WorldWideScience

Sample records for air vehicle propulsion

  1. Air liquefaction and enrichment system propulsion in reusable launch vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, W. H.; Yi, A. C.

    1994-07-01

    A concept is shown for a fully reusable, Earth-to-orbit launch vehicle with horizontal takeoff and landing, employing an air-turborocket for low speed and a rocket for high-speed acceleration, both using liquid hydrogen for fuel. The turborocket employs a modified liquid air cycle to supply the oxidizer. The rocket uses 90% pure liquid oxygen as its oxidizer that is collected from the atmosphere, separated, and stored during operation of the turborocket from about Mach 2 to 5 or 6. The takeoff weight and the thrust required at takeoff are markedly reduced by collecting the rocket oxidizer in-flight. This article shows an approach and the corresponding technology needs for using air liquefaction and enrichment system propulsion in a single-stage-to-orbit (SSTO) vehicle. Reducing the trajectory altitude at the end of collection reduces the wing area and increases payload. The use of state-of-the-art materials, such as graphite polyimide, in a direct substitution for aluminum or aluminum-lithium alloy, is critical to meet the structure weight objective for SSTO. Configurations that utilize 'waverider' aerodynamics show great promise to reduce the vehicle weight.

  2. Comparative analysis of aluminum-air battery propulsion systems for passenger vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salisbury, J. D.; Behrin, E.; Kong, M. K.; Whisler, D. J.

    1980-02-01

    Three electric propulsion systems using an aluminum air battery were analyzed and compared to the internal combustion engine (ICE) vehicle. The engine and fuel systems of a representative five passenger highway vehicle were replaced conceptually by each of the three electric propulsion systems. The electrical vehicles were constrained by the computer simulation to be equivalent to the ICE vehicle in range and acceleration performance. The vehicle masses and aluminum consumption rates were then calculated for the electric vehicles and these data were used as figures of merit. The Al-air vehicles analyzed were (1) an Al-air battery only electric vehicle; (2) an Al-air battery combined with a nickel zinc secondary battery for power leveling and regenerative braking; and (3) an Al-air battery combined with a flywheel for power leveling and regenerative braking. All three electric systems compared favorably with the ICE vehicle.

  3. Electric vehicle propulsion alternatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Secunde, R. R.; Schuh, R. M.; Beach, R. F.

    1983-01-01

    Propulsion technology development for electric vehicles is summarized. Analytical studies, technology evaluation, and the development of technology for motors, controllers, transmissions, and complete propulsion systems are included.

  4. Propulsion integration of hypersonic air-breathing vehicles utilizing a top-down design methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkpatrick, Brad Kenneth

    In recent years, a focus of aerospace engineering design has been the development of advanced design methodologies and frameworks to account for increasingly complex and integrated vehicles. Techniques such as parametric modeling, global vehicle analyses, and interdisciplinary data sharing have been employed in an attempt to improve the design process. The purpose of this study is to introduce a new approach to integrated vehicle design known as the top-down design methodology. In the top-down design methodology, the main idea is to relate design changes on the vehicle system and sub-system level to a set of over-arching performance and customer requirements. Rather than focusing on the performance of an individual system, the system is analyzed in terms of the net effect it has on the overall vehicle and other vehicle systems. This detailed level of analysis can only be accomplished through the use of high fidelity computational tools such as Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) or Finite Element Analysis (FEA). The utility of the top-down design methodology is investigated through its application to the conceptual and preliminary design of a long-range hypersonic air-breathing vehicle for a hypothetical next generation hypersonic vehicle (NHRV) program. System-level design is demonstrated through the development of the nozzle section of the propulsion system. From this demonstration of the methodology, conclusions are made about the benefits, drawbacks, and cost of using the methodology.

  5. Distributed Propulsion Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun Dae

    2010-01-01

    Since the introduction of large jet-powered transport aircraft, the majority of these vehicles have been designed by placing thrust-generating engines either under the wings or on the fuselage to minimize aerodynamic interactions on the vehicle operation. However, advances in computational and experimental tools along with new technologies in materials, structures, and aircraft controls, etc. are enabling a high degree of integration of the airframe and propulsion system in aircraft design. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has been investigating a number of revolutionary distributed propulsion vehicle concepts to increase aircraft performance. The concept of distributed propulsion is to fully integrate a propulsion system within an airframe such that the aircraft takes full synergistic benefits of coupling of airframe aerodynamics and the propulsion thrust stream by distributing thrust using many propulsors on the airframe. Some of the concepts are based on the use of distributed jet flaps, distributed small multiple engines, gas-driven multi-fans, mechanically driven multifans, cross-flow fans, and electric fans driven by turboelectric generators. This paper describes some early concepts of the distributed propulsion vehicles and the current turboelectric distributed propulsion (TeDP) vehicle concepts being studied under the NASA s Subsonic Fixed Wing (SFW) Project to drastically reduce aircraft-related fuel burn, emissions, and noise by the year 2030 to 2035.

  6. A synergistic glance at the prospects of distributed propulsion technology and the electric aircraft concept for future unmanned air vehicles and commercial/military aviation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gohardani, Amir S.

    2013-02-01

    Distributed propulsion is one of the revolutionary candidates for future aircraft propulsion. In this journal article, the potential role of distributed propulsion technology in future aviation is investigated. Following a historical journey that revisits distributed propulsion technology in unmanned air vehicles and military aircraft, features of this specific technology are highlighted in synergy with an electric aircraft concept and a first-of-a-kind comparison to commercial aircraft employing distributed propulsion arrangements. In light of propulsion-airframe integration and complementary technologies such as boundary layer ingestion, thrust vectoring and circulation control, transpired opportunities and challenges are addressed in addition to a number of identified research directions proposed for future aircraft. The motivation behind enhanced means of communication between engineers, researchers and scientists has stimulated a novel proposed definition for the distributed propulsion technology in aviation and is presented herein.

  7. Electric Motors for Vehicle Propulsion

    OpenAIRE

    Larsson, Martin

    2014-01-01

    This work is intended to contribute with knowledge to the area of electic motorsfor propulsion in the vehicle industry. This is done by first studying the differentelectric motors available, the motors suitable for vehicle propulsion are then dividedinto four different types to be studied separately. These four types are thedirect current, induction, permanent magnet and switched reluctance motors. Thedesign and construction are then studied to understand how the different typesdiffer from ea...

  8. An Integrated Heavy Fuel Piston Engine Ducted Fan Propulsion Unit for Personal Air Vehicles, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed PAVE propulsion system technology demonstration combines an innovative high-speed aero-diesel engine with a novel ducted fan assembly resulting in a low...

  9. An Integrated Heavy Fuel Piston Engine Ducted Fan Propulsion Unit for Personal Air Vehicles, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed PAVE propulsion system technology demonstration combines an innovative high-speed aero-diesel engine with a novel ducted fan assembly resulting in a low...

  10. Vehicle with inclinable caterpillar propulsion units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clar, G.

    1991-01-01

    This vehicle usable in hostile environment such nuclear industry has four propulsion units with a caterpillar track and two integrated motors: one for advancing the caterpillar track and the other for inclining the propulsion unit when overcoming obstacles. Each propulsion unit is easily replaceable because there are no mechanical parts in the body of the vehicle [fr

  11. Solar electric propulsion for Mars transport vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickman, J. M.; Curtis, H. B.; Alexander, S. W.; Gilland, J. H.; Hack, K. J.; Lawrence, C.; Swartz, C. K.

    1990-01-01

    Solar electric propulsion (SEP) is an alternative to chemical and nuclear powered propulsion systems for both piloted and unpiloted Mars transport vehicles. Photovoltaic solar cell and array technologies were evaluated as components of SEP power systems. Of the systems considered, the SEP power system composed of multijunction solar cells in an ENTECH domed fresnel concentrator array had the least array mass and area. Trip times to Mars optimized for minimum propellant mass were calculated. Additionally, a preliminary vehicle concept was designed.

  12. Heavy Vehicle Propulsion Materials Program: Progress and Highlights

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D. Ray Johnson; Sidney Diamond

    2000-01-01

    The Heavy Vehicle Propulsion Materials Program was begun in 1997 to support the enabling materials needs of the DOE Office of Heavy Vehicle Technologies (OHVT). The technical agenda for the program grew out of the technology roadmap for the OHVT and includes efforts in materials for: fuel systems, exhaust aftertreatment, valve train, air handling, structural components, electrochemical propulsion, natural gas storage, and thermal management. A five-year program plan was written in early 2000, following a stakeholders workshop. The technical issues and planned and ongoing projects are discussed. Brief summaries of several technical highlights are given

  13. Estimation of the ability to use a mass of air from a moving vehicle in wind turbine propulsion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam BAWORSKI

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This work presents division and classification of wind turbines according to the location of the axis of rotation and generated power. The work introduces applications of the wind turbines in electric energy generation with their direct development. The paper discusses indicators and exploitation parameters that characterize particular types of wind rotators. Dimension and construction factors, as well as work parameters, have been analyzed in order to choose the optimal rotator in the road infrastructure application. The aim of the analysis was to conduct further investigation to restore a mass of air from passing vehicles.

  14. Propulsion Wheel Motor for an Electric Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figuered, Joshua M. (Inventor); Herrera, Eduardo (Inventor); Waligora, Thomas M. (Inventor); Bluethmann, William J. (Inventor); Farrell, Logan Christopher (Inventor); Lee, Chunhao J. (Inventor); Vitale, Robert L. (Inventor); Winn, Ross Briant (Inventor); Eggleston, IV, Raymond Edward (Inventor); Guo, Raymond (Inventor); hide

    2016-01-01

    A wheel assembly for an electric vehicle includes a wheel rim that is concentrically disposed about a central axis. A propulsion-braking module is disposed within an interior region of the wheel rim. The propulsion-braking module rotatably supports the wheel rim for rotation about the central axis. The propulsion-braking module includes a liquid cooled electric motor having a rotor rotatable about the central axis, and a stator disposed radially inside the rotor relative to the central axis. A motor-wheel interface hub is fixedly attached to the wheel rim, and is directly attached to the rotor for rotation with the rotor. The motor-wheel interface hub directly transmits torque from the electric motor to the wheel rim at a 1:1 ratio. The propulsion-braking module includes a drum brake system having an electric motor that rotates a cam device, which actuates the brake shoes.

  15. New propulsion components for electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Secunde, R. R.

    1983-01-01

    Improved component technology is described. This includes electronically commutated permanent magnet motors of both drum and disk configurations, an unconventional brush commutated motor, ac induction motors, various controllers, transmissions and complete systems. One or more of these approaches to electric vehicle propulsion may eventually displace presently used controllers and brush commutated dc motors. Previously announced in STAR as N83-25982

  16. Advanced propulsion system for hybrid vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norrup, L. V.; Lintz, A. T.

    1980-01-01

    A number of hybrid propulsion systems were evaluated for application in several different vehicle sizes. A conceptual design was prepared for the most promising configuration. Various system configurations were parametrically evaluated and compared, design tradeoffs performed, and a conceptual design produced. Fifteen vehicle/propulsion systems concepts were parametrically evaluated to select two systems and one vehicle for detailed design tradeoff studies. A single hybrid propulsion system concept and vehicle (five passenger family sedan)were selected for optimization based on the results of the tradeoff studies. The final propulsion system consists of a 65 kW spark-ignition heat engine, a mechanical continuously variable traction transmission, a 20 kW permanent magnet axial-gap traction motor, a variable frequency inverter, a 386 kg lead-acid improved state-of-the-art battery, and a transaxle. The system was configured with a parallel power path between the heat engine and battery. It has two automatic operational modes: electric mode and heat engine mode. Power is always shared between the heat engine and battery during acceleration periods. In both modes, regenerative braking energy is absorbed by the battery.

  17. Advanced propulsion system concept for hybrid vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhate, S.; Chen, H.; Dochat, G.

    1980-01-01

    A series hybrid system, utilizing a free piston Stirling engine with a linear alternator, and a parallel hybrid system, incorporating a kinematic Stirling engine, are analyzed for various specified reference missions/vehicles ranging from a small two passenger commuter vehicle to a van. Parametric studies for each configuration, detail tradeoff studies to determine engine, battery and system definition, short term energy storage evaluation, and detail life cycle cost studies were performed. Results indicate that the selection of a parallel Stirling engine/electric, hybrid propulsion system can significantly reduce petroleum consumption by 70 percent over present conventional vehicles.

  18. Green Propulsion Technologies for Advanced Air Transports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Rosario, Ruben

    2015-01-01

    Air transportation is critical to U.S. and Global economic vitality. However, energy and climate issues challenge aviations ability to be sustainable in the long term. Aviation must dramatically reduce fuel use and related emissions. Energy costs to U.S. airlines nearly tripled between 1995 and 2011, and continue to be the highest percentage of operating costs. The NASA Advanced Air Transports Technology Project addresses the comprehensive challenge of enabling revolutionary energy efficiency improvements in subsonic transport aircraft combined with dramatic reductions in harmful emissions and perceived noise to facilitate sustained growth of the air transportation system. Advanced technologies and the development of unconventional aircraft systems offer the potential to achieve these improvements. The presentation will highlight the NASA vision of revolutionary systems and propulsion technologies needed to achieve these challenging goals. Specifically, the primary focus is on the N+3 generation; that is, vehicles that are three generations beyond the current state of the art, requiring mature technology solutions in the 2025-30 timeframe, which are envisioned as being powered by Hybrid Electric Propulsion Systems.

  19. ac propulsion system for an electric vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geppert, S.

    1980-01-01

    It is pointed out that dc drives will be the logical choice for current production electric vehicles (EV). However, by the mid-80's, there is a good chance that the price and reliability of suitable high-power semiconductors will allow for a competitive ac system. The driving force behind the ac approach is the induction motor, which has specific advantages relative to a dc shunt or series traction motor. These advantages would be an important factor in the case of a vehicle for which low maintenance characteristics are of primary importance. A description of an EV ac propulsion system is provided, taking into account the logic controller, the inverter, the motor, and a two-speed transmission-differential-axle assembly. The main barrier to the employment of the considered propulsion system in EV is not any technical problem, but inverter transistor cost.

  20. Mars Earth Return Vehicle (MERV) Propulsion Options

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oleson, Steven R.; McGuire, Melissa L.; Burke, Laura; Fincannon, James; Warner, Joe; Williams, Glenn; Parkey, Thomas; Colozza, Tony; Fittje, Jim; Martini, Mike; hide

    2010-01-01

    The COMPASS Team was tasked with the design of a Mars Sample Return Vehicle. The current Mars sample return mission is a joint National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and European Space Agency (ESA) mission, with ESA contributing the launch vehicle for the Mars Sample Return Vehicle. The COMPASS Team ran a series of design trades for this Mars sample return vehicle. Four design options were investigated: Chemical Return /solar electric propulsion (SEP) stage outbound, all-SEP, all chemical and chemical with aerobraking. The all-SEP and Chemical with aerobraking were deemed the best choices for comparison. SEP can eliminate both the Earth flyby and the aerobraking maneuver (both considered high risk by the Mars Sample Return Project) required by the chemical propulsion option but also require long low thrust spiral times. However this is offset somewhat by the chemical/aerobrake missions use of an Earth flyby and aerobraking which also take many months. Cost and risk analyses are used to further differentiate the all-SEP and Chemical/Aerobrake options.

  1. Hypersonic Vehicle Propulsion System Simplified Model Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stueber, Thomas J.; Raitano, Paul; Le, Dzu K.; Ouzts, Peter

    2007-01-01

    This document addresses the modeling task plan for the hypersonic GN&C GRC team members. The overall propulsion system modeling task plan is a multi-step process and the task plan identified in this document addresses the first steps (short term modeling goals). The procedures and tools produced from this effort will be useful for creating simplified dynamic models applicable to a hypersonic vehicle propulsion system. The document continues with the GRC short term modeling goal. Next, a general description of the desired simplified model is presented along with simulations that are available to varying degrees. The simulations may be available in electronic form (FORTRAN, CFD, MatLab,...) or in paper form in published documents. Finally, roadmaps outlining possible avenues towards realizing simplified model are presented.

  2. Advanced hybrid vehicle propulsion system study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, R.

    1982-01-01

    Results are presented of a study of an advanced heat engine/electric automotive hybrid propulsion system. The system uses a rotary stratified charge engine and ac motor/controller in a parallel hybrid configuration. The three tasks of the study were (1) parametric studies involving five different vehicle types, (2) design trade-off studies to determine the influence of various vehicle and propulsion system paramaters on system performance fuel economy and cost, and (3) a conceptual design establishing feasibility at the selected approach. Energy consumption for the selected system was .034 1/km (61.3 mpg) for the heat engine and .221 kWh/km (.356 kWh/mi) for the electric power system over a modified J227 a schedule D driving cycle. Life cycle costs were 7.13 cents/km (11.5 cents/mi) at $2/gal gasoline and 7 cents/kWh electricity for 160,000 km (100,000 mi) life.

  3. Heavy Vehicle Propulsion Materials: Recent Progress and Future Plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D. Ray Johnson; Sidney Diamond

    2001-01-01

    The Heavy Vehicle Propulsion Materials Program provides enabling materials technology for the U.S. DOE Office of Heavy Vehicle Technologies (OHVT). The technical agenda for the program is based on an industry assessment and the technology roadmap for the OHVT. A five-year program plan was published in 2000. Major efforts in the program are materials for diesel engine fuel systems, exhaust aftertreatment, and air handling. Additional efforts include diesel engine valve-train materials, structural components, and thermal management. Advanced materials, including high-temperature metal alloys, intermetallics, cermets, ceramics, amorphous materials, metal- and ceramic-matrix composites, and coatings, are investigated for critical engine applications. Selected technical issues and planned and ongoing projects as well as brief summaries of several technical highlights are given

  4. Worldwide Space Launch Vehicles and Their Mainstage Liquid Rocket Propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Shamim A.

    2010-01-01

    Space launch vehicle begins with a basic propulsion stage, and serves as a missile or small launch vehicle; many are traceable to the 1945 German A-4. Increasing stage size, and increasingly energetic propulsion allows for heavier payloads and greater. Earth to Orbit lift capability. Liquid rocket propulsion began with use of storable (UDMH/N2O4) and evolved to high performing cryogenics (LOX/RP, and LOX/LH). Growth versions of SLV's rely on strap-on propulsive stages of either solid propellants or liquid propellants.

  5. Propulsion system research and development for electric and hybrid vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, H. J.

    1980-01-01

    An approach to propulsion subsystem technology is presented. Various tests of component reliability are described to aid in the production of better quality vehicles. component characterization work is described to provide engineering data to manufacturers on component performance and on important component propulsion system interactions.

  6. A highly versatile autonomous underwater vehicle with biomechanical propulsion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simons, D.G.; Bergers, M.M.C.; Henrion, S.; Hulzenga, J.I.J.; Jutte, R.W.; Pas, W.M.G.; Van Schravendijk, M.; Vercruyssen, T.G.A.; Wilken, A.P.

    2009-01-01

    An autonomous underwater vehicle with a biomechanical propulsion system is a possible answer to the demand for small, silent sensor platforms in many fields. The design of Galatea, a bio-mimetic AUV, involves four aspects: hydrodynamic shape, the propulsion, the motion control systems and payload.

  7. Vehicle Dynamics due to Magnetic Launch Propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galaboff, Zachary J.; Jacobs, William; West, Mark E.; Montenegro, Justino (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The field of Magnetic Levitation Lind Propulsion (MagLev) has been around for over 30 years, primarily in high-speed rail service. In recent years, however, NASA has been looking closely at MagLev as a possible first stage propulsion system for spacecraft. This approach creates a variety of new problems that don't currently exist with the present MagLev trains around the world. NASA requires that a spacecraft of approximately 120,000 lbs be accelerated at two times the acceleration of gravity (2g's). This produces a greater demand on power over the normal MagLev trains that accelerate at around 0.1g. To be able to store and distribute up to 3,000 Mega Joules of energy in less than 10 seconds is a technical challenge. Another problem never addressed by the train industry and, peculiar only to NASA, is the control of a lifting body through the acceleration of and separation from the MagLev track. Very little is understood about how a lifting body will react with external forces, Such as wind gusts and ground effects, while being propelled along on soft springs such as magnetic levitators. Much study needs to be done to determine spacecraft control requirements as well as what control mechanisms and aero-surfaces should be placed on the carrier. Once the spacecraft has been propelled down the track another significant event takes place, the separation of the spacecraft from the carrier. The dynamics involved for both the carrier and the spacecraft are complex and coupled. Analysis of the reaction of the carrier after losing, a majority of its mass must be performed to insure control of the carrier is maintained and a safe separation of the spacecraft is achieved. The spacecraft angle of attack required for lift and how it will affect the carriage just prior to separation, along with the impacts of around effect and aerodynamic forces at ground level must be modeled and analyzed to define requirements on the launch vehicle design. Mechanisms, which can withstand the

  8. Volume Dynamics Propulsion System Modeling for Supersonics Vehicle Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopasakis, George; Connolly, Joseph W.; Paxson, Daniel E.; Ma, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Under the NASA Fundamental Aeronautics Program the Supersonics Project is working to overcome the obstacles to supersonic commercial flight. The proposed vehicles are long slim body aircraft with pronounced aero-servo-elastic modes. These modes can potentially couple with propulsion system dynamics; leading to performance challenges such as aircraft ride quality and stability. Other disturbances upstream of the engine generated from atmospheric wind gusts, angle of attack, and yaw can have similar effects. In addition, for optimal propulsion system performance, normal inlet-engine operations are required to be closer to compressor stall and inlet unstart. To study these phenomena an integrated model is needed that includes both airframe structural dynamics as well as the propulsion system dynamics. This paper covers the propulsion system component volume dynamics modeling of a turbojet engine that will be used for an integrated vehicle Aero-Propulso-Servo-Elastic model and for propulsion efficiency studies.

  9. Propulsive efficiency of a biomorphic pulsed-jet underwater vehicle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moslemi, Ali A; Krueger, Paul S

    2010-01-01

    The effect of the velocity program and duty cycle (St L ) on the propulsive efficiency of pulsed-jet propulsion was studied experimentally on a self-propelled, pulsed-jet underwater vehicle, dubbed Robosquid due to the similarity of essential elements of its propulsion system with squid jet propulsion. Robosquid was tested for jet slug length-to-diameter ratios (L/D) in the range 2-6 and St L in the range 0.2-0.6 with jet velocity programs commanded to be triangular or trapezoidal. Digital particle image velocimetry was used for measuring the impulse and energy of jet pulses to calculate the pulsed-jet propulsive efficiency and compare it with an equivalent steady jet system. Robosquid's Reynolds number (Re) based on average vehicle velocity and vehicle diameter ranged between 1300 and 2700 for the conditions tested. The results indicated better propulsive efficiency of the trapezoidal velocity program (up to 20% higher) compared to the triangular velocity program. Also, an increase in the ratio of the pulsed-jet propulsive efficiency to the equivalent steady jet propulsive efficiency (η P /η P,ss ) was observed as St L increased and L/D decreased. For cases of short L/D and high St L , η P /η P,ss was found to be as high as 1.2, indicating better performance of pulsed jets. This result demonstrates a case where propulsion using essential elements of a biological locomotion system can outperform the traditional mechanical system equivalent in terms of efficiency. It was also found that changes in St L had a proportionately larger effect on propulsive efficiency compared to changes in L/D. A simple model is presented to explain the results in terms of the contribution of over-pressure at the nozzle exit plane associated with the formation of vortex rings with each jet pulse.

  10. Reusable Orbit Transfer Vehicle Propulsion Technology Considerations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Perkins, Dave

    1998-01-01

    .... ROTV propulsion technologies to consider chemical rockets have limited mission capture, solar thermal rockets capture most missions but LH2 issues, and electric has highest PL without volume constraint...

  11. An analytical optimization method for electric propulsion orbit transfer vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oleson, S.R.

    1993-01-01

    Due to electric propulsion's inherent propellant mass savings over chemical propulsion, electric propulsion orbit transfer vehicles (EPOTVs) are a highly efficient mode of orbit transfer. When selecting an electric propulsion device (ion, MPD, or arcjet) and propellant for a particular mission, it is preferable to use quick, analytical system optimization methods instead of time intensive numerical integration methods. It is also of interest to determine each thruster's optimal operating characteristics for a specific mission. Analytical expressions are derived which determine the optimal specific impulse (Isp) for each type of electric thruster to maximize payload fraction for a desired thrusting time. These expressions take into account the variation of thruster efficiency with specific impulse. Verification of the method is made with representative electric propulsion values on a LEO-to-GEO mission. Application of the method to specific missions is discussed

  12. A summary of EHV propulsion technology. [Electric and Hybrid Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, H. J.

    1983-01-01

    While the battery used by an electric vehicle is the primary determinant of range, and to a lesser extent of performance, the design of the vehicle's propulsion system establishes its performance level and is the greatest contributor to its purchase price. Propulsion system weight, efficiency and cost are related to the specific combination of components used. Attention is given to the development status of the U.S. Department of Energy's Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Program, through which propulsion component and system design improvements have been made which promise weight savings of 35-50 percent, efficiency gains of 25 percent, and lower costs, when compared to the state of the art at the program's inception.

  13. Air-Breathing Launch Vehicle Technology Being Developed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trefny, Charles J.

    2003-01-01

    Of the technical factors that would contribute to lowering the cost of space access, reusability has high potential. The primary objective of the GTX program is to determine whether or not air-breathing propulsion can enable reusable single-stage-to-orbit (SSTO) operations. The approach is based on maturation of a reference vehicle design with focus on the integration and flight-weight construction of its air-breathing rocket-based combined-cycle (RBCC) propulsion system.

  14. Catalog of components for electric and hybrid vehicle propulsion systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eissler, H. C.

    1981-01-01

    This catalog of commercially available electric and hybrid vehicle propulsion system components is intended for designers and builders of these vehicles and contains 50 categories of components. These categories include those components used between the battery terminals and the output axle hub, as well as some auxiliary equipment. An index of the components and a listing of the suppliers and their addresses and phone numbers are included.

  15. ARC Researchers at IEEE 2015 Vehicle Power and Propulsion Conference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contacts Researchers News & Events Event Calendar Annual Program Review Research Seminars Press Room Event Archives ARC Researchers at the IEEE 2015 Vehicle Power and Propulsion Conference (October 19-22 Ballroom B P-SS4-2 Comparison of SOFC and PEM Fuel Cell Hybrid Power Management Strategies for Mobile

  16. Design considerations for Mars transfer vehicles using nuclear thermal propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emrich, William J.

    1995-01-01

    The design of a Mars Transfer Vehicle (MTV) utilizing nuclear propulsion will require that careful consideration be given to the nuclear radiation environment in which it will operate. The extremely high neutron and gamma fluxes characteristic of nuclear thermal propulsion systems will cause significant heating of the fluid systems in close proximity to the reactor, especially in the lower propellant tanks. Crew radiation doses are also a concern particularly late in a mission when there is less shielding from the propellant tanks. In this study, various vehicle configuration and shielding strategies were examined and the resulting time dependent radiation fields evaluated. A common cluster of three particle bed reactor (PBR) engines were used in all configurations examined. In general, it appears that long, relatively narrow vehicles perform the best from a radiation standpoint, however, good shield optimization will be critical in maintaining a low radiation environment while minimizing the shield weight penalty.

  17. The NRL MITE Air Vehicle

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kellogg, James; Bovais, Christopher; Dahlburg, Jill; Foch, Richard; Gardner, John; Gordon, Diana; Hartley, Ralph; Kamgar-Parsi, Behrooz; McFarlane, Hugh; Pipitone, Frank; Ramamurti, Ravi; Sciambi, Adam; Spears, William; Srull, Donald; Sullivan, Carol

    2001-01-01

    .... The NRL Micro Tactical Expendable "MITE" air vehicle is a result of this research. The operational MITE is a hand-launched, dual-propeller, fixed-wing air vehicle, with a 9-inch chord and a wingspan of 8 to 18 inches, depending on payload weight...

  18. A propulsion technology challenge — An abortable. Continuous use vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czysz, Paul A.; Froning, H. David

    1996-02-01

    Propulsion is the enabling technology for an abortable, continuous use vehicle. Propulsion performance purchases margin in the other material, structural, and system requirements. But what is abortability, and continuous use? Why is it necessary? What are its characteristics? And, what specifically is required in the propulsion system to enable these characteristics? Is the cost of the launcher really trivial, or is that the incomplete cost analysis limited to expendables and rebuilt, reusables. This paper identifies what constitutes an abortable, continuous use vehicle, the propulsion characteristics required, and the technology necessary to provide those characteristics. The proposition resulting is that this is not a technology issue, it is a concept of operation and a bureaucratic issue. The required goal is not as distant as some might propose, and the technology not as unprepared for commercial application as some assumed. The conclusion is that clearly we cannot continue to base the next century's orbital operations on an expendable rebuilt for reuse concept. What is required is a rocket based combined cycle (RBCC) engine based on those now in space operation 1,2; not a combination of cycles that remains to be shown as a practical, achievable reality.

  19. Vehicle Propulsion Systems Introduction to Modeling and Optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Guzzella, Lino

    2013-01-01

    This text provides an introduction to the mathematical modeling and subsequent optimization of vehicle propulsion systems and their supervisory control algorithms. Automobiles are responsible for a substantial part of the world's consumption of primary energy, mostly fossil liquid hydrocarbons and the reduction of the fuel consumption of these vehicles has become a top priority. Increasing concerns over fossil fuel consumption and the associated environmental impacts have motivated many groups in industry and academia to propose new propulsion systems and to explore new optimization methodologies. This third edition has been prepared to include many of these developments. In the third edition, exercises are included at the end of each chapter and the solutions are available on the web.

  20. Fuel Cells: A Real Option for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles Propulsion

    OpenAIRE

    González_Espasandín, Oscar; Leo Mena, Teresa de Jesus; Navarro Arevalo, Emilio

    2013-01-01

    The possibility of implementing fuel cell technology in Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) propulsion systems is considered. Potential advantages of the Proton Exchange Membrane or Polymer Electrolyte Membrane (PEMFC) and Direct Methanol Fuel Cells (DMFC), their fuels (hydrogen and methanol), and their storage systems are revised from technical and environmental standpoints. Some operating commercial applications are described. Main constraints for these kinds of fuel cells are analyzed in order t...

  1. On use of hybrid rocket propulsion for suborbital vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okninski, Adam

    2018-04-01

    While the majority of operating suborbital rockets use solid rocket propulsion, recent advancements in the field of hybrid rocket motors lead to renewed interest in their use in sounding rockets. This paper presents results of optimisation of sounding rockets using hybrid propulsion. An overview of vehicles under development during the last decade, as well as heritage systems is provided. Different propellant combinations are discussed and their performance assessment is given. While Liquid Oxygen, Nitrous Oxide and Nitric Acid have been widely tested with various solid fuels in flight, Hydrogen Peroxide remains an oxidiser with very limited sounding rocket applications. The benefits of hybrid propulsion for sounding rockets are given. In case of hybrid rocket motors the thrust curve can be optimised for each flight, using a flow regulator, depending on the payload and mission. Results of studies concerning the optimal burn duration and nozzle selection are given. Specific considerations are provided for the Polish ILR-33 "Amber" sounding rocket. Low regression rates, which up to date were viewed as a drawback of hybrid propulsion may be used to the benefit of maximising rocket performance if small solid rocket boosters are used during the initial flight period. While increased interest in hybrid propulsion is present, no up-to-date reference concerning use of hybrid rocket propulsion for sounding rockets is available. The ultimate goal of the paper is to provide insight into the sensitivity of different design parameters on performance of hybrid sounding rockets and delve into the potential and challenges of using hybrid rocket technology for expendable suborbital applications.

  2. Simulation of hybrid vehicle propulsion with an advanced battery model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nallabolu, S.; Kostetzer, L.; Rudnyi, E. [CADFEM GmbH, Grafing (Germany); Geppert, M.; Quinger, D. [LION Smart GmbH, Frieding (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    In the recent years there has been observed an increasing concern about global warming and greenhouse gas emissions. In addition to the environmental issues the predicted scarcity of oil supplies and the dramatic increase in oil price puts new demands on vehicle design. As a result energy efficiency and reduced emission have become one of main selling point for automobiles. Hybrid electric vehicles (HEV) have therefore become an interesting technology for the governments and automotive industries. HEV are more complicated compared to conventional vehicles due to the fact that these vehicles contain more electrical components such as electric machines, power electronics, electronic continuously variable transmissions (CVT), and embedded powertrain controllers. Advanced energy storage devices and energy converters, such as Li-ion batteries, ultracapacitors, and fuel cells are also considered. A detailed vehicle model used for an energy flow analysis and vehicle performance simulation is necessary. Computer simulation is indispensible to facilitate the examination of the vast hybrid electric vehicle design space with the aim to predict the vehicle performance over driving profiles, estimate fuel consumption and the pollution emissions. There are various types of mathematical models and simulators available to perform system simulation of vehicle propulsion. One of the standard methods to model the complete vehicle powertrain is ''backward quasistatic modeling''. In this method vehicle subsystems are defined based on experiential models in the form of look-up tables and efficiency maps. The interaction between adjacent subsystems of the vehicle is defined through the amount of power flow. Modeling the vehicle subsystems like motor, engine, gearbox and battery is under this technique is based on block diagrams. The vehicle model is applied in two case studies to evaluate the vehicle performance and fuel consumption. In the first case study the affect

  3. A novel propulsion method for high- Tc superconducting maglev vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Guangtong; Wang, Jiasu; Wang, Suyu; Liu, Minxian; Jing, Hua; Lu, Yiyun; Lin, Qunxu

    2008-01-01

    High-Tc superconducting (HTS) maglev is considered as a perfect transportation type because of its unique inherent stability. A direct current (DC) linear motor using the permanent magnet guideway (PMG) as the stator and the on-board coil as the rotor instead of the present inductive or synchronous alternate current (AC) linear motor which has an economic disadvantage due to the necessity to lay primary coil along the guideway is proposed in this paper. In order to modulate the magnetic field under the PMG, an inverse E shape ferromagnetic device (IESFD) core is designed. The possible winding method for the on-board coil is listed, and the analytical result shows that a considerable net ampere force and thus the propulsion force can be generated by this special structure. The influence of the concentrated effect of the IESFD on the maglev performance of HTS bulk is studied by a numerical program, and the results show that the levitation force with the IESFD is 90% of that without. It is also indicated that the load capability and lateral performance of the maglev vehicle combined this propulsion method can be improved thanks to the attractive effect between the IESFD and PMG. The cost of the HTS maglev vehicle will be remarkably reduced and then shorten the distance to practical application with this propulsion method.

  4. Propulsion requirements for reusable single-stage-to-orbit rocket vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Douglas O.; Engelund, Walter C.; Lepsch, Roger

    1994-05-01

    The conceptual design of a single-stage-to-orbit (SSTO) vehicle using a wide variety of evolutionary technologies has recently been completed as a part of NASA's Advanced Manned Launch System (AMLS) study. The employment of new propulsion system technologies is critical to the design of a reasonably sized, operationally efficient SSTO vehicle. This paper presents the propulsion system requirements identified for this near-term AMLS SSTO vehicle. Sensitivities of the vehicle to changes in specific impulse and sea-level thrust-to-weight ratio are examined. The results of a variety of vehicle/propulsion system trades performed on the near-term AMLS SSTO vehicle are also presented.

  5. Fuel cells: a real option for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles propulsion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Espasandín, Óscar; Leo, Teresa J; Navarro-Arévalo, Emilio

    2014-01-01

    The possibility of implementing fuel cell technology in Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) propulsion systems is considered. Potential advantages of the Proton Exchange Membrane or Polymer Electrolyte Membrane (PEMFC) and Direct Methanol Fuel Cells (DMFC), their fuels (hydrogen and methanol), and their storage systems are revised from technical and environmental standpoints. Some operating commercial applications are described. Main constraints for these kinds of fuel cells are analyzed in order to elucidate the viability of future developments. Since the low power density is the main problem of fuel cells, hybridization with electric batteries, necessary in most cases, is also explored.

  6. Fuel Cells: A Real Option for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles Propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    The possibility of implementing fuel cell technology in Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) propulsion systems is considered. Potential advantages of the Proton Exchange Membrane or Polymer Electrolyte Membrane (PEMFC) and Direct Methanol Fuel Cells (DMFC), their fuels (hydrogen and methanol), and their storage systems are revised from technical and environmental standpoints. Some operating commercial applications are described. Main constraints for these kinds of fuel cells are analyzed in order to elucidate the viability of future developments. Since the low power density is the main problem of fuel cells, hybridization with electric batteries, necessary in most cases, is also explored. PMID:24600326

  7. Fuel Cells: A Real Option for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles Propulsion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Óscar González-Espasandín

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The possibility of implementing fuel cell technology in Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV propulsion systems is considered. Potential advantages of the Proton Exchange Membrane or Polymer Electrolyte Membrane (PEMFC and Direct Methanol Fuel Cells (DMFC, their fuels (hydrogen and methanol, and their storage systems are revised from technical and environmental standpoints. Some operating commercial applications are described. Main constraints for these kinds of fuel cells are analyzed in order to elucidate the viability of future developments. Since the low power density is the main problem of fuel cells, hybridization with electric batteries, necessary in most cases, is also explored.

  8. Mars ascent propulsion options for small sample return vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitehead, J. C.

    1997-01-01

    An unprecedented combination of high propellant fraction and small size is required for affordable-scale Mars return, regardless of the number of stages, or whether Mars orbit rendezvous or in-situ propellant options are used. Conventional space propulsion technology is too heavy, even without structure or other stage subsystems. The application of launch vehicle design principles to the development of new hardware on a tiny scale is therefore suggested. Miniature pump-fed rocket engines fed by low pressure tanks can help to meet this challenge. New concepts for engine cycles using piston pumps are described, and development issues are outlined

  9. An Overview of Brazilian Developments in Beamed Energy Aerospace Propulsion and Vehicle Performance Control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minucci, M. A. S.

    2008-01-01

    Beamed energy propulsion and beamed energy vehicle performance control concepts are equally promising and challenging. In Brazil, the two concepts are being currently investigated at the Prof Henry T Nagamatsu Laboratory of Aerothermodynamics and Hypersonics, of the Institute for Advanced Studies--IEAv, in collaboration with the Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute--RPI, Troy, NY, and the United States Air force Research Laboratory-AFRL. Until recently, only laser energy addition for hypersonic flow control was being investigated at the Laboratory using a 0.3 m nozzle exit diameter hypersonic shock tunnel, T2, and two 7 joule CO 2 TEA lasers. Flow visualization, model pressure and heat flux measurements of the laser energy addition perturbed flow around a model were produced as a result of this joint IEAv-RPI investigation. Presently, with the participation of AFRL and the newly commissioned 0.6 m. nozzle exit diameter hypersonic shock tunnel, T3, a more ambitious project is underway. Two 400 Joule Lumonics 620 CO 2 TEA lasers will deliver a 20 cm X 25 cm propulsive laser beam to a complete laser propelled air breather/rocket hypersonic engine, located inside T3 test section. Schlieren photographs of the flow inside de engine as well as surface and heat flux measurements will be performed for free stream Mach numbers ranging from 6 to 25. The present paper discusses past, present and future Brazilian activities on beamed energy propulsion and related technologies

  10. Propulsion System Dynamic Modeling of the NASA Supersonic Concept Vehicle for AeroPropulsoServoElasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopasakis, George; Connolly, Joseph W.; Seiel, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    A summary of the propulsion system modeling under NASA's High Speed Project (HSP) AeroPropulsoServoElasticity (APSE) task is provided with a focus on the propulsion system for the low-boom supersonic configuration developed by Lockheed Martin and referred to as the N+2 configuration. This summary includes details on the effort to date to develop computational models for the various propulsion system components. The objective of this paper is to summarize the model development effort in this task, while providing more detail in the modeling areas that have not been previously published. The purpose of the propulsion system modeling and the overall APSE effort is to develop an integrated dynamic vehicle model to conduct appropriate unsteady analysis of supersonic vehicle performance. This integrated APSE system model concept includes the propulsion system model, and the vehicle structural aerodynamics model. The development to date of such a preliminary integrated model will also be summarized in this report

  11. Research, development, and demonstration of lead-acid batteries for electric vehicle propulsion. Annual report, 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-03-01

    The progress and status of Eltra's Electric Vehicle Battery Program during FY-80 are presented under five divisional headings: Research on Components and Processes; Development of Cells and Modules for Electric Vehicle Propulsion; Sub-Systems; Pilot Line Production of Electric Vehicle Battery Prototypes; and Program Management.

  12. Integrated null-flux suspension and multiphase propulsion system for magnetically-levitated vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rote, D.M.; He, J.; Johnson, L.R.

    1994-01-04

    A propulsion and stabilization system are described comprising a series of coils mounted vertically on the walls of the guideway to provide suspension, lateral guidance, and propulsion of a magnetically levitated vehicle. This system further allows for altering the magnetic field effects by changing the relative position of the loops comprising the coils either longitudinally and/or vertically with resulting changes in the propulsion, the vertical stability, and the suspension. 8 figures.

  13. Integrated null-flux suspension and multiphase propulsion system for magnetically-levitated vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rote, Donald M.; He, Jianliang; Johnson, Larry R.

    1994-01-01

    A propulsion and stabilization system comprising a series of FIG. 8 coils mounted vertically on the walls of the guideway to provide suspension, lateral guidance and propulsion of a magnetically levitated vehicle. This system further allows for altering the magnetic field effects by changing the relative position of the loops comprising the FIG. 8 coils either longitudinally and/or vertically with resulting changes in the propulsion, the vertical stability, and the suspension.

  14. Affordable Flight Demonstration of the GTX Air-Breathing SSTO Vehicle Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krivanek, Thomas M.; Roche, Joseph M.; Riehl, John P.; Kosareo, Daniel N.

    2003-01-01

    The rocket based combined cycle (RBCC) powered single-stage-to-orbit (SSTO) reusable launch vehicle has the potential to significantly reduce the total cost per pound for orbital payload missions. To validate overall system performance, a flight demonstration must be performed. This paper presents an overview of the first phase of a flight demonstration program for the GTX SSTO vehicle concept. Phase 1 will validate the propulsion performance of the vehicle configuration over the supersonic and hypersonic air- breathing portions of the trajectory. The focus and goal of Phase 1 is to demonstrate the integration and performance of the propulsion system flowpath with the vehicle aerodynamics over the air-breathing trajectory. This demonstrator vehicle will have dual mode ramjetkcramjets, which include the inlet, combustor, and nozzle with geometrically scaled aerodynamic surface outer mold lines (OML) defining the forebody, boundary layer diverter, wings, and tail. The primary objective of this study is to demon- strate propulsion system performance and operability including the ram to scram transition, as well as to validate vehicle aerodynamics and propulsion airframe integration. To minimize overall risk and develop ment cost the effort will incorporate proven materials, use existing turbomachinery in the propellant delivery systems, launch from an existing unmanned remote launch facility, and use basic vehicle recovery techniques to minimize control and landing requirements. A second phase would demonstrate propulsion performance across all critical portions of a space launch trajectory (lift off through transition to all-rocket) integrated with flight-like vehicle systems.

  15. Space Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (SNTP) Air Force facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, David F.

    The Space Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (SNTP) Program is an initiative within the US Air Force to acquire and validate advanced technologies that could be used to sustain superior capabilities in the area or space nuclear propulsion. The SNTP Program has a specific objective of demonstrating the feasibility of the particle bed reactor (PBR) concept. The term PIPET refers to a project within the SNTP Program responsible for the design, development, construction, and operation of a test reactor facility, including all support systems, that is intended to resolve program technology issues and test goals. A nuclear test facility has been designed that meets SNTP Facility requirements. The design approach taken to meet SNTP requirements has resulted in a nuclear test facility that should encompass a wide range of nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) test requirements that may be generated within other programs. The SNTP PIPET project is actively working with DOE and NASA to assess this possibility.

  16. Thirteenth Workshop for Computational Fluid Dynamic Applications in Rocket Propulsion and Launch Vehicle Technology. Volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, R. W. (Compiler)

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of the workshop was to discuss experimental and computational fluid dynamic activities in rocket propulsion and launch vehicles. The workshop was an open meeting for government, industry, and academia. A broad number of topics were discussed including computational fluid dynamic methodology, liquid and solid rocket propulsion, turbomachinery, combustion, heat transfer, and grid generation.

  17. Compressed Air Production Using Vehicle Suspension

    OpenAIRE

    Ninad Arun Malpure; Sanket Nandlal Bhansali

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Generally compressed air is produced using different types of air compressors which consumes lot of electric energy and is noisy. In this paper an innovative idea is put forth for production of compressed air using movement of vehicle suspension which normal is wasted. The conversion of the force energy into the compressed air is carried out by the mechanism which consists of the vehicle suspension system hydraulic cylinder Non-return valve air compressor and air receiver. We are co...

  18. Advanced electric propulsion system concept for electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raynard, A. E.; Forbes, F. E.

    1979-01-01

    Seventeen propulsion system concepts for electric vehicles were compared to determine the differences in components and battery pack to achieve the basic performance level. Design tradeoffs were made for selected configurations to find the optimum component characteristics required to meet all performance goals. The anticipated performance when using nickel-zinc batteries rather than the standard lead-acid batteries was also evaluated. The two systems selected for the final conceptual design studies included a system with a flywheel energy storage unit and a basic system that did not have a flywheel. The flywheel system meets the range requirement with either lead-acid or nickel-zinc batteries and also the acceleration of zero to 89 km/hr in 15 s. The basic system can also meet the required performance with a fully charged battery, but, when the battery approaches 20 to 30 percent depth of discharge, maximum acceleration capability gradually degrades. The flywheel system has an estimated life-cycle cost of $0.041/km using lead-acid batteries. The basic system has a life-cycle cost of $0.06/km. The basic system, using batteries meeting ISOA goals, would have a life-cycle cost of $0.043/km.

  19. Investigation of Various Novel Air-Breathing Propulsion Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhite, Jarred M.

    The current research investigates the operation and performance of various air-breathing propulsion systems, which are capable of utilizing different types of fuel. This study first focuses on a modular RDE configuration, which was mainly studied to determine which conditions yield stable, continuous rotating detonation for an ethylene-air mixture. The performance of this RDE was analyzed by studying various parameters such as mass flow rate, equivalence ratios, wave speed and cell size. For relatively low mass flow rates near stoichiometric conditions, a rotating detonation wave is observed for an ethylene-RDE, but at speeds less than an ideal detonation wave. The current research also involves investigating the newly designed, Twin Oxidizer Injection Capable (TOXIC) RDE. Mixtures of hydrogen and air were utilized for this configuration, resulting in sustained rotating detonation for various mass flow rates and equivalence ratios. A thrust stand was also developed to observe and further measure the performance of the TOXIC RDE. Further analysis was conducted to accurately model and simulate the response of thrust stand during operation of the RDE. Also included in this research are findings and analysis of a propulsion system capable of operating on the Inverse Brayton Cycle. The feasibility of this novel concept was validated in a previous study to be sufficient for small-scale propulsion systems, namely UAV applications. This type of propulsion system consists of a reorganization of traditional gas turbine engine components, which incorporates expansion before compression. This cycle also requires a heat exchanger to reduce the temperature of the flow entering the compressor downstream. While adding a heat exchanger improves the efficiency of the cycle, it also increases the engine weight, resulting in less endurance for the aircraft. Therefore, this study focuses on the selection and development of a new heat exchanger design that is lightweight, and is capable

  20. Thirteenth Workshop for Computational Fluid Dynamic Applications in Rocket Propulsion and Launch Vehicle Technology. Volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, R. W. (Compiler)

    1996-01-01

    This conference publication includes various abstracts and presentations given at the 13th Workshop for Computational Fluid Dynamic Applications in Rocket Propulsion and Launch Vehicle Technology held at the George C. Marshall Space Flight Center April 25-27 1995. The purpose of the workshop was to discuss experimental and computational fluid dynamic activities in rocket propulsion and launch vehicles. The workshop was an open meeting for government, industry, and academia. A broad number of topics were discussed including computational fluid dynamic methodology, liquid and solid rocket propulsion, turbomachinery, combustion, heat transfer, and grid generation.

  1. Air pollution from motor vehicle emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrushevska, Ljubica

    1996-01-01

    This paper presents some aspects of air pollution from motor vehicle emissions as: characteristic primary and secondary pollutants, dependence of the motor vehicle emission from the engine type; the relationship of typical engine emission and performance to air-fuel ratio, transport of pollutants from mobile sources of emissions, as well as some world experiences in the control approaches for exhaust emissions. (author)

  2. An Intelligent Propulsion Control Architecture to Enable More Autonomous Vehicle Operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litt, Jonathan S.; Sowers, T. Shane; Simon, Donald L.; Owen, A. Karl; Rinehart, Aidan W.; Chicatelli, Amy K.; Acheson, Michael J.; Hueschen, Richard M.; Spiers, Christopher W.

    2018-01-01

    This paper describes an intelligent propulsion control architecture that coordinates with the flight control to reduce the amount of pilot intervention required to operate the vehicle. Objectives of the architecture include the ability to: automatically recognize the aircraft operating state and flight phase; configure engine control to optimize performance with knowledge of engine condition and capability; enhance aircraft performance by coordinating propulsion control with flight control; and recognize off-nominal propulsion situations and to respond to them autonomously. The hierarchical intelligent propulsion system control can be decomposed into a propulsion system level and an individual engine level. The architecture is designed to be flexible to accommodate evolving requirements, adapt to technology improvements, and maintain safety.

  3. A Combined Solar Electric and Storable Chemical Propulsion Vehicle for Piloted Mars Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercer, Carolyn R.; Oleson, Steven R.; Drake, Bret G.

    2014-01-01

    The Mars Design Reference Architecture (DRA) 5.0 explored a piloted Mars mission in the 2030 timeframe, focusing on architecture and technology choices. The DRA 5.0 focused on nuclear thermal and cryogenic chemical propulsion system options for the mission. Follow-on work explored both nuclear and solar electric options. One enticing option that was found in a NASA Collaborative Modeling for Parametric Assessment of Space Systems (COMPASS) design study used a combination of a 1-MW-class solar electric propulsion (SEP) system combined with storable chemical systems derived from the planned Orion crew vehicle. It was found that by using each propulsion system at the appropriate phase of the mission, the entire SEP stage and habitat could be placed into orbit with just two planned Space Launch System (SLS) heavy lift launch vehicles assuming the crew would meet up at the Earth-Moon (E-M) L2 point on a separate heavy-lift launch. These appropriate phases use high-thrust chemical propulsion only in gravity wells when the vehicle is piloted and solar electric propulsion for every other phase. Thus the SEP system performs the spiral of the unmanned vehicle from low Earth orbit (LEO) to E-M L2 where the vehicle meets up with the multi-purpose crew vehicle. From here SEP is used to place the vehicle on a trajectory to Mars. With SEP providing a large portion of the required capture and departure changes in velocity (delta V) at Mars, the delta V provided by the chemical propulsion is reduced by a factor of five from what would be needed with chemical propulsion alone at Mars. This trajectory also allows the SEP and habitat vehicle to arrive in the highly elliptic 1-sol parking orbit compatible with envisioned Mars landing concepts. This paper explores mission options using between SEP and chemical propulsion, the design of the SEP system including the solar array and electric propulsion systems, and packaging in the SLS shroud. Design trades of stay time, power level

  4. LOX/LH2 propulsion system for launch vehicle upper stage, test results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, T.; Imachi, U.; Yuzawa, Y.; Kondo, Y.; Miyoshi, K.; Higashino, K.

    1984-01-01

    The test results of small LOX/LH2 engines for two propulsion systems, a pump fed system and a pressure fed system are reported. The pump fed system has the advantages of higher performances and higher mass fraction. The pressure fed system has the advantages of higher reliability and relative simplicity. Adoption of these cryogenic propulsion systems for upper stage of launch vehicle increases the payload capability with low cost. The 1,000 kg thrust class engine was selected for this cryogenic stage. A thrust chamber assembly for the pressure fed propulsion system was tested. It is indicated that it has good performance to meet system requirements.

  5. Main propulsion system design recommendations for an advanced Orbit Transfer Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redd, L.

    1985-01-01

    Various main propulsion system configurations of an advanced OTV are evaluated with respect to the probability of nonindependent failures, i.e., engine failures that disable the entire main propulsion system. Analysis of the life-cycle cost (LCC) indicates that LCC is sensitive to the main propulsion system reliability, vehicle dry weight, and propellant cost; it is relatively insensitive to the number of missions/overhaul, failures per mission, and EVA and IVA cost. In conclusion, two or three engines are recommended in view of their highest reliability, minimum life-cycle cost, and fail operational/fail safe capability.

  6. Propulsion System Dynamic Modeling for the NASA Supersonic Concept Vehicle: AeroPropulsoServoElasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopasakis, George; Connolly, Joseph; Seidel, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    A summary of the propulsion system modeling under NASA's High Speed Project (HSP) AeroPropulsoServoElasticity (APSE) task is provided with a focus on the propulsion system for the low-boom supersonic configuration developed by Lockheed Martin and referred to as the N+2 configuration. This summary includes details on the effort to date to develop computational models for the various propulsion system components. The objective of this paper is to summarize the model development effort in this task, while providing more detail in the modeling areas that have not been previously published. The purpose of the propulsion system modeling and the overall APSE effort is to develop an integrated dynamic vehicle model to conduct appropriate unsteady analysis of supersonic vehicle performance. This integrated APSE system model concept includes the propulsion system model, and the vehicle structural-aerodynamics model. The development to date of such a preliminary integrated model will also be summarized in this report.propulsion system dynamics, the structural dynamics, and aerodynamics.

  7. Compressed Air Production Using Vehicle Suspension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ninad Arun Malpure

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Generally compressed air is produced using different types of air compressors which consumes lot of electric energy and is noisy. In this paper an innovative idea is put forth for production of compressed air using movement of vehicle suspension which normal is wasted. The conversion of the force energy into the compressed air is carried out by the mechanism which consists of the vehicle suspension system hydraulic cylinder Non-return valve air compressor and air receiver. We are collecting air in the cylinder and store this energy into the tank by simply driving the vehicle. This method is non-conventional as no fuel input is required and is least polluting.

  8. High-performance-vehicle technology. [fighter aircraft propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Povinelli, L. A.

    1979-01-01

    Propulsion needs of high performance military aircraft are discussed. Inlet performance, nozzle performance and cooling, and afterburner performance are covered. It is concluded that nonaxisymmetric nozzles provide cleaner external lines and enhanced maneuverability, but the internal flows are more complex. Swirl afterburners show promise for enhanced performance in the high altitude, low Mach number region.

  9. Hybrid CNG propulsion for fleet vehicles: emission reduction potential and operating experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drozdz, P. [BC Research Institute, BC (Canada)

    1997-12-31

    A project (1) to build an experimental hybrid electric vehicle to be used as a test bed for the development of EZEV-oriented technologies, (2) to develop a control system to manage the energy use in a series hybrid vehicle, (3) to evaluate the suitability of valve regulated lead acid batteries for hybrid propulsion, and (4) to investigate the feasibility of using hybrid propulsion for medium duty fleet vehicles was discussed. In this context, the electric G-Van, the BCRI hybrid G-Van battery, the hybrid power unit, and the electronic control unit were described. The concept of hybrid vehicle control, and the control system software were explained, and a summary of the hybrid system efficiency test was provided.

  10. Vehicle configuration options using nuclear propulsion for Mars missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emrich, William J.

    1993-01-01

    The solid core nuclear thermal rocket (NTR) provides an attractive means of providing the propulsive force needed to accomplish a wide array of space missions. With its factor of two or more advantage in Isp over chemical engines, nuclear propulsion provides the opportunity to accomplish space missions which are impractical by other means. This paper focuses on the use of a nuclear thermal rocket to accomplish a variety of space missions with emphasis on the manned Mars mission. The particle bed reactor (PBR) type nuclear engine was chosen as the baseline engine used to conduct the present study because of its perceived versatility over other nuclear propulsion systems in conducting a wide variety of tasks. This study baselines a particle bed reactor engine with an engine thrust-to-weight ratio (~11.5) and a specific impulse of ~950 s. It is shown that a PBR engine of this type will offer distinct advantages over the larger and heavier NERVA type nuclear engines.

  11. Vehicle configuration options using nuclear propulsion for Mars missions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emrich, W.J. Jr.

    1993-01-01

    The solid core nuclear thermal rocket (NTR) provides an attractive means of providing the propulsive force needed to accomplish a wide array of space missions. With its factor of two or more advantage in Isp over chemical engines, nuclear propulsion provides the opportunity to accomplish space missions which are impractical by other means. This paper focuses on the use of a nuclear thermal rocket to accomplish a variety of space missions with emphasis on the manned Mars mission. The particle bed reactor (PBR) type nuclear engine was chosen as the baseline engine used to conduct the present study because of its perceived versatility over other nuclear propulsion systems in conducting a wide variety of tasks. This study baselines a particle bed reactor engine with an engine thrust-to-weight ratio (∼11.5) and a specific impulse of ∼950 s. It is shown that a PBR engine of this type will offer distinct advantages over the larger and heavier NERVA type nuclear engines

  12. Modeling and Analysis of an Air-Breathing Flexible Hypersonic Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xi-bin Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available By using light-weighted material in hypersonic vehicle, the vehicle body can be easily deformed. The mutual couplings in aerodynamics, flexible structure, and propulsion system will bring great challenges for vehicle modeling. In this work, engineering estimated method is used to calculate the aerodynamic forces, moments, and flexible modes to get the physics-based model of an air-breathing flexible hypersonic vehicle. The model, which contains flexible effects and viscous effects, can capture the physical characteristics of high-speed flight. To overcome the analytical intractability of the model, a simplified control-oriented model of the hypersonic vehicle is presented with curve fitting approximations. The control-oriented model can not only reduce the complexity of the model, but also retain aero-flexible structure-propulsion interactions of the physics-based model and can be applied for nonlinear control.

