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Sample records for air-conditioners furnaces air

  1. 16 CFR 305.12 - Labeling for central air conditioners, heat pumps, and furnaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... pumps, and furnaces. (a) Layout. All energy labels for central air conditioners, heat pumps, and... air conditioners and heat pumps. (1) Headlines and texts, as illustrated in the prototype and sample.... (ii) Each heat pump label, except as noted in paragraph (g)(4)(iii) of this section, shall contain...

  2. Experimental Analysis on Solar Desiccant Air Conditioner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. U. V. Kongre, C. M. Singh, A. B. Biswas

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The experiment investigated and evaluated the feasibility of an solar desiccant air conditioner. Its effectiveness as a possible air conditioner option used in household air conditioner or as an energy efficient and environmentally friendly alternative to conventional air conditioning units used in houses are evaluated. A solar water heater was used as heat gain. The model utilizes the technology of solar air conditioner system. The purpose in the long term would be reduced the consumption of electricity used for air conditioning, reduce harmful emission and hence saving money.

  3. Unitary and room air-conditioners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christian, J.E.

    1977-09-01

    The scope of this technology evaluation on room and unitary air conditioners covers the initial investment and performance characteristics needed for estimating the operating cost of air conditioners installed in an ICES community. Cooling capacities of commercially available room air conditioners range from 4000 Btu/h to 36,000 Btu/h; unitary air conditioners cover a range from 6000 Btu/h to 135,000 Btu/h. The information presented is in a form useful to both the computer programmer in the construction of a computer simulation of the packaged air-conditioner's performance and to the design engineer, interested in selecting a suitably sized and designed packaged air conditioner.

  4. Metal hydride air conditioner

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG; Ke; DU; Ping; LU; Man-qi

    2005-01-01

    The relationship among the hydrogen storage properties, cycling characteristics and thermal parameters of the metal hydride air conditioning systems was investigated. Based on a new alloy selection model, three pairs of hydrogen storage alloys, LaNi4.4 Mn0.26 Al0.34 / La0.6 Nd0.4 Ni4.8 Mn0.2 Cu0. 1, LaNi4.61Mn0. 26 Al0.13/La0.6 Nd0.4 Ni4.8 Mn0.2 Cu0. 1 and LaNi4.61 Mn0.26 Al0.13/La0.6 Y0.4 Ni4.8 Mn0. 2, were selected as the working materials for the metal hydride air conditioning system. Studies on the factors affecting the COP of the system showed that higher COP and available hydrogen content need the proper operating temperature and cycling time,large hydrogen storage capacity, flat plateau and small hysterisis of hydrogen alloys, proper original input hydrogen content and mass ratio of the pair of alloys. It also needs small conditioning system was established by using LaNi4.61 Mn0.26 Al0. 13/La0.6 Y0.4 Ni4.8 Mn0.2 alloys as the working materials, which showed that under the operating temperature of 180℃/40℃, a low temperature of 13℃ was reached, with COP =0.38 and Wnet =0.09 kW/kg.

  5. High Efficiency Room Air Conditioner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bansal, Pradeep [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-01-01

    This project was undertaken as a CRADA project between UT-Battelle and Geberal Electric Company and was funded by Department of Energy to design and develop of a high efficiency room air conditioner. A number of novel elements were investigated to improve the energy efficiency of a state-of-the-art WAC with base capacity of 10,000 BTU/h. One of the major modifications was made by downgrading its capacity from 10,000 BTU/hr to 8,000 BTU/hr by replacing the original compressor with a lower capacity (8,000 BTU/hr) but high efficiency compressor having an EER of 9.7 as compared with 9.3 of the original compressor. However, all heat exchangers from the original unit were retained to provide higher EER. The other subsequent major modifications included- (i) the AC fan motor was replaced by a brushless high efficiency ECM motor along with its fan housing, (ii) the capillary tube was replaced with a needle valve to better control the refrigerant flow and refrigerant set points, and (iii) the unit was tested with a drop-in environmentally friendly binary mixture of R32 (90% molar concentration)/R125 (10% molar concentration). The WAC was tested in the environmental chambers at ORNL as per the design rating conditions of AHAM/ASHRAE (Outdoor- 95F and 40%RH, Indoor- 80F, 51.5%RH). All these modifications resulted in enhancing the EER of the WAC by up to 25%.

  6. Stirling Air Conditioner for Compact Cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2010-09-01

    BEETIT Project: Infinia is developing a compact air conditioner that uses an unconventional high efficient Stirling cycle system (vs. conventional vapor compression systems) to produce cool air that is energy efficient and does not rely on polluting refrigerants. The Stirling cycle system is a type of air conditioning system that uses a motor with a piston to remove heat to the outside atmosphere using a gas refrigerant. To date, Stirling systems have been expensive and have not had the right kind of heat exchanger to help cool air efficiently. Infinia is using chip cooling technology from the computer industry to make improvements to the heat exchanger and improve system performance. Infinia’s air conditioner uses helium gas as refrigerant, an environmentally benign gas that does not react with other chemicals and does not burn. Infinia’s improvements to the Stirling cycle system will enable the cost-effective mass production of high-efficiency air conditioners that use no polluting refrigerants.

  7. Feasibility analysis of solar air conditioner for buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lian, Yongwang; Ma, Weibin [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou (China). Guangzhou Inst. of Energy Conversion; Wu, Guoxiang [Guangzhou City Construction and Development Co. Ltd. (China)

    2008-07-01

    Technical and economic feasibility analysis on solar air conditioner for buildings is made in this paper, including the analysis of scientific and technological situation and development on solar air conditioner, the comparison on the technological characteristics among several styles of solar air conditioner, the analysis on the several ways of integration for solar air conditioners and buildings, energy consumption of domestic hot water, winter heating and summer air conditioner that supplied with fossil energy and solar energy are compared. A theoretical analysis on solar air conditioner driven by high temperature solar energy is presented. The conclusion is that the way of domestic hot water, winter heating and summer air conditioner for buildings supplied with one solar collector system is technical and economic feasible. (orig.)

  8. Air Conditioner Compressor Performance Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Ning; Xie, YuLong; Huang, Zhenyu

    2008-09-05

    During the past three years, the Western Electricity Coordinating Council (WECC) Load Modeling Task Force (LMTF) has led the effort to develop the new modeling approach. As part of this effort, the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), Southern California Edison (SCE), and Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) Solutions tested 27 residential air-conditioning units to assess their response to delayed voltage recovery transients. After completing these tests, different modeling approaches were proposed, among them a performance modeling approach that proved to be one of the three favored for its simplicity and ability to recreate different SVR events satisfactorily. Funded by the California Energy Commission (CEC) under its load modeling project, researchers at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) led the follow-on task to analyze the motor testing data to derive the parameters needed to develop a performance models for the single-phase air-conditioning (SPAC) unit. To derive the performance model, PNNL researchers first used the motor voltage and frequency ramping test data to obtain the real (P) and reactive (Q) power versus voltage (V) and frequency (f) curves. Then, curve fitting was used to develop the P-V, Q-V, P-f, and Q-f relationships for motor running and stalling states. The resulting performance model ignores the dynamic response of the air-conditioning motor. Because the inertia of the air-conditioning motor is very small (H<0.05), the motor reaches from one steady state to another in a few cycles. So, the performance model is a fair representation of the motor behaviors in both running and stalling states.

  9. A Review of Solar Desiccant Air Conditioner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. U. V. Kongre, D. P. Mahure, P. A. Zamre

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper represents a detailed study and description of a new solar-based air-conditioning technique. It uses solar energy to produce cold or hot air. This technology can be used to reduce the energy consumption and environmental impact of mechanical cooling system. The use of Desiccant cooling is used to perform air dehumidification operation by utilizing low grade heat source. The solar desiccant air conditioner uses solar power as the main energy source to help in the thermodynamic heat transfer process as well as heat transfer principles to convert ambient air into cooling air. With our constructed design we have seen temperature as well as humidity level drops throughout the desiccant cooling system. A significant advantage of this system is, it have no moving parts consequently they are noiseless, non-corrosive, cheap to maintain, long lasting in addition to being environmentally friendly with zero ozone depletion as well as zero global warming potentials.

  10. Alternatives to HCFC-22 for air conditioners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devotta, S. [Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, National Chemical Lab., Pune (India); Waghmare, A.V.; Domkundwar, B.M. [College of Engineering, Pune (India); Sawant, N.N. [National Inst. of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD (United States)

    2001-04-01

    Some selected fluids have been assessed for their suitability as alternatives to HCFC-22 for air conditioners. Only those refrigerants with zero ozone depletion potential are considered. NIST CYCLE{sub D} has been used for the comparative thermodynamic analysis. Among the refrigerants studied (HFC-134a, HC-290, R-407C, R-410A, and three blends of HFC-32, HFC-134a and HFC-125), HFC-134a offers the highest COP, but its capacity is the lowest and requires much larger compressors. The characteristics of HC-290 are very close to those of HCFC-22, and compressors require very little modification. Therefore, HC-290 is a potential candidate provided the risk concerns are mitigated as had been accomplished for refrigerators. For retrofitting, R-407C is probably the best candidate. (Author)

  11. EnerGuide room air conditioner directory 2004 : energy ratings for room air conditioners[Includes Energy Star qualified room air conditioners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-04-01

    This guide lists all room air conditioners sold in Canada and offers advice on how to buy an energy efficient model as labelled under the EnerGuide rating system. The EnerGuide label is regulated under Canada's Energy Efficiency Regulations and is designed to help consumers estimate the annual electricity cost of running an appliance. The EnerGuide compares the energy consumption or energy efficiency of major household appliances and room air conditioners. The EnerGuide label displays a bar scale with an arrow that positions the model compared to the most energy-efficient and least energy efficient models in the same class. The EnerGuide concept uses standardized methods, in which all models of appliances sold in Canada are tested to determine their yearly energy use. The EnerGuide program was developed to protect the environment by reducing the demand for energy in Canada and to help consumers spend less money on energy. This simple guide allows consumers to determine the exact size of room air conditioner they need to meet their cooling needs. It was noted that the operating cost of a room air conditioner will vary depending on the climate, the energy efficiency rating of the air conditioner, temperature setting of the unit, fan operation and the local cost of electricity. The guide includes tables which reveal the energy consumption in kWh by province during the cooling season. tabs.

  12. Improving Air-Conditioner and Heat Pump Modeling (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winkler, J.

    2012-03-01

    A new approach to modeling residential air conditioners and heat pumps allows users to model systems by specifying only the more readily-available SEER/EER/HSPF-type metrics. Manufacturer data was used to generate full sets of model inputs for over 450 heat pumps and air conditioners. A sensitivity analysis identified which inputs can be safely defaulted 'behind-the-scenes' without negatively impacting the reliability of energy simulations.

  13. Improving Air-Conditioner and Heat Pump Modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winkler, Jon [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2012-03-02

    This presentation describes a new approach to modeling residential air conditioners and heat pumps, which allows users to model systems by specifying only the more readily-available SEER/EER/HSPF-type metrics. Manufacturer data was used to generate full sets of model inputs for over 450 heat pumps and air conditioners. A sensitivity analysis identified which inputs can be safely defaulted “behind-the-scenes” without negatively impacting the reliability of energy simulations.

  14. Pulmonary functions in air conditioner users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandip M Hulke

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: In the modern lifestyle, use of air conditioner (AC has become very common. Aims: The present study was planned to assess the effect of ACs on pulmonary functions in young healthy non-smoker adults. Settings and Design: This study was a cross-sectional observational study. Sixty-six young adults (40 males and 26 females using ACs were compared with 70 non-AC users (young adults, 40 males and 30 females. Materials and Methods: Pulmonary function test was done using medical international research (MIR Spirolab II during home visits. Statistical Analysis Used: GraphPad Prism 5 software was used for analysis. Unpaired t test was used for lung function parameter. Chi- square test was used for the comparison of respiratory symptoms. Results: The results showed significant decrease in forced vital capacity (FVC (P < 0.05, forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1 (P < 0.05, FEV1 as percentage of FVC in % [FEV1 (%] (P < 0.05, peak expiratory flow rate in L/s (PEFR (P < 0.05, forced expiratory flow rate in L/s in 25% of FVC (FEF25% (P < 0.05, and maximum voluntary ventilation (MVV (P < 0.01. Frequency of respiratory symptoms was higher in AC users. Conclusions: The results are suggestive of predisposition of AC users toward respiratory disorders in the form of mild airflow obstruction.

  15. Control Technologies for Room Air-conditioner and Packaged Air-conditioner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Nobuhisa

    Trends of control technologies about air-conditioning machineries, especially room or packaged air conditioners, are presented in this paper. Multiple air conditioning systems for office buildings are mainly described as one application of the refrigeration cycle control technologies including sensors for thermal comfort and heating/ cooling loads are also described as one of the system control technologies. Inverter systems and related technologies for driving variable speed compressors are described in both case of including induction motors and brushless DC motors. Technologies for more accurate control to meet various kind of regulations such as ozone layer destruction, energy saving and global warming, and for eliminating harmonic distortion of power source current, as a typical EMC problem, will be urgently desired.

  16. Design of direct solar PV driven air conditioner

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Bin-Juine

    2015-12-05

    © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. Solar air conditioning system directly driven by stand-alone solar PV is studied. The air conditioning system will suffer from loss of power if the solar PV power generation is not high enough. It requires a proper system design to match the power consumption of air conditioning system with a proper PV size. Six solar air conditioners with different sizes of PV panel and air conditioners were built and tested outdoors to experimentally investigate the running probabilities of air conditioning at various solar irradiations. It is shown that the instantaneous operation probability (OPB) and the runtime fraction (RF) of the air conditioner are mainly affected by the design parameter rpL (ratio of maximum PV power to load power). The measured OPB is found to be greater than 0.98 at instantaneous solar irradiation IT > 600 W m-2 if rpL > 1.71 RF approaches 1.0 (the air conditioner is run in 100% with solar power) at daily-total solar radiation higher than 13 MJ m-2 day-1, if rpL > 3.

  17. 77 FR 8178 - Test Procedures for Central Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps: Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-14

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY 10 CFR Part 430 Test Procedures for Central Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps: Public... discuss methodologies and gather comments on testing residential central air conditioners and heat pumps... residential central air conditioners and heat pumps that are single phase with rated cooling capacities...

  18. Development of vehicle magnetic air conditioner (VMAC) technology. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gschneidner, Karl A., Jr.; Pecharsky, V.K.; Jiles, David; Zimm, Carl B.

    2001-08-28

    The objective of Phase I was to explore the feasibility of the development of a new solid state refrigeration technology - magnetic refrigeration - in order to reduce power consumption of a vehicle air conditioner by 30%. The feasibility study was performed at Iowa State University (ISU) together with Astronautics Corporation of America Technology Center (ACATC), Madison, WI, through a subcontract with ISU.

  19. ATMOSPHERIC MOISTURE CONDENSATION TO WATER RECOVERY BY HOME AIR CONDITIONERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Hossein Mahvi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Earth’s atmosphere contains billion cubic meters of fresh water, which is considerable as a reliable water resource, especially in sultry areas. What is important in this context, how to extract the water, in an economic manner. In order to extract water from air conditioner, no need to spend any cost, because water produced as a by-product and trouble production. This cross-sectional study was conducted to evaluate the quantity and chemical quality of water obtained from Bandar Abbas air conditioners; at intervals beginning of March to early December of 2010. Sixty six samples were taken in cluster random plan. Bandar Abbas divided into four clusters; based on distance to shore and population density. Chemical tests which included: Turbidity, alkalinity, total hardness, Dissolved Solids (TDS and Electrical Conductivity (EC and quantity measurement were performed on them. Obtained water had slightly acidic pH, near to neutral range. Total dissolved solids, electrical conductivity, total hardness and alkalinity of extracted water were in low rate. Each air conditioner produced 36 liter per day averagely. Split types obtained more water to window air conditioners. With regard to some assumptions, approximately 4680 to 9360 cubic meter per day water is obtainable which is suitable for many municipal and industrial water applications.

  20. Effect of air-conditioner exposure on semen quality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Min-LiLu; Jun-QingWu; Qiu-YingYang; Wei-JinZhou; Er-ShengGao

    2004-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the effect of air-conditioner exposure on semen quality. Methods: The data came from the healthy male volunteers, aged 22 to 30 years, who went to centers for maternity and children health for premarital physical examination in Shanghai,Henan, Zbejiang and Hebei from December 1998 to February 2000.

  1. Technical support document: Energy efficiency standards for consumer products: Room air conditioners, water heaters, direct heating equipment, mobile home furnaces, kitchen ranges and ovens, pool heaters, fluorescent lamp ballasts and television sets. Volume 1, Methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-11-01

    The Energy Policy and Conservation Act (P.L. 94-163), as amended, establishes energy conservation standards for 12 of the 13 types of consumer products specifically covered by the Act. The legislation requires the Department of Energy (DOE) to consider new or amended standards for these and other types of products at specified times. DOE is currently considering amending standards for seven types of products: water heaters, direct heating equipment, mobile home furnaces, pool heaters, room air conditioners, kitchen ranges and ovens (including microwave ovens), and fluorescent light ballasts and is considering establishing standards for television sets. This Technical Support Document presents the methodology, data, and results from the analysis of the energy and economic impacts of the proposed standards. This volume presents a general description of the analytic approach, including the structure of the major models.

  2. Laboratory Performance Testing of Residential Window Air Conditioners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winkler, J.; Booten, C.; Christensen, D.; Tomerlin, J.

    2013-03-01

    Window air conditioners are the dominant cooling product for residences, in terms of annual unit sales. They are inexpensive, portable and can be installed by the owner. For this reason, they are an attractive solution for supplemental cooling, for retrofitting air conditioning into a home which lacks ductwork, and for renters. Window air conditioners for sale in the United States are required to meet very modest minimum efficiency standards. Four window air conditioners' performance were tested in the Advanced HVAC Systems Laboratory on NREL's campus in Golden, CO. In order to separate and study the refrigerant system's performance, the unit's internal leakage pathways, the unit's fanforced ventilation, and the leakage around the unit resulting from installation in a window, a series of tests were devised that focused on each aspect of the unit's performance. These tests were designed to develop a detailed performance map to determine whole-house performance in different climates. Even though the test regimen deviated thoroughly from the industry-standard ratings test, the results permit simple calculation of an estimated rating for both capacity and efficiency that would result from a standard ratings test. Using this calculation method, it was found that the three new air conditioners' measured performance was consistent with their ratings. This method also permits calculation of equivalent SEER for the test articles. Performance datasets were developed across a broad range of indoor and outdoor operating conditions, and used them to generate performance maps.

  3. Development and Analysis of Desiccant Enhanced Evaporative Air Conditioner Prototype

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozubal, E.; Woods, J.; Judkoff, R.

    2012-04-01

    This report documents the design of a desiccant enhanced evaporative air conditioner (DEVAP AC) prototype and the testing to prove its performance. Previous numerical modeling and building energy simulations indicate a DEVAP AC can save significant energy compared to a conventional vapor compression AC (Kozubal et al. 2011). The purposes of this research were to build DEVAP prototypes, test them to validate the numerical model, and identify potential commercialization barriers.

  4. Methodology for uncertainty calculation of net total cooling effect estimation for rating room air conditioners and packaged terminal air conditioners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fonseca Diaz, Nestor [Universidad Tecnologica de Pereira, Facultad de Ingenieria Mecanica, Pereira (Colombia); University of Liege, Campus du Sart Tilman, Bat: B49, P33, B-4000 Liege (Belgium)

    2009-09-15

    This article presents the general procedure for uncertainty calculation of net total cooling effect estimation for rating room air conditioners and packaged terminal air conditioners, by means of measurements carried out in a test bench specially designed for this purpose. The uncertainty analysis presented in this work looks for establishing a confidence degree or certainty of experimental results. It is particularly important considering that international standards related to this type of analysis are too ambiguous when treating this subject. The uncertainty analysis is on the other hand an indispensable requirement to international standard ISO 17025 [ISO, 2005. International Standard. 17025. General Requirement to Test and Calibration Laboratories Competences. International Organization for Standardization, Geneva.], which must be applied to obtain the required quality levels according to the Word Trade Organization WTO. (author)

  5. Research on a Micro-Grid Frequency Modulation Strategy Based on Optimal Utilization of Air Conditioners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingzhu Wan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available With the proportion of air conditioners increasing gradually, they can provide a certain amount of frequency-controlled reserves for a micro-grid. Optimizing utilization of air conditioners and considering load response characteristics and customer comfort, the frequency adjustment model is a quadratic function model between the trigger temperature of the air conditioner compressor, and frequency variation is provided, which can be used to regulate the trigger temperature of the air conditioner when the micro-grid frequency rises and falls. This frequency adjustment model combines a primary frequency modulation method and a secondary frequency modulation method of the energy storage system, in order to optimize the frequency of a micro-grid. The simulation results show that the frequency modulation strategy for air conditioners can effectively improve the frequency modulation ability of air conditioners and frequency modulation effects of a micro-grid in coordination with an energy storage system.

  6. Installation Specifications of Air-Conditioners for Household and Similar Purposes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hu Zhiqiang

    2011-01-01

    Background An air-conditioner known as "30% quality and 70% installation",the quality of its installation is closely related to its service life and application effect.Although air-conditioner manufacturers attach high importance to installation,and there are often the installation requirements specified in the product manual or instructions for installation,there are still no unified,scientific and complete national standards and corresponding regulations for household air-conditioner,which results in the less standardized installation of air-conditioner and the unacceptable quality of installation,and also leaves a lot of hidden quality and safety problems.By means of extensive market survey and the after-sale information statistical analysis of air-conditioner,it is discovered that the nonstandard installation of air-conditioner may lead to the following problems and accidents.

  7. Experimental investigation on thermoelectric air conditioner driven by solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu Lizhen; Li Yan; Qin Feng; Chen Changhe [Key Lab. for Thermal Science and Power Engineering, Ministry of Education of China, Dept. of Thermal Engineering, Tsinghua Univ., BJ (China)

    2008-07-01

    The thermoelectric devices can convert solar energy into a temperature difference to act as coolers or heater with the help of PV arrays, especially in the remote area without power network. The experiment device is composed of thermoelectric refrigeration modules, fan, air channel, cooling cabinet and temperature measurement system. The thermoelectric air conditioner (TEAC) system is tested with different working electric voltage of thermopile; its operational parameters are obtained for different operational conditions. The Coefficient of Performance (COP) is analyzed in experimental ways. The factors that affect the efficiency of TEAC are discussed on the basis of experimental investigation by air-cooled thermoelectric module and water-cooled thermoelectric module. (orig.)

  8. China’s Three Giants in Air Conditioner Manufacturing Reduced Production to Cut Excessive Inventory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>Midea,Haier and Gree,China’s three giants in air conditioner manufacturing who have been troubled by an excessive inventory due to a cool summer this year,have cut their produc- tions,marking a premature end to the huge de- mand in China’s air conditioner market lasting for three consecutive years.Currently the whole industry has an inventory of more than 10 million air conditioners.

  9. Energy performance and consumption for biogas heat pump air conditioner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Zhenjun [Architectural Engineering College, Qingdao Agricultural University, 266109 (China); Qingdao Institute of Bioenergy and Bioprocess Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao 266101 (China); Tianjin University, Tianjin, 300072 (China); Wu, Huaizhi; Wu, Meiling [Qingdao Institute of Bioenergy and Bioprocess Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao 266101 (China); Tianjin University, Tianjin, 300072 (China)

    2010-12-15

    Biogas engine-driven heat pump air conditioner is a new-style system which includes biogas engine-driven heat pump, primary heat exchanger, second heat exchanger, sprayed room and fans, pumps, etc. In summertime, the air can be reheated by the waste heat water from the biogas engine in the system, while the air can be reheated and humidified by the waste heat water in winter. Reducing or displacing electrical heating requirements can achieve the great opportunity for significant energy savings. This paper, therefore, aims to improve the energy performance of the AC system by using the waste heat from the biogas engine. The mathematic model was used to research the BHPAC. Explicitly, we investigated the influence of various factors including the outdoor air temperature and humidity in summer and winter. Results show that the biogas engine-driven heat pump air conditioner can save more energy than the electrical power heat pump. In summer, the minimum for percentage of primary energy saving for BHPAC is over 25%. With the outdoor air dry-bulb temperature and the relative humidity rises, the saving energy percentage rises. In winter, the minimum for percentage of primary energy saving for BHPAC is 37%. The more the outdoor air relative humidity of the outdoor air decreases, the more the BHPAC saves energy. It is proved that the system which is a highly actively fully utilizing energy technology has good partial load characteristic and good effects of energy saving. (author)

  10. Analysis of Eco friendly Refrigerants Usage in Air-Conditioner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Chinnaraj

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: There are two types of global warming contributions through refrigeration and air conditioning systems. The first one is the Direct Global Warming Potential (DGWP due to the emission of refrigerants and their interaction with heat radiation. The second one is the Indirect Global Warming Potential (IDGWP due to the emission of Carbon Dioxide (CO2 by consuming the energy that is generated through the combustion of fossil fuels. Most of refrigerants used in vapor Compression system were Chlorofluorocarbon (CFCs and Hydro Chlorofluorocarbon (HCFCs which contains chlorine and if any leakage in the system, these gases will go up and reach stratosphere. The chlorine atoms in the gases will act as a catalyst to destroy ozone layer and cause ozone depletion which causes health hazards, global warming, melting of polar ice caps and drought. Hence, it is necessary to minimize the Global warming and Ozone depletion. The refrigerant R22 widely used in the air-conditioners is a major Contributor of Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs which cause irreparable loss to the ozone layer and has to be replaced. Approach: To conserve the energy and minimize the global warming, the systems should be designed as more energy efficient and also to minimize Ozone depletion, the eco friendly refrigerants are to be selected and tested as alternative refrigerants to R22. Hence, a window air conditioner of 3.5 kW capacity fitted with Electronic Expansion Valve (EEV instead of capillary tube as an expansion device, was tested for its performance with the selected eco friendly refrigerants R407C and R290 as an alternative to R22 under fixed indoor and outdoor chamber temperatures in the experimental set up and varying the EEV opening. Results: It has been observed from the experimental studies that when the smaller capacity R22 window air conditioner with EEV is retrofitted with R407C and R290, compared to the performance given by R22, the Coefficient Of Performance

  11. Rooftop Unitary Air Conditioner with Integral Dedicated Outdoor Air System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiax Llc

    2006-02-28

    Energy use of rooftop and other unitary air-conditioners in commercial applications accounts for about 1 quad (10{sup 15} Btu) of primary energy use annually in the U.S. [Reference 7]. The realization that this cooling equipment accounts for the majority of commercial building cooled floorspace and the majority also of commercial building energy use has spurred development of improved-efficiency equipment as well as development of stricter standards addressing efficiency levels. Another key market driver affecting design of rooftop air-conditioning equipment has been concern regarding comfort and the control of humidity. Trends for increases in outdoor air ventilation rates in certain applications, and the increasing concern about indoor air quality problems associated with humidity levels and moisture in buildings points to a need for improved dehumidification capability in air-conditioning equipment of all types. In many cases addressing this issue exacerbates energy efficiency, and vice versa. The integrated dedicated outdoor air system configuration developed in this project addresses both energy and comfort/humidity issues.

  12. Design AND Fabrication OF Homemade Air Conditioner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naikodi Mallappa,

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Human always tries for better comfort and sophistication at each level of his life. Considering air conditioning, evaporative cooler are used in less humidity and dry climate. The limitation of evaporative cooler is that it is not suitable in humid environment and also their performance is poor in the places where ventilation is not proper. The objective of this project is to increase the effectiveness of the ordinary table fan by using simple mechanism and overcome the limitation of evaporative cooler. In this project the table fan is wound with copper tube by copper wire. Vinyl tube is connected with one end of the copper tube and another end of vinyl tube is connected with pump. Pump immersed in the cooling chamber. Vinyl tube is connected with another end of copper tube another end of vinyl tube is immersed in the cooling chamber. Fan and pump connected with electricity pump and is sucks the cool water from the cooling chamber.

  13. ENERGY STAR Certified Non-AHRI Central Air Conditioner Equipment and Air Source Heat Pump

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 5.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Air Source Heat Pump and Central Air Conditioner...

  14. Research on a compact adsorption room air conditioner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, G.Z.; Xia, Z.Z.; Wang, R.Z.; Keletigui, Daou; Wang, D.C. [Institute of Refrigeration and Cryogenics, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 1954 Huashan Road, Shanghai 200030 (China); Dong, Z.H.; Yang, X. [Panasonic R and D Center, Suzhou Co., Ltd., Suzhou 215000 (China)

    2006-09-15

    A novel compact adsorption room air conditioner with a cooling capacity of 1kW has been designed, and two prototypes have been built. A two bed, continuous adsorption refrigeration cycle with heat recovery and mass recovery is adopted. Micropore spherical silica gel and water are selected as the working pair. A gravity heat pipe with methanol as working medium is designed to output the cooling. Experimental investigations have indicated that under typical air conditioning conditions, for the first prototype, a cooling capacity of 687W and a COP (coefficient of performance) of 0.307 can be obtained. However, for the improved one, a cooling capacity of 790W and a COP of 0.446 can be reached. It is also proved that the operating temperatures have strong influences on the performance. The designed room air conditioner can be driven by a low grade heat source (<90{sup o}C) and has small dimensions of 300mm (depth), 500mm (width) and 950mm (height). (author)

  15. Influence of local air velocity from air conditioner evaluated by salivary and skin biomarkers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamaguchi, Masaki; Takahashi, Takayuki; Yoshino, Yuichiro; Sasaki, Makoto [Graduate School of Engineering, Iwate University, 4-3-5 Ueda, Morioka 020-8551 (Japan); Nishimiya, Hajime [Asahi Kasei Homes Corporation, R and D Laboratories, 2-1 Samejima, Fuji, Shizuoka 416-8501 (Japan)

    2010-11-15

    The purpose of this paper is to reveal both the psychosomatic and the physical effects of local air velocity from an air conditioner using biomarkers which can be collected noninvasively. Salivary {alpha}-amylase activity (SAA) and salivary cortisol were used as the indexes of psychosomatic effects. The total protein (TP) collected from stratum corneum was used as an index of the physical condition of dry skin. A continuous experiment over a 5 days period in summer was conducted using 8 healthy young male adults for 2-types of airflow conditioners, a whole ceiling-type air conditioner (without local air velocity) and a normal-type air conditioner (with local air velocity). The subjects felt cool, windy, dry and uncomfortable when under the normal-type air conditioner as determined in a subjective evaluation. The SAA under the normal-type air conditioner fluctuated more widely than with the whole ceiling-type air conditioner. The level of salivary cortisol decreased more in a day under the normal-type air conditioner than with the whole ceiling-type air conditioner. These results showed that reducing local air velocity may provide more healthy psychosomatic conditions over the long-term. Moreover, the TP of a drying-exposed skin area showed a significant change during this experiment whereas the TP of drying-protected area was relatively unchanged. It was indicated that one week's exposure to local air velocity conditions possibly influences the drying of facial skin. Thus, air movement at low velocity can be provides more comfortable conditions not only psychosomatically but also physically. (author)

  16. 48 CFR 52.223-12 - Refrigeration Equipment and Air Conditioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Refrigeration Equipment... Provisions and Clauses 52.223-12 Refrigeration Equipment and Air Conditioners. As prescribed in 23.804(b), insert the following clause: Refrigeration Equipment and Air Conditioners (MAY 1995) The Contractor...

  17. 10 CFR 431.92 - Definitions concerning commercial air conditioners and heat pumps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... heat pumps. 431.92 Section 431.92 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Commercial Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps § 431.92 Definitions concerning commercial air conditioners and heat pumps. The following definitions...

  18. Evaluation of environmental and physiological factors of a whole ceiling-type air conditioner using a salivary biomarker

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tahara, Yusuke; Yamaguchi, Masaki [Graduate School of Engineering, Iwate University, 4-3-5 Ueda, Morioka 020-8551 (Japan); Morito, Naomi; Nishimiya, Hajime; Yamagishi, Hideyuki [Asahi Kasei Homes Corporation, R and D Laboratories, 2-1 Samejima, Fuji, Shizuoka 416-8501 (Japan)

    2009-06-15

    In order to improve environmental condition such as humidity and airflow in living spaces, a whole ceiling-type air conditioner is proposed. This novel air conditioner exhaust dispersed airflow from the whole ceiling by using a 3-dimensional knit fabric. The purpose of this paper is to reveal the effects when controlling humidity and airflow using the whole ceiling-type air conditioner compared to a commercialized concentrated exhaust air conditioner (normal-type air conditioner) under the same temperature. Salivary {alpha}-amylase activity (SAA) was used as an index of sympathetic nervous activity. An acute experiment for a 15 min period was conducted using 12 healthy young female adults. No significant differences in room and skin temperatures were observed between the whole ceiling-type air conditioner and the normal-type air conditioner. The whole ceiling-type air conditioner showed 11.1% lower humidity than the normal-type air conditioner. The whole ceiling-type air conditioner showed one-thirteenth the airflow of the normal-type air conditioner. As a result, the PMV of the whole ceiling-type air conditioner was more comfortable level than the normal one. Moreover, subjective evaluation questionnaire revealed a significant difference was observed in wind perception (windy). The SAA of subjects under the whole ceiling-type air conditioner showed significantly low values compared with the normal-type air conditioner. It was found that the subject's sympathetic nervous activity has been inactivated under the conditions of the whole ceiling-type air conditioner. Thus, it was revealed that the whole ceiling-type air conditioner provides a more comfortable air environment by reducing physical stimulations to humans. (author)

  19. Comparative Analysis of Fuzzy Inference Systems for Air Conditioner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swati R. Chaudhari

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In today’s world there is exponential increase in the use of air conditioning devices. The enhancement in utilization of such devices makes it essential for them to work with their full capability and efficiency. The fuzzy inference systems are best suited for the applications requiring easy interpretation, human reasoning, accurate decision making and control. The fuzzy inference systems resemble human decision making and generate precise solutions from approximate information. A comprehensive review of fuzzy inference systems with weighted average and defuzzification is covered in this paper. The objective of the paper is to provide the comparative analysis of fuzzy inference systems. This paper is a quick reference for the researchers in studying the characteristics of fuzzy inference system in air conditioner.

  20. Zero Carryover Liquid-Desiccant Air Conditioner for Solar Applications: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lowenstein, A.; Slayzak, S.; Kozubal, E.

    2006-07-01

    A novel liquid-desiccant air conditioner that dries and cools building supply air will transform the use of direct-contact liquid-desiccant systems in HVAC applications, improving comfort, air quality, and providing energy-efficient humidity control.

  1. Mycoflora of air-conditioners dust from Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagy, M M; Gohar, Y M

    1988-01-01

    Using the hair baiting technique, 6 genera and 14 species were collected on Sabouraud's dextrose agar from 37 dust samples from air-conditioners. The most common fungi were Chrysosporium tropicum, C. indicum, C. keratinophilum, Aspergillus flavus followed by Acremonium strictum and Scopulariopsis brevicaulis. Using the dilution-plate method, 26 genera and 52 species were collected from 37 dust samples on glucose-(23 genera and 45 species) and cellulose-(18 genera and 34 species) Czapek's agar at 28 degrees C. The most prevalent species were Aspergillus niger, A. flavus, Penicillium chrysogenum, Stachybotrys chartarum, Ulocladium atrum, Mucor racemosus and Fusarium solani and A. niger, A. flavus, Trichoderma viride, P. chrysogenum, Ulocladium atrum, Chaetomium globosum, C. spirale, Stachybotrys chartarum and Mucor racemosus on the two media, respectively.

  2. Dirty air conditioners: Energy implications of coil fouling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siegel, Jeffrey; Walker, Iain; Sherman, Max

    2002-03-01

    Residential air conditioning is responsible for a substantial amount of peak electrical demand and energy consumption throughout most of the United States. Coil fouling, the deposition of indoor dusts and other particulate matter on evaporator heat exchangers, increases system pressure drop and, correspondingly, decreases system air flow and air conditioner performance. In this paper, we apply experimental and simulation results describing particle deposition on evaporator coils as well as research about indoor particle and dust concentrations to determine coil fouling rates. The results suggest that typical coils foul enough to double evaporator pressure drop in about 7.5 years, much sooner than the expected 15-30 year life time for an evaporator coil. The most important parameters in determining coil fouling times are the efficiency of the filter and indoor particle concentrations, although filter bypass and duct and coil design are important as well. The reduced air flows that result from coil fouling cause typical efficiency and capacity degradations of less than 5%, however they can be much greater for marginal systems or extreme conditions. These energy issues, as well as possible indoor air quality issues resulting from fouling by biological aerosols, suggest that regular coil cleaning to ameliorate low flow and the elimination of filter bypass should be an important part of residential air conditioning commissioning and maintenance practices.

  3. Thermoeconomic optimization of small size central air conditioner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, G.Q.; Wang, L.; Liu, L.; Wang, Z. [Hunan University (China). College of Civil Engineering

    2004-03-01

    The application of thermoeconomic optimization design in an air-conditioning system is important in achieving economical life cycle cost. Previous work on thermoeconomic optimization mainly focused on directly calculating exergy input into the system. However, it is usually difficult to do so because of the uncertainty of input power of fan on the air side of the heat-exchanger and that of pump in the system. This paper introduces a new concept that exergy input into the system can be substituted for the sum of exergy destruction and exergy output from the system according to conservation of exergy. Although it is also difficult for a large-scale system to calculate exergy destruction, it is feasible to do so for a small-scale system, for instance, villa air conditioner (VAC). In order to perform thermoeconomic optimization, a program is firstly developed to evaluate the thermodynamic property of HFC 134a on the basis of Martin-Hou state equation. Authors develop thermodynamic and thermoeconomic objective functions based on second law and thermoeconomic analysis of VAC system. Two optimization results are obtained. The design of VAC only aimed at decreasing the energy consumption is not comprehensive. Life cycle cost at thermoeconomic optimization is lower than that at thermodynamic optimization. (author)

  4. Understanding Energy Impacts of Oversized Air Conditioners; NREL Highlights, Research & Development, NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-06-01

    This NREL highlight describes a simulation-based study that analyzes the energy impacts of oversized residential air conditioners. Researchers found that, if parasitic power losses are minimal, there is very little increase in energy use for oversizing an air conditioner. The research demonstrates that new residential air conditioners can be sized primarily based on comfort considerations, because capacity typically has minimal impact on energy efficiency. The results of this research can be useful for contractors and homeowners when choosing a new air conditioner or heat pump during retrofits of existing homes. If the selected unit has a crankcase heater, performing proper load calculations to be sure the new unit is not oversized will help avoid excessive energy use.

  5. Improved Modeling of Residential Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps for Energy Calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cutler, D.; Winkler, J.; Kruis, N.; Christensen, C.; Brendemuehl, M.

    2013-01-01

    This report presents improved air conditioner and heat pump modeling methods in the context of whole-building simulation tools, with the goal of enabling more accurate evaluation of cost effective equipment upgrade opportunities and efficiency improvements in residential buildings.

  6. Application of evaporative cooling on the condenser of window-air-conditioner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hajidavalloo, Ebrahim [Shahid Chamran University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Golestan St., Ahwaz, Khoozestan 61355 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)]. E-mail: hajidae_1999@yahoo.com

    2007-08-15

    Reduction of energy consumption is a major concern in the vapor compression refrigeration cycle especially in the area with very hot weather conditions (about 50 deg. C), where window-air-conditioners are usually used to cool homes. In this weather condition performance of air condenser window-air-conditioners decrease sharply and electrical power consumption increase considerably. These problems have activated the research programs in order to improve the performance of window-air-conditioners by enhancing heat transfer rate in the condenser. In this article, a new design with high commercialization potential for incorporating of evaporative cooling in the condenser of window-air-conditioner is introduced and experimentally investigated. A real air conditioner is used to test the innovation by putting two cooling pads in both sides of the air conditioner and injecting water on them in order to cool down the air before it passing over the condenser. The experimental results show that thermodynamic characteristics of new system are considerably improved and power consumption decreases by about 16% and the coefficient of performance increases by about 55%.

  7. Analysis and optimization of an adsorption air conditioner for electric vehicle applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aceves, S.M.

    1994-07-27

    This paper shows an analysis of the applicability of an adsorption system for electric vehicle (EV) air conditioning. Adsorption systems are designed and optimized to provide the required cooling for four combinations of vehicle characteristics and driving cycles. The resulting adsorption systems are compared with vapor compression air conditioners that can satisfy the cooling load. The objective function is the overall system weight, which includes the cooling system weight and the weight of the battery necessary to provide energy for air conditioner operation. The system with the minimum overall weight is considered to be the best. The results show the optimum values of all the variables, as well as temperatures and amounts adsorbed, for the adsorption and desorption processes. The results indicate that, for the conditions analyzed in this paper, vapor compression air conditioners are superior to adsorption systems, not only because they are lighter, but also because they have a higher COP and are more compact.

  8. An Application of Green Quality Function Deployment to Designing an Air Conditioner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peetam Kumar Dehariya

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper tackles a systematic and operational approach to Green Quality Function Deployment (GQFD, a customer oriented survey based quality management system with regular improvement in product development. GQFD shows balance between product development and environmental protection. GQFD is not used to determine their attributes and their levels. GQFD captures what product developers “think” would best satisfy customer needs considering Environmental factor. This research used Air Conditioner as a case study for implementation of GQFD. In the design of a new Air Conditioner, apply GQFD to find out the most important parameter and functions from customer point of view and then find out Technical Characteristics. These important parameters are then put into house of quality and make relation matrix between voice of customer and Technical Characteristics. From the result of QFD applied to Air Conditioner are short out the parameter which are require modification according to voice of customer and the result has used for new design.

  9. Prospect of Gas Air-conditioners Development%燃气空调器的发展前景

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金佳宾; 焦文玲

    2000-01-01

    分析了燃气空调器的发展前景,提出了推广使用燃气空调器的途径。%In the paper, the wide prospect of gas air-conditioners development are analyzed, the way to popularize and use of gas air-conditioners are proposed.

  10. Experimental Study of Energy-Saving Air-Conditioner with Hot Water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Jian-bo; CHEN Dan; LU Ying

    2009-01-01

    Energy-saving air-conditioner with hot water is an air source heat pump air-conditioner,which can also supply hot water.The hot water is heated by a double pipe condenser connected with an air-cooled condenser in series in the system.This experiment of the energy-saving air-conditioner was carried out in the enthalpy-dif-ference air-conditioner laboratory.The hot water temperature and the compressor'S discharge and suction pres.sure were recorded in the working condition,where the ambient temperature was at 43℃,35℃,21℃,7℃,and 2℃separately.The results showed that the system operated stably and reliably. This system can supply 240 L hot water at 50℃in the whole year,and its coefficience of performance(COP)is much higher than the conventional air source heat pump system.Its energy conservation WaS proved by comparing the thermal effi.ciency with other sourece water heaters.

  11. Energy reduction of building air-conditioner with phase change material in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nattaporn Chaiyat

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a concept of using phase change material (PCM for improving cooling efficiency of an air-conditioner had been presented under Thai climate. Paraffin waxes melting point at around 20 °C was selected to evaluate the thermal performance by reducing the air temperature entering the evaporating coil. The model of PCM celluloid balls had been performed with the air-conditioner. Moreover, the mathematical model of the air-conditioner with the PCM storage was developed and verified with the testing results. From the study results, it could be seen that the simulated data agreed quite well with the experimental result at the discrepant around 2–4%. Finally, the model was used to analyze the economic result which was found that the electrical consumption of the modified air-conditioner could be decreased 3.09 kW h/d. The electrical power consumption of the modified unit was 36.27 kW h/d at the operating time 15 h/d compared with 39.36 kW h/d of the normal unit at the operating time 12 h/d. The saving cost of the PCM bed could be 9.10% or 170.03 USD and the payback period was 4.15 y.

  12. Product lifetime, energy efficiency and climate change: A case study of air conditioners in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishijima, Daisuke

    2016-10-01

    This study proposed a modelling technique for estimating life-cycle CO2 emissions of durable goods by considering changes in product lifetime and energy efficiency. The stock and flow of durable goods was modelled by Weibull lifetime distributions and the trend in annual energy efficiency (i.e., annual electricity consumption) of an "average" durable good was formulated as a reverse logistic curve including a technologically critical value (i.e., limit energy efficiency) with respect to time. I found that when the average product lifetime is reduced, there is a trade-off between the reduction in emissions during product use (use phase), due to the additional purchases of new, more energy-efficient air conditioners, and the increase in emissions arising from the additional production of new air conditioners stimulated by the reduction of the average product lifetime. A scenario analysis focused on residential air conditioners in Japan during 1972-2013 showed that for a reduction of average lifetime of 1 year, if the air conditioner energy efficiency limit can be improved by 1.4% from the estimated current efficiency level, then CO2 emissions can be reduced by approximately the same amount as for an extension of average product lifetime of 1 year.

  13. 16 CFR Appendix I to Part 305 - Heating Performance and Cost for Central Air Conditioners

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Heating Performance and Cost for Central Air Conditioners I Appendix I to Part 305 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC... Manufacturer's rated heating capacity (Btu's/hr.) Range of HSPF's Low High Single Package Units Heat...

  14. 16 CFR Appendix H to Part 305 - Cooling Performance and Cost for Central Air Conditioners

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cooling Performance and Cost for Central Air Conditioners H Appendix H to Part 305 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC... Manufacturer's rated cooling capacities (Btu's/hr.) Range of SEER's Low High Single Package Units Central...

  15. Technical and economic analysis of energy efficiency of Chinese room air conditioners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fridley, David G.; Rosenquist, Gregory; Jiang, Lin; Li, Aixian; Xin, Dingguo; Cheng, Jianhong

    2001-02-01

    China has experienced tremendous growth in the production and sales of room air conditioners over the last decade. Although minimum room air conditioner energy efficiency standards have been in effect since 1989, no efforts were made during most of the 1990's to update the standard to be more reflective of current market conditions. In 1999, China's State Bureau of Technical Supervision (SBTS) included in their annual plan the development and revision of the 1989 room air conditioner standard, and experts from SBTS worked together with LBNL to analyze the new standards. Based on the engineering and life cycle-cost analyses performed, the most predominant type of room air conditioner in the Chinese market (split-type with a cooling capacity between 2500 and 4500 W (8500 Btu/h and 15,300Btu/h)) can have its efficiency increased cost-effectively to an energy efficiency ratio (EER) of 2.92 W/W (9.9 Btu/hr/W). If an EER standard of 2.92 W/W became effective in 2001, Chinese consumers would be estimated to save over 3.5 billion Yuan (420 million U.S. dollars) over the period of 2001-2020. Carbon emissions over the same period would be reduced by approximately 12 million metric tonnes.

  16. 75 FR 14368 - Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Central Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps: Public...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-25

    ... and heat pumps; the analytical framework, models, and tools that DOE is using to evaluate amended... Heat Pumps, EERE-2008-BT- STD-0006, 1000 Independence Avenue, SW., Washington, DC 20585-0121. Telephone... industrial equipment, including residential central air conditioners and heat pumps. (42 U.S.C. 6292(3))...

  17. Improved Modeling of Residential Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps for Energy Calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cutler, D. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Winkler, J. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Kruis, N. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Christensen, C. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Brandemuehl, M. [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States)

    2013-01-01

    This report presents improved air conditioner and heat pump modeling methods in the context of whole-building simulation tools, with the goal of enabling more accurate evaluation of cost-effective equipment upgrade opportunities and efficiency improvements in residential buildings.

  18. Variable Frequency Air Conditioner is Expected to Become Mainstream Product in Rural Market

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    <正>If it can be argued that in 2011 the rural market played a crucial role in the development of air conditioner industry,judging from the present growth trend,in the 2012 refrigeration year the rural market will play an even more important

  19. An assessment of energy benefits of efficient household air-conditioners in Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balbino Cardoso, R.; Horta Nogueira, L.A.; Palhares de Souza, E.; Haddad, J. [EXCEN Centro de Excelencia em Eficiencia Energetica, Universidade Federal de Itajuba-UNIFEI, Av. BPS 1303, CEP 37.500-903, Itajuba, Minas Gerais (Brazil)

    2012-08-15

    Increasing efficiency of electrical equipment is essential to national energy rationality, enabling energy consumption reduction and postponing inversion in distribution, transmission and generation, as well as mitigating environmental impacts associated with such activities. Considering such purposes, two actions have been promoted in Brazil: (a) minimum energy performance standards (MEPS) have been required for some appliances and (b) consumers have been informed about the most efficient products by 'endorsement labeling'. The purpose of this study is to assess window and split air-conditioners with Brazilian MEPS. To evaluate the impact of efficient air-conditioners in this market, a model was developed based on estimates for quantity of equipment in operation and unitary consumption, as determined by local temperature records. From this model, it was deduced that using only efficient conditioners (class A for Brazilian Labeling Program/INMETRO, with PROCEL Label) an annual saving of 322 GWh and a reduction in demand of 109 MW could be obtained in 2007. Furthermore, it was observed that the current MEPS established by Brazilian legislation for air-conditioners may be considered relatively low. Considering that MEPS are similar to those observed in China (the main exporter of air-conditioners to the Brazil), an energy saving of roughly 222 GWh could be achieved in the same year. Impacts on emission of greenhouse gases are also estimated.

  20. Comparative Research on Air Conditioner with Gas-injected Rotary Compressor through Injection Port on Blade

    OpenAIRE

    Xingru, Liu; Baolong, Wang; Wenxing, Shi

    2016-01-01

    Rotary compressors are widely utilized in air conditionders and heat pumps. However, when rotary compressors were applied in room air conditioners, VRFs and domestic water heaters, the systems will experience heavily degradation of the heating capacity and COP as the ambient temperature goes low. Aimed at these problems, considerable research has been carried out to raise a series of solutions, such as economizer technology, cascade-type vapor compression heat pump system and two stage coupli...

  1. Low GWP Refrigerants Modelling Study for a Room Air Conditioner Having Microchannel Heat Exchangers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Bo [ORNL; Bhandari, Mahabir S [ORNL

    2016-01-01

    Microchannel heat exchangers (MHX) have found great successes in residential and commercial air conditioning applications, being compact heat exchangers, to reduce refrigerant charge and material cost. This investigation aims to extend the application of MHXs in split, room air conditioners (RAC), per fundamental heat exchanger and system modelling. For this paper, microchannel condenser and evaporator models were developed, using a segment-to-segment modelling approach. The microchannel heat exchanger models were integrated to a system design model. The system model is able to predict the performance indices, such as cooling capacity, efficiency, sensible heat ratio, etc. Using the calibrated system and heat exchanger models, we evaluated numerous low GWP (global warming potential) refrigerants. The predicted system performance indices, e.g. cooling efficiency, compressor discharge temperature, and required compressor displacement volume etc., are compared. Suitable replacements for R22 and R-410A for the room air conditioner application are recommended.

  2. Study on Variable Capacity Control Mechanism of Scroll Compressor for Automotive Air Conditioner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirano, Takahisa; Shigeoka, Tetsuo

    As for the automotive air conditioner, (1) to keep the automotive cabin temperature in a comfortable region, (2) to improve driving feeling, (3) to drive the air conditioning system economically through all seasons, are universally required. Recently, from these points, compressors with variable capacity control mechanism for automotive air conditioners have been remarkably requested. We have developed a scroll comoressor with variable capacity control mechanism. The capacity control mechanism, which changes the channel area of the bypass hole continuously, according to the suction gas pressure and the discharge gas pressure, has been developed. In this report, we describe the mechanism of variable capacity control and the performance simulation program that has been developed for the scroll compressor. Further, we describe the measuring results of cylinder pressure behavior, the results of energy loss analysis and the effect of comfort, drivability, power saving in the refrigerating cycle using the developed capacity control compressor.

  3. Transient modeling of an air conditioner with a rapid cycling compressor and multi-indoor units

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Wei-Jiang [Institute of Refrigeration and Cryogenics, Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Zhang, Chun-Lu [College of Mechanical Engineering, Tongji University, 4800 Cao An Highway, Shanghai 201804 (China)

    2011-01-15

    Rapid cycling the compressor is an alternative of the variable speed compressor to modulate the capacity of refrigeration systems for the purpose of energy saving at part-load conditions. The multi-evaporator air conditioner combined with the rapid cycling compressor brings difficulties in control design because of the sophisticated system physics and dynamics. In this paper the transient model of a multi-split air conditioner with a digital scroll compressor is developed for predicting the system transients under performance modulations. The predicted cycling dynamics are in good agreement with the experimental data. Based on the validated model, the impact of compressor idle power and cycle period to the part load performance is discussed. (author)

  4. Performance Analysis of Electronic Expansion Valve in 1 TR Window Air Conditioner using Various Refrigerants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHENNUCHETTY CHINNARAJ,

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available A window air conditioner of 3.5 K.W capacity fitted with expansion devices such as capillary tube, thermostatic expansion valve and Electronic expansion valve was tested for its coefficient of performance, power required and refrigeration effect with respect to the refrigerants R22 and R407C under different operating conditions .Initially evaporator temperature was maintained at 279 K and condenser temperature was varied and then the test was conducted again in the same window air conditioner with electronic expansion valve alone as expansion device and by varying the refrigerant super heat temperature at inlet to the compressor from 273K to 293K for the refrigerants R 22, R 407C and R 290 The performance of electronic expansion valve with eco friendly refrigerants shows a positive effect and enable the industry to favorably displace the R22 and other types of expansion devices.

  5. Transient modeling of an air conditioner with a rapid cycling compressor and multi-indoor units

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Weijiang [Institute of Refrigeration and Cryogenics, Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Zhang Chunlu, E-mail: chunlu.zhang@carrier.utc.co [College of Mechanical Engineering, Tongji University, 4800 Cao An Highway, Shanghai 201804 (China)

    2011-01-15

    Rapid cycling the compressor is an alternative of the variable speed compressor to modulate the capacity of refrigeration systems for the purpose of energy saving at part-load conditions. The multi-evaporator air conditioner combined with the rapid cycling compressor brings difficulties in control design because of the sophisticated system physics and dynamics. In this paper the transient model of a multi-split air conditioner with a digital scroll compressor is developed for predicting the system transients under performance modulations. The predicted cycling dynamics are in good agreement with the experimental data. Based on the validated model, the impact of compressor idle power and cycle period to the part load performance is discussed.

  6. 电子机柜空调器%Electronic Control Cabinet Air Conditioner

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张强

    2014-01-01

    该文介绍了一种小型电子机柜空调器的设计方案,该空调器解决了密闭电子机柜散热的问题,能够在较小尺寸下达到1000W的制冷量,实现对相对密闭电子机柜小环境内温湿度的有效控制,提高机柜内电子设备的可靠性。%This paper introduces the design of a small electronic cabinet air-conditioner, the air-conditioner solves the sealed electronic cabinet cooling problems, have the cooling capacity of 1000W at a smaller size, realize the effective control of the rela-tive closed electronic cabinet small environment temperature and humidity, to improve the reliability of electronic equipment cabinet.

  7. Experimental Study of the Controlling Characteristics of Inverter-Driven Multi-type Air Conditioner

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金纪峰; 陈江平; 陈芝久

    2004-01-01

    The controlling algorithm was studied for the inverter-driven multi-type air conditioner using electronic expansion valve(EEV) in outdoor unit. The performance of inverter-driven air conditioner with two different units was investigated by varying the outdoor ambient temperature and compressor speed. Based on the test results, the effect of EEV opening on the indoor unit exit superheat was discussed. For the specified outdoor ambient temperature scope and the EEV opening, the superheats of indoor units decrease with the outdoor ambient temperature rising. Improper distribution of refrigerant into each indoor unit will causes excessive superheat difference between two indoor units. Suggestions were then given for the controlling of the superheat.

  8. Techno-Economic Analysis of Indian Draft Standard Levels for RoomAir Conditioners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McNeil, Michael A.; Iyer, Maithili

    2007-03-01

    The Indian Bureau of Energy Efficiency (BEE) finalized its first set of efficiency standards and labels for room air conditioners in July of 2006. These regulations followed soon after the publication of levels for frost-free refrigerators in the same year. As in the case of refrigerators, the air conditioner program introduces Minimum Efficiency Performance Standards (MEPS) and comparative labels simultaneously, with levels for one to five stars. Also like the refrigerator program, BEE defined several successive program phases of increasing stringency. In support of BEE's refrigerator program, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) produced an analysis of national impacts of standards in collaboration with the Collaborative Labeling and Standards Program (CLASP). That analysis drew on LBNL's experience with standards programs in the United States, as well as many other countries. Subsequently, as part of the process for setting optimal levels for air conditioner regulations, CLASP commissioned LBNL to provide support to BEE in the form of a techno-economic evaluation of air conditioner efficiency technologies. This report describes the methodology and results of this techno-economic evaluation. The analysis consists of three components: (1) Cost effectiveness to consumers of efficiency technologies relative to current baseline. (2) Impacts on the current market from efficiency regulations. (3) National energy and financial impacts. The analysis relied on detailed and up-to-date technical data made available by BEE and industry representatives. Technical parameters were used in conjunction with knowledge about air conditioner use patterns in the residential and commercial sectors, and prevailing marginal electricity prices, in order to give an estimate of per-unit financial impacts. In addition, the overall impact of the program was evaluated by combining unit savings with market forecasts in order to yield national impacts. LBNL presented

  9. 浅谈纺织空调节能设计%Discussion on Energy Saving Design of Textile Air-conditioner

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭兴霞; 贺晋; 李淑萍

    2012-01-01

    文章从纺织空调系统的设计角度,提出几种行之有效的节能措施,为纺织空调设计提供几种节能方案。%Several effective energy saving measures were put forward from the aspects of design of air-conditioner system, and several energy saving methods were provided for the design of air-conditioner.

  10. Solar Application in Air Conditioner Field%太阳能在空调领域的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Firstly, the background of solar application in air conditioner field was introduced, in other words, century conundrum of energy crisis and environmental pollution gave birth to solar research and develop-ment of air conditioner. Secondly, from view of technology, the author review solar air conditionerindustry sta-tus in photothermal utilization and photovoltaic utilization. Thirdly, from view of human sustainable develop-ment and market demand, solar air conditioner application prospect was analyzed. Finally, combined with the solar energy and air conditioner industry technical development direction, the author analyze future development trend of solar air conditioner, and on this basis , the author put forward effective popularizing ways of solar air conditioner.%  本文介绍了太阳能在空调领域应用背景,从技术层面对太阳能空调的光热和光电利用现状进行了回顾和分析,并从人类可持续发展和市场需求角度对太阳能空调的应用前景做出分析。结合太阳能和空调行业的技术发展方向研究,分析了太阳能空调的未来发展趋势,并在此基础上提出太阳能空调推广的有效途径。

  11. ENERGY STAR Certified Non-AHRI Central Air Conditioner Equipment and Air Source Heat Pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 5.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Air Source Heat Pump and Central Air Conditioner Equipment that are effective as of September 15, 2015. A detailed listing of key efficiency criteria are available at http://www.energystar.gov/index.cfm?c=airsrc_heat.pr_crit_as_heat_pumps Listed products have been submitted to EPA by ENERGY STAR partners that do not participate in the AHRI certification program. EPA will continue to update this list with products that are certified by EPA-recognized certification bodies other than AHRI. The majority of ENERGY STAR products, certified by AHRI, can be found on the CEE/AHRI Verified Directory at http://www.ceedirectory.org/

  12. Performance Characteristics of Cross-Fin-Tube-Type Heat Exchanger for Air Conditioner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Naoe; Kakiyama, Shiro; Sanuki, Noriyoshi

    The effects of enhanced heat transfer tube with ability to control the heat transfer disturbance by mechanical tube expanding were experimentally investigated on the performance characteristics of air-cooled cross-fin-tube-type heat exchanger for air conditioner. Three kinds of the enhanced heat transfer tube were developed and used in the experiment. The enhanced heat transfer tube was a kind of spirally grooved tube and composed with the fins smaller than those of the conventional spirally grooved tube excepting four fins located in orthogonal position on the tube circumference. The optimum groove number to enhance the performance of heat exchanger was also shown.

