WorldWideScience

Sample records for air toxics information

  1. Control of air toxics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For more than 10 years, Argonne National Laboratory has supported the US DOE's Flue Gas Cleanup Program objective by developing new or improved environmental controls for industries that use fossil fuels. Argonne's pollutant emissions research has ranged from experiments in the basic chemistry of pollution-control systems, through laboratory-scale process development and testing, to pilot-scale field tests of several technologies. The work on air toxics is currently divided into two components: Investigating measures to improve the removal of mercury in existing pollution-control systems applied to coal combustion; and, Developing sensors and control techniques for emissions found in the textile industry

  2. National air toxics information clearinghouse: Bibliography of selected reports and federal register notices related to air toxics. Volume 6. Citations, 1992. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of the report is to provide State and local agencies with citations of reports and Federal Register notices useful in developing and operating air toxics control programs. The reports selected for the bibliography were published by the following agencies: EPA, NAS, NCI, NIEHS, NTP, NIOSH, ATSDR, CPSC, WHO, and IARC. Relevant reports published by various State and local agencies are also included in the edition. The citations selected this year were compiled from sources available through January 31, 1992

  3. Exposure information in environmental health research: Current opportunities and future directions for particulate matter, ozone, and toxic air pollutants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKone, Thomas E.; Ryan, P. Barry; Ozkaynak, Haluk

    2007-02-01

    Understanding and quantifying outdoor and indoor sources of human exposure are essential but often not adequately addressed in health-effects studies for air pollution. Air pollution epidemiology, risk assessment, health tracking and accountability assessments are examples of health-effects studies that require but often lack adequate exposure information. Recent advances in exposure modeling along with better information on time-activity and exposure factors data provide us with unique opportunities to improve the assignment of exposures for both future and ongoing studies linking air pollution to health impacts. In September 2006, scientists from the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) along with scientists from the academic community and state health departments convened a symposium on air pollution exposure and health in order to identify, evaluate, and improve current approaches for linking air pollution exposures to disease. This manuscript presents the key issues, challenges and recommendations identified by the exposure working group, who used cases studies of particulate matter, ozone, and toxic air pollutant exposure to evaluate health-effects for air pollution. One of the over-arching lessons of this workshop is that obtaining better exposure information for these different health-effects studies requires both goal-setting for what is needed and mapping out the transition pathway from current capabilities to meeting these goals. Meeting our long-term goals requires definition of incremental steps that provide useful information for the interim and move us toward our long-term goals. Another over-arching theme among the three different pollutants and the different health study approaches is the need for integration among alternate exposure assessment approaches. For example, different groups may advocate exposure indicators, biomonitoring, mapping methods (GIS), modeling, environmental media

  4. National Air Toxic Assessments (NATA) Results

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The National Air Toxics Assessment was conducted by EPA in 2002 to assess air toxics emissions in order to identify and prioritize air toxics, emission source types...

  5. Baltimore Air Toxics Study (BATS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, D.A. [Sullivan Environmental Consulting, Inc., Alexandria, VA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    The Baltimore Air Toxics Study is one of the three urban air toxics initiatives funded by EPA to support the development of the national air toxics strategy. As part of this project, the Air Quality Integrated Management System (AIMS) is under development. AIMS is designed to bring together the key components of urban air quality management into an integrated system, including emissions assessment, air quality modeling, and air quality monitoring. Urban area source emissions are computed for a wide range of pollutants and source categories, and are joined with existing point source emissions data. Measured air quality data are used to evaluate the adequacy of the emissions data and model treatments as a function of season, meteorological parameters, and daytime/nighttime conditions. Based on tested model performance, AIMS provides the potential to improve the ability to predict air quality benefits of alternative control options for criteria and toxic air pollutants. This paper describes the methods used to develop AIMS, and provides examples from its application in the Baltimore metropolitan area. The use of AIMS in the future to enhance environmental management of major industrial facilities also will be addressed in the paper.

  6. 2011 NATA - Air Toxics Monitors

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset includes annual (2005 - 2013) statistics of measured ambient air toxics concentrations (in micrograms per cubic meter) and associated risk estimates...

  7. Air Risk Information Support Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shoaf, C.R.; Guth, D.J. [Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC (United States)

    1990-12-31

    The Air Risk Information Support Center (Air RISC) was initiated in early 1988 by the US Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA) Office of Health and Environmental Assessment (OHEA) and the Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards (OAQPS) as a technology transfer effort that would focus on providing information to state and local environmental agencies and to EPA Regional Offices in the areas of health, risk, and exposure assessment for toxic air pollutants. Technical information is fostered and disseminated by Air RISCs three primary activities: (1) a {open_quotes}hotline{close_quotes}, (2) quick turn-around technical assistance projects, and (3) general technical guidance projects. 1 ref., 2 figs.

  8. CHATTANOOGA AIR TOXICS (CATS) MONITORING RISK ASSESSMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Chattanooga-Hamilton County Air Pollution Control Bureau (CHCAPCB), the United States Environmental Protection Agency Region 4 (Region 4), and other stakeholders, in a cooperative effort, conducted an air toxics study in the Chattanooga area (city population approximately 285...

  9. The Air Toxics Health Effects Database (ATHED)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Air Toxics Health Effects Database (ATHED) is currently used by the EPA's Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards (OAQPS) to support risk assessments for the Residual Risk Program. An assessment of the residual risk is required to be performed at a specified time (typically 8years) following the promulgation of a technology-based Maximum Achievable Control Technologies (MACT) standard. The goal of the Residual Risk Program is to assure that the risk that remains after MACT standards are implemented (i.e., the 'residual risk') is acceptable, and if not, to propose additional regulations to mitigate those risks. ATHED maintains all available reference values for each chemical as separate data records, and includes values for all exposure durations (acute, short-term, subchronic and chronic). These values are used as benchmarks to determine acceptable exposure levels to the hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) listed in Section 112 of the Clean Air Act. ATHED also provides useful background information on the uncertainty and/or modifying factors that were applied in the derivation of each reference value, as well as the point of departure and the critical study/studies. To facilitate comparisons across durations for a specific chemical, ATHED data can be graphically presented

  10. The visualization and dissemination of the Great Lakes Regional Toxic Air Emissions Inventory: Using geographic information systems and interactive Internet mapping applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conley, R.M. [Great Lakes Commission, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The eight Great Lakes states, the Canadian province of Ontario and the Great Lakes Commission are involved in a collective effort to develop a regional inventory of toxic air emissions for 49 targeted toxic pollutants from point and area sources. The regional inventory will soon be expanded to include emissions from mobile sources. The inventory, when aggregated for all eight states and Ontario, will eventually reside at the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Great Lakes National Program Office (GLNPO). To aid in the understanding and interpretation of the inventory`s data, an effort has been undertaken to generate two map series for the entire region: (1) choropleth maps of total toxic air emissions at the county level of geography and (2) dot maps showing facility locations. To ensure an effective and efficient dissemination process among the province and various states, an interactive Internet mapping interface prototype was modified and used for the project. With an interactive online visualization tool, the inventory collectors, managers and researchers can quickly and effectively view the inventory`s data on maps, charts or spreadsheets. These graphics can be used as: (1) a QA/QC function for the inventory collectors, (2) a simple communication of complex data to support managers decision making and (3) a means for easy access to complex data and information about any geographic area in the region for the researchers or general public. This paper describes the development and use of PC Arc/Info, ArcView and MapInfo geographic information systems (GIS), mapping and Internet interfacing applications to visualize, disseminate and convey the emissions inventory data in a meaningful and useful manner. The various methods developed and implemented to convert, process and prepare the inventory data and Internet interface for use with a standard Internet web browser also are described in this paper.

  11. SEATTLE AIR TOXICS MONITORING PILOT PROJECT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Since January, 2000, the Washington Department of Ecology has been monitoring for air toxics at two sites in Seattle, Beacon Hill and Georgetown. The Beacon Hill site is in an area of high population density that reflects conditions in a "typical" urban residential neighborhood a...

  12. Air System Information Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filman, Robert E.

    2004-01-01

    I flew to Washington last week, a trip rich in distributed information management. Buying tickets, at the gate, in flight, landing and at the baggage claim, myriad messages about my reservation, the weather, our flight plans, gates, bags and so forth flew among a variety of travel agency, airline and Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) computers and personnel. By and large, each kind of information ran on a particular application, often specialized to own data formats and communications network. I went to Washington to attend an FAA meeting on System-Wide Information Management (SWIM) for the National Airspace System (NAS) (http://www.nasarchitecture.faa.gov/Tutorials/NAS101.cfm). NAS (and its information infrastructure, SWIM) is an attempt to bring greater regularity, efficiency and uniformity to the collection of stovepipe applications now used to manage air traffic. Current systems hold information about flight plans, flight trajectories, weather, air turbulence, current and forecast weather, radar summaries, hazardous condition warnings, airport and airspace capacity constraints, temporary flight restrictions, and so forth. Information moving among these stovepipe systems is usually mediated by people (for example, air traffic controllers) or single-purpose applications. People, whose intelligence is critical for difficult tasks and unusual circumstances, are not as efficient as computers for tasks that can be automated. Better information sharing can lead to higher system capacity, more efficient utilization and safer operations. Better information sharing through greater automation is possible though not necessarily easy.

