximum * Xmax Subject RIV: BF - Elementary Particles and High Energy Physics Impact factor: 4.643, year: 2014

  4. Simulation of the time structure of Extensive Air Showers with CORSIKA initiated by various primary particles at Alborz-I observatory level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahmanabadi, Mahmud; Moghaddam, Saba Mortazavi

    2018-05-01

    A detailed simulation of showers with various zenith angles in atmosphere produced by different primary particles including gamma, proton, carbon, and iron at Alborz-I observatory level (35∘43‧N, 51∘20‧E, 1200 m a.s.l= 890 gcm-2), in the energy range 3 × 1013 eV-3 × 1015 eV, has been performed by means of the CORSIKA Monte Carlo code. The aim of this study is to examine the time structure of secondary particles in Extensive Air Showers (EAS) produced by the different primary particles. For each primary particle, the distribution of the mean values of the time delays of secondary particles relative to the first particle hitting the ground level in each EAS, = , and the distribution of their mean standard deviations, in terms of distance from the shower core are obtained. The mean thickness and profile of showers as a function of their energy, primary mass, and zenith angle is described.

  5. Recent status of the Tibet ASγ experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amenomori, M.; Cao, Z.; Ding, L.K.; Feng, Z.Y.; Hibino, K.; Hotta, N.; Huang, Q.; Huo, A.X.; Jia, H.Y.; Jiang, G.Z.; Jiao, S.Q.; Kajino, F.; Kasahara, K.; Labaciren; Mei, D.M.; Meng, L.; Meng, X.R.; Mimaciren; Mizutani, K.; Mu, J.; Nanjo, H.; Nishizawa, M.; Nusang; Oguro, A.; Ohnishi, M.; Ohta, I.; Ren, J.R.; Saito, T.; Sakata, M.; Shi, Z.Z.

    1993-01-01

    The recent status of Tibet air shower experiment, the shadowing measurement of the Moon and the sun and the results of the searching for the steady emission of 10 TeV gamma rays from Crab Nebula, Cyg X-3 and Her X-1 are reported

  6. Underground cosmic-ray experiment EMMA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuusiniemi, P.; Bezrukov, L.; Enqvist, T.

    2013-01-01

    EMMA (Experiment with MultiMuon Array) is a new approach to study the composition of cosmic rays at the knee region (1 – 10 PeV). The array will measure the multiplicity and lateral distribution of the high-energy muon component of an air shower and its arrival direction on an event-by-event basis...

  7. Depth of Ultra High Energy Cosmic Ray Induced Air Shower Maxima Measured by the Telescope Array Black Rock and Long Ridge FADC Fluorescence Detectors and Surface Array in Hybrid Mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasi, R. U.; Abe, M.; Abu-Zayyad, T.; Allen, M.; Azuma, R.; Barcikowski, E.; Belz, J. W.; Bergman, D. R.; Blake, S. A.; Cady, R.; Cheon, B. G.; Chiba, J.; Chikawa, M.; di Matteo, A.; Fujii, T.; Fujita, K.; Fukushima, M.; Furlich, G.; Goto, T.; Hanlon, W.; Hayashi, M.; Hayashi, Y.; Hayashida, N.; Hibino, K.; Honda, K.; Ikeda, D.; Inoue, N.; Ishii, T.; Ishimori, R.; Ito, H.; Ivanov, D.; Jeong, H. M.; Jeong, S. M.; Jui, C. C. H.; Kadota, K.; Kakimoto, F.; Kalashev, O.; Kasahara, K.; Kawai, H.; Kawakami, S.; Kawana, S.; Kawata, K.; Kido, E.; Kim, H. B.; Kim, J. H.; Kim, J. H.; Kishigami, S.; Kitamura, S.; Kitamura, Y.; Kuzmin, V.; Kuznetsov, M.; Kwon, Y. J.; Lee, K. H.; Lubsandorzhiev, B.; Lundquist, J. P.; Machida, K.; Martens, K.; Matsuyama, T.; Matthews, J. N.; Mayta, R.; Minamino, M.; Mukai, K.; Myers, I.; Nagasawa, K.; Nagataki, S.; Nakamura, R.; Nakamura, T.; Nonaka, T.; Oda, H.; Ogio, S.; Ogura, J.; Ohnishi, M.; Ohoka, H.; Okuda, T.; Omura, Y.; Ono, M.; Onogi, R.; Oshima, A.; Ozawa, S.; Park, I. H.; Pshirkov, M. S.; Rodriguez, D. C.; Rubtsov, G.; Ryu, D.; Sagawa, H.; Sahara, R.; Saito, K.; Saito, Y.; Sakaki, N.; Sakurai, N.; Scott, L. M.; Seki, T.; Sekino, K.; Shah, P. D.; Shibata, F.; Shibata, T.; Shimodaira, H.; Shin, B. K.; Shin, H. S.; Smith, J. D.; Sokolsky, P.; Stokes, B. T.; Stratton, S. R.; Stroman, T. A.; Suzawa, T.; Takagi, Y.; Takahashi, Y.; Takamura, M.; Takeda, M.; Takeishi, R.; Taketa, A.; Takita, M.; Tameda, Y.; Tanaka, H.; Tanaka, K.; Tanaka, M.; Thomas, S. B.; Thomson, G. B.; Tinyakov, P.; Tkachev, I.; Tokuno, H.; Tomida, T.; Troitsky, S.; Tsunesada, Y.; Tsutsumi, K.; Uchihori, Y.; Udo, S.; Urban, F.; Wong, T.; Yamamoto, M.; Yamane, R.; Yamaoka, H.; Yamazaki, K.; Yang, J.; Yashiro, K.; Yoneda, Y.; Yoshida, S.; Yoshii, H.; Zhezher, Y.; Zundel, Z.; Telescope Array Collaboration

    2018-05-01

    The Telescope Array (TA) observatory utilizes fluorescence detectors and surface detectors (SDs) to observe air showers produced by ultra high energy cosmic rays in Earth’s atmosphere. Cosmic-ray events observed in this way are termed hybrid data. The depth of air shower maximum is related to the mass of the primary particle that generates the shower. This paper reports on shower maxima data collected over 8.5 yr using the Black Rock Mesa and Long Ridge fluorescence detectors in conjunction with the array of SDs. We compare the means and standard deviations of the observed {X}\\max distributions with Monte Carlo {X}\\max distributions of unmixed protons, helium, nitrogen, and iron, all generated using the QGSJet II-04 hadronic model. We also perform an unbinned maximum likelihood test of the observed data, which is subjected to variable systematic shifting of the data {X}\\max distributions to allow us to test the full distributions, and compare them to the Monte Carlo to see which elements are not compatible with the observed data. For all energy bins, QGSJet II-04 protons are found to be compatible with TA hybrid data at the 95% confidence level after some systematic {X}\\max shifting of the data. Three other QGSJet II-04 elements are found to be compatible using the same test procedure in an energy range limited to the highest energies where data statistics are sparse.

  8. Cygnus experiment at Los Alamos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dingus, B.L.; Goodman, J.A.; Gupta, S.K.

    1986-01-01

    The Cygnus experiment at Los Alamos National Laboratory has been designed to study, with high angular accuracy, point sources of gamma rays of energy above 10 14 eV. The experimental detector consists of an air shower array to observe gamma-ray showers and a shielded, large-area track detector to study the muon content of the showers. In this paper we present preliminary data from the array and describe its performance. 9 refs., 3 figs

  9. The status of the CYGNUS experiment: Past, present and future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haines, T.J.; Berley, D.; Chang, C.Y.; Dingus, B.L.; Goodman, J.A.; Stark, M. (Maryland Univ., College Park (USA)); Burman, R.L.; Cady, D.R.; Hoffman, C.M.; Lloyd-Evans, J.; Nagle, D.E.; Potter, M.; Sandberg, V.D.; Wilkinson, C.A. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA)); Alexandreas, D.E.; Allen, R.C.; Biller, S.; Dion, G.M.; Lu, X.Q.; Vishwanath, P.R.; Yodh, G.B. (California Univ., Irvine (USA)); Ellsworth, R.W. (George Mason Univ., Fairfax, VA (USA)); CYGNUS Collaboration

    1990-03-01

    The CYGNUS experiment, located in Los Alamos, NM, has been continuously operating since April 2, 1986. The experiment consists of an air shower array and an associated 44 m{sup 2} detector; its large size, good angular resolution, muon detection, and low energy threshold make it a unique experiment among those currently operating. The experiment has undergone continuous expansion in several stages since it began operation. The experiment, its expansion, and further plans for the future will be described. (orig.).

  10. Cosmic Ray Results from the CosmoALEPH Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Grupen, C; Jost, B; Maciuc, F; Luitz, S; Mailov, A; Müller, A S; Putzer, A; Rensch, B; Sander, H G; Schmeling, S; Schmelling, M; Tcaciuc, R; Wachsmuth, H; Ziegler, T; Zuber, K

    2008-01-01

    CosmoALEPH is an experiment operated in conjunction with the ALEPH detector. The ALEPH experiment took data from 1989 until the year 2000 at the Large Electron Positron Collider (LEP) at CERN. It provides, among others, high resolution tracking and calorimetry. CosmoALEPH used this e+e− detector for cosmic ray studies. In addition, six scintillator telescopes were installed in the ALEPH pit and the LEP tunnel. The whole experiment operated underground at a vertical depth of 320 meter water equivalent. Data from ALEPH and the scintillator telescopes provide informaton on the lateral distribution of energetic cosmic ray muons in extensive air showers. The decoherence curve of these remnant air shower muons is sensitive to the chemical composition of primary cosmic rays and to the interaction characteristics of energetic hadrons in the atmosphere. An attempt is made to extract the various interdependencies in describing the propagation of primary and secondary cosmic rays through the atmosphere and the rock ov...

  11. Stereo-scopy of {gamma}-ray air showers with the H.E.S.S. telescopes: first images of the supernova remnants at TeV; Stereoscopie de gerbes de {gamma} avec les telescopes H.E.S.S.: premieres images de vestiges de supernovae au TeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemoine-Goumard, Marianne [Ecole Polytechnique, 91128 Palaiseau Cedex (France)

    2006-05-15

    The H.E.S.S. (High Energy Stereoscopic System) experiment in gamma-ray Astronomy consists of four imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes devoted to the observation of the gamma-ray sky in the energy domain above 100 GeV and extending up to several tens of TeV. This thesis presents a new reconstruction method of gamma-ray induced air showers which takes full advantage of the stereo-scopy and of the fine-grain imaging of the H.E.S.S. cameras. This new method provides an angular resolution better than 0.1 angle, an energy resolution of about 15% at zenith and a very efficient hadronic rejection based on a cut on the lateral spread of the electromagnetic shower which does not depend on simulations. A new background subtraction method, well adapted to the study of extended sources, was also developed. No assumption, either on the distribution of gamma-rays in the field of view, or on the distribution of hadrons are necessary. It provides two sky maps obtained from a maximum likelihood fit: one for {gamma}-rays and the other for hadrons. These two analysis methods were applied to the study of the shell-type supernova remnants RX J1713.7-3946 and RX J0852.0-4622 (Vela Junior), allowing for the first time to resolve their morphology in the gamma-ray domain. The study of these sources should answer the question: 'can shell-type supernova remnants accelerate cosmic-rays up to the knee (5 x 10{sup 15} eV)?'. A morphological and spectral study of these sources combined with a comparison of a simple model of emission processes (from electrons and protons accelerated in supernova remnants) provides some constraints on the parameters of the leptonic process. Nevertheless, this scenario cannot be excluded. The different results obtained are discussed and compared with a third shell-type supernova remnant observed by H.E.S.S. but not detected: SN 1006. (author)

  12. The current status and prospect of the TA experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasahara, K. [Faculty of Systems Engineering, Dept. of Electronic and Information Systems, Minuma-ku, Saitama-shi, Saitama (Japan)

    2005-07-01

    The Telescope Array (TA) experiment is designed to observe cosmic-ray-induced air showers at extremely high energies. It is being deployed in a desert of Utah (Usa); an array of 3 m{sup 2} scintillation counters will be distributed over 760 km{sup 2} and 3 sets of air fluorescence telescopes will be placed in the perimeter of the array. Its primary purpose is to make a decisive measurement of the cosmic ray spectrum in the GZK (Greisen, Zatsepin and Kuzmin) cutoff region. We expect the first data from the TA in the spring 2007. As its unique features are included: 1) hybrid measurement planned down to 10{sup 17.5} eV; 2) calibration of fluorescence detection by using artificial air showers generated by an electron line; and 3) interaction model calibration by the LHC. (author)

  13. The Chicago Air Shower Array (CASA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibbs, K.G.

    1988-01-01

    In order to improve the ultrahigh energy flux sensitivity beyond that of existing detectors a new class of very large detectors must be built. In this paper we will discuss one approach to this goal. (orig.)

  14. The Status of the Telescope Array experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tokuno, H; Azuma, R [Tokyo Institute of Technology, Meguro, Tokyo (Japan); Abu-Zayyad, T; Allen, M; Barcikowski, E; Belz, J W; Blake, S A; Brusova, O; Cady, R [University of Utah, High Energy Astrophysics Institute, Salt Lake City, Utah (United States); Aida, R [University of Yamanashi, Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Medicine and Engineering, Kofu, Yamanashi (Japan); Benno, T; Chikawa, M; Doura, K [Kinki University, Higashi Osaka, Osaka (Japan); Bergman, D R [Rutgers University, Piscataway (United States); Cheon, B G; Cho, E J [Hanyang University, Seongdong-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Chiba, J [Tokyo University of Science, Noda, Chiba (Japan); Cho, L S; Cho, W R [Yonsei University, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Cohen, F, E-mail: htokuno@cr.phys.titech.ac.jp [Institute for Cosmic Ray Research, University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, Chiba (Japan)

    2011-04-01

    The purpose of The Telescope Array experiment is to identify origin of the ultra high energy cosmic rays. The Telescope Array is a hybrid detector consists of a surface detector array and air fluorescence detectors. This hybrid detector is observing extensive air showers to measure the energy spectrum, anisotropy and composition of Ultra High Energy Cosmic Rays. The detector construction has been completed in March 2008, and the hybrid observation with the full configuration has been running since that time. In this talk, the status of observation and our prospects are described.

  15. The surface detector array of the Telescope Array experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abu-Zayyad, T. [University of Utah, High Energy Astrophysics Institute, Salt Lake City, Utah (United States); Aida, R. [University of Yamanashi, Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Medicine and Engineering, Kofu, Yamanashi (Japan); Allen, M.; Anderson, R. [University of Utah, High Energy Astrophysics Institute, Salt Lake City, Utah (United States); Azuma, R. [Tokyo Institute of Technology, Meguro, Tokyo (Japan); Barcikowski, E.; Belz, J.W.; Bergman, D.R.; Blake, S.A.; Cady, R. [University of Utah, High Energy Astrophysics Institute, Salt Lake City, Utah (United States); Cheon, B.G. [Hanyang University, Seongdong-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Chiba, J. [Tokyo University of Science, Noda, Chiba (Japan); Chikawa, M. [Kinki University, Higashi Osaka, Osaka (Japan); Cho, E.J. [Hanyang University, Seongdong-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Cho, W.R. [Yonsei University, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Fujii, H. [Institute of Particle and Nuclear Studies, KEK, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Fujii, T. [Osaka City University, Osaka, Osaka (Japan); Fukuda, T. [Tokyo Institute of Technology, Meguro, Tokyo (Japan); Fukushima, M. [Institute for Cosmic Ray Research, University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, Chiba (Japan); University of Tokyo, Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe, Kashiwa, Chiba (Japan); Gorbunov, D. [Institute for Nuclear Research of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); and others

    2012-10-11

    The Telescope Array (TA) experiment, located in the western desert of Utah, USA, is designed for the observation of extensive air showers from extremely high energy cosmic rays. The experiment has a surface detector array surrounded by three fluorescence detectors to enable simultaneous detection of shower particles at ground level and fluorescence photons along the shower track. The TA surface detectors and fluorescence detectors started full hybrid observation in March, 2008. In this article we describe the design and technical features of the TA surface detector.

  16. The surface detector array of the Telescope Array experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abu-Zayyad, T.; Aida, R.; Allen, M.; Anderson, R.; Azuma, R.; Barcikowski, E.; Belz, J.W.; Bergman, D.R.; Blake, S.A.; Cady, R.; Cheon, B.G.; Chiba, J.; Chikawa, M.; Cho, E.J.; Cho, W.R.; Fujii, H.; Fujii, T.; Fukuda, T.; Fukushima, M.; Gorbunov, D.

    2012-01-01

    The Telescope Array (TA) experiment, located in the western desert of Utah, USA, is designed for the observation of extensive air showers from extremely high energy cosmic rays. The experiment has a surface detector array surrounded by three fluorescence detectors to enable simultaneous detection of shower particles at ground level and fluorescence photons along the shower track. The TA surface detectors and fluorescence detectors started full hybrid observation in March, 2008. In this article we describe the design and technical features of the TA surface detector.

  17. Cosmic ray nuclear interactions and EAS-triggered families observed by the Chacaltaya hybrid experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoki, H.; Honda, K.; Inoue, N.; Ishii, T.; Kawasumi, N.; Martinic, N.; Ochi, N.; Ohmori, N.; Ohsawa, A.; Tamada, M.; Ticona, R.

    2008-01-01

    Longitudinal and lateral characteristics of the families detected by emulsion chambers in the hybrid experiment with AS-array at Mt. Chacaltaya are studied in detail. Although many groups discuss about an increase of the heavy component in primary cosmic-rays beyond the knee region, it is shown that the observed characteristics of the families accompanied by large shower size, Ne>10 6 , can not be explained by an increase of heavy primaries alone. It is necessary to assume some changes of nuclear interaction in order to explain the observed characteristics of the air-showers accompanied by families

  18. EMMA: A new underground cosmic-ray experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enqvist, T; Foehr, V; Joutsenvaara, J; Jaemsen, T; Keraenen, P; Kuusiniemi, P; Laitala, H; Lehtola, M; Mattila, A; Narkilahti, J; Peltoniemi, J; Remes, H; Reponen, M; Raeihae, T; Sarkamo, J; Shen, C; Vaittinen, M; Zhang, Z; Ding, L; Zhu, Q; Roos, M; Dzaparova, I; Karpov, S; Kurenya, A; Petkov, V; Yanin, A; Fynbo, H

    2006-01-01

    A cosmic-ray experiment of new type is under construction in the Pyhaesalmi mine in the underground laboratory of the University of Oulu, Finland. It aims to study the composition of cosmic rays at and above the knee region (energy above 1 PeV). The experiment, called EMMA, covers about 150 m 2 of detector area, and the setup is capable of measuring the multiplicity and the lateral distribution of underground muons, and the arrival direction of the air shower. The detector is placed at the depth of about 85 metres (corresponding about 240 mwe) which gives a threshold energy of muons of about 45 GeV. The rock overburden filters out all other particles of the air shower except the high-energy muons. These high-energy muons originate at high altitudes close to the first interaction of the primary cosmic ray and they carry more information about the primary than low-energy muons. The full-size detector is supposed to run by the end of 2007

  19. Cosmic Rays from the Knee to the Ankle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haungs, Andreas

    Investigations of the energy spectrum as well as the mass composition of cosmic rays in the energy range of PeV to EeV are important for understanding both, the origin of the galactic and the extragalactic cosmic rays. Recently, three modern experimental installations (KASCADE-Grande, IceTop, Tunka-133), dedicated to investigate this primary energy range, have published new results on the all-particle energy spectrum. In this short review these results are presented and the similarities and differences discussed. In addition, the effects of using different hadronic interaction models for interpreting the measured air-shower data will be examined. Finally, a brief discussion on the question if the present results are in agreement or in contradiction with astrophysical models for the transition from galactic to extragalactic origin of cosmic rays completes this paper.

  20. Scintillation detectors of Alborz-I experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pezeshkian, Yousef; Bahmanabadi, Mahmud; Abbasian Motlagh, Mehdi; Rezaie, Masume

    2015-01-01

    A new air shower experiment of the Alborz Observatory, Alborz-I, located at the Sharif University of Technology, Iran, will be constructed in near future. An area of about 30×40 m 2 will be covered by 20 plastic scintillation detectors (each with an area of 50×50 cm 2 ). A series of experiments have been performed to optimize the height of light enclosures of the detectors for this array and the results have been compared to an extended code simulation of these detectors. Operational parameters of the detector obtained by this code are cross checked by the Geant4 simulation. There is a good agreement between the extended-code and Geant4 simulations. We also present further discussions on the detector characteristics, which can be applicable for all scintillation detectors with a similar configuration

  1. Probing the radio emission from air showers with polarization measurements

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Aab, A.; Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Boháčová, Martina; Chudoba, Jiří; Ebr, Jan; Mandát, Dušan; Nečesal, Petr; Nožka, Libor; Palatka, Miroslav; Pech, Miroslav; Prouza, Michael; Řídký, Jan; Schovánek, Petr; Trávníček, Petr; Vícha, Jakub

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 89, č. 5 (2014), "052002-1"-"052002-18" ISSN 1550-7998 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LG13007; GA TA ČR TA01010517; GA MŠk(CZ) 7AMB12AR013 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : Pierre Auger Observatory * detector * cosmic rays Subject RIV: BF - Elementary Particles and High Energy Physics Impact factor: 4.643, year: 2014

  2. Milagro: A low energy threshold extensive air shower array

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinnis, C.

    1994-12-31

    Observations of high-energy gamma rays from astronomical sources have revolutionized our view of the cosmos. Gamma rays with energies up to {approximately}10 GeV can be observed directly with space-based instruments. Above 100 GeV the low flux of gamma rays requires one to utilize ground-based instruments. Milagro is a new type of gamma-ray detector based on water Cerenkov technology. This new design will enable to continuously observe the entire overhead sky, and be sensitive to cosmic rays with energies above {approximately}250 GeV. These attributes make Milagro an ideal detector for the study of high-energy transient phenomenon.

  3. Air shower detection and the energy flow in electromagnetic cascades

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stanev, Todor (Nuclear Power Oversight Committee (United States)); Vankov, H.P. (Bylgarska Akademiya na Naukite, Sofia (Bulgaria). Inst. za Yadrena Izsledvaniya i Yadrena Energetika)

    1992-02-01

    We study the longitudinal behaviour of the energy carried by the shower particles E{sub c} and its lateral distribution, give simple parametrizations of the results of Monte Carlo simulations, and discuss the advantages of shower detectors that measure directly E{sub c}. (author).

  4. Other physics experiments at the Homestake Mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherry, M.L.; Davidson, I.; Lande, K.; Lee, C.K.; Marshall, E.; Steinberg, R.I.

    1982-01-01

    The Homestake Gold Mine presently houses the Brookhaven solar neutrino experiment and a 300-ton water Cerenkov detector at a depth of 4200 meters water equivalent. The Cerenkov detector has been used to study nucleon decay, multiple muons, and neutrino bursts. An array of liquid scintillator, with surface area of 130 m 2 , is presently being constructed to measure magnetic monopoles, neutrino oscillations, underground muons, and neutrino bursts. At the same time, a 1 km 2 extensive air shower array is being built on the surface in order to measure the high energy cosmic ray composition with simultaneous surface and underground shower measurements. Future plans call for a 1406-ton liquid scintillator Tracking Spectrometer to measure nucleon decay, n-anti n transitions, and the low energy cosmic ray neutrino spectrum. We describe the present results and the possibilities for physics other than nucleon decay in the nucleon decay detectors

  5. Muon Detector R&D in Telescope Array Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonaka, T.; Takamura, M.; Honda, K.; Matthews, J. N.; Ogio, S.; Sakurai, N.; Sagawa, H.; Stokes, B. T.; Tsujimoto, M.; Yashiro, K.

    The Telescope Array (TA) experiment, located in the western desert of Utah, U.S.A., at 39.38° north and 112.9° west, is collecting data of ultra high energy cosmic rays in the energy range 1018-1020 eV. The experiment has a Surface Detector (SD) array surrounded by three Fluorescence Detector (FD) stations to enable simultaneous detection of shower particles and fluorescence photons generated by the extensive air shower. Measurement of shower particles at the ground level, with different absorber thickness, enables a more detailed studies of the experiment's energy scale and of hadron interaction models. In this report, we present a design and the first observation result of a surface muon detector using lead plates and concrete as absorbers.

  6. Status of the LHCf experiment and future prospects

    CERN Document Server

    Itow, Yoshitaka

    2016-01-01

    The Large Hadron Collider forward (LHCf) experiment is a special purpose experiment dedicated to measure the production of neutral particles at the very forward region of the LHC. The data are useful to verify hadronic interaction that influence the development of an air shower. Until now data have been obtained for p-p collisions at $\\sqrt{s} = 0.9$ and 7 TeV and p-Pb collisions at $\\sqrt{s} = 5.02$ TeV/n. Here we will discuss the energy spectra for gamma rays, $\\pi^{0}$s and neutrons from the obtained data. In addition we will also discuss the prospects of 13 TeV p-p collisions as well as that for the possible future measurement of p-p or p-light ions collision data in the very forward region at RHIC or at LHC.

  7. Very high-energy {gamma}-ray observations of the Crab nebula and other potential sources with the GRAAL experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arqueros, F.A.; Ballestrin, J.; Berenguel, M.; Borque, D.M.; Camacho, E.F.; Diaz, M.; Enriquez, R.; Gebauer, H.J.; Plaga, R.

    2001-07-01

    The Gamma Ray Astronomy at Almeria (GRAAL) experiment uses 63 heliostat-mirrors with a total mirror area of {approx}2500 m''2 from the CESA-1 field to collect Cherenkov light from air showers. The detector is located in a central solar tower and detects photon-induced showers with an energy threshold of 250{+-}110 GeV and an asymptotic effective detection area of about 15000 m''2. Data sets taken in the period September 1999-September 2000 in the direction of the Crab pulsar and the active galaxy 3C 454.3 were analysed for high energy {gamma}-ray emission. Evidence for {gamma}-ray flux from the Crab pulsar with an integral flux of 2.2{+-}0.4 (stat) ''1.9{sub 1}.5 (syst x 10''-9 cm''-2 s''-1) above threshold and a significance of 4.5 {sigma} in a total (usable) observing time of 7 hours and 10 minutes on source was found. No evidence for emission from the other sources was seen. The effect of the field-of-view restricted to the central part of a detected air shower on the lateral distribution and iming properties of Cherenkov light and their effect on an efficient {gamma}-hadron separation are discussed. (Author) 6 refs.

  8. A summary of recent results from the GRAPES-3 experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta S.K.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The GRAPES-3 experiment is a combination of a high density extensive air shower (EAS array of nearly 400 plastic scintillator detectors, and a large 560 m2 area tracking muon telescope with an energy threshold Eμ >1 GeV. GRAPES-3 has been operating continuously in Ooty, India since 2000. By accurately correcting for the effects of atmospheric pressure and temperature, the muon telescope provides a high precision directional survey of the galactic cosmic ray (GCR intensity. This telescope has been used to observe the acceleration of muons during thunderstorm events. The recent discovery of a transient weakening of the Earth's magnetic shield through the detection of a GCR burst was the highlight of the GRAPES-3 results. We have an ongoing major expansion activity to further enhance the capability of the GRAPES-3 muon telescope by doubling its area.

  9. First results of the TIANSHAN radio experiment for neutrino detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martineau-Huynh, O., E-mail: omartino@in2p3.fr [Laboratoire de Physique Nucleaire et de Physique des Hautes Energies, CNRS/IN2P3 and Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris Cedex (France); National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Science, Beijing (China); Key Laboratory of Particle Astrophysics, Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China); Ardouin, D. [SUBATECH, Ecole des Mines, CNRS/IN2P3 and Universite de Nantes, Nantes (France); Carloganu, C. [Clermont Universite, Universite Blaise Pascal, CNRS/IN2P3, Laboratoire de Physique Corpusculaire, BP 10448, Clermond-Ferrand (France); Charrier, D. [SUBATECH, Ecole des Mines, CNRS/IN2P3 and Universite de Nantes, Nantes (France); Gou, Q.; Hu, H. [Key Laboratory of Particle Astrophysics, Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China); Kai, L. [Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Science, Beijing 100049 (China); Lautridou, P. [SUBATECH, Ecole des Mines, CNRS/IN2P3 and Universite de Nantes, Nantes (France); Niess, V. [Clermont Universite, Universite Blaise Pascal, CNRS/IN2P3, Laboratoire de Physique Corpusculaire, BP 10448, Clermond-Ferrand (France); Ravel, O. [SUBATECH, Ecole des Mines, CNRS/IN2P3 and Universite de Nantes, Nantes (France); Saugrin, T.; Wu, X. [National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Science, Beijing (China); Zhang, J.; Zhang, Y. [Key Laboratory of Particle Astrophysics, Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China); Zhao, M. [National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Science, Beijing (China); Zheng, Y. [Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Science, Beijing 100049 (China)

    2012-01-11

    We present the first results of a set-up called TIANSHAN radio experiment for neutrino detection (TREND) being presently deployed on the site of the 21 cm array (21CMA) radio telescope, in XinJiang, China. We describe here its detection performances as well as the analysis method we applied to the data recorded with a small scale prototype. We demonstrate the ability of the TREND set-up for an autonomous radio-detection of extended air showers induced by cosmic rays. The full set-up will consist of 80 antennas deployed over a 4 km{sup 2} area, and could result in a very attractive and unequalled radio-detection facility for the characterization of showers induced by ultra-high energy neutrinos with energies around 10{sup 17} eV.

  10. The LHCf experiment at CERN motivations and current status

    CERN Document Server

    D'Alessandro, R; Bonechi, L; Bongi, M; Castellini, G; Faus, D A; Fukui, K; Grandi, M; Haguenauer, M; Itow, Y; Kasahara, K; Macina, D; Mase, T; Masuda, K; Matsubara, Y; Menjo, H; Mizuishi, M; Muraki, Y; Papini, P; Perrot, A L; Ricciarini, S; Sako, T; Shimizu, Y; Taki, K; Tamura, T; Torii, S; Tricomi, A; Turner, W C; Velasco, J; Viciani, A; Yoshida, K

    2009-01-01

    LHCf is an experiment currently installed at CERN at the LHC complex. It consists of two small calorimeters each one placed 140 meters away from the ATLAS interaction point. Their purpose is to study forward production of neutral particles in proton-proton collisions at extremely low angles. The results will provide invaluable inputs to the many air-shower Monte Carlo codes currently used for modeling cosmic rays interactions in the Earth atmosphere. Depending on machine start up, data will be taken from 900 GeV in the centre of mass up to 14 TeV (laboratory equivalent collision energy of 1017eV), thus covering an energy range up to and beyond the “knee” of the cosmic ray spectrum.

  11. L3 + Cosmics Experiment

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    %RE4 %title\\\\ \\\\The L3+C experiment takes advantage of the unique properties of the L3 muon spectrometer to get an accurate measurement of cosmic ray muons 30 m underground. A new muon trigger, readout and DAQ system have been installed, as well as a scintillator array covering the upper surfaces of the L3 magnet for timing purposes. The acceptance amounts to 200 $m^2 sr$. The data are collected independently in parallel with L3 running. In spring 2000 a scintillator array will be installed on the roof of the SX hall in order to estimate the primary energy of air showers associated with events observed in L3+C.\\\\ \\\\The cosmic ray muon momentum spectrum, the zenith angular dependence and the charge ratio are measured with high accuracy between 20 and 2000 GeV/c. The results will provide new information about the primary composition, the shower development in the atmosphere, and the inclusive pion and kaon (production-) cross sections (specifically the "$\\pi$/K ratio") at high energies. These data will also hel...

  12. Development and data analysis of a radio-detection of ultra high energy cosmic rays experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belletoile, A.