  13. Small fan assisted air conditioner for thermal comfort and energy saving in Thailand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atthajariyakul, Surat; Lertsatittanakorn, Charoenporn [Faculty of Engineering, Mahasarakham University, Khamriang, Kantaravichai, Mahasarakham 44150 (Thailand)

    2008-10-15

    From the fact that Thai people have a tolerance to high air temperature and are accustomed to high air movement from electric fans in non-air conditioned space, this paper proposes the use of small fan assisted air conditioners for human thermal comfort and energy saving in Thailand. In the study, a total 15 students were tested in a 2.5 x 3.5 x 2.5 m{sup 3} test room equipped with a 12,000 Btu/h split type air conditioner. During the tests, the room air temperature was varied from 25, 26, 27 and 28{sup o}C every 1 h. A small fan with 15 cm diameter was placed in front of each subject. In each hour, the small fan was varied to supply a small area with velocity from 0.2, 0.5, 1, 1.5 and 2 m/s. In each condition, the subjects were asked to vote for their thermal sensation. The results showed that the temperature set point could be increased up to 28{sup o}C when a small fan was used to supply local air velocity from 0.5 to 2 m/s according to individual preference. This would reduce the electricity consumption of the air conditioning unit. According to the proposed method, this can save energy for office buildings in the commercial sector as high as 1959.51 GWh/year. (author)

  14. Automotive absorption air conditioner utilizing solar and motor waste heat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popinski, Z. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    In combination with the ground vehicles powered by a waste heat generating electric motor, a cooling system including a generator for driving off refrigerant vapor from a strong refrigerant absorbant solution is described. A solar collector, an air-cooled condenser connected with the generator for converting the refrigerant vapor to its liquid state, an air cooled evaporator connected with the condenser for returning the liquid refrigerant to its vapor state, and an absorber is connected to the generator and to the evaporator for dissolving the refrigerant vapor in the weak refrigerant absorbant solution, for providing a strong refrigerant solution. A pump is used to establish a pressurized flow of strong refrigerant absorbant solution from the absorber through the electric motor, and to the collector.

  15. Measure Guideline. Air Conditioner Diagnostics, Maintenance, and Replacement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Springer, David [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), Davis, CA (United States); Dakin, Bill [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), Davis, CA (United States)

    2013-03-01

    This guideline responds to the need for an efficient means of identifying, diagnosing, and repairing faults in air conditioning systems in existing homes that are undergoing energy upgrades. Inadequate airflow due to constricted ducts or undersized filters, improper refrigerant charge, and other system defects can be corrected at a fraction of the cost of equipment replacement and can yield significant savings. The guideline presents a two-step approach to diagnostics and repair.

  16. Measure Guideline: Air Conditioner Diagnostics, Maintenance, and Replacement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Springer, D.; Dakin, B.

    2013-03-01

    This guideline responds to the need for an efficient means of identifying, diagnosing, and repairing faults in air conditioning systems in existing homes that are undergoing energy upgrades. Inadequate airflow due to constricted ducts or undersized filters, improper refrigerant charge, and other system defects can be corrected at a fraction of the cost of equipment replacement and can yield significant savings. The guideline presents a two-step approach to diagnostics and repair.

  17. Incidence of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in central air conditioner filter dust from a new office building

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ni Honggang; Cao Shanping; Chang Wenjing [Shenzhen Key Laboratory of Circular Economy, Shenzhen Graduate School, Peking University, Shenzhen 518055 (China); Zeng Hui, E-mail: huizeng0608@gmail.com [Shenzhen Key Laboratory of Circular Economy, Shenzhen Graduate School, Peking University, Shenzhen 518055 (China); Department of Ecology, College of Urban and Environmental Sciences, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

    2011-07-15

    This study examined polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in central air conditioner filter (CACF) dust from a new office building in Shenzhen, China. Human exposure to PBDE via dust inhalation and ingestion were also estimated. PBDEs level in CACF dust was lower than those in the other countries and regions. Approximately 0.671 pg/kg bw/day PM{sub 2.5} (Particulate Matter up to 2.5 {mu}m in size) bounded {Sigma}{sub 15}PBDEs can be inhaled deep into the lungs and 4.123 pg/kg bw/day PM{sub 10} (Particulate Matter up to 10 {mu}m in size) bounded {Sigma}{sub 15}PBDEs tend to be deposited in the upper parts of the respiratory system. The average total intake of {Sigma}{sub 15}PBDEs via dust inhalation and ingestion for adults reached {approx}141 pg/kg bw/day in this building. This value was far below the reference dose (RfD) recommended by United States Environmental Protection Agency. Human exposure to PBDEs via dust inhalation and ingestion in the new building is less than the old ones. - Highlights: > Human exposure to PBDEs via dust inhalation and ingestion in the new building is less than that in the old ones. > PBDE emissions from indoor sources can be expected to continue for a long time as the PBDE-containing products in offices were to be kept many years. > The household consumer products, especially computers, are the main sources of PBDEs in central air conditioner filter dust. > Further studies are needed to fully understand the emission mechanism of PBDE from indoor consumer products. - PBDEs in central air conditioner filter dust from a new building were investigated

  18. Design of heat recovery system for a split air-conditioner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narayanan, R.; Pundoor, M. [Curtin Univ. of Technology, Miri, Sarawak (Malaysia)

    2007-07-01

    The growth in demand for electrical energy is far exceeding the growth of the power supply. There is a significant demand to reduce energy consumption by all means. There is also a greater demand for energy efficient equipment. Although most houses have separate cooling and water heating systems, this paper demonstrated that air conditioning units and a water heaters can be combined. For example, the heat recovered from the condenser of an air-conditioner can be effectively used to heat water which can offer significant savings in electricity consumption. With the design of a heat recovery system, a percentage of heat rejected from an air conditioning unit can be reclaimed for heating. The paper presented the working principles including a system diagram of a combined air conditioner and hot water generation system. It also discussed the conceptual designs of a heat reclaim module. The six different design concepts were then presented. Design selection and criteria for design selection were also identified along with the advantages and limitations of each concept. Based on a comprehensive analysis and research with the help of a Pugh chart of convergence matrix, the final concept was chosen. 9 refs., 1 tab., 8 figs.

  19. Using Field-Metered Data to Quantify Annual Energy Use of Portable Air Conditioners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burke, Thomas [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Willem, Henry [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Ni, Chun Chun [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Stratton, Hannah [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Chen, Yuting [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Ganeshalingam, Mohan [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Iyer, Maithili [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Price, Sarah [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Dunham, Camilla [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2014-12-01

    As many regions of the United States experience rising temperatures, consumers have come to rely increasingly on cooling appliances (including portable air conditioners) to provide a comfortable indoor temperature. Home occupants sometimes use a portable air conditioner (PAC) to maintain a desired indoor temperature in a single room or enclosed space. Although PACs in residential use are few compared to centrally installed and room air conditioning (AC) units, the past few years have witnessed an increase of PACs use throughout the United States. There is, however, little information and few research projects focused on the energy consumption and performance of PACs, particularly studies that collect information from field applications of PACs. The operation and energy consumption of PACs may differ among geographic locations and households, because of variations in cooling load, frequency, duration of use, and other user-selected settings. In addition, the performance of building envelope (thermal mass and air leakage) as well as inter-zonal mixing within the building would substantially influence the ability to control and maintain desirable indoor thermal conditions. Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) conducted an initial field-metering study aimed at increasing the knowledge and data related to PAC operation and energy consumption in the United States.

  20. Experimental Study of the Effects of the Cycle Characteristics on the Refrigerant-Induced Noise in System Air-Conditioner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Weui Bong [Pusan National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Han, Hyung Suk; Mo, Jin Yong; Lee, Jae Kwon [Samsung Electronics, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-07-15

    The main sources of the refrigerant-induced noise can be classified 2 types according to its characteristics. One is due to the cyclic characteristics such as quality, velocity of the refrigerant, pressure drop and mass flow rate. The other is due to the structural characteristics such as distributed path pipe layout, distributor and expansion device. In this paper, the effects of cycle characteristics on the noise of multi-type system air-conditioner are investigated experimentally. In the indoor unit of multi-type air-conditioner, the variation of noise is examined when the in-flowing and out-flowing refrigerant to the indoor unit are 2-phase state according to its cycle control. And several factors are recommended in order to reduce the refrigerant-induced noise of the air-conditioner.

  1. Analysis for SEER of variable speed room air conditioner in China. Paper no. IGEC-1-104

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yitai, M.; Shengchun, L.; Lirong, M. [Tianjin Univ., Thermal Energy Research Inst., Tianjin (China)]. E-mail: liushch@tju.edu.cn

    2005-07-01

    In this paper, the calculation method for seasonal energy efficiency ratio (SEER) given in Standard JRA4046-1999 is analyzed and further modified. Based on temperature zone map of U.S., Japan and China and detailed weather data of eight Chinese cities in last 30 years, regional seasonal energy efficiency ratio (RSEER) and energy saving percentage of variable speed room air conditioner are analyzed and compared with various geographical regions in China. It is concluded that RSEER presents the associated effect of season, climate and geography, and therefore should be taken as an evaluation standard for room air conditioner, especially variable speed room air conditioner. Experimental measurements are conducted in the analysis to investigate the effect of energy efficiency ratio (EER) on the improvement of energy saving percentage and SEER. (author)

  2. Study on Water Treatment Technology of Central Air Conditioner%中央空调水处理研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黎代华

    2015-01-01

    随着国家提倡节能减排,空调系统的节能越发引起人们的重视。文章通过介绍南博中央空调水处理,分析中央空调水系统中存在的问题,通过中央空调水处理提高中央空调制冷效率,从而实现节能的效果。%Due to the advocation of “energy saving and emission reduction” of Chinese government,more and more people pay attention to air conditioners energy conservation. This article analyzes the problems of central air conditioner water system,and discovers that the central air conditioner refrigeration efficiency will be improved through water treatment technology, and plenty of energy will be saved.

  3. Effects of Air Conditioner Use on Real-World Fuel Economy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huff, Shean P [ORNL; West, Brian H [ORNL; Thomas, John F [ORNL

    2013-01-01

    Vehicle data were acquired on-road and on a chassis dynamometer to assess fuel consumption under several steady cruise conditions and at idle. Data were gathered for various air conditioner (A/C) settings and with the A/C off and the windows open. Two vehicles were used in the comparisonstudy: a 2009 Ford Explorer and a 2009 Toyota Corolla. At steady speeds between 64.4 and 112.7 kph (40 and 70 mph), both vehicles consumed more fuel with the A/C on at maximum cooling load (compressor at 100% duty cycle) than when driving with the windows down. The Explorer maintained this trend beyond 112.7 kph (70 mph), while the Corolla fuel consumption with the windows down matched that of running the A/C at 120.7 kph (75 mph), and exceeded it at 128.7 kph (80 mph). The largest incremental fuel consumption rate penalty due to air conditioner use occurred was nearly constant with a weakslight trend of increasing consumption with increasing compressor (and vehicle) speed. Lower consumption is seenobserved at idle for both vehicles, likely due to the low compressor speed at this operating point

  4. Development of light-weight Al scroll compressor for car air conditioner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, I.; Park, Y. [Dept. of Metallurgical Engineering, Pusan National Univ., Pusan (Korea); Choi, I. [Dept. of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, Korea Maritime Univ., Pusan (Korea)

    2004-07-01

    The scroll compressor with high cooling efficiency and lower oscillating noise can be a candidate material for a part of car air conditioner, household air conditioner and so on. When Al alloy with high strength is used for scroll compressor instead of cast iron, rotation speed can be increased by weight reduction. To design Al alloy which has enough mechanical properties to replace cast iron, the effect of alloying elements, such as Si(13-15%), Cu(4-5%), and Mg(0.5-1%) and cooling rates on the mechanical properties of squeeze cast Al alloy was studied. The influence of Sr and P modification treatment on Si morphology was also studied. Aluminum alloy over 400MPa of tensile strength and 2% elongation was developed. Al scroll samples was fabricated by squeeze casting machine(UBE 800ton) with using 2 cavity mold. Flow-3D which is a three dimensional melt flow analysis program was used to find most proper mold design and optimum process conditions for squeeze casting before making samples. Relationship between secondary dendrite arm spacing and cooling rate was simulated by Flow-3D and compared with experimental results. (orig.)

  5. Energy Impacts of Oversized Residential Air Conditioners -- Simulation Study of Retrofit Sequence Impacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Booten, C. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Christensen, C. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Winkler, J. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2014-11-01

    This research addresses the question of what are the energy consequences for oversizing of an air conditioner in a home. Conventional wisdom holds that oversizing the AC results in significant energy penalties. However, the reason for this was shown to be due to crankcase heaters and not due to cycling performance of the AC, and is only valid for a particular set of assumptions. Adding or removing individual characteristics, such as ducts or crankcase heaters, can have measurable impacts on energy use. However, with all other home characteristics held constant, oversizing the AC generally has a small effect on cooling energy use, even if the cycling performance of the unit is poor. The relevant aspects of air conditioner modeling are discussed to illustrate the effects of the cycling loss coefficient, Cd, capacity, climate, ducts and parasitic losses such as crankcase heaters. A case study of a typical 1960's vintage home demonstrates results in the context of whole building simulations using EnergyPlus.

  6. Experimental study on split air conditioner with new hybrid equiment of energy storage and water heater all year round

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaowei Wang; Zhenyan Liu [Shanghai Jiao Tong Univ. (China). School of Mechanical and Power Engineering; Yuan Li; Keke Zhao; Zhigang Wang [Qingdao Hisense Group Co. Ltd. (China)

    2005-11-01

    This paper presents a split air conditioner with a new hybrid equipment of energy storage and water heater all year round (ACWES). The authors made a special design on the storage tank to adjust the refrigerant capacity in the storage coils under different functions, instead of adding an accumulator to the system. An ACWES prototype, rebuilt from an original split air conditioner, has been finished, and experimental study of the operation processes of the prototype was done from which some important conclusions and suggestions have been made, which were helpful in the primary design and improvement of an ACWES system for potential users. (author)

  7. Experimental study on split air conditioner with new hybrid equipment of energy storage and water heater all year round

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Shaowei [School of Mechanical and Power Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200030 (China)]. E-mail: wswtop@sjtu.edu.cn; Liu Zhenyan [School of Mechanical and Power Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200030 (China); Li Yuan [Qingdao Hisense Group Co. Ltd., Qingdao 266030 (China); Zhao Keke [Qingdao Hisense Group Co. Ltd., Qingdao 266030 (China); Wang Zhigang [Qingdao Hisense Group Co. Ltd., Qingdao 266030 (China)

    2005-11-15

    This paper presents a split air conditioner with a new hybrid equipment of energy storage and water heater all year round (ACWES). The authors made a special design on the storage tank to adjust the refrigerant capacity in the storage coils under different functions, instead of adding an accumulator to the system. An ACWES prototype, rebuilt from an original split air conditioner, has been finished, and experimental study of the operation processes of the prototype was done from which some important conclusions and suggestions have been made, which were helpful in the primary design and improvement of an ACWES system for potential users.

  8. 10 CFR Appendix M to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Central Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... of Central Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps M Appendix M to Subpart B of Part 430 Energy DEPARTMENT OF... Consumption of Central Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps 1. DEFINITIONS 2. TESTING CONDITIONS 2.1Test room... conditioners and heat pumps, and systems composed of multiple mini-split units (outdoor units located...

  9. Performance of a solar liquid desiccant air conditioner - An experimental and theoretical approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alizadeh, Shahab [Queensland University of Technology, Faculty of Built Environment and Engineering, GPO Box 2434, Brisbane 4001 (Australia)

    2008-06-15

    In this paper the results of testing a solar liquid desiccant air conditioner (LDAC) in the tropical climate of Queensland, Australia have been presented. The system uses polymer plate heat exchanger (PPHE) for dehumidification/indirect evaporative cooling, and a cooling pad as the direct evaporative cooler for the dry air leaving the PPHE. Lithium chloride, which is an effective desiccant in air dehumidification, was used in the experiments and a scavenger air regenerator concentrates the dilute solution from the dehumidifier using hot water from flat plate solar collectors. The data obtained from performance monitoring of the solar LDAC operating on a commercial site in Brisbane was compared with a previously developed model for the PPHE. The comparison reveals that good agreement exists between the experiments and model predictions. The inaccuracies are well within the measuring errors of the temperature, humidity and the air and solution flow rates. The above tests further indicate a satisfactory performance of the unit by independently controlling the air temperature and humidity inside the conditioned space. In order to prevent carryover of the solution particles into the environment, eliminators are used at outlet of the absorber unit and the regenerator. An alternative method in preventing the carryover is the use of indirect cooling, in which the supply air does not contact the solution. The method can be used to produce potable water from the atmospheric air in remote areas. The liquid desiccant system can be used in the HVAC industry, either as a packaged roof-top air conditioner, or as an air handler unit for commercial applications. The system could also be used for space heating in winter due to the property of desiccants to provide heat when wetted. (author)

  10. Experimental study on heat transfer performance of aluminium foam parallel-flow condenser in air conditioner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, X.; Wan, Z. M.; Chang, H. W.; Wang, Y. D.

    2017-01-01

    Open cell aluminium foam was used in parallel-flow condenser in air conditioner, and two condensers with different pore density were fabricated. The experimental study was conducted on the heat transfer performance and temperature distribution. The experimental results show that both of the heat transfer load and air pressure drop increase with the increase of pore density, air velocity is 2.5m/s, the heat transfer capacities of the condenser with 10PPI and 8PPI are 4.786kw and 3.344kW respectively. Along the flow direction of refrigerant, the outlet temperatures of refrigerant drop with the rise of air velocity when the inlet temperature is constant. The outlet temperature of the refrigerant decreases with the increase of pore density.

  11. Experimental investigation of a CO{sub 2} automotive air conditioner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Hongsheng; Chen, Jiangping; Chen, Zhijiu [Institute of Refrigeration and Cryogenics Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200030 (China)

    2005-12-01

    In this study, a CO{sub 2} automotive air conditioner prototype was designed and constructed. The compressor was of swash plate design; the gas cooler and evaporator were made of fin-tubes; a manual expansion valve and an internal heat exchanger accumulator were used. The lubricant, the CO{sub 2} charge, the evaporator outlet pressure, the compressor speed, the air inlet temperature and flow rate of the gas cooler and the air flow rate of the evaporator were varied and the performance of the prototype was experimentally investigated in detail. The cooling capacity, compressor power consumption, CO{sub 2} mass flow rate, and COP value were analyzed. The experimental results showed that the CO{sub 2} system performance was greatly affected by different lubricants; the CO{sub 2} system performance was sensitive to the mass charge; the high side pressure affected the system performance greatly and a high side pressure controller was needed. (author)

  12. Modeling of a split type air conditioner with integrated water heater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Techarungpaisan, P.; Theerakulpisut, S.; Priprem, S. [Mechanical Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Khon Kaen University, 123 Mittrapab Rd., Muang, Khon Kaen 40002 (Thailand)

    2007-04-15

    This paper presents a steady state simulation model to predict the performance of a small split type air conditioner with integrated water heater. The mathematical model consists of submodels of system components such as evaporator, condenser, compressor, capillary tube, receiver and water heater. These submodels were built based on fundamental principles of heat transfer, thermodynamics, fluid mechanics, empirical relationships and manufacturer's data as necessary. The model was coded into a simulation program and used to predict system parameters of interest such as hot water temperature, condenser exit air temperature, evaporator exit air temperature, mass flow rate of refrigerant, heat rejection in the condenser and cooling capacity of the system. The simulation results were compared with experimental data obtained from an experimental rig built for validating the mathematical model. It was found that the experimental and simulation results are in good agreement. (author)

  13. Automatic line of high speed air-conditioner wing of Model YKC-12 air-conditioner wing%YKC-12空调翅片高速冲压自动生产线

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周富才

    2001-01-01

    Construction and action principle of automatic line of high speed punching production of Model YKC-12 air-conditioner wing have been introduced in details.%介绍了YKC-12空调翅片高速冲压自动生产线的结构及其动作原理。

  14. Application of adhesives in bus air conditioner%胶粘剂在大巴空调上的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林文

    2013-01-01

    The bus air conditioner is the important equipment for improving the riding comfort and the requirement for bus air conditioner is more and more high.The sealing problems including the leakage of refrigerant,water or air have great impact on the performance of bus air conditioner,which are important factors for the quality of bus air conditioning.This paper analyzed the applications of adhesives and sealants in the bus air conditioner.%汽车空调是提高汽车乘坐舒适性的重要设备,对汽车空调的质量要求越来越高。汽车空调中对空调性能起到很大影响的密封问题如漏制冷剂、漏水、漏风等,都是关系到空调质量的重要因素。本文就大巴空调使用胶粘剂、密封胶的情况进行了分析。

  15. Experimental Determination of Demand Response Control Models and Cost of Control for Ensembles of Window-Mount Air Conditioners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geller, Drew Adam [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Backhaus, Scott N. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-09-29

    Control of consumer electrical devices for providing electrical grid services is expanding in both the scope and the diversity of loads that are engaged in control, but there are few experimentally-based models of these devices suitable for control designs and for assessing the cost of control. A laboratory-scale test system is developed to experimentally evaluate the use of a simple window-mount air conditioner for electrical grid regulation services. The experimental test bed is a single, isolated air conditioner embedded in a test system that both emulates the thermodynamics of an air conditioned room and also isolates the air conditioner from the real-world external environmental and human variables that perturb the careful measurements required to capture a model that fully characterizes both the control response functions and the cost of control. The control response functions and cost of control are measured using harmonic perturbation of the temperature set point and a test protocol that further isolates the air conditioner from low frequency environmental variability.

  16. EFFECT OF AIR CONDITIONER ON PULMONARY FUNCTIONS IN HEALTHY MALES IN AND AROUND RAICHUR CITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Air conditioner by lowering temperature may affect human health since it has profound effect on our environment. Modern styles of living in urban areas have been considered potentially responsible for the development of airway allergic diseases due to pro liferating house dust mites & increasing concentration of indoor air pollutants, which lead to the elevation of serum Ig E levels or the enhancement of eosinophil activity. AIMS AND OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of air conditioners (AC on pulmonary func tions in young healthy non - smoker male. MATERIALS AND METHOD S : The study group comprised of 20 male subjects who were using AC’s in their cars for at least 1 hr daily since last 6 months. While 20 male subjects who did not use AC at all served as controls. The pulmonary functions were assessed using Power lab 8/30 series with dual bio Amp/stimulator, manufactured by AD instruments, Australia, in a closed room the outcome of pulmonary function tests was presented as a mean ± SD for each of the parameter. The two groups were compared by applying unpaired ‘t’ test and P value of less than 0.05 was considered as significant . RESULTS: The peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR and Forced expiratory flow between 25 – 75% of vital capacity(FEF25 – 75 were significantly redu ced in subjects using car AC’s. CONCLUSION: In the presence of normal FEV1, reduced FEF 25 – 75%, which is the flow rate over the middle half of vital capacity, is an evidence of mild airflow limitation. The result is suggestive of predisposition of AC users towards respiratory disorders in form of mild airflow restriction

  17. Performance assessment of HCFC-22 window air conditioner retrofitted with R-407C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devotta, S. [National Environmental Engineering Research Institute, Nehru Marg, Nagpur 440 020 (India); Padalkar, A.S. [Process Development Division, National Chemical Laboratory, Homi Bhabha Road, Pune 411 008 (India); Sane, N.K. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Walchand College of Engineering, Sangli 416 415 (India)

    2005-12-01

    This paper presents the experimental performance analysis of a 1.5 TR window air-conditioner, retrofitted with R-407C, as a substitute to HCFC-22. Experimental results showed that R-407C, for the operating conditions covered in this study, had lower cooling capacity in the range 2.1-7.9% with respect to HCFC-22. The coefficient of performance for R-407C was lower in the range 7.9-13.5%. The power consumption of the unit with R-407C was higher in the range 6-7% than HCFC-22. The discharge pressures for R-407C were higher in the range 11-13% than HCFC-22. This paper also presents simulation results of heat exchangers of an HCFC-22 window air conditioner retrofitted with R-407C. The simulation has been carried out using EVAP-COND, a heat exchanger model developed by National Institute of Standards and Technology, U.S.A. The simulated evaporator capacities are within +/-3% of the experimentally measured cooling capacities for both refrigerants. Simulation results for R-407C and HCFC-22 are compared. The exit temperatures of R-407C are lower by 1.9{sup o}C to 5.2{sup o}C in the condenser and are higher by 3.2{sup o}C to 3.8{sup o}C in the evaporator than HCFC-22. Evaporating pressures of R-407C are higher by 4.5-5.3% as compared to HCFC-22. The pressure drops of R-407C are lower in both the evaporator and the condenser as compared to HCFC-22. The outlet temperatures of air for HCFC-22 and R-407C in both heat exchangers are nearly the same. (author)

  18. DISPLACEMENT CONTROL AND KINETIC ANALYSIS OF A NOVEL VARIABLE DISPLACEMENT COMPRESSOR FOR AUTOMOTIVE AIR CONDITIONER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    A novel variable displacement compressor (VDC) for automotive air conditioner (AAC) is introduced, which inherits the advantages of common wobble plate type VDC. It has fewer parts and makes less noise, and inst ead of pneumatic valve the displacement is controlled by electronic control valv e. In order to know the control mechanism well and get a good control effect, a mathematical model for the variable displacement mechanism is developed accordin g to the geometrical and kinematical information of the compressor. Using the mo del, the effect of relevant parameters on variable displace control is estimated . It is helpful to make the optimum decision in the flow control of AAC. As the novel displacement control device, the structure and control rule of electronic control valve is introduced. It can get better effect than the conventional pneu matic valves. And by using this new electronic control device, the optimum syste mic control of AAC is available.

  19. Life-cycle cost and payback period analysis for commercial unitary air conditioners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenquist, Greg; Coughlin, Katie; Dale, Larry; McMahon, James; Meyers, Steve

    2004-03-31

    This report describes an analysis of the economic impacts of possible energy efficiency standards for commercial unitary air conditioners and heat pumps on individual customers in terms of two metrics: life-cycle cost (LCC) and payback period (PBP). For each of the two equipment classes considered, the 11.5 EER provides the largest mean LCC savings. The results show how the savings vary among customers facing different electricity prices and other conditions. At 11.5 EER, at least 80% of the users achieve a positive LCC savings. At 12.0 EER, the maximum efficiency analyzed, mean LCC savings are lower but still positive. For the {ge} $65,000 Btu/h to <135,000 Btu/h equipment class, 59% of users achieve a positive LCC savings. For the $135,000 Btu/h to <240,000 Btu/h equipment class, 91% of users achieve a positive LCC savings.

  20. Energy efficiency and energy saving air conditioners window and split type; Eficiencia energetica e economia de energia de condicionadores de ar tipo janela e split

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Edson Palhares de; Cardoso, Rafael Balbino; Nogueira, Luiz Augusto Horta [Universidade Federal de Itajuba (EXCEN/UNIFEI), MG (Brazil). Centro de Excelencia em Eficiencia Energetica

    2010-07-01

    The air-conditioners of window end Split type are responsible for a significant portion of energy consumption in residential sector of Brazil, from 20% of the sector. This study evaluates the impact energy of the Seal Program PROCEL in air-conditioners of window end Split type, showing the efficiency gains for the country in terms of energy saving. For this evaluation it was considered the effects of temperature and loss of performance due to age, PROCEL Stamp Program resulted in a power savings of 664 GWh in air-conditioners of window type residential sector in 2008. (author)

  1. Life Cycle Assessment of Residential Heating and Cooling Systems in Minnesota A comprehensive analysis on life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and cost-effectiveness of ground source heat pump (GSHP) systems compared to the conventional gas furnace and air conditioner system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mo

    Ground Source Heat Pump (GSHP) technologies for residential heating and cooling are often suggested as an effective means to curb energy consumption, reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and lower homeowners' heating and cooling costs. As such, numerous federal, state and utility-based incentives, most often in the forms of financial incentives, installation rebates, and loan programs, have been made available for these technologies. While GSHP technology for space heating and cooling is well understood, with widespread implementation across the U.S., research specific to the environmental and economic performance of these systems in cold climates, such as Minnesota, is limited. In this study, a comparative environmental life cycle assessment (LCA) is conducted of typical residential HVAC (Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning) systems in Minnesota to investigate greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions for delivering 20 years of residential heating and cooling—maintaining indoor temperatures of 68°F (20°C) and 75°F (24°C) in Minnesota-specific heating and cooling seasons, respectively. Eight residential GSHP design scenarios (i.e. horizontal loop field, vertical loop field, high coefficient of performance, low coefficient of performance, hybrid natural gas heat back-up) and one conventional natural gas furnace and air conditioner system are assessed for GHG and life cycle economic costs. Life cycle GHG emissions were found to range between 1.09 × 105 kg CO2 eq. and 1.86 × 10 5 kg CO2 eq. Six of the eight GSHP technology scenarios had fewer carbon impacts than the conventional system. Only in cases of horizontal low-efficiency GSHP and hybrid, do results suggest increased GHGs. Life cycle costs and present value analyses suggest GSHP technologies can be cost competitive over their 20-year life, but that policy incentives may be required to reduce the high up-front capital costs of GSHPs and relatively long payback periods of more than 20 years. In addition

  2. Effect of central ventilation and air conditioner system on the concentration and health risk from airborne polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jinze LV; Lizhong Zhu

    2013-01-01

    Central ventilation and air conditioner systems are widely utilized nowadays in public places for air exchange and temperature control,which significantly influences the transfer of pollutants between indoors and outdoors.To study the effect of central ventilation and air conditioner systems on the concentration and health risk from airborne pollutants,a spatial and temporal survey was carried out using polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) as agent pollutants.During the period when the central ventilation system operated without air conditioning (AC-off period),concentrations of 2-4 ring PAHs in the model supermarket were dominated by outdoor levels,due to the good linearity between indoor air and outdoor air (rp > 0.769,p < 0.05),and the slopes (1.2-4.54) indicated that ventilating like the model supermarket increased the potential health risks from low molecular weight PAHs.During the period when the central ventilation and air conditioner systems were working simultaneously (AC-on period),although the total levels of PAHs were increased,the concentrations and percentage of the particulate PAHs indoors declined significantly.The BaP equivalency (BaPeq concentration indicated that utilization of air conditioning reduced the health risks from PAHs in the model supermarket.

  3. Electric efficiency in lighting system and air conditioners replacement and automation of air conditioners split type in public buildings; Eficiencia eletrica na substituicao do sistema de iluminacao e de condicionadores de ar e automacao do sistema de condicionadores de ar tipo split em predios publicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasconcellos, Arnulfo Barroso de; Apolonio, Roberto; Silva, Luciana Oliveira da; Gomes, Fernanda Leles [Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso (UFMT), MT (Brazil); Malheiro, Teresa Irene Ribeiro de Carvalho [Instituto Federal de Educacao, Ciencia e Tecnologia de Mato Grosso (IFMT), MT (Brazil); Barros, Regiane Silva de [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    The reduction in expenditure on electricity is a major benefit not only consumers but also to utilities. In this context, this article examines the process of replacing the system of internal lighting, window type air conditioners and automation of Split type air conditioners from buildings of public institutions of the state of Mato Grosso during 2009 year and verifies the reduction in annual consumption of electric power and demand active power. Thus, measurements and calculations performed are presented for the interior lighting systems and air conditioners of these buildings before and after implementation of the process of replacing the system of internal lighting and window type air conditioners and automation of Split type air conditioners. This work is the result of integration among the Dealer Network Energy Rede Cemat, the Federal University of Mato Grosso (UFMT) and the Administration of all public buildings, where the academy answered these real issues, solving the specific problem presented. (author)

  4. 大型空调器节能装置%Large Air-conditioner Energy-saving Equipment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘扶岗; 李征涛; 李振华

    2012-01-01

    基于传统空调器性能测试台温度控制的原理,提出一种大型空调器节能实验装置,并简单介绍了该装置的节能原理。该试验台与传统空调器性能测试台不同的是在空气处理系统中加入了热回收换热器,有效利用室内外机室热回收换热器的热量来满足温度控制要求,从而减少了电加热器的能耗,节省了能源。%Based on the principle of temperature control of traditional air conditioner performance-testing bench, a new energy-saving equipment for large air conditioner is put forward. The energy saving principle of this equipment has been simply introduced. A heat recovery exchanger is put in the air handling system compared with the traditional air-conditioner laboratory. It is used to heat the air satisfying the demands for the temperature control in testing room, reducing the consumption of electric heaters and saving energy.

  5. Corrosion Resistance of Zn and Cu Coated Steel Pipes as a Substitute for Cu Pipe in an Air Conditioner System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Jae Gyeong; Park, Chan Jin; Hong, Sung Kil [Chonnam National University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-02-15

    We investigated the corrosion resistance of Zn and Cu coated steel pipes as a substitute for Cu pipe in an air-conditioner system. In addition, the galvanic corrosion tendency between two dissimilar metal parts was studied. The corrosion resistance of the Cu electroplated steel was similar to that of Cu, while the corrosion rate of the Zn electro-galvanized and the galvalume (Zn-55 % Al) coated steels was much higher and not suitable for Cu substitute in artificial sea water and acidic rain environments. Furthermore, the galvanic difference between Cu electroplated steel and Cu was so small that the Cu coated steel pipe can be used as a substitute for Cu pipe in an air-conditioner system.

  6. Flow control of a centrifugal fan in a commercial air conditioner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jiyu; Bang, Kyeongtae; Choi, Haecheon; Seo, Eung Ryeol; Kang, Yonghun

    2015-11-01

    Air-conditioning fans require a low noise level to provide user comfort and quietness. The aerodynamic noise sources are generated by highly unsteady, turbulent structures near the fan blade. In this study, we investigate the flow characteristics of a centrifugal fan in an air-conditioner indoor unit and suggest control ideas to develop a low noise fan. The experiment is conducted at the operation condition where the Reynolds number is 163000 based on the blade tip velocity and chord length. Intermittent separation occurs at the blade leading edge and thus flow significantly fluctuates there, whereas vortex shedding occurs at the blade trailing edge. Furthermore, the discharge flow observed in the axial plane near the shroud shows low-frequency intermittent behaviors, resulting in high Reynolds stresses. To control these flow structures, we modify the shapes of the blade leading edge and shroud of the centrifugal fan and obtain noise reduction. The flow characteristics of the base and modified fans will be discussed. Supported by 0420-20130051.

  7. Field evaluation of advanced controls for the retrofit of packaged air conditioners and heat pumps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Weimin; Katipamula, Srinivas; Ngo, Hung; Underhill, Ronald M.; Taasevigen, Danny J.; Lutes, Robert G.

    2015-09-01

    This paper documents the magnitude of energy savings achievable in the field by retrofitting existing packaged rooftop units (RTUs) with advanced control strategies not ordinarily used for RTUs. A total of 66 RTUs on 8 different buildings were retrofitted with a commercially available advanced controller for improving RTU operational efficiency. The controller features enhanced air-side economizer control, multi-speed fan control, and demand controlled ventilation. Of the 66 RTUs, 18 are packaged heat pumps and the rest are packaged air conditioners with gas heat. The eight buildings cover four building types and four climate conditions. Based on the data collected for about a whole year, the advanced controller reduced the normalized annual RTU energy consumption between 22% and 90%, with an average of 57% for all RTUs. The average fractional savings uncertainty was 12% at 95% confidence level. Normalized annual electricity savings were in the range between 0.47 kWh/h (kWh per hour of RTU operation) and 7.21 kWh/h, with an average of 2.39 kWh/h. RTUs greater than 53 kW and runtime greater than 14 hours per day had payback periods less than 3 years even at $0.05/kWh.

  8. Utilization of condensate water from evaporator of portable air conditioner%移动式空调机蒸发器冷凝水的利用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鲁贤德

    2012-01-01

    How to use the condensate water from evaporator of portable air conditioner is analyzed An improved method to increase the energy efficiency of portable air conditioner is studied.%对如何利用移动式空调机蒸发器产生的冷凝水进行分析,探讨提升移动式空调机能效比的一种改进方法.

  9. Performance Improvement of EMQ Bearings for Air-Conditioner%空调电机轴承的性能改进

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王冰

    2013-01-01

      依据调查结果阐述、分析空调电机轴承国产化现状及存在问题,论述问题产生原因并提出改进建议。%Based on findings of the investigation,elaborate and analyse current situation and existing issues of localized EMQ bearings for air-conditioners. Illustrate the root cause of issues and propose the actions to improve.

  10. he Efficiency Analysis of Room Air Conditioners%房间空气调节器的效率分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周子成

    2013-01-01

    本文介绍和论述房间空调器的效率现状及其提高的途径,如高效压缩机、高效换热器、变频驱动等。%The efficiency status of room air conditioners and its improving ways are introduced and discussed in this paper , such as high-efficiency compressors , high efficiency heat exchangers , and inverter drives etc..

  11. Alternative Refrigerant Evaluation for High-Ambient-Temperature Environments: R-22 and R-410A Alternatives for Rooftop Air Conditioners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdelaziz, Omar [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Shrestha, Som S. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Shen, Bo [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Linkous, Randall Lee [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Goetzler, William [Navigant Consulting Inc., Burlington, MA (United States); Guernsey, Matt [Navigant Consulting Inc., Burlington, MA (United States); Bargach, Youssef [Navigant Consulting Inc., Burlington, MA (United States)

    2016-09-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) High-Ambient-Temperature Evaluation Program for Low-Global Warming Potential (Low-GWP) Refrigerants aims to develop an understanding of the performance of low-GWP alternative refrigerants relative to hydrochlorofluorocarbon (HCFC) and hydrofluorocarbon (HFC) refrigerants in packaged or Rooftop Unit (RTU) air conditioners under high-ambient-temperature conditions. This final report describes the parties involved, the alternative refrigerants selection process, the test procedures, and the final results.

  12. Progress towards Managing Residential Electricity Demand: Impacts of Standards and Labeling for Refrigerators and Air Conditioners in India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McNeil, Michael A.; Iyer, Maithili

    2009-05-30

    The development of Energy Efficiency Standards and Labeling (EES&L) began in earnest in India in 2001 with the Energy Conservation Act and the establishment of the Indian Bureau of Energy Efficiency (BEE). The first main residential appliance to be targeted was refrigerators, soon to be followed by room air conditioners. Both of these appliances are of critical importance to India's residential electricity demand. About 15percent of Indian households own a refrigerator, and sales total about 4 million per year, but are growing. At the same time, the Indian refrigerator market has seen a strong trend towards larger and more consumptive frost-free units. Room air conditioners in India have traditionally been sold to commercial sector customers, but an increasing number are going to the residential sector. Room air conditioner sales growth in India peaked in the last few years at 20percent per year. In this paper, we perform an engineering-based analysis using data specific to Indian appliances. We evaluate costs and benefits to residential and commercial sector consumers from increased equipment costs and utility bill savings. The analysis finds that, while the BEE scheme presents net benefits to consumers, there remain opportunities for efficiency improvement that would optimize consumer benefits, according to Life Cycle Cost analysis. Due to the large and growing market for refrigerators and air conditioners in India, we forecast large impacts from the standards and labeling program as scheduled. By 2030, this program, if fully implemented would reduce Indian residential electricity consumption by 55 TWh. Overall savings through 2030 totals 385 TWh. Finally, while efficiency levels have been set for several years for refrigerators, labels and MEPS for these products remain voluntary. We therefore consider the negative impact of this delay of implementation to energy and financial savings achievable by 2030.

  13. Performance assessment of HC-290 as a drop-in substitute to HCFC-22 in a window air conditioner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devotta, S. [National Environmental Engineering Research Institute, Nagpur (India); Padalkar, A.S. [National Chemical Laboratory, Pune (India). Process Development Division; Sane, N.K. [Walchand College of Engineering, Sangli (India). Department of Mechanical Engineering

    2005-06-01

    As per the Montreal Protocol, CFCs and HCFCs are being phased out. HCFC-22 is used in window air conditioners. This paper presents the experimental performance study of a window air conditioner with propane (HC-290), a natural refrigerant, as a drop-in substitute to HCFC-22. Experimental results showed that HC-290 had 6.6% lower cooling capacity for the lower operating conditions and 9.7% lower for the higher operating conditions with respect to HCFC-22. The coefficient of performance for HC-290 was 7.9% higher for the lower operating conditions and 2.8% higher for the higher operating conditions. The energy consumption of the unit with HC-290 was lower in the range 12.4-13.5% than HCFC-22. The discharge pressures for HC-290 were lower in the range 13.7-18.2% than HCFC-22. For HC-290, the pressure drop was lower than HCFC-22 in both heat exchangers. This paper also presents simulation results for the heat exchangers of an HCFC-22 window air conditioner with HC-290 as a drop-in substitute. The simulation has been carried out using EVAP-COND, a heat exchanger model developed by NIST [National Institute of Standards and Technology. EVAP-COND: simulation models for finned-tube heat exchangers, Maryland, USA (2003). http://www2.bfrl.nist.gov/software/evap-cond/ [18

  14. Life cycle analysis of retrofitting with high energy efficiency air-conditioner and fluorescent lamp in existing buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Techato, Kua-anan [International Postgraduate Programs in Environmental Management (Hazardous Waste Management) and ERI (Energy Research Institute), Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330 (Thailand); Watts, Daniel J. [Otto H. York Center for Environmental Engineering and Science, New Jersey Institute of Technology, Newark, NJ 07102 (United States); Chaiprapat, Sumate [Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Prince of Songkla University, Hat Yai Campus, Hat Yai, Songkhla 90112 (Thailand); National Center of Excellence for Environmental and Hazardous Waste Management-Satellite Center at Prince of Songkla University (Thailand)

    2009-01-15

    Life cycle analysis of mercury in discarded low energy efficiency fluorescent lamps (36 W) and of HCFC in air-conditioners (12,000 Btu) removed from service has been conducted in this study. The objective was to find out the environmental impact (EDIP 1997 category, waste evaluation) of the products that appear in the waste stream as a result of facility upgrades. The scope of the study starts from retrofitting of the lamps and air-conditioners through recycling and disposal. For a 36 W fluorescent lamp, the bulk waste 1.64E-5 kg, hazardous waste 1.11E-4 kg, radioactive waste 1.09E-9 kg, and slag-ash 6.02E-7 kg occurred at the end of life of the retrofitting cycle. For a 12,000 Btu air-conditioner, the bulk waste 0.58 kg, hazardous waste 0.11 kg, radioactive waste 0.0002 kg, and slag-ash 0.01 kg also occurred at the end of life of the retrofitting cycle. These small amounts become important when viewed at the country level. These quantities imply that the policy makers who deal with hazardous waste should be aware of this waste-generating characteristic before issuing any pertinent policy. Consideration of this characteristic and planning for appropriate waste management methods at the beginning stage will reduce any future problem of contamination by the hazardous waste. (author)

  15. Development and testing of a multi-type air conditioner without using AC inverters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shih-Cheng Hu; Rong-Hwa Yang [National Taipei University of Technology (China). Dept. of Air Conditioning and Refrigeration Engineering

    2005-02-01

    This paper reports the results from the development and performance testing of a cost effective, energy efficient, multi-type air conditioner that connected five indoor units (evaporators) to one outdoor unit (condenser) with a digital scroll compressor. Instead of using inverter technology, which has a potential risk of harmonic current emissions, this study used a digital scroll compressor, which provided the variable refrigerant volumes. The measured results for this innovative design showed: (1) The relationship between the degree of opening of the electronic expansion valves (s) and the compressor output ratio (%) could be represented by regression functions, which formed the basic parameters of the system control. (2) The developed system provided true zoning capability because it could run indoor units under part load conditions, therefore wasting little energy. The power consumption of the developed system was reduced from 1 00% to 25% when the full load was reduced to a partial load of 17%, saving more than 75% of the work required using a conventional unloading method. (3) The developed system has a broader range of capacity output (from 17% to 100%) than that of an AC variable frequency control system (from 48% to 104%). The developed system cost 20% less than a comparable system with an AC inverter. (author)

  16. The System Impact of Air-Conditioner Under-voltage Protection Schemes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Ning; Yang, Bo; Huang, Zhenyu; Bravo, Richard

    2009-03-31

    This paper presents simulation results of evaluating an under-voltage protection scheme designed to take stalled air-conditioner (a/c) units offline such that the slow voltage recovery phenomena can be solved on areas heavily loaded with a/c motors during summer peak periods. A three feeder test-bed has been first used to quantify the effectiveness of the protection scheme and the sensitivity of the under-voltage relay settings. Then two real system events of the Western US power grid have been studied to evaluate the area impact of the protection scheme proposed by Southern California Edison. The study demonstrates that by taking all or most of the stalled a/c unit offline, the feeder voltage will recover in a few seconds, much quicker than the tens of seconds that the standard thermal relays imbedded in the motors need to trip the units. The drawback of the control scheme is that after the voltage recover, it settled at a higher voltage than before the faults because a large chuck of load has been shed.

  17. Development and testing of a multi-type air conditioner without using AC inverters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, S.-C. E-mail: f10870@ntut.edu.tw; Yang, R.-H

    2005-02-01

    This paper reports the results from the development and performance testing of a cost effective, energy efficient, multi-type air conditioner that connected five indoor units (evaporators) to one outdoor unit (condenser) with a digital scroll compressor. Instead of using inverter technology, which has a potential risk of harmonic current emissions, this study used a digital scroll compressor, which provided the variable refrigerant volumes. The measured results for this innovative design showed: (1) The relationship between the degree of opening of the electronic expansion valves (s) and the compressor output ratio (%) could be represented by regression functions, which formed the basic parameters of the system control. (2) The developed system provided true zoning capability because it could run indoor units under part load conditions, therefore wasting little energy. The power consumption of the developed system was reduced from 100% to 25% when the full load was reduced to a partial load of 17%, saving more than 75% of the work required using a conventional un-loading method. (3) The developed system has a broader range of capacity output (from 17% to 100%) than that of an AC variable frequency control system (from 48% to 104%). The developed system cost 20% less than a comparable system with an AC inverter.

  18. Performance characteristics of a turbo expander substituted for expansion valve on air-conditioner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Soo-Yong [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering (ReCAPT), Gyeongsang National University, 900 Gajoa-dong, Jinju 660-701 (Korea); Cho, Chong-Hyun [School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Gyeongsang National University, 900 Gajoa-dong, Jinju 660-701 (Korea); Kim, Chaesil [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Changwon National University, 9 Sarim-dong, Changwon 641-773 (Korea)

    2008-09-15

    An experimental study is conducted on a small turbo expander which could be applied to the expansion process in place of expansion valves in refrigerator or air-conditioner to improve the cycle efficiency by recovering energy from the throttling process. The operating gas is HFC134a and the maximum cooling capacity of experiment apparatus is 32.7 kW. Four different turbo expanders are tested to find the performance characteristics of the turbo expander when they operate at a low partial admission rate. The partial admission rate is 1.70% or 2.37, and expanders are operated in the supersonic flow. In the experiment, pressure and temperature are measured at 10 different locations in the experimental apparatus. In addition to these measurements, output power at the turbo expander is measured through a generator installed on a rotor shaft with the rotational speed. Performance data of the turbo expander are obtained at many part load operations by adjusting the output power of the generator. A maximum of 15.8% total-to-static efficiency is obtained when the pressure ratio and the partial admission ratio are 2.37 and 1.70%, respectively. Experimental results show that the optimal velocity ratio decreases when the pressure ratio is decreased, and peak efficiencies, which are obtained at locally maximized efficiency depending on the operating condition, vary linearly against the subcooling temperature or the pressure ratio. (author)

  19. Design and performance prediction of a novel zeolite-water adsorption air conditioner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, D.C. [Institute of Refrigeration and Cryogenics, School of Mechanical and Power Energy Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 1954, Huashan Road, Shanghai 200030 (China); Xia, Z.Z. [Institute of Refrigeration and Cryogenics, School of Mechanical and Power Energy Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 1954, Huashan Road, Shanghai 200030 (China); Wu, J.Y. [Institute of Refrigeration and Cryogenics, School of Mechanical and Power Energy Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 1954, Huashan Road, Shanghai 200030 (China)]. E-mail: jywu@sjtu.edu.cn

    2006-03-15

    A novel adsorption air conditioner is designed that supplies 8-12 deg. C chilled water for the fan coil in the locomotive operator cabin. Different from other two-bed adsorption cooling systems, this system has two adsorption/desorption chambers. One adsorber, one condenser and one evaporator are housed in one and the same adsorption/desorption chamber. There are no valves installed in the vacuum side. So, the reliability of the system is improved greatly. This machine uses zeolite and water as the working pairs. This system is driven by 350-450 deg. C exhaust gas generated by the internal combustion engine of the locomotive. The designed refrigerating power and COP (coefficient of performance) are 5 kW and 0.25, respectively, according to the requirements for the refrigeration output in the locomotive operator cabin and the waste heat provided by the engine. In this paper, a model for this system is described, and the simulation results are discussed. The model is validated in principle by limited experimental data. According to the calculation results, the refrigerating power of the machine is up to 10 kW with gas inlet temperature of 450 deg. C and evaporating temperature of 6.5 deg. C. The adsorber can be heated from 97 deg. C to 423 deg. C or cooled from 423 deg. C to 97 deg. C in 1320 s. Therefore, the heat and mass transfer performance of the adsorber is improved greatly. A few experimental data prove these conclusions.

  20. Cooling the Planet: Opportunities for Deployment of Superefficient Room Air Conditioners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shah, Nihar [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Waide, Paul [Navigant Consulting Inc., Chicago, IL (United States); Phadke, Amol [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2013-04-01

    This report presents the results of an analysis, commissioned by the U.S. Department of Energy, of Air Conditioner (AC) efficiency in support of the Super-efficient Equipment and Appliance Deployment (SEAD) initiative.1 The International Energy Studies group at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory in collaboration with Navigant Consulting Inc. performed the analysis. SEAD aims to transform the global market by increasing the penetration of highly efficient equipment and appliances. SEAD partners work together in voluntary activities to: (1) “raise the efficiency ceiling” by pulling superefficient appliances and equipment into the market through cooperation on measures like incentives, procurement, awards, and research and development (R&D) investments; (2) “raise the efficiency floor” by working together to bolster national or regional policies like minimum efficiency standards; and (3) “strengthen the efficiency foundations” of programs by coordinating technical work to support these activities.2 The objective of this analysis is to provide the background technical information necessary to improve the efficiency of ACs and to provide a foundation for the activities of SEAD participating countries. We find that even the best currently available technology offers large efficiency improvement opportunities (35% to 50% reduction in energy consumption from the market average) in most SEAD countries. The cost effective efficiency improvements range from 20% to 30% reduction in energy consumption based on a consumer perspective.

  1. Using Field-Metered Data to Quantify Annual Energy Use of Portable Air Conditioners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burke, Thomas [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Energy Analysis and Environmental Impacts Dept., Environmental Energy Technologies Division; Willem, Henry [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Energy Analysis and Environmental Impacts Dept., Environmental Energy Technologies Division; Ni, Chun Chun [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Energy Analysis and Environmental Impacts Dept., Environmental Energy Technologies Division; Stratton, Hannah [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Energy Analysis and Environmental Impacts Dept., Environmental Energy Technologies Division; Chen, Yuting [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Energy Analysis and Environmental Impacts Dept., Environmental Energy Technologies Division; Ganeshalingam, Mohan [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Energy Analysis and Environmental Impacts Dept., Environmental Energy Technologies Division; Iyer, Maithili [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Energy Analysis and Environmental Impacts Dept., Environmental Energy Technologies Division; Price, Sarah [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Energy Analysis and Environmental Impacts Dept., Environmental Energy Technologies Division; Dunham, Camilla [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Energy Analysis and Environmental Impacts Dept., Environmental Energy Technologies Division

    2014-12-12

    As many regions of the United States experience rising temperatures, consumers have come to rely increasingly on cooling appliances (including portable air conditioners) to provide a comfortable indoor temperature. Home occupants sometimes use a portable air conditioner (PAC) to maintain a desired indoor temperature in a single room or enclosed space. Although PACs in residential use are few compared to centrally installed and room air conditioning (AC) units, the past few years have witnessed an increase of PACs use throughout the United States. There is, however, little information and few research projects focused on the energy consumption and performance of PACs, particularly studies that collect information from field applications of PACs. The operation and energy consumption of PACs may differ among geographic locations and households, because of variations in cooling load, frequency, duration of use, and other user-selected settings. In addition, the performance of building envelope (thermal mass and air leakage) as well as inter-zonal mixing within the building would substantially influence the ability to control and maintain desirable indoor thermal conditions. Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) conducted an initial field-metering study aimed at increasing the knowledge and data related to PAC operation and energy consumption in the United States. LBNL performed its field-metering study from mid-April to late October 2014. The study, which monitored 19 sites in the Northeastern United States (4 in upstate New York and 15 near Philadelphia), collected real-time data on PAC energy consumption along with information regarding housing characteristics, consumer behavior, and environmental conditions that were expected to affect PAC performance. Given the limited number of test sites, this study was not intended to be statistically representative of PAC users in the United States but rather to understand the system response to the cooling demand and to

  2. Development of a metal hydride refrigeration system as an exhaust gas-driven automobile air conditioner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qin, Feng; Chen, Jiangping; Chen, Zhijiu [Institute of Refrigeration and Cryogenics Engineering, Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai 200030 (China); Lu, Manqi; Yang, Ke [Engineering Center, Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang, Liaoning Province 110016 (China); Zhou, Yimin [Research Center, Zhejiang Yinlun Machinery Co. Ltd., Tiantai County, Zhejiang Province 317200 (China)

    2007-10-15

    Aiming at developing exhaust gas-driven automobile air conditioners, two types of systems varying in heat carriers were preliminarily designed. A new hydride pair LaNi{sub 4.61}Mn{sub 0.26}Al{sub 0.13}/La{sub 0.6}Y{sub 0.4}Ni{sub 4.8}Mn{sub 0.2} was developed working at 120-200 C/20-50 C/-10-0 C. P-C isotherms and reaction kinetics were tested. Reaction enthalpy, entropy and theoretical cycling coefficient of performance (COP) were deducted from Van't-Hoff diagram. Test results showed that the hydride pair has flat plateau slopes, fast reaction dynamics and small hystereses; the reaction enthalpy of the refrigeration hydride is -27.1 kJ/mol H{sub 2} and system theoretical COP is 0.711. Mean particle sizes during cycles were verified to be an intrinsic property affected by constitution, heat treatment and cycle numbers rather than initial grain sizes. Based on this work pair, cylindrical reactors were designed and a function proving metal hydride intermittent refrigeration system was constructed with heat conducting oil as heat source and water as heat sink. The reactor equivalent thermal conductivity is merely 1.3 W/(m K), which still has not meet practical requirement. Intermittent refrigeration cycles were achieved and the average cooling power is 84.6 W at 150 C/30 C/0 C with COP being 0.26. The regulations of cycling performance and minimum refrigeration temperature (MRT) were determined by altering heat source temperature. Results showed that cooling power and system COP increase while MRT decreases with the growth of heat source temperature. This study develops a new hydride pair and confirms its application in automobile refrigeration systems, while their heat transfer properties still need to be improved for better performance. (author)

  3. Chemical Risk Evaluation: A Case Study in an Automotive Air Conditioner Production Facility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tengku Hanidza T.I.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available There has been limited knowledge on worker’s exposure to chemicals used in the automotive industries. The purpose of this study is to assess chemical risk and to determine the adequacy of the existing control measures to reduce chemical exposure. A cross sectional survey was conducted in a factory involving installation and servicing of automotive air conditioner units. Qualitative exposure assessment was carried out following the Malaysian Chemical Health Risk Assessment Manual (CHRA. There were 180 employees, 156 workers worked in the production line, which constitutes six work units Tube fin pressed, Brazing, Welding, Final assembly, Piping and Kit II. From the chemical risk evaluation for each work unit, 26 chemical compounds were used. Most of the chemicals were irritants (eye and skin and some were asphyxiants and sensitizers. Based on the work assignment, 93 out of 180 (51.67% of the workers were exposed to chemicals. The highest numbers of workers exposed to chemicals were from the Brazing section (22.22% while the Final Assembly section was the lowest (1.67%. Health survey among the workers showed occurrence of eye irritation, skin irritation, and respiratory irritation, symptoms usually associated with chemical exposure. Using a risk rating matrix, several work process were identified as having ‘significant risk’. For these areas, the workers are at risk of adverse health effects since chemical exposure is not adequately controlled. This study recommends corrective actions be taken in order to control the level of exposure and to provide a safe work environment for workers.

  4. Implementation of a model for the reduction of latent capacity of an air-conditioner at part-load conditions with continuous fan operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haddad, K.H.; Blake, J. [Natural Resources Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). CANMET Energy Technology Centre

    2004-07-01

    The performance of air-conditioners and their moisture removal effectiveness is degraded when the indoor circulation fan is in continuous mode and the compressor is off. Early experiments have shown that when the compressor is off, the cooling coil acts as an evaporative cooler and vapour condensates on its surface. This vapour goes back into the air stream and back to the conditioned space, resulting in higher humidity levels. A model has been developed by previous examiners to predict the degradation of the performance of the air-conditioner. The model accounts for the conditions of the air entering the coil, thermostat cycling rate, air-conditioner transient performance, and the moisture-retaining characteristics of the cooling coil. However, this model has not been used within a building energy simulation program. This paper demonstrates how the model can be used as part of an air-conditioning model in the ESP-r/HOT3000 building energy analysis program. Within ESP-r/HOT3000, the model can determine the effect of moisture evaporation from the coil, during compressor off-cycle within continuous fan operation. It can also examine the effect on temperature and relative humidity inside a residential building during the cooling season. The model can also determine the effect of equipment latent capacity degradation on electricity use by air conditioners. The study identifies the problems associated with an over-sized air conditioner. 5 refs., 3 tabs., 7 figs.

  5. 基于复合热源的热泵型空调器%Heat pump air conditioner based on multiple heat sources

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴国珊; 凌勋

    2012-01-01

    It is proposed that the air-water multiple heat sources could be the heat source of heat pump air conditioner. Based on the current study condition, the heat pump air conditioner which has a air/family waste water multiple heat source is preliminary designed. The working cycle and characteristics of the air conditioner are analyzed by using the thermodynamic principle. The results show that the refrigeration performance of the heat pump air conditioner is better than that of air source heat pump air conditioner, the heating performance and the situation which the outdoor heat exchanger frosts are improved.%提出将空气-水作为热泵型空调器的复合热源.根据当前的研究状况,初步设计空气-水复合热源热泵型空调器,利用热力学原理分析该空调器的工作循环和特点,结果表明该空调器的制冷性能高于空气源热泵空调器,制热和室外换热器结霜状况得到一定改善.

  6. 连接管在空调器降成本机型中的灵活运用%Flexible application of connecting pipe into the cost reduction machine type of air conditioner

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冼志健; 梁勤奋

    2012-01-01

    在原有空调器配置不变的前提下,空调器连接管的灵活搭配应用,不但可以改善空调器制冷效果,而且能够降低空调器整机成本,提高其市场竞争力.%Under the original air conditioner configuration unchanged, the application of flexible collocation into air conditioner's connecting pipe,not only can improve the refrigeration effect of air conditioner,but also can reduce the cost of air conditioner and improve their market competitiveness.

  7. Choice of a system for heat recovery. Efficiency of an air conditioner; Systeemkeuze voor warmteterugwinning. Meer efficientie uit luchtbehandelingsinstallatie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Gorkom, F.H.J.

    2004-05-01

    The use of heat recovery in an air conditioning system improves the efficiency. An overview is given of different air conditioners where heat recovery is applied: twincoil, heat exchanger, heat wheel, and the Kantherm system. [Dutch] Warmteterugwinning levert efficiente luchtbehandelingsinstallaties op. Voor het toepassen van warmteterugwinning is een aantal systemen beschikbaar. In dit artikel komen zowel de twincoil, de platenwisselaar, het warmtewiel en het Kantherm-systeem aan bod. De systemen worden kort beschreven en daarnaast beoordeeld op hun rendement, toepassingsmogelijkheden, voor- en nadelen en kosten voor de levenscyclus.