  13. Urban land use, air toxics and public health: Assessing hazardous exposures at the neighborhood scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Land use data are increasingly understood as important indicators of potential environmental health risk in urban areas where micro-scale or neighborhood level hazard exposure data are not routinely collected. This paper aims to offer a method for estimating the distribution of air toxics in urban neighborhoods using land use information because actual air monitoring data rarely exist at this scale. Using Geographic Information System spatial modeling tools, we estimate air toxics concentrations across neighborhoods in New York City and statistically compare our model with the US Environmental Protection Agency's National Air Toxic Assessment and air monitoring data across three NYC neighborhoods. We conclude that land use data can act as a good proxy for estimating neighborhood scale air toxics, particularly in the absence of monitoring data. In addition, the paper suggests that land use data can expand the reach of environmental impact assessments that routinely exclude analyses of potential exposures to urban air toxics at the neighborhood scale

  14. Air toxics emissions from an IGCC process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mojtahedi, W.; Norrbacka, P. [Enviropower Inc., Espoo (Finland); Hinderson, A. [Vattenfall (Sweden); Rosenberg, R.; Zilliacus, R.; Kurkela, E.; Nieminen, M. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland); Hoffren, H. [IVO International Oy, Vantaa (Finland)

    1996-12-01

    The so-called simplified coal gasification combined cycle process, incorporating air gasification and hot gas cleanup, promises high power generation efficiency in an environmentally acceptable manner. Increasingly more stringent environmental regulations have focused attention on the emissions of not only SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} but also on the so-called air toxics which include a number of toxic trace elements. As result of recent amendments to the United States Clean Air Act, IGCC emissions of eleven trace elements: antimony, arsenic, beryllium, cadmium, chromium, cobalt, lead, manganese, mercury, nickel, selenium - as well as the radionuclides uranium and thorium may be regulated. Similarly, air missions standards in Europe include a limit of 0.05 mg Nm{sup 3} for mercury and cadmium and 1.0 3/Nm{sup 3} for other class I trace elements. A suitable sampling/measuring system has been developed in this project (in cooperation with Imatran Voima Oy, Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and Radian Cooperation) which will be used in the pressurized gasification tests. This will enable an accurate measurement of the volatilized trace element species, at high temperature and pressure, which may be found in the vapour phase. Models are being developed that can be used to determine not only the chemical equilibrium composition of gaseous, liquid and solid phases, but also possible interactions of the gaseous species with aerosol particles and surfaces, These should be used to more accurately assess the impact of the toxic trace metals emitted from the simplified IGCC system

  15. Addressing community concerns about asthma and air toxics.

    OpenAIRE

    White, Mary C.; Berger-Frank, Sherri A; Middleton, Dannie C.; Falk, Henry

    2002-01-01

    People with asthma who live near or downwind from a source of toxic emissions commonly express concerns about the possible impact of hazardous air pollution on their health, especially when these emissions are visible or odorous. Citizens frequently turn to their local and state health departments for answers, but health departments face many challenges in addressing these concerns. These challenges include a lack of asthma statistics at the local level, limited exposure information, and a pa...

  16. Controlling air toxics through advanced coal preparation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Straszheim, W.E.; Buttermore, W.H.; Pollard, J.L. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    1995-11-01

    This project involves the assessment of advanced coal preparation methods for removing trace elements from coal to reduce the potential for air toxic emissions upon combustion. Scanning electron microscopy-based automated image analysis (SEM-AIA) and advanced washability analyses are being applied with state-of-the-art analytical procedures to predict the removal of elements of concern by advanced column flotation and to confirm the effectiveness of preparation on the quality of quantity of clean coal produced. Specific objectives are to maintain an acceptable recovery of combustible product, while improving the rejection of mineral-associated trace elements. Current work has focused on determining conditions for controlling column flotation system across its operating range and on selection and analysis of samples for determining trace element cleanability.

  17. Air toxics emission from an IGCC process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mojtahedi, W.; Hovath, A. [Carbona Inc, Helsinki (Finland); Hinderson, A. [Vattenfall Utveckling (Sweden); Nykaenen, J.; Hoffren, H. [Imatran Voima Oy, Vantaa (Finland); Nieminen, M.; Kurkela, E. [VTT, Espoo (Finland)

    1997-10-01

    The emissions of 12 toxic trace element from a coal-fired IGCC plant were calculated based on thermodynamic equilibrium in the gas phase and some of the results published. The theoretical calculations were extended to include some other fuels as well as mixture of some of these fuels. The combustion of the product gas in the gas turbine is also considered. These simulations correspond to gasification of the fuel at 850-1050 deg C (depending on the fuel) and 1823 bar pressure. The gas composition was taken from the measured data as far as possible. In the absence of experimental data, a computer code developed for the U-Gas gasifier was used to determine the fuel gas composition. The gas was then cooled to 550 deg C in the gas cooler and filtered at this same temperature and burned in the gas turbine with an air ratio of 3.2. The results of these simulations are compared with the measured data of an experimental program designed to measure the emissions of a few selected trace elements from a 15 MW,h pressurized fluidized bed gasification pilot plant. The pilot plant was equipped with an advanced hot gas cleanup train which includes a two fluidized-bed reactor system for high-temperature, high-pressure external sulfur removal and a filtration unit housing porous, rigid ceramic candle filters. The trace element concentrations in the fuel, bottom ash, and filter ash are determined and the results compared with EPA regulatory levels

  18. Managing air toxics: Status of EPRI's PISCES project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has historically regulated air toxics (hazardous air pollutants) under Section 112 of the Clean Air Act. To date, EPA has established emission standards for 8 hazardous air pollutants (arsenic, asbestos, benzene, beryllium, mercury, radionuclides, coke oven emissions and vinyl chloride). The US electric utility industry was not determined to be a source category requiring regulation for any of the eight chemicals. Of the eight, radionuclides were the last species for which EPA established hazardous emissions standards. In this instance, EPA determined that the risks associated with electric utility fossil fuel power plant emissions were sufficiently low that they should not be regulated. However, the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments require a new evaluation of the electric utility industry emissions of hazardous air pollutants (1). This paper summarizes the key features of the air toxics provisions of the Clean Air Act Amendments, describes EPRI's activities on the subject, and provides some preliminary insights from EPRI's research to date

  19. Air toxics provisions of the Clean Air Act: Potential impacts on energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hootman, H.A.; Vernet, J.E.

    1991-11-01

    This report provides an overview of the provisions of the Clean Air Act and its Amendments of 1990 that identify hazardous air pollutant (HAP) emissions and addresses their regulation by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). It defines the major energy sector sources of these HAPs that would be affected by the regulations. Attention is focused on regulations that would cover coke oven emissions; chromium emission from industrial cooling towers and the electroplating process; HAP emissions from tank vessels, asbestos-related activities, organic solvent use, and ethylene oxide sterilization; and emissions of air toxics from municipal waste combustors. The possible implications of Title III regulations for the coal, natural gas, petroleum, uranium, and electric utility industries are examined. The report discusses five major databases of HAP emissions: (1) TRI (EPA`s Toxic Release Inventory); (2) PISCES (Power Plant Integrated Systems: Chemical Emissions Studies developed by the Electric Power Research Institute); (3) 1985 Emissions Inventory on volatile organic compounds (used for the National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program); (4) Particulate Matter Species Manual (EPA); and (5) Toxics Emission Inventory (National Aeronautics and Space Administration). It also offers information on emission control technologies for municipal waste combustors.

  20. Air toxics provisions of the Clean Air Act: Potential impacts on energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hootman, H.A.; Vernet, J.E.

    1991-11-01

    This report provides an overview of the provisions of the Clean Air Act and its Amendments of 1990 that identify hazardous air pollutant (HAP) emissions and addresses their regulation by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). It defines the major energy sector sources of these HAPs that would be affected by the regulations. Attention is focused on regulations that would cover coke oven emissions; chromium emission from industrial cooling towers and the electroplating process; HAP emissions from tank vessels, asbestos-related activities, organic solvent use, and ethylene oxide sterilization; and emissions of air toxics from municipal waste combustors. The possible implications of Title III regulations for the coal, natural gas, petroleum, uranium, and electric utility industries are examined. The report discusses five major databases of HAP emissions: (1) TRI (EPA's Toxic Release Inventory); (2) PISCES (Power Plant Integrated Systems: Chemical Emissions Studies developed by the Electric Power Research Institute); (3) 1985 Emissions Inventory on volatile organic compounds (used for the National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program); (4) Particulate Matter Species Manual (EPA); and (5) Toxics Emission Inventory (National Aeronautics and Space Administration). It also offers information on emission control technologies for municipal waste combustors.