  13. Control of Oscillating Foil for Propulsion of Biorobotic Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. N. Singh

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper treats the question of control of a laterally and rotationally oscillating hydrofoil for the propulsion of biologically inspired robotic (biorobotic autonomous underwater vehicles (BAUVs. Sinusoidal oscillations of foils produce maneuvering and propulsive forces. The design is based on the internal model principle. Two springs are used to transmit forces from the actuators to the foil. Oscillating fins produce periodic forces, which can be used for fish-like propulsion and control of autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs. The equations of motion of the foil include hydrodynamic lift and moment based on linear, unsteady, aerodynamic theory. A control law is derived for the lateral and rotational sinusoidal oscillation of the foil. In the closed-loop system, the lateral displacement and the rotational angle of the foil asymptotically follow sinusoidal trajectories of distinct frequencies and amplitudes independently. Simulation results are presented to show the trajectory tracking performance of the foil for different freestream velocities and sinusoidal command trajectories.

  14. Research, development and demonstration of nickel-zinc batteries for electric vehicle propulsion. Annual report, 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-06-01

    Activities in a program to develop a Ni/Zn battery for electric vehicle propulsion are reported. Aspects discussed include battery design and development, nickel cathode study, and basic electrochemistry. A number of engineering drawings are supplied. 61 figures, 11 tables. (RWR)

  15. A methodology for fostering commercialization of electric and hybrid vehicle propulsion systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thollot, P. A.; Musial, N. T.

    1980-01-01

    The rationale behind, and a proposed approach for, application of government assistance to accelerate the process of moving a new electric vehicle propulsion system product from technological readiness to profitable marketplace acceptance and utilization are described. Emphasis is on strategy, applicable incentives, and an implementation process.

  16. An Airbreathing Launch Vehicle Design with Turbine-Based Low-Speed Propulsion and Dual Mode Scramjet High-Speed Propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moses, P. L.; Bouchard, K. A.; Vause, R. F.; Pinckney, S. Z.; Ferlemann, S. M.; Leonard, C. P.; Taylor, L. W., III; Robinson, J. S.; Martin, J. G.; Petley, D. H.

    1999-01-01

    Airbreathing launch vehicles continue to be a subject of great interest in the space access community. In particular, horizontal takeoff and horizontal landing vehicles are attractive with their airplane-like benefits and flexibility for future space launch requirements. The most promising of these concepts involve airframe integrated propulsion systems, in which the external undersurface of the vehicle forms part of the propulsion flowpath. Combining of airframe and engine functions in this manner involves all of the design disciplines interacting at once. Design and optimization of these configurations is a most difficult activity, requiring a multi-discipline process to analytically resolve the numerous interactions among the design variables. This paper describes the design and optimization of one configuration in this vehicle class, a lifting body with turbine-based low-speed propulsion. The integration of propulsion and airframe, both from an aero-propulsive and mechanical perspective are addressed. This paper primarily focuses on the design details of the preferred configuration and the analyses performed to assess its performance. The integration of both low-speed and high-speed propulsion is covered. Structural and mechanical designs are described along with materials and technologies used. Propellant and systems packaging are shown and the mission-sized vehicle weights are disclosed.

  17. Canadian government motivators for clean air vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forster, J. [Transport Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    1999-07-01

    A slide presentation is included which covers: why support clean air vehicles, key areas of action including climate change and cleaner air and conclusions. Reasons for supporting clean air vehicles include: the environment is not a top of mind issue for Canadians but is a core issue, transportation contributes significantly to environmental problems, e.g., 40-50% of smog emissions, and 27% of greenhouse gas emissions, and clean air vehicles are part of the solution. The first area of action is that of climate change, and includes as elements: the Kyoto Protocol, First Ministers, and 15 Issue Tables. The second area of action is clean air. Action on climate change can have ancillary benefits, e.g., reduction in smog-related emissions. Government is taking action to address smog in concert with the provinces in the Federal Smog Management Plan. A key element in the Plan is that of ensuring that appropriate emissions standards are in place. Transport Canada supports clean air vehicles through research conducted at the Transporation Research and Development Centre. Further Transport Canada involvement includes: partnership in Montreal 2000, demonstration/conversion testing, development of advanced EV systems, and membership in the CEVEQ. In the longer term, new technologies hold the key to addressing many environmental challenges. This is particularly true with respect to climate change and air quality, and new vehicle technologies will play an important role.

  18. LauncherOne Small Launch Vehicle Propulsion Advancement

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Virgin Orbit, LLC (“Virgin Orbit”) is currently well into the development for our LauncherOne (L1) small satellite launch vehicle. LauncherOne is a dedicated small...

  19. Stirling engine electric hybrid vehicle propulsion system conceptual design study. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dochat, G; Artiles, A; Killough, J; Ray, A; Chen, H S

    1978-08-01

    Results of a six-month study to characterize a series Stirling engine electric hybrid vehicle propulsion system are presented. The Stirling engine was selected as the heat conversion element to exploit the high efficiency (> .36), low pollution, multi-fuel and quiet operation of this machine. A free-piston Stirling engine driving a linear alternator in a hermatically sealed enclosure was chosen to gain the reliability, long life, and maintenance free characteristics of a sealed unit. The study performs trade off evaluations, selection of engine, battery, motor and inverter size, optimization of components, and develops a conceptual design and characterization of the total propulsion system. The conclusion of the study is that a Stirling engine electric hybrid propulsion system can be used successfully to augment the battery storage of a passenger vehicle and will result in significant savings of petroleum energy over present passenger vehicles. The performance and range augmentation of the hybrid design results in significant improvements over an all electric vehicle. The hybrid will be capable of performing 99% of the passenger vehicle annual trip distribution requirements with extremely low fuel usage. (TFD)

  20. Flywheel-battery hydrid: a new concept for vehicle propulsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1976-01-01

    A new concept was examined for powering the automobile: a flywheel-battery hybrid that can be developed for near-term use from currently available lead-acid batteries and state-of-the-art flywheel designs. To illustrate the concept, a calculation is given of the range and performance of the hybrid power system in a typical commute vehicle, and the results are compared to the measured range and performance of an all-battery vehicle. This comparison shows improved performance and a twofold urban-range increase for the hybrid over the all-battery power system

  1. Vertical cryostat for guidance and propulsion of superconducting magnetic levitation vehicle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakashima, H.; Arima, K.

    1974-01-01

    The superconducting magnetic levitation vehicle requires two types of magnet: one for levitation, and one for guidance and propulsion (linear synchronous motor). Cryostats for these magnets have to satisfy three fundamental conditions; lightness, small heat leak, and enough strength to ensure the electromagnetic forces. A prototype vertical cryostat was designed for research into on-board cryostats for guidance and propulsion. A small refrigerator can be connected to the cryostat, to facilitate testing of the fundamental refrigeration system on board. The performance of the cryostat, and the test results, are reported in this paper. (author)

  2. Library of Samples for E-Vehicle Propulsion Drive Tuning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rassõlkin Anton

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The majority of testing cycles for the vehicle comparison is the long-term cycles and could not be used for the short-term transient mode imitations. Also, all the used nowadays testing cycles were designed for internal combustion engine vehicles and take into account not only energy and mechanical aspects, but also pollution and internal combustion engine characteristics. The paper presents a collection of sample signals developed to explore and simulate multiple system impacts to emulate different reference and load conditions. The study describes the major driving modes, such as the constant-speed cruising, speeding up and braking, typical parking regimes, uphill and downhill motion, and taking a turn. The developed testing equipment and software are described. Responses of the battery vehicle drives to the changeable controls and disturbances were studied in the laboratory test bench. The set of test cycles prepared in the frame of the ABB control arrangement was applied to the system evaluation and assessment. The developed methodology can be recommended to adjust the electric drives for different kinds of testing equipment. Experimental validation of the described approach has demonstrated the broad possibilities for the steady-state and transient modes of vehicle quality evaluation. It suits for recommendations that can be made with regard to the tuning of the drive regulators, control looping, sensor allocation, and feedback arrangements.

  3. Supersonic Combustion in Air-Breathing Propulsion Systems for Hypersonic Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urzay, Javier

    2018-01-01

    Great efforts have been dedicated during the last decades to the research and development of hypersonic aircrafts that can fly at several times the speed of sound. These aerospace vehicles have revolutionary applications in national security as advanced hypersonic weapons, in space exploration as reusable stages for access to low Earth orbit, and in commercial aviation as fast long-range methods for air transportation of passengers around the globe. This review addresses the topic of supersonic combustion, which represents the central physical process that enables scramjet hypersonic propulsion systems to accelerate aircrafts to ultra-high speeds. The description focuses on recent experimental flights and ground-based research programs and highlights associated fundamental flow physics, subgrid-scale model development, and full-system numerical simulations.

  4. Overview of solutions and analysis of the ability to evaluate the performance parameters of unmanned aerial vehicles propulsion systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karpiński Dominik

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of aircraft engines development is the propulsion which is characterized by high power-to-mass ratio. Therefore, the alternative solutions that provide the required power by the low weight propulsion are sought after. The main advantage of these solutions is improvement of environmental and economic properties. This paper presents the overview of solutions and studies conducted for the unmanned aerial vehicles propulsion. For the purposes of studies a test bench was prepared. Its enables the comparison of the propulsion operating parameters taking into account changes in the values of thrust and propulsion power. The summary includes a proposal to improve the environmental indicators of propulsion systems for unmanned aerial vehicles.

  5. Executive Summary of Propulsion on the Orion Abort Flight-Test Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Daniel S.; Brooks, Syri J.; Barnes, Marvin W.; McCauley, Rachel J.; Wall, Terry M.; Reed, Brian D.; Duncan, C. Miguel

    2012-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration Orion Flight Test Office was tasked with conducting a series of flight tests in several launch abort scenarios to certify that the Orion Launch Abort System is capable of delivering astronauts aboard the Orion Crew Module to a safe environment, away from a failed booster. The first of this series was the Orion Pad Abort 1 Flight-Test Vehicle, which was successfully flown on May 6, 2010 at the White Sands Missile Range in New Mexico. This report provides a brief overview of the three propulsive subsystems used on the Pad Abort 1 Flight-Test Vehicle. An overview of the propulsive systems originally planned for future flight-test vehicles is also provided, which also includes the cold gas Reaction Control System within the Crew Module, and the Peacekeeper first stage rocket motor encased within the Abort Test Booster aeroshell. Although the Constellation program has been cancelled and the operational role of the Orion spacecraft has significantly evolved, lessons learned from Pad Abort 1 and the other flight-test vehicles could certainly contribute to the vehicle architecture of many future human-rated space launch vehicles

  6. Control Strategy for Power Distribution in Dual Motor Propulsion System for Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Daniel Urbina Coronado

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Electric Vehicles with more than one electric motor can offer advantages in saving energy from the batteries. In order to do that, the control strategy plays an important role in distributing the required torque between the electric motors. A dual motor propulsion system with a differential transmission is simulated in this work. A rule based control strategy for this propulsion system is proposed and analyzed. Two parameters related to the output speed of the transmission and the required torque are used to switch the two modes of operation in which the propulsion system can work under acceleration. The effect of these parameters is presented over the driving cycles of NEDC, UDDS, and NYCC, which are followed using a PID controller. The produced energy losses are calculated as well as an indicator of drivability, which is related to the difference between the desired speed and the actual speed obtained. The results show that less energy losses are present when the vehicle is maintained with one electric motor most of the time, switching only when the extended speed granted by the second motor is required. The propulsion system with the proposed control strategy represents a feasible alternative in the spectrum of sustainable transportation architectures with extending range capabilities.

  7. Concept Design of High Power Solar Electric Propulsion Vehicles for Human Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, David J.; Kerslake, Thomas W.; Hojnicki, Jeffrey S.; Manzella, David H.; Falck, Robert D.; Cikanek, Harry A., III; Klem, Mark D.; Free, James M.

    2011-01-01

    Human exploration beyond low Earth orbit will require enabling capabilities that are efficient, affordable and reliable. Solar electric propulsion (SEP) has been proposed by NASA s Human Exploration Framework Team as one option to achieve human exploration missions beyond Earth orbit because of its favorable mass efficiency compared to traditional chemical propulsion systems. This paper describes the unique challenges associated with developing a large-scale high-power (300-kWe class) SEP vehicle and design concepts that have potential to meet those challenges. An assessment of factors at the subsystem level that must be considered in developing an SEP vehicle for future exploration missions is presented. Overall concepts, design tradeoffs and pathways to achieve development readiness are discussed.

  8. Research, development, and demonstration of nickel-iron batteries for electric vehicle propulsion. Annual report, 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-03-01

    The objective of the Eagle-Picher nickel-iron battery program is to develop a nickel-iron battery for use in the propulsion of electric and electric-hybrid vehicles. To date, the program has concentrated on the characterization, fabrication and testing of the required electrodes, the fabrication and testing of full-scale cells, and finally, the fabrication and testing of full-scale (270 AH) six (6) volt modules. Electrodes of the final configuration have now exceeded 1880 cycles and are showing minimal capacity decline. Full-scale cells have presently exceeded 600 cycles and are tracking the individual electrode tests almost identically. Six volt module tests have exceeded 500 cycles, with a specific energy of 48 Wh/kg. Results to date indicate the nickel-iron battery is beginning to demonstrate the performance required for electric vehicle propulsion.

  9. An electric vehicle propulsion system's impact on battery performance: An overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozek, J. M.; Smithrick, J. J.; Cataldo, R. C.; Ewashinka, J. G.

    1980-01-01

    The performance of two types of batteries, lead-acid and nickel-zinc, was measured as a function of the charging and discharging demands anticipated from electric vehicle propulsion systems. The benefits of rapid high current charging were mixed: although it allowed quick charges, the energy efficiency was reduced. For low power (overnight) charging the current wave shapes delivered by the charger to the battery tended to have no effect on the battery cycle life. The use of chopper speed controllers with series traction motors resulted in a significant reduction in the energy available from a battery whenever the motor operates at part load. The demand placed on a battery by an electric vehicle propulsion system containing electrical regenerative braking confirmed significant improvment in short term performance of the battery.

  10. Air pollution and motor vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruzzi, L.

    1992-01-01

    An analysis is made of the effects of fuel chemical composition and fuel-air mixture on the composition of combustion exhaust gases produced by automotive spark ignition and diesel engines. This analysis considers several aspects: the merits of unleaded gasolines, Italian legal limits on the concentration of aromatic hydrocarbons in gasoline, limits on the sulfur content of diesel fuels, and proposed European Communities limits on automobile air pollution. The paper concludes with an assessment of the cost effective performance of different types of catalytic converters now available on the market

  11. Characteristics of propulsion system of the magnetic levitation vehicle named ML-100

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujiwara, S

    1975-07-01

    A running test of a vehicle suspended by a superconducting magnetic levitation system and driven by a fixed primary linear induction motor (LIM) system was carried out. The test results of the temperature rise of the reaction plate and apparent power of propulsion system are described. Experimental results agree fairly well with calculated values. The effect of appropriate location of several kinds of LIM stators corresponding to running speed pattern are presented.

  12. Heavy vehicle propulsion system materials program semiannual progress report for April 1999 through September 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, D.R.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of the Heavy Vehicle Propulsion System Materials Program is the development of materials: ceramics, intermetallics, metal alloys, and metal and ceramic coatings, to support the dieselization of class 1-3 trucks to realize a 35% fuel-economy improvement over current gasoline-fueled trucks and to support commercialization of fuel-flexible LE-55 low-emissions, high-efficiency diesel engines for class 7-8 trucks.

  13. A primer on motor vehicle air pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-01-01

    This primer presents a brief state-of-the art review of motor vehicle air pollution. Its purpose is to aid highway personnel in understanding the nature of this environmental problem on our highways and to present possible solutions for its abatement...

  14. Biofuels, vehicle emissions, and urban air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallington, Timothy J; Anderson, James E; Kurtz, Eric M; Tennison, Paul J

    2016-07-18

    Increased biofuel content in automotive fuels impacts vehicle tailpipe emissions via two mechanisms: fuel chemistry and engine calibration. Fuel chemistry effects are generally well recognized, while engine calibration effects are not. It is important that investigations of the impact of biofuels on vehicle emissions consider the impact of engine calibration effects and are conducted using vehicles designed to operate using such fuels. We report the results of emission measurements from a Ford F-350 fueled with either fossil diesel or a biodiesel surrogate (butyl nonanoate) and demonstrate the critical influence of engine calibration on NOx emissions. Using the production calibration the emissions of NOx were higher with the biodiesel fuel. Using an adjusted calibration (maintaining equivalent exhaust oxygen concentration to that of the fossil diesel at the same conditions by adjusting injected fuel quantities) the emissions of NOx were unchanged, or lower, with biodiesel fuel. For ethanol, a review of the literature data addressing the impact of ethanol blend levels (E0-E85) on emissions from gasoline light-duty vehicles in the U.S. is presented. The available data suggest that emissions of NOx, non-methane hydrocarbons, particulate matter (PM), and mobile source air toxics (compounds known, or suspected, to cause serious health impacts) from modern gasoline and diesel vehicles are not adversely affected by increased biofuel content over the range for which the vehicles are designed to operate. Future increases in biofuel content when accomplished in concert with changes in engine design and calibration for new vehicles should not result in problematic increases in emissions impacting urban air quality and may in fact facilitate future required emissions reductions. A systems perspective (fuel and vehicle) is needed to fully understand, and optimize, the benefits of biofuels when blended into gasoline and diesel.

  15. Benefits of Power and Propulsion Technology for a Piloted Electric Vehicle to an Asteroid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercer, Carolyn R.; Oleson, Steven R.; Pencil, Eric J.; Piszczor, Michael F.; Mason, Lee S.; Bury, Kristen M.; Manzella, David H.; Kerslake, Thomas W.; Hojinicki, Jeffrey S.; Brophy, John P.

    2012-01-01

    NASA s goal for human spaceflight is to expand permanent human presence beyond low Earth orbit (LEO). NASA is identifying potential missions and technologies needed to achieve this goal. Mission options include crewed destinations to LEO and the International Space Station; high Earth orbit and geosynchronous orbit; cis-lunar space, lunar orbit, and the surface of the Moon; near-Earth objects; and the moons of Mars, Mars orbit, and the surface of Mars. NASA generated a series of design reference missions to drive out required functions and capabilities for these destinations, focusing first on a piloted mission to a near-Earth asteroid. One conclusion from this exercise was that a solar electric propulsion stage could reduce mission cost by reducing the required number of heavy lift launches and could increase mission reliability by providing a robust architecture for the long-duration crewed mission. Similarly, solar electric vehicles were identified as critical for missions to Mars, including orbiting Mars, landing on its surface, and visiting its moons. This paper describes the parameterized assessment of power and propulsion technologies for a piloted solar electric vehicle to a near-Earth asteroid. The objective of the assessment was to determine technology drivers to advance the state of the art of electric propulsion systems for human exploration. Sensitivity analyses on the performance characteristics of the propulsion and power systems were done to determine potential system-level impacts of improved technology. Starting with a "reasonable vehicle configuration" bounded by an assumed launch date, we introduced technology improvements to determine the system-level benefits (if any) that those technologies might provide. The results of this assessment are discussed and recommendations for future work are described.

  16. Application of Taguchi methods to dual mixture ratio propulsion system optimization for SSTO vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Douglas O.; Unal, Resit; Joyner, C. R.

    1992-01-01

    The application of advanced technologies to future launch vehicle designs would allow the introduction of a rocket-powered, single-stage-to-orbit (SSTO) launch system early in the next century. For a selected SSTO concept, a dual mixture ratio, staged combustion cycle engine that employs a number of innovative technologies was selected as the baseline propulsion system. A series of parametric trade studies are presented to optimize both a dual mixture ratio engine and a single mixture ratio engine of similar design and technology level. The effect of varying lift-off thrust-to-weight ratio, engine mode transition Mach number, mixture ratios, area ratios, and chamber pressure values on overall vehicle weight is examined. The sensitivity of the advanced SSTO vehicle to variations in each of these parameters is presented, taking into account the interaction of each of the parameters with each other. This parametric optimization and sensitivity study employs a Taguchi design method. The Taguchi method is an efficient approach for determining near-optimum design parameters using orthogonal matrices from design of experiments (DOE) theory. Using orthogonal matrices significantly reduces the number of experimental configurations to be studied. The effectiveness and limitations of the Taguchi method for propulsion/vehicle optimization studies as compared to traditional single-variable parametric trade studies is also discussed.

  17. A novel propulsion method for high-Tc superconducting maglev vehicle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Guangtong; Wang Jiasu; Wang Suyu; Liu Minxian; Jing Hua; Lu Yiyun; Lin Qunxu

    2008-01-01

    High-Tc superconducting (HTS) maglev is considered as a perfect transportation type because of its unique inherent stability. A direct current (DC) linear motor using the permanent magnet guideway (PMG) as the stator and the on-board coil as the rotor instead of the present inductive or synchronous alternate current (AC) linear motor which has an economic disadvantage due to the necessity to lay primary coil along the guideway is proposed in this paper. In order to modulate the magnetic field under the PMG, an inverse E shape ferromagnetic device (IESFD) core is designed. The possible winding method for the on-board coil is listed, and the analytical result shows that a considerable net ampere force and thus the propulsion force can be generated by this special structure. The influence of the concentrated effect of the IESFD on the maglev performance of HTS bulk is studied by a numerical program, and the results show that the levitation force with the IESFD is 90% of that without. It is also indicated that the load capability and lateral performance of the maglev vehicle combined this propulsion method can be improved thanks to the attractive effect between the IESFD and PMG. The cost of the HTS maglev vehicle will be remarkably reduced and then shorten the distance to practical application with this propulsion method

  18. REFINED MODEL OF THE OPTICAL SYSTEM FOR SPACE MINI-VEHICLES WITH LASER PROPULSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. Egorov

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Simulation results for on-board optical system of a space mini-vehicle with laser propulsion are presented. This system gives the possibility for receiving theremote laser radiation power independently of a system telescope mutual orientation to the vehicle orbiting direction. The on-board optical system is designed with the use of such optical elements as optical hinges and turrets. The system incorporates the optical switch that is a special optical system adapting optically both receiving telescope and laser propulsion engines. Modeling and numerical simulation of the system have been performed with the use of ZEMAX software (Radiant Ltd. The object matter of calculations lied in size definition of system optical elements, requirements to accuracy of their manufacturing and reciprocal adjusting to achieve an efficient radiation energy delivery to laser propulsion engine. Calculations have been performed with account to the limitations on the mini-vehicle mass, its overall dimensions, and radiation threshold density of the optical elements utilized. The requirements to the laser beam quality at the entrance aperture of laser propulsion engine have been considered too. State-of-the-art optical technologies make it possible to manufacture space reflectors made of CO-115M glassceramics with weight-reducing coefficient of 0.72 and the radiation threshold of 5 J/cm2 for the radiation with a 1.064 microns wavelength at 10-20 ns pulse duration. The optimal diameter of a receiving telescope primary mirror has been 0.5 m when a coordinated transmitting telescope diameter is equal to 1 m. This provides the reception of at least 84% of laser energy. The main losses of radiation energy are caused by improper installation of receiving telescope mirrors and by in-process errors arising at manufacturing the telescope mirrors with a parabolic surface. It is shown that requirements to the in-process admissible errors for the on-board optical system elements

  19. Launch Vehicle Performance for Bipropellant Propulsion Using Atomic Propellants With Oxygen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palaszewski, Bryan

    2000-01-01

    Atomic propellants for bipropellant launch vehicles using atomic boron, carbon, and hydrogen were analyzed. The gross liftoff weights (GLOW) and dry masses of the vehicles were estimated, and the 'best' design points for atomic propellants were identified. Engine performance was estimated for a wide range of oxidizer to fuel (O/F) ratios, atom loadings in the solid hydrogen particles, and amounts of helium carrier fluid. Rocket vehicle GLOW was minimized by operating at an O/F ratio of 1.0 to 3.0 for the atomic boron and carbon cases. For the atomic hydrogen cases, a minimum GLOW occurred when using the fuel as a monopropellant (O/F = 0.0). The atomic vehicle dry masses are also presented, and these data exhibit minimum values at the same or similar O/F ratios as those for the vehicle GLOW. A technology assessment of atomic propellants has shown that atomic boron and carbon rocket analyses are considered to be much more near term options than the atomic hydrogen rockets. The technology for storing atomic boron and carbon has shown significant progress, while atomic hydrogen is not able to be stored at the high densities needed for effective propulsion. The GLOW and dry mass data can be used to estimate the cost of future vehicles and their atomic propellant production facilities. The lower the propellant's mass, the lower the overall investment for the specially manufactured atomic propellants.

  20. Steady-state and dynamic evaluation of the electric propulsion system test bed vehicle on a road load simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dustin, M. O.

    1983-01-01

    The propulsion system of the Lewis Research Center's electric propulsion system test bed vehicle was tested on the road load simulator under the DOE Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Program. This propulsion system, consisting of a series-wound dc motor controlled by an infinitely variable SCR chopper and an 84-V battery pack, is typical of those used in electric vehicles made in 1976. Steady-state tests were conducted over a wide range of differential output torques and vehicle speeds. Efficiencies of all of the components were determined. Effects of temperature and voltage variations on the motor and the effect of voltage changes on the controller were examined. Energy consumption and energy efficiency for the system were determined over the B and C driving schedules of the SAE J227a test procedure.

  1. Heavy vehicle propulsion system materials program semiannual progress report for April 1998 thru September 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, D.R.

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of the Heavy Vehicle Propulsion System Materials Program is the development of materials: ceramics, intermetallics, metal alloys, and metal and ceramic coatings, to support the dieselization of class 1--3 trucks to realize a 35{percent} fuel-economy improvement over current gasoline-fueled trucks and to support commercialization of fuel-flexible LE-55 low-emissions, high-efficiency diesel engines for class 7--8 trucks. The Office of Transportation Technologies, Office of Heavy Vehicle Technologies (OTT OHVT) has an active program to develop the technology for advanced LE-55 diesel engines with 55{percent} efficiency and low emissions levels of 2.0 g/bhp-h NO{sub x} and 0.05 g/bhp-h particulates. The goal is also for the LE-55 engine to run on natural gas with efficiency approaching that of diesel fuel. The LE-55 program is being completed in FY 1997 and, after approximately 10 years of effort, has largely met the program goals of 55{percent} efficiency and low emissions. However, the commercialization of the LE-55 technology requires more durable materials than those that have been used to demonstrate the goals. Heavy Vehicle Propulsion System Materials will, in concert with the heavy-duty diesel engine companies, develop the durable materials required to commercialize the LE-55 technologies.

  2. Heavy vehicle propulsion system materials program: Semiannual progress report, April 1996--September 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, D.R.

    1997-04-01

    The purpose of the Heavy Vehicle Propulsion System Materials Program is the development of materials: ceramics, intermetallics, metal alloys, and metal and ceramic coatings, to support the dieselization of class 1-3 trucks to realize a 35% fuel-economy improvement over current gasoline-fueled trucks and to support commercialization of fuel-flexible LE-55 low-emissions, high-efficiency diesel engines for class 7-8 trucks. The Office of Transportation Technologies, Office of Heavy Vehicle Technologies (OTT OHVT) has an active program to develop the technology for advanced LE-55 diesel engines with 55% efficiency and low emissions levels of 2.0 g/bhp-h NO{sub x} and 0.05 g/bhp-h particulates. The goal is also for the LE-55 engine to run on natural gas with efficiency approaching that of diesel fuel. The LE-55 program is being completed in FY 1997 and, after approximately 10 years of effort, has largely met the program goals of 55% efficiency and low emissions. However, the commercialization of the LE-55 technology requires more durable materials than those that have been used to demonstrate the goals. Heavy Vehicle Propulsion System Materials will, in concert with the heavy duty diesel engine companies, develop the durable materials required to commercialize the LE-55 technologies. OTT OHVT also recognizes a significant opportunity for reduction in petroleum consumption by dieselization of pickup trucks, vans, and sport utility vehicles. Application of the diesel engine to class 1, 2, and 3 trucks is expected to yield a 35% increase in fuel economy per vehicle. The foremost barrier to diesel use in this market is emission control. Once an engine is made certifiable, subsequent challenges will be in cost; noise, vibration, and harshness (NVH); and performance. Separate abstracts have been submitted to the database for contributions to this report.

  3. Propulsion and Power Generation Capabilities of a Dense Plasma Focus (DPF) Fusion System for Future Military Aerospace Vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knecht, Sean D.; Mead, Franklin B.; Thomas, Robert E.; Miley, George H.; Froning, David

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this study was to perform a parametric evaluation of the performance and interface characteristics of a dense plasma focus (DPF) fusion system in support of a USAF advanced military aerospace vehicle concept study. This vehicle is an aerospace plane that combines clean 'aneutronic' dense plasma focus (DPF) fusion power and propulsion technology, with advanced 'lifting body'-like airframe configurations utilizing air-breathing MHD propulsion and power technology within a reusable single-stage-to-orbit (SSTO) vehicle. The applied approach was to evaluate the fusion system details (geometry, power, T/W, system mass, etc.) of a baseline p-11B DPF propulsion device with Q = 3.0 and thruster efficiency, ηprop = 90% for a range of thrust, Isp and capacitor specific energy values. The baseline details were then kept constant and the values of Q and ηprop were varied to evaluate excess power generation for communication systems, pulsed-train plasmoid weapons, ultrahigh-power lasers, and gravity devices. Thrust values were varied between 100 kN and 1,000 kN with Isp of 1,500 s and 2,000 s, while capacitor specific energy was varied from 1 - 15 kJ/kg. Q was varied from 3.0 to 6.0, resulting in gigawatts of excess power. Thruster efficiency was varied from 0.9 to 1.0, resulting in hundreds of megawatts of excess power. Resulting system masses were on the order of 10's to 100's of metric tons with thrust-to-weight ratios ranging from 2.1 to 44.1, depending on capacitor specific energy. Such a high thrust/high Isp system with a high power generation capability would allow military versatility in sub-orbital space, as early as 2025, and beyond as early as 2050. This paper presents the results that coincide with a total system mass between 15 and 20 metric tons

  4. 0-6763 : accounting for electric vehicles in air quality conformity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-01

    Electric vehicles (EVs) are broadly defined as : vehicles that obtain at least a part of the energy : required for their propulsion from electricity. This : research focused on the three main types of EVs: : Hybrid electric vehicles. : Plug-i...

  5. The effect of Reynolds number on the propulsive efficiency of a biomorphic pulsed-jet underwater vehicle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moslemi, Ali A; Krueger, Paul S

    2011-01-01

    The effect of Reynolds number on the propulsive efficiency of pulsed-jet propulsion was studied experimentally on a self-propelled, pulsed-jet underwater vehicle, dubbed Robosquid due to the similarity of its propulsion system with squid. Robosquid was tested for jet slug length-to-diameter ratios (L/D) in the range 2-6 and dimensionless frequency (St L ) in the range 0.2-0.6 in a glycerin-water mixture. Digital particle image velocimetry was used for measuring the impulse and energy of jet pulses from the velocity and vorticity fields of the jet flow to calculate the pulsed-jet propulsive efficiency, and compare it with an equivalent steady jet system. Robosquid's Reynolds number (Re) based on average vehicle velocity and vehicle diameter ranged between 37 and 60. The current results for propulsive efficiency were compared to the previously published results in water where Re ranged between 1300 and 2700. The results showed that the average propulsive efficiency decreased by 26% as the average Re decreased from 2000 to 50 while the ratio of pulsed-jet to steady jet efficiency (η P /η P,ss ) increased up to 0.15 (26%) as the Re decreased over the same range and for similar pulsing conditions. The improved η P /η P,ss at lower Re suggests that pulsed-jet propulsion can be used as an efficient propulsion system for millimeter-scale propulsion applications. The Re = 37-60 conditions in the present investigation, showed a reduced dependence of η P and η P /η P,ss on L/D compared to higher Re results. This may be due to the lack of clearly observed vortex ring pinch-off as L/D increased for this Re regime.

  6. Study and review of permanent magnets for electric vehicle propulsion motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strnat, K. J.

    1983-01-01

    A study of permanent magnets (PM) was performed in support of the DOE/NASA electric and hybrid vehicle program. PM requirements for electric propulsion motors are analyzed, design principles and relevant properties of magnets are discussed. Available PM types are reviewed. For the needed high-grade magnets, design data, commercial varieties and sources are tabulated, based on a survey of vendors. Economic factors such as raw material availability, production capability and cost are analyzed, especially for cobalt and the rare earths. Extruded Mn-Al-C magnets from Japan were experimentally characterized. Dynamic magnetic data for the range -50 deg to +150 deg C and some mechanical properties are reported. The state of development of the important PM material families is reviewed. Feasible improvements or new developments of magnets for electric vehicle motors are identified.

  7. Solar Electric Propulsion Technologies Being Designed for Orbit Transfer Vehicle Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarver-Verhey, Timothy R.; Hoffman, David J.; Kerslake, Thomas W.; Oleson, Steven R.; Falck, Robert D.

    2002-01-01

    There is increasing interest in employing Solar Electric Propulsion (SEP) for new missions requiring transfer from low Earth orbit to the Earth-Moon Lagrange point, L1. Mission architecture plans place the Gateway Habitat at L1 in the 2011 to 2016 timeframe. The Gateway Habitat is envisioned to be used for Lunar exploration, space telescopes, and planetary mission staging. In these scenarios, an SEP stage, or "tug," is used to transport payloads to L1--such as the habitat module, lunar excursion and return vehicles, and chemical propellant for return crew trips. SEP tugs are attractive because they are able to efficiently transport large (less than 10,000 kg) payloads while minimizing propellant requirements. To meet the needs of these missions, a preliminary conceptual design for a general-purpose SEP tug was developed that incorporates several of the advanced space power and in-space propulsion technologies (such as high-power gridded ion and Hall thrusters, high-performance thin-film photovoltaics, lithium-ion batteries, and advanced high-voltage power processing) being developed at the NASA Glenn Research Center. A spreadsheet-based vehicle system model was developed for component sizing and is currently being used for mission planning. This model incorporates a low-thrust orbit transfer algorithm to make preliminary determinations of transfer times and propellant requirements. Results from this combined tug mass estimation and orbit transfer model will be used in a higher fidelity trajectory model to refine the analysis.

  8. Estimates of the cost and energy consumption of aluminum-air electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, J. F.

    1980-11-01

    Economic costs and primary energy consumption are estimated for general purpose electric vehicles using aluminum-air propulsion batteries within the time frame of the 1990's (earliest possible date of introduction). For an aluminum-air fuel economy of 36 tonne/km/kg-Al (optimized low-gallium alloys), a total refueling cost of 5.6 cents/km (1979$) was estimated for a 1.27 tonne vehicle. This is equivalent to $2 to 3/gal for automobiles of the same weight with fuel economies of 13.5 to 19.3 tonne-km/liter. The total primary energy consumption was estimated to be 1.3 to 1.7 kWh/km (coal) for the electric vehicle, which corresponds roughly to the energy cost of the automobiles using liquid fuels synthesized from coal. The energy consumption is 30 to 70 percent greater than the reference automobile using petroleum-derived gasoline.

  9. Unmanned air vehicle (UAV) ultra-persitence research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dron, S. B.

    2012-03-01

    Sandia National Laboratories and Northrop Grumman Corporation Integrated Systems, Unmanned Systems (NGIS UMS) collaborated to further ultra-persistence technologies for unmanned air vehicles (UAVs). The greatest shortfalls in UAV capabilities have been repeatedly identified as (1) insufficient flight persistence or 'hang time,' (2) marginal electrical power for running higher power avionics and payload systems, and (3) inadequate communications bandwidth and reach. NGIS UMS requested support from Sandia to develop an ultra-persistent propulsion and power system (UP3S) for potential incorporation into next generation UAV systems. The team members tried to determine which energy storage and power generation concepts could most effectively push UAV propulsion and electrical power capabilities to increase UAV sortie duration from days to months while increasing available electrical power at least two-fold. Primary research and development areas that were pursued included these goals: perform general system engineering and integration analyses; develop initial thermal and electrical power estimates; provide mass, volume, dimensional, and balance estimates; conduct preliminary safety assessments; assess logistics support requirements; perform, preliminary assessments of any security and safeguards; evaluate options for removal, replacement, and disposition of materials; generally advance the potential of the UP3S concept. The effort contrasted and compared eight heat sources technologies, three power conversion, two dual cycle propulsion system configurations, and a single electrical power generation scheme. Overall performance, specific power parameters, technical complexities, security, safety, and other operational features were successfully investigated. Large and medium sized UAV systems were envisioned and operational flight profiles were developed for each concept. Heat source creation and support challenges for domestic and expeditionary operations were

  10. Single Stator Dual PM Rotor Synchronous Machine with two-frequency single-inverter control, for the propulsion of hybrid electric vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Topor Marcel

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces a novel brushless, single winding and single stator, dual PM rotor axial-air-gap machine capable to deliver independently torque at the two rotors by adequate dual vector control. The proposed topologies, the circuit model, controlled dynamics simulation and preliminary 3D FEM torque production on a case study constitute the core of the paper. The proposed dual mechanical port system should be instrumental in parallel (with planetary gears or series hybrid electric vehicles (HEV aiming at a more compact and efficient electric propulsion system solution.

  11. Fixed-Wing Micro Air Vehicles with Hovering Capabilities

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bataille, Boris; Poinsot, Damien; Thipyopas, Chinnapat; Moschetta, Jean-Marc

    2007-01-01

    Fixed-wing micro air vehicles (MAV) are very attractive for outdoor surveillance missions since they generally offer better payload and endurance capabilities than rotorcraft or flapping-wing vehicles of equal size...

  12. Geometry Modeling and Adaptive Control of Air-Breathing Hypersonic Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vick, Tyler Joseph

    Air-breathing hypersonic vehicles have the potential to provide global reach and affordable access to space. Recent technological advancements have made scramjet-powered flight achievable, as evidenced by the successes of the X-43A and X-51A flight test programs over the last decade. Air-breathing hypersonic vehicles present unique modeling and control challenges in large part due to the fact that scramjet propulsion systems are highly integrated into the airframe, resulting in strongly coupled and often unstable dynamics. Additionally, the extreme flight conditions and inability to test fully integrated vehicle systems larger than X-51 before flight leads to inherent uncertainty in hypersonic flight. This thesis presents a means to design vehicle geometries, simulate vehicle dynamics, and develop and analyze control systems for hypersonic vehicles. First, a software tool for generating three-dimensional watertight vehicle surface meshes from simple design parameters is developed. These surface meshes are compatible with existing vehicle analysis tools, with which databases of aerodynamic and propulsive forces and moments can be constructed. A six-degree-of-freedom nonlinear dynamics simulation model which incorporates this data is presented. Inner-loop longitudinal and lateral control systems are designed and analyzed utilizing the simulation model. The first is an output feedback proportional-integral linear controller designed using linear quadratic regulator techniques. The second is a model reference adaptive controller (MRAC) which augments this baseline linear controller with an adaptive element. The performance and robustness of each controller are analyzed through simulated time responses to angle-of-attack and bank angle commands, while various uncertainties are introduced. The MRAC architecture enables the controller to adapt in a nonlinear fashion to deviations from the desired response, allowing for improved tracking performance, stability, and

  13. Nonlinear dynamics of biomimetic micro air vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hou, Y; Kong, J [College of Mechanical Automation, Wuhan University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, 430081 (China)], E-mail: fly_houyu@163.com.cn

    2008-02-15

    Flapping-wing micro air vehicles (FMAV) are new conceptual air vehicles that mimic the flying modes of birds and insects. They surpass the research fields of traditional airplane design and aerodynamics on application technologies, and initiate the applications of MEMS technologies on aviation fields. This paper studies a micro flapping mechanism that based upon insect thorax and actuated by electrostatic force. Because there are strong nonlinear coupling between the two physical domains, electrical and mechanical, the static and dynamic characteristics of this system are very complicated. Firstly, the nonlinear dynamic model of the electromechanical coupling system is set up according to the physical model of the flapping mechanism. The dynamic response of the system in constant voltage is studied by numerical method. Then the effect of damping and initial condition on dynamic characteristics of the system is analyzed in phase space. In addition, the dynamic responses of the system in sine voltage excitation are discussed. The results of research are helpful to the design, fabrication and application of the micro flapping mechanism of FMAV, and also to other micro electromechanical system that actuated by electrostatic force.

  14. A conceptual study of the use of a particle bed reactor nuclear propulsion module for the orbital maneuvering vehicle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malloy, J.; Potekhen, D.

    1989-01-01

    This paper examines the use of a particle bed reactor nuclear engine for direct thrust in a spacecraft based on the NASA/TRW orbital maneuvering vehicle (OMV). It presents the conceptual design of a 500 lb thrust engine that matches critical design features of the existing OMV bi-propellant propulsion system. This application contrasts with the usual tendency to consider a nuclear heat source either for high thrust direct propulsion or as a power source for electric propulsion. A nuclear propulsion module adapted to the OMV could potentially accomplish several Department of Defense missions, such as multiple round trips from a space-based support platform at 280 NM to service a constellation of satellites orbiting at 1800 NM

  15. Tests of an alternating current propulsion subsystem for electric vehicles on a road load simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenger, F. J.

    1982-12-01

    The test results of a breadboard version of an ac electric-vehicle propulsion subsystem are presented. The breadboard was installed in the NASA Lewis Research Center Road Load Simulator facility and tested under steady-state and transient conditions. Steady-state tests were run to characterize the system and component efficiencies over the complete speed-torque range within the capability of the propulsion subsystem in the motoring mode of operation. Transient tests were performed to determine the energy consumption of the breadboard over the acceleration and cruise portions of SAE J227 and driving schedules B, C, and D. Tests in the regenerative mode were limited to the low-gear-speed range of the two speed transaxle used in the subsystem. The maximum steady-state subsystem efficiency observed for the breadboard was 81.5 percent in the high-gear-speed range in the motoring mode, and 76 percent in the regenerative braking mode (low gear). The subsystem energy efficiency during the transient tests ranged from 49.2 percent for schedule B to 68.4 percent for Schedule D.

  16. Research, development and demonstration of nickel-zinc batteries for electric vehicle propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-06-01

    The feasibility of the nickel zinc battery for electric vehicle propulsion is discussed. The program is divided into seven distinct but highly interactive tasks collectively aimed at the development and commercialization of nickel zinc technology. These basic technical tasks are separator development, electrode development, product design and analysis, cell/module battery testing, process development, pilot manufacturing, and thermal manufacturing, and thermal management. Significant progress has been made in the understanding of separator failure mechanisms, and a generic category of materials has been specified for the 300+ deep discharge applications. Shape change has been reduced significantly. Progress in the area of thermal management was significant, with the development of a model that accurately represents heat generation and rejection rates during battery operation.

  17. Membrane wing aerodynamics for micro air vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lian, Yongsheng; Shyy, Wei; Viieru, Dragos; Zhang, Baoning

    2003-10-01

    The aerodynamic performance of a wing deteriorates considerably as the Reynolds number decreases from 10 6 to 10 4. In particular, flow separation can result in substantial change in effective airfoil shape and cause reduced aerodynamic performance. Lately, there has been growing interest in developing suitable techniques for sustained and robust flight of micro air vehicles (MAVs) with a wingspan of 15 cm or smaller, flight speed around 10 m/ s, and a corresponding Reynolds number of 10 4-10 5. This paper reviews the aerodynamics of membrane and corresponding rigid wings under the MAV flight conditions. The membrane wing is observed to yield desirable characteristics in delaying stall as well as adapting to the unsteady flight environment, which is intrinsic to the designated flight speed. Flow structures associated with the low Reynolds number and low aspect ratio wing, such as pressure distribution, separation bubble and tip vortex are reviewed. Structural dynamics in response to the surrounding flow field is presented to highlight the multiple time-scale phenomena. Based on the computational capabilities for treating moving boundary problems, wing shape optimization can be conducted in automated manners. To enhance the lift, the effect of endplates is evaluated. The proper orthogonal decomposition method is also discussed as an economic tool to describe the flow structure around a wing and to facilitate flow and vehicle control.

  18. The USAF Electric Propulsion Program

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Spores, Ronald

    1999-01-01

    ...: Propulsion Directorate and Air Force Office of Scientific Research (AFOSR). The Propulsion Directorate conducts electric propulsion efforts in basic research, engineering development, and space experiments...

  19. Preliminary Design of the Low Speed Propulsion Air Intake of the LAPCAT-MR2 Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meerts, C.; Steelant, J.; Hendrick, P.

    2011-08-01

    A supersonic air intake has been designed for the low speed propulsion system of the LAPCAT-MR2 aircraft. Development has been based on the XB-70 aircraft air intake which achieves extremely high performances over a wide operation range through the combined use of variable geometry and porous wall suction for boundary layer control. Design of the LAPCAT-MR2 intake has been operated through CFD simulations using DLR TAU-Code (perfect gas model - Menter SST turbulence model). First, a new boundary condition has been validated into the DLR TAU-Code (perfect gas model) for porous wall suction modelling. Standard test cases have shown surprisingly good agreement with both theoretical predictions and experimental results. Based upon this validation, XB-70 air intake performances have been assessed through CFD simulations over the subsonic, transonic and supersonic operation regions and compared to available flight data. A new simulation strategy was deployed avoiding numerical instabilities when initiating the flow in both transonic and supersonic operation modes. First, the flow must be initiated with a far field Mach number higher than the target flight Mach number. Additionally, the inlet backpressure may only be increased to its target value once the oblique shock pattern downstream the intake compression ramps is converged. Simulations using that strategy have shown excellent agreement with in-flight measurements for both total pressure recovery ratio and variable geometry schedule prediction. The demarcation between stable and unstable operation could be well reproduced. Finally, a modified version of the XB-70 air intake has been integrated in the elliptical intake on the LAPCAT vehicle. Operation of this intake in the LAPCAT-MR2 environment is under evaluation using the same simulation strategy as the one developed for the XB-70. Performances are assessed at several key operation points to assess viability of this design. This information will allow in a next

  20. Dynamic analysis and design of air spring mounting system for marine propulsion system

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Lin; Xu, Wei; Bu, Wenjun; Shi, Liang

    2014-09-01

    Marine propulsion unit (MPU) is one of the dominant vibration and noise sources onboard ship. Its vibration can be attenuated effectively by isolating MPU with low-frequency mounting system. But this is difficult to implement due to the stringent requirement of MPU alignment with the propulsion shafting. In this paper a novel air spring mounting system (ASMS) for propulsion system is proposed consisting of air spring subsystem, alignment control subsystem and safety protection subsystem. The load distribution optimization method and dynamic model of ASMS are presented. The factors that affect system stability and natural frequencies are analyzed, as well as the design measures to enhance system performance. A theoretical model is presented to estimate the isolation effect of ASMS. The monitoring model of alignment between MPU and propulsion shafting is established, followed by the alignment control algorithm and converge rule which assures the fast and uniform convergence of both air springs load distribution and alignment control process. Safety protection mechanism is designed to ensure that the MPU can operate safely in case of ASMS failure or other extreme circumstances. A scaled ASMS prototype is manufactured and tested on a special experimental setup. Experimental results validate the effectiveness of theoretical models and show that the performance of ASMS satisfies the operation requirements of MPU.

  1. Accounting for electric vehicles in air quality conformity \\0x2012 final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    Electric vehicles (EVs) obtain at least a part of the energy required for their propulsion from electricity. The : market for EVs, including hybrid, plug-in hybrid, and battery electric vehicles continues to grow, as many : new and affordable models ...

  2. Heavy Vehicle Propulsion System Materials Program semiannual progress report for October 1996 through March 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-07-01

    The purpose of the Heavy Vehicle Propulsion System Materials Program is the development of materials: ceramics, intermetallics, metal alloys, and metal and ceramic coatings, to support the dieselization of class 1-3 trucks to realize a 35% fuel-economy improvement over current gasoline-fueled trucks and to support commercialization of fuel-flexible LE-55 low-emissions, high-efficiency diesel engines for class 7-8 trucks. The design of advanced components for high-efficiency diesel engines has, in some cases, pushed the performance envelope for materials of construction past the point of reliable operation. Higher mechanical and tribological stresses and higher temperatures of advanced designs limit the engine designers; advanced materials allow the design of components that may operate reliably at higher stresses and temperatures, thus enabling more efficient engine designs. Advanced materials also offer the opportunity to improve the emissions, NVH, and performance of diesel engines for pickup trucks, vans, and sport utility vehicles. The principal areas of research are: (1) cost effective high performance materials and processing; (2) advanced manufacturing technology; (3) testing and characterization; and (4) materials and testing standards.

  3. Vibration survey of internal combustion engines for use on unmanned air vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duanis, B.

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes the method, the procedure and data results of engine vibration test which is carried out on engines for use on unmanned air vehicles. The paper focuses on the testing of rotating propulsion systems powered by an internal combustion engine which is composed of main rotating components such as the alternator, gearbox, propeller , dampers and couplings. Three measurement methods for measuring torsional and lateral vibrations are presented: a. Gear tooth pulse signal. b. Shaft Strain Gage. c. Laser Displacement Sensors The paper also presents data from tests which were performed using each method and discusses the applications, the advantages and disadvantages of each method

  4. Concept for a shuttle-tended reusable interplanetary transport vehicle using nuclear electric propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, R. Y.; Elliot, J. C.; Spilker, T. R.; Grayson, C. M.

    2003-01-01

    NASA has placed new emphasis on the development of advanced propulsion technologies including Nuclear Electric Propulsion (NEP). This technology would provide multiple benefits including high delta-V capability and high power for long duration spacecraft operations.

  5. Air-Conditioning for Electric Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popinski, Z.

    1984-01-01

    Combination of ammonia-absorption refrigerator, roof-mounted solar collectors, and 200 degrees C service electric-vehicle motor provides evaporative space-heating/space cooling system for electric-powered and hybrid fuel/electric vehicles.

  6. Perspective on One Decade of Laser Propulsion Research at the Air Force Research Laboratory, November 1995-2005 (DVD)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2007-01-01

    .... PHYSICAL DESCRIPTION: 1 DVD-ROM and 1 CD-ROM; 4 3/4 in.; 395 MB. ABSTRACT: A short film and presentation on laser propulsion research at the Air Force Research Laboratory, spanning November 1995 through October 2005...

  7. Intelligent neuroprocessors for in-situ launch vehicle propulsion systems health management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulati, S.; Tawel, R.; Thakoor, A. P.

    1993-01-01

    Efficacy of existing on-board propulsion systems health management systems (HMS) are severely impacted by computational limitations (e.g., low sampling rates); paradigmatic limitations (e.g., low-fidelity logic/parameter redlining only, false alarms due to noisy/corrupted sensor signatures, preprogrammed diagnostics only); and telemetry bandwidth limitations on space/ground interactions. Ultra-compact/light, adaptive neural networks with massively parallel, asynchronous, fast reconfigurable and fault-tolerant information processing properties have already demonstrated significant potential for inflight diagnostic analyses and resource allocation with reduced ground dependence. In particular, they can automatically exploit correlation effects across multiple sensor streams (plume analyzer, flow meters, vibration detectors, etc.) so as to detect anomaly signatures that cannot be determined from the exploitation of single sensor. Furthermore, neural networks have already demonstrated the potential for impacting real-time fault recovery in vehicle subsystems by adaptively regulating combustion mixture/power subsystems and optimizing resource utilization under degraded conditions. A class of high-performance neuroprocessors, developed at JPL, that have demonstrated potential for next-generation HMS for a family of space transportation vehicles envisioned for the next few decades, including HLLV, NLS, and space shuttle is presented. Of fundamental interest are intelligent neuroprocessors for real-time plume analysis, optimizing combustion mixture-ratio, and feedback to hydraulic, pneumatic control systems. This class includes concurrently asynchronous reprogrammable, nonvolatile, analog neural processors with high speed, high bandwidth electronic/optical I/O interfaced, with special emphasis on NASA's unique requirements in terms of performance, reliability, ultra-high density ultra-compactness, ultra-light weight devices, radiation hardened devices, power stringency

  8. Improved transistor-controlled and commutated brushless DC motors for electric vehicle propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demerdash, N. A.; Miller, R. H.; Nehl, T. W.; Nyamusa, T. A.

    1983-01-01

    The development, design, construction, and testing processes of two electronically (transistor) controlled and commutated permanent magnet brushless dc machine systems, for propulsion of electric vehicles are detailed. One machine system was designed and constructed using samarium cobalt for permanent magnets, which supply the rotor (field) excitation. Meanwhile, the other machine system was designed and constructed with strontium ferrite permanent magnets as the source of rotor (field) excitation. These machine systems were designed for continuous rated power output of 15 hp (11.2 kw), and a peak one minute rated power output of 35 hp (26.1 kw). Both power ratings are for a rated voltage of 115 volts dc, assuming a voltage drop in the source (battery) of about 5 volts. That is, an internal source voltage of 120 volts dc. Machine-power conditioner system computer-aided simulations were used extensively in the design process. These simulations relied heavily on the magnetic field analysis in these machines using the method of finite elements, as well as methods of modeling of the machine power conditioner system dynamic interaction. These simulation processes are detailed. Testing revealed that typical machine system efficiencies at 15 hp (11.2 kw) were about 88% and 84% for the samarium cobalt and strontium ferrite based machine systems, respectively. Both systems met the peak one minute rating of 35 hp.

  9. Air change rates of motor vehicles and in-vehicle pollutant concentrations from secondhand smoke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ott, Wayne; Klepeis, Neil; Switzer, Paul

    2008-05-01

    The air change rates of motor vehicles are relevant to the sheltering effect from air pollutants entering from outside a vehicle and also to the interior concentrations from any sources inside its passenger compartment. We made more than 100 air change rate measurements on four motor vehicles under moving and stationary conditions; we also measured the carbon monoxide (CO) and fine particle (PM(2.5)) decay rates from 14 cigarettes smoked inside the vehicle. With the vehicle stationary and the fan off, the ventilation rate in air changes per hour (ACH) was less than 1 h(-1) with the windows closed and increased to 6.5 h(-1) with one window fully opened. The vehicle speed, window position, ventilation system, and air conditioner setting was found to affect the ACH. For closed windows and passive ventilation (fan off and no recirculation), the ACH was linearly related to the vehicle speed over the range from 15 to 72 mph (25 to 116 km h(-1)). With a vehicle moving, windows closed, and the ventilation system off (or the air conditioner set to AC Max), the ACH was less than 6.6 h(-1) for speeds ranging from 20 to 72 mph (32 to 116 km h(-1)). Opening a single window by 3'' (7.6 cm) increased the ACH by 8-16 times. For the 14 cigarettes smoked in vehicles, the deposition rate k and the air change rate a were correlated, following the equation k=1.3a (R(2)=82%; n=14). With recirculation on (or AC Max) and closed windows, the interior PM(2.5) concentration exceeded 2000 microg m(-3) momentarily for all cigarettes tested, regardless of speed. The concentration time series measured inside the vehicle followed the mathematical solutions of the indoor mass balance model, and the 24-h average personal exposure to PM(2.5) could exceed 35 microg m(-3) for just two cigarettes smoked inside the vehicle.

  10. Research, development and demonstration of nickel-zinc batteries for electric vehicle propulsion. Annual report for 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-10-01

    This is the first annual report describing progress in the 33-month cooperative program between Argonne National Laboratory and Gould Inc.'s Nickel-Zinc/Electric Vehicle Project. The purpose of the program is to demonstrate the technical and economic feasibility of the nickel-zinc battery for electric vehicle propulsion. The successful completion of the program will qualify the nickel-zinc battery for use in the Department of Energy's demonstration program under the auspices of Public Law 94-413.

  11. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory Electric and Hybrid Vehicle System Research and Development Project, 1977-1984: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtz, D.; Roan, V.

    1985-01-01

    The JPL Electric and Hybrid Vehicle System Research and Development Project was established in the spring of 1977. Originally administered by the Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA) and later by the Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Division of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the overall Program objective was to decrease this nation's dependence on foreign petroleum sources by developing the technologies and incentives necessary to bring electric and hybrid vehicles successfully into the marketplace. The ERDA/DOE Program structure was divided into two major elements: (1) technology research and system development and (2) field demonstration and market development. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) has been one of several field centers supporting the former Program element. In that capacity, the specific historical areas of responsibility have been: (1) Vehicle system developments (2) System integration and test (3) Supporting subsystem development (4) System assessments (5) Simulation tool development.

  12. Aerodynamic Efficiency Enhancements for Air Vehicles, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The need for aerodynamics-based efficiency enhancements for air vehicles is presented. Concepts are presented for morphing aircraft, to enable the aircraft to...

  13. Aerodynamic Efficiency Enhancements for Air Vehicles, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The need for aerodynamics-based efficiency enhancements for air vehicles is presented. The results of the Phase I investigation of concepts for morphing aircraft are...

  14. Flexible Soldier and Machine Interface for Micro Air Vehicles

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Costello, Mark; Beyer, Eric

    2006-01-01

    ...) was to provide basic connectivity to the air vehicle sensor suite. This includes the ability to send and receive control parameters, servo calibration parameters, sensor calibration parameters, and mission waypoints...