  8. Natural refrigerants for air conditioners in passenger cars. A contribution to climate protection. Background; Natuerliche Kaeltemittel fuer PKW-Klimaanlagen. Ein Beitrag zum Klimaschutz. Hintergrund

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffmann, Gabriele; Plehn, Wolfgang

    2010-09-15

    Air conditioners in passenger cars contain a refrigerant which significantly increases the greenhouse effect. Currently about 30 % of global emissions of partially fluorinated hydrocarbons originate from these air conditioners. According to the directive 2006/40/EC, this refrigerant must be replaced by a less harmful substance. Under this aspect, the contribution under consideration initially reports on the stock and level of air conditioning of passenger cars as well as on the refrigerant tetrafluoroethane. Subsequently, refrigerants for air conditioning of passenger cars such as carbon dioxide, 1.1-difluoroethane and 2,3,3,3-tetrafluoro propylene are described. Overall, the refrigerant carbon dioxide is the best alternative for mobile air conditioning.

  9. 机车空调电源的比较与分析%Comparison and Analysis of Locomotive Air-conditioner Power Supply

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈泽武

    2013-01-01

    总结了内燃机车、电力机车常用的空调电源的电路结构形式,简单探讨了空调电源电路的设计要点,并对电力机车的交直交与直交2种形式的空调电源电路进行了较为详细的对比分析,指出了各自的优点与不足;同时,介绍了机车空调电源变频调速的一般性原理,比较了定频与变频机车空调电源各自的优缺点.%Circuit structures of air-conditioner power supply for diesel locomotive and electric locomotive were summarized,and key points of air-conditioner power supply design were discussed.Two types of air-conditioner power supply circuit i.e.AC/DC/AC and DC/AC convert circuit were compared in detail,advantages and defects of which were pointed out.At the same time,principle of air-conditioner variable frequency speed regulation was introduced,as well as the characteristics of fix-frequency and vari-frequency air-conditioner was compared.

  10. Discussion on Refitting Air Conditioner on EVs%关于电动汽车空调改装探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谷丰

    2011-01-01

    Based on the analysis and explanation of its working principle and refitting method, the author presents the basic thinking of electric refit of air conditioner on traditional vehicles.%针对纯电动汽车空调在传统汽车空调基础上的改装,结合其工作原理及改装方法进行一定的分析说明,提出对传统汽车空调电动化改装的基本思路。

  11. Performance evaluation of a stack cooling system using CO{sub 2} air conditioner in fuel cell vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sung Chul; Won, Jong Phil [Thermal Management Research Center, Korea Automotive Technology Institute, Chungnam 330-912 (Korea); Park, Yong Sun; Lim, Tae Won [Corporate Research and Development Division, Hyundai-Kia Motors, Gyeonggi 449-912 (Korea); Kim, Min Soo [School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-744 (Korea)

    2009-01-15

    A relation between the heat release from a fuel cell stack and an air conditioning system's performance was investigated. The air conditioning system installed in a fuel cell vehicle can be used for stack cooling when additional stack heat release is required over a fixed radiator capacity during high vehicle power generation. This study investigated the performance of a stack cooling system using CO{sub 2} air conditioner at various operating conditions. Also, the heat releasing effectiveness and mutual interference were analyzed and compared with those for the conventional radiator cooling system with/without cabin cooling. When the radiator coolant inlet temperature and flow rate were 65 C and 80 L/min, respectively, for the outdoor air inlet speed of 5 m/s, the heat release of the stack cooling system with the aid of CO{sub 2} air conditioner increased up to 36% more than that of the conventional radiator cooling system with cabin cooling. Furthermore, this increased by 7% versus the case without cabin cooling. (author)

  12. 常规空调器用于低温制冷研究%Study on Low Temperature Refrigeration with Conventional Air Conditioner

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙静; 时红臣

    2015-01-01

    对常规空调器用于低温制冷进行了研究,通过控制系统改造实现了系统在低温下稳定运行,控制系统改造方案可以实现常规空调机组低温制冷功能。%n this paper, how to achieve low temperatur air conditioning with conventional air conditioner were studied, through the control system renovation, air conditioning system run stably at low temperatur , the control system renovation scheme can realize the low temperature refrigeration function of conventional air conditioner.

  13. 空调运行管理中的节能研究%Energy-saving research in operation management of air-conditioners

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王元

    2012-01-01

    对空调系统运行管理中的节能进行了研究,并对空调系统运行管理的节能基础及节能措施进行了分析,通过采取良好的节能措施降低空调系统的能源消耗,从而有利于社会经济的良好发展。%The paper studies the energy-saving in the operation management of the air-conditioner system,analyzes the energy-saving foundation and the energy-saving measures of the operation management of the air-conditioner system,and reduces the source consumption of the air-conditioner system by adopting better energy-saving measures,so as to enhance the better development of the society and economy.

  14. R407C在客车空调中的应用技术%Application Technology of R407C to Bus/Coach Air-conditioner

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周玉文

    2015-01-01

    The author introduces the calculation method of R407C and R134a theoretical thermodynamic cycle, an-alyzes the effects variation of R407C on the bus/coach air-conditioner performance, and the selection of parts and materials for R407C bus/coach air-conditioner. This can provide a reference for the design of R407C bus/coach air-conditioner.%介绍R407C与R134a理论热力循环计算方法;对R407C客车空调系统性能的变化、零部件和材料的选用进行技术分析;为R407C客车空调器的研发设计提供参考。

  15. Analysis on Technology and Economic Feasibility of Air Conditioner%天然气空调的技术经济分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何于涛; 魏敦崧; 刘敏飞

    2001-01-01

    文章简述了天然气应用于空调机组的技术概况,通过办公室空调冷热源的四种方案比较,分析了以天然气为驱动能源的空调机组的经济性,此外文章还就以天然气为驱动能源的空调机组对环境的影响以及在小区集中供冷供热中的应用前景进行了讨论.%This article briefs on the technology of applying NG to air conditioner. with the comparison between 4proposals on cooling and warming resources for office air conditioner, the economic feasibility of NG as drivingenergy is analyzed. Furthermore, this article discusses the environmental impact of air conditioner using NG,

  16. 谈建筑暖通空调的设计要点%On design for architectural heat-ventilation air-conditioners

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王康成

    2015-01-01

    The paper indicates the concept for the heat-ventilation air-conditioner system,describes its basic key points of design from the design planning,loading calculation of air-conditioners,and ventilation system design,and puts forward the matters needing attention in the design,so as to ensure the design quality of the heat-ventilation air-conditioner system.%简述了暖通空调系统的含义,从设计规划、空调负荷计算、通风系统设计等方面,论述了建筑暖通空调的基本设计要点,提出了在设计中应该注意的问题,以保证暖通空调系统的设计质量。

  17. Performance of a prototype micro wind turbine in the manmade wind field from air conditioner of buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. H. Goh

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Harnessing waste energy from the manmade air fields of buildings presents a new area of renewable energy to explore. Due to the unpredictability of the natural wind, this study is to evaluate the practicality for harnessing waste energy from the air conditioner exhaust units which are a more constant and predictable source available in the buildings. A prototype of the micro wind turbine has been designed to minimize the negative effect of the exhaust sources. After the micro wind turbine was manufactured, the performance of the turbine was tested in the selected air conditioner exhaust unit. Increasing the rotor solidity and decreasing the resistance of the generator contribute to improved starting torque and decreased generator break in torque respectively in the design. The power generation of the micro wind turbine increases with an increase of the rotor speed. The 24-hour operation of the prototype presents an observation for both exhaust performance and power generation prediction when the prototype is mounted on the exhaust unit.

  18. 带冷凝热回收的家用空调器的研究%Study on domestic air conditioner with condensing heat recovery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    史德福; 陈华; 黄耀坤

    2012-01-01

    随着生活水平的提高,家用空调器的使用逐年增加.空调器在夏季向室内供冷的同时,不仅给室外环境造成了热污染,而且还造成了能源的浪费.因此,很多学者都提出了空调冷凝热回收理论并进行了实验研究.文中分析了在家用空调器回收冷凝热的可行性及研究现状;介绍了家用空调器采用的冷凝热回收系统的形式及其分类;提出了一种带冷凝热回收装置的多功能热泵系统,并对该系统循环加热式冷凝热回收进行了实验研究和分析.%With tne improvement of living standards, the use of domestic air conditioner gradually increases year by year. In summer, air conditioner will consume a lot of energy for maintaining indoor air conditions and discharge lots of condensation heat into the environment which cause the environmental thermal pollution and waste of energy. Therefore, many scholars have put forward the theory and carried out the experimental studies on air conditioner with condensing heat recovery. In this study, the feasibility of recycling condensing heat on domestic air conditioner was analyzed. The form and assortment of air conditioner system with the condensing heat recovery were introduced. A multi functional hybrid domestic air conditioner system was put out, the circulating water heater of recovering condensing heat was tested and the results were analyzed.

  19. 空调器运行性能影响因素简析%Analysis on the Long-term Performance of Air Conditioner Operation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏建军; 戴兴学; 叶檀

    2013-01-01

    The effects of on-off controlled air conditioners, outdoor temperature and dust contaminate on the performance of air conditioner are carried out on the 3 different rated capacity air conditioners in the paper. The results show that the effects on the cooling capacity and energy efficiency ratio are not more than 4% and 5% by on-off controlled air conditioner, 10% and 15% by temperature, 12% and 16% by dust contaminate respectively. So the dust contaminate and temperature on the air conditioner are important factors on evaluating the air conditioner is compliance with the long-term energy saving.%  本文通过3种不同额定制冷量的热泵型房间空调器研究了开停机、室外温度以及粉尘污染等因素对空调器长期运行性能的影响规律。结果表明,开停机对空调器制冷能力的最大衰减率不超过4%,EER不超过5%,室外温度对空调器制冷能力的最大衰减率不超过10%,EER不超过15%,粉尘污染对空调器制冷能力的最大衰减率不超过12%,EER不超过16%。因此,在实际评价空调器是否满足长效节能要求时,需着重考虑粉尘污染和温度负荷两个因素对空调器长期运行性能的影响。

  20. 房间空调器综合性能优化及应用研究%Room Air Conditioner Combination Performance Optimization and Applied Research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王平; 张士友; 董际鼎

    2014-01-01

    制冷量、制热量、能效比和噪声是房间空调器最重要的性能指标。通过对空调器的噪声控制和降低噪声方法进行研究,合理处理空调器噪声、节能与产品成本的关系;采用提高空调器配机系数和高传热系数的热交换器提升空调器能效系数和冷重比。从理论分析结合实际操作方法,介绍了在降低噪声和产品成本的同时,提高空调器产品能效比、冷重比、配机系数等性能优化方法,并取得较好效果。%There are many performance indexes for room air conditioner, such as cooling capacity, heating capacity, EER and noise. Through research on the method of noise control and reducing of air conditioner, the relationship with noise, energy conservation and product cost of air conditioner is managed rationally. In order to increase the energy efficiency coefficient and cooling-weight ratio of air conditioner, the heat exchangers which could increase matching coefficient and heat transfer coefficient of air conditioner are used. The method of theoretical analysis and practical operating experience is used. Meanwhile the performance optimization methods for increasing EER, cooling-weight ratio and matching coefficient of air conditioner are introduced with inducing noise and product cost which achieve better efficiency.

  1. China Energy Efficiency Round Robin Testing Results for Room Air Conditioners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Nan; Fridley, David; Zheng, Nina; Pierrot, Andre

    2010-06-07

    consuming products has always been an important component of all countries energy strategies. As we all know, a very large amount of total energy consumption is due to energy consuming products and equipment, which account for about 50% of China's total energy consumption. However, the current average energy utilization efficiency of this sector is only about 60%, 10 percent lower than the international advanced level. Therefore, China's energy consuming products and equipment sector holds great energy-saving potential. On the other hand, the energy supplied to these products is mainly from fossil fuel combustion, a major source of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Therefore, improving the energy efficiency and augmenting the market share of market-dominant energy consuming products is of significant importance to achieving China's energy saving and emission reduction target and is an effective means to deal with energy and environmental constraints and climate change issues. Main energy consuming products generally include widely-used home appliances, industrial equipment, office equipment, transportation vehicles, etc. China is one of the major manufacturers and exporters of energy end-using products such as air-conditioners, refrigerators, televisions, etc. Their overall energy efficiency is comparatively low and the products are poorly designed, leading to great energy-saving potential. For example, electricity consumption of air conditioners accounts for about 20% of China's total electricity consumption and 40% of the summer electricity peak load in large and medium cities. However, less than 5% of units sold in the domestic market in 2009 reached the standard's highly efficient level of grade 2 above. The electricity consumption of electric motors and their related drive systems accounts for about 60% of China's total electricity consumption; however, less than 2% of the domestic market share consists of energy-efficient electric motor

  2. The design of the motor bracket for reduction of structure-borne noise in package air-conditioner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sim, Hyoun Jin; Lee, Sung Jin; Oh, Jae Eung [Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Tae Ho [WiniaMando, Asan (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jung Yoon [Kyonggi University, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-02-15

    As the economic power is improved and the customer's demand is hard to please, the noise and vibration is the most important yardstick that can determine the quality of the product. Especially, as the air-conditioner's demand increase suddenly, the product of quality and the noise is becoming a decisive factor of determining whether purchase the product or not. Therefore, every manufactory is investing a lot of money and research to cut down the unpleasantness induced from noise and vibration. And they are emphasizing their product's difference by advertising a silence very actively. With these reason, the demand of a silent indoor air-conditioner is the essential research filed when the product is developed. In this study, the noise and vibration is visualized in the space and frequency domain by using experimental methods such as Operational Deflection Shape (ODS), modal testing and sound intensity. Also the location of noise source and its characteristic is analyzed in an acoustical point of view to reduce the structure borne noise that come from the fan motor, and the pertinent control method is suggested. Furthermore, the most suitable shape of the motor bracket is suggested by applying FEM and DOE (Design of Experiments) in the noise and vibration point a view.

  3. A review on test procedure, energy efficiency standards and energy labels for room air conditioners and refrigerator-freezers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahlia, T.M.I.; Saidur, R. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2010-09-15

    Air conditioners and refrigerator-freezers are major energy users in a household environment and hence efficiency improvement of these appliances can be considered as an important step to reduce their energy consumption along with environmental pollution prevention. Energy efficiency standards and labels are commonly used tools to reduce the energy uses for household appliances for many countries around the world. The first step towards adopting energy efficiency standards is to establish a test procedure for rating and testing of an appliance. It may be mentioned that an energy test procedure is the technical foundation for energy efficiency standards, energy labels, and other related programs. This paper reviews requirements and specifications of various international test standards for testing and rating of room air conditioners and refrigerators. A review on the development of the energy efficiency standards has been provided as well. Finally, energy labels that provide some useful information for identifying energy efficient products have been reviewed for these appliances. It may be stated that the review will be useful for the developing countries who wish to develop these energy savings strategies. It is also expected to be useful to revise the existing strategies for a few selected countries who already implemented these strategies earlier. (author)

  4. Optimal Design Principle for Air Conditioner with Refrigerant R290%R290空调器的优化设计原则

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高晶丹; 丁国良; 王婷婷; 高屹峰; 宋吉

    2013-01-01

    The principle for optimal design for air conditioners with refrigerant R290 is proposed. The principle is based on the thermal performance analysis and comparison of the three refrigerants, which are R290, R22 and R410A. The principle includes the optimal design of compressor, condenser, evaporator and orifice set: the compressor discharge rate of R290 air conditioner should be bigger; the condenser of R290 air conditioner can adopt heat exchangers with smaller diameter tubes; the evaporator of R290 air conditioner can adopt heat exchangers with smaller diameter tubes;the capillary length of R290 air conditioner should be about 39%longer than that of R22 air conditioner, and should be about 44%shorter than that of R410A air conditioner. Meanwhile, the suggestion of how to guarantee the security of R290 air conditioner is also proposed in this paper.%  在分析比较 R290、R22、R410A 三种工质热力性能的基础上,对采用 R290工质的空调器提出了优化设计原则。优化设计原则主要针对压缩机、冷凝器、蒸发器、节流装置四大部件:R290空调器的压缩机应增加排量;R290空调器的冷凝器可采用小管径换热器;R290空调器的蒸发器可采用小管径换热器;R290空调器的毛细管应比R22空调器的长约39%,比R410A空调器的短约44%。在提出R290空调器优化设计原则的同时,本文对保证R290空调器安全性提出了建议。

  5. 提高空调产品性能研究%The Research of Improve the Air-conditioner Performance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

      本研究通过对家用空调结构优化设计,提高内机循环风量,以及对蒸发器结构优化,输入输出管采用多进多出管,使制冷剂流入、流出均匀,大大提高空调制冷能力和能效。%Using the optimized design for the structure of air conditioner can improve the circulating air flow of indoor unit. Optimizing the structure of the evaporator, and using multiple-out tube for input & output pipe can make the inflow & outflow of refrigerant uniform, which greatly improves product’s ability and energy efficiency.

  6. 中央空调节能技术分析%On technical analysis of central air-conditioner for saving energy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董云龙

    2009-01-01

    From three aspects of the air-conditioner design, the control in key links, the energy-saving measures in using process and the management of the central air-conditioner, the paper analyzes and sums up the energy-saving of the central air-conditioner system and provides opinions for the energy-saving of the central air-conditioner system, so as to enhance the devdopment of the architectural energy-saving and the creation of the conservation-mined society.%从空调设计中的关键环节控制、空调使用过程中的节能措施以及中央空调的管理三个方面,对中央空调系统的节能进行了分析和总结,为中央空调系统的节能提供了有意义的看法,以促进建筑节能的发展和节约型社会的创建.

  7. Fire cause investigation of a air conditioner fault fire%对一起空调器故障引发火灾的原因分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于深源

    2012-01-01

    介绍了一起空调器故障引发火灾的现场勘查认定.在未能发现空调器是否发生过故障的情况下,根据空调室内机内及室内部分冷媒管线聚氨酯保温护套的异常痕迹,证明了空调器异常运行、冷媒管异常发热的情况,并结合中国科学院沈阳金属研究所鉴定结论,正确认定了火灾原因.%Fire scene renaissance of a air conditioner fault fire was analyzed. In the event that air conditioner failure could' t be identified, based on abnormal traces of air conditioner indoor unit and some indoor refrigerant pipeline polyurethane insulation sheath, it was proved that the air conditioner didn't run properly and the refrigerant pipe heated abnormally. Combined with identification of Institute of Metal Research, Chinese A-cademy of Sciences, fire cause was identified.

  8. Analysis on Thermodynamic Perfectibility of Room Air Conditioners%房间空调器的热力学完善度分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晓凤; 马一太; 闫秋辉

    2013-01-01

    According to analysis on the energy efficiency standards of the constant speed room air conditioner and the variable speed type, differences between the two kinds of air conditioners exist in division standard, grades of energy efficiency and outdoor temperature starting refrigeration. Therefore, a survey was made about cooling capacity and EER as well as energy efficiency grades of the constant and variable speed room air conditioners. The thermodynamic perfectibility of the two types of room air conditioners was calculated for the performance evaluation. The calculation results show that energy efficiency standard of variable speed room air conditioners in 2008 is lower than that of constant room air conditioners. A new energy efficiency standard of the variable speed air conditioner is suggested in accordance with the consistent thermodynamic perfectibility.%  通过对定速与转速可控房间空调器能效标准的分析,发现两类房间空调器的能效划分标准、划分等级以及制冷运行室外温度发生时间均有不同的规定。因此对国内市场上的定速房间空调器制冷量和制冷循环的能效比(EER)、转速可控房间空调器制冷量和制冷季节能效比(SEER)、以及定速房间空调器与转速可控房间空调器的能效等级现状等方面进行了调研统计。利用热力学完善度对两类房间空调器能效等级进行计算,发现2008版转速可控房间空气调节器的能效等级的热力学完善度偏低,根据热力学完善度相一致的原则,提出转速可控房间空调器新的能效标准等级的建议。

  9. Experimental investigation of HFC407C/HC290/HC600a mixture in a window air conditioner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jabaraj, D.B.; Avinash, P.; Lal, D. Mohan; Renganarayan, S. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, College of Engineering, Anna University, Chennai 600 025 (India)

    2006-09-15

    HCFC22, one of the widely used refrigerants in window air conditioners must be phased out soon as per the Montreal protocol. Presently, HFC407C is considered as a potential drop in substitute for HCFC22, but retrofitting HCFC22 systems with HFC407C with polyol ester oil (POE) is a major issue as HFC407C is immiscible with mineral oil. The miscibility issue of HFC407C with mineral oil was overcome with the addition of a HC blend to it. The above technoeconomic feasibility issues to retrofit the existing HCFC22 systems with an ozone friendly refrigerant and retain the energy efficiency of the system are challenges in the air conditioning sector. In this present work, an experimental analysis has been conducted in a window air conditioner retrofitted with eco-friendly refrigerant mixtures of HFC407C/HC290/HC600a without changing the mineral oil. Its performance, as well as energy consumption, was compared with the conventional one. It is observed that the mixtures demand lengthening of the condenser in order to maintain the discharge pressure within acceptable limits. This also resulted in better heat transfer at the condenser. Therefore, in this study, the condenser tube length was increased by 19% to suit the mixtures as compared to HCFC22. Compared to HCFC22, the refrigeration capacity of the new mixture was 9.54-12.76% higher than that of HCFC22, while the actual COP was found to be 11.91-13.24% higher than that of HCFC22. The overall performance has proved that the HFC407C/HC blend refrigerant mixture could be an eco-friendly substitute to phase out HCFC22. (author)

  10. AN EXPERIMENTAL ANALYSIS OF THE EFFECT OF REFRIGERANT CHARGE LEVEL AND OUTDOOR CONDITION ON A WINDOW AIR CONDITIONER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Herbert Raj

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available R22 is an hydrochlorofluorocarbon widely used in refrigerant and air conditioning plants and although it has a low ozone depletion potential (0.05, it is necessary to consider the large amount that commonly escapes from commercial units to the atmosphere. This paper presents experimental investigation on the performance of a window air conditioner operated with R22 and the M20 (80% R407C and 20% HC blend by wt. refrigerant mixture tested under different refrigerant charge levels and outdoor conditions. Experiments were conducted in accordance with the Bureau of Indian standards procedure in a psychrometric test facility. Capillary and charge optimization tests were conducted for the both R22 and the M20 refrigerant mixture based on maximum coefficient of performance. Refrigerant charge in the air conditioner was systematically varied and the influences of refrigerant charge quantities and outdoor conditions on system performance are studied for both R22 and the M20 refrigerant mixture. At each charge levels, the outdoor room conditions were changed in accordance with Bureau of Indian standards. It is observed that R22 is more sensitive to deviations in charge levels as compared to the M20 refrigerant mixture. A decrease in charge level of about 7% reduced the system refrigerating capacity by 11.3% with R22 while with the M20 refrigerant mixture it reduces by 6.9% only. Similarly an over charge by 7% reduces the refrigerating capacity of the system by 13.8% with R22 while with M20 it reduces by 6.5% only.

  11. 太阳能辐射空调器的研究%On Solar Radiant Air-conditioner

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周亚东; 王军

    2014-01-01

    The paper introduces a solar radiant air-conditioner [1], which supplies heating and cooling for an office hall in one of the colleges in Haikou, Hainan. The system of the solar radiant air-conditioner uses solar water cooler and capillary network. The composition of the system is presented, and the major energy-saving parts of the system and the energy-saving performance ratio of the conventional temperature difference in air conditioning are analyzed from the thermodynamic theory. After running half a year, the system achieved the effects of substantial energy saving and reducing the thermal pollution of the environ-ment from the test data of the indicators. The system has the advantages of low investment and high utiliza-tion rate of the equipments.%介绍一种太阳能辐射空调器[1],为海南省海口市某学院办公事务大厅提供制冷的案例。系统用太阳冷水器与毛细管网相结合,介绍了其系统组成,并用热力学理论分析了本系统各主要节能部分与常规温差空调的节能效能比。系统运行半年,从各项指标检测数据看,取得了大幅节约能源,减少了对环境热污染的效果。该系统初投资少,设备利用率高,对今后的推广有一定的指导作用。

  12. Effect of deflecting ring on noise generated by outdoor set of a split-unit air conditioner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Junwei; Ding, Guoliang [Institute of Refrigeration and Cryogenics, Shanghai JiaoTong University, Shanghai 200030 (China)

    2006-05-15

    In order to analyze the influence of the deflecting ring on the noise generated by the outdoor set of a split-unit air conditioner, the flow field in the outdoor set is simulated with the CFD software STAR-CD, the relative turbulent intensities are computed and the influence of the width and contoured duct of the deflecting ring on the noise generated by the outdoor set is analyzed. The results of computation and experiment show that there is an optimal width of the deflecting ring, corresponding to the minimum noise generated by the outdoor set. In addition, the influence of the contoured duct of the deflecting ring on the noise generated by the outdoor set is analyzed and a double contoured duct is designed. The results of computation and experiment verify that the deflecting ring with double contoured duct can improve the aerodynamic performance and reduce the noise generated by the outdoor set. (author)

  13. Performance of mixture refrigerant R152a/R125/R32 in domestic air-conditioner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Jiangtao; Chu, Yingjie; Hu, Jing; Liu, Zhigang [State Key Laboratory of Multiphase Flow in Power Engineering, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an, Shaanxi 710049 (China)

    2009-08-15

    This work reports a ternary blend R152a/R125/R32 with a mass ratio of 48/18/34 as a potential alternative to R22. A computer code has been developed with NIST REFPROP 7.0 for the comparative analysis of thermophysical properties and refrigerant performance of this new mixture and of R22. A drop-in test of this new mixture was performed in a domestic air-conditioner originally designed for R22. Both the calculation and experimental results showed that this new mixture could be regarded as a most likely drop-in substitute for R22 in many applications. The flammability of this ternary blend was also studied with an explosion apparatus to prove that it could be used safely. Besides, simulation of the refrigerant cycle leakage showed that the variation of composition due to leakage was so little that there is no much performance degradation. (author)

  14. 空调器使用陋习及其解决方案分析%Analysis of the Bad Habits in Use of Air Conditioner and Solutions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱王武; 余志强; 陈志; 邹文才; 潘卢义; 徐名艳

    2015-01-01

    After the observation of the air conditioner usage, it found many bad habits in use, such as, overuse of air conditioners, turned air conditioners without person, and so on. These bad habits cause the unnecessary energy waste of air conditioner. For this, this paper proposed an energy-saving control device which is based on the outdoor temperature, indoor staff conditions and time mode, can correct the bad habits, and is suitable for small air conditioner. Application of the device can reduce unnecessary energy and labor costs, improve management efficiency, and also can bring good economic benefits to the family and unit, and it has positive significance for the energy conservation and emission reduction of society.%经过对空调器使用习惯的观察发现,普遍存在着空调器过度使用、无人却开机等多种的使用不良习惯。这些习惯造成了空调器不必要的能源浪费。对此,提出一种基于室外气温、室内人员情况和时间模式的、可纠正不良使用习惯的、面向小型空调器的节能控制装置。该装置的应用能减少不必要的能源和人工开支,提高管理效率,给单位和家庭还可带来不错的经济效益,对整个社会的节能减排具有积极意义。

  15. Air cooler ducts. A simple kind of air conditioner; Luftkuehlschaechte. Eine einfache Teilklimaanlage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glueck, B. [F und E TGA, Joessnitz (Germany); Westsaechsische Hochschule Zwickau (F.H.) (Germany)

    2005-07-01

    Air cooler duct cabinets are used increasingly for cooling and demoisturizing of room air and fresh air, sometimes also as auxiliary heating systems. They are more complex than conventional and have specific characteristics concerning construction, dimensioning, optimisation and control. A newly developed computer program enables pre-assessment of specific operational situations. (orig.)

  16. Air Conditioner Charging. Automotive Mechanics. Air Conditioning. Instructor's Guide [and] Student Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spignesi, B.

    This instructional package, one in a series of individualized instructional units on automobile air conditioning, consists of a student guide and an instructor guide dealing with air conditioning charging. Covered in the module are checking the air conditioning system for leaks, checking and adding refrigerant oil as needed, evacuating the system,…

  17. 无人值守基站空调室外机防盗方案探讨%Discussion of Guard Against Theft for Outdoor Air Conditioner in Unattended Base Station

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫保辉

    2011-01-01

    Outdoor air conditioners are missing seriously from unattended base station.In this paper,the discussion of guard against theft is given from the following aspects: installation of outdoor air conditioner,report of alarms,and accurate location of GPS terminal to lost outdoor air conditioner.%无人值守基站空调室外机丢失严重。文中从室外机安装,告警上报,GPS定位终端对丢失的室外机精确定位几方面提出了一种空调室外机防盗方案。

  18. On the performance of air conditioner with heat pipe for cooling air in the condenser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naphon, Paisarn, E-mail: paisarnn@swu.ac.t [Thermo-Fluids and Heat Transfer Enhancement Laboratory (TFHT), Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Srinakharinwirot University, 63 Rangsit-Nakhornnayok Rd., Ongkharak, Nakhorn-Nayok 26120 (Thailand)

    2010-11-15

    Improvement of the air conditioning system performance by using the heat pipe for cooling air before entering the condenser is presented. In the experiment, the heat pipe is fabricated from the straight copper tube with the diameter and length of 10, 600 mm, respectively. The arrangements of the heat pipe sets are arranged in the staggered layout with the tube rows of 1, 2, 3. R134a refrigerant is used as working fluid in the heat pipe set for this present study. By comparing with a conventional air conditioning system, the air conditioning system with three rows of heat pipe gives the highest COP and EER with increasing of 6.4%, 17.5%, respectively. On the global warming and environment problems, the results of this study are expected to lead to guidelines that will allow the improved performance of the air conditioning systems which reduce its energy consumption.

  19. The Oklahoma Field Test: Air-Conditioning Electricity Savings from Standard Energy Conservation Measures, Radiant Barriers, and High-Efficiency Window Air Conditioners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ternes, M.P.

    1992-01-01

    A field test involving 104 houses was performed in Tulsa, Oklahoma, to measure the air-conditioning electricity consumption of low-income houses equipped with window air conditioners, the reduction in this electricity consumption attributed to the installation of energy conservation measures (ECMs) as typically installed under the Oklahoma Weatherization Assistance Program (WAP), and the reduction achieved by the replacement of low-efficiency window air conditioners with high-efficiency units and the installation of attic radiant barriers. Air-conditioning electricity consumption and indoor temperature were monitored weekly during the pre-weatherization period (June to September 1988) and post-weatherization period (May to September 1989). House energy consumption models and regression analyses were used to normalize the air-conditioning electricity savings to average outdoor temperature conditions and the pre-weatherization indoor temperature of each house. The average measured pre-weatherization air-conditioning electricity consumption was 1664 kWh/year ($119/year). Ten percent of the houses used less than 250 kWh/year, while another 10% used more than 3000 kWh/year. An average reduction in air-conditioning electricity consumption of 535 kWh/year ($38/year and 28% of pre-weatherization consumption) was obtained from replacement of one low-efficiency window air conditioner (EER less than 7.0) per house with a high-efficiency unit (EER greater than 9.0). For approximately the same cost, savings tripled to 1503 kWh/year ($107/year and 41% of pre-weatherization consumption) in those houses with initial air-conditioning electricity consumption greater than 2750 kWh/year. For these houses, replacement of a low-efficiency air conditioner with a high-efficiency unit was cost effective using the incremental cost of installing a new unit now rather than later; the average installation cost for these houses under a weatherization program was estimated to be $786. The

  20. The Oklahoma Field Test: Air-conditioning electricity savings from standard energy conservation measures, radiant barriers, and high-efficiency window air conditioners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ternes, M.P.; Levins, W.P.

    1992-08-01

    A field test Involving 104 houses was performed in Tulsa, Oklahoma, to measure the air-conditioning electricity consumption of low-income houses equipped with window air conditioners, the reduction in this electricity consumption attributed to the installation of energy conservation measures (ECMS) as typically installed under the Oklahoma Weatherization Assistance Program (WAP), and the reduction achieved by the replacement of low-efficiency window air conditioners with high-efficiency units and the installation of attic radiant barriers. Air-conditioning electricity consumption and indoor temperature were monitored weekly during the pre-weatherization period (June to September 1988) and post-weatherization period (May to September 1989). House energy consumption models and regression analyses were used to normalize the air-conditioning electricity savings to average outdoor temperature conditions and the pre-weatherization indoor temperature of each house. The following conclusions were drawn from the study: (1) programs directed at reducing air-conditioning electricity consumption should be targeted at clients with high consumption to improve cost effectiveness; (2) replacing low-efficiency air conditioners with high-efficiency units should be considered an option in a weatherization program directed at reducing air-conditioning electricity consumption; (3) ECMs currently being installed under the Oklahoma WAP (chosen based on effectiveness at reducing space-heating energy consumption) should continue to be justified based on their space-heating energy savings potential only; and (4) attic radiant barriers should not be included in the Oklahoma WAP if alternatives with verified savings are available or until further testing demonstrates energy savings or other benefits in this typo of housing.

  1. A close look at air-conditioner air-filters; Klimaanlagen-Luftfilter unter der Lupe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reichert, F.

    2006-07-01

    This article presents the findings of a long-term study made on air-filters. Results of measurements made according to EN 779 under ideal conditions are discussed and their use as a basis for the assessment of performance in practice is looked at critically. The two-year, long-term study follows up earlier studies on the hygiene of air-conditioning systems. Real-life installations with F7 and F9 filters were tested. Measurement methods used are discussed and the characteristics of the filters with respect to micro-organisms looked at. Various factors considered are examined and alternative filter combinations are briefly discussed. The results are presented in graphical form. EN 779-specific tests made and the results obtained are discussed.

  2. Improving Best Air Conditioner Efficiency by 20-30% through a High Efficiency Fan and Diffuser Stage Coupled with an Evaporative Condenser Pre-Cooler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parker, Danny S; Sherwin, John R; Raustad, Richard

    2014-04-10

    The Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC) conducted a research project to improve the best residential air conditioner condenser technology currently available on the market by retrofitting a commercially-available unit with both a high efficiency fan system and an evaporative pre-cooler. The objective was to integrate these two concepts to achieve an ultra-efficient residential air conditioner design. The project produced a working prototype that was 30% more efficient compared to the best currently-available technologies; the peak the energy efficiency ratio (EER) was improved by 41%. Efficiency at the Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration Institute (ARI) standard B-condition which is used to estimate seasonal energy efficiency ratio (SEER), was raised from a nominal 21 Btu/Wh to 32 Btu/Wh.

  3. VRF air conditioner connected to the central control system. LON interface in the Sparkasse Greiz administrative building; Einsatz einer VRF-Klimaanlage mit Anbindung an die GLT. Ermoeglicht in der Sparkasse Greiz durch LON-Schnittstelle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loescher, L. [Mitsubishi Electric Europe B.V., Dresden (Germany)

    2007-07-15

    Central monitoring and control systems ensure automatic control and optimum operating conditions of heating systems, air conditioners and ventilation systems. The operating cost is minimized by early intervention. (orig.)

  4. Electrical and Control System Air Conditioner Teaching%空调器电气与控制系统教学的思考

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴雷; 阳丽

    2013-01-01

    空调器电气与控制系统部分是整个空调器教学中十分重要的内容,作者通过理论与实践教学,发现了当下在空调器教学中遇到的问题,并反思总结了一些有意义的经验做法。%Conditioner electrical and control parts of the system is the air conditioner is very important teaching content through the theory and practice of teaching, found a moment in the air conditioner problems encountered in teaching and reflect summa-rizes some meaningful experience approach.

  5. 谈暖通空调节能问题%On energy-saving issues in heat-supply and ventilation air-conditioners

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张志宇

    2016-01-01

    The paper introduces the meanings in the energy-saving design of heat-supply and ventilation air-conditioners,illustrates the design methods from the heat-supply,ventilation and air-conditioners,and sums up the precautions in the energy-saving design,so as to improve the u-tility ratio of the resources and enhance the extension of the energy-saving technique.%介绍了暖通空调节能设计的意义,从供暖、通风、空调三方面,阐述了暖通空调节能设计的方法,总结了节能设计中的注意事项,有利于提高能源的利用率,促进节能技术的推广应用。

  6. Simulation System of Modular Air Conditioner Control Based on WinCC%基于WinCC的模块式空调机控制仿真系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尤志强

    2016-01-01

    本设计是仿真模块式空调机的控制系统,系统的基本工艺流程是:通过温度传感器对室内外的温度进行检测,设定温度与室内温度进行比较,确定空调加热还是制冷。利用四通阀、热交换器、压缩机进行温度调节。%This design is simulating modular air conditioner control system,the basic process of the system is: measure the temperature of exterior and interior used to text by the temperature sensor,setting a temperature compare with the interior temperature, then determine the air conditioner is heating or cooling, in the end adjust the temperature by four-way valves,switches,and compressors.

  7. Study on breeding of acaroid mites in room air conditioners in Wuhu, China%芜湖地区居室空调粉螨污染研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    湛孝东; 陈琪; 郭伟; 李朝品

    2013-01-01

    目的 了解芜湖地区居室内空调粉螨的污染情况.方法 于2012年6-10月采集芜湖市居民家用柜式空调和壁挂式空调隔尘网的灰尘,对孳生的螨类进行分类鉴定,并按种统计个体数.率的比较采用x2检验.结果 共收集202份空调隔尘网积尘样本,检出螨类3265只,其中粉螨2796只,隶属6科14属18种;平均孳生密度为10.39只/g,孳生率为70.79%;柜式空调隔尘网积尘中螨类孳生率为58.73%,壁挂式空调螨类孳生率为76.26%,二者差异有统计学意义(x2=6.442,P<0.05).麦食螨科、粉螨科和食甜螨科构成比较高,分别为53.47%、20.96%和18.13%.结论 芜湖地区柜式空调和壁挂式空调隔尘网粉螨孳生情况严重,物种多样性丰富.%Objective To investigate the breeding of acaroid mites in room air conditioners in Wuhu,China.Methods Dust was collected from the dust screens of the cabinet air conditioners and wall-mounted air conditioners used by Wuhu residents from June to October 2012.The mites breeding in the dust were classified and identified,and the mites of each species were counted.The mite breeding rates were compared by chi-square test.Results A total of 202 dust samples were collected from the dust screens of air conditioners; 3265 mites,including 2796 acaroid mites,were detected from the dust samples,and they were identified as 18 species,14 genera,and 6 families.The mean breeding density was 10.39 mites/g of dust,and the breeding rate was 70.79%.The mite breeding rate for the cabinet air conditioners was 58.73%,versus 76.26% for the wall-mounted air conditioners (x2=6.442,P<0.05).Pyroglyphidae,Acaridae,and Glycyphagidae were commonly seen and accounted for 53.47%,20.96%,and 18.13% of the total tmites,respectively.Conclusion In Wuhu,acaroid mites breed heavily in the dust screens of cabinet air conditioners and wall-mounted air conditioners,with high species diversity.

  8. Auto-ignition of lubricating oil working at high pressures in a compressor for an air conditioner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Chul Jin; Choi, Hyo Hyun [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Sejong University, Seoul 143-747 (Korea, Republic of); Sohn, Chae Hoon, E-mail: chsohn@sejong.ac.kr [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Sejong University, Seoul 143-747 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-01-15

    Auto-ignition of lubricating oil working in a compressor for an air conditioner is studied experimentally. The adopted lubricating oil is an unknown mixture with multi-components and known to have flash point temperature of 170 deg. C. First, its auto-ignition temperature is measured 365 deg. C at atmospheric pressure. The lubricating oil works under high-pressure condition up to 30 atm and it is heated and cooled down repeatedly. Accordingly, auto-ignition temperatures or flammable limits of lubricating oil are required at high pressures with respect to fire safety. Because there is not a standard test method for the purpose, a new ignition-test method is proposed in this study and thereby, auto-ignition temperatures are measured over the pressure range below 30 atm. The measured temperatures range from 215 deg. C to 255 deg. C and they strongly depend on pressure of gas mixture consisting of oil vapor, nitrogen, and oxygen. They are close to flash point temperature and the lubricating oil can be hazardous when it works for high-pressure operating condition and abundant air flows into a compressor.

  9. Air- conditioner Energy Saving Renovation of Gaokai District IDC Telecom Room in Tangshan%IDC机房空调节能改造工程

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘婷婷; 田浩

    2011-01-01

    本文介绍了中国联通唐山分公司高开区IDC(互联网数据中心)机房空调的节能改造工程,根据改造后空调机组耗电量的实测数据,对节能型机房空调与普通型机房空调的能耗进行了对比,证实了改造后机房空调方案具有很好的节能效果,可为相似老旧通信机房的节能改造提供参考.%The air - conditioner energy saving renovation of Gaokai district IDC (Internet Data Center) telecom room of China Unicom Tangshan Branch was introduced in this paper. According to the measured power consumption of the air conditioning units after renovation, the energy consumption of energy - sav-ing telecom room air conditioners and common telecom room air conditioners were also compared in this paper. It was proved that the energy saving effect after renovation was extremely obvisus. This paper may be a reference for the energy saving renovation of similar old telecom rooms.

  10. Development and Application of Air Conditioner with Energy-saving Condensate Water Nebulization for Vehicle%车载冷凝雾化节能空调的开发与应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢建萍

    2011-01-01

    The author introduces a new type of auto air-conditioner, which has marked energy-saving effect through condensation water nebulization. This auto air-conditioner could be widely applied.%介绍一种带冷凝水雾化装置的新型空调系统。该系统具有明显的节能降耗效果,应用前景广泛。

  11. Strict Implementation of Air-Conditioner Temperature Control Standards to Actively Help Public Building Energy Saving%严格执行空调温控标准积极助力公共建筑节能

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    上海市节能监察中心

    2015-01-01

    简要介绍了2015年空调温控监察工作,提出了存在的主要问题、解决方法及今后空调温控监察的打算和建议.%The article introduces air-conditioner temperature control supervision work and puts forward existing problems, solutions and plans and suggestions on air-conditioner temperature control supervision in the future.

  12. 蓄能空调技术及其发展%The Technology and Development of Energy-storage Air-conditioners

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶水泉

    2002-01-01

    In this article importance of using energy storage technology in peak-clipping and valley-filling of the demandside management in our country' s power systems is generally discussed. With a practical application in projects, superiorityof the energy-storage air-conditioner is tested and proved. This article comprehensively presents some methods taken byadministration branches of domestic and international governments in supporting its application as well as its current appli-cation situation abroad.

  13. Alternative Refrigerant Evaluation for High-Ambient-Temperature Environments: R-22 and R-410A Alternatives for Mini-Split Air Conditioners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdelaziz, Omar [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Shrestha, Som S. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Munk, Jeffrey D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Linkous, Randall Lee [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Goetzler, William [Navigant Consulting Inc., Burlington, MA (United States); Guernsey, Matt [Navigant Consulting Inc., Burlington, MA (United States); Kassuga, Theo [Navigant Consulting Inc., Burlington, MA (United States)

    2015-10-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) High-Ambient-Temperature Evaluation Program for low– global warming potential (Low-GWP) Refrigerants aims to develop an understanding of the performance of low-GWP alternative refrigerants to hydrochlorofluorocarbon (HCFC) and hydrofluorocarbon (HFC) refrigerants in mini-split air conditioners under high-ambient-temperature conditions. This final report describes the parties involved, the alternative refrigerant selection process, the test procedures, and the final results.

  14. Alternative Refrigerant Evaluation for High-Ambient Temperature Environments: R-22 and R-410A Alternatives for Mini-Split Air Conditioners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdelaziz, Omar [ORNL; Munk, Jeffrey D [ORNL; Shrestha, Som S [ORNL; Linkous, Randall Lee [ORNL; Goetzler, William [Navigant Consulting Inc.; Guernsey, Matt [Navigant Consulting Inc.; Kassuga, Theo [Navigant Consulting Inc.

    2015-08-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) High-Ambient Temperature Testing Program for Low-GWP Refrigerants aims to develop an understanding of the performance of low-Global Warming Potential (low-GWP) alternatives to Hydrochlorofluorocarbon (HCFC) and Hydrofluorocarbon (HFC) refrigerants in mini-split air conditioners under high ambient temperature conditions. This interim working paper describes the parties involved, the alternative refrigerants selection process, the test procedures, and the preliminary results.

  15. Estimation of heat rejection based on the air conditioner use time and its mitigation from buildings in Taipei City

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsieh, Chun-Ming; Aramaki, Toshiya; Hanaki, Keisuke [The University of Tokyo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo (Japan). Department of Urban Engineering

    2007-09-15

    The main work in the research focuses on the analysis and mitigation of the anthropogenic heat discharged from buildings, which is one of the main reasons leading to the heat island effect. The residential and commercial buildings, divided into 10 categories, with HVAC systems were analyzed by the building energy program, EnergyPlus. With the help of GIS, the heat rejection of all the residential and commercial buildings in DaAn Ward of Taipei City were evaluated, in which the spatial data and diurnal variation of the heat rejection were described by 3-h time periods. Furthermore, the effect of mitigation strategies was discussed. The first strategy was to change the wall/roof material of building envelope. The second and third strategies, from the viewpoint of energy saving, were to change the temperature setting of air conditioners and to turn off the lighting and equipment when not in use. The fourth strategy was to use a better efficiency of the cooling systems. Finally, the evaluation of installing the water-cooled cooling system, which discharges heat in the form of sensible and latent heat, was also included. (author)

  16. Performance of a split-type air conditioner matched with coiled adiabatic capillary tubes using HCFC22 and HC290

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Guobing [School of Energy and Power Engineering, North China Electric Power University, Beijing 102206 (China); Zhang, Yufeng [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China)

    2010-05-15

    This paper experimentally investigated the system performance of a split-type air conditioner matching with different coiled adiabatic capillary tubes for HCFC22 and HC290. Experiments were carried out in a room-type calorimeter. The results have shown that (1) similar cooling effects can be achieved by matching various capillary tubes of different inner diameters; (2) parallel capillary tubes presented better system performance and flow stability with weaker inlet pressure fluctuations than the single capillary tube; (3) with the coil diameter of the capillary tube increasing from 40 mm to 120 mm, the mass flow rate tended to increase slightly. But the cooling capacity, input power and energy efficiency ratio (EER) did not show evident tendency of change; (4) the refrigerant charge and mass flow rate for HC290 were only 44% and 47% of that for HCFC22, respectively, due to the much lower density. And HC290 had 4.7-6.7% lower cooling capacity and 12.1-12.3% lower input power with respect to HCFC22. However, the EER of HC290 can be 8.5% higher than that of HCFC22, which exhibits the advantage of using HC290. In addition, the experimental uncertainties were analyzed and some application concerns of HC290 were discussed. (author)

  17. Performance of a new refrigeration cycle using refrigerant mixture R32/R134a for residential air-conditioner applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Jianyong; Yu, Jianlin [Department of Refrigeration and Cryogenic Engineering, School of Energy and Power Engineering, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China)

    2008-07-01

    In this paper, a new refrigeration cycle (NRC) using the binary non-azeotropic refrigerant mixture R32/R134a is presented, which can be an alternative refrigeration cycle applied in residential air-conditioner. In the NRC, refrigerant circuit of the evaporator is separated into two branches. Because the non-azeotropic mixture has the characteristic of temperature glide, an important benefit of such configuration is that the Lorentz cycle can be realized. Compared with that of conventional cycle configuration, the new cycle efficiency can be improved. The calculating results show that, in the conventional refrigeration cycle (CRC), the mixture R32/R134a has a close performance to that is obtainable with pure refrigerant R22. However, the mixture R32/R134a in the NRC will result in a better performance. The maximal COP can be improved in a range of 8-9% over that of the CRC, and the volumetric refrigerating capacity can be approximately increased by 9.5%. (author)

  18. Cost-Benefit of Improving the Efficiency of Room Air Conditioners (Inverter and Fixed Speed) in India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shah, Nihar [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Energy Analysis and Environmental Impacts Division; Abhyankar, Nikit [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Energy Analysis and Environmental Impacts Division; Park, Won Young [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Energy Analysis and Environmental Impacts Division; Phadke, Amol [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Energy Analysis and Environmental Impacts Division; Diddi, Saurabh [Government of India, New Delhi (India). Bureau of Energy Efficiency; Ahuja, Deepanshu [Collaborative Labeling and Appliance Standards Program (CLASP), Washington, DC (United States); Mukherjee, P. K. [Collaborative Labeling and Appliance Standards Program (CLASP), Washington, DC (United States); Walia, Archana [Collaborative Labeling and Appliance Standards Program (CLASP), Washington, DC (United States)

    2016-06-30

    Improving efficiency of air conditioners (ACs) typically involves improving the efficiency of various components such as compressors, heat exchangers, expansion valves, refrigerant and fans. We estimate the incremental cost of improving the efficiency of room ACs based on the cost of improving the efficiency of its key components. Further, we estimate the retail price increase required to cover the cost of efficiency improvement, compare it with electricity bill savings, and calculate the payback period for consumers to recover the additional price of a more efficient AC. We assess several efficiency levels, two of which are summarized below in the report. The finding that significant efficiency improvement is cost effective from a consumer perspective is robust over a wide range of assumptions. If we assume a 50% higher incremental price compared to our baseline estimate, the payback period for the efficiency level of 3.5 ISEER is 1.1 years. Given the findings of this study, establishing more stringent minimum efficiency performance criteria (one star level) should be evaluated rigorously considering significant benefits to consumers, energy security and environment.

  19. New and Green Multi-component Scaling and Corrosion Inhibitor for the Cooling Water of Central Air Conditioners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Maodong; Dai, Chenlin; Yang, Bo; Qiao, Yue; Zhu, Zhiping

    2016-12-01

    A green multi-component inhibitor was developed in this study to obtain suitable scale and corrosion inhibitor for the cooling water treatment of central air conditioners. The inhibitor formulation consisted of hydrolyzed polymaleic anhydride/Tween-80/sodium N-lauroyl sarcosinate/tolyltriazole (named 4-HTSA). Weight loss test and electrochemical method were used to investigate the corrosion inhibition performance of 4-HTSA on A3 carbon steel and T2 red copper in synthetic cooling water, and the scale inhibition performance of 4-HTSA was studied by the calcium carbonate precipitation method. The influence of parameters, such as pH, temperature, scaling and corrosive ion, on 4-HTSA was researched. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and x-ray diffraction were used for examination of the scale, and corrosion coupons were analyzed by SEM/energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy. Results showed that 4-HTSA had excellent scale and corrosion inhibition performance and wide tolerance to pH, temperature and the concentration of scaling and corrosive ion. Polarization curves indicated that 4-HTSA was anodic inhibitor.

  20. Effect of the air outlet louver on the noise generated by the outdoor set of a split-unit air conditioner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Junwei; Ding, Guoliang [Department of Power and Energy Engineering, Institute of Refrigeration and Cryogenics, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 1954 Huashan Road, Shanghai 200030 (China)

    2006-10-15

    In order to analyze the influence of the air outlet louver on the noise generated by the outdoor set of a split-unit air conditioner, the flow field in the outdoor set is simulated with the CFD software STAR-CD. The relative turbulent intensities are computed and the influence of the shape and the steel wire diameter of the air outlet louver on the noise generated by the outdoor set is analyzed. The results of computation and experiment show that the circular shape of air outlet louver gives benefit of noise decrease. An air outlet louver with different diameters of steel wires is designed on the basis of analysis of the influence of the steel wire diameter of the air outlet louver on the noise. The computation and experiment validate that the air outlet louver with different diameters of steel wires can improve the aerodynamic performance and reduce the noise generated by the outdoor set. (author)

  1. Air Conditioner Selection with TOPSIS and VIKOR Methods In Multi Criteria Decision Making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İrfan ERTUĞRUL

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Technological and global changes nowadays enable air conditioning sector to gain a higher importance. Short and long term risks for comsumers, the use of air conditioningtechnology with cost minimization, the increase of product charesteristics and firms, and the variability of product features have led to the need for multi-criteria decision. Therefore, caring the multiple criteria and the alternatives, the multi-criteria decision making techniques are taken to the scope of application. The purpose of the study is to determine the factors which affect the decision of air conditioning choice and to present the preference ranking suggestion. Having the nearly have got the approximately equivalent heating and cooling capacity, air conditionings in A+ class are included in the scope of related research. In application, when choosing air conditioning products, Topsis and Vikor that are multi-criteria decision-making methods are used and the results are compared and evaluated. When choosing air conditioning products, preference plansa re presented in the application.

  2. Experimental investigation on a solid desiccant system integrated with a R407C compression air conditioner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fatouh, M.; Mostafa, A. [Dept. of Mechanical Power Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, El-Mattaria (Helwan Univ.), Masaken El-Helmia P.O., Cairo 11718 (Egypt); Ibrahim, Talaat A. [Dept. of Mechanical Power Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, El-Mattaria (Helwan Univ.), Masaken El-Helmia P.O., Cairo 11718 (Egypt); King Saud Univ., P.O. 70908, 11577 Riyadh (Saudi Arabia)

    2009-10-15

    In the present work, experimental performance data of a solid desiccant based hybrid air conditioning system are presented. The system consists of a packed bed solid desiccant integrated with a R407C conventional vapor compression refrigeration system. Experiments are carried out during dehumidification operation mode for various operating parameters such as; desiccant mass on shelves (5, 10 and 15 kg), air mass flow rate (7.4 and 10.2 kg/min), shelves number (1, 2 and 3) and three values of shelves span (7, 14 and 28 cm) at evaporator air inlet conditions of 28 C DBT and 66% RH, condenser air inlet volume flow rate of 850 m{sup 3}/h and temperature of 35 C. The reactivation of the desiccant at different regeneration temperatures and air flow rates as well as desiccant masses is also investigated. During the dehumidification mode, the average system coefficient of performance increases by 6.2% and 1.61% when the mass of desiccant increases from 5 to 10 kg and from 10 to 15 kg, respectively. The enhancement in the coefficient of performance is 6.2% due to increasing the air mass flow rate from 7.4 to 10.2 kg/min. Increasing both shelves number and span yields to a reduction in the adsorption rate that can be extracted by the desiccant material in the ranges of considered operating conditions. The regeneration temperature and the air flow rate of regeneration have significant effects on the reactivation process. It was found that, with increasing the mass flow rate of regenerated air from 7.4 to 10.2 kg/min produces a reduction in regeneration time by 87.5% and an augmentation in the desorption rate by 16% after 10 min of regeneration. In addition, with escalating the regeneration temperature from 45 to 55 C, the reactivation time reduces by 25%. Reported results revealed that solid desiccant based hybrid air conditioning system reduces the compressor electric power and the number of electric unit (kW h) by 10.2%. (author)

  3. Practical experiments on an adsorption air conditioner powered by exhausted heat from a diesel locomotive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Y.Z.; Wang, R.Z.; Jianzhou, S.; Xu, Y.X.; Wu, J.Y. [Shanghai Jiao Tong University (China). Institute of Refrigeration and Cryogenics

    2004-05-01

    Experimental studies on the practical performance of an adsorption air conditioning system powered by exhausted heat from a diesel locomotive are presented. The system incorporates one adsorbent bed and utilizes zeolite-water as a working pair to provide chilled water for conditioning the air in the driver's cab of the locomotive. Performance tests under different running conditions have been carried out. Experimental results show that the suggested adsorption system is technically feasible and can be applied for space air conditioning of the locomotive driver's cab, except the case when the locomotive tracts a way train. The average refrigeration power ranging from 3.0 to 4.2 kW has been obtained under typical running conditions. (author)

  4. Study on Energy Efficiency Decay of on-duty Room Air Conditioners%在用房间空气调节器能效衰减研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何曙; 袁雅青; 吴志东; 田波; 戴兴学

    2015-01-01

    53 sets of on-duty room air conditioners coming from different temperature areas, made from different manufactures, having different cooling capacities and having been used no less than 5 years were tested and ana-lyzed.Results show that except for the decay rate of energy efficiency of products with different brands various signifi-cantly, the effect of service temperature areas, on-duty duration and cooling capacity on the decay rate of energy ef-ficiency is negligible.The energy efficiency of domestic air conditioners served for more than 5 years is much less than the minimum allowable energy efficiency values stipulated in current standards with majority 20%~30%lower, some even 54%lower.In order to analyze the potential of energy conservation and carbon dioxide reduction caused by accel-erating eliminating the on-duty domestic air conditioners, the market share of on-duty air conditioners in China in 2008 was taken for case study.Results indicate that even if the on-duty air conditioners were replaced by new air con-ditioners of minimum allowable energy efficiency, it will save 214.7 billion kWh power and reduce carbon dioxide e-mission 214.7 million ton every cooling season.If they are replaced by higher energy efficiency air conditioners or vari-able-speed ones, the potential of energy conservation and carbon dioxide reduction will be bigger.%对53台来自在不同温区、不同品牌的、不同制冷量、使用了5年及以上的在用房间空气调节器能效进行了测试分析,结果表明除不同品牌的产品能效衰减率差异较大外,使用温区、使用年限、产品制冷量对空调能效衰减率的影响不大。使用了5年或更长时间的家用空调器能效水平远低于当前标准规定的能效限定值,普遍低20%~30%,最高可低54%。为分析加速淘汰在用空调器的节能减排潜力,以2008年中国在用空调器的保有量进行估算,即使以当前最低能效水平的空调器进行

  5. Preliminary design package for residential heating/cooling system--Rankine air conditioner redesign

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-12-01

    This report contains a summary of the preliminary redesign and development of a marketable single-family heating and cooling system. The objectives discussed are the interim design and schedule status of the Residential (3-ton) redesign, problem areas and solutions, and the definition of plans for future design and development activities. The proposed system for a single-family residential heating and cooling system is a single-loop, solar-assisted, hydronic-to-warm-air heating subsystem with solar-assisted domestic water heating and a Rankine-driven expansion air-conditioning subsystem.

  6. Investigation of the compressor part-load behaviour and its effects on the per annum energy consumption of the air conditioner; Untersuchung des Kompressor-Teillastverhaltens im Hinblick auf den Jahresverbrauch der Klimaanlage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, Klaus; Lechner, Bernhard [Virtual Vehicle. Kompetenzzentrum - Das virtuelle Fahrzeug Forschungsgesellschaft mbH (ViF), Graz (Austria); Rieberer, Rene [Technische Univ. Graz (Austria); Moenkediek, Thomas [Audi AG, Ingolstadt (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    The air conditioning system is one of the most important ancillary units of a motor vehicle. Energetic optimization of air conditioners has been a key issue of research at AUDI AG during the past few years. As a rule, the cooling capacity of the air conditioner is controlled by adapting the compressor lift if the compressor is driven by the car engine and control via the rotational speed is not possible. As air conditioners ted to be designed for extreme conditions, the compressor will work at part load in most operating conditions. Optimization of the energetic efficiency of the air conditioner also means to look at the part-load behaviour of the compressor. Simulations have been used successfully by AUDI AG for many years now; the have helped to shorten development times and improve the product quality. The contribution describes an advanced model of a swivel plate compressor of a R134a cooling cycle with particular consideration of part-lift operation. The simulation model is based on measurements with continous recording of the piston lift. The focus is on the influence of reduced lift on the compressor efficiency. Another point of interest is the successful integration of the compressor model in the overall refrigerating cycle model which will be used for simulations of system performance and efficiency and for further optimization of the air conditioner. (orig.)