  1. Air toxics provisions of the Clean Air Act: Potential impacts on energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report provides an overview of the provisions of the Clean Air Act and its Amendments of 1990 that identify hazardous air pollutant (HAP) emissions and addresses their regulation by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). It defines the major energy sector sources of these HAPs that would be affected by the regulations. Attention is focused on regulations that would cover coke oven emissions; chromium emission from industrial cooling towers and the electroplating process; HAP emissions from tank vessels, asbestos-related activities, organic solvent use, and ethylene oxide sterilization; and emissions of air toxics from municipal waste combustors. The possible implications of Title III regulations for the coal, natural gas, petroleum, uranium, and electric utility industries are examined. The report discusses five major databases of HAP emissions: (1) TRI (EPA's Toxic Release Inventory); (2) PISCES (Power Plant Integrated Systems: Chemical Emissions Studies developed by the Electric Power Research Institute); (3) 1985 Emissions Inventory on volatile organic compounds (used for the National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program); (4) Particulate Matter Species Manual (EPA); and (5) Toxics Emission Inventory (National Aeronautics and Space Administration). It also offers information on emission control technologies for municipal waste combustors

  2. Traffic-Related Air Toxics and Term Low Birth Weight in Los Angeles County, California

    OpenAIRE

    Wilhelm, Michelle; Ghosh, Jo Kay; Su, Jason; Cockburn, Myles; Jerrett, Michael; Ritz, Beate

    2011-01-01

    Background: Numerous studies have linked criteria air pollutants with adverse birth outcomes, but there is less information on the importance of specific emission sources, such as traffic, and air toxics. Objectives: We used three exposure data sources to examine odds of term low birth weight (LBW) in Los Angeles, California, women when exposed to high levels of traffic-related air pollutants during pregnancy. Methods: We identified term births during 1 June 2004 to 30 March 2006 to women res...

  3. Pumping toxic and radioactive fluids with air lifts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Air lifts provide a simple, reliable method of pumping radioactive or highly toxic liquids because they require remarkably little maintenance. To date these pumps have been used for mine dewatering, ocean mining, dredging, effluent aeration and for flotation of coal. Having no moving parts, an air lift is resistant to damage by solids or particles in the liquid, unlike centrifugal pumps which suffer impeller erosion, so that air lifts can be used to raise difficult slurries or to desludge effluent ponds

  4. Thermal oxidation for air toxics control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Administration projects annual expenditures of $1.1 billion by 1995, increasing to $6.7 billion by 2005, in order to comply with the new Clean Air Act Title III hazardous air pollutant requirements. The Title III requirements include 189 hazardous air pollutants which must be reduced or eliminated by 2003. Twenty of the 189 listed pollutants account for approximately 75 percent of all hazardous air pollutant emissions. Ninety percent of these 20 pollutants can be effectively controlled through one or mote of the thermal oxidation technologies. This paper reports that the advantages and disadvantages of each thermal oxidation technology vary substantially and must be reviewed for each application in order to establish the most effective thermal oxidation solution. Effective thermal oxidation will meet MACT (maximum achievable control technology) emission standards

  5. Air toxics from heavy oil production and consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report assesses the potential impact of recent Federal and state regulations for airborne toxic substances on the production and consumption of heavy fuel oils. Emissions of nickel from heavy oil production in California are considered in some detail, in conjunction with California state regulations for toxic emissions. Although the use of thermal energy from heavy crude oils could in theory be impacted by toxic air pollution regulations, recent trends towards the use of natural gas for the required extraction energy appear to provide substantial relief, in addition to reducing emissions of criteria air pollutants. However, the consumption of residual fuel oils containing toxic metals could result in higher population exposures to these substances and their attendant risks may be worthy of more detailed analysis

  6. Air toxics and the 1990 Clean Air Act: Managing trace element emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has historically regulated air toxics (hazardous air pollutants) under Section 112 of the Clean Air Act. To date, EPA has established emission standards for 8 hazardous air pollutants (arsenic, asbestos, benzene, beryllium, mercury, radionuclides, coke oven emissions and vinyl chloride). The US electric utility industry was not determined to be a source category requiring regulation for any of the eight chemicals. Of the eight, radionuclides were the last species for which EPA established hazardous emissions standards. In this instance, EPA determined that the risks associated with electric utility fossil fuel power plant emissions were sufficiently low that they should not be regulated. However, the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments require a new evaluation of the electric utility industry emissions of hazardous air pollutants. This paper summarizes the key features of the air toxics provisions of the Clean Air Act Amendments, describes EPRI's activities on the subject, and provides some preliminary insights from EPRI's research to date

  7. National Air Toxics Assessment - 2002, EPA Region 2 (EPA.AIR.NATA99_R2)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This data layer is based on the model results of the 1999 National-Scale Assessment (N-SA), a part of the National Air Toxics Assessment (NATA), conducted by EPA's...

  8. National Air Toxics Assessment - 2005, EPA Region 2 (EPA.AIR.NATA99_R2)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This data layer is based on the model results of the 1999 National-Scale Assessment (N-SA), a part of the National Air Toxics Assessment (NATA), conducted by EPA's...

  9. National Air Toxics Assessment - 1999, EPA Region 2 (EPA.AIR.NATA99_R2)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This data layer is based on the model results of the 1999 National-Scale Assessment (N-SA), a part of the National Air Toxics Assessment (NATA), conducted by EPA's...

  10. Maryland air toxics regulation applicable to a natural gas compressor station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Columbia Gas Transmission Corporation submitted an air permit application to the Maryland Department of the Environment to construct a natural gas compressor station near Rutledge, Maryland. The station consists of three natural gas-fueled internal combustion reciprocating engines, each rated at 3200 horsepower. Maximum potential pollutant emissions associated with the station operation did not trigger Prevention of Significant Deterioration review or nonattainment area New Source review. However, a minor source air permit cannot be issued without addressing Maryland's toxic air regulations. Columbia initiated a detailed investigation of toxic air pollutants, including a stack test of an identical engine. Based on this information, the proposed station was subject to the toxic air regulation for acetaldehyde, acrolein, benzene, crotonaldehyde, and formaldehyde. Compliance with the toxic air regulation for crotonaldehyde was demonstrated by having an emission rate less than the threshold emission rate, specified in the regulation. The ambient air quality impact of the other four pollutants was determined using the Industrial Source Complex dispersion model and resulted in predicted concentrations below the pollutant-specific acceptable ambient level. A carcinogenic impact analysis was performed for acetaldehyde, benzene, and formaldehyde to demonstrate compliance with the accepted risk of one in one hundred thousand

  11. AIR TOXICS EMISSIONS FROM A VINYL SHOWER CURTAIN

    Science.gov (United States)

    The paper reports results of both static and dynamic chamber tests conducted to evaluate emission characteristics of air toxics from a vinyl shower Curtain. (NOTE: Due to the relatively low price and ease of installation, vinyl shower curtains have been widely used in bathrooms i...

  12. Uneven Magnitude of Disparities in Cancer Risks from Air Toxics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satish Kedia

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This study examines race- and income-based disparities in cancer risks from air toxics in Cancer Alley, LA, USA. Risk estimates were obtained from the 2005 National Air Toxics Assessment and socioeconomic and race data from the 2005 American Community Survey, both at the census tract level. Disparities were assessed using spatially weighted ordinary least squares (OLS regression and quantile regression (QR for five major air toxics, each with cancer risk greater than 10−6. Spatial OLS results showed that disparities in cancer risks were significant: People in low-income tracts bore a cumulative risk 12% more than those in high-income tracts (p < 0.05, and those in black-dominant areas 16% more than in white-dominant areas (p < 0.01. Formaldehyde and benzene were the two largest contributors to the disparities. Contributions from emission sources to disparities varied by compound. Spatial QR analyses showed that magnitude of disparity became larger at the high end of exposure range, indicating worsened disparity in the poorest and most highly concentrated black areas. Cancer risk of air toxics not only disproportionately affects socioeconomically disadvantaged and racial minority communities, but there is a gradient effect within these groups with poorer and higher minority concentrated segments being more affected than their counterparts. Risk reduction strategies should target emission sources, risk driver chemicals, and especially the disadvantaged neighborhoods.

  13. Proposed Identification of Environmental Tobacco Smoke as a Toxic Air Contaminant

    OpenAIRE

    California Environmental Protection Agency: Air Resources Board

    2005-01-01

    This report provides a comprehensive assessment of the effects of environmental tobacco smoke (secondhand smoke) as of mid-2005 produced by the California Air Resources Board and Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment as part of the process of identifying ETS as a toxic air contaminant. Part A of the report includes information about the chemical composition of secondhand smoke and exposure of the public to secondhand smoke, including outdoor exposures. Part B of t...