  15. How motor vehicles contribute to global warming and air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1990-01-01

    In this chapter, the authors describe ways in which motor vehicles are contributing to global climate change and health problems caused by air pollution. Globally, motor vehicles account for about a third of world oil consumption and about 14% of the world's carbon dioxide emissions from fossil fuel burning. For the US the figures are 50% of oil demand and about 25% of carbon dioxide emissions. Motor vehicles are the major source of ozone precursors and monitoring data suggest that ozone concentrations are increasing by about one percent per year in the northern hemisphere and are causing adverse effects on human health and on crops. A major source of chlorofluorocarbons in the atmosphere is motor vehicle air conditioning. Annually about 120,000 metric tons of CFCs are used in new vehicles and in serving air conditioners in older vehicles. According to the EPA, vehicle air conditioners accounted for about 16% of the total CFC use in the US during 1989. According to the Montreal Protocol, CFCs are to be completely phased out of new vehicles by the turn of the century, thus reducing the depletion of the stratospheric ozone layer

  16. On the Costs of Air Pollution from Motor Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Small, Kenneth A.; Kazimi, Camilla

    1995-01-01

    Air pollution is frequently the stated reason for special measures aimed at controlling motor vehicles. In the United States, motor vehicle emission standards are set explicitly in clean air legislation, while policies at several levels of government are designed to reduce the use of cars for particular purposes like commuting. In Europe, high fuel taxes and subsidies to urban mass transit and intercity rail travel in large part aim to reduce car use.

  17. Machine & electrical double control air dryer for vehicle air braking system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xuan; Yang, Liu; Wang, Xian Yan; Tan, Xiao Yan; Wang, Wei

    2017-09-01

    As is known to all, a vehicle air brake system, in which usually contains moisture. To solve the problem, it is common to use air dryer to dry compressed air effectively and completely remove the moisture and oil of braking system. However, the existing air dryer is not suitable for all commercial vehicles. According to the operational status of the new energy vehicles in the initial operating period, the structure design principle of the machine & electric control air dryer is expounded from the aspects of the structure and operating principle, research & development process.

  18. CFD based aerodynamic modeling to study flight dynamics of a flapping wing micro air vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rege, Alok Ashok

    The demand for small unmanned air vehicles, commonly termed micro air vehicles or MAV's, is rapidly increasing. Driven by applications ranging from civil search-and-rescue missions to military surveillance missions, there is a rising level of interest and investment in better vehicle designs, and miniaturized components are enabling many rapid advances. The need to better understand fundamental aspects of flight for small vehicles has spawned a surge in high quality research in the area of micro air vehicles. These aircraft have a set of constraints which are, in many ways, considerably different from that of traditional aircraft and are often best addressed by a multidisciplinary approach. Fast-response non-linear controls, nano-structures, integrated propulsion and lift mechanisms, highly flexible structures, and low Reynolds aerodynamics are just a few of the important considerations which may be combined in the execution of MAV research. The main objective of this thesis is to derive a consistent nonlinear dynamic model to study the flight dynamics of micro air vehicles with a reasonably accurate representation of aerodynamic forces and moments. The research is divided into two sections. In the first section, derivation of the nonlinear dynamics of flapping wing micro air vehicles is presented. The flapping wing micro air vehicle (MAV) used in this research is modeled as a system of three rigid bodies: a body and two wings. The design is based on an insect called Drosophila Melanogaster, commonly known as fruit-fly. The mass and inertial effects of the wing on the body are neglected for the present work. The nonlinear dynamics is simulated with the aerodynamic data published in the open literature. The flapping frequency is used as the control input. Simulations are run for different cases of wing positions and the chosen parameters are studied for boundedness. Results show a qualitative inconsistency in boundedness for some cases, and demand a better

  19. Vehicle and Mission Design Options for the Human Exploration of Mars/Phobos Using "Bimodal" NTR and LANTR Propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borowski, Stanley K.; Dudzinski, Leonard A.; McGuire, Melissa L.

    2002-12-01

    The nuclear thermal rocket (NTR) is one of the leading propulsion options for future human missions to Mars because of its high specific impulse (1sp is approximately 850-1000 s) capability and its attractive engine thrust-to-weight ratio (approximately 3-10). To stay within the available mass and payload volume limits of a "Magnum" heavy lift vehicle, a high performance propulsion system is required for trans-Mars injection (TMI). An expendable TMI stage, powered by three 15 thousand pounds force (klbf) NTR engines is currently under consideration by NASA for its Design Reference Mission (DRM). However, because of the miniscule burnup of enriched uranium-235 during the Earth departure phase (approximately 10 grams out of 33 kilograms in each NTR core), disposal of the TMI stage and its engines after a single use is a costly and inefficient use of this high performance stage. By reconfiguring the engines for both propulsive thrust and modest power generation (referred to as "bimodal" operation), a robust, multiple burn, "power-rich" stage with propulsive Mars capture and reuse capability is possible. A family of modular bimodal NTR (BNTR) vehicles are described which utilize a common "core" stage powered by three 15 klbf BNTRs that produce 50 kWe of total electrical power for crew life support, an active refrigeration / reliquification system for long term, zero-boiloff liquid hydrogen (LH2) storage, and high data rate communications. An innovative, spine-like "saddle truss" design connects the core stage and payload element and is open underneath to allow supplemental "in-line" propellant tanks and contingency crew consumables to be easily jettisoned to improve vehicle performance. A "modified" DRM using BNTR transfer vehicles requires fewer transportation system elements, reduces IMLEO and mission risk, and simplifies space operations. By taking the next logical step--use of the BNTR for propulsive capture of all payload elements into Mars orbit--the power

  20. Neural network control of a parallel hybrid-electric propulsion system for a small unmanned aerial vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmon, Frederick G.

    2005-11-01

    Parallel hybrid-electric propulsion systems would be beneficial for small unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) used for military, homeland security, and disaster-monitoring missions. The benefits, due to the hybrid and electric-only modes, include increased time-on-station and greater range as compared to electric-powered UAVs and stealth modes not available with gasoline-powered UAVs. This dissertation contributes to the research fields of small unmanned aerial vehicles, hybrid-electric propulsion system control, and intelligent control. A conceptual design of a small UAV with a parallel hybrid-electric propulsion system is provided. The UAV is intended for intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance (ISR) missions. A conceptual design reveals the trade-offs that must be considered to take advantage of the hybrid-electric propulsion system. The resulting hybrid-electric propulsion system is a two-point design that includes an engine primarily sized for cruise speed and an electric motor and battery pack that are primarily sized for a slower endurance speed. The electric motor provides additional power for take-off, climbing, and acceleration and also serves as a generator during charge-sustaining operation or regeneration. The intelligent control of the hybrid-electric propulsion system is based on an instantaneous optimization algorithm that generates a hyper-plane from the nonlinear efficiency maps for the internal combustion engine, electric motor, and lithium-ion battery pack. The hyper-plane incorporates charge-depletion and charge-sustaining strategies. The optimization algorithm is flexible and allows the operator/user to assign relative importance between the use of gasoline, electricity, and recharging depending on the intended mission. A MATLAB/Simulink model was developed to test the control algorithms. The Cerebellar Model Arithmetic Computer (CMAC) associative memory neural network is applied to the control of the UAVs parallel hybrid

  1. Preliminary energy use and economic analysis of the aluminum-air battery for automotive propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, C. L.; Putnam, E. S.

    1980-04-01

    Cost and energy parameters were analyzed based on existing technology and resource pricing structures. The results of these status quo assessments were critiqued in the light of potential changes in technology and resource prices. Estimates of the operating characteristics of the vehicle were made on the basis of laboratory test results, performance simulation model test results, and hypotheses on the refueling infrastructural scenario. If the amount of energy currently used to produce aluminum remains the same, the energy efficiency of the aluminum air battery vehicle in 2000 was estimated to be less than the energy efficiency of future vehicles operating on coal-derived methanol or gasoline.

  2. Monitoring space shuttle air quality using the Jet Propulsion Laboratory electronic nose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Margaret Amy; Zhou, Hanying; Buehler, Martin G.; Manatt, Kenneth S.; Mowrey, Victoria S.; Jackson, Shannon P.; Kisor, Adam K.; Shevade, Abhijit V.; Homer, Margie L.

    2004-01-01

    A miniature electronic nose (ENose) has been designed and built at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), Pasadena, CA, and was designed to detect, identify, and quantify ten common contaminants and relative humidity changes. The sensing array includes 32 sensing films made from polymer carbon-black composites. Event identification and quantification were done using the Levenberg-Marquart nonlinear least squares method. After successful ground training, this ENose was used in a demonstration experiment aboard STS-95 (October-November, 1998), in which the ENose was operated continuously for six days and recorded the sensors' response to the air in the mid-deck. Air samples were collected daily and analyzed independently after the flight. Changes in shuttle-cabin humidity were detected and quantified by the JPL ENose; neither the ENose nor the air samples detected any of the contaminants on the target list. The device is microgravity insensitive.

  3. Range-extending Zinc-air battery for electric vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven B. Sherman

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A vehicle model is used to evaluate a novel powertrain that is comprised of a dual energy storage system (Dual ESS. The system includes two battery packs with different chemistries and the necessary electronic controls to facilitate their coordination and optimization. Here, a lithium-ion battery pack is used as the primary pack and a Zinc-air battery as the secondary or range-extending pack. Zinc-air batteries are usually considered unsuitable for use in vehicles due to their poor cycle life, but the model demonstrates the feasibility of this technology with an appropriate control strategy, with limited cycling of the range extender pack. The battery pack sizes and the battery control strategy are configured to optimize range, cost and longevity. In simulation the vehicle performance compares favourably to a similar vehicle with a single energy storage system (Single ESS powertrain, travelling up to 75 km further under test conditions. The simulation demonstrates that the Zinc-air battery pack need only cycle 100 times to enjoy a ten-year lifespan. The Zinc-air battery model is based on leading Zinc-air battery research from literature, with some assumptions regarding achievable improvements. Having such a model clarifies the performance requirements of Zinc-air cells and improves the research community's ability to set performance targets for Zinc-air cells.

  4. 77 FR 3386 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Pennsylvania; Clean Vehicles Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-24

    ... Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Pennsylvania; Clean Vehicles Program AGENCY: Environmental... vehicles (LEV II). The Clean Air Act (CAA) contains specific authority allowing any state to adopt new... CFR Part 52 Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Incorporation by reference...

  5. Heavy vehicle propulsion system materials program semi-annual progress report for October 1997 through March 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, D.R.

    1998-06-01

    The purpose of the Heavy Vehicle Propulsion System materials Program is the development of materials: ceramics, intermetallics, metal alloys, and metal and ceramic coatings, to support the dieselization of class 1--3 trucks to realize a 35{percent} fuel-economy improvement over current gasoline-fueled trucks and to support commercialization of fuel-flexible LE-55 low-emissions, high-efficiency diesel engines for class 7--8 trucks. The Office of Transportation Technologies, Office of Heavy Vehicle Technologies (OTT OHVT) has an active program to develop the technology for advanced LE-55 diesel engines with 55{percent} efficiency and low emissions levels of 2.0 g/bhp-h NO{sub x} and 0.05 g/bhp-h particulates. The goal is also for the LE-55 engine to run on natural gas with efficiency approaching that of diesel fuel. The LE-55 program is being completed in FY 1997 and, after approximately 10 years of effort, has largely met the program goals of 55{percent} efficiency and low emissions. However, the commercialization of the LE-55 technology requires more durable materials than those that have been used to demonstrate the goals. Heavy Vehicle Propulsion System Materials will, in concert with the heavy-duty diesel engine companies, develop the durable materials required to commercialize the LE-55 technologies.

  6. Scaling Flight Tests of Unmanned Air Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-09-01

    wind tunnel experiments, the wind tunnel remains one of the most widely used, useful tools in the field of aerodynamics. Other Scaled Vehicles and...propensity of automobiles. In other research carried out at the University of Delft, Netherlands, the project DAVINCI was developed for

  7. Wind and water tunnel testing of a morphing aquatic micro air vehicle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddall, Robert; Ortega Ancel, Alejandro; Kovač, Mirko

    2017-02-06

    Aerial robots capable of locomotion in both air and water would enable novel mission profiles in complex environments, such as water sampling after floods or underwater structural inspections. The design of such a vehicle is challenging because it implies significant propulsive and structural design trade-offs for operation in both fluids. In this paper, we present a unique Aquatic Micro Air Vehicle (AquaMAV), which uses a reconfigurable wing to dive into the water from flight, inspired by the plunge diving strategy of water diving birds in the family Sulidae . The vehicle's performance is investigated in wind and water tunnel experiments, from which we develop a planar trajectory model. This model is used to predict the dive behaviour of the AquaMAV, and investigate the efficacy of passive dives initiated by wing folding as a means of water entry. The paper also includes first field tests of the AquaMAV prototype where the folding wings are used to initiate a plunge dive.

  8. Space transportation propulsion USSR launcher technology, 1990

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    Space transportation propulsion U.S.S.R. launcher technology is discussed. The following subject areas are covered: Energia background (launch vehicle summary, Soviet launcher family) and Energia propulsion characteristics (booster propulsion, core propulsion, and growth capability).

  9. Effect of Intake Air Filter Condition on Vehicle Fuel Economy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norman, Kevin M [ORNL; Huff, Shean P [ORNL; West, Brian H [ORNL

    2009-02-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) jointly maintain a fuel economy website (www.fueleconomy.gov), which helps fulfill their responsibility under the Energy Policy Act of 1992 to provide accurate fuel economy information [in miles per gallon (mpg)] to consumers. The site provides information on EPA fuel economy ratings for passenger cars and light trucks from 1985 to the present and other relevant information related to energy use such as alternative fuels and driving and vehicle maintenance tips. In recent years, fluctuations in the price of crude oil and corresponding fluctuations in the price of gasoline and diesel fuels have renewed interest in vehicle fuel economy in the United States. (User sessions on the fuel economy website exceeded 20 million in 2008 compared to less than 5 million in 2004 and less than 1 million in 2001.) As a result of this renewed interest and the age of some of the references cited in the tips section of the website, DOE authorized the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Fuels, Engines, and Emissions Research Center (FEERC) to initiate studies to validate and improve these tips. This report documents a study aimed specifically at the effect of engine air filter condition on fuel economy. The goal of this study was to explore the effects of a clogged air filter on the fuel economy of vehicles operating over prescribed test cycles. Three newer vehicles (a 2007 Buick Lucerne, a 2006 Dodge Charger, and a 2003 Toyota Camry) and an older carbureted vehicle were tested. Results show that clogging the air filter has no significant effect on the fuel economy of the newer vehicles (all fuel injected with closed-loop control and one equipped with MDS). The engine control systems were able to maintain the desired AFR regardless of intake restrictions, and therefore fuel consumption was not increased. The carbureted engine did show a decrease in

  10. Open tube guideway for high speed air cushioned vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goering, R. S. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    This invention is a tubular shaped guideway for high-speed air-cushioned supported vehicles. The tubular guideway is split and separated such that the sides of the guideway are open. The upper portion of the tubular guideway is supported above the lower portion by truss-like structural members. The lower portion of the tubular guideway may be supported by the terrain over which the vehicle travels, on pedestals or some similar structure.

  11. Electric Vehicle Preparedness - Implementation Approach for Electric Vehicles at Naval Air Station Whidbey Island. Task 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schey, Stephen [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Francfort, Jim [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-06-01

    Several U.S. Department of Defense base studies have been conducted to identify potential U.S. Department of Defense transportation systems that are strong candidates for introduction or expansion of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs). This study is focused on the Naval Air Station Whidbey Island (NASWI) located in Washington State. Task 1 consisted of a survey of the non-tactical fleet of vehicles at NASWI to begin the review of vehicle mission assignments and types of vehicles in service. In Task 2, daily operational characteristics of vehicles were identified to select vehicles for further monitoring and attachment of data loggers. Task 3 recorded vehicle movements in order to characterize the vehicles’ missions. The results of the data analysis and observations were provided. Individual observations of the selected vehicles provided the basis for recommendations related to PEV adoption, i.e., whether a battery electric vehicle (BEV) or plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) (collectively PEVs) can fulfill the mission requirements. It also provided the basis for recommendations related to placement of PEV charging infrastructure. This report focuses on an implementation plan for the near-term adoption of PEVs into the NASWI fleet.

  12. The aluminum-air battery for electric vehicles - An update

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-11-01

    The development of aluminum-air batteries as mechanically rechargeable power sources to be used in electric vehicles is discussed. The chemistry of the aluminum-air battery, which has a potential for providing the range, acceleration and rapid refueling capability of contemporary automobiles and is based on the reaction of aluminum metal with atmospheric oxygen in the presence of an aqueous sodium hydroxide/sodium aluminate electrolyte, is examined, and it is pointed out that the electric vehicle would be practically emissionless. The battery development program at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, which includes evaluations of electrochemical and chemical phenomena, studies of the economics and energy balance of a transportation system based on aluminum, and power cell design and performance analysis, is presented. It is concluded that although difficult problems must be overcome before the technical and economic feasibility of aluminum-air batteries for electric vehicles can be established, projections indicate that the aluminum-air vehicle is potentially competitive with internal combustion vehicles powered by synthetic liquid fuels.

  13. Powersail High Power Propulsion System Design Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulczinski, Frank S., III

    2000-11-01

    A desire by the United States Air Force to exploit the space environment has led to a need for increased on-orbit electrical power availability. To enable this, the Air Force Research Laboratory Space Vehicles Directorate (AFRL/ VS) is developing Powersail: a two-phased program to demonstrate high power (100 kW to 1 MW) capability in space using a deployable, flexible solar array connected to the host spacecraft using a slack umbilical. The first phase will be a proof-of-concept demonstration at 50 kW, followed by the second phase, an operational system at full power. In support of this program, the AFRL propulsion Directorate's Spacecraft Propulsion Branch (AFRL/PRS ) at Edwards AFB has commissioned a design study of the Powersail High Power Propulsion System. The purpose of this study, the results of which are summarized in this paper, is to perform mission and design trades to identify potential full-power applications (both near-Earth and interplanetary) and the corresponding propulsion system requirements and design. The design study shall farther identify a suitable low power demonstration flight that maximizes risk reduction for the fully operational system. This propulsion system is expected to be threefold: (1) primary propulsion for moving the entire vehicle, (2) a propulsion unit that maintains the solar array position relative to the host spacecraft, and (3) control propulsion for maintaining proper orientation for the flexible solar array.

  14. Measurement of Vehicle Air Conditioning Pull-Down Period

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, John F [ORNL; Huff, Shean P [ORNL; Moore, Larry G [ORNL; West, Brian H [ORNL

    2016-08-01

    Air conditioner usage was characterized for high heat-load summer conditions during short driving trips using a 2009 Ford Explorer and a 2009 Toyota Corolla. Vehicles were parked in the sun with windows closed to allow the cabin to become hot. Experiments were conducted by entering the instrumented vehicles in this heated condition and driving on-road with the windows up and the air conditioning set to maximum cooling, maximum fan speed and the air flow setting to recirculate cabin air rather than pull in outside humid air. The main purpose was to determine the length of time the air conditioner system would remain at or very near maximum cooling power under these severe-duty conditions. Because of the variable and somewhat uncontrolled nature of the experiments, they serve only to show that for short vehicle trips, air conditioning can remain near or at full cooling capacity for 10-minutes or significantly longer and the cabin may be uncomfortably warm during much of this time.

  15. Motor vehicle-related air toxics study. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-04-01

    Section 202 (1)(1) of the Clean Air Act (CAA), as amended (Section 206 of the Clean Air Act Amendments) (CAAA) of 1990 added paragraph (1) to Section 202 of the (CAA), directs the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to complete a study by May 15, 1992 of the need for, and feasibility of, controlling emissions of toxic air pollutants which are unregulated under the Act and associated with motor vehicles and motor vehicle fuels. The report has been prepared in response to Section 202 (1)(1). Specific pollutants or pollutant categories which are discussed in the report include benezene, formaldehyde, 1,3-butadiene, acetaldehyde, diesel particulate matter, gasoline particulate matter, and gasoline vapors as well as certain of the metals and motor vehicle-related pollutants identified in Section 112 of the Clean Air Act. The focus of the report is on carcinogenic risk. The study attempts to summarize what is known about motor vehicle-related air toxics and to present all significant scientific opinion on each issue

  16. 78 FR 32223 - Control of Air Pollution From Motor Vehicles: Tier 3 Motor Vehicle Emission and Fuel Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-29

    ...-OAR-2011-0135; FRL-9818-5] RIN 2060-A0 Control of Air Pollution From Motor Vehicles: Tier 3 Motor... extension of the public comment period for the proposed rule ``Control of Air Pollution from Motor Vehicles: Tier 3 Motor Vehicle Emission and Fuel Standards'' (the proposed rule is hereinafter referred to as...

  17. Cooperative Electronic Attack using Unmanned Air Vehicles

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mears, Mark J

    2006-01-01

    ... that are salient in the context of cooperative control. The utility of electronic attack is described in the context of integrated air defense systems that rely on RADAR sites that act as a network to gather information about potential airborne threats...

  18. A method for determining optimum phasing of a multiphase propulsion system for a single-stage vehicle with linearized inert weight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, J. A.

    1974-01-01

    A general analytical treatment is presented of a single-stage vehicle with multiple propulsion phases. A closed-form solution for the cost and for the performance and a derivation of the optimal phasing of the propulsion are included. Linearized variations in the inert weight elements are included, and the function to be minimized can be selected. The derivation of optimal phasing results in a set of nonlinear algebraic equations for optimal fuel volumes, for which a solution method is outlined. Three specific example cases are analyzed: minimum gross lift-off weight, minimum inert weight, and a minimized general function for a two-phase vehicle. The results for the two-phase vehicle are applied to the dual-fuel rocket. Comparisons with single-fuel vehicles indicate that dual-fuel vehicles can have lower inert weight either by development of a dual-fuel engine or by parallel burning of separate engines from lift-off.

  19. Dual rotor single- stator axial air gap PMSM motor/generator drive for high torque vehicles applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    University of Timisoara, Electrical Engineering Department, Vasile Parvan str., no. 1-2, 300223 Timisoara (Romania))" data-affiliation=" (Politehnica University of Timisoara, Electrical Engineering Department, Vasile Parvan str., no. 1-2, 300223 Timisoara (Romania))" >Tutelea, L N; University of Timisoara, Electrical Engineering Department, Vasile Parvan str., no. 1-2, 300223 Timisoara (Romania))" data-affiliation=" (Politehnica University of Timisoara, Electrical Engineering Department, Vasile Parvan str., no. 1-2, 300223 Timisoara (Romania))" >Boldea, I; University of Timisoara, Department of Electrotechnical Engineering and Industrial Informatics, 5 Revolution Street, Hunedoara, 331128 (Romania))" data-affiliation=" (Politehnica University of Timisoara, Department of Electrotechnical Engineering and Industrial Informatics, 5 Revolution Street, Hunedoara, 331128 (Romania))" >Deaconu, S I; University of Timisoara, Department of Electrotechnical Engineering and Industrial Informatics, 5 Revolution Street, Hunedoara, 331128 (Romania))" data-affiliation=" (Politehnica University of Timisoara, Department of Electrotechnical Engineering and Industrial Informatics, 5 Revolution Street, Hunedoara, 331128 (Romania))" >Popa, G N

    2014-01-01

    The actual e – continuously variable transmission (e-CVT) solution for the parallel Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV) requires two electric machines, two inverters, and a planetary gear. A distinct electric generator and a propulsion electric motor, both with full power converters, are typical for a series HEV. In an effort to simplify the planetary-geared e-CVT for the parallel HEV or the series HEV we hereby propose to replace the basically two electric machines and their two power converters by a single, axial-air-gap, electric machine central stator, fed from a single PWM converter with dual frequency voltage output and two independent PM rotors, destined for hybrid electric vehicles (HEV) and military vehicles applications. The proposed topologies and the magneto-motive force analysis are the core of the paper

  20. Dual rotor single- stator axial air gap PMSM motor/generator drive for high torque vehicles applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tutelea, L. N.; Deaconu, S. I.; Boldea, I.; Popa, G. N.

    2014-03-01

    The actual e - continuously variable transmission (e-CVT) solution for the parallel Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV) requires two electric machines, two inverters, and a planetary gear. A distinct electric generator and a propulsion electric motor, both with full power converters, are typical for a series HEV. In an effort to simplify the planetary-geared e-CVT for the parallel HEV or the series HEV we hereby propose to replace the basically two electric machines and their two power converters by a single, axial-air-gap, electric machine central stator, fed from a single PWM converter with dual frequency voltage output and two independent PM rotors, destined for hybrid electric vehicles (HEV) and military vehicles applications. The proposed topologies and the magneto-motive force analysis are the core of the paper.

  1. Fusion propulsion systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haloulakos, V.E.; Bourque, R.F.

    1989-01-01

    The continuing and expanding national efforts in both the military and commercial sectors for exploration and utilization of space will require launch, assembly in space, and orbital transfer of large payloads. The currently available delivery systems, utilizing various forms of chemical propulsion, do not have the payload capacity to fulfill the planned missions. National planning documents such as Air Force Project Forecast II and the National Commission on Space Report to the President contain numerous missions and payload delivery schedules that are beyond the present capabilities of the available systems, such as the Space Shuttle and the Expendable Launch Vehicles (ELVs). The need, therefore, is very pressing to design, develop, and deploy propulsion systems that offer a quantum level increase in delivered performance. One such potential system is fusion propulsion. This paper summarizes the result of an Air Force Astronautics Laboratory (AFAL) sponsored study of fusion propulsion conducted by the McDonnell Douglas Astronautics Company (MDAC), and its subcontractor General Atomics This study explored the potential of fusion propulsion for Air Force missions. Fusion fuels and existing confinement concepts were evaluated according to elaborate criteria. Two fuels, deuterium-tritium and deuterium-helium 3 (D- 3 He) were considered worthy of further consideration. D- 3 He was selected as the most attractive for this Air Force study. The colliding translating compact torus confinement concept was evaluated in depth and found to possibly possess the low mass and compactness required. Another possible concept is inertial confinement with the propellant surrounding the target. 5 refs., 5 figs., 8 tabs

  2. Autonomous Flight of Flapping Wing Micro Air Vehicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tijmons, S.

    2017-01-01

    Many types of drones have emerged over the last decade and new applications in various sectors are announced almost on a daily basis. In scientific literature, small drones are called Micro Air Vehicles (MAVs). Especially very small MAVs will play a significant role in indoor applications, since

  3. Optimization and Model Validation of Operation Control Strategies for a Novel Dual-Motor Coupling-Propulsion Pure Electric Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianjun Hu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The strict operational condition of driving motors for vehicles propels the development of more complicated configurations in pure electric vehicles (PEVs. Multi-power-source powertrain configurations are one of the efficient technologies to reduce the manufacturing difficulty of driving motors. However, most of the existing studies are predominantly focused on optimal designs of powertrains and power distribution between the engine and motor of hybrid electric vehicles, which are not appropriate for PEVs. This paper proposes a novel dual-motor coupling-propulsion powertrain system that improves the dynamic and economic performance of the powertrain system in PEVs. The proposed powertrain system can realize both the single-motor driving mode and dual-motor coupling driving mode. The driving modes are divided and a power distribution strategy for the different driving modes based on an optimal system efficiency rule is employed, which enhances the performance of the proposed system. Further, a mode-switching strategy that ensures driving comfort by preventing jerk during mode switching is incorporated into the system. The results of comparative evaluations that were conducted using a dual-motor electric vehicle model implemented in MATLAB/Simulink, indicate that the mileage and dynamic performance of the proposed powertrain system are significantly better than those of the traditional single-motor powertrain system.

  4. Possible configurations for an air independent propulsion (AIP) system for submarines based on fuel cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bordallo, C.R.; Moreno, E.; Brey, J.J.; Garcia, C.; Sarmiento, B.; Castro, A.

    2004-01-01

    'Full text:' Conventional submarines employ an electric propulsion system, based on energy storage in batteries which are recharged using diesel motors connected to generator alternators. This limits their autonomy underwater given that it will be depend on the amount of energy that can be stored in the batteries; currently, a normal value is to have energy to navigate for three days at low speed. As of from the WWII, several shipyards began to carry out research on propulsion systems for submarines that would be capable of operating under anaerobic conditions, independent of the air (AIP Systems). Since then, several proposals have been considered, but there is one option that several navies are currently putting their trust in: fuel cells. The objective of this Project is to stress the different configurations that can be considered to this end, as regards the transportation of hydrogen and oxygen. From the hydrogen point of view, the possibilities of transporting it in metal hydrides or its on-board production through the reforming of different fuels (gas-oil, ethanol, methanol), are analyzed. This study also compares auxiliary systems (including CO2 removers), and proposes solutions, some of which are under development, indicating which are currently being considered to a greater extent. (author)

  5. Possible configurations for an air independent propulsion (AIP) system for submarines based on fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bordallo, C.R.; Moreno, E.; Brey, J.J.; Garcia, C.; Sarmiento, B.; Castro, A. [Hynergreen Technologies, S.A., Seville (Spain)

    2004-07-01

    'Full text:' Conventional submarines employ an electric propulsion system, based on energy storage in batteries which are recharged using diesel motors connected to generator alternators. This limits their autonomy underwater given that it will be depend on the amount of energy that can be stored in the batteries; currently, a normal value is to have energy to navigate for three days at low speed. As of from the WWII, several shipyards began to carry out research on propulsion systems for submarines that would be capable of operating under anaerobic conditions, independent of the air (AIP Systems). Since then, several proposals have been considered, but there is one option that several navies are currently putting their trust in: fuel cells. The objective of this Project is to stress the different configurations that can be considered to this end, as regards the transportation of hydrogen and oxygen. From the hydrogen point of view, the possibilities of transporting it in metal hydrides or its on-board production through the reforming of different fuels (gas-oil, ethanol, methanol), are analyzed. This study also compares auxiliary systems (including CO2 removers), and proposes solutions, some of which are under development, indicating which are currently being considered to a greater extent. (author)

  6. An Overview of 2014 SBIR Phase 1 and Phase 2 Air-Breathing Propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Hung D.; Steele, Gynelle C.; Morris, Jessica R.

    2015-01-01

    NASA's Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) program focuses on technological innovation by investing in development of innovative concepts and technologies to help NASA mission directorates address critical research needs for Agency programs. This report highlights nine of the innovative SBIR 2014 Phase I and Phase II projects that emphasize one of NASA Glenn Research Center's six core competencies-Air-Breathing Propulsion. The technologies cover a wide spectrum of applications such as development of X-ray computed tomography (CT) imaging method for the measurement of complex 3D ice shapes, phased array techniques for low signal-to-noise ratio wind tunnels, compact kinetic mechanisms for petroleum-derived and alternative aviation fuels, and hybrid electric propulsion systems for a multirotor aircraft. Each featured technology describes an innovation, technical objective, and highlights NASA commercial and industrial applications. This report provides as an opportunity for NASA engineers, researchers, and program managers to learn how NASA SBIR technologies could help their programs and projects, and lead to collaborations and partnerships between the small SBIR companies and NASA that would benefit both.

  7. Production and exploitation of thermoelectric air conditioning systems for vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dudnik, Vladimir [Conditioner Ltd, Gagarin (Russian Federation); Skipidarov, Sergey [SCTB NORD, Moskau (Russian Federation); Rapp, Axel [Quick-Ohm Kupper und Co. GmbH, Wuppertal-Cronenberg (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    In the paper more than 10-year experience of thermoelectric devices batch manufacturing is described for the field of their obvious advantages. This field of application includes thermoelectric air conditioning systems which have shown their competitive advantage when used in vehicles of elevated vibration where compressor equipment application is difficult because of leakage of refrigerant. Energy characteristics of air conditioners for tractors, excavators, tanks, locomotive driver's cabins and cranes are described. Thermoelectric (TE) air conditioners mechanical test data as well as operation experience in vehicles are presented. It is shown that consumption of tellurium, which is a strategic component for thermoelectric materials manufacturing, may be lowered to 40 grams per 1 kW of cooling. (orig.)

  8. Fuzzy Logic Unmanned Air Vehicle Motion Planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chelsea Sabo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available There are a variety of scenarios in which the mission objectives rely on an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV being capable of maneuvering in an environment containing obstacles in which there is little prior knowledge of the surroundings. With an appropriate dynamic motion planning algorithm, UAVs would be able to maneuver in any unknown environment towards a target in real time. This paper presents a methodology for two-dimensional motion planning of a UAV using fuzzy logic. The fuzzy inference system takes information in real time about obstacles (if within the agent's sensing range and target location and outputs a change in heading angle and speed. The FL controller was validated, and Monte Carlo testing was completed to evaluate the performance. Not only was the path traversed by the UAV often the exact path computed using an optimal method, the low failure rate makes the fuzzy logic controller (FLC feasible for exploration. The FLC showed only a total of 3% failure rate, whereas an artificial potential field (APF solution, a commonly used intelligent control method, had an average of 18% failure rate. These results highlighted one of the advantages of the FLC method: its adaptability to complex scenarios while maintaining low control effort.

  9. Dimensionless Energy Conversion Characteristics of an Air-Powered Hydraulic Vehicle

    OpenAIRE

    Dongkai Shen; Qilong Chen; Yixuan Wang

    2018-01-01

    Due to the advantages of resource conservation and less exhaust emissions, compressed air-powered vehicle has attracted more and more attention. To improve the power and efficiency of air-powered vehicle, an air-powered hydraulic vehicle was proposed. As the main part of the air-powered hydraulic vehicles, HP transformer (short for Hydropneumatic transformer) is used to convert the pneumatic power to higher hydraulic power. In this study, to illustrate the energy conversion characteristics of...

  10. Propulsion materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wall, Edward J. [U.S. Dept. of Energy, Washington, D.C. (United States); Sullivan, Rogelio A. [U.S. Dept. of Energy, Washington, D.C. (United States); Gibbs, Jerry L. [U.S. Dept. of Energy, Washington, D.C. (United States)

    2008-01-01

    The Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Office of Vehicle Technologies (OVT) is pleased to introduce the FY 2007 Annual Progress Report for the Propulsion Materials Research and Development Program. Together with DOE national laboratories and in partnership with private industry and universities across the United States, the program continues to engage in research and development (R&D) that provides enabling materials technology for fuel-efficient and environmentally friendly commercial and passenger vehicles.

  11. The issue of ensuring the safe explosion of the spent orbital stages of a launch vehicle with propulsion rocket engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trushlyakov Valeriy I.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A method for increasing the safe explosion of the spent orbital stages of a space launch vehicle (SLV with a propulsion rocket engine (PRE based on the gasification of unusable residues propellant and venting fuel tanks. For gasification and ventilation the hot gases used produced by combustion of the specially selected gas generating composition (GGC with a set of physical and chemical properties. Excluding the freezing of the drainage system on reset gasified products (residues propellant+pressurization gas+hot gases in the near-Earth space is achieved by selecting the physical-chemical characteristics of the GGC. Proposed steps to ensure rotation of gasified products due to dumping through the drainage system to ensure the most favorable conditions for propellant gasification residues. For example, a tank with liquid oxygen stays with the orbital spent second stage of the SLV “Zenit”, which shows the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  12. Vehicle emissions and effects on air quality: indoors and outdoors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perry, R.; Gee, I.L.

    1994-01-01

    Vehicle emissions of non-regulated volatile organic compounds (VOCs), such as benzene, can form a major contribution to pollution of the indoor as well as the outdoor environment. Several of these compounds are considered to be a health risk and are important factors in the production of photochemical smog. The introduction of unleaded and particularly 'super unleaded' fuels has significantly increased levels of aromatic compounds in petrol world-wide and has led to changes in fuel composition with respect to olefins and the use of oxygenates. Increased aromatics, olefins and other compounds in fuels used in vehicles not fitted with catalytic converters have shown to increase emissions of benzene, 1,4-budatiene and other VOCs as well as contributing to increases in photochemical smog precursors. Increases in VOC levels in ambient air clearly produce increased indoor air pollution, particularly in naturally ventilated buildings. (author) 6 figs., 5 tabs., 30 refs

  13. Episodic air quality impacts of plug-in electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razeghi, Ghazal; Carreras-Sospedra, Marc; Brown, Tim; Brouwer, Jack; Dabdub, Donald; Samuelsen, Scott

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, the Spatially and Temporally Resolved Energy and Environment Tool (STREET) is used in conjunction with University of California Irvine - California Institute of Technology (UCI-CIT) atmospheric chemistry and transport model to assess the impact of deploying plug-in electric vehicles and integrating wind energy into the electricity grid on urban air quality. STREET is used to generate emissions profiles associated with transportation and power generation sectors for different future cases. These profiles are then used as inputs to UCI-CIT to assess the impact of each case on urban air quality. The results show an overall improvement in 8-h averaged ozone and 24-h averaged particulate matter concentrations in the South Coast Air Basin (SoCAB) with localized increases in some cases. The most significant reductions occur northeast of the region where baseline concentrations are highest (up to 6 ppb decrease in 8-h-averaged ozone and 6 μg/m3 decrease in 24-h-averaged PM2.5). The results also indicate that, without integration of wind energy into the electricity grid, the temporal vehicle charging profile has very little to no effect on urban air quality. With the addition of wind energy to the grid mix, improvement in air quality is observed while charging at off-peak hours compared to the business as usual scenario.

  14. Flapping and flexible wings for biological and micro air vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shyy, Wei; Berg, Mats; Ljungqvist, Daniel

    1999-07-01

    Micro air vehicles (MAVs) with wing spans of 15 cm or less, and flight speed of 30-60 kph are of interest for military and civilian applications. There are two prominent features of MAV flight: (i) low Reynolds number (10 4-10 5), resulting in unfavorable aerodynamic conditions to support controlled flight, and (ii) small physical dimensions, resulting in certain favorable scaling characteristics including structural strength, reduced stall speed, and low inertia. Based on observations of biological flight vehicles, it appears that wing motion and flexible airfoils are two key attributes for flight at low Reynolds number. The small size of MAVs corresponds in nature to small birds, which do not glide like large birds, but instead flap with considerable change of wing shape during a single flapping cycle. With flapping and flexible wings, birds overcome the deteriorating aerodynamic performance under steady flow conditions by employing unsteady mechanisms. In this article, we review both biological and aeronautical literatures to present salient features relevant to MAVs. We first summarize scaling laws of biological and micro air vehicles involving wing span, wing loading, vehicle mass, cruising speed, flapping frequency, and power. Next we discuss kinematics of flapping wings and aerodynamic models for analyzing lift, drag and power. Then we present issues related to low Reynolds number flows and airfoil shape selection. Recent work on flexible structures capable of adjusting the airfoil shape in response to freestream variations is also discussed.

  15. Unmanned air vehicles - real time intelligence without the risk

    OpenAIRE

    Miller, James Bryan.

    1988-01-01

    Unmanned Air Vehicles (UAVs) are capable of supporting the officer in tactical command (OTC) by gathering intelligence in real- or near real-time. UAVs now under development will be able to collect high-resolution imagery, and thus provide the OTC with the option of gathering tactical intelligence without using manned reconnaissance platforms. This thesis asserts that UAVs should be used to supplement existing intelligence sensors, particularly in those cases where current sources are too amb...

  16. Regeneratively-Cooled, Pump-Fed Propulsion Technology for Nano / Micro Satellite Launch Vehicles, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Ventions proposes the development of a pump-fed, 2-stage nano launch vehicle for low-cost on demand placement of cube and nano-satellites into LEO. The proposed...

  17. Research, development, and demonstration of lead-acid batteries for electric vehicle propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-06-01

    Research on electric motor vehicles is reported in the areas of active material utilization and active material integrity; design and fabrication of components, advanced cells, and modules; cell testing; and battery thermal management and electrolyte circulation subsystems.

  18. Development of Fuzzy Logic Control for Vehicle Air Conditioning System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry Nasution

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available A vehicle air conditioning system is experimentally investigated. Measurements were taken during the experimental period at a time interval of one minute for a set point temperature of 22, 23 and 24oC with internal heat loads of 0, 1 and 2 kW. The cabin temperature and the speed of the compressor were varied and the performance of the system, energy consumption and energy saving ware analyzed. The main objective of the experimental work is to evaluate the energy saving obtained when the fuzzy logic control (FLC algorithm, through an inverter, continuously regulates the compressor speed. It demonstrates better control of the compressor operation in terms of energy consumption as compared to the control by using a thermostat imposing On/Off cycles on the compressor at the nominal frequency of 50 Hz. The experimental set-up consists of original components from the air conditioning system of a compact passenger vehicle. The experimental results indicate that the proposed technique can save energy and improve indoor comfort significantly for vehicle air conditioning systems compared to the conventional (On/Off control technique.

  19. Rare-earth-free propulsion motors for electric vehicles: a technology review

    OpenAIRE

    Riba Ruiz, Jordi-Roger; Lopez Torres, Carlos; Romeral Martínez, José Luis; García Espinosa, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Several factors including fossil fuels scarcity, prices volatility, greenhouse gas emissions or current pollution levels in metropolitan areas are forcing the development of greener transportation systems based on more efficient electric and hybrid vehicles. Most of the current hybrid electric vehicles use electric motors containing powerful rare-earth permanent magnets. However, both private companies and estates are aware of possible future shortages, price uncertainty and geographical conc...

  20. Research, development, and demonstration of nickel-iron batteries for electric vehicle propulsion. Annual report, 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-10-01

    The objective of this program is to develop a nickel-iron battery suitable for use in electric vehicles. Ultimately, it is expected that a number of these batteries will be demonstrated under the Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Act of 1976. The report presents the technical approach and a summary of the progress that was achieved under the contract. Work began 1 May 1978. The report covers the period through September 1978. (TFD)

  1. Potential air pollutant emission from private vehicles based on vehicle route

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huboyo, H. S.; Handayani, W.; Samadikun, B. P.

    2017-06-01

    Air emissions related to the transportation sector has been identified as the second largest emitter of ambient air quality in Indonesia. This is due to large numbers of private vehicles commuting within the city as well as inter-city. A questionnaire survey was conducted in Semarang city involving 711 private vehicles consisting of cars and motorcycles. The survey was conducted in random parking lots across the Semarang districts and in vehicle workshops. Based on the parking lot survey, the average distance private cars travelled in kilometers (VKT) was 17,737 km/year. The machine start-up number of cars during weekdays; weekends were on average 5.19 and 3.79 respectively. For motorcycles the average of kilometers travelled was 27,092 km/year. The machine start-up number of motorcycles during weekdays and weekends were on average 5.84 and 3.98, respectively. The vehicle workshop survey showed the average kilometers travelled to be 9,510 km/year for motorcycles, while for private cars the average kilometers travelled was 21,347 km/year. Odometer readings for private cars showed a maximum of 3,046,509 km and a minimum of 700 km. Meanwhile, for motorcycles, odometer readings showed a maximum of 973,164 km and a minimum of roughly 54.24 km. Air pollutant emissions on East-West routes were generally higher than those on South-North routes. Motorcycles contribute significantly to urban air pollution, more so than cars. In this study, traffic congestion and traffic volume contributed much more to air pollution than the impact of fluctuating terrain.

  2. NASA's Pursuit of Low-Noise Propulsion for Low-Boom Commercial Supersonic Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridges, James; Brown, Clifford A.; Seidel, Jonathan A.

    2018-01-01

    Since 2006, when the Fundamental Aeronautics Program was instituted within NASA's Aeronautics Mission Directorate, there has been a Project looking at the technical barriers to commercial supersonic flight. Among the barriers is the noise produced by aircraft during landing and takeoff. Over the years that followed, research was carried out at NASA aeronautics research centers, often in collaboration with academia and industry, addressing the problem. In 2013, a high-level milestone was established, described as a Technical Challenge, with the objective of demonstrating the feasibility of a low-boom supersonic airliner that could meet current airport noise regulations. The Technical Challenge was formally called "Low Noise Propulsion for Low Boom Aircraft", and was completed in late 2016. This paper reports the technical findings from this Technical Challenge, reaching back almost 10 years to review the technologies and tools that were developed along the way. It also discusses the final aircraft configuration and propulsion systems required for a supersonic civilian aircraft to meet noise regulations using the technologies available today. Finally, the paper documents the model-scale tests that validated the acoustic performance of the study aircraft.

  3. Nonlinear Adaptive Rotational Speed Control Design and Experiment of the Propeller of an Electric Micro Air Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shouzhao Sheng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Micro Air Vehicles (MAVs driven by electric propellers are of interest for military and civilian applications. The rotational speed control of such electric propellers is an important factor for improving the flight performance of the vehicles, such as their positioning accuracy and stability. Therefore, this paper presents a nonlinear adaptive control scheme for the electric propulsion system of a certain MAV, which can not only speed up the convergence rates of adjustable parameters, but can also ensure the overall stability of the adjustable parameters. The significant improvement of the dynamic tracking accuracy of the rotational speed can be easily achieved through the combination of the proposed control algorithm and linear control methods. The experimental test results have also demonstrated the positive effect of the nonlinear adaptive control scheme on the flight performance of the MAV.

  4. National platform electromobility. Interims report of the working group 1 propulsion technology and vehicle integration; Nationale Plattform Elektromobilitaet. Zwischenbericht der Arbeitsgruppe 1 Antriebstechnologie und Fahrzeugintegration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meusinger, Josefin [Koordinierungsstelle der Industrie fuer die Nationale Plattform Elektromobilitaet, Berlin (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    The working group ''Propulsion technology and vehicle integration'' investigates electrical and electrified powertrains for the employment in passenger cars and commercial vehicles regarding to the goals of the national platform electrical mobility. Apart from the optimization of the architecture and the gradual physical integration of the components into drive modules the material research for new magnetic materials, for the surface refinement and basic research for the semiconductor technology/physics is a further compelling condition for long-term successes in the area of electric drives. Parallel to the increase of unit productions the degree of automation has to be improved significantly. The costs are to be affected positively by large numbers of unit productions. A bundling, acceleration and promotion of the activities from the research to the development in competence centres and landmark projects for the propulsion technology and vehicle integration are recommended. This is to be used by means of the existing instruments of the industrial community research.

  5. Potential impacts of electric vehicles on air quality in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Nan; Chen, Jen-Ping; Tsai, I-Chun; He, Qingyang; Chi, Szu-Yu; Lin, Yi-Chiu; Fu, Tzung-May

    2016-10-01

    The prospective impacts of electric vehicle (EV) penetration on the air quality in Taiwan were evaluated using an air quality model with the assumption of an ambitious replacement of current light-duty vehicles under different power generation scenarios. With full EV penetration (i.e., the replacement of all light-duty vehicles), CO, VOCs, NOx and PM2.5 emissions in Taiwan from a fleet of 20.6 million vehicles would be reduced by 1500, 165, 33.9 and 7.2Ggyr(-1), respectively, while electric sector NOx and SO2 emissions would be increased by up to 20.3 and 12.9Ggyr(-1), respectively, if the electricity to power EVs were provided by thermal power plants. The net impacts of these emission changes would be to reduce the annual mean surface concentrations of CO, VOCs, NOx and PM2.5 by about 260, 11.3, 3.3ppb and 2.1μgm(-3), respectively, but to increase SO2 by 0.1ppb. Larger reductions tend to occur at time and place of higher ambient concentrations and during high pollution events. Greater benefits would clearly be attained if clean energy sources were fully encouraged. EV penetration would also reduce the mean peak-time surface O3 concentrations by up to 7ppb across Taiwan with the exception of the center of metropolitan Taipei where the concentration increased by <2ppb. Furthermore, full EV penetration would reduce annual days of O3 pollution episodes by ~40% and PM2.5 pollution episodes by 6-10%. Our findings offer important insights into the air quality impacts of EV and can provide useful information for potential mitigation actions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Centralized versus distributed propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, J. P.

    1982-01-01

    The functions and requirements of auxiliary propulsion systems are reviewed. None of the three major tasks (attitude control, stationkeeping, and shape control) can be performed by a collection of thrusters at a single central location. If a centralized system is defined as a collection of separated clusters, made up of the minimum number of propulsion units, then such a system can provide attitude control and stationkeeping for most vehicles. A distributed propulsion system is characterized by more numerous propulsion units in a regularly distributed arrangement. Various proposed large space systems are reviewed and it is concluded that centralized auxiliary propulsion is best suited to vehicles with a relatively rigid core. These vehicles may carry a number of flexible or movable appendages. A second group, consisting of one or more large flexible flat plates, may need distributed propulsion for shape control. There is a third group, consisting of vehicles built up from multiple shuttle launches, which may be forced into a distributed system because of the need to add additional propulsion units as the vehicles grow. The effects of distributed propulsion on a beam-like structure were examined. The deflection of the structure under both translational and rotational thrusts is shown as a function of the number of equally spaced thrusters. When two thrusters only are used it is shown that location is an important parameter. The possibility of using distributed propulsion to achieve minimum overall system weight is also examined. Finally, an examination of the active damping by distributed propulsion is described.

  7. Research, development, and demonstration of lead-acid batteries for electric vehicle propulsion. Annual report for 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-03-01

    Work performed during Oct. 1, 1979 to Sept. 30, 1980 for the development of lead-acid batteries for electric vehicle propulsion is described. During this report period many of the results frpm Globe Battery's design, materials and process development programs became evident in the achievement of the ISOA (Improved State of Art) specific energy, specific power, and energy efficiency goals while testing in progress also indicates that the cycle life goal can be met. These programs led to the establishment of a working pilot assembly line which produced the first twelve volt ISOA modules. Five of these modules were delivered to the National Battery Test Laboratory during the year for capacity, power and life testing, and assembly is in progress of three full battery systems for installation in vehicles. In the battery subsystem area, design of the acid circulation system for a ninety-six volt ISOA battery pack was completed and assembly of the first such system was initiated. Charger development has been slowed by problems encountered with reliability of some circuits but a prototype unit is being prepared which will meet the charging requirements of our ninety-six volt pack. This charger will be available during the 1981 fiscal year.

  8. Fuel cell vehicles: technological solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez Martinez, J. M.

    2004-01-01

    Recently it takes a serious look at fuel cell vehicles, a leading candidate for next-generation vehicle propulsion systems. The green house effect and air quality are pressing to the designers of internal combustion engine vehicles, owing to the manufacturers to find out technological solutions in order to increase the efficiency and reduce emissions from the vehicles. On the other hand, energy source used by currently propulsion systems is not renewable, the well are limited and produce CO 2 as a product from the combustion process. In that situation, why fuel cell is an alternative of internal combustion engine?

  9. An Overview of Air-Breathing Propulsion Efforts for 2015 SBIR Phase I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Hung D.; Steele, Gynelle C.

    2016-01-01

    NASA's Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) program focuses on technological innovation by investing in development of innovative concepts and technologies to help NASA mission directorates address critical research needs for Agency programs. This report highlights 24 of the innovative SBIR 2015 Phase I projects that emphasize one of NASA Glenn Research Center's six core competencies-Air-Breathing Propulsion. The technologies cover a wide spectrum of applications such as hybrid nanocomposites for efficient aerospace structures; plasma flow control for drag reduction; physics-based aeroanalysis methods for open rotor conceptual designs; vertical lift by series hybrid power; fast pressure-sensitive paint systems for production wind tunnel testing; rugged, compact, and inexpensive airborne fiber sensor interrogators based on monolithic tunable lasers; and high sensitivity semiconductor sensor skins for multi-axis surface pressure characterization. Each featured technology describes an innovation and technical objective and highlights NASA commercial and industrial applications. This report provides an opportunity for NASA engineers, researchers, and program managers to learn how NASA SBIR technologies could help their programs and projects, and lead to collaborations and partnerships between the small SBIR companies and NASA that would benefit both.

  10. 75 FR 15620 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Air Brake Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-30

    ... fully develop improved brake systems and also to ensure vehicle control and stability while braking... [Docket No. NHTSA 2009-0175] RIN 2127-AK62 Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Air Brake Systems... Federal motor vehicle safety standard for air brake systems by requiring substantial improvements in...

  11. 76 FR 44829 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Air Brake Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-27

    ... [Docket No. NHTSA-2009-0175] RIN 2127-AK84 Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Air Brake Systems... final rule that amended the Federal motor vehicle safety standard for air brake systems by requiring... between Bendix Commercial Vehicle Systems and Dana Corporation; and ArvinMeritor. The agency received four...

  12. 78 FR 9623 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Air Brake Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-11

    ... initial speeds, vehicle manufacturers will need to develop unique or complicated braking systems to comply... [Docket No. NHTSA-2013-0011] RIN 2127-AL11 Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Air Brake Systems... rule that amended the Federal motor vehicle safety standard for air brake systems by requiring...

  13. Particle bed reactor propulsion vehicle performance and characteristics as an orbital transfer rocket

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horn, F.L.; Powell, J.R.; Lazareth, O.W.

    1986-01-01

    The particle bed reactor designed for 100 to 300 MW power output using hydrogen as a coolant is capable of specific impulses up to 1000 seconds as a nuclear rocket. A single space shuttle compatible vehicle can perform extensive missions from LEO to 3 times GEO and return with multi-ton payloads. The use of hydrogen to directly cool particulate reactor fuel results in a compact, lightweight rocket vehicle, whose duration of usefulness is dependent only upon hydrogen resupply availability. The LEO to GEO mission had a payload capability of 15.4 metric tons with 3.4 meters of shuttle bay. To increase the volume limitation of the shuttle bay, the use of ammonia in the initial boost phase from LEO is used to give greater payload volume with a small decrease in payload mass, 8.7 meters and 12.7 m-tons. 5 refs., 15 figs

  14. A Spherical Torus Nuclear Fusion Reactor Space Propulsion Vehicle Concept for Fast Interplanetary Travel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Craig H.; Borowski, Stanley K.; Dudzinski, Leonard A.; Juhasz, Albert J.

    1998-01-01

    A conceptual vehicle design enabling fast outer solar system travel was produced predicated on a small aspect ratio spherical torus nuclear fusion reactor. Initial requirements were for a human mission to Saturn with a greater than 5% payload mass fraction and a one way trip time of less than one year. Analysis revealed that the vehicle could deliver a 108 mt crew habitat payload to Saturn rendezvous in 235 days, with an initial mass in low Earth orbit of 2,941 mt. Engineering conceptual design, analysis, and assessment was performed on all ma or systems including payload, central truss, nuclear reactor (including divertor and fuel injector), power conversion (including turbine, compressor, alternator, radiator, recuperator, and conditioning), magnetic nozzle, neutral beam injector, tankage, start/re-start reactor and battery, refrigeration, communications, reaction control, and in-space operations. Detailed assessment was done on reactor operations, including plasma characteristics, power balance, power utilization, and component design.

  15. The control of a parallel hybrid-electric propulsion system for a small unmanned aerial vehicle using a CMAC neural network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmon, Frederick G; Frank, Andrew A; Joshi, Sanjay S

    2005-01-01

    A Simulink model, a propulsion energy optimization algorithm, and a CMAC controller were developed for a small parallel hybrid-electric unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV). The hybrid-electric UAV is intended for military, homeland security, and disaster-monitoring missions involving intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance (ISR). The Simulink model is a forward-facing simulation program used to test different control strategies. The flexible energy optimization algorithm for the propulsion system allows relative importance to be assigned between the use of gasoline, electricity, and recharging. A cerebellar model arithmetic computer (CMAC) neural network approximates the energy optimization results and is used to control the parallel hybrid-electric propulsion system. The hybrid-electric UAV with the CMAC controller uses 67.3% less energy than a two-stroke gasoline-powered UAV during a 1-h ISR mission and 37.8% less energy during a longer 3-h ISR mission.

  16. Physics-Based Aeroelastic Analysis for Future Air Vehicle Concepts Using a Fully Nonlinear Methodology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Strganac, Thomas W

    2007-01-01

    Future air vehicles will be highly flexible and will include deformable sub-systems resulting in new physical interactions between a vehicle's structure, the surrounding flowfleld, and the dynamics...

  17. Development of lithium air novel materials for electrical vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aucher, Christophe; Knipping, E.; Amantia, D.; Almarza, A.; Faccini, M.; Gutierrez-Tauste, D.; Saez, J.A.; Aubouy, L. [Leitat Technological Center, Terrassa (Spain)

    2012-07-01

    Fluctuation of oil prices and effects of global warming have forced the scientific-technical community to look for the alternative energy storage and conversion systems, such as the smart grid. The maximum energy density of current lithium-ion batteries (LIB) is limited because of the intercalation chemistry of each electrode. Then actual LIBs are not fully satisfactory for the practical application of electric vehicles (EV). Therefore metal-air batteries have attracted much attention as a possible alternative, especially for the replacing of the diesel or gasoline, because of their energy density is extremely high compared to that of other rechargeable batteries and theoretically close to the energy density of the fossil energy. This technology leads to a very light dispositive where the limited intercalation chemistry is avoided. Li-air batteries are suitable for the development of the new generation of EVs. It is estimated that a well optimized Li-air battery can yield a specific energy of up to 3000 Wh/Kg, over a factor of 15 greater than the state of the art lithium ion batteries. Electrical cars today typically can travel only about 150 km on current LIB technology. The development of the lithium air batteries stands chance of being light enough to travel 800 km on a single charge and cheap enough to be practical for a typical family car. This problem is creating a significant barrier to electric vehicle adoption. However, the impact of this technology has so far fallen short of its potential due to several daunting challenges which must be overcome as the cyclability or the wide gap between the practical (362 Wh/kg) and the theoretical (11 kWh/g) values of the specific energy.