  7. Gohieria fusca (Acari: Astigmata) found in the filter dusts of air conditioners in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chaopin; Zhan, Xiaodong; Zhao, Jinhong; Wei, Guo

    2014-10-06

    Objetivo: La Gohieria fusca (Oudemans, 1902) se reproduce en la harina de trigo, arroz, maíz, piensos, salvado de trigo y los medicamentos a base de hierbas, además de en otros productos almacenados; este ácaro puede tener una reactividad cruzada de leve a moderada con alérgenos de los ácaros del polvo domésticos, una importante fuente de alérgenos de interior asociada al asma y otras afecciones alérgicas. Los sistemas de aire acondicionado son indispensables en edificios públicos y civiles, y las pantallas de estos aparatos son los lugares donde más se acumula el polvo. Se realizó este estudio con el fin de investigar si la Gohieria fusca puede reproducirse en las pantallas de los acondicionadores de aire instalados en espacios públicos o viviendas en la ciudad de Wuhu, provincia de Anhui, China. Métodos: Se recogieron 430 muestras de polvo de los filtros de los sistemas de aire acondicionado en la cafeterías de centros educativos, mercados, hoteles y edificios civiles entre junio y septiembre de 2013, y se aisló la Gohieria fusca de dichas muestras. Resultados: Los resultados indicaron que la Gohieria fusca estaba presente en 98 de las 430 muestras (22,79%), y la tasa de reproducción fue significativa en los filtros del aire acondicionado de diferentes espacios (c2=18.294, P.

  8. DEVELOPMENT OF A LINEAR COMPRESSOR FOR AIR CONDITIONERS AND HEAT PUMPS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report discusses the design, building, testing, and delivering to the Environmental Protection Agency of a linear compressor for operation in a 3.0- ton (10.5 kW) residential air-conditioning and heat pumping system. The compressor design evolved from a linear resonant piston...

  9. Performance analysis of a ground-assisted direct evaporative cooling air conditioner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heidarinejad, Ghassem; Khalajzadeh, Vahid [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Tarbiat Modares University, P.O. Box 14115-143, Tehran (Iran); Delfani, Shahram [Building and Housing Research Center (BHRC), P O Box 13145-1696, Tehran (Iran)

    2010-11-15

    In this paper, the results of performance analysis of a ground-assisted hybrid evaporative cooling system in Tehran have been discussed. A Ground Coupled Circuit (GCC) provides the necessary pre-cooling effects, enabling a Direct Evaporative Cooler (DEC) that cools the air even below its wet-bulb temperature. The GCC includes four vertical ground heat exchangers (GHE) which were arrayed in series configuration. In order to have an accurate prediction of the optimum performance of a GCC, a computational fluid dynamic simulation was performed. Simulation results revealed that the combination of GCC and DEC system could provide comfort condition whereas DEC alone did not. Based on the simulation results the cooling effectiveness of a hybrid system is more than 100%. Thus, this novel hybrid system could decrease the air temperature below the ambient wet-bulb temperature. This environmentally clean and energy efficient system can be considered as an alternative to the mechanical vapor compression systems. (author)

  10. Decentralized ventilation. Air conditioner of the future; Gedecentraliseerde ventilatie. De luchtbehandelingsinstallatie van de toekomst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, T. [Swegon Ltd, Kvaenum (Sweden); Hartmans, J.L.F. [Bergschenhoek, Berkel Rodenrijs (Netherlands)

    2005-11-01

    An overview is given of arguments to apply decentralized air conditioning systems instead of large central ventilation and air conditioning systems. It appears that savings can be realized with respect to investment, exploitation and the use of energy. [Dutch] Bij het ontwerpen van een ventilatie en/of luchtbehandelingssysteem voor gebouwen ging lange tijd de voorkeur uit naar het plaatsen van grote luchtbehandelingskasten die de ventilatie van het overgrote deel van het gebouw moesten regelen. De achterliggende gedachte hiervan was dat dit het goedkoopst zou zijn. Er zijn tal van redenen te bedenken waarom met een gedecentraliseerde luchtbehandelings-installatie veel beter op de investerings- en exploitatiekosten kan worden bespaard en een grotere efficientie van de energiebronnen kan worden bereikt. Ook kunnen in het ontwerp van de installatie bepaalde factoren worden opgenomen die bijdragen aan een veel beter totaal resultaat.

  11. Revisiting solar-powered ejector air conditioner - the greener the better

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arbel, A. [Institute of Agricultural Engineering, Bet-Dagan (Israel). Department of Central Agriculture and Environmental Engineering; Sokolov, M. [Tel-Aviv University, Ramat-Aviv (Israel). Faculty of Engineering, Department of Fluid Mechanics and Heat Transfer

    2004-07-01

    Previous work on solar-powered ejector air-conditioning system is updated for refrigerant R-142b to replace R-114 as the working fluid. Such update offers viable alternative to the system, which previously used the now banned R-114. Cycles with and without compression enhancements are analyzed to produce variety of systems to suit variety of local considerations. The result of the analysis and simulation introduces not only an environmentally compatible but also a more efficient system. (author)

  12. High energy efficiency desiccant assisted automobile air-conditioner and its temperature and humidity control system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagaya, K. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Gunma University Kiryu, Gunma 376-8515 (Japan)]. E-mail: nagaya@me.gunma-u.ac.jp; Senbongi, T. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Gunma University Kiryu, Gunma 376-8515 (Japan); Li, Y. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Gunma University Kiryu, Gunma 376-8515 (Japan); Zheng, J. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Gunma University Kiryu, Gunma 376-8515 (Japan); Murakami, I. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Gunma University Kiryu, Gunma 376-8515 (Japan)

    2006-10-15

    The energy efficiency is of importance in air conditioning systems for automobiles. The present article provides a new type air conditioning system for automobiles in which energy loss is small in comparison with the previous system. In the system, a desiccant is installed in the air conditioning system for controlling both temperature and humidity. The control is performed by an electromagnetic control valve, which controls an inclination of the rotating plate of a compressor. It is difficult to control both temperature and humidity precisely, because there are some delays in the control due to the time of heat exchange and that of coolant flow from the actuator (electromagnetic valve) to the evaporator. In order to have precise control, this article also presents a method of control with consideration of control delays. The energy of our system is compared with that in the previous conventional system in the same condition. It is shown that our controlled results and energy efficiency are better than those in the previous system.

  13. 恒温恒湿空调机PLC控制程序优化%Optimization of the PLC Control Program of Constant Temperature and Humidity Air Conditioners

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴建国

    2014-01-01

    optimized the PLC control program of constant temperature and humidity air conditioners in the production areas of Guangzhou Cigarette Factory. Using the methods of adjusting air moisture content of the air supply outlet to adjust relative air humidity, adopting cascade PID double loop adjustment in the PID algorithm of temperature and humidity, increasing the working condition recognition and correction of logic in each air conditioner and constructing intelligent air conditioning control module to realize automatic temperature and humidity adjustment, remarkable energy-saving effect has been achieved.%优化了广州卷烟厂生产区域空调恒温恒湿空调机的PLC控制程序,采取的措施包括调节送风口的空气中的含湿量从而调节环境的空气相对湿度,在温度及湿度的PID算法上采用串级PID双环调节,在各台空调机增加工况识别及修正逻辑,构建智能空调控制模块实现温湿度自动偏移等,取得了显著的节能效果。

  14. The Usage of Household Split-type Air Conditioner on Naval Vessel%家用分体式空调器在舰船上的使用情况

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何磊; 施晓波

    2013-01-01

    This paper expatiates some problems of small-sized water-cooling air conditioners using on naval ships. It analyses advantages of household wind-cooling split-type air conditioners compared with marine small-sized air conditioners. Some key technologies on installing and using of household air conditioners on naval ships are pointed out. Through theoretical analysis and survey, it is thought to be practicable to use household split-type air conditioners on naval vessel.%  详细阐述了船用小型水冷式空调器在舰船使用存在的一些问题,分析当前家用分体式空调器相比船用小型空调器的优点,并指出家用空调在舰船安装使用的关键技术。通过理论分析及实船反复调研,认为舰船上采用家用分体式空调器是可行的。

  15. 并联冷却的太阳能复合式空调节能特性%Energy-saving Character of a Solar Hybrid Air Conditioner with Parallel Condensers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    康靖; 王劲柏

    2015-01-01

    A hybrid solar air-conditioner with consideration of solar energy’s characteristics is proposed in this paper. We use the air conditioner models, which established by steady-state distribution parameters method, to simulate the influence of chilling water temperature obtained by solar assisted cooling system on the hybrid air conditioner operation performance. The air conditioner operation characteristics studied by analyzing the flow rate variation. Through comparison with another kind of basic model, we obtained variation of the thermal efficiency COP, and analyzed the energy saving character of this air conditioner simply.%根据太阳能的特点,提出了一种并联冷却的太阳能复合式空调器,并用稳态分布参数法建立空调器模型,来模拟计算太阳能辅助冷却系统制取的冷水水温变化对复合式空调器运行效果的影响。通过分析制冷剂流量变化研究该空调器的运行特性,并与另一种基本运行模式对比,得到了其热效能COP值的变化情况,并对该空调器的节能特性进行了简单的分析。

  16. 基于Matlab的CRH2动车组空调变频控制仿真%Simulation of Air Conditioner Frequency Conversion Control of CRH2 EMUs Based on Matlab

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏海龙; 杨美传; 刘峰

    2012-01-01

    介绍了CRH2动车组空调控制系统,并用Matlab/Simulink对动车组空调系统进行建模仿真,将空调变频控制系统与通断式空调控制系统二者作用下的客室温度和制冷量作比较分析,同时对过分相时动车组空调运行做了仿真.仿真模型能够较好地模拟动车组空调运行过程中客室温度和制冷量的变化.%Air conditioner control system of CRH2 EMUs was introduced and simulated based on Matlab/Simulink. Passenger room temperature and refrigerating output with frequency conversion control air conditioner system and on/off air conditioner control system was compared and analyzed, as well as air conditioner operation during train passing neutral sections was simulated. The built model simulates passenger room temperature and refrigerating output with air conditioner system well.

  17. 电子工业厂房洁净空调系统施工监理的控制要点%On controlling points for construction inspection for cleaning air-conditioner system of electronic industrial workshops

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕坤

    2015-01-01

    Combining with engineering cases,the paper analyzes the features of cleaning air-conditioner system of electronic industrial workshops, and illustrates the monitoring controlling points for the cleaning air-conditioner system of electronic industrial workshops from the materials and equipment entry,installation of air-conditioner wind system and air-conditioner water system,so as to enhance the cleaning air-conditioner system to achieve the expected effect.%结合工程案例,分析了电子工业洁净空调系统的特点,并从材料和设备进场、空调风系统安装、空调水系统安装三个方面出发,阐述了电子工业厂房洁净空调系统施工的监理控制要点,促使洁净空调系统达到预期的效果。

  18. Autonomous solar air conditioner. 100 percent solar powered; Solar autarke Klimatisierung. Mit 100% Sonnenenergie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hindenburg, C. [Fraunhofer ISE, Freiburg (Germany)

    2004-11-01

    Autonomous solar cooling is an interesting option in all cases where storage of chilled products brings about large inherent thermal (cold) storage potential, e.g. wine production. There are also applications in air conditioning of buildings in which autonomous solar cooling systems are technically feasible and economically interesting. (orig.) [German] Generell sind alle Faelle von Prozesskuehlung, in denen durch die Lagerung von gekuehlten Produkten prozessinhaerent grosse thermische (Kaelte-)Speicher vorhanden sind, fuer die solar autarke Kuehlung interessant, beispielsweise die Weinherstellung. Es gibt aber auch Anwendungsfaelle im Bereich der Gebaeudeklimatisierung, bei denen eine solar autarke Kuehlung technisch machbar und zugleich oekonomisch darstellbar ist. (orig.)

  19. Oil Return Measurements In A Unitary Split System Air Conditioner Using Different Refrigerant Mixtures

    OpenAIRE

    Feichter, Gabriel A.; Eckhard A. Groll; Kurtulus, Orkan; Meng, Ben

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study presented in this paper is an experimental investigation of the oil return characteristics of alternative refrigerants for residential air conditioning systems using R22. Due to the phase-out of HCFC refrigerants, the production of R22 will be stopped by the year 2020. In some cases of vapor compression systems installed in the field, it will be necessary to replace the R22 with alternative drop-in refrigerants as a part of maintenance procedures. Since R22 system typical...

  20. Segregated residential air conditioner load model behavior with temperature and humidity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belhadj, C.A. [King Fahd Univ. of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia). Dept. of Electrical Engineering; El Ferik, S. [King Fahd Univ. of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia). Dept. of Systems Engineering

    2005-07-01

    This paper considered the impact of outdoor weather conditions on air conditioning residential loads in Saudi Arabia. Humidity and temperature loads were analyzed separately. Weather data were collected for a period of 6 months at a typical household in the eastern region of Saudi Arabia. Inside and outside temperatures, and electrical variables of the household power system were recorded every 5 minutes. Humidity levels were then divided into 3 different comfort levels. A 3-dimensional analysis of the data was then conducted. Mathematical equations were obtained to represent power usage related to humidity and temperature. A regression model was then used to evaluate the influence of humidity on power loads. Field data were then used to validate the regression model. Results of the study showed that the model was able to accurately predict power consumption profiles related to air conditioning in the region. It was concluded that the division of humidity levels into 3 discrete intervals allowed for an improved understanding of the nonlinear relationship between humidity, temperature, and power demand. 13 refs., 2 tabs., 8 figs.

  1. Introduction of the New Edition of Air-conditioner Safety Standard%关于新版空调安全标准介绍

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田磊

    2013-01-01

    This paper introduces the new major points of the air-conditioner standard GB 4706.32-2012, and points out the key points of changes of new standard, and briefly interprets the concept of software evaluation.%  本文介绍了新版空调标准GB 4706.32-2012的主要新增点,指出了关键性的变化点,对软件评估的概念做了简要解读。

  2. Plug-bit design of residential air conditioners Thinking%住宅外挂空调机位设计的思考

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许群枫

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates the existing exterior design of residential external air conditioners bit placement method,concludes its four possible seat designs,and further leads to thinking and looking forward to a better future.%对现行住宅外观设计上的外挂空调机位摆置方式进行了调查研究,总结其四种可行的机位设计,并进一步引出思考,展望美好的未来。

  3. 基于CAN总线的电动客车空调控制方案%Air-conditioner Control Project for Electric Bus Based on CAN Bus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨桥生

    2012-01-01

    The author simply introduces two kinds of present control modes for air-conditioner of electric bus in domestic market,puts forward a new kind of its control mode based on CAN bus,and design the CAN's messages reports.%简述国内电动客车空调的两种控制模式;提出一种基于CAN总线的电动客车空调控制模式,并设计CAN通讯报文。

  4. Evaluation of the air conditioner quality in the health care sector; Uitvoeringskwaliteit luchtbehandelingsunit in de zorgsector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Haperen, K. [Carrier Holland Heating, Waalwijk (Netherlands)

    2009-02-15

    To specify the required quality standards for an air conditioning unit, the user must critically consider a number of criteria in order to decide what design and construction standards the unit and its built in components must meet; and these will depend on the application. The principle criteria involved are undoubtedly energy consumption, durability, reliability and maintenance costs. The choice of the manufacturer or supplier also plays an important part. [Dutch] Voor het vastleggen van het gewenste kwaliteitsniveau van een luchtbehandelingsunit dient de eindgebruiker een aantal zaken kritisch te overwegen om te kunnen beslissen aan welke ontwerp- en constructie-eisen de unit met ingebouwde componenten moet voldoen; e.e.a, afhankelijk van de toepassing. De voor de zorgsector belangrijkste toetsingscriteria hierbij zijn ongetwijfeld energiegebruik, duurzaamheid, betrouwbaarheid en onderhoudskosten. De keuze van de fabrikant/leverancier speelt hierin een belangrijke rol.

  5. Local Voltage Support from Distributed Energy Resources to Prevent Air Conditioner Motor Stalling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baone, Chaitanya A [ORNL; Xu, Yan [ORNL; Kueck, John D [ORNL

    2010-01-01

    Microgrid voltage collapse often happens when there is a high percentage of low inertia air-conditioning (AC) motors in the power systems. The stalling of the AC motors results in Fault Induced Delayed Voltage Recovery (FIDVR). A hybrid load model including typical building loads, AC motor loads, and other induction motor loads is built to simulate the motoring stalling phenomena. Furthermore, distributed energy resources (DE) with local voltage support capability are utilized to boost the local bus voltage during a fault, and prevent the motor stalling. The simulation results are presented. The analysis of the simulation results show that local voltage support from multiple DEs can effectively and economically solve the microgrid voltage collapse problem.

  6. High-efficiency gas heat pump air-conditioner equipped with absorption refrigerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imai, Yosuke; Ohashi, Toshinori; Okamoto, Hiroaki; Hihara, Eiji; Kawakami, Ryuichiro

    On conventional gas heat pump(GHP), waste heat from gas engine that uses as driving source is emitted into outside. So from the standpoint of efficient use of waste heat, it is assumed that waste heat from gas engine is used as driving source of absorption chiller, and high temperature condensate refrigerant in GHP is subcooled to middle temperature by cold source from absorption cycle, and as a result, GHP makes more efficiency. However, in equipping GHP with absorption cycle, downsizing and high-efficiency of absorption cycle is required. In this study, air-cooled subcooled adiabatic absorber is focused and physical phenomenon in it is analyzed, and finally one perception of the optimized designing is shown.

  7. High-Efficiency Variable Dehumidification for Air Conditioners: ClimaStat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    West, Michael K., Ph.D. P.E.

    2006-04-30

    Advantek has successfully developed the first low-cost technology offering significant improvement in both Seasonal Energy Efficiency (SEER) and comfort & humidity control. A production prototype was constructed based on a commercial roof top package unit. The prototype was operated under a wide range of psychrometric conditions. Test data was analyzed to identify refinements, which were implemented to further improve performance in an iterative procedure that resulted in a fully optimized technology. The latest results show an increase in dehumidification capacity of 56% with ClimaStat™ in full dehumidify mode vs. with ClimaStat™ off. Dehumidification improved by a factor of 1.7 to 1.9 – meaning that the unit can provide nearly twice the water removal per unit of sensible cooling load. Performance testing results have been consistent, verifiable and repeatable. . ClimaStat™ cost-effectively controls humidity on-demand and improves indoor air quality while reducing annual energy costs. Test data clearly shows that ClimaStat™ costs 20% to 60% less to operate. ClimaStat™ is ready for market.

  8. COP improvement of refrigerator/freezers, air-conditioners, and heat pumps using nonazeotropic refrigerant mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westra, Douglas G.

    1993-01-01

    With the February, 1992 announcement by President Bush to move the deadline for outlawing CFC (chloro-fluoro-carbon) refrigerants from the year 2000 to the year 1996, the refrigeration and air-conditioning industries have been accelerating their efforts to find alternative refrigerants. Many of the alternative refrigerants being evaluated require synthetic lubricants, are less efficient, and have toxicity problems. One option to developing new, alternative refrigerants is to combine existing non-CFC refrigerants to form a nonazeotropic mixture, with the concentration optimized for the given application so that system COP (Coefficient Of Performance) may be maintained or even improved. This paper will discuss the dilemma that industry is facing regarding CFC phase-out and the problems associated with CFC alternatives presently under development. A definition of nonazeotropic mixtures will be provided, and the characteristics and COP benefits of nonazeotropic refrigerant mixtures will be explained using thermodynamic principles. Limitations and disadvantages of nonazeotropic mixtures will be discussed, and example systems using such mixtures will be reviewed.

  9. On design for air-conditioners and ventilation in some orient home household square in Shanxi%山西某地东方家园家居广场的空调与通风设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王业辉

    2012-01-01

    重点介绍了某家居广场的空调、通风的设计特点,阐述了空调方式、防排烟、空调自控及节能等的设计,强调了空调设计中节能的重要性及消防设计的重要性,以期引起相关设计人员重视。%The paper mainly introduces the design features for the air-conditioners and ventilation of the household square,mainly illustrates the design for the air-conditioning ways,the smoke control,the auto-control system of air-conditioners,and its energy-saving,and emphasizes the importance of the energy-saving and the fire-control design in the air-conditioner design,so as to draw the attention of relative design personnel.

  10. Leakage Evaluation of Blend Refrigerant HCFC-22/HFC-152a for Auto mobile Air Conditioners%混合工质HCFC-22/HFC-152a汽车空调系统中泄漏性能分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张华; 谷松

    2001-01-01

    A analysis of leakage is carried out for automobile air conditioner charged with HCFC-22/HFC-152a. The performance of automobile air conditioners doesn,t obvio usly change when leakage of the blend refrigerant happens. The HCFC-22/HFC-152a( 40/60mass%) can be used as alternative refrigerant in the transition period of e xisting automobile air conditioners.%对采用HCFC-22/HFC-152a混合制冷剂的汽车空调的 泄漏性能进行了分析;说明了HCFC-22/HFC-152a混合制冷剂不会因泄漏引起制冷系统性 能的显著变化,它可作为现有的汽车空调系统的过渡替代工质。

  11. New Test Requirement for Energy Efficiency of Air Conditioner for European Market%关于欧盟市场空调新能效的测试要求

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    臧松彦; 刘勃宏

    2013-01-01

      According to the new energy requirement for air conditioner performed from Jan. 1, 2013 and the newly-released European Standards (EN14825: 2012), the testing and calculation method of Seasonal Energy Efficiency Ratio (SEER) and Seasonal Coefficient of Performance (SCOP) of air conditioner was illustrated with inverter air-conditioner, and it could be taken for reference.%  本文根据欧盟2013年1月1日起执行生效的空调新的能源要求,以及最新发布的欧洲标准(EN14825:2012),以变频空调为例阐述空调季节能效比(SEER)和季节性能系数(SCOP)的测试计算方法,以供相关人员参考。

  12. 中央空调风系统管道清洗的调查探讨%On exploration for investigation of pipeline cleaning of central air-conditioner wind system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    温嘉

    2012-01-01

    The study illustrates the necessity for the cleaning of the central air-conditioner system,introduces the development status and problems in the cleaning industry of the central pipeline air-conditioner system at home and abroad,and has the perspective for the future of the cleaning industry of the central air-conditioner system in China.%阐述了中央空调风系统清洗的必要性,介绍了国内外中央空调风系统管道清洗行业的发展状况和存在的问题,展望了我国中央空调风系统管道清洗行业发展的大好前景。

  13. 基于SINDA/FLUINT平台的R290房间空调器仿真%R290 room air- conditioner simulation based on SINDA/FLUINT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁杰荣; 李廷勋

    2011-01-01

    R290 is environment -friendly natural refrigerant, but it is flammable. According to IEC 60335 the charge is limited strictly in room air conditioner (RAC). In this paper, simulating models of R290 room air conditioner were developed based on SINDA/FLUINT, and the models were verified by comparing the simulated temperature distribution and system performance like COP and indoor air humidity with experiment results. With the models, the R290 mass distribution and pressure drop among the RAC components were calculated. It is found that refrigerant concentrates in condenser (62%), while pressure drop is mainly produced in evaporator, liquid line and vapor line.%R290制冷剂是环保自然工质,但具有可燃性,在空调中对充注量要求非常严格.基于SINDA/FLUINT仿真平台对R290系统进行建模,通过与温度和运行性能的实验数据对比,检验了模型的可靠性;计算分析了R290空调器内各部件的制冷剂分布及沿程压损.计算结果表明,冷媒主要集中在冷凝器(62%);沿程压损主要集中在蒸发器,液相管和气相管.

  14. Application of central air conditioner system on modular drilling rig of offshore ifxed platform%集中空调系统在海洋固定平台模块钻机上的应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗立臣; 许瑞杰; 马冬辉

    2014-01-01

    Based on the air conditioner selection of Lu Feng7-2 oil ifeld modular drilling rig project, this paper determines two sets of selection of air conditioner by preliminary study, which are central and separation air conditioner systems, respectively. With comparison between the central air conditioner and the split air conditioner in cost, effciency, comfort, space, etc., it concludes that the central air conditioner system has the advantages of lower operation cost, higher energy effciency ratio, better comfort capability, smaller space occupation and so on. It also analyzes its superiority and prospect of application on the modular drilling rig of offshore ifxed platform, which can provide a certain reference for the room cooling design and the equipment selection.%结合陆丰7-2油田模块钻机项目空调选型,通过前期调查研究制定了两套空调选型方案:集中空调系统方案和分体空调系统方案。通过对比两者在费用、工作效率、舒适性、占用空间等方面的特点,得出集中空调系统具有初始投入及运行成本低、能效比高、舒适性好、占地面积小等方面的优点,并分析了集中空调在海洋固定平台模块钻机上使用的优越性以及应用前景,对海洋固定平台模块钻机的房间制冷设计及设备选型提供了一定的参考。

  15. 某图书馆暖通空调系统设计分析%On heat-supply and ventilation air-conditioner system of some library

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王秀山

    2016-01-01

    According to the design ideas for the library,from heat-supply and ventilation air-conditioner system,cold and heat source system,in-terior layout,professional cooperation and other aspects,the paper analyzes a series of problems in the heat-supply and ventilation air-conditioner of some library,and illustrates respective treatment measures,so as to create the comfortable reading environment with suitable temperature and humidity.%根据图书馆的设计理念,从暖通空调系统、冷热源系统、室内系统布置、专业配合等方面,分析了某图书馆暖通空调设计中存在的一系列问题,并阐述了相应的处理措施,旨在创造出温湿度适宜、环境清新的阅读环境.

  16. Specific characteristics of the R744 (CO2) air conditioner for compact cars; Besonderheiten der R744 (CO{sub 2}) Klimaanlagen fuer Kleinfahrzeuge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kicherer, S.; Huenemoerder, W. [DENSO AUTOMOTIVE Deutschland GmbH, Eching (Germany)

    2005-07-01

    The European Union intends to ban halogenated fluorochlorocarbons (HCFC). Substitute refrigerants should have a global warming potential (GPW) of less than 150. The current refrigerant R134a has a GWP in the order of 1300 and will be banned. For the future, the German car industry is focusing on CO2 (carbon dioxide, R744). The advantages are a GWP of 1 (reference value for comparisons with H-CFC) and an excellent performance both in air conditioners and in combined air conditioners that can also serve as heat pumps. The cold generation capacity, however, is lower than with R134a in conditions of high ambient temperatures (above 35 ) and with the engine in idle operation, so that higher fuel consumption and slower acceleration may be a problem especially in compact vehicles with low rotary momentum. The specific characteristics of CO2 systems must therefore be taken into acount in car development in order to be able to optimize fuel consumption of the compressor. The contribution focuses on these characteristics and presents possible solutions. (orig.)

  17. On energy-saving of central air-conditioners in green buildings%绿色建筑中央空调节能

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯润娣

    2011-01-01

    阐述了绿色建筑的含义及我国绿色建筑的发展现状,指出建筑节能成为绿色建筑的核心内容,分析了中央空调系统在许多企业中所占的能耗比例越来越大,通过对中央空调实施有效的节能措施,达到节能的效果。%The paper illustrates the concept of the green buildings and the development status for the green buildings in China,points out the architectural energy-saving as the core content for the green buildings,analyzes the increasing consumption percentage of the central air-conditioner system in many enterprises,so as to achieve the energy-saving effect by implementing the effective energy-saving measures for the central air-conditioners.

  18. 浅析可燃性冷媒空调的安全要求%Analysis on New Safety Requirements for Air Conditioner With Flammable Ignition Source

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范建波; 陈信勇; 肖彪; 于丽

    2015-01-01

    The refrigerant of HCFCs will be phase-out and replaced gradually by environmental refrigerant which are flammable and explosible. At the same time, air conditioner are electrical equipment which contains a lot of live parts, it is easy to ignite flammable gases. This paper analyzes the protection of ignition source of the air conditioner with flammable refrigerant according to the standard. It provides the reference for related personnel.%目前空调行业有计划地进行逐步淘汰HCFCs制冷剂,取而代之的是具有可燃可爆特性的环保制冷剂.空调属于用电设备,含有大量的带电部件,容易点燃可燃性气体.本文结合空调安全标准,浅析可燃制冷剂空调点火源的防护要求,供相关人员参考.

  19. RESULTS OF USING MOBILE AIR CONDITIONER TO CONTROL CORN TEMPERATUER IN SILO IN SOUTH OF CHINA%南方立筒仓应用移动空调控温储存玉米研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄启迪

    2012-01-01

    对立筒仓的玉米应用移动空调进行控温储存试验,试验表明通过空调间歇性控温能确保玉米安全度夏储存安全,降低粮食保管费用.%Mobile air conditioner was used to control corn temperature in silo. The results showed that intermittent ventilation by using air conditioner can ensure corn stored safely in summer, it also can reduce storage costs.

  20. 空调器运行过程能值分析%Emergy Analysis on the Operation of an Air Conditioner

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢苇; 郑立星; 曾钰姣; 潘树林

    2011-01-01

    The emmergy analysis model of the operation of an air conditioner was established and some emergy indicators, such as transformity ( TV) , net emergy yield ratio ( EYR ) , environmental loading ratio ( ELR) and emergy sustainable index (ESI) ,were proposed based on this model. Besides,the formulae of environmental services were put forward. With the increase of outdoor ambient temperature or the decrease of indoor return air temperature, Tt and ELR rise, while EYR and ESI diminish. Those indicate that the air conditioner consumes more resources and the system sustainability decreases. The emergy analysis is more profound and comprehensive than the conventional thermodynamic analysis. The proposed emergy indicators present the total resources (including emergy resource) use efficiency of the system. Furthermore, different types of pollution can be quantitatively compared with according to emergy analysis, which finds out the thermal pollution ( a kind of energetic pollution) from the operation of an air conditioner consumes more than 7000 times as many environmental services as the simultaneous material pollution does.%建立了空调器运行过程能值分析模型,依据该模型构建了能值转换率(Tr)、净能值产出率(EYR)、环境负荷率(ELR)和能值可持续性指数(ESI)等能值指标,并给出了环境服务的计算式.随室外环境温度升高或室内回风温度降低,空调器的Tr增大、EYR减小、ELR增大、ESI减小,表明空调器消耗的资源增多,系统可持续性降低.能值分析比常规热力学分析深刻、全面,能值指标反映了系统包括能源在内的总资源利用效率.此外,能值分析实现了不同类型污染对环境影响的定量比较,发现空调器运行过程产生的热污染(能量型污染)所消耗的环境服务比物质型污染多7000余倍.

  1. 用于可燃制冷剂空调器测试的焓差试验室设计%Enthalpy Test Apparatus Design for Flammable Refrigerants Testing Air Conditioner

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴雪伟; 李敏; 吴俊荣; 姜敬德; 金星; 李瑛

    2014-01-01

    根据相关安全性要求对可燃制冷剂空调器焓差试验室的设计进行了研究,同时运用在制冷产品检测和试验装置研制工作中积累的实践经验,对传统空调器焓差试验室在电气、可燃制冷剂浓度监测和强制通风系统、可燃制冷剂空调器试验房间、空气处理机等方面进行技术改造和再设计,使其具有防爆能力,以满足可燃制冷剂空调器的测试要求。%According to the relevant safety requirements, the design of flammable air conditioner refrigerant enthalpy difference lab was studied. Development of work experience in refrigeration products inspection and testing device, the traditional air conditioner enthalpy difference lab was modified and redesigned in the electrical, flammable refrigerant concentration monitoring and forced ventilation system, flammable refrigerant air conditioner test room, air processor and so on, and had the ability to meet the explosive, flammable air conditioner refrigerant testing requirements.

  2. 冰蓄冷空调系统的设计及分析和测算%On design and analysis for ice storage air-conditioner system and its measurement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋智军

    2012-01-01

    Taking the ice storage air-conditioner system at A5 Block Office Building along Jinrong Street in Beijing as the example, the paper provides the loading balance strategies for the ice storage air-conditioner system, according to the features of the ice storage technology, the allo- cation main machine and ice storage equipment, undertakes the reasonable measurement for its operation cost, and proves the installation capaci- ty of the ice storage system is 65% of the regular air-conditioner system and its operation cost takes up 53% of the regulation air-conditioner cooling system.%以北京金融街A5地块写字楼的冰蓄冷空调系统工程为例,根据冰蓄冷技术的特点,配置主机和蓄冰设备,给出了冰蓄冷系统的负荷平衡策略,并对其运行费用进行合理测算,表明冰蓄冷系统的装机容量是常规空调系统的65%,运行费用是常规空调制冷系统的53%。

  3. 浅析某血液制品车间的洁净空调设计%Brief Analysis of Design of Cleaning Air-conditioner Used in One Blood Product Workshop

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓盼盼

    2015-01-01

    Based on the design of cleaning air-conditioner used in one blood product workshop, and combined with the special condition and design requirements, the principles and methods in designing cleaning air-conditioner were introduced in this article. At the same time, the notices in the design of cleaning air-conditioner and the special features in designing cleaning air-conditioner for blood products were analyzed and discussed.%以某血液制品生产车间的洁净空调设计过程为依据,结合该类药品生产的特殊情况及设计要求,介绍了洁净空调系统设计的原则及方法等问题,分析探讨了洁净空调设计时应该注意的事项以及该类药品的洁净空调设计的特殊性。

  4. On scheme design for central air-conditioner project in some wholesale market of Urumchi%乌鲁木齐某批发市场中央空调工程方案设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜维; 朱辉

    2012-01-01

    Taking the central air-conditioner system of some clothes wholesale market in Urumchi as the research object,the paper introduces the design scheme,the design ideas of the central air-conditioner in the project,indicates the main design parameter and the air-conditioner loading and the main equipment,and sums up the problems and solutions in the operation of the air-conditioners,so it achieves better operation effect.%以乌鲁木齐某服装批发市场中央空调系统为研究对象,介绍了该工程中央空调设计方案及设计思路,并将主要设计参数及空调负荷、主要设备加以说明,最后总结了空调运行中遇到的问题及解决办法,取得了良好的运行效果。

  5. A Scheme of Complying the Safe Standard for Axis of Motor in Air-Conditioner Outdoor Unit%空调室外电机轴的标准符合性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    臧松彦; 马洁丹

    2014-01-01

    Aiming at the safety problem of grounding continuity of axis of the air-conditioner outdoor unit motor, this paper performs the analyses for the question, by means of the analysis of relevant safety standards for air conditioner and the judgment of the grounding reliability for ball bearing in CTL decision. Finally, it proposes a scheme that electromotor in air-conditioner uses ball-bearing to comply with its grounding reliability of standard, with the structure of air-conditioner and electromotor.%本文针对本文针对空调室外机轴接地连续性的安全问题展开分析通过剖析空调相关安全标中准针对空调器具对应条款的具体要求以及CTL决议针对电机球型轴承对可靠性接地的判定,结合空调外机结构、电机结构,提出空调电机轴采用球型轴承的方案,解决其接地的标准符合性。

  6. Thermal comfort and indoor air quality in the lecture room with 4-way cassette air-conditioner and mixing ventilation system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noh, Kwang-Chul; Jang, Jae-Soo; Oh, Myung-Do [Department of Mechanical and Information Engineering, University of Seoul, Seoul 130-743 (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-02-15

    We performed the experimental and the numerical studies on thermal comfort (TC) and indoor air quality (IAQ) in the lecture room with cooling loads when the operating conditions are changed. Predicted mean vote (PMV) value and CO{sub 2} concentration of the lecture room were measured and compared to the numerical results. Both of them showed a reasonable agreement with each other and then we applied the numerical model to analyze TC and IAQ for a couple of different operating conditions. From the results we found that the increment of the discharge angle of 4-way cassette air-conditioner makes uniformity of TC worse, but rarely affects IAQ. It turned out that TC and IAQ are hardly affected by the variation of the discharge airflow. Finally TC was merely affected by the increment of the ventilation rate, but when the ventilation rate is more than 800m{sup 3}/h, the average CO{sub 2} concentration can be satisfied with the standard limits of Japanese in our case studies. (author)

  7. CO{sub 2} leak detection in motor car air conditioner components; CO{sub 2}-Lecksuche an Teilen fuer Automobilklimaanlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schopphoff, A. [Pfeiffer Vacuum, Asslar (Germany)

    2005-07-01

    A test chamber is presented which can detect leak rates of < 0,5 g/a in a CO{sub 2} air conditioner. Requirements are: 1. a low CO{sub 2} background, which is achieved by evacuation of a vacuum chamber; 2. a sensitive sensor (mass spectrometer) with equally high sensitivity for all gases. [German] Mit Hilfe der vorgestellten Testkammer lassen sich Leckraten von < 0,5 g/a in einer CO{sub 2}-Klimaanlage detektieren. Voraussetzung sind: 1. ein niedriger CO{sub 2} Untergrund, der in diesem Aufbau durch das Evakuieren einer Vakuumkammer erreicht wird, und 2. ein empfindlicher Sensor, der alle Gase mit gleicher hoher Genauigkeit messen kann (Massenspektrometer).

  8. Power-supply control circuit to reduce standby power consumption of air conditioner%一种能够降低空调待机功耗的电源控制电路

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    樊建海

    2012-01-01

    A power-supply control circuit was designed to reduce the standby power consumption of air conditioners. The control circuit determines the working status of an air conditioner by a sampling circuit to detect the actual operating current, and cuts off the power at socket automatically when the air conditioner is in standby mode for more than a minute or so. The actual measurement proves that the control circuit can effectively reduce the standby power consumption of air conditioner. The standby power consumption is less than 1 W when the control circuit is working. The optocoupler triac taken as a core element and the infrared receiver are used in the control circuit. The control circuit does not affect the normal use of the air conditioner's remote controller when it is working%为了有效降低空调的待机功耗,设计了一种旨在降低空调待机功耗的电源控制电路.该控制电路通过取样电路检测空调实际工作电流的大小,判断空调的工作状态,当检测到空调处于待机状态超过1 min左右,控制电路自动切断空调插座的电源.实测证明该控制电路可以有效降低空调的待机功耗,可以做到待机功耗不大于1W.该控制电路采用光耦可控硅作为核心控制元件,控制电路中使用了红外接收器,其正常工作时不会影响空调遥控器的正常使用.

  9. Modeling and experimental study on performance of inverter air conditioner with variation of capillary tube using R-22 and R-407C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarntichartsak, Pongsakorn [Faculty of Technology and Management, Prince of Songkla University, Suratthani 84100 (Thailand); Monyakul, Veerapol [National Science and Technology Development Agency (NSTDA), Phathumthani 12120 (Thailand); Thepa, Sirichai [School of Energy and Materials, King Mongkut' s University of Technology Thonburi, Bangmod, Bangkok 10140 (Thailand)

    2007-02-15

    This paper focuses on an investigation of the proper capillary tube length for an inverter air conditioner. Air to air variable capacity systems with R-22 and R-407C were tested and modeled. First, the optimum refrigerant charge was determined for four capillary tubes at full load condition by varying the mass charge from 1.1 kg to 1.9 kg. The capillary tube lengths were 1.016 m, 0.914 m, 0.813 m and 0.711 m. The two zone model, the distributed model and the combined model were compared to estimate the optimal charge inventory. The combined model analysed a simple path evaporator, a complex path condenser with a two zone model and a distributed model, respectively. It obtained good agreement with experimental results for the system performances and the optimum mass charge. Furthermore, four capillary tubes with specific optimum mass charges were investigated at compressor frequencies in a range of 30-50 Hz. The R-22 capillary tube obtains the best performance with the addition length of 1.016 m at the lowest frequency. Especially, the length of 0.813 m with R-407C is the appropriate size at the operation frequency of 30-35 Hz. The base capillary tube of 0.914 m is optimum at other frequencies. The model prediction agrees with the experimental data in a range of 40-50 Hz. (author)

  10. Experimental study of a R-407C drop-in test on an off-the-shelf air conditioner with a counter-cross-flow evaporator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mei, V.C.; Domitrovic, R.; Chen, F.C.

    1998-03-01

    An off-the-shelf 2-ton window air conditioner having an energy efficiency ratio of 10 was used to perform a drop-in test with R-407C. Laboratory tests were performed using a parallel-cross-flow (PCF) evaporator and a counter-cross-flow (CCF) evaporator. The CCF configuration is designed to take advantage of the temperature glide of R-407C so that the warm evaporator inlet air will be in contact with the higher temperature part of the evaporator coils first. The test results indicated that, at the Air Conditioning and Refrigeration Institute-rated indoor and outdoor conditions, the cooling capacity was 8% higher and system coefficient of performance about 3.8% higher for the CCF evaporator than for the PCF evaporator. The test results also showed that the latent load for CCF was 30.6% higher than for PCF. The far better dehumidification effect provided by the CCF evaporator design is desirable for areas where the latent load is high. The experimental findings should be useful for future efforts to design a dehumidifier that uses a zeotropic refrigerant that provides a significant temperature glide. R-22 test data from a previous project are included as a reference.

  11. On comparison of schemes for air-conditioners in some super-high-rise office buildings%某超高层办公楼空调方案比选

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨帆; 张博

    2012-01-01

    Under the environment of prosperous development of super-high-rise buildings,the paper analyzes some problems in the design of the air-conditioner system in the super-high-rise buildings according to the features of the super-high-rise buildings and combining some practice experience,compares many schemes,and chooses the most economical and applied air-conditioner system.%在超高层建筑蓬勃发展的环境下,针对超高层建筑特点,结合实践经验,分析了超高层空调系统设计中需注意的问题,并对多种方案进行比选,进而选出最经济、最适用的空调系统。

  12. 两种可应用于恶劣环境的空调高防腐粉末%Two types of High-anticorrosive Powder Applied in Air-conditioner in Severe Environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林路; 江秀华

    2014-01-01

    本文介绍两种空调用高防腐粉末的设计及在空调钢板上的应用,并通过盐雾实验来评定其防腐性能。结果表明,高防腐粉末可以有效提高空调的防腐性,扩大空调的使用环境。%This paper introduces the design of high-anticorrosive powder and the time the salt spray test in the steel plate of air-conditioner that can be attained. The practical conditions indicates that high-anticorrosive powder effec-tively improves the corrosion resistance of air-conditioner, and expands the operating environment of it.

  13. 移动空调噪声控制技术的研究与实践%The Research and Practice of Portable Air Conditioner Noise Control Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    This text focuses on analyzing the reason and course of the noise generated from portable air conditioner. With test data and analytic technology, it concludes that present noise control technology for air conditioner, which was proved effective in practice.%  本文主要就移动空调器噪声产生的机理进行分析研究,应用试验分析技术和解析分析技术,从而总结出目前移动空调器的噪声控制方法,并且在实践中被证明是有效的。

  14. 管翅式全铝换热器在家用空调上的应用研究%Application Research on Fin Tube Aluminum Exchanger Used for Room Air Conditioners

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    In this article, fin tube aluminum exchanger used for room air conditioners are studied and ana-lyzed in different aspects, including material option, experiment analysis and welding technology. Moreover, the feasibility which fin tube aluminum exchanger may be used for room air conditioners is raised.%  本文对家用空调器换热器采用管翅式全铝换热器的材料选择、试验分析、焊接工艺等进行了研究和分析,提出了管翅式全铝换热器在家用空调器上的应用可行性。

  15. 浅析美国窗式空调的能效法规和标准%Analysis on Performance Code and Standard of Window Air Conditioner in USA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李玉玲; 范建波

    2015-01-01

    本文根据美国窗式空调的能效法规和标准,概括了美国对窗式空调的能效要求,介绍了评估方法、限值要求、计算方法、能源之星、能源标签.同时,结合美国最新能效政策,提出一些建议,以供参考.%According to the performance code and standard of window air conditioner in USA, this paper analyzes the performance degree of window air conditioner. It introduces the evaluation method, the limit value, the verification method, the Energy Star, and the energy label. Combined with the new policy of USA, some suggestions are provided to reference.

  16. Hardware Circuit Design of Intelligent Power Module FSBB30CH60DA in the Frequency Conversion Air-conditioner%变频空调智能功率模块FSBB30CH60DA硬件电路设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘群群

    2016-01-01

    With the continued popularity of frequency conversion air-conditioner, the application of intelligent power module is more and more widely. This paper studies the hardware circuit design of fair child power module FSB-B30CH60DA in the frequency conversion air-conditioner. It proves that this power module circuit has the characteris-tics of sable operation, low cost, and high value of utility.%随着变频空调的不断普及,智能功率模块的应用越来越广泛,本文研究变频空调中仙童功率模块FSBB30CH60DA的硬件电路设计,此功率模块电路性能可靠、成本低廉,实用性好。

  17. Analysis on the Method to Start the Compressor of Inverter Air Conditioner%家用变频空调压缩机启动的浅析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李庆坚; 温得贤; 黄敬雁

    2014-01-01

    介绍并分析了目前行业内常用的压缩机启动方法,针对家用变频空调系统中压缩机在各负载工况下可能因启动力矩不足,而发生压缩机启动失败这一问题,通过对各品牌变频空调压缩机启动波形的分析以及实际的启动效果,得出一种较典型的压缩机启动方式。%This paper introduces and analyzes the common start methods of compressor in the industry. It is difficult to start the compressor of inverter air conditioner when the compressor is in harsh conditions. In this situation,it may put the compressor fail to start. Through the analysis of various brands of compressors of inverter air conditioners’start waveform, a typical starting mode of compressor is obtained.

  18. 几种隔音棉在空调器降噪中的应用%Application of Several Kinds of Cotton Insulations in the Noise Reduction of Split-system Air Conditioner

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张帆

    2015-01-01

    空调器使用隔音棉吸收因压缩机运行产生的噪音。本文通过对隔音棉所使用的不同的纤维层和橡胶层进行分析,探讨不同材料的纤维层搭配不同材料的橡胶层对空调器压缩机噪音的影响。结论表明,空调器压缩机的噪音会因纤维层的不同、橡胶层的不同,表现出不同的噪音值。%The noise generated from compressor’s running will be reduced by using cotton insulation in a split-system air conditioner. In this paper, through the analysis of different cotton fiber layers and rubber layers, it discusses the influence of the noise of a split-system air conditioner when using different fiber layers and different rubber layers. It concludes that the noise of the compressor of the split-system air conditioner will vary depending on different fiber layers and different rubber layers.

  19. A Design and Optimization of the AIER-SIDE Configuration System for Wall-mounted Air Conditioner%壁挂式空调送风机系统设计优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

      壁挂式空调送风机系统结构紧凑,影响其性能的因素很多,包括蒸发器布置、蜗舌间隙及尺寸以及风道型线等。本文采用送风机相似设计理论和CFD仿真模拟相结合的方法对壁挂式空调送风系统进行优化设计,取得了好的效果,设计精度高,开发周期短,表明该方法是壁挂式空调开发中一种行之有效的方法。%Wall-mounted air conditioner has a complicated configuration. There are a lot of performance factors, including evaporator disposal, tongue and flue. Applying the similar design method and CFD simula-tion, the paper makes a design for wall-mounted air conditioner. Results show the method is very accurate and is very useful for air conditioner design.

  20. On application of intelligent access control system in energy-saving of heating ventilation air-conditioner system%谈智能门禁系统在暖通空调系统节能中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏伟; 焦春玲; 罗炜

    2012-01-01

    The paper introduces the basic components and functions of the intelligent access control system,illustrates the application of the intelligent access control system in the various energy-saving of heating ventilation air-conditioner systems,including the workhouse heating system,the ventilation system,and the air-conditioner system,so as to direct the practice and to enhance the development of the energy-saving technique of the heating ventilation air-conditioner.%针对智能门禁系统的基本组成及功能进行了具体介绍,分别阐述了智能门禁系统在厂房采暖系统、通风系统、空调系统等不同的暖通空调系统节能中的应用,以期指导实践,促进暖通空调领域节能技术的发展。

  1. Use of nanoparticles to make mineral oil lubricants feasible for use in a residential air conditioner employing hydro-fluorocarbons refrigerants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Ruixiang [School of Energy and Power Engineering, Xi' an Jiaotong University 710049 Xi' an (China); School of Environment and Energy Engineering, Beijing University of Civil Engineering and Architecture, No. 1, Zhanlan Guan Road, Beijing 100044 (China); Wu, Qingping; Wu, Yezheng [School of Energy and Power Engineering, Xi' an Jiaotong University 710049 Xi' an (China)

    2010-11-15

    The application of nano-fluids in refrigerating systems is considered to be a potential way to improve the energy efficiency and reliability of HVAC and R facilities and to make economic the use of environment-friendly refrigerants. In this paper, we report a method that uses nanoparticles to enhance the energy efficiency of retrofitted residential air conditioners (RAC) employing HFCs as alternative refrigerants. The reliability and performance of RAC with nanoparticles in the working fluid have been investigated experimentally. A new mineral-based nano-refrigeration oil (MNRO), formed by blending some nanoparticles (NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}) into naphthene based oil B32, was employed in the RAC using R410a as refrigerant. A method showing how to disperse the NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoparticles in the mineral oil refrigeration lubricants is presented together with an investigation of their stability. The solubilities of the new MNRO in R134a, R407C, R410a and R425a were measured. The performances of the RAC, such as the cooling/heating capacity, the power input and the energy efficiency ratio, were determined. The results indicate that the mixture of R410a/MNRO works normally in the RAC. The cooling/heating EER of the RAC increased about 6% by replacing the Polyol-Easter oil VG 32 lubricant with MNRO. (author)

  2. Concentrations of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in central air-conditioner filter dust and relevance of non-dietary exposure in occupational indoor environments in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besis, Athanasios; Katsoyiannis, Athanasios; Botsaropoulou, Elisavet; Samara, Constantini

    2014-05-01

    Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers (PBDEs) are ubiquitous in the indoor environment owing to their use in consumer products and various studies around the world have found higher concentrations indoors than outdoors. Central air conditioner (A/C) systems have been widely used in many workplaces, therefore, studying of PBDEs in central A/C filter dust is useful to better understand the occurrences and health implications of PBDEs in indoor environments. The present study examined the occurrence of PBDEs in central A/C filter dust collected from various workplaces (n = 20) in Thessaloniki, Greece. The sum concentrations of 21 target congeners (∑21PBDE) in A/C dust ranged between 84 and 4062 ng g(-1) with a median value of 1092 ng g(-1), while BDE-209 was found to be the most abundant BDE congener. The daily intake via dust ingestion of PBDEs estimated for the employees of the occupational settings ranged from 3 to 45 ng day(-1) (median 12 ng day(-1)).

  3. Modular Design of Software for Air-conditioner Test System%空调检测系统软件的模块化设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈昕叶; 蔡燕君

    2013-01-01

    After modular design of the hardware and software for air-conditioner test system, only need to modularize the software, software engineers can easily construct a new system that meets the requirements. In this way, it can shorten software’s developing and manufacturing cycle, improve system software’s quality and stability, quick response for market changes, and increase the project’s throughput.%通过对空调检测系统中的硬件、软件进行模块化设计后,软件工程师只需要对软件进行积木式的模块组合,就可以轻松生成满足要求的新系统。从而缩短软件开发制造周期,提高系统软件的质量与稳定性,快速响应市场的变化,提高项目吞吐量。

  4. 齐鲁塑料厂中央空调节能改造%ENERGY- SAVING REVAMP OF CENTRAL AIR CONDITIONER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王效敏

    2011-01-01

    The central air conditioner in Plastics Complex supplied heat with desalinated water as heat medium which was heated by medium - pressure steam through a exchanger. After revamp, condensed liquid in styrene process is mainly used to preheat desalinated water through heat exchanger, and then heat exchanger for medium - pressure steam is used to adjust the temperature of desalinated water. This method is steam saving by means of waste heat utilization.%齐鲁塑料厂中央空调由原来的中压蒸汽通过换热器加热脱盐水作为热媒供热,改造后主要用苯乙烯工艺凝液通过换热器预热脱盐水,然后用中压蒸汽换热器调整脱盐水到合适的温度后供热。达到利用工艺凝液的余热,节省中压蒸汽的目的。

  5. 风冷式与水冷式单元空调机组的对比%Comparison between air-cooled and water-cooled unitary air conditioners

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵丽

    2012-01-01

    从不同方面比较了风冷式和水冷式单元空调机组的优缺点,包括机组能效比、名义工况冷源综合制冷性能系数、机房面积以及对总体建筑环境的影响.指出了对于大型会展建筑中冷热负荷具有临时性的空调区域,分散式风冷单元空调机组有较好的发展前景.%Compares the advantages and disadvantages of air-cooled and water-cooled unitary air conditioners from different aspects including the unit EER, the overall nominal working condition refrigerating coefficient of performance, the area of machine room, and the influence on the building environment. Points out that to the areas in convention and exhibition buildings with temporary cooling/ heating loads, there will be a better prospect for the decentralized air-cooled unitary air conditioners.

  6. A comparison of four methods to evaluate the effect of a utility residential air-conditioner load control program on peak electricity use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newsham, Guy R., E-mail: guy.newsham@nrc-cnrc.gc.ca [National Research Council Canada-Institute for Research in Construction, Building M24, 1200 Montreal Road, Ottawa, Ontario, K1A 0R6 (Canada); Birt, Benjamin J. [National Research Council Canada-Institute for Research in Construction, Building M24, 1200 Montreal Road, Ottawa, Ontario, K1A 0R6 (Canada); Rowlands, Ian H. [University of Waterloo, Ontario (Canada)

    2011-10-15

    We analyzed the peak load reductions due to a residential direct load control program for air-conditioners in southern Ontario in 2008. In this program, participant thermostats were increased by 2 deg. C for four hours on five event days. We used hourly, whole-house data for 195 participant households and 268 non-participant households, and four different methods of analysis ranging from simple spreadsheet-based comparisons of average loads on event days, to complex time-series regression. Average peak load reductions were 0.2-0.9 kWh/h per household, or 10-35%. However, there were large differences between event days and across event hours, and in results for the same event day/hour, with different analysis methods. There was also a wide range of load reductions between individual households, and only a minority of households contributed to any given event. Policy makers should be aware of how the choice of an analysis method may affect decisions regarding which demand-side management programs to support, and how they might be incentivized. We recommend greater use of time-series methods, although it might take time to become comfortable with their complexity. Further investigation of what type of households contribute most to aggregate load reductions would also help policy makers better target programs. - Highlights: > We analyzed peak load reductions due to residential a/c load control. > We used four methods, ranging from simple comparisons to time-series regression. > Average peak load reductions were 0.2-0.9 kW per household, varying by method. > We recommend a move towards time-series regression for future studies. > A minority of participant households contributed to a given load control event.

  7. The Research on Programmable Control System of Lithium-Bromide Absorption Refrigerating Air Conditioner Based on the Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Lunan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article regard the solar lithium-bromide absorption refrigerating air conditioning system as the research object, and it was conducting adequate research of the working principle of lithium bromide absorption refrigerating machine, also it was analyzing the requirements of control system about solar energy air conditioning. Then the solar energy air conditioning control system was designed based on PLC, this system was given priority to field bus control system, and the remote monitoring is complementary, which was combining the network remote monitoring technology. So that it realized the automatic control and intelligent control of new lithium bromide absorption refrigerating air conditioning system with solar energy, also, it ensured the control system can automatically detect and adjust when the external conditions was random changing, to make air conditioning work effectively and steadily, ultimately ,it has great research significance to research the air conditioning control system with solar energy.

  8. Solar-Powered, Liquid-Desiccant Air Conditioner for Low-Electricity Humidity Control: Report and Summary Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dean, J.; Kozubal, E.; Herrmann, L.; Miller, J.; Lowenstein, A.; Barker, G.; Slayzak, S.

    2012-11-01

    The primary objective of this project was to demonstrate the capabilities of a new high-performance, liquid-desiccant dedicated outdoor air system (DOAS) to enhance cooling efficiency and comfort in humid climates while substantially reducing electric peak demand at Tyndall Air Force Base (AFB), which is 12 miles east of Panama City, Florida.

  9. Analysis of the life cycle of a air-conditioner: results of the study; L'analyse du cycle de vie d'un climatiseur: resultats d'etude

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnabe, F. [CETIM, Pole d' Activite QSE, 93 - Saint-Ouen (France)

    2003-11-01

    French manufacturers of thermal, air-conditioning and refrigerating equipments, in association with the French technical center of mechanical industries (CETIM) and with the technical center of aeraulic and thermal industries (CETIAT), have carried out a life cycle analysis of a split cassette-type air-conditioner in order to qualitatively evaluate its impact on the environment. This paper presents the results of this study: more than 90% of the impacts take place during the phase of use and concern the energy consumption and the refrigerant leaks. The impact depends also on the geographic situation and on the energy sources used in the country for power generation. (J.S.)

  10. A Brief Discussion on the Development Trend of Auto- mobile Air Conditioner Evaporator from Physical Fac- tors%从物理因素浅谈汽车空调蒸发器的发展趋势

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐国艳

    2015-01-01

    This paper introduced the physical factors influencing automobile air conditioner evaporator, summarized the design methods and future development trend of automobile air condi-tioner evaporator, and worked out the most rational design scheme through comparisons.%本文介绍了影响汽车空调系统蒸发器的物理因素,总结了汽车空调系统蒸发器设计方法及未来发展趋势,通过对比得出最合理的设计方案。

  11. Manufacturers of Copper Tube for Central Air Conditioner Use Face Mounting Pressure in the Final Quarter of the Year

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    <正>This year,the investment growth rate of real estate industry continued to slow down,sold area of commercial housing also dropped significantly,which brought huge pressure to the domestic air conditioning manufactures.In the first half of the year,by relying on high growth in national financial expenditure,along with investment in public infrastructure

  12. Accurate Measurement of Air Conditioner Motor Winding in Electrical Safety Testing%电气安全测试中空调器电机绕组的正确测量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖凯佳

    2014-01-01

    GB 4706.32-2012《家用和类似用途电器的安全--热泵、空调器和除湿机的特殊要求》对家用及类似用途的空调器在安全方面作了强制性规定,其中第11章的发热试验是考察空调产品质量安全非常重要的指标,尤其是涉及电机的温度测量和计算繁琐且复杂,因此如何能够准确地对空调器电机绕组进行测量显得尤为重要。本文通过结合空调器安全标准条款要求,针对空调器电机在实际测试中的绕组测量展开对比分析,并总结提出科学精确的测量方法,以达到对整个空调产品的安全合格性更全面更准确地评估。%GB 4706.32-2012“Household and similar electrical appliances-Safety-Particular requirements for electrical heat pumps, air-conditioners and dehumidifiers”is the mandatory criterion for air conditioners with house-hold and similar purposes in terms of security, which the heating test of 11th chapter is a very important indicator for evaluating the safety of air conditioning products, particularly the measurement and calculation of fan motor tempera-ture is very complicated, so how to measured the windings of fan motor accurately is very important. In this paper, according to the requirement of air conditioners safety standards, we made a comparison and analysis for the windings measurement of air conditioner motor in the actual test, and put forward the scientific and precise measurement method, to achieve more comprehensive for the safety of the air conditioning products eligibility assessment more accurately.

  13. Cost benefit analysis and energy savings of using compression and absorption chillers for air conditioners in hot and humid climates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shekarchian, M.; Moghavvemi, M.; Motasemi, F.; Mahlia, T. M. I.

    2012-06-01

    The electricity consumption growth has increased steadily in the recent decade which is a great concern for the environment. Increasing the number of high-rise air-conditioned buildings and the rapid use of electrical appliances in residential and commercial sectors are two important factors for high electricity consumption. This paper investigates the annual energy required for cooling per unit area and the total energy cost per unit area for each type of air conditioning systems in hot and humid climates. The effects of changing the coefficient of performance (COP) of absorption chillers on cost saving was also investigated in this study. The results showed that using absorption chillers for cooling will increase the amount of energy consumption per unit area; however the energy cost per unit area will decrease. In addition this research indicates that for each 0.1 increment in COP of absorption chillers, there is about 500 USD/m2 saved cost.

  14. Dynamic Free Cooling. Efficient and energy saving air conditioner for datahotels; Dynamic Free Cooling. Efficient en energeibesparend airconditioningsysteem voor datacenters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Havenaar, D.