  14. Sampling frequency guidance for ambient air toxics monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bortnick, Steven M; Stetzer, Shannon L

    2002-07-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is in the process of designing a national network to monitor hazardous air pollutants (HAPs), also known as air toxics. The purposes of the expanded monitoring are to (1) characterize ambient concentrations in representative areas; (2) provide data to support and evaluate dispersion and receptor models; and (3) establish trends and evaluate the effectiveness of HAP emission reduction strategies. Existing air toxics data, in the form of an archive compiled by EPA's Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards (OAQPS), are used in this paper to examine the relationship between estimated annual average (AA) HAP concentrations and their associated variability. The goal is to assess the accuracy, or bias and precision, with which the AA can be estimated as a function of ambient concentration levels and sampling frequency. The results suggest that, for several air toxics, a sampling schedule of 1 in 3 days (1:3) or 1:6 days maybe appropriate for meeting some of the general objectives of the national network, with the more intense sampling rate being recommended for areas expected to exhibit relatively high ambient levels. PMID:12139351

  15. Evaluating the Spatial Distribution of Toxic Air Contaminants in Multiple Ecosystem Indicators in the Sierra Nevada-Southern Cascades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanus, L.; Simonich, S. L.; Rocchio, J.; Flanagan, C.

    2013-12-01

    Toxic air contaminants originating from agricultural areas of the Central Valley in California threaten vulnerable sensitive receptors including surface water, vegetation, snow, sediments, fish, and amphibians in the Sierra Nevada-Southern Cascades region. The spatial distribution of toxic air contaminants in different ecosystem indicators depends on variation in atmospheric concentrations and deposition, and variation in air toxics accumulation in ecosystems. The spatial distribution of organic air toxics and mercury at over 330 unique sampling locations and sample types over two decades (1990-2009) in the Sierra Nevada-Southern Cascades region were compiled and maps were developed to further understand spatial patterns and linkages between air toxics deposition and ecological effects. Potential ecosystem impacts in the Sierra Nevada-Southern Cascades region include bioaccumulation of air toxics in both aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems, reproductive disruption, and immune suppression. The most sensitive ecological end points in the region that are affected by bioaccumulation of toxic air contaminants are fish. Mercury was detected in all fish and approximately 6% exceeded human consumption thresholds. Organic air toxics were also detected in fish yielding variable spatial patterns. For amphibians, which are sensitive to pesticide exposure and potential immune suppression, increasing trends in current and historic use pesticides are observed from north to south across the region. In other indicators, such as vegetation, pesticide concentrations in lichen increase with increasing elevation. Current and historic use pesticides and mercury were also observed in snowpack at high elevations in the study area. This study shows spatial patterns in toxic air contaminants, evaluates associated risks to sensitive receptors, and identifies data gaps. Future research on atmospheric modeling and information on sources is needed in order to predict which ecosystems are the

  16. Grandfather regulations, new source bias, and state air toxics regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper uses plant-level data from the Census of Manufactures and the variation in toxic air pollution regulations across states to measure the effects of laws that are more stringent for new sources of pollution than for existing sources (so-called 'grandfather' regulations). Of particular interest is the resulting 'new source bias' and its effects on capital vintage and investment. Two industries are examined: commercial printing, which has a local product market; and paint manufacturing, which has a more national market. In general, there seem to be no statistically significant differences in capital vintage or investment between plants in states that grandfather new sources of pollution, plants in states that have no air toxics regulations, and plants in states that regulate both new and existing sources

  17. Ambient and Emission Trends of Toxic Air Contaminants in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Propper, Ralph; Wong, Patrick; Bui, Son; Austin, Jeff; Vance, William; Alvarado, Álvaro; Croes, Bart; Luo, Dongmin

    2015-10-01

    After initiating a toxic air contaminant (TAC) identification and control program in 1984, the California Air Resources Board adopted regulations to reduce TAC emissions from cars, trucks, stationary sources, and consumer products. This study quantifies ambient concentration and emission trends for the period 1990-2012 for seven TACs that are responsible for most of the known cancer risk associated with airborne exposure in California. Of these seven, diesel particulate matter (DPM) is the most important; however DPM is not measured directly. Based on a novel surrogate method, DPM concentrations declined 68%, even though the state's population increased 31%, diesel vehicle-miles-traveled increased 81%, and the gross state product (GSP) increased 74%. Based on monitoring data, concentrations of benzene, 1,3-butadiene, perchloroethylene, and hexavalent chromium declined 88-94%. Also, the ambient and emissions trends for each of these four TACs were similar. Furthermore, these declines generally occurred earlier in California than elsewhere. However, formaldehyde and acetaldehyde, which are formed in the air photochemically from volatile organic compounds (VOCs), declined only 20-21%. The collective cancer risk from exposure to these seven reviewed TACs declined 76%. Significant reduction in cancer risk to California residents from implementation of air toxics controls (especially for DPM) is expected to continue. PMID:26340590

  18. Air toxics evaluation of ABB Combustion Engineering Low-Emission Boiler Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wesnor, J.D. [ABB/Combustion Engineering, Inc., Windsor, CT (United States)

    1993-10-26

    The specific goals of the program are to identify air toxic compounds that might be emmitted from the new boiler with its various Air Pollution Control device for APCD alternatives in levels of regulatory concern. For the compounds thought to be of concern, potential air toxic control methodologies will be suggested and a Test Protocol will be written to be used in the Proof of Concept and full scale tests. The following task was defined: Define Replations and Standards; Identify Air Toxic Pollutants of Interest to Interest to Utility Boilers; Assesment of Air Toxic By-Products; State of the Art Assessment of Toxic By-Product Control Technologies; and Test Protocol Definition.

  19. Asthma symptoms in Hispanic children and daily ambient exposures to toxic and criteria air pollutants.

    OpenAIRE

    Delfino, Ralph J.; Gong, Henry; Linn, William S.; Pellizzari, Edo D; Hu, Ye

    2003-01-01

    Although acute adverse effects on asthma have been frequently found for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's principal criteria air pollutants, there is little epidemiologic information on specific hydrocarbons from toxic emission sources. We conducted a panel study of 22 Hispanic children with asthma who were 10-16 years old and living in a Los Angeles community with high traffic density. Subjects filled out symptom diaries daily for up to 3 months (November 1999 through January 2000)....

  20. Advanced combustor design concept to control NOx and air toxics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eddings, E.G.; Pershing, D.W.; Molina, A.; Sarofim, A.F.; Spinti, J.P.; Veranth, J.

    1999-03-29

    Direct coal combustion needs to be a primary energy source for the electric utility industry and for heavy manufacturing during the next several decades because of the availability and economic advantage of coal relative to other fuels and because of the time required to produce major market penetration in the energy field. However, the major obstacle to coal utilization is a set of ever-tightening environmental regulations at both the federal and local level. It is, therefore, critical that fundamental research be conducted to support the development of low-emission, high-efficiency pulverized coal power systems. The objective of this program was to develop fundamental understanding regarding the impact of fuel and combustion changes on NOx formation, carbon burnout and air toxic emissions from pulverized coal (pc) combustion. During pc combustion, nitrogen in the coal can be oxidized to form nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}). The 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments established much stricter NO{sub x} emissions limits for new and existing coal-fired plants, so there has been renewed interest in the processes by which NO{sub x} forms in pc flames. One of the least understood aspects of NO{sub x} formation from pc combustion is the process by which char-N (nitrogen remaining in the char after devolatilization) forms either NO{sub x} or N{sub 2}, and the development of a fundamental understanding of this process was a major focus of this research. The overall objective of this program was to improve the ability of combustion system designers and boiler manufacturers to build high efficiency, low emission pulverized coal systems by improving the design tools available to the industry. The specific program goals were to: Use laboratory experiments and modeling to develop fundamental understanding for a new submodel for char nitrogen oxidation (a critical piece usually neglected in most NOx models.); Use existing bench scale facilities to investigate alternative schemes to

  1. 76 FR 80727 - Flexible Implementation of the Mercury and Air Toxics Standards Rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-27

    ... 21, 2011 [FR Doc. 2011-33337 Filed 12-23-11; 8:45 am] Billing code 6560-50-P ... Documents#0;#0; ] Memorandum of December 21, 2011 Flexible Implementation of the Mercury and Air Toxics... the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), of the final Mercury and Air Toxics Standards rule...

  2. 77 FR 30274 - The Commission's Role Regarding the Environmental Protection Agency's Mercury and Air Toxics...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-22

    .../pkg/FR-2012-02-16/pdf/2012-806.pdf . I. Introduction 2. On December 21, 2011, the EPA released the... Mercury and Air Toxics Standards; Policy Statement on the Commission's Role Regarding the Environmental Protection Agency's Mercury and Air Toxics Standards Before Commissioners: Jon Wellinghoff, Chairman;...

  3. Effect of pyrolysis temperature and air flow on toxicity of gases from a polycarbonate polymer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilado, C. J.; Brick, V. E.; Brauer, D. P.

    1978-01-01

    A polycarbonate polymer was evaluated for toxicity of pyrolysis gases generated at various temperatures without forced air flow and with 1 L/min air flow, using the toxicity screening test method developed at the University of San Francisco. Time to various animal responses decreased with increasing pyrolysis temperature over the range from 500 C to 800 C. There appeared to be no significant toxic effects at 400 C and lower temperatures.