    2007-10-01

    The radio-detection of cosmic rays was first attempted in the sixties. Unfortunately at that time, the results suffered from poor reproducibility and the technique was abandoned in favour of direct particle and fluorescence detection. Taking advantage of recent technological improvements the radio-detection of ultra high energy cosmic rays is being reinvestigated. In this document, first, we remind the reader of the global problematic of cosmic rays. Then, the several mechanisms involved in the emission of an electric field associated with extensive air showers are discussed. The CODALEMA (cosmic detection array with logarithmic electro magnetic antenna) experiment that aims to demonstrate the feasibility of cosmic ray radio-detection, is extensively described along with the first experimental results. A radio-detection test experiment implanted at the giant detector Pierre Auger is presented. It should provide inputs to design the future detector using this technique at extreme energies. (author)

  13. Calibration of the RPC charge readout in the ARGO-YBJ experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aielli, G. [Dipartimento di Fisica dell& #x27; Universita & #x27; Tor Vergata& #x27; , via della Ricerca Scientifica 1, 00133 Roma (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Tor Vergata, via della Ricerca Scientifica 1, 00133 Roma (Italy); Bacci, C. [Dipartimento di Fisica dell& #x27; Universita & #x27; Roma Tre& #x27; , via della Vasca Navale 84, 00146 Roma (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Roma3, via della Vasca Navale 84, 00146 Roma (Italy); Bartoli, B. [Dipartimento di Fisica dell& #x27; Universita di Napoli, Complesso Universitario di Monte Sant& #x27; Angelo, via Cintia, 80126 Napoli (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Napoli, Complesso Universitario di Monte Sant& #x27; Angelo, via Cintia, 80126 Napoli (Italy); Bernardini, P. [Dipartimento di Fisica dell& #x27; Universita del Salento, via per Arnesano, 73100 Lecce (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Lecce, via per Arnesano, 73100 Lecce (Italy); Bi, X.J. [Key Laboratory of Particle Astrophyics, Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Science, P.O. Box 918, 100049 Beijing (China); Bleve, C. [Dipartimento di Fisica dell& #x27; Universita del Salento, via per Arnesano, 73100 Lecce (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Lecce, via per Arnesano, 73100 Lecce (Italy); Branchini, P.; Budano, A. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Roma3, via della Vasca Navale 84, 00146 Roma (Italy); and others

    2012-01-01

    The charge readout of Resistive Plate Chambers (RPCs) is implemented in the ARGO-YBJ experiment to measure the charged particle density of the shower front up to 10{sup 4}/m{sup 2}, enabling the study of the primary cosmic rays with energies in the 'knee' region. As the first time for RPCs being used this way, a telescope with RPCs and scintillation detectors is setup to calibrate the number of charged particles hitting a RPC versus its charge readout. Air shower particles are taken as the calibration beam. The telescope was tested at sea level and then moved to the ARGO-YBJ site for coincident operation with the ARGO-YBJ experiment. The charge readout shows good linearity with the particle density in the dynamic range (up to 200/m{sup 2}).

  14. Department of Cosmic Ray Physics; Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szabelski, J.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: Cosmic Rays are energetic particles from outside the Solar System. The energy spectrum (power law energy dependence) suggests a non-thermal origin of these particles. Most of the studies of Cosmic Rays address fundamental problems such as: - the nature of the physical and astrophysical processes responsible for the high energies of particles (up to about 10 20 eV/particle), - estimation of the astrophysical conditions at the acceleration sites and/or a search for sources of Cosmic Rays, - properties of high energy particle interactions at very high energies (nuclear interactions at energies exceeding energies available in the laboratories). Some Cosmic Ray studies might have practical (commercial) implications, e.g. - ''cosmic weather'' forecast - predictions of geomagnetic disturbances related to Solar activity changes (due to large Solar Flares / events of Coronal Mass Ejections); these are important for large electricity networks, gas pipes, radio-wave connections, space missions and satellite experiments. The Department of Cosmic Ray Physics in Lodz is involved in basic research in the high energy Cosmic Ray field. Energetic Cosmic Ray particles produce cascades of particles in the atmosphere, called Extensive Air Showers (EAS). Registering EAS and their properties is the main theme of experimental studies of very high energy Cosmic Rays. In the Lodz Department we run an Extensive Air Shower array where EAS are registered. We concentrate our experimental research on the explanation of particle detection delayed by hundreds of microseconds with respect to the main EAS signals. In the underground (I5 meters) laboratory we continuously register muon (5 GeV energy threshold) flux with the multidirectional telescope. We have observed several disturbances (Forbush Decreases) in muon counting rates. The interpretation of these events for ''cosmic weather'' and for Cosmic Ray transport models in the interplanetary plasma are on going in collaboration with

  15. Department of Cosmic Ray Physics - Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szabelski, J.

    2007-01-01

    The Department of Cosmic Ray Physics in Lodz is involved in basic research in the high energy Cosmic Ray field. Cosmic Rays are energetic particles from outside the Solar System. The energy spectrum (power law energy dependence) suggests non-thermal origin of these particles. Most of the studies of Cosmic Rays address fundamental problems: · the nature of the physical and astrophysical processes responsible for high energies of particles (up to about 1020 eV/particle), · an estimation of the astrophysical conditions at the acceleration sites and/or search for sources of Cosmic Rays, · properties of high energy particle interactions at very high energies (nuclear interactions at energies exceeding energy available in the laboratories). Some Cosmic Ray studies might have practical (commercial) implications, e.g.: · '' cosmic weather '' forecast - predictions of geomagnetic disturbances related to Solar activity changes (due to large Solar Flares / events of Coronal Mass Ejection); these are important for large electricity networks, gas pipes, radio-wave connections, space missions and satellite experiments. Presentation of Cosmic Ray registration to high school students becomes a popular way to introduce particle physics detectors and elementary particle detection techniques to young people. We organize in Lodz several workshops on particle physics for high school students. This is a part of European activity: Masterclass - Hands on CERN. Energetic Cosmic Ray particles produce cascades of particles in the atmosphere, called Extensive Air Showers (EAS). Registering EAS and their properties is the main way of experimental studies of very high energy Cosmic Rays. In Lodz Department we run Extensive Air Shower array where EAS are continuously being registered. We concentrate on the studies of detection of neutrons correlated with EAS and interpretation of this phenomenon. Back in 2004 we started realisation of the Roland Maze Project, the network of EAS detectors

  16. Department of Cosmic Ray Physics - Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szabelski, J.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: The Department of Cosmic Ray Physics in Lodz is involved in basic research in the high energy Cosmic Ray field. Cosmic Rays are energetic particles from outside the Solar System. Most of the studies of Cosmic Rays address fundamental problems: · the nature of the physical and astrophysical processes responsible for high energies of particles · an estimation of the astrophysical conditions at the acceleration sites and/or search for sources of Cosmic Rays, · properties of high energy particle interactions at very high energies. Some Cosmic Ray studies might have practical (commercial) implications, e.g. · '' cosmic weather '' forecast - predictions of geomagnetic disturbances related to Solar activity changes (due to large Solar Flares / events of Coronal Mass Ejection); these are important for large electricity networks, gas pipes, radio-wave connections, space missions and satellite experiments. Presentation of Cosmic Ray registration to high school students becomes a popular way to introduce particle physics detectors and elementary particle detection techniques to young people. We organize in Lodz several workshops on particle physics for high school students. This is a part of European activity: EPPOG's Masterclass - Hands on CERN. Energetic Cosmic Ray particles produce cascades of particles in the atmosphere, called Extensive Air Showers (EAS). Registering EAS and their properties is the main way of experimental studies of very high energy Cosmic Rays. In Lodz Department we run Extensive Air Shower array where EAS are continuously being registered. We concentrate on the studies of detection of neutrons correlated with EAS and interpretation of this phenomenon. In 2004 we started realisation of the Roland Maze Project, the network of EAS detectors placed on the roofs of high schools in Lodz. We received funds from the City of Lodz budget to make a pilot project and equip 10 high schools, each with four 1m 2 detectors and GPS. The network is

  17. Department of Cosmic Ray Physics - Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szabelski, J

    2005-01-01

    Full text: The Department of Cosmic Ray Physics in Lodz is involved in basic research in the high energy Cosmic Ray field. Cosmic Rays are energetic particles from outside the Solar System. The energy spectrum (power law energy dependence) suggests a non-thermal origin of these particles. Most studies of Cosmic Rays address fundamental problems: - the nature of the physical and astrophysical processes responsible for high energies of particles (up to about 10 20 eV/particle), - estimation of the astrophysical conditions at the acceleration sites and/or search for sources of Cosmic Rays, - properties of high energy particle interactions at very high energies (nuclear interactions at energies exceeding energy available in laboratories). - Some Cosmic Ray studies might have practical (commercial) implications, e.g. - ''cosmic weather'' forecast - predictions of geomagnetic disturbances related to Solar activity changes (due to large Solar Flares / events of Coronal Mass Ejection); these are important for large electricity networks, gas pipes, radio-wave connections, space missions and satellite experiments. Presentation of Cosmic Ray registration to high school students is a popular way to introduce particle physics detectors and elementary particle detection techniques to young people. Energetic Cosmic Ray particles produce cascades of particles in the atmosphere, called Extensive Air Showers (EAS). Registering the EAS and their properties is the main way of experimental studies of very high energy Cosmic Rays. In our Lodz Department we run an Extensive Air Shower array where EAS are continuously being registered. We concentrate on the studies of detection of neutrons correlated with EAS and interpretation of this phenomenon. In 2004 we started realisation of the Roland Maze Project, the network of EAS detectors placed on the roofs of high schools in Lodz. We received funds from the City of Lodz's budget to make a pilot project and equip 10 high schools, each with

  18. Department of Cosmic Ray Physics - Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szabelski, J.

    2006-01-01

    The Department of Cosmic Ray Physics in Lodz is involved in basic research in the high energy Cosmic Ray field. Cosmic Rays are energetic particles from outside the Solar System. The energy spectrum (power law energy dependence) suggests a non-thermal origin of these particles. Most of the studies of Cosmic Rays address fundamental problems: · The nature of the physical and astrophysical processes responsible for the high energies of the particles (up to about 1020 eV/particle), · An estimation of the astrophysical conditions at the acceleration sites and/or search for sources of Cosmic Rays, · properties of high energy particle interactions at very high energies (nuclear interactions at energies exceeding energy available in the laboratories). Some Cosmic Ray studies might have practical (commercial) implications, e.g. · 'cosmic weather' forecast - predictions of geomagnetic disturbances related to Solar activity changes (due to large Solar Flares / events of Coronal Mass Ejection); these are important for large electricity networks, gas pipes, radio-wave connections, space missions and satellite experiments. Presentation of Cosmic Ray registration to high school students becomes a popular way to introduce particle physics detectors and elementary particle detection techniques to young people. Energetic Cosmic Ray particles produce cascades of particles in the atmosphere, called Extensive Air Showers (EAS). Registering EAS and their properties is the main way of experimental studies of very high energy Cosmic Rays. In the Lodz Department we run the Extensive Air Shower array where EAS are being registered. We concentrate on the studies of detection of neutrons correlated with EAS and interpretation of this phenomenon. In 2004, we started realisation of the Roland Maze Project, the network of EAS detectors placed on roofs of high schools in Lodz. We received funds from the City of Lodz budget to make a pilot project and equip 10 high schools, each with four 1 m

  19. Comparison of Muon Arrival Time Distributions measured in KASCADE Experiment with Monte Carlo Simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badea, A.F.; Brancus, I.M.; Haeusler, R.; Rebel, H.

    2000-01-01

    The muon arrival time distributions of Extensive Air Showers (EAS) have been studied in KASCADE experiment by data collected in the period October 1997 - April 1999 with more than 3.4 millions of reconstructed showers. The radial distance of the shower center from the central detector has been selected smaller than 110 m. The experimental muon arrival time distributions are compared with simulations of the air shower development, calculated with the Monte Carlo air shower simulation program CORSIKA. The actual calculations are based on the QGSJET model and cover an energy range of 5·10 14 - 3.06·10 16 eV (divided in 7 overlapping energy bins) and a zenith angle range of 0 angle - 40 angle. They are performed for three mass groups: H = light group, O = CNO group, Fe = heavy group) with an energy distribution of a spectral index of -2.7. The simulations comprise a set of ≅ 2000$ showers for each case, except for the bins of the highest energies (6.51·10 15 - 1.82·10 16 eV with ≅1000$ simulated showers and 1.09·10 16 - 3.06·10 16 eV with ≅ 500 simulated showers). The response of the KASCADE detector system and the timing qualities have been simulated using the CRES program, dedicatedly developed by the KASCADE group on the basis of the GEANT code. The particles of the simulated EAS are tracked through the detector setup and the timing response of the detectors are recorded for various core distances from the central detector facilities. Particularly, it should be noted that the timing depends on the energy deposit in the scintillation detectors and on the multiplicities of the muon samples spanning the arrival time distributions of the single EAS. Such effects slightly distorts the measured time distributions and have been corrected by introducing a corresponding correction procedure. The dependence of the experimental and simulated median time values on the N μ tr range, as being proportional to the primary energy, is presented. The good agreement of the

  20. Measurement of the Cosmic Ray primary spectrum with ARGO-YBJ experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panico, B; Iuppa, R; Di Sciascio, G

    2013-01-01

    The study of cosmic ray physic of 10 12 – 10 15 primary cosmic energy is one of the main goals of ARGO-YBJ experiment. The detector, located at the Yangbajing Cosmic Ray Laboratory (Tibet, 4300 m a.s.l., 606 g/cm 2 ), is an EAS array consisting of a continuous carpet of RPCs. The low energy threshold of the detector allows to study an energy region characterized by the transition from the direct to the indirect measurements. In this talk we will report on the measurement of the cosmic ray energy spectrum at different zenith angles. The phenomenology of horizontal air shower (θ > 70°) will be described and discussed.

  1. Development and data analysis of a radio-detection of ultra high energy cosmic rays experiment; Developpement et analyse des donnees d'une experience de radiodetection des rayons cosmiques d'ultra haute energie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belletoile, A

    2007-10-15

    The radio-detection of cosmic rays was first attempted in the sixties. Unfortunately at that time, the results suffered from poor reproducibility and the technique was abandoned in favour of direct particle and fluorescence detection. Taking advantage of recent technological improvements the radio-detection of ultra high energy cosmic rays is being reinvestigated. In this document, first, we remind the reader of the global problematic of cosmic rays. Then, the several mechanisms involved in the emission of an electric field associated with extensive air showers are discussed. The CODALEMA (cosmic detection array with logarithmic electro magnetic antenna) experiment that aims to demonstrate the feasibility of cosmic ray radio-detection, is extensively described along with the first experimental results. A radio-detection test experiment implanted at the giant detector Pierre Auger is presented. It should provide inputs to design the future detector using this technique at extreme energies. (author)

  2. Development and data analysis of a radio-detection of ultra high energy cosmic rays experiment; Developpement et analyse des donnees d'une experience de radiodetection des rayons cosmiques d'ultra haute energie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belletoile, A

    2007-10-15

    The radio-detection of cosmic rays was first attempted in the sixties. Unfortunately at that time, the results suffered from poor reproducibility and the technique was abandoned in favour of direct particle and fluorescence detection. Taking advantage of recent technological improvements the radio-detection of ultra high energy cosmic rays is being reinvestigated. In this document, first, we remind the reader of the global problematic of cosmic rays. Then, the several mechanisms involved in the emission of an electric field associated with extensive air showers are discussed. The CODALEMA (cosmic detection array with logarithmic electro magnetic antenna) experiment that aims to demonstrate the feasibility of cosmic ray radio-detection, is extensively described along with the first experimental results. A radio-detection test experiment implanted at the giant detector Pierre Auger is presented. It should provide inputs to design the future detector using this technique at extreme energies. (author)

  3. Development and featuring of hemispherical photomultipliers for cosmic ray detection - calibration of surface detectors and analysis of horizontal showers at the Pierre Auger Observatory; Developpement et caracterisation de photomultiplicateurs hemispheriques pour les experiences d'astroparticules - etalonnage des detecteurs de surface et analyse des gerbes horizontales de l'Observatoire Pierre Auger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dornic, D

    2006-09-15

    The large photomultipliers (PMT) are currently used in astro-particle and neutrino experiments where they have to detect low levels of light. We have studied and characterised large PMTs developed by the PHOTONIS Group Company. The first part of this thesis is dedicated to the full characterization of two types of multipliers currently used in large PMTs. Then, we present results of a new photocathode process, applied on the XPI805 (PMT used in the Pierre Auger Observatory) in order to improve the quantum efficiency. Finally, we study the PMT diameter influence on main parameters (5, 8 and 10 inches). The second part is devoted to the study of the water Cerenkov tank (WCD) response to the shower particles and the horizontal air showers analysis with the Pierre Auger Observatory. The main parameters of a WCD simulation developed in the Auger IPN group were calibrated with several measurements on vertical and inclined muons, performed on dedicated test tanks. The kind of detector used in the surface detector allows detecting very inclined events with a good sensitivity (zenith angle superior to 70 degrees). We have established specific methods to analyze these events (selection and reconstruction). These methods were applied to the Auger data in order to obtain the energy spectrum of the horizontal events. Finally, we detailed two methods to test directly the hadronic models predictions by studying the air showers muonic component. (author)

  4. Development and featuring of hemispherical photomultipliers for cosmic ray detection - calibration of surface detectors and analysis of horizontal showers at the Pierre Auger Observatory; Developpement et caracterisation de photomultiplicateurs hemispheriques pour les experiences d'astroparticules - etalonnage des detecteurs de surface et analyse des gerbes horizontales de l'Observatoire Pierre Auger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dornic, D

    2006-09-15

    The large photomultipliers (PMT) are currently used in astro-particle and neutrino experiments where they have to detect low levels of light. We have studied and characterised large PMTs developed by the PHOTONIS Group Company. The first part of this thesis is dedicated to the full characterization of two types of multipliers currently used in large PMTs. Then, we present results of a new photocathode process, applied on the XPI805 (PMT used in the Pierre Auger Observatory) in order to improve the quantum efficiency. Finally, we study the PMT diameter influence on main parameters (5, 8 and 10 inches). The second part is devoted to the study of the water Cerenkov tank (WCD) response to the shower particles and the horizontal air showers analysis with the Pierre Auger Observatory. The main parameters of a WCD simulation developed in the Auger IPN group were calibrated with several measurements on vertical and inclined muons, performed on dedicated test tanks. The kind of detector used in the surface detector allows detecting very inclined events with a good sensitivity (zenith angle superior to 70 degrees). We have established specific methods to analyze these events (selection and reconstruction). These methods were applied to the Auger data in order to obtain the energy spectrum of the horizontal events. Finally, we detailed two methods to test directly the hadronic models predictions by studying the air showers muonic component. (author)

  5. Recent results from the ARIANNA neutrino experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelles Anna

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The ARIANNA experiment is currently taking data in its pilot-phase on the Ross ice-shelf. Fully autonomous stations measure radio signals in the frequency range from 100 MHz to 1 GHz. The seven station hexagonal radio-array (HRA was completed in December 2014, and augmented by two special purpose stations with unique configurations. In its full extent ARIANNA is targeted at detecting interactions of cosmogenic neutrinos (> 1016eV in the ice-shelf. Downward-pointing antennas installed at the surface will record the radio emission created by neutrino-induced showers in the ice and exploit the fact that the ice-water surface acts as a mirror for radio emission. ARIANNA stations are independent, low-powered, easy to install and equipped with real-time communication via satellite modems. We report on the current status of the HRA, as well as air shower detections that have been made over the past year. Furthermore, we will discuss the search for neutrino emission, future plans of the experiment.

  6. First indication of LPM effect in LHCf, an LHC experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prete M. Del

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Large Hadron Collider forward (LHCf experiment is dedicated to the measurement of very forward neutral particle production in the high energy hadron-hadron collisions at LHC. The aim of the experiment is to improve the cosmic ray air shower development models and its setup gives an important opportunity to directly measure the Landau Pomeranchunk Migdal (LPM effect in heavy absorber. This work presents the analysis for LPM effect on data taken in 2010 and 2013 at √s = 7 TeV and √sNN = 5.02 TeV respectively. We study the interactions of gamma, mainly produced by π0 decay, in one of the calorimeter pairs of LHCf. This is composed by 16 Tungsten layers as absorbers and 16 plastic scintillators for energy measurements (Arm2. We use three parameters to describe the mean shower profile with respect the photon mean energy. The results are compared with Epics MonteCarlo simulation with LPM active and inactive models, shows a first evidence of LPM effect.

  7. Department of Cosmic Ray Physics - Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szabelski, J.

    2009-01-01

    Full text: The Department of Cosmic Ray Physics in Lodz is involved in basic research in the high-energy Cosmic Ray field. Cosmic Rays are energetic particles from outside the Solar System. Most of the studies of Cosmic Rays address fundamental problems: - the nature of the physical and astrophysical processes responsible for the high energies of the particles - an estimation of the astrophysical conditions at the acceleration sites and/or the search for sources of Cosmic Rays, - properties of high-energy particle interactions at very high energies. Some Cosmic Ray studies might have practical (commercial) implications, e.g. - '' cosmic weather '' forecasting - predictions of geomagnetic disturbances related to Solar activity changes (due to large Solar Flares/Coronal Mass Ejection events); these are important for large electricity networks, gas pipelines, radio-wave connections, space missions and satellite experiments. Presentation of Cosmic Ray registration to high school students has become a popular way to introduce particle physics detectors and elementary particle detection techniques to young people. We organize in Lodz and Poznan workshops on particle physics for high school students. This is a part of the European activity: EPPOG's Masterclass - Hands on CERN. Energetic Cosmic Ray particles produce cascades of particles in the atmosphere, called Extensive Air Showers (EAS). Registering EAS and their properties is the main way of experimentally study's very high energy Cosmic Rays. Locally in Lodz we concentrate on methodological studies of the detection of neutrons correlated with EAS and the interpretation of this phenomenon. We have also performed two series of neutron background measurements in the deep underground Gran Sasso Laboratory in Italy (within the ILIAS-TA Project). In 2004, we began the Roland Maze Project, a network of EAS detectors placed on the roofs of high schools in Lodz. The pilot project is to equip 10 high schools, each with four 1m

  8. The Status of the ARGO Experiment at YBJ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aielli, G. [Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita ' Tor Vergata' di Roma and INFN Sezione di Roma2 (Italy); Bacci, C. [Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita ' Roma Tre' di Roma and INFN Sezione di Roma3 (Italy); Bartoli, B. [Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita di Napoli and INFN Sezione di Napoli (Italy); Bernardini, P. [Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita di Lecce and INFN Sezione di Lecce (Italy); Bi, X.J. [Key Laboratory of Particle Astrophyics, Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, Beijing (China); Bleve, C. [Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita di Lecce and INFN Sezione di Lecce (Italy); Bussino, S. [Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita ' Roma Tre' di Roma and INFN Sezione di Roma3 (Italy); Calabrese Melcarne, A.K. [Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita di Lecce and INFN Sezione di Lecce (Italy); Camarri, P. [Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita ' Tor Vergata' di Roma and INFN Sezione di Roma2 (Italy); Campana, D. [Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita di Napoli and INFN Sezione di Napoli (Italy); Cao, Z. [Key Laboratory of Particle Astrophyics, Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, Beijing (China); Cardarelli, R. [Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita ' Tor Vergata' di Roma and INFN Sezione di Roma2 (Italy); Catalanotti, S.; Cavaliere, S. [Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita di Napoli and INFN Sezione di Napoli (Italy); Celio, P. [Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita ' Roma Tre' di Roma and INFN Sezione di Roma3 (Italy); Chen, S.Z.; Cheng, N. [Key Laboratory of Particle Astrophyics, Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, Beijing (China); Creti, P. [Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita di Lecce and INFN Sezione di Lecce(Italy); Cui, S.W. [Hebei Normal University, Shijiazhuang 050016, Hebei (China)] (and others)

    2007-04-15

    The ARGO-YBJ experiment, located at Yangbajing, Tibet, China, performed by a wide Sino-Italian collaboration, is designed to study cosmic rays, sub-TeV gamma ray sources and GeV Gamma Ray Burst (GRB) emission in the northern hemisphere, by means of detecting small size EAS (Extensive Air Shower) using a full coverage RPC (Resistive Plate Chamber) carpet. The central carpet of the detector is installed and put into operation to date, with 1900m{sup 2} of the carpet already operating since December 2004. With a trigger multiplicity of {>=}60 hits, corresponding to a primary mode energy of 2 TeV, the angular resolution of EAS measurements is < 1{sup o} for showers with more than 500 recorded hits. We report the preliminary results of data taking performed during 2005: the all-sky survey for gamma ray sources and the search for GRBs, as well as the cosmic ray spectrum up to about 100 TeV. The Forbush decrease of the cosmic ray flux during January, 2005 is observed using the ARGO data.

  9. Method for high precision reconstruction of air shower Xmax using two-dimensional radio intensity profiles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buitink, S.; Corstanje, A.; Enriquez, J. E.; Falcke, H.; Hörandel, J. R.; Huege, T.; Nelles, A.; Rachen, J. P.; Schellart, P.; Scholten, O.; ter Veen, S.; Thoudam, S.; Trinh, Gia

    2014-01-01

    The mass composition of cosmic rays contains important clues about their origin. Accurate measurements are needed to resolve longstanding issues such as the transition from Galactic to extra-Galactic origin and the nature of the cutoff observed at the highest energies. Composition can be studied by

  10. A combined cosmic ray muon spectrometer and high energy air shower array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherry, M.L.; Ayres, D.S.; Halzen, F.

    1986-01-01

    Cosmic rays have been detected at energies in excess of 10 20 eV, and individual sources have been conclusively identified as intense emitters of gamma rays at energies up to 10 16 eV. There is clearly a great deal of exciting astrophysics to be learned from such studies, but it has been suggested that there may be particle physics to be learned from the cosmic beam as well. Based in particular on the reports of surprisingly high fluxes of underground muons from the direction of Cygnus X-3 modulated by the known orbital period, there have been several suggestions recently invoking stable supersymmetric particles produced at Cygnus X-3, enhanced muon production from high energy photons, quark matter, and ''cygnets.'' Although the underground muon results have been questioned, it may still be worthwhile to consider the possibility of new physics beyond the standard model with energy scale (G/sub F/)/sup -1/2/ ≥ 0.25 TeV. For example, there have been recent discussions on the experimental signatures to be observed from new high energy photon couplings to matter, exchanges between constituent quarks and leptons, and stable gluinos and photinos mixed in with the cosmic gamma ray flux. We describe here a possible detector to search for such effects. We utilize the possibility that point sources like Cygnus X-3 can be used to provide a directional time-modulated ''tagged'' high energy photon beam

  11. Nanosecond-level time synchronization of autonomous radio detector stations for extensive air showers

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Aab, A.; Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Boháčová, Martina; Chudoba, Jiří; Ebr, Jan; Mandát, Dušan; Nečesal, Petr; Palatka, Miroslav; Pech, Miroslav; Prouza, Michael; Řídký, Jan; Schovánek, Petr; Trávníček, Petr; Vícha, Jakub

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 11, Jan (2016), 1-31, č. článku P01018. ISSN 1748-0221 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LG13007; GA MŠk(CZ) 7AMB14AR005; GA ČR(CZ) GA14-17501S Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : pattern recognition * cluster finding * calibration and fitting methods * timing detectors * detector alignment and calibration methods Subject RIV: BF - Elementary Particles and High Energy Physics Impact factor: 1.220, year: 2016

  12. Arrival time and incidence angle distributions of extensive air showers (EAS) muons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brancus, I.M.; Duma, M.; Vulpescu, B.; Foeller, M.; Rebel, H.; Voelker, G.; Chilingarian, A.A.

    1995-01-01

    The arrival time distributions of the muons can be related to the longitudinal EAS development and may provide additional information about the nature of the primary. Based on EAS simulations using the Monte-Carlo code CORSIKA, the correlations between arrival time and incidence angle distributions have been investigated in a case of a set of ideal detectors (10 m x 10 m) placed at various distances from the shower core. Applying advanced statistical techniques based on Bayes decision rule and non-parametric multivariate analysing methods it turns out that the correlations of muon arrival time and incidence angle at various separating distances of about 50 m exhibit promising features for mass discrimination (author)

  13. An extensive air shower trigger station for the Muon Portal detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riggi, F.; Blancato, A.A.; La Rocca, P.; Riggi, S.; Santagati, G.

    2014-01-01

    The Muon Portal project (〈 (http://muoni.oact.inaf.it:8080/)〉 [1]; Riggi et al., 2013 [2,5,7]; Lo Presti et al., 2012 [3]; La Rocca et al., 2014 [4]; Bandieramonte et al., 2013 [6]; Pugliatti et al., 2014 [8]) aims at the construction of a large area detector to reconstruct cosmic muon tracks above and below a container, to search for hidden high-Z materials inside its volume by the muon tomography technique. Due to its sensitive area (about 18 m 2 ), with four XY detection planes, and its good tracking capabilities, the prototype under construction, which should be operational around mid-2015, also allows different studies in cosmic ray physics, including the detection of muon bundles. For such purpose, a trigger station based on three scintillation detectors operating in coincidence close to the main muon tracker has been built. This paper describes the design and preliminary results of the trigger station, together with the physics capabilities of the overall setup

  14. An extensive air shower trigger station for the Muon Portal detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riggi, F., E-mail: francesco.riggi@ct.infn.it [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università di Catania, Catania (Italy); INFN Sezione di Catania, Catania (Italy); Blancato, A.A. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università di Catania, Catania (Italy); La Rocca, P. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università di Catania, Catania (Italy); INFN Sezione di Catania, Catania (Italy); Riggi, S. [INAF, Osservatorio Astrofisico di Catania, Catania (Italy); Santagati, G. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università di Catania, Catania (Italy); INFN Sezione di Catania, Catania (Italy)

    2014-11-11

    The Muon Portal project (〈 (http://muoni.oact.inaf.it:8080/)〉 [1]; Riggi et al., 2013 [2,5,7]; Lo Presti et al., 2012 [3]; La Rocca et al., 2014 [4]; Bandieramonte et al., 2013 [6]; Pugliatti et al., 2014 [8]) aims at the construction of a large area detector to reconstruct cosmic muon tracks above and below a container, to search for hidden high-Z materials inside its volume by the muon tomography technique. Due to its sensitive area (about 18 m{sup 2}), with four XY detection planes, and its good tracking capabilities, the prototype under construction, which should be operational around mid-2015, also allows different studies in cosmic ray physics, including the detection of muon bundles. For such purpose, a trigger station based on three scintillation detectors operating in coincidence close to the main muon tracker has been built. This paper describes the design and preliminary results of the trigger station, together with the physics capabilities of the overall setup.

  15. An extensive air shower trigger station for the Muon Portal detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riggi, F.; Blancato, A. A.; La Rocca, P.; Riggi, S.; Santagati, G.

    2014-11-01

    The Muon Portal project ( [1]; Riggi et al., 2013 [2,5,7]; Lo Presti et al., 2012 [3]; La Rocca et al., 2014 [4]; Bandieramonte et al., 2013 [6]; Pugliatti et al., 2014 [8]) aims at the construction of a large area detector to reconstruct cosmic muon tracks above and below a container, to search for hidden high-Z materials inside its volume by the muon tomography technique. Due to its sensitive area (about 18 m2), with four XY detection planes, and its good tracking capabilities, the prototype under construction, which should be operational around mid-2015, also allows different studies in cosmic ray physics, including the detection of muon bundles. For such purpose, a trigger station based on three scintillation detectors operating in coincidence close to the main muon tracker has been built. This paper describes the design and preliminary results of the trigger station, together with the physics capabilities of the overall setup.