  18. Air Breathing Propulsion Controls and Diagnostics Research at NASA Glenn Under NASA Aeronautics Research Mission Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Sanjay

    2015-01-01

    The Intelligent Control and Autonomy Branch (ICA) at NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) Glenn Research Center (GRC) in Cleveland, Ohio, is leading and participating in various projects in partnership with other organizations within GRC and across NASA, the U.S. aerospace industry, and academia to develop advanced controls and health management technologies that will help meet the goals of the NASA Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate (ARMD) Programs. These efforts are primarily under the various projects under the Advanced Air Vehicles Program (AAVP), Airspace Operations and Safety Program (AOSP) and Transformative Aeronautics Concepts Program (TAC). The ICA Branch is focused on advancing the state-of-the-art of aero-engine control and diagnostics technologies to help improve aviation safety, increase efficiency, and enable operation with reduced emissions. This paper describes the various ICA research efforts under the NASA Aeronautics Research Mission Programs with a summary of motivation, background, technical approach, and recent accomplishments for each of the research tasks.

  19. Propulsion Noise Reduction Research in the NASA Advanced Air Transport Technology Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Zante, Dale; Nark, Douglas; Fernandez, Hamilton

    2017-01-01

    The Aircraft Noise Reduction (ANR) sub-project is focused on the generation, development, and testing of component noise reduction technologies progressing toward the NASA far term noise goals while providing associated near and mid-term benefits. The ANR sub-project has efforts in airframe noise reduction, propulsion (including fan and core) noise reduction, acoustic liner technology, and propulsion airframe aeroacoustics for candidate conventional and unconventional aircraft configurations. The current suite of propulsion specific noise research areas is reviewed along with emerging facility and measurement capabilities. In the longer term, the changes in engine and aircraft configuration will influence the suite of technologies necessary to reduce noise in next generation systems.

  20. Impact of methanol vehicles on ozone air quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, T. Y.; Rudy, S. J.; Kuntasal, G.; Gorse, R. A.

    A single-cell trajectory model with an updated chemical mechanism has been used to evaluate the impact on ozone air quality of methanol fueled vehicle (MFV) substitution for conventional fueled vehicles (CFV) in 20 urban areas in the U.S. Recent measurement data for non-methane organic compound (NMOC) concentrations and NMOC/NO x ratios for each of the areas was used. The sensitivity of peak 1-h O 3 values to variations in many of the input parameters has been tested. The functional dependence of peak 1-h O 3 on NMOC/NO x, ratios shows that, for many cities, the maximum O 3 levels occur near the median urban-center 6-9 a.m. NMOC/NO x ratios. The results of the photochemical model computations, including several methanol-fuel substitution scenarios, have been used to derive relative reactivities of methanol and formaldehyde. Per-vehicle O 3 reduction potentials for MFV have also been derived. The reduction potentials and calculated percentage O 3 reductions for selected MFV market-penetrations have been used to estimate the impact of any MFV market-penetration or change in MFV emission factors. All substitution scenarios evaluated lead to projections of lower peak 1-h O 3 levels. Even with significant replacement of CFV by MFV, the reduction of urban O 3 levels appears to be modest. However, the reductions may be significant in comparison to other available O 3-reduction options.

  1. Research, development and demonstration of nickel-zinc batteries for electric vehicle propulsion. Annual report, 1979. [70 W/lb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-06-01

    This second annual report under Contract No. 31-109-39-4200 covers the period July 1, 1978 through August 31, 1979. The program demonstrates the feasibility of the nickel-zinc battery for electric vehicle propulsion. The program is divided into seven distinct but highly interactive tasks collectively aimed at the development and commercialization of nickel-zinc technology. These basic technical tasks are separator development, electrode development, product design and analysis, cell/module battery testing, process development, pilot manufacturing, and thermal management. A Quality Assurance Program has also been established. Significant progress has been made in the understanding of separator failure mechanisms, and a generic category of materials has been specified for the 300+ deep discharge (100% DOD) applications. Shape change has been reduced significantly. A methodology has been generated with the resulting hierarchy: cycle life cost, volumetric energy density, peak power at 80% DOD, gravimetric energy density, and sustained power. Generation I design full-sized 400-Ah cells have yielded in excess of 70 W/lb at 80% DOD. Extensive testing of cells, modules, and batteries is done in a minicomputer-based testing facility. The best life attained with electric vehicle-size cell components is 315 cycles at 100% DOD (1.0V cutoff voltage), while four-cell (approx. 6V) module performance has been limited to about 145 deep discharge cycles. The scale-up of processes for production of components and cells has progressed to facilitate component production rates of thousands per month. Progress in the area of thermal management has been significant, with the development of a model that accurately represents heat generation and rejection rates during battery operation. For the balance of the program, cycle life of > 500 has to be demonstrated in modules and full-sized batteries. 40 figures, 19 tables. (RWR)

  2. Updraft Model for Development of Autonomous Soaring Uninhabited Air Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Michael J.

    2006-01-01

    Large birds and glider pilots commonly use updrafts caused by convection in the lower atmosphere to extend flight duration, increase cross-country speed, improve range, or simply to conserve energy. Uninhabited air vehicles may also have the ability to exploit updrafts to improve performance. An updraft model was developed at NASA Dryden Flight Research Center (Edwards, California) to investigate the use of convective lift for uninhabited air vehicles in desert regions. Balloon and surface measurements obtained at the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Surface Radiation station (Desert Rock, Nevada) enabled the model development. The data were used to create a statistical representation of the convective velocity scale, w*, and the convective mixing-layer thickness, zi. These parameters were then used to determine updraft size, vertical velocity profile, spacing, and maximum height. This paper gives a complete description of the updraft model and its derivation. Computer code for running the model is also given in conjunction with a check case for model verification.

  3. High-performance batteries for electric-vehicle propulsion and stationary energy storage. Progress report, October 1977--September 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, P.A.; Barney, D.L.; Steunenberg, R.K.

    1978-11-01

    The research, development, and management activities of the programs at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) and at industrial subcontractors' laboratories on high-temperature batteries during the period October 1977--September 1978 are reported. These batteries are being developed for electric-vehicle propulsion and for stationary-energy-storage applications. The present cells, which operate at 400 to 500/sup 0/C, are of a vertically oriented, prismatic design with one or more inner positive electrodes of FeS or FeS/sub 2/, facing electrodes of lithium--aluminum alloy, and molten LiCl--KCl electrolyte. During this fiscal year, cell and battery development work continued at ANL, Eagle--Picher Industries, Inc., the Energy Systems Group of Rockwell International, and Gould Inc. Related work was also in progress at the Carborundum Co., General Motors Research Laboratories, and various other organizations. A major event was the initiation of a subcontract with Eagle--Picher Industries to develop, design, and fabricate a 40-kWh battery (Mark IA) for testing in an electric van. Conceptual design studies on a 100-MWh stationary-energy-storage module were conducted as a joint effort between ANL and Rockwell International. A significant technical advance was the development of multiplate cells, which are capable of higher performance than bicells. 89 figures, 57 tables.

  4. NUMERICAL PREDICTION MODELS FOR AIR POLLUTION BY MOTOR VEHICLE EMISSIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Biliaiev

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Scientific work involves: 1 development of 3D numerical models that allow calculating the process of air pollution by motor vehicles emissions; 2 creation of models which would allow predicting the air pollution level in urban areas. Methodology. To solve the problem upon assessing the level of air pollution by motor vehicles emissions fundamental equations of aerodynamics and mass transfer are used. For the solution of differential equations of aerodynamics and mass transfer finite-difference methods are used. For the numerical integration of the equation for the velocity potential the method of conditional approximations is applied. The equation for the velocity potential written in differential form, splits into two equations, where at each step of splitting an unknown value of the velocity potential is determined by an explicit scheme of running computation, while the difference scheme is implicit one. For the numerical integration of the emissions dispersion equation in the atmosphere applies the implicit alternating-triangular difference scheme of splitting. Emissions from the road are modeled by a series of point sources of given intensity. Developed numerical models form is the basis of the created software package. Findings. 3D numerical models were developed; they belong to the class of «diagnostic models». These models take into account main physical factors that influence the process of dispersion of harmful substances in the atmosphere when emissions from vehicles in the city occur. Based on the constructed numerical models the computational experiment was conducted to assess the level of air pollution in the street. Originality. Authors have developed numerical models that allow to calculate the 3D aerodynamics of the wind flow in urban areas and the process of mass transfer emissions from the highway. Calculations to determine the area of contamination, which is formed near the buildings, located along the highway were

  5. Aspergillus prevalence in air conditioning filters from vehicles: taxis for patient transportation, forklifts, and personal vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viegas, Carla; Moreira, Ricardo; Faria, Tiago; Caetano, Liliana Aranha; Carolino, Elisabete; Gomes, Anita Quintal; Viegas, Susana

    2018-05-04

    The frequency and importance of Aspergillus infections is increasing worldwide. This study aimed to assess the occupational exposure of forklifts and taxi drivers to Aspergillus spp. Nineteen filters from air conditioning system of taxis, 17 from forklifts and 37 from personal vehicles were assessed. Filters extract were streaked onto MEA, DG18 and in azole-supplemented media. Real-time quantitative PCR amplification of selected Aspergillus species-complex was also performed. Forklifts filter samples presented higher median values. Aspergillus section Nigri was the most observed in forklifts filters in MEA (28.2%) and in azole-supplemented media. DNA from Aspergillus sections Fumigati and Versicolores was successfully amplified by qPCR. This study enlightens the added value of using filters from the air conditioning system to assess Aspergillus spp. occupational exposure. Aspergillus azole resistance screening should be included in future occupational exposure assessments.

  6. Resources and Fact Sheets on Servicing Motor Vehicle Air Conditioners (Summary Page)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page provides links to resources that can assist motor vehicle air-conditioning system technicians in understanding system servicing requirements and best practices, and learn about alternative refrigerants.

  7. Development of a novel hydroxyl ammonium nitrate based liquid propellant for air-independent propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontaine, Joseph Henry

    The focus of this dissertation is the development of an Unmanned Undersea Vehicle (UUV) liquid propellant employing Hydroxyl Ammonium Nitrate (HAN) as the oxidizer. Hydroxyl Ammonium Nitrate is a highly acidic aqueous based liquid oxidizer. Therefore, in order to achieve efficient combustion of a propellant using this oxidizer, the fuel must be highly water soluble and compatible with the oxidizer to prevent a premature ignition prior to being heated within the combustion chamber. An extensive search of the fuel to be used with this oxidizer was conducted. Propylene glycol was chosen as the fuel for this propellant, and the propellant given the name RF-402. The propellant development process will first evaluate the propellants thermal stability and kinetic parameters using a Differential Scanning Calorimeter (DSC). The purpose of the thermal stability analysis is to determine the temperature at which the propellant decomposition begins for the future safe handling of the propellant and the optimization of the combustion chamber. Additionally, the thermogram results will provide information regarding any undesirable endotherms prior to the decomposition and whether or not the decomposition process is a multi-step process. The Arrhenius type kinetic parameters will be determined using the ASTM method for thermally unstable materials. The activation energy and pre-exponential factor of the propellant will be determined by evaluating the decomposition peak temperature over a temperature scan rate ranging from 1°C per minute to 10°C per minute. The kinetic parameters of the propellant will be compared to those of 81 wt% HAN to determine if the HAN decomposition is controlling the overall decomposition of the propellant RF-402. The lifetime of individual droplets will be analyzed using both experimental and theoretical techniques. The theoretical technique will involve modeling the lifetime of an individual droplet in a combustion chamber like operating environment

  8. In-Cabin Air Quality during Driving and Engine Idling in Air-Conditioned Private Vehicles in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Natasha Maria; Ng, Tsz Wai; Ma, Kwok Keung; Lai, Ka Man

    2018-03-27

    Many people spend lengthy periods each day in enclosed vehicles in Hong Kong. However, comparably limited data is available about in-cabin air quality in air-conditioned private vehicles, and the car usage that may affect the air quality. Fifty-one vehicles were tested for particulate matter (PM 0.3 and PM 2.5 ), total volatile organic compounds (TVOCs), carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO₂), airborne bacteria, and fungi levels during their routine travel journey. Ten of these vehicles were further examined for PM 0.3 , PM 2.5 , TVOCs, CO, and CO₂ during engine idling. In general, during driving PM 2.5 levels in-cabin reduced overtime, but not PM 0.3 . For TVOCs, 24% vehicles exceeded the recommended Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) level in offices and public places set by the Hong Kong Environmental Protection Department. The total volatile organic compounds (TVOC) concentration positively correlated with the age of the vehicle. Carbon monoxide (CO) levels in all of the vehicles were lower than the IAQ recommendation, while 96% vehicles exceeded the recommended CO₂ level of 1000 ppmv; 16% vehicles >5000 ppmv. Microbial counts were relatively low. TVOCs levels at idle engine were higher than that during driving. Although the time we spend in vehicles is short, the potential exposure to high levels of pollutants should not be overlooked.

  9. In-Cabin Air Quality during Driving and Engine Idling in Air-Conditioned Private Vehicles in Hong Kong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natasha Maria Barnes

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Many people spend lengthy periods each day in enclosed vehicles in Hong Kong. However, comparably limited data is available about in-cabin air quality in air-conditioned private vehicles, and the car usage that may affect the air quality. Fifty-one vehicles were tested for particulate matter (PM0.3 and PM2.5, total volatile organic compounds (TVOCs, carbon monoxide (CO, carbon dioxide (CO2, airborne bacteria, and fungi levels during their routine travel journey. Ten of these vehicles were further examined for PM0.3, PM2.5, TVOCs, CO, and CO2 during engine idling. In general, during driving PM2.5 levels in-cabin reduced overtime, but not PM0.3. For TVOCs, 24% vehicles exceeded the recommended Indoor Air Quality (IAQ level in offices and public places set by the Hong Kong Environmental Protection Department. The total volatile organic compounds (TVOC concentration positively correlated with the age of the vehicle. Carbon monoxide (CO levels in all of the vehicles were lower than the IAQ recommendation, while 96% vehicles exceeded the recommended CO2 level of 1000 ppmv; 16% vehicles >5000 ppmv. Microbial counts were relatively low. TVOCs levels at idle engine were higher than that during driving. Although the time we spend in vehicles is short, the potential exposure to high levels of pollutants should not be overlooked.

  10. Intelligent energy management control of vehicle air conditioning system coupled with engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khayyam, Hamid; Abawajy, Jemal; Jazar, Reza N.

    2012-01-01

    Vehicle Air Conditioning (AC) systems consist of an engine powered compressor activated by an electrical clutch. The AC system imposes an extra load to the vehicle's engine increasing the vehicle fuel consumption and emissions. Energy management control of the vehicle air conditioning is a nonlinear dynamic system, influenced by uncertain disturbances. In addition, the vehicle energy management control system interacts with different complex systems, such as engine, air conditioning system, environment, and driver, to deliver fuel consumption improvements. In this paper, we describe the energy management control of vehicle AC system coupled with vehicle engine through an intelligent control design. The Intelligent Energy Management Control (IEMC) system presented in this paper includes an intelligent algorithm which uses five exterior units and three integrated fuzzy controllers to produce desirable internal temperature and air quality, improved fuel consumption, low emission, and smooth driving. The three fuzzy controllers include: (i) a fuzzy cruise controller to adapt vehicle cruise speed via prediction of the road ahead using a Look-Ahead system, (ii) a fuzzy air conditioning controller to produce desirable temperature and air quality inside vehicle cabin room via a road information system, and (iii) a fuzzy engine controller to generate the required engine torque to move the vehicle smoothly on the road. We optimised the integrated operation of the air conditioning and the engine under various driving patterns and performed three simulations. Results show that the proposed IEMC system developed based on Fuzzy Air Conditioning Controller with Look-Ahead (FAC-LA) method is a more efficient controller for vehicle air conditioning system than the previously developed Coordinated Energy Management Systems (CEMS). - Highlights: ► AC interacts: vehicle, environment, driver components, and the interrelationships between them. ► Intelligent AC algorithm which uses

  11. Comprehensive Technical Report, General Electric Direct-Air-Cycle Aircraft Nuclear Propulsion Program, Program Summary and References

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thornton, G.; Rothstein, A.J.

    1962-06-28

    This is one of twenty-one volumes sumarizing the Aircraft Nuclear Propulsion Program of the General Electric Company. This volume discusses the background to the General Electric program, and summarizes the various direct-air-cycle nuclear test assemblies and power plants that were developed. Because of the requirements of high performance, low weight, and small size, vast improvements in existing technology were required to meet the flight objectives. The technological progress achieved during the program is also summarized. The last appendix contains a compilation of the abstracts, tables of contents, and reference lists of the other twenty volumes.

  12. High-performance batteries for stationary energy storage and electric-vehicle propulsion. Progress report, April--June 1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-10-01

    Research, development, and management activities of the program on lithium--aluminum/metal sulfide batteries during April--June 1977 are described. These batteries are being developed for electric-vehicle propulsion and stationary energy storage. The present cells, which operate at 400--450/sup 0/C, are of a vertically oriented, prismatic design with a central positive electrode of FeS or FeS/sub 2/, two facing negative electrodes of lithium--aluminum alloy, and an electrolyte of molten LiCl--KCl. Testing and evaluation of industrially fabricated cells is continuing. Li--Al/FeS and Li--Al/FeS/sub 2/ cells from Eagle--Picher Industries and from Gould Inc. were tested. These tests provided information on the effects of design modifications and alternative materials for cells. Improved electrode and cell designs are being developed and tested, and the more promising designs are incorporated into the industrially fabricated cells. Among the concepts receiving major attention are carbon-bonded positive electrodes, scaled-up designs of stationary energy storage cells, additives to extend electrode lifetime, alternative electrode separators, and pellet-grid electrodes. Materials development efforts included the development of a lightweight electrical feedthrough; studies of various current-collector designs; investigation of powder separators; wettability and corrosion tests of materials for cell components; and postoperative examinations of cells. Cell chemistry studies were concerned with discharge mechanisms of FeS electrodes and with other transition-metal sulfides as positive electrode materials. Voltammetric studies were conducted to investigate the reversibility of the FeS/sub 2/ electrode. The use of calcium and magnesium alloys for the negative electrode in advanced battery systems were investigated. 8 figures, 12 tables.

  13. 78 FR 57501 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Wisconsin; Amendments to Vehicle...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-19

    ... Definitions, NR 485.04 Motor vehicle emission limitations; exemptions, and NR 485.045 Repair cost limit for... Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Wisconsin; Amendments to Vehicle Inspection and Maintenance... Resources on June 7, 2012, concerning the state's vehicle inspection and maintenance (I/M) program in...

  14. The availability of unmanned air vehicles: a post-case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smith, M.A.J.; Dekker, R.; Kos, J.; Hontelez, J.A.M.

    2001-01-01

    An Unmanned Air Vehicle (UAV) is an unmanned, remotely controlled, small air vehicle. It has an important role in antisurface warfare. This implies over-the-horizon detection, classification, targeting and battle damage assessment. To perform these tasks several UAVs are needed to assist or

  15. 9 CFR 3.15 - Primary conveyances (motor vehicle, rail, air, and marine).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Primary conveyances (motor vehicle, rail, air, and marine). 3.15 Section 3.15 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH... conveyances (motor vehicle, rail, air, and marine). (a) The animal cargo space of primary conveyances used to...

  16. 9 CFR 3.138 - Primary conveyances (motor vehicle, rail, air, and marine).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Primary conveyances (motor vehicle, rail, air, and marine). 3.138 Section 3.138 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH... (motor vehicle, rail, air, and marine). (a) The animal cargo space of primary conveyances used in...

  17. 9 CFR 3.88 - Primary conveyances (motor vehicle, rail, air, and marine).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Primary conveyances (motor vehicle, rail, air, and marine). 3.88 Section 3.88 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH... conveyances (motor vehicle, rail, air, and marine). (a) The animal cargo space of primary conveyances used to...

  18. 9 CFR 3.62 - Primary conveyances (motor vehicle, rail, air, and marine).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Primary conveyances (motor vehicle, rail, air, and marine). 3.62 Section 3.62 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH... (motor vehicle, rail, air, and marine). (a) The animal cargo space of primary conveyances used in...

  19. 9 CFR 3.37 - Primary conveyances (motor vehicle, rail, air, and marine).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Primary conveyances (motor vehicle, rail, air, and marine). 3.37 Section 3.37 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH... conveyances (motor vehicle, rail, air, and marine). (a) The animal cargo space of primary conveyances used in...

  20. 75 FR 51521 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Air Brake Systems; Technical Report on the Effectiveness...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-20

    ....121) mandates antilock braking systems (ABS) on all new air-braked vehicles with a GVWR of 10,000...-0116] Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Air Brake Systems; Technical Report on the Effectiveness of Antilock Braking Systems in Heavy Truck Tractors and Trailers AGENCY: National Highway Traffic...

  1. An expert fault diagnosis system for vehicle air conditioning product development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tan, C.F.; Tee, B.T.; Khalil, S.N.; Chen, W.; Rauterberg, G.W.M.

    2015-01-01

    The paper describes the development of the vehicle air-conditioning fault diagnosis system in automotive industries with expert system shell. The main aim of the research is to diagnose the problem of new vehicle air-conditioning system development process and select the most suitable solution to

  2. Final Rule for Control of Air Pollution From New Motor Vehicles and New Motor Vehicle Engines; Non-Conformance Penalties for 2004 and later Model Year Emission Standards for Heavy-Duty Diesel Engines and Heavy-Duty Diesel Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Final Rule for Control of Air Pollution From New Motor Vehicles and New Motor Vehicle Engines; Non-Conformance Penalties for 2004 and later Model Year Emission Standards for Heavy-Duty Diesel Engines and Heavy-Duty Diesel Vehicles

  3. Impact of Solar Control PVB Glass on Vehicle Interior Temperatures, Air-Conditioning Capacity, Fuel Consumption, and Vehicle Range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rugh, J.; Chaney, L.; Venson, T.; Ramroth, L.; Rose, M.

    2013-04-01

    The objective of the study was to assess the impact of Saflex1 S-series Solar Control PVB (polyvinyl butyral) configurations on conventional vehicle fuel economy and electric vehicle (EV) range. The approach included outdoor vehicle thermal soak testing, RadTherm cool-down analysis, and vehicle simulations. Thermal soak tests were conducted at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Vehicle Testing and Integration Facility in Golden, Colorado. The test results quantified interior temperature reductions and were used to generate initial conditions for the RadTherm cool-down analysis. The RadTherm model determined the potential reduction in air-conditioning (A/C) capacity, which was used to calculate the A/C load for the vehicle simulations. The vehicle simulation tool identified the potential reduction in fuel consumption or improvement in EV range between a baseline and modified configurations for the city and highway drive cycles. The thermal analysis determined a potential 4.0% reduction in A/C power for the Saflex Solar PVB solar control configuration. The reduction in A/C power improved the vehicle range of EVs and fuel economy of conventional vehicles and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles.

  4. Effects of alternative-fuel vehicles on air quality in Ontario, Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kantor, I.; Fowler, M.; Hajimiragha, A.; Canizares, C.; Elkamel, A.

    2009-01-01

    The economies of the developed world are increasingly including green technologies and processes that consider social, environmental and economic consequences. Hybrid electric vehicles and other fuel-efficient vehicle types can supply consumers with vehicles that decrease their ecological footprint and reduce the cost of fuel. However, one of the societal concerns often overlooked is the impact of alternative-fuel vehicle usage on the air quality in the urban environment. This paper presented a study that assessed the impact on air quality stemming from the operation of alternative fuel vehicles in urban environments. The study specifically focused on the province-wide emissions in Ontario and urban air pollution in the city of Toronto. The paper considered the life-cycle impacts of using alternative fuels for transportation purposes in terms of six major stressors for climate change, acidification and urban air quality. The two types of vehicles that were studied were plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) and fuel cell vehicles. Modeling of the penetration rates for both types of vehicles was completed based on the maximum capacity of the electrical grid including planned improvements. The scope of the study and discussion of health effects was first presented followed by data gathering and usage, methodology, results of supportable penetration and vehicle growth, and pollution abatement results. It was concluded that fuel cell vehicles have an advantage over, or near-equality with, PHEVs in almost every aspect of their emissions. 13 refs., 2 tabs., 10 figs

  5. Air-Sea Interaction Measurements from the Controlled Towed Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khelif, D.; Bluth, R. T.; Jonsson, H.; Barge, J.

    2014-12-01

    The Controlled Towed Vehicle (CTV) uses improved towed drone technology to actively maintain via a radar altimeter and controllable wing a user-set height that can be as low as the canonical reference height of 10 m above the sea surface. After take-off, the drone is released from the tow aircraft on a ~700-m stainless steel cable. We have instrumented the 0.23 m diameter and 2.13 m long drone with high fidelity instruments to measure the means and turbulent fluctuations of 3-D wind vector, temperature, humidity, pressure, CO2 and IR sea surface temperature. Data are recorded internally at 40 Hz and simultaneously transmitted to the tow aircraft via dedicated wireless Ethernet link. The CTV accommodates 40 kg of instrument payload and provides it with 250 W of continuous power through a ram air propeller-driven generator. Therefore its endurance is only limited by that of the tow aircraft.We will discuss the CTV development, the engineering challenges and solutions that have been successfully implemented to overcome them. We present results from recent flights as low as 9 m over the coastal ocean and comparisons of profiles and turbulent fluxes from the CTV and the tow aircraft. Manned aircraft operation at low-level boundary-layer flights is very limited. Dropsondes and UAS (Unmanned Aerial Systems) and UAS are alternates for measurements near the ocean surface. However, dropsondes have limited sensor capability and do not measure fluxes, and most present UAS vehicles do not have the payload and power capacity nor the low-flying ability in high winds over the oceans. The CTV therefore, fills a needed gap between the dropsondes, in situ aircraft, and UAS. The payload, capacity and power of the CTV makes it suitable for a variety of atmospheric research measurements. Other sensors to measure aerosol, chemistry, radiation, etc., could be readily accommodated in the CTV.

  6. Final Approval of California Air Plan Revision; Antelope Valley Air Quality Management District; VOCs From Motor Vehicle Assembly Coating Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA is taking final action to approve a revision to the Antelope Valley Air Quality Management District (AVAQMD) portion of the California SIP concerning the emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from motor vehicle assembly coating operations.

  7. A Discrete-Event Simulation Model for Evaluating Air Force Reusable Military Launch Vehicle Post-Landing Operations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Martindale, Michael

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to develop a discrete-event computer simulation model of the post-landing vehicle recoveoperations to allow the Air Force Research Laboratory, Air Vehicles Directorate...

  8. How to build an antimatter rocket for interstellar missions - systems level considerations in designing advanced propulsion technology vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisbee, Robert H.

    2003-01-01

    This paper discusses the general mission requirements and system technologies that would be required to implement an antimatter propulsion system where a magnetic nozzle is used to direct charged particles to produce thrust.

  9. 78 FR 20881 - Control of Air Pollution From Motor Vehicles: Tier 3 Motor Vehicle Emission and Fuel Standards...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-08

    ...The EPA is announcing two public hearings to be held for the proposed rule ``Control of Air Pollution from Motor Vehicles: Tier 3 Motor Vehicle Emission and Fuel Standards'' (the proposed rule is hereinafter referred to as ``Tier 3''), which will be published separately in the Federal Register. The hearings will be held in Philadelphia, PA on April 24, 2013 and in Chicago, IL on April 29, 2013. The comment period for the proposed rulemaking will end on June 13, 2013.

  10. The contribution of air cushioned vehicles in oil spill response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCarthy, M.W.; McGrath, J.

    1993-01-01

    On July 22, 1991, the Tuo Hai, a 46,500 ton Chinese grain carrier, collided with the Tenyo Maru, a 4,800 ton Japanese fish processing ship, off the coast of Washington State. The Tenyo Maru sank, creating an oil spill that cost upwards of $4 million (US) to clean up. The incident initiated a joint response from the US and Canadian governments. As part of this response, the Canadian Coast Guard mobilized an SRN-6 hovercraft. This air cushioned vehicle (ACV) provided logistical support to responders on both sides of the international boundary. The response operation along the Pacific Coast was extensive. Dense fog and the remote location of the impacted area provided formidable challenges to the cleanup effort. It was the mission scenario of the Canadian SRN-6 hovercraft to provide logistical support-as an experiment in ACV utility-to the organizations responding to this incident. Based on this experience, it can be argued that the hovercraft offers great potential value in responding to marine oil spills. Appropriate application of ACV technology can enhance oil spill response work, spill waste management, and incident surveillance. This paper discusses the contribution of the SRN-6 hovercraft to the Tenyo Maru response, briefly examines the use of another, very different hovercraft, during a response in the Gulf of St. Lawrence, and reviews a new hovercraft design and discusses its potential contributions

  11. Partial camera automation in an unmanned air vehicle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korteling, J E; van der Borg, W

    1997-03-01

    The present study focused on an intelligent, semiautonomous, interface for a camera operator of a simulated unmanned air vehicle (UAV). This interface used system "knowledge" concerning UAV motion in order to assist a camera operator in tracking an object moving through the landscape below. The semiautomated system compensated for the translations of the UAV relative to the earth. This compensation was accompanied by the appropriate joystick movements ensuring tactile (haptic) feedback of these system interventions. The operator had to superimpose self-initiated joystick manipulations over these system-initiated joystick motions in order to track the motion of a target (a driving truck) relative to the terrain. Tracking data showed that subjects performed substantially better with the active system. Apparently, the subjects had no difficulty in maintaining control, i.e., "following" the active stick while superimposing self-initiated control movements over the system-interventions. Furthermore, tracking performance with an active interface was clearly superior relative to the passive system. The magnitude of this effect was equal to the effect of update-frequency (2-5 Hz) of the monitor image. The benefits of update frequency enhancement and semiautomated tracking were the greatest under difficult steering conditions. Mental workload scores indicated that, for the difficult tracking-dynamics condition, both semiautomation and update frequency increase resulted in less experienced mental effort. For the easier dynamics this effect was only seen for update frequency.

  12. Les nouveaux systèmes de propulsion envisageable pour les véhicules urbains Potential New Proplusion Systems for Urban Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salé B.

    2006-11-01

    (accumulateurs au plomb, un accroissement de l'énergie massique apparaît indispensable à terme. Aussi d'imortantes recherches sont-elles actuellement engagées dans le domaine des nouveaux générateurs électrochimiques : accumulateur sodium-soufre, pile zinc-air et enfin pile hydrogène-air appelée à un développement important compte tenu du rôle important que l'hydrogène peut être appelé à jouer au cours des prochaines années en tant que vecteur chimique de l'énergie nucléaire ou moyen de stockage de l'électricité. The growing trend is ta require private vehicles used in urban areas to meet a certain number of constraints having ta do with pollution, noise and energy conservation. As a result, a survey should be made of the different propulsion systems possible, by classifying them in two categories : (I thermomechanical systems and (2 electrochemical systems. Thermomechanical systems, including explosion engines, have the advantage of having both a high weight-power ratio and a high energy-per-weight ratio as the result of the storag e possibilities inherent in light hydrocarbons. Under such conditions, it has seemed like a good idea, at leost in an initial phase, ta adapt conventional explosion engines ta the new environmental and economical requirements, especially since such engines, at present and for several more years, cover almost all of the automotives vehicles in service. Extensive research has been done and has already resulted in a great reduction in pollutant emissions through the use of new combustion methods or by using catalytic exhaust converters. This effort, merecver, extends to research on other thermomechanical converters such as the Stirling engine which combines the advantages of greater efficiency and reduced pollution, or else such as the steam engine which, nonetheless, is handicapped by its low efficiency and weight-power ratio. However, thermomechanical systems cannot fulfill all the above requirements at the same time. This is why

  13. Development of Micro Air Vehicle Technology With In-Flight Adaptive-Wing Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waszak, Martin R. (Technical Monitor); Shkarayev, Sergey; Null, William; Wagner, Matthew

    2004-01-01

    This is a final report on the research studies, "Development of Micro Air Vehicle Technology with In-Flight Adaptrive-Wing Structure". This project involved the development of variable-camber technology to achieve efficient design of micro air vehicles. Specifically, it focused on the following topics: 1) Low Reynolds number wind tunnel testing of cambered-plate wings. 2) Theoretical performance analysis of micro air vehicles. 3) Design of a variable-camber MAV actuated by micro servos. 4) Test flights of a variable-camber MAV.

  14. Propulsion systems from takeoff to high-speed flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billig, F. S.

    Potential applications for missiles and aircraft requiring highly efficient engines serve as the basis for discussing new propulsion concepts and novel combinations of existing cycles. Comparisons are made between rocket and airbreathing powered missiles for anti-ballistic and surface-to-air missions. The properties of cryogenic hydrogen are presented to explain the mechanics and limitations of liquid air cycles. Conceptual vehicle designs of a transatmospheric accelerator are introduced to permit examination of the factors that guide the choice of the optimal propulsion system.

  15. Air Breathing Propulsion Controls and Diagnostics Research at NASA Glenn Under NASA Aeronautics Research Mission Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Sanjay

    2014-01-01

    This lecture will provide an overview of the aircraft turbine engine control research at NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) Glenn Research Center (GRC). A brief introduction to the engine control problem is first provided with a description of the current state-of-the-art control law structure. A historical aspect of engine control development since the 1940s is then provided with a special emphasis on the contributions of GRC. The traditional engine control problem has been to provide a means to safely transition the engine from one steady-state operating point to another based on the pilot throttle inputs. With the increased emphasis on aircraft safety, enhanced performance and affordability, and the need to reduce the environmental impact of aircraft, there are many new challenges being faced by the designers of aircraft propulsion systems. The Controls and Dynamics Branch (CDB) at GRC is leading and participating in various projects in partnership with other organizations within GRC and across NASA, other government agencies, the U.S. aerospace industry, and academia to develop advanced propulsion controls and diagnostics technologies that will help meet the challenging goals of NASA programs under the Aeronautics Research Mission. The second part of the lecture provides an overview of the various CDB technology development activities in aircraft engine control and diagnostics, both current and some accomplished in the recent past. The motivation for each of the research efforts, the research approach, technical challenges and the key progress to date are summarized. The technologies to be discussed include system level engine control concepts, gas path diagnostics, active component control, and distributed engine control architecture. The lecture will end with a futuristic perspective of how the various current technology developments will lead to an Intelligent and Autonomous Propulsion System requiring none to very minimum pilot interface

  16. Project ARGO: The design and analysis of an all-propulsive and an aeroassisted version of a manned space transportation vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, H.; Seifert, D.; Waidelich, J.; Mileski, M.; Herr, D.; Wilks, M.; Law, G.; Folz, A.

    1989-01-01

    The Senior Aerospace System Design class at the University of Michigan undertook the design of a manned space transportation vehicle (STV) that would transport payloads between low earth orbit (LEO) and geosynchronous earth orbit (GEO). Designated ARGO after the ship of the Greek adventurer Jason, two different versions of an STV that would be based, refueled, and serviced at the Space Station Freedom were designed and analyzed by the class. With the same 2-man/7-day nominal mission of transporting a 10,000-kg payload up to GEO and bringing a 5000-kg payload back to LEO, the two versions of ARGO differ in the manner in which the delta V is applied to insert the vehicle into LEO upon return from GEO. The all-propulsive ARGO (or CSTV for chemical STV) uses thrust from its LH2/LOX rocket engines to produce the delta V during all phases of its mission. While the aeroassisted ARGO (or ASTV for aeroassisted STV) also uses the same engines for the majority of the mission, the final delta V used to insert the ASTV into LEO is produced by skimming the Earth's atmosphere and using the drag on the vehicle to apply the required delta V. This procedure allows for large propellant, and thus cost, savings, but creates many design problems such as the high heating rates and decelerations experienced by a vehicle moving through the atmosphere at hypersonic velocities. The design class, consisting of 43 senior aerospace engineering students, was divided into one managerial and eight technical groups. The technical groups consisted of spacecraft configuration and integration, mission analysis, atmospheric flight, propulsion, power and communications, life support and human factors, logistics and support, and systems analysis. Two committees were set up with members from each group to create the scale models of the STV's and to produce the final report.

  17. The designing of launch vehicles with liquid propulsion engines ensuring fire, explosion and environmental safety requirements of worked-off stages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trushlyakov, V.; Shatrov, Ya.; Sujmenbaev, B.; Baranov, D.

    2017-02-01

    The paper addresses the problem of the launch vehicles (LV) with main liquid propulsion engines launch technogenic impact in different environment areas. Therefore, as the study subjects were chosen the worked-off stages (WS) with unused propellant residues in tanks, the cosmodrome ecological monitoring system, the worked-off stage design and construction solutions development system and the unified system with the "WS+the cosmodrome ecological monitoring system+design and construction solutions development system" feedback allowing to form the optimal ways of the WS design and construction parameters variations for its fire and explosion hazard management in different areas of the environment. It is demonstrated that the fire hazard effects of propellant residues in WS tanks increase the ecosystem disorder level for the Vostochny cosmodrome impact area ecosystem. Applying the system analysis, the proposals on the selection of technologies, schematic and WS design and construction solutions aimed to the fire and explosion safety improvement during the LV worked-off stages with the main liquid propulsion engines operation were formulated. Among them are the following: firstly, the unused propellant residues in tanks convective gasification based on the hot gas (heat carrier) supply in WS tanks after main liquid propulsion engines cutoff is proposed as the basic technology; secondly, the obtained unused propellant residues in WS tanks gasification products (evaporated propellant residues + pressurizing agent + heat carrier) are used for WS stabilization and orientation while descending trajectory moving. The applying of the proposed technologies allows providing fire and explosion safety requirements of LV with main liquid propulsion engines practically.

  18. Interactions between Flight Dynamics and Propulsion Systems of Air-Breathing Hypersonic Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    on x S = reference area [m2] T = temperature [K] T = thrust [N] u = component of velocity in x-direction [m/s] u = fluid velocity vector [m/s] or...coupled with combustor – Combustor, component for subsonic or supersonic combustion – Nozzle , expands flow for high thrust and may provide lift... nozzle . A description of the SAMURI model in Sec. 2.1 is a key part of the thesis . Much of the development of the combustor model was done by Torrez

  19. Computational Investigation of Flapping-Wing Propulsion for a Micro-Air Vehicle

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lim, Seng C

    2006-01-01

    ... CFD code that is available commercially. The unsteady Navier-Stokes flow fields, wake structures and forces variations were determined and compared with reference to past experimental observations...

  20. Platform Innovations and System Integration for Unmanned Air, Land and Sea Vehicles Symposium. Technical Evaluation Report

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Decuypere, Roland; Selegan, David

    2007-01-01

    ...) of the Research and Technology Organization (RTO) of NATO organized a joint symposium on Platform Innovations and System Integration for Unmanned Air, Land and Sea Vehicles which met from 14-18 May 2007 in Florence Italy...

  1. Affordable High Power Density Engine Designs for Personal Air Vehicles, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Next generation General Aviation (GA) Sport Class air vehicles limited to 1200lbs, represent the first opportunity to overhaul the FAA certification process...

  2. Affordable High Power Density Engine Designs for Personal Air Vehicles, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Next generation General Aviation (GA) Sport Class air vehicles limited to 1200lbs, represent the first opportunity to overhaul the FAA certification process...

  3. Variable-Fidelity Conceptual Design System for Advanced Unconventional Air Vehicles, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Ongoing work in unconventional air-vehicles, i.e. deformable mold-lines and bio-mimetics, is beginning to provide the insight necessary to exploit performance...

  4. Optimal Wind Corrected Flight Path Planning for Autonomous Micro Air Vehicles

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zollars, Michael D

    2007-01-01

    ...) fixed sensor on a target in the presence of a constant wind. Autonomous flight is quickly becoming the future of air power and over the past several years, the size and weight of autonomous vehicles has decreased dramatically...

  5. Transitioning to Low-GWP Alternatives in Motor Vehicle Air Conditioning Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    This fact sheet provides information on low-GWP alternatives in newly manufactured motor vehicle air conditioning systems. It discusses HFC alternatives, market trends, challenges to market entry for alternatives, and potential solutions.

  6. Piezoelectric energy harvesting from morphing wing motions for micro air vehicles

    KAUST Repository

    Abdelkefi, Abdessattar; Ghommem, Mehdi

    2013-01-01

    Wing flapping and morphing can be very beneficial to managing the weight of micro air vehicles through coupling the aerodynamic forces with stability and control. In this letter, harvesting energy from the wing morphing is studied to power cameras

  7. California; Antelope Valley Air Quality Management District; VOCs from Motor Vehicle Assembly Coating Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA is proposing to approve a revision to the Antelope Valley Air Quality Management District portion of the California SIP concerning emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from motor vehicle assembly coating operations.

  8. Sensing and control for autonomous vehicles applications to land, water and air vehicles

    CERN Document Server

    Pettersen, Kristin; Nijmeijer, Henk

    2017-01-01

    This edited volume includes thoroughly collected on sensing and control for autonomous vehicles. Guidance, navigation and motion control systems for autonomous vehicles are increasingly important in land-based, marine and aerial operations. Autonomous underwater vehicles may be used for pipeline inspection, light intervention work, underwater survey and collection of oceanographic/biological data. Autonomous unmanned aerial systems can be used in a large number of applications such as inspection, monitoring, data collection, surveillance, etc. At present, vehicles operate with limited autonomy and a minimum of intelligence. There is a growing interest for cooperative and coordinated multi-vehicle systems, real-time re-planning, robust autonomous navigation systems and robust autonomous control of vehicles. Unmanned vehicles with high levels of autonomy may be used for safe and efficient collection of environmental data, for assimilation of climate and environmental models and to complement global satellite sy...

  9. Dynamic Response Analysis of an Icosahedron Shaped Lighter Than Air Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-26

    Montgolfier brothers successfully achieved flight using a hot - air balloon . While this was not the first time a LTAV had been imagined, it was the...first time one had been successfully built and flown [3]. Hot - air balloons are able to stay afloat in the atmosphere by displacing a volume of air ...These possibilities have already been exploited by LTAVs using a lifting gas (hydrogen, helium, hot air ), but those vehicles require storage for the gas

  10. Dimensionless Energy Conversion Characteristics of an Air-Powered Hydraulic Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongkai Shen

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Due to the advantages of resource conservation and less exhaust emissions, compressed air-powered vehicle has attracted more and more attention. To improve the power and efficiency of air-powered vehicle, an air-powered hydraulic vehicle was proposed. As the main part of the air-powered hydraulic vehicles, HP transformer (short for Hydropneumatic transformer is used to convert the pneumatic power to higher hydraulic power. In this study, to illustrate the energy conversion characteristics of air-powered hydraulic vehicle, dimensionless mathematical model of the vehicle’s working process was set up. Through experimental study on the vehicle, the dimensionless model was verified. Through simulation study on the vehicle, the following can be obtained: firstly, the increase of the hydraulic chamber orifice and the area ratio of the pistons can lead to a higher output power, while output pressure is just the opposite. Moreover, the increase of the output pressure and the aperture of the hydraulic chamber can lead to a higher efficiency, while area ratio of the pistons played the opposite role. This research can be referred to in the performance and design optimization of the HP transformers.

  11. Modeling, Analysis, and Control of a Hypersonic Vehicle with Significant Aero-Thermo-Elastic-Propulsion Interactions: Elastic, Thermal and Mass Uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatri, Jaidev

    This thesis examines themodeling, analysis, and control system design issues for scramjet powered hypersonic vehicles. A nonlinear three degrees of freedom longitudinal model which includes aero-propulsion-elasticity effects was used for all analyses. This model is based upon classical compressible flow and Euler-Bernouli structural concepts. Higher fidelity computational fluid dynamics and finite element methods are needed for more precise intermediate and final evaluations. The methods presented within this thesis were shown to be useful for guiding initial control relevant design. The model was used to examine the vehicle's static and dynamic characteristics over the vehicle's trimmable region. The vehicle has significant longitudinal coupling between the fuel equivalency ratio (FER) and the flight path angle (FPA). For control system design, a two-input two-output plant (FER - elevator to speed-FPA) with 11 states (including 3 flexible modes) was used. Velocity, FPA, and pitch were assumed to be available for feedback. Aerodynamic heat modeling and design for the assumed TPS was incorporated to original Bolender's model to study the change in static and dynamic properties. De-centralized control stability, feasibility and limitations issues were dealt with the change in TPS elasticity, mass and physical dimension. The impact of elasticity due to TPS mass, TPS physical dimension as well as prolonged heating was also analyzed to understand performance limitations of de-centralized control designed for nominal model.

  12. Impact of the electric vehicles on the air pollution from a highway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrero, Enrico; Alessandrini, Stefano; Balanzino, Alessia

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A numerical chemical-dispersion model is applied to compute air pollution generated by traffic. • A measurements campaign is carried out collecting meteorological and chemical variables. • Measurement of traffic flows and related pollution emissions make the work original. • New fleet scenarios based on electric vehicle introduction are considered. • The benefits on air quality and human health due to electric vehicles are evaluated. - Abstract: We have quantified the impact that an introduction of electric vehicles into the car fleet has on air quality (regarding NO and NO_2) using a numerical dispersion model. An experimental campaign is conducted close to a highway in Milan, Italy. Meteorological parameters and chemical concentrations are measured along with the traffic emissions. We use a Lagrangian Stochastic Dispersion Model to create numerical simulations of the chemical reactions and dispersion involving pollutants from the highway. To evaluate the air pollution reductions, emission scenarios with different rates of electric vehicles introduction are simulated. We have found that only a significant replacement (50%) of non-electric vehicles with electric ones yields a remarkable reduction of the pollutant concentrations. However, even with lower electric vehicles introduction rates, the air quality improvements may be relevant during intense pollution episodes. The results provide useful information to decision makers and public administrators for planning measures to modify the car fleet composition aiming to improve the urban air quality.

  13. Modeling of Ship Propulsion Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Benjamin Pjedsted; Larsen, Jan

    2009-01-01

    Full scale measurements of the propulsion power, ship speed, wind speed and direction, sea and air temperature, from four different loading conditions has been used to train a neural network for prediction of propulsion power. The network was able to predict the propulsion power with accuracy...

  14. Measuring concentrations of selected air pollutants inside California vehicles. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodes, C.; Sheldon, L.; Whitaker, D.; Clayton, A.; Fitzgerald, K.

    1999-01-01

    This project measured 2-hour integrated concentrations of PM10, PM2.5, metals and a number of organic chemicals including benzene and MTBE inside vehicles on California roadways. Using continuous samplers, particle counts, black carbon, and CO were also measured. In addition to measuring in-vehicle levels, the investigators measured pollutant levels just outside the vehicle, at roadside stations, and ambient air monitoring stations. Different driving scenarios were designed to assess the effects of a number of factors on in-vehicle pollutant levels. These factors included roadway type, carpool lanes, traffic conditions, geographical locations, vehicle type, and vehicle ventilation conditions. The statewide average in-vehicle concentrations of benzene, MTBE, and formaldehyde ranged from 3--22 microg/m 3 , 3--90 microg/m 3 , and 0---22 microg/m 3 , respectively. The ranges of mean PM10 and PM2.5 in-vehicle levels in Sacramento were 20--40 microg/m 3 and 6--22 microg/m 3 , respectively. In general, pollutant levels inside or just outside the vehicles were higher than those measured at the roadside stations or the ambient air stations. In-vehicle pollutant levels were consistently higher in Los Angeles than Sacramento. Pollutant levels measured inside vehicles traveling in a carpool lane were much lower than those in the right-hand, slower lanes. Under the study conditions, factors such as vehicle type and ventilation and little effect on in-vehicle pollutant levels. Other factors, such as roadway type, freeway congestion level, and time-of-day had some influence on in-vehicle pollution levels

  15. Based on Artificial Neural Network to Realize K-Parameter Analysis of Vehicle Air Spring System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, San-Shan; Hsu, Chia-Ning; Hwang, Chang-Chou; Chen, Wen-Jan

    2017-10-01

    In recent years, because of the air-spring control technique is more mature, that air- spring suspension systems already can be used to replace the classical vehicle suspension system. Depend on internal pressure variation of the air-spring, thestiffnessand the damping factor can be adjusted. Because of air-spring has highly nonlinear characteristic, therefore it isn’t easy to construct the classical controller to control the air-spring effectively. The paper based on Artificial Neural Network to propose a feasible control strategy. By using offline way for the neural network design and learning to the air-spring in different initial pressures and different loads, offline method through, predict air-spring stiffness parameter to establish a model. Finally, through adjusting air-spring internal pressure to change the K-parameter of the air-spring, realize the well dynamic control performance of air-spring suspension.

  16. Alternative propulsion for automobiles

    CERN Document Server

    Stan, Cornel

    2017-01-01

    The book presents – based on the most recent research and development results worldwide - the perspectives of new propulsion concepts such as electric cars with batteries and fuel cells, and furthermore plug in hybrids with conventional and alternative fuels. The propulsion concepts are evaluated based on specific power, torque characteristic, acceleration behaviour, specific fuel consumption and pollutant emissions. The alternative fuels are discussed in terms of availability, production, technical complexity of the storage on board, costs, safety and infrastructure. The book presents summarized data about vehicles with electric and hybrid propulsion. The propulsion of future cars will be marked by diversity – from compact electric city cars and range extender vehicles for suburban and rural areas up to hybrid or plug in SUV´s, Pick up´s and luxury class automobiles.

  17. Propulsion Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Propulsion Lab simulates field test conditions in a controlled environment, using standardized or customized test procedures. The Propulsion Lab's 11 cells can...

  18. Road user charges for heavy goods vehicles (HGV):Tables with external costs of air pollution

    OpenAIRE

    Andersen, Mikael Skou

    2013-01-01

    In this report, the European Environment Agency (EEA) presents updated estimates of the external costs of air pollution for different categories of heavy goods vehicles (HGVs). This report on road transport is a continuation of previous reporting from EEA on estimates for the external costs of air pollution from industrial facilities (EEA, 2011).

  19. Teaching case studies on the regulation of motor vehicle air pollution in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-23

    Motor vehicle air pollution is a critical component of China's severe air quality problem and has the potential to become an even greater issue in the years to come. On this project, the principal investigator and research staff are developing Harvar...

  20. 9 CFR 3.114 - Primary conveyances (motor vehicle, rail, air and marine).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., rail, air and marine). 3.114 Section 3.114 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH... conveyances (motor vehicle, rail, air and marine). (a) The animal cargo space of primary conveyances used in.... (e) The interiors of animal cargo spaces in primary conveyances must be kept clean. (f) Live marine...

  1. Research, development, and demonstration of nickel-zinc batteries for electric vehicle propulsion. Annual report for 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-03-01

    Progress in the development of nickel-zinc batteries for electric vehicles is reported. Information is presented on nickel electrode preparation and testing; zinc electrode preparation with additives and test results; separator development and the evaluation of polymer-blend separator films; sealed Ni-Zn cells; and the optimization of electric vehicle-type Ni-Zn cells. (LCL)

  2. Overview of the NASA Environmentally Responsible Aviation Project's Propulsion Technology Portfolio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suder, Kenneth L.

    2012-01-01

    The NASA Environmentally Responsible Aviation (ERA) Project is focused on developing and demonstrating integrated systems technologies to TRL 4-6 by 2020 that enable reduced fuel burn, emissions, and noise for futuristic air vehicles. The specific goals aim to simultaneously reduce fuel burn by 50%, reduce Landing and Take-off Nitrous Oxides emissions by 75% relative to the CAEP 6 guidelines, and reduce cumulative noise by 42 Decibels relative to the Stage 4 guidelines. These goals apply to the integrated vehicle and propulsion system and are based on a reference mission of 3000nm flight of a Boeing 777-200 with GE90 engines. This paper will focus primarily on the ERA propulsion technology portfolio, which consists of advanced combustion, propulsor, and core technologies to enable these integrated air vehicle systems goals. An overview of the ERA propulsion technologies will be described and the status and results to date will be presented.

  3. Closed-Loop Control of Constrained Flapping Wing Micro Air Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-27

    predicts forces and moments for the class of flapping wing fliers that makes up most insects and hummingbirds. Large bird and butterfly “clap- and...Closed-Loop Control of Constrained Flapping Wing Micro Air Vehicles DISSERTATION Garrison J. Lindholm, Captain, USAF AFIT-ENY-DS-14-M-02 DEPARTMENT...States Air Force, Department of Defense, or the United States Government. AFIT-ENY-DS-14-M-02 Closed-Loop Control of Constrained Flapping Wing Micro Air

  4. Consequential life cycle air emissions externalities for plug-in electric vehicles in the PJM interconnection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weis, Allison; Jaramillo, Paulina; Michalek, Jeremy

    2016-02-01

    We perform a consequential life cycle analysis of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs), hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), and conventional gasoline vehicles in the PJM interconnection using a detailed, normative optimization model of the PJM electricity grid that captures the change in power plant operations and related emissions due to vehicle charging. We estimate and monetize the resulting human health and environmental damages from life cycle air emissions for each vehicle technology. We model PJM using the most recent data available (2010) as well as projections of the PJM grid in 2018 and a hypothetical scenario with increased wind penetration. We assess a range of sensitivity cases to verify the robustness of our results. We find that PEVs have higher life cycle air emissions damages than gasoline HEVs in the recent grid scenario, which has a high percentage of coal generation on the margin. In particular, battery electric vehicles with large battery capacity can produce two to three times as much air emissions damage as gasoline HEVs, depending on charge timing. In our future 2018 grid scenarios that account for predicted coal plant retirements, PEVs would produce air emissions damages comparable to or slightly lower than HEVs.

  5. Consequential life cycle air emissions externalities for plug-in electric vehicles in the PJM interconnection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weis, Allison; Jaramillo, Paulina; Michalek, Jeremy

    2016-01-01

    We perform a consequential life cycle analysis of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs), hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), and conventional gasoline vehicles in the PJM interconnection using a detailed, normative optimization model of the PJM electricity grid that captures the change in power plant operations and related emissions due to vehicle charging. We estimate and monetize the resulting human health and environmental damages from life cycle air emissions for each vehicle technology. We model PJM using the most recent data available (2010) as well as projections of the PJM grid in 2018 and a hypothetical scenario with increased wind penetration. We assess a range of sensitivity cases to verify the robustness of our results. We find that PEVs have higher life cycle air emissions damages than gasoline HEVs in the recent grid scenario, which has a high percentage of coal generation on the margin. In particular, battery electric vehicles with large battery capacity can produce two to three times as much air emissions damage as gasoline HEVs, depending on charge timing. In our future 2018 grid scenarios that account for predicted coal plant retirements, PEVs would produce air emissions damages comparable to or slightly lower than HEVs. (letter)

  6. Distributed sensing and actuation over bluetooth for unmanned air vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Afonso, José A.; Coelho, Ezequiel T.; Carvalhal, Paulo; Ferreira, Manuel João Oliveira; Santos, Cristina; Silva, Luís F.; Almeida, Heitor

    2006-01-01

    A short range wireless network platform, based on Bluetooth technology and on a Round Robin scheduling is presented. The objective is to build an application independent platform, to support a distributed sensing and actuation control system, which will be used in an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV). This platform provides the advantages of wireless communications while assuring low weight, small energy consumption and reliable communications.

  7. Piezoelectric energy harvesting from morphing wing motions for micro air vehicles

    KAUST Repository

    Abdelkefi, Abdessattar

    2013-09-10

    Wing flapping and morphing can be very beneficial to managing the weight of micro air vehicles through coupling the aerodynamic forces with stability and control. In this letter, harvesting energy from the wing morphing is studied to power cameras, sensors, or communication devices of micro air vehicles and to aid in the management of their power. The aerodynamic loads on flapping wings are simulated using a three-dimensional unsteady vortex lattice method. Active wing shape morphing is considered to enhance the performance of the flapping motion. A gradient-based optimization algorithm is used to pinpoint the optimal kinematics maximizing the propellent efficiency. To benefit from the wing deformation, we place piezoelectric layers near the wing roots. Gauss law is used to estimate the electrical harvested power. We demonstrate that enough power can be generated to operate a camera. Numerical analysis shows the feasibility of exploiting wing morphing to harvest energy and improving the design and performance of micro air vehicles.

  8. Multi-Disciplinary Design Optimization of Hypersonic Air-Breathing Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Peng; Tang, Zhili; Sheng, Jianda

    2016-06-01

    A 2D hypersonic vehicle shape with an idealized scramjet is designed at a cruise regime: Mach number (Ma) = 8.0, Angle of attack (AOA) = 0 deg and altitude (H) = 30kms. Then a multi-objective design optimization of the 2D vehicle is carried out by using a Pareto Non-dominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm II (NSGA-II). In the optimization process, the flow around the air-breathing vehicle is simulated by inviscid Euler equations using FLUENT software and the combustion in the combustor is modeled by a methodology based on the well known combination effects of area-varying pipe flow and heat transfer pipe flow. Optimization results reveal tradeoffs among total pressure recovery coefficient of forebody, lift to drag ratio of vehicle, specific impulse of scramjet engine and the maximum temperature on the surface of vehicle.

  9. UNMANNED AIR VEHICLE STABILIZATION BASED ON NEURAL NETWORK REGULATOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. S. Andropov

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A problem of stabilizing for the multirotor unmanned aerial vehicle in an environment with external disturbances is researched. A classic proportional-integral-derivative controller is analyzed, its flaws are outlined: inability to respond to changing of external conditions and the need for manual adjustment of coefficients. The paper presents an adaptive adjustment method for coefficients of the proportional-integral-derivative controller based on neural networks. A neural network structure, its input and output data are described. Neural networks with three layers are used to create an adaptive stabilization system for the multirotor unmanned aerial vehicle. Training of the networks is done with the back propagation method. Each neural network produces regulator coefficients for each angle of stabilization as its output. A method for network training is explained. Several graphs of transition process on different stages of learning, including processes with external disturbances, are presented. It is shown that the system meets stabilization requirements with sufficient number of iterations. Described adjustment method for coefficients can be used in remote control of unmanned aerial vehicles, operating in the changing environment.