  4. Relationship of Racial Composition and Cancer Risks from Air Toxics Exposure in Memphis, Tennessee, U.S.A.

    OpenAIRE

    Chunrong Jia; Wesley James; Satish Kedia

    2014-01-01

    African Americans in the U.S. often live in poverty and segregated urban neighborhoods, many of which have dense industrial facilities resulting in high exposure to harmful air toxics. This study aims to explore the relationship between racial composition and cancer risks from air toxics exposure in Memphis/Shelby County, Tennessee, U.S.A. Air toxics data were obtained from 2005 National Air Toxics Assessment (NATA), and the demographic data, including racial composition, were extracted from ...

  5. Biodiesel and Cold Temperature Effects on Speciated Mobile Source Air Toxics from Modern Diesel Trucks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speciated volatile organic compounds (VOCs) with a particular focus on mobile source air toxics (MSATs) were measured in diesel exhaust from three heavy-duty trucks equipped with modern aftertreatment technologies. Emissions testing was conducted on a temperature controlled chass...

  6. Biodiesel and Cold Temperature Effect on Speciated Mobile Source Air Toxics from Modern Diesel Trucks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speciated volatile organic compounds (VOCs) with a particular focus on mobile source air toxics (MSATs) were measured in diesel exhaust from three heavy-duty trucks equipped with modern aftertreatment technologies. Emissions testing was conducted on a temperature controlled chass...

  7. Toxic and hazardous air pollutants from co-firing biomass fuels, fossil fuels, MSW and RDF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toxic and hazardous pollutants are defined and then are considered from the perspective of pollutants which enter the combustion process with the fuel (principally the metals and metallic compounds) and pollutants which are formed as products of incomplete combustion. Control strategies are reviewed through the entire process including fuel preparation and storage, combustion control and the application of air pollution control devices. Measurement techniques for specific toxic and hazardous air pollutants are discussed

  8. Aerometric Information Retrieval System/AIRS Facility Subsystem (AIRS/AFS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Aerometric Information Retrieval System/AIRS Facility Subsystem (AIRS/AFS) is a database that provides information on air releases from various stationary...

  9. Air toxic emissions from burning of biomass globally-preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emissions of trace gases, particles, and air toxic substances in the smoke plumes from biomass fires are of importance to global climate change. The potential impact of the air toxic emissions on the human population of specific regions globally is another major concern. The toxic materials are produced in high concentrations in areas of heavy biomass burning, e.g., Amazon Basin and Central/southern Africa. We provide new estimates of air toxics based on the combustion efficiency (percent of total carbon released as CO2) for fires burning in different ecosystems on a global basis. Estimates of total biomass consumed on a global basis range from 2 to 10 Pg (1 petagram = 1015g) per year. We apply emission factors for various air toxics (g of emission released per kg of fuel consumed) to the estimate of global biomass consumption of 6.4 Pg per year. The principal air toxics analyzed in this paper include: Total particulate matter, CO, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acrolein, benzene, toluene, o-xylene, m, p-xylene, benzo[a]pyrene, and polycyclic organic material. The total emissions calculated for these materials on a yearly global basis are: 75, 362, 4.9, 1.5, 1.5, 2.1, 2.1, 0.3, 0.6, 0.001, 0.026, Tg (1 teragram = 1012g) per year, respectively. Biomass burning in the United States contributes less than 3% to the total global emissions

  10. EXTRAN: A computer code for estimating concentrations of toxic substances at control room air intakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents the NRC staff with a tool for assessing the potential effects of accidental releases of radioactive materials and toxic substances on habitability of nuclear facility control rooms. The tool is a computer code that estimates concentrations at nuclear facility control room air intakes given information about the release and the environmental conditions. The name of the computer code is EXTRAN. EXTRAN combines procedures for estimating the amount of airborne material, a Gaussian puff dispersion model, and the most recent algorithms for estimating diffusion coefficients in building wakes. It is a modular computer code, written in FORTRAN-77, that runs on personal computers. It uses a math coprocessor, if present, but does not require one. Code output may be directed to a printer or disk files. 25 refs., 8 figs., 4 tabs

  11. Current Status of Air Toxics Management and Its Strategies for Controlling Emissions in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Tien Tsai

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Since the 1970s, hazardous air pollutants (HAPs, so-called air toxics, have been of great concern because they can cause serious human health effects and have adverse effects on the environment. More noticeably, some of them are known to be human carcinogens. The objective of this paper is to investigate the regulatory systems and human health effects of air toxics which have been designated by the Taiwan government under the Air Pollution Control Act. These toxic air pollutants include acutely toxic gas (i.e., ammonia, chlorine, fluorides, hydrochloric acid, hydrogen cyanide, hydrogen sulfide, nitric acid, phosphoric acid and sulfuric acid, gas containing heavy metals, and carcinogenic chemicals (including formaldehyde, vinyl chloride, asbestos and matter containing asbestos, dioxins and furans, volatile organic compounds, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and polychlorinated biphenyls. In line with international concern about the carcinogenic risk and environmental persistence of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDDs/PCDFs and heavy metals in recent years, the current status in monitoring and reducing the emissions of PCDDs/PCDFs from stationary sources was analyzed as a case study in the present study. Furthermore, the control strategies for reducing emissions of air toxics from stationary sources in Taiwan were also addressed.

  12. APPLICATION OF JET REMPI AND LIBS TO AIR TOXIC MONITORING

    Science.gov (United States)

    The paper discusses three advanced, laser-based monitoring techniques that the EPA is assisting in developing for real time measurement of toxic aerosol compounds. One of the three techniques is jet resonance enhanced multiphoton ionization (Jet REMPI) coupled with a time-of-flig...

  13. MEASUREMENT OF TOXIC AND RELATED AIR POLLUTANTS - 1993

    Science.gov (United States)

    A joint conference cosponsored for the eighth year by the Atmospheric Research and Exposure Assessment Laboratory (AREAL) of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the Air & Waste Management Association was held in Durham, North Carolina, May 3-7, 1993. he four day technica...

  14. Toxic potency and effects of diffuse air pollution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hamers, T.H.M.

    2002-01-01

    Diffuse air pollution consists of an omnipresent complex mixture of pollutants that is emitted from many widely dispersed sources as traffic, industries, households, energy plants, waste incinerators, and agriculture. It can be deposited in relatively remote areas as a result of (long-range) airborn

  15. MEASUREMENT OF LOW LEVEL AIR TOXICS WITH MODIFIED UV DOAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    To further understand near source impacts, EPA is working to develop open-path optical techniques for spatiotemporal-resolved measurement of air pollutants. Of particular interest is near real time quantification of mobile-source generated CO, Nox and hydrocarbons measured in cl...

  16. Development of In Vitro Methods for Toxicity Testing of Workplace Air Contaminants

    OpenAIRE

    Chris Winder; Amanda Hayes; Shahnaz Bakand

    2009-01-01

    While the OECD test guidelines and mostly animal assays have been used to study the toxic effects of chemicals for many years, very little is known about the potential toxicity of vast majority of inhaled chemicals. Considering large number of chemicals and complex mixtures present in indoor and outdoor air, heavy reliance on animal test methods appear to be not adequate. Continuing scientific developments are needed to improve the process of safety evaluation for the vast number of chemicals...

  17. Air pollution information needs and the knowledge, attitudes and behaviour of Canadians : final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the fall of 2001, the Environics Research Group conducted a national survey of 1,213 Canadians in order to provide Health Canada with public opinion on clean air issues. The topic areas included: concerns regarding air pollution; level of concern regarding air pollution; willingness for personal action; roles and responsibilities of government, industry and individuals; determinants of health; perceived effects of air pollution on health; personal health conditions; receipt of advice on the relationship between air pollution and health; information needs and preferred channels of information; familiarity with the air quality index; and, perceived sources of air pollution. According to survey results, Canadians think air pollution, pollution in general, and water quality are the most important environmental problems. They are most concerned about the manufacture, use and disposal of toxic chemicals, water quality and air quality, and less concerned about the depletion of the ozone layer and the use of biotechnology in agriculture and food products. Results suggest that most Canadians believe that air pollution significantly affects the health of Canadians. Approximately 25 per cent of Canadians feel they suffer from respiratory problems resulting from air pollution. In general, they think indoor and outdoor air pollution have equal effect on their health. The survey also indicated that Canadians think government regulations and enforcement are more effective in combating air pollution than voluntary action by individuals or companies. tabs., figs

  18. Air Force geographic information and analysis system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henney, D.A.; Jansing, D.S.; Durfee, R.C.; Margle, S.M.; Till, L.E.