  16. Department of Cosmic Ray Physics - Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szabelski, J.

    2010-01-01

    Full text: The 31 st International Cosmic Ray Conference (31.ICRC) was held in Lodz on 7-15 July 2009. The Conference was organized by the University of Lodz (Department of High Energy Astrophysics and Department of Astrophysics) and IPJ (Department of Cosmic Ray Physics). ICRCs are held every two years and are the largest forums to present and discuss the current status of Cosmic Ray studies. The Conference we co-organized gathered about 750 scientists (including about 50 from Poland). This was a remarkable event. The Department of Cosmic Ray Physics in Lodz is involved in basic research in the field of high energy Cosmic Rays. Cosmic Rays are energetic panicles from outside the Solar System. Most studies of Cosmic Rays address fundamental problems: - the nature of the physical and astrophysical processes responsible for the high energies of the particles. - experimental search for sources of Cosmic Rays, - studies of the astrophysical conditions at the acceleration sites, - properties of particle interactions at very high energies. Presentation of Cosmic Ray registration to high school students has become a popular way to introduce panicle physics detectors and elementary particle detection techniques to young people, in Lodz and Poznan we organize workshops on particle physics for high school students. This is part of the European activity: EPPOG Masterclass - Hands on CERN. Energetic Cosmic Ray particles produce cascades of panicles in the atmosphere, called Extensive Air Showers (EAS). Registering EASs and their properties is the main means of studying experimentally high energy Cosmic Rays: · The satellite experiment JEM-EUSO will observe EASs from the International Space Station. The main target is to find Cosmic Ray Sources for the highest energy Cosmic Rays. JEM-EUSO will collect a large number of events since it will observe a large area of the atmosphere. We are participating in the preparation of this mission. · The KASCADE-Grande addresses

  17. A review of experimental results at the knee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoeorandel, Joerg R.

    2006-01-01

    Results of experiments investigating air showers in the energy region of the knee are summarized. The all-particle energy spectrum, the mean logarithmic mass, and the average depth of the shower maximum will be discussed. Spectra for groups of elements from air shower data are compared to results from direct measurements

  18. On-line and off-line data analysis for the EUSO-TA experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piotrowski, Lech Wiktor; Casolino, Marco; Conti, Livio; Ebisuzaki, Toshikazu; Fornaro, Claudio; Kawasaki, Yoshiya; Hachisu, Yusuke; Ohmori, Hitoshi; De Santis, Cristian; Shinozaki, Kenji; Takizawa, Yoshiyuki; Uehara, Yoshihiro

    2015-01-01

    We show the principles of the communication protocol, on-line calibration, off-line data format as well as basic visualisation and data analysis software implemented for the EUSO-TA on-ground experiment, being the first step towards implementation in a future space based mission. EUSO-TA is an on-ground detector for measuring UV (290–430 nm) light from extensive air showers induced by cosmic rays. It is a prototype experiment for the JEM-EUSO space-borne mission, built according to the same constraints of low mass, low power consumption and thus low computing power. Nevertheless, it needs to process a huge amount of data in short time, taking 2.5μs exposures for 2304 channels. The low processing power and high time resolution require an efficient communication protocol and simple yet powerful algorithms for on-line analysis. The off-line data format is designed for storing a huge amount of data, at the same time allowing easy access, analysis and sharing. Its structure is scalable and adjustable to different experimental designs. It is independent of the data origin, whether it is hardware or a Monte-Carlo simulator. Use of object-oriented techniques and the ROOT framework allows rapid development of dedicated analysis software, such as a Python based quick-view program described herein. Basic capabilities of the software, such as display of the focal surface, light curves and calibration data are shown in this paper

  19. On-line and off-line data analysis for the EUSO-TA experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piotrowski, Lech Wiktor, E-mail: lech.piotrowski@riken.jp [RIKEN, Wako (Japan); Casolino, Marco [RIKEN, Wako (Japan); INFN and Univ. Rome Tor Vergata, Rome (Italy); Conti, Livio [International Telematic University UNINETTUNO, Rome (Italy); Ebisuzaki, Toshikazu [RIKEN, Wako (Japan); Fornaro, Claudio [International Telematic University UNINETTUNO, Rome (Italy); Kawasaki, Yoshiya; Hachisu, Yusuke; Ohmori, Hitoshi [RIKEN, Wako (Japan); De Santis, Cristian [INFN and Univ. Rome Tor Vergata, Rome (Italy); Shinozaki, Kenji [Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Kepler Center, University of Tübingen, Sand 6, D-72076 Tübingen (Germany); RIKEN, Wako (Japan); Takizawa, Yoshiyuki; Uehara, Yoshihiro [RIKEN, Wako (Japan)

    2015-02-11

    We show the principles of the communication protocol, on-line calibration, off-line data format as well as basic visualisation and data analysis software implemented for the EUSO-TA on-ground experiment, being the first step towards implementation in a future space based mission. EUSO-TA is an on-ground detector for measuring UV (290–430 nm) light from extensive air showers induced by cosmic rays. It is a prototype experiment for the JEM-EUSO space-borne mission, built according to the same constraints of low mass, low power consumption and thus low computing power. Nevertheless, it needs to process a huge amount of data in short time, taking 2.5μs exposures for 2304 channels. The low processing power and high time resolution require an efficient communication protocol and simple yet powerful algorithms for on-line analysis. The off-line data format is designed for storing a huge amount of data, at the same time allowing easy access, analysis and sharing. Its structure is scalable and adjustable to different experimental designs. It is independent of the data origin, whether it is hardware or a Monte-Carlo simulator. Use of object-oriented techniques and the ROOT framework allows rapid development of dedicated analysis software, such as a Python based quick-view program described herein. Basic capabilities of the software, such as display of the focal surface, light curves and calibration data are shown in this paper.

  20. The MIDAS experiment: A prototype for the microwave emission of Ultra-High Energy Cosmic Rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monasor, M.; Alekotte, I.; Alvarez-Muniz, J.; Berlin, A.; Bertou, X.; Bodgan, M.; Bohacova, M.; Bonifazi, C.; Carvalho, W.; Mello Neto, J.R.T. de; Genat, J.F.; Facal San Luis, P.; Mills, E.; Rouille d'Orfeuil, B.; Wayne, S.; Reyes, L.C.; Santos, E.M.; Privitera, P.; Williams, C.; Zas, E.

    2011-01-01

    Recent measurements suggest that extensive air showers initiated by ultra-high energy cosmic rays (UHECR) emit signals in the microwave band of the electromagnetic spectrum caused by the collisions of the free-electrons with the atmospheric neutral molecules in the plasma produced by the passage of the shower. Such emission is isotropic and could allow the detection of air showers with 100% duty cycle and a calorimetric-like energy measurement, a significant improvement over current detection techniques. We have built MIDAS (MIcrowave Detection of Air Showers), a prototype of microwave detector, which consists of a 4.5 m diameter antenna with a cluster of 53 feed-horns in the 4 GHz range. The details of the prototype and first results will be presented.

  1. The HiSCORE experiment and its potential for gamma-ray astronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tluczykont, M; Hampf, D; Einhaus, U; Horns, D; Büker, M; Epimakhov, S; Kunnas, M; Maurer, A; Brückner, M; Budnev, N; Chvalaev, O; Dyachok, A; Gress, O; Ivanova, A; Konstantinov, E; Mirgazov, R; Korosteleva, E; Kuzmichev, L; Lubsandorzhiev, B K; Lubsandorzhiev, N B

    2013-01-01

    The HiSCORE (Hundred*i Square-km Cosmic ORigin Explorer) detector aims at the exploration of the accelerator sky, using indirect air-shower observations of cosmic rays from 100 TeV to 1 EeV and gamma rays in the last remaining observation window of gamma-ray astronomy from 10 TeV to several PeV. The main questions addressed by HiSCORE are cosmic ray composition and spectral measurements in the Galactic/extragalactic transition range, and the origin of cosmic rays via the search for gamma rays from Galactic PeV accelerators, the pevatrons. HiSCORE is based on non-imaging Cherenkov light-front sampling with sensitive large-area detector modules of the order of 0.5 m 2 . A prototype station was deployed on the Tunka cosmic ray experiment site in Siberia, where an engineering array of up to 1km 2 is planned for deployment in 2012/2013. Here, we address the expected physics potential of HiSCORE, the status of the project, and further plans.

  2. On the cause of variability of the cosmic ray spectrum in the knee region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loznikov, V. M.; Erokhin, N. S.; Zol'nikova, N. N.; Mikhailovskaya, L. A.

    2017-09-01

    Cosmic ray (CR) energy spectra for H, He, Si, and Fe nuclei with energy-to-charge number ratios ℰ/ Z in the range from 10 to 5 × 107 GeV are studied using observational data obtained at different times in different energy ranges: AMS-02, CREAM, Tibet ASγ, Tibet (hybrid), GRAPES-3, KASCADE, and KASCADE-Grande. Comparison of the H and He CR fluxes according to the KASCADE and KASCADE-Grande data (for different models of deconvolving CR spectra) with the Tibet ASγ and Tibet (hybrid) data obtained at another time in the range of ℰ/ Z ˜ 3 × 106 GeV demonstrates space weather-caused variability of the CR flux. This feature of CR energy spectra in the Tibet ASγ data is most clearly observed in the spectra of heavier nuclei (Si and Fe) according to the KASCADE-Grande and GRAPES-3 data. The variability in the energy spectra of all CRs in the vicinity of the "knee" is shown in the data of Yakutsk EAS, CASA-BLANCA, and Tibet-III experiments. The variability of the CR flux on a time scale on the order of several years exists only if the source corresponding to the peak in the energy spectrum is situated at a distance of no more than 1 pc from the Sun. Rapid surfatron acceleration of CRs may result from colliding interstellar clouds nearest to the Sun (LIC and G). This acceleration mechanism allows one to explain the variability of the CR spectrum in the range 103 GeV < ℰ/ Z < 108 GeV. Conditions for the trapping of strongly relativistic Fe nuclei by an electromagnetic wave, the dynamics of the components of the particle velocity and momentum, and the dependence of the particle acceleration rate on the initial parameters of the problem are analyzed using numerical calculations. The structure of the phase plane of the accelerated Fe nuclei is examined. Optimal conditions for the implementation of ultrarelativistic surfatron acceleration of Fe nuclei by an electromagnetic wave are formulated.

  3. All-particle cosmic ray energy spectrum measured by the HAWC experiment from 10 to 500 TeV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfaro, R.; Alvarez, C.; Álvarez, J. D.; Arceo, R.; Arteaga-Velázquez, J. C.; Avila Rojas, D.; Ayala Solares, H. A.; Barber, A. S.; Becerril, A.; Belmont-Moreno, E.; BenZvi, S. Y.; Brisbois, C.; Caballero-Mora, K. S.; Capistrán, T.; Carramiñana, A.; Casanova, S.; Castillo, M.; Cotti, U.; Cotzomi, J.; Coutiño de León, S.; De León, C.; De la Fuente, E.; Diaz Hernandez, R.; Dichiara, S.; Dingus, B. L.; DuVernois, M. A.; Díaz-Vélez, J. C.; Ellsworth, R. W.; Enriquez-Rivera, O.; Fiorino, D. W.; Fleischhack, H.; Fraija, N.; García-González, J. A.; González Muñoz, A.; González, M. M.; Goodman, J. A.; Hampel-Arias, Z.; Harding, J. P.; Hernandez-Almada, A.; Hinton, J.; Hueyotl-Zahuantitla, F.; Hui, C. M.; Hüntemeyer, P.; Iriarte, A.; Jardin-Blicq, A.; Joshi, V.; Kaufmann, S.; Lara, A.; Lauer, R. J.; Lennarz, D.; León Vargas, H.; Linnemann, J. T.; Longinotti, A. L.; Luis Raya, G.; Luna-García, R.; López-Cámara, D.; López-Coto, R.; Malone, K.; Marinelli, S. S.; Martinez, O.; Martinez-Castellanos, I.; Martínez-Castro, J.; Martínez-Huerta, H.; Matthews, J. A.; Miranda-Romagnoli, P.; Moreno, E.; Mostafá, M.; Nellen, L.; Newbold, M.; Nisa, M. U.; Noriega-Papaqui, R.; Pelayo, R.; Pretz, J.; Pérez-Pérez, E. G.; Ren, Z.; Rho, C. D.; Rivière, C.; Rosa-González, D.; Rosenberg, M.; Ruiz-Velasco, E.; Salesa Greus, F.; Sandoval, A.; Schneider, M.; Schoorlemmer, H.; Sinnis, G.; Smith, A. J.; Springer, R. W.; Surajbali, P.; Taboada, I.; Tibolla, O.; Tollefson, K.; Torres, I.; Ukwatta, T. N.; Villaseñor, L.; Weisgarber, T.; Westerhoff, S.; Wood, J.; Yapici, T.; Zepeda, A.; Zhou, H.; HAWC Collaboration

    2017-12-01

    We report on the measurement of the all-particle cosmic ray energy spectrum with the High Altitude Water Cherenkov (HAWC) Observatory in the energy range 10 to 500 TeV. HAWC is a ground-based air-shower array deployed on the slopes of Volcan Sierra Negra in the state of Puebla, Mexico, and is sensitive to gamma rays and cosmic rays at TeV energies. The data used in this work were taken over 234 days between June 2016 and February 2017. The primary cosmic-ray energy is determined with a maximum likelihood approach using the particle density as a function of distance to the shower core. Introducing quality cuts to isolate events with shower cores landing on the array, the reconstructed energy distribution is unfolded iteratively. The measured all-particle spectrum is consistent with a broken power law with an index of -2.49 ±0.01 prior to a break at (45.7 ±0.1 ) TeV , followed by an index of -2.71 ±0.01 . The spectrum also represents a single measurement that spans the energy range between direct detection and ground-based experiments. As a verification of the detector response, the energy scale and angular resolution are validated by observation of the cosmic ray Moon shadow's dependence on energy.

  4. Study of the very forward electromagnetic component produced in proton-proton collisions at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 13 TeV with the LHCf experiment

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2086339

    The main purpose of the LHCf experiment is to test phenomenological hadronic interaction models used to simulate cosmic rays induced air-showers in the Earth's atmosphere. The experiment is composed of two independent detectors (Arm1 and Arm2) located at 140 m from the ATLAS's interaction point (IP1) on opposite sides. The detectors are placed on the beam axis between the two beam pipes containing the colliding beams of LHC. This particular position allows LHCf to measure neutral secondary particles (mainly photons, $\\pi^0$s and neutrons) produced at zero degrees. This work describes how the energy spectrum of photons produced in proton-proton collisions at $\\sqrt{s} = 13$ TeV was obtained using the data measured by the Arm2 detector. The relation between the total energy deposit in the calorimeters and the energy of the primary particle was studied with detailed Monte Carlo simulations of the detector. The correction for the non-uniformity of the detector response due to the shower leakage and due to the lig...

  5. The Hisparc cosmic ray experiment : data acquisition and reconstruction of shower direction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fokkema, D.; Fokkema, D.

    2012-01-01

    The field of cosmic ray physics is a century old and an exciting area of research. When cosmic ray particles enter our atmosphere they collide with air molecules creating new high-energy particles. These particles participate in further collisions and the entire process is known as an air shower.

  6. NA61/SHINE: latest results and future perspectives

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2015-01-01

    (iii) Precise hadron production measurements needed for reliable simulations of cosmic-ray air showers. The Pierre Auger Observatory and KASCADE experiments requested measurements of pion-carbon interactions at the top SPS beam momenta. This talk will intr...

  7. Cosmic rays: the spectrum and chemical composition from 10{sup 10} to 10{sup 20} eV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peixoto, C.J. Todero; De Souza, Vitor [Instituto de Física de São Carlos, Universidade de São Paulo, Av. Trabalhador São-carlense 400, São Carlos (Brazil); Biermann, Peter L., E-mail: toderocj@usp.br, E-mail: vitor@ifsc.usp.br, E-mail: plbiermann@mpifr-bonn.mpg.de [Max-Planck-Institute for Radioastronomy, Auf dem Hügel 69, 53121 Bonn (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    The production of energetic particles in the universe remains one of the great mysteries of modern science. The mechanisms of acceleration in astrophysical sources and the details about the propagation through the galactic and extragalactic media are still to be defined. In recent years, the cosmic ray flux has been measured with high precision in the energy range from 10{sup 10} to 10{sup 20.5} eV by several experiments using different techniques. In some energy ranges, it has been possible to determine the flux of individual elements (hydrogen to iron nuclei). This paper explores an astrophysical scenario in which only our Galaxy and the radio galaxy Cen A produce all particles measured on Earth in the energy range from 10{sup 10} to 10{sup 20.5} eV . Data from AMS-02, CREAM, KASCADE, KASCADE-Grande and the Pierre Auger Observatories are considered. The model developed here is compared to the total and if available to the individual particle flux of the experiments considered.The flux of each element as determined by AMS-02, CREAM, KASCADE and KASCADE-Grande and the mass sensitivity parameter X{sub max} measured by the Pierre Auger Observatory above 10 eV are also explored within the framework of the model. The transition from 10{sup 16} to 10{sup 18} eV is carefully analyzed. It is shown that the flux measured in this energy range suggest the existence of an extra component of cosmic rays yet to be understood.

  8. Reconstruction of the characteristics of gamma showers and contribution to the data analysis of the experiment Celeste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herault, N.

    2000-04-01

    The detection of high energy gamma radiation is an important tool for the study of violent events occurring somewhere in the galaxies and produced by pulsars or active nuclei. Since the beginning of the nineties, a new technology is used: the ground-based detection of Cerenkov light emitted by the air shower issuing from very high energy gamma radiation. Celeste (Cerenkov low energy sampling and timing experiment) is the last of a series of experiments: Asgat, Themistocle and Cat, that have been performed on the site of the decommissioned solar plant Themis. Alike Asgat and Themistocle, Celeste is based on the same method of parting the light wave front but uses the important 54 m 2 surface mirrors of the ancient solar plant to collect it. The processing of the different accurate moments at which the Cerenkov light has reached each mirror allows the reconstruction of the tail of the shower. This installation is expected to collect more Cerenkov light and to allow physicists to reach the 30 to 300 GeV energy range that has been till now largely unexplored in gamma astronomy. The first chapter is dedicated to the various methods for detecting gamma radiation, either satellite on-board experiments or ground-based detection systems. The second chapter presents the experiment Celeste and explains how this experiment could bring new information about astrophysical concerns. The third chapter deals with the detailed technical description of the installation, especially the optical and electronic systems. The fourth chapter is dedicated to the reconstruction of gamma showers, the determination of their direction is a delicate problem. The fifth chapter presents the characteristics of the background noise coming from hadronic showers. The sixth chapter is dedicated to the calibration of the detector and it gives its first preliminary results. (A.C.)

  9. Antennas for the detection of radio emission pulses from cosmic-ray induced air showers at the Pierre Auger Obervatory

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Ahlers, M.; Boháčová, Martina; Chudoba, Jiří; Ebr, Jan; Mandát, Dušan; Nečesal, Petr; Nožka, Libor; Palatka, Miroslav; Pech, Miroslav; Prouza, Michael; Řídký, Jan; Schovancová, Jaroslava; Schovánek, Petr; Šmída, Radomír; Trávníček, Petr; Vícha, Jakub

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 7, Oct (2012), s. 1-42 ISSN 1748-0221 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC527; GA MŠk(CZ) 1M06002; GA MŠk(CZ) MEB111003; GA AV ČR KJB100100904; GA MŠk(CZ) LA08016 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100502; CEZ:AV0Z10100522 Keywords : large detector systems for particle and astroparticle physics * antennas Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 1.869, year: 2011

  10. Measurement of the depth of maximum of extensive air showers above 10.sup.18./sup. eV

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Abraham, J.; Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Boháčová, Martina; Chudoba, Jiří; Kárová, Tatiana; Mandát, Dušan; Nečesal, Petr; Nožka, Libor; Nyklíček, Michal; Palatka, Miroslav; Pech, Miroslav; Prouza, Michael; Řídký, Jan; Schovancová, Jaroslava; Schovánek, Petr; Šmída, Radomír; Trávníček, Petr

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 104, č. 9 (2010), 091101/1-091101/7 ISSN 0031-9007 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC527; GA MŠk(CZ) 1M06002; GA AV ČR KJB100100904; GA AV ČR KJB300100801; GA MŠk(CZ) LA08016 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100502; CEZ:AV0Z10100522 Keywords : composition * cosmic rays * Pierre Auger Observatory Subject RIV: BF - Elementary Particles and High Energy Physics Impact factor: 7.621, year: 2010

  11. Extensive air showers accompanied by gamma-families and fraction of protons in the primary cosmic rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamayasu, C.; Saito, To.; Sakata, M.

    1987-01-01

    Experimental data of EAS accompanied by gamma-families with a total energy greater than 10 TeV are taken at Mt. Norikura in 1980 -- 1981 and in 1985. An EX (emulsion and/or x-ray film) chamber is used, which consists six sensitive layers and iron plates as the absorber. The iron absorber chamber can detect more hadron origin cascades than a lead absorber chamber for the same chamber thickness in radiation length, though disadvantageous for separation of gamma-ray origin cascades from hadron origin ones. Analysis is made of the single gamma-ray energy spectrum, integral spectrum of total energies of gamma-families, zenith angle distributions of gamma-families, the scatter plot of EAS size - ΣE γ,H correlation, arrival zenith angle distribution of general EAS, and depth dependence of absolute vertical intensities of EAS. The data obtained are compared by the Monte Carlo simulation technique with a moderate rising cross section proportional to the collision energy in the form E 0.04 for p-air nucleus collisions. The absolute intensity of size spectrum of such EAS is strongly affected by the fraction of primary protonsin the 10 15 -- 10 16 eV region. The experimental size spectrum agrees with the simulated spectrum for the p-poor (up to 15 %) primary composition but it disagrees with the p-rich (up to 40 %) one in the first half, at least, of this energy region. (Nogami, K.)

  12. The differences in delay times for air showers initiated by 100 TeV gamma rays and protons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikocki, S.; Poirier, J.; Linsley, J.; Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Palermo; Wrotniak, A.; Maryland Univ., College Park

    1987-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate whether there are any differences in the time delay distributions between showers initiated by gamma rays and by protons. The results of Monte Carlo calculations of atmospheric showers initiated by gamma rays and protons at an energy of 100 TeV show systematic differences. These differences are negligible at small distances from the core of the showers; at larger distances the effects become large. However, at large distances the particle densities are small at an energy of 100 TeV and the subsequent statistical fluctuations would make an identification of gamma-ray showers unreliable. However, these large effects should be included in corrections for the curvature of gamma-ray and proton shower fronts. (author)

  13. Evaluating the Efficiency of Air Shower in Removing Lead from Army Combat Uniform Swatches Loaded with Gunshot Residue

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-25

    about ASs ability to reduce Pb contamination on ACU resulting from activities on IFRs . The results of this study could impact the use of ASs at IFRs by...the 0-, 45-, and 90-degree angles of impact . Analysis of lead mass remaining on swatches after the exposure indicated the percent of lead removed...22 Number and Design of Nozzles ........................................................................ 23 Angle of Impact

  14. Lateral distribution of cosmic ray muons underground. Results from the CosmoALEPH experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tcaciuc, R.

    2006-01-01

    The CosmoALEPH experiment, located underground at the LEP e + e - storage ring at CERN at a depth of 320 m water equivalent, was used to study the chemical composition of primary cosmic rays up to 10 PeV energies from the measurement of high energy muons, created in extensive air showers by interactions of primary nuclei in the atmosphere. The Time Projection Chamber (TPC) and the Hadron Calorimeter of the ALEPH detector and six scintillator stations located at distances up to 1 km from each other were used to analyse the decoherence curve, multiplicity and transverse momentum distributions of energetic cosmic muons. The experimental data were compared with predictions from different Monte Carlo (MC) models and mass composition approaches. From a comparison between the measured decoherence distribution with CosmoALEPH and the MC predicted decoherence curves for proton, helium and iron, a primary composition of (77±11) % protons and (23±11) % iron nuclei with a χ 2 -probability of 84 % was determined, based on the predictions of the VENUS model with the constant mass composition approach. The analysis of the decoherence curve, with consideration of correlations between the measured CosmoALEPH parameters, leads to a composition of (88±8) % protons and (12±8) % iron nuclei for cosmic rays with a χ 2 -probability of 53 %. The absolute comparison between the measured multiplicity and transverse momentum distributions in the TPC and those predicted by different Monte Carlo models results also in a dominant light composition. The experimental data are in a good agreement with MC data lying between proton and helium primaries. The results obtained for the primary composition of cosmic rays up to the knee region are consistent with the results from other experiments. (orig.)

  15. Lateral distribution of cosmic ray muons underground. Results from the CosmoALEPH experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tcaciuc, R.

    2006-07-01

    The CosmoALEPH experiment, located underground at the LEP e{sup +}e{sup -} storage ring at CERN at a depth of 320 m water equivalent, was used to study the chemical composition of primary cosmic rays up to 10 PeV energies from the measurement of high energy muons, created in extensive air showers by interactions of primary nuclei in the atmosphere. The Time Projection Chamber (TPC) and the Hadron Calorimeter of the ALEPH detector and six scintillator stations located at distances up to 1 km from each other were used to analyse the decoherence curve, multiplicity and transverse momentum distributions of energetic cosmic muons. The experimental data were compared with predictions from different Monte Carlo (MC) models and mass composition approaches. From a comparison between the measured decoherence distribution with CosmoALEPH and the MC predicted decoherence curves for proton, helium and iron, a primary composition of (77{+-}11) % protons and (23{+-}11) % iron nuclei with a {chi}{sup 2}-probability of 84 % was determined, based on the predictions of the VENUS model with the constant mass composition approach. The analysis of the decoherence curve, with consideration of correlations between the measured CosmoALEPH parameters, leads to a composition of (88{+-}8) % protons and (12{+-}8) % iron nuclei for cosmic rays with a {chi}{sup 2} -probability of 53 %. The absolute comparison between the measured multiplicity and transverse momentum distributions in the TPC and those predicted by different Monte Carlo models results also in a dominant light composition. The experimental data are in a good agreement with MC data lying between proton and helium primaries. The results obtained for the primary composition of cosmic rays up to the knee region are consistent with the results from other experiments. (orig.)

  16. Recent results from CODALEMA and the Nançay radio facilities related to cosmic-ray measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dallier Richard

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Since 2003, the NanÇay Radio Observatory hosts the CODALEMA experiment, dedicated to radio detection of cosmic ray induced extensive air showers. CODALEMA also features the R&D EXTASIS project, aiming at detecting the lowfrequency signal ([2-6] MHz produced at the sudden disappearance of the air shower particles hitting the ground. The 3 current antenna arrays present different antenna density and extent, and can be operated in a joint mode to record simultaneously the radio signal coming from air showers. Therefore, the NanÇay facilities may offer a complete description of the air shower induced electric field at small, medium and large scale, and over an unique and very wide frequency band (from ~ 2 to 200 MHz.

  17. Study of the γ/p discrimination at ∼100 TeV energy range with LHAASO experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Zhen; Wang, Zhen; Liu, Ye; Guo, Yiqing; Ma, Xinhua; Hu, Hongbo

    2018-05-01

    The observation of high energy γ-rays is essential to unveil the long-standing enigma of the origin and acceleration of Galactic Cosmic Rays (CRs). Given its powerful capability of distinguishing between protons and γ-rays owing to its very large area of underground muon detectors, the LHAASO observatory will be the most sensitive ground-based detectors for γ-rays at 100 TeV with a CRs background rejection rate better than 10-5. To evaluate the very small rejection rate with sufficient precision at energies above 100 TeV, one needs a large number of Monte Carlo events which is time consuming and challenging. As only the μ-poor events are interesting in the calculation of the rejection rate and take up a tiny fraction of the all CRs events, we modify the popular air shower simulation package, CORSIKA, by outputting only the μ-poor events for the following full detector simulation. As a result, our method is fully consistent with the evaluation made with the official CORSIKA at lower energy. Particularly, our improvement significantly escalate the calculation efficiency above 100 TeV, where it can be at least 50 times faster than using all events in simulation. By virtue of this new method, the γ/p discrimination of the LHAASO experiment at energies above 100 TeV is obtained for the first time, which indicates that LHAASO can reject CR backgrounds at a level of 10-5 and 10-9 at 100 TeV and 1 PeV respectively.

  18. Cosmic ray research in Hanoi: The Auger experiment and measurements made at home

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pham Ngoc Dinh; Nguyen Tien Dung; Bui Duc Hieu; Nguyen Phuc; Pham Trung Phuong; Darriulat, Pierre; Dang Quang Thieu; Thuan Vo Van

    2003-01-01

    The VATLY is a new laboratory in Hanoi dedicated to research in the field of comic ray physics. Its various activities are briefly reviewed. The vertical cosmic muon flux has been measured using a segmented scintillator hodoscope and the results have been published in Ref. [1]. An orientable scintillation telescope has been constructed for measurement of the zenith angle dependence of the muon flux, of which preliminary results are reported here. They are in good agreement with the predictions of air shower model

  19. Cosmic ray research in Hanoi: The Auger experiment and measurements made at home

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pham Ngoc Dinh; Nguyen Tien Dung; Bui Duc Hieu; Nguyen Phuc; Pham Trung Phuong; Darriulat, Pierre; Dang Quang Thieu; Thuan Vo Van

    2003-07-14

    The VATLY is a new laboratory in Hanoi dedicated to research in the field of comic ray physics. Its various activities are briefly reviewed. The vertical cosmic muon flux has been measured using a segmented scintillator hodoscope and the results have been published in Ref. [1]. An orientable scintillation telescope has been constructed for measurement of the zenith angle dependence of the muon flux, of which preliminary results are reported here. They are in good agreement with the predictions of air shower model.

  20. The time structure of the EAS muon component observed in the KASCADE experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brancus, I.M.; Badea, A.F.; Duma, M.; Vulpescu, B.; Rebel, H.; Haeusler, R.; Mathes, H.J.

    1998-01-01

    The determination of the chemical composition in the energy range of 10 15 eV is the scientific goal of the KASCADE (Karlsruhe Shower Core and Array Detector) experiment. Under this aspect, the temporal structure of the muon component of extended air showers (EAS) is of great interest for a detailed understanding of the EAS features, since the muon arrival time distribution maps the longitudinal EAS development via the time-of-flight of muons produced in large atmospheric heights and shows effects for mass discrimination of the EAS primaries. Using the muon detection and timing facilities of the KASCADE Central Detector, in particular the 'trigger' layer of 456 scintillation detectors and the position-sensitive large-area multiwire proportional chambers, installed under the hadron calorimeter, the muon arrival time distributions (E μ ≥ 2 GeV) registered relative to the arrival of the foremost muons have been measured. Their dependence on various shower quantities, the distance from the shower center R μ , the zenith angle Θ of shower incidence and muon shower content N μ tr (which is an identifier of the primary energy), have been studied. We characterize the single arrival time distribution by various different moments: the median Δτ 0.50 , the 1 st and the 3 rd quartiles (Δτ 0.25 and Δτ 0.75 ) which express different features of the distributions. The dependence of the measured median distributions on the distance from the shower center for a restricted Θ-range and averaged over the observed shower size spectrum is presented. The shapes can be approximated by a gamma probability distribution function. There are also displayed the mean values (Δτ 0.50 ) and the dispersion σ 0.50 of the median distributions, whose R μ -variations represent the (median) profile on the EAS muon disc. The theoretical interpretation of this kind of experimental results on the basis of Monte Carlo simulations of the EAS development is under progress. (authors)

  1. Report of the High Energy Physics Advisory Panel (HEPAP) subpanel on high energy gamma ray and neutrino astronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaisser, T.K.; Gordon, H.A.; Melissinos, A.; Rosen, S.P.; Ruderman, M.A.; Turner, M.S.; Zeller, M.

    1988-11-01

    This report contains information on topics of neutrino and gammay-ray astronomy. Some of the topics discussed are: SN1987A, statistics and variability, background rejection and muons, relation between photon and neutrinos, sensitivity of gamma-ray experiments, comparison of air Cherenkov experiments, air shower experiment, and underground experiments

  2. Impact of atmospheric effects on the energy reconstruction of air showers observed by the surface detectors of the Pierre Auger Observatory

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Aab, A.; Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Blažek, Jiří; Boháčová, Martina; Chudoba, Jiří; Ebr, Jan; Mandát, Dušan; Palatka, Miroslav; Pech, Miroslav; Prouza, Michael; Řídký, Jan; Schovánek, Petr; Trávníček, Petr; Vícha, Jakub

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 12, č. 2 (2017), s. 1-23, č. článku P02006. ISSN 1748-0221 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LM2015038; GA MŠk LG15014; GA ČR(CZ) GA14-17501S Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : Cherenkov detectors * data analysis * large detector systems for particle and astroparticle physics * systematic effects Subject RIV: BF - Elementary Particles and High Energy Physics OBOR OECD: Particles and field physics Impact factor: 1.220, year: 2016

  3. Results on the spectrum and composition of cosmic rays from the IceTop air shower array of the IceCube Observatory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tilav Serap

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available We report on measurements of the energy spectrum and mass composition of cosmic rays above 1 PeV with the data taken during the construction phase of the IceTop and IceCube detectors. We discuss our current systematics and observation of a structure in the energy spectrum above 20 PeV where the mass composition gets heavier than iron nuclei.