    2009-01-15

    Servers in data centres produce a large amount of heat, which has to be removed by ventilation and air conditioning systems. These systems have a vast energy consumption. Increasing energy costs and limited resources of available electricity are forcing the data centre industry to the use of energy efficient technical equipment. Dynamic Free Cooling is a contrN concept for data centre's air conditioning systems combining Hybrid Indirect Free Cooling Precision Air Conditiening Units, Fan Speed Controlled Dry Coolers and Speed Controlled Central Pumps to highly efficient precision cooling system. All system components are centrally controlled to minimize overall energy consumption depending on the Ambient Temperature and the Room Load Status. [Dutch] Servers in datacenters produceren een grote hoeveelheid warmte die moet worden afgevoerd door middel van ventilatie- en airconditioningsystemen. Deze systemen gebruiken een forse hoeveelheid elektrische energie. Toenemende energiekosten en de beperkte beschikbaarheid van elektriciteit zorgen ervoor dat datacenters steeds meer overgaan op het installeren van energie-efficiente systemen. Dynamic Free Cooling is een regelconcept voor airconditioningsystemen in combinatie met hybride indirecte vrije koeling in precisie-airconditioningunits, ventilatorgeregetde droge koelers en toerengeregetde centrale pompsystemen. AI deze systeemcomponenten worden centraal geregeld om het totale energiegebruik, afhankelijk van de omgevingstemperatuur en de koellast te minimaliseren.

  15. Experimental and performance study of the compact solar absorption air-conditioner system with thermosiphon solution elevation pump

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cong Lin; Zheng Hongfei; Tao Tao [Beijing Inst. of Tech., BJ (China); Li Zhengliang [Guangxi Teacher Coll., Nanning, GX (China)

    2008-07-01

    A new type LiBr adsorption solar air-condition system with thermosiphon solution elevation pump is designed, whose evaporator and absorption tanks are combined in a circularity, which makes the chill part very compact. On the basis of theoretical arithmetic, the comprehensive heat transfer coefficient on the evaporator side and the theoretical refrigerating capacity are got theoretically. By experimental study, some useful performance curves are got, which is significant for optimal design and improvement. The refrigerating capacity of the system can be got to be 2.14kW. (orig.)

  16. Semi-empiric model of an air cooled cabinet air conditioner for the dynamic analysis of the building and acclimation systems integrated behaviour; Modelo semi-empirico de condicionador de gabinete resfriado a ar para analise dinamica do comportamento integrado de edificacoes e sistemas de climatizacao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Correa, Jorge E. [Para Univ., Belem (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica]. E-mail: jecorrea@amazon.com.br; Melo, Claudio. E-mail: melo@nrva.ufsc.br; Negrao, Cezar O. R. E-mail: negrao@energia.damec.cefetpr.br

    2000-07-01

    This work presents a semi-empirical model for a air cooled case air conditioner. This model is to be inserted in the EPS-r program (Environmental System Performance - research version) allowing the dynamic analysis of the integrated behaviour of buildings and acclimation systems using this equipment. Results obtained from simulations under the operation conditions existing in Brazil are analysed.

  17. Accelerating Improvements in the Energy Efficiency of Room Air Conditioners (RACs) in India: Potential, Cost-Benefit, and Policies (Interim Assessment)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abhyankar, Nikit [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Shah, Nihar [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Park, Won Young [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Phadke, Amol [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2016-06-01

    Falling AC prices, increasing incomes, increasing urbanization, and high cooling requirements due to hot climate are all driving increasing uptake of Room Air Conditioners (RACs) in the Indian market. Air conditioning already comprises 40-60% of summer peak load in large metropolitan Indian cities such as Delhi and is likely to contribute 150 GW to the peak demand in 2030. Standards and labeling policies have contributed to improving the efficiency of RACs in India by about 2.5% in the last 10 years (2.5% per year) while inflation adjusted RAC prices have continued to decline. In this paper, we assess the technical feasibility, cost-benefit, and required policy enhancements by further accelerating the efficiency improvement of RACs in India. We find that there are examples of significantly more accelerated improvements such as those in Japan and Korea where AC efficiency improved by more than 7% per year resulting in almost a doubling of energy efficiency in 7 to 10 years while inflation adjusted AC prices continued to decline. We find that the most efficient RAC sold on the Indian market is almost twice as efficient as the typical AC sold on the market and hence see no technology constraints in a similar acceleration of improvement of efficiency. If starting 2018, AC efficiency improves at a rate of 6% instead of 3%, 40-60 GW of peak load (equivalent to connected load of 5-6 billion LED bulbs), and over 75 TWh/yr (equivalent to 60 million consumers consuming 100 kWh/month) will be saved by 2030; total peak load reduction would be as high as 50 GW. The net present value (NPV) of the consumer benefit between 2018-2030 will range from Rs 18,000 Cr in the most conservative case (in which prices don’t continue to decline and increase based estimates of today’s cost of efficiency improvement) to 140,000 Cr in a more realistic case (in which prices are not affected by accelerated efficiency improvement as shown by historical experience). This benefit is achievable by

  18. Design of a steady-state detector for fault detection and diagnosis of a residential air conditioner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Minsung [Geothermal Energy Research Center, Korea Institute of Energy Research, Daejeon 305-343 (Korea); Yoon, Seok Ho; Domanski, Piotr A.; Vance Payne, W. [HVAC and R Equipment Performance Group, National Institute of Standards and Technology, 100 Bureau Drive, MS 8631, Gaithersburg, MD 20899 (United States)

    2008-08-15

    This paper presents a general methodology for developing a steady-state detector for a vapor compression system based on a moving window and using standard deviations of seven measurements selected as features. The feature thresholds and optimized moving window size were based upon steady-state no-fault tests and startup transient tests. The study showed that evaporator superheat and condenser subcooling were sufficient for determining the onset of steady-state during the startup transient. However, they misidentified steady-state during indoor temperature change tests where evaporator saturation temperature and air temperature change across the evaporator were needed for proper steady-state identification. Hence, the paper recommends including all fault detection and diagnosis (FDD) features in the steady-state detector to ensure the robustness of the detector because different features may play key roles with different transients. (author)

  19. Air Conditioners%空调

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    空调的匹数,原指输入功率,包括压缩机,风扇电机及电控部分,因不同的品牌其具体的系统及电控设计差异,其输出的制冷量不同,故其制冷量以输出功率计算。一般来说,1匹的制冷量大致为2000大卡,换算成国际单位应乘以1.162,则1.5匹的空调应为2000大卡×1.5×1.162=3486(W),这里的瓦(VV)即表示制冷量。

  20. Air Conditioners%空调

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    随着五一期间连续几天的高温,感觉今年的夏天来得格外的早。这对于空调市场来说可是个好事,高温提前到来就意味着空调热卖期的提前到来。小编在五一期间也在各大卖场转了转,发现各大空调品牌的新款机型基本都已经上市,品牌间的 竞争也越发激烈起来。空调市场从不缺乏亮点.从价格战到新品战、从服务战到品牌博弈.

  1. Air Conditioners%空调

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    在炎夏到来之前.空调已经成为各大电器卖场的紧俏商品.在现在人们的消费水平之下.享受空调已经不是什么奢侈的愿望。对于大功率的空调.人们对它的普遍看法是:耗电巨大.价格昂贵。没错.就是这样.这样的空调似乎是针对企业、机关团体用户多些.而对于家用呢?我们走访了北京大中电器马甸店.从销售人员口中得知.在家用领域.购买这些大功率的空调的用户也不少.因为北京的高消费群体是不少的.像几款进口品牌的空调.都是原装进口的,

  2. Air Conditioners%空调

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    3匹的空调算是空调制冷大户了,一般家用空调产品都在3匹及以下,消费者购买柜机主要是摆放在客厅里,所以目前市场上的柜机空调外形都非常靓丽,以往空调都以白色为主色调,如果你现在再去卖场空调部转上一圈的话,

  3. 一种空调交流接触器用AgNi触点材料的研究%AgNi Contact Material for AC Contactor of Air Conditioner

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    AgNi contact materials used in AC contactors of air conditioners were introduced. Proper-ties of AgNi contact materials with different Ni contents and different types of additives were com-pared, including the physical properties, material losses, arc energy and welding force. Results show that, because of the requirements of high rated current and long service life, the optimum Ni content in AgNi contact materials for AC contactors of air conditioners is 15%. Meanwhile the addition of trace amounts of brittle substance will improve the electrical properties of AgNi materi-als.%  介绍了空调交流接触器用AgNi触点材料,比较了不同Ni含量和不同类型添加物的AgNi触点材料的力学物理性能、烧损量、燃弧能量以及熔焊力等。结果表明,对于额定电流大、电寿命要求高的空调接触器用AgNi触点材料,其最佳Ni含量为15%左右;添加微量脆性物质能改善AgNi触点材料的电性能。

  4. 节能型水源热泵中央空调在居住小区中的应用%On application of energy-saving water source heat pump center air-conditioner in residential complex

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵艳军

    2012-01-01

    The paper introduces the basic principle for the energy-saving water source heat pump center air-conditioner,has the detailed indication of the "green,environmental-friendly,energy-saving and comfortable" new resource,undertakes the comparative analysis by comparing it with other resources by the list intercomparison from the comfortableness,the initial investment and the running cost,and concludes the energy-saving geothermic air-conditioner can bring newer and more comfortable living environment%介绍了节能型水源热泵中央空调的基本原理,对这种"绿色、环保、节能、舒适"的新能源做了详尽的说明,并通过列表比对等方法与其他能源形式从舒适性、初投资及运行费等方面进行了对比分析,得出节能型地温中央空调将为居住小区带来全新和更为舒适的生活环境的结论。

  5. 基于随机振动时可靠性约束的商用室外机管路优化%Pipes Optimization of Outdoor Unit of Commercial Air Conditioner Based on Reliability Constraint during Random Vibration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

      应用ANSYS对随机振动下商用室外机管路的响应进行分析,应用Miner线性疲劳累计损伤理论和材料的S-N曲线,估算室外机的疲劳寿命,结合正交试验表,确定商用室外机管路最佳尺寸组合,提升室外机的疲劳寿命。%In this article, the FEA software ANSYS is used to simulate the stress distribution of the outdoor unit of commercial air conditioner caused by the random vibration. The Miner’s linear fatigue accumulation rule and the S-N curve of the materials are used to estimate the fatigue life of the outdoor unit of the commercial air conditioner. The orthogonal experiment is used to analyze the optimum size of pipe structure, so as to improve the fatigue life of outdoor unit.

  6. 一种应用功能可模块组合的空调操作器%An Operation Device of Air Conditioner Which Application Function Can Be Composite Module

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

      本文介绍一种易于推广及应用的空调操作器。该操作器通过有线连接的方式与空调产品的主控板连接,实现应用功能的模块组合,满足个性化用户的需求。同时,企业可以把最新的应用技术分阶段开发,以有偿的方式服务客户。%This paper introduces a kind of operation device of air conditioner which is easy to promote and is applicable. This device connects to the control board of air conditioner by cable. The application functions which can be composite module are easy to meet the various needs of personalized customers. At the same time, the enterprise can integrate the latest technology developed in stages to service customer by the means of charge.

  7. On application of heating ventilation air-conditioner energy-saving issue and ground source heat pump%谈暖通空调节能问题与地源热泵的实际应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄长晖

    2012-01-01

    针对暖通空调:市能问题进行了研究,结合实际案例介绍了地源热泵在工程项目中的应用,通过与以城市供热为热源的室内散热器取暖方案进行对比分析,得出地源热泵系统能够有效解决空调系统节能问题,值得推广。%The paper researches the energy-saving issue of heating air-conditioner, introduces the application of the ground source heat pump in the engineering program by combining with the factual cases, undertakes the comparative analysis of the heating scheme for the indoor radiator which regards the urban heating supply as the source, and concludes the ground source heat pump system can solve the energy-saving issue of the air-conditioner system, so it can be further applied.

  8. 基于PIC18F45J10的TEC半导体工业空调控制系统%TEC Peltier Industry Air Conditioner Control System based on PIC18F45J10

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李睿; 芮贤义

    2011-01-01

    This paper introduces the structure and advantage of TEC peltier industry air conditioner system at first, and its design by bilolar control based on PICI8F45510, describes its functions and features. Then research its working principle design its input main circuit, output load circuit etc. The experiment results indicate that TEC peltier industry air conditioner control system with low cost, high efficiency is feasible.%本文首先介绍了TEC半导体工业空调控制系统的结构和优点,设计了基于PIC18F45J10的双极性控制器构成的TEC半导体工业空调,阐述了其功能和特点.接着研究TEC半导体工业空调控制系统的工作原理,设计输入主电路,输出负载控制电路等.实验结果表明低成本,高效率的TEC半导体工业空调控制系统的可行性.

  9. 双变频压缩机并联系统及其在多联机上的应用%The System With Two Parallel Connected Variable Speed Compressors and Its Application on Multiple-split Air-conditioner

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡锐

    2014-01-01

    The system with two parallel connected variable speed compressors is a new air-conditioner system which has two variable speed compressors in a outdoor unit instead of one inverter compressor. Through theory analyzing and testing, we prove that this system is more efficient than the traditional system with one variable speed compressor, especially on multiple-split air-conditioner whose load is variable.%双变频压缩机并联系统是通过使用两台小排气量的变频压缩机代替传统的单变频压缩机的一种新型空调系统。经理论分析及试验验证,双变频压缩机并联系统应用于负荷变化大的多联机组时比传统的单压缩机系统能效优势明显。

  10. The System with Two Parallel Connected Variable Speed Compressors and Its Application on Multiple-split Air-conditioner%双变频压缩机并联系统及其在多联机上的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡锐

    2014-01-01

    双变频压缩机并联系统是通过使用两台小排气量的变频压缩机代替传统的单变频压缩机的一种新型的空调系统。经理论分析及试验验证,双变频压缩机并联系统应用于负荷变化大的多联机组,比传统的单压缩机系统能效优势明显。%The system with two parallel connected variable speed compressors is a new air-conditioner system which has two variable speed compressors in a outdoor unit instead of one inverter compressor. Through theory analyzing and testing, we proved that this system is more efficient than the traditional system with one variable speed compressor, es-pecially on multiple-split air-conditioner whose load is variable.

  11. Study of Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor Used in Compressor for High-Efficient Inverter Air Conditioner%高效变频空调压缩机用永磁同步电机研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张少丕; 陈世元; 皮明超

    2014-01-01

    Critical dimension of permanent magnet synchronous motor used in compressor for the home inverter air conditioner was confirmed by magnetic circuit analysis method, and motor performances were calculated accurately by finite element method. Comparing the difference between theoretical designed value and testing value of motor performances, compared the performance of inverter compressor and the corresponding air conditioner, the actual test showed that this method was accurate and feasible.%拟采用磁路解法确认家用变频空调器的压缩机用调速永磁同步电机的关键尺寸,再利用有限元分析方法精确计算电机的各项性能。对比电动机性能的理论设计值与实际测试值的差异,同时对比了变频压缩机和对应空调器的性能,通过实际测试说明该方法的准确性与可行性。

  12. 房间空调器长效节能评价体系研究现状及发展趋势%Research Status and Development Trend of Evacuation System of Long-term Energy Conservation for Room Air Conditioners

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱京多; 陈争; 刘韧

    2015-01-01

    我国是世界上空调器发展最快的国家之一,伴随着空调器的快速发展,空调器的能效标准和评价方式及评价体系也在不断变化,考核指标及考核方法日新月异。本文通过对空调器能效标准体系以及影响空调长效性能因素的国内外研究现状进行分析,指出考虑多影响因素的长效节能空调器评价体系能够更加全面的对空调节能性能进行考察,有利于提高住宅和商业建筑房间空调器能效,推动中国空调市场向节能转变,真正实现家电行业节能减排。%China is one of the most promising countries in the world today, especially in the field of air conditioner industry. The energy efficiency standards, evaluation method and system, and index for air conditioner are also in constant changing with the rapid development of air conditioner industry of China. Through analyzing the research status of energy efficiency standard system of air conditioners and the factors influencing the long-term performance at home and abroad this paper points out that comprehensively considering the factors that influencing the evaluation system of long-term energy conservation air conditioners is able to comprehensively access the energy-saving performance of air conditioner. It helps to improve the energy efficiency of the residential and commercial building room air conditioner, promote the energy-saving trend of air conditioner market in China, and realize the energy conservation and emission reduction in household appliances industry.

  13. Research and Evaluation for a Bed Air-conditioner by Semiconductor Thermoelectric Effect%一种利用半导体热电效应的空调床的性能研究及其评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周敬雯; 邓帅; 代彦军; 王如竹

    2012-01-01

    为了降低夜间空调能耗,基于帕尔帖效应设计了一种床体局部空调,简称空调床.空调床由床头制冷装置和床尾供暖装置构成,在满足床内舒适温度需求的同时,可以实现“头凉脚暖”的局部温度场.测试结果表明:冬季空调床维持床内温度为22℃时,功率为0.1 kW~0.2kW,脚部空气温度比头部约高6℃;夏季当室温低于30℃,床内维持28℃时,功率为0.06kW至0.12kW,脚部空气温度比头部约高1.5℃.此外,通过系统模拟分析可知,一定条件下,空调床的使用可在冬季夜间节约空调耗电约52%,夏季节约42%.%In order to reduce energy consumption of air-conditioner during night, one zoning air-conditioner fixed on the bed, namely bed AC, is developed based on peltier effect. The bed AC is equipped with a heating unit on the foot part and a cooling unit on the head part. It not only meets the thermal comfort of a bed, but also can create a comfortable environment about "warm foot and cool head". In winter, bed AC can maintain bed air temperature at 22℃, and its power is about 0.1kW~0.2kW, and foot air temperature is approximately 6℃ higher than that of head. In summer, if room temperature is lower than 30 ℃, bed AC can keep bed air temperature at 28℃, and its power varies from 0.06kW to 0.12kW, and head air temperature is nearly 1.5℃ lower than that of foot. By system simulation, the energy-saving performance is also studied. It can be found that energy saving rate of bed AC in winter and summer sleeping time is 52% and 42% respectively, compared with traditional split air-conditioner.

  14. 一种多效应移动式节能环保空调设计%Design of mobile energy-saving air-conditioner with multiple effects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢满怀; 汤绮婷; 于晓光

    2012-01-01

    It introduces the design of a kind of energy saving air-conditioner with multi- effects,with normal water as refrigerant, by applying comprehensively triple refrigeration technology of the air-conditioner covering water surface evaporative refrigeration,semiconductor refrigeration and heat lithium bromide absorption refrigerationAt the same time, higher environmental cleanliness and the result of cooling efficiency are realized by increasing air flow and controlling temperature and humidity.The experiment evidences that the new air-conditioner is more creative in energy conservation, emission reduction,human comfort improvement as well as convenience in use,cost and price than the traditional oneAs the air-conditioning design principles is not the same with the traditional, no fixed installation is necessary,which can be applied not only in open environment but also in densely populated areas for improving the quality of air and decreasing the temperature with significant advantages in the cooling rate,health,economy,and environmental protection.%介绍了一种以常态水为冷媒,综合应用水表面蒸发制冷、半导体制冷和溴化锂吸收半导体余热制冷的三重制冷技术的多效应移动式节能环保空调;同时,通过加大风流量和温湿度的控制,实现提高环境洁净度和制冷效率的效果.实验证明,与传统空调相比,研究的环保空调在节能减排、提高人体舒适度、使用便捷性、价格成本等方面有很大的创新.由于空调的设计原理与传统空调不一样,无需固定安装,使用环境可开放式,在人口密集地方既能降温又能提高空气的质量,在降温速度、卫生、经济、环保等方面有显著的优点.

  15. Microbiota fúngica dos condicionadores de ar nas unidades de terapia intensiva de Teresina, PI Fungus microbiota in air conditioners in intensive care units in Teresina, Piauí

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitra Mobin

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Com intuito de identificar a microbiota fúngica em condicionadores de ar nas unidades de terapia intensiva de hospitais públicos e particulares de Teresina-PI, coletou-se material sólido de dez UTIs, isolando 33 espécies pertencentes às Moniliaceae e Dematiaceae, sendo primeira referência para o Piauí. Registrou-se elevada freqüência de Aspergillus niger Van Tieghem (60%; Aspergillus fumigatus Fres (50%; Trichoderma koningii Oudem (50%, Aspergillus flavus Link: Fr (40%. A validade da limpeza dos condicionadores de ar ultrapassou em todas as UTIs, a quantidade de unidades formadoras de colônia estava além do permitido pela Portaria 176/00 do Ministério da Saúde. É importante que os profissionais estejam munidos de equipamento de proteção individual, além de adotar medidas de controle de infecção hospitalar, sensibilizar para a existência de infecções fúngicas, melhorar ventilação de ar, possibilitando arejamento do ambiente e limpar periodicamente os condicionadores de ar, conscientizando os profissionais de saúde da importância destes fungos no ambiente hospitalar.With the aim of identifying the fungus microbiota in air conditioners in intensive care units (ICUs within public and private hospitals in Teresina, Piauí, solid material was collected from ten different ICUs. Thirty-three species of Moniliaceae and Dematiaceae were isolated, which was the first report of these in Piauí. High frequencies of Aspergillus niger Van Tieghem (60%, Aspergillus fumigatus Fres (50%, Trichoderma koningii Oudem (50% and Aspergillus flavus Link: Fr. (40% were recorded. The air conditioner cleanliness validity had expired in all the ICUs, and the quantity of colony-forming units exceeded the levels permitted by Law 176/00 from the Ministry of Health. It is important to provide individual protection equipment for professionals, adopt hospital infection control measures, raise the awareness of the presence of fungus infection, improve

  16. Research Status of the Noise in Rotary Air Conditioner Compressor for Automotive%车用旋转式空调压缩机噪声研究现状

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹杨; 叶禾; 杨诚

    2012-01-01

    旋转式空调压缩机的噪声直接影响空调系统舒适性,回顾了旋转式压缩机噪声的国内外研究现状,对旋转式压缩机的噪声进行分类评述,最后讨论了目前研究存在的问题并对未来的研究做了展望.%The noise of rotary air conditioner compressor directly affects the comfort of air conditioning systems, this paper reviews the recent study at home and abroad which about the rotary compressor noise,classifies comments about those noises,and finally discusses the problems of current research and makes prospects for futher research.

  17. R290空调小管径翅片管换热器的设计方法%Design Method of Fin-and-tube Heat Exchanger with Smaller Diameter Tubes in R290 Air Conditioner

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    R290 is a potential alternative refrigerant for R22, however using R290 may result in the risk of firing. Promoting the use of smaller diameter tubes in R290 room air conditioner is an effective way to reduce refrigerant charge to avoid the risk of firing, but may cause reduction of air conditioner system performance, so it is needed to propose a design method of heat exchanger with smaller diameter tubes. The method of designing fin-and-tube heat exchanger with smaller tubes is proposed in this study. The method includes designing of fin configuration and designing of refrigerant circuits. In the design method, the fin configuration is designed by CFD-based method, and the refrigerant circuits are designed by distributed-parameter model based on graph theory. An evaporator of 5 mm diameter tubes was designed, and the performance of an air conditioner with the designed evaporator was tested to verify the rationality of design method.%  R290是R22潜在的优良替代制冷剂,但有高可燃性的缺点。采用小管径换热器可有效降低制冷剂充注量,保证R290空调使用安全,但小管径的采用可能会导致空调换热性能下降,因此,有必要提出小管径换热器的设计方法。本文提出了空调小管径换热器的设计方法,包括翅片结构设计和制冷剂流路设计。在设计方法中,采用基于CFD的方法设计翅片结构,采用基于图论的三维分布参数模型设计制冷剂流路。为验证设计方法的合理性,根据设计方法设计了5mm管蒸发器,并对采用5mm管蒸发器的空调整机进行了测试。

  18. Algorithm of Air Conditioner Filter Screen Dust Degree Intelligent Detection Technology Based on PNN%基于PNN算法的空调过滤网积尘智能检测技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李强; 吴志鹏; 朱良红; 霍军亚

    2015-01-01

    空调过滤网具有过滤灰尘,防止空调内部受到污染的作用.但是过滤网积尘之后,容易滋生细菌,同时也会增加风阻,减小空调的出风量,造成能源浪费.因此,用户需要知道过滤网的积尘程度,以便及时清洗.本文提出一种基于PNN神经网络算法的过滤网积尘智能检测技术,无需增加任何硬件成本,自动检测滤网积尘程度,通过手机APP提醒用户.通过实验验证,检测准确度达到100%,满足产品化需求.%Filter screen in air conditioner plays the role of filtering dust and preventing pollution in the interior of air conditioner. However, once the filter screen covered by dust, it is easy to breed bacteria, increase wind resistance, reduce air volume of air conditioning and cause energy waste. Therefore, users need to know the dust extent of filter screen, so that timely cleaning can be done. A new intelligent detection technique based on PNN algorithm is proposed in this paper. It detects dust extent automatically and reminds users through the APP in mobile phone without any other hardware. Through experiments, the accuracy of detection technology is 100%. It meets the demands of product.

  19. 空调室外机气动与声学特性的研究进展%Advances in Investigation of Acoustic and Aerodynamic Noise in Air Conditioner Outdoor Unit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨启容; 秦静静; 吴荣华; 王硕

    2015-01-01

    Noise in air conditioner outdoor unit includes mechanical noise,electromagnetic noise and aerodynamic noise.The effects of mechanic and electromagnetic noise are minor but aerodynamic noise effect is the key in the duct system of air condi-tioner outdoor unit.The history and u-to-date development of noise in air conditioner outdoor unit were reviewed,The detail analy-sis is carried out from three ways of methods of numerical modeling,experimental studies and modal analysis according to refer-ences.On the basis of the analysis and summary,the further needed work of noise reduction are put forward.%空调室外机噪声包括机械噪声、电磁噪声和气动噪声,其中机械噪声和电磁噪声在常规状态下影响较小,气动噪声是空调室外机风道系统的主要噪声。本文回顾了国内外关于空调室外机气动噪音的研究历史与现状,结合文献着重从数值模拟、试验研究以及模态分析几个方面进行了分析。经过分析总结,提出了进一步降噪需要开展的工作。

  20. Adoption of the Energy-saving Technology of Central Air Conditioner in Modern Hospital%现代医院中央空调节能技术的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鲁晶; 彭承琳; 牟帮易

    2012-01-01

      能源是当今世界性的迫切问题,提高空调的制冷效果对于节约能源和减少医院的运营成本,都具有十分重要的意义。鉴于当前节能环保、全球气候异常等问题,本文对医院中央空调系统如何“节能”问题进行了论述。目前利用废热、余热作为能源的溴化锂吸收式冷水机组越来越受到关注。本文对溴化锂吸收式冷水机组的新技术及应用也进行了介绍,并作了中央空调系统关于节能的几个方面的比较。%  Energy is the most urgent problem in the world. To improve the cooling efficiency of air conditioner plays an important role in saving energy and cost control of hospital operations. As the environmental issues and global climate changes have drawn the concern of governments and people worldwide at present time, this article elaborates energy saving of central air conditioner system in hospital. LiBr absorption chil ers which use the waste heat as the power source are get ing more and more popular today. Some new technologies and applications of LiBr absorption Chil er are also discussed in the article. Energy saving of the central air conditioning system are analyzed and compared in some aspects at the same time.

  1. 空间矢量SVPWM控制算法在变频空调设计中的应用%Application of SVPWM Control Method Based on Space Vector in Inverter Air-Conditioner Designing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱福成

    2011-01-01

    To further reduce the noise, raises the efficiency of voltage, the voltage space vector SVPWM technology be adopted to design inverter air-conditioner. By the basic standard of motor's ideal magnetic flux with three-phase symmetrical sine wave voltage power supply is considered, use the actual magnetic flux with the inverter different switch pattern to approach the base director circle magnetic flux, compares the results to decide which time the inverter's switches open and pass, forms the PWM waveforms. And regards the inverter and the electrical motor as a whole to process, It has the merit of model to be simple, the torque pulsation be small, the noise be low, voltage use factor higher and so on. The theoretical analysis and the experimental result indicated that this method can definitely satisfy the inverter air-conditioner designing requirements.%为进一步减少噪音,提高电压利用率,采用空间电压矢量SVPWM技术进行变频空调设计.以三相对称正弦波电压供电时交流电动机的理想磁通为基准,用逆变器不同的开关模式所产生的实际磁通去逼近塞准圆磁通,由它们比较的结果决定逆变器的开、关,形成PWM波形.并把逆变器和电机看成一个整体来处理,具有模型简单、转矩脉动小、噪音低、电压利用率高等优点.理论分析及实验结果表明,该方法完全能够满足变频空调的设计要求.

  2. 空调内部管道运输和运行过程中的振动分析及改进%Analysis and Improvements for the Pipes of Air Conditioner for Transporting and Operating Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭景华; 吴帅

    2014-01-01

    空调内部的管道既是在运输和运行过程中最容易遭受破坏也是直接影响空调性能的必要组件。针对运输情形,本文首先利用ABAQUSE软件分析了管路的固有频率,进而通过增加管道约束的手段达到避免共振的目的。接着在压缩机出口处通过施加外部激励来模拟运行情形下的受迫振动情况,其位移结果与试验结果相符。通过进一步优化局部管道结构,成功降低了应力集中区的应力约15%。%In air conditioner,the pipes are not only the part that most probably damaged,but also the key part for well running. In this paper,the software Abaquse was used to study the vibrational status of the air conditioner. With modal anal-ysis,the constraints of the pipes were improved to increase the intrinsic frequency that we can avoid resonating in transport. The external loading was applied on the endpoints of the pipes to simulate the effect of the compressor when operating. The results agree well with the experimental results. By optimizing the local pipe structure,the maximum Mises stress can be de-creased by nearly 15%.

  3. Modelagem de um condicionador de ar de alta precisão para uso em processamento agrícola Modeling of a high precision air conditioner for use in agricultural processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauri Fortes

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Apresenta-se neste trabalho, estudo detalhado sobre a modelagem de um condicionador de ar com controle acurado de temperatura e umidade relativa. Desenvolveu-se um programa de computador que permite predizer o comportamento do sistema sob diferentes condições psicrométricas e de vazão do ar de entrada. O modelo global físico-matemático inclui equações de balanço de massa e de energia para três diferentes volumes de controle que compõem o condicionador. Modelaram-se os processos de mistura, evaporação (ou condensação simultânea de uma superfície d'água e de uma gota e o aquecimento de corrente de ar, separadamente. Propõem-se expressões semi-empíricas simples para os coeficientes de transferência de calor e massa inerentes ao processo de evaporação sobre uma superfície d'água e um modelo simplificado para o sistema de spray. Construiu-se um condicionador de ar no qual foram feitos testes experimentais para o ajuste das constantes que aparecem nas expressões para os coeficientes de transferência. Os dados obtidos validaram o modelo global, com precisão aceitável para projetos de engenharia.In this work, a detailed procedure for the analysis of an accurately controlled air conditioner is presented. A computer program, that allows predicting the behavior of the system under different psychrometric conditions and different input air mass flow rates, was developed. The global physical-mathematical model includes mass and energy conservation equations for three different control volumes that compose the conditioner. Thus, the processes of mixture of air, simultaneous evaporation (or condensation from a water surface and from a drop, and the air-stream heating are modeled separately. Simple semi-empiric expressions for heat and mass coefficients inherent to the evaporation process on a water surface are proposed as well a simplified model for the spray system. Experimental tests made on an air-conditioner allowed to obtain

  4. Study on Variable Volume and Gas Injection DC Inverter Air Conditioner Compressor%变频变容喷气增焓空调压缩机的理论与实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    向卫民

    2016-01-01

    The lower heating capacity in low ambient temperature is the defect of the air-conditioner. Some schemes have been proposed to solve the problem, but they can't improve the quantity of heat more than 50%in low ambient tem-perature and improve efficiency in general temperature at the same time. This paper proposes a vapor-injection varicap compressor, and studies its heating capacity and efficiency properties. The experimental results show that the APF of the air-conditioner increased by 6%when using the vapor-injection varicap compressor, and the quantity of heat increased by 85%, at the same time.%低温制热能力不足问题一直是空调的诟病,研发人员在前期也提出过几种解决温制热量的方案,但都以难满足APF工况下的能效提升和低温-15℃环境温度下高制热量的两个目标。针对这一难题,提出一种集变频技术、变容技术和喷气增焓技术为一体的压缩机设计方案,通过原理分析进行了样机的结构设计,研究其性能及低温能力特性,经验证,搭载空调系统测试时,喷气能力能效提升效果明显,在喷气情况下,搭载系统APF比基准机型提高了约6%,同时,搭载系统的低温-15℃的制热能力相对基准机提升了约85%,效果显著。

  5. 76 FR 37407 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Furnaces and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-27

    ... product classes. ADDRESSES: Any comments submitted must identify the direct final rule for Energy... b. Central Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps 3. Product Classes a. Furnaces b. Central Air... Carbon Dioxide and Other Emissions Impacts 1. Social Cost of Carbon a. Monetizing Carbon...

  6. 空调器铜管“蚁巢腐蚀”泄漏失效分析%Failure Analysis of"Nest Corrosion”Leakage of Air Conditioner's Copper Tube

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    This paper analyzed the “nest corrosion” leakage of air conditioner’s copper tube in details. It adopted the quantitative measurement for corrosion surface material through infrared spectrum, and the qualitative and quantitative testing for process and user’s envi-ronment corrosion materials. The method is accurate and feasible. The “nest corrosion” sub-stance concentration wave number and material was determined. Moreover, this paper also ful-filled the defend precautions for air conditioner.%  简介:对ACR(空调制冷)铜管“蚁巢腐蚀”泄漏失效实例进行了宏、微观泄漏特征分析确认。通过红外光谱法对腐蚀表面物质进行定量测量,及对加工工艺、用户环境腐蚀倾向物质进行定性定量测试,方法准确可行。确定了本次“蚁巢腐蚀”物质集中波数段及物质,也提供了可靠的高耐腐空调器防护措施。

  7. Measurement Innovation of Arc Chute Rail of Cabinet Air Conditioner Based on Three Coordinate Measuring Machine%基于三坐标测量机的柜式空调弧形滑槽轨道测量创新

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    占庆仲; 黄坚; 乔磊

    2015-01-01

    This paper mainly introduces the measurement innovation for arc chute rail of air guide mechanism of cabinet air conditioner. It uses the section curve uniform comb sampling fitting method and Germany Zeiss CMM programming automatic measurement mode, so as to realize the precision measurement of injection molding of an arc chute rail axis arc. According to the section curve uniform comb sampling fitting method, the application in similar geometric curve arc chute rail detection is discussed.%本文主要是对柜式空调导风机构的弧形滑槽轨道进行测量创新,采用截面曲线均布采点拟合测量方法,运用德国蔡司三坐标测量机编程自动测量方式,实现对注塑成型的弧形滑槽轨道中轴弧线直径的精密测量。针对截面曲线均布采点拟合测量方法进行梳理,探讨在类似几何曲线的滑槽轨道检测应用。

  8. 高校地源热泵空调及生活热水系统设计浅析——以柳州医学高等专科学校新校区为例%On Design of Geothermal Heat Pump Air Conditioner and Domestic Hot Water System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘国成; 陈捷

    2012-01-01

    通过工程实例,介绍地源热泵空调及生活热水系统的设计方法及要点,并对其先进性及难点进行了总结,供类似工程设计参考。%Through project case of Liuzhou Medical College, this paper introduces design of geothermal heat pump air conditioner and domestic hot water system for reference.

  9. Application Prospects of High Strength Low-alloyed Steels to Sheet Metal of Air-conditioner%低合金高强度钢在空调钣金件中的应用前景

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龙江; 蒋子琪

    2014-01-01

    本文主要介绍了低合金高强度钢的特点,从实际的加工性、防腐性和成本方面进行分析,并以某款家用空调器电机支架为例使用屈服强度在350MPa级的低合金高强度钢进行试验验证,结果表明低合金高强度钢在空调的钣金件加工中有较高的可行性和较好的应用前景%In the paper, The characteristics of high strength low-alloyed steels are mainly introduced.The actu-al machinability, corrosion resistance and cost are analyzed and the experimental verification have been taken by a certain motor support of high strength low-alloyed steels with yield strength of 350MPa level, it indicated that the high strength low-alloyed steels have higher feasibilities and more application prospects in sheet metal of air-conditioner.

  10. 热泵空调器制热量衰减以及改善措施的研究%Research on Heating Attenuation about Heat Pump Air Conditioners and Improvements

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘志胜; 李凤凤; 杜京昌; 程德威

    2012-01-01

    热泵空调器在低温状况下制热能力下降得很快,有时候甚至不能制热。制热运行是一个逆卡诺循环过程,可以分为四个环节,要改善制热衰减问题,可以从这四个环节进行研究。在前人研究的基础上,通过建立数学模型并结合实验验证,总结出改善低温制热效果的几种措施。%Heat pump air conditioners heating ability at low temperature conditions reduced too quickly,and sometimes not even heating.Heating operation is a reverse Carnot cycle,it can be divided into four areas,you can study from the four areas to improve the system of thermal decay problem.The author,based on previous research,a mathematical model by combining with experiments,summarized several measures to improve low-temperature heating effect.

  11. Design and Techno-economic Analysis of Domestic Solar Bubble Pump Driven Absorption Air-conditioner%一种家用太阳能气泡泵吸收式空调的系统设计与技术经济性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢应明; 周兴法; 舒欢; 刘道平; 刘妮

    2014-01-01

    In order to effectively solve the problems of high power consumption and noisy in traditional domestic air conditioner , a new type of domestic solar bubble pump absorption air-conditioner was developed .In this air conditioner , the lithium-bromide ab-sorption chiller was driven by solar and the traditional mechanical pump was replaced by the bubble pump .Under the design re-quirement of cooling capacity of 16.5kW and heating capacity of 18.0kW, bubble pump with inner diameter of 0.05m and im-mersed height of 0.5m, solar collector with area of 20m2 and heat storage tank with volume of 1m3 were selected by theoretical calculation.Finally, techno-economic comparison of this apparatus with traditional air-conditioner shows that the solar bubble pump absorption air conditioner has greater superiority .%为了有效解决传统家用空调的高耗电和噪声问题,开发了一种新型的家用太阳能气泡泵吸收式空调装置。该装置采用太阳能驱动溴化锂吸收式制冷机组,并以气泡泵代替传统的机械泵。在空调制冷量为16.5kW和制热量为18.0kW的设计要求下,通过理论计算选择内径为0.05m和沉浸高度为0.5m的气泡泵、集热面积为20m2太阳能集热器以及容积为1m3的蓄热水槽。最后,将该装置与普通家用空调进行技术经济比较,得出太阳能气泡泵吸收式空调有很大的优越性。

  12. 新型车用空调平行流蒸发器湿工况性能的研究%A Research on the Wet Performance of New Parallel Flow Evaporator for Automotive Air Conditioners

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    施骏业; 瞿晓华; 祁照岗; 陈江平

    2011-01-01

    对新型车用空调平行流蒸发器湿工况性能进行了试验研究,并与层叠式蒸发器进行了比较.动态浸渍试验结果表明平行流蒸发器凝水排除能力较优;焓差法试验结果表明,在不同的稳定工况下,与层叠式蒸发器相比,平行流蒸发器的制冷能力较强(最高差3.3%),空气侧压降较高,全换热系数大21.3%~29%,除湿率略高.试验结果总体表明,新型平行流蒸发器性能优良,完全可以取代层叠式蒸发器.%An experimental study is carried out on the wet performance of new parallel flow evaporator for automotive air conditioners, which is then compared with baseline laminated evaporator.Dynamic dip test results show that parallel flow evaporator has better condensate drainage performance.The results of enthalpy difference test reveal that, under different working conditions, compared with laminated evaporator, the parallel flow evaporator has slightly higher cooling capacity (up to 3.3% difference), higher air side pressure drop, 21.3% ~29% higher over all heat transfer coefficient and slightly higher dehumidify rate.The results of all tests indicate that the new parallel flow evaporator has excellent performance and can by all means replace laminated evaporator.

  13. Further development and new development of air conditioners for high-performance longwall mining with great face length; Weiter- und Neuentwicklung von Strebklimatisierungseinrichtungen fuer Hochleistungsbetriebe mit grosser Streblaenge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinz, E. [Deutsche Montan Technologie GmbH, Essen (Germany). Gas and Fire Div.

    2003-07-01

    The investigations were carried out between 1999 and 2001 by the Gas and Fire Division, OE Kaelte, Luftqualitaet on behalf of the DKS and with funds from the Germans state of Nordrhein-Westfalen. The following aspects were investigated in particular: 1. The application of driers for precooling of mine air; 2. Test stand measurements of air coolers; 3. Underground performance of air coolers. Prior to the measurements, theoretical calculations were made. In view of the fact that air temperatures at the place of work should not fall below a certain level for ergonomic reasons, the capacity of precooling in the longwall mine is limited. Air drying offers a possibility of ensuring low enthalpy within the ergonomically required minimum temperatures. Moisture is reduced by a drastic reduction of the air temperature which causes condensation of the water vapour, followed by dry heating of the air to the required minimum temperature.

  14. 空调铝箔用高耐水性含氟丙烯酸疏水涂料的研制%Preparation of highly water-resistant fluoroacrylic hydrophobic coating for aluminum foils for air conditioner

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    聂建华; 周志盛; 霍泽荣

    2014-01-01

    A fluoroacrylic resin solution was synthesized by radical polymerization based on methyl methacrylate (MMA), butyl acrylate (BA), and stearyl acrylate (SA) as materials with 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) as hydroxy functional monomer and fluorinated acrylate monomer as organic fluorine modifier, and then blended with curing agent to prepare a hydrophobic coating with high water resistance. The effects of different fluoroacrylate monomers on water contact angle and water dissolution rate of the coating were studied. The influence of the dosages of perfluoroalkyl ethyl methacrylate (PFMA) and HEMA on hydrophobicity and water resistance of the coating was discussed. The optimal reaction formulation was determined as follows: MMA 57%, BA 12%, SA 4%, PFMA 20%, and HEMA 7%. The coating prepared with the optimal formulation was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectrometry,and tested for comparison of the comprehensive performance with a commercially available product. The results indicated that the coating has a water contact angle 132.7° and a water dissolution rate of 4.1%, being matchable to the comprehensive performance of the superhydrophobic coating formed from the Ultra AC series transparent vanish (a product of the Ultratech Ltd., USA, used for aluminum foils of air conditioner). The coating meets the requirement of surface treatment of aluminum foils for air conditioner.%以甲基丙烯酸甲酯(MMA)、丙烯酸丁酯(BA)以及丙烯酸十八酯(SA)为原料,甲基丙烯酸-β-羟乙酯(HEMA)为羟基功能单体,含氟丙烯酸酯单体为有机氟改性剂,通过溶液自由基聚合反应制备了含氟丙烯酸树脂溶液,再与固化剂配合使用制得高耐水性疏水涂膜。研究了不同含氟丙烯酸酯单体对涂膜的水接触角和水溶率的影响,讨论了甲基丙烯酸全氟烷基乙酯(PFMA)与HEMA不同用量对涂膜的疏水性和耐水性的影响,获得了最佳反应配方:MMA 57%,BA 12%,SA 4%

  15. 基于太阳能辐射技术的热能转换空调制冷技术研究%Research on Cooler Air conditioner Based on Thermal Conversion of Solar Radiation Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李裕斌

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents technical approach on cooler air conditioner based on thermal conver-sion of solar radiation technology,i.e.transforming solar energy to heat energy,and use the heat energy to achieve refrigeration.We developed a new solar absorption air conditioning system based on the thermal conversion of solar radiation technology.Through verification studies,the operating characteristics of so-lar collector and heat storage system of air conditioning systems,and operating characteristics of the re-frigeration unit are verified.The experiment shows:the air conditioning system can operate continuously and stably for 8 hours.The average cooling capacity is 4 kW,and the maximum cooling capacity is 4.7 kW.The system COP average is 0.3.Therefore,this new solar absorption air conditioning system based on thermal conversion of solar radiation technology provides a feasible method to realize large scale,low cost application of solar energy.%给出了以太阳能辐射技术为基础的热能转换空调制冷技术的技术方法,即将太阳能转变成热能,使用热能进行制冷。以太阳能辐射技术的热能转换为基础,研制了新型的太阳能吸收式空调系统,并且通过实验研究,验证了该系统的集热、蓄热特性以及制冷机组的运行热性。实验表明,该空调系统可连续8 h 稳定地工作,最大制冷量可达到4.7 kW,平均值也可达到4 kW,该空调系统性能参数 COP,平均可达到0.3。因此,基于太阳能辐射技术的热能转换空调制冷技术为太阳能规模化、低成本应用提供了行之有效的新方法。

  16. 转速可控型房间空调器用压缩机能效评价方法研究及应用%Analysis and Application of Evaluation Method on Compressors for Variable Speed Room Air Conditioners

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张海锋; 吴建华; 厉彦忠

    2013-01-01

    The efficiency requirement of room air conditioner (RAC) has became stricter and stricter with the development of global environment consciousness. The efficiency evaluation method of RAC has been updated from single working condition to aunnal performance factor (APF) with multiple working condition. Performance evaluation method of compressors must be changed accordingly which account for main energy consumption of RAC. Compressor efficiency of annual performance (COAP) is proposed to evaluate the efficiency level of inverter compressor which is applied in variable speed RAC with multiple working conditions. Actual operation efficiency can be indicated by COAP because inverter compressor performance is considered according to COAP. In order to simplify test procedure of COAP, standard test conditions and its weight are generated .Then the effect of efficiency curve of inverter compressor on COAP is discussed . Finally examples with this method are illustrated for compressor matching and design optimization.%  随着全球环境保护意识的加强,家用空调能耗水平不断增高,房间空调器能效评价方法已从单工况向全年运行效率(APF)转变。压缩机作为空调器中的主要耗能部件,其能效评价方法也要随之变化。这里提出了变速压缩机全年综合能效比指标--COAP来衡量压缩机在全年变工况条件下的运行效率,此指标综合考虑了变速压缩机全年运行的能效情况,能客观反映压缩机在不同气候条件下实际运行效率。为简化测试COAP,给出了COAP基准工况及各工况权重,讨论了压缩机效率曲线对COAP的影响,最后通过举例说明如何利用COAP进行压缩机选型及设计优化。

  17. A comparison of R 407C and R 410A with R 22 in a 10.5 kW central air conditioner for residential buildings; Vergleich von R 407C und R 410A mit R22 in einer Zentralklimaanlage fuer Wohnhaeuser mit 10,5 kW Leistung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linton, J.W. [National Research Council Canada (NRC), Ottawa, ON (Canada); Snelson, W.K. [National Research Council Canada (NRC), Ottawa, ON (Canada); Hearty, P.F. [National Research Council Canada (NRC), Ottawa, ON (Canada); Murphy, F.T. [ICI Klea, New Castle, DE (United States); Low, R.E. [ICI Klea, New Castle, DE (United States); Gilbert, B.E. [ICI Klea, New Castle, DE (United States)

    1996-02-01

    Details are given about comparative performance tests (compressor capacity, evaporator capacity, refrigerant mass flow, refrigerating capacity) of a 10.5 kW central residential air conditioner run on the long-time refrigerant substitutes R 407C and R 410A and on R 22. Efficiency improvement potentials were assessed by adapting the evaporator of the air conditioner to the properties of R 407C through a change in direction of the air flow that was brought about by reversing the evaporator coil. (BWI) [Deutsch] In einer Zentralklimaanlage fuer Wohnhaeuser mit einer Leistung von 10,5 kW wurde eine Leistungsmessung der beiden langfristigen Ersatzstoffe R407C und R410A im Vergleich zu R22 durchgefuehrt. Die gemessenen Leistungsdaten waren Verdichterleistung, Verdampferleistung, Kaeltemittelmassenstrom und Kaelteleistungszahl (COP). Um Bereiche ausfindig zumachen, in denen die Effizienz verbessert werden koennte, wurde der Verdampfer der Klimaanlage zur Anpassung an die Eigenschaften von R407C teiloptimiert (Aenderung der Richtung des Luftstroms durch Umdrehung der Verdampferspule). (BWI)

  18. Application of Pro/ENGINEER pipe feature in air conditioner pipeline design and the method of bend dimensions%Pro/ENGINEER管道特征在空调管路设计中的应用及弯管尺寸标注方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘明校; 肖云龙; 宗颖超; 钟光明; 陈伟; 高德锁

    2011-01-01

    According to the vector tube bending principle of the CNC pipe bender,use Pro/ENGINEER pipe feature for 3D modeling of air conditioner pipeline and 2D projection conversion,In combination with the CNC pipe bender program features, propose a reasonable way of bend dimensioning in order to facilitate Programming for the production process and parts inspection,reduce the number of test bends,to achieve productivity gains and production costs of the air-conditioner pipe fittings.%根据数控弯管机矢量弯管原理,利用Pro/ENGINEER管道特征对空调器管路进行3D建模以及2D投影图转换,并结合数控弯管机的弯管程序特性,提出一种合理的弯管尺寸标注方式,以便于生产过程中程序的编制及零件的检验,减少试弯次数,从而实现空调器管件的生产效率提高及生产成本降低.

  19. The Study of the Legionella pneumophila Pollution and Killing Effects on Centralized Air-conditioners Cooling Circulating Water in Huizhou City%惠州市中央空调冷却循环水中嗜肺军团菌污染状况和杀灭效果观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑惠东; 杨建秀; 郑丽萍; 戴昌芳; 辜少红; 严琦瑞; 柯晓明

    2012-01-01

    Objective To understand the Legionella pneumophila pollution and the effects of killing Legionella pneumophila by electrolyzed water of Centralized Air Ventilation System in Huizhou City.Methods We culture and identify 123 units Legionella pneumophila,which collecting in the Centralized Air-conditioners cooling circulation water of Huizhou.A new type of low-voltage high-frequency electrolytic water equipment is applied by Guang Zhou Shui Li Qing Environmental Protection Technology Co.,Ltd.It can use physical way instead of chemicals to deal with Legionella pneumophila and other pathogenic microorganisms in cooling circulating water in centralized air-conditioners.Results In the survey of 123 units,448 water samples were collected,313 samples were prove out that contain Legionella pneumophila,the detection rate is 69.86%.At the same time,62 units which contain Legionella pneumophila were collected from Centralized Air-conditioners and deal with low voltage high frequency Electrolyzed Water equipment for 7-73 d.Finally,112 water samples,which from those units,were found out that all the Legionella pneumophila had been killed.The sterilizing rate for the Legionella pneumophila is 100%.Conclusion Part of Centralized Air-conditioners Cooling Circulating Water were Pollution by Legionella pneumophila in Huizhou,Daily inspection should be taken,The low-voltage high-frequency electrolytic water equipment can effectively control and sterilize Legionella pneumophila etc in the cooling water and chilled water in centralized air-conditioners.It has a good application prospect for this technology.%目的 了解惠州市中央空调冷却循环水中嗜肺军团菌污染情况和电解水对其的杀灭效果观察.方法 对惠州市123个单位中央空调冷却循环水进行嗜肺军团菌的培养和鉴定;然后采用源自广州水力清环保科技有限公司的新型低压高频电解水处理器,用物理方式代替化学药剂,处理中央空调冷却循环水

  20. 变径毛细管代替毛细管组件在冷暖空调器上的应用研究%Experimental Investigation on Thermal Properties of Heat pump Air-conditioner with Variable Diameter Capillary Instead of Capillary Module

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐言生; 何钦波; 黎绵昌; 邹时智; 金波

    2013-01-01

    The refrigerant flow characteristics of variable diameter capillary in forward flow and reverse flow are different. It can be used as a throttle device instead of the capillary module in heat pump air-conditioner. To achieve this goal, the refrigerant flow characteristic of the original capillary module for refrigerating and heating circulation was performed in the refrigerant flow experimental facility. The size of variable diameter capillary was adjusted to make its refrigerant flow performance is accordance with that of capillary module. The capability of air conditioner with variable diameter capillary and capillary module were tested respectively in the standard condition. The experimental results show that the performance of air-conditioner with variable diameter capillary compared to that of air conditioner with capillary module, the refrigerating capacity decreased by 0.5% , the energy efficiency ratio(EER) increased by 0. 3% , the heating capacity reduced by 1. 1% , the coefficient of performance ( COP) increased by 1.4%. Hence, the higher flow performances of variable diameter capillary indicate that it can completely used as a throttle device instead of the capillary module in the heat pump air-conditioner after it matched exactly.%变径毛细管在正向流动和反向流动时其制冷剂流量特性不同,因而可以作为节流元件代替现有冷暖空调器中使用的毛细管组件.为实现这一目的,利用制冷剂流量试验台,先测定原毛细管组件制冷、制热时的制冷剂流量特性,然后通过调整变径毛细管规格尺寸,使变径毛细管制冷、制热时的流量特性与原毛细管组件基本一致,再安装在空调器整机上进行整机性能对比试验.试验表明,在标准工况下,新空调器与原空调器相比,其制冷量减少0.5%,制冷能效比增加0.3%,制热量减少1.1%,制热性能系数增加1.4%.因此可以得出,变径毛细管经过精确匹配,完全可以作为节流

  1. XP CEN/TS 14825 (June 2004). Air conditioners, liquid chilling packages and heat pumps with electrically driven compressors for space heating and cooling. Testing and rating at part load conditions; XP CEN/TS 14825 Juin 2004 Climatiseurs, groupes refroidisseurs de liquide et pompes a chaleur avec compresseur entraine par moteur electrique pour le chauffage et la refrigeration. Essais et determination des caracteristiques a charge partielle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-06-01

    This technical specification covers the tests of air conditioners, heat pumps and liquid chillers in partial load conditions. It specifies the terms and definitions, the testing methods, the test report and the calculation method when the power reduction is due to the cyclic operation of the apparatus or to a power reduction of the compressor(s). The power reductions linked with the temperatures or with the system are excluded. (J.S.)

  2. Chamberless residential warm air furnace design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Godfree, J. [Product Design consultant, Pugwash (Canada)

    1996-07-01

    This brief paper is an introduction to the concept of designing residential warm air furnaces without combustion chambers. This is possible since some small burners do not require the thermal support of a combustion chamber to complete the combustion process.

  3. Numerical Simulation of the Influence of Elliptical Tube Heat Exchanger in Indoor Unit of Air Conditioner on its Acoustic Field%椭圆管换热器对空调室内机声场影响的数值模拟

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周遊; 张新强; 汪双凤

    2016-01-01

    Elliptical tube heat exchanger has been widely used in heat exchange equipment due to its good flow and heat transfer charac⁃teristics. In this paper we use computational fluid dynamics method to simulate the flow field and sound field generated by the indoor unit of air conditioner with elliptical finned tube heat exchanger , and make comparison with circular tube heat exchanger. The results show that for the inside the cross-flow, the structure of tubes in heat exchangers has no effect on the location and size of the eccentric vortex;compared with the circular tube finned heat exchanger with the same cross-sectional area, the air conditioners using elliptical tubes work better on increasing the air volume, improving cooling effect and reducing noise especially low-frequency noise under the same condi⁃tions. Above all, the conditioner using elliptical tubes in which the ratio of the long axis and short axis is 2. 0 can reduce noise 4 dB.%椭圆管换热器由于良好的流动和换热特性,在换热设备中有广泛的应用。本文利用计算流体力学方法,对椭圆管翅片换热器应用于空调室内机的流场和声场进行数值模拟,并与圆管作对比。计算结果表明,换热管形状对贯流风机内部偏心涡的形成位置和大小没有影响;与采用相同截面积的圆管翅片换热器的室内机相比,相同条件下,采用椭圆管换热器对于室内机增加风量,改善制冷性能,降低噪声尤其是低频噪声方面有良好的效果。其中,长短轴之比为2的椭圆管可以降低室内机噪声4 dB。

  4. 基于运行时间的变频型房间空调器季节能效比和潜力温度分析%Study on Seasonal Energy Efficiency Ratio and Potential Temperature of Variable-Speed Room Air Conditioner Based on Running Time

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田镇; 谷波

    2013-01-01

    Seasonal energy efficiency ratio (SEER) of three variable-speed air conditioners under three kinds of running time was analyzed, respectively. Running time frequency (RTF) was taken to characterize the distribution of running time on temperature intervals. Bar graph was used to show the distribution of cooling load and energy consumption on temperature intervals. The results show that, the smaller the temperature under maximum RTF, the higher the SEER is. The faster the accumulation speed of RTF on low temperature intervals, the higher the SEER is. The regularity of distribution of cooling load and energy consumption on temperature intervals is decided by running time. The potential temperature can be showed on the bar graph, which has high reference value in performance optimization and selection of variable-speed room air conditioner.%计算了3台变频型房间空调器基于北京、上海、广州3种运行时间的季节能效比(SEER);采用运行时间频数(RTF)表征空调器运行时间在温度区间上的分布规律;绘制了3台空调器基于3种运行时间的制冷量和耗电量分布图.结果表明:RTF最大值对应的温度越小,SEER越大;RTF在低温段累计速度越快,SEER越大;空调器制冷量和耗电量在温度区间上的分布规律由运行时间决定;基于运行时间的制冷量和耗电量分布图能够直观反映当地的潜力温度,可为空调器性能的优化和选型提供参考依据.

  5. Research on influence law of capillary length on performance of room air conditioner in non-standard working condition%非标工况下毛细管长度对家用空调器性能影响规律的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段亮; 熊军; 陈绍林

    2012-01-01

    通过研究家用空调器的制冷量、能效比、排气温度、吸气温度等随室外温度和毛细管长度的变化规律,得出增加毛细管长度有利于提升高温工况下的制冷量,缩短毛细管长度有利于提升低温工况下的制冷量的结论,对于空调系统匹配有一定的指导意义.%The influence law of capillary length and outdoor temperature on cooling capacity, COP, exhaust temperature, suction temperature of room air conditioner are analyzed. The results show that increasing capillary length is benefit for cooling capacity under high temperature condition and decreasing length brings advantage to cooling capacity under low temperature condition. The study will provide reference for air-conditioning system matching.

  6. Study of Controller for the Frequency Conversion Air Conditioner with Micro-controller MC68HC908MR16%基于MC68HC908MR16单片机的变频空调控制器的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘永; 干练

    2012-01-01

    针对变频空调器的特点,应用具有电机控制模块的单片机MC68HC908MR16设计了空调专用变频控制器,给出了变频空调控制器的系统结构原理图,以及空间矢量调制技术的单片机实现原理.该变频控制器采用空间矢量调制技术,提高了电源利用率和压缩机的低频转矩.%According to the characteristics on the use of air conditioners, a specific inverter is designed based on the MC68HC908MR16. The schematic circuit of the inverter and the principle of SVM achieved with MCU are given. The (SVM) is adopted,which is helpful for increasing the power utilization and low speed torque of the compressors.

  7. 企业创新悖论与两栖组织模式——基于海尔空调产品开发团队案例的研究%Innovation paradox and ambidextrous organization: A case study on development teams of air conditioner in Haier

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王凤彬; 江鸿

    2009-01-01

    新产品开发作为企业自主创新活动的一种重要形式,是知识探索与知识利用有机结合的过程.在对二者悖论关系及其处理方略进行系统文献综述的基础上,将两栖组织的定义从"二元结构"、"二面性结构"伸展到"两栖能力",试图在较低的组织层次上回答如何辩证地解决二者看似矛盾实则可统一的关系.在对海尔空调开发团队的成员构成及异质性知识组合案例分析后,得出的结论是,"两栖"不仅是组织层面的构念,而且可以是团队乃至像"型号经理"这样的个体员工层面的构念.%While knowledge exploration and exploitation represent two distinct activities requiring corresponding organizational arrangements, new product development calls for a dynamic combination of the two. Based on a systematic review of the paradox between knowledge exploration and exploitation and various resolving strategies, this research extends the construct of organizational ambidexterity from dual structure to ambidextrous capabilities, and suggests a dialectical method for reconciling this paradox at lower organizational levels. Based on a case study on the development teams of air conditioner in Haier, we find that ambidexterity is a multi-level construct existing not only at the organization level but also at lower levels such as teams and individuals like model managers.