    1987-01-01

    A microcomputer-based geographic information and analysis system (GIAS) was developed to assist Air Force planners with environmental analysis, natural resources management, and facility and land-use planning. The system processes raster image data, topological data structures, and geometric or vector data similar to that produced by computer-aided design and drafting (CADD) systems, integrating the data where appropriate. Data types included Landsat imagery, scanned images of base maps, digitized point and chain features, topographic elevation data, USGS stream course data, highway networks, railroad networks, and land use/land cover information from USGS interpreted aerial photography. The system is also being developed to provide an integrated display and analysis capability with base maps and facility data bases prepared on CADD systems. 3 refs.

  19. Sources of toxicity and exposure information for identifying chemicals of high concern to children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Due to the large number of chemicals in commerce without adequate toxicity characterization data, coupled with an ineffective federal policy for chemical management in the United States, many states are grappling with the challenge to identify toxic chemicals that may pose a risk to human health and the environment. Specific populations (e.g., children, elderly) are particularly sensitive to these toxic chemicals. In 2008, the Children's Safe Product Act (CSPA) was passed in Washington State. The CSPA included specific requirements to identify High Priority Chemicals (HPCs) and Chemicals of High Concern to Children (CHCCs). To implement this legislation, a methodology was developed to identify HPCs from authoritative scientific and regulatory sources on the basis of toxicity criteria. Another set of chemicals of concern was then identified from authoritative sources, based on their potential exposure to children. Exposure potential was evaluated by identifying chemicals detected in biomonitoring studies (i.e., human tissues), as well as those present in residential exposure media (e.g., indoor air, house dust, drinking water, consumer products). Accordingly, CHCCs were defined as HPCs that also appear in biomonitoring studies or relevant exposure media. For chemicals with unique Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) numbers, we identified 2044 HPCs and 2219 chemicals with potential exposure to children, resulting in 476 CHCCs. The process of chemical identification is dynamic, so that chemicals may be added or subtracted as new information becomes available. Although beyond the scope of this paper, the 476 CHCCs will be prioritized in a more detailed assessment, based on the strength and weight of evidence of toxicity and exposure data. Our approach was developed to be flexible which allows the addition or removal of specific sources of toxicity or exposure information, as well as transparent to allow clear identification of inputs. Although the methodology was

  20. Air toxic emissions from the combustion of coal: Identifying and quantifying hazardous air pollutants from US coals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report addresses the key air toxic emissions likely to emanate from continued and expanded use of domestic coal. It identifies and quantifies those trace elements specified in the US 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments, by tabulating selected characterization data on various source coals by region, state, and rank. On the basis of measurements by various researchers, this report also identifies those organic compounds likely to be derived from the coal combustion process (although their formation is highly dependent on specific boiler configurations and operating conditions)

  1. Air toxic emissions from the combustion of coal: Identifying and quantifying hazardous air pollutants from US coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szpunar, C.B.

    1992-09-01

    This report addresses the key air toxic emissions likely to emanate from continued and expanded use of domestic coal. It identifies and quantifies those trace elements specified in the US 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments, by tabulating selected characterization data on various source coals by region, state, and rank. On the basis of measurements by various researchers, this report also identifies those organic compounds likely to be derived from the coal combustion process (although their formation is highly dependent on specific boiler configurations and operating conditions).

  2. Air quality monitoring at toxic waste sites: A Hanford perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Air quality monitoring is being conducted as part of remedial investigation activities at waste sites in the 1100-EM-1 Operating Unit at the US Department of Energy's Hanford Site. Sampling is being conducted for volatile organic compounds (VOCs), semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs) (including pesticides and PCBs), metals, and asbestos. The monitoring program is being conducted in three phases: before, during, and after intrusive remedial investigation activities. At each waste site, battery-powered monitoring equipment is positioned at one location upwind of the site (to measure background concentrations of pollutants) and typically at two locations downwind of the site. Control samples are used to identify sample contamination that may occur during handling or analysis. All samples are analyzed using methods approved by the US Environmental Protection Agency. The results from the first phase of sampling have been assessed and are being used to upgrade sampling and laboratory analysis procedures. 5 refs

  3. Emission of toxic air pollutants from biomass combustion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Combustion of biomass for power generation, home heating, process steam generation, and waste disposal constitutes a major source of air pollutants nationwide. Emissions from hog-fueled boilers, demolition wood-fired power plants, municipal waste incinerators, woodstoves, fireplaces, pellet stoves, agricultural burning, and forestry burning have been characterized for a variety of purposes. These have included risk assessment, permitting, emission inventory development, source profiling for receptor modeling, and control technology evaluations. From the results of the source characterization studies a compilation of emission factors for criteria and non-criteria pollutants are presented here. Key among these pollutants are polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, priority pollutant metals, carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, nitrous oxides, and PM10 particles. The emission factors from the biomass combustion processes are compared and contrasted with other pollutant sources. In addition, sampling and analysis procedures most appropriate for characterizing emissions from the biomass combustion sources are also discussed

  4. Gas-analytical methods for monitoring toxic gases in the air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The article analyzes the problems in detecting small concentrations of hazardous air emissions.The main modern methods of registration of toxic and combustible gases are proposed. The questions used as primary converter photoionizing detector, metal-oxide semiconductor and electrochemical sensory was discussed

  5. An Assessment of Air Pollution Exposure Information for Health Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederick W. Lipfert

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Most studies of air pollution health effects are based on outdoor ambient exposures, mainly because of the availability of population-based data and the need to support emission control programs. However, there is also a large body of literature on indoor air quality that is more relevant to personal exposures. This assessment attempts to merge these two aspects of pollution-related health effects, emphasizing fine particles. However, the basic concepts are applicable to any pollutant. The objectives are to examine sensitivities of epidemiological studies to the inclusion of personal exposure information and to assess the resulting data requirements. Indoor air pollution results from penetration of polluted outdoor air and from various indoor sources, among which environmental tobacco smoke (ETS is probably the most toxic and pervasive. Adequate data exist on infiltration of outdoor air but less so for indoor sources and effects, all of which have been based on surveys of small samples of individual buildings. Since epidemiology is based on populations, these data must be aggregated using probabilistic methods. Estimates of spatial variation and precision of ambient air quality are also needed. Hypothetical personal exposures in this paper are based on ranges in outdoor air quality, variable infiltration rates, and ranges of indoor source strength. These uncertainties are examined with respect to two types of mortality studies: time series analysis of daily deaths in a given location, and cross-sectional analysis of annual mortality rates among locations. Regressions of simulated mortality on personal exposures, as affected by all of these uncertainties, are used to examine effects on dose-response functions using quasi-Monte Carlo methods. The working hypothesis is that indoor sources are reasonably steady over time and thus applicable only to long-term cross-sectional studies. Uncertainties in exposure attenuate the simulated mortality

  6. Health Status and Residential Exposure to Air Toxics: What Are the Effects on Children's Academic Achievement?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark-Reyna, Stephanie E; Grineski, Sara E; Collins, Timothy W

    2016-01-01

    This article examines the effects of children's subjective health status and exposure to residential environmental toxins on academic performance for the first time, while adjusting for school-level effects using generalized estimating equations. The analysis employs National Air Toxics Assessment risk estimates and individual-level data collected through a mail survey. Results indicate that poorer subjective health status and higher levels of residential air toxins are statistically significantly associated with lower grade point averages, meaning that there is an independent effect of air pollution on children's academic achievement that cannot be explained by poor health alone. PMID:27214671

  7. The effects of forced air flow and oxygen concentration on flammability, smoke density, and pyrolytic toxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauers, D. G.

    1976-01-01

    The question is posed whether forced air flow should be incorporated into flammability tests as a relevant variable. A test apparatus is described which permits tests to be conducted on small test specimens in a forced flow which is (continuously) variable over flow velocities from zero to 300 feet per minute (1.52 m/s). The effects of air-flow rate and oxygen concentration on flame propagation rate, maximum smoke density, and pyrolytic product toxicity were measured for a single material and were statistically evaluated. Regression analysis was used to graph the resulting relationships. It is concluded that air velocity is an important variable for laboratory flammability testing.