  4. Results of a self-triggered prototype system for radio-detection of extensive air showers at the Pierre Auger Observatory

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Acounis, S.; Charrier, D.; Garçon, T.; Rivière, C.; Staassi, P.; Boháčová, Martina; Chudoba, Jiří; Ebr, Jan; Mandát, Dušan; Nečesal, Petr; Nožka, Libor; Palatka, Miroslav; Pech, Miroslav; Prouza, Michael; Řídký, Jan; Schovancová, Jaroslava; Schovánek, Petr; Šmída, Radomír; Trávníček, Petr; Vícha, Jakub

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 11 (2012), s. 1-28 ISSN 1748-0221 R&D Projects: GA TA ČR TA01010517; GA MŠk(CZ) MEB111003; GA AV ČR KJB100100904; GA MŠk LA08015; GA MŠk(CZ) LA08016 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100502; CEZ:AV0Z10100522 Keywords : antennas * large detector systems for particle and astroparticle physics Subject RIV: BF - Elementary Particles and High Energy Physics Impact factor: 1.869, year: 2011 http://iopscience.iop.org/1748-0221/7/11/P11023/pdf/1748-0221_7_11_P11023.pdf

  5. Calibration and survey of AMANDA with the SPASE detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Ahrens, J; Barwick, S W; Bay, R C; Becka, T; Becker, K H; Bernardini, E; Bertrand, E; Binon, F; Biron, A; Boser, S; Botner, O; Bouchta, A; Bouhali, O; Burgess, T; Carius, S; Castermans, T; Chirkin, D; Conrad, J; Cooley, J; Cowen, D F; Davour, A; De Clercq, C; De Young, T R; Desiati, P; Dewulf, J P; Dickinson, E; Doksus, P; Ekstrom, P; Engel, R; Evenson, P; Feser, T; Gaisser, T K; Ganugapati, R; Gaug, M; Geenen, H; Gerhardt, L; Goldschmidt, A; Hallgren, A; Halzen, F; Hanson, K; Hardtke, R; Hauschildt, T; Hellwig, M; Herquet, P; Hill, G C; Hinton, J A; Hughey, B; Hulth, P O; Hultqvist, K; Hundertmark, S; Jacobsen, J; Karle, A; Kim, J; Köpke, L; Kowalski, M; Kühn, K; Lamoureux, J I; Leich, H; Leuthold, M; Lindahl, P; Liubarsky, I; Lloyd Evans, J; Madsen, J; Mandli, K; Marciniewski, P; Martello, D; Matis, H S; McParland, C P; Messarius, T; Miller, T C; Minaeva, Y; Miocinovic, P; Mock, P C; Morse, R; Neunhoffer, T; Niessen, P; Nygren, D R; Ogelman, H; Olbrechts, P; Perez de los Heros, C; Pohl, A C; Porrata, R; Price, P B; Przybylski, G T; Rawlins, K; Resconi, E; Rhode, W; Ribordy, M; Richter, S; Rochester, K; Rodríguez-Martino, J; Romenesko, P; Ross, D; Sander, H G; Schinarakis, K; Schlenstedt, S; Schmidt, T; Schneider, D; Schwarz, R; Silvestri, A; Solarz, M; Spiczak, G M; Spiering, C; Stamatikos, M; Stanev, T; Steele, D; Steffen, P; Stokstad, R G; Sulanke, K H; Taboada, I; Tilav, S; Wagner, W; Walck, C; Wang, Y R; Watson, A A; Weinheimer, C; Wiebusch, C; Wiedemann, C; Wischnewski, R; Wissing, H; Woschnagg, K; Wu, W; Yodh, G; Young, S; 10.1016/j.nima.2003.12.007

    2004-01-01

    We report on the analysis of air showers observed in coincidence by the Antarctic Muon and Neutrino detector array (AMANDA-B10) and the South Pole Air Shower Experiment (SPASE-1 and SPASE-2). We discuss the use of coincident events for calibration and survey of the deep AMANDA detector as well as the response of AMANDA to muon bundles. This analysis uses data taken during 1997 when both SPASE-1 and SPASE-2 were in operation to provide a stereo view of AMANDA.

  6. Muon-track studies in a water Cherenkov detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Etchegoyen, A. [Departamento de Fisica, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Avenida del Libertador 8250 (1429) Buenos Aires (Argentina)]. E-mail: etchegoy@tandar.cnea.gov.ar; Bauleo, P. [Departamento de Fisica, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Avenida del Libertador 8250 (1429) Buenos Aires (Argentina); Bertou, X. [Enrico Fermfi Institute, University of Chicago, 5640 S. Ellis, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Bonifazi, C.B. [Departamento de Fisica, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Avenida del Libertador 8250 (1429) Buenos Aires (Argentina); Filevich, A. [Departamento de Fisica, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Avenida del Libertador 8250 (1429) Buenos Aires (Argentina); Medina, M.C. [Departamento de Fisica, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Avenida del Libertador 8250 (1429) Buenos Aires (Argentina); Melo, D.G. [Departamento de Fisica, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Avenida del Libertador 8250 (1429) Buenos Aires (Argentina); Rovero, A.C. [Instituto de Astronomia y Fisica del Espacio, CC 67, Suc. 28 (1428) Buenos Aires (Argentina); Supanitsky, A.D. [Departamento de Fisica, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Avenida del Libertador 8250 (1429) Buenos Aires (Argentina); Tamashiro, A. [Departamento de Fisica, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Avenida del Libertador 8250 (1429) Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2005-06-21

    Background muons may be used in cosmic ray experiments to understand the response of a given detector system and to lay the basis for the further theoretical and simulation work needed in the analysis of air showers. Experiments were performed using a water Cherenkov detector at the Tandar Laboratory. Monte Carlo and semi-analytical calculations were compared to the data.

  7. OMEGA project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shibuya, E.H.

    1989-01-01

    The OMEGA - Observation of Multiple particle production, Exotic Interactions and Gamma-ray Air Shower-project is presented. The project try to associate photosensitive detectors from experiences of hadronic interactions with electronic detectors used by experiences that investigate extensive atmospheric showers. (M.C.K.)

  8. Tunka-Rex: Status, Plans, and Recent Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schröder F. G.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Tunka-Rex, the Tunka Radio extension at the TAIGA facility (Tunka Advanced Instrument for cosmic ray physics and Gamma Astronomy in Siberia, has recently been expanded to a total number of 63 SALLA antennas, most of them distributed on an area of one square kilometer. In the first years of operation, Tunka-Rex was solely triggered by the co-located air-Cherenkov array Tunka-133. The correlation of the measurements by both detectors has provided direct experimental proof that radio arrays can measure the position of the shower maximum. The precision achieved so far is 40 g/cm2, and several methodical improvements are under study. Moreover, the cross-comparison of Tunka-Rex and Tunka-133 shows that the energy reconstruction of Tunka-Rex is precise to 15 %, with a total accuracy of 20 % including the absolute energy scale. By using exactly the same calibration source for Tunka-Rex and LOPES, the energy scale of their host experiments, Tunka-133 and KASCADE-Grande, respectively, can be compared even more accurately with a remaining uncertainty of about 10 %. The main goal of Tunka-Rex for the next years is a study of the cosmic-ray mass composition in the energy range above 100 PeV: For this purpose, Tunka-Rex now is triggered also during daytime by the particle detector array Tunka-Grande featuring surface and underground scintillators for electron and muon detection.

  9. Tunka-Rex: Status, Plans, and Recent Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schröder, F. G.; Bezyazeekov, P. A.; Budnev, N. M.; Fedorov, O.; Gress, O. A.; Haungs, A.; Hiller, R.; Huege, T.; Kazarina, Y.; Kleifges, M.; Korosteleva, E. E.; Kostunin, D.; Krömer, O.; Kungel, V.; Kuzmichev, L. A.; Lubsandorzhiev, N.; Mirgazov, R. R.; Monkhoev, R.; Osipova, E. A.; Pakhorukov, A.; Pankov, L.; Prosin, V. V.; Rubtsov, G. I.; Wischnewski, R.; Zagorodnikov, A.

    2017-03-01

    Tunka-Rex, the Tunka Radio extension at the TAIGA facility (Tunka Advanced Instrument for cosmic ray physics and Gamma Astronomy) in Siberia, has recently been expanded to a total number of 63 SALLA antennas, most of them distributed on an area of one square kilometer. In the first years of operation, Tunka-Rex was solely triggered by the co-located air-Cherenkov array Tunka-133. The correlation of the measurements by both detectors has provided direct experimental proof that radio arrays can measure the position of the shower maximum. The precision achieved so far is 40 g/cm2, and several methodical improvements are under study. Moreover, the cross-comparison of Tunka-Rex and Tunka-133 shows that the energy reconstruction of Tunka-Rex is precise to 15 %, with a total accuracy of 20 % including the absolute energy scale. By using exactly the same calibration source for Tunka-Rex and LOPES, the energy scale of their host experiments, Tunka-133 and KASCADE-Grande, respectively, can be compared even more accurately with a remaining uncertainty of about 10 %. The main goal of Tunka-Rex for the next years is a study of the cosmic-ray mass composition in the energy range above 100 PeV: For this purpose, Tunka-Rex now is triggered also during daytime by the particle detector array Tunka-Grande featuring surface and underground scintillators for electron and muon detection.

  10. Probing the Extragalactic Cosmic-Ray Origin with Gamma-Ray and Neutrino Backgrounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Globus, Noemie; Piran, Tsvi [Racah Institute of Physics, The Hebrew University, 91904 Jerusalem (Israel); Allard, Denis; Parizot, Etienne [Laboratoire Astroparticule et Cosmologie, Université Paris Diderot/CNRS, 10 rue A. Domon et L. Duquet, F-75205 Paris Cedex 13 (France)

    2017-04-20

    GeV–TeV gamma-rays and PeV–EeV neutrino backgrounds provide a unique window on the nature of the ultra-high-energy cosmic rays (UHECRs). We discuss the implications of the recent Fermi -LAT data regarding the extragalactic gamma-ray background and related estimates of the contribution of point sources as well as IceCube neutrino data on the origin of the UHECRs. We calculate the diffuse flux of cosmogenic γ -rays and neutrinos produced by the UHECRs and derive constraints on the possible cosmological evolution of UHECR sources. In particular, we show that the mixed-composition scenario considered in Globus et al., which is in agreement with both (i) Auger measurements of the energy spectrum and composition up to the highest energies and (ii) the ankle-like feature in the light component detected by KASCADE-Grande, is compatible with both the Fermi -LAT measurements and with current IceCube limits. We also discuss the possibility for future experiments to detect associated cosmogenic neutrinos and further constrain the UHECR models, including possible subdominant UHECR proton sources.

  11. Cosmic Ray Origin: Lessons from Ultra-High-Energy Cosmic Rays and the Galactic/Extragalactic Transition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parizot, Etienne

    2014-11-15

    We examine the question of the origin of the Galactic cosmic-rays (GCRs) in the light of the data available at the highest energy end of the spectrum. We argue that the data of the Pierre Auger Observatory and of the KASCADE-Grande experiment suggest that the transition between the Galactic and the extragalactic components takes place at the energy of the ankle in the all-particle cosmic-ray spectrum, and at an energy of the order of 10{sup 17} eV for protons. Such a high energy for Galactic protons appears difficult to reconcile with the general view that GCRs are accelerated by the standard diffusive shock acceleration process at the forward shock of individual supernova remnants (SNRs). We also review various difficulties of the standard SNR-GCR connection, related to the evolution of the light element abundances and to significant isotopic anomalies. We point out that most of the power injected by the supernovæ in the Galaxy is actually released inside superbubbles, which may thus play an important role in the origin of cosmic-rays, and could solve some persistent problems of the standard SNR-GCR scenario in a rather natural way.

  12. EAS selection in the EMMA underground array

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sarkamo, J.; Bezrukov, L.; Enqvist, T.

    2013-01-01

    The first measurements of the Experiment with MultiMuon Array (EMMA) have been analyzed for the selection of the Extensive Air Showers (EAS). Test data were recorded with an underground muon tracking station and a satellite station separated laterally by 10 metres. Events with tracks distributed...

  13. An active dipole for cosmic ray radiodetection with CODALEMA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ardouin, D. [SUBATECH, Ecole des Mines de Nantes/CNRS-IN2P3/Universite de Nantes, Nantes (France); Belletoile, A. [SUBATECH, Ecole des Mines de Nantes/CNRS-IN2P3/Universite de Nantes, Nantes (France); Charrier, D. [SUBATECH, Ecole des Mines de Nantes/CNRS-IN2P3/Universite de Nantes, Nantes (France)]. E-mail: didier.charrier@subatech.in2p3.fr; Dallier, R. [SUBATECH, Ecole des Mines de Nantes/CNRS-IN2P3/Universite de Nantes, Nantes (France); Denis, L. [Station de Radioastronomie de Nancay, Nancay (France); Gousset, T. [SUBATECH, Ecole des Mines de Nantes/CNRS-IN2P3/Universite de Nantes, Nantes (France); Haddad, F. [SUBATECH, Ecole des Mines de Nantes/CNRS-IN2P3/Universite de Nantes, Nantes (France); Lamblin, J. [SUBATECH, Ecole des Mines de Nantes/CNRS-IN2P3/Universite de Nantes, Nantes (France); Lautridou, P. [SUBATECH, Ecole des Mines de Nantes/CNRS-IN2P3/Universite de Nantes, Nantes (France); Lecacheux, A. [LESIA, Observatoire de Paris, Meudon (France); Ravel, O. [SUBATECH, Ecole des Mines de Nantes/CNRS-IN2P3/Universite de Nantes, Nantes (France); Saugrin, T. [SUBATECH, Ecole des Mines de Nantes/CNRS-IN2P3/Universite de Nantes, Nantes (France); Valcares, S. [SUBATECH, Ecole des Mines de Nantes/CNRS-IN2P3/Universite de Nantes, Nantes (France)

    2007-03-01

    The CODALEMA experiment detects the electromagnetic pulses radiated during the development of Extensive Air Showers (EAS). Since 2005, in addition to spiral log-periodic antennas, ultra broad bandwidth active dipoles have been designed to detect the full electric pulse shape of these signals. A few performances of these new detectors are presented.

  14. FPGA/NIOS Implementation of an Adaptive FIR Filter Using Linear Prediction to Reduce Narrow-Band RFI for Radio Detection of Cosmic Rays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Szadkowski, Zbigniew; Fraenkel, E. D.; van den Berg, Ad M.

    2013-01-01

    We present the FPGA/NIOS implementation of an adaptive finite impulse response (FIR) filter based on linear prediction to suppress radio frequency interference (RFI). This technique will be used for experiments that observe coherent radio emission from extensive air showers induced by

  15. Atmospheric muons in Hanoi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pham Ngoc Diep; Pham thi Tuyet Nhung; Pierre Darriulat; Nguyen Thi Thao; Dang Quang Thieu; Vo Van Thuan

    2006-01-01

    Recent measurements of the atmospheric muon flux in Hanoi were reviewed. As the measurements were carried out in a region of maximal geomagnetic rigidity cutoff, they provided a sensitive test of air shower models used in the interpretation of neutrino oscillation experiments. The measured data were found to be in a very good agreement with the prediction from the model of M. Honda. (author)

  16. Cosmic ray H and He spectra from 2 to 800 TeV/nucleon from the JACEE experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nilsen, B. S.; Cherry, M. L.; Sengupta, K.; Wefel, J. P.; Asakimori, K.; Burnett, T. H.; Iwai, J.; Lord, J.; Olson, E. D.; Strausz, S. C.; Wilkes, R. J.; Zager, E.; Chevli, K.; Gregory, J. C.; Johnson, J.; Shiina, T.; Takahashi, Y.; Christl, M. J.; Derrickson, J. H.; Fountain, W. F.

    1997-01-01

    Results for the cosmic ray hydrogen and helium spectra up to 800 TeV, near the 'knee' region, are presented. There is no sign of a break in either the hydrogen or helium spectra. The differential power law slopes are 2.80±0.04 for hydrogen and 2.68±0.06 for helium. With these new H and He measurements, together with earlier reported results for the heavier elements, the sum of the spectra give an all-particle spectrum that is in good agreement with the all-particle spectrum measured using extensive air showers

  17. The cloud monitor by an infrared camera at the Telescope Array experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shibata, F.

    2011-01-01

    The mesurement of the extensive air shower using the fluorescence detectors (FDs) is affected by the condition of the atmosphere. In particular, FD aperture is limited by cloudiness. If cloud exists on the light path from extensive air shower to FDs, fluorescence photons will be absorbed drastically. Therefore cloudiness of FD's field of view (FOV) is one of important quality cut condition in FD analysis. In the Telescope Array (TA), an infrared (IR) camera with 320x236 pixels and a filed of view of 25.8 deg. x19.5 deg. has been installed at an observation site for cloud monitoring during FD observations. This IR camera measures temperature of the sky every 30 min during FD observation. IR camera is mounted on steering table, which can be changed in elevation and azimuthal direction. Clouds can be seen at a higher temperature than areas of cloudless sky from these temperature maps. In this paper, we discuss the quality of the cloud monitoring data, the analysis method, and current quality cut condition of cloudiness in FD analysis.

  18. Tunka-Rex: energy reconstruction with a single antenna station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiller, R.; Bezyazeekov, P. A.; Budnev, N. M.; Fedorov, O.; Gress, O. A.; Haungs, A.; Huege, T.; Kazarina, Y.; Kleifges, M.; Korosteleva, E. E.; Kostunin, D.; Krömer, O.; Kungel, V.; Kuzmichev, L. A.; Lubsandorzhiev, N.; Mirgazov, R. R.; Monkhoev, R.; Osipova, E. A.; Pakhorukov, A.; Pankov, L.; Prosin, V. V.; Rubtsov, G. I.; Schröder, F. G.; Wischnewski, R.; Zagorodnikov, A.

    2017-03-01

    The Tunka-Radio extension (Tunka-Rex) is a radio detector for air showers in Siberia. From 2012 to 2014, Tunka-Rex operated exclusively together with its host experiment, the air-Cherenkov array Tunka-133, which provided trigger, data acquisition, and an independent air-shower reconstruction. It was shown that the air-shower energy can be reconstructed by Tunka-Rex with a precision of 15% for events with signal in at least 3 antennas, using the radio amplitude at a distance of 120 m from the shower axis as an energy estimator. Using the reconstruction from the host experiment Tunka-133 for the air-shower geometry (shower core and direction), the energy estimator can in principle already be obtained with measurements from a single antenna, close to the reference distance. We present a method for event selection and energy reconstruction, requiring only one antenna, and achieving a precision of about 20%. This method increases the effective detector area and lowers thresholds for zenith angle and energy, resulting in three times more events than in the standard reconstruction.

  19. The energy spectrum of cosmic rays measured with the HEAT extension at the Pierre Auger Observatory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scharf, Nils Sven Sebastian

    2013-01-01

    time the detector was taking data, and the aperture, that is a value to describe the observational capabilities of a cosmic ray detector, have to be ascertained. The uptime is calculated with information from the detector monitoring of the Pierre Auger Observatory. The calculation of the aperture is done by calculating the detection efficiency and the effective area of the detector. For the calculation of the efficiency and effective area a large number of Monte Carlo simulated air showers was generated. The simulated air showers were produced with 2 different primary cosmic ray particles (proton or iron) and three different hadronic interaction models. This is needed, because the actual primary composition in this energy range is only known to a certain degree, and the physics of hadronic interactions at these high energies is only known by extrapolations from lower energy data. The simulated air showers are reconstructed with the same process that is used for real data. After the simulation and reconstruction of the air showers, a data selection procedure with several quality cuts is used to remove events with a bad detection quality from simulated and real data alike. From the resulting high quality simulated and real data, the aperture, the exposure and the cosmic ray flux is calculated. A mean flux is calculated from the single flux values for the six combinations of primary and hadronic model. A conservative systematic error approximation from the unknown choice of primary and hadronic model is given for the mean flux. The energy measured by the detector is of course smeared with the finite energy resolution of the detector. To quantify this effect, the energy resolution for this new detector configuration is studied with the same simulated air showers that were used for the exposure calculation. To allow a comparison of the calculated flux values with those from other experiments or analyses, a bin-by-bin unfolding of the energy resolution on the flux values is

  20. Customer experience

    OpenAIRE

    Koperdáková, Zuzana

    2016-01-01

    Bachelor thesis deals with the theme of customer experience and terms related to this topic. The thesis consists of three parts. The first part explains the terms generally, as the experience or customer loyalty. The second part is dedicated to medotology used for Customer Experience Management. In the third part is described application of Customer Experience Management in practice, particularly in the context Touch Point Analyses in GE Money Bank.

  1. Euso-Balloon: A pathfinder mission for the JEM-EUSO experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osteria, Giuseppe, E-mail: osteria@na.infn.it [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare Sezione di Napoli, Naples (Italy); Scotti, Valentina [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare Sezione di Napoli, Naples (Italy); Università di Napoli Federico II, Dipartimento di Fisica, Naples (Italy)

    2013-12-21

    EUSO-Balloon is a pathfinder mission for JEM-EUSO, the near-UV telescope proposed to be installed on board the ISS in 2017. The main objective of this pathfinder mission is to perform a full scale end-to-end test of all the key technologies and instrumentation of JEM-EUSO detectors and to prove the entire detection chain. EUSO-Balloon will measure the atmospheric and terrestrial UV background components, in different observational modes, fundamental for the development of the simulations. Through a series of flights performed by the French Space Agency CNES, EUSO-Balloon also has the potential to detect Extensive Air Showers (EAS) from above. EUSO-Balloon will be mounted in an unpressurized gondola of a stratospheric balloon. We will describe the instrument and the electronic system which performs instrument control and data management in such a critical environment.

  2. The Baksan experiment on thunderstorm CR variations: history, results, and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khaerdinov, N.S.; Lidvansky, A.S.

    2016-01-01

    Variations of cosmic rays in thunderstorm atmosphere, as measured at the Baksan Neutrino Observatory with the Carpet air shower array, are discussed. Their underlying mechanisms and accompanying phenomena are also considered. The observed effects in cosmic rays include regular variations with the near-ground electric field of the soft (electrons, positrons and gamma-rays) and hard (muons) components of secondary cosmic rays and sporadic changes in intensity of both these components (bright events). Associated phenomena occurring simultaneously with bright events in cosmic rays include geomagnetic pulsations (observed by high-sensitivity magnetic variation station deep underground) and large-scale atmospheric high-altitude discharge of a new type (observed by a video camera placed at a distance of 75 km from the Carpet array). Implications of all these results and prospects for further studies are discussed. (author)

  3. Study of the correlation of gamma-ray families with the EAS by the Monte-Carlo simulation and a suggested future experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasahara, K.; Torii, S.; Yuda, T.

    1981-01-01

    To examine information which may be obtained by the simultaneous observation of gamma-ray families and accompanying air showers, a Monte-Carlo simulation is carried out under various assumptions for primary cosmic rays and nuclear interactions. It is shown that only proton primary can produce those families that have energy greater than ΣEsub(γ) approximately=100 TeV with air shower size less than 10 5 ; other heavy primaries such as alpha, carbon etc always generate larger sizes than 10 5 for families ΣEsub(γ)>=100 TeV. Therefore we will be able to select families generated by proton primaries and discuss the character of nuclear interaction at very high energies without suffering from the problem of imitations of various new characters (large Pt, large multiplicity etc) by heavy primaries. Moreover, it is shown that the chemical composition of the primaries at >=10 15 eV region is possibly studied through ΣEsub(γ)-size correlation

  4. Results from KASCADE–Grande

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertaina, M.; Apel, W.D.; Arteaga-Velázquez, J.C.; Bekk, K.; Blümer, J.; Bozdog, H.; Brancus, I.M.; Buchholz, P.; Cantoni, E.; Chiavassa, A.; Cossavella, F.

    2012-01-01

    The KASCADE–Grande experiment, located at Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (Germany) is a multi-component extensive air-shower experiment devoted to the study of cosmic rays and their interactions at primary energies 10 14 –10 18 eV. Main goals of the experiment are the measurement of the all-particle energy spectrum and mass composition in the 10 16 –10 18 eV range by sampling charged (N ch ) and muon (N μ ) components of the air shower. The method to derive the energy spectrum and its uncertainties, as well as the implications of the obtained result, is discussed. An overview of the analyses performed by KASCADE–Grande to derive the mass composition of the measured high-energy comic rays is presented as well.

  5. Pixel Experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Kjell Yngve; Søndergaard, Karin; Augustesen, Christina

    2015-01-01

    Pixel Experiments The term pixel is traditionally defined as any of the minute elements that together constitute a larger context or image. A pixel has its own form and is the smallest unit seen within a larger structure. In working with the potentials of LED technology in architectural lighting...... for using LED lighting in lighting design practice. The speculative experiments that have been set-up have aimed to clarify the variables that can be used as parameters in the design of lighting applications; including, for example, the structuring and software control of light. The experiments also...... elucidate and exemplify already well-known problems in relation to the experience of vertical and horizontal lighting. Pixel Experiments exist as a synergy between speculative test setups and lighting design in practice. This book is one of four books that is published in connection with the research...

  6. TRIO experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clemmer, R.G.; Finn, P.A.; Malecha, R.F.

    1984-09-01

    The TRIO experiment is a test of in-situ tritium recovery and heat transfer performance of a miniaturized solid breeder blanket assembly. The assembly (capsule) was monitored for temperature and neutron flux profiles during irradiation and a sweep gas flowed through the capsule to an anaytical train wherein the amounts of tritium in its various chemical forms were determined. The capsule was designed to operate at different temperatures and sweep gas conditions. At the end of the experiment the amount of tritium retained in the solid was at a concentration of less than 0.1 wppM. More than 99.9% of tritium generated during the experiment was successfully recovered. The results of the experiment showed that the tritium inventories at the beginning and at the end of the experiment follow a relationship which appears to be characteristic of intragranular diffusion

  7. Classic experiments

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva; Franklin, M

    2001-01-01

    These will be a set of lectures on classic particle physics experiments, with emphasis on how the emasurements are made. I will discuss experiments made to measure the electric charge distribution of particles, to measure the symmetries of the weak decays, to measure the magnetic moment of the muon. As well as experiments performed which discovered new particles or resonances, like the tAU2and the J/Psi. The coverage will be general and should be understandable to someone knowing little particle physics.

  8. Simulated experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjerknes, R.

    1977-01-01

    A cybernetic model has been developed to elucidate some of the main principles of the growth regulation system in the epidermis of the hairless mouse. A number of actual and theoretical biological experiments have been simulated on the model. These included simulating the cell kinetics as measured by pulse labelling with tritiated thymidine and by continuous labelling with tritiated thymidine. Other simulated experiments included steady state, wear and tear, painting with a carcinogen, heredity and heredity and tumour. Numerous diagrams illustrate the results of these simulated experiments. (JIW)

  9. Researching experiences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjedde, Lisa; Ingemann, Bruno

    In the beginning was - not the word - but the experience. This phenomenological approach provides the basis for this book, which focuses on how a person-in-situation experiences and constructs meaning from a variety of cultural visual events. This book presents video-based processual methods......, dialogue, moods, values and narratives have been investigated qualitatively with more than sixty informants in a range of projects. The processual methodological insights are put into a theoretical perspective and also presented as pragmatic dilemmas. Researching Experiences is relevant not only...

  10. Antimatter Experiments

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    Antimatter should behave in identical fashion to matter if a form of spacetime symmetry called CPT invariance holds. Two experiments at CERN near Geneva are testing this hypothesis using antihydrogen atoms

  11. Pixel Experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Kjell Yngve; Søndergaard, Karin; Augustesen, Christina

    2015-01-01

    Pixel Experiments The term pixel is traditionally defined as any of the minute elements that together constitute a larger context or image. A pixel has its own form and is the smallest unit seen within a larger structure. In working with the potentials of LED technology in architectural lighting...... lighting design in practice, one quickly experiences and realises that there are untapped potentials in the attributes of LED technology. In this research, speculative studies have been made working with the attributes of LEDs in architectural contexts, with the ambition to ascertain new strategies...... for using LED lighting in lighting design practice. The speculative experiments that have been set-up have aimed to clarify the variables that can be used as parameters in the design of lighting applications; including, for example, the structuring and software control of light. The experiments also...

  12. Experiment Databases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanschoren, Joaquin; Blockeel, Hendrik

    Next to running machine learning algorithms based on inductive queries, much can be learned by immediately querying the combined results of many prior studies. Indeed, all around the globe, thousands of machine learning experiments are being executed on a daily basis, generating a constant stream of empirical information on machine learning techniques. While the information contained in these experiments might have many uses beyond their original intent, results are typically described very concisely in papers and discarded afterwards. If we properly store and organize these results in central databases, they can be immediately reused for further analysis, thus boosting future research. In this chapter, we propose the use of experiment databases: databases designed to collect all the necessary details of these experiments, and to intelligently organize them in online repositories to enable fast and thorough analysis of a myriad of collected results. They constitute an additional, queriable source of empirical meta-data based on principled descriptions of algorithm executions, without reimplementing the algorithms in an inductive database. As such, they engender a very dynamic, collaborative approach to experimentation, in which experiments can be freely shared, linked together, and immediately reused by researchers all over the world. They can be set up for personal use, to share results within a lab or to create open, community-wide repositories. Here, we provide a high-level overview of their design, and use an existing experiment database to answer various interesting research questions about machine learning algorithms and to verify a number of recent studies.

  13. The Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariana Nicoara, Floare

    2016-04-01

    My name is Nicoara Floarea and I am teacher at Secondary School Calatele and I teach students from preparatory class and the second grade . They are six-eight years old. In my activity, for introducing scientific concepts to my students, I use various and active methods or traditional methods including experiments. The experiment stimulates students' curiosity, their creativity, the understanding and knowledge taught accessibility. I propose you two such experiments: The life cycle of the plants (long-term experiment, with rigorous observation time):We use beans, wheat or other; They are grown in pots and on the cotton soaked with water,keeping under students' observation protecting them ( just soak them regularly) and we waiting the plants rise. For discussions and comments of plant embryo development we use the plants which rose on the cotton soaked with water plants at the end of the first week. Last school year we had in the pot climbing beans which in May made pods. They were not too great but our experiment was a success. The students could deduce that there will develop those big beans which after drying will be planted again. The influence of light on plants (average duration experiment with the necessary observation time): We use two pots in which plants are of the same type (two geraniums), one of them is situated so as to get direct sunlight and other plant we put in a closed box. Although we wet both plants after a week we see that the plant that benefited from sunlight has turned strain in direct sunlight, developing normally in return the plant out of the box I have yellowed leaves, photosynthesis does not She has occurred . Students will understand the vital role of the Sun in plants' life, both in the classroom and in nature. The experiment is a method of teaching students extremely pleasant, with a remarkable percentage of acquiring more knowledge.

  14. Development of the discharge (spark) chamber in Japan in the 1950s

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukui, Shuji

    1989-01-01

    The paper, written by its Japanese inventor Shuji Fukui, describes the development of the discharge or spark chamber in Japan in the 1950s. Flash-tubes were used in air-shower cosmic-ray experiments and this led to his design of a neon hodoscope detector. By including the property of neon bulbs glowing the discharge chamber was born, after he observed localized discharges along the trajectories of cosmic-ray particles. (UK)

  15. Fluctuations of approximatelly 1014 eV cosmic rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erdoes, G.; Gombosi, T.; Kota, J.; Owens, A.J.; Somogyi, A.J.; Varga, A.

    1977-06-01

    It is shown that the approximately 6x10 13 eV primary cosmic ray flux, as observed in the Extensive Air Shower experiment on Musala Peak, has unexplained broad-band aperiodic fluctuations with an amplitude of 0.5%, a spectrum of 1/f, and time scales from days through a year. Possible sources of these fluctuations are discussed: instrumental drifts, data analysis techniques, meteorological effects, and scattering by interstellar electromagnetic field irregularities. (Sz.N.Z.)

  16. Collaborative experience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Thomas Bøtker

    -Doerr, 1996) and has been shown to have a positive effect to the outcome of collaborative R&D (Sampson, 2005). Anand & Khanna (2000), furthermore, hypothesized that research joint ventures are more ambiguous than marketing joint ventures and even more the licensing and showed that the effect of collaborative......Literature review: Collaborative experience has been shown to have a positive effect on the collaborative outcome in general (Anand & Khanna, 2000; Kale, Dyer & Singh, 2002). Furthermore, it has been linked to the ability to exploit the network of the firm for learning (Powell, Koput and Smith...... experience was largest the higher the hypothesized ambiguity. Theoretically contribution: This research project aims at contributing to existing literature by arguing, that collaborative experience is a moderating variable which moderates the effects on collaborative outcome from the level of complexity...