  8. Research and Improvement of Scour Sound of Refrigerant in the Refrigeration Process of Wall-mounted Air Conditioner%分体挂壁空调制冷过程制冷剂冲刷声的研究与改善

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张永亮

    2016-01-01

    分体挂壁空调制冷过程出现制冷剂冲刷声,这种低频声穿透性强、辐射面广,严重影响了使用的舒适性。经过测试体验以及现象分析,发现该声音产生的主要原因是蒸发温度与U管温度差过大,导致制冷剂状态的急剧变化产生的噪音。针对该声音产生的机理,制定了有效的改善措施,通过增加低频停留点,提高蒸发温度,减少制冷剂状态的变化,提高了使用舒适性。%In the refrigeration process of wall-mounted air conditioner, the refrigerant scour sound would appear, which has the characteristics of strong penetrability of low-frequency sound and wide radiating surface, it serious affect the comfort of use. Through the test experience and phenomenon analysis, we found the main reasons causing the noise, that is, the large temperature difference between evaporation and U pipe. The rapid change of the state of refrigerant results in the noise. According to the mechanism of the noise generation, the effective improving measure is proposed. Through adding low-frequency arrest points, it raises the evaporating temperature, reduces the changes of refrigerant states, and improves the comfort of use.

  9. Energy efficiency program through exchange of air conditioners in residential sector of Manaus city: a concrete experience; Programa de eficiencia energetica atraves da troca de condicionadores de ar no setor residencial de Manaus: uma experiencia concreta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Fabricio Rodrigues; Goncalves, Ana Catarina Lima Chaves; Cartaxo, Elizabeth Ferreira; Gomes, Hugo Miguel Oliveira; Nascimento, Nilton Correa; Inui, Raul Eiji; Guedes, Ricardo Augusto de Morais; Benchaya, Roberto Tavares [Universidade Federal do Amazonas (UFAM), Manaus, AM (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    The present review attempts to evaluate the importance of efficient equipment diffusion in reducing energy consumption, based upon the Study-case of an air conditioned exchange program in Manaus city of Amazonas. In spite of the existence, in the actual market, of efficient technology, it has been, yet, badly diffused, mostly due to economical and informative laps. Therefore, once tried to demonstrate the potential benefits, in technical gains, of energy efficiency offered by efficient Air conditioned equipment, through a plan that favors the consumer's participation as an active contributor in the dissemination process of efficient technology, and a following program for efficiency evaluation, beside a tributary evaluation proposal, so that technology becomes accessible to the general population, attempting its benefices. In addition, the environmental benefits of that specific proposal are analyzed, trough the developed recycling program. (author)

  10. The air conditioner. Friend or foe in case of an environmental disaster or bio-terrorism. Part 2; De klimaatinstallatie. Vriend of vijand bij milieucatastrofes en bio-terreur? Deel 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bronsema, B. [Bronsema Consult / Technische Universiteit Delft, Delft (Netherlands)

    2005-12-01

    The first part of this article was published in issue 4 of this magazine in 2002. Attention was paid to the importance of the quality of air in buildings, the prevention of infiltration of exhaust gases and the site of air intakes. In the first part also general considerations were made regarding the choice of an HVAC system taking into account such hazards as environmental emergencies and bio-terrorism. This second part is principally concerned with the effects of air infiltration into a building and the inherent penetration of hazardous substances. The ratio of the HVAC system is also briefly examined. [Dutch] Het eerste deel van dit artikel werd gepubliceerd in TVVL Magazine nummer 4 in 2002. Hierin werd aandacht besteed aan het belang van een goede luchtkwaliteit in gebouwen, het voorkomen van kortsluiting, de locatie van de luchtaanzuiging en een algernene beschouwing over de keuze van het klirnaatsysteem, rekening houdend rnet calarniteiten als milieurarnpen en bio-terreur. Dit tweede deel gaat hoofdzakelijk in op de effecten van luchtinfiltratie in een gebouw en het inherente binnendringen van schadelijke stoffen. Tevens wordt de rol van de klimaatinstallatie belicht.

  11. 利用帕尔贴效应的冷暖型空调床设计及实验分析%Experimental Study of Bed Zoning Air-Conditioner by Using Semiconductor Thermoelectric Effect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周敬雯; 邓帅; 代彦军; 王如竹

    2012-01-01

    本文基于帕尔贴效应设计了一种冷暖型床体局部空调,简称空调床。空调床由床头制冷装置和床尾供暖装置构成,使床内形成“头凉脚暖”的温度分布。冬季开启供暖模式,可使床内温度达到22°C左右,与房间空调相比,节能率约85%,同时使脚部温度比头部温度高约6°C夏季室温低于30°C时,空调床单独运行,使床内温度降低至28°C左右,节能率约80%。当室温大于30°C时,空调床与房间空调联合运行,与房间空调单独运行相比,节能率为约12%。夏季床内脚部温度比头部温度高1.5°C。%A novel bed zoning air-condition, namely bed AC, was developed based on peltier effect. The Bed AC contains two parts, one is a heating unit on the foot part, and another is a cooling unit on the head part, which can realize "warm feet and cool head". In winter, heat unit operated to maintain bed air temperature around 22°C, and its electrical saving rate was 85%, compared with room AC, and foot air temperature was approximately 6°C higher than that of head. In summer, when room temperature was lower than 30°C, cool unit worked to keep bed air temperature around 28°C, and its energy saving rate was about 80%, and head air temperature was nearly 1.5°C lower than that of foot.. When room temperature was higher than 30°C, bed AC needed to cooperate with room AC, and their total energy saving rate was about 12%, compared with only room AC.

  12. Research on the Effect of Well Completion Technology of Ground Temperature Air-Conditioner Project on Groundwater System%地温空调成井工艺参数对地下水系统的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    米庆彬; 付博; 窦明; 韩涛; 张彦; 张坤; 张华云

    2014-01-01

    在对成井环节分析的基础上,识别了对地下水系统影响较为显著的成井工艺参数(即井径和滤水管孔隙率),基于地下水水热运移基本原理,建立了地下水流动和热量输运耦合模型。选取典型地温空调项目,通过设计不同成井工艺参数,模拟地温空调运行对地下水流场和温度场的影响。结果显示:不同井径和孔隙率在地温空调运行中,对地下水系统影响程度差别较大,井径对抽水井、回水井的影响比较明显,孔隙率对抽水井的影响大于对回水井的影响,适合安阳市地温空调的井径为30 cm、滤水管孔隙率为30%。%According to the analysis of well completion process,this paper distinguished that the well completion tech-parameters (well diameter and filter porosity)could largely affect the groundwater system. Based on the fundamental principle of water and heat transfer,the coupling model of the flow of groundwater and the transport of heat was established. It selected several typical ground temperature air-conditioning projects in order to simulate the effect of ground temperature air-conditioning to the underground flow field and temperature field by design well completion technolo-gies with different parameters. From the results of simulation,it finds out that the different well diameter and filter porosity can make a great differ-ence on the effect of groundwater system. The well diameter can affect the pumping wells and recharge wells obviously,on another hand,the filter porosity parameter’s effect on the pumping wells is bigger than on recharge wells. It finds out that 30cm of well diameter and 30% of the porosity of filter are more suitable for the ground temperature air-conditioning project in Anyang City.

  13. Research on the Transient Performance of the Double-Evaporator VRV Air Conditioner%双联变频空调系统的动态特性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周兴禧; 陈武; 夏清; 王懿

    2001-01-01

    With an void fraction model equation adopted and conservation priciple applied, an unsteady distributed-parameter mathematical model based on two-phased theory, which can predict the transient performance of the system, is established. The dynamic response to the step change of inverter-aided compressor speed, opening of the EEV and air fan speed is studied.%通过引入空泡系数模型方程,应用守恒原理,建立起以蒸发器、电子膨胀阀、压缩机为一体的双联空调系统的动态分布参数数学模型;通过仿真计算对一拖二系统随变频压缩机转速、电子膨胀阀开度以及回风风机转速改变的动态特性进行研究分析;为系统的实时控制打下基础。

  14. Design of remote real-time monitoring and control system of central air conditioner%中央空调远程实时监控系统的设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李俊湘

    2014-01-01

    The situation of remote control system of central air condition is summarized, and an Ethernet transmit scheme based on ATmega128 and Enc28j60 is designed. It transplants the TCP/IP protocol into ATmega128 to implement remote real-time monitoring and control by communicating with remote computer. The structure and functions of the whole system are introduced and the circuit diagrams of each part are given. The program design, the reliability and anti-interference are also described. The application shows that this system runs stably and accurately. The design system has certain practicability and popularization value, with the characteristics of low cost and good expansibility.%概述了现阶段楼宇中央空调远程控制的情况,基于ATmega128与Enc28j60设计了以太网传输方案,通过在ATmega128上移值TCP/IP协议,系统能够与远程电脑通讯,实现了中央空调的远程实时监控。介绍了整个系统的结构及其功能,给出了各个部分的电路框图,并就程序设计、可靠性与抗干扰性做了说明。系统完成后应用于实践工程,运行稳定可靠。该设计系统具有实现方法简单、成本较低、扩展性好等特点,具有一定的实用性和推广价值。

  15. 基于局部终端温度调节的中央空调需求响应控制策略%Demand Response Control Strategy for Central Air-conditioner Based on Temperature Adjustment of Partial Terminal Devices

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戚野白; 王丹; 贾宏杰; 黄仁乐; 张逸; 杨占勇

    2015-01-01

    Unlike small amounts of thermostatically controlled appliances (TCAs),the central air-conditioner(CAC) has huge potential ability of demand response by virtue of its large capacity.Focusing on the features of CAC demand response,an integrated model is proposed to describe CAC”s thermodynamic aspects,including the main devices,circulating water system and terminal devices.This paper presents a new CAC control strategy based on temperature adjustment of partial terminal devices which differs from previous methods in concentrating on all the CAC”s terminal devices.The effects of different precision controlling conditions can be reflected by using this model and strategy.Modeling results show that the proposed approach has better performance and efficiency by rational adjustment.%不同于传统单体温控设备,中央空调因其较大的制冷/制热容量而具有更好的需求响应可调潜力。结合中央空调需求响应特点,对其进行了热力学建模,涉及中央空调主机、循环水泵系统、终端组件等动态,形成了多终端中央空调需求响应模型。针对以往中央空调控制策略中对终端整体调节的方法,提出了一种基于局部终端温度调节的控制策略,可实现不同的控制精度。研究结果表明,基于“自下而上”的控制方法,通过合理调节关键的中央空调终端温度设定值,受控群体能够在维持较高用户舒适度的同时,精准响应外界功率信号。

  16. Technical support document: Energy efficiency standards for consumer products: Room air conditioners, water heaters, direct heating equipment, mobile home furnaces, kitchen ranges and ovens, pool heaters, fluorescent lamp ballasts and television sets. Volume 2, Fluorescent lamp ballasts, television sets, room air conditioners, and kitchen ranges and ovens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-11-01

    This document is divided into ``volumes`` B through E, dealing with individual classes of consumer products. Chapters in each present engineering analysis, base case forecasts, projected national impacts of standards, life-cycle costs and payback periods, impacts on manufacturers, impacts of standards on electric utilities, and environmental effects. Supporting appendices are included.

  17. New air conditioner by RMF prevents water in lubricating oils; Neu: Air-Conditioner vom RMF kontra Wasser im Schmieroel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2001-07-01

    During standstill, water condensation in wind power systems will affect the lubricating properties of the lubricating oil due to oxidation effects. This will result in early failure and irrepairable damage in mechanical components like toothing and rolling bearings. RMF Deutschland, based in Nordorf and Wiesbaden, offer a solution to prevent this. [German] Bei Stillstaenden der Windkraftanlage bildet sich Kondenswasser in nicht unerheblichen Umfang. Bekannterweise beeinflussen schon geringe Wasseranteile die Schmierfaehigkeit und Eigenschaften des Schmieroels (Oxidation im Oel). Ergebnisse sind vorzeitige Ausfaelle und irreparable Schaeden an den mechanischen Bauteilen wie Verzahnung und Waelzlager. RMF Deutschland aus Nordorf und Wiesbaden bietet die Loesung, hier vorbeugend einzugreifen. (orig.)

  18. Air conditioning and blowers. Special issue; Airconditioning en ventilatoren. Themanummer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nekeman, H.E. [Multi Import, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Hol, M. [Aircool Klimaattechniek, Ridderkerk (Netherlands); Bassa, E. [ed.

    1997-06-01

    In four articles several aspects of air conditioners and blowers are discussed: the application of the newly developed electronically commutated direct current engine in high-efficiency boilers, air conditioners and cooling systems, the future for flexible synthetic cooling pipes, a description of a Mitsubishi-developed air conditioner: the Inverter Driven Multi-indoor unit, also known as the KX-system, and the importance of the private sector (houses, small businesses, cars) for the use of air conditioning installations. 8 figs.

  19. Air cushion furnace technology for heat treatment of high quality aluminum alloy auto body sheet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Yong; Wang Zhaodong; Ma Mingtu; Wang Guodong; Fu Tianliang; Li Jiadong; Liang Xiong

    2014-01-01

    The process characteristics of heat treatment of aluminum alloy auto body sheet and the working prin-ciple of air cushion furnace were introduced. The process position and irreplaceable role of air cushion furnace in the aluminum alloy auto body sheet production was pointed out after the difficulty and key points in the whole production process of auto body sheet were studied. Then the development process of air cushion furnace line of aluminum alloy sheet was reviewed,summarized and divided to two stages. Based on the research of air cushion furnace,the key technology of it was analyzed,then the key points on process,equipment and control models of air cushion furnace for aluminum alloy auto body sheet in future were put forward. With the rapid de-velopment of automotive industry,there will be certainly a new upsurge of research and application of air cush-ion furnace for heat treatment of aluminum alloy auto body sheet.

  20. Development of residential solar air conditioning system for electricity power peak cut 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Gwon Jong [Korea Inst. of Energy and Resources, Daeduk (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-12-31

    In this research, the converter rectifier unit of the inverter air conditioner is substituted into the bidirectional PWM converter. The DC/DC power converter is established on the DC link between the photovoltaic array and the inverter air conditioner, and the photovoltaic air conditioning system which can be parallel driven which utility is developed. (author). 35 ref., 112 figs.

  1. Furnace Blower Electricity: National and Regional Savings Potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Florida Solar Energy Center; Franco, Victor; Franco, Victor; Lutz, Jim; Lekov, Alex; Gu, Lixing

    2008-05-16

    Currently, total electricity consumption of furnaces is unregulated, tested at laboratory conditions using the DOE test procedure, and is reported in the GAMA directory as varying from 76 kWh/year to 1,953 kWh/year. Furnace blowers account for about 80percent of the total furnace electricity consumption and are primarily used to distribute warm air throughout the home during furnace operation as well as distribute cold air during air conditioning operation. Yet the furnace test procedure does not provide a means to calculate the electricity consumption during cooling operation or standby, which account for a large fraction of the total electricity consumption. Furthermore, blower electricity consumption is strongly affected by static pressure. Field data shows that static pressure in the house distribution ducts varies widely and that the static pressure used in the test procedure as well as the calculated fan power is not representative of actual field installations. Therefore, accurate determination of the blower electricity consumption is important to address electricity consumption of furnaces and air conditioners. This paper compares the potential regional and national energy savings of two-stage brushless permanent magnet (BPM) blower motors (the blower design option with the most potential savings that is currently available in the market) to single-stage permanent split capacitor (PSC) blower motors (the most common blower design option). Computer models were used to generate the heating and cooling loads for typical homes in 16 different climates which represent houses throughout the United States. The results show that the potential savings of using BPM motors vary by region and house characteristics, and are very strongly tied to improving house distribution ducts. Savings decrease dramatically with increased duct pressure. Cold climate locations will see savings even in the high static pressure duct situations, while warm climate locations will see less

  2. R744 air conditioner with stop/start air conditioning, parking air conditioning and heat pump function in the ''COMET'' test car; R744-Klimaanlage mit Stopp/Start- und Standklimatisierung sowie Waermepumpenfunktion im Versuchstraeger ''COMET''

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandes, H.; Horstmann, P.; Kneifel, M.; Hohl, R. [Robert Bosch GmbH, Schwieberdingen (Germany)

    2006-07-01

    Within a several years development project Robert Bosch GmbH has setup a test vehicle to investigate an integral energy management concept (COMET - Control of Mechanical, Electrical and Thermal Power). Key feature of the COMET vehicle concept is the hybrid drive train comprising the standard combustion engine and two electrical motors - each with 8 kW - being integrated in the power splitting Dual-E gearbox. Directly via the gearbox the compressor of the CO{sub 2} A/C system is driven so that an electrically parking and start-stop air condition and heating function using a CO{sub 2} heat pump can be realized. System setup, Cool down and heating up tests are shown and discussed. (orig.)

  3. BPM Motors in Residential Gas Furnaces: What are theSavings?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lutz, James; Franco, Victor; Lekov, Alex; Wong-Parodi, Gabrielle

    2006-05-12

    Residential gas furnaces contain blowers to distribute warm air. Currently, furnace blowers use either a Permanent Split Capacitor (PSC) or a Brushless Permanent Magnet (BPM) motor. Blowers account for the majority of furnace electricity consumption. Therefore, accurate determination of the blower electricity consumption is important for understanding electricity consumption of furnaces. The electricity consumption of blower motors depends on the static pressure across the blower. This paper examines both types of blower motors in non-condensing non-weatherized gas furnaces at a range of static pressures. Fan performance data is based on manufacturer product literature and laboratory tests. We use field-measured static pressure in ducts to get typical system curves to calculate how furnaces would operate in the field. We contrast this with the electricity consumption of a furnace blower operating under the DOE test procedure and manufacturer rated conditions. Furnace electricity use is also affected by operating modes that happen at the beginning and end of each furnace firing cycle. These operating modes are the pre-purge and post-purge by the draft inducer, the on-delay and off-delay of the blower, and the hot surface ignitor operation. To accurately calculate this effect, we use the number of firing cycles in a typical California house in the Central Valley of California. Cooling hours are not considered in the DOE test procedure. We also account for furnace blower use by the air conditioner and stand-by power. Overall BPM motors outperform PSC motors, but the total electricity savings are significantly less than projected using the DOE test procedure conditions. The performance gains depend on the static pressure of the household ducts, which are typically much higher than in the test procedures.

  4. Final report on the effects of ECM furnace motors on electricity and gas use : results from the CCHT research facility and projections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gusdorf, J.; Hayden, S.; Enchev, E. [Natural Resources Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). CANMET Energy Technology Centre; Swinton, M. [National Research Council of Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada); Simpson, C. [Craig J. Simpson Technical Services, Ottawa, ON (Canada); Castellan, B. [Enbridge Gas Distribution, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2003-12-01

    Electronically commutated motors (ECM) are brushless, permanent magnet DC motors with integrated controls. At low speeds, ECMs can save over 60 per cent of the electricity used by permanent split capacitor motors currently used in residential furnaces. A study was conducted at the Canadian Centre for Housing Technology in which the impact of ECM on electricity and gas consumption in 2 identical test houses was evaluated. Located in Ottawa, Ontario, the twin energy efficient houses represent a typical Canadian winter heating season. The study demonstrated the ability of the high efficiency ECM motor technology to significantly reduce electricity needed to move air in forced air heating and cooling systems. The amount of extra natural gas that would be needed during the heating season was quantified along with the extra electricity that would be saved in the cooling season. The HOT2000 energy simulation model was used to summarize the results to an entire year for mid-and high-efficiency furnaces in a variety of house types in 4 Canadian cities, Winnipeg, Toronto, Ottawa and Moncton. Results indicate that electricity savings resulting from the use of ECM are in the order of 1,500 kWh/per year or as high 18 per cent without air conditioning, and 25 per cent with air conditioning. The increased use of natural gas is more than 150 cubic metres per year. In the case of electricity being supplied from coal-fired power plants, the net reduction in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions can be as high as 1,675 kg of carbon dioxide per year without air conditioners and 2,964 kg of carbon dioxide per year with air conditioners. In Winnipeg, where most electricity is produced at hydroelectric facilities, GHG emissions decreased by 312 kg of carbon dioxide per year. It was concluded that ECMs provide a unique and efficient fuel switching opportunity for natural gas to displace electricity. 12 refs., 7 tabs., 14 figs., 6 appendices.

  5. Numerical Study of Air Nozzles on Mild Combustion for Application to Forward Flow Furnace

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Bo; Wang Yuanhua; Xu Hong

    2016-01-01

    An attempt was made to extend mild combustion to forward lfow furnace, such as the reifnery and petrochemical tube furnace. Three dimensional numerical simulation was carried out to study the performance of this furnace. The Eddy Dissipation Concept (EDC) model coupled with the reaction mechanism DRM-19 was used. The prediction showed a good agreement with the measurement. The effect of air nozzle circle (D), air nozzle diameter (d), air nozzle number (N), and air preheating temperature (Tair) on the lfow, temperature and species ifelds, and the CO and NO emissions was investigated. The results indicate that there are four zones in the furnace, viz.:a central jet zone, an ignition zone, a combustion reaction zone, and a lfue gas zone, according to the distribution proifles of H2CO and OH. The central jet entrains more lfue gas in the furnace upstream with an increasing D while the effect of D is negligible in the downstream. The air jet momentum increases with a decreasing d or an increasing Tair, and entrains more lfue gas. The effect of N is mainly identiifed near the burner exit. More heat is absorbed in the radiant section and less heat is discharged to the atmosphere with a decreasing d and an increasing N as evidenced by the lfue gas temperature. The CO and NO emissions are less than 50μL/L and 10μL/L, respectively, in most of conditions.

  6. Replacement of Natural Fine Aggregate With Air Cooled Blast Furnace Slag An Industrial By Product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. B. Krishna Rao

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the investigation is to replace natural fine aggregatewith Air Cooled Blast Furnace Slag in OPC concrete. At present, nearly million tons of slag is being produced in the steel plants, in India. The generation of slag would be dual problem in disposal difficulty and environmental pollution. Some strategies should be used to utilize the slag effectively. Considering physical properties of metallurgical slags and a series of possibilities for their use in the field of civil constructions, this report demonstrates the possibilities of using air cooled blast furnace slag as partial replacement of sand in concrete. A total of five concrete mixes, containing 0%, 12.5%, 25%, 37.5% and 50% partial replacement of regular sand with air cooled blast furnace slag are investigated in the laboratory. These mixes were tested to determine axial compressive strength, split tensile strength, and flexural strength for 7days, 28days, 56days and 90days.

  7. COMPOSITION CHANGES IN REFRIGERANT BLENDS FOR AUTOMOTIVE AIR CONDITIONING

    Science.gov (United States)

    Three refrigerant blends used to replace CFC-12 in automotive air conditioners were evaluated for composition changes due to typical servicing and leakage. When recommended service procedures were followed, changes in blend compositions were relatively small. Small changes in b...

  8. Technical support document: Energy efficiency standards for consumer products: Room air conditioners, water heaters, direct heating equipment, mobile home furnaces, kitchen ranges and ovens, pool heaters, fluorescent lamp ballasts and television sets. Volume 3, Water heaters, pool heaters, direct heating equipment, and mobile home furnaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-11-01

    This is Volume 3 in a series of documents on energy efficiency of consumer products. This volume discusses energy efficiency of water heaters. Water heaters are defined by NAECA as products that utilize oil, gas, or electricity to heat potable water for use outside the heater upon demand. These are major appliances, which use a large portion (18% on average) of total energy consumed per household (1). They differ from most other appliances in that they are usually installed in obscure locations as part of the plumbing and are ignored until they fail. Residential water heaters are capable of heating water up to 180{degrees}F, although the setpoints are usually set lower.

  9. 40 CFR 424.40 - Applicability; description of the covered calcium carbide furnaces with wet air pollution control...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... covered calcium carbide furnaces with wet air pollution control devices subcategory. 424.40 Section 424.40... FERROALLOY MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Covered Calcium Carbide Furnaces With Wet Air Pollution Control Devices Subcategory § 424.40 Applicability; description of the covered calcium carbide...

  10. The plaster plate becomes a air-conditioner; La plaque de platre se fait climatiseur

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucat, Th.

    2005-09-01

    BASF company, in association with Knauf, has developed a plaster plate capable to regulate the indoor temperature of a room during summer time. A paraffin-based (wax) phase change material, named Micronal, is included in the plater to store energy during the day and to release it during the night. The lifetime of the phase change material is at least 30 years without loss of efficiency. Short paper. (J.S.)

  11. Solar Powered Liquid Desiccant Air Conditioner for Low-Electricity Humidity Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-01

    plates that had been modified so that cooling water made six passes within each plate. A woven cotton fabric sleeve was slipped over each plate to...of operation in non -ideal weather conditions and taking proper measures to avoid damage from freezing. Altogether, the site provides the necessary

  12. Preparation of nano-sized hydrophilic aluminum fins coating materials for air conditioner

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈志明; 韩峰; 邵利

    2002-01-01

    Semicontinuous seeded emulsion copolymerization of acrylic acid, acrylamide and divinylbenzene was carried out at 80℃ with ammonium persulphate as the initiator and the polyether with comb configuration as the emulsifier to prepare approximately mono-dispersed nano-sized polymer particles with average diameter 90nm. The particles were used to combine with special polyether and de-ionized water was added to obtain nano-sized hydrophilic aluminum fins coating materials with solid content of 10%. The aluminum fins were coated with the materials to get the film showing self-assembly properties in some degree. The obtained hydrophilic fins have contact angles <5° with de-ionized water, minimum value 0°, after 4 cycles of wet and dry, contact angles <10° with de-ionized water.

  13. Solar-Powered, Liquid-Desiccant Air Conditioner for Low-Electricity Humidity Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-01

    energy penalty in fan power and requires frequent maintenance to remain effective. Alternatively, the low-flow liquid desiccant uses minimal mist ...65 8.3.4 LDAC Fans and Pumps...27 Table 9. LDAC System Pump and Fan Motor Schedule

  14. Value Engineering Study of Standard Family of Military Horizontal and Vertical Air Conditioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-29

    Jeff Nebel Graham Company Box 23880 8800 West Bradley Road Milkwaukee, Wisconsin 53223(414) 355-8800 Terry Gulbrandsen REP: for Emerson Electric Harmon...Mitzubishi Of Washington, Inc. 300 Swann Avenue Alexandria, VA. 22301 Attention: Carl Godwin (703) 548-2045 Central Power Company 27495 Diaz Road...41042 Attention: Rolf Tonseth * *AI~ilREFERENCEYEPLY 081-87 Carl E. 3) 960-4600, Ext. 579 -"IJVE NUMBER MUST APPEAR ON ALL QUOTATIONS PLEASE QUOl THIS

  15. Improved design and operation of crude furnace air preheater for cold climates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gollpudi, B. [Bantrel Co. (Canada); Nichols, D. [Husky Energy (Canada)

    2011-07-01

    In the heavy oil industry, air preheaters are used to heat combustion air with hot flue gas. Flue gas contains significant amounts of sulphur oxides which can result in acid dew point corrosion on the flue gas side. The air preheater metal has therefore to be kept at a temperature higher than this dew point to provide trouble free operation. This paper relates a case of dew point corrosion damage in an air preheater and the design modifications made to solve the problem. The case studied took place at the crude furnace at Husky Energy's Lloydminster Upgrader where a plate exchanger air preheater was installed in 2007 and corrosion was noticed in 2009. It was found that hot air recirculation helps in maintaining a sufficiently high temperature and that the ducting design avoids dead zones. This paper showed that improved design can help to prevent damage occurring in the air preheater.

  16. Smart sensors enable smart air conditioning control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Chin-Chi; Lee, Dasheng

    2014-06-24

    In this study, mobile phones, wearable devices, temperature and human motion detectors are integrated as smart sensors for enabling smart air conditioning control. Smart sensors obtain feedback, especially occupants' information, from mobile phones and wearable devices placed on human body. The information can be used to adjust air conditioners in advance according to humans' intentions, in so-called intention causing control. Experimental results show that the indoor temperature can be controlled accurately with errors of less than ±0.1 °C. Rapid cool down can be achieved within 2 min to the optimized indoor capacity after occupants enter a room. It's also noted that within two-hour operation the total compressor output of the smart air conditioner is 48.4% less than that of the one using On-Off control. The smart air conditioner with wearable devices could detect the human temperature and activity during sleep to determine the sleeping state and adjusting the sleeping function flexibly. The sleeping function optimized by the smart air conditioner with wearable devices could reduce the energy consumption up to 46.9% and keep the human health. The presented smart air conditioner could provide a comfortable environment and achieve the goals of energy conservation and environmental protection.

  17. Numerical Simulation of Combustion Characteristics in High Temperature Air Combustion Furnace

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Ai-hua; CAI Jiu-ju; XIE Guo-wei

    2009-01-01

    The influences of air preheating temperature, oxygen concentration, and fuel inlet temperature on flame properties, and NOx formation and emission in the furnace were studied with numerical simulation. The turbulence behavior was modeled using the standard k-e model with wall function, and radiation was handled using discrete ordi-nate radiation model. The PDF (probability density funetion)/mixture fraction combustion model was used to simu-late the propane combustion. Additionally, computations of NOx formation rates and NOx concentration were carried out using a post-processor on the basis of previously calculated velocities, turbulence, temperature, and chemical composition fields. The results showed that high temperature air combustion (HiTAC) is spread over a much larger volume than traditional combustion, flame volume increases with a reduction of oxygen eoncentration, and this trend is clearer if oxygen concentration in the preheated air is below 10%. The temperature profile becomes more uniform when oxygen concentration in preheated air decreases, especially at low oxygen levels. Increase in fuel inlet tempera-ture lessens the mixing of the fuel and air in primary combustion zone, ereates more uniform distribution of reactants inside the flame, decreases the maximum temperature in furnace, and reduces NOx emission greatly.

  18. Improving air handler efficiency in houses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, Iain S.

    2004-05-01

    Although furnaces, air conditioners and heat pumps have become significantly more efficient over the last couple of decades, residential air handlers have typical efficiencies of only 10% to 15% due to poor electric motor performance and aerodynamically poor fans and fan housings. Substantial increases in performance could be obtained through improved air handler design and construction. A prototype residential air handler intended to address these issues has recently been developed. The prototype and a standard production fan were tested in a full-scale duct system and test chamber at LBNL specifically designed for testing heating, ventilation, and air conditioning systems. The laboratory tests compared efficiency, total airflow, sensitivity to duct system flow resistance, and the effects of installation in a smaller cabinet. The test results showed that the prototype air handler had about twice the efficiency of the standard air handler (averaged over a wide range of operating conditions) and was less sensitive to duct system flow resistance changes. The performance of both air handlers was significantly reduced by reducing the clearance between the air handler and cabinet it was placed in. These test results showed that in addition to the large scope for performance improvement, air handler fans need to be tested in the cabinets they operate in.

  19. Numerical Simulation of the Effect of Air Distribution on Turbulent Flow and Combustion in a Tubular Heating Furnace

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WangJuan; MaoYu; LiLihong

    2005-01-01

    A three-dimension full-size numerical simulation of the effect of air distribution on turbulent flow and combustion in a tubular heating furnace was carried out. A standard k - ε turbulent model, a simplified PDF combustion model and a discrete ordinate transfer radiation model were used. The hybrid grid combining a structured and a non-structured grid was generated without any simplification of the complicated geometric configuration around the burner. It was found that the multistage combustion could reduce and control the peak value of temperature. At the same time, it was concluded that the amount of primary air had little effect on the global distribution of velocity and temperature in the furnace, but a great effect on that around the burner. It is recommended that 45%- 65% of the total amount of air be taken in in primary air inlets in the furnace. All the results are important to optimize the combustion progress.

  20. Effect of Combustion Air Pre-Heating In Carbon Monoxide Emission in Diesel Fired Heat Treatment Furnace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E B Muhammed Shafi,

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the effect of combustion air pre- heating in Diesel fired heat Treatment Furnace. The main heat treatment processes are Normalizing, Tempering, Hardening, Annealing, Solution Annealing and Stress Relieving. The emission of carbon monoxide is measured with combustion air pre-heating and without preheating. The results are then compared and it is found that the emission of CO is reduced by 29.12%. With the Combustion air pre-heating a considerable reduction in Specific Furnace Fuel Consumption (SFFC is obtained. The test was caaried out at Peekay Steels Casting (P ltd, Nallalam, Calicut.

  1. Seminar 14 - Desiccant Enhanced Air Conditioning: Desiccant Enhanced Evaporative Air Conditioning (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozubal, E.

    2013-02-01

    This presentation explains how liquid desiccant based coupled with an indirect evaporative cooler can efficiently produce cool, dry air, and how a liquid desiccant membrane air conditioner can efficiently provide cooling and dehumidification without the carryover problems of previous generations of liquid desiccant systems. It provides an overview to a liquid desiccant DX air conditioner that can efficiently provide cooling and dehumidification to high latent loads without the need for reheat, explains how liquid desiccant cooling and dehumidification systems can outperform vapor compression based air conditioning systems in hot and humid climates, explains how liquid desiccant cooling and dehumidification systems work, and describes a refrigerant free liquid desiccant based cooling system.

  2. Chloride leaching from air pollution control residues solidified using ground granulated blast furnace slag.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampris, Christos; Stegemann, Julia A; Cheeseman, Christopher R

    2008-11-01

    Ground granulated blast furnace slag (ggbs) has been used to solidify air pollution control (APC) residues obtained from a major UK energy-from-waste plant. Samples were prepared with ggbs additions between 10 and 50 wt% of total dry mass and water/solids ratios between 0.35 and 0.80. Consistence, setting time, compressive strength and leaching characteristics have been investigated. Results indicated that the highly alkaline nature of APC residues due to the presence of free lime can be used to activate ggbs hydration reactions. Increasing ggbs additions and reducing the water content resulted in increased compressive strengths, with 50 wt% ggbs samples having average 28 d strengths of 20.6 MPa. Leaching tests indicate low physical encapsulation and minimal chemical fixation of chloride in ggbs solidified APC residues. The results suggest that more than 50 wt% ggbs additions would be required to treat APC residues to meet the current waste acceptance criteria limits for chloride.

  3. Carbon Emissions from air-Conditioning

    OpenAIRE

    Rajesh Kumar

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores electricity consumption and carbon emissions associated with air-conditioning. The total heat load of a room fitted with air conditioner of 1.5 ton capacity has been calculated by calculating conduction and ventilation losses. Solar heat gain and internal gain were taken as the other two parameters for the total heat calculation.

  4. Carbon Emissions from air-Conditioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores electricity consumption and carbon emissions associated with air-conditioning. The total heat load of a room fitted with air conditioner of 1.5 ton capacity has been calculated by calculating conduction and ventilation losses. Solar heat gain and internal gain were taken as the other two parameters for the total heat calculation.

  5. High Energy Efficiency Air Conditioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edward McCullough; Patrick Dhooge; Jonathan Nimitz

    2003-12-31

    This project determined the performance of a new high efficiency refrigerant, Ikon B, in a residential air conditioner designed to use R-22. The refrigerant R-22, used in residential and small commercial air conditioners, is being phased out of production in developed countries beginning this year because of concerns regarding its ozone depletion potential. Although a replacement refrigerant, R-410A, is available, it operates at much higher pressure than R-22 and requires new equipment. R-22 air conditioners will continue to be in use for many years to come. Air conditioning is a large part of expensive summer peak power use in many parts of the U.S. Previous testing and computer simulations of Ikon B indicated that it would have 20 - 25% higher coefficient of performance (COP, the amount of cooling obtained per energy used) than R-22 in an air-cooled air conditioner. In this project, a typical new R-22 residential air conditioner was obtained, installed in a large environmental chamber, instrumented, and run both with its original charge of R-22 and then with Ikon B. In the environmental chamber, controlled temperature and humidity could be maintained to obtain repeatable and comparable energy use results. Tests with Ikon B included runs with and without a power controller, and an extended run for several months with subsequent analyses to check compatibility of Ikon B with the air conditioner materials and lubricant. Baseline energy use of the air conditioner with its original R-22 charge was measured at 90 deg F and 100 deg F. After changeover to Ikon B and a larger expansion orifice, energy use was measured at 90 deg F and 100 deg F. Ikon B proved to have about 19% higher COP at 90 deg F and about 26% higher COP at 100 deg F versus R-22. Ikon B had about 20% lower cooling capacity at 90 deg F and about 17% lower cooling capacity at 100 deg F versus R-22 in this system. All results over multiple runs were within 1% relative standard deviation (RSD). All of these

  6. Effect of Crushed Air-cooled Blast Furnace Slag on Mechanical Properties of Concrete

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Aiguo; DENG Min; SUN Daosheng; LI Bing; TANG Mingshu

    2012-01-01

    Morphology characteristics of mix aggregates with crushed air-cooled blast furnace slag (SCR) and crushed limestone (LCR) with 5-20 mm and 20-40 mm gradation were represented by numerical parameters including angularity number (AN) and index of aggregate particle shape and texture (IAPST).The effect of mix aggregates containing SCR on compressive strength and splitting tensile strength of concrete was investigated.Fracture characteristics of concrete,interfacial structure between aggregates and matrix were analyzed.The experimental results show that porous and rough SCR increases contact area with matrix in concrete,concave holes and micro-pores on the surface of SCR are filled by mortar and hydrated cement paste,which may increase interlocking and mechanical bond between aggregate and matrix in concrete.SCR can be used to produce a high-strength concrete with better mechanical properties than corresponding concrete made with LCR.The increase of AN and IAPST of aggregate may enhance mechanical properties of concrete.

  7. Experimental and numerical study on aerodynamic noise of outdoor unit of room air conditioner with different grilles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tian, Jie; Ouyang, Hua; Wu, Yadong [School of Mechanical Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 800 Shanghai Dongchuan Road, Shanghai 200030 (China)

    2009-08-15

    The aerodynamic and aeroacoustic performances of outdoor unit with two different types of grille have been investigated in present study. Experimental results indicate that the grille sharp will affect the flow rate and increase broadband noise level of outdoor unit. Based on noise generation mechanism and CFD simulation, vortex shedding noise model and inlet turbulence noise model are adopted to predict the broadband noise level of outdoor unit. When vortex shedding noise is concerned, the wake parameters should be calculated at 3 mm downstream of grille to achieve good accuracy. Inlet turbulence noise is generated from the interaction between blade wake and the grille, and plays less important role in present outdoor unit configuration. In comparison with experimental results, it is shown that the broadband noise prediction method could provide reasonable accuracy and the error between prediction and experiment is less than 1 dBA. (author)

  8. Seasonal performance of air conditioners - an analysis of the DOE test procedures: the thermostat and measurement errors. Report No. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lamb, G.D.; Tree, D.R.

    1981-01-01

    Two aspects of the DOE test procedures are analyzed. First, the role of the thermostat in controlling the cycling of conditioning equipment is investigated. The test procedures call for a cycling scheme of 6 minutes on, 24 minutes off for Test D. To justify this cycling scheme as being representative of cycling in the field, it is assumed that the thermostat is the major factor in controlling the cycle rate. This assumption is examined by studying a closed-loop feedback model consisting of a thermostat, a heating/cooling plant and a conditioned space. Important parameters of this model are individually studied to determine their influence on the system. It is found that the switch differential and the anticipator gain are the major parameters in controlling the cycle rate. This confirms the thermostat's dominant role in the cycling of a system. The second aspect of the test procedures concerns transient errors or differences in the measurement of cyclic capacity. In particular, errors due to thermocouple response, thermocouple grid placement, dampers and nonuniform velocity and temperature distributions are considered. Problems in these four areas are mathematically modeled and the basic assumptions are stated. Results from these models help to clarify the problem areas and give an indication of the magnitude of the errors involved. It is found that major disagreement in measured capacity can arise in these four areas and can be mainly attributed to test set-up differences even though such differences are allowable in the test procedures. An understanding of such differences will aid in minimizing many problems in the measurement of cyclic capacity.

  9. Avoiding 100 New Power Plants by Increasing Efficiency of Room Air Conditioners in India: Opportunities and Challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phadke, Amol; Abhyankar, Nikit; Shah, Nihar

    2014-06-19

    Electricity demand for room ACs is growing very rapidly in emerging economies such as India. We estimate the electricity demand from room ACs in 2030 in India considering factors such as weather and income growth using market data on penetration of ACs in different income classes and climatic regions. We discuss the status of the current standards, labels, and incentive programs to improve the efficiency of room ACs in these markets and assess the potential for further large improvements in efficiency and find that efficiency can be improved by over 40percent cost effectively. The total potential energy savings from Room AC efficiency improvement in India using the best available technology will reach over 118 TWh in 2030; potential peak demand saving is found to be 60 GW by 2030. This is equivalent to avoiding 120 new coal fired power plants of 500 MW each. We discuss policy options to complement, expand and improve the ongoing programs to capture this large potential.

  10. Avoiding 100 new power plants by increasing efficiency of room air conditioners in India: opportunities and challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phadke, Amol; Abhyankar, Nikit; Shah, Nihar; [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technology Division

    2013-10-15

    Electricity demand for room ACs is growing very rapidly in emerging economies such as India. We estimate the electricity demand from room ACs in 2030 in India considering factors such as weather and income growth using market data on penetration of ACs in different income classes and climatic regions. We discuss the status of the current standards, labels, and incentive programs to improve the efficiency of room ACs in these markets and assess the potential for further large improvements in efficiency and find that efficiency can be improved by over 40% cost effectively. The total potential energy savings from Room AC efficiency improvement in India using the best available technology will reach over 118 TWh in 2030; potential peak demand saving is found to be 60 GW by 2030. This is equivalent to avoiding 120 new coal fired power plants of 500 MW each. We discuss policy options to complement, expand and improve the ongoing programs to capture this large potential.

  11. Heat treatment furnace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seals, Roland D; Parrott, Jeffrey G; DeMint, Paul D; Finney, Kevin R; Blue, Charles T

    2014-10-21

    A furnace heats through both infrared radiation and convective air utilizing an infrared/purge gas design that enables improved temperature control to enable more uniform treatment of workpieces. The furnace utilizes lamps, the electrical end connections of which are located in an enclosure outside the furnace chamber, with the lamps extending into the furnace chamber through openings in the wall of the chamber. The enclosure is purged with gas, which gas flows from the enclosure into the furnace chamber via the openings in the wall of the chamber so that the gas flows above and around the lamps and is heated to form a convective mechanism in heating parts.

  12. Waste Heat Recovery by Heat Pipe Air-Preheater to Energy Thrift from the Furnace in a Hot Forging Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lerchai Yodrak

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Currently, the heat pipe air-preheater has become importance equipment for energy recovery from industrial waste heat because of its low investment cost and high thermal conductivity. Approach: This purpose of the study was to design, construct and test the waste heat recovery by heat pipe air-preheater from the furnace in a hot brass forging process. The mathematical model was developed to predict heat transfer rate and applied to compute the heat pipe air-preheater in a hot brass forging process. The heat pipe air-preheater was designed, constructed and tested under medium temperature operating conditions with inlet hot gas ranging between 370-420°C using water as the working fluid with 50% filling by volume of evaporator length. Results: The experiment findings indicated that when the hot gas temperature increased, the heat transfer rate also increased. If the internal diameter increased, the heat transfer rate increased and when the tube arrangement changed from inline to staggered arrangement, the heat transfer rate increased. Conclusion/Recommendations: The heat pipe air-preheater can reduced the quantity of using gas in the furnace and achieve energy thrift effectively.

  13. Field Measurements of Heating Efficiency of Electric Forced-Air Furnaces in Six Manufactured Homes.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Bob; Palmiter, Larry S.; Siegel, Jeff

    1994-07-26

    This report presents the results of field measurements of heating efficiency for six manufactured homes in the Pacific Northwest heated with electric forced-air systems. This is the first in a series of regional and national efforts to measure in detail the heating efficiency of manufactured homes. Only six homes were included in this study because of budgetary constraints; therefore this is not a representative sample. These investigations do provide some useful information on the heating efficiency of these homes. Useful comparisons can be drawn between these study homes and site-built heating efficiencies measured with a similar protocol. The protocol used to test these homes is very similar to another Ecotope protocol used in the study conducted in 1992 and 1993 for the Bonneville Power Administration to test the heating efficiency of 24 homes. This protocol combined real-time power measurements of furnace energy usage with energy usage during co-heat periods. Accessory data such as house and duct tightness measurements and tracer gas measurements were used to describe these homes and their heating system efficiency. Ensuring that manufactured housing is constructed in an energy and resource efficient manner is of increasing concern to manufactured home builders and consumers. No comparable work has been done to measure the heating system efficiency of MCS manufactured homes, although some co-heat tests have been performed on manufactured homes heated with natural gas to validate HUD thermal standards. It is expected that later in 1994 more research of this kind will be conducted, and perhaps a less costly and less time-consuming method for testing efficiencies will be develops.

  14. Air Conditioning Overflow Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    The Technology Transfer Office at Stennis Space Center helped a local inventor develop a prototype of an attachment for central air conditioners and heat pumps that helps monitor water levels to prevent condensation overflow. The sensor will indicate a need for drain line maintenance and prevent possible damage caused by drain pan water spillover. An engineer in the Stennis Space Center prototype Development Laboratory used SSC sensor technology in the development of the sensor.

  15. Hospital-acquired infections associated with poor air quality in air-conditioned environments

    OpenAIRE

    Daniela Pinheiro da Silva

    2014-01-01

    Backgound and Objectives: Individuals living in cities increasingly spend more time indoors in air-conditioned environments. Air conditioner contamination can be caused by the presence of aerosols from the external or internal environment, which may be associated with disease manifestations in patients present in this type of environment. Therefore, the aim of this review was to assess the air quality in air-conditioned hospital environments as a risk factor for hospital-acqui...

  16. Keeping cool: use of air conditioning by australians with multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summers, Michael P; Simmons, Rex D; Verikios, George

    2012-01-01

    Despite the known difficulties many people with MS have with high ambient temperatures, there are no reported studies of air conditioning use and MS. This study systematically examined air conditioner use by Australians with MS. A short survey was sent to all participants in the Australian MS Longitudinal Study cohort with a response rate of 76% (n = 2,385). Questions included hours of air-conditioner use, areas cooled, type and age of equipment, and the personal effects of overheating. Air conditioners were used by 81.9% of respondents, with an additional 9.6% who could not afford an air conditioner. Regional and seasonal variation in air conditioning use was reported, with a national annual mean of 1,557 hours running time. 90.7% reported negative effects from overheating including increased fatigue, an increase in other MS symptoms, reduced household and social activities, and reduced work capacity. Households that include people with MS spend between 4 and 12 times more on keeping cool than average Australian households.

  17. Combustion and NOx emission characteristics with respect to staged-air damper opening in a 600 MWe down-fired pulverized-coal furnace under deep-air-staging conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuang, Min; Li, Zhengqi; Wang, Zhihua; Jing, Xinjing; Liu, Chunlong; Zhu, Qunyi; Ling, Zhongqian

    2014-01-01

    Deep-air-staging combustion conditions, widely used in tangential-fired and wall-arranged furnaces to significantly reduce NOx emissions, are premature up to now in down-fired furnaces that are designed especially for industry firing low-volatile coals such as anthracite and lean coal. To uncover combustion and NOx emission characteristics under deep-air-staging conditions within a newly operated 600 MWe down-fired furnace and simultaneously understand the staged-air effect on the furnace performance, full-load industrial-size measurements taken of gas temperatures and species concentrations in the furnace, CO and NOx emissions in flue gas, and carbon in fly ash were performed at various staged-air damper openings of 10%, 20%, 30%, and 50%. Increasing the staged-air damper opening, gas temperatures along the flame travel (before the flame penetrating the staged-air zone) increased initially but then decreased, while those in the staged-air zone and the upper part of the hopper continuously decreased and increased, respectively. On opening the staged-air damper to further deepen the air-staging conditions, O2 content initially decreased but then increased in both two near-wall regions affected by secondary air and staged air, respectively, whereas CO content in both two regions initially increased but then decreased. In contrast to the conventional understanding about the effects of deep-air-staging conditions, here increasing the staged-air damper opening to deepen the air-staging conditions essentially decreased the exhaust gas temperature and carbon in fly ash and simultaneously increased both NOx emissions and boiler efficiency. In light of apparently low NOx emissions and high carbon in fly ash (i.e., 696-878 mg/m(3) at 6% O2 and 9.81-13.05%, respectively) developing in the down-fired furnace under the present deep-air-staging conditions, further adjustments such as enlarging the staged-air declination angle to prolong pulverized-coal residence times in the

  18. Distribution of air and serum PCDD/F levels of electric arc furnaces and secondary aluminum and copper smelters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ching-Chang; Shih, Tung-Seng; Chen, Hsiu-Ling

    2009-12-30

    Metallurgical processes, such as smelting, can generate organic impurities such as organic chloride chemicals, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs). The objective of this study was to elucidate the serum PCDD/F levels of 134 workers and ambient air levels around electric arc furnaces (EAF), secondary copper smelters and secondary aluminum smelters (ALSs) in Taiwan. The highest serum PCDD/F levels were found in the ALSs workers (21.9 pg WHO-TEQ/g lipid), with lower levels in copper smelter workers (21.5 pg WHO-TEQ/g lipid), and the lowest in the EAF plant workers (18.8 pg WHO-TEQ/g lipid). This was still higher than the levels for residents living within 5 km of municipal waste incinerators (14.0 pg WHO-TEQ/g lipid). For ambient samples, the highest ambient air PCDD/F level was in the copper smelters (12.4 pg WHO-TEQ/Nm(3)), with lower levels in ALSs (7.2 pg WHO-TEQ/Nm(3)), and the lowest in the EAF industry (1.8 pg WHO-TEQ/Nm(3)). The congener profiles were consistent in serum and in air samples collected in the copper smelters, but not for ALSs and EAF. In secondary copper smelters, the air PCDD/Fs levels might be directly linked to the PCDD/Fs accumulated in the workers due to the exceedingly stable congener pattern of the PCDD/F emission.

  19. Study on the Effect of the Side Secondary Air Velocity on the Aerodynamic Field in a Tangentially Fired Furnace with HBC—SSA Burner

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZhuTong; SunShaozeng; 等

    1999-01-01

    The present paper has compared a group of furnace aerodynamic fields at different velocities of side secondary air(SSA) in a test model of 420t/h utility boiler,applying Horizontal Bias Conbustion Pulverized Coal Burner with Side Secondary AIr(HBC-SSA Burner).Experimental results show that,when the ram pressure ratio of side secondary air(SSA) to primary air(PA) ρ2sv232/ρ1v12)is between 1.0-2.4,the furnace aerodynamic field only varies slightly.The relative rotational diameters(φ/L)in the burner domain are moderate and the furnace is in good fullness.Whenρ2s v232/ρ1v12 is beyond4,φ/L is so large that the stream sweeps water-cooled wall and rotateds strongly in the furnace.Therefore,slagging and high temperature corrosion of tube metal will be formed on the water-cooled wall in actual operation.This investigation provides the basis for the application of this new type burner.In addition,numerical simulations are conducted,and some defects in the numerical simulation are also pointed out and analyzed in this paper.

  20. Air conditioning for data processing system areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernando Camacho García

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The appropiate selection of air conditioners for data processing system areas requires the knowledge of the environmental desing conditions, the air conditioning systems succssfully used computer and the cooling loads to handle. This work contains information about a wide variety of systems designed for computer room applications. a complete example of calculation to determine the amount of heat to be removed for satisfactory operation, is also included.

  1. Physical Properties of Crushed Air-cooled Blast Furnace Slag and Numerical Representation of Its Morphology Characteristics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Aiguo; DENG Min; SUN Daosheng; LI Bing; TANG Mingshu

    2012-01-01

    Physical properties and geometrical morphologies of crushed air-cooled blast furnace slag (SCR) and crushed limestone (LCR) were comparatively investigated.The shape,angularity,surface texture and internal pore structure of aggregate particles for different size and gradation were numerically represented by sphericity (ψ) and shape index (SI),angularity number (AN),index of aggregate particle shape and texture (IAPST),porosity and pore size,respectively.The results show that SCR is a porous and rough aggregate.Apparent density,void,water absorption and smashing index of SCR are obviously higher than those of LCR with the same gradation,respectively.However,bulk density of SCR is lower than that of LCR with the same gradation.SI,AN,IAPST and porosity of SCR are obviously higher than those of LCR with the same gradation,respectively.The smaller particle size of SCR,the larger of its AN,IAPST and porosity.

  2. Calculations in furnace technology

    CERN Document Server

    Davies, Clive; Hopkins, DW; Owen, WS

    2013-01-01

    Calculations in Furnace Technology presents the theoretical and practical aspects of furnace technology. This book provides information pertinent to the development, application, and efficiency of furnace technology. Organized into eight chapters, this book begins with an overview of the exothermic reactions that occur when carbon, hydrogen, and sulfur are burned to release the energy available in the fuel. This text then evaluates the efficiencies to measure the quantity of fuel used, of flue gases leaving the plant, of air entering, and the heat lost to the surroundings. Other chapters consi

  3. Neutral oxygen atom density in the MESOX air plasma solar furnace facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balat-Pichelin, Marianne; Vesel, Alenka

    2006-08-01

    The density of neutral oxygen atoms in the MESOX set-up, one device of the PROMES-CNRS solar facilities, was determined by a fiber-optics catalytic probe (FOCP). Plasma was created in a flowing air within a quartz tube with the outer diameter of 5 cm by a 2.45 GHz microwave generator with the output power up to 1000 W. The flow of air was varied between 4 and 20 l/h. The O-atom density was found to increase monotonously with the increasing discharge power, and it decreased with the increasing flow rate. The degree of dissociation of oxygen molecules in the plasma column depended largely on the flow rate. At the air flow of 4 l/h it was about 80% but it decreased to about 20% at the flow of 20 l/h.

  4. Neutral oxygen atom density in the MESOX air plasma solar furnace facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balat-Pichelin, Marianne [CNRS-PROMES, Laboratoire Procedes, Materiaux et Energie Solaire, UPR 8521, 7 rue du four solaire, F-66120 Font Romeu, Odeillo (France)], E-mail: balat@promes.cnrs.fr; Vesel, Alenka [Jozef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2006-08-21

    The density of neutral oxygen atoms in the MESOX set-up, one device of the PROMES-CNRS solar facilities, was determined by a fiber-optics catalytic probe (FOCP). Plasma was created in a flowing air within a quartz tube with the outer diameter of 5 cm by a 2.45 GHz microwave generator with the output power up to 1000 W. The flow of air was varied between 4 and 20 l/h. The O-atom density was found to increase monotonously with the increasing discharge power, and it decreased with the increasing flow rate. The degree of dissociation of oxygen molecules in the plasma column depended largely on the flow rate. At the air flow of 4 l/h it was about 80% but it decreased to about 20% at the flow of 20 l/h.

  5. Application of Computer Model to Estimate the Consistency of Air Conditioning Systems Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amal El-Berry

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Reliability engineering is utilized to predict the performance and optimization of the design and maintenance of air conditioning systems. There are a number of failures associated with the conditioning systems. The failures of an air conditioner such as turn on, loss of air conditioner cooling capacity, reduced air conditioning output temperatures, loss of cool air supply and loss of air flow entirely are mainly due to a variety of problems with one or more components of an air conditioner or air conditioning system. To maintain the system forecasting for system failure rates are very important. The focus of this paper is the reliability of the air conditioning systems. The most common applied statistical distributions in reliability settings are the standard (2 parameter Weibull and Gamma distributions. Reliability estimations and predictions are used to evaluate, when the estimation of distributionsparameters is done. To estimate good operating condition in a building, the reliability of the air conditioning system that supplies conditioned air to the several companies’ departments is checked. This air conditioning system is divided into two systems, namely the main chilled water system and the ten air handling systems that serves the ten departments. In a chilled-water system the air conditioner cools water down to 40 - 45oF (4 - 7oC. The chilled water is distributed throughout the building in a piping system and connected to air condition cooling units wherever needed. Data analysis has been done with support a computer aided reliability software, with the application of the Weibull and Gamma distributions it is indicated that the reliability for the systems equal to 86.012% and 77.7% respectively . A comparison between the two important families of distribution functions, namely, the Weibull and Gamma families is studied. It is found that Weibull method has performed well for decision making .

  6. Production and exploitation of thermoelectric air conditioning systems for vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dudnik, Vladimir [Conditioner Ltd, Gagarin (Russian Federation); Skipidarov, Sergey [SCTB NORD, Moskau (Russian Federation); Rapp, Axel [Quick-Ohm Kupper und Co. GmbH, Wuppertal-Cronenberg (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    In the paper more than 10-year experience of thermoelectric devices batch manufacturing is described for the field of their obvious advantages. This field of application includes thermoelectric air conditioning systems which have shown their competitive advantage when used in vehicles of elevated vibration where compressor equipment application is difficult because of leakage of refrigerant. Energy characteristics of air conditioners for tractors, excavators, tanks, locomotive driver's cabins and cranes are described. Thermoelectric (TE) air conditioners mechanical test data as well as operation experience in vehicles are presented. It is shown that consumption of tellurium, which is a strategic component for thermoelectric materials manufacturing, may be lowered to 40 grams per 1 kW of cooling. (orig.)

  7. The system of thermoelectric air conditioning based on permeable thermoelements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cherkez R. G.

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available There is thermoelectric air conditioner unit on the basis of permeable cooling thermoelements presented. In thermoelectric air conditioner unit the thermoelectric effects and the Joule–Thomson effect have been used for the air stream cooling. There have been described the method of temperature distribution analysis, the determinations of energy conversion power characteristics and design style of permeable thermoelement with maximum coefficient of performance described. The results of computer analysis concerning the application of the thermoelement legs material on the basis of Bi2Te3 have shown the possibility of coefficient of performance increase by a factor of 1,6—1,7 as compared with conventional thermoelectric systems.

  8. VENTILATION INFLUENCE UPON INDOOR AIR RADON LEVEL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田德源

    1995-01-01

    Levels of indoor radon in air are studied by a continuous electrostatic radon monitor under normal living conditions to evaluate the influence of air conditioned ventilation on indoor air radon level.Results show that the indoor air radon concentrations are not much more than those without household conditioner living condition.although using household conditioner requires a sealed room which should lead to a higher radon level.Turning on air conditioner helps lower indoor radon level.Therefore.the total indoor air Rn levels are normal>ventilation>exhaust or indraft> exhaust plus indraft.

  9. Fungal colonization of air-conditioning systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljaljević-Grbić Milica

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Fungi have been implicated as quantitatively the most important bioaerosol component of indoor air associated with contaminated air-conditioning systems. rarely, indoor fungi may cause human infections, but more commonly allergenic responses ranging from pneumonitis to asthma-like symptoms. From all air conditioner filters analyzed, 16 fungal taxa were isolated and identified. Aspergillus fumigatus causes more lethal infections worldwide than any other mold. Air-conditioning filters that adsorb moisture and volatile organics appear to provide suitable substrates for fungal colonization. It is important to stress that fungal colonization of air-conditioning systems should not be ignored, especially in hospital environments.

  10. Reseach on the Protective Device of Air Distributing in Blast Furnace Blower System%高炉拨风保护装置的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方声丑

    2013-01-01

      本文针对杭钢高炉供风的实际情况,研究并开发了防灌渣自动拨风保护装置系统,该系统基本能满足高炉对生产运行安全的需求。%  In this paper ,according to the Hangzhou Iron&Steel Group Compny blast furnace air supply, research and development of a system, the system is carried out to achieve automatical y dial wind and prevent tuyere slag irrigation .The system can meet the basic demand for the safe operation of the production of blast furnace.

  11. Simulation and Optimization of a Solar Driven Air Conditioning System for Indian Cities

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma, Dev

    2013-01-01

    Simulation and Optimization of a Solar Driven Air Conditioning System for Indian Cities Conventional air-conditioners need high grade energy i.e. electricity, which in India, is primarily produced from fossil fuels. In spite of several emission restraints exercised by many countries under Kyoto protocol, energy consumption and pollution levels are higher than ever. Therefore, an assessment from the ecological point of view needs to be implemented as the greenhouse gases effect remains a threa...