  8. Innovative technologies for removing toxic compounds from groundwater and air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Innovative waste treatment technologies are being developed to remove hazardous organic wastes from water and air. These technologies involve the generation of highly reactive free radicals and their reaction with organic compounds. Two efficient methods of producing these reactive free radicals are radiolysis and electrical-discharge plasmas. Radiolytic technology involves the irradiation of contaminated media with high-energy electron beams or x rays generated from the beams (megavolt energies, hundreds of kilorad doses). This process is best understood in aqueous solutions, in which sizable quantities of the free radicals eaq-, OH*, and H*, as well as the more stable oxidant H202, are produced. These highly reactive species react with organic contaminants to produce C02, H20, and salts, which are no longer hazardous. Nonequilibrium electrical-discharge plasmas involve the generation of copious quantities of reactive free radicals from the dissociation of molecular oxygen by energetic electrons in the gas-based discharge. One of the most promising technologies for plasma processing is based upon the ''silent electrical discharge'' that has proven to be industrially dependable for the generation of large quantities of ozone

  9. Information draft on the development of air standards for chloroform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-01-01

    Chloroform is used as a grain fumigant and a solvent for pesticides, adhesives, fats, oils, rubbers, alkaloids and waxes. It is also a chemical intermediate for dyes and pesticides, a component of cough syrups, toothpastes, and liniments. It is used in fire extinguishers, in the manufacture of refrigerants, propellants, plastics, anesthetics and pharmaceuticals. Of the releases into the air in 1996 in Ontario (36.7 tonnes), over 96 per cent was attributed to the pulp and paper industry. Chloroform is well absorbed in exposed animals and humans through ingestion, inhalation, and dermal contact. Once absorbed, the chloroform distributes throughout the entire body. Metabolism of chloroform involves cytochrome P-450 in an oxidative biotransformation to produce trichloromethanol with phosgene as its intermediate product and finally hydrochloric acid and carbon dioxide. Chloroform is a central nervous system depressant and a gastrointestinal irritant. Exposure to chloroform can cause fainting, vomiting, dizziness, nausea, fatique and headache. Its most universally observed toxic effect is liver damage. Chloroform is not known to be carcinogenic in humans, but there is sufficient evidence to suggest that it is an animal carcinogen. The current Ontario air quality standard and criterion for chloroform was established in 1979. The half-hour interim POI standard is 1,500 microgram/cubic meter, and the 24-hour AAQC is 500 microgram/cubic meter. This document reviews the scientific and technical information relevant to setting an ambient air quality standard for chloroform in Ontario. The information is gathered from standards and guidelines developed by the federal government, the US Environmental Protection Agency, the World Health Organization, Scandinavia, the Netherlands, and various American states. 59 refs., 1 tab., appendix.

  10. Organization of information protection in the information system of determining the toxicity focus of biological objects

    OpenAIRE

    Руженцев, Віктор Ігоревич; Порван, Андрій Павлович; Пащенко, Марія Анатоліївна

    2016-01-01

    It is proposed an approach to the organization of information protection in the information system of determining the toxicity focus of aquatic biological objects to prevent unauthorized access to data. As the most efficient algorithm for the information protection has been elected a symmetric block encryption algorithm. The use of this algorithm is enabled to achieve the necessary and sufficient performance of operations of encryption and decryption of data monitoring of water bodies on diff...

  11. Air toxics concentrations, source identification, and health risks: An air pollution hot spot in southwest Memphis, TN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Chunrong; Foran, Jeffery

    2013-12-01

    Southwest Memphis is a residential region surrounded by fossil fuel burning, steel, refining, and food processing industries, and considerable mobile sources whose emissions may pose adverse health risks to local residents. This study characterizes cancer and non-cancer risks resulting from exposure to ambient air toxics in southwest Memphis. Air toxics samples were collected at a central location every 6 days from June 5, 2008 to January 8, 2010. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were collected in evacuated stainless-steel canisters and aldehydes by DNPH cartridges, and samples were analyzed for 73 target compounds. A total of 60 compounds were detected and 39 were found in over 86% of the samples. Mean concentrations of many compounds were higher than those measured in many industrial communities throughout the U.S. The cumulative cancer risk associated with exposure to 13 carcinogens found in southwest Memphis air was 2.3 × 10-4, four times higher than the national average of 5.0 × 10-5. Three risk drivers were identified: benzene, formaldehyde, and acrylonitrile, which contributed 43%, 19%, and 14% to the cumulative risk, respectively. This is the first field study to confirm acrylonitrile as a potential risk driver. Mobile, secondary, industrial, and background sources contributed 57%, 24%, 14%, and 5% of the risk, respectively. The results of this study indicate that southwest Memphis, a region of significant income, racial, and social disparities, is also a region under significant environmental stress compared with surrounding areas and communities.

  12. Personal and ambient exposures to air toxics in Camden, New Jersey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lioy, Paul J; Fan, Zhihua; Zhang, Junfeng; Georgopoulos, Panos; Wang, Sheng-Wei; Ohman-Strickland, Pamela; Wu, Xiangmei; Zhu, Xianlei; Harrington, Jason; Tang, Xiaogang; Meng, Qingyu; Jung, Kyung Hwa; Kwon, Jaymin; Hernandez, Marta; Bonnano, Linda; Held, Joann; Neal, John

    2011-08-01

    Personal exposures and ambient concentrations of air toxics were characterized in a pollution "hot spot" and an urban reference site, both in Camden, New Jersey. The hot spot was the city's Waterfront South neighborhood; the reference site was a neighborhood, about 1 km to the east, around the intersection of Copewood and Davis streets. Using personal exposure measurements, residential ambient air measurements, statistical analyses, and exposure modeling, we examined the impact of local industrial and mobile pollution sources, particularly diesel trucks, on personal exposures and ambient concentrations in the two neighborhoods. Presented in the report are details of our study design, sample and data collection methods, data- and model-analysis approaches, and results and key findings of the study. In summary, 107 participants were recruited from nonsmoking households, including 54 from Waterfront South and 53 from the Copewood-Davis area. Personal air samples were collected for 24 hr and measured for 32 target compounds--11 volatile organic compounds (VOCs*), four aldehydes, 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and particulate matter (PM) with an aerodynamic diameter fixed monitoring sites, one each in the Waterfront South and Copewood-Davis neighborhoods. To understand the potential impact of local sources of air toxics on personal exposures caused by temporal (weekdays versus weekend days) and seasonal (summer versus winter) variations in source intensities of the air toxics, four measurements were made of each subject, two in summer and two in winter. Within each season, one measurement was made on a weekday and the other on a weekend day. A baseline questionnaire and a time diary with an activity questionnaire were administered to each participant in order to obtain information that could be used to understand personal exposure to specific air toxics measured during each sampling period. Given the number of emission sources of air toxics in Waterfront

  13. Pollution of atmospheric air with toxic and radioactive particulate matter investigated by means of nuclear techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The application of spectrometric methods of nuclear techniques to the investigations of atmospheric air pollution by toxic and radioactive elements and results of these investigations conducted in the highly industrialized and urbanized regions of Poland have been presented. The method of precipitation of the samples, the measurements and analysis of radiation spectra of alpha and gamma radiation emitted by isotopes present in the samples have been described. The concentrations of toxic metal dust in the air have been evaluated by neutron activation and X-ray fluorescence analysis. Appropriate methods of measurement, calibration of instrument and the discussion of results have been presented. The work presents the results of investigations performed in Siersza within the years 1973-1974 and in Warsaw in the period of 1975-1977, which have permitted to estimate the mean monthly values of concentration in the atmospheric air of the following radioisotopes: 7Be, 54Mn, 95Zr, 103Ru, 106Ru, 125Sb, 131I, 137Cs, 140Ba, 141Ce, 144Ce, 226Ra, Th-nat, U-nat and the following stable elements: Sc, Cr, Fe, Co, Zn, As, Se, Sb, W, Pb. The analysis of changes in concentration of each particular artificial radioisotope in the air for the region of Poland in connection with Chinese nuclear explosions have been given. On the basis of the performed environmental investigations the method of analysis of relations between the concentrations of particular elements present in the dust has been discussed. The applications of this method have been presented. The hazard to the population and the environment caused by the radioactive and toxic dust present in the atmospheric air has been estimated. (author)

  14. Development of In Vitro Methods for Toxicity Testing of Workplace Air Contaminants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Winder

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available While the OECD test guidelines and mostly animal assays have been used to study the toxic effects of chemicals for many years, very little is known about the potential toxicity of vast majority of inhaled chemicals. Considering large number of chemicals and complex mixtures present in indoor and outdoor air, heavy reliance on animal test methods appear to be not adequate. Continuing scientific developments are needed to improve the process of safety evaluation for the vast number of chemicals and inhaled materials. The aim of this study was to optimise in vitro methods for toxicity testing of airborne contaminants. An integrated approach was designed in which appropriate exposure techniques were developed. A diversified range of in vitro assays using multiple human cell systems were implemented. Direct exposure of cells to airborne contaminants was developed by culturing cells on porous membranes in conjunction with a horizontal diffusion chamber system. Dose-response curves were generated allowing the measurement of toxicity endpoints. Toxicity ranking of test chemicals, based on obtained IC50 (50% inhibitory concentration values, in different human cells and in vitro assays were determined. Airborne IC50 values were calculated for selected volatile organic compounds (xylene; 5350 ± 328 ppm > toluene; 10500 ± 527 ppm and gaseous contaminants (NO2; 11 ± 3.54 ppm > SO2; 48 ± 2.83 ppm > and NH3; 199 ± 1.41 ppm. Results of this research indicate the significant potential of in vitro methods as an advanced technology for toxicity assessment of airborne contaminants.