  17. Channeling experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abelin, H.; Birgersson, L.; Widen, H.; Aagren, T.; Moreno, L.; Neretnieks, I.

    1990-07-01

    Channeling of water flow and tracer transport in real fractures in a granite body at Stripa have been investigated experimentally. The experimental site was located 360 m below the ground level. Two kinds of experiments were performed. In the single hole experiments, 20 cm diameter holes were drilled about 2.5 m into the rock in the plane of the fracture. Specially designed packers were used to inject water into the fracture in 5 cm intervals all along the fracture trace in the hole. The variation of the injection flowrates along the fracture were used to determine the transmissivity variations in the fracture plane. Detailed photographs were taken from inside the hole and the visual fracture aperture was compared with the injection flowrates in the same locations. Geostatistical methods were used to evaluate the results. Five holes were measured in great detail. In addition 7 holes were drilled and scanned by simpler packer systems. A double hole experiment was performed where two parallel holes were drilled in the same fracture plane at nearly 2 m distance. Pressure pulse tests were made between the holes in both directions. Tracers were injected in 5 locations in one hole and monitored for in many locations in the other hole. The single hole experiment and the double hole experiment show that most of the fracture planes are tight but that there are open sections which form connected channels over distances of at least 2 meters. It was also found in the double hole experiment that the investigated fracture was intersected by at least one fracture between the two holes which diverted a large amount of the injected tracers to several distant locations at the tunnel wall. (authours)

  18. Poetic Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahab Yar Khan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nature of poetic experience is hereby redefined. The present article initially deals with the perennial nature of true poetic experience and its essential relevance to the world. It attempts to elaborate the process through which a poet is uplifted in a creative moment beyond terrestrial boundaries and is aligned with the ‘state of Perfection'. The role of successive generations of audiences in rediscovering the meaning of a poetic image is defined as life principle of all great poetry. Shakespeare is discussed as the ultimate example of this principle since his popularity remains an irreversible phenomenon

  19. Multigap resistive plate chambers for EAS study in the EEE Project

    CERN Document Server

    An, S; Badalà, A; Zichichi, A

    2007-01-01

    The EEE (Extreme Energy Events) Project, conceived by its leader Antonino Zichichi, is an experiment to study very high-energetic air showers (EAS) through the detection of the shower's muon component using a network of tracking detectors, installed in Italian high schools. The single tracking telescope is composed of three large area () Multi-gap Resistive Plate Chambers (MRPCs). The data collected by the telescopes will be used for studies of air showers and also for the search of time correlations between sites which are far apart. The first telescope, recently installed in the Liceo B. Touschek in Grottaferrata (Rome), is successfully running, and other telescopes are going to be installed in a short time in other towns, opening up the way for the first search of long-distance coincidences over a total area of .

  20. Monopoles, muons, neutrinos, and Cygnus X-3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherry, M.L.; Corbato, S.; Kieda, D.; Lande, K.; Lee, C.K.

    1988-01-01

    The deep underground large area scintillation detector and the surface air shower array at the Homestake Gold Mine are now in operation. Beginning in January 1985, the underground detector has been searching for muons from Cygnus X-3; we have seen no excess signal with the characteristic 4.8 hour period from the direction of Cygnus X-3, with an upper limit below that of the NUSEX result. The surface array has been collecting high energy cosmic ray data, in coincidence with the underground detector, since July of 1985. The authors describe the initial surface-underground data, and discuss the experiments to search for magnetic monopolies at the level of the Parker limit, neutrinos, and high energy cosmic ray air showers with these instruments and with a new atmospheric Cerenkov detector

  1. Upper limit on the ultrahigh-energy photon flux from AGASA and Yakutsk data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubtsov, G.I.; Dedenko, L.G.; Fedorova, G.F.; Fedunin, E.Yu.; Roganova, T.M.; Glushkov, A.V.; Makarov, I.T.; Pravdin, M.I.; Sleptsov, I.E.; Gorbunov, D.S.; Troitsky, S.V.

    2006-01-01

    We present the interpretation of the muon and scintillation signals of ultrahigh-energy air showers observed by AGASA and Yakutsk extensive air shower array experiments. We consider case-by-case ten highest-energy events with known muon content and conclude that at the 95% confidence level none of them was induced by a primary photon. Taking into account statistical fluctuations and differences in the energy estimation of proton and photon primaries, we derive an upper limit of 36% at a 95% confidence level on the fraction of primary photons in the cosmic-ray flux above 10 20 eV. This result disfavors the Z-burst and superheavy dark-matter solutions to the Greisen-Zatsepin-Kuzmin-cutoff problem

  2. The MIDAS telescope for microwave detection of ultra-high energy cosmic rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Muñiz, J.; Amaral Soares, E.; Berlin, A.; Bogdan, M.; Boháčová, M.; Bonifazi, C.; Carvalho, W. R.; de Mello Neto, J. R. T.; Facal San Luis, P.; Genat, J. F.; Hollon, N.; Mills, E.; Monasor, M.; Privitera, P.; Ramos de Castro, A.; Reyes, L. C.; Richardson, M.; Rouille d'Orfeuil, B.; Santos, E. M.; Wayne, S.; Williams, C.; Zas, E.; Zhou, J.

    2013-08-01

    We present the design, implementation and data taking performance of the MIcrowave Detection of Air Showers (MIDAS) experiment, a large field of view imaging telescope designed to detect microwave radiation from extensive air showers induced by ultra-high energy cosmic rays. This novel technique may bring a tenfold increase in detector duty cycle when compared to the standard fluorescence technique based on detection of ultraviolet photons. The MIDAS telescope consists of a 4.5 m diameter dish with a 53-pixel receiver camera, instrumented with feed horns operating in the commercial extended C-Band (3.4-4.2 GHz). A self-trigger capability is implemented in the digital electronics. The main objectives of this first prototype of the MIDAS telescope - to validate the telescope design, and to demonstrate a large detector duty cycle - were successfully accomplished in a dedicated data taking run at the University of Chicago campus prior to installation at the Pierre Auger Observatory.

  3. The Pierre Auger fluorescence detector. Cross-checking the absolute calibration using a drone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomankova, Lenka [Institute for Nuclear Physics (IKP), Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Collaboration: Pierre-Auger-Collaboration

    2016-07-01

    The Pierre Auger Observatory combines the air shower fluorescence and surface array methods to study ultra-high energy cosmic rays. As the energy scale of the experiment is derived from calorimetric measurements by the fluorescence telescopes, their accurate calibration is of primary importance to all Auger data. We discuss a novel calibration method based on a remotely flown drone equipped with a specially designed light source that mimics a snapshot of an air shower traversing the atmosphere. Several drone measurement campaigns have been performed to study the properties of the Auger fluorescence telescopes and to derive an end-to-end calibration. We give an overview of the measurements and present the basic analysis chain as well as the first results of an independent cross-check of the Auger energy scale.

  4. EXPERIENCE WITH

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SURGERY DEPT

    Abstract. Background:Island flap techniques currently used in urethroplasty utilize the prepuce and the dorsal penile skin. Our experience with a one-stage island flap urethroplasty for urethral strictures utilizing the ventral penile skin is described. Patients and Method: This is a longitudinal study of seventy six consecutive ...

  5. Authoring experience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knox, Jeanette Bresson Ladegaard; Svendsen, Mette Nordahl

    2015-01-01

    This article examines the storytelling aspect inphilosophizing with rehabilitating cancer patients in small Socratic dialogue groups (SDG). Recounting an experienceto illustrate a philosophical question chosen by the participantsis the traditional point of departure for the dialogicalexchange....... However, narrating is much more than abeginning point or the skeletal framework of events and itdeserves more scholarly attention than hitherto given. Storytelling pervades the whole Socratic process and impactsthe conceptual analysis in a SDG. In this article weshow how the narrative aspect became a rich...... an experiencethrough a collaborative effort, most participants hadtheir initial experience existentially refined and the chosenconcept of which the experience served as an illustrationtransformed into a moral compass to be used in self-orientationpost cancer....

  6. Dirac experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez, F.; Adeva, B.; Afanasev, L.; Benayoun, M.; Brekhovskikh, V.; Caragheorgheopol, G.; Cechak, T.; Chiba, M.; Constantinescu, S.; Doudarev, A.; Dreossi, D.; Drijard, D.; Ferro-Luzzi, M.; Gallas, M.V.; Gerndt, J.; Giacomich, R.; Gianotti, P.; Goldin, D.; Gorin, A.; Gortchakov, O.; Guaraldo, C.; Hansroul, M.; Hosek, R.; Iliescu, M.; Jabitski, M.; Kalinina, N.; Karpoukhine, V.; Kluson, J.; Kobayashi, M.; Kokkas, P.; Komarov, V.; Koulikov, A.; Kouptsov, A.; Krouglov, V.; Krouglova, L.; Kuroda, K.-I.; Lanaro, A.; Lapshine, V.; Lednicky, R.; Leruste, P.; Levisandri, P.; Lopez Aguera, A.; Lucherini, V.; Maki, T.; Manuilov, I.; Montanet, L.; Narjoux, J.-L.; Nemenov, L.; Nikitin, M.; Nunez Pardo, T.; Okada, K.; Olchevskii, V.; Pazos, A.; Pentia, M.; Penzo, A.; Perreau, J.-M.; Petrascu, C.; Plo, M.; Ponta, T.; Pop, D.; Riazantsev, A.; Rodriguez, J.M.; Rodriguez Fernandez, A.; Rykaline, V.; Santamarina, C.; Saborido, J.; Schacher, J.; Sidorov, A.; Smolik, J.; Takeutchi, F.; Tarasov, A.; Tauscher, L.; Tobar, M.J.; Trusov, S.; Vazquez, P.; Vlachos, S.; Yazkov, V.; Yoshimura, Y.; Zrelov, P.

    2001-01-01

    The main objective of DIRAC experiment is the measurement of the lifetime τ of the exotic hadronic atom consisting of π + and π - mesons. The lifetime of this atom is determined by the decay mode π + π - → π 0 π 0 due to the strong interaction. Through the precise relationship between the lifetime and the S-wave pion-pion scattering length difference |a 0 - a 2 | for isospin 0 and 2 (respectively), a measurement of τ with an accuracy of 10% will allow a determination of |a 0 - a 2 | at a 5% precision level. Pion-pion scattering lengths have been calculated in the framework of chiral perturbation theory with an accuracy below 5%. In this way DIRAC experiment will provide a crucial test of the chiral symmetry breaking scheme in QCD effective theories at low energies

  7. Dirac experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez, F.; Adeva, B.; Afanasev, L.; Benayoun, M.; Brekhovskikh, V.; Caragheorgheopol, G.; Cechak, T.; Chiba, M.; Constantinescu, S.; Doudarev, A.; Dreossi, D.; Drijard, D.; Ferro-Luzzi, M.; Gallas, M.V.; Gerndt, J.; Giacomich, R.; Gianotti, P.; Goldin, D.; Gorin, A.; Gortchakov, O.; Guaraldo, C.; Hansroul, M.; Hosek, R.; Iliescu, M.; Jabitski, M.; Kalinina, N.; Karpoukhine, V.; Kluson, J.; Kobayashi, M.; Kokkas, P.; Komarov, V.; Koulikov, A.; Kouptsov, A.; Krouglov, V.; Krouglova, L.; Kuroda, K.-I.; Lanaro, A.; Lapshine, V.; Lednicky, R.; Leruste, P.; Levisandri, P.; Lopez Aguera, A.; Lucherini, V.; Maki, T.; Manuilov, I.; Montanet, L.; Narjoux, J.-L.; Nemenov, L.; Nikitin, M.; Nunez Pardo, T.; Okada, K.; Olchevskii, V.; Pazos, A.; Pentia, M.; Penzo, A.; Perreau, J.-M.; Petrascu, C.; Plo, M.; Ponta, T.; Pop, D.; Riazantsev, A.; Rodriguez, J.M.; Rodriguez Fernandez, A.; Rykaline, V.; Santamarina, C.; Saborido, J.; Schacher, J.; Sidorov, A.; Smolik, J.; Takeutchi, F.; Tarasov, A.; Tauscher, L.; Tobar, M.J.; Trusov, S.; Vazquez, P.; Vlachos, S.; Yazkov, V.; Yoshimura, Y.; Zrelov, P

    2001-04-01

    The main objective of DIRAC experiment is the measurement of the lifetime {tau} of the exotic hadronic atom consisting of {pi}{sup +} and {pi}{sup -} mesons. The lifetime of this atom is determined by the decay mode {pi}{sup +} {pi}{sup -} {yields} {pi}{sup 0} {pi}{sup 0} due to the strong interaction. Through the precise relationship between the lifetime and the S-wave pion-pion scattering length difference |a{sub 0} - a{sub 2}| for isospin 0 and 2 (respectively), a measurement of {tau} with an accuracy of 10% will allow a determination of |a{sub 0} - a{sub 2}| at a 5% precision level. Pion-pion scattering lengths have been calculated in the framework of chiral perturbation theory with an accuracy below 5%. In this way DIRAC experiment will provide a crucial test of the chiral symmetry breaking scheme in QCD effective theories at low energies.

  8. Russian experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trabalka, J.R.

    1981-01-01

    Soviet research in terrestrial decontamination appears to have paralleled that of the US in many respects. However, the probability exists that long-term evaluations of decontamination techniques (over 10 to 20 years) have been carried out at one nuclear accident site (a marked divergence from US experience). The area of aquatic decontamination seems to offer the most intriguing possibilities for new information acquisition from the USSR; at this point only its potential importance can be speculated upon

  9. Polarization experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halzen, F.

    1977-02-01

    In a theoretical review of polarization experiments two important points are emphasized: (a) their versatility and their relevance to a large variety of aspects of hadron physics (tests of basic symmetries; a probe of strong interaction dynamics; a tool for hadron spectroscopy); (b) the wealth of experimental data on polarization parameters in pp and np scattering in the Regge language and in the diffraction language. (author)

  10. Experiments expectations

    OpenAIRE

    Gorini, B; Meschi, E

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the expectations and the constraints of the experiments relatively to the commissioning procedure and the running conditions for the 2015 data taking period. The views about the various beam parameters for the p-p period, like beam energy, maximum pileup, bunch spacing and luminosity limitation in IP2 and IP8, are discussed. The goals and the constraints of the 2015 physics program are also presented, including the heavy ions period as well as the special...

  11. Media experiences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buhl, Mie

    2010-01-01

    The paper discusses mediated experiences from the perspective of the visual modality in combination with the multimodal interaction. ICT-studies has a rapid influx of new words and concepts. Digital technology led to a need to describe the convergence of images, text and sound has taken various w...... to educational practices as still more advanced technology emerge and intertwine the scientific areas in new and cross-disciplinary frameworks....

  12. Primary proton and helium spectra at energy range from 50 TeV to 1015 eV observed with the new Tibet AS core detector array

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Jing

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A new EAS hybrid experiment has been designed by constructing a YAC (Yangbajing Air shower Core detector array inside the existing Tibet-III air shower array. The first step of YAC, called “YAC-I” has been successfully carried out in 2009–2010 together with Tibet-III air-shower array. YAC-II has also been operated from 2011. Preliminary results of YAC-I and performance of YAC-II are presented in this paper. The primary proton and helium spectra at energy range from50 TeV to 1015 eV derived from YAC-I data based on QGSJET2 and SIBYLL2.1 are reported. The obtained P+He spectrum is smoothly connected with directobservation data below 100 TeV and also with our previously reported results at higher energies within statistical error s. Based on these results and the sharp kneeof all-particle energy spectrum observed by our experiment, the possible origin of the sharp knee is discussed. See the published papers.

  13. Measurement of the very-forward photon production in 13 TeV proton-proton collisions at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Makino, Yuya

    A key to resolving the mystery of ultrahigh energy cosmic rays is the measurement of the mass composition by air shower experiments. However, the interpretation of the observed data strongly relies on the choice of the hadronic interaction models used in the air shower simulations to compare with the data. The uncertainty arising from the interaction models has been one of the largest systematic uncertainties in the mass composition measurements. The Large Hadron Collider forward experiment (LHCf) measures the very forward rapidity region of hadron collisions at the LHC. Since the bulk of the energy flow concentrates on the forward rapidity region, LHCf has the capability to verify the interaction models in the phase space relevant to the air shower development. In particular, at $\\sqrt{s}=$13~TeV, the peak of the energy flow moves forward in the pseudorapidity range covered by LHCf in contrast to previous runs at the LHC owing to Lorentz boost. The detectors, conversely, have to face the serious radiation p...

  14. Department of Cosmic Radiation Physics: Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gawin, J.

    1999-01-01

    Full text: The Department of Cosmic Ray Physics in Lodz is involved in basic research in the area of high energy physics and cosmic ray physics related to: - Studies of asymptotic properties of hadronic interactions based on the analysis of cosmic ray propagation in the atmosphere. - Experimental and phenomenological studies of Extensive Air Showers induced by cosmic ray particles. - Search for point sources of high energy cosmic rays. - Studies of cosmic ray propagation in the Galaxy and mechanisms of particle acceleration. - Studies of mass composition of cosmic rays in the energy range 10 15 - 10 17 eV. Theoretical and experimental studies of Extensive Air Shower properties are performed mostly based on the results obtained by the Lodz Extensive Air Shower Array. We analysed nearly 100,000 events of energies above 10 15 eV registered by the Lodz hodoscope. We have developed the method of data analysis which allows us to verify different models of cosmic ray mass composition. In our research in high energy cosmic rays we also used experimental data from other collaborating experiments in Karlsruhe, Baksan and THEMISTOCLE. The Lodz group collaborates with many foreign institutes and laboratories in construction and data interpretation of cosmic ray experiments. Our most important partners are: Forschungszentrum in Karlsruhe (Germany), College de France, Institute for Nuclear Studies of the Russian Academy of Science, University of Perpignan and Uppsala University (Sweden). (author)

  15. TRISTAN experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwata, Seigi

    1994-01-01

    Any successor to PETRA and PEP colliders was expected to extend the energy range to the region where the weak interaction effect becomes sizable in annihilation process. The aim was to reach the level, at which the all round study of the standard model can be performed in a clean system of e + e - collision. Also it was aimed to explore the energy region where top quark pair production is likely. Considering the available site for accelerator construction and the expected size of the electroweak interference effect, the target energy was set at 60 GeV at the lowest. TRISTAN-1 experiment is a big initial step in the long range physics program. The laboratory established the plan to move on to TRISTAN-2 (B Factory) project. The TRISTAN accelerator including the main storage ring, the time sequence of storage ring operation, three experimental groups of AMY, TOPAZ and VENUS, and so on are explained. The experiments on basic annihilation process, the search for new particles, the electroweak interaction, QCD studies and so on are reported. The optimum TRISTAN ring was estimated as 3 km in diameter, but the largest possible size in the site was 1/3 of that. Hard decision was made to equip the ring with unusually many accelerating RF cavities and to apply superconducting technology. (K.I.)

  16. Experimenting with a design experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bakker, Judith

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The design experiment is an experimental research method that aims to help design and further develop new (policy instruments. For the development of a set of guidelines for the facilitation of citizens’ initiatives by local governments, we are experimenting with this method. It offers good opportunities for modeling interventions by testing their instrumental validity –the usefulness for the intended practical purposes. At the same time design experiments are also useful for evaluating the empirical validity of theoretical arguments and the further development of these arguments in the light of empirical evidence (by using e.g. the technique of pattern matching. We describe how we have applied this methodology in two cases and discuss our research approach. We encountered some unexpected difficulties, especially in the cooperation with professionals and citizens. These difficulties complicate the valid attribution of causal effects to the use of the new instrument. However, our preliminary conclusion is that design experiments are useful in our field of study

    El experimento de diseño es un método de investigación experimental que tiene como objetivo diseñar y desarrollar posteriormente nuevas herramientas (políticas. En este artículo experimentamos con este método para desarrollar un conjunto de directrices que permitan a los gobiernos locales facilitar las iniciativas ciudadanas. El método ofrece la oportunidad de modelar las intervenciones poniendo a prueba su validez instrumental (su utilidad para el fin práctico que se proponen. Al mismo tiempo, los experimentos de diseño son útiles también para evaluar la validez empírica de las discusiones teóricas y el posterior desarrollo de esas discusiones a la luz de la evidencia empírica (usando, por ejemplo, técnicas de concordancia de patrones. En este trabajo describimos cómo hemos aplicado este método a dos casos y discutimos nuestro enfoque de

  17. Operating experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McRae, L.P.; Six, D.E.

    1991-01-01

    In 1987, Westinghouse Hanford Company began operating a first-generation integrated safeguards system in the Plutonium Finishing Plant storage vaults. This Vault Safety and Inventory System is designed to integrate data into a computer-based nuclear material inventory monitoring system. The system gathers, in real time, measured physical parameters that generate nuclear material inventory status data for thousands of stored items and sends tailored report to the appropriate users. These data include canister temperature an bulge data reported to Plant Operations and Material Control and Accountability personnel, item presence and identification data reported to Material Control and Accountability personnel, and unauthorized item movement data reported to Security response forces and Material Control and Accountability personnel. The Westinghouse Hanford Company's experience and operational benefits in using this system for reduce radiation exposure, increase protection against insider threat, and real-time inventory control are discussed in this paper

  18. Management Experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe Popovici

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of the survey about the changes in modern management, identified from the experience of Romanian managers. By this online study one presents both the obstacles encountered and the recommendations for such a type of management that the present and future mangers must take into account. What motivated the respondent Romanian managers most to open their own business is the independence it offered them. They work in the field they have liked since they were young. The second reason was the perspective to have an additional income from the business development. The third argument in favour of opening a business is the possibility to assure the balance between personal life and career.

  19. Measurement of resonance production in pion-carbon interactions at 158 and 350 GeV/c with NA61/SHINE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herve, Alexander [KIT, Karlsruhe (Germany); Collaboration: NA61/SHINE-Collaboration

    2016-07-01

    The interpretation of extensive air shower measurements, produced by ultra-high energy cosmic rays, relies on the correct modelling of the hadron-air interactions that occur during the shower development. The majority of hadronic particles is produced at equivalent beam energies below the TeV range. NA61/SHINE is a fixed target experiment at the CERN Super Proton Synchrotron, studying hadron production in hadron-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus collisions to provide valuable contributions to a number of subjects, from neutrino through cosmic-ray to heavy-ion physics. Pion-Carbon interactions have been performed, at 158 and 350 GeV/c, to give precise particle production measurements for the most numerous projectile in air showers, the π meson. The ability to measure the production of resonances, such as the ρ{sup 0} and ω mesons, is particularly important to predict the number of muons produced in air showers. In this contribution we present updated results of resonance spectra at 158 and 350 GeV/c measured by NA61/SHINE.

  20. Towards autonomous radio detection of ultra high energy cosmic rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcon, Th.

    2010-01-01

    The radio-detection of extensive air showers, investigated for the first time in the 1960's, obtained promising results but plagued by the technical limitations. At that time, H.R. Allan summed up the state of the art in an extensive review article whose conclusions and predictions are still used today. Set up in 2001 at the Nancay Observatory, the CODALEMA experiment was built first as a demonstrator and successfully showed the feasibility of the radio-detection of extensive air showers. Radically modified in 2005, it allowed to obtain a clear energy correlation, and put in evidence an unambiguous signature of the geomagnetic origin of the electric field emission process associated to the air shower. The switch towards large areas is the next step of the technique's development. Therefore, the autonomy of the detectors becomes essential. After test prototypes installed in 2006 at the Pierre Auger Observatory, a generation of new autonomous detectors was developed. Their first results will be presented. This work is also dedicated to the issues related to the radio-detection technique: the antenna response, the sensitivity, the surrounding effects, the monitoring of a big array. The determination of the shower characteristics independently of other detectors such as the lateral distribution, the energy correlation and the frequency spectrum of the radio transient will be discussed. (author)

  1. Department of Cosmic Radiation Physics: Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szabelski, J.

    2000-01-01

    Full text: Department of Cosmic Ray Physics in Lodz is involved in basic research in the area of high-energy physics and cosmic ray physics related to: -Studies of asymptotic properties of hadronic interactions based on the analysis of cosmic ray propagation through the atmosphere. -Experimental and phenomenological studies of Extensive Air Showers induced by cosmic ray particles. - Search for high-energy cosmic ray point sources. - Studies of cosmic ray propagation in the Galaxy and particle acceleration mechanisms. -Studies of mass composition of cosmic rays in the energy range 10 15 -10 17 eV. Theoretical and experimental studies of Extensive Air Shower properties are performed mainly on the basis of the results obtained by the Lodz Extensive Air Shower Array. We have analysed nearly 100,000 events of energies above 10 15 eV registered in the Lodz hodoscope. We have developed a method to verify different models of cosmic ray mass composition. The Lodz group collaborates with many foreign institutes and laboratories in construction and data interpretation of cosmic ray experiments. Our most important partners are: Forschungszentrum in Karlsruhe (Germany), College de France, Institute for Nuclear Studies of the Russian Academy of Sciences and Uppsala University (Sweden). (author)

  2. Event reconstruction using the radio-interferometric technique in the frame of AERA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogozin, Dmytro [Institut fuer Experimentelle Kernphysik, Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (KIT) (Germany); Collaboration: Pierre-Auger-Collaboration

    2016-07-01

    It is a well-known fact that there is coherent radio emission induced by extensive air-showers. This fact is exploited in the Auger Engineering Radio Array (AERA), the radio extension of the Pierre Auger Observatory. This is a unique radio experiment due to its world-largest size of 17 km{sup 2}, and due to its precise nanosecond timing calibration. These features become crucial for detection of highly inclined air-showers with their very large foot-prints, and for the ability to apply interferometric reconstruction techniques. The standard reconstruction techniques typically treat all radio stations as separate detectors. Nevertheless there is a possibility to do an interferometric analysis. This means combining all detected signals from all antennas in a specific way. In this talk we present a beam-forming interferometric technique and its application to AERA. According to the definition of the beam-forming quantities one can expect its correlation with the shower parameters such as energy of the primary particle and distance to the shower maximum. At the first step, Monte-Carlo simulations of AERA events including the noise from measured events were used to test these dependencies. The results and the future perspectives of this method are discussed with a particular emphasis on very inclined air-showers where the aforementioned correlations are assumed to be strongest.

  3. An experiment to measure the spectra of primary proton, helium and iron nuclei at the 'knee' region at a high altitude

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, X W; Ding, L K; Zhang, C S; Ohnishi, M

    2003-01-01

    The possibility of measuring the energy spectra of some single elements (proton, helium and iron) in primary cosmic rays at the 'knee' energies, by setting up an air shower (AS) core detector in the AS gamma array (4300 m a.s.l., Tibet, China) is investigated. Taking into account the sensitivity and the acceptance needed for this measurement, the feasibility of construction and operation of the apparatus at a high altitude, and the cost, it is shown that this aim can be achieved by a simple AS core detector that mainly measures the high-energy electromagnetic components in AS cores. In this paper, such a detector is described. With a three-year exposure, proton, helium and iron spectra at the 'knee' energy region can be obtained with three event samples selected by an artificial neural network (ANN).

  4. Particle physics experiments 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stuart, G.W.

    1983-01-01

    The report describes work carried out in 1983 on experiments approved by the Particle Physics Experiments Selection Panel. The contents consist of unedited contributions from each experiment. (author)

  5. Design of modern experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Sung Hweon

    1984-03-01

    This book is for researchers and engineers, which is written to focus on practical design of experiments. It gives descriptions of conception of design of experiments, basic statistics theory, one way design of experiment, two-way layout without repetition, two-way layout with repetition, partition, a correlation analysis and regression analysis, latin squares, factorial design, design of experiment by table of orthogonal arrays, design of experiment of response surface, design of experiment on compound, Evop, and design of experiment of taguchi.

  6. Data acquisition. GRAAL experiment. Hybrid reactor experiment. AMS experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barancourt, D.; Barbier, G.; Bosson, G.; Bouvier, J.; Gallin-Martel, L.; Meillon, B.; Stassi, P.; Tournier, M.

    1997-01-01

    The main activity of the data acquisition team has consisted in hardware and software developments for the GRAAL experiment with the trigger board, for the 'Reacteurs Hybrides' group with an acquisition board ADCVME8V and for the AMS experiment with the monitoring of the aerogel detector. (authors)

  7. UHE γ-rays from point sources based on GRAPES-I observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, S.K.; Sreekantan, B.V.; Srivatsan, R.; Tonwar, S.C.

    1993-01-01

    An experiment called GRAPES I (Gamma Ray Astronomy at PeV EnergieS) was set up in 1984 at Ooty in India, using 24 scintillation counters, to detect Extensive Air Showers (EAS) produced in the atmosphere by the primary cosmic radiation. The goal of the experiment has been to search for Ultra High Energy (UHE) γ-rays (E≥10 14 eV) from point sources in the sky. Here we discuss the results on X-ray binaries CYG X-3, HER X-1 and SCO X-1 obtained with GRAPES I experiment which covers the period 1984--87

  8. Particle physics experiments 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bairstow, R.

    1990-01-01

    This report describes work carried out in 1989 on experiments approved by the Particle Physics Experiments Selection Panel of Rutherford Appleton Laboratory. The contents consist of unedited contributions from each experiment. (author)

  9. Particle physics experiments 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stuart, G.W.

    1988-01-01

    This report describes work carried out in 1987 on experiments approved by the Particle Physics Experiments Selection Panel (United Kingdom). The contents consist of unedited contributions from each experiment. (author)

  10. Particle physics experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stuart, G.W.

    1986-01-01

    The report of the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory describes the work carried out in 1985 on experiments approved by the Particle Physics Experiments Selection Panel. The contents consist of unedited contributions from each experiment. (author)

  11. Particle physics experiments 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stuart, G.W.

    1987-01-01

    The paper presents research work carried out in 1986 on 52 elementary particle experiments approved by the Particle Physics Experiments Selection Panel. Most of the experiments were collaborative and involved research groups from different countries. About half of the experiments were conducted at CERN, the remaining experiments employed the accelerators: LAMPT, LEP, PETRA, SLAC, and HERA. The contents consist of unedited contributions from each experiment. (U.K.)

  12. An optimization of the FPGA/NIOS adaptive FIR filter using linear prediction to reduce narrow band RFI for the next generation ground-based ultra-high energy cosmic-ray experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szadkowski, Zbigniew, E-mail: zszadkow@kfd2.phys.uni.lodz.pl [University of Lodz, Department of Physics and Applied Informatics (Poland); Fraenkel, E.D. [Kernfysisch Versneller Instituut of the University of Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Glas, Dariusz; Legumina, Remigiusz [University of Lodz, Department of Physics and Applied Informatics (Poland)

    2013-12-21

    The electromagnetic part of an extensive air shower developing in the atmosphere provides significant information complementary to that obtained by water Cherenkov detectors which are predominantly sensitive to the muonic content of an air shower at ground. The emissions can be observed in the frequency band between 10 and 100 MHz. However, this frequency range is significantly contaminated by narrow-band RFI and other human-made distortions. The Auger Engineering Radio Array currently suppresses the RFI by multiple time-to-frequency domain conversions using an FFT procedure as well as by a set of manually chosen IIR notch filters in the time-domain. An alternative approach developed in this paper is an adaptive FIR filter based on linear prediction (LP). The coefficients for the linear predictor are dynamically refreshed and calculated in the virtual NIOS processor. The radio detector is an autonomous system installed on the Argentinean pampas and supplied from a solar panel. Powerful calculation capacity inside the FPGA is a factor. Power consumption versus the degree of effectiveness of the calculation inside the FPGA is a figure of merit to be minimized. Results show that the RFI contamination can be significantly suppressed by the LP FIR filter for 64 or less stages. -- Highlights: • We propose an adaptive method using linear prediction for periodic RFI suppression. • Requirements are the detection of short transient signals powered by solar panels. • The RFI is significantly suppressed by ∼70%, even in a very contaminated environment. • This method consumes less energy than the current method based on FFT used in AERA. • Distortion of the short transient signals is negligible.

  13. Particle physics experiments 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rousseau, M.D.; Stuart, G.

    1983-01-01

    Work carried out in 1982 on 52 experiments approved by the Particle Physics Experiments Selection Panel is described. Each experiment is listed under title, collaboration, technique, accelerator, year of running, status and spokesman. Unedited contributions are given from each experiment. (U.K.)