  12. A numerical study of pulverized coal ignition by means of plasma torches in air-coal dust mixture ducts of utility boiler furnaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belosevic, S.; Sijercic, M.; Stefanovic, P. [Institute for Nuclear Science Vinca, Belgrade (Serbia)

    2008-04-15

    Paper presents selected results of numerical simulation of processes in air-coal dust mixture duct of pulverized coal utility boiler furnace with plasma-system for pulverized coal ignition and combustion stabilization. Application of the system in utility boiler furnaces promises to achieve important savings compared with the use of heavy oil burners. Plasma torches are built in air-coal dust mixture ducts between coal mills and burners. Calculations have been performed for one of rectangular air-coal dust mixture ducts with two opposite plasma torches, used in 210 MWe utility boiler firing pulverized Serbian lignite. The simulations are based on a three-dimensional mathematical model of mass, momentum and heat transfer in reacting turbulent gas-particle flow, specially developed for the purpose. Characteristics of processes in the duct are analyzed in the paper, with respect to the numerical results. The plasma-system thermal effect is discussed as well, regarding corresponding savings of liquid fuel. It has been emphasized that numerical simulation of the processes can be applied in optimization of pulverized coal ignition and combustion stabilization and enables efficient and cost-effective scaling-up procedure from laboratory to industrial scale.

  13. Desing on the olng-range control circuit of air-conditioner%空调远程遥控电路的设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵明富; 田泽正

    2005-01-01

    空调远程遥控电路主要由模拟摘机与挂机电路、解码电路、密码锁电路、输出控制电路及直流稳压电源组成.为此,介绍一种通过手机对空调器进行远程遥控的新方法.该方法具有操作方便、实用性强、功能灵活等特点,尤其适合城乡家庭使用.

  14. 空调深幅降价玩不转市场"魔方"%The Big Depreciation Strategy of Air Conditioners Failed in Marketing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙广明

    2005-01-01

    @@ 时至9月底,暑去凉至,秋季姗姗而来.不少饱受胀库之苦的空调厂商,面对市场走淡和资金窘迫现状,不得不再次"放血"--大幅度降价.然而,这近乎疯狂的"最后一搏"能否达到其预期的目的?恐怕此时所有"采取非常措施"的厂商也难料凶吉.

  15. A new-type window air conditioner based on adsorption refrigeration%吸附制冷窗式空调器

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄泽溥

    1992-01-01

    本文介绍了以吸附式制冷原理为基础的新型窗式空调器,并详细阐述了其制冷过程、结构和功能以及与机械压缩制冷窗式空调器的比较,说明了可以以热代电满足空调要求.

  16. 变频空调功率器件散热器设计%Design of Power Semiconductor Sink of Air-conditioner

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄滔; 李发顺

    2015-01-01

    很多空调功率散热器的设计基本按照厂家做样后实验测试,根据器件的温升来判定设计是否合理,具有设计冗余,盲目性等缺点。本文目的在于给出散热器的基本设计思路,以格力某一款新型变频空调散热器实际设计过程为例,根据热力学基本理论以及散热器所在的特定环境、功率器件可以耐受的最高温升,通过理论计算及仿真,设计出能够满足使用要求的散热器。%Many designs of AC power radiator generally follow the sample test result from the factory to judge rea-sonableness according to the temperature rise of the device. It has the disadvantage of redundancy, purposelessness for design. This paper aims to propose the basic design concept for radiator through the actual radiator design process of one new type of invert AC from GREE. It’s on the basis of basic theory of thermodynamics, the special environments of radiator, the withstanding highest temperature rise of power device, through the theoretical calculations and simula-tions to design the radiator which can meet the use requirements.

  17. 燃气空调的应用与发展%Development and application of gas-fired air-conditioner

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨洋

    2005-01-01

    从我国能源结构和环境状况出发,分析了燃气空调的特点和形式,介绍了国内外研究和发展的状况,阐述了燃气空调发展的优势和前景,指出燃气空调在我国将有广阔的发展空间.

  18. Air conditioning. Special issue; Luchtbehandeling. Themanummer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montague, M.; Liew, R.; Daruwalla, H.; Wenzek, J. [AAF International, Amsterdam (Netherlands); De Lede, F. [Klimaatinstallaties Kats en Waalwijk, Gorinchem (Netherlands); Nuijten, O. [ISSO, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Van Pelt, J. [Skiw, Nieuwegein (Netherlands); Arts, J. [Imtech Utiliteit West, Capelle a/d IJssel (Netherlands); Vollebregt, R.; Hoeffnagel, R.; Smorenburg, P.; Bijman, J.

    2007-02-15

    In eight articles attention is paid to several aspects of air conditioning and related systems: the perfect filter case for gas filtration, innovative cooling for computer rooms, thermal comfort in offices, standardization of legionella prevention in climate installations and cooling towers, air quality and energy consumption of integrated units, new air conditioners in the Dutch market. [Dutch] In acht artikelen wordt aandacht besteed aan verschillende aspecten van luchtbehandeling en verwante systemen: de perfecte filtercassette vor gasfasefiltratie, innovatieve koeling in computerruimte, hoog comfort in bestaande kantoren, de in ontwikkeling zijn ISSO-publicatie 55.3 voor legionellapreventie in klimaatinstallaties, legionellapreventie bij comfortkoeling, luchtbehandeling met geintegreerde units, en nieuwe luchtbehandelingskasten voor de Nederlandse markt.

  19. Design Analysis on VRV Home Use Central Air Conditioning%浅谈VRV家用中央空调设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林晓芬; 张媛媛

    2016-01-01

    家用中央空调主要有三种系统,风管系统、冷热水系统和制冷剂系统。其中制冷剂系统适合用作住宅空调。以大金VRV家用中央空调为例,介绍了家用中央空调的系统设计方法。系统设计内容主要包括负荷计算、系统选择和设计、管路布置。%The three basic types of household central air conditioners are water-tube type, air-line type and varied refrigerant volume household central air conditioner. The varied refrigerant volume household central air conditioner is suitable for the family home. The system design method of household central air-conditioning is introduced in this paper, taking the DAIKIN VRV system for example. The content of system design includes load calculation, systemic selection and design, and pipeline layout.

  20. 车用空调系统在农用车辆上的应用%Application of Vehicle Air-conditioning System in Farm Vehicle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭高宏

    2011-01-01

    Aimming at the structure,principle and general requirement of air-conditioning system,the practical methods for adding air conditioner on farm vehicles are introduced.%依据车用空调系统的结构和原理,以及加装空调的一般要求,介绍了农用车辆加装空调的具体方法。

  1. A ground water source heat pump for the air-conditioning of a supermarket; Une PAC sur nappe phreatique pour climatiser un hypermarche

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2002-04-01

    A thermodynamical solution involving a ground water source heat pump and 19 roof top air-conditioners has been retained for the air-conditioning of a 41000 m{sup 2} supermarket of Colmar (Alsace, France). The supermarket is also equipped with a computer-monitored refrigeration system for the food products and a centralized technical management for the optimization of the installation operation. (J.S.)

  2. Desenvolvimento e construção de fornalha para biomassa com sistema de aquecimento direto e indireto do ar = Development and construction of a furnace for biomass with system of direct and indirect air heating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Augusta de Oliveira Melo

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Uma fornalha, com opção para aquecimento direto e indireto de ar, foiprojetada e construída para utilizar, como combustível complementar à lenha, biomassa particulada, resíduo agroindustrial abundante e desperdiçado em boa parte. No intuito de verificar o funcionamento da fornalha, na opção de aquecimento direto e indireto, foram realizados três testes preliminares utilizando somente lenha como combustível. Nestes testes, avaliaram-se as temperaturas do ar ambiente, do ar aquecido na saída da fornalha e depois do ventilador, fluxo de ar, poder calorífico inferior e eficiência térmica. Com os dados obtidos nos testes, nas opções de aquecimento direto e indireto de ar, a fornalha mostrou-se flexível na opção de aquecimento, de fácil construção e operação, não exigindo mão-de-obra qualificada.A furnace, with a system for direct and indirect air heating, was projected and constructed to use biomass, particulate biomass, abundant and largely wasted agroindustrial refuse, as complementary fuel to firewood. With the objective of verifying furnace operation, in the option of direct and indirect heating, three preliminaries tests were conducted using only firewood as fuel. In these tests, the following variables were monitored: room air temperature, heated air temperature at the exit of the furnace and after the fan; room air relative humidity; warm air flow; lower calorific power and thermal efficiency of the furnace. In the tests the results showed, for both direct and indirect air heating, the furnace was shown to be flexible in the heating option, of easy construction and operation, not requiring skilled labor.

  3. Reducing indoor air pollution by air conditioning is associated with improvements in cardiovascular health among the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Lian-Yu; Chuang, Hsiao-Chi; Liu, I-Jung; Chen, Hua-Wei; Chuang, Kai-Jen

    2013-10-01

    Indoor air pollution is associated with cardiovascular effects, however, little is known about the effects of improving indoor air quality on cardiovascular health. The aim of this study was to explore whether improving indoor air quality through air conditioning can improve cardiovascular health in human subjects. We recruited a panel of 300 healthy subjects from Taipei, aged 20 and over, to participate in six home visits each, to measure a variety of cardiovascular endpoints, including high sensitivity-C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), fibrinogen in plasma and heart rate variability (HRV). Indoor particles and total volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were measured simultaneously at the participant's home during each visit. Three exposure conditions were investigated in this study: participants were requested to keep their windows open during the first two visits, close their windows during the next two visits, and close the windows and turn on their air conditioners during the last two visits. We used linear mixed-effects models to associate the cardiovascular endpoints with individual indoor air pollutants. The results showed that increases in hs-CRP, 8-OHdG and fibrinogen, and decreases in HRV indices were associated with increased levels of indoor particles and total VOCs in single-pollutant and two-pollutant models. The effects of indoor particles and total VOCs on cardiovascular endpoints were greatest during visits with the windows open. During visits with the air conditioners turned on, no significant changes in cardiovascular endpoints were observed. In conclusion, indoor air pollution is associated with inflammation, oxidative stress, blood coagulation and autonomic dysfunction. Reductions in indoor air pollution and subsequent improvements in cardiovascular health can be achieved by closing windows and turning on air conditioners at home.

  4. Future Air Conditioning Energy Consumption in Developing Countriesand what can be done about it: The Potential of Efficiency in theResidential Sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McNeil, Michael A.; Letschert, Virginie E.

    2007-05-01

    The dynamics of air conditioning are of particular interestto energy analysts, both because of the high energy consumption of thisproduct, but also its disproportionate impact on peak load. This paperaddresses the special role of this end use as a driver of residentialelectricity consumption in rapidly developing economies. Recent historyhas shown that air conditioner ownership can grow grows more rapidly thaneconomic growth in warm-climate countries. In 1990, less than a percentof urban Chinese households owned an air conditioner; by 2003 this numberrose to 62 percent. The evidence suggests a similar explosion of airconditioner use in many other countries is not far behind. Room airconditioner purchases in India are currently growing at 20 percent peryear, with about half of these purchases attributed to the residentialsector. This paper draws on two distinct methodological elements toassess future residential air conditioner 'business as usual' electricityconsumption by country/region and to consider specific alternative 'highefficiency' scenarios. The first component is an econometric ownershipand use model based on household income, climate and demographicparameters. The second combines ownership forecasts and stock accountingwith geographically specific efficiency scenarios within a uniqueanalysis framework (BUENAS) developed by LBNL. The efficiency scenariomodule considers current efficiency baselines, available technologies,and achievable timelines for development of market transformationprograms, such as minimum efficiency performance standards (MEPS) andlabeling programs. The result is a detailed set of consumption andemissions scenarios for residential air conditioning.

  5. Study on air conditioer SCOP experiments in Europe%欧洲空调SCOP实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张罡

    2012-01-01

    在大力提倡节能降耗的新形势下,欧洲空调能效判别也由COP转向SGOP.文中分析了标准EN14825中房间空调器季节能效比( SCOP)的概念以及计算方法.通过变频空调在不同温度下的实验数据,计算出变频空调的SCOP.还研究了室外风扇转速、压缩机频率与制热量、COP的关系,这为2013年欧洲新产品的开发提供了参考依据.%In the new situation of energy - saving and consumption reduction advocated strongly, the air conditioner energy efficiency of discrimination is changed from COP to SCOP in Europe. This paper analyzed the concept and calculation method of the room air conditioner SCOP with the standard EN14825. SCOP of inverter air conditioners was calculated with experimental data at difference temperature. This paper also studied the outdoor fan speed, the frequency of the compressor relationship with heat capacity and COP, which can provide a reference for the 2013 European development of new products.

  6. Hospital-acquired infections associated with poor air quality in air-conditioned environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Pinheiro da Silva

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Backgound and Objectives: Individuals living in cities increasingly spend more time indoors in air-conditioned environments. Air conditioner contamination can be caused by the presence of aerosols from the external or internal environment, which may be associated with disease manifestations in patients present in this type of environment. Therefore, the aim of this review was to assess the air quality in air-conditioned hospital environments as a risk factor for hospital-acquired infections – HAI – as the air can be a potential source of infection, as well as assess the exposure of professionals and patients to different pollutants. Material and Methods: A literature review was performed in the LILACS, MEDLINE, SCIELO, SCIENCE DIRECT databases, CAPES thesis database and Ministry of Health – Brazil, including studies published between 1982 and 2008. The literature search was grouped according to the thematic focus, as follows: ventilation, maintenance and cleaning of systems that comprehend the environmental quality standard. Discussion and Conclusion: Outbreaks of hospital-acquired infections associated with Aspergillus, Acinetobacter, Legionella, and other genera such as Clostridium and Nocardia, which were found in air conditioners, were observed, thus indicating the need for air-conditioning quality control in these environments.

  7. Wide multi air-conditioning system using new cooling medium HFC407C; Shinreibai HFC407C saiyo no wide multi eakon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    A multi air conditioner for a building was commercialized which used, as a substitute for the cooling medium HCFC(hydro chloro fluoro carbon)22, a new cooling medium HFC(hydro fluoro carbon)407C containing no chlorine atom that destroys the ozone layer. Since the new cooling medium HFC407C was a mixture of three kinds of cooling mediums having different boiling points, there were problems such as lowered performance through composition change in a heat exchanger and lowered lubricity due to no chlorine content. In order to solve these problems, high efficiency of the heat exchanger by the use of a new heat exchanger tube was contrived, as were improvement of the compressor, employment of a new lubricating oil, security of performance and enhancement of reliability through the optimum super heat control. As a result, the new cooling medium series was completed succeeding the advantage of the wide multi air-conditioners. (translated by NEDO)

  8. 石墨炉原子吸收法测定空气中铋%Determination of bismuth in the air by Graphite Furnace Atomic Absorption Spectrometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨雪

    2013-01-01

    建立了硝酸-双氧水体系消解、石墨炉原子吸收法测定空气中铋的方法。采用抗坏血酸和磷酸二氢铵作混合基体改进剂,热解涂层石墨管,塞曼扣背景。此方法对测定环境空气中铋的灵敏度、准确度都有很大的提高,方法的最低检出浓度为1.00μg/L,当采样体积为150L,铋最低检出质量浓度为0.0007mg/m3。%To establish a method for determination of bismuth nitrate in air - hydrogen peroxide system, di-gestion and graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. The ascorbic acid and two hydrogen ammonium phosphate as a mixed matrix modifier, pyrolytic coated graphite tube, Zeeman background correction. The sen-sitivity of this method, determination of bismuth in ambient air the accuracy is greatly improved, the minimum detection limit was 1 μg/L, when the sampling volume was 150L, the minimum detectable concentration of 0. 0007mg/m3 bismuth.

  9. 10 CFR 431.76 - Uniform test method for the measurement of energy efficiency of commercial warm air furnaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Commercial Warm Air..., instrumentation, test conditions, and measurements for determining thermal efficiency is as specified in sections... requirement, instrumentation, test condition, and measurement for measuring thermal efficiency is as...

  10. Design of Fully Automatic Nitrogen Protection Brazing Furnace of Automotive Air Conditioning Radiator%汽车空调散热器全自动氮气保护钎焊炉的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈明非; 汪娜

    2012-01-01

    全自动氮气保护钎焊炉是汽车空调散热器铝材焊接的关键设备.钎焊的工艺是将装配好的汽车空调散热器的芯体送入钎焊炉,经喷淋焊剂、干燥炉烘干、加热炉进行焊接,然后通过水冷室、风冷室进行冷却完成散热器的钎焊.技术关键是加热炉钎焊温度和含氧量的控制.通常采用在钎焊过程中向炉内充氮气,使炉内含氧量控制在70ppm以下.加热炉的进出口设置前室和后室,内置不锈钢幕帘阻挡空气的混入.介绍该设备的结构、部件、主要技术参数以及调试办法等.%The NB type entire automatic nitrogen protection brazing furnace is the essential equipment in aluminum welding. The brazing process includes sending the core of the assembled automotive air conditioning radiator into the brazing furnace, through being sprayed the flux,dried in the drying oven and heating furnace to weld, and then the welding is completed after being cooled in the cooling room and air cooling room.The key technology is the control of the temperature and the oxygen content of furnace braz ing.lt is commonly used to aerate nitrogen during the brazing process into the furnace,to guarantee oxygen content in the furnace is controlled below 70ppm.The import and export of the furnace is set with the front room and after room,with built—in stainless steel curtain to block the air.The structure of the equipment, components, main technical parameters as well as debugging approach is introduced.

  11. 富邦富氧侧吹炼铜炉二次风改造生产实践%Reformation and Production Practice for Secondary Air of Fubang Oxygen-enriched Side Blown Copper Melting Furnace

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王志超; 李东泽; 李国军

    2014-01-01

    2011年6月13日投产的富邦炉属于熔池熔炼范畴,为消除单体硫和挥发份的不利影响,富邦炉在三层铜水套侧墙上设置了二次风口,经过运行表明,该位置引入二次风极易生成炉结,给富邦炉以及硫酸系统生产带来很大隐患。富邦铜业针对这一问题进行了分析总结,提出了炉顶设置三次风口以及三次风换热的办法。改造运行至今,效果明显。%Fubang furnace coming into production on June 13 , 2011 falls under the category of bath smel-ting . In order to eliminate negative influences of free sulfur and volatile matter , Fubang furnace has set secondary tuyere on the side wall of three -layer copper water jacket . It demonstrated through operation that bringing secondary air into this position will easily create furnace accretion and bring great passivity to the production of Fubang furnace and sulfuric acid system . Fubang copper industry has made analysis and summary directing at this problem and proposed solutions to install thirdary tuyere on furnace roof and make heat transfer of thirdary air . Effect has been obvious through reformation and operation up to now .

  12. Measurement of Vehicle Air Conditioning Pull-Down Period

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, John F [ORNL; Huff, Shean P [ORNL; Moore, Larry G [ORNL; West, Brian H [ORNL

    2016-08-01

    Air conditioner usage was characterized for high heat-load summer conditions during short driving trips using a 2009 Ford Explorer and a 2009 Toyota Corolla. Vehicles were parked in the sun with windows closed to allow the cabin to become hot. Experiments were conducted by entering the instrumented vehicles in this heated condition and driving on-road with the windows up and the air conditioning set to maximum cooling, maximum fan speed and the air flow setting to recirculate cabin air rather than pull in outside humid air. The main purpose was to determine the length of time the air conditioner system would remain at or very near maximum cooling power under these severe-duty conditions. Because of the variable and somewhat uncontrolled nature of the experiments, they serve only to show that for short vehicle trips, air conditioning can remain near or at full cooling capacity for 10-minutes or significantly longer and the cabin may be uncomfortably warm during much of this time.

  13. Solar Convective Furnace for Metals Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patidar, Deepesh; Tiwari, Sheetanshu; Sharma, Piyush; Pardeshi, Ravindra; Chandra, Laltu; Shekhar, Rajiv

    2015-11-01

    Metals processing operations, primarily soaking, heat treatment, and melting of metals are energy-intensive processes using fossil fuels, either directly or indirectly as electricity, to operate furnaces at high temperatures. Use of concentrated solar energy as a source of heat could be a viable "green" option for industrial heat treatment furnaces. This paper introduces the concept of a solar convective furnace which utilizes hot air generated by an open volumetric air receiver (OVAR)-based solar tower technology. The potential for heating air above 1000°C exists. Air temperatures of 700°C have already been achieved in a 1.5-MWe volumetric air receiver demonstration plant. Efforts to retrofit an industrial aluminium soaking furnace for integration with a solar tower system are briefly described. The design and performance of an OVAR has been discussed. A strategy for designing a 1/15th-scale model of an industrial aluminium soaking furnace has been presented. Preliminary flow and thermal simulation results suggest the presence of recirculating flow in existing furnaces that could possibly result in non-uniform heating of the slabs. The multifarious uses of concentrated solar energy, for example in smelting, metals processing, and even fuel production, should enable it to overcome its cost disadvantage with respect to solar photovoltaics.

  14. Investigation on regeneration and energy storage characteristics of a solar liquid desiccant air-conditioning system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Mingheng; DU Bin; ZHAO Yun

    2007-01-01

    Solar liquid desiccant air-conditioner is a new air-conditioning system in which liquid desiccant can be regenerated by solar energy and energy can be stored in the form of chemical energy in the liquid desiccant.In this paper regeneration and energy storage characteristics were studied theoretically and experimentally.Two criterion equations for heat and mass transfer in the regeneration process were obtained.The main factors that influence the regeneration process were analyzed.A principal solar liquid desiccant air-conditioning system under energy storage operating mode is proposed.

  15. Prizes awarded in fiscal 1999 by the Minister for International Trade and Industry on factories having applied excellent energy management. Energy conservation by installing fuel cell power generation facilities utilizing methane gas generated from waste water treatment plants / Improvements toward a clean room and energy saving air conditioning system; 1999 nendo energy kanri yuryo kojo tsusho sangyo daijin hyosho jusho. 1999 nendo shigen energy sho chokan hyosho jusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-04-01

    In order to achieve energy conservation in a waste water treatment plant in a brewery factories, an anaerobic treatment facility was introduced, and a fuel cell power generation facility effectively utilizing methane gas generated from the anaerobic waste water treatment plant was installed. This has resulted in large reduction in the operating number of blowers in the waste water treatment facility of activated sludge system. In addition, electric power, steam, and hot water generated from the fuel cells are effectively utilized as the factory utility. In energy conservation in an optical communication device manufacturing factory, the fan filter unit system was adopted, having been changed from the circulation air conditioner, a conventional type air conditioning system. The present system is a circulation system integrating the fan with the filter, making it possible to circulate air in the room to perform control of temperature, humidity, and dust in a clean room. Thus, the system has eliminated the circulating air conditioner, and reduced the air conditioner capacity by 42% and power consumption by 58.6% compared with those in the conventional circulation system. (NEDO)

  16. Enabling Smart Air Conditioning by Sensor Development: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chin-Chi Cheng

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The study investigates the development of sensors, in particular the use of thermo-fluidic sensors and occupancy detectors, to achieve smart operation of air conditioning systems. Smart operation refers to the operation of air conditioners by the reinforcement of interaction to achieve both thermal comfort and energy efficiency. Sensors related to thermal comfort include those of temperature, humidity, and pressure and wind velocity anemometers. Improvements in their performance in the past years have been studied by a literature survey. Traditional occupancy detection using passive infra-red (PIR sensors and novel methodologies using smartphones and wearable sensors are both discussed. Referring to the case studies summarized in this study, air conditioning energy savings are evaluated quantitatively. Results show that energy savings of air conditioners before 2000 was 11%, and 30% after 2000 by the integration of thermo-fluidic sensors and occupancy detectors. By utilizing wearable sensing to detect the human motions, metabolic rates and related information, the energy savings can reach up to 46.3% and keep the minimum change of predicted mean vote (∆PMV→0, which means there is no compromise in thermal comfort. This enables smart air conditioning to compensate for the large variations from person to person in terms of physiological and psychological satisfaction, and find an optimal temperature for everyone in a given space. However, this tendency should be evidenced by more experimental results in the future.

  17. Desiccant Enhanced Evaporative Air-Conditioning (DEVap): Evaluation of a New Concept in Ultra Efficient Air Conditioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozubal, E.; Woods, J.; Burch, J.; Boranian, A.; Merrigan, T.

    2011-01-01

    NREL has developed the novel concept of a desiccant enhanced evaporative air conditioner (DEVap) with the objective of combining the benefits of liquid desiccant and evaporative cooling technologies into an innovative 'cooling core.' Liquid desiccant technologies have extraordinary dehumidification potential, but require an efficient cooling sink. DEVap's thermodynamic potential overcomes many shortcomings of standard refrigeration-based direct expansion cooling. DEVap decouples cooling and dehumidification performance, which results in independent temperature and humidity control. The energy input is largely switched away from electricity to low-grade thermal energy that can be sourced from fuels such as natural gas, waste heat, solar, or biofuels.

  18. 75 FR 31223 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Test Procedure for Residential Central Air...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-02

    ... installation with a hot-air furnace must contain a blower to circulate air through the indoor coil and ductwork... on the furnace blower to circulate air through the indoor coil, ductwork, and the furnace...

  19. CFD Analysis of Manipulator Cabin by Selecting Proper Air Conditioning System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umesh S. Ghorpade

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Manipulator is a machine which is used to transfer heavy objects, to reduce human efforts in many industrial applications. Some of them are fully automated while some are manually operated. It is difficult to work in cabin of manipulator for the operator under hot conditions. So it is essential to provide comfort to operator using air-conditioning system. For such applications standard air conditioners are not compatible, so we have to develop assembled system. In this paper we will be dealing with design, selection and fabrication of components like compressor, condenser, expansion device and evaporator. In order to do so, we have calculated heat load.

  20. Price freezes, durables and residential electricity demand - Evidence from the Greater Buenos Aires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casarin, Ariel; Delfino, Maria Eugenia

    2010-09-15

    This paper examines the determinants of residential electricity demand in the Greater Buenos Aires between 1997 and 2006. During the second half of this period, residential tariffs remained nominally fixed, while an income boom boosted up the sales of durables. This study differs from previous works in that it explicitly considers the impact of the stock of air-conditioners on residential demand. The paper reports short- and long-run elasticities and examines the contribution of prices and durables to recent demand growth. Simulations illustrate the impact of prices and durables on future demand.

  1. Optimal heat rejection pressure in transcritical carbon dioxide air conditioning and heat pump systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liao, Shengming; Jakobsen, Arne

    1998-01-01

    Due to the urgent need for environmentally benign refrigerants, the use of the natural substance carbon dioxide in refrigeration systems has gained more and more attention. In systems such as automobile air-conditioners and heat pumps, owing to the relatively high heat rejection temperatures...... dioxide air conditioning or heat pump systems and for intelligent controlling such systems......., the cycles using carbon dioxide as refrigerant will have to operate in the transcritical area. In a transcritical carbon dioxide system, there is an optimal heat rejection pressure that gives a maximum COP. In this paper, it is shown that the value of this optimal heat rejection pressure mainly depends...

  2. Characteristics of indoor radon and its progeny in a Japanese dwelling while using air appliances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pornnumpa, C; Tokonami, S; Sorimachi, A; Kranrod, C

    2015-11-01

    Characteristics of radon and its progeny were investigated in different air conditions by turning four types of indoor air appliances on and off in a two-story concrete Japanese dwelling. The four appliances were air conditioner, air cleaner, gas heater and cooker hood. The measurements were done using two devices: (1) a Si-based semiconductor detector for continuous measurement of indoor radon concentration and (2) a ZnS(Ag) scintillation counting system for equilibrium-equivalent radon concentration. Throughout the entire experiment, the cooker hood was the most effective in decreasing indoor radon concentration over a long period of time and the less effective was the air conditioner, while the air cleaner and gas heater did not affect the concentration of radon. However, the results measured in each air condition will differ according to the lifestyles and activities of the inhabitants. In this study, indoor radon and its progeny in a Japanese dwelling will be characterised by the different air conditions.

  3. 配风对管式加热炉内流动和燃烧过程影响的数值模拟%Numerical Simulation of the Effect of Air Distribution on Turbulent Flow and Combustion in a Tubular Heating Furnace

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王娟; 毛羽; 李丽红

    2005-01-01

    A three-dimension full-size numerical simulation of the effect of air distribution on turbulent flow and combustion in a tubular heating furnace was carried out. A standard k - ε turbulent model, a simplified PDF combustion model and a discrete ordinate transfer radiation model were used. The hybrid grid combining a structured and a non-structured grid was generated without any simplification of the complicated geometric configuration around the burner. It was found that the multistage combustion could reduce and control the peak value of temperature. At the same time, it was concluded that the amount of primary air had little effect on the global distribution of velocity and temperature in the furnace, but a great effect on that around the burner. It is recommended that 45% - 65% of the total amount of air be taken in in primary air inlets in the furnace. All the results are important to optimize the combustion progress.

  4. Solar thermal energy / exhaust air heat pump / wood pellet furnace for a sustainable heat supply of low energy buildings in older buildings; Solarthermie / Abluft-Waermepumpe / Pelletofen. Kombisysteme zur nachhaltigen Waermeversorgung von Niedrigenergiehaeusern im Gebaeudebestand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diefenbach, Nikolaus; Born, Rolf [Institut Wohnen und Umwelt GmbH, Darmstadt (Germany); Staerz, Norbert [Ingenieurbuero inPlan, Pfungstadt (Germany)

    2009-11-13

    The research project under consideration reports on combination systems for a sustainable heat supply for low-energy buildings in older building. For this, a central and decentralized system configuration consisting of solar thermal energy, exhaust air heat pump and wood pellet furnace are presented. Solutions for an interaction of these three heat suppliers in one plant are designated regarding the control strategy. The fundamentals of the computerized simulations for the central and decentralized system are presented. A cost estimate with both variants of the combination system as well as a comparison with conventional energy-saving heat supply systems follow.

  5. 78 FR 1779 - Disclosures Regarding Energy Consumption and Water Use of Certain Home Appliances and Other...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-09

    ... heaters are as determined in accordance with Sec. Sec. 305.5 and 305.10 of this part. Thermal efficiencies... heaters, clothes washers, room air conditioners, and furnaces. The Commission subsequently expanded the... proposes to include a new range for instantaneous electric water heaters (Appendix D6). \\7\\ 77 FR...

  6. Heat Transfer Enhancement of a High Temperature Air Heating Furnace%高温空气电阻炉内强化传热性能实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王艳; 白凤武; 王志峰

    2012-01-01

    This paper experimentally investigated the heat transfer characteristics of air flowing through high-temperature silicon carbide ceramic foams in an electric air heating furnace heated by resistance wires and silicon-carbon sticks.It was found that for an air inlet flow rate of 200 m~3/h, the air outlet temperature reached 980℃after about two hours when five silicon carbide ceramic foam panels were inserted inside the furnace,while it only reached about 650℃when no ceramic foam was inserted.The heat transfer enhancement was due to that the ceramic foams enlarged the heat transfer area between air and hot solid surfaces.The results also showed that the position of the ceramic foam in the furnace played an important role in its effect on the heat transfer.This study well validated that silicon carbide ceramic foam can be used as radiant energy absorbers and heat exchangers especially in volumetric solar receivers in concentrated solar power(CSP) plants to enhance the heat transfer between air and absorber materials.%本文对基于碳化硅泡沫陶瓷的高温空气电阻炉内的传热性能进行了实验研究。通过在高温空气电阻炉内插入不同数量的泡沫陶瓷片,研究陶瓷片数量对空气出口温度的影响。同时研究了泡沫陶瓷片的位置对空气出口温度的影响。实验结果表明:当炉膛内不插入泡沫陶瓷片时,在空气流量为200 m~3/h时,空气出口温度为650℃,当炉膛内插入五块泡沫陶瓷片时,空气出口温度达到980℃。本文从实验方面验证了将碳化硅泡沫陶瓷应用到太阳能热发电的吸收器中,强化空气与吸热材料之间的换热的可行性。

  7. Environmental assessment. Energy efficiency standards for consumer products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McSwain, Berah

    1980-06-01

    The Energy Policy and Conservation Act of 1975 requires DOE to prescribe energy efficiency standards for 13 consumer products. The Consumer Products Efficiency Standards (CPES) program covers: refrigerators and refrigerator-freezers, freezers, clothes dryers, water heaters, room air conditioners, home heating equipment, kitchen ranges and ovens, central air conditioners (cooling and heat pumps), furnaces, dishwashers, television sets, clothes washers, and humidifiers and dehumidifiers. This Environmental Assessment evaluates the potential environmental and socioeconomic impacts expected as a result of setting efficiency standards for all of the consumer products covered by the CPES program. DOE has proposed standards for eight of the products covered by the Program in a Notice of Proposed Rulemaking (NOPR). DOE expects to propose standards for home heating equipment, central air conditioners (heat pumps only), dishwashers, television sets, clothes washers, and humidifiers and dehumidifiers in 1981. No significant adverse environmental or socioeconomic impacts have been found to result from instituting the CPES.

  8. Biological Kraft Chemical Recycle for Augmentation of Recovery Furnace Capacity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stuart E. Strand

    2001-12-06

    The chemicals used in pulping of wood by the kraft process are recycled in the mill in the recovery furnace, which oxidizes organics while simultaneously reducing sulfate to sulfide. The recovery furnace is central to the economical operation of kraft pulp mills, but it also causes problems. The total pulp production of many mills is limited by the recovery furnace capacity, which cannot easily be increased. The furnace is one of the largest sources of air pollution (as reduced sulfur compounds) in the kraft pulp mill.

  9. Impact of summer office set air-conditioning temperature on energy consumption and thermal comfort

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘红; 马小磊; 高亚峰

    2009-01-01

    To explore the relationship between summer office set air-conditioning temperature and energy consumption related to air conditioning use to provide human thermal comfort,a comparison experiment was conducted in three similar offices at temperatures of 24,26 and 28 ℃ respectively. A thermal comfort questionnaire survey was conducted. It is demonstrated that air-conditioner energy consumption at the set temperature of 28 ℃ is 113% and 271% lower than at 26 ℃ and 24 ℃,respectively. A linear relationship exists between air-conditioner energy consumption and the indoor and outdoor temperature difference. When comfortably dressed,over 80% of research participants accept the set temperature of 28 ℃. The regression analysis leads to a neutral temperature of 26.2 ℃ and an acceptable temperature of 28.2 ℃ for over 80% of the research participants subjects,indicating that the current 26 ℃ set temperature for offices in summer,required by Chinese General Office of the State Council,can be increased to 28 ℃. Moreover,analysis of predicted mean vote(PMV) index shows that a set temperature of 27 ℃,not 26 ℃,is sufficiently comfortable for office staff wearing long-sleeve shirts,long pants and leather shoes.

  10. 空调四通阀端孔及内平面加工专机研制%Development of a customized equipment suitable to ending hole and interior plane processing of four-way valve in air conditioner

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕晓天; 刘中华; 应申舜; 林绿高

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the customized equipment suittable to ending hole and interior plane processing of four-way valves, the customized equipment intergrates processing functions including burnishing, broaching, automatic workpiece loding and unloading. The operating principle of four-way valves is firstly presented; Then, the broaching process and burnishing process are respectively analyzed, on this basis, the basic structure of the customized equipment that integrating burnishing and broaching process is designed. Its operating principle is then presented, take the foundation for example, designs method of the key components of the customized equipment is presented; In the end, the application of the equipment is prospected. Practical application shows that the customized equipment is reliable, has simple structure and high degree automatization. In addition, it ensures easy maintenances and cleanness, can effectively improve the productivity of four-way valve.%设计了一种新型的空调专用四通阀端孔及内平面加工的专用机床,该专用机床集成挤光与拉削的加工工艺,并实现自动上下料.首先,介绍了四通阀工作原理;然后,分析了四通阀挤光和拉削加工工艺特点,在此基础上,设计了该挤光拉削一体化加工专机的机械结构;接着分析了其工作原理,并以底座为例,介绍了关键零部件的设计方法;最后给出了应用研究.应用结果表明,该四通阀加工专机工作可靠,结构简单,自动化程度高,便于维修、调整,可有效提高劳动生产率.

  11. Analysis and improvement on the deformation of the double-material sporty panel of air-conditioner%空调运动式双料面板变形分析与改进

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    候朝晖; 杜玉红; 王星; 付丽英

    2016-01-01

    阐述了空调运动式双料面板在模具设计阶段遇到塑件变形时,根据CAE分析结果找出塑件壁厚和预变形对其变形的影响.通过调整壁厚、增加预变形处理改善双料塑件变形和装配边的间隙,从而改善空调运动式双料面板的成型质量,得到合格塑件.

  12. Noise Test Method and Abnormal Sound Analysis of HVAC Assembly for Auto Air Conditioner%汽车空调HVAC总成噪声测试方法及异音分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    康家勇

    2013-01-01

    本着以客户需求为导向,以提升产品品质为主,尽量减少或避免空调系统显性品质问题,因此要加强汽车空调HVAC总成在产品开发阶段或品质抽查阶段的品质控制;具体阐述了HVAC总成噪声测试方法和过程监控要点,为判断异常现象提供参考依据.

  13. Design Method on Water Pipeline Applied in Residential Central Air-Conditioner and Boiler simultaneously%户式空调与家用锅炉复用的水管路设计方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    解晓强

    2003-01-01

    本文介绍了一种户式中央空调与家用燃气锅炉复用的水路设计方法,该方法仅对冷水机组和燃气锅炉稍加改造,简单易行,使用该方法构成的制冷采暖系统可有效地降低初期投资,并节省安装空间,维护室内环境的美观。

  14. 空调用密封材料与冷媒冷冻油的兼容性研究%Research on Airproof Material’s Compatibility with Refrigeration and Refrigeration Oil in Air Conditioner

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡明霞

    2014-01-01

    通过试验研究空调用密封材料氯丁橡胶、氢化丁腈橡胶对R22、R410A及相应冷冻油的兼容性进行研究,确定 R22、R410A系统用密封材料的选型。%The tests use Neoprene(CR)、hydrogenated nitrile-butadiene rubber(HNBR)、R22、R410A and corresponding refrigeration oil, analyzing the compatibility of CR 、HNBR with R22 and R410A.

  15. A Study on the CUSUM Control Chart in Fluorine Filling of Air Conditioners%CUSUM控制图在空调充氟生产过程中的应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何桢; 雷毅; 生静; 毛文峰

    2000-01-01

    Traditional Shewhart control charts have low power in detecting mean shift of quality characteristics under control. When an individual-moving range control chart(X-Rm) is used to control its deviations of fluorine filling amount, It is found that X-Rm is too insensitive to the shift of the deviations and unable to calibrate its fluorine filling machines in time. A CUSUM control chart is used to solve the problem and to improve machine calibration, which results in high quality and low cost in fluorine filling process.%经典的休哈特控制图对质量特征值的均值波动检出力较弱。采用单值-移动极差控制图控制空调充氟量在短期内往往很难发现充氟量偏差值的漂移,导致充氟量偏差调整不及时。本文采用累积和控制图(CUSUM)来控制充氟量偏差的变化,改进了充氟偏差调整方式,在保证质量的同时降低了生产成本。

  16. The Harm Caused by Abnormal Electrical Power Supply to Refrigerators and Air-conditioners and How to Deal with%供电异常对冰箱空调器的危害及预防

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    户永清

    2004-01-01

    在三相四线制供电方式中,供电异常将产生极大的危害.就供电异常的原因从实践中进行了分析,并介绍了冰箱、空调器等家用电器由此而受到的危害,提出了预防措施.

  17. 吸附式制冷技术在空调应用中的研究进展%Application and Research Development of Adsorption Refrigeration on Air- Conditioner

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯轶; 朱冬生

    2002-01-01

    吸附式制冷符合环保要求、能有效利用低品位热源的特点使得近年来在空调制冷吸附热泵中的应用研究获得不少进展,本文综述了近年来吸附式制冷技术中低品位热源采集、吸附工质对开发及吸附制冷过程模拟等方面的研究进展.

  18. Development of Air-conditioner Based on High-effective Direct-current Inverter Compressor with Six Poles%基于6极高效直流变频压缩机空调器的开发

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    别清峰; 王毅; 张明磊

    2007-01-01

    为追求更高的能效比,开发了基于6极高效直流变频压缩机的新冷媒R410A空调器.本文给出了制冷系统的流程、控制介绍及驱动设计,重点阐述了压缩机的驱动控制.

  19. ENERGY STAR Certified Furnaces

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 4.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Furnaces that are effective as of February 1,...

  20. A Closed-Loop Control Strategy for Air Conditioning Loads to Participate in Demand Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoqing Hu

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Thermostatically controlled loads (TCLs, such as air conditioners (ACs, are important demand response resources—they have a certain heat storage capacity. A change in the operating status of an air conditioner in a small range will not noticeably affect the users’ comfort level. Load control of TCLs is considered to be equivalent to a power plant of the same capacity in effect, and it can significantly reduce the system pressure to peak load shift. The thermodynamic model of air conditioning can be used to study the aggregate power of a number of ACs that respond to the step signal of a temperature set point. This paper analyzes the influence of the parameters of each AC in the group to the indoor temperature and the total load, and derives a simplified control model based on the two order linear time invariant transfer function. Then, the stability of the model and designs its Proportional-Integral-Differential (PID controller based on the particle swarm optimization (PSO algorithm is also studied. The case study presented in this paper simulates both scenarios of constant ambient temperature and changing ambient temperature to verify the proposed transfer function model and control strategy can closely track the reference peak load shifting curves. The study also demonstrates minimal changes in the indoor temperature and the users’ comfort level.

  1. Thermal properties in phase change wallboard room based on air conditioning cold storage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈其针; 刘鑫; 牛润萍; 王琳

    2009-01-01

    By comparing the thermal performance parameters of an ordinary wall room with a phase change wall (PCW) room,the effect of phase change wallboard on the fluctuation of temperature in air-conditioning room in summer was studied. And PCW room and an ordinary wall room,which are cooled by air-conditioner,were built up. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) was used to test the temperature field and heat flow fluctuation in these rooms. Through analyzing the data tested,it is found that the mean temperature of PCW is lower than that of ordinary wall room by 1-2 ℃,and PCW can lower the heat flow by 4.6 W/m2. Combining phase change material to building envelope can lower the indoor temperature,make the room thermal comfortable,and cut down the turn-on-and-off frequency of air-conditioner,the primary investment and operating costs. It alleviates urgent need of the electric power. Building envelope which contains phase change wallboard can improve the indoor thermal environment,and decrease energy consumption in buildings. Phase change wallboard can make impressive effect on energy efficiency of buildings.

  2. Carbon monoxide exposure in blast furnace workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, S; Mason, C; Srna, J

    1992-09-01

    This study investigated the occupational exposure to carbon monoxide (CO) of a group of blast furnace workers from an integrated steelworks, compared to a control group having no significant occupational CO exposure from other areas in the same works. The study was undertaken in 1984 at Port Kembla, New South Wales. Carboxyhaemoglobin (COHb) levels before and after an eight-hour work shift were measured in 98 male steelworkers: 52 from two CO-exposed iron blast furnaces and 46 controls from production areas in the same steelworks. The sample was stratified by smoking habits. Environmental air CO levels had been found to be consistently higher on one furnace than on the other. Absorption of CO from the working environment occurred in workers on the blast furnace with higher CO levels, regardless of smoking habits. On this blast furnace, some readings of COHb levels after a workshift in nonsmokers approached the proposed Australian occupational limit of 5 per cent COHb saturation. Overall, workers with the highest occupational exposure who smoked most heavily had the highest absorption of CO over a work shift. Biological monitoring gives an accurate measure of individual worker 'dose' of CO from all sources. Both environmental monitoring and biological monitoring need to be included as part of a program for controlling occupational CO exposure.

  3. Effect of furnace atmosphere on E-glass foaming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Dong-Sang; Dutton, Bryan C.; Hrma, Pavel R.; Pilon, Laurent

    2006-12-01

    The effect of furnace atmosphere on E-glass foaming generated in crucible has been studied with a specific goal to understand the impact of increased water content on foaming in oxy-fired furnaces. E-glass foams were generated in a fused-quartz crucible located in a quartz window furnace equipped with video recording. The present study showed that humidity in the furnace atmosphere destabilizes foam, while other gases have little effect on foam stability. This study suggests that the higher foaming in oxy-fired furnace compared to air-fired is caused by the effect of water on early sulfate decomposition, promoting more efficient refining gas generation from sulfate (known as “dilution effect”).

  4. Current Trend in Furnace Technology in the Melting Industries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.A. Ighodalo

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to presents some of the current trend in Furnace technology as it pertains to the melting industries. Furnaces are applied in various industries for material processing. Large amounts of energy are usually consumed in the melting industries. The current trend in furnace technology is towards energy conservation, enhanced efficiency and productivity. The reduction of pollutant emissions are also taken into consideration due to their environmental impact. The various materials and processes for furnaces are discussed. The various strategies being employed towards furnace energy conservation, efficiency and productivity, and reduction of pollutant emissions are also discussed. Such strategies include the use of better fuel types such as natural gas; improved insulation and refractory materials; advanced burner designs such as high velocity, regenerative and recuperative burners; new combustion technologies such as air and fuel staging, flue gas recirculation technique. Mathematical modeling is also being employed for analysis and design purpose.

  5. Laboratory Evaluation of Residential Furnace BlowerPerformance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, Iain S.; Lutz, Jim D.

    2005-09-01

    A testing program was undertaken at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and an electric utility (Pacific Gas and Electric Co.) to compare the performance of furnace blowers. This laboratory testing program was undertaken to support potential changes to California Building Standards regarding in-field furnace blower energy use. This technical support includes identifying suitable performance metrics and target performance levels for use in standards. Five different combinations of blowers and residential furnaces were tested for air moving performance. Three different types of blower and motor combinations were tested in two different furnace cabinets. The blowers were standard forward--curved impellors and a prototype impeller with reverse-inclined blades. The motors were two 6-pole permanent split capacitor (PSC) single-phase induction motors, a brushless permanent magnet (BPM) motor and a prototype BPM designed for use with a prototype reverse-inclined impellor. The laboratory testing operated each blower and furnace combination over a range of air flows and pressure differences to determine air flow performance, power consumption and efficiency. Additional tests varied the clearance between the blower housing and the furnace cabinet, and the routing of air flow into the blower cabinet.

  6. 变频调速在空调系统中的应用%The application of the frequency control of motor speed in air con ditionin system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    屈文斌; 赵政

    2013-01-01

    For the people's living environment and promoting energy - saving technology,I describes the adv antage of inverter air conditioner,compares fixed-frequency airconditioning. based on the basic principle of frequency control of motor speed,compressor stator voltage and frequency relation,this paper in detail in troduces inverter air conditioning system's working principle,the results show that the frequency conversi on air conditioning has entered a rapid development period,the frequency conversion air conditioning in our country will become the inevitable trend of air conditioner development.%针对人们对生活环境的要求和节能技术的推进,介绍变频空调相对于定频空调节能舒适的优势,通过对变频调速的基本原理、压缩机的定子电压与频率关系的论述,详细分析将变频器引入空调系统的工作原理,结果表明变频空调已进入快速发展期,在我国变频空调将成为空调发展的必然趋势。

  7. A fundamentally new approach to air-cooled heat exchangers.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koplow, Jeffrey P.

    2010-01-01

    We describe breakthrough results obtained in a feasibility study of a fundamentally new architecture for air-cooled heat exchangers. A longstanding but largely unrealized opportunity in energy efficiency concerns the performance of air-cooled heat exchangers used in air conditioners, heat pumps, and refrigeration equipment. In the case of residential air conditioners, for example, the typical performance of the air cooled heat exchangers used for condensers and evaporators is at best marginal from the standpoint the of achieving maximum the possible coefficient of performance (COP). If by some means it were possible to reduce the thermal resistance of these heat exchangers to a negligible level, a typical energy savings of order 30% could be immediately realized. It has long been known that a several-fold increase in heat exchanger size, in conjunction with the use of much higher volumetric flow rates, provides a straight-forward path to this goal but is not practical from the standpoint of real world applications. The tension in the market place between the need for energy efficiency and logistical considerations such as equipment size, cost and operating noise has resulted in a compromise that is far from ideal. This is the reason that a typical residential air conditioner exhibits significant sensitivity to reductions in fan speed and/or fouling of the heat exchanger surface. The prevailing wisdom is that little can be done to improve this situation; the 'fan-plus-finned-heat-sink' heat exchanger architecture used throughout the energy sector represents an extremely mature technology for which there is little opportunity for further optimization. But the fact remains that conventional fan-plus-finned-heat-sink technology simply doesn't work that well. Their primary physical limitation to performance (i.e. low thermal resistance) is the boundary layer of motionless air that adheres to and envelops all surfaces of the heat exchanger. Within this

  8. Advanced steel reheat furnaces: Research and development. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, Q.; Koppang, R.; Maly, P.; Moyeda, D. [Energy and Environmental Research Corp., Irvine, CA (United States); Li, X. [Air Products and Chemicals, Inc., Allentown, PA (United States)

    1999-01-14

    The purpose of this report is to present the results of two phases of a three-phase project to develop and evaluate an Advanced Steel Reheat Furnace (SSRF) concept which incorporates two proven and commercialized technologies, oxy-fuel enriched air (OEA) combustion and gas reburning (GR). The combined technologies aim to improve furnace productivity with higher flame radiant heat transfer in the heating zones of a steel reheat furnace while controlling potentially higher NOx emissions from these zones. The project was conducted under a contract sponsored by the Department of Energy (DOE). Specifically, this report summarizes the results of a modeling study and an experimental study to define and evaluate the issues which affect the integration and performance of the combined technologies. Section 2.0 of the report describes the technical approach uses in the development and evaluation of the advanced steel reheat furnace. Section 3.0 presents results of the modeling study applied to a model steel furnace. Experimental validation of the modeling results obtained from EER`s Fuel Evaluation Facility (FEF) pilot-scale furnace discussed in Section 4.0. Section 5.0 provides an economic evaluation on the cost effectiveness of the advanced reheat furnace concept. Section 6.0 concludes the report with recommendations on the applicability of the combined technologies of steel reheat furnaces.

  9. Application study of complex control algorithm for regenerative furnace temperature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lusheng GE

    2004-01-01

    Altemative switch combustion mode of air and gas is adopted on the two sides of the regenerative furnace, its temperature is in uncontrolled state in the switching process and the switch period is generally 3 ~ 5 min. Thus, the conventional bi-cross limited combustion control method is no longer applicable to the object. This paper makes use of neutral network algorithm to adjust the static operating point. On this basis, fuzzy control strategy is used for the furnace temperature control. The actual application result shows that the control strategy is effective to solve the problem of the combustion control for regenerative furnace.

  10. Magnetic Refrigeration Technology for High Efficiency Air Conditioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boeder, A; Zimm, C

    2006-09-30

    Magnetic refrigeration was investigated as an efficient, environmentally friendly, flexible alternative to conventional residential vapor compression central air conditioning systems. Finite element analysis (FEA) models of advanced geometry active magnetic regenerator (AMR) beds were developed to minimize bed size and thus magnet mass by optimizing geometry for fluid flow and heat transfer and other losses. Conventional and magnetocaloric material (MCM) regenerator fabrication and assembly techniques were developed and advanced geometry passive regenerators were built and tested. A subscale engineering prototype (SEP) magnetic air conditioner was designed, constructed and tested. A model of the AMR cycle, combined with knowledge from passive regenerator experiments and FEA results, was used to design the regenerator beds. A 1.5 Tesla permanent magnet assembly was designed using FEA and the bed structure and plenum design was extensively optimized using FEA. The SEP is a flexible magnetic refrigeration platform, with individually instrumented beds and high flow rate and high frequency capability, although the current advanced regenerator geometry beds do not meet performance expectations, probably due to manufacturing and assembly tolerances. A model of the AMR cycle was used to optimize the design of a 3 ton capacity magnetic air conditioner, and the system design was iterated to minimize external parasitic losses such as heat exchanger pressure drop and fan power. The manufacturing cost for the entire air conditioning system was estimated, and while the estimated SEER efficiency is high, the magnetic air conditioning system is not cost competitive as currently configured. The 3 ton study results indicate that there are other applications where magnetic refrigeration is anticipated to have cost advantages over conventional systems, especially applications where magnetic refrigeration, through the use of its aqueous heat transfer fluid, could eliminate intermediate

  11. Combustion-driven oscillation in a furnace with multispud-type gas burners. 4th Report. Effects of position of secondary air guide sleeve and openness of secondary air guide vane on combustion oscillation condition; Multispud gata gas turner ni okeru nensho shindo. 4. Nijigen kuki sleeve ichi oyobi nijigen kuki vane kaido no shindo reiki ni oyobosu eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akiyama, I.; Okiura, K.; Baba, A.; Orimoto, M. [Babcock-Hitachi K.K., Tokyo (Japan)

    1994-07-25

    Effects of the position of a secondary air guide sleeve and the openness of a secondary air guide vane on combustion oscillation conditions were studied experimentally for multispud-type gas burners. Pressure fluctuation in furnaces was analyzed with the previously reported resonance factor which was proposed as an index to represent the degree of combustion oscillation. As a result, the combustion oscillation region was largely affected by both position of a guide sleeve and openness of a guide vane. As the openness having large effect on the ratio of primary and secondary air/tertiary air and the position hardly having effect on the ratio were adjusted skillfully, the burner with no combustion oscillation region was achieved in its normal operation range. In addition, as the effect of preheating combustion air was arranged with a standard flow rate or mass flow flux of air, it was suggested the combustion oscillation region due to preheating can be described with the same manner as that due to no preheating. 5 refs., 8 figs.

  12. Situation and Expectation of Ice Thermal-Storage System Spot Test%冰蓄冷系统现场测试情况与展望

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵庆珠; 骆维军; 张雁

    2002-01-01

    @@ Appointed by the original Electric Power Ministry, Ts- inghua University air-conditioner lab has taken spot investi- gation and tests on many ice thermal-storage air-conditioner systems in nationwide scale since 1995. These systems with respective characteristic basically include the ice ther- mal-storage air-conditioner forms applied widely in China.

  13. 中央空调换热器铜管防震方法分析%Analysis on the Shock-resistance Method for Copper Tube of Heat Exchanger in Central Air-conditioning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓桂成

    2014-01-01

    This paper compares and analyzes the advantages and disadvantages of the shock-resistance method for copper tube of heat exchanger in central air-conditioner from the perspectives of the theory and the practical applica-tion. Finally, its selection and use conditions are determined.%对中央空调换热器铜管防震方法将进行探讨,原理和实际应用进行优劣对比分析,并确定其选用条件。

  14. Comparative analysis for performance of brown coal combustion in a vortex furnace with improved design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasinsky, D. V.

    2016-09-01

    Comparative study of 3D numerical simulation of fluid flow and coal-firing processes was applied for flame combustion of Kansk-Achinsk brown coal in a vortex furnace of improved design with bottom injection of secondary air. The analysis of engineering performance of this furnace was carried out for several operational modes as a function of coal grinding fineness and coal input rate. The preferable operational regime for furnace was found.

  15. Thermal Analysis of an Industrial Furnace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirko Filipponi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Industries, which are mainly responsible for high energy consumption, need to invest in research projects in order to develop new managing systems for rational energy use, and to tackle the devastating effects of climate change caused by human behavior. The study described in this paper concerns the forging industry, where the production processes generally start with the heating of steel in furnaces, and continue with other processes, such as heat treatments and different forms of machining. One of the most critical operations, in terms of energy loss, is the opening of the furnace doors for insertion and extraction operations. During this time, the temperature of the furnaces decreases by hundreds of degrees in a few minutes. Because the dispersed heat needs to be supplied again through the combustion of fuel, increasing the consumption of energy and the pollutant emissions, the evaluation of the amount of lost energy is crucial for the development of systems which can contain this loss. To perform this study, CFD simulation software was used. Results show that when the door opens, because of temperature and pressure differences between the furnace and the ambient air, turbulence is created. Results also show that the amount of energy lost for an opening of 10 min for radiation, convection and conduction is equal to 5606 MJ where convection is the main contributor, with 5020 MJ. The model created, after being validated, has been applied to perform other simulations, in order to improve the energy performance of the furnace. Results show that reducing the opening time of the door saves energy and limits pollutant emissions.

  16. Moving behavior of pellets in a pellet shaft furnace

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁儒全; 赫冀成

    2008-01-01

    The downward moving behavior of pellets in a 8 m2 pellet shaft furnace with an internal vertical air channel and a drying bed was studied by means of a visualized model(1-15) and a top model(1-1).The visualized model experiment shows that the downward movement of pellets can be regarded as plug flow approximately inside the furnace except for the lower region of cooling zone due to the influence of the drained hopper.The top model experiment reveals that the pellet sizes increase along the moving direction because of the percolation phenomenon,which results in a decrease of the resistance coefficient and an increase of the gas flow rate from the furnace wall toward the furnace center.

  17. Feasibility of a solar-assisted winter air-conditioning system using evaporative air-coolers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed M. El-Awad

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a winter air-conditioning system which is suitable for regions with mildly cold but dry winters. The system modifies the evaporative air-cooler that is commonly used for summer air-conditioning in such regions by adding a heating process after the humidification process. The paper describes a theoretical model that is used to estimate the system's water and energy consumption. It is shown that a 150-LPD solar heater is adequate for air-conditioning a 500 ft3/min (14.4 m3/min air flow rate for four hours of operation. The maximum air-flow rate that can be heated by a single solar water-heater for four hours of operation is about 900-cfm, unless a solar water heater large than a 250-LPD heater is used. For the 500 ft3/min air flow rate the paper shows that the 150, 200, 250 and 300 LPD solar water-heaters can provide air-conditioning for 4, 6, 8 and 10 hours, respectively, while consuming less energy than the equivalent refrigerated-type air-conditioner.

  18. Feasibility of a solar-assisted winter air-conditioning system using evaporative air-coolers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Awad, Mohamed M. [Mechanical Engineering Department, the University of Khartoum, P.O. Box 321 Khartoum (Sudan)

    2011-07-01

    The paper presents a winter air-conditioning system which is suitable for regions with mildly cold but dry winters. The system modifies the evaporative air-cooler that is commonly used for summer air-conditioning in such regions by adding a heating process after the humidification process. The paper describes a theoretical model that is used to estimate the system's water and energy consumption. It is shown that a 150-LPD solar heater is adequate for air-conditioning a 500 ft3/min (14.4 m3/min) air flow rate for four hours of operation. The maximum air-flow rate that can be heated by a single solar water-heater for four hours of operation is about 900-cfm, unless a solar water heater large than a 250-LPD heater is used. For the 500 ft3/min air flow rate the paper shows that the 150, 200, 250 and 300 LPD solar water-heaters can provide air-conditioning for 4, 6, 8 and 10 hours, respectively, while consuming less energy than the equivalent refrigerated-type air-conditioner.

  19. Acaroid mite allergens from the filters of air-conditioning system in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chao-Pin; Guo, Wei; Zhan, Xiao-Dong; Zhao, Bei-Bei; Diao, Ji-Dong; Li, Na; He, Lian-Ping

    2014-01-01

    Accumulation of acaroid mites in the filters of air-conditioners is harmful to human health. It is important to clarify the allergen components of mites from the filters of local air-conditioning system. The present study was to detect the allergen types in the filters of air-conditioners and assesse their allergenicity by asthmatic models. Sixty aliquots of dust samples were collected from air conditioning filters in civil houses in Wuhu area. Total protein was extracted from the dust samples using PBS and quantified by Bradford method. Allergens I and II were also detected by Western blot using primary antibody (anti-Der f1/2, Der p1/Der f2/Der p2, respectively). Ten aliquots of the positive samples were randomly selected for homogenization and sensitized the mice for developing asthmatic animal models. Total serum IgE level and IFN-γ, IL-4 and IL-5 in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF). The allergenicity of the extraction was assessed using pathological sections developed from the mouse pulmonary tissues. The concentration of extract from the 60 samples was ranged from 4.37 μg/ml to 30.76 μg/ml. After analyzing with Western blot, 31 of 60 samples were positive for 4 allergens of acaroid mites, and yet 16 were negative. The levels of total IgE from serum IL-4 and IL-5 from the BALF in the experimental group were apparently higher than that of negative control and PBS group (P 0.05). However,the IFN-γ level in BALF was lower compared with the negative control and PBS group (P 0.05). The pathological changes were evidently emerged in pulmonary tissues, which were similar to those of OVA group, compared with the PBS ground and negative controls. The air-conditioner filters in human dwellings of Wuhu area potentially contain the major group allergen 1 and 2 from D. farinae and D. pteronyssinus, which may be associated with seasonal prevalence of allergic disorders in this area.