  10. Development of an Android OS Based Controller of a Double Motor Propulsion System for Connected Electric Vehicles and Communication Delays Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Daniel Urbina Coronado

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Developments of technologies that facilitate vehicle connectivity represent a market demand. In particular, mobile device (MD technology provides advanced user interface, customization, and upgradability characteristics that can facilitate connectivity and possibly aid in the goal of autonomous driving. This work explores the use of a MD in the control system of a conceptual electric vehicle (EV. While the use of MD for real-time control and monitoring has been reported, proper consideration has not been given to delays in data flow and their effects on system performance. The motor of a novel propulsion system for an EV was conditioned to be controlled in a wireless local area network by an ecosystem that includes a MD and an electronic board. An intended accelerator signal is predefined and sent to the motor and rotational speed values produced in the motor are sent back to the MD. Sample periods in which the communication really occurs are registered. Delays in the sample periods and produced errors in the accelerator and rotational speed signals are presented and analyzed. Maximum delays found in communications were of 0.2 s, while the maximum error produced in the accelerator signal was of 3.54%. Delays are also simulated, with a response that is similar to the behavior observed in the experiments.

  11. Experimental investigation of a quad-rotor biplane micro air vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdanowicz, Christopher Michael

    Micro air vehicles are expected to perform demanding missions requiring efficient operation in both hover and forward flight. This thesis discusses the development of a hybrid air vehicle which seamlessly combines both flight capabilities: hover and high-speed forward flight. It is the quad-rotor biplane, which weighs 240 grams and consists of four propellers with wings arranged in a biplane configuration. The performance of the vehicle system was investigated in conditions representative of flight through a series of wind tunnel experiments. These studies provided an understanding of propeller-wing interaction effects and system trim analysis. This showed that the maximum speed of 11 m/s and a cruise speed of 4 m/s were achievable and that the cruise power is approximately one-third of the hover power. Free flight testing of the vehicle successfully highlighted its ability to achieve equilibrium transition flight. Key design parameters were experimentally investigated to understand their effect on overall performance. It was found that a trade-off between efficiency and compactness affects the final choice of the design. Design improvements have allowed for decreases in vehicle weight and ground footprint, while increasing structural soundness. Numerous vehicle designs, models, and flight tests have proven system scalability as well as versatility, including an upscaled model to be utilized in an extensive commercial package delivery system. Overall, the quad-rotor biplane is proven to be an efficient and effective multi-role vehicle.

  12. Feasibility study of a green energy powered thermoelectric chip based air conditioner for electric vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miranda, Á.G.; Chen, T.S.; Hong, C.W.

    2013-01-01

    Traditional compressed-refrigerant air conditioning systems consume substantial energy that may reduce the driving performance and cruising mileage of electric vehicles considerably. It is crucial to design a new climate control system, using a direct energy conversion principle, to further aid in the commercialization of modern electric vehicles. A solid state air conditioner model consisting on TECs (thermoelectric chips) as the load, DSSCs (dye sensitized solar cells) as the renewable energy source and high power LiBs (lithium-ion batteries) as an energy storage device are considered for a personal mobility vehicle. The power management between the main power net and the solid state air conditioner interface is designed with an outer proportional-integral controller and an inner passivity based current controller with a loss included model for perfect tracking. This model is intended to comprise thermal and electrical elements which can be tunable for performance benchmarking and optimization of a solid state air conditioning system. Dynamic performance simulations of the solid-state air conditioner are performed, alongside guidelines for feasibility. - Highlights: • Alternative model extraction for dye sensitized solar cells. • Improved and computationally fast model for the cabin air temperature dynamics. • Euler–Lagrange loss included modeling of a buck converter. • Loss-included passivity based inner loop current control. • The thermoelectric chip air conditioner is tested in simulated cooling/heating scenarios

  13. Initial Validation of Robotic Operations for In-Space Assembly of a Large Solar Electric Propulsion Transport Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komendera, Erik E.; Dorsey, John T.

    2017-01-01

    Developing a capability for the assembly of large space structures has the potential to increase the capabilities and performance of future space missions and spacecraft while reducing their cost. One such application is a megawatt-class solar electric propulsion (SEP) tug, representing a critical transportation ability for the NASA lunar, Mars, and solar system exploration missions. A series of robotic assembly experiments were recently completed at Langley Research Center (LaRC) that demonstrate most of the assembly steps for the SEP tug concept. The assembly experiments used a core set of robotic capabilities: long-reach manipulation and dexterous manipulation. This paper describes cross-cutting capabilities and technologies for in-space assembly (ISA), applies the ISA approach to a SEP tug, describes the design and development of two assembly demonstration concepts, and summarizes results of two sets of assembly experiments that validate the SEP tug assembly steps.

  14. Configuration Studies of Personal Air Vehicles. Personal Air Vehicle and Flying Jeep Concepts: A Commentary on Promising Approaches or What Goes Around Comes Around (About Every Twenty Years)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, David W.

    2001-01-01

    The NASA/Langley Personal Air Vehicle (PAV) Exploration (PAVE) and the DARPA (Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency) Dual Air/Road Transportation System (DARTS) projects were established to investigate the feasibility of creating vehicles which could replace, or at the very least augment, personal ground and air transportation schemes. This overall goal implies integrating several technology areas with practical everyday transportation requirements to design a class of vehicles which will achieve the following goals: (1) Vertical, Extremely Short, or Short Takeoff and Landing (VTOL, ESTOL, STOL) capability; (2) Operation at block speeds markedly faster than current combinations of land and air transportation, particularly in critical market areas; (3) Unit cost comparable to current luxury cars and small general aviation aircraft; (4) Excellent reliability; (5) Excellent safety; (6) Ability to integrate with existing land and air transportation systems. The conclusions of these configuration studies are summarized as follows: (1) Creation of the five assigned configurations prompted added explorations, some of which were dead-ends; (2) Some components could be common to all configurations such as avionics and dual-mode suspension schemes; (3) Single-Mode PAVs can be created by removing dual-mode-specific items; (4) Aviation history provided some intriguing starting points, as in what goes around comes around; (5) CTOL (Conventional Take-off and Landing) and STOL dual-mode PAVs look feasible with single-mode PAVs being simplifications of the dual-mode approach; (6) VTOL PAVs will require development; (7) More exotic collapsing mechanisms mechanisms need development; (8) As a teaching tool, PAVs are not yet a well-enough bounded design problem.

  15. Research, development, and demonstration of lead-acid batteries for electric-vehicle propulsion. Annual report, 1981

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1982-03-01

    The progress of the design and development program is detailed. Results of drop tests, characteristics tests, and life cycle tests are presented and discussed. Results of tests of mechanical agitation of the electrolyte by air bubbling and an air lift pump are reported. Work on the electrode designs and electrolyte circulation systems is reported. (WHK)

  16. Research, development, and demonstration of nickel-zinc batteries for electric vehicle propulsion. Annual report for 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-03-01

    Progress in developing nickel-zinc batteries for propelling electric vehicles is reported. Information is included on component design, battery fabrication, and module performance testing. Although full scale hardware performance has fallen short of the contract cycle life goals, significant progress has been made to warrant further development. (LCL)

  17. Comparative Studies on Vehicle Related Policies for Air Pollution Reduction in Ten Asian Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keiko Hirota

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Asian countries are facing major air pollution problems due to rapid economic growth, urbanization and motorization. Mortality and respiratory diseases caused by air pollution are believed to be endemic in major cities of these countries. Regulations and standards are the first requirement for reducing emissions from both fixed and mobile sources. This paper emphasizes monitoring problems such as vehicle registration systems, inspection and maintenance (I/M systems and fuel quality monitoring systems for vehicles in use. Monitoring problems in developing countries share similar characteristics such as a weakness in government initiatives and inadequate operation of government agencies, which results from a lack of human resources and availability of adequate facilities. Finally, this paper proposes a method to assure air quality improvements under the different shares of emission regulations in these Asian countries and introduces an example of an evaluation method based on a policy survey to improve air quality.

  18. Improving the aluminum-air battery system for use in electrical vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shaohua

    The objectives of this study include improvement of the efficiency of the aluminum/air battery system and demonstration of its ability for vehicle applications. The aluminum/air battery system can generate enough energy and power for driving ranges and acceleration similar to that of gasoline powered cars. Therefore has the potential to be a power source for electrical vehicles. Aluminum/air battery vehicle life cycle analysis was conducted and compared to that of lead/acid and nickel-metal hydride vehicles. Only the aluminum/air vehicles can be projected to have a travel range comparable to that of internal combustion engine vehicles (ICE). From this analysis, an aluminum/air vehicle is a promising candidate compared to ICE vehicles in terms of travel range, purchase price, fuel cost, and life cycle cost. We have chosen two grades of Al alloys (Al alloy 1350, 99.5% and Al alloy 1199, 99.99%) in our study. Only Al 1199 was studied extensively using Na 2SnO3 as an electrolyte additive. We then varied concentration and temperature, and determined the effects on the parasitic (corrosion) current density and open circuit potential. We also determined cell performance and selectivity curves. To optimize the performance of the cell based on our experiments, the recommended operating conditions are: 3--4 N NaOH, about 55°C, and a current density of 150--300 mA/cm2. We have modeled the cell performance using the equations we developed. The model prediction of cell performance shows good agreement with experimental data. For better cell performance, our model studies suggest use of higher electrolyte flow rate, smaller cell gap, higher conductivity and lower parasitic current density. We have analyzed the secondary current density distributions in a two plane, parallel Al/air cell and a wedge-type Al/air cell. The activity of the cathode has a large effect on the local current density. With increases in the cell gap, the local current density increases, but the increase is

  19. Particulate emission rates from light-duty vehicles in the South Coast Air Quality Management District

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durbin, T.D.; Norbeck, J.M.; Smith, M.R.; Truex, T.J.

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a particulate emission rate study conducted on 129 light-duty gasoline and 19 light-duty diesel vehicles for the Coordinating Research Council's (CRC's) Project E-24-2. Total particulate emission rates for newer gasoline vehicles were low with modest increases with vehicle age and older technology. Average FTP particulate emission rates as a function of model year for gasoline vehicles were found to be 2.5 mg/mi for 1991 and newer models, 14.4 mg/mi for 1986--1990 models, 49.0 mg/mi for 1981--1985 models, and 33.8 mg/mi for 1980 and older models. High gaseous emitters were found to have approximately 5--10 times the particulate emission rates of normal emitters. The diesel vehicles had an average particulate emission rate of 561 mg/mi. It should be noted that the light-duty diesel vehicles were predominantly older, pre-1985 vehicles; the 1985 and newer diesel vehicles had substantially lower particulate emissions, i.e., less than 100 mg/mi. Emission inventory estimates in the South Coast Air Basin based on the fleet emission rates were higher than those obtained using the default values in EMFAC7G, due primarily to the contribution of high emitters

  20. Autonomous Soaring for Improved Endurance of a Small Uninhabited Air Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Michael J.

    2005-01-01

    A relatively unexplored method to improve the endurance of an autonomous aircraft is to use buoyant plumes of air found in the lower atmosphere called thermals or updrafts. Glider pilots and birds commonly use updrafts to improve range, endurance, or cross-country speed. This report presents a quantitative analysis of a small electric-powered uninhabited air vehicle using updrafts to extend its endurance over a target location. A three-degree-of-freedom simulation of the uninhabited air vehicle was used to determine the yearly effect of updrafts on performance. Surface radiation and rawinsonde balloon measurements taken at Desert Rock, Nevada, were used to determine updraft size, strength, spacing, shape, and maximum height for the simulation. A fixed-width spiral path was used to search for updrafts at the same time as maintaining line-of-sight to the surface target position. Power was used only when the aircraft was flying at the lower-altitude limit in search of updrafts. Results show that an uninhabited air vehicle with a nominal endurance of 2 hours can fly a maximum of 14 hours using updrafts during the summer and a maximum of 8 hours during the winter. The performance benefit and the chance of finding updrafts both depend on what time of day the uninhabited air vehicle is launched. Good endurance and probability of finding updrafts during the year was obtained when the uninhabited air vehicle was launched 30 percent into the daylight hours after sunrise each day. Yearly average endurance was found to be 8.6 hours with these launch times.

  1. 77 FR 73459 - California State Motor Vehicle Pollution Control Standards; Notice of Waiver of Clean Air Act...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-10

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [FRL-9759-4] California State Motor Vehicle Pollution Control Standards; Notice of Waiver of Clean Air Act Preemption; California's 2010 Model Year Heavy-Duty Vehicle and... for CARB's own motor vehicle pollution control program based on lack of compelling and extraordinary...

  2. Reactors for nuclear electric propulsion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buden, D.; Angelo, J.A. Jr.

    1981-01-01

    Propulsion is the key to space exploitation and power is the key to propulsion. This paper examines the role of nuclear fission reactors as the primary power source for high specific impulse electric propulsion systems for space missions of the 1980s and 1990s. Particular mission applications include transfer to and a reusable orbital transfer vehicle from low-Earth orbit to geosynchronous orbit, outer planet exploration and reconnaissance missions, and as a versatile space tug supporting lunar resource development. Nuclear electric propulsion is examined as an indispensable component in space activities of the next two decades.

  3. Reactors for nuclear electric propulsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buden, D.; Angelo, J.A. Jr.

    1981-01-01

    Propulsion is the key to space exploitation and power is the key to propulsion. This paper examines the role of nuclear fission reactors as the primary power source for high specific impulse electric propulsion systems for space missions of the 1980s and 1990s. Particular mission applications include transfer to and a reusable orbital transfer vehicle from low-Earth orbit to geosynchronous orbit, outer planet exploration and reconnaissance missions, and as a versatile space tug supporting lunar resource development. Nuclear electric propulsion is examined as an indispensable component in space activities of the next two decades

  4. Measuring concentrations of selected air pollutants inside California vehicles : final report

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-12-01

    This study provided the data needed to characterize in-transit exposures to air pollutants for California drivers. It also demonstrated a number of in-situ monitoring techniques in moving vehicles and provided findings that shed new light on particle...

  5. DEFINITION OF OUTPUT ENERGY PARAMETERS OF A VEHICLE WITH AIR MOTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voronkov, A.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available It was made trailer-speed motion analysis of minibus GAZ-2217 with air motor instead of the internal combustion engine and recommendations allowing to determine the output power of the power plant parameters for vehicle movement at low speed in urban cycle.

  6. Aerodynamics of flapping-wing Micro-Air-Vehicle : An integrated experimental and numerical study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deng, S.

    2016-01-01

    The interest in Micro Air Vehicles (MAVs) has stimulated continuous research activities, in view of their potential in civilian and military applications. An autonomous MAV with dedicated onboard sensors would be capable of executing mission in closed environments, such as surveillance, in door

  7. An Analysis of Skill Requirements for Operators of Amphibious Air Cushion Vehicles (ACVs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKnight, A. James; And Others

    This report describes the skills required in the operation of an amphibious air cushion vehicle (ACV) in Army tactical and logistic missions. The research involved analyzing ACV characteristics, operating requirements, environmental effects, and results of a simulation experiment. The analysis indicates that ACV operation is complicated by an…

  8. The scalable design of flapping micro air vehicles inspired by insect flight

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lentink, D.; Jongerius, S.R.; Bradshaw, N.L.

    2009-01-01

    Here we explain how flapping micro air vehicles (MAVs) can be designed at different scales, from bird to insect size. The common believe is that micro fixed wing airplanes and helicopters outperform MAVs at bird scale, but become inferior to flapping MAVs at the scale of insects as small as fruit

  9. Multi-rate path-following control for unmanned air vehicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guerreiro Tome Antunes, D.J.; Silvestre, C.J.; Cunha, R.

    2008-01-01

    A methodology is provided to tackle the path-following integrated guidance and control problem for unmanned air vehicles with measured outputs available at different rates. The path-following problem is addressed by defining a suitable non-linear path dependent error space to express the vehicle’s

  10. Road user charges for heavy goods vehicles (HGV). Tables with external costs of air pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skou Andersen, M.

    2013-02-15

    In this report, the European Environment Agency (EEA) presents updated estimates of the external costs of air pollution for different categories of heavy goods vehicles (HGVs). The amended Eurovignette Directive (2011/76/EU) relating to the charging of HGVs for use of major European motorways prescribes that from 2013, Member States may include air pollution costs in any charging structure for roads under the Trans-European Network (TEN-T) and for comparable domestic motorways. The tables published here provide the basis for the inclusion of a vehicle-specific air pollution component in road user charges. Air pollution costs have been calculated on the basis of the formula prescribed in the directive, taking into account the fact that road transport emissions are mixed in a low volume of air. Following Article 9 in the Eurovignette Directive, additional revenues from external-cost charges must be used by Member States to benefit the transport sector and promote sustainable mobility. Making use of scientific developments subsequent to the 2007 Handbook of external costs (Maibach et al., 2008), the EEA is able to provide an updated estimate of the external costs of air pollution from road transport. The tables in this report indicate for each country and for the relevant vehicle categories, estimates of the external costs of air pollution in 2010 prices. The high level of detail gives member countries an informed basis to group the vehicle categories for administrative purposes. The tables also include estimates for three non-EU member countries of the EEA, of which one (Switzerland) pioneered the first HGV road user charge in Europe. (LN)

  11. The Space Nuclear Thermal Propulsion Program: Propulsion for the twenty first century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bleeker, G.; Moody, J.; Kesaree, M.

    1993-01-01

    As mission requirements approach the limits of the chemical propulsion systems, new engines must be investigated that can meet the advanced mission requirements of higher payload fractions, higher velocities, and consequently higher specific Impulses (Isp). The propulsion system that can meet these high demands is a nuclear thermal rocket engine. This engine generates the thrust by expanding/existing the hydrogen, heated from the energy derived from the fission process in a reactor, through a nozzle. The Department of Defense (DoD), however, initiated a new nuclear rocket development program in 1987 for ballistic missile defense application. The Space Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (SNTP) Program that seeks to improve on the technology of ROVER/NERVA grew out of this beginning and has been managed by the Air Force, with the involvement of DoE and NASA. The goal of the SNTP Program is to develop an engine to meet potential Air Force requirements for upper stage engine, bimodal propulsion/power applications, and orbital transfer vehicles, as well as the NASA requirements for possible missions to the Moon and Mars. During the entire life of the program, the DoD has considered safety to be of paramount importance, and is following all national environmental policies

  12. Vehicle with inclinable caterpillars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carra, O.; Delevallee, A.

    1991-01-01

    Vehicle has a body with propulsion assemblies that drive caterpillar tracks. When a propulsion unit inclines about its articulation axis it is aided by an advance movement of the caterpillar track in the opposite direction of rotation [fr

  13. A Novel UAV Electric Propulsion Testbed for Diagnostics and Prognostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorospe, George E., Jr.; Kulkarni, Chetan S.

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a novel hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) testbed for systems level diagnostics and prognostics of an electric propulsion system used in UAVs (unmanned aerial vehicle). Referencing the all electric, Edge 540T aircraft used in science and research by NASA Langley Flight Research Center, the HIL testbed includes an identical propulsion system, consisting of motors, speed controllers and batteries. Isolated under a controlled laboratory environment, the propulsion system has been instrumented for advanced diagnostics and prognostics. To produce flight like loading on the system a slave motor is coupled to the motor under test (MUT) and provides variable mechanical resistance, and the capability of introducing nondestructive mechanical wear-like frictional loads on the system. This testbed enables the verification of mathematical models of each component of the propulsion system, the repeatable generation of flight-like loads on the system for fault analysis, test-to-failure scenarios, and the development of advanced system level diagnostics and prognostics methods. The capabilities of the testbed are extended through the integration of a LabVIEW-based client for the Live Virtual Constructive Distributed Environment (LVCDC) Gateway which enables both the publishing of generated data for remotely located observers and prognosers and the synchronization the testbed propulsion system with vehicles in the air. The developed HIL testbed gives researchers easy access to a scientifically relevant portion of the aircraft without the overhead and dangers encountered during actual flight.

  14. Urban emissions hotspots: Quantifying vehicle congestion and air pollution using mobile phone GPS data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gately, Conor K.; Hutyra, Lucy R.; Peterson, Scott; Sue Wing, Ian

    2017-01-01

    On-road emissions vary widely on time scales as short as minutes and length scales as short as tens of meters. Detailed data on emissions at these scales are a prerequisite to accurately quantifying ambient pollution concentrations and identifying hotspots of human exposure within urban areas. We construct a highly resolved inventory of hourly fluxes of CO, NO 2 , NO x , PM 2.5 and CO 2 from road vehicles on 280,000 road segments in eastern Massachusetts for the year 2012. Our inventory integrates a large database of hourly vehicle speeds derived from mobile phone and vehicle GPS data with multiple regional datasets of vehicle flows, fleet characteristics, and local meteorology. We quantify the ‘excess’ emissions from traffic congestion, finding modest congestion enhancement (3–6%) at regional scales, but hundreds of local hotspots with highly elevated annual emissions (up to 75% for individual roadways in key corridors). Congestion-driven reductions in vehicle fuel economy necessitated ‘excess’ consumption of 113 million gallons of motor fuel, worth ∼ $415M, but this accounted for only 3.5% of the total fuel consumed in Massachusetts, as over 80% of vehicle travel occurs in uncongested conditions. Across our study domain, emissions are highly spatially concentrated, with 70% of pollution originating from only 10% of the roads. The 2011 EPA National Emissions Inventory (NEI) understates our aggregate emissions of NO x , PM 2.5 , and CO 2 by 46%, 38%, and 18%, respectively. However, CO emissions agree within 5% for the two inventories, suggesting that the large biases in NO x and PM 2.5 emissions arise from differences in estimates of diesel vehicle activity. By providing fine-scale information on local emission hotspots and regional emissions patterns, our inventory framework supports targeted traffic interventions, transparent benchmarking, and improvements in overall urban air quality. - Highlights: • A high resolution, bottom-up inventory of

  15. Ambient particulate air pollution from vehicles promotes lipid peroxidation and inflammatory responses in rat lung.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, C E L; Heck, T G; Saldiva, P H N; Rhoden, C R

    2007-10-01

    Oxidative stress plays a major role in the pathogenesis of particle-dependent lung injury. Ambient particle levels from vehicles have not been previously shown to cause oxidative stress to the lungs. The present study was conducted to a) determine whether short-term exposure to ambient levels of particulate air pollution from vehicles elicits inflammatory responses and lipid peroxidation in rat lungs, and b) determine if intermittent short-term exposures (every 4 days) induce some degree of tolerance. Three-month-old male Wistar rats were exposed to ambient particulate matter (PM) from vehicles (N = 30) for 6 or 20 continuous hours, or for intermittent (5 h) periods during 20 h for 4 consecutive days or to filtered air (PM polluted air for 20 h (P-20) showed a significant increase in the total number of leukocytes in bronchoalveolar lavage compared to control (C-20: 2.61 x 105 +/- 0.51;P-20: 5.01 x 105 +/- 0.81; P air pollution did not cause a significant increase in lung water content. These data suggest oxidative stress as one of the mechanisms responsible for the acute adverse respiratory effects of particles, and suggest that short-term inhalation of ambient particulate air pollution from street with high automobile traffic represents a biological hazard.

  16. Testing of the permanent magnet material Mn-Al-C for potential use in propulsion motors for electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelnour, Z.; Mildrun, H.; Strant, K.

    1981-01-01

    The development of Mn-Al-C permanent magnets is reviewed. The general properties of the material are discussed and put into perspective relative to alnicos and ferrites. The traction motor designer's demands of a permanent magnet for potential use in electric vehicle drives are reviewed. Tests determined magnetic design data and mechanical strength properties. Easy axis hysteresis and demagnetization curves, recoil loops and other minor loop fields were measured over a temperature range from -50 to 150 C. Hysteresis loops were also measured for three orthogonal directions (the one easy and two hard axes of magnetization). Extruded rods of three different diameters were tested. The nonuniformity of properties over the cross section of the 31 mm diameter rod was studied. Mechanical compressive and bending strength at room temperature was determined on individual samples from the 31 mm rod.

  17. Research, development, and demonstration of lead-acid batteries for electric-vehicle propulsion. Annual report, 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-03-01

    The first development effort in improving lead-acid batteries fore electric vehicles was the improvement of electric vehicle batteries using flat pasted positive plates and the second was for a tubular long life positive plate. The investigation of 32 component variables based on a flat pasted positive plate configuration is described. The experiment tested 96 - six volt batteries for characterization at 0, 25, and 40/sup 0/C and for cycle life capability at the 3 hour discharge rate with a one cycle, to 80% DOD, per day regime. Four positive paste formulations were selected. Two commercially available microporous separators were used in conjunction with a layer of 0.076 mm thick glass mat. Two concentrations of battery grade sulfuric acid were included in the test to determine if an increase in concentration would improve the battery capacity sufficient to offset the added weight of the more concentrated solution. Two construction variations, 23 plate elements with outside negative plates and 23 plate elements with outside positive plates, were included. The second development effort was an experiment designed to study the relationship of 32 component variables based on a tubular positive plate configuration. 96-six volt batteries were tested at various discharge rates at 0, 25, and 40/sup 0/C along with cycle life testing at 80% DOD of the 3 hour rate. 75 batteries remain on cycle life testing with 17 batteries having in excess of 365 life cycles. Preliminary conclusions indicate: the tubular positive plate is far more capable of withstanding deep cycles than is the flat pasted plate; as presently designed 40 Whr/kg can not be achieved, since 37.7 Whr/kg was the best tubular data obtained; electrolyte circulation is impaired due to the tight element fit in the container; and a redesign is required to reduce the battery weight which will improve the Whr/kg value. This redesign is complete and new molds have been ordered.

  18. Robust Adaptive Flight Control Design of Air-breathing Hypersonic Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-07

    advantages over rocket - based systems for space access vehicles. The major advantage of using air-breathing engine is that the extra oxidizer is not...sideslip angle (β) is calculated as Vt = p u2 + v2 +w2, α= t an−1 ( wu ), β= si n−1 ( vVt ) The rotational dynamic equations of AHV are given as Ṗ = c1QR...inverse controller for hypersonic vehicle. In 2010 International Conference on Information, Networking and Automation (ICINA), volume 2, pages V2 –240

  19. Simultaneously reducing CO2 and particulate exposures via fractional recirculation of vehicle cabin air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Heejung S; Grady, Michael L; Victoroff, Tristan; Miller, Arthur L

    2017-07-01

    Prior studies demonstrate that air recirculation can reduce exposure to nanoparticles in vehicle cabins. However when people occupy confined spaces, air recirculation can lead to carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) accumulation which can potentially lead to deleterious effects on cognitive function. This study proposes a fractional air recirculation system for reducing nanoparticle concentration while simultaneously suppressing CO 2 levels in the cabin. Several recirculation scenarios were tested using a custom-programmed HVAC (heat, ventilation, air conditioning) unit that varied the recirculation door angle in the test vehicle. Operating the recirculation system with a standard cabin filter reduced particle concentrations to 1000 particles/cm 3 , although CO 2 levels rose to 3000 ppm. When as little as 25% fresh air was introduced (75% recirculation), CO 2 levels dropped to 1000 ppm, while particle concentrations remained below 5000 particles/cm 3 . We found that nanoparticles were removed selectively during recirculation and demonstrated the trade-off between cabin CO 2 concentration and cabin particle concentration using fractional air recirculation. Data showed significant increases in CO 2 levels during 100% recirculation. For various fan speeds, recirculation fractions of 50-75% maintained lower CO 2 levels in the cabin, while still reducing particulate levels. We recommend fractional recirculation as a simple method to reduce occupants' exposures to particulate matter and CO 2 in vehicles. A design with several fractional recirculation settings could allow air exchange adequate for reducing both particulate and CO 2 exposures. Developing this technology could lead to reductions in airborne nanoparticle exposure, while also mitigating safety risks from CO 2 accumulation.

  20. Parameter Estimation and Verification of Unmanned Air Cushion Vehicle (UACV System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ab Rashid Mohd Zamzuri

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This project is mainly about the dynamic modelling and parameter estimation of Unmanned Air Cushion Vehicle (UACV. The purpose of developing mathematical model of the Unmanned Air Cushion Vehicle (UACV is due to its under actuated nonlinearities where it has less input compared to the output required. This system able to maneuver over land, water and other surfaces either at certain speed or maintain at a stationary position. In order to model the UACV, the system is set to have two propellers which are responsible to lift the vehicle by forcing high pressure air under the system. The air inflates the “skirt” under the vehicle, causing it to rise above the surface while another two propellers are used to steer the UACV forward. UACV system can be considered as under actuated since it possess fewer controller inputs that its degree of freedom. The system’s motions are defined by the six degrees of freedom which are; heaved, sway and surge. Another three components are rotational motions which can be elaborated as roll, pitch and yaw. The problem related to UACV is normally related to obtaining accurate parameters of the system to be included into the mathematical model of the system. This is due to the body inertia of the system during the static and moving condition. Besides, the air that flows into the UACV skirt to create the cushion causes imbalance and will affect the system stability and controllability. In this research, UACV need to be mathematically modelled using Euler-Lagrange method. Then, parameters of the system can be obtained through direct calculation and Solidworks software. The parameters acquired are compared and verified using simulation and experimental studies.

  1. Determining air quality and greenhouse gas impacts of hydrogen infrastructure and fuel cell vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens-Romero, Shane; Carreras-Sospedra, Marc; Brouwer, Jacob; Dabdub, Donald; Samuelsen, Scott

    2009-12-01

    Adoption of hydrogen infrastructure and hydrogen fuel cell vehicles (HFCVs) to replace gasoline internal combustion engine (ICE) vehicles has been proposed as a strategy to reduce criteria pollutant and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the transportation sector and transition to fuel independence. However, it is uncertain (1) to what degree the reduction in criteria pollutants will impact urban air quality, and (2) how the reductions in pollutant emissions and concomitant urban air quality impacts compare to ultralow emission gasoline-powered vehicles projected for a future year (e.g., 2060). To address these questions, the present study introduces a "spatially and temporally resolved energy and environment tool" (STREET) to characterize the pollutant and GHG emissions associated with a comprehensive hydrogen supply infrastructure and HFCVs at a high level of geographic and temporal resolution. To demonstrate the utility of STREET, two spatially and temporally resolved scenarios for hydrogen infrastructure are evaluated in a prototypical urban airshed (the South Coast Air Basin of California) using geographic information systems (GIS) data. The well-to-wheels (WTW) GHG emissions are quantified and the air quality is established using a detailed atmospheric chemistry and transport model followed by a comparison to a future gasoline scenario comprised of advanced ICE vehicles. One hydrogen scenario includes more renewable primary energy sources for hydrogen generation and the other includes more fossil fuel sources. The two scenarios encompass a variety of hydrogen generation, distribution, and fueling strategies. GHG emissions reductions range from 61 to 68% for both hydrogen scenarios in parallel with substantial improvements in urban air quality (e.g., reductions of 10 ppb in peak 8-h-averaged ozone and 6 mug/m(3) in 24-h-averaged particulate matter concentrations, particularly in regions of the airshed where concentrations are highest for the gasoline scenario).

  2. Ornithopter Type Flapping Wings for Autonomous Micro Air Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sutthiphong Srigrarom

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an ornithopter prototype that mimics the flapping motion of bird flight is developed, and the lift and thrust generation characteristics of different wing designs are evaluated. This project focused on the spar arrangement and material used for the wings that could achieves improved performance. Various lift and thrust measurement techniques are explored and evaluated. Various wings of insects and birds were evaluated to understand how these natural flyers with flapping wings are able to produce sufficient lift to fly. The differences in the flapping aerodynamics were also detailed. Experiments on different wing designs and materials were conducted and a paramount wing was built for a test flight. The first prototype has a length of 46.5 cm, wing span of 88 cm, and weighs 161 g. A mechanism which produced a flapping motion was fabricated and designed to create flapping flight. The flapping flight was produced by using a single motor and a flexible and light wing structure. A force balance made of load cell was then designed to measure the thrust and lift force of the ornithopter. Three sets of wings varying flexibility were fabricated, therefore lift and thrust measurements were acquired from each different set of wings. The lift will be measured in ten cycles computing the average lift and frequency in three different speeds or frequencies (slow, medium and fast. The thrust measurement was measure likewise but in two cycles only. Several observations were made regarding the behavior of flexible flapping wings that should aid in the design of future flexible flapping wing vehicles. The wings angle or phase characteristic were analyze too and studied. The final ornithopter prototype weighs only 160 g, has a wing span of 88.5 cm, that could flap at a maximum flapping frequency of 3.869 Hz, and produce a maximum thrust and lift of about 0.719 and 0.264 N respectively. Next, we proposed resonance type flapping wing utilizes the near

  3. Advanced Propulsion Power Distribution System for Next Generation Electric/Hybrid Vehicle. Phase 1; Preliminary System Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bose, Bimal K.; Kim, Min-Huei

    1995-01-01

    The report essentially summarizes the work performed in order to satisfy the above project objective. In the beginning, different energy storage devices, such as battery, flywheel and ultra capacitor are reviewed and compared, establishing the superiority of the battery. Then, the possible power sources, such as IC engine, diesel engine, gas turbine and fuel cell are reviewed and compared, and the superiority of IC engine has been established. Different types of machines for drive motor/engine generator, such as induction machine, PM synchronous machine and switched reluctance machine are compared, and the induction machine is established as the superior candidate. Similar discussion was made for power converters and devices. The Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor (IGBT) appears to be the most superior device although Mercury Cadmium Telluride (MCT) shows future promise. Different types of candidate distribution systems with the possible combinations of power and energy sources have been discussed and the most viable system consisting of battery, IC engine and induction machine has been identified. Then, HFAC system has been compared with the DC system establishing the superiority of the former. The detailed component sizing calculations of HFAC and DC systems reinforce the superiority of the former. A preliminary control strategy has been developed for the candidate HFAC system. Finally, modeling and simulation study have been made to validate the system performance. The study in the report demonstrates the superiority of HFAC distribution system for next generation electric/hybrid vehicle.

  4. The Digital Twin Paradigm for Future NASA and U.S. Air Force Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaessgen, Edward H.; Stargel, D. S.

    2012-01-01

    Future generations of NASA and U.S. Air Force vehicles will require lighter mass while being subjected to higher loads and more extreme service conditions over longer time periods than the present generation. Current approaches for certification, fleet management and sustainment are largely based on statistical distributions of material properties, heuristic design philosophies, physical testing and assumed similitude between testing and operational conditions and will likely be unable to address these extreme requirements. To address the shortcomings of conventional approaches, a fundamental paradigm shift is needed. This paradigm shift, the Digital Twin, integrates ultra-high fidelity simulation with the vehicle s on-board integrated vehicle health management system, maintenance history and all available historical and fleet data to mirror the life of its flying twin and enable unprecedented levels of safety and reliability.

  5. Design and analysis of biomimetic joints for morphing of micro air vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Daniel T; Abdulrahim, Mujahid; Lind, Rick

    2010-12-01

    Flight capability for micro air vehicles is rapidly maturing throughout the aviation community; however, mission capability has not yet matured at the same pace. Maintaining trim during a descent or in the presence of crosswinds remains challenging for fixed-wing aircraft but yet is routinely performed by birds. This paper presents an overview of designs that incorporate morphing to enhance their flight characteristics. In particular, a series of joints and structures is adopted from seagulls to alter either the dihedral or sweep of the wings and thus alter the flight characteristics. The resulting vehicles are able to trim with significantly increased angles of attack and sideslip compared to traditional fixed-wing vehicles.

  6. Design and analysis of biomimetic joints for morphing of micro air vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grant, Daniel T; Abdulrahim, Mujahid; Lind, Rick, E-mail: ricklind@ufl.ed [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States)

    2010-12-15

    Flight capability for micro air vehicles is rapidly maturing throughout the aviation community; however, mission capability has not yet matured at the same pace. Maintaining trim during a descent or in the presence of crosswinds remains challenging for fixed-wing aircraft but yet is routinely performed by birds. This paper presents an overview of designs that incorporate morphing to enhance their flight characteristics. In particular, a series of joints and structures is adopted from seagulls to alter either the dihedral or sweep of the wings and thus alter the flight characteristics. The resulting vehicles are able to trim with significantly increased angles of attack and sideslip compared to traditional fixed-wing vehicles.

  7. Design and analysis of biomimetic joints for morphing of micro air vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grant, Daniel T; Abdulrahim, Mujahid; Lind, Rick

    2010-01-01

    Flight capability for micro air vehicles is rapidly maturing throughout the aviation community; however, mission capability has not yet matured at the same pace. Maintaining trim during a descent or in the presence of crosswinds remains challenging for fixed-wing aircraft but yet is routinely performed by birds. This paper presents an overview of designs that incorporate morphing to enhance their flight characteristics. In particular, a series of joints and structures is adopted from seagulls to alter either the dihedral or sweep of the wings and thus alter the flight characteristics. The resulting vehicles are able to trim with significantly increased angles of attack and sideslip compared to traditional fixed-wing vehicles.

  8. Cleaning the Air and Improving Health with Hydrogen Fuel-Cell Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, M. Z.; Colella, W. G.; Golden, D. M.

    2005-06-01

    Converting all U.S. onroad vehicles to hydrogen fuel-cell vehicles (HFCVs) may improve air quality, health, and climate significantly, whether the hydrogen is produced by steam reforming of natural gas, wind electrolysis, or coal gasification. Most benefits would result from eliminating current vehicle exhaust. Wind and natural gas HFCVs offer the greatest potential health benefits and could save 3700 to 6400 U.S. lives annually. Wind HFCVs should benefit climate most. An all-HFCV fleet would hardly affect tropospheric water vapor concentrations. Conversion to coal HFCVs may improve health but would damage climate more than fossil/electric hybrids. The real cost of hydrogen from wind electrolysis may be below that of U.S. gasoline.

  9. Modeling and Closed Loop Flight Testing of a Fixed Wing Micro Air Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harikumar Kandath

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the nonlinear six degrees of freedom dynamic modeling of a fixed wing micro air vehicle. The static derivatives of the micro air vehicle are obtained through the wind tunnel testing. The propeller effects on the lift, drag, pitching moment and side force are quantified through wind tunnel testing. The dynamic derivatives are obtained through empirical relations available in the literature. The trim conditions are computed for a straight and constant altitude flight condition. The linearized longitudinal and lateral state space models are obtained about trim conditions. The variations in short period mode, phugoid mode, Dutch roll mode, roll subsidence mode and spiral mode with respect to different trim operating conditions is presented. A stabilizing static output feedback controller is designed using the obtained model. Successful closed loop flight trials are conducted with the static output feedback controller.

  10. Weight and volume estimates for aluminum-air batteries designed for electric vehicle applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, J. F.

    1980-01-01

    The weights and volumes of reactants, electrolyte, and hardware components are estimated for an aluminum-air battery designed for a 40-kW (peak), 70-kWh aluminum-air battery. Generalized equations are derived which express battery power and energy content as functions of total anode area, aluminum-anode weight, and discharge current density. Equations are also presented which express total battery weight and volume as linear combinations of the variables, anode area and anode weight. The sizing and placement of battery components within the engine compartment of typical five-passenger vehicles is briefly discussed.

  11. Hydrodynamic study of freely swimming shark fish propulsion for marine vehicles using 2D particle image velocimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babu, Mannam Naga Praveen; Mallikarjuna, J M; Krishnankutty, P

    Two-dimensional velocity fields around a freely swimming freshwater black shark fish in longitudinal (XZ) plane and transverse (YZ) plane are measured using digital particle image velocimetry (DPIV). By transferring momentum to the fluid, fishes generate thrust. Thrust is generated not only by its caudal fin, but also using pectoral and anal fins, the contribution of which depends on the fish's morphology and swimming movements. These fins also act as roll and pitch stabilizers for the swimming fish. In this paper, studies are performed on the flow induced by fins of freely swimming undulatory carangiform swimming fish (freshwater black shark, L  = 26 cm) by an experimental hydrodynamic approach based on quantitative flow visualization technique. We used 2D PIV to visualize water flow pattern in the wake of the caudal, pectoral and anal fins of swimming fish at a speed of 0.5-1.5 times of body length per second. The kinematic analysis and pressure distribution of carangiform fish are presented here. The fish body and fin undulations create circular flow patterns (vortices) that travel along with the body waves and change the flow around its tail to increase the swimming efficiency. The wake of different fins of the swimming fish consists of two counter-rotating vortices about the mean path of fish motion. These wakes resemble like reverse von Karman vortex street which is nothing but a thrust-producing wake. The velocity vectors around a C-start (a straight swimming fish bends into C-shape) maneuvering fish are also discussed in this paper. Studying flows around flapping fins will contribute to design of bioinspired propulsors for marine vehicles.

  12. Emissions of halocarbons from mobile vehicle air conditioning system in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, H H; Guo, H; Ou, J M

    2014-08-15

    During the implementation of Montreal Protocol, emission inventories of halocarbons in different sectors at regional scale are fundamental to the formulation of relevant management strategy and inspection of the implementation efficiency. This study investigated the emission profile of halocarbons used in the mobile vehicle air conditioning system, the leading sector of refrigeration industry in terms of the refrigerant bank, market and emission, in the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, using a bottom-up approach developed by 2006 IPCC Good Practice Guidance. The results showed that emissions of CFC-12 peaked at 53 tons ODP (Ozone Depletion Potential) in 1992 and then gradually diminished, whereas HFC-134a presented an increasing emission trend since 1990s and the emissions of HFC-134a reached 65,000 tons CO2-equivelant (CO2-eq) by the end of 2011. Uncertainty analysis revealed relatively high levels of uncertainties for special-purpose vehicles and government vehicles. Moreover, greenhouse gas (GHG) abatements under different scenarios indicated that potential emission reduction of HFC-134a ranged from 4.1 to 8.4 × 10(5)tons CO2-eq. The findings in this study advance our knowledge of halocarbon emissions from mobile vehicle air conditioning system in Hong Kong. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Experimental Characterization of Wings for a Hawkmoth-Sized Micro Air Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-27

    butterfly where the modeshapes were found to be identical with the Hawkmoth, lending more credence to the assertion that the wing modal ratios...EXPERIMENTAL CHARACTERIZATION OF WINGS FOR A HAWKMOTH-SIZED MICRO AIR VEHICLE THESIS Zachary R. Brown, Lieutenant Commander, USN AFIT-ENY-14-M-10...of the U.S. Government and is not subject to copyright protection in the United States. AFIT-ENY-14-M-10 EXPERIMENTAL CHARACTERIZATION OF WINGS FOR A

  14. Propulsive options for a manned Mars transportation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braun, R.D.; Blersch, D.J.

    1989-01-01

    In this investigation, five potential manned Mars transportation systems are compared. These options include: (1) a single vehicle, chemically propelled (CHEM) option, (2) a single vehicle, nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) option, (3) a single vehicle solar electric propulsion (SEP) option, (4) a single vehicle hybrid nuclear electric propulsion (NEP)/CHEM option, and (5) a dual vehicle option (NEP cargo spacecraft and CHEM manned vehicle). In addition to utilizing the initial vehicle weight in low-earth orbit as a measure of mission feasibility, this study addresses the major technological barriers each propulsive scenario must surpass. It is shown that instead of a single clearly superior propulsion system, each means of propulsion may be favored depending upon the specified program policy and the extent of the desired manned flight time. Furthermore, the effect which aerobraking and multiple transfer cycles have upon mission feasibility is considered. 18 refs

  15. Dispersion, Mixing, and Combustion in Uniform- and Variable-Density Air-Breathing High-Speed Propulsion Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-28

    considerations ( Heiser & Pratt 1994), choking and unstart issues attributable to mass injection, skin (wall) friction and boundary-layer displacement...0201. Heiser W.H., and D.T. Pratt 1994 Hypersonic Airbreathing Propulsion. AIAA (Washington, DC), pp. 149, 197. Jeong, J., and F. Hussain 1995

  16. “Team Play” between Renewable Energy Sources and Vehicle Fleet to Decrease Air Pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michela Longo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The reduction of air pollutants for the purpose of maintaining or improving air quality across the globe is a fundamental concern to which all modern governments are allocating varying amounts of attention and resources. The successful amelioration of air pollution requires strategic investments in the commercialization and adoption of “clean energy technologies” by both private and public entities, the conversion of contemporary houses to “smart houses”, the diffusion of Renewable Energy Sources (RES including photovoltaic systems (PV, wind farms, and different forms of bioenergy, and the integration of electric-powered vehicles. In concert with these ideas, this paper aims to discuss the possibility of undertaking a feasibility study in two countries Canada and Italy concerning the integration of electric vehicles (EVs and electric motorcycles (EMs. The proposed feasibility study would seek to assess the prospect of replacing the current vehicle fleets in these two countries with EVs in a manner that utilizes renewable energy sources and, thus, does not generate new toxic emissions. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that a pronounced introduction and distribution of RES, EVs, and EMs can operate as a great opportunity for both the environment and the capacities and needs of energy production. Today, the EV is not widespread. With this contribution, it is shown how EVs can be well integrated with renewable energy. Therefore, it is the duty of governments to implement policy strategies, in order to spread them across more territory.

  17. Turboprop Propulsion Mechanic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanute AFB Technical Training Center, IL.

    This instructional package consists of a plan of instruction, glossary, and student handouts and exercises for use in training Air Force personnel to become turboprop propulsion mechanics. Addressed in the individual lessons of the course are the following: common hand tools, hardware, measuring devices, and safety wiring; aircraft and engine…

  18. Urban emissions hotspots: Quantifying vehicle congestion and air pollution using mobile phone GPS data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gately, Conor K; Hutyra, Lucy R; Peterson, Scott; Sue Wing, Ian

    2017-10-01

    On-road emissions vary widely on time scales as short as minutes and length scales as short as tens of meters. Detailed data on emissions at these scales are a prerequisite to accurately quantifying ambient pollution concentrations and identifying hotspots of human exposure within urban areas. We construct a highly resolved inventory of hourly fluxes of CO, NO 2 , NO x , PM 2.5 and CO 2 from road vehicles on 280,000 road segments in eastern Massachusetts for the year 2012. Our inventory integrates a large database of hourly vehicle speeds derived from mobile phone and vehicle GPS data with multiple regional datasets of vehicle flows, fleet characteristics, and local meteorology. We quantify the 'excess' emissions from traffic congestion, finding modest congestion enhancement (3-6%) at regional scales, but hundreds of local hotspots with highly elevated annual emissions (up to 75% for individual roadways in key corridors). Congestion-driven reductions in vehicle fuel economy necessitated 'excess' consumption of 113 million gallons of motor fuel, worth ∼ $415M, but this accounted for only 3.5% of the total fuel consumed in Massachusetts, as over 80% of vehicle travel occurs in uncongested conditions. Across our study domain, emissions are highly spatially concentrated, with 70% of pollution originating from only 10% of the roads. The 2011 EPA National Emissions Inventory (NEI) understates our aggregate emissions of NO x , PM 2.5 , and CO 2 by 46%, 38%, and 18%, respectively. However, CO emissions agree within 5% for the two inventories, suggesting that the large biases in NO x and PM 2.5 emissions arise from differences in estimates of diesel vehicle activity. By providing fine-scale information on local emission hotspots and regional emissions patterns, our inventory framework supports targeted traffic interventions, transparent benchmarking, and improvements in overall urban air quality. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Assessing the Future Vehicle Fleet Electrification: The Impacts on Regional and Urban Air Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, Wenwei; Zhang, Shaojun; Wu, Ye; Zhao, Bin; Wang, Shuxiao; Hao, Jiming

    2017-01-17

    There have been significant advancements in electric vehicles (EVs) in recent years. However, the different changing patterns in emissions at upstream and on-road stages and complex atmospheric chemistry of pollutants lead to uncertainty in the air quality benefits from fleet electrification. This study considers the Yangtze River Delta (YRD) region in China to investigate whether EVs can improve future air quality. The Community Multiscale Air Quality model enhanced by the two-dimensional volatility basis set module is applied to simulate the temporally, spatially, and chemically resolved changes in PM 2.5 concentrations and the changes of other pollutants from fleet electrification. A probable scenario (Scenario EV1) with 20% of private light-duty passenger vehicles and 80% of commercial passenger vehicles (e.g., taxis and buses) electrified can reduce average PM 2.5 concentrations by 0.4 to 1.1 μg m -3 during four representative months for all urban areas of YRD in 2030. The seasonal distinctions of the air quality impacts with respect to concentration reductions in key aerosol components are also identified. For example, the PM 2.5 reduction in January is mainly attributed to the nitrate reduction, whereas the secondary organic aerosol reduction is another essential contributor in August. EVs can also effectively assist in mitigating NO 2 concentrations, which would gain greater reductions for traffic-dense urban areas (e.g., Shanghai). This paper reveals that the fleet electrification in the YRD region could generally play a positive role in improving regional and urban air quality.

  20. High Time Resolution Measurements of VOCs from Vehicle Cold Starts: The Air Toxic Cold Start Pulse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jobson, B. T.; Huangfu, Y.; Vanderschelden, G. S.

    2017-12-01

    Pollutants emitted during motor vehicle cold starts, especially in winter in some climates, is a significant source of winter time air pollution. While data exist for CO, NO, and total hydrocarbon emissions from federal testing procedures for vehicle emission certification, little is known about the emission rates of individual volatile organic compounds, in particular the air toxics benzene, formaldehyde, and acetaldehyde. Little is known about the VOC speciation and temperature dependence for cold starts. The US EPA vehicle emission model MOVES assumes that cold start emissions have the same speciation profile as running emissions. We examined this assumption by measuring cold start exhaust composition for 4 vehicles fueled with E10 gasoline over a temperature range of -4°C to 10°C in winter of 2015. The extra cold start emissions were determined by comparison with emissions during engine idling. In addition to CO and NOx measurements a proton transfer reaction mass spectrometer was used to measure formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, benzene, toluene, and C2-alkylbenzenes at high time resolution to compare with the cold start emission speciation profiles used in the EPA MOVES2014 model. The results show that after the vehicle was started, CO mixing ratios can reach a few percent of the exhaust and then drop to several ppmv within 2 minutes of idling, while NOx showed different temporal behaviors among the four vehicles. VOCs displayed elevated levels during cold start and the peak mixing ratios can be two orders higher than idling phase levels. Molar emission ratios relative to toluene were used to compare with the emission ratio used in MOVES2014 and we found the formaldehyde-to-toluene emission ratio was about 0.19, which is 5 times higher than the emission ratio used in MOVES2014 and the acetaldehyde-to-toluene emission ratios were 0.86-0.89, which is 8 times higher than the ones in MOVES2014. The C2-alkylbenzene-to-toluene ratio agreed well with moves. Our results

  1. Simulation and Optimization of Air-Cooled PEMFC Stack for Lightweight Hybrid Vehicle Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingming Liang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A model of 2 kW air-cooled proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC stack has been built based upon the application of lightweight hybrid vehicle after analyzing the characteristics of heat transfer of the air-cooled stack. Different dissipating models of the air-cooled stack have been simulated and an optimal simulation model for air-cooled stack called convection heat transfer (CHT model has been figured out by applying the computational fluid dynamics (CFD software, based on which, the structure of the air-cooled stack has been optimized by adding irregular cooling fins at the end of the stack. According to the simulation result, the temperature of the stack has been equally distributed, reducing the cooling density and saving energy. Finally, the 2 kW hydrogen-air air-cooled PEMFC stack is manufactured and tested by comparing the simulation data which is to find out its operating regulations in order to further optimize its structure.

  2. Air quality and climate impacts due to CNG conversion of motor vehicles in Dhaka, Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadud, Zia; Khan, Tanzila

    2013-12-17

    Dhaka had recently experienced rapid conversion of its motor vehicle fleet to run on compressed natural gas (CNG). This paper quantifies ex-post the air quality and climate benefits of the CNG conversion policy, including monetary valuations, through an impact pathway approach. Around 2045 (1665) avoided premature deaths in greater Dhaka (City Corporation) can be attributed to air quality improvements from the CNG conversion policy in 2010, resulting in a saving of around USD 400 million. Majority of these health benefits resulted from the conversion of high-emitting diesel vehicles. CNG conversion was clearly detrimental from climate change perspective using the changes in CO2 and CH4 only (CH4 emissions increased); however, after considering other global pollutants (especially black carbon), the climate impact was ambiguous. Uncertainty assessment using input distributions and Monte Carlo simulation along with a sensitivity analysis show that large uncertainties remain for climate impacts. For our most likely estimate, there were some climate costs, valued at USD 17.7 million, which is an order of magnitude smaller than the air quality benefits. This indicates that such policies can and should be undertaken on the grounds of improving local air pollution alone and that precautions should be taken to reduce the potentially unintended increases in GHG emissions or other unintended effects.

  3. Improving the accuracy of vehicle emissions profiles for urban transportation greenhouse gas and air pollution inventories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyna, Janet L; Chester, Mikhail V; Ahn, Soyoung; Fraser, Andrew M

    2015-01-06

    Metropolitan greenhouse gas and air emissions inventories can better account for the variability in vehicle movement, fleet composition, and infrastructure that exists within and between regions, to develop more accurate information for environmental goals. With emerging access to high quality data, new methods are needed for informing transportation emissions assessment practitioners of the relevant vehicle and infrastructure characteristics that should be prioritized in modeling to improve the accuracy of inventories. The sensitivity of light and heavy-duty vehicle greenhouse gas (GHG) and conventional air pollutant (CAP) emissions to speed, weight, age, and roadway gradient are examined with second-by-second velocity profiles on freeway and arterial roads under free-flow and congestion scenarios. By creating upper and lower bounds for each factor, the potential variability which could exist in transportation emissions assessments is estimated. When comparing the effects of changes in these characteristics across U.S. cities against average characteristics of the U.S. fleet and infrastructure, significant variability in emissions is found to exist. GHGs from light-duty vehicles could vary by -2%-11% and CAP by -47%-228% when compared to the baseline. For heavy-duty vehicles, the variability is -21%-55% and -32%-174%, respectively. The results show that cities should more aggressively pursue the integration of emerging big data into regional transportation emissions modeling, and the integration of these data is likely to impact GHG and CAP inventories and how aggressively policies should be implemented to meet reductions. A web-tool is developed to aide cities in improving emissions uncertainty.

  4. Fuzzy logic speed control for the engine of an air-powered vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qihui Yu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available To improve the condition of air and eliminate exhaust gas pollution, this article proposes a compressed air power system. Instead of an internal combustion engine, the automobile is equipped with a compressed air engine, which transforms the energy of compressed air into mechanical motion energy. A prototype was built, and the compressed air engine was tested on an experimental platform. The output torque and energy efficiency were obtained from experimental results. When the supply pressure was set at 2 MPa and the speed was 420 r min−1, the output torque, the output power, and the energy efficiency were 56 N m, 1.93 kW, and 25%, respectively. To improve the efficiency of the system, a fuzzy logic speed control strategy is proposed and simulated. The experimental study verified that the theoretical evaluation of the system was reasonable, and this research can be referred to as the design and control of air-powered vehicles.

  5. Health effects associated with passenger vehicles: monetary values of air pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzouk, Mohamed; Madany, Magdy

    2012-01-01

    Air pollution is regarded as one of the highest priorities in environmental protection in both developed and developing countries. High levels of air pollution have adverse effects on human health that might cause premature death. This study presents the monetary value estimates for the adverse human health effects resulted from ambient air pollution. It aids decision makers to set priorities in the public health relevance of pollution abatement. The main driver of policymaker is the need to reduce the avoidable cardiopulmonary morbidity and mortality from pollutant exposures. The monetary valuation involves 2 steps: (i) relate levels of pollutants to mortality and morbidity (concentration-response relationships) and (ii) apply unit economic values. Cost of air pollution associated with passenger vehicles running over a major traffic bridge (6th of October Elevated Highway) is presented as a case study to demonstrate the use of monetary value of air pollution. The study proves that the cost of air pollution is extremely high and should not be overlooked.

  6. Method for calculating steady-state waves in an air cushion vehicle. Part 2; Air cushion vehicle no teijo zoha keisanho ni tsuite. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eguchi, T [Mitsui Engineering and Shipbuilding Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    Discussions were given on a method to estimate resistance constituents in wave resistance made in an air chamber of an air cushion vehicle (ACV). An orthogonal coordinate system is considered, which uses the center of a hull as the zero point and is made dimensionless by using cushion length. Flow around the ACV is supposed as an ideal flow, whereas speed potential is defined in the flow field. Then, a linear free surface condition is hypothesized on water surface Z = 0. Number and density of waves were used to introduce a condition to be satisfied by the speed potential. A numerical calculation method arranged a blow-out panel on the water surface, and used a panel shift type Rankine source method which satisfies the free surface condition at Z = 0. Cushion pressure distribution becomes a step-like discontinuous function, and mathematical infinity is generated in the differentiation values. Under an assumption that the pressure rises per one panel where pressure jump is present, the distribution was approximated by providing one panel with inclination of the finite quantity therein. Estimation on wave height distribution in the cushion chamber showed a tendency of qualitatively agreeing with the experimental result, but the wave heights shown in the experiment had the average level decreased as it goes toward the rear of the hull. 5 refs., 5 figs.