  14. Framework of product experience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Desmet, P.; Hekkert, P.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce a general framework for product experience that applies to all affective responses that can be experienced in human-product interaction. Three distinct components or levels of product experiences are discussed: aesthetic experience, experience of meaning, and emotional

  15. 'SIMPLE' - a novel concept of an imaging camera for space applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferenc, Daniel

    2003-01-01

    A novel concept of a large camera for space applications is proposed. It comprises extremely light and inexpensive construction, and very high photon detection efficiency. The essential point of the concept is the evasion of any vacuum-sealing constructional elements, and the exploitation of vacuum in space. This concept was developed particularly for the next-generation experiments aimed to detect extensive air showers in the atmosphere, initiated by extreme energy cosmic rays (like the EUSO experiment). The SIMPLE camera, as well as its launch, should be much less expensive than the previously considered options

  16. Adaptive structures flight experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Maurice

    The topics are presented in viewgraph form and include the following: adaptive structures flight experiments; enhanced resolution using active vibration suppression; Advanced Controls Technology Experiment (ACTEX); ACTEX program status; ACTEX-2; ACTEX-2 program status; modular control patch; STRV-1b Cryocooler Vibration Suppression Experiment; STRV-1b program status; Precision Optical Bench Experiment (PROBE); Clementine Spacecraft Configuration; TECHSAT all-composite spacecraft; Inexpensive Structures and Materials Flight Experiment (INFLEX); and INFLEX program status.

  17. The ERASMUS experiment archive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isakeit, Dieter; Sabbatini, Massimo; Carey, William

    2005-08-01

    The Erasmus Experiment Archive is an electronic database, accessible through the Internet, that collects in a single reference repository scientific, technical and operational information regarding the experiments performed in the experiment facilities which fall under the responsibility of the ESA Directorate of Human Spaceflight, Microgravity and Exploration. The archive is operated, filled with content and kept up-to-date by the Erasmus User Centre. which forms part of the Directorate. The archive shares its records and is interoperable with similar experiment archives of the partner agencies NASA USA) and JAXA (Japan) through a mutually agreed standard for experiment records called the International Distributed Experiment Archive (IDEA).

  18. Experiment WA1 (CDHS Neutrino Experiment)

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1977-01-01

    Experiment WA1, also known under CDHS (CERN, Dortmund, Heidelberg, Saclay; spokesman Jack Steinberger), was the first neutrino experiment on the SPS, in its West Area. Magnetized iron (with a toroidal field) forms the core of the detector. On its outside we see drift chambers and photomultipliers (detecting the light from the plastic scintillators further in). Peter Schilly is wearing a white coat. See also CERN Annual Report 1976, p.57.

  19. Neutron delayed choice experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernstein, H.J.

    1986-01-01

    Delayed choice experiments for neutrons can help extend the interpretation of quantum mechanical phenomena. They may also rule out alternative explanations which static interference experiments allow. A simple example of a feasible neutron test is presented and discussed. (orig.)

  20. Particle physics experiments 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stuart, G.

    1985-01-01

    The Rutherford Appleton laboratory report describes work carried out in 1984 on experiments approved by the Particle Physics selection panel. The contents consist of unedited contributions from each experiment. (author)

  1. GARP Atlantic Tropical Experiment

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The GARP Atlantic Tropical Experiment (GATE) was the first major international experiment of the Global Atmospheric Research Program (GARP). It was conducted over...

  2. Double beta decay: experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiorini, Ettore

    2006-01-01

    The results obtained so far and those of the running experiments on neutrinoless double beta decay are reviewed. The plans for second generation experiments, the techniques to be adopted and the expected sensitivities are compared and discussed

  3. Organic chemistry experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mun, Seok Sik

    2005-02-01

    This book deals with organic chemistry experiments, it is divided five chapters, which have introduction, the way to write the experiment report and safety in the laboratory, basic experiment technic like recrystallization and extraction, a lot of organic chemistry experiments such as fischer esterification, ester hydrolysis, electrophilic aromatic substitution, aldol reaction, benzoin condensation, wittig reaction grignard reaction, epoxidation reaction and selective reduction. The last chapter introduces chemistry site on the internet and way to find out reference on chemistry.

  4. The Experiment Factory: standardizing behavioral experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa V Sochat

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The administration of behavioral and experimental paradigms for psychology research is hindered by lack of a coordinated effort to develop and deploy standardized paradigms. While several frameworks (de Leeuw (2015; McDonnell et al. (2012; Mason and Suri (2011; Lange et al. (2015 have provided infrastructure and methods for individual research groups to develop paradigms, missing is a coordinated effort to develop paradigms linked with a system to easily deploy them. This disorganization leads to redundancy in development, divergent implementations of conceptually identical tasks, disorganized and error-prone code lacking documentation, and difficulty in replication. The ongoing reproducibility crisis in psychology and neuroscience research (Baker (2015; Open Science Collaboration (2015 highlights the urgency of this challenge: reproducible research in behavioral psychology is conditional on deployment of equivalent experiments. A large, accessible repository of experiments for researchers to develop collaboratively is most efficiently accomplished through an open source framework. Here we present the Experiment Factory, an open source framework for the development and deployment of web-based experiments. The modular infrastructure includes experiments, virtual machines for local or cloud deployment, and an application to drive these components and provide developers with functions and tools for further extension. We release this infrastructure with a deployment (http://www.expfactory.org that researchers are currently using to run a set of over 80 standardized web-based experiments on Amazon Mechanical Turk. By providing open source tools for both deployment and development, this novel infrastructure holds promise to bring reproducibility to the administration of experiments, and accelerate scientific progress by providing a shared community resource of psychological paradigms.

  5. Future of neutrino experiments

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    them are under construction. The next generation double beta decay experiments are sensitive to the inverted mass hierarchy. In order to explore the normal mass hierarchy, the sensitivity of the experiments still needs to be improved substantially. For example, see [32] for more details of the double beta decay experiments.

  6. Particle physics experiments 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bairstow, R.

    1989-01-01

    This report describes work carried out in 1988 on experiments approved by the Particle Physics Experiments Selection Panel. The contents consist of unedited contributions from each experiment. More than forty projects at different accelerators (SPS, ISIS, PETRA, LAMPF, LEP, HERA, BNL, ILL, LEAR) are listed. Different organisations collaborate on different projects. A brief progress report is given. References to published articles are given. (author)

  7. The Game Experience Questionnaire

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    IJsselsteijn, W.A.; de Kort, Y.A.W.; Poels, K.

    2013-01-01

    This document contains the English version of the Game Experience Questionnaire. The development and testing of the Game Experience Questionnaire is described in project Deliverable 3.3. The Game Experience Questionnaire has a modular structure and consists of : 1. The core questionnaire 2. The

  8. VI School on Cosmic Rays and Astrophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-01-01

    VI School on Cosmic Rays and Astrophysics 17-25 November 2015, Chiapas, Mexico The VI School on Cosmic Rays and Astrophysics was held at the MCTP, at the Autonomous University of Chiapas (UNACH), Tuxtla Gutiérrez, Chiapas, Mexico thanks to the Science for Development ICTP-UNACH-UNESCO Regional Seminar, 17-25 November 2015 (http://mctp.mx/e-VI-School-on-Cosmic-Rays-and-Astrophysics.html). The School series started in La Paz, Bolivia in 2004 and it has been, since then, hosted by several Latin American countires: 1.- La Paz, Bolivia (August, 2004), 2.- Puebla, Mexico (September, 2006), 3.- Arequipa, Peru (September, 2008), 4.- Santo André, Brazil (September, 2010), 5.- La Paz, Bolivia (August, 2012). It aims to promote Cosmic Ray (CR) Physics and Astrophysics in the Latin American community and to provide a general overview of theoretical and experimental issues on these topics. It is directed to undergraduates, postgraduates and active researchers in the field. The lectures introduce fundamental Cosmic Ray Physics and Astrophysics with a review of standards of the field. It is expected the school continues happening during the next years following a tradition. In this edition, the list of seminars included topics such as experimental techniques of CR detection, development of CR showers and hadronic interactions, composition and energy spectrum of primary CR, Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRBs), neutrino Astrophysics, spacecraft detectors, simulations, solar modulation, and the current state of development and results of several astroparticle physics experiments such as The Pierre Auger Observatory in Argentina, HAWC in Mexico, KASCADE and KASCADE Grande, HESS, IceCube, JEM-EUSO, Fermi-LAT, and others. This time the school has been complemented with the ICTP-UNACH-UNESCO Seminar of theory on Particle and Astroparticle Physics. The organization was done by MCTP, the Mesoamerican Centre for Theoretical Physics. The school had 46 participants, 30 students from Honduras, Brazil

  9. Virtual neutron scattering experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overgaard, Julie Hougaard; Bruun, Jesper; May, Michael

    2017-01-01

    . In the last week of the course, students travel to a large-scale neutron scattering facility to perform real neutron scattering experiments. Through student interviews and survey answers, we argue, that the virtual training prepares the students to engage more fruitfully with experiments by letting them focus......We describe how virtual experiments can be utilized in a learning design that prepares students for hands-on experiments at large-scale facilities. We illustrate the design by showing how virtual experiments are used at the Niels Bohr Institute in a master level course on neutron scattering...

  10. Experiments in physical chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Wilson, J M; Denaro, A R

    1968-01-01

    Experiments in Physical Chemistry, Second Edition provides a compilation of experiments concerning physical chemistry. This book illustrates the link between the theory and practice of physical chemistry. Organized into three parts, this edition begins with an overview of those experiments that generally have a simple theoretical background. Part II contains experiments that are associated with more advanced theory or more developed techniques, or which require a greater degree of experimental skill. Part III consists of experiments that are in the nature of investigations wherein these invest

  11. Recent Results from the Pierre Auger observatory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kampert, Karl-Heinz

    2010-01-01

    The Pierre Auger observatory is a hybrid air shower experiment which uses multiple detection techniques to investigate the origin, spectrum, and composition of ultrahigh energy cosmic rays. We present recent results on these topics and discuss their implications to the understanding the origin of the most energetic particles in nature as well as for physics beyond the Standard Model, such as violation of Lorentz invariance and 'top-down' models of cosmic ray production. Future plans, including enhancements underway at the southern site in Argentina will be presented. (author)

  12. Cosmic rays Monte Carlo simulations for the Extreme Energy Events Project

    CERN Document Server

    Abbrescia, M; Aiola, S; Antolini, R; Avanzini, C; Baldini Ferroli, R; Bencivenni, G; Bossini, E; Bressan, E; Chiavassa, A; Cicalò, C; Cifarelli, L; Coccia, E; De Gruttola, D; De Pasquale, S; Di Giovanni, A; D'Incecco, M; Dreucci, M; Fabbri, F L; Frolov, V; Garbini, M; Gemme, G; Gnesi, I; Gustavino, C; Hatzifotiadou, D; La Rocca, P; Li, S; Librizzi, F; Maggiora, A; Massai, M; Miozzi, S; Panareo, M; Paoletti, R; Perasso, L; Pilo, F; Piragino, G; Regano, A; Riggi, F; Righini, G C; Sartorelli, G; Scapparone, E; Scribano, A; Selvi, M; Serci, S; Siddi, E; Spandre, G; Squarcia, S; Taiuti, M; Tosello, F; Votano, L; Williams, M C S; Yánez, G; Zichichi, A; Zuyeuski, R

    2014-01-01

    The Extreme Energy Events Project (EEE Project) is an innovative experiment to study very high energy cosmic rays by means of the detection of the associated air shower muon component. It consists of a network of tracking detectors installed inside Italian High Schools. Each tracking detector, called EEE telescope, is composed of three Multigap Resistive Plate Chambers (MRPCs). At present, 43 telescopes are installed and taking data, opening the way for the detection of far away coincidences over a total area of about 3 × 10 5 km 2 . In this paper we present the Monte Carlo simulations that have been performed to predict the expected coincidence rate between distant EEE telescopes.

  13. Cosmic ray investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zatsepin, Georgii T; Roganova, Tat'yana M

    2009-01-01

    The history of cosmic ray research at the Lebedev Institute beginning with the first work and continuing up to now is reviewed. The milestones and main avenues of research are outlined. Pioneering studies on the nuclear cascade process in extensive air showers, investigations of the Vavilov-Cherenkov radiation, and some work on the origin of cosmic rays are discussed. Recent data on ultrahigh-energy particle detection at the Pierre Auger Observatory and the High Resolution Fly's Eye (HiRes) experiments are presented. (conferences and symposia)

  14. LHCf: physics results on forward particle production at LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Adriani, O

    2013-01-01

    The LHCf experiment is dedicated to the measurement of very forward particle production in the high energy hadron-hadron collisions at LHC, with the aim of improving the cosmic-ray air shower developments models. The detector has taken data in p-p collisions at $\\sqrt s$ = 900 GeV, 2.76 TeV and 7 TeV, and in p/Pb collisions at $\\sqrt s$ = 5 TeV. The results of forward production spectra of photons, neutral pions and neutrons, compared with the models most widely used in the High Energy Cosmic Ray physics, are presented in this paper.

  15. The Cosmic-ray Spectrum: from the knee to the ankle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaisser, T K

    2006-01-01

    This talk addresses the question, 'Where is the transition from cosmic rays of galactic origin to extra-galactic cosmic-rays?' I have addressed the background of this topic recently in lectures at Erice and, with Todor Stanev, in a collection of papers on various aspects of nuclear astrophysics. Here I concentrate on primary composition as a signature of the transition and mention some new air-shower experiments aimed at the energy region from the knee to the ankle (PeV to 10 EeV)

  16. Virtual neutron scattering experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overgaard, Julie Hougaard; Bruun, Jesper; May, Michael

    2016-01-01

    We describe how virtual experiments can be utilized in a learning design that prepares students for hands-on experiments at large-scale facilities. We illustrate the design by showing how virtual experiments are used at the Niels Bohr Institute in a master level course on neutron scattering....... In the last week of the course, students travel to a large-scale neutron scattering facility to perform real neutron scattering experiments. Through student interviews and survey answers, we argue, that the virtual training prepares the students to engage more fruitfully with experiments by letting them focus...... on physics and data rather than the overwhelming instrumentation. We argue that this is because they can transfer their virtual experimental experience to the real-life situation. However, we also find that learning is still situated in the sense that only knowledge of particular experiments is transferred...

  17. The Belle II Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Kahn, J

    2017-01-01

    Set to begin data taking at the end of 2018, the Belle II experiment is the next-generation B-factory experiment hosted at KEK in Tsukuba, Japan. The experiment represents the cumulative effort from the collaboration of experimental and detector physics, computing, and software development. Taking everything learned from the previous Belle experiment, which ran from 1998 to 2010, Belle II aims to probe deeper than ever before into the field of heavy quark physics. By achieving an integrated luminosity of 50 ab−1 and accumulating 50 times more data than the previous experiment across its lifetime, along with a rewritten analysis framework, the Belle II experiment will push the high precision frontier of high energy physics. This paper will give an overview of the key components and development activities that make the Belle II experiment possible.

  18. Diagnostics for pellet experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, R.R.

    1978-01-01

    The target diagnostics which are being used and planned in current laser driven ICF Experiments are described. Most of these diagnostics can be easily applied to future ion-beam fusion experiments. The status of laser fusion diagnostics has been much improved in the last 5 years and further improvements can be expected and should be available when the first ICF experiments using ion beams are performed. As an example, x-ray temporal and spatial resolutions are now approximately 5 psec and 3 μm, which is approximately a factor of 4 better than the resolution reported in the first implosion experiments. As one plans ahead for ion-beam fusion experiments it should be emphasized that high yield experiments are easier to diagnose provided adequate shielding is employed. However, in the event that the first high yield experiments fail it will be necessary to have diagnostics available to determine where the problems lie. In laser fusion it is interesting to note that higher laser powers are required now for breakeven experiments than first anticipated, mainly because some aspects of the laser-interaction physics were not recognized until the experiments were carefully diagnosed. Thus as has been pointed out, it may be necessary to increase the energy of the ion-beam driver to enable us to do breakeven experiments with high confidence

  19. Popper's Thought Experiment Reinvestigated

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Chris; Dowling, Jonathan

    2012-02-01

    Karl Popper posed an interesting thought experiment in 1934. With it, he meant to question the completeness of quantum mechanics. He claimed that the notion of quantum entanglement leads to absurd scenarios that cannot be true in real life and that an implementation of his thought experiment would not give the results that QM predicts. Unfortunately for Popper, it has taken until recently to perform experiments that test his claims. The results of the experiments do not refute QM as Popper predicted, but neither do they confirm what Popper claimed QM predicted. Kim and Shih implemented Popper's thought experiment in the lab. The results of the experiment are not clear and have instigated many interpretations of the results. The results show some correlation between entangled photons, but not in the way that Popper thought, nor in the way a simple application of QM might predict. A ghost-imaging experiment by Strekalov, et al. sheds light on the physics behind Popper's thought experiment, but does not try to directly test it. I will build the physics of Popper's thought experiment from the ground up and show how the results of both of these experiments agree with each other and the theory of QM, but disprove Popper.

  20. Learning and Experience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Henning Salling

    2017-01-01

    Abstract: This chapter introduces a psycho-societal approach to theorizing learning, combining a materialist theory of socialization with a hermeneutic interpretation methodology. The term "approach" indicates the intrinsic connection between theory, empirical research process and epistemic subject....... Learning is theorized as dynamic subjective experience of (socially situated) realities, counting on individual subjectivity as well as subjective aspects of social interaction. This psycho-societal theory of subjective experiences conceptualizes individual psychic development as interactional experience...... of societal relations, producing an inner psycho-dynamic as a conscious and unconscious individual resource in future life. The symbolization of immediate sensual experiences form an individual life experience of social integration, language use being the medium of collective, social experience (knowledge...

  1. Stimulated Brillouin scattering experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slater, D.C.; Berger, R.L.; Busch, G.; Kinzer, C.M.; Mayer, F.J.; Powers, L.V.; Tanner, D.J.

    1981-01-01

    This report describes two experiments in which SBS would be expected to play an important role. In the first experiment, we find a clear signature of the Brillouin backscatter of a short (100 psec) pulse from a long (approx. 50 μm) gradient length gas target plasma. The second experiment used much longer (approx. 1 nsec) pulses on spherical glass shell targets. These experiments were done with both narrow ( 30A) bandwidth laser light. Using one-dimensional, spherically symmetric fluid simulations, we have attempted to model many of the laser-plasma interaction processes which combine to determine the amount of absorbed energy in the long-pulse experiments. These simulations indicate that modest laser bandwidths are successful in reducing the level of SBS at the irradiances ( 15 W/cm 2 ) used in these experiments

  2. Experiment, right or wrong

    CERN Document Server

    Franklin, Allan

    2008-01-01

    In Experiment, Right or Wrong, Allan Franklin continues his investigation of the history and philosophy of experiment presented in his previous book, The Neglect of Experiment. In this new study, Franklin considers the fallibility and corrigibility of experimental results and presents detailed histories of two such episodes: 1) the experiment and the development of the theory of weak interactions from Fermi's theory in 1934 to the V-A theory of 1957 and 2) atomic parity violation experiments and the Weinberg-Salam unified theory of electroweak interactions of the 1970s and 1980s. In these episodes Franklin demonstrates not only that experimental results can be wrong, but also that theoretical calculations and the comparison between experiment and theory can also be incorrect. In the second episode, Franklin contrasts his view of an "evidence model" of science in which questions of theory choice, confirmation, and refutation are decided on the basis of reliable experimental evidence, with that proposed by the ...

  3. Linking consumer experiences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smed, Karina Madsen

    become part of the individual self, worldview, and behaviour. This paper seeks to explore links between consumer experiences through the exploration of narrative sequences in travel blogs. Findings indicate that non-consumption is a central element to the bloggers and also indicative of a community......Consumers consume products in various ways serving a number of purposes. Much attention has been paid to experiences attached to consumption, sometimes very explicitly, e.g. in tourism, the essence of which is experiences of various sorts, but often also implicitly as internalised experiences...

  4. Analytical chemistry experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Seung Jo; Paeng, Seong Gwan; Jang, Cheol Hyeon

    1992-08-01

    This book deals with analytical chemistry experiment with eight chapters. It explains general matters that require attention on experiment, handling of medicine with keep and class, the method for handling and glass devices, general control during experiment on heating, cooling, filtering, distillation and extraction and evaporation and dry, glass craft on purpose of the craft, how to cut glass tube and how to bend glass tube, volumetric analysis on neutralization titration and precipitation titration, gravimetric analysis on solubility product, filter and washing and microorganism experiment with necessary tool, sterilization disinfection incubation and appendixes.

  5. LDR structural experiment definition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, R. A.

    1988-01-01

    A system study to develop the definition of a structural flight experiment for a large precision segmented reflector on the Space Station was accomplished by the Boeing Aerospace Company for NASA's Langley Research Center. The objective of the study was to use a Large Deployable Reflector (LDR) baseline configuration as the basis for focusing an experiment definition, so that the resulting accommodation requirements and interface constraints could be used as part of the mission requirements data base for Space Station. The primary objectives of the first experiment are to construct the primary mirror support truss and to determine its structural and thermal characteristics. Addition of an optical bench, thermal shield and primary mirror segments, and alignment of the optical components, would occur on a second experiment. The structure would then be moved to the payload point system for pointing, optical control, and scientific optical measurement for a third experiment. Experiment 1 will deploy the primary support truss while it is attached to the instrument module structure. The ability to adjust the mirror attachment points and to attach several dummy primary mirror segments with a robotic system will also be demonstrated. Experiment 2 will be achieved by adding new components and equipment to experiment one. Experiment 3 will demonstrate advanced control strategies, active adjustment of the primary mirror alignment, and technologies associated with optical sensing.

  6. The G0 Experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakahara, Kazutaka

    2007-01-01

    The G0 experiment measures the parity-violating asymmetries in elastic electron-proton and quasi-elastic electron-deuteron scattering over the momentum transfers 0.12 ≤ Q2 ≤ 1.0 GeV2. These asymmetries are sensitive to the strange-quark contribution to the charge and magnetization distributions of the proton. The experiment is conducted at Jefferson Laboratory using a toroidal spectrometer designed to detect forward scattered recoil protons and backward scattered elastic and quasi-elastic electrons. The forward angle experiment was completed in 2004, and the backward angle phase of the experiment is currently taking place

  7. Real Life Experiences with Experience Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgård, Peter; Halskov, Kim

    2006-01-01

    technologies for knowledge dissemination and marketing, in cooperation with public institutions and businesses. We argue that collaborative formulation of core design intentions and values is a valuable instrument in guiding experience design processes, and present three cases from this project, two of which...... resulted in interactive installations. The case installations range from walk-up-and-use consoles, to immersive, responsive, environments based on bodily interaction. We compare the installations, and discuss the interrelations between the resulting interfaces and the intentions for creating...

  8. IceVeto: Extended PeV neutrino astronomy in the Southern Hemisphere with IceCube

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Auffenberg, Jan [Physikalisches Institut IIIB RWTH Aachen D-52056, Aachen (Germany); Collaboration: IceCube Collaboration

    2014-11-18

    IceCube, the world's largest high-energy neutrino observatory, built at the South Pole, recently reported evidence of an astrophysical neutrino flux extending to PeV energies in the Southern Hemisphere. This observation raises the question of how the sensitivity in this energy range could be further increased. In the down-going sector, in IceCube's case the Southern Hemisphere, backgrounds from atmospheric muons and neutrinos pose a challenge to the identification of an astrophysical neutrino flux. The IceCube analysis, that led to the evidence for astrophysical neutrinos, is based on an in-ice veto strategy for background rejection. One possibility available to IceCube is the concept of an extended surface detector, IceVeto, which could allow the rejection of a large fraction of atmospheric backgrounds, primarily for muons from cosmic ray (CR) air showers as well as from neutrinos in the same air showers. Building on the experience of IceTop/IceCube, possibly the most cost-effective and sensitive way to build IceVeto is as an extension of the IceTop detector, with simple photomultiplier based detector modules for CR air shower detection. Initial simulations and estimates indicate that such a veto detector will significantly increase the sensitivity to an astrophysical flux of ν{sub μ} induced muon tracks in the Southern Hemisphere compared to current analyses. Here we present the motivation and capabilities based on initial simulations. Conceptual ideas for a simplified surface array will be discussed briefly.

  9. Department of Cosmic Ray Physics: Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szabelski, J.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: The Department of Cosmic Ray Physics in Lodz is involved in basic research in the area of high-energy physics and cosmic ray physics related to: Experimental and phenomenological studies of Extensive Air Showers induced by cosmic ray particles. Studies of ultra-high energy (above 10 19 eV) cosmic rays: determination of energy and primary particle mass composition. Studies of asymptotic properties of hadronic interactions based on the analysis of cosmic ray propagation through the atmosphere. Studies of mass composition of cosmic rays in the energy range 10 15 -10 17 eV. Registration of cosmic ray intensity variation correlated with solar activity. Theoretical and experimental studies of Extensive Air Shower properties are performed mostly based on the results obtained by the Lodz Extensive Air Shower Array. We have noticed unexplainable delayed signals registered about 500-900 microseconds after the main EAS pulse. We prepared hardware for further experimental study of this effect. In September we have started registration of 5 GeV muon flux with the underground muon telescope. We registered 3 decreases of muon intensity correlated with Forbush decreases registered at lower energies. Variations of primary cosmic ray of energies up to about 100 GeV were responsible for our registrations. These set the upper limits for geometrical size of geomagnetic disturbances in interplanetary space. In construction and data interpretation of cosmic ray experiments, the Lodz group collaborates with many foreign institutes and laboratories: Forschungszentrum in Karlsruhe (Germany), College de France, Institute for Nuclear Studies of the Russian Academy of Sciences and Uppsala University (Sweden). We have organised (together with the Physics Department of the University of Lodz) the 17 th European Cosmic Ray Symposium (24-?8 July 2000) in which about 150 physicists participated (about 100 from abroad). (author)

  10. Department of Cosmic Ray Physics; Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szabelski, J.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: Department of Cosmic Ray Physics in Lodz is involved in basic research in the area of high-energy physics and cosmic ray physics related to: - Experimental and phenomenological studies of Extensive Air Showers induced by cosmic ray particles. - Studies of ultra-high energy (above 10 19 eV) cosmic rays: determination of energy spectrum and mass composition of primary particles - Studies of asymptotic properties of hadronic interactions based on the analysis of cosmic ray propagation through the atmosphere. - Studies of mass composition of cosmic rays in the energy range 10 15 - 10 17 eV. - Registration of cosmic ray intensity variation correlated with solar activity. Theoretical and experimental studies of Extensive Air Shower properties are performed mostly basing on the results obtained by the Lodz Extensive Air Shower Array. We have noticed unexplainable delayed signals registered about 500-900 microseconds after the main EAS pulse. Neutron transport simulations were performed in collaboration with JINR in Dubna. We prepared hardware for further experimental study of this effect. Continuous registrations of 5 GeV muon flux with the underground muon telescope have been carried on over the year 2001. We have detected several changes of muon intensity correlated with Forbush decreases registered at lower energies. We have also started registrations of muon counting rate in the on-surface scintillation detectors. These measurements will be included to the analysis of the disturbed energy spectrum of primary cosmic rays and its dependence on interplanetary disturbances related to the solar activity. In construction and data interpretation of cosmic ray experiments the Lodz group collaborates with many foreign institutes and laboratories: Forschungszentrum in Karlsruhe (Germany), College de France, Institute for Nuclear Studies of the Russian Academy of Sciences, JINR in Dubna (Russia), Uppsala University (Sweden) and DESY (Germany). We have prepared a

  11. Department of Cosmic Ray Physics: Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szabelski, J.

    2002-01-01

    Full text:The Department of Cosmic Ray Physics in Lodz is involved in basic research in the area of high-energy physics and cosmic ray physics related to: * Experimental and phenomenological studies of Extensive Air Showers induced by cosmic ray particles. * Studies of ultra-high energy (above 10 19 eV) cosmic rays: determination of energy spectrum and mass composition of primary particles * Studies of asymptotic properties of hadronic interactions based on the analysis of cosmic ray propagation through the atmosphere. * Studies of mass composition of cosmic rays in the energy range 10 15 -10 17 eV. * Registration of cosmic ray intensity variation correlated with solar activity. Theoretical and experimental studies of Extensive Air Shower properties are performed mostly based on the results obtained by the Lodz Extensive Air Shower Array. We have noticed unexplainable delayed signals registered about 500-900 microseconds after the main EAS pulse. We prepared hardware for further experimental study of this effect. Continuous registrations of 5 GeV muon flux with the underground muon telescope have been carried on during 2001. We detected several changes of muon intensity correlated with Forbush decreases registered at lower energies. We have also started registration of the muon counting rate in on-surface scintillation detectors. These measurements will be included to the analysis of the disturbed energy spectrum of primary cosmic rays and its dependence on interplanetary disturbances related to solar activity. In construction and data interpretation of cosmic ray experiments the Lodz group collaborates with many foreign institutes and laboratories: Forschungszentrum in Karlsruhe (Germany), College de France, Institute for Nuclear Studies of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Uppsala University (Sweden) and DESY (Germany). We have prepared a project of large air shower array for studies of cosmic rays up to 10 20 eV. Detectors would be placed on the roofs of high

  12. UHE Cosmic Ray Observations Using the Cygnus Water - Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dion, Cynthia L.

    1995-01-01

    The CYGNUS water-Cerenkov array, consisting of five surface water-Cerenkov detectors, was built in the CYGNUS extensive air shower array at Los Alamos, New Mexico (latitude 36^circ N, longitude 107^circ W, altitude 2310 meters) to search for point sources of ultra-high energy particles (>1014 eV per particle) with the CYGNUS extensive air shower array. The water-Cerenkov detectors are used to improve the angular resolution of the extensive air shower array. This experiment searches for point sources of UHE gamma-radiation that may be of galactic or extra-galactic origin. The data set from December 1991 to January 1994 consists of data from both the water-Cerenkov array and the CYGNUS extensive air shower array. These data are combined, and the angular resolution of this combined data set is measured to be 0.34^circ+0.03 ^circ-0.04^circ. The measurement is made by observing the cosmic-ray shadowing of the Sun and the Moon. Using a subset of these data, three potential sources of UHE emission are studied: the Crab Pulsar, and the active galactic nuclei Markarian 421 and Markarian 501. A search is conducted for continuous emission from these three sources, and emission over shorter time scales. This experiment is particularly sensitive to emission over these shorter time scales. There is no evidence of UHE emission from these three sources over any time scales studied, and upper bounds to the flux of gamma radiation are determined. The flux upper limit for continuous emission from the Crab Pulsar is found to be 1.2times10^ {-13}/rm cm^2/s above 70 TeV. The flux upper limit for continuous emission from Markarian 421 is found to be 1.3times10^ {-13}/rm cm^2/s above 50 TeV. The flux upper limit for continuous emission from Markarian 501 is found to be 3.8times10^ {-13}/rm cm^2/s above 50 TeV.

  13. Science Experience Unit: Conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson-Florissant School District, Ferguson, MO.

    GRADES OR AGES: Intermediate grades. SUBJECT MATTER: Conservation. ORGANIZATION AND PHYSICAL APPEARANCE: The guide is divided into 24 experiments. It is mimeographed and staple-bound with a paper cover. OBJECTIVES AND ACTIVITIES: A specific skill or knowledge objective is stated at the beginning of each experiment. Detailed procedures are listed…

  14. The French experience

    CERN Document Server

    Bougard, Marie-Thérèse

    2003-01-01

    Developed for beginners, The French Experience 1 course book is designed to accompany the French Experience 1 CDs (9780563472582) but can also be used on its own to develop your reading and writing skills. You’ll gain valuable insights into French culture too.

  15. Neutrino oscillation experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camilleri, L.

    1996-01-01

    Neutrino oscillation experiments (ν μ →ν e and ν μ →ν τ ) currently being performed at accelerators are reviewed. Future plans for short and long base-line experiments are summarized. (author) 10 figs., 2 tabs., 29 refs

  16. Social experience infrastructure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kvistgaard, Peter

    2006-01-01

    and explorative fashion to share with others thoughts and ideas concerning the development of new ways to construct/reconstruct recreational spaces with a better coherence with regard to designing experiences. This article claims that it is possible to design recreational spaces with good social experience...