  20. Air Conditioning Stall Phenomenon Testing, Model Development, and Simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Irminger, Philip [ORNL; Rizy, D Tom [ORNL; Li, Huijuan [ORNL; Smith, Travis [ORNL; Rice, C Keith [ORNL; Li, Fangxing [ORNL; Adhikari, Sarina [ORNL

    2012-01-01

    Electric distribution systems are experiencing power quality issues of extended reduced voltage due to fault-induced delayed voltage recovery (FIDVR). FIDVR occurs in part because modern air conditioner (A/C) and heat pump compressor motors are much more susceptible to stalling during a voltage sag or dip such as a sub-transmission fault. They are more susceptible than older A/C compressor motors due to the low inertia of these newer and more energy efficient motors. There is a concern that these local reduced voltage events on the distribution system will become more frequent and prevalent and will combine over larger areas and challenge transmission system voltage and ultimately power grid reliability. The Distributed Energy Communications and Controls (DECC) Laboratory at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has been employed to (1) test, (2) characterize and (3) model the A/C stall phenomenon.

  1. A review on the recent development of solar absorption and vapour compression based hybrid air conditioning with low temperature storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noor D. N.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Conventional air conditioners or vapour compression systems are main contributors to energy consumption in modern buildings. There are common environmental issues emanating from vapour compression system such as greenhouse gas emission and heat wastage. These problems can be reduced by adaptation of solar energy components to vapour compression system. However, intermittence input of daily solar radiation was the main issue of solar energy system. This paper presents the recent studies on hybrid air conditioning system. In addition, the basic vapour compression system and components involved in the solar air conditioning system are discussed. Introduction of low temperature storage can be an interactive solution and improved economically which portray different modes of operating strategies. Yet, very few studies have examined on optimal operating strategies of the hybrid system. Finally, the findings of this review will help suggest optimization of solar absorption and vapour compression based hybrid air conditioning system for future work while considering both economic and environmental factors.

  2. Regulating low-NOx and high-burnout deep-air-staging combustion under real-furnace conditions in a 600 MWe down-fired supercritical boiler by strengthening the staged-air effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuang, Min; Wang, Zhihua; Zhu, Yanqun; Ling, Zhongqian; Li, Zhengqi

    2014-10-21

    A 600 MW(e) down-fired pulverized-coal supercritical boiler, which was equipped with a deep-air-staging combustion system for reducing the particularly high NOx emissions, suffered from the well-accepted contradiction between low NOx emissions and high carbon in fly ash, in addition to excessively high gas temperatures in the hopper that jeopardized the boiler's safe operations. Previous results uncovered that under low-NOx conditions, strengthening the staged-air effect by decreasing the staged-air angle and simultaneously increasing the staged-air damper opening alleviated the aforementioned problems to some extent. To establish low-NOx and high-burnout circumstances and control the aforementioned hopper temperatures, a further staged-air retrofit with horizontally redirecting staged air through an enlarged staged-air slot area was performed to greatly strengthen the staged-air effect. Full-load industrial-size measurements were performed to confirm the availability of this retrofit. The present data were compared with those published results before the retrofit. High NOx emissions, low carbon in fly ah, and high hopper temperatures (i.e., levels of 1036 mg/m(3) at 6% O2, 3.72%, and about 1300 °C, respectively) appeared under the original conditions with the staged-air angle of 45° and without overfire air (OFA) application. Applying OFA and reducing the angle to 20° achieved an apparent NOx reduction and a moderate hopper temperature decrease while a sharp increase in carbon in fly ash (i.e., levels of 878 mg/m(3) at 6% O2, about 1200 °C, and 9.81%, respectively). Fortunately, the present staged-air retrofit was confirmed to be applicable in regulating low-NOx, high-burnout, and low hopper temperature circumstances (i.e., levels of 867 mg/m(3) at 6% O2, 5.40%, and about 1100 °C, respectively).

  3. In-service helium leak testing of vacuum furnace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Anis; Tripathi, S. K.; Sawant, P. S.; Mukharjee, D.; Shah, B. K.

    2012-11-01

    Helium leak detection of vacuum furnaces and equipments used for processing of nuclear material is generally carried out by utilizing vacuum spray technique. In this technique helium leak detector is connected to the furnace, back ground reading is noted and helium gas is sprayed on all the suspected joints. Any increase in back ground is noted as leak signal. Processing of Zirconium alloy cladded fuel pins is carried out in vacuum furnace of about 3 meter length and 500 mm inside diameter. Furnace is connected with two numbers of rotary vacuum pump and one number of diffusion pump for creating vacuum (1 × 10-6 torr) inside the furnace. It is desirable that furnace should have good vacuum and best possible leak tightness during dynamic and static vacuum. During dynamic vacuum at higher temperature although required vacuum is achieved the furnace may have fine leakage through which air may enter and cause oxidation of clad tube leading to change in its coloration. This change in coloration will cause rejection of fuel element. Such fine leakages may not be reflected in the dynamic vacuum of the system at high temperature. During trial run change in coloration of outside surface of clad tube was observed although dynamic vacuum of the furnace was in the range of 1×10-6 torr range. To eliminate such possibilities of oxidation due to fine leakages in the system, it was decided to carry out in-service leak testing of the furnace. Helium leak testing of the furnace was carried out by using vacuum spray method and leaks observed were repaired and furnace was retested to ensure the leak tightness. The in-service helium leak testing of the furnace helped in maintaining its leak tightness during service under dynamic vacuum and prevent oxidation of fuel element. This paper describes the techniques of in- service helium leak testing, it's importance for detection of fine leak under dynamic vacuum and discusses details of the testing method and result obtained.

  4. 78 FR 19606 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Test Procedures for Residential Furnace Fans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-02

    .... Outlet Duct Restriction Specifications 6. Optional Return Air Duct 7. ASHRAE 37-2005 External Static... heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) products to circulate air through ductwork, hereafter... electricity for the purposes of circulating air through ductwork, hereinafter referred to as ``furnace...

  5. Cupola Furnace Computer Process Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seymour Katz

    2004-12-31

    The cupola furnace generates more than 50% of the liquid iron used to produce the 9+ million tons of castings annually. The cupola converts iron and steel into cast iron. The main advantages of the cupola furnace are lower energy costs than those of competing furnaces (electric) and the ability to melt less expensive metallic scrap than the competing furnaces. However the chemical and physical processes that take place in the cupola furnace are highly complex making it difficult to operate the furnace in optimal fashion. The results are low energy efficiency and poor recovery of important and expensive alloy elements due to oxidation. Between 1990 and 2004 under the auspices of the Department of Energy, the American Foundry Society and General Motors Corp. a computer simulation of the cupola furnace was developed that accurately describes the complex behavior of the furnace. When provided with the furnace input conditions the model provides accurate values of the output conditions in a matter of seconds. It also provides key diagnostics. Using clues from the diagnostics a trained specialist can infer changes in the operation that will move the system toward higher efficiency. Repeating the process in an iterative fashion leads to near optimum operating conditions with just a few iterations. More advanced uses of the program have been examined. The program is currently being combined with an ''Expert System'' to permit optimization in real time. The program has been combined with ''neural network'' programs to affect very easy scanning of a wide range of furnace operation. Rudimentary efforts were successfully made to operate the furnace using a computer. References to these more advanced systems will be found in the ''Cupola Handbook''. Chapter 27, American Foundry Society, Des Plaines, IL (1999).

  6. Residential Two-Stage Gas Furnaces - Do They Save Energy?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lekov, Alex; Franco, Victor; Lutz, James

    2006-05-12

    Residential two-stage gas furnaces account for almost a quarter of the total number of models listed in the March 2005 GAMA directory of equipment certified for sale in the United States. Two-stage furnaces are expanding their presence in the market mostly because they meet consumer expectations for improved comfort. Currently, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) test procedure serves as the method for reporting furnace total fuel and electricity consumption under laboratory conditions. In 2006, American Society of Heating Refrigeration and Air-conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) proposed an update to its test procedure which corrects some of the discrepancies found in the DOE test procedure and provides an improved methodology for calculating the energy consumption of two-stage furnaces. The objectives of this paper are to explore the differences in the methods for calculating two-stage residential gas furnace energy consumption in the DOE test procedure and in the 2006 ASHRAE test procedure and to compare test results to research results from field tests. Overall, the DOE test procedure shows a reduction in the total site energy consumption of about 3 percent for two-stage compared to single-stage furnaces at the same efficiency level. In contrast, the 2006 ASHRAE test procedure shows almost no difference in the total site energy consumption. The 2006 ASHRAE test procedure appears to provide a better methodology for calculating the energy consumption of two-stage furnaces. The results indicate that, although two-stage technology by itself does not save site energy, the combination of two-stage furnaces with BPM motors provides electricity savings, which are confirmed by field studies.

  7. Measurement and analysis of air-conditioning-usage behavior in apartments%住宅空调行为状况的实测分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    简毅文; 李清瑞; 刘建

    2013-01-01

    以北京市区6户住宅为研究对象,基于对夏季室内温湿度参数的连续测试及相关问卷调查,从空调开启、关闭及运行时间三个方面对住宅空调行为进行了分析,并比较了不同作息状态下的空调行为.研究表明,由于室内环境及人的生理和心理因素的共同作用,住宅空调的开启、关闭行为与室内环境尤其室温之间或许并不存在严格的单一控制关系,并不是室温超过29℃就一定开启空调,或一定要将室温降低到26℃才关闭空调;住宅空调的开启或关闭行为及上述行为持续的时间取决于人体的热感觉及其对室内热湿环境的期望状况.%Taking six apartments in Beijing as examples, based on the continuous measurement of indoor air temperature and humidity and the relevant questionnaires investigation, discusses air-conditioning-usage behavior from the three aspects of open, close and running time, and compares air-conditioning-usage behavior in different activity and rest conditions. The results show that there may not exist a strict single control relation between the open or close behavior of air conditioners and the indoor environment conditions especially indoor temperature, and that occupants may not necessarily turn on air conditioners even when indoor air temperature rises over 29 ℃ and turn off air conditioners when room temperatures drops under 26 ℃ due to the coaction of indoor environment and physical and psychological components,- air-conditioning-usage behavior will depend on occupants' thermal sensation and the expectation for the indoor thermal and humid environment.

  8. Problem Analysis and Solution of Controller IPM Superheat for Inverter Air-conditioning System%变频空调控制器IPM过热问题的分析及对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴俊鸿; 杨检群; 杨杰; 梁青

    2012-01-01

      Through the analysis of compressor frequency limitation caused by inverter air conditioner controller IPM (Intelligent Power Module), the basic reason for the high temperature of the IPM was analyzed theoretically and experimentally., The method to lower the inverter controller IPM temperature was proposed, The present research provides new ideas and directions for the controller components’ high temperature research for inverter air conditioner product.%  通过分析变频空调控制器的智能功率模块IPM(Intelligent Power Module)温度过热导致压缩机频率受到限制的实例出发,从理论和实验两个方面阐述变频空调控制器IPM温度过高的根本原因,提出降低变频控制器 IPM(包括其他元器件)温度的措施,为变频空调产品的控制器元器件温升研究提供新的思路和方向。

  9. PLANS ANALYSIS ON BURNING BFG ON HEATING FURNACE BY USING HIGH TEMPERATURE AIR COMBUSTION%加热炉采用蓄热式燃烧技术烧纯高炉煤气的方案分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许礼干; 马桂祥

    2001-01-01

    This paper introduces two design plans of burning BFG(BlastFurnace Gas)on walking-beam heating furnace of steel-rolling by using H.R.S(High-Cycle Regenerative System)and some suggestions are given.%分析了合钢小型连轧步进式加热炉,采用蓄热式燃烧技术改烧高炉煤气的两种设计方案,并提出几点建议。

  10. DEVELOPMENT OF ELECTRONIC VERNEUIL FURNACE

    Science.gov (United States)

    HIGH TEMPERATURE, *PLASMA JETS, *REFRACTORY MATERIALS, ALTERNATING CURRENT, CELLULOSE ACETATES, CRYSTAL STRUCTURE, CRYSTALS , GAS DISCHARGES, GROWTH ...PHYSIOLOGY), LABORATORY FURNACES, PLASMAS(PHYSICS), RADIOFREQUENCY GENERATORS, RADIOFREQUENCY POWER, SINGLE CRYSTALS , THEORY.

  11. Thermodynamic modeling of lead blast furnace

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TAN Peng-fu

    2005-01-01

    A thermodynamic model was developed to predict the distribution behavior of Cu,Fe,S,O,Pb,Zn,As,and the heat balance in a lead blast furnace.The modeling results are validated by the plant data of a lead smelter in Kazakhstan.The model can be used to predict any set of controllable process parameters such as feed composition,smelting temperature,degree of oxygen enrichment and volume of oxygen-enriched air.The effects of the blast air,industrial oxygen,and coke charge on the distribution of Cu,Fe,S,O,Pb,Zn,As,the heat balance,and the lead loss in slag,were presented and discussed.

  12. Hybrid intelligent control of combustion process for ore-roasting furnace

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Aijun YAN; Tianyou CHAI; Fenghua WU; Pu WANG

    2008-01-01

    Because of its synthetic and complex characteristics, the combustion process of the shaft ore-roasting furnace is very difficult to control stably. A hybrid intelligent control approach is developed which consists of two systems: one is a cascade fuzzy control system with a temperature soft-sensor, and the other is a ratio control system for air flow with a compensation model for heating gas flow and air-fuel ratio. This approach combined intelligent control, soft-sensing and fault diagnosis with conventional control. It can adjust both the heating gas flow and the air-fuel ratio in real time. By this way, the difficulty of online measurement of the furnace temperature is solved, the fault ratios during combustion process is decreased, the steady control of the furnace temperature is achieved, and the gas consumption is reduced. The successful application in shaft furnaces of a mineral processing plant in China indicates its effectiveness.

  13. Recovery and Utilization of Air-conditioning Condensing Water%空调冷凝水的回收利用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙华勇

    2014-01-01

    本文讨论了空调冷凝水的回收应用,空调冷凝水降低冷凝温度对制冷系数的影响,并对其进行了经济计算,对冷凝水其他回收利用方式的可行性讨论进行了研究。%This paper discussed the recycling application of air-conditioning condensing water and the influence of air conditioner condensing water on refrigeration coefficient by reducing condensing temperature. The author also carried out an economic calculation and analyzed the feasibility of the other recycling modes of the condensed water.

  14. Effects of air conditioning, dehumidification and natural ventilation on indoor concentrations of {sup 222}Rn and {sup 220}Rn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Thomas K.C.; Yu, K.N. E-mail: peter.yu@cityu.edu.hk

    2000-01-01

    A bedroom was selected for detailed measurements on {sup 220}Rn and {sup 222}Rn concentrations and environmental parameters including CO{sub 2} concentration, temperature and relative humidity. To simulate different sealing conditions, five conditions were artificially created in the sampling period of 25 consecutive days. It was concluded that natural ventilation is the most efficient way to lower the {sup 222}Rn levels, while air conditioning is the next. Dehumidification provides only a marginal reduction of {sup 222}Rn levels. The {sup 220}Rn concentrations are not affected by natural ventilation, air conditioner or dehumidification, and were all around 10 Bq m{sup -3}. There are no significant correlations between the {sup 220}Rn and {sup 222}Rn concentrations and environmental conditions such as CO{sub 2} concentrations, temperature, relative humidity and pressure.

  15. Altitude effects on combustion in residential furnaces with fan assist

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnold, S.; Fleck, B.A.; Ackerman, M.Y.; Dale, J.D.; Wilson, D.J. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2002-07-01

    Five residential furnaces were tested to determine if altitude has an effect on the performance of modern furnaces equipped with fan assisted flue venting systems. The tests were conducted at 3 altitudes, 50 m, 685 m and 2050 m above sea level at sites in Vancouver, Edmonton, and Fortress Mountain, Alberta. Current furnace derating practices require that furnaces at high altitude have small fuel openings or decreased fuel supply manifold pressures. However, it is possible that modern furnaces with fan driven combustion venting do not have to be derated to the same extent. Propane and natural gas were the fuel sources for the tests. It was confirmed that since most residential systems are designed to operate at 100 per cent excess air, the current derating standard practice is overly conservative. The effects of altitude on carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide levels were also examined, along with burner and igniter operating characteristics, heat exchanger operating temperatures, and blocked-vent shutoff combustion performance. 1 tab., 3 figs.

  16. CERIT air-conditioning system powered by solar energy: Two years of operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lazzarin, R.; Romagnoni, P.; Casasola, L. (Bari Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Fisica Tecnica ed Impianti Termotecnici CERIT S.p.A., Pordenone (Italy) Padova Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Fisica Tecnica)

    The largest European solar air conditioner (equipped with 440 square meters of aluminized Myler reflection panels; 440 square meters of Cortec evacuated tube solar collectors; 150 and 43 cubic meter, respectively, cold and hot water storage tanks; 50 kW absorption machine; 4 cylinder compression chiller; and natural gas fired boiler for winter space heating) was built at the CERIT (Regional Technological Research Center) of Pordenone, Italy. This article, with the aid of flowsheets, outlines the plant's key design and operational features, and tables performance and energy consumption data to back up a discussion of the major results achieved during two years of operation. Particular attention is given to the plant's seasonal performance.

  17. With cooling and double floor. Clima-Tect for cable bushing ensures air conditioning of servers; Mit Kuehlung und doppeltem Boden. Clima-Tect fuer Kabeldurchfuehrungen sichert Server-Klimatisierung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gassel, Christine

    2011-04-15

    While data centers are growing worldwide, their energy requirements and thus their cost also increase. Nearly twelve percent of the total expenditure now went to electricity as shown by new calculations of the IT market research institute Gartner Inc. (Munich, Federal Republic of Germany). According to the analysts, just 35 to 50 percent of this flow into the server cooling. Thus, although the air conditioners are becoming more efficient, the more powerful racks emit significant amounts of heat at the same time. A major problem is the mixing of cooling air with the hot exhaust air from the plants. Even the air-tight sealing of the cable entry in the double floor could reduce costs by a tenth.

  18. 燃料稀释对传统型和高预热空气稀释型燃烧炉性能的影响的数值研究%Numerical Investigation of Fuel Dilution Effects on the Performance of the Conventional and the Highly Preheated and Diluted Air Combustion Furnaces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kiomars Abbasi Khazaei; Ali Asghar Hamidi; Masoud Rahimi

    2009-01-01

    This numerical study investigates the effects of using a diluted fuel (50% natural gas and 50% N_2) in an industrial furnace under several cases of conventional combustion (air with 21% O_2 at 300 and 1273 K) and the highly preheated and diluted air (1273 K with 10% O_2 and 90% N_2) combustion (HPDAC) conditions using an in-house computer program. It was found that by applying a combined diluted fuel and oxidant instead of their un-combined and/or undiluted states, the best condition is obtained for the establishment of HPDAC's main unique features. These features are low mean and maximum gas temperature and high radiation/total heat transfer to gas and tubes; as well as more uniformity of theirs distributions which results in decrease in NO_x pollutant formation and increase in furnace efficiency or energy saving. Moreover, a variety of chemical flame shape, the process fluid and tubes walls temperatures profiles, the required regenerator efficiency and finally the concentration and velocity patterns have been also qualitatively/quantitatively studied.

  19. 40 CFR 63.10686 - What are the requirements for electric arc furnaces and argon-oxygen decarburization vessels?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Hazardous Air Pollutants for Area Sources: Electric Arc Furnace Steelmaking Facilities Standards and Compliance Requirements § 63.10686 What are the requirements for electric arc furnaces and argon-oxygen... 40 Protection of Environment 14 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What are the requirements for...

  20. Analysis of combustion efficiency in a pelletizing furnace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Simões Vieira de Moura

    Full Text Available Abstract The objective of this research is to assess how much the improvement in the combustion reaction efficiency can reduce fuel consumption, maintaining the same thermal energy rate provided by the reaction in a pelletizing furnace. The furnace for pelletizing iron ore is a complex thermal machine, in terms of energy balance. It contains recirculation fan gases and constant variations in the process, and the variation of a single process variable can influence numerous changes in operating conditions. This study demonstrated how the main variables related to combustion in the burning zone influence fuel consumption (natural gas from the furnace of the Usina de Pelotização de Fábrica (owned by VALE S/A, without changing process conditions that affect production quality. Variables were analyzed regarding the velocity and pressure of the fuel in the burners, the temperature of the combustion air and reactant gases, the conversion rate and the stoichiometric air/fuel ratio of the reaction. For the analysis, actual data of the furnace in operation was used, and for the simulation of chemical reactions, the software Gaseq® was used. The study showed that the adjustment of combustion reaction stoichiometry provides a reduction of 9.25% in fuel consumption, representing a savings of US$ 2.6 million per year for the company.

  1. Furnace and Heat Recovery Area Design and Analysis for Conceptual Design of Supercritical O2-Based PC Boiler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrew Seltzer

    2006-05-01

    The objective of the furnace and heat recovery area design and analysis task of the Conceptual Design of Supercritical Oxygen-Based PC Boiler study is to optimize the location and design of the furnace, burners, over-fire gas ports, and internal radiant surfaces. The furnace and heat recovery area were designed and analyzed using the FW-FIRE, Siemens, and HEATEX computer programs. The furnace is designed with opposed wall-firing burners and over-fire air ports. Water is circulated in the furnace by forced circulation to the waterwalls at the periphery and divisional wall panels within the furnace. Compared to the air-fired furnace, the oxygen-fired furnace requires only 65% of the surface area and 45% of the volume. Two oxygen-fired designs were simulated: (1) with cryogenic air separation unit (ASU) and (2) with oxygen ion transport membrane (OITM). The maximum wall heat flux in the oxygen-fired furnace is more than double that of the air-fired furnace due to the higher flame temperature and higher H{sub 2}O and CO{sub 2} concentrations. The coal burnout for the oxygen-fired case is 100% due to a 500 F higher furnace temperature and higher concentration of O{sub 2}. Because of the higher furnace wall temperature of the oxygen-fired case compared to the air-fired case, furnace water wall material was upgraded from T2 to T92. Compared to the air-fired heat recovery area (HRA), the oxygen-fired HRA total heat transfer surface is 35% less for the cryogenic design and 13% less for the OITM design due to more heat being absorbed in the oxygen-fired furnace and the greater molecular weight of the oxygen-fired flue gas. The HRA tube materials and wall thickness are nearly the same for the air-fired and oxygen-fired design since the flue gas and water/steam temperature profiles encountered by the heat transfer banks are similar.

  2. Handling of corn stover bales for combustion in small and large furnaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morissette, R.; Savoie, P.; Villeneuve, J. [Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Quebec City, PQ (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    This paper reported on a study in which dry corn stover was baled and burned in 2 furnaces in the province of Quebec. Small and large rectangular bale formats were considered for direct combustion. The first combustion unit was a small 500,000 BTU/h dual chamber log wood furnace located at a hay growing farm in Neuville, Quebec. The heat was initially transferred to a hot water pipe system and then transferred to a hot air exchanger to dry hay bales. The small stover bales were placed directly into the combustion furnace. The low density of the bales compared to log wood, required filling up to 8 times more frequently. Stover bales produced an average of 6.4 per cent ash on a DM basis and required an automated system for ash removal. Combustion gas contained levels of particulate matter greater than 1417 mg/m{sup 3}, which is more than the local acceptable maximum of 600 mg/m{sup 3} for combustion furnaces. The second combustion unit was a high capacity 12.5 million BTU/h single chamber furnace located in Saint-Philippe-de-neri, Quebec. It was used to generate steam for a feed pellet mill. Large corn stover bales were broken up and fed on a conveyor and through a screw auger to the furnace. The stover was light compared to the wood chips used in this furnace. For mechanical reasons, the stover could not be fed continuously to the furnace.

  3. Issues in federal preemption of state appliance energy efficiency regulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, J.M.; Balistocky, S.; Schaefler, A.M.

    1982-12-01

    The findings and conclusions of the analysis of the various issues involved in the federal preemption of state regulations for the DOE no standard rule on covered appliances are summarized. The covered products are: refrigerators, refrigerator-freezers, freezers, clothes dryers, kitchen ranges and ovens, water heaters (excluding heat pump water heaters), room air conditioners, central air conditioners (excluding heat pumps), and furnaces. A detailed discussion of the rationale for the positions of groups offering comment for the record is presneted. The pertinent categories of state and local regulations and programs are explained, then detailed analysis is conducted on the covered products and regulations. Issues relating to the timing of preemption of state regulations are discussed, as well as issues relating to burden of proof, contents of petitions for exemptions from preemption, criteria for evaluating petitions, and procedural and other issues. (LEW)

  4. Multi-fuel furnace. Demonstration project. Final rapport; Multibraendselsovn - Demonstrationsprojekt. Slutrapport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dall Bentzen, J.

    2012-06-15

    It has been verified that the Dall Energy Furnace have unique features: - The furnace will accept biomass fuel with moisture content in range 20% to 60% and still keep the flue gas temperature within +-10 deg. Celsius (for pre-set temperature 900 to 975 deg. Celsius); - The ash quality from the furnace is very good with no excessive sintering and without carbon in the ash; - Flue gas dust content at the furnace exit is below 50 mg/Nm3, while the content of NO{sub x} and CO is below 175 mg/Nm3 and 20 mg/Nm3, respectively. The Dall Energy biomass furnace consists of two separate stages which are combined in a single aggregate: an updraft gasification process and a gas combustion process. As the furnace is refractory lined and as the furnace can operate at low excess air it is possible to burn biomass with water content above 60%. No mechanical parts are used at temperatures above 200 deg. Celsius. This provides a very rugged system. In the gasifier section a combustible gas is produced with a low velocity at the top of the gasifier bed. This gas is combusted to a flue gas with extremely low dust content. Also, the NO{sub x} and CO content is very low. The temperature of the flue gas at the exit is kept low by injecting water spray together with the secondary air. (Author)

  5. Afterglow characteristics of CaTiO3: Pr3+ prepared by solar furnace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katayama, Yumiko; Tanabe, Setsuhisa

    2011-05-01

    We have prepared polycrystalline CaTiO3: Pr3+ showing long-lasting phosphorescence by melting method using a solar furnace. Emission, excitation spectra, phosphorescence decay and thermoluminescence were compared with samples prepared by conventional solid-state reaction in conventional electric furnace (EF) at 1200 °C, 5 h in air. The color of the sample prepared by solar furnace (SF-AM) was dark brownish. After heat treatment at 800°C, 5h in air atmosphere, a decolorized sample (SF-HT) was obtained. All samples showed Pr3+:1D2 → 3H4 fluorescence at 613 nm and corresponding afterglow phosphorescence. The SF-AM and SF-HT showed much higher PLE intensity of Pr3+:3PJ bands in blue region than EF. CaTiO3:Pr3+ made by a solar furnace has a potential to be a red afterglow phosphor even under visible excitation.

  6. Loss on Ignition Furnace Acceptance and Operability Test Procedure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JOHNSON, D.C.

    2000-06-01

    The purpose of this Acceptance Test Procedure and Operability Test Procedure (ATP/OTP)is to verify the operability of newly installed LOI equipment, including a model 1608FL CM{trademark} Furnace, a dessicator, and balance. The operability of the furnace will be verified. The arrangement of the equipment placed in Glovebox 157-3/4 to perform Loss on Ignition (LOI) testing on samples supplied from the Thermal Stabilization line will be verified. In addition to verifying proper operation of the furnace, this ATP/OTP will also verify the air flow through the filters, verify a damper setting to establish and maintain the required differential pressure between the glovebox and the room pressure, and test the integrity of the newly installed HEPA filter. In order to provide objective evidence of proper performance of the furnace, the furnace must heat 15 crucibles, mounted on a crucible rack, to 1000 C, according to a program entered into the furnace controller located outside the glovebox. The glovebox differential pressure will be set to provide the 0.5 to 2.0 inches of water (gauge) negative pressure inside the glovebox with an airflow of 100 to 125 cubic feet per minute (cfm) through the inlet filter. The glovebox inlet Glfilter will he flow tested to ensure the integrity of the filter connections and the efficiency of the filter medium. The newly installed windows and glovebox extension, as well as all disturbed joints, will be sonically tested via ultra probe to verify no leaks are present. The procedure for DOS testing of the filter is found in Appendix A.

  7. Foundation of three—dimensional mathematical models for glass furnace regenerator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈锦林; 宋晨路; 等

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents a practical three-dimensional meathematical model of circulation and heat transfer in generator of glass melting furnaces.The model was based on the heat transfer between the smoke flow and the lattice units,and between the air flow and the lattice units.This model not only bypassed the difficulty of complicated computation of the heat transfer process in the regenerator of glass furnaces,but also avoided the irrationality of fixing the temperature distribution on the surfaces.Use of the model yielded very important data and also the method for the design of the regenerator of glass furnaces in practical production.

  8. Analysis on the Fireproof Performance of Air-conditioners’ Plastic Handle%空调器注塑类提手防火性能研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张瑞

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents four kinds of hypotheses of fireproof of air-conditioners’ plastic handle through analysis of installation of handle and its role and the failure model of air-conditioner. Finally, it analyzes and verifies each hypothesis through relevant experiment.%本文通过对注塑类提手在空调器中的安装位置以及其所起作用,综合空调器可能出现的故障模式,提出了四种能够引起提手起燃的假设,并通过对应的试验剖析验证每个假设的可能性。

  9. Discussion on air-conditioning design from the aspect of energy conservation%从节能的角度谈空调设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴达祥

    2012-01-01

    从合理选择设计参数、负荷计算、水力计算、系统划分等多方面详细阐述了在空调设计方面的重要性,并对节能设计提出了可以采取的一些措施,从而保证空调系统的节能运行。%The paper describes the signifieanee of air-conditioning design from various aspects of rational design parameter selection, load calculation, hydraulic calculation and system division, and puts forward some suitable measures of energy-saving design, so as to ensure the energysaving operation of the air-conditioner system.

  10. Waste and dust utilisation in shaft furnaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Senk, D.; Babich, A.; Gudenau, H.W. [Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Aachen (Germany)

    2005-07-01

    Wastes and dusts from steel industry, non-ferrous metallurgy and other branches can be utilised e.g. in agglomeration processes (sintering, pelletising or briquetting) and by injection into shaft furnaces. This paper deals with the second way. Combustion and reduction behaviour of iron- and carbon-rich metallurgical dusts and sludges containing lead, zinc and alkali as well as other wastes with and without pulverised coal (PC) has been studied when injecting into shaft furnaces. Following shaft furnaces have been examined: blast furnace, cupola furnace, OxiCup furnace and imperial-smelting furnace. Investigations have been done at laboratory and industrial scale. Some dusts and wastes under certain conditions can be not only reused but can also improve combustion efficiency at the tuyeres as well as furnace performance and productivity.

  11. Installation and Trial Run of the Furnace

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    In order to meet the demand of neutron experiment in the future, the neutron lab equips with extreme temperature furnace (Fig. 1), the furnace is designed and produced by the professional producer-Scientific

  12. High Efficiency Solar Furnace Core Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — It is proposed to develop a high efficiency solar furnace core that greatly lessens the heat losses from the furnace core, either greatly reducing the amount of...

  13. Low NOx nozzle tip for a pulverized solid fuel furnace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donais, Richard E; Hellewell, Todd D; Lewis, Robert D; Richards, Galen H; Towle, David P

    2014-04-22

    A nozzle tip [100] for a pulverized solid fuel pipe nozzle [200] of a pulverized solid fuel-fired furnace includes: a primary air shroud [120] having an inlet [102] and an outlet [104], wherein the inlet [102] receives a fuel flow [230]; and a flow splitter [180] disposed within the primary air shroud [120], wherein the flow splitter disperses particles in the fuel flow [230] to the outlet [104] to provide a fuel flow jet which reduces NOx in the pulverized solid fuel-fired furnace. In alternative embodiments, the flow splitter [180] may be wedge shaped and extend partially or entirely across the outlet [104]. In another alternative embodiment, flow splitter [180] may be moved forward toward the inlet [102] to create a recessed design.

  14. Furnaces. Manufacturers become engineering offices; Les fours, le constructeur devient bureau d`ingenierie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nivoche, C. [Salas SA (France)

    1997-12-31

    The example of Selas, a manufacturer of industrial furnaces for steel and glass industries, faced with the new european pollution regulations, is presented. It is shown how Selas has to develop optimal furnaces using low emission burners but also has to be involved in all the related aspects such as industrial implementation in the client`s plant, plant architecture, cooling systems, air conditioning, noise and vibration issues, operation procedures, safety, etc. Means for reducing NOx emissions are reviewed

  15. Electrostatic Levitation Furnace for the ISS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Keiji; Koshikawa, Naokiyo; Shibasaki, Kohichi; Ishikawa, Takehiko; Okada, Junpei; Takada, Tetsuya; Arai, Tatsuya; Fujino, Naoki; Yamaura, Yukiko

    2012-01-01

    JAXA (Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency) has just started the development of Electrostatic Levitation Furnace to be launched in 2014 for the ISS. This furnace can control the sample position with electrostatic force and heat it above 2000 degree Celsius using semiconductor laser from four different directions. The announcement of Opportunity will be issued soon for this furnace. In this paper, we will show the specifications of this furnace and also the development schedule

  16. Knowledge, attitudes and behaviour of the elderly during oppressive heat and air pollution; Connaissances, attitudes et comportements des aines face a la chaleur accablante et la pollution de l'air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacques, L.; Renouf, A.; Kosatsky, T.; Richard, L. [Direction de sante publique de Montreal, Montreal, PQ (Canada)

    2005-07-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate how the elderly population recognizes messages issued by public health officials and how they recall recommended protective measures. It also examined the protective measures adopted during heat waves and periods of smog as well as factors associated with the adoption of this behaviour. Elderly people suffering from chronic cardiac and respiratory diseases are most vulnerable to the effects of heat and smog. A survey of 151 elderly persons was conducted in the summer of 2004. The presentation included a discussion of the results of the descriptive analyses. It was concluded that there are two types of obstacles to protective measures: those related to the purchase or use of air conditioners and those related to negative beliefs. The presentation also discussed avenues of intervention for targeted behaviour. tabs.

  17. Moving-Temperature-Gradient Heat-Pipe Furnace Element

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillies, Donald C.; Lehoczky, Sandor L.; Gernert, Nelson J.

    1993-01-01

    In improved apparatus, ampoule of material directionally solidified mounted in central hole of annular heat pipe, at suitable axial position between heated and cooled ends. Heated end held in fixed position in single-element furnace; other end left in ambient air or else actively cooled. Gradient of temperature made to move along heat pipe by changing pressure of noncondensable gas. In comparison with prior crystal-growing apparatuses, this one simpler, smaller, and more efficient.

  18. Development of indoor environmental index: Air quality index and thermal comfort index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saad, S. M.; Shakaff, A. Y. M.; Saad, A. R. M.; Yusof, A. M.; Andrew, A. M.; Zakaria, A.; Adom, A. H.

    2017-03-01

    In this paper, index for indoor air quality (also known as IAQI) and thermal comfort index (TCI) have been developed. The IAQI was actually modified from previous outdoor air quality index (AQI) designed by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA). In order to measure the index, a real-time monitoring system to monitor indoor air quality level was developed. The proposed system consists of three parts: sensor module cloud, base station and service-oriented client. The sensor module cloud (SMC) contains collections of sensor modules that measures the air quality data and transmit the captured data to base station through wireless. Each sensor modules includes an integrated sensor array that can measure indoor air parameters like Carbon Dioxide, Carbon Monoxide, Ozone, Nitrogen Dioxide, Oxygen, Volatile Organic Compound and Particulate Matter. Temperature and humidity were also being measured in order to determine comfort condition in indoor environment. The result from several experiments show that the system is able to measure the air quality presented in IAQI and TCI in many indoor environment settings like air-conditioner, chemical present and cigarette smoke that may impact the air quality. It also shows that the air quality are changing dramatically, thus real-time monitoring system is essential.

  19. Optimal replacement of residential air conditioning equipment to minimize energy, greenhouse gas emissions, and consumer cost in the US

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Kleine, Robert D. [Center for Sustainable Systems, School of Natural Resources and Environment, University of Michigan, 440 Church St., Dana Bldg., Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1041 (United States); Keoleian, Gregory A., E-mail: gregak@umich.edu [Center for Sustainable Systems, School of Natural Resources and Environment, University of Michigan, 440 Church St., Dana Bldg., Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1041 (United States); Kelly, Jarod C. [Center for Sustainable Systems, School of Natural Resources and Environment, University of Michigan, 440 Church St., Dana Bldg., Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1041 (United States)

    2011-06-15

    A life cycle optimization of the replacement of residential central air conditioners (CACs) was conducted in order to identify replacement schedules that minimized three separate objectives: life cycle energy consumption, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and consumer cost. The analysis was conducted for the time period of 1985-2025 for Ann Arbor, MI and San Antonio, TX. Using annual sales-weighted efficiencies of residential CAC equipment, the tradeoff between potential operational savings and the burdens of producing new, more efficient equipment was evaluated. The optimal replacement schedule for each objective was identified for each location and service scenario. In general, minimizing energy consumption required frequent replacement (4-12 replacements), minimizing GHG required fewer replacements (2-5 replacements), and minimizing cost required the fewest replacements (1-3 replacements) over the time horizon. Scenario analysis of different federal efficiency standards, regional standards, and Energy Star purchases were conducted to quantify each policy's impact. For example, a 16 SEER regional standard in Texas was shown to either reduce primary energy consumption 13%, GHGs emissions by 11%, or cost by 6-7% when performing optimal replacement of CACs from 2005 or before. The results also indicate that proper servicing should be a higher priority than optimal replacement to minimize environmental burdens. - Highlights: > Optimal replacement schedules for residential central air conditioners were found. > Minimizing energy required more frequent replacement than minimizing consumer cost. > Significant variation in optimal replacement was observed for Michigan and Texas. > Rebates for altering replacement patterns are not cost effective for GHG abatement. > Maintenance levels were significant in determining the energy and GHG impacts.

  20. Analysis of a furnace for heat generation using polydisperse biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magalhaes, Edney Alves; Silva, Juarez de Sousa e; Silva, Jadir Nogueira da; Oliveira Filho, Delly [Universidade Federal de Vicosa (DEA/UFV), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Agricola; Donzeles, Sergio Mauricio Lopes [Empresa de Pesquisa Agropecuaria de Minas Gerais (EPAMIG), Vicosa, MG (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    In many agro-industrial activities, the processing of raw material generates a substantial amount of fine materials. Examples include the production of soluble coffee, processing of rice, and wood processing, among others. In many regions, these by-products keep piling up on the courtyard of companies or become an environmental problem for land dumps. However, detailed tests of these byproducts indicate that they are excellent sources of energy. With this in mind, a furnace was developed to generate clean and hot air, using the alimentation system for pneumatic transport. Wood sawdust was used as fuel for analysis. The obtained results were considered satisfactory, proven by the small heat losses, primarily by the non-burned carbon monoxide (less than 0.2%) and the cooling of the furnace (less than 2.5%) whereas the losses by the exhaust gases were a little more than 23%. The thermal efficiency of the furnace was considered high when compared to others with an indirect heating system, obtaining an average value of 73%. The developed furnace, beyond being efficient, allows the use of the waste from the wood industry, which is important in the reduction of environmental impacts and minimizing production costs associated with the acquisition of conventional energy. (author)

  1. Alkaline carbonates in blast furnace process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Besta

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The production of iron in blast furnaces is a complex of physical, chemical and mechanical processes. The input raw materials contain not only metallic components, but also a number of negative elements. The most important negative elements include alkaline carbonates. They can significantly affect the course of the blast furnace process and thus the overall performance of the furnace. As a result of that, it is essential to accurately monitor the alkali content in the blast furnace raw materials. The article analyzes the alkali content in input and output raw materials and their impact on the blast furnace process.

  2. Glass science tutorial: Lecture No. 4, commercial glass melting and associated air emission issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kruger, A.A.

    1995-01-01

    This document serves as a manual for a workshop on commercial glass melting and associated air emission issues. Areas covered include: An overview of the glass industry; Furnace design and construction practices; Melting furnace operation; Energy input methods and controls; Air legislation and regulations; Soda lime emission mechanisms; and, Post furnace emission controls. Supporting papers are also included.

  3. Critical review of kraft recovery boiler air systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mac Callum, C.; Blackwell, B.R.

    1987-10-01

    Combustion air systems offered by major world suppliers of kraft recovery boilers are reviewed. A preliminary mathematical analysis of the air-jet trajectories in the furnace indicated that the conventional air systems leave room for improving the jet penetration into the furnace core. 9 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Double utilization of the roof. 'Solar green roofs' - the advantages are in the combination; Das Dach zweifach nutzen. 'SolarGruenDaecher - die Vorteile liegen in der Kombination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mann, Gunter

    2013-06-01

    Air conditioners cooling with solar energy have already existed for a long time. The core principles are adsorption chillers, absorption chillers and DEC chillers. However, these chillers are relatively expensive compared to air conditioners in compression technology and therefore not often used in the mass market. Since January 2013, Sedna Aire Europe GmbH (Dortmund, Federal Republic of Germany) offers solar-assisted air-conditioners that cost the same as commercial non-solar comparable equipment and enable significant cost savings from the first year. In addition, these air-conditioners are designed as heat pumps, which can be heated.

  5. Plasma-supported coal combustion in boiler furnace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Askarova, A.S.; Karpenko, E.I.; Lavrishcheva, Y.I.; Messerle, V.E.; Ustimenko, A.B. [Kazakh National University, Alma Ata (Kazakhstan). Dept. of Physics

    2007-12-15

    Plasma activation promotes more effective and environmentally friendly low-rank coal combustion. This paper presents Plasma Fuel Systems that increase the burning efficiency of coal. The systems were tested for fuel oil-free start-up of coal-fired boilers and stabilization of a pulverized-coal flame in power-generating boilers equipped with different types of burners, and burning all types of power-generating coal. Also, numerical modeling results of a plasma thermochemical preparation of pulverized coal for ignition and combustion in the furnace of a utility boiler are discussed in this paper. Two kinetic mathematical models were used in the investigation of the processes of air/fuel mixture plasma activation: ignition and combustion. A I-D kinetic code PLASMA-COAL calculates the concentrations of species, temperatures, and velocities of the treated coal/air mixture in a burner incorporating a plasma source. The I-D simulation results are initial data for the 3-D-modeling of power boiler furnaces by the code FLOREAN. A comprehensive image of plasma-activated coal combustion processes in a furnace of a pulverized-coal-fired boiler was obtained. The advantages of the plasma technology are clearly demonstrated.

  6. Modelling and simulation of air-conditioning cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rais, Sandi; Kadono, Yoshinori; Murayama, Katsunori; Minakuchi, Kazuya; Takeuchi, Hisae; Hasegawa, Tatsuya

    2017-02-01

    The heat-pump cycle for air conditioning was investigated both numerically and experimentally by evaluating the coefficient of performance (COP) under Japanese Industrial Standard (JIS B 8619:1999) and ANSI/AHRI standard 750-2007 operating conditions. We used two expansion valve coefficients Cv_{(φ)} = 0.12 for standard operating conditions (Case 1) approaching 1.3 MPa at high pressure and 0.2 MPa at low pressure, and Cv_{(φ)} = 0.06 namely poor operating conditions (Case 2). To improve the performance of the air conditioner, we compared the performance for two outside air temperatures, 35 and 40 °C (Case 3). The simulation and experiment comparison resulted the decreasing of the COP for standard operating condition is equal to 14 %, from 3.47 to 2.95 and a decrease of the cooling capacity is equal to 18 %, from 309.72 to 253.53 W. This result was also occurred in poor operating condition which the COP was superior at 35 °C temperature.

  7. Window-mounted unit cleans air at hazardous waste site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Battaglia, J.M. (Independent Equipment Corp., Raritan, NJ (United States)); Sawyer, P.

    1994-07-01

    Uncontrolled hazardous waste sites present the potential for exposure to numerous airborne chemicals--both identified and unidentified. This was the case at an Elizabeth, N.J., remediation project managed by a major environmental contractor. The four-acre site housed three active manufacturing facilities and was bordered by an operation commuter railroad line. About 6,300 drums of assorted organic chemicals, mostly acid chlorides and bromides, awaited sampling and removal. In addition, 120 tanks and vessels required sampling, characterization and removal. Due to site restrictions, support trailers were located relatively close to active work areas. Damaged drums littering the site contained water-reactive, organic acid chlorides and bromides, and released slight emissions during humid or rainy conditions. Shifting winds could (and did) carry trace releases or trace contaminants toward the trailers, potentially exposing unprotected workers. Efforts were begun to alleviate even trace contaminant at levels in the remediation site's temporary office trailers. One potential solution to managing trace contaminants at the site was to use a window-mounted, air conditioner-type unit that would replenish each trailer with filtered air three times an hour, and provide positive pressure in the trailer to compensate for repeated openings and closings of doors. The design uses common, off-the-shelf components to temper the approximately 10 percent makeup air, which provides positive pressure.

  8. Thermal Spray Coatings for Blast Furnace Tuyere Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathak, A.; Sivakumar, G.; Prusty, D.; Shalini, J.; Dutta, M.; Joshi, S. V.

    2015-12-01

    The components in an integrated steel plant are invariably exposed to harsh working environments involving exposure to high temperatures, corrosive gases, and erosion/wear conditions. One such critical component in the blast furnace is the tuyere, which is prone to thermal damage by splashing of molten metal/slag, erosive damage by falling burden material, and corrosion from the ensuing gases. All the above, collectively or independently, accelerate tuyere failure, which presents a potential explosion hazard in a blast furnace. Recently, thermal spray coatings have emerged as an effective solution to mitigate such severe operational challenges. In the present work, five different coatings deposited using detonation spray and air plasma spray techniques were comprehensively characterized. Performance evaluation involving thermal cycling, hot corrosion, and erosion tests was also carried out. Based on the studies, a coating system was suggested for possible tuyere applications and found to yield substantial improvement in service life during actual field trials.

  9. CFD simulation of gas and particles combustion in biomass furnaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griselin, Nicolas

    2000-11-01

    found that by adjusting the mass flow and the injection angle at different inlet ports, one can significantly decrease the particle emissions at the outlet. Also, different over-fire secondary air supply leads to different CO emissions at the outlet. The emissions of CO can be reduced through controlling the secondary air supply. Char formed in the bed is low in terms of its influence on the heat release, however it has significant influence on the CO distribution in the upper part of the furnace and at the outlet. The numerical simulations has been used for predicting combustion efficiency, pollutant emissions and geometrical optimization of furnace.

  10. 76 FR 65710 - Decision and Order Amending Waivers Granted to Mitsubishi Electric & Electronics USA, Inc. From...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-24

    ... Electric & Electronics USA, Inc. From the Department of Energy Commercial Package Air Conditioner and Heat... Matter of: Mitsubishi Electric & Electronics USA, Inc. (Mitsubishi) (Case No. CAC-037). Background...

  11. Characterization of calcium carbonate sorbent particle in furnace environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kang Soo [Aerosol and Particle Technology Laboratory, Department of Mechanical Engineering, KAIST 291 Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Jae Hee [Environment Sensor System Research Center, KIST 39-1 Hawolgok-dong, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul, 136-791 (Korea, Republic of); Keel, Sang In; Yun, Jin Han; Min, Tai Jin [Environmental Systems Research Division, KIMM 104 Sinseongno, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, 305-343 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sang Soo, E-mail: sskim@kaist.ac.kr [Aerosol and Particle Technology Laboratory, Department of Mechanical Engineering, KAIST 291 Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, 305-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-07-01

    The oxy-fuel combustion system is a promising technology to control CO{sub 2} and NO{sub X} emissions. Furthermore, sulfation reaction mechanism under CO{sub 2}-rich atmospheric condition in a furnace may lead to in-furnace desulfurization. In the present study, we evaluated characteristics of calcium carbonate (CaCO{sub 3}) sorbent particles under different atmospheric conditions. To examine the physical/chemical characteristics of CaCO{sub 3}, which is used as a sorbent particle for in-furnace desulfurization in the oxy-fuel combustion system, they were injected into high temperature drop tube furnace (DTF). Experiments were conducted at varying temperatures, residence times, and atmospheric conditions in a reactor. To evaluate the aerosolizing characteristics of the CaCO{sub 3} sorbent particle, changes in the size distribution and total particle concentration between the DTF inlet and outlet were measured. Structural changes (e.g., porosity, grain size, and morphology) of the calcined sorbent particles were estimated by BET/BJH, XRD, and SEM analyses. It was shown that sorbent particles rapidly calcined and sintered in the air atmosphere, whereas calcination was delayed in the CO{sub 2} atmosphere due to the higher CO{sub 2} partial pressure. Instead, the sintering effect was dominant in the CO{sub 2} atmosphere early in the reaction. Based on the SEM images, it was shown that the reactions of sorbent particles could be explained as a grain-subgrain structure model in both the air and CO{sub 2} atmospheres.

  12. Measurement of airflow in residential furnaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biermayer, Peter J.; Lutz, James; Lekov, Alex

    2004-01-24

    In order to have a standard for furnaces that includes electricity consumption or for the efficiency of furnace blowers to be determined, it is necessary to determine the airflow of a furnace or furnace blower. This study focused on airflow testing, in order to determine if an existing test method for measuring blower airflow could be used to measure the airflow of a furnace, under conditions seen in actual installations and to collect data and insights into the operating characteristics of various types of furnace blowers, to use in the analysis of the electricity consumption of furnaces. Results of the measured airflow on furnaces with three types of blower and motor combinations are presented in the report. These included: (1) a forward-curved blower wheel with a typical permanent split capacitor (PSC) motor, (2) a forward-curved blower wheel with an electronically-commutated motor (ECM), and (3) a prototype blower, consisting of a backward-inclined blower wheel matched to an ECM motor prototype, which is being developed as an energy-saving alternative to conventional furnace blowers. The testing provided data on power consumption, static and total pressure, and blower speed.

  13. Evaluation on chemical stability of lead blast furnace (LBF) and imperial smelting furnace (ISF) slags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Nang-Htay; Sivry, Yann; Guyot, François; Lens, Piet N L; van Hullebusch, Eric D

    2016-09-15

    The leaching behavior of Pb and Zn from lead blast furnace (LBF) and imperial smelting furnace (ISF) slags sampled in the North of France was studied as a function of pHs and under two atmospheres (open air and nitrogen). The leaching of major elements from the slags was monitored as a function of pH (4, 5.5, 7, 8.5 and 10) under both atmospheres for different slag-water interaction times (1 day and 9 days). The leaching results were coupled with a geochemical model; Visual MINTEQ version 3.0, and a detailed morphological and mineralogical analysis was performed on the leached slags by scanning and transmission electron microscopy (SEM and TEM). Significant amounts of Ca, Fe and Zn were released under acidic conditions (pH 4) with a decrease towards the neutral to alkaline conditions (pH 7 and 10) for both LBF and ISF slags. On the other hand, Fe leachability was limited at neutral to alkaline pH for both slags. The concentrations of all elements increased gradually after 216 h compared to initial 24 h of leaching period. The presence of oxygen under open-air atmosphere not only enhanced oxidative weathering but also encouraged formation of secondary oxide and carbonate phases. Formation of carbonates and clay minerals was suggested by Visual MINTEQ which was further confirmed by SEM & TEM. The hydration and partial dissolution of hardystonite, as well as the destabilization of amorphous glassy matrix mainly contributed to the release of major elements, whereas the spinel related oxides were resistant against pH changes and atmospheres within the time frame concerned for both LBF and ISF slags. The total amount of Pb leached out at pH 7 under both atmospheres suggested that both LBF and ISF slags are prone to weathering even at neutral environmental conditions.

  14. Total Heat Exchange Factor Based on Non-Gray Radiation Properties of Gas in Reheating Furnace

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CUI Miao; CHEN Hai-geng; XU Li; WU Bin

    2009-01-01

    Modified mathematical models based on imaginary plane zone method in reheating furnace were developed in which non-gray radiation properties of gas were considered,and the Newton's method and the finite difference method were adopted.Effects of productivity,fuel consumption,fuel-air ratio,calorific value of fuel and inserting depth of thermocouple on total heat exchange factor along the length of reheating furnace were investigated.The resuits show that total heat exchange factor increases with productivity or inserting depth of thermocouple,and it decreases when fuel consumption,fuel-air ratio or calorific value of fuel increases.The results are valuable for dynamical compensation of total heat exchange factor for online control mathematical models in reheating furnace.

  15. Influence of operation parameters on flash smelting furnace based on CFD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xinfeng Li; Shiheng Peng; Xiangli Han; Chi Mei; Tianyuan Xiao

    2004-01-01

    The influence of three important operation parameters in Jinlong flash smelting furnace, including the distributing blast speed, the oxygen enrichment rate of process air and the ratio of central oxygen to overall oxygen (Oc/Oo), has been investigated using a virtual simulation system on copper flash smelting furnace. The core of this virtual simulation system is a numerical simulation of CFD (computational fluid dynamics), and this system incorporates coupling momentum transport, heat transport, mass transport,reaction kinetics between gas and particles and chemical reactions between gas and gas. A set of numerical predicted data were obtained. The CFD simulation shows that there is a sensitive zone of the distributing blast speed, and the dust content ascends when the speed exceeds 180 m-s-1. Increasing the oxygen concentration of processing air benefits the efficient production of the flash smelting furnace.

  16. Heat Balance Determination for a Gas-Fired Furnace for Melting Non-Ferrous Metals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.A. Ighodalo

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available A heat balance is usually carried out to determine the energy inflow and outflow for a thermal system and thus determine the overall system performance. The heat balance for a gas-fired furnace for melting non-ferrous metals has been determined. 50 kg of Aluminium charge was melted in the furnace and the in-furnace, walls, roof and exhaust gas temperatures were measured. Experimental measurements taken from the furnace operation were fed as input to a MATLAB program which was developed based on heat balance equations. The output from the program show that about 10% of the heat energy is lost through the walls and roof while 64% is lost through the exhaust gas. The thermal efficiency and melting efficiency determined for the furnace are 36.39 and 54.6%, respectively. The low energy loss through the walls and roof is due to use of appropriate wall thickness. The highest energy loss is through the exhaust, hence, the incorporation of a recuperator to make use of exhaust gas waste heat to preheat the combustion air or the metal charge or both, will further enhance furnace efficiency.

  17. Multipurpose furnace for in situ studies of polycrystalline materials using synchrotron radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Hemant; Wattjes, Alix C; Amirthalingam, Murugaiyan; Zuidwijk, Thim; Geerlofs, Nico; Offerman, S Erik

    2009-12-01

    We report a multipurpose furnace designed for studies using synchrotron radiation on polycrystalline materials, namely, metals, ceramics, and (semi)crystalline polymers. The furnace has been designed to carry out three-dimensional (3D) x-ray diffraction measurements but can also be used for other types of synchrotron radiation research. The furnace has a very low thermal gradient across the specimen (welding a thermocouple to the specimen. The furnace can be rotated over an angle of 90 degrees in order to determine the crystallographic orientation of each individual grain. It is possible to follow growth kinetics of all grains in the illuminated volume of the specimen. The specimen environment can be controlled varying from vacuum (up to 10(-5) mbar) to gas or air filled. The maximum temperature of operation is 1500 degrees C, with the possibility of achieving high heating (up to 20 degrees C/s) and cooling rates (up to 30 degrees C/s without quenching gas). 3D maps of the microstructure of the specimen can be generated at elevated temperatures by bringing the high-resolution detector close to the specimen. We show an example of a simulation of the heat affected zone during the thermal cycle of a weld in a transformation-induced plasticity steel carried out using the furnace. The unique characteristics of the furnace open possibility of new fields in materials research using synchrotron radiation.

  18. Improving Gas Furnace Performance: A Field and Laboratory Study at End of Life

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brand, L. [Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit (PARR), Des Plaines, IL (United States); Yee, S. [Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit (PARR), Des Plaines, IL (United States); Baker, J. [Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit (PARR), Des Plaines, IL (United States)

    2015-02-01

    In 2010, natural gas provided 54% of total residential space heating energy the U.S. on a source basis, or 3.5 Quadrillion Btu. Natural gas burned in furnaces accounted for 92% of that total, and boilers and other equipment made up the remainder. A better understanding of installed furnace performance is a key to energy savings for this significant energy usage. In this project, the U.S. Department of Energy Building America team Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit examined the impact that common installation practices and age-induced equipment degradation may have on the installed performance of natural gas furnaces over the life of the product, as measured by steady-state efficiency and annual efficiency. The team identified 12 furnaces of various ages and efficiencies that were operating in residential homes in the Des Moines, Iowa, metropolitan area and worked with a local heating, ventilation, and air conditioning contractor to retrieve furnaces and test them at the Gas Technology Institute laboratory for steady-state efficiency and annual efficiency. Prior to removal, system airflow, static pressure, equipment temperature rise, and flue loss measurements were recorded for each furnace as installed in the house.

  19. Ecologic air-conditioning. A pilot plant for the geothermal and sorption supported air-conditioning in the HafenCity Hamburg; Oekologische Klimatisierung. Pilotanlage zur geothermisch- und sorptionsgestuetzten Klimatisierung in der HafenCity Hamburg

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Xiaolong; Grabe, Juergen [Technische Univ. Hamburg-Harburg (Germany). Inst. fuer Geotechnik und Baubetrieb

    2011-10-24

    The relatively constant temperatures of the underground at a depth of 100 meters provide the opportunity to air-condition buildings with geothermal energy and economically. Currently, building air conditioning systems in Central Europe exhibit high growth rates. In summer, the task of an air conditioner is to cool and dehumidify air. Especially the dehumidification usually causes a high cooling demand, as the air is cooled below the dew point temperature of 12 C in order to condense out the water. The dew point is well below the demand for a comfortable room temperature of about 19 C. With this in mind, the authors of this contribution report on a principle of alternative dehumidification by means of a so-called sorption wheel. Sorption wheels use the hygroscopic properties of certain substances such as lithium chloride or silica gel in order to dehumidify the air. Thereby, the cooling demand significantly is reduced by the previous dehumidification. The regeneration of the sorption wheel requires heat. This heat can be provided by solar thermal plants and district heating. Since the air can no longer be dehumidified, rich supply temperatures between 16 and 19 C from. These temperatures can be achieved by means of near-surface temperature. Ground registers, geothermal energy probes or geothermal structures such as power poles are used as ground heat exchanger. The authors present the concept and the measurement results of the pilot plant in Hamburg's HafenCity.

  20. Extremely Low Frequency Electromagnetic Field from Convective Air Warming System on Temperature Selection and Distance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwang Rae Cho

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Hypothermia generates potentially severe complications in operating or recovery room. Forced air warmer is effective to maintain body temperature. Extremely low frequency electromagnetic field (ELF-EMF is harmful to human body and mainly produced by electronic equipment including convective air warming system. We investigated ELF-EMF from convective air warming device on various temperature selection and distance for guideline to protect medical personnel and patients.The intensity of ELF-EMF was measured as two-second interval for five minutes on various distance (0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.5 and 1meter and temperature selection (high, medium, low and ambient. All of electrical devices were off including lamp, computer and air conditioner. Groups were compared using one-way ANOVA. P<0.05 was considered significant.Mean values of ELF-EMF on the distance of 30 cm were 18.63, 18.44, 18.23 and 17.92 milligauss (mG respectively (high, medium, low and ambient temperature set. ELF-EMF of high temperature set was higher than data of medium, low and ambient set in all the distances.ELF-EMF from convective air warming system is higher in condition of more close location and higher temperature. ELF-EMF within thirty centimeters exceeds 2mG recommended by Swedish TCO guideline.