  7. Design and development of an unconventional VTOL micro air vehicle: The Cyclocopter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedict, Moble; Chopra, Inderjit

    2012-06-01

    This paper discusses the systematic experimental and vehicle design/development studies conducted at the University of Maryland which culminated in the development of the first flying Cyclocopter in the history. Cyclocopter is a novel Vertical Take-Off and Landing (VTOL) aircraft, which utilizes cycloidalrotors (cyclorotors), a revolutionary horizontal axis propulsion concept, that has many advantages such as higher aerodynamic efficiency, maneuverability and high-speed forward flight capability when compared to a conventional helicopter rotor. The experimental studies included a detailed parametric study to understand the effect of rotor geometry and blade kinematics on cyclorotor hover performance. Based on the experimental results, higher blade pitch angles were found to improve thrust and increase the power loading (thrust per unit power) of the cyclorotor. Asymmetric pitching with higher pitch angle at the top than at the bottom produced better power loading. The chordwise optimum pitching axis location was observed to be around 25-35% of the blade chord. Because of the flow curvature effects, the cycloidal rotor performance was a strong function of the chord/radius ratio. The optimum chord/radius ratios were extremely high, around 0.5-0.8, depending on the blade pitching amplitude. A flow field investigation was also conducted using Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) to unravel the physics behind thrust production of a cyclorotor. PIV studies indicated evidence of a stall delay as well as possible increases in lift on the blades from the presence of a leading edge vortex. The goal of all these studies was to understand and optimize the performance of a micro-scale cyclorotor so that it could be used in a flying vehicle. An optimized cyclorotor was used to develop a 200 gram cyclocopter capable of autonomous stable hover using an onboard feedback controller.

  8. Integrated Variable-Fidelity Tool Set For Modeling and Simulation of Aeroservothermoelasticity -Propulsion (ASTE-P) Effects For Aerospace Vehicles Ranging From Subsonic to Hypersonic Flight, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed research program aims at developing a variable-fidelity software tool set for aeroservothermoelastic-propulsive (ASTE-P) modeling that can be routinely...

  9. Air-Breathing Hypersonic Vehicle Tracking Control Based on Adaptive Dynamic Programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Chaoxu; Ni, Zhen; Sun, Changyin; He, Haibo

    2017-03-01

    In this paper, we propose a data-driven supplementary control approach with adaptive learning capability for air-breathing hypersonic vehicle tracking control based on action-dependent heuristic dynamic programming (ADHDP). The control action is generated by the combination of sliding mode control (SMC) and the ADHDP controller to track the desired velocity and the desired altitude. In particular, the ADHDP controller observes the differences between the actual velocity/altitude and the desired velocity/altitude, and then provides a supplementary control action accordingly. The ADHDP controller does not rely on the accurate mathematical model function and is data driven. Meanwhile, it is capable to adjust its parameters online over time under various working conditions, which is very suitable for hypersonic vehicle system with parameter uncertainties and disturbances. We verify the adaptive supplementary control approach versus the traditional SMC in the cruising flight, and provide three simulation studies to illustrate the improved performance with the proposed approach.

  10. In-vehicle exposures to particulate air pollution in Canadian metropolitan areas: the urban transportation exposure study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weichenthal, Scott; Van Ryswyk, Keith; Kulka, Ryan; Sun, Liu; Wallace, Lance; Joseph, Lawrence

    2015-01-06

    Commuters may be exposed to increased levels of traffic-related air pollution owing to close proximity to traffic-emissions. We collected in-vehicle and roof-top air pollution measurements over 238 commutes in Montreal, Toronto, and Vancouver, Canada between 2010 and 2013. Voice recordings were used to collect real-time information on traffic density and the presence of diesel vehicles and multivariable linear regression models were used to estimate the impact of these factors on in-vehicle pollutant concentrations (and indoor/outdoor ratios) along with parameters for road type, land use, and meteorology. In-vehicle PM2.5 and NO2 concentrations consistently exceeded regional outdoor levels and each unit increase in the rate of encountering diesel vehicles (count/min) was associated with substantial increases (>100%) in in-vehicle concentrations of ultrafine particles (UFPs), black carbon, and PM2.5 as well as strong increases (>15%) in indoor/outdoor ratios. A model based on meteorology and the length of highway roads within a 500 m buffer explained 53% of the variation in in-vehicle UFPs; however, models for PM2.5 (R(2) = 0.24) and black carbon (R(2) = 0.30) did not perform as well. Our findings suggest that vehicle commuters experience increased exposure to air pollutants and that traffic characteristics, land use, road types, and meteorology are important determinants of these exposures.

  11. Inertial attitude control of a bat-like morphing-wing air vehicle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colorado, J; Barrientos, A; Rossi, C; Parra, C

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a novel bat-like unmanned aerial vehicle inspired by the morphing-wing mechanism of bats. The goal of this paper is twofold. Firstly, a modelling framework is introduced for analysing how the robot should manoeuvre by means of changing wing morphology. This allows the definition of requirements for achieving forward and turning flight according to the kinematics of the wing modulation. Secondly, an attitude controller named backstepping+DAF is proposed. Motivated by biological evidence about the influence of wing inertia on the production of body accelerations, the attitude control law incorporates wing inertia information to produce desired roll (φ) and pitch (θ) acceleration commands (desired angular acceleration function (DAF)). This novel control approach is aimed at incrementing net body forces (F net ) that generate propulsion. Simulations and wind-tunnel experimental results have shown an increase of about 23% in net body force production during the wingbeat cycle when the wings are modulated using the DAF as a part of the backstepping control law. Results also confirm accurate attitude tracking in spite of high external disturbances generated by aerodynamic loads at airspeeds up to 5 ms −1 . (paper)

  12. Inertial attitude control of a bat-like morphing-wing air vehicle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colorado, J; Barrientos, A; Rossi, C; Parra, C

    2013-03-01

    This paper presents a novel bat-like unmanned aerial vehicle inspired by the morphing-wing mechanism of bats. The goal of this paper is twofold. Firstly, a modelling framework is introduced for analysing how the robot should manoeuvre by means of changing wing morphology. This allows the definition of requirements for achieving forward and turning flight according to the kinematics of the wing modulation. Secondly, an attitude controller named backstepping+DAF is proposed. Motivated by biological evidence about the influence of wing inertia on the production of body accelerations, the attitude control law incorporates wing inertia information to produce desired roll (ϕ) and pitch (θ) acceleration commands (desired angular acceleration function (DAF)). This novel control approach is aimed at incrementing net body forces (F(net)) that generate propulsion. Simulations and wind-tunnel experimental results have shown an increase of about 23% in net body force production during the wingbeat cycle when the wings are modulated using the DAF as a part of the backstepping control law. Results also confirm accurate attitude tracking in spite of high external disturbances generated by aerodynamic loads at airspeeds up to 5 ms⁻¹.

  13. Emissions of halocarbons from mobile vehicle air conditioning system in Hong Kong

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, H.H.; Guo, H.; Ou, J.M.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Halocarbon emissions from MVACS were characterized using bottom up approach. • Quantification of emission inventory was revealed using AUV Tools. • Potential emission reduction was estimated under 3 possible mitigation scenarios. • The results are useful for the policy makers to formulate and implement future phase-out schedule. - Abstract: During the implementation of Montreal Protocol, emission inventories of halocarbons in different sectors at regional scale are fundamental to the formulation of relevant management strategy and inspection of the implementation efficiency. This study investigated the emission profile of halocarbons used in the mobile vehicle air conditioning system, the leading sector of refrigeration industry in terms of the refrigerant bank, market and emission, in the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, using a bottom-up approach developed by 2006 IPCC Good Practice Guidance. The results showed that emissions of CFC-12 peaked at 53 tons ODP (Ozone Depletion Potential) in 1992 and then gradually diminished, whereas HFC-134a presented an increasing emission trend since 1990s and the emissions of HFC-134a reached 65,000 tons CO 2 -equivelant (CO 2 -eq) by the end of 2011. Uncertainty analysis revealed relatively high levels of uncertainties for special-purpose vehicles and government vehicles. Moreover, greenhouse gas (GHG) abatements under different scenarios indicated that potential emission reduction of HFC-134a ranged from 4.1 to 8.4 × 10 5 tons CO 2 -eq. The findings in this study advance our knowledge of halocarbon emissions from mobile vehicle air conditioning system in Hong Kong

  14. Emissions of halocarbons from mobile vehicle air conditioning system in Hong Kong

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, H.H.; Guo, H., E-mail: ceguohai@polyu.edu.hk; Ou, J.M.

    2014-08-15

    Highlights: • Halocarbon emissions from MVACS were characterized using bottom up approach. • Quantification of emission inventory was revealed using AUV Tools. • Potential emission reduction was estimated under 3 possible mitigation scenarios. • The results are useful for the policy makers to formulate and implement future phase-out schedule. - Abstract: During the implementation of Montreal Protocol, emission inventories of halocarbons in different sectors at regional scale are fundamental to the formulation of relevant management strategy and inspection of the implementation efficiency. This study investigated the emission profile of halocarbons used in the mobile vehicle air conditioning system, the leading sector of refrigeration industry in terms of the refrigerant bank, market and emission, in the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, using a bottom-up approach developed by 2006 IPCC Good Practice Guidance. The results showed that emissions of CFC-12 peaked at 53 tons ODP (Ozone Depletion Potential) in 1992 and then gradually diminished, whereas HFC-134a presented an increasing emission trend since 1990s and the emissions of HFC-134a reached 65,000 tons CO{sub 2}-equivelant (CO{sub 2}-eq) by the end of 2011. Uncertainty analysis revealed relatively high levels of uncertainties for special-purpose vehicles and government vehicles. Moreover, greenhouse gas (GHG) abatements under different scenarios indicated that potential emission reduction of HFC-134a ranged from 4.1 to 8.4 × 10{sup 5} tons CO{sub 2}-eq. The findings in this study advance our knowledge of halocarbon emissions from mobile vehicle air conditioning system in Hong Kong.

  15. Thermal characterisation of compact heat exchangers for air heating and cooling in electric vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torregrosa-Jaime, B.; Corberán, J.M.; Payá, J.; Delamarche, J.L.

    2017-01-01

    The use of air conditioning in all-electric cars reduces their driving range by 33% in average. With the purpose of reducing the energy consumption of the vehicle and optimising the performance of the batteries, the mobile air-conditioning can be integrated with the temperature control system of the powertrain by means of a coolant loop. In such layouts, the air-to-coolant heat exchangers must operate efficiently in both air heating and cooling modes. Dynamic simulation tools comprising the entire thermal system are essential to assess its performance. In this context, fast but accurate models of the system components are required. This paper presents the thermal characterisation of a commercial compact louvered-fin flat-tube heat exchanger (heater core) for this novel application, based on an experimental campaign comprising 279 working points that reflect real air-conditioning (heating and cooling) working conditions. A general methodology to fit a single correlation of the global heat transfer coefficient for both dry and wet working conditions is explained. The semiempirical correlation developed is employed in a single-node model of the heat exchanger that requires minimal computation time. The present model predicts the heat transfer rate with an average deviation of 3.5% in the cases with dehumidification and 1.9% in the cases when the heat exchanger remains dry.

  16. Comprehensive modeling and control of flexible flapping wing micro air vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogar, Stephen Michael

    Flapping wing micro air vehicles hold significant promise due to the potential for improved aerodynamic efficiency, enhanced maneuverability and hover capability compared to fixed and rotary configurations. However, significant technical challenges exist to due the lightweight, highly integrated nature of the vehicle and coupling between the actuators, flexible wings and control system. Experimental and high fidelity analysis has demonstrated that aeroelastic effects can change the effective kinematics of the wing, reducing vehicle stability. However, many control studies for flapping wing vehicles do not consider these effects, and instead validate the control strategy with simple assumptions, including rigid wings, quasi-steady aerodynamics and no consideration of actuator dynamics. A control evaluation model that includes aeroelastic effects and actuator dynamics is developed. The structural model accounts for geometrically nonlinear behavior using an implicit condensation technique and the aerodynamic loads are found using a time accurate approach that includes quasi-steady, rotational, added mass and unsteady effects. Empirically based parameters in the model are fit using data obtained from a higher fidelity solver. The aeroelastic model and its ingredients are compared to experiments and computations using models of higher fidelity, and indicate reasonable agreement. The developed control evaluation model is implemented in a previously published, baseline controller that maintains stability using an asymmetric wingbeat, known as split-cycle, along with changing the flapping frequency and wing bias. The model-based controller determines the control inputs using a cycle-averaged, linear control design model, which assumes a rigid wing and no actuator dynamics. The introduction of unaccounted for dynamics significantly degrades the ability of the controller to track a reference trajectory, and in some cases destabilizes the vehicle. This demonstrates the

  17. [Methodical approaches to evaluation of air pollution by emissions of motor vehicles in population areas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyapkalo, A A; Dement'ev, A A; Tsurgan, A M

    2014-01-01

    There are results of comparative analysis of air pollution by emissions of motor vehicles in the residential districts of Ryazan via different methodical approaches. Emissions were calculated regarding analysis of the traffic intensity on the elements of the city traffic network. Relative emissions, equivalent relative emissions and relative coefficient of emission hazard were calculated for each district. Rating of the comparing districts was done according to the pollution level using the above-mentioned indices. Gorodskaya Roscha was detected as the most polluted district. The most informative approach was comparison of the residential districts according to the equivalent relative emissions and relative coefficient of emission hazard.

  18. PSO-Based Algorithm Applied to Quadcopter Micro Air Vehicle Controller Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huu-Khoa Tran

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Due to the rapid development of science and technology in recent times, many effective controllers are designed and applied successfully to complicated systems. The significant task of controller design is to determine optimized control gains in a short period of time. With this purpose in mind, a combination of the particle swarm optimization (PSO-based algorithm and the evolutionary programming (EP algorithm is introduced in this article. The benefit of this integration algorithm is the creation of new best-parameters for control design schemes. The proposed controller designs are then demonstrated to have the best performance for nonlinear micro air vehicle models.

  19. STUDY ABOUT MAGNUS EFFECT ON SPINNING CYLINDERS AND ITS USE ON MICRO AIR VEHICLES

    OpenAIRE

    Stafy, Victor ,; Neto, Aristeu S

    2017-01-01

    Abstract. It is described in this article a Magnus Effect research done on Magnus Effect on Spinning Cylinders and how the Drag and Lift varies as the Cylinder increase or decrease its tangential velocity, as other properties, vorticity and structures of the flow as well.The final objective of this study is to use a Spinning Cylinder, with success, instead of a wing as the component responsible for lift force on a Micro Air Vehicle, with this purpose in mind, some simulations were done in ...

  20. Electric and hybrid vehicle environmental control subsystem study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heitner, K. L.

    1980-01-01

    An environmental control subsystem (ECS) in electric and hybrid vehicles is studied. A combination of a combustion heater and gasoline engine (Otto cycle) driven vapor compression air conditioner is selected. The combustion heater, the small gasoline engine, and the vapor compression air conditioner are commercially available. These technologies have good cost and performance characteristics. The cost for this ECS is relatively close to the cost of current ECS's. Its effect on the vehicle's propulsion battery is minimal and the ECS size and weight do not have significant impact on the vehicle's range.

  1. A portable solar-powered air-cooling system based on phase-change materials for a vehicle cabin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qi, Lingfei; Pan, Hongye; Zhu, Xin; Zhang, Xingtian; Salman, Waleed; Zhang, Zutao; Li, Li; Zhu, Miankuan; Yuan, Yanping; Xiang, Bo

    2017-01-01

    Graphical abstract: This paper proposed a portable solar-powered air cooling system for a vehicle cabin based on Phase-change Materials. The cooling system contains three main parts: a solar-energy collection module, an energy-storage module and a phase-change cooling module. The operating principle can be described as follows. For energy input, the solar-energy-collection module harvests solar energy and converts it to electricity. The power-storage module stores the electrical energy in the supercapacitor to power the electrical equipment, mainly the air pump (AP) and water pump (WP) of the phase-change cooling module. Finally, the phase-change cooling module provides cold air for the vehicle cabin to create a comfortable vehicle interior in a hot summer. The proposed system is demonstrated through thermal simulations, which show the long-duration cooling effect of the system. Temperature drops of were obtained in field tests, predicting that the proposed cooling system is beneficial and practical for cooling vehicle cabins. - Highlights: • A novel portable air cooling system based on PCMs is presented. • Solar energy was adopted to power the proposed air cooling system. • This proposed system is used for cooling vehicle cabins exposed to the sun. • Experimental results show that the proposed system has a good cooling effect. - Abstract: In summer, the temperature is very high inside vehicles parked under the hot sun. This causes consuming more fossil energy to power the air conditioner and generation of harmful gases. There is currently no effective method to address this problem in an energy-saving and environmentally friendly manner. In this paper, a novel solar-powered air-cooling system for vehicle cabins is proposed based on Phase-change Materials (PCMs); the system prevents the temperature inside a vehicle cabin from rising too high when the vehicle is parked outdoor exposure to the sun. The proposed system consists of three main parts: a solar

  2. Economic analysis of Japanese air pollution regulation : an optimal retirement problem under the vehicle type regulation in the NOx-particulate matter law

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-05-01

    This paper examines the vehicle type regulation that was introduced under the Automobile : Nitrogen OxidesParticulate Matter Law to mitigate air pollution in Japanese metropolitan : areas. The vehicle type regulation effectively sets the timing fo...

  3. Economic analysis of a Japanese air pollution regulation : an optimal retirement problem under vehicle type regulation in the NOx-particulate matter law

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-06-01

    This paper empirically examines the vehicle type regulation that was introduced under the : Automobile Nitrogen OxidesParticulate Matter Law to mitigate air pollution problems in Japanese metropolitan areas. The vehicle type regulation effectively...

  4. Internal air flow analysis of a bladeless micro aerial vehicle hemisphere body using computational fluid dynamic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Othman, M. N. K., E-mail: najibkhir86@gmail.com, E-mail: zuradzman@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: hazry@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: khairunizam@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: shahriman@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: s.yaacob@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: syedfaiz@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: abadal@unimap.edu.my; Zuradzman, M. Razlan, E-mail: najibkhir86@gmail.com, E-mail: zuradzman@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: hazry@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: khairunizam@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: shahriman@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: s.yaacob@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: syedfaiz@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: abadal@unimap.edu.my; Hazry, D., E-mail: najibkhir86@gmail.com, E-mail: zuradzman@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: hazry@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: khairunizam@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: shahriman@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: s.yaacob@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: syedfaiz@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: abadal@unimap.edu.my; Khairunizam, Wan, E-mail: najibkhir86@gmail.com, E-mail: zuradzman@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: hazry@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: khairunizam@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: shahriman@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: s.yaacob@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: syedfaiz@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: abadal@unimap.edu.my; Shahriman, A. B., E-mail: najibkhir86@gmail.com, E-mail: zuradzman@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: hazry@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: khairunizam@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: shahriman@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: s.yaacob@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: syedfaiz@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: abadal@unimap.edu.my; Yaacob, S., E-mail: najibkhir86@gmail.com, E-mail: zuradzman@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: hazry@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: khairunizam@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: shahriman@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: s.yaacob@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: syedfaiz@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: abadal@unimap.edu.my; Ahmed, S. Faiz, E-mail: najibkhir86@gmail.com, E-mail: zuradzman@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: hazry@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: khairunizam@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: shahriman@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: s.yaacob@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: syedfaiz@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: abadal@unimap.edu.my [Centre of Excellence for Unmanned Aerial Systems, Universiti Malaysia Perlis, 01000 Kangar, Perlis (Malaysia); and others

    2014-12-04

    This paper explain the analysis of internal air flow velocity of a bladeless vertical takeoff and landing (VTOL) Micro Aerial Vehicle (MAV) hemisphere body. In mechanical design, before produce a prototype model, several analyses should be done to ensure the product's effectiveness and efficiency. There are two types of analysis method can be done in mechanical design; mathematical modeling and computational fluid dynamic. In this analysis, I used computational fluid dynamic (CFD) by using SolidWorks Flow Simulation software. The idea came through to overcome the problem of ordinary quadrotor UAV which has larger size due to using four rotors and the propellers are exposed to environment. The bladeless MAV body is designed to protect all electronic parts, which means it can be used in rainy condition. It also has been made to increase the thrust produced by the ducted propeller compare to exposed propeller. From the analysis result, the air flow velocity at the ducted area increased to twice the inlet air. This means that the duct contribute to the increasing of air velocity.

  5. Internal air flow analysis of a bladeless micro aerial vehicle hemisphere body using computational fluid dynamic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Othman, M. N. K.; Zuradzman, M. Razlan; Hazry, D.; Khairunizam, Wan; Shahriman, A. B.; Yaacob, S.; Ahmed, S. Faiz; Hussain, Abadalsalam T.

    2014-12-01

    This paper explain the analysis of internal air flow velocity of a bladeless vertical takeoff and landing (VTOL) Micro Aerial Vehicle (MAV) hemisphere body. In mechanical design, before produce a prototype model, several analyses should be done to ensure the product's effectiveness and efficiency. There are two types of analysis method can be done in mechanical design; mathematical modeling and computational fluid dynamic. In this analysis, I used computational fluid dynamic (CFD) by using SolidWorks Flow Simulation software. The idea came through to overcome the problem of ordinary quadrotor UAV which has larger size due to using four rotors and the propellers are exposed to environment. The bladeless MAV body is designed to protect all electronic parts, which means it can be used in rainy condition. It also has been made to increase the thrust produced by the ducted propeller compare to exposed propeller. From the analysis result, the air flow velocity at the ducted area increased to twice the inlet air. This means that the duct contribute to the increasing of air velocity.

  6. Internal air flow analysis of a bladeless micro aerial vehicle hemisphere body using computational fluid dynamic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Othman, M. N. K.; Zuradzman, M. Razlan; Hazry, D.; Khairunizam, Wan; Shahriman, A. B.; Yaacob, S.; Ahmed, S. Faiz

    2014-01-01

    This paper explain the analysis of internal air flow velocity of a bladeless vertical takeoff and landing (VTOL) Micro Aerial Vehicle (MAV) hemisphere body. In mechanical design, before produce a prototype model, several analyses should be done to ensure the product's effectiveness and efficiency. There are two types of analysis method can be done in mechanical design; mathematical modeling and computational fluid dynamic. In this analysis, I used computational fluid dynamic (CFD) by using SolidWorks Flow Simulation software. The idea came through to overcome the problem of ordinary quadrotor UAV which has larger size due to using four rotors and the propellers are exposed to environment. The bladeless MAV body is designed to protect all electronic parts, which means it can be used in rainy condition. It also has been made to increase the thrust produced by the ducted propeller compare to exposed propeller. From the analysis result, the air flow velocity at the ducted area increased to twice the inlet air. This means that the duct contribute to the increasing of air velocity

  7. Research on Vehicle Temperature Regulation System Based on Air Convection Principle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuge, Muzi; Li, Xiang; Liang, Caifeng

    2018-03-01

    The long time parking outdoors in the summer will lead to too high temperature in the car, and the harmful gas produced by the vehicle engine will stay in the confined space for a long time during the parking process, which will do great harm to the human body. If the air conditioning system is turned on before driving, the cooling rate is slow and the battery loss is large. To solve the above problems, we designed a temperature adjusting system based on the principle of air convection. We can choose the automatic mode or manual mode to achieve control of a convection window. In the automatic mode, the system will automatically detect the environmental temperature, through the sensor to complete the detection, and the signal is transmitted to the microcontroller to control the window open or close, in manual mode, the remote control of the window can be realized by Bluetooth. Therefore, the system has important practical significance to effectively regulate temperature, prolong battery life, and improve the safety and comfort of traffic vehicles.

  8. THE COMPLEX OF STANDS FOR TESTING THE AIR CUSHION CHASSIS OF AIRCRAFT AND VEHICLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with a set of stands made in NIMK TSAGI for testing and creating the air cushion chassis for the aircraft and vehicles. It allows to fully embrace the process of developing and constructing the air cushion chassis for air- craft and solve problems relating to peculiarities of such aircraft on the takeoff, landing and movement in the elementary prepared and unprepared soil runways, flat terrain and water areas. The complex includes: the experimental installation to study aeroelasticity phenomena of the chassis in the extending and retracting process with simulation of aircraft and ekran- oplane takeoff and landing modes in the air flow, including the wind tunnels; the experimental stand with vertical screen for testing of ekranoplane models in T-5 wind tunnel of NIMC TsAGI, permitting to simultaneously vary the model’s posi- tion relatively to the screen, roll, pitch (angle of attack, and banking; mobile experimental stand with contact crawler gear, for experimental determination and comparative evaluation of the chassis with different patterns of formation and air cush- ion fences for all-year-round testing in natural conditions at elementary-prepared and unprepared sites and water areas. Based on mathematical simulation of flow past in the wind tunnel the possibility of use booth stand with vertical screen and experimental installation to study aeroelasticity phenomena of the chassis for experimental studies, respectively, by defini- tion of the aerodynamic characteristics of forces and moments of the air cushion aircraft and ekranoplanes models and the research of phenomena of aeroelasticity of flexible fencing is substantiated.

  9. Standing steady-state wave-making calculation method for air cushion vehicles; Air cushion vehicle no teijo zoha keisanho ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eguchi, T [Mitsui Engineering and Shipbuilding Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-04-10

    The pulse-height distribution of a cushion room of air cushion vehicle (ACV) has been tried to be approached by means of the panel shift type Rankine source method. When using this method, it was not required to introduce the pressure distribution model simulating the fall-off effect for the step-formed cushion pressure distribution. The wave form and wave making resistance could be estimated precisely by assigning the pressure gradient to one longitudinal direction panel in the calculation. The waveform shape within the cushion room could be calculated rather precisely by comparing with the analytic solution. This calculation method did have an ability providing the pulse-height information in the cushion room of ACV for seal design and configuration of ships. The analytic solution using for the comparison was sufficient for determining the pulse-height in the high speed region. However, it was hard to respond to non-linear problems or optional shape problems. It was pointed out to be further improved. 5 refs., 8 figs.

  10. Enabling Electric Propulsion for Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginn, Starr Renee

    2015-01-01

    Team Seedling project AFRC and LaRC 31ft distributed electric propulsion wing on truck bed up 75 miles per hour for coefficient of lift validation. Convergent Aeronautic Solutions project, sub-project Convergent Electric Propulsion Technologies AFRC, LaRC and GRC, re-winging a 4 passenger Tecnam aircraft with a 31ft distributed electric propulsion wing. Advanced Air Transport Technologies (Fixed Wing), Hybrid Electric Research Theme, developing a series hybrid ironbird and flight sim to study integration and performance challenges in preparation for a 1-2 MW flight project.

  11. Hydrodynamics of Peristaltic Propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athanassiadis, Athanasios; Hart, Douglas

    2014-11-01

    A curious class of animals called salps live in marine environments and self-propel by ejecting vortex rings much like jellyfish and squid. However, unlike other jetting creatures that siphon and eject water from one side of their body, salps produce vortex rings by pumping water through siphons on opposite ends of their hollow cylindrical bodies. In the simplest cases, it seems like some species of salp can successfully move by contracting just two siphons connected by an elastic body. When thought of as a chain of timed contractions, salp propulsion is reminiscent of peristaltic pumping applied to marine locomotion. Inspired by salps, we investigate the hydrodynamics of peristaltic propulsion, focusing on the scaling relationships that determine flow rate, thrust production, and energy usage in a model system. We discuss possible actuation methods for a model peristaltic vehicle, considering both the material and geometrical requirements for such a system.

  12. Operationally efficient propulsion system study (OEPSS) data book. Volume 6; Space Transfer Propulsion Operational Efficiency Study Task of OEPSS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmon, Timothy J.

    1992-01-01

    This document is the final report for the Space Transfer Propulsion Operational Efficiency Study Task of the Operationally Efficient Propulsion System Study (OEPSS) conducted by the Rocketdyne Division of Rockwell International. This Study task studied, evaluated and identified design concepts and technologies which minimized launch and in-space operations and optimized in-space vehicle propulsion system operability.

  13. Performance analysis of the electric vehicle air conditioner by replacing hydrocarbon refrigerant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoso, Budi; Tjahjana, D. D. D. P.

    2017-01-01

    The thermal comfort in passenger cabins needs an automotive air-conditioning system. The electric vehicle air conditioner system is driven by an electric compressor which includes a compressor and an electric motor. Almost air-conditioning system uses CFC-12, CFC-22 and HFC-134a as refrigerant. However, CFC-12 and CFC-22 will damage the ozone layer. The extreme huge global warming potentials (GWP) values of CFC-12, CFC-22, and HFC-134a represent the serious greenhouse effect of Earth. This article shows new experimental measurements and analysis by using a mixture of HC-134 to replace HFC-134a. The result is a refrigerating effect, the coefficient of performance and energy factor increase along with cooling capacity, both for HFC-134a and HC-134. The refrigerating effect of HC-134 is almost twice higher than HFC-134a. The coefficient of performance value of HC-134 is also 36.42% greater than HFC-134a. Then, the energy factor value of HC-134 is 3.78% greater than HFC-134a.

  14. Micro-structure and Air-tightness of Squeeze Casting Motor housing for New Energy Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Y. F.; Kang, Z. Q.; Jiang, W. F.; Wang, K. W.; Sha, D. L.; Li, M. L.; Sun, J.

    2018-05-01

    In order to improve the performance of automobile parts, the influence of squeeze casting process parameters on casting defects, material structure and air-tightness of aluminum alloy motor housing for new energy vehicle was studied. The results show that the density of the castings increases with the increase in pressure and mold temperature. With increase in pouring temperature, it increases first and then decreases. Pressure has the greatest influence on the density of the castings. Under a certain pressure, with moderate increase in casting temperature and mold temperature, the grain growth begins to increase; the dendrites become less, the new α - Al grains are spherical and granular, the micro-structure is uniform. Also, with increase in pressure, this effect is more pronounced, the air-tightness of castings improve. In conclusion, when the pressure is 110MPa, pouring temperature is 680° C, mold temperature is 280° C, pressure holding for 30s, and punch speed of 0.1m/s, there is no clear shrinkage in the casting, the structure is uniform, the qualified rate of air-tightness of production reaches 86%, and the performance is excellent.

  15. Urban air chemistry and diesel vehicles emissions: Quantifying small and big hydrocarbons by CIMS to improve emission inventories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jobson, B. T.; Derstroff, B.; Edtbauer, A.; VanderSchelden, G. S.; Williams, J.

    2017-10-01

    Emissions from vehicles are a major source of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in urban environments. Photochemical oxidation of VOCs emitted from vehicle exhaust contributes to O3 and PM2.5 formation, harmful pollutants that major urban areas struggle to control. How will a shift to a diesel engine fleet impact urban air chemistry? Diesel vehicles are a growing fraction of the passenger vehicle fleet in Europe as a result of a deliberate policy to reduce energy consumption and CO2 emissions from the transportation sector (Sullivan et al., 2004). In countries such as France the diesel passenger fleet was already ∼50% of the total in 2009, up from 20% in 1995. Dunmore et al. (2015) have recently inferred that in London, HO radical loss rates to organic compounds is dominated by diesel engine emissions. In the US, increasingly more stringent vehicles emission standards and requirement for improved energy efficiency means spark ignition passenger vehicle emissions have declined significantly over the last 20 years, resulting in the urban diesel fleet traffic (freight trucks) having a growing importance as a source of vehicle pollution (McDonald et al., 2013). The recent scandal involving a major car manufacturer rigging emission controls for diesel passenger cars is a reminder that real world emissions of VOCs from diesel engines are not well understood nor thoroughly accounted for in air quality modeling.

  16. Fitting aerodynamics and propulsion into the puzzle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Patrick J.; Whitehead, Allen H., Jr.; Chapman, Gary T.

    1987-01-01

    The development of an airbreathing single-stage-to-orbit vehicle, in particular the problems of aerodynamics and propulsion integration, is examined. The boundary layer transition on constant pressure surfaces at hypersonic velocities, and the effects of noise on the transition are investigated. The importance of viscosity, real-gas effects, and drag at hypersonic speeds is discussed. A propulsion system with sufficient propulsive lift to enhance the performance of the vehicle is being developed. The difficulties of engine-airframe integration are analyzed.

  17. Design of Conventional Submarines with Advanced Air Independent Propulsion Systems and Determination of Corresponding Theater-Level Impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    rescue vehicle e: Error term ft: Feet HDW: Howaldtswerke- Deutsche Werft GmbH PEMFC : Proton exchange membrane fuel cells IR: Indiscretion rate/ratio...engines &Rankine cycle power plants &Closed cycle engines A PEMFC AIP system is fitted in the 212 class of submarines that German shipbuilders How...bines a conventional system consisting of a diesel engine and a lead acid battery, with the PEMFC AIP system used for slow, silent cruising. The AIP

  18. Reusable Launch Vehicle Technology Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Delma C., Jr.; Talay, Theodore A.; Austin, R. Eugene

    1997-01-01

    Industry/NASA reusable launch vehicle (RLV) technology program efforts are underway to design, test, and develop technologies and concepts for viable commercial launch systems that also satisfy national needs at acceptable recurring costs. Significant progress has been made in understanding the technical challenges of fully reusable launch systems and the accompanying management and operational approaches for achieving a low cost program. This paper reviews the current status of the RLV technology program including the DC-XA, X-33 and X-34 flight systems and associated technology programs. It addresses the specific technologies being tested that address the technical and operability challenges of reusable launch systems including reusable cryogenic propellant tanks, composite structures, thermal protection systems, improved propulsion and subsystem operability enhancements. The recently concluded DC-XA test program demonstrated some of these technologies in ground and flight test. Contracts were awarded recently for both the X-33 and X-34 flight demonstrator systems. The Orbital Sciences Corporation X-34 flight test vehicle will demonstrate an air-launched reusable vehicle capable of flight to speeds of Mach 8. The Lockheed-Martin X-33 flight test vehicle will expand the test envelope for critical technologies to flight speeds of Mach 15. A propulsion program to test the X-33 linear aerospike rocket engine using a NASA SR-71 high speed aircraft as a test bed is also discussed. The paper also describes the management and operational approaches that address the challenge of new cost effective, reusable launch vehicle systems.

  19. Investigations on an energy efficient air conditioning of hybrid vehicles and electric-powered vehicles; Untersuchungen zur energieeffizienten Klimatisierung von Hybrid- und Elektrofahrzeugen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aurich, Joerg; Baumgart, Rico; Danzer, Christoph; Unwerth, Thomas von [Technische Univ. Chemnitz (Germany). Professur Alternative Fahrzeugantriebe

    2012-11-01

    The energy-efficient air conditioning of passenger cells is an ever-increasing challenge in the development of electric vehicles because the electric heating in particular reduces the cruising range significantly. For this reason, a simulation model has been developed at Chemnitz University of Technology, which simulates the whole air conditioning system including the passenger cell and the complete powertrain in electric cars. Using this model, different optimization approaches have been analyzed and evaluated concerning the cruising range. This paper first illustrates how much the cruising range of an exemplary electric vehicle is reduced by using the electric heating under different wintery weather conditions. Afterwards, the exploitation of the waste heat produced by the powertrain components (electric motor and power electronics) will be explained. Finally, it shall be described to what extent this exploitation increases the cruising range. (orig.)

  20. Nuclear propulsion systems engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madsen, W.W.; Neuman, J.E.: Van Haaften, D.H.

    1992-01-01

    The Nuclear Energy for Rocket Vehicle Application (NERVA) program of the 1960's and early 1970's was dramatically successful, with no major failures during the entire testing program. This success was due in large part to the successful development of a systems engineering process. Systems engineering, properly implemented, involves all aspects of the system design and operation, and leads to optimization of theentire system: cost, schedule, performance, safety, reliability, function, requirements, etc. The process must be incorporated from the very first and continued to project completion. This paper will discuss major aspects of the NERVA systems engineering effort, and consider the implications for current nuclear propulsion efforts

  1. Real-Time Fixed-Order Lateral H2 Controller for Micro Air Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meenakshi M.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the design and development of a fixed low-order, robust H2 controller for a micro air vehicle (MAV named Sarika-2. The controller synthesis uses strengthened discrete optimal projection equations and frequency-dependent performance index to achieve robust performance and stability. A single fixed gain low-order dynamic controller provides simultaneous stabilization, disturbance rejection, and sensor noise attenuation over the entire flight speed range of 16 m/sec to 26 m/sec. Comparative study indicates that the low-order H2-controller achieves robust performance levels similar to that of full order controller. Subsequently, the controller is implemented on a digital signal processor-based flight computer and is validated through the real time hardware in loop simulation. The responses obtained with hardware in loop simulation compares well with those obtained from the offline simulation.

  2. A QMU approach for characterizing the operability limits of air-breathing hypersonic vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iaccarino, Gianluca; Pecnik, Rene; Glimm, James; Sharp, David

    2011-01-01

    The operability limits of a supersonic combustion engine for an air-breathing hypersonic vehicle are characterized using numerical simulations and an uncertainty quantification methodology. The time-dependent compressible flow equations with heat release are solved in a simplified configuration. Verification, calibration and validation are carried out to assess the ability of the model to reproduce the flow/thermal interactions that occur when the engine unstarts due to thermal choking. quantification of margins and uncertainty (QMU) is used to determine the safe operation region for a range of fuel flow rates and combustor geometries. - Highlights: → In this work we introduce a method to study the operability limits of hypersonic scramjet engines. → The method is based on a calibrated heat release model. → It accounts explicitly for uncertainties due to flight conditions and model correlations. → We examine changes due to the combustor geometry and fuel injection.

  3. Air-cushion vehicles as an alternative to conventional industrial trucks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marr, E.

    2003-01-01

    Protective shieldings must be used for the transportation of radioactive materials, such as drums and containers within the control area, in order to observe the activity classes of the rooms. As a result of the change in the radiation protection ordinance, the operating areas of the floor conveyors have to be protected even more, i.e. transportation weights are becoming even bigger. When using pallet lift trucks without drive, weights over 2 tons are virtually unable to be operated. A fork-lift truck must be used for higher loads. If the transportation weight (transportation load and net weight of the lift truck) is doubled, usage within buildings is very restricted through the ceiling net load. This is the range of application of air cushion vehicles, in particular if positioning accuracy and remote-controlled driving become necessary. (orig.)

  4. NASA Innovation Fund 2010 Project Elastically Shaped Future Air Vehicle Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Nhan

    2010-01-01

    This report describes a study conducted in 2010 under the NASA Innovation Fund Award to develop innovative future air vehicle concepts. Aerodynamic optimization was performed to produce three different aircraft configuration concepts for low drag, namely drooped wing, inflected wing, and squashed fuselage. A novel wing shaping control concept is introduced. This concept describes a new capability of actively controlling wing shape in-flight to minimize drag. In addition, a novel flight control effector concept is developed to enable wing shaping control. This concept is called a variable camber continuous trailing edge flap that can reduce drag by as much as 50% over a conventional flap. In totality, the potential benefits of fuel savings offered by these concepts can be significant.

  5. Continuous high order sliding mode controller design for a flexible air-breathing hypersonic vehicle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jie; Zong, Qun; Su, Rui; Tian, Bailing

    2014-05-01

    This paper investigates the problem of tracking control with uncertainties for a flexible air-breathing hypersonic vehicle (FAHV). In order to overcome the analytical intractability of this model, an Input-Output linearization model is constructed for the purpose of feedback control design. Then, the continuous finite time convergence high order sliding mode controller is designed for the Input-Output linearization model without uncertainties. In addition, a nonlinear disturbance observer is applied to estimate the uncertainties in order to compensate the controller and disturbance suppression, where disturbance observer and controller synthesis design is obtained. Finally, the synthesis of controller and disturbance observer is used to achieve the tracking for the velocity and altitude of the FAHV and simulations are presented to illustrate the effectiveness of the control strategies. Copyright © 2014 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Improved State Feedback H∞ Control for Flexible Air-Breathing Hypersonic Vehicles on LMI Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Xue

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Focusing on a nonlinear longitudinal dynamical model for Air-breathing Hypersonic Flight Vehicles (AHFV, a linearized model on a nominal trim condition is proposed. To stabilize the flight of an AHFV in the presence of external disturbances and actuator uncertainties, a state feedback H∞ control is designed. With bounds on the uncertainties, a feedback stabilization problem is converted to an optimal control problem and the cost function is minimized by solving a set of linear matrix inequalities. Since uncertainties in the design of AHFV are inevitable, to make a comparison, a general H∞ robust controller is constructed by only considering the disturbances firstly. Then the results are extended by incorporating the actual existing uncertainties as well as the external disturbances in the AHFV system. Numerical simulation shows that the controller, which takes both disturbances and uncertainties into account, can effectively stabilize the AHFV system.

  7. Novel adaptive neural control of flexible air-breathing hypersonic vehicles based on sliding mode differentiator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bu Xiangwei

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available A novel adaptive neural control strategy is exploited for the longitudinal dynamics of a generic flexible air-breathing hypersonic vehicle (FAHV. By utilizing functional decomposition method, the dynamics of FAHV is decomposed into the velocity subsystem and the altitude subsystem. For each subsystem, only one neural network is employed for the unknown function approximation. To further reduce the computational burden, minimal-learning parameter (MLP technology is used to estimate the norm of ideal weight vectors rather than their elements. By introducing sliding mode differentiator (SMD to estimate the newly defined variables, there is no need for the strict-feedback form and virtual controller. Hence the developed control law is considerably simpler than the ones derived from back-stepping scheme. Finally, simulation studies are made to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed control approach in spite of the flexible effects, system uncertainties and varying disturbances.

  8. Adaptive Neural Back-Stepping Control with Constrains for a Flexible Air-Breathing Hypersonic Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengfei Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The design of an adaptive neural back-stepping control for a flexible air-breathing hypersonic vehicle (AHV in the presence of input constraint and aerodynamic uncertainty is discussed. Based on functional decomposition, the dynamics can be decomposed into the velocity subsystem and the altitude subsystem. To guarantee the exploited controller’s robustness with respect to parametric uncertainties, neural network (NN is applied to approximate the lumped uncertainty of each subsystem of AHV model. The exceptional contribution is that novel auxiliary systems are introduced to compensate both the tracking errors and desired control laws, based on which the explored controller can still provide effective tracking of velocity and altitude commands when the actuators are saturated. Finally, simulation studies are made to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed control approach in spite of the flexible effects, system uncertainties, and varying disturbances.

  9. Concise Neural Nonaffine Control of Air-Breathing Hypersonic Vehicles Subject to Parametric Uncertainties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangwei Bu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a novel simplified neural control strategy is proposed for the longitudinal dynamics of an air-breathing hypersonic vehicle (AHV directly using nonaffine models instead of affine ones. For the velocity dynamics, an adaptive neural controller is devised based on a minimal-learning parameter (MLP technique for the sake of decreasing computational loads. The altitude dynamics is rewritten as a pure feedback nonaffine formulation, for which a novel concise neural control approach is achieved without backstepping. The special contributions are that the control architecture is concise and the computational cost is low. Moreover, the exploited controller possesses good practicability since there is no need for affine models. The semiglobally uniformly ultimate boundedness of all the closed-loop system signals is guaranteed via Lyapunov stability theory. Finally, simulation results are presented to validate the effectiveness of the investigated control methodology in the presence of parametric uncertainties.

  10. Sliding mode disturbance observer-enhanced adaptive control for the air-breathing hypersonic flight vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Hao; Wang, Changhong; Fidan, Baris

    2017-10-01

    This paper presents a backstepping procedure to design an adaptive controller for the air-breathing hypersonic flight vehicle (AHFV) subject to external disturbances and actuator saturations. In each step, a sliding mode exact disturbance observer (SMEDO) is exploited to exactly estimate the lumped disturbance in finite time. Specific dynamics are introduced to handle the possible actuator saturations. Based on SMEDO and introduced dynamics, an adaptive control law is designed, along with the consideration on ;explosion of complexity; in backstepping design. The developed controller is equipped with fast disturbance rejection and great capability to accommodate the saturated actuators, which also lead to a wider application scope. A simulation study is provided to show the effectiveness and superiority of the proposed controller.

  11. Flight Control of Biomimetic Air Vehicles Using Vibrational Control and Averaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahmasian, Sevak; Woolsey, Craig A.

    2017-08-01

    A combination of vibrational inputs and state feedback is applied to control the flight of a biomimetic air vehicle. First, a control strategy is developed for longitudinal flight, using a quasi-steady aerodynamic model and neglecting wing inertial effects. Vertical and forward motion is controlled by modulating the wings' stroke and feather angles, respectively. Stabilizing control parameter values are determined using the time-averaged dynamic model. Simulations of a system resembling a hawkmoth show that the proposed controller can overcome modeling error associated with the wing inertia and small parameter uncertainties when following a prescribed trajectory. After introducing the approach through an application to longitudinal flight, the control strategy is extended to address flight in three-dimensional space.

  12. Plotting the Flight Envelope of an Unmanned Aircraft System Air Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glīzde Nikolajs

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The research is focused on the development of an Unmanned Aircraft System. One of the design process steps in the preliminary design phase is the calculation of the flight envelope for the Unmanned Aircraft System air vehicle. The results obtained will be used in the further design process. A flight envelope determines the minimum requirements for the object in Certification Specifications. The present situation does not impose any Certification Specification requirements for the class of the Unmanned Aircraft System under the development of the general European Union trend defined in the road map for the implementation of the Unmanned Aircraft System. However, operation in common European Aerospace imposes the necessity for regulations for micro class systems as well.

  13. A Scramjet Compression System for Hypersonic Air Transportation Vehicle Combined Cycle Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devendra Sen

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a compression system for a scramjet, to be used as part of a combined cycle engine on a hypersonic transport vehicle that can achieve sustained flight at 8 Mach 8. Initially research into scramjet compression system and shock wave interaction was conducted to establish the foundation of the scramjet inlet and isolator sections. A Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD campaign was conducted, where the shock structure and flow characteristics was analysed between Mach 4.5–8. The compression system of a scramjet is of crucial importance in providing air at suitable Mach number, pressure and temperature to the combustion chamber. The use of turbojet engines in over-under configuration with the scramjet was investigated as well as the study of a combined cycle scramjet-ramjet configuration. It was identified that locating the scramjet in the centre with a rotated ramjet on either side, where its ramps make up the scramjet wall was the most optimal configuration, as it mitigated the effect of the oblique shocks propagating from the scramjet walls into the adjacent ramjet. Furthermore, this meant that the forebody of the vehicle could solely be used as the compression surface by the scramjet. In this paper, the sizing of the scramjet combustion chamber and nozzle were modified to match the flow properties of the oncoming flow with the purpose of producing the most optimum scramjet configuration for the cruise speed of Mach 8. CFD simulations showed that the scramjet inlet did not provide the levels of compression and stagnation pressure recovery initially required. However, it was found that the scramjet provided significantly more thrust than the drag of the aircraft at sustained Mach 8 flight, due to its utilisation of a very aerodynamic vehicle design.

  14. Characterizing spatial variability of air pollution from vehicle traffic around the Houston Ship Channel area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xueying; Craft, Elena; Zhang, Kai

    2017-07-01

    Mobile emissions are a major source of urban air pollution and have been associated with a variety of adverse health outcomes. The Houston Ship Channel area is the home of a large number of diesel-powered vehicles emitting fine particulate matter (PM2.5; ≤2.5 μm in aerodynamic diameter) and nitrogen oxides (NOx). However, the spatial variability of traffic-related air pollutants in the Houston Ship Channel area has rarely been investigated. The objective of this study is to characterize spatial variability of PM2.5 and NOx concentrations attributable to on-road traffic in the Houston Ship Channel area in the year of 2011. We extracted the road network from the Texas Department of Transportation Road Inventory, and calculated emission rates using the Motor Vehicle Emission Simulator version 2014a (MOVES2014a). These parameters and preprocessed meteorological parameters were entered into a Research LINE-source Dispersion Model (RLINE) to conduct a simulation. Receptors were placed at 50 m resolution within 300 m to major roads and at 150 m resolution in the rest of the area. Our findings include that traffic-related PM2.5 were mainly emitted from trucks, while traffic-related NOx were emitted from both trucks and cars. The traffic contributed 0.90 μg/m3 PM2.5 and 29.23 μg/m3 NOx to the annual average mass concentrations of on-road air pollution, and the concentrations of the two pollutants decreased by nearly 40% within 500 m distance to major roads. The pollution level of traffic-related PM2.5 and NOx was higher in winter than those in the other three seasons. The Houston Ship Channel has earlier morning peak hours and relative late afternoon hours, which indicates the influence of goods movement from port activity. The varied near-road gradients illustrate that proximities to major roads are not an accurate surrogate of traffic-related air pollution.

  15. An adaptive dual-optimal path-planning technique for unmanned air vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Whitfield Clifford A.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A multi-objective technique for unmanned air vehicle path-planning generation through task allocation has been developed. The dual-optimal path-planning technique generates real-time adaptive flight paths based on available flight windows and environmental influenced objectives. The environmentally-influenced flight condition determines the aircraft optimal orientation within a downstream virtual window of possible vehicle destinations that is based on the vehicle’s kinematics. The intermittent results are then pursued by a dynamic optimization technique to determine the flight path. This path-planning technique is a multi-objective optimization procedure consisting of two goals that do not require additional information to combine the conflicting objectives into a single-objective. The technique was applied to solar-regenerative high altitude long endurance flight which can benefit significantly from an adaptive real-time path-planning technique. The objectives were to determine the minimum power required flight paths while maintaining maximum solar power for continual surveillance over an area of interest (AOI. The simulated path generation technique prolonged the flight duration over a sustained turn loiter flight path by approximately 2 months for a year of flight. The potential for prolonged solar powered flight was consistent for all latitude locations, including 2 months of available flight at 60° latitude, where sustained turn flight was no longer capable.

  16. The development of aluminum-air batteries for application in electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudd, E. J.; Lott, S.

    1990-12-01

    The recently concluded program, jointly funded by ELTECH Research Corporation and the Department of Energy, focused upon the development of an aluminum-air battery system for electric vehicle applications. The operation of the aluminum-air battery involves the dissolution of aluminum to produce a current and aluminate. Initially the objectives were to evaluate and optimize the battery design that was developed prior to this program (designated as the B300 cell) and to design and evaluate the components of the auxiliary system. During the program, three additional tasks were undertaken, addressing needs identified by ELTECH and by Sandia National Laboratories. First, the capability to produce aluminum alloys as relatively large ingots (100 to 150 lbs), with the required electrochemical performance, was considered essential to the development of the battery. The second additional task was the adoption of an advanced cell (designated as the AT400 cell), designed by ELTECH in a different program. Finally, it was recognized that a system model would allow evaluation of the interactions of the several unit operations involved in the battery. Therefore, the development of a mathematical model, based upon material and energy balances for the battery, was undertaken. At a systems level, sufficient information was obtained in the completion of this program to support the design, fabrication and operation of a batch or solids-free battery system. For the first time, the components of the auxiliary system, i.e., a heat exchanger, carbon dioxide scrubber and hydrogen disposal technology, have been defined for a vehicle battery. Progress on each component or system is summarized in the following sections.

  17. Life cycle air emissions impacts and ownership costs of light-duty vehicles using natural gas as a primary energy source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luk, Jason M; Saville, Bradley A; MacLean, Heather L

    2015-04-21

    This paper aims to comprehensively distinguish among the merits of different vehicles using a common primary energy source. In this study, we consider compressed natural gas (CNG) use directly in conventional vehicles (CV) and hybrid electric vehicles (HEV), and natural gas-derived electricity (NG-e) use in plug-in battery electric vehicles (BEV). This study evaluates the incremental life cycle air emissions (climate change and human health) impacts and life cycle ownership costs of non-plug-in (CV and HEV) and plug-in light-duty vehicles. Replacing a gasoline CV with a CNG CV, or a CNG CV with a CNG HEV, can provide life cycle air emissions impact benefits without increasing ownership costs; however, the NG-e BEV will likely increase costs (90% confidence interval: $1000 to $31 000 incremental cost per vehicle lifetime). Furthermore, eliminating HEV tailpipe emissions via plug-in vehicles has an insignificant incremental benefit, due to high uncertainties, with emissions cost benefits between -$1000 and $2000. Vehicle criteria air contaminants are a relatively minor contributor to life cycle air emissions impacts because of strict vehicle emissions standards. Therefore, policies should focus on adoption of plug-in vehicles in nonattainment regions, because CNG vehicles are likely more cost-effective at providing overall life cycle air emissions impact benefits.

  18. Investigations of power supply and propulsion for a lighter-than-air high altitude platform; Untersuchungen zu Energieversorgung und Antrieb einer Leichter-als-Luft-Hoehenplattform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotulla, Michael

    2008-06-20

    High altitude platforms are one alternative to replace ground-bounded relay stations for telecommunication purposes. Already in service are such concepts like tethered balloons or stratospheric airplanes in the field of surveillance, for example to patrol borders. Disadvantages of those concepts are either to disturb the airspace by the wire or to be constricted in terms of mission endurance. Thus, untethered high altitude airships with long mission endurance are currently in the focus of research. One basic requirement for telecommunication platforms is to remain in a fix positioning frame over ground. Therefore wind speed has to be compensated by the propulsion system of the airship. The scope of this work is to investigate the drive and power generation system of a multiple-unit airship. The reduced rigidness of the hull and the resulting lower structural weight yield a higher load capacity and hence increase the mission length by larger fuel reserves. The drawbacks of this configuration are higher stabilization demands and distributed drive units. This leads to a rather complex propulsion system for which a real-time simulation model is provided. Besides electrical driven propellers, the system involves gas turbines and generators to work as power plants, back-up batteries, power-electronics and distribution. Those power plants reflect the state of the art and are thus rather conservative compared to other propulsion concepts for high altitude platforms. The advantage of splitting up the power generation into multiple units is to run only as much power plants as currently required and for this reason, to save energy. In addition, an involvement of the back-up battery reduces the ineffective operation of a power plant in part load. Another reason to employ a battery system is that highly dynamic power requirements, caused for example by a gust of wind, cannot be covered immediately by the power plants. The maximum discharge power of the back-up battery is at

  19. Networking Multiple Autonomous Air and Ocean Vehicles for Oceanographic Research and Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGillivary, P. A.; Borges de Sousa, J.; Rajan, K.

    2013-12-01

    Autonomous underwater and surface vessels (AUVs and ASVs) are coming into wider use as components of oceanographic research, including ocean observing systems. Unmanned airborne vehicles (UAVs) are now available at modest cost, allowing multiple UAVs to be deployed with multiple AUVs and ASVs. For optimal use good communication and coordination among vehicles is essential. We report on the use of multiple AUVs networked in communication with multiple UAVs. The UAVs are augmented by inferential reasoning software developed at MBARI that allows UAVs to recognize oceanographic fronts and change their navigation and control. This in turn allows UAVs to automatically to map frontal features, as well as to direct AUVs and ASVs to proceed to such features and conduct sampling via onboard sensors to provide validation for airborne mapping. ASVs can also act as data nodes for communication between UAVs and AUVs, as well as collecting data from onboard sensors, while AUVs can sample the water column vertically. This allows more accurate estimation of phytoplankton biomass and productivity, and can be used in conjunction with UAV sampling to determine air-sea flux of gases (e.g. CO2, CH4, DMS) affecting carbon budgets and atmospheric composition. In particular we describe tests in July 2013 conducted off Sesimbra, Portugal in conjunction with the Portuguese Navy by the University of Porto and MBARI with the goal of tracking large fish in the upper water column with coordinated air/surface/underwater measurements. A thermal gradient was observed in the infrared by a low flying UAV, which was used to dispatch an AUV to obtain ground truth to demonstrate the event-response capabilities using such autonomous platforms. Additional field studies in the future will facilitate integration of multiple unmanned systems into research vessel operations. The strength of hardware and software tools described in this study is to permit fundamental oceanographic measurements of both ocean

  20. Distributed propulsion.

    OpenAIRE

    Lindström, Robin; Rosvall, Tobias

    2013-01-01

    En prestandaanalys utfördes på en SAAB 2000 som referensobjekt. Olika metoder för att driva flygplan på ett miljövänligare sätt utvärderades tillsammans med distributed propulsion. Efter undersökningar valdes elmotorer tillsammans med Zink-luft batterier för att driva SAAB 2000 med distributed propulsion. En prestandaanalys utfördes på detta plan på samma sätt som för den ursprungliga SAAB 2000. Resultaten jämfördes och slutsatsen blev att räckvidden var för kort för att konfigurationen skull...

  1. CFD for hypersonic propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Povinelli, Louis A.

    1991-01-01

    An overview is given of research activity on the application of computational fluid dynamics (CDF) for hypersonic propulsion systems. After the initial consideration of the highly integrated nature of air-breathing hypersonic engines and airframe, attention is directed toward computations carried out for the components of the engine. A generic inlet configuration is considered in order to demonstrate the highly three dimensional viscous flow behavior occurring within rectangular inlets. Reacting flow computations for simple jet injection as well as for more complex combustion chambers are then discussed in order to show the capability of viscous finite rate chemical reaction computer simulations. Finally, the nozzle flow fields are demonstrated, showing the existence of complex shear layers and shock structure in the exhaust plume. The general issues associated with code validation as well as the specific issue associated with the use of CFD for design are discussed. A prognosis for the success of CFD in the design of future propulsion systems is offered.