  17. Teaching Knowledge Engineering: Experiences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Tom; Hartvig, Susanne C

    1998-01-01

    Includes description of experiences gained by teaching KE in construction domains. It outlines good starting points and overall guidance to education in applied AI.......Includes description of experiences gained by teaching KE in construction domains. It outlines good starting points and overall guidance to education in applied AI....

  18. User Experience Dimensions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lykke, Marianne; Jantzen, Christian

    2016-01-01

    The present study develops a set of 10 dimensions based on a systematic understanding of the concept of experience as a holistic psychological. Seven of these are derived from a psychological conception of what experiencing and experiences are. Three supplementary dimensions spring from the obser...

  19. ATLAS Experiment Brochure - French

    CERN Multimedia

    2018-01-01

    ATLAS is one of the four major experiments at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN. It is a general-purpose particle physics experiment run by an international collaboration, and is designed to exploit the full discovery potential and the huge range of physics opportunities that the LHC provides.

  20. ATLAS Experiment Brochure - Turkish

    CERN Multimedia

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2081027

    2018-01-01

    ATLAS is one of the four major experiments at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN. It is a general-purpose particle physics experiment run by an international collaboration, and is designed to exploit the full discovery potential and the huge range of physics opportunities that the LHC provides.

  1. ATLAS Experiment Brochure - Hebrew

    CERN Multimedia

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2081027

    2018-01-01

    ATLAS is one of the four major experiments at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN. It is a general-purpose particle physics experiment run by an international collaboration, and is designed to exploit the full discovery potential and the huge range of physics opportunities that the LHC provides.

  2. ATLAS Experiment Brochure - Italian

    CERN Multimedia

    2018-01-01

    ATLAS is one of the four major experiments at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN. It is a general-purpose particle physics experiment run by an international collaboration, and is designed to exploit the full discovery potential and the huge range of physics opportunities that the LHC provides.

  3. ATLAS Experiment Brochure - German

    CERN Multimedia

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2081027

    2018-01-01

    ATLAS is one of the four major experiments at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN. It is a general-purpose particle physics experiment run by an international collaboration, and is designed to exploit the full discovery potential and the huge range of physics opportunities that the LHC provides.

  4. ATLAS Experiment Brochure - Japanese

    CERN Multimedia

    Anthony, Katarina

    2018-01-01

    ATLAS is one of the four major experiments at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN. It is a general-purpose particle physics experiment run by an international collaboration, and is designed to exploit the full discovery potential and the huge range of physics opportunities that the LHC provides.

  5. ATLAS Experiment Brochure - Portuguese

    CERN Multimedia

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2081027

    2018-01-01

    ATLAS is one of the four major experiments at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN. It is a general-purpose particle physics experiment run by an international collaboration, and is designed to exploit the full discovery potential and the huge range of physics opportunities that the LHC provides.

  6. ATLAS Experiment Brochure - Czech

    CERN Multimedia

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2081027

    2018-01-01

    ATLAS is one of the four major experiments at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN. It is a general-purpose particle physics experiment run by an international collaboration, and is designed to exploit the full discovery potential and the huge range of physics opportunities that the LHC provides.

  7. ATLAS Experiment Brochure - Dutch

    CERN Multimedia

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2081027

    2018-01-01

    ATLAS is one of the four major experiments at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN. It is a general-purpose particle physics experiment run by an international collaboration, and is designed to exploit the full discovery potential and the huge range of physics opportunities that the LHC provides.

  8. ATLAS Experiment Brochure - Romanian

    CERN Multimedia

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2081027

    2018-01-01

    ATLAS is one of the four major experiments at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN. It is a general-purpose particle physics experiment run by an international collaboration, and is designed to exploit the full discovery potential and the huge range of physics opportunities that the LHC provides.

  9. ATLAS Experiment Brochure - Serbian

    CERN Multimedia

    2018-01-01

    ATLAS is one of the four major experiments at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN. It is a general-purpose particle physics experiment run by an international collaboration, and is designed to exploit the full discovery potential and the huge range of physics opportunities that the LHC provides.

  10. ATLAS Experiment Brochure

    CERN Multimedia

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00085461

    2016-01-01

    ATLAS is one of the four major experiments at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN. It is a general-purpose particle physics experiment run by an international collaboration, and is designed to exploit the full discovery potential and the huge range of physics opportunities that the LHC provides.

  11. On the Poggendorff Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Ricardo Lopes; Silva, P. A. S.; Borges, Paulo de Faria

    2015-01-01

    Poggendorff showed experimentally, in the middle of the 19th century, that the weight of an Atwood machine is reduced when it is brought to motion. His experiment has been revisited from time to time, making use of instrumentation that reflects the technological development of the moment. In this paper, the evolution of the experiment is briefly…

  12. Experiments as politics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spears, R; Smith, HJ

    The purpose of this paper is to illustrate the political nature of laboratory experiments. Such experiments can be construed as paradigms of power, open to construction and debate, where different agents and interests are involved in a process of struggle over both (re)presentation and substance.

  13. Peak Experience Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Daniel G.; Evans, Jessica

    2010-01-01

    This paper emerges from the continued analysis of data collected in a series of international studies concerning Childhood Peak Experiences (CPEs) based on developments in understanding peak experiences in Maslow's hierarchy of needs initiated by Dr Edward Hoffman. Bridging from the series of studies, Canadian researchers explore collected…

  14. Experience and Its Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youqing, Chen

    2006-01-01

    Experience is an activity that arouses emotions and generates meanings based on vivid sensation and profound comprehension. It is emotional, meaningful, and personal, playing a key role in the course of forming and developing one's qualities. The psychological process of experience generation consists of such links as sensing things, arousing…

  15. Neutrino oscillation experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camilleri, L [European Organization for Nuclear Research, Geneva (Switzerland)

    1996-11-01

    Neutrino oscillation experiments ({nu}{sub {mu}}{yields}{nu}{sub e} and {nu}{sub {mu}}{yields}{nu}{sub {tau}}) currently being performed at accelerators are reviewed. Future plans for short and long base-line experiments are summarized. (author) 10 figs., 2 tabs., 29 refs.

  16. Experience with MODSIM II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Streets, J.; Berg, D.; Oleynik, G.; Pordes, R.; Slimmer, D.

    1992-02-01

    We present results of computer simulations for Data Acquisition systems for large fixed target experiments in an object oriented simulation language, MODSIM. This paper summarizes our experiences and presents preliminary results from the simulation already completed. We also indicate the resources required for this project

  17. Particle physics experiments 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, B.A.

    1993-03-01

    The research programs described here were carried out in 1992 at Rutherford Appleton Laboratory and funded by the United Kingdom Science and Engineering Research Council. The area covered in these experiments is particle physics. Unedited contributions from over forty experimental programs are included. Experiments are listed according to their current status, the accelerator used and its years of operation. (UK)

  18. THX Experiment Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wernet, Mark; Wroblewski, Adam; Locke, Randy; Georgiadis, Nick

    2016-01-01

    This presentation provides an overview of experiments conducted at NASA GRC to provide turbulent flow measurements needed for new turbulence model development and validation. The experiments include particle image velocimetry (PIV) and hot-wire measurements of mean flow velocity and temperature fields, as well as fluctuating components.

  19. Understanding patient experience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Tariq O.; Andersen, Pernille R. D.; Kornum, Anders C.

    2017-01-01

    , safety) arise from getting feedback on symptoms and from continuous and comforting interaction with clinicians. With this paper, we aim to sensitise UX researchers and designers of patient-centred e-health by proposing three UX dimensions: connectedness, comprehension, and compassion.......The term 'patient experience' is currently part of a global discourse on ways to improve healthcare. This study empirically explores what patient experience is in cardiac remote monitoring and considers the implications for user experience (UX). Through interviews around the deployment of a mobile...... app that enables patients to collaborate with clinicians, we unpack experiences in six themes and present narratives of patients' lifeworlds. We find that patients' emotions are grounded in negative feelings (uncertainty, anxiety, loss of hope) and that positive experiences (relief, reassurance...

  20. Radiochemical solar neutrino experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rich, R.; Spiro, M.

    1993-01-01

    This review covers the three presently running radiochemical solar neutrino experiments, namely the Chlorine, SAGE, and GALLEX experiments. The focus of the review is on a discussion of statistical consistency checks of the available data. The chlorine radiochemical experiment is conceptually simple and shows no strong indication of any statistical anomalies. It still forms the basis of the solar neutrino problem. Each of the two gallium experiments show internal statistical consistency. SAGE's recent preliminary results are consistent with the published GALLEX results. If this convergence is confirmed by a more definitive analysis, this would suggest that the combined result of the two gallium experiments, SAGE and GALLEX, be used for comparisons with theoretical expectations. 5 refs., 15 figs

  1. Undergraduate reactor control experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwards, R.M.; Power, M.A.; Bryan, M.

    1992-01-01

    A sequence of reactor and related experiments has been a central element of a senior-level laboratory course at Pennsylvania State University (Penn State) for more than 20 yr. A new experiment has been developed where the students program and operate a computer controller that manipulates the speed of a secondary control rod to regulate TRIGA reactor power. Elementary feedback control theory is introduced to explain the experiment, which emphasizes the nonlinear aspect of reactor control where power level changes are equivalent to a change in control loop gain. Digital control of nuclear reactors has become more visible at Penn State with the replacement of the original analog-based TRIGA reactor control console with a modern computer-based digital control console. Several TRIGA reactor dynamics experiments, which comprise half of the three-credit laboratory course, lead to the control experiment finale: (a) digital simulation, (b) control rod calibration, (c) reactor pulsing, (d) reactivity oscillator, and (e) reactor noise

  2. Molybdenum solar neutrino experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolfsberg, K.; Cowan, G.A.; Bryant, E.A.

    1984-01-01

    The goal of the molybdenum solar neutrino experiment is to deduce the 8 B solar neutrino flux, averaged over the past several million years, from the concentration of 98 Tc in a deeply buried molybdenum deposit. The experiment is important to an understanding of stellar processes because it will shed light on the reason for the discrepancy between theory and observation of the chlorine solar neutrino experiment. Possible reasons for the discrepancy may lie in the properties of neutrinos (neutrino oscillations or massive neutrinos) or in deficiencies of the standard solar model. The chlorine experiment only measures the 8 B neutrino flux in current times and does not address possible temporal variations in the interior of the sun, which are also not considered in the standard model. In the molybdenum experiment, we plan to measure 98 Tc (4.2 Myr), also produced by 8 B neutrinos, and possibly 97 Tc (2.6 Myr), produced by lower energy neutrinos

  3. Cryogenics for LHC experiments

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    Cryogenic systems will be used by LHC experiments to maximize their performance. Institutes around the world are collaborating with CERN in the construction of these very low temperature systems. The cryogenic test facility in hall 180 for ATLAS magnets. High Energy Physics experiments have frequently adopted cryogenic versions of their apparatus to achieve optimal performance, and those for the LHC will be no exception. The two largest experiments for CERN's new flagship accelerator, ATLAS and CMS, will both use large superconducting magnets operated at 4.5 Kelvin - almost 270 degrees below the freezing point of water. ATLAS also includes calorimeters filled with liquid argon at 87 Kelvin. For the magnets, the choice of a cryogenic version was dictated by a combination economy and transparency to emerging particles. For the calorimeters, liquid argon was selected as the fluid best suited to the experiment's physics requirements. High Energy Physics experiments are the result of worldwide collaborations and...

  4. Space Experiment Module (SEM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodell, Charles L.

    1999-01-01

    The Space Experiment Module (SEM) Program is an education initiative sponsored by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Shuttle Small Payloads Project. The program provides nationwide educational access to space for Kindergarten through University level students. The SEM program focuses on the science of zero-gravity and microgravity. Within the program, NASA provides small containers or "modules" for students to fly experiments on the Space Shuttle. The experiments are created, designed, built, and implemented by students with teacher and/or mentor guidance. Student experiment modules are flown in a "carrier" which resides in the cargo bay of the Space Shuttle. The carrier supplies power to, and the means to control and collect data from each experiment.

  5. Simulation - modeling - experiment; Simulation - modelisation - experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    After two workshops held in 2001 on the same topics, and in order to make a status of the advances in the domain of simulation and measurements, the main goals proposed for this workshop are: the presentation of the state-of-the-art of tools, methods and experiments in the domains of interest of the Gedepeon research group, the exchange of information about the possibilities of use of computer codes and facilities, about the understanding of physical and chemical phenomena, and about development and experiment needs. This document gathers 18 presentations (slides) among the 19 given at this workshop and dealing with: the deterministic and stochastic codes in reactor physics (Rimpault G.); MURE: an evolution code coupled with MCNP (Meplan O.); neutronic calculation of future reactors at EdF (Lecarpentier D.); advance status of the MCNP/TRIO-U neutronic/thermal-hydraulics coupling (Nuttin A.); the FLICA4/TRIPOLI4 thermal-hydraulics/neutronics coupling (Aniel S.); methods of disturbances and sensitivity analysis of nuclear data in reactor physics, application to VENUS-2 experimental reactor (Bidaud A.); modeling for the reliability improvement of an ADS accelerator (Biarotte J.L.); residual gas compensation of the space charge of intense beams (Ben Ismail A.); experimental determination and numerical modeling of phase equilibrium diagrams of interest in nuclear applications (Gachon J.C.); modeling of irradiation effects (Barbu A.); elastic limit and irradiation damage in Fe-Cr alloys: simulation and experiment (Pontikis V.); experimental measurements of spallation residues, comparison with Monte-Carlo simulation codes (Fallot M.); the spallation target-reactor coupling (Rimpault G.); tools and data (Grouiller J.P.); models in high energy transport codes: status and perspective (Leray S.); other ways of investigation for spallation (Audoin L.); neutrons and light particles production at intermediate energies (20-200 MeV) with iron, lead and uranium targets (Le Colley F

  6. Understanding customer experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Christopher; Schwager, Andre

    2007-02-01

    Anyone who has signed up for cell phone service, attempted to claim a rebate, or navigated a call center has probably suffered from a company's apparent indifference to what should be its first concern: the customer experiences that culminate in either satisfaction or disappointment and defection. Customer experience is the subjective response customers have to direct or indirect contact with a company. It encompasses every aspect of an offering: customer care, advertising, packaging, features, ease of use, reliability. Customer experience is shaped by customers' expectations, which largely reflect previous experiences. Few CEOs would argue against the significance of customer experience or against measuring and analyzing it. But many don't appreciate how those activities differ from CRM or just how illuminating the data can be. For instance, the majority of the companies in a recent survey believed they have been providing "superior" experiences to customers, but most customers disagreed. The authors describe a customer experience management (CEM) process that involves three kinds of monitoring: past patterns (evaluating completed transactions), present patterns (tracking current relationships), and potential patterns (conducting inquiries in the hope of unveiling future opportunities). Data are collected at or about touch points through such methods as surveys, interviews, focus groups, and online forums. Companies need to involve every function in the effort, not just a single customer-facing group. The authors go on to illustrate how a cross-functional CEM system is created. With such a system, companies can discover which customers are prospects for growth and which require immediate intervention.

  7. Conducting interactive experiments online.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arechar, Antonio A; Gächter, Simon; Molleman, Lucas

    2018-01-01

    Online labor markets provide new opportunities for behavioral research, but conducting economic experiments online raises important methodological challenges. This particularly holds for interactive designs. In this paper, we provide a methodological discussion of the similarities and differences between interactive experiments conducted in the laboratory and online. To this end, we conduct a repeated public goods experiment with and without punishment using samples from the laboratory and the online platform Amazon Mechanical Turk. We chose to replicate this experiment because it is long and logistically complex. It therefore provides a good case study for discussing the methodological and practical challenges of online interactive experimentation. We find that basic behavioral patterns of cooperation and punishment in the laboratory are replicable online. The most important challenge of online interactive experiments is participant dropout. We discuss measures for reducing dropout and show that, for our case study, dropouts are exogenous to the experiment. We conclude that data quality for interactive experiments via the Internet is adequate and reliable, making online interactive experimentation a potentially valuable complement to laboratory studies.

  8. LDR structural experiment definition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Richard A.; Gates, Richard M.

    1988-01-01

    A study was performed to develop the definition of a structural flight experiment for a large precision segmented reflector that would utilize the Space Station. The objective of the study was to use the Large Deployable Reflector (LDR) baseline configuration for focusing on experiment definition activity which would identify the Space Station accommodation requirements and interface constraints. Results of the study defined three Space Station based experiments to demonstrate the technologies needed for an LDR type structure. The basic experiment configurations are the same as the JPL baseline except that the primary mirror truss is 10 meters in diameter instead of 20. The primary objectives of the first experiment are to construct the primary mirror support truss and to determine its structural and thermal characteristics. Addition of the optical bench, thermal shield and primary mirror segments and alignment of the optical components occur on the second experiment. The structure will then be moved to the payload pointing system for pointing, optical control and scientific optical measurement for the third experiment.

  9. Ultra-high energy cosmic rays. Results and status of the Pierre Auger Observatory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, Christine [III. Physikalisches Institut A, RWTH Aachen University (Germany); Collaboration: Pierre-Auger-Collaboration

    2016-07-01

    The Pierre Auger Observatory is the world's largest experiment detecting extensive air showers initiated by cosmic rays at the highest energies. An area of 3000 km{sup 2} is instrumented by 1660 water Cherenkov detector stations, and 27 fluorescence telescopes overlook the atmosphere above the surface detector array. A hybrid detection principle is achieved by utilizing information of both detectors. A major upgrade of the experiment (AugerPrime) has been decided adding a third detector type, scintillator detector stations located on the water Cherenkov tanks. Thereby, the composition sensitivity of the Pierre Auger Observatory is extended by an improved determination of the muonic shower component. Additionally, underground muon detectors (AMIGA) are deployed. The experiment has been further extended by antennas measuring the emission of radio signals from air showers (AERA). An overview about recent results and the current status of the experiment are given in this talk. Highlights are updated results, e.g. on the energy spectrum, chemical composition or proton-air cross section.

  10. Thermogravimetric experiments with titanium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porter, L.J.; Longhurst, G.R.

    1991-02-01

    In the process of preparing for pyrophoricity experiments involving uranium, we conducted hydriding and air-exposure experiments on titanium. In these experiments the hydriding reactions and response to air-exposure was generally within the range expected based on work reported by others. One aberrant behavior was a sudden weight gain followed by a significant weight loss. We speculate that loss may be due to hydrogen evolution from the TiH 2 resulting from local heating by oxidation reactions. We verified that titanium is not pyrophoric at temperatures less than 750 degree C. 18 refs. 1 fig

  11. Game user experience evaluation

    CERN Document Server

    Bernhaupt, Regina

    2015-01-01

    Evaluating interactive systems for their user experience (UX) is a standard approach in industry and research today. This book explores the areas of game design and development and Human Computer Interaction (HCI) as ways to understand the various contributing aspects of the overall gaming experience. Fully updated, extended and revised this book is based upon the original publication Evaluating User Experience in Games, and provides updated methods and approaches ranging from user- orientated methods to game specific approaches. New and emerging methods and areas explored include physiologi

  12. Results from neutrino experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smirnov, A.Yu.

    1993-11-01

    Recent (first or/and the best) results from the neutrino experiments are reviewed and their implications for the theory are discussed. The sense of the experiments is the searching for neutrino masses, mixing and interactions beyond the standard model. Present laboratory experiments give upper bounds on the masses and the mixing which are at the level of predictions of the ''electroweak see-saw''. Positive indications of nonzero lepton mixing follow from studies of the solar and atmospheric neutrinos. (author). 95 refs, 11 figs

  13. CANDU operating experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McConnell, L.G.; Woodhead, L.W.; Fanjoy, G.R.; Thurygill, E.W.

    1980-05-01

    The CANDU-PHW program is based upon 38 years of heavy water reactor experience with 35 years of operating experience. Canada has had 72 reactor years of nuclear-electric operations experience with 10 nuclear units in 4 generating stations during a period of 18 years. All objectives have been met with outstanding performance: worker safety, public safety, environmental emissions, reliable electricity production, and low electricity cost. The achievement has been realized through total teamwork involving all scientific disciplines and all project functions (research, design, manufacturing, construction, and operation). (auth)

  14. Experience as Excursion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svabo, Connie; Shanks, Michael

    2014-01-01

    researchers and practitioners to travel – making it possible to follow experiences as they are enacted across and between places, modes of transportation, mobile mediation and assemblages of things. Drawing on the nomadic metaphysics of philosopher Michel Serres, the journeying, shifting and propagating...... qualities of experience are highlighted as part of a suggestion that design may indeed relate as much to metaphysics as to mechanics, materials science, and the psychology of the consumer and user. An Experience Design is sketched out as the choreography of temporary and shifting engagements across...

  15. Nightshade Prototype Experiments (Silverleaf)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Danielson, Jeremy [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Bauer, Amy L. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-12-23

    The Red Sage campaign is a series of subcritical dynamic plutonium experiments designed to measure ejecta. Nightshade, the first experiments in Red Sage scheduled for fiscal year 2019, will measure the amount of ejecta emission into vacuum from a double-­shocked plutonium surface. To address the major technical risks in Nightshade, a Level 2 milestone was developed for fiscal year 2016. Silverleaf, a series of four experiments, was executed at the Los Alamos National Laboratory in July and August 2016 to demonstrate a prototype of the Nightshade package and to satisfy this Level 2 milestone. This report is documentation that Red Sage Level 2 milestone requirements were successfully met.

  16. The Experiment as Act

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Morten

    In December 1965, an experiment took place at The Independent Art Space in Copenhagen (Den Frie Kunstbygning). Short named POEX65, it was looking to create and activate POetry EXperiments across artistic genres and formats (thus, in essence, making a POetry EXposition). The POEX65 event framed many...... to be able to analyse the phenomena found at POEX65. Here I will use the notion of the ‘ontological theatre’ (Pickering), which, according to Pickering, is acted out in experimental art productions. The experiment could thus be seen as an ‘agency-realism’ – as an ‘act’ of relations across the aesthetics...

  17. Velocity Feedback Experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiu Choi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Transient response such as ringing in a control system can be reduced or removed by velocity feedback. It is a useful control technique that should be covered in the relevant engineering laboratory courses. We developed velocity feedback experiments using two different low cost technologies, viz., operational amplifiers and microcontrollers. These experiments can be easily integrated into laboratory courses on feedback control systems or microcontroller applications. The intent of developing these experiments was to illustrate the ringing problem and to offer effective, low cost solutions for removing such problem. In this paper the pedagogical approach for these velocity feedback experiments was described. The advantages and disadvantages of the two different implementation of velocity feedback were discussed also.

  18. Future neutrino experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Di Lella, L

    2001-01-01

    Future experiments to search for neutrino oscillations using neutrinos from the Sun, from reactors and accelerators are reviewed. Possible long-term developments based on neutrino factories are also described. (29 refs).

  19. LADEE LUNAR DUST EXPERIMENT

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This archive bundle includes data taken by the Lunar Dust Experiment (LDEX) instrument aboard the Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) spacecraft....

  20. Experience and Its Generation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Youqing

    2006-01-01

    Experience iS an activity that arouses emotions and generates meanings based on vivid sensation and profound compreh ension.It iS emotional,meaningful,and personal,playing a key role in the course of forming and developing one'S qualities.The psychological process of experience generation consists of such links as sensing things,arousing emotions,promoting comprehension and association,generating insights and meanings,and deepening emotional responses.Undergoing things personally by means of direct sensation,taking part in activities,and living life are the most important preconditions of experience generation.Emotional influence,situational edification,and arts edification ale extemal factors that induce experience generation.

  1. Muon ionization cooling experiment

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2003-01-01

    A neutrino factory based on a muon storage ring is the ultimate tool for studies of neutrino oscillations, including possibly leptonic CP violation. It is also the first step towards muon colliders. The performance of this new and promising line of accelerators relies heavily on the concept of ionisation cooling of minimum ionising muons, for which much R&D is required. The concept of a muon ionisation cooling experiment has been extensively studied and first steps are now being taken towards its realisation by a joint international team of accelerator and particle physicists. The aim of the workshop is to to explore at least two versions of an experiment based on existing cooling channel designs. If such an experiment is feasible, one shall then select, on the basis of effectiveness, simplicity, availability of components and overall cost, a design for the proposed experiment, and assemble the elements necessary to the presentation of a proposal. Please see workshop website.

  2. Experience Communication and Aesthetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorlacius, Lisbeth

    to user aspect (web 2.0), the personal engagement or the community spirit. This increasing demand of experiences reflects the postmodern cultural trends where rules for how to think and behave no longer exist. This results in individualism, where the identity of the human being has changed from something......-actualization. The individualization of the human being can lead to loneliness and a need of participating in communities as a replacement of an overall fixed point in one's life. (Anthony Giddens, 1990, 1991; Zygmunt Bauman, 1997; Carsten René Jørgensen, 2002). The field of communication is consequently experiencing a great......In this article the term "experience communication" will be introduced and discussed. It will be illustrated how different concepts of aesthetical experiences are an integrated part of experience communication and how these concepts are produced within the industries of consumerism, branding...

  3. The experiments ALICE

    CERN Document Server

    Fabjan, Christian

    2009-01-01

    This article documents the main design choices and the close to 20 years of preparation, detector R&D, construction and installation of ALICE, the dedicated heavy ion experiment at the CERN LHC accelerator.

  4. General relativity and experiment

    OpenAIRE

    Damour, T.

    1994-01-01

    The confrontation between Einstein's theory of gravitation and experiment is summarized. Although all current experimental data are compatible with general relativity, the importance of pursuing the quest for possible deviations from Einstein's theory is emphasized.

  5. Nova target experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drake, R.P.

    1985-11-01

    The Nova laser, at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, provides unique opportunities for target experiments. It has unprecedented energy on target and significant flexibility. The paper presented by John Hunt described the capabilities and the status of Nova. This paper discusses plans for future experiments using Nova, and the present status of target experiments. We plan to perform high-quality physics experiments that exploit the unique capabilities of Nova. Because this is our goal, we are fielding an extensive array of well-characterized target diagnostics to measure the emissions from the target. The first section of this paper discusses the basic target diagnostics. We are also taking care to quantify the performance of the laser

  6. Rationality, Experience and Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, K. E.

    1983-01-01

    A discussion of the usefulness of reasoning, as compared to experience, in three levels of decision making in school management informs this critique of the state of educational management theory and research. (MJL)

  7. German and French experiences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engl, G.

    1999-01-01

    In this lecture author presents experience in-service inspection programme of primary circuit components at home and abroad, implementation into WWER (world methodology and equipment) as well as system qualification. Objectives European network for inspection qualification (ENIQ) are presented

  8. International experience of microcredit

    OpenAIRE

    Nazarenko, M.; Nazarenko, O.

    2014-01-01

    The authors analyze international experience of microcredit development and made appropriate conclusions about the advantages and disadvantages of microcredit organization. Microcredit organizations are self-sufficient and stable institutions which are regulated by bank and state legislation.

  9. Experiments in Animal Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polt, James M.

    1971-01-01

    Describes experiments in conditioning, sensory processes, social behavior, imprinting, innate preferences for color and form, and discrimination learning suitable for secondary school students. Mealworms, crickets, and chicks are used as subjects. (AL)

  10. The world's biggest experiment

    CERN Multimedia

    Gregson, Liz

    2008-01-01

    According to CERN, our understanding of the Universe is about the change. Meet the Imperial alumni and staff who are involved in CERN's Large Hadron Collider, the world's biggest experiment. (3 pages)

  11. Water Flow Experiments

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    year undergraduate student at Ashoka University,. Sonipat, Haryana. This article studies how the height of water varies with time when water ... Experiment using a one-bottle system with a small bore tube at- tached to .... restricting free flow.

  12. Experiment-o-mania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drndarski, Marina

    2015-04-01

    Every 21st century student is expected to develop science literacy skills. As this is not part of Serbian national curriculum yet, we decided to introduce it with this project. Experiment-o-mania provides students to experience science in different and exciting way. It makes opportunity for personalized learning offering space and time to ask (why, where, how, what if) and to try. Therefore, we empower young people with skills of experimenting, and they love science back. They ask questions, make hypothesis, make problems and solve them, make mistakes, discuss about the results. Subsequently this raises the students' interest for school curriculum. This vision of science teaching is associated with inquiry-based learning. Experiment-o-mania is the unique and recognizable teaching methodology for the elementary school Drinka Pavlović, Belgrade, Serbia. Experiment-o-mania implies activities throughout the school year. They are held on extra class sessions, through science experiments, science projects or preparations for School's Days of science. Students learn to ask questions, make observations, classify data, communicate ideas, conduct experiments, analyse results and make conclusions. All science teachers participate in designing activities and experiments for students in Experiment-o-mania teaching method. But they are not alone. Teacher of fine arts, English teachers and others also take part. Students have their representatives in this team, too. This is a good way to blend knowledge among different school subject and popularize science in general. All the experiments are age appropriate and related to real life situations, local community, society and the world. We explore Fibonacci's arrays, saving energy, solar power, climate change, environmental problems, pollution, daily life situations in the country or worldwide. We introduce great scientists as Nikola Tesla, Milutin Milanković and sir Isaac Newton. We celebrate all relevant international days, weeks

  13. The CLOUD experiment

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2006-01-01

    The Cosmics Leaving Outdoor Droplets (CLOUD) experiment as shown by Jasper Kirkby (spokesperson). Kirkby shows a sketch to illustrate the possible link between galactic cosmic rays and cloud formations. The CLOUD experiment uses beams from the PS accelerator at CERN to simulate the effect of cosmic rays on cloud formations in the Earth's atmosphere. It is thought that cosmic ray intensity is linked to the amount of low cloud cover due to the formation of aerosols, which induce condensation.

  14. Towards LHC experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    As plans for the LHC proton collider to be built in CERN's 27-kilometre LEP tunnel take shape, interest widens to bring in the experiments exploiting the big machine. The first public presentations of 'expressions of interest' for LHC experiments featured from 5-8 March at Evian-les-Bains on the shore of Lake Geneva, some 50 kilometres from CERN, at the special Towards the LHC Experimental Programme' meeting

  15. The MAJORANA Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguayo Navarrete, Estanislao; Avignone, F. T.; Back, Henning O.; Barabash, Alexander S.; Bergevin, M.; Bertrand, F.; Boswell, M.; Brudanin, V.; Busch, Matthew; Chan, Yuen-Dat; Christofferson, Cabot-Ann; Collar, J. I.; Combs, Dustin C.; Cooper, R. J.; Detwiler, Jason A.; Doe, Peter J.; Efremenko, Yuri; Egorov, Viatcheslav; Ejiri, H.; Elliott, Steven R.; Esterline, James H.; Fast, James E.; Fields, N.; Finnerty, P.; Fraenkle, Florian; Gehman, Victor M.; Giovanetti, G. K.; Green, Matthew P.; Guiseppe, Vincente; Gusey, K.; Hallin, A. L.; Hazama, R.; Henning, R.; Hime, Andrew; Hoppe, Eric W.; Horton, Mark; Howard, Stanley; Howe, M. A.; Johnson, R. A.; Keeter, K.; Keillor, Martin E.; Keller, C.; Kephart, Jeremy D.; Kidd, Mary; Knecht, A.; Kochetov, Oleg; Konovalov, S.; Kouzes, Richard T.; LaFerriere, Brian D.; LaRoque, B. H.; Leon, Jonathan D.; Leviner, L.; Loach, J. C.; MacMullin, S.; Marino, Michael G.; Martin, R. D.; Mei, Dong-Ming; Merriman, Jason H.; Miller, M. L.; Mizouni, Leila; Nomachi, Masaharu; Orrell, John L.; Overman, Nicole R.; Phillips, D.; Poon, Alan; Perumpilly, Gopakumar; Prior, Gersende; Radford, D. C.; Rielage, Keith; Robertson, R. G. H.; Ronquest, M. C.; Schubert, Alexis G.; Shima, T.; Shirchenko, M.; Snavely, Kyle J.; Sobolev, V.; Steele, David; Strain, J.; Thomas, K.; Timkin, V.; Tornow, W.; Vanyushin, I.; Varner, R. L.; Vetter, Kai; Vorren, Kris R.; Wilkerson, John; Wolfe, B. A.; Yakushev, E.; Young, A.; Yu, Chang-Hong; Yumatov, Vladimir; Zhang, C.

    2011-10-01

    The Majorana collaboration is actively pursuing research and development aimed at a tonne-scale {sup 76}Ge neutrinoless double-beta decay ({beta}{beta}(0{nu})-decay) experiment. The current, primary focus is the construction of the Majorana Demonstrator experiment, an R and D effort that will field approximately 40 kg of germanium detectors with mixed enrichment levels. This article provides a status update on the construction of the Demonstrator.

  16. Hamlet and psychoanalytic experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwaber, Paul

    2007-01-01

    Hamlet draws us into its rendered world, enabling us to experience it with depth, awareness, and resonance, in a mode we recognize as aesthetic. By way of Shakespeare's play--primarily the first act--and a detailed case study, aesthetic and psychoanalytic experience are compared, to suggest that, for our own analytic discourse, we revalue Freud's unease that his case studies read like short stories.

  17. Experiments with dipole antennas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraftmakher, Yaakov

    2009-01-01

    Employment of a data-acquisition system for data collection and calculations makes experiments with antennas more convenient and less time consuming. The determined directional patterns of the dipole antennas of different lengths are in reasonable agreement with theory. The enhancement of the signal by using a reflector is demonstrated, and a variant of the Yagi-Uda antenna is explored. The experiments are suitable as laboratory works and classroom demonstrations, and are attractive for student projects.

  18. Remote earth sensing experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trifonov, Yu V

    1981-01-01

    Description of data devices for deriving multi-spectral measuring television measurement data of middle and high resolution through use of second generation Meteor-type satellites. Options for developing a permanent and active remote sensing system in USSR are discussed. It is noted that the present experiment is an important step in that direction. Design and structural data for this particular device and its application in the experiment are covered.

  19. Review of experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, C.; Yodh, G.; Cutts, D.; Lanou, R.; Engels, E.; Kramer, M.; Danby, G.

    1977-01-01

    A study was made to examine the effects which raising the ISA from 200 x 200 GeV to 400 x 400 GeV would have on the ''canonical'' experiments. These were ''canonical'' in the sense that they span the full range of foreseeable physics and have served as topics in previous Summer Studies and Workshops which resulted in quite explicit hardware designs and experimental goals. The study results indicate that all of the ''canonical'' experiments survive. Some are actually improved, some are unaffected, and some require changes which are suggested. In general, the 90 0 experiments are relatively unaffected. The single arm small angle spectrometer, the wide aperture (FATS-WASP) spectrometer and the Coulomb interference experiment have the largest number of modifications suggested. No uniqueness to these solutions are claimed, and there may be more desirable radical approaches. It is, however, felt that the 400 x 400 GeV ISA not only permits the work on conceptual experiments from previous Summer Studies to be taken over entirely, but indicates areas of improvement in many of them. Specifics of the individual experiments are discussed

  20. Inverse Cerenkov experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, W.D.

    1993-01-01

    The final report describes work performed to investigate inverse Cherenkov acceleration (ICA) as a promising method for laser particle acceleration. In particular, an improved configuration of ICA is being tested in a experiment presently underway on the Accelerator Test Facility (ATF). In the experiment, the high peak power (∼ 10 GW) linearly polarized ATF CO 2 laser beam is converted to a radially polarized beam. This is beam is focused with an axicon at the Cherenkov angle onto the ATF 50-MeV e-beam inside a hydrogen gas cell, where the gas acts as the phase matching medium of the interaction. An energy gain of ∼12 MeV is predicted assuming a delivered laser peak power of 5 GW. The experiment is divided into two phases. The Phase I experiments, which were completed in the spring of 1992, were conducted before the ATF e-beam was available and involved several successful tests of the optical systems. Phase II experiments are with the e-beam and laser beam, and are still in progress. The ATF demonstrated delivery of the e-beam to the experiment in Dec. 1992. A preliminary ''debugging'' run with the e-beam and laser beam occurred in May 1993. This revealed the need for some experimental modifications, which have been implemented. The second run is tentatively scheduled for October or November 1993. In parallel to the experimental efforts has been ongoing theoretical work to support the experiment and investigate improvement and/or offshoots. One exciting offshoot has been theoretical work showing that free-space laser acceleration of electrons is possible using a radially-polarized, axicon-focused laser beam, but without any phase-matching gas. The Monte Carlo code used to model the ICA process has been upgraded and expanded to handle different types of laser beam input profiles

  1. Experiments in computing: a survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tedre, Matti; Moisseinen, Nella

    2014-01-01

    Experiments play a central role in science. The role of experiments in computing is, however, unclear. Questions about the relevance of experiments in computing attracted little attention until the 1980s. As the discipline then saw a push towards experimental computer science, a variety of technically, theoretically, and empirically oriented views on experiments emerged. As a consequence of those debates, today's computing fields use experiments and experiment terminology in a variety of ways. This paper analyzes experimentation debates in computing. It presents five ways in which debaters have conceptualized experiments in computing: feasibility experiment, trial experiment, field experiment, comparison experiment, and controlled experiment. This paper has three aims: to clarify experiment terminology in computing; to contribute to disciplinary self-understanding of computing; and, due to computing's centrality in other fields, to promote understanding of experiments in modern science in general.

  2. Staged theta pinch experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linford, R.K.; Downing, J.N.; Gribble, R.F.; Jacobson, A.R.; Platts, D.A.; Thomas, K.S.

    1976-01-01

    Two implosion heating circuits are being experimentally tested. The principal experiment in the program is the 4.5-m-long Staged Theta Pinch (STP). It uses two relatively low energy (50kJ and 100 kJ), high voltage (125 kV) capacitor banks to produce the theta pinch plasma inside the 20 cm i.d. quartz discharge tube. A lower voltage (50 kV), higher energy (750 kJ) capacitor bank is used to contain the plasma and provide a variable amount of adiabatic compression. Because the experiment produces a higher ratio of implosion heating to compressional heating than conventional theta pinches, it should be capable of producing high temperature plasmas with a much larger ratio of plasma radius to discharge tube radius than has been possible in the past. The Resonant Heating Experiment (RHX) in its initial configuration is the same as a 0.9-m-long section of the high voltage part of the STP experiment and all the plasma results here were obtained with the experiment in that configuration. Part of the implosion bank will be removed and a low inductance crowbar added to convert it to the resonant heating configuration. (U.K.)

  3. An MHD Dynamo Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connell, R.; Forest, C. B.; Plard, F.; Kendrick, R.; Lovell, T.; Thomas, M.; Bonazza, R.; Jensen, T.; Politzer, P.; Gerritsen, W.; McDowell, M.

    1997-11-01

    A MHD experiment is being constructed which will have the possibility of showing dynamo action: the self--generation of currents from fluid motion. The design allows sufficient experimental flexibility and diagnostic access to study a variety of issues central to dynamo theory, including mean--field electrodynamics and saturation (backreaction physics). Initially, helical flows required for dynamo action will be driven by propellers embedded in liquid sodium. The flow fields will first be measured using laser doppler velocimetry in a water experiment with an identical fluid Reynolds number. The magnetic field evolution will then be predicted using a MHD code, replacing the water with sodium; if growing magnetic fields are found, the experiment will be repeated with sodium.

  4. Thought experiment with tritium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, H.F.; Everhart, J.L.; Hobrock, D.L.; Seabaugh, P.W.

    1995-01-01

    An experiment is proposed in which a minimum of thirty (30) grams of tritium is packaged as lithium tritide in a steel container weighing several kilograms. After decontamination of the outside surface, calorimetry measurements would be made, and the unit would be weighed very accurately. After several decades, the calorimeter and weight measurements would be repeated. If the weight measurements could be made with the required accuracy, it would be possible to correlate the observed change in mass with the total energy emitted (calculated from the mean energy measured by calorimetry) over the time interval. If successful, this experiment would, in the opinion of the authors, be the first laboratory experiment to directly verify the equivalency of mass and energy. 4 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs

  5. Nuclear power experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    The International Conference on Nuclear Power Experience, organized by the International Atomic Energy Agency, was held at the Hofburg Conference Center, Vienna, Austria, from 13 to 17 September 1982. Almost 1200 participants and observers from 63 countries and 20 organizations attended the conference. The 239 papers presented were grouped under the following seven main topics: planning and development of nuclear power programmes; technical and economic experience of nuclear power production; the nuclear fuel cycle; nuclear safety experience; advanced systems; international safeguards; international co-operation. The proceedings are published in six volumes. The sixth volume contains a complete Contents of Volume 1 to 5, a List of Participants, Authors and Transliteration Indexes, a Subject Index and an Index of Papers by Number

  6. ATLAS IBL operational experience

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00237659; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The Insertable B-Layer (IBL) is the inner most pixel layer in the ATLAS experiment, which was installed at 3.3 cm radius from the beam axis in 2014 to improve the tracking performance. To cope with the high radiation and hit occupancy due to proximity to the interaction point, a new read-out chip and two different silicon sensor technologies (planar and 3D) have been developed for the IBL. After the long shut-down period over 2013 and 2014, the ATLAS experiment started data-taking in May 2015 for Run-2 of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The IBL has been operated successfully since the beginning of Run-2 and shows excellent performance with the low dead module fraction, high data-taking efficiency and improved tracking capability. The experience and challenges in the operation of the IBL is described as well as its performance.

  7. Operating experience feedback

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cimesa, S.

    2007-01-01

    Slovenian Nuclear Safety Administration (SNSA) has developed its own system for tracking, screening and evaluating the operating experiences of the nuclear installations. The SNSA staff regularly tracks the operating experiences throughout the world and screens them on the bases of applicability for the Slovenian nuclear facilities. The operating experiences, which pass the screening, are thoroughly evaluated and also recent operational events in these facilities are taken into account. If needed, more information is gathered to evaluate the conditions of the Slovenian facilities and appropriate corrective actions are considered. The result might be the identification of the need for modification at the licensee, the need for modification of internal procedures in the SNSA or even the proposal for the modification of regulations. Information system helps everybody to track the process of evaluation and proper logging of activities. (author)

  8. Qualitative experiments in psychology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagoner, Brady

    2015-01-01

    In this article, I explore the meaning of experiments in early twentieth century psychology, focusing on the qualitative experimental methodology of psychologist Frederic BARTLETT. I begin by contextualizing BARTLETT's experiments within the continental research tradition of his time, which...... was in a state of transition from a focus on elements (the concern of psychophysics) to a focus on wholes (the concern of Gestalt psychology). The defining feature of BARTLETT's early experiments is his holistic treatment of human responses, in which the basic unit of analysis is the active person relating...... to some material within the constraints of a social and material context. This manifests itself in a number of methodological principles that contrast with contemporary understandings of experimentation in psychology. The contrast is further explored by reviewing the history of "replications...

  9. Experiences with treating immigrants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandhu, Sima; Bjerre, Neele V; Dauvrin, Marie

    2012-01-01

    PURPOSE: While there has been systematic research on the experiences of immigrant patients in mental health services within certain European countries, little research has explored the experiences of mental health professionals in the delivery of services to immigrants across Europe. This study...... sought to explore professionals' experiences of delivering care to immigrants in districts densely populated with immigrants across Europe. METHODS: Forty-eight semi-structured interviews were conducted with mental health care professionals working in 16 European countries. Professionals in each country...... were recruited from three areas with the highest proportion of immigrants. For the purpose of this study, immigrants were defined as first-generation immigrants born outside the country of current residence, including regular immigrants, irregular immigrants, asylum seekers, refugees and victims...

  10. Experiments in mixed reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krum, David M.; Sadek, Ramy; Kohli, Luv; Olson, Logan; Bolas, Mark

    2010-01-01

    As part of the Institute for Creative Technologies and the School of Cinematic Arts at the University of Southern California, the Mixed Reality lab develops technologies and techniques for presenting realistic immersive training experiences. Such experiences typically place users within a complex ecology of social actors, physical objects, and collections of intents, motivations, relationships, and other psychological constructs. Currently, it remains infeasible to completely synthesize the interactivity and sensory signatures of such ecologies. For this reason, the lab advocates mixed reality methods for training and conducts experiments exploring such methods. Currently, the lab focuses on understanding and exploiting the elasticity of human perception with respect to representational differences between real and virtual environments. This paper presents an overview of three projects: techniques for redirected walking, displays for the representation of virtual humans, and audio processing to increase stress.

  11. The Experience City

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marling, Gitte; Jensen, Ole B.; Kiib, Hans

    2009-01-01

      The article take its point of departure in the pressure of the experience economy on European cities - a pressure which in recent years has found its expression in a number of comprehensive transformations of the physical and architectural environments, and new eventscapes related to fun...... and cultural experience are emerging. In the discussion of the transformation into the ‘experience economy' relevant to cities and urban areas we rarely find an analysis of the physical and spatial implications of this transformation. However, the physical, cultural and democratic consequences...... clear goals related to the improvement of social interaction, performance and cultural exchange. The article contains three sections. in section one, we present three European cases in order to relate to the wider international debate and development. In section two we present the main theoretical...

  12. experience in school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria da Graça B. B. Dias

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available An experiment investigated the effect of a make-believe fantasy mode of problem presentation on reasoning about valid conditional syllogisms in three groups of 5-year-old children: a school children from middle-class families in England; b school children from middle-class families in Brazil; and, c children from low SES families in Brazil who had never gone to school. Previous investigations had reported that the use of a fantasy context elicited significantly more logically appropriate responses from school children than did other contexts, and that children with school experiences made significantly more logically appropriate responses than did children without school experience. The present investigation extended these findings to show that the beneficial effects of a fantasy context extended to lower-class illiterate children who never had been exposed to schooling

  13. Crystal box experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffman, C.M.; Highland, V.L.; Hogan, G.E.; Hallin, A.

    1985-01-01

    The aim of these experiments is to search for several rare-decay modes of the muon and the pion and to study these decay modes should they be observed. In Exps. 400/445, the muon-number-nonconserving decays μ + αe + e + e - , μ + →e + γ, and μ + →e + γγ are being sought with a sensitivity to branching ratios of about 10 -11 relative to ordinary muon decay. Experiment 726 will search for the charge-conjugation-violating decay π 0 →3γ with a sensitivity to a branching ratio as small as 10 -9 relative to ordinary π 0 decay. Experiment 888 is a study of radiative pion decay π + →e + nu/sub e/γ

  14. Cooperative Prototyping Experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bødker, Susanne; Grønbæk, Kaj

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes experiments with a design technique that we denote cooperative prototyping. The experiments consider design of a patient case record system for municipal dental clinics in which we used HyperCard, an off the shelf programming environment for the Macintosh. In the ecperiments we...... tried to achieve a fluent work-like evaluation of prototypes where users envisioned future work with a computer tool, at the same time as we made on-line modifications of prototypes in cooperation with the users when breakdown occur in their work-like evaluation. The experiments showed...... that it was possible to make a number of direct manipulation changes of prototypes in cooperation with the users, in interplay with their fluent work-like evaluation of these. However, breakdown occurred in the prototyping process when we reached the limits of the direct manipulation support for modification. From...

  15. Experience Innovation in Tourism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jens Friis; Sørensen, Flemming

    2017-01-01

    This paper discusses how front-line employees can play an important role in innovation processes that lead tourism companies from service production to experience creation. The increasing focus on experiential value by customers in general (Sundbo and Sørensen, 2013) puts pressure on service...... companies to move from functional service production to creating experiences (Pine and Gilmore, 2013). This is also the case in tourism companies. In tourism, most encounters between employees and tourists operate on a service logic (Sørensen and Jensen, 2015). Thus, we suggest there is a value potential...... in developing such encounters into experience encounters focusing on the co-creation of experiential value. While frontline employees are central for service quality they are mostly not included in systematised innovation processes in tourism companies. These companies are often hierarchically organised...

  16. Compact ignition experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angelini, A.; Coppi, B.; Nassi, M.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports on high magnetic field experiments which can be designed to investigate D-T ignition conditions based on present-day experimental results and theoretical understanding of plasma phenomena. The key machine elements are: large plasma currents, compact dimensions, tight aspect ratios, moderate elongations and significant triangularities of the plasma column. High plasma densities, strong ohmic heating, the needed degree of energy confinement, good plasma purity and robust stability against ideal and resistive instabilities can be achieved simultaneously. The Ignitor design incorporates all these characteristics and involves magnet technology developments, started with the Alcator experiment, that use cryogenically cooled normal conductors

  17. Photon mass experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crandall, R.E.

    1983-01-01

    A Coulomb null experiment is described that enables physics students to obtain rigorous upper bounds on photon mass. The experimenter searches for subnanovolt signals that would escape a closed shell were photon mass to be positive. The approach can be adapted for several college levels. At the simplest level, a ''miniature'' low-cost experiment allows a student to verify the exponent ''-2'' in Coulomb's law to eight or more decimal places. An advanced student given a full-size apparatus (at greater cost) can obtain mass bounds very close to the established laboratory limit

  18. The LDMX Experiment

    OpenAIRE

    Mans Jeremiah

    2017-01-01

    The thermal-relic mechanism for the production of dark-matter in the early universe, combined with the precision measurements of the cosmic microwave background and the lack of observation of dark matter at the LHC, motivates the search for dark matter in the mass range between 1 MeV and 1 GeV. We describe the concept for the Light Dark Matter Experiment (LDMX), which could carry out such a search using the missing-momentum technique. The experiment would utilize a unique high-rate, low-curre...

  19. Experimenting with alternative economies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Longhurst, Noel; Avelino, Flor; Wittmayer, Julia

    2016-01-01

    Neoliberalism is a powerful narrative that has shaped processes of urban economic development across the globe. This paper reports on four nascent ‘new economic’ narratives which represent fundamentally different imaginaries of the urban economy. Experiments informed by these narratives challenge...... the dominant neoliberal logic in four key dimensions: What is the purpose of economic development? What are the preferred distributive mechanisms? Who governs the economy? What is the preferred form of economic organisation? The emergence of these experiments illustrates that cities are spaces where counter...

  20. Experiments in radiochemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwankner, R.

    1980-11-01

    Twelve experiments in radiochemistry, nuclear chemistry, radiation detection and radiation measurement are presented which have been tested in teaching practice. Criteria of selection were minimum apparative expenditure, preparation time, radiation exposure, and danger of incorporation or contamination. The experiments will teach students how to handle unsealed radioactive materials within a fraction of a permissible values and thus train them in radiochemical techniques of working. Theoretical, historical and topical aspects are mentioned in order to give the students some background. A detailed bibliography of relevant publications is given. (orig./HP) [de

  1. Lidar calibration experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejsing Jørgensen, Hans; Mikkelsen, T.; Streicher, J.

    1997-01-01

    detection to test the reproducibility and uncertainty of lidars. Lidar data were obtained from both single-ended and double-ended Lidar configurations. A backstop was introduced in one of the experiments and a new method was developed where information obtained from the backstop can be used in the inversion...... algorithm. Independent in-situ aerosol plume concentrations were obtained from a simultaneous tracer gas experiment with SF6, and comparisons with the two lidars were made. The study shows that the reproducibility of the lidars is within 15%, including measurements from both sides of a plume...

  2. SUPERCOLLIDER: Planning for experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1987-01-01

    To push forward the necessarily lengthy preparations for experiments at the proposed US Superconducting Super Collider, a Workshop on Experiments, Detectors and Experimental Areas was held at Berkeley from 7 to 17 July. Participants looked ahead to the task of extracting physics (like the search for Higgs particles, supersymmetry or other heavy quarks and leptons) from the chaos of hadron collisions at 20 TeV beam energies with luminosities in excess of 10 32 . The door would also have to be left open for unexpected physics in these higher energy regions

  3. Accessibility and sensory experiences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryhl, Camilla

    2010-01-01

    and accessibility. Sensory accessibility accommodates aspects of a sensory disability and describes architectural design requirements needed to ensure access to architectural experiences. In the context of architecture accessibility has become a design concept of its own. It is generally described as ensuring...... physical access to the built environment by accommodating physical disabilities. While the existing concept of accessibility ensures the physical access of everyone to a given space, sensory accessibility ensures the choice of everyone to stay and be able to participate and experience....

  4. Who Needs Business Experience?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walter, Achim; Ritter, Thomas; Coviello, Nicole

    that prior business experience does not predict very early export (within three years). Our results offer fresh insight to the international business and international entrepreneurship literatures, and implications for policy development. In particular, international R&D collaborations at public research...... the founding teams’ pre-foundation R&D and customer collaborations to early exports. We also show that pre-foundation involvement in these various forms of collaboration, as well as a diverse stock of prior technical knowledge, can compensate for a lack of business experience in the team. The results also show...

  5. Experiences of depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rønberg, Mette

    In this thesis, I examine the complex experiences of what we call depression in everyday life, the multifaceted and ambiguous experiences of getting a depression diagnosis, and the in-depth processes involved in learning to live under the description of depression. The thesis is based......-and-for-all-dealt-with matters but rather messy and complicated processes, that involve several actors and multiple relations to the diagnosis. The thesis furthermore challenges the dominant diagnostic understanding depression as a neurobiological, and individual disorder in present-day diagnostic cultures, by arguing...

  6. Experiment SPHERE status 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaulov, S.B.; Besshapov, S.P.; Kabanova, N.V.; Sysoeva, T.I.; Antonov, R.A.; Anyuhina, A.M.; Bronvech, E.A.; Chernov, D.V.; Galkin, V.I.; Tkaczyk, W.; Finger, M.; Sonsky, M.

    2009-01-01

    The expedition carried out in March, 2008 to Lake Baikal became an important stage in the development of the SPHERE experiment. During the expedition the SPHERE-2 installation was hoisted, for the first time, on a tethered balloon, APA, to a height of 700 m over the lake surface covered with ice and snow. A series of test measurements were made. Preliminary results of the data processing are presented. The next plan of the SPHERE experiment is to begin a set of statistics for constructing the CR spectrum in the energy range 10 16 -10 18 eV.

  7. Experiment SPHERE status 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaulov, S.B., E-mail: shaul@sci.lebedev.r [P.N.Lebedev Physical Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Leninsky prospect 53, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); Besshapov, S.P.; Kabanova, N.V.; Sysoeva, T.I. [P.N.Lebedev Physical Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Leninsky prospect 53, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); Antonov, R.A.; Anyuhina, A.M.; Bronvech, E.A.; Chernov, D.V.; Galkin, V.I. [Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics, Lomonosov State University, Moscow 119992 (Russian Federation); Tkaczyk, W. [Department of Experimental Physics of University of Lodz (Poland); Finger, M. [Karlov University, Prague (Czech Republic); Sonsky, M. [COMPAS Consortium, Turnov (Czech Republic)

    2009-12-15

    The expedition carried out in March, 2008 to Lake Baikal became an important stage in the development of the SPHERE experiment. During the expedition the SPHERE-2 installation was hoisted, for the first time, on a tethered balloon, APA, to a height of 700 m over the lake surface covered with ice and snow. A series of test measurements were made. Preliminary results of the data processing are presented. The next plan of the SPHERE experiment is to begin a set of statistics for constructing the CR spectrum in the energy range 10{sup 16}-10{sup 18} eV.

  8. The OLYMPUS Experiment

    OpenAIRE

    Milner, R.; Hasell, D. K.; Kohl, M.; Schneekloth, U.; Akopov, N.; Alarcon, R.; Andreev, V. A.; Ates, O.; Avetisyan, A.; Bayadilov, D.; Beck, R.; Belostotski, S.; Bernauer, J. C.; Bessuille, J.; Brinker, F.

    2013-01-01

    The OLYMPUS experiment was designed to measure the ratio between the positron-proton and electron-proton elastic scattering cross sections, with the goal of determining the contribution of two-photon exchange to the elastic cross section. Two-photon exchange might resolve the discrepancy between measurements of the proton form factor ratio, $\\mu_p G^p_E/G^p_M$, made using polarization techniques and those made in unpolarized experiments. OLYMPUS operated on the DORIS storage ring at DESY, alt...

  9. AGS experiments---1987, 1988, 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Depken, J.C.

    1989-04-01

    This report contains: Experimental Areas Layout; Table of Beam Parameters and Fluxes; Experiment Schedule ''as run''; Experiment Long Range Schedule; A listing of experiments by number; Two-page summaries of each experiment begin here, also ordered by number; Publications of AGS experiments; and List of experimenters

  10. AGS experiments: 1985, 1986, 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Depken, J.C.

    1987-01-01

    This report contains: Experimental areas layout, table of beam parameters and fluxes, experiment schedule ''as run,'' experiment long range schedule, a listing of experiments by number, two-page summaries of each experiment, also ordered by number, and publications of AGS experiments, 1982-1987

  11. AGS experiments, 1988, 1989, 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Depken, J.C.

    1991-04-01

    This report contains: experimental areas layout; table of beam parameters and fluxes; experiment schedule ''as run''; experiment long range schedule; a listing of experiments by number; two-page summaries of each experiment begin here, also ordered by number; publications of AGS experiments; and list of experimenters

  12. Energy and flux measurements of ultra-high energy cosmic rays observed during the first ANITA flight

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoorlemmer, H.; Belov, K.; Romero-Wolf, A.; García-Fernández, D.; Bugaev, V.; Wissel, S. A.; Allison, P.; Alvarez-Muñiz, J.; Barwick, S. W.; Beatty, J. J.; Besson, D. Z.; Binns, W. R.; Carvalho Jr., W. R.; Chen, C.; Chen, P.; Clem, J. M.; Connolly, A.; Dowkontt, P. F.; DuVernois, M. A.; Field, R. C.; Goldstein, D.; Gorham, P. W.; Hast, C.; Huege, T.; Heber, C. L.; Hoover, S.; Israel, M. H.; Javaid, A.; Kowalski, J.; Lam, J.; Learned, J. G.; Link, J. T.; Lusczek, E.; Matsuno, S.; Mercurio, B. C.; Miki, C.; Miočinović, P.; Mulrey, K.; Nam, J.; Naudet, C. J.; Ng, J.; Nichol, R. J.; Palladino, K.; Rauch, B. F.; Roberts, J.; Reil, K.; Rotter, B.; Rosen, M.; Ruckman, L.; Saltzberg, D.; Seckel, D.; Urdaneta, D.; Varner, G. S.; Vieregg, A. G.; Walz, D.; Wu, F.; Zas, E.

    2016-04-01

    The first flight of the Antarctic Impulsive Transient Antenna (ANITA) experiment recorded 16 radio signals that were emitted by cosmic-ray induced air showers. The dominant contribution to the radiation comes from the deflection of positrons and electrons in the geomagnetic field, which is beamed in the direction of motion of the air shower. For 14 of these events, this radiation is reflected from the ice and subsequently detected by the ANITA experiment at a flight altitude of ~36 km. In this paper, we estimate the energy of the 14 individual events and find that the mean energy of the cosmic-ray sample is 2.9 × 1018 eV, which is significantly lower than the previous estimate. By simulating the ANITA flight, we calculate its exposure for ultra-high energy cosmic rays. We estimate for the first time the cosmic-ray flux derived only from radio observations and find agreement with measurements performed at other observatories. In addition, we find that the ANITA data set is consistent with Monte Carlo simulations for the total number of observed events and with the properties of those events.

  13. Ultrafast gas switching experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frost, C.A.; Martin, T.H.; Patterson, P.E.; Rinehart, L.F.; Rohwein, G.J.; Roose, L.D.; Aurand, J.F.; Buttram, M.T.

    1993-01-01

    We describe recent experiments which studied the physics of ultrafast gas breakdown under the extreme overvoltages which occur when a high pressure gas switch is pulse charged to hundreds of kV in 1 ns or less. The highly overvolted peaking gaps produce powerful electromagnetic pulses with risetimes Khz at > 100 kV/m E field

  14. The Mentoring Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longhurst, Mark F.

    1994-01-01

    Dialogue with Canadian family practice faculty and teachers indicates that the mentorship experience is one that cannot be assigned to a learner. Examines aspects of a mentorship that can be ascribed and explored in a family practice residency training program. (LZ)

  15. Experiments on ferrimagnetism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraftmakher, Yaakov

    2013-01-01

    Ferrimagnetism undoubtedly deserves a proper place in the undergraduate laboratory on electricity and magnetism. Four student experiments on ferrimagnetism are considered: (i) the hysteresis loops and permeability of a ‘soft’ ferrite; (ii) the differential permeability versus a dc bias; (iii) the frequency dependence of the complex permeability and (iv) the electromagnetic interference suppression by ferrite chokes and beads. Two ferrite cores taken off a low-frequency choke and a power cord are used. The measurements are simple and straightforward and show the important properties of ferrites and their applications. The values of the permeability of the ferrite core determined in experiments (i)–(iii) are in reasonable agreement. The frequency dependence of the complex permeability of the ferrites is similar to that given by the manufacturers. The capability of absorbing electromagnetic waves in a definite frequency range shown in experiment (iv) demonstrates one of the principles of Stealth technology. The equipment necessary for the experiments can be found in many student laboratories. (paper)

  16. [The AMY experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    The AMY experiment is one of three major experiments at TRISTAN which is studying the states the matter produced in electron positron annihilations in the center of mass energy range of 50--65GeV. It provides information between the lower energy facilities such as PEP and PETRA and the new facilities SLC and LEP which are designed to operate in the region of the Z 0 mass near 90GeV. In the region of the AMY experiment, interaction cross sections are near their minimum of about 100pb, making it difficult to acquire large data samples during typical running cycles. This last year has seen an accumulation of about 10---12pb -1 of integrated luminosity in the energy range from 58 to 61.7GeV. Despite this limited data sample, the AMY experiment has been extremely active in attempting to extract the minimum amount of information from the data. Some of the most significant results are discussed in this paper. 9 refs

  17. The Transgender Military Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Dietert

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Although there have been studies that focus on the experiences of the gay and lesbian population serving in the United States military, few have focused on the experience of active duty transgender service members. Transgender individuals transgress the binary conception of gender by deviating from societal gender norms associated with assigned sex at birth. The Department of Defense has set policies and standards that reflect a binary conception of gender, with a focus on conformity. We argue that able-bodied gender variant service personnel are just as capable of serving their country as anyone else. Because of the repercussions associated with active duty transgender military personnel, our sample is small and involves nine clandestine service members and two international service members who wanted to share their stories from a different perspective. Snowball sampling was aimed at finding current active duty and reserve transgender service members. Using a combination of telephone interviews and questionnaires, data were collected from active duty transgender service personnel throughout the United States and two from international militaries that allow transgender people to serve. Data collection focused on the overall experiences of the participants along with questions regarding workplace discrimination, suggestions for policy changes, and their views about the overturn of Don’t Ask, Don’t Tell. Our findings add to a growing source of information about the transgender military experience in the U.S. armed forces and the importance of overturning discriminatory workplace policies that negatively impact transgender service members.

  18. PERICLES 2D experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morel, Christophe

    2001-01-01

    Scope of the lecture was the modelling of severe reactor accidents. The PERICLES 2D experiment was compared to CATHARE 3D simulation results considering progression of a quench front inside the reactor core, steam flow rates, heat conduction, cladding temperature. (uke)

  19. Experimenting for resilience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hagedorn-Rasmussen, Peter; Dupret, Katia

    Focusing on how an experimental approach to organizing may pave the way for organizational resilience, we explore opportunities and barriers of experimental organizing by following a concrete social experiment in civil society and discuss its adaptability in traditional organizations. The social ...... through balancing a strategic and anticipatory strategy with experimental setups inspired by civil society organizing initiatives....

  20. The KOSI experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huebner, W.F.

    1991-01-01

    Whipply's icy conglomerate model of the comet nucleus has enjoyed progressively increasing acceptance and success in explaining Earth-based observations of comets since its very inception (Whipple, 1950, 1951). According to this model, the nucleus is a solid body composed of frozen gases and dust. The missions to Comet Halley in 1986, in particular the Vega and the Giotto missions, have confirmed that there is a single solid nucleus that is the root of all the observed phenomena that can be associated with an active comet. Two new comet mission (CRAF and Rosetta) are planned by NASA and ESA to extract further details about the structure and composition of the nucleus. Laboratory experiments play an important role in defining and identifying the objectives of these missions. Although such experiments have been carried out in many laboratories in Europe, the Soviet Union, the USA, Israel, and Japan, the KOSI experiments are the first large-scale investigations (in spatial dimensions and duration). (KOSI is an acronym for Kometensimulation, German for comet simulation). Starting with a summary and explanation of the KOSI experiments by Grun et al. (1991) and some of the experimental limitations by Keller and Markiewicz (1991), the author reports in this special issue the progress achieved about halfway through the planned series of investigations