  2. Research Opportunities in Space Propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, Stephen L.

    2007-01-01

    Rocket propulsion determines the primary characteristics of any space vehicle; how fast and far it can go, its lifetime, and its capabilities. It is the primary factor in safety and reliability and the biggest cost driver. The extremes of heat and pressure produced by propulsion systems push the limits of materials used for manufacturing. Space travel is very unforgiving with little room for errors, and so many things can go wrong with these very complex systems. So we have to plan for failure and that makes it costly. But what is more exciting than the roar of a rocket blasting into space? By its nature the propulsion world is conservative. The stakes are so high at every launch, in terms of payload value or in human life, that to introduce new components to a working, qualified system is extremely difficult and costly. Every launch counts and no risks are tolerated, which leads to the space world's version of Catch-22:"You can't fly till you flown." The last big 'game changer' in propulsion was the use of liquid hydrogen as a fuel. No new breakthrough, low cost access to space system will be developed without new efficient propulsion systems. Because there is no large commercial market driving investment in propulsion, what propulsion research is done is sponsored by government funding agencies. A further difficulty in propulsion technology development is that there are so few new systems flying. There is little opportunity to evolve propulsion technologies and to update existing systems with results coming out of research as there is in, for example, the auto industry. The biggest hurdle to space exploration is getting off the ground. The launch phase will consume most of the energy required for any foreseeable space exploration mission. The fundamental physical energy requirements of escaping earth's gravity make it difficult. It takes 60,000 kJ to put a kilogram into an escape orbit. The vast majority (-97%) of the energy produced by a launch vehicle is used

  3. Incremental Nonlinear Dynamic Inversion and Multihole Pressure Probes for Disturbance Rejection Control of Fixed-wing Micro Air Vehicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smeur, E.J.J.; Remes, B.D.W.; de Wagter, C.; Chu, Q.; J.-M. Moschetta G. Hattenberger, H. de Plinval

    2017-01-01

    Maintaining stable flight during high turbulence intensities is challenging for fixed-wing micro air vehicles (MAV). Two methods are proposed
    to improve the disturbance rejection performance of the MAV: incremental nonlinear dynamic inversion (INDI) control and phaseadvanced pitch probes. INDI

  4. 75 FR 39251 - Control of Air Pollution From New Motor Vehicles: Announcement of Public Workshop for Heavy-Duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-08

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [FRL-9173-5] Control of Air Pollution From New Motor Vehicles: Announcement of Public Workshop for Heavy-Duty Diesel Engines Employing Selective Catalyst Reduction Technology... engine manufacturers have recently begun utilizing a NO X emission control technology called selective...

  5. Potential benefits of oxygen-enriched intake air in a vehicle powered by a spark-ignition engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, H. K.; Sekar, R. R.

    1994-04-01

    A production vehicle powered by a spark-ignition engine (3.1-L Chevrolet Lumina, model year 1990) was tested. The test used oxygen-enriched intake air containing 25 and 28% oxygen by volume to determine (1) if the vehicle would run without difficulties and (2) if emissions benefits would result. Standard Federal Test Procedure (FTP) emissions test cycles were run satisfactorily. Test results of catalytic converter-out emissions (emissions out of the converter) showed that both carbon monoxide and hydrocarbons were reduced significantly in all three phases of the emissions test cycle. Test results of engine-out emissions (emissions straight out of the engine, with the converter removed) showed that carbon monoxide was significantly reduced in the cold phase. All emission test results were compared with those for normal air (21% oxygen). The catalytic converter also had an improved carbon monoxide conversion efficiency under the oxygen-enriched-air conditions. Detailed results of hydrocarbon speciation indicated large reductions in 1,3-butadiene, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, and benzene from the engine with the oxygen-enriched air. Catalytic converter-out ozone was reduced by 60% with 25%-oxygen-content air. Although NO(x) emissions increased significantly, both for engine-out and catalytic converter-out emissions, we anticipate that they can be ameliorated in the near future with new control technologies. The automotive industry currently is developing exhaust-gas control technologies for an oxidizing environment; these technologies should reduce NO(x) emissions more efficiently in vehicles that use oxygen-enriched intake air. On the basis of estimates made from current data, several production vehicles that had low NO(x) emissions could meet the 2004 Tier 2 emissions standards with 25%-oxygen-content air.

  6. The impact of China's vehicle emissions on regional air quality in 2000 and 2020: a scenario analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Saikawa

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The number of vehicles in China has been increasing rapidly. We evaluate the impact of current and possible future vehicle emissions from China on Asian air quality. We modify the Regional Emission Inventory in Asia (REAS for China's road transport sector in 2000 using updated Chinese data for the number of vehicles, annual mileage, and emission factors. We develop two scenarios for 2020: a scenario where emission factors remain the same as they were in 2000 (No-Policy, NoPol, and a scenario where Euro 3 vehicle emission standards are applied to all vehicles (except motorcycles and rural vehicles. The Euro 3 scenario is an approximation of what may be the case in 2020 as, starting in 2008, all new vehicles in China (except motorcycles were required to meet the Euro 3 emission standards. Using the Weather Research and Forecasting model coupled with Chemistry (WRF/Chem, we examine the regional air quality response to China's vehicle emissions in 2000 and in 2020 for the NoPol and Euro 3 scenarios. We evaluate the 2000 model results with observations in Japan, China, Korea, and Russia. Under NoPol in 2020, emissions of carbon monoxide (CO, nitrogen oxides (NOx, non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs, black carbon (BC, and organic carbon (OC from China's vehicles more than double compared to the 2000 baseline. If all vehicles meet the Euro 3 regulations in 2020, however, these emissions are reduced by more than 50% relative to NoPol. The implementation of stringent vehicle emission standards leads to a large, simultaneous reduction of the surface ozone (O3 mixing ratios and particulate matter (PM2.5 concentrations. In the Euro 3 scenario, surface O3 is reduced by more than 10 ppbv and surface PM2.5 is reduced by more than 10 μg m−3 relative to NoPol in Northeast China in all seasons. In spring, surface O3 mixing ratios and PM2.5 concentrations in

  7. Control and design of multiple unmanned air vehicles for persistent surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nigam, Nikhil

    Control of multiple autonomous aircraft for search and exploration, is a topic of current research interest for applications such as weather monitoring, geographical surveys, search and rescue, tactical reconnaissance, and extra-terrestrial exploration, and the need to distribute sensing is driven by considerations of efficiency, reliability, cost and scalability. Hence, this problem has been extensively studied in the fields of controls and artificial intelligence. The task of persistent surveillance is different from a coverage/exploration problem, in that all areas need to be continuously searched, minimizing the time between visitations to each region in the target space. This distinction does not allow a straightforward application of most exploration techniques to the problem, although ideas from these methods can still be used. The use of aerial vehicles is motivated by their ability to cover larger spaces and their relative insensitivity to terrain. However, the dynamics of Unmanned Air Vehicles (UAVs) adds complexity to the control problem. Most of the work in the literature decouples the vehicle dynamics and control policies, but their interaction is particularly interesting for a surveillance mission. Stochastic environments and UAV failures further enrich the problem by requiring the control policies to be robust, and this aspect is particularly important for hardware implementations. For a persistent mission, it becomes imperative to consider the range/endurance constraints of the vehicles. The coupling of the control policy with the endurance constraints of the vehicles is an aspect that has not been sufficiently explored. Design of UAVs for desirable mission performance is also an issue of considerable significance. The use of a single monolithic optimization for such a problem has practical limitations, and decomposition-based design is a potential alternative. In this research high-level control policies are devised, that are scalable, reliable

  8. Integration of Advanced Concepts and Vehicles Into the Next Generation Air Transportation System. Volume 1; Introduction, Key Messages, and Vehicle Attributes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zellweger, Andres; Resnick, Herbert; Stevens, Edward; Arkind, Kenneth; Cotton William B.

    2010-01-01

    Raytheon, in partnership with NASA, is leading the way in ensuring that the future air transportation continues to be a key driver of economic growth and stability and that this system provides an environmentally friendly, safe, and effective means of moving people and goods. A Raytheon-led team of industry and academic experts, under NASA contract NNA08BA47C, looked at the potential issues and impact of introducing four new classes of advanced aircraft into the next generation air transportation system -- known as NextGen. The study will help determine where NASA should further invest in research to support the safe introduction of these new air vehicles. Small uncrewed or unmanned aerial systems (SUAS), super heavy transports (SHT) including hybrid wing body versions (HWB), very light jets (VLJ), and supersonic business jets (SSBJ) are the four classes of aircraft that we studied. Understanding each vehicle's business purpose and strategy is critical to assessing the feasibility of new aircraft operations and their impact on NextGen's architecture. The Raytheon team used scenarios created by aviation experts that depict vehicles in year 2025 operations along with scripts or use cases to understand the issues presented by these new types of vehicles. The information was then mapped into the Joint Planning and Development Office's (JPDO s) Enterprise Architecture to show how the vehicles will fit into NextGen's Concept of Operations. The team also identified significant changes to the JPDO's Integrated Work Plan (IWP) to optimize the NextGen vision for these vehicles. Using a proven enterprise architecture approach and the JPDO s Joint Planning Environment (JPE) web site helped make the leap from architecture to planning efficient, manageable and achievable. Very Light Jets flying into busy hub airports -- Supersonic Business Jets needing to climb and descend rapidly to achieve the necessary altitude Super-heavy cargo planes requiring the shortest common flight

  9. VIII international electric vehicle symposium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-01-01

    The proceedings from the symposium are presented. Major topics discussed include: battery technology, powertrains; hybrid vehicles, marketing and economics, propulsion, and electric vehicle design and performance. Each paper has been separately indexed for inclusion in the Energy Data Base.

  10. High Power Orbit Transfer Vehicle

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gulczinski, Frank

    2003-01-01

    ... from Virginia Tech University and Aerophysics, Inc. to examine propulsion requirements for a high-power orbit transfer vehicle using thin-film voltaic solar array technologies under development by the Space Vehicles Directorate (dubbed PowerSail...

  11. Development of a lead acid battery suitable for electric vehicle propulsion. Final report. [96 V, 20 kWh, 50 Wh/kg

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlotter, W J

    1977-08-26

    This report contains two detailed designs, and the design rationale, for an improved state-of-the-art electric vehicle battery incorporating expanded metal grids. The nominal 96-volt and 20-kWh battery incorporating this improved design is expected to cost about 25% less when manufactured in a mature plant. This report also contains detailed estimates for the capital cost and operating cost of a pilot plant to produce electric vehicle battery plates incorporating expanded metal grids. It is expected that the first electric vehicle batteries incorporating expanded metal grids can be available fifteen months after approval of this program. An additional program to improve lead acid batteries for electric vehicles further is also described. The advanced batteries resulting from this program are expected to incorporate either expanded metal grids and/or composite lead/plastic grids. In addition, these batteries are expected to contain low-density active materials. It is anticipated that those additional developments will result in an advanced battery capable of delivering 45 to 50 watt-hours/kg. As a result of the design and cost study, a ''First Buy'' improved state-of-the art vehicle battery proposed is included as part of this report. Eltra proposes to manufacture and deliver the required 2500 vehicle batteries within the time limits set forth by the Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Research, Development, and Demonstration Act of 1976. 20 figures, 13 tables.

  12. Final Rule for Control of Air Pollution From Motor Vehicles and New Motor Vehicle Engines; Increase of the Vehicle Mass for 3-Wheeled Motorcycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    This action changes the regulatory definition of a motorcycle to include 3-wheeled vehicles weighing up to 1749 pounds effective for 1998 and later model year motorcycles for which emission standards are in place.

  13. Aerodynamics of a bio-inspired flexible flapping-wing micro air vehicle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakata, T; Liu, H; Nishihashi, N; Wang, X; Sato, A; Tanaka, Y

    2011-01-01

    MAVs (micro air vehicles) with a maximal dimension of 15 cm and nominal flight speeds of around 10 m s −1 , operate in a Reynolds number regime of 10 5 or lower, in which most natural flyers including insects, bats and birds fly. Furthermore, due to their light weight and low flight speed, the MAVs' flight characteristics are substantially affected by environmental factors such as wind gust. Like natural flyers, the wing structures of MAVs are often flexible and tend to deform during flight. Consequently, the aero/fluid and structural dynamics of these flyers are closely linked to each other, making the entire flight vehicle difficult to analyze. We have recently developed a hummingbird-inspired, flapping flexible wing MAV with a weight of 2.4–3.0 g and a wingspan of 10–12 cm. In this study, we carry out an integrated study of the flexible wing aerodynamics of this flapping MAV by combining an in-house computational fluid dynamic (CFD) method and wind tunnel experiments. A CFD model that has a realistic wing planform and can mimic realistic flexible wing kinematics is established, which provides a quantitative prediction of unsteady aerodynamics of the four-winged MAV in terms of vortex and wake structures and their relationship with aerodynamic force generation. Wind tunnel experiments further confirm the effectiveness of the clap and fling mechanism employed in this bio-inspired MAV as well as the importance of the wing flexibility in designing small flapping-wing MAVs.

  14. Autonomous Landing and Ingress of Micro-Air-Vehicles in Urban Environments Based on Monocular Vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brockers, Roland; Bouffard, Patrick; Ma, Jeremy; Matthies, Larry; Tomlin, Claire

    2011-01-01

    Unmanned micro air vehicles (MAVs) will play an important role in future reconnaissance and search and rescue applications. In order to conduct persistent surveillance and to conserve energy, MAVs need the ability to land, and they need the ability to enter (ingress) buildings and other structures to conduct reconnaissance. To be safe and practical under a wide range of environmental conditions, landing and ingress maneuvers must be autonomous, using real-time, onboard sensor feedback. To address these key behaviors, we present a novel method for vision-based autonomous MAV landing and ingress using a single camera for two urban scenarios: landing on an elevated surface, representative of a rooftop, and ingress through a rectangular opening, representative of a door or window. Real-world scenarios will not include special navigation markers, so we rely on tracking arbitrary scene features; however, we do currently exploit planarity of the scene. Our vision system uses a planar homography decomposition to detect navigation targets and to produce approach waypoints as inputs to the vehicle control algorithm. Scene perception, planning, and control run onboard in real-time; at present we obtain aircraft position knowledge from an external motion capture system, but we expect to replace this in the near future with a fully self-contained, onboard, vision-aided state estimation algorithm. We demonstrate autonomous vision-based landing and ingress target detection with two different quadrotor MAV platforms. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of onboard, vision-based autonomous landing and ingress algorithms that do not use special purpose scene markers to identify the destination.

  15. Verification of a smart wing design for a micro-air-vehicle through simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wickramasinghe, V.; Chen, Y.; Nejad-Ensan, M.; Martinez, M. [National Research Council of Canada, Montreal, PQ (Canada). Inst. for Aerospace Research; Wong, F. [Defence Research and Development Canada, Valcartier, PQ (Canada); Kraemer, K. [Department of National Defence, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Directorate of Technical Airworthiness and Engineering Support

    2008-07-01

    Micro-air-vehicles (MAV) are small, light-weight aircraft that perform a variety of missions. This paper described a smart wing structure consisting of a composite spar and ailerons with integrated piezoceramic fibre actuators that was designed for MAV use. This fixed-wing MAV can hover vertically like a rotary-wing vehicle through a flight manoeuvre known as prop-hanging. In order to maintain MAV orientation, the hover manoeuvre requires roll control of the fixed-wing aircraft through differential aileron deflection. Since conventional aileron control systems have components that add weight, it is necessary to use smart structure approaches with active materials to design a lightweight, robust wing for the MAV with less power requirements. This paper proposed a smart wing structure that consists of a composite spar and ailerons that have bimorph active ribs consisting of piezoceramic fiber actuators with interdigitated electrodes. Actuation is enhanced by preloading the piezoceramic fiber actuators with a compressive axial load. The preload is exerted on the actuators through a passive latex or electro active polymer (EAP) skin that wraps around the airfoil. The EAP skin enhances the actuation by providing a electrostatic effect of the dielectric polymer. Analytical modeling and finite element analysis showed that the proposed smart wing concept achieved a target deflection of 30 degrees in both the wind-off and wind-on flight conditions. The smart structure approach with active materials enabled the design of a lightweight, robust wing by reducing the number of components typically associated with conventional aileron control systems. 11 refs., 2 tabs., 5 figs.

  16. Fully self-contained vision-aided navigation and landing of a micro air vehicle independent from external sensor inputs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brockers, Roland; Susca, Sara; Zhu, David; Matthies, Larry

    2012-06-01

    Direct-lift micro air vehicles have important applications in reconnaissance. In order to conduct persistent surveillance in urban environments, it is essential that these systems can perform autonomous landing maneuvers on elevated surfaces that provide high vantage points without the help of any external sensor and with a fully contained on-board software solution. In this paper, we present a micro air vehicle that uses vision feedback from a single down looking camera to navigate autonomously and detect an elevated landing platform as a surrogate for a roof top. Our method requires no special preparation (labels or markers) of the landing location. Rather, leveraging the planar character of urban structure, the landing platform detection system uses a planar homography decomposition to detect landing targets and produce approach waypoints for autonomous landing. The vehicle control algorithm uses a Kalman filter based approach for pose estimation to fuse visual SLAM (PTAM) position estimates with IMU data to correct for high latency SLAM inputs and to increase the position estimate update rate in order to improve control stability. Scale recovery is achieved using inputs from a sonar altimeter. In experimental runs, we demonstrate a real-time implementation running on-board a micro aerial vehicle that is fully self-contained and independent from any external sensor information. With this method, the vehicle is able to search autonomously for a landing location and perform precision landing maneuvers on the detected targets.

  17. Emission factors of air pollutants from CNG-gasoline bi-fuel vehicles: Part II. CO, HC and NOx.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiaoyan; Wang, Yang; Xing, Zhenyu; Du, Ke

    2016-09-15

    The estimation of emission factors (EFs) is the basis of accurate emission inventory. However, the EFs of air pollutants for motor vehicles vary under different operating conditions, which will cause uncertainty in developing emission inventory. Natural gas (NG), considered as a "cleaner" fuel than gasoline, is increasingly being used to reduce combustion emissions. However, information is scarce about how much emission reduction can be achieved by motor vehicles burning NG (NGVs) under real road driving conditions, which is necessary for evaluating the environmental benefits for NGVs. Here, online, in situ measurements of the emissions from nine bi-fuel vehicles were conducted under different operating conditions on the real road. A comparative study was performed for the EFs of black carbon (BC), carbon monoxide (CO), hydrocarbons (HCs) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) for each operating condition when the vehicles using gasoline and compressed NG (CNG) as fuel. BC EFs were reported in part I. The part II in this paper series reports the influence of operating conditions and fuel types on the EFs of CO, HC and NOx. Fuel-based EFs of CO showed good correlations with speed when burning CNG and gasoline. The correlation between fuel-based HC EFs and speed was relatively weak whether burning CNG or gasoline. The fuel-based NOx EFs moderately correlated with speed when burning CNG, but weakly correlated with gasoline. As for HC, the mileage-based EFs of gasoline vehicles are 2.39-12.59 times higher than those of CNG vehicles. The mileage-based NOx EFs of CNG vehicles are slightly higher than those of gasoline vehicles. These results would facilitate a detailed analysis of the environmental benefits for replacing gasoline with CNG in light duty vehicles. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Design of flapping wings for application to single active degree of freedom micro air vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Kelvin Thomas

    This dissertation covers an experimental program to understand how wing compliance influences the performance of flapping micro air vehicle wings. The focus is the design of a membraned flapping wing for a single active degree of freedom mechanism, looking to maximize thrust performance in hover conditions. The optimization approach is unique in that experiments were the chosen engine as opposed to a computation model; this is because of the complexity involved in hover-mode flapping aerodynamics. The flapping mechanism and manufacturing process for fabricating the wings were carefully developed. The uncertainty in the thrust measurement was identified and reduced by implementing precision machining and repeatable techniques for fabrication. This resulted in a reduction of the manufacturing coefficient of variation from 16.8% to 2.6%. Optimization was then conducted for a single objective (Maximize thrust), using a three parameter design space, finding the highest thrust performance in wings with high aspect ratio; then, a multi-objective optimization was conducted with two objectives (Thrust and Power) and a four parameter space. The research then shifted focus to identifying the stiffness and deformation characteristics of high performance wing designs. Static stiffness measurements with a simple line load suggested that high chordwise stiffness or lower spanwise stiffness would be favorable for aerodynamic performance. To explore more components of the deformation, a full-field imaging technique was used and a uniform load was substituted to engage with the membrane. It was found that there is a range of torsional compliance where the wing is most efficient especially at higher flapping frequencies. The final component of the study was the dynamic deformation measurement. The two system, four camera digital image correlation setup uses stroboscopic measurement to capture the wing deformation. The phase shift between the twist and stroke, and the tip deflection

  19. Challenges and Experiences with Electric Propulsion Transit Buses in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eudy, L.; Gifford, M.

    2003-11-01

    Document provides background for transit agencies and fleets that are considering electric propulsion technologies. It tells them what to expect and plan for when implementing vehicles with electric propulsion systems.

  20. Single Operator Control of Multiple Uninhabited Air Vehicles: Situational Awareness Requirement

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sebalj, Derek

    2008-01-01

    ... > 1. The ultimate goal, and the object of much research, is the technology to lower, or even invert the control ratio from many people to one vehicle to one operator of several vehicles, e.g., 1...

  1. Propulsion Systems Panel deliberations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianca, Carmelo J.; Miner, Robert; Johnston, Lawrence M.; Bruce, R.; Dennies, Daniel P.; Dickenson, W.; Dreshfield, Robert; Karakulko, Walt; Mcgaw, Mike; Munafo, Paul M.

    1993-01-01

    The Propulsion Systems Panel was established because of the specialized nature of many of the materials and structures technology issues related to propulsion systems. This panel was co-chaired by Carmelo Bianca, MSFC, and Bob Miner, LeRC. Because of the diverse range of missions anticipated for the Space Transportation program, three distinct propulsion system types were identified in the workshop planning process: liquid propulsion systems, solid propulsion systems and nuclear electric/nuclear thermal propulsion systems.

  2. Emission factors of air pollutants from CNG-gasoline bi-fuel vehicles: Part I. Black carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yang; Xing, Zhenyu; Xu, Hui; Du, Ke

    2016-12-01

    Compressed natural gas (CNG) is considered to be a "cleaner" fuel compared to other fossil fuels. Therefore, it is used as an alternative fuel in motor vehicles to reduce emissions of air pollutants in transportation. To quantify "how clean" burning CNG is compared to burning gasoline, quantification of pollutant emissions under the same driving conditions for motor vehicles with different fuels is needed. In this study, a fleet of bi-fuel vehicles was selected to measure the emissions of black carbon (BC), carbon monoxide (CO), hydrocarbon (HC) and nitrogen oxide (NO x ) for driving in CNG mode and gasoline mode respectively under the same set of constant speeds and accelerations. Comparison of emission factors (EFs) for the vehicles burning CNG and gasoline are discussed. This part of the paper series reports BC EFs for bi-fuel vehicles driving on the real road, which were measured using an in situ method. Our results show that burning CNG will lead to 54%-83% reduction in BC emissions per kilometer, depending on actual driving conditions. These comparisons show that CNG is a cleaner fuel than gasoline for motor vehicles in terms of BC emissions and provide a viable option for reducing BC emissions cause by transportation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. A Collaborative Analysis Tool for Integrating Hypersonic Aerodynamics, Thermal Protection Systems, and RBCC Engine Performance for Single Stage to Orbit Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Thomas Troy; Alexander, Reginald

    1999-01-01

    Presented is a computer-based tool that connects several disciplines that are needed in the complex and integrated design of high performance reusable single stage to orbit (SSTO) vehicles. Every system is linked to every other system, as is the case of SSTO vehicles with air breathing propulsion, which is currently being studied by NASA. The deficiencies in the scramjet powered concept led to a revival of interest in Rocket-Based Combined-Cycle (RBCC) propulsion systems. An RBCC propulsion system integrates airbreathing and rocket propulsion into a single engine assembly enclosed within a cowl or duct. A typical RBCC propulsion system operates as a ducted rocket up to approximately Mach 3. At this point the transitions to a ramjet mode for supersonic-to-hypersonic acceleration. Around Mach 8 the engine transitions to a scram4jet mode. During the ramjet and scramjet modes, the integral rockets operate as fuel injectors. Around Mach 10-12 (the actual value depends on vehicle and mission requirements), the inlet is physically closed and the engine transitions to an integral rocket mode for orbit insertion. A common feature of RBCC propelled vehicles is the high degree of integration between the propulsion system and airframe. At high speeds the vehicle forebody is fundamentally part of the engine inlet, providing a compression surface for air flowing into the engine. The compressed air is mixed with fuel and burned. The combusted mixture must be expanded to an area larger than the incoming stream to provide thrust. Since a conventional nozzle would be too large, the entire lower after body of the vehicle is used as an expansion surface. Because of the high external temperatures seen during atmospheric flight, the design of an airbreathing SSTO vehicle requires delicate tradeoffs between engine design, vehicle shape, and thermal protection system (TPS) sizing in order to produce an optimum system in terms of weight (and cost) and maximum performance.

  4. 76 FR 55859 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards No. 121; Air Brake Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-09

    ... during road tests for the braking system, a vehicle equipped with an interlocking axle system or a front... vehicle braking systems, tire characteristics related to lateral force and longitudinal force generation... stopping distance without activating the ABS system by braking the vehicle so that the brake pressure is...

  5. Multichannel High Resolution Wide Swath SAR Imaging for Hypersonic Air Vehicle with Curved Trajectory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Zhou

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Synthetic aperture radar (SAR equipped on the hypersonic air vehicle in near space has many advantages over the conventional airborne SAR. However, its high-speed maneuvering characteristics with curved trajectory result in serious range migration, and exacerbate the contradiction between the high resolution and wide swath. To solve this problem, this paper establishes the imaging geometrical model matched with the flight trajectory of the hypersonic platform and the multichannel azimuth sampling model based on the displaced phase center antenna (DPCA technology. Furthermore, based on the multichannel signal reconstruction theory, a more efficient spectrum reconstruction model using discrete Fourier transform is proposed to obtain the azimuth uniform sampling data. Due to the high complexity of the slant range model, it is difficult to deduce the processing algorithm for SAR imaging. Thus, an approximate range model is derived based on the minimax criterion, and the optimal second-order approximate coefficients of cosine function are obtained using the two-population coevolutionary algorithm. On this basis, aiming at the problem that the traditional Omega-K algorithm cannot compensate the residual phase with the difficulty of Stolt mapping along the range frequency axis, this paper proposes an Exact Transfer Function (ETF algorithm for SAR imaging, and presents a method of range division to achieve wide swath imaging. Simulation results verify the effectiveness of the ETF imaging algorithm.

  6. Multichannel High Resolution Wide Swath SAR Imaging for Hypersonic Air Vehicle with Curved Trajectory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Rui; Sun, Jinping; Hu, Yuxin; Qi, Yaolong

    2018-01-31

    Synthetic aperture radar (SAR) equipped on the hypersonic air vehicle in near space has many advantages over the conventional airborne SAR. However, its high-speed maneuvering characteristics with curved trajectory result in serious range migration, and exacerbate the contradiction between the high resolution and wide swath. To solve this problem, this paper establishes the imaging geometrical model matched with the flight trajectory of the hypersonic platform and the multichannel azimuth sampling model based on the displaced phase center antenna (DPCA) technology. Furthermore, based on the multichannel signal reconstruction theory, a more efficient spectrum reconstruction model using discrete Fourier transform is proposed to obtain the azimuth uniform sampling data. Due to the high complexity of the slant range model, it is difficult to deduce the processing algorithm for SAR imaging. Thus, an approximate range model is derived based on the minimax criterion, and the optimal second-order approximate coefficients of cosine function are obtained using the two-population coevolutionary algorithm. On this basis, aiming at the problem that the traditional Omega-K algorithm cannot compensate the residual phase with the difficulty of Stolt mapping along the range frequency axis, this paper proposes an Exact Transfer Function (ETF) algorithm for SAR imaging, and presents a method of range division to achieve wide swath imaging. Simulation results verify the effectiveness of the ETF imaging algorithm.

  7. Design and verification of a smart wing for an extreme-agility micro-air-vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickramasinghe, Viresh; Chen, Yong; Martinez, Marcias; Wong, Franklin; Kernaghan, Robert

    2011-12-01

    A special class of fixed-wing micro-air-vehicle (MAV) is currently being designed to fly and hover to provide range superiority as well as being able to hover through a flight maneuver known as prop-hanging to accomplish a variety of surveillance missions. The hover maneuver requires roll control of the wing through differential aileron deflection but a conventional system contributes significantly to the gross weight and complexity of a MAV. Therefore, it is advantageous to use smart structure approaches with active materials to design a lightweight, robust wing for the MAV. The proposed smart wing consists of an active trailing edge flap integrated with bimorph actuators with piezoceramic fibers. Actuation is enhanced by preloading the bimorph actuators with a compressive axial load. The preload is exerted on the actuators through a passive latex or electroactive polymer (EAP) skin that wraps around the airfoil. An EAP skin would further enhance the actuation by providing an electrostatic effect of the dielectric polymer to increase the deflection. Analytical modeling as well as finite element analysis show that the proposed concept could achieve the target bi-directional deflection of 30° in typical flight conditions. Several bimorph actuators were manufactured and an experimental setup was designed to measure the static and dynamic deflections. The experimental results validated the analytical technique and finite element models, which have been further used to predict the performance of the smart wing design for a MAV.

  8. Multi-terminal remote monitoring and warning system using Micro Air Vehicle for dangerous environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yanan; Wang, Xiaoxun; He, Chengcheng; Lai, Chenlong; Liu, Yuanchao

    2015-11-01

    For overcoming the problems such as remote operation and dangerous tasks, multi-terminal remote monitoring and warning system based on STC89C52 Micro Control Unit and wireless communication technique was proposed. The system with MCU as its core adopted multiple sets of sensor device to monitor environment parameters of different locations, such as temperature, humidity, smoke other harmful gas concentration. Data information collected was transmitted remotely by wireless transceiver module, and then multi-channel data parameter was processed and displayed through serial communication protocol between the module and PC. The results of system could be checked in the form of web pages within a local network which plays a wireless monitoring and warning role. In a remote operation, four-rotor micro air vehicle which fixed airborne data acquisition device was utilized as a middleware between collecting terminal and PC to increase monitoring scope. Whole test system has characteristics of simple construction, convenience, real time ability and high reliability, which could meet the requirements of actual use.

  9. Design and verification of a smart wing for an extreme-agility micro-air-vehicle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wickramasinghe, Viresh; Chen, Yong; Martinez, Marcias; Kernaghan, Robert; Wong, Franklin

    2011-01-01

    A special class of fixed-wing micro-air-vehicle (MAV) is currently being designed to fly and hover to provide range superiority as well as being able to hover through a flight maneuver known as prop-hanging to accomplish a variety of surveillance missions. The hover maneuver requires roll control of the wing through differential aileron deflection but a conventional system contributes significantly to the gross weight and complexity of a MAV. Therefore, it is advantageous to use smart structure approaches with active materials to design a lightweight, robust wing for the MAV. The proposed smart wing consists of an active trailing edge flap integrated with bimorph actuators with piezoceramic fibers. Actuation is enhanced by preloading the bimorph actuators with a compressive axial load. The preload is exerted on the actuators through a passive latex or electroactive polymer (EAP) skin that wraps around the airfoil. An EAP skin would further enhance the actuation by providing an electrostatic effect of the dielectric polymer to increase the deflection. Analytical modeling as well as finite element analysis show that the proposed concept could achieve the target bi-directional deflection of 30° in typical flight conditions. Several bimorph actuators were manufactured and an experimental setup was designed to measure the static and dynamic deflections. The experimental results validated the analytical technique and finite element models, which have been further used to predict the performance of the smart wing design for a MAV

  10. Autonomous Micro-Air-Vehicle Control Based on Visual Sensing for Odor Source Localization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenzo Kurotsuchi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose a novel control method for autonomous-odor-source localization using visual and odor sensing by micro air vehicles (MAVs. Our method is based on biomimetics, which enable highly autonomous localization. Our method does not need any instruction signals, including even global positioning system (GPS signals. An experimenter simply blows a whistle, and the MAV will then start to hover, to seek an odor source, and to keep hovering near the source. The GPS-signal-free control based on visual sense enables indoor/underground use. Moreover, the MAV is light-weight (85 grams and does not cause harm to others even if it accidentally falls. Experiments conducted in the real world were successful in enabling odor source localization using the MAV with a bio-inspired searching method. The distance error of the localization was 63 cm, more accurate than the target distance of 120 cm for individual identification. Our odor source localization is the first step to a proof of concept for a danger warning system. These localization experiments were the first step to a proof of concept for a danger warning system to enable a safer and more secure society.

  11. Parabolic Flights @ Home. An Unmanned Air Vehicle for Short-Duration Low-Gravity Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmeister, Paul Gerke; Blum, Jürgen

    2011-02-01

    We developed an unmanned air vehicle (UAV) suitable for small parabolic-flight experiments. The flight speed of 100 m s - 1 is sufficient for zero-gravity parabolas of 16 s duration. The flight path's length of slightly more than 1 km and 400 m difference in altitude is suitable for ground controlled or supervised flights. Since this fits within the limits set for model aircraft, no additional clearance is required for operation. Our UAV provides a cost-effective platform readily available for low-g experiments, which can be performed locally without major preparation. A payload with a size of up to 0.9 ×0.3 ×0.3 m3 and a mass of ˜5 kg can be exposed to 0 g 0-5 g 0, with g 0 being the gravitational acceleration of the Earth. Flight-duration depends on the desired acceleration level, e.g. 17 s at 0.17 g 0 (lunar surface level) or 21 s at 0.38 g 0 (Martian surface level). The aircraft has a mass of 25 kg (including payload) and a wingspan of 2 m. It is powered by a jet engine with an exhaust speed of 450 m s - 1 providing a thrust of 180 N. The parabolic-flight curves are automated by exploiting the advantages of sophisticated micro-electronics to minimize acceleration errors.

  12. Artificial insect wings of diverse morphology for flapping-wing micro air vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shang, J K; Finio, B M; Wood, R J; Combes, S A

    2009-01-01

    The development of flapping-wing micro air vehicles (MAVs) demands a systematic exploration of the available design space to identify ways in which the unsteady mechanisms governing flapping-wing flight can best be utilized for producing optimal thrust or maneuverability. Mimicking the wing kinematics of biological flight requires examining the potential effects of wing morphology on flight performance, as wings may be specially adapted for flapping flight. For example, insect wings passively deform during flight, leading to instantaneous and potentially unpredictable changes in aerodynamic behavior. Previous studies have postulated various explanations for insect wing complexity, but there lacks a systematic approach for experimentally examining the functional significance of components of wing morphology, and for determining whether or not natural design principles can or should be used for MAVs. In this work, a novel fabrication process to create centimeter-scale wings of great complexity is introduced; via this process, a wing can be fabricated with a large range of desired mechanical and geometric characteristics. We demonstrate the versatility of the process through the creation of planar, insect-like wings with biomimetic venation patterns that approximate the mechanical properties of their natural counterparts under static loads. This process will provide a platform for studies investigating the effects of wing morphology on flight dynamics, which may lead to the design of highly maneuverable and efficient MAVs and insight into the functional morphology of natural wings.

  13. Design and mechanical analysis of a 3D-printed biodegradable biomimetic micro air vehicle wing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salami, E.; Ganesan, P. B.; Ward, T. A.; Viyapuri, R.; Romli, F. I.

    2016-10-01

    The biomimetic micro air vehicles (BMAV) are unmanned, micro-scaled aircraft that are bio-inspired from flying organisms to achieve the lift and thrust by flapping their wings. There are still many technological challenges involved with designing the BMAV. One of these is designing the ultra-lightweight materials and structures for the wings that have enough mechanical strength to withstand continuous flapping at high frequencies. Insects achieve this by having chitin-based, wing frame structures that encompass a thin, film membrane. The main objectives of this study are to design a biodegradable BMAV wing (inspired from the dragonfly) and analyze its mechanical properties. The dragonfly-like wing frame structure was bio-mimicked and fabricated using a 3D printer. A chitosan nanocomposite film membrane was applied to the BMAV wing frames through casting method. Its mechanical performance was analyzed using universal testing machine (UTM). This analysis indicates that the tensile strength and Young's modulus of the wing with a membrane is nearly double that of the wing without a membrane, which allow higher wing beat frequencies and deflections that in turn enable a greater lifting performance.

  14. Distributed Turboelectric Propulsion for Hybrid Wing Body Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun Dae; Brown, Gerald V.; Felder, James L.

    2008-01-01

    Meeting future goals for aircraft and air traffic system performance will require new airframes with more highly integrated propulsion. Previous studies have evaluated hybrid wing body (HWB) configurations with various numbers of engines and with increasing degrees of propulsion-airframe integration. A recently published configuration with 12 small engines partially embedded in a HWB aircraft, reviewed herein, serves as the airframe baseline for the new concept aircraft that is the subject of this paper. To achieve high cruise efficiency, a high lift-to-drag ratio HWB was adopted as the baseline airframe along with boundary layer ingestion inlets and distributed thrust nozzles to fill in the wakes generated by the vehicle. The distributed powered-lift propulsion concept for the baseline vehicle used a simple, high-lift-capable internally blown flap or jet flap system with a number of small high bypass ratio turbofan engines in the airframe. In that concept, the engine flow path from the inlet to the nozzle is direct and does not involve complicated internal ducts through the airframe to redistribute the engine flow. In addition, partially embedded engines, distributed along the upper surface of the HWB airframe, provide noise reduction through airframe shielding and promote jet flow mixing with the ambient airflow. To improve performance and to reduce noise and environmental impact even further, a drastic change in the propulsion system is proposed in this paper. The new concept adopts the previous baseline cruise-efficient short take-off and landing (CESTOL) airframe but employs a number of superconducting motors to drive the distributed fans rather than using many small conventional engines. The power to drive these electric fans is generated by two remotely located gas-turbine-driven superconducting generators. This arrangement allows many small partially embedded fans while retaining the superior efficiency of large core engines, which are physically separated

  15. Utilization Assessment of Target Electrification Vehicles at Naval Air Station Whidbey Island: Task 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schey, Steve [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-05-01

    Several U.S. Department of Defense based studies have been conducted to identify potential U.S. Department of Defense transportation systems that are strong candidates for introduction or expansion of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs). Task 2 involved identifying daily operational characteristics of select vehicles and initiating data logging of vehicle movements in order to characterize the vehicle’s mission. Individual observations of these selected vehicles provide the basis for recommendations related to PEV adoption and whether a battery electric vehicle or plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (collectively referred to as PEVs) can fulfill the mission requirements and provide observations related to placement of PEV charging infrastructure. This report provides the results of the data analysis and observations related to replacement of current vehicles with PEVs. This fulfills part of the Task 3 requirements. Task 3 also includes an assessment of the charging infrastructure required to support this replacement, which is the subject of a separate report.

  16. Robust adaptive multivariable higher-order sliding mode flight control for air-breathing hypersonic vehicle with actuator failures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Li

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This article proposes an adaptive multivariable higher-order sliding mode control for the longitudinal model of an air-breathing vehicle under system uncertainties and actuator failures. Firstly, a fast finite-time control law is designed for a chain of integrators. Secondly, based on the input/output feedback linearization technique, the system uncertainty and external disturbances are modeled as additive certainty and the actuator failures are modeled as multiplicative uncertainty. By using the proposed fast finite-time control law, a robust multivariable higher-order sliding mode control is designed for the air-breathing hypersonic vehicle with actuator failures. Finally, adaptive laws are proposed for the adaptation of the parameters in the robust multivariable higher-order sliding mode control. Thus, the bounds of the uncertainties are not needed in the control system design. Simulation results show the effectiveness of the proposed robust adaptive multivariable higher-order sliding mode control.

  17. Performance evaluation of a stack cooling system using CO{sub 2} air conditioner in fuel cell vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sung Chul; Won, Jong Phil [Thermal Management Research Center, Korea Automotive Technology Institute, Chungnam 330-912 (Korea); Park, Yong Sun; Lim, Tae Won [Corporate Research and Development Division, Hyundai-Kia Motors, Gyeonggi 449-912 (Korea); Kim, Min Soo [School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-744 (Korea)

    2009-01-15

    A relation between the heat release from a fuel cell stack and an air conditioning system's performance was investigated. The air conditioning system installed in a fuel cell vehicle can be used for stack cooling when additional stack heat release is required over a fixed radiator capacity during high vehicle power generation. This study investigated the performance of a stack cooling system using CO{sub 2} air conditioner at various operating conditions. Also, the heat releasing effectiveness and mutual interference were analyzed and compared with those for the conventional radiator cooling system with/without cabin cooling. When the radiator coolant inlet temperature and flow rate were 65 C and 80 L/min, respectively, for the outdoor air inlet speed of 5 m/s, the heat release of the stack cooling system with the aid of CO{sub 2} air conditioner increased up to 36% more than that of the conventional radiator cooling system with cabin cooling. Furthermore, this increased by 7% versus the case without cabin cooling. (author)

  18. Aeronautic propulsion systems; Propulseurs aeronautiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lepourry, P; Ciryci, R

    1992-12-31

    This book is devoted to airplane pilots having a private licence and who would like to take up a professional rank. It comprises 8 chapters dealing with: the different type of propulsion systems, turbojet, turbofan and piston engines; the propeller (characteristics, different types, functioning, protection systems..); the piston engines (4-stroke cycle, power and efficiency, description, characteristics); the gas generator and its limitations (air intake, combustion chamber, turbines, nozzles, fuel systems..); the performances of propulsion systems; the drive, control and instruments; and the use of engines. The last chapter is a self-evaluation questionnaire about the notions developed in the book. (J.S.)

  19. GPS navigation algorithms for Autonomous Airborne Refueling of Unmanned Air Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanafseh, Samer Mahmoud

    Unmanned Air Vehicles (UAVs) have recently generated great interest because of their potential to perform hazardous missions without risking loss of life. If autonomous airborne refueling is possible for UAVs, mission range and endurance will be greatly enhanced. However, concerns about UAV-tanker proximity, dynamic mobility and safety demand that the relative navigation system meets stringent requirements on accuracy, integrity, and continuity. In response, this research focuses on developing high-performance GPS-based navigation architectures for Autonomous Airborne Refueling (AAR) of UAVs. The AAR mission is unique because of the potentially severe sky blockage introduced by the tanker. To address this issue, a high-fidelity dynamic sky blockage model was developed and experimentally validated. In addition, robust carrier phase differential GPS navigation algorithms were derived, including a new method for high-integrity reacquisition of carrier cycle ambiguities for recently-blocked satellites. In order to evaluate navigation performance, world-wide global availability and sensitivity covariance analyses were conducted. The new navigation algorithms were shown to be sufficient for turn-free scenarios, but improvement in performance was necessary to meet the difficult requirements for a general refueling mission with banked turns. Therefore, several innovative methods were pursued to enhance navigation performance. First, a new theoretical approach was developed to quantify the position-domain integrity risk in cycle ambiguity resolution problems. A mechanism to implement this method with partially-fixed cycle ambiguity vectors was derived, and it was used to define tight upper bounds on AAR navigation integrity risk. A second method, where a new algorithm for optimal fusion of measurements from multiple antennas was developed, was used to improve satellite coverage in poor visibility environments such as in AAR. Finally, methods for using data-link extracted

  20. Power Requirements for Bi-Harmonic Amplitude and Bias Modulation Control of a Flapping Wing Micro Air Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    nature, would have the inherent benefit of stealth through mimicry of insects. Such a MAV is referred to as a flapping wing micro air vehicle (FWMAV...Insect exoskeletons are formed from a complex blend of polymer-based chains that make up the body, limbs, and wings, which act as a barrier between the...reducing weight, increasing agility, and integrating robotics in future forces. [38] Increasing agility and integrating robotics indicates that control is a

  1. Contribution to the study of nonstationary aerodynamic forces in problems of interest for Micro-Air Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Martín-Alcántara, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    The main aim of this dissertation is the quantitative characterization of the contributions of individual fluid elements (vortices) to aerodynamic forces, explaining and quantifying the mechanisms by which both drag and lift are generated. For this purpose, a vorticity forces formulation was used to the two problems addressed in this thesis. Thus, a novel physical point of view of the flow dynamics is provided which is expected to be useful for the Micro-Air Vehicles (MAVs) design. Firstl...

  2. The model for calculation of emission and imisson of air pollutants from vehicles with internal combustion engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tashevski, Done; Dimitrovski, Mile

    1994-01-01

    The model for calculation of emission and immision of air pollutants from vehicles with internal combustion engine on the crossroads in urban environments, with substitution of a great number of exhaust-pipes with one chimney in the centre of the crossroad has been made. The whole calculation of the pollution sources mentioned above is, in the fact, the calculation of the emission and imisson of pollutants from point sources of pollution. (author)

  3. Adaptive fuzzy tracking control for a constrained flexible air-breathing hypersonic vehicle based on actuator compensation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Fei Wang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The design of an adaptive fuzzy tracking control for a flexible air-breathing hypersonic vehicle with actuator constraints is discussed. Based on functional decomposition methodology, velocity and altitude controllers are designed. Fuzzy logic systems are applied to approximate the lumped uncertainty of each subsystem of air-breathing hypersonic vehicle model. Every controllers contain only one adaptive parameter that needs to be updated online with a minimal-learning-parameter scheme. The back-stepping design is not demanded by converting the altitude subsystem into the normal output-feedback formulation, which predigests the design of a controller. The special contribution is that novel auxiliary systems are developed to compensate both the tracking errors and desired control laws, based on which the explored controller can still provide effective tracking of velocity and altitude commands when the inputs are saturated. Finally, reference trajectory tracking simulation shows the effectiveness of the proposed method in its application to air-breathing hypersonic vehicle control.

  4. Chemistry and propulsion; Chimie et propulsions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Potier, P [Maison de la Chimie, 75 - Paris (France); Davenas, A [societe Nationale des Poudres et des Explosifs - SNPE (France); Berman, M [Air Force Office of Scientific Research, Arlington, VA (United States); and others

    2002-07-01

    During the colloquium on chemistry and propulsion, held in march 2002, ten papers have been presented. The proceedings are brought in this document: ramjet, scram-jet and Pulse Detonation Engine; researches and applications on energetic materials and propulsion; advances in poly-nitrogen chemistry; evolution of space propulsion; environmental and technological stakes of aeronautic propulsion; ramjet engines and pulse detonation engines, automobiles thermal engines for 2015, high temperature fuel cells for the propulsion domain, the hydrogen and the fuel cells in the future transports. (A.L.B.)

  5. Gasoline hybrid pneumatic engine for efficient vehicle powertrain hybridization

    OpenAIRE

    Dimitrova, Zlatina; Maréchal, François

    2015-01-01

    The largest applied convertors in passenger cars are the internal combustion engines – gasoline, diesel, adapted also for operating on alternative fuels and hybrid modes. The number of components that are necessary to realize modern future propulsion system is inexorably increasing. The need for efficiency improvement of the vehicle energy system induces the search for an innovative methodology during the design process. In this article the compressed air is investigated as an innovative solu...

  6. Bio-inspired multi-mode optic flow sensors for micro air vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Seokjun; Choi, Jaehyuk; Cho, Jihyun; Yoon, Euisik

    2013-06-01

    Monitoring wide-field surrounding information is essential for vision-based autonomous navigation in micro-air-vehicles (MAV). Our image-cube (iCube) module, which consists of multiple sensors that are facing different angles in 3-D space, can be applied to the wide-field of view optic flows estimation (μ-Compound eyes) and to attitude control (μ- Ocelli) in the Micro Autonomous Systems and Technology (MAST) platforms. In this paper, we report an analog/digital (A/D) mixed-mode optic-flow sensor, which generates both optic flows and normal images in different modes for μ- Compound eyes and μ-Ocelli applications. The sensor employs a time-stamp based optic flow algorithm which is modified from the conventional EMD (Elementary Motion Detector) algorithm to give an optimum partitioning of hardware blocks in analog and digital domains as well as adequate allocation of pixel-level, column-parallel, and chip-level signal processing. Temporal filtering, which may require huge hardware resources if implemented in digital domain, is remained in a pixel-level analog processing unit. The rest of the blocks, including feature detection and timestamp latching, are implemented using digital circuits in a column-parallel processing unit. Finally, time-stamp information is decoded into velocity from look-up tables, multiplications, and simple subtraction circuits in a chip-level processing unit, thus significantly reducing core digital processing power consumption. In the normal image mode, the sensor generates 8-b digital images using single slope ADCs in the column unit. In the optic flow mode, the sensor estimates 8-b 1-D optic flows from the integrated mixed-mode algorithm core and 2-D optic flows with an external timestamp processing, respectively.

  7. Development of superconducting ship propulsion system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakuraba, Junji; Mori, Hiroyuki; Hata, Fumiaki; Sotooka, Koukichi

    1991-01-01

    When we plan displacement-type monohull high speed vessels, it is difficult to get the hull form with the wave-making resistance minimum, because the stern shape is restricted by arrangement of propulsive machines and shafts. A small-sized and light-weight propulsive machines will reduce the limit to full form design. Superconducting technology will have capability of realizing the small-sized and light-weight propulsion motor. The superconducting electric propulsion system which is composed of superconducting propulsion motors and generators, seems to be an ideal propulsion system for future vehicles. We have constructed a 480 kW superconducting DC homopolar laboratory test motor for developing this propulsion system. The characteristic of this motor is that it has a superconducting field winding and a segmented armature drum. The superconducting field winding which operates in the persistent current mode, is cooled by a condensation heat exchanger and helium refigerating system built into the cryostat of the superconducting field winding. The operating parameters of this motor agreed well with the design parameters. Using the design concepts of this motor, we have conceptually designed a 150,000-200,000 PS superconducting electric propulsive system for a displacement-type monohull high speed ship. (author)

  8. Aerothermodynamics and Propulsion Integration for Hypersonic Vehicles (L’Integration de la Propusion et de l’aerodynnamique pour les vehicules hypersoniques).

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-10-01

    combustion in the experimental research. Clearly, adding recirculation regions provides problems that can be nonequilibrium flow chemistry and combustion to...the transition can dominate the flow chemistry are all important. Without aerothermal characteristics of hypersonic vehicles experimental verification...current models of turbulent mixing in these flows are seriously in question. 4-3 Again, flow chemistry and viscous/inviscid flow interaction control

  9. AIR VEHICLES INTEGRATION AND TECHNOLOGY RESEARCH (AVIATR) Task Order 0015: Predictive Capability for Hypersonic Structural Response and Life Prediction Phase 1 - Identification of Knowledge Gaps

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-01

    fly two X-30 manned reusable air-breathing SSTO vehicles. Competing contractors developed vehicle and system concepts and identified critical...computational analysis would reduce the time and cost required to produce two man-rated SSTO vehicles. The planned total program cost of $3.3 Billion...varied strengths of the contractors a National Team was formed instead of down-selecting. The ambitious airbreathing SSTO goal made nearly every

  10. Fuzzy logic speed control for the engine of an air-powered vehicle

    OpenAIRE

    Qihui Yu; Yan Shi; Maolin Cai; Weiqing Xu

    2016-01-01

    To improve the condition of air and eliminate exhaust gas pollution, this article proposes a compressed air power system. Instead of an internal combustion engine, the automobile is equipped with a compressed air engine, which transforms the energy of compressed air into mechanical motion energy. A prototype was built, and the compressed air engine was tested on an experimental platform. The output torque and energy efficiency were obtained from experimental results. When the supply pressure ...

  11. Contribution of the in-vehicle microenvironment to individual ambient-source nitrogen dioxide exposure: the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis and Air Pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazlehurst, Marnie F; Spalt, Elizabeth W; Nicholas, Tyler P; Curl, Cynthia L; Davey, Mark E; Burke, Gregory L; Watson, Karol E; Vedal, Sverre; Kaufman, Joel D

    2018-03-06

    Exposure estimates that do not account for time in-transit may underestimate exposure to traffic-related air pollution, but exact contributions have not been studied directly. We conducted a 2-week monitoring, including novel in-vehicle sampling, in a subset of the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis and Air Pollution cohort in two cities. Participants spent the majority of their time indoors and only 4.4% of their time (63 min/day) in-vehicle, on average. The mean ambient-source NO 2 concentration was 5.1 ppb indoors and 32.3 ppb in-vehicle during drives. On average, indoor exposure contributed 69% and in-vehicle exposure contributed 24% of participants' ambient-source NO 2 exposure. For participants in the highest quartile of time in-vehicle (≥1.3 h/day), indoor and in-vehicle contributions were 60 and 31%, respectively. Incorporating infiltrated indoor and measured in-vehicle NO 2 produced exposure estimates 5.6 ppb lower, on average, than using only outdoor concentrations. The indoor microenvironment accounted for the largest proportion of ambient-source exposure in this older population, despite higher concentrations of NO 2 outdoors and in vehicles than indoors. In-vehicle exposure was more influential among participants who drove the most and for participants residing in areas with lower outdoor air pollution. Failure to characterize exposures in these microenvironments may contribute to exposure misclassification in epidemiologic studies.

  12. High-resolution simulation of link-level vehicle emissions and concentrations for air pollutants in a traffic-populated eastern Asian city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Zhang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Vehicle emissions containing air pollutants created substantial environmental impacts on air quality for many traffic-populated cities in eastern Asia. A high-resolution emission inventory is a useful tool compared with traditional tools (e.g. registration data-based approach to accurately evaluate real-world traffic dynamics and their environmental burden. In this study, Macau, one of the most populated cities in the world, is selected to demonstrate a high-resolution simulation of vehicular emissions and their contribution to air pollutant concentrations by coupling multimodels. First, traffic volumes by vehicle category on 47 typical roads were investigated during weekdays in 2010 and further applied in a networking demand simulation with the TransCAD model to establish hourly profiles of link-level vehicle counts. Local vehicle driving speed and vehicle age distribution data were also collected in Macau. Second, based on a localized vehicle emission model (e.g. the emission factor model for the Beijing vehicle fleet – Macau, EMBEV–Macau, this study established a link-based vehicle emission inventory in Macau with high resolution meshed in a temporal and spatial framework. Furthermore, we employed the AERMOD (AMS/EPA Regulatory Model model to map concentrations of CO and primary PM2.5 contributed by local vehicle emissions during weekdays in November 2010. This study has discerned the strong impact of traffic flow dynamics on the temporal and spatial patterns of vehicle emissions, such as a geographic discrepancy of spatial allocation up to 26 % between THC and PM2.5 emissions owing to spatially heterogeneous vehicle-use intensity between motorcycles and diesel fleets. We also identified that the estimated CO2 emissions from gasoline vehicles agreed well with the statistical fuel consumption in Macau. Therefore, this paper provides a case study and a solid framework for developing high-resolution environment assessment tools for other

  13. Magnetohydrodynamic Augmented Propulsion Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litchford, Ron J.; Cole, John; Lineberry, John; Chapman, Jim; Schmidt, Harold; Cook, Stephen (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    A fundamental obstacle to routine space access is the specific energy limitations associated with chemical fuels. In the case of vertical take-off, the high thrust needed for vertical liftoff and acceleration to orbit translates into power levels in the 10 GW range. Furthermore, useful payload mass fractions are possible only if the exhaust particle energy (i.e., exhaust velocity) is much greater than that available with traditional chemical propulsion. The electronic binding energy released by the best chemical reactions (e.g., LOX/LH2 for example, is less than 2 eV per product molecule (approx. 1.8 eV per H2O molecule), which translates into particle velocities less than 5 km/s. Useful payload fractions, however, will require exhaust velocities exceeding 15 km/s (i.e., particle energies greater than 20 eV). As an added challenge, the envisioned hypothetical RLV (reusable launch vehicle) should accomplish these amazing performance feats while providing relatively low acceleration levels to orbit (2-3g maximum). From such fundamental considerations, it is painfully obvious that planned and current RLV solutions based on chemical fuels alone represent only a temporary solution and can only result in minor gains, at best. What is truly needed is a revolutionary approach that will dramatically reduce the amount of fuel and size of the launch vehicle. This implies the need for new compact high-power energy sources as well as advanced accelerator technologies for increasing engine exhaust velocity. Electromagnetic acceleration techniques are of immense interest since they can be used to circumvent the thermal limits associated with conventional propulsion systems. This paper describes the Magnetohydrodynamic Augmented Propulsion Experiment (MAPX) being undertaken at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). In this experiment, a 1-MW arc heater is being used as a feeder for a 1-MW magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) accelerator. The purpose of the experiment is to demonstrate

  14. 77 FR 50969 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Maryland; Low Emission Vehicle...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-23

    ... fuel economy of new light- and medium-duty vehicles sold beyond the 2016 model year. This proposed rule..., from new motor vehicles sold in Maryland. The second objective of the program is to reduce greenhouse... pounds or less that are sold as new cars or are transferred in Maryland to meet the applicable California...

  15. Hybrid Electric Propulsion System for a 4 Passenger VTOL Aircraft, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The advancement of hybrid-electric propulsion systems for rotorcraft enables vertical takeoff and landing (VTOL) vehicles to take advantage of aerodynamic...

  16. Performance of an air sampler and a gamma-ray detector in a small unmanned aerial vehicle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy Poellaenen; Harri Toivonen; Kari Peraejaervi; Tero Karhunen; Petri Smolander; Tarja Ilander; Kimmo Rintala; Tuure Katajainen; Jarkko Niemelae; Marko Juusela; Timo Palos

    2009-01-01

    The performance of an air sampler and a small gamma-ray spectrometer was tested in an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) able to carry payload with mass up to 0.5 kg. Operation of the sampler was investigated with the aid of radon progeny normally present in outdoor air. Detection limits for several transuranium nuclides in air are of the order of 0.3 Bq m -3 assuming 0.5 h sampling time and 1 h counting time in direct alpha spectrometry. Unshielded 137 Cs and 60 Co point sources at the ground level were used to test the CsI spectrometer. Detection limits are approximately 1 GBq or larger depending on the flying altitude. (author)

  17. Load calculation and system evaluation for electric vehicle climate control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aceves-Saborio, S.; Comfort, W.J.

    1994-01-01

    Providing air conditioning for electric vehicles (EV's) represents an important challenge, because vapor-compression air conditioners, which are common in gasoline-powered vehicles, may consume a substantial part of the total energy stored in the EV battery. The authors' work has two major parts: a cooling and heating load calculation for EV's, and an evaluation of several systems that can be used to provide the desired cooling and heating in EV's. Four cases are studied: short-range and full-range EV's are each analyzed twice, first with the regular vehicle equipment, and then with a fan and heat-reflecting windows, to reduce hot soak. Results indicate that for the batteries currently available for EV propulsion, an ice storage system has the minimum weight of all the systems considered. Vapor-compression air conditioners have the minimum for battery storage capacities above 270 kJ/kg

  18. Configurations of hybrid-electric cars propulsion systems

    OpenAIRE

    Cundev, Dobri; Sarac, Vasilija; Stefanov, Goce

    2011-01-01

    Over the last few years, hybrid electric cars have taken significant role in automotive market. There are successful technological solutions of hybrid-electric propulsion systems implemented in commercial passenger cars. Every automobile manufacturer of hybrid vehicles has unique hybrid propulsion system. In this paper, all implemented systems are described, analyzed and compared.

  19. Space station propulsion requirements study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, C. L.; Brennan, S. M.

    1985-01-01

    Propulsion system requirements to support Low Earth Orbit (LEO) manned space station development and evolution over a wide range of potential capabilities and for a variety of STS servicing and space station operating strategies are described. The term space station and the overall space station configuration refers, for the purpose of this report, to a group of potential LEO spacecraft that support the overall space station mission. The group consisted of the central space station at 28.5 deg or 90 deg inclinations, unmanned free-flying spacecraft that are both tethered and untethered, a short-range servicing vehicle, and a longer range servicing vehicle capable of GEO payload transfer. The time phasing for preferred propulsion technology approaches is also investigated, as well as the high-leverage, state-of-the-art advancements needed, and the qualitative and quantitative benefits of these advancements on STS/space station operations. The time frame of propulsion technologies applicable to this study is the early 1990's to approximately the year 2000.

  20. Design of a high altitude long endurance flying-wing solar-powered unmanned air vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsahlani, A. A.; Johnston, L. J.; Atcliffe, P. A.

    2017-06-01

    The low-Reynolds number environment of high-altitude §ight places severe demands on the aerodynamic design and stability and control of a high altitude, long endurance (HALE) unmanned air vehicle (UAV). The aerodynamic efficiency of a §ying-wing configuration makes it an attractive design option for such an application and is investigated in the present work. The proposed configuration has a high-aspect ratio, swept-wing planform, the wing sweep being necessary to provide an adequate moment arm for outboard longitudinal and lateral control surfaces. A design optimization framework is developed under a MATLAB environment, combining aerodynamic, structural, and stability analysis. Low-order analysis tools are employed to facilitate efficient computations, which is important when there are multiple optimization loops for the various engineering analyses. In particular, a vortex-lattice method is used to compute the wing planform aerodynamics, coupled to a twodimensional (2D) panel method to derive aerofoil sectional characteristics. Integral boundary-layer methods are coupled to the panel method in order to predict §ow separation boundaries during the design iterations. A quasi-analytical method is adapted for application to flyingwing con¦gurations to predict the wing weight and a linear finite-beam element approach is used for structural analysis of the wing-box. Stability is a particular concern in the low-density environment of high-altitude flight for flying-wing aircraft and so provision of adequate directional stability and control power forms part of the optimization process. At present, a modified Genetic Algorithm is used in all of the optimization loops. Each of the low-order engineering analysis tools is validated using higher-order methods to provide con¦dence in the use of these computationally-efficient tools in the present design-optimization framework. This paper includes the results of employing the present optimization tools in the design of a

  1. Method and system for estimating and predicting airflow around air vehicles

    KAUST Repository

    Claudel, Christian G.; Salama, Khaled N.; Calo, Victor M.; Ghommem, Mehdi; Eslshurafa, Amro; Shaqura, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    A method, system, and sensor for air flow sensing. The system can include a cantilever, a transducer, and a processing module. The method can include measuring beam deflections of one or more cantilevers, extracting information about air flow

  2. Oxygen Containment System Options for Nuclear Thermal Propulsion Testing

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — All nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) ground testing conducted in the 1950s and 1960s during the ROVER/(Nuclear Engine Rocket Vehicle Application (NERVA) program...

  3. Preliminary Sizing Completed for Single- Stage-To-Orbit Launch Vehicles Powered By Rocket-Based Combined Cycle Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roche, Joseph M.

    2002-01-01

    Single-stage-to-orbit (SSTO) propulsion remains an elusive goal for launch vehicles. The physics of the problem is leading developers to a search for higher propulsion performance than is available with all-rocket power. Rocket-based combined cycle (RBCC) technology provides additional propulsion performance that may enable SSTO flight. Structural efficiency is also a major driving force in enabling SSTO flight. Increases in performance with RBCC propulsion are offset with the added size of the propulsion system. Geometrical considerations must be exploited to minimize the weight. Integration of the propulsion system with the vehicle must be carefully planned such that aeroperformance is not degraded and the air-breathing performance is enhanced. Consequently, the vehicle's structural architecture becomes one with the propulsion system architecture. Geometrical considerations applied to the integrated vehicle lead to low drag and high structural and volumetric efficiency. Sizing of the SSTO launch vehicle (GTX) is itself an elusive task. The weight of the vehicle depends strongly on the propellant required to meet the mission requirements. Changes in propellant requirements result in changes in the size of the vehicle, which in turn, affect the weight of the vehicle and change the propellant requirements. An iterative approach is necessary to size the vehicle to meet the flight requirements. GTX Sizer was developed to do exactly this. The governing geometry was built into a spreadsheet model along with scaling relationships. The scaling laws attempt to maintain structural integrity as the vehicle size is changed. Key aerodynamic relationships are maintained as the vehicle size is changed. The closed weight and center of gravity are displayed graphically on a plot of the synthesized vehicle. In addition, comprehensive tabular data of the subsystem weights and centers of gravity are generated. The model has been verified for accuracy with finite element analysis. The

  4. Aggregated GPS tracking of vehicles and its use as a proxy of traffic-related air pollution emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shimon; Bekhor, Shlomo; Yuval; Broday, David M.

    2016-10-01

    Most air quality models use traffic-related variables as an input. Previous studies estimated nearby vehicular activity through sporadic traffic counts or via traffic assignment models. Both methods have previously produced poor or no data for nights, weekends and holidays. Emerging technologies allow the estimation of traffic through passive monitoring of location-aware devices. Examples of such devices are GPS transceivers installed in vehicles. In this work, we studied traffic volumes that were derived from such data. Additionally, we used these data for estimating ambient nitrogen dioxide concentrations, using a non-linear optimisation model that includes basic dispersion properties. The GPS-derived data show great potential for use as a proxy for pollutant emissions from motor-vehicles.

  5. 28th Joint Propulsion Conference and Exhibit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stone, J.R.; Sovey, J.S.

    1992-07-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has initiated a program to establish the readiness of nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) technology for relatively near-term applications to outer planet robotic science missions with potential future evolution to system for piloted Mars vehicles. This program was initiated in 1991 with a very modest effort identified with nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP); however, NEP is also an integral part of this program and builds upon NASA's Base Research and Technology Program in power and electric propulsion as well as the SP-100 space nuclear power program. The NEP Program will establish the feasibility and practicality of electric propulsion for robotic and piloted solar system exploration. The performance objectives are high specific impulse (200 greater than I(sub sp) greater than 10000 s), high efficiency (over 0.50), and low specific mass. The planning for this program was initially focussed on piloted Mars missions, but has since been redirected to first focus on 100-kW class systems for relatively near-term robotic missions, with possible future evolution to megawatt- and multi-megawatt-class systems applicable to cargo vehicles supporting human missions as well as to the piloted vehicles. This paper reviews current plans and recent progress for the overall nuclear electric propulsion project and closely related activities

  6. NASA's nuclear electric propulsion technology project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stone, J.R.; Sovey, J.S.

    1992-07-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has initiated a program to establish the readiness of nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) technology for relatively near-term applications to outer planet robotic science missions with potential future evolution to system for piloted Mars vehicles. This program was initiated in 1991 with a very modest effort identified with nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP); however, NEP is also an integral part of this program and builds upon NASA's Base Research and Technology Program in power and electric propulsion as well as the SP-100 space nuclear power program. The NEP Program will establish the feasibility and practicality of electric propulsion for robotic and piloted solar system exploration. The performance objectives are high specific impulse (200 greater than I(sub sp) greater than 10000 s), high efficiency (over 0.50), and low specific mass. The planning for this program was initially focussed on piloted Mars missions, but has since been redirected to first focus on 100-kW class systems for relatively near-term robotic missions, with possible future evolution to megawatt-and multi-megawatt-class systems applicable to cargo vehicles supporting human missions as well as to the piloted vehicles. This paper reviews current plans and recent progress for the overall nuclear electric propulsion project and closely related activities. 33 refs

  7. 2007 motor vehicle occupant safety survey. Volume 3, air bags report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-11-01

    The 2007 Motor Vehicle Occupant Safety Survey was the sixth in a series of periodic national telephone surveys on occupant : protection issues conducted for the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA). Data collection was conducted : b...

  8. Drag Identification & Reduction Technology (DIRECT) for Elastically Shaped Air Vehicles, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA and Boeing Phantom Works have been working on the Elastically Shaped Future Vehicle Concept (ESFVC) and have shown that aircraft with elastically shaped wings...

  9. Anti-Windup Control for an Air-Breathing Hypersonic Vehicle Model

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Groves, Kevin P; Serrani, Andrea; Yurkovich, Stephen; Bolender, Michael A; Doman, David B

    2005-01-01

    .... Anti-windup control allows the input constraints to be considered explicitly in the design of linear controllers to track a reference trajectory for the vehicle velocity, altitude, and angle of attack...

  10. Impact of the Air-Conditioning System on the Power Consumption of an Electric Vehicle Powered by Lithium-Ion Battery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brahim Mebarki

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The car occupies the daily universe of our society; however, noise pollution, global warming gas emissions, and increased fuel consumption are constantly increasing. The electric vehicle is one of the recommended solutions by the raison of its zero emission. Heating and air-conditioning (HVAC system is a part of the power system of the vehicle when the purpose is to provide complete thermal comfort for its occupants, however it requires far more energy than any other car accessory. Electric vehicles have a low-energy storage capacity, and HVAC may consume a substantial amount of the total energy stored, considerably reducing the vehicle range, which is one of the most important parameters for EV acceptability. The basic goal of this paper is to simulate the air-conditioning system impact on the power energy source of an electric vehicle powered by a lithium-ion battery.

  11. 78 FR 24373 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Wisconsin; Amendments to Vehicle...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-25

    ... requirements for non-OBDII equipped vehicles. This change impacted MY 1968 through 1995 vehicles. These....134 0.193 0.060 0.097 0.037 0.063 0.027 0.041 \\3\\ Volatile organic compound. \\4\\ Oxides of nitrogen... part of the 110(l) demonstration. Table 3--(SIP I/M Program vs. Current I/M Program) SIP I/M program...

  12. Air quality impacts of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles in Texas: evaluating three battery charging scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, Tammy M; King, Carey W; Webber, Michael E; Allen, David T

    2011-01-01

    The air quality impacts of replacing approximately 20% of the gasoline-powered light duty vehicle miles traveled (VMT) with electric VMT by the year 2018 were examined for four major cities in Texas: Dallas/Ft Worth, Houston, Austin, and San Antonio. Plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) charging was assumed to occur on the electric grid controlled by the Electricity Reliability Council of Texas (ERCOT), and three charging scenarios were examined: nighttime charging, charging to maximize battery life, and charging to maximize driver convenience. A subset of electricity generating units (EGUs) in Texas that were found to contribute the majority of the electricity generation needed to charge PHEVs at the times of day associated with each scenario was modeled using a regional photochemical model (CAMx). The net impacts of the PHEVs on the emissions of precursors to the formation of ozone included an increase in NO x emissions from EGUs during times of day when the vehicle is charging, and a decrease in NO x from mobile emissions. The changes in maximum daily 8 h ozone concentrations and average exposure potential at twelve air quality monitors in Texas were predicted on the basis of these changes in NO x emissions. For all scenarios, at all monitors, the impact of changes in vehicular emissions, rather than EGU emissions, dominated the ozone impact. In general, PHEVs lead to an increase in ozone during nighttime hours (due to decreased scavenging from both vehicles and EGU stacks) and a decrease in ozone during daytime hours. A few monitors showed a larger increase in ozone for the convenience charging scenario versus the other two scenarios. Additionally, cumulative ozone exposure results indicate that nighttime charging is most likely to reduce a measure of ozone exposure potential versus the other two scenarios.

  13. A Collaborative Analysis Tool for Thermal Protection Systems for Single Stage to Orbit Launch Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Reginald; Stanley, Thomas Troy

    2001-01-01

    Presented is a design tool and process that connects several disciplines which are needed in the complex and integrated design of high performance reusable single stage to orbit (SSTO) vehicles. Every system is linked to all other systems, as is the case with SSTO vehicles with air breathing propulsion, which is currently being studied by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). In particular, the thermal protection system (TPS) is linked directly to almost every major system. The propulsion system pushes the vehicle to velocities on the order of 15 times the speed of sound in the atmosphere before pulling up to go to orbit which results in high temperatures on the external surfaces of the vehicle. Thermal protection systems to maintain the structural integrity of the vehicle must be able to mitigate the heat transfer to the structure and be lightweight. Herein lies the interdependency, in that as the vehicle's speed increases, the TPS requirements are increased. And as TPS masses increase the effect on the propulsion system and all other systems is compounded. To adequately calculate the TPS mass of this type of vehicle several engineering disciplines and analytical tools must be used preferably in an environment that data is easily transferred and multiple iterations are easily facilitated.

  14. Evaluation of Traffic Density Parameters as an Indicator of Vehicle Emission-Related Near-Road Air Pollution: A Case Study with NEXUS Measurement Data on Black Carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    An important factor in evaluating health risk of near-road air pollution is to accurately estimate the traffic-related vehicle emission of air pollutants. Inclusion of traffic parameters such as road length/area, distance to roads, and traffic volume/intensity into models such as...

  15. Planetary explorer liquid propulsion study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mckevitt, F. X.; Eggers, R. F.; Bolz, C. W.

    1971-01-01

    An analytical evaluation of several candidate monopropellant hydrazine propulsion system approaches is conducted in order to define the most suitable configuration for the combined velocity and attitude control system for the Planetary Explorer spacecraft. Both orbiter and probe-type missions to the planet Venus are considered. The spacecraft concept is that of a Delta launched spin-stabilized vehicle. Velocity control is obtained through preprogrammed pulse-mode firing of the thrusters in synchronism with the spacecraft spin rate. Configuration selection is found to be strongly influenced by the possible error torques induced by uncertainties in thruster operation and installation. The propulsion systems defined are based on maximum use of existing, qualified components. Ground support equipment requirements are defined and system development testing outlined.

  16. [Risk for environment-induced diseases due to air pollution from motor vehicles in road-patrol officers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikhaĭlichenko, K Iu; Kas'ianenko, A A; Shchelkunova, I G; Grechko, A V

    2010-01-01

    The paper describes risk factors for environment-induced diseases in road-patrol (RP) officers under the existing working conditions: noise and chemical ambient air pollution from motor vehicles. There is evidence for a significant increase in the incidence of diseases of the cardiovascular and nervous system, sense organs, digestive and endocrine metabolic systems in the State Road Safety Inspectorate officers who are directly engaged in traffic management. Potential and real risks from motor transport to the health of RP roads have been estimated. Recommendations on optimizing the working conditions are given.

  17. Metal-air battery research and development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrin, E.; Cooper, J. F.

    1982-05-01

    This report summarizes the activities of the Metal-air Battery Program during the calendar year 1981. The principal objective is to develop a refuelable battery as an automotive energy source for general-purpose electric vehicles and to conduct engineering demonstrations of its ability to provide vehicles with the range, acceleration, and rapid refueling capability of current internal-combustion-engine automobiles. The second objective is to develop an electrically-rechargeable battery for specific-mission electric vehicles, such as commuter vehicles, that can provide low-cost transportation. The development progression is to: (1) develop a mechanically rechargeable aluminum-air power cell using model electrodes, (2) develop cost-effective anode and cathode materials and structures as required to achieve reliability and efficiency goals, and to establish the economic competitiveness of this technology, and (3) develop and integrated propulsion system utilizing the power cell.

  18. Advanced Propulsion Study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Davis, Eric

    2004-01-01

    ... that show promise of leading to a major advance in Earth-to-orbit (ETO) propulsion. The study also reviewed and evaluated a select number of credible far-term breakthrough propulsion physics concepts pertaining...

  19. Equivalent Air Spring Suspension Model for Quarter-Passive Model of Passenger Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Abid, Haider J.; Chen, Jie; Nassar, Ameen A.

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates the GENSIS air spring suspension system equivalence to a passive suspension system. The SIMULINK simulation together with the OptiY optimization is used to obtain the air spring suspension model equivalent to passive suspension system, where the car body response difference from both systems with the same road profile inputs is used as the objective function for optimization (OptiY program). The parameters of air spring system such as initial pressure, volume of bag, l...

  20. The Ion Propulsion System for the Solar Electric Propulsion Technology Demonstration Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, Daniel A.; Santiago, Walter; Kamhawi, Hani; Polk, James E.; Snyder, John Steven; Hofer, Richard R.; Parker, J. Morgan

    2015-01-01

    The Asteroid Redirect Robotic Mission is a candidate Solar Electric Propulsion Technology Demonstration Mission whose main objectives are to develop and demonstrate a high-power solar electric propulsion capability for the Agency and return an asteroidal mass for rendezvous and characterization in a companion human-crewed mission. The ion propulsion system must be capable of operating over an 8-year time period and processing up to 10,000 kg of xenon propellant. This high-power solar electric propulsion capability, or an extensible derivative of it, has been identified as a critical part of an affordable, beyond-low-Earth-orbit, manned-exploration architecture. Under the NASA Space Technology Mission Directorate the critical electric propulsion and solar array technologies are being developed. The ion propulsion system being co-developed by the NASA Glenn Research Center and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory for the Asteroid Redirect Vehicle is based on the NASA-developed 12.5 kW Hall Effect Rocket with Magnetic Shielding (HERMeS0 thruster and power processing technologies. This paper presents the conceptual design for the ion propulsion system, the status of the NASA in-house thruster and power processing activity, and an update on flight hardware.

  1. Comparative Analysis of Miniature Internal Combustion Engine and Electric Motor for UAV Propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiclana, Branden Mark

    This thesis compares the performance of an engine/fuel tank based propulsion system to a motor/battery based propulsion system of equal total mass. The results show that the endurance of the engine/fuel system at the same thrust output is approximately 5 times greater than that of the motor/battery system. This is a direct result of the fact that the specific energy of the fuel is 20 times that of the lithium-polymer batteries used to power the motor. A method is also developed to account for the additional benefits of fuel consumption (and hence weight reduction) over the course of the flight. Accounting for this effect can increase endurance exponentially. Taken together, the results also demonstrate the dramatic performance improvements that are possible simply by replacing motor/battery systems with engine/fuel systems on small unmanned air vehicles.

  2. Systems Analysis Developed for All-Electric Aircraft Propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohout, Lisa L.

    2004-01-01

    There is a growing interest in the use of fuel cells as a power source for all-electric aircraft propulsion as a means to substantially reduce or eliminate environmentally harmful emissions. Among the technologies under consideration for these concepts are advanced proton exchange membrane (PEM) and solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs), alternative fuels and fuel processing, and fuel storage. A multidisciplinary effort is underway at the NASA Glenn Research Center to develop and evaluate concepts for revolutionary, nontraditional fuel cell power and propulsion systems for aircraft applications. As part of this effort, system studies are being conducted to identify concepts with high payoff potential and associated technology areas for further development. To support this effort, a suite of component models was developed to estimate the mass, volume, and performance for a given system architecture. These models include a hydrogen-air PEM fuel cell; an SOFC; balance-of-plant components (compressor, humidifier, separator, and heat exchangers); compressed gas, cryogenic, and liquid fuel storage tanks; and gas turbine/generator models for hybrid system applications. First-order feasibility studies were completed for an all-electric personal air vehicle utilizing a fuel-cell-powered propulsion system. A representative aircraft with an internal combustion engine was chosen as a baseline to provide key parameters to the study, including engine power and subsystem mass, fuel storage volume and mass, and aircraft range. The engine, fuel tank, and associated ancillaries were then replaced with a fuel cell subsystem. Various configurations were considered including a PEM fuel cell with liquid hydrogen storage, a direct methanol PEM fuel cell, and a direct internal reforming SOFC/turbine hybrid system using liquid methane fuel. Each configuration was compared with the baseline case on a mass and range basis.

  3. Aircraft Electric Propulsion Systems Applied Research at NASA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Sean

    2015-01-01

    Researchers at NASA are investigating the potential for electric propulsion systems to revolutionize the design of aircraft from the small-scale general aviation sector to commuter and transport-class vehicles. Electric propulsion provides new degrees of design freedom that may enable opportunities for tightly coupled design and optimization of the propulsion system with the aircraft structure and control systems. This could lead to extraordinary reductions in ownership and operating costs, greenhouse gas emissions, and noise annoyance levels. We are building testbeds, high-fidelity aircraft simulations, and the first highly distributed electric inhabited flight test vehicle to begin to explore these opportunities.

  4. Maglev vehicles and superconductor technology: Integration of high-speed ground transportation into the air travel system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, L.R.; Rote, D.M.; Hull, J.R.; Coffey, H.T.; Daley, J.G.; Giese, R.F.

    1989-04-01

    This study was undertaken to (1) evaluate the potential contribution of high-temperature superconductors (HTSCs) to the technical and economic feasibility of magnetically levitated (maglev) vehicles, (2) determine the status of maglev transportation research in the United States and abroad, (3) identify the likelihood of a significant transportation market for high-speed maglev vehicles, and (4) provide a preliminary assessment of the potential energy and economic benefits of maglev systems. HTSCs should be considered as an enhancing, rather than an enabling, development for maglev transportation because they should improve reliability and reduce energy and maintenance costs. Superconducting maglev transportation technologies were developed in the United States in the late 1960s and early 1970s. Federal support was withdrawn in 1975, but major maglev transportation programs were continued in Japan and West Germany, where full-scale prototypes now carry passengers at speeds of 250 mi/h in demonstration runs. Maglev systems are generally viewed as very-high-speed train systems, but this study shows that the potential market for maglev technology as a train system, e.g., from one downtown to another, is limited. Rather, aircraft and maglev vehicles should be seen as complementing rather than competing transportation systems. If maglev systems were integrated into major hub airport operations, they could become economical in many relatively high-density US corridors. Air traffic congestion and associated noise and pollutant emissions around airports would also be reduced. 68 refs., 26 figs., 16 tabs.

  5. GM's road to hydrogen powered vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kauling, D. [General Motors, Oshawa, ON (Canada)

    2007-07-01

    General Motor's (GM) long term vision is to remove the automobile from environmental and energy debates. Auto emissions comprise of smog (volatile organic compounds, nitrogen oxides and particulates) and greenhouse gases (carbon dioxide). In the 1970s, GM introduced the catalytic converter to reduce smog forming emissions by more than 99 per cent. This presentation included a pie chart depicting the Canadian contribution to smog forming emissions by sector in 2005. New vehicles were shown to contribute 0.1 per cent. The author stated that the auto sector is the only sector that is significantly reducing smog in Canada and cautioned that the size of vehicle and volume of fuel consumed does not correlate to smog forming emissions. The Car Heaven Program was launched in July 2000 as a partnership between the Clean Air Foundation and various corporate partners including GM Canada. The objective of the program was to accelerate the retirement of older, highly polluting vehicles and switching consumers to more fuel efficient vehicles which will reduce GHG emissions. The program has been conducted in lower mainland British Columbia, Alberta, Manitoba, Quebec and Atlantic Canada. In terms of GHG contribution by sector, new vehicles were shown to contribute 1 per cent. GM's advanced propulsion technology strategy was also presented with reference to hybrid electric vehicles, hydrogen fuel cells, battery electric vehicles, internal combustion engines and E-Flex systems. It was noted that GM has a broad portfolio of fuel efficient vehicles. The company's total vehicle approach to advanced technology vehicles and fuel efficiency was outlined, including it's ethanol capable vehicle technology, hybrid strategy, and fuel cell propulsion system. tabs., figs.

  6. A Summary of the NASA Design Environment for Novel Vertical Lift Vehicles (DELIVER) Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theodore, Colin R.

    2018-01-01

    The number of new markets and use cases being developed for vertical take-off and landing vehicles continues to explode, including the highly publicized urban air taxi and package deliver applications. There is an equally exploding variety of novel vehicle configurations and sizes that are being proposed to fill these new market applications. The challenge for vehicle designers is that there is currently no easy and consistent way to go from a compelling mission or use case to a vehicle that is best configured and sized for the particular mission. This is because the availability of accurate and validated conceptual design tools for these novel types and sizes of vehicles have not kept pace with the new markets and vehicles themselves. The Design Environment for Novel Vertical Lift Vehicles (DELIVER) project was formulated to address this vehicle design challenge by demonstrating the use of current conceptual design tools, that have been used for decades to design and size conventional rotorcraft, applied to these novel vehicle types, configurations and sizes. In addition to demonstrating the applicability of current design and sizing tools to novel vehicle configurations and sizes, DELIVER also demonstrated the addition of key transformational technologies of noise, autonomy, and hybrid-electric and all-electric propulsion into the vehicle conceptual design process. Noise is key for community acceptance, autonomy and the need to operate autonomously are key for efficient, reliable and safe operations, and electrification of the propulsion system is a key enabler for these new vehicle types and sizes. This paper provides a summary of the DELIVER project and shows the applicability of current conceptual design and sizing tools novel vehicle configurations and sizes that are being proposed for urban air taxi and package delivery type applications.

  7. Optic Flow Based State Estimation for an Indoor Micro Air Vehicle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verveld, M.J.; Chu, Q.P.; De Wagter, C.; Mulder, J.A.

    2010-01-01

    This work addresses the problem of indoor state estimation for autonomous flying vehicles with an optic flow approach. The paper discusses a sensor configuration using six optic flow sensors of the computer mouse type augmented by a three-axis accelerometer to estimate velocity, rotation, attitude

  8. NASA's Vision for Potential Energy Reduction from Future Generations of Propulsion Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haller, Bill

    2015-01-01

    Through a robust partnership with the aviation industry, over the past 50 years NASA programs have helped foster advances in propulsion technology that enabled substantial reductions in fuel consumption for commercial transports. Emerging global trends and continuing environmental concerns are creating challenges that will very likely transform the face of aviation over the next 20-40 years. In recognition of this development, NASA Aeronautics has established a set of Research Thrusts that will help define the future direction of the agency's research technology efforts. Two of these thrusts, Ultra-Efficient Commercial Vehicles and Transition to Low-Carbon Propulsion, serve as cornerstones for the Advanced Air Transport Technology (AATT) project. The AATT project is exploring and developing high-payoff technologies and concepts that are key to continued improvement in energy efficiency and environmental compatibility for future generations of fixed-wing, subsonic transports. The AATT project is primarily focused on the N+3 timeframe, or 3 generations from current technology levels. As should be expected, many of the propulsion system architectures technologies envisioned for N+3 vary significantly from todays engines. The use of batteries in a hybrid-electric configuration or deploying multiple fans distributed across the airframe to enable higher bypass ratios are just two examples of potential advances that could enable substantial energy reductions over current propulsion systems.

  9. Air pollution in southern Africa: The case of motor vehicle exhaust contribution in Dar Es Salaam city

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, M.M.

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to review air pollution problems in the Southern Africa region and establish the quality of ambient air in Dar Es Salaam city in Tanzania with respect to three vehicular pollutants which are sulphur dioxide (SO 2 ), nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ) and suspended particulate matters (SPM). These pollutants were measured in eight different locations in Dar-Es Salaam city which are Fire, Morocco, Tazara, Kariakoo, Ubungo, Posta, UCLAS, and Akiba. With the exception of South Africa and Botswana, other countries in the Southern Africa Region which include Tanzania, Mozambique, Malawi. Zambia, Zimbabwe. Angola and Namibia do not have air pollution standards, and regular air pollution monitoring is not carried out in these countries. Diesel fueled vehicles in South Africa are responsible for one third of all smog-forming nitrogen dioxides and almost two-thirds of all particulate pollution emitted by all vehicles. The measurement methods used in Dar Es Salaam study were pararosaniline method for SO 2 , Saltzman for measuring nitrogen dioxide, and filtration method for suspended particulate matters. The following was observed from the analysis: Hourly sulphur dioxide concentration ranged from 558 -1385 μg/m 3 . These measured values were above the recommended WHO guidelines with an hourly objective value of 350 μg/m 3 . Hourly nitrogen dioxide concentration was found to range from 18 to 53 μg/m 3 . The maximum hourly nitrogen dioxide concentration at 53 μg/m 3 was below the recommended WHO guidelines with a value of 200 μg/m 3 . The hourly suspended particulate matter (SPM) was found to range from 744 to 1161 μg/m 3 . The measured suspended particulate matter concentrations were above the recommended hourly maximum value by WHO guidelines which is 230μg/m 3 . The correlation coefficient of pollutants and the number of vehicles counted for different sampling points was determined and found to be fair reasonable with a value of 0.906 for suspended

  10. Hybrid and Electric Advanced Vehicle Systems Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beach, R. F.; Hammond, R. A.; Mcgehee, R. K.

    1985-01-01

    Predefined components connected to represent wide variety of propulsion systems. Hybrid and Electric Advanced Vehicle System (HEAVY) computer program is flexible tool for evaluating performance and cost of electric and hybrid vehicle propulsion systems. Allows designer to quickly, conveniently, and economically predict performance of proposed drive train.

  11. Impacts of compact growth and electric vehicles on future air quality and urban exposures may be mixed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Haofei; Stuart, Amy L

    2017-01-15

    'Smart' growth and electric vehicles are potential solutions to the negative impacts of worldwide urbanization on air pollution and health. However, the effects of planning strategies on distinct types of pollutants, and on human exposures, remain understudied. The goal of this work was to investigate the potential impacts of alternative urban designs for the area around Tampa, Florida USA, on emissions, ambient concentrations, and exposures to oxides of nitrogen (NO x ), 1,3-butadiene, and benzene. We studied three potential future scenarios: sprawling growth, compact growth, and 100% vehicle fleet electrification with compact growth. We projected emissions in the seven-county region to 2050 based on One Bay regional visioning plan data. We estimated pollutant concentrations in the county that contains Tampa using the CALPUFF dispersion model. We applied residential population projections to forecast acute (highest hour) and chronic (annual average) exposure. The compact scenario was projected to result in lower regional emissions of all pollutants than sprawl, with differences of -18%, -3%, and -14% for NO x , butadiene, and benzene, respectively. Within Hillsborough County, the compact form also had lower emissions, concentrations, and exposures than sprawl for NO x (-16%/-5% for acute/chronic exposures, respectively), but higher exposures for butadiene (+41%/+30%) and benzene (+21%/+9%). The addition of complete vehicle fleet electrification to the compact scenario mitigated these in-county increases for the latter pollutants, lowering predicted exposures to butadiene (-25%/-39%) and benzene (-5%/-19%), but also resulted in higher exposures to NO x (+81%/+30%) due to increased demand on power plants. These results suggest that compact forms may have mixed impacts on exposures and health. 'Smart' urban designs should consider multiple pollutants and the diverse mix of pollutant sources. Cleaner power generation will also likely be needed to support aggressive

  12. Characteristic Evaluation on the Cooling Performance of an Electrical Air Conditioning System Using R744 for a Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moo-Yeon Lee

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the cooling performance characteristics of an electrical air conditioning system using R744 as an alternative of R-134a for a fuel cell electric vehicle. In order to analyze the cooling performance characteristics of the air conditioning system using R744 for a fuel cell electric vehicle, an electrical air conditioning system using R744 was developed and tested under various operating conditions according to both inlet air conditions of the gas cooler and evaporator and compressor speed. The cooling capacity and coefficient of performance (COP forcooling of the tested air conditioning system were up to 6.4 kW and 2.5, respectively. In addition, the electrical air conditioning system with R744 using an inverter driven compressor showed better performance than the conventional air conditioning system with R-134a under the same operating conditions. The observed cooling performance of the developed electrical air conditioning system was found to be sufficient for cooling loads under various real driving conditions for a fuel cell electric vehicle.

  13. Electric-hybrid-vehicle simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasma, D. C.

    The simulation of electric hybrid vehicles is to be performed using experimental data to model propulsion system components. The performance of an existing ac propulsion system will be used as the baseline for comparative purposes. Hybrid components to be evaluated include electrically and mechanically driven flywheels, and an elastomeric regenerative braking system.

  14. Final Rule for Control of Air Pollution From New Motor Vehicles: Tier 2 Motor Vehicle Emissions Standards and Gasoline Sulfur Control Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is announcing more protective tailpipe emissions standards for all passenger vehicles, including sport utility vehicles (SUVs), minivans, vans and pick-up trucks.

  15. Equivalent Air Spring Suspension Model for Quarter-Passive Model of Passenger Vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abid, Haider J; Chen, Jie; Nassar, Ameen A

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates the GENSIS air spring suspension system equivalence to a passive suspension system. The SIMULINK simulation together with the OptiY optimization is used to obtain the air spring suspension model equivalent to passive suspension system, where the car body response difference from both systems with the same road profile inputs is used as the objective function for optimization (OptiY program). The parameters of air spring system such as initial pressure, volume of bag, length of surge pipe, diameter of surge pipe, and volume of reservoir are obtained from optimization. The simulation results show that the air spring suspension equivalent system can produce responses very close to the passive suspension system.

  16. Multi-Agent Management System (MAMS) for Air-Launched, Unmanned Vehicles, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The main goal of this work is to design, implement, and demonstrate a guidance and mission planning toolbox for air-launched, unmanned systems, such as guided...

  17. Method and system for estimating and predicting airflow around air vehicles

    KAUST Repository

    Claudel, Christian G.

    2015-12-31

    A method, system, and sensor for air flow sensing. The system can include a cantilever, a transducer, and a processing module. The method can include measuring beam deflections of one or more cantilevers, extracting information about air flow, and determining one or more of an airspeed, an angle of attack, and a sideslip, based on extracted information. The system and method can exploit nonlinearities in the behavior of the cantilever in fluid flow.

  18. Prognostics Applied to Electric Propulsion UAV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goebel, Kai; Saha, Bhaskar

    2013-01-01

    Health management plays an important role in operations of UAV. If there is equipment malfunction on critical components, safe operation of the UAV might possibly be compromised. A technology with particular promise in this arena is equipment prognostics. This technology provides a state assessment of the health of components of interest and, if a degraded state has been found, it estimates how long it will take before the equipment will reach a failure threshold, conditional on assumptions about future operating conditions and future environmental conditions. This chapter explores the technical underpinnings of how to perform prognostics and shows an implementation on the propulsion of an electric UAV. A particle filter is shown as the method of choice in performing state assessment and predicting future degradation. The method is then applied to the batteries that provide power to the propeller motors. An accurate run-time battery life prediction algorithm is of critical importance to ensure the safe operation of the vehicle if one wants to maximize in-air time. Current reliability based techniques turn out to be insufficient to manage the use of such batteries where loads vary frequently in uncertain environments.

  19. Mars Sample Return Using Solar Sail Propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Les; Macdonald, Malcolm; Mcinnes, Colin; Percy, Tom

    2012-01-01

    Many Mars Sample Return (MSR) architecture studies have been conducted over the years. A key element of them is the Earth Return Stage (ERS) whose objective is to obtain the sample from the Mars Ascent Vehicle (MAV) and return it safely to the surface of the Earth. ERS designs predominantly use chemical propulsion [1], incurring a significant launch mass penalty due to the low specific impulse of such systems coupled with the launch mass sensitivity to returned mass. It is proposed to use solar sail propulsion for the ERS, providing a high (effective) specific impulse propulsion system in the final stage of the multi-stage system. By doing so to the launch mass of the orbiter mission can be significantly reduced and hence potentially decreasing mission cost. Further, solar sailing offers a unique set of non-Keplerian low thrust trajectories that may enable modifications to the current approach to designing the Earth Entry Vehicle by potentially reducing the Earth arrival velocity. This modification will further decrease the mass of the orbiter system. Solar sail propulsion uses sunlight to propel vehicles through space by reflecting solar photons from a large, mirror-like surface made of a lightweight, reflective material. The continuous photonic pressure provides propellantless thrust to conduct orbital maneuvering and plane changes more efficiently than conventional chemical propulsion. Because the Sun supplies the necessary propulsive energy, solar sails require no onboard propellant, thus reducing system mass. This technology is currently at TRL 7/8 as demonstrated by the 2010 flight of the Japanese Aerospace Exploration Agency, JAXA, IKAROS mission. [2

  20. Ariane transfer vehicle scenario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deutscher, Norbert; Cougnet, Claude

    1990-10-01

    ESA's Ariane Transfer Vehicle (ATV) is a vehicle design concept for the transfer of payloads from Ariane 5 launch vehicle orbit insertion to a space station, on the basis of the Ariane 5 program-developed Upper Stage Propulsion Module and Vehicle Equipment Bay. The ATV is conceived as a complement to the Hermes manned vehicle for lower cost unmanned carriage of logistics modules and other large structural elements, as well as waste disposal. It is also anticipated that the ATV will have an essential role in the building block transportation logistics of any prospective European space station.

  1. Hybrid Electric Propulsion Technologies for Commercial Transports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Cheryl; Jansen, Ralph; Jankovsky, Amy

    2016-01-01

    NASA Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate has set strategic research thrusts to address the major drivers of aviation such as growth in demand for high-speed mobility, addressing global climate and capitalizing in the convergence of technological advances. Transitioning aviation to low carbon propulsion is one of the key strategic research thrust and drives the search for alternative and greener propulsion system for advanced aircraft configurations. This work requires multidisciplinary skills coming from multiple entities. The Hybrid Gas-Electric Subproject in the Advanced Air Transportation Project is energizing the transport class landscape by accepting the technical challenge of identifying and validating a transport class aircraft with net benefit from hybrid propulsion. This highly integrated aircraft of the future will only happen if airframe expertise from NASA Langley, modeling and simulation expertise from NASA Ames, propulsion expertise from NASA Glenn, and the flight research capabilities from NASA Armstrong are brought together to leverage the rich capabilities of U.S. Industry and Academia.

  2. Net air emissions from electric vehicles: the effect of carbon price and charging strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Scott B; Whitacre, J F; Apt, Jay

    2011-03-01

    Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) may become part of the transportation fleet on time scales of a decade or two. We calculate the electric grid load increase and emissions due to vehicle battery charging in PJM and NYISO with the current generation mix, the current mix with a $50/tonne CO(2) price, and this case but with existing coal generators retrofitted with 80% CO(2) capture. We also examine all new generation being natural gas or wind+gas. PHEV fleet percentages between 0.4 and 50% are examined. Vehicles with small (4 kWh) and large (16 kWh) batteries are modeled with driving patterns from the National Household Transportation Survey. Three charging strategies and three scenarios for future electric generation are considered. When compared to 2020 CAFE standards, net CO(2) emissions in New York are reduced by switching from gasoline to electricity; coal-heavy PJM shows somewhat smaller benefits unless coal units are fitted with CCS or replaced with lower CO(2) generation. NO(X) is reduced in both RTOs, but there is upward pressure on SO(2) emissions or allowance prices under a cap.

  3. Analysing the effects of air flow on a formula prototype vehicle to optimize its performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastogi, Nisha; Shetty, Siddhanth; Ashok, B.

    2017-11-01

    FSAE (Formula Society of Automotive Engineers) is an_engineering design competition which challenges students to design and build their own Formula Style race-car. The race-car is being judged on basis of various criteria namely, design, cost, business and performance. For the race-car to participate in the dynamic events and traverse through different sorts of challenging tracks in the least time possible, the tyres must generate appropriate amount of lateral and longitudinal force. The car must not topple even at high speeds and needs to manoeuvre quickly. To achieve the above-mentioned criterion, there is a need of implementing aerodynamics in the car. The optimum amount of downforce necessary to execute a smooth and rapid active behaviour of our car with maximum achievable performance is to be measured keeping vehicle dynamics into consideration. In this paper, vehicle dynamics and aerodynamics are related to an extent where all the above criterion can be achieved successfully, thereby bringing about a trade-off without any sort of compromises in either of them. The co-ordination between aerodynamics and vehicle dynamics has been depicted with a detailed methodology, accompanied by Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations of the wings and the full body of the car using STAR CCM+. Further the results has been discussed properly in the later sections of this paper. With a systematic approach, thoroughly done with several iterations on MATLAB followed by CFD simulations and analysis, the desired performance was accomplished.

  4. Some factors affecting the use of lighter than air systems. [economic and performance estimates for dirigibles and semi-buoyant hybrid vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havill, C. D.

    1974-01-01

    The uses of lighter-than-air vehicles are examined in the present day transportation environment. Conventional dirigibles were found to indicate an undesirable economic risk due to their low speeds and to uncertainties concerning their operational use. Semi-buoyant hybrid vehicles are suggested as an alternative which does not have many of the inferior characteristics of conventional dirigibles. Economic and performance estimates for hybrid vehicles indicate that they are competitive with other transportation systems in many applications, and unique in their ability to perform some highly desirable emergency missions.

  5. The simulated air flow pattern around a moving animal transport vehicle as the basis for a prospective biosecurity risk assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jens Seedorf

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Research that investigates bioaerosol emissions from animal transport vehicles (ATVs and their importance in the spread of harmful airborne agents while the ATVs travel on roads is limited. To investigate the dynamical behaviour of theoretically released particles from a moving ATV, the open-source computational fluid dynamics (CFD software OpenFOAM was used to calculate the external and internal air flow fields with passive and forced ventilated openings of a common ATV moving at a speed of 80 km/h. In addition to a computed flow rate of approximately 40,000 m3/h crossing the interior of the ATV, the visualization of the trajectories has demonstrated distinct patterns of the spatial distribution of potentially released bioaerosols in the vicinity of the ATV. Although the front openings show the highest air flow to the outside, the recirculations of air masses between the interior of the ATV and the atmosphere also occur, which complicate the emission and the dispersion characterizations. To specify the future emission rates of ATVs, a database of bioaerosol concentrations within the ATV is necessary in conjunction with high-performance computing resources to simulate the potential dispersion of bioaerosols in the environment.

  6. The simulated air flow pattern around a moving animal transport vehicle as the basis for a prospective biosecurity risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seedorf, Jens; Schmidt, Ralf-Gunther

    2017-08-01

    Research that investigates bioaerosol emissions from animal transport vehicles (ATVs) and their importance in the spread of harmful airborne agents while the ATVs travel on roads is limited. To investigate the dynamical behaviour of theoretically released particles from a moving ATV, the open-source computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software OpenFOAM was used to calculate the external and internal air flow fields with passive and forced ventilated openings of a common ATV moving at a speed of 80 km/h. In addition to a computed flow rate of approximately 40,000 m 3 /h crossing the interior of the ATV, the visualization of the trajectories has demonstrated distinct patterns of the spatial distribution of potentially released bioaerosols in the vicinity of the ATV. Although the front openings show the highest air flow to the outside, the recirculations of air masses between the interior of the ATV and the atmosphere also occur, which complicate the emission and the dispersion characterizations. To specify the future emission rates of ATVs, a database of bioaerosol concentrations within the ATV is necessary in conjunction with high-performance computing resources to simulate the potential dispersion of bioaerosols in the environment.

  7. Electric rail gun application to space propulsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barber, J.P.

    1979-01-01

    The paper examines the possibility of using the DC electric gun principles as a space vehicle propulsion system, capable of producing intermediate thrust levels. The application of an electromagnetic launch technique, called the DC electric rail gun, to the space propulsion concept of O'Neill, is examined. It is determined that the DC electric rail gun offers very high projectile accelerations and a very significant potential for reducing the size and mass of a reaction motor for space application. A detailed description of rail gun principles is given and some simple expressions for the accelerating force, gun impedance, power supply requirements, and system performance are discussed

  8. Coordination and propulsion and non-propulsion phases in 100 meter breaststroke swimming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strzała, Marek; Krężałek, Piotr; Kucia-Czyszczoń, Katarzyna; Ostrowski, Andrzej; Stanula, Arkadiusz; Tyka, Anna K; Sagalara, Andrzej

    2014-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was to analyze the coordination, propulsion and non-propulsion phases in the 100 meter breaststroke race. Twenty-seven male swimmers (15.7 ± 1.98 years old) with the total body length (TBL) of 247.0 ± 10.60 [cm] performed an all-out 100 m breaststroke bout. The bouts were recorded with an underwater camera installed on a portable trolley. The swimming kinematic parameters, stroke rate (SR) and stroke length (SL), as well as the coordination indices based on propulsive or non-propulsive movement phases of the arms and legs were distinguished. Swimming speed (V100surface breast) was associated with SL (R = 0.41, p study were measured using partial correlations with controlled age. SL interplayed negatively with the limbs propulsive phase Overlap indicator (R = -0.46, p propulsion Glide indicator. The propulsion in-sweep (AP3) phase of arms and their non-propulsion partial air recovery (ARair) phase interplayed with V100surface breast (R = 0.51, p < 0.05 and 0.48 p < 0.05) respectively, displaying the importance of proper execution of this phase (AP3) and in reducing the resistance recovery phases in consecutive ones.

  9. Presentation of an innovative and efficient air conditioning system for electrical powered vehicles; Vorstellung eines innovativen und effizienten Klimasystems fuer elektrisch angetriebene Fahrzeuge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaplan, Oleg [IAV GmbH, Muenchen (Germany); Ackermann, Jan; Fang, Fang [IAV GmbH, Gifhorn (Germany)

    2012-11-01

    An air-conditioning system for battery electric vehicles requires an efficient approach to provide heat and cool during operation in winter and summer. The required energy expenditure to ensure comfort and safety is enormous especially during the winter. The heat input into the cabin amounts up to 10 kW and above when considering conventional vehicles with an internal combustion engine. In this context IAV is developing an efficient overall air conditioning system. The combination of new system components, such as surface heaters and a heat pump with improved components such as a PTC-heater, can solve the discrepancy between acceptable range and the aspects of comfort and safety. (orig.)

  10. Impact of reduced mass of light commercial vehicles on fuel consumption, CO2 emissions, air quality, and socio-economic costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cecchel, S; Chindamo, D; Turrini, E; Carnevale, C; Cornacchia, G; Gadola, M; Panvini, A; Volta, M; Ferrario, D; Golimbioschi, R

    2018-02-01

    This study presents a modelling system to evaluate the impact of weight reduction in light commercial vehicles with diesel engines on air quality and greenhouse gas emissions. The PROPS model assesses the emissions of one vehicle in the aforementioned category and its corresponding reduced-weight version. The results serve as an input to the RIAT+ tool, an air quality integrated assessment modelling system. This paper applies the tools in a case study in the Lombardy region (Italy) and discusses the input data pre-processing, the PROPS-RIAT+ modelling system runs, and the results. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. A Review of Laser Ablation Propulsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phipps, Claude; Bohn, Willy; Lippert, Thomas; Sasoh, Akihiro; Schall, Wolfgang; Sinko, John

    2010-01-01

    Laser Ablation Propulsion is a broad field with a wide range of applications. We review the 30-year history of laser ablation propulsion from the transition from earlier pure photon propulsion concepts of Oberth and Saenger through Kantrowitz's original laser ablation propulsion idea to the development of air-breathing 'Lightcraft' and advanced spacecraft propulsion engines. The polymers POM and GAP have played an important role in experiments and liquid ablation fuels show great promise. Some applications use a laser system which is distant from the propelled object, for example, on another spacecraft, the Earth or a planet. Others use a laser that is part of the spacecraft propulsion system on the spacecraft. Propulsion is produced when an intense laser beam strikes a condensed matter surface and produces a vapor or plasma jet. The advantages of this idea are that exhaust velocity of the propulsion engine covers a broader range than is available from chemistry, that it can be varied to meet the instantaneous demands of the particular mission, and that practical realizations give lower mass and greater simplicity for a payload delivery system. We review the underlying theory, buttressed by extensive experimental data. The primary problem in laser space propulsion theory has been the absence of a way to predict thrust and specific impulse over the transition from the vapor to the plasma regimes. We briefly discuss a method for combining two new vapor regime treatments with plasma regime theory, giving a smooth transition from one regime to the other. We conclude with a section on future directions.

  12. Thermal Management Tools for Propulsion System Trade Studies and Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Kevin; Hodge, Ernie

    2011-01-01

    Energy-related subsystems in modern aircraft are more tightly coupled with less design margin. These subsystems include thermal management subsystems, vehicle electric power generation and distribution, aircraft engines, and flight control. Tighter coupling, lower design margins, and higher system complexity all make preliminary trade studies difficult. A suite of thermal management analysis tools has been developed to facilitate trade studies during preliminary design of air-vehicle propulsion systems. Simulink blocksets (from MathWorks) for developing quasi-steady-state and transient system models of aircraft thermal management systems and related energy systems have been developed. These blocksets extend the Simulink modeling environment in the thermal sciences and aircraft systems disciplines. The blocksets include blocks for modeling aircraft system heat loads, heat exchangers, pumps, reservoirs, fuel tanks, and other components at varying levels of model fidelity. The blocksets have been applied in a first-principles, physics-based modeling and simulation architecture for rapid prototyping of aircraft thermal management and related systems. They have been applied in representative modern aircraft thermal management system studies. The modeling and simulation architecture has also been used to conduct trade studies in a vehicle level model that incorporates coupling effects among the aircraft mission, engine cycle, fuel, and multi-phase heat-transfer materials.

  13. The Design and Simulation of the Modular Vehicle Air Suspension Height Control System Based on ECAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Peigang

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Based on ECAS, this paper intended to develop a modular air suspension height control system with WABCO4728800010 two-position three way solenoid valves and Free scale MC9S12D64 microprocessor as its core components. And a simulation test was conducted in MATLAB/Simulink environment. The air suspension height control strategy of this system was divided into four modules: start control module, dynamic adjustment module, manual adjustment module and errors adjustment module, which were controlled by module select switch. Simulation tests indicated that the air suspension height control strategy is featured by its logical control accuracy and debug convenience, and the modular design greatly reduced the system complexity and software development cycle and costs as well.

  14. Nuclear Thermal Propulsion Development Risks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tony

    2015-01-01

    There are clear advantages of development of a Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) for a crewed mission to Mars. NTP for in-space propulsion enables more ambitious space missions by providing high thrust at high specific impulse ((is) approximately 900 sec) that is 2 times the best theoretical performance possible for chemical rockets. Missions can be optimized for maximum payload capability to take more payload with reduced total mass to orbit; saving cost on reduction of the number of launch vehicles needed. Or missions can be optimized to minimize trip time significantly to reduce the deep space radiation exposure to the crew. NTR propulsion technology is a game changer for space exploration to Mars and beyond. However, 'NUCLEAR' is a word that is feared and vilified by some groups and the hostility towards development of any nuclear systems can meet great opposition by the public as well as from national leaders and people in authority. The public often associates the 'nuclear' word with weapons of mass destruction. The development NTP is at risk due to unwarranted public fears and clear honest communication of nuclear safety will be critical to the success of the development of the NTP technology. Reducing cost to NTP development is critical to its acceptance and funding. In the past, highly inflated cost estimates of a full-scale development nuclear engine due to Category I nuclear security requirements and costly regulatory requirements have put the NTP technology as a low priority. Innovative approaches utilizing low enriched uranium (LEU). Even though NTP can be a small source of radiation to the crew, NTP can facilitate significant reduction of crew exposure to solar and cosmic radiation by reducing trip times by 3-4 months. Current Human Mars Mission (HMM) trajectories with conventional propulsion systems and fuel-efficient transfer orbits exceed astronaut radiation exposure limits. Utilizing extra propellant from one additional SLS launch and available

  15. Regional on-road vehicle running emissions modeling and evaluation for conventional and alternative vehicle technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, H Christopher; Zhai, Haibo; Rouphail, Nagui M

    2009-11-01

    This study presents a methodology for estimating high-resolution, regional on-road vehicle emissions and the associated reductions in air pollutant emissions from vehicles that utilize alternative fuels or propulsion technologies. The fuels considered are gasoline, diesel, ethanol, biodiesel, compressed natural gas, hydrogen, and electricity. The technologies considered are internal combustion or compression engines, hybrids, fuel cell, and electric. Road link-based emission models are developed using modal fuel use and emission rates applied to facility- and speed-specific driving cycles. For an urban case study, passenger cars were found to be the largest sources of HC, CO, and CO(2) emissions, whereas trucks contributed the largest share of NO(x) emissions. When alternative fuel and propulsion technologies were introduced in the fleet at a modest market penetration level of 27%, their emission reductions were found to be 3-14%. Emissions for all pollutants generally decreased with an increase in the market share of alternative vehicle technologies. Turnover of the light duty fleet to newer Tier 2 vehicles reduced emissions of HC, CO, and NO(x) substantially. However, modest improvements in fuel economy may be offset by VMT growth and reductions in overall average speed.

  16. Proposed MIL Standard and Handbook - Flying Qualities of Air Vehicles. Volume 2. Proposed MIL Handbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-11-01

    aft c.g. 1.0 1) heo, nedium , Viin to 0 ma. CO RRFFCR Chingesho 00 LO iTAI I Category C 3.4.1.1 Rel atnion in transonicI Transonic 0 SnOB )N 3.5...methods for dealing with lead/lag systems like those of Table 5; unfortunately, neither is physically very appeal - ing. And in each, there is an underlying...cable). A change in the damping ratio requirements would mean that either: a) we restrict unaugmented vehicles as well; this is not appealing 119 - -o

  17. Technology Options for Improved Air Vehicle Fuel Efficiency: Executive Summary and Annotated Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-05-01

    turbine cycle, and detonation-based engine cycles. Aerodynamic Solutions. In the near term, wing retrofits such as winglets have demonstrated the...Release 30 Public Release Aerodynamic Solutions: Benefits/Cost • Near term (0-5 years): ∆ FE ∆ FE/Cost • Wing retrofits, e.g., winglets 5% High • Mid...engine’s overall efficiency, ηo), by improved vehicle aerodynamic characteristics (e.g., through an increase in the lift-to-drag or L/D ratio), and

  18. Novel prescribed performance neural control of a flexible air-breathing hypersonic vehicle with unknown initial errors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bu, Xiangwei; Wu, Xiaoyan; Zhu, Fujing; Huang, Jiaqi; Ma, Zhen; Zhang, Rui

    2015-11-01

    A novel prescribed performance neural controller with unknown initial errors is addressed for the longitudinal dynamic model of a flexible air-breathing hypersonic vehicle (FAHV) subject to parametric uncertainties. Different from traditional prescribed performance control (PPC) requiring that the initial errors have to be known accurately, this paper investigates the tracking control without accurate initial errors via exploiting a new performance function. A combined neural back-stepping and minimal learning parameter (MLP) technology is employed for exploring a prescribed performance controller that provides robust tracking of velocity and altitude reference trajectories. The highlight is that the transient performance of velocity and altitude tracking errors is satisfactory and the computational load of neural approximation is low. Finally, numerical simulation results from a nonlinear FAHV model demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed strategy. Copyright © 2015 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Real-time approaches to the estimation of local wind velocity for a fixed-wing unmanned air vehicle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, W L; Lee, C S; Hsiao, F B

    2011-01-01

    Three real-time approaches to estimating local wind velocity for a fixed-wing unmanned air vehicle are presented in this study. All three methods work around the navigation equations with added wind components. The first approach calculates the local wind speed by substituting the ground speed and ascent rate data given by the Global Positioning System (GPS) into the navigation equations. The second and third approaches utilize the extended Kalman filter (EKF) and the unscented Kalman filter (UKF), respectively. The results show that, despite the nonlinearity of the navigation equations, the EKF performance is proven to be on a par with the UKF. A time-varying noise estimation method based on the Wiener filter is also discussed. Results are compared with the average wind speed measured on the ground. All three approaches are proven to be reliable with stated advantages and disadvantages

  20. Near-optimal order-reduced control for A/C (air-conditioning) system of EVs (electric vehicles)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiu, Chien-Chin; Tsai, Nan-Chyuan; Lin, Chun-Chi

    2014-01-01

    This work is aimed to investigate the regulation problem for thermal comfortableness and propose control strategies for cabin environment of EVs (electric vehicles) by constructing a reduced-scale A/C (air-conditioning) system which mainly consists of two modules: ECB (environmental control box) and AHU (air-handling unit). Temperature and humidity in the ECB can be regulated by AHU via cooling, heating, mixing air streams and adjusting speed of fans. To synthesize the near-optimal controllers, the mathematical model for the system thermodynamics is developed by employing the equivalent lumped heat capacity approach, energy/mass conservation principle and the heat transfer theories. In addition, from the clustering pattern of system eigenvalues, the thermodynamics of the interested system can evidently be characterized by two-time-scale property. That is, the studied system can be decoupled into two subsystems, slow mode and fast mode, by singular perturbation technique. As to the optimal control strategies for EVs, by taking thermal comfortableness, humidity and energy consumption all into account, a series of optimal controllers is synthesized on the base of the order-reduced thermodynamic model. The feedback control loop for the experimental test rig is examined and realized by the aid of the control system development kit dSPACE DS1104 and the commercial software MATLAB/Simulink. To sum up, the intensive computer simulations and experimental results verify that the performance of the near-optimal order-reduced control law is almost as superior as that of standard LQR (Linear-Quadratic Regulator). - Highlights: • A reduced-scale test rig for A/C (air-conditioning) system to imitate the temperature/humidity of cabin in EV (electric vehicle) is constructed. • The non-linear thermodynamic model of A/C system can be decoupled by singular perturbation technique. • The temperature/humidity in cabin is regulated to the desired values by proposed optimal