  15. Toxicity to Daphnia magna and Vibrio fischeri of Kraft bleach plant effluents treated by catalytic wet-air oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pintar, Albin; Besson, Michèle; Gallezot, Pierre; Gibert, Janine; Martin, Dominique

    2004-01-01

    Two Kraft-pulp bleaching effluents from a sequence of treatments which include chlorine dioxide and caustic soda were treated by catalytic wet-air oxidation (CWAO) at T=463 K in trickle-bed and batch-recycle reactors packed with either TiO2 extrudates or Ru(3 wt%)/TiO2 catalyst. Chemical analyses (TOC removal, color, HPLC) and bioassays (48-h and 30-min acute toxicity tests using Daphnia magna and Vibrio fischeri, respectively) were used to get information about the toxicity impact of the starting effluents and of the treated solutions. Under the operating conditions, complex organic compounds are mostly oxidized into carbon dioxide and water, along with short-chain carboxylic acids. Bioassays were found as a complement to chemical analyses for ensuring the toxicological impact on the ecosystem. In spite of a large decrease of TOC, the solutions of end products were all more toxic to Daphnia magna than the starting effluents by factors ranging from 2 to 33. This observation is attributed to the synergistic effects of acetic acid and salts present in the solutions. On the other hand, toxicity reduction with respect to Vibrio fischeri was achieved: detoxification factors greater than unity were measured for end-product solutions treated in the presence of the Ru(3 wt%)/TiO2 catalyst, suggesting the absence of cumulative effect for this bacteria, or a lower sensitivity to the organic acids and salts. Bleach plant effluents treated by the CWAO process over the Ru/TiO2 catalyst were completely biodegradable. PMID:14675640

  16. Polychlorinated naphthalenes in the air over the equatorial Indian Ocean: Occurrence, potential sources, and toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yumei; Li, Jun; Xu, Yue; Xu, Weihai; Zhong, Guangcai; Liu, Xiang; Zhang, Gan

    2016-06-15

    Monitoring of marine polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) is crucial, as they are considered persistent organic pollutants (POPs) by the Stockholm Convention. Data on PCNs in marine environment are scarce. In this study, 19 air samples were collected during a cruise in the equatorial Indian Ocean on board the Chinese research vessel Shiyan I from 4/2011 to 5/2011. PCN concentration of these air samples ranged from 0.033 to 2.56pgm(-3), with an average of 0.518pgm(-3), equal to or lower than the values reported for other oceans, seas, and lakes worldwide. Tri- and tetra-CNs were the main homologues in most samples. Reemission of Halowax mixtures and incineration processes were the major sources of atmospheric PCNs in the study area. The PCN-corresponding toxic equivalency values ranged from 0 to 0.190fgm(-3) (average: 0.038fgm(-3)), falling in the low end of global range. PMID:27084202

  17. The use of scientific information in setting ambient air standards.

    OpenAIRE

    Jordan, B C; Richmond, H M; McCurdy, T

    1983-01-01

    The Clean Air Act, as amended in 1977, requires periodic review and revision of all national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS) to insure that they are based on the latest scientific information. This article presents an overview of how EPA currently reviews and establishes NAAQS. The role of scientific information and expertise in the process is illustrated by a review of several key issues faced in the development of the proposed revisions to the carbon monoxide NAAQS. Finally, a risk an...

  18. Up the stack : coal-fired electricity's toxic impact : an OCAA air quality report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ontario Power Generation (OPG) must report annually its releases and transfers of 268 chemicals to the federal National Pollutant Release Inventory (NPRI). Each OPG facility reports the amount of chemicals released to the air, land, water and injected under ground at the facility site. The facilities must also report the amount of chemicals that are transferred off-site for treatment, sewage, disposal, recycling or energy recovery. In 1999 and 2000, atmospheric releases from OPG's coal-fired plants accounted for a significant percentage of the total pollutants released for Ontario and Canada. OPG's facilities are often in the top 5 in Ontario and Canada for releases of various chemicals, including persistent toxic chemicals. In 1999, the Nanticoke coal-fired power plant on Lake Erie was ranked first in Canada for releases to the air. Data reported for the 1999 and 2000 reporting period for dioxins and furans, hexachlorobenzene, mercury, metals (chromium, nickel and arsenic), and acid gases such as hydrochloric acid, hydrogen fluoride, and sulphuric acid clearly indicates that OPG coal-fired plants are a leading source of air pollution in Canada and Ontario. The Ontario Clean Air Alliance suggests the data is sufficient to phase-out the use of coal for power generation in Ontario. It recommends conserving energy and replacing coal-fired power with renewable energy sources such as wind and water power. Converting coal facilities to high-efficiency natural gas units would also reduce the toxic impacts of OPG's coal-fired power plants. As an immediate first step, it was recommended that the government should ban non-emergency exports of coal-fired electricity during smog-alert periods in Ontario. 11 tabs

  19. Toxics Release Inventory Chemical Hazard Information Profiles (TRI-CHIP) Dataset

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Toxics Release Inventory (TRI) Chemical Hazard Information Profiles (TRI-CHIP) dataset contains hazard information about the chemicals reported in TRI. Users...

  20. Information systems strategy in air transport .

    OpenAIRE

    McGlade, Desmond P.

    1993-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Seeking to improve the role of Information Technology (IT) and business practices in the Department of Defense, organizations were sought to serve as a model to aid in the improvement process. Southwest Airlines, a major U.S. carrier based in Dallas, Texas was chosen because of its record of profitability and its unique use of information technology. This case study describes Southwest's mission, goals, organization, business decision...

  1. Screening methods for the development of air-toxics emission factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Under the program the literature has been surveyed to determine the applicability of existing methodology. The primary goal was to use methodology applicable to the largest number of analytes listed in the Clean Air Act Amendments with the full realization that a broad coverage by a methodology may require some sacrifice of sensitivity and accuracy. The need for validation of proposed methodologies has been recognized. Assignments of analytes to a specific methodology have been made on the basis of previous validation studies and/or physical properties (available physical properties for the chemicals of the Clean Air Act list are supplied in an appendix). The range of applicability of a given sampling or analytical method, when available, is included as a part of the method description. Tables are included which summarize the potentially applicable sampling and analytical methods for chemicals listed in the Clean Air Act Amendments. General information on cost for the sampling and analysis procedures is presented

  2. TOF-SIMS measurements for toxic air pollutants adsorbed on the surface of airborne particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomiyasu, Bunbunoshin; Hoshi, Takahiro; Owari, Masanori; Nihei, Yoshimasa

    2003-01-01

    Three kinds of particulate matter were collected: diesel and gasoline exhaust particles emitted directly from exhaust nozzle, and suspended particulate matter (SPM) near the traffic route. Soxhlet extraction was performed on each sample. By gas-chromatograph-mass spectrometer (GC-MS) analysis of these extracts, di-ethyl phthalate and di- n-butyl phthalate were detected from the extract of SPM and diesel exhaust particles (DEPs). Because these phthalates were sometimes suspected as contamination, time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS) measurements were also performed on the samples collected at the same environment. By comparing obtained spectra, it is clear that these environmental endocrine disrupters (EEDs) were adsorbed on DEP surface. Thus, we concluded that the combination of conventional method and TOF-SIMS measurement is one of the most powerful techniques for analyzing the toxic air pollutants adsorbed on SPM surface.

  3. Urban air quality management and information systems in Europe: legal framework and information access

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The European Union (EU) legislative framework related to air quality, together with national legislation and relevant declarations of the United Nations (UN), requires an integrated approach concerning air quality management (AQM), and accessibility of related information for the citizens. In the present paper, the main requirements of this legislative framework are discussed and main air quality management and information system characteristics are drawn. The use of information technologies is recommended for the construction of such systems. The World Wide Web (WWW) is considered a suitable platform for system development and integration and at the same time as a medium for communication and information dissemination. (author)

  4. Silent Discharge Plasma Technology for the Treatment of Air Toxics and Other Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosocha, Louis A. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Chase, Peter J. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Gross, Michael P. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    1998-09-21

    Under this CRADA, the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and High Mesa Technologies, Inc. (HMT) carried out a joint project on the development of the silent discharge plasma (SDP) technology for the treatment of hazardous air pollutants and other hazardous or toxic chemicals. The project had two major components: a technology-demonstration part and a scale-up and commercialization part. In the first part, a small-scale, mobile SDP plasma processor, which was being developed under a CRADA with the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) was the mobile equipment was modified for higher capacity service and employed for an innovative remediation technologies demonstration on soil-vapor extraction off-gases at the McClellan Air Force Base near Sacramento, CA. The performance of the SDP system for the variety of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) encountered at the McClellan site was sufficiently promising to the project HMT and LANL worked together to formulate a scale-up strategy and commercialization/manufacturing plan, and to design a prototype scaled-up SDP unit. HMT and LANL are now in the final stages of completing a licensing agreement for the technology and HMT is in the process of raising funds to engineer and manufacture commercial prototype SDP equipment focused on stack-gas emissions control and environmental remediation. HMT, in collaboration with another Northern New Mexico business, Coyote Aerospace, has also been successful in receiving a Phase I Small Business Innovative Research (SBIR) award from the Army Research Office to develop, design, and construct a small non-thermal plasma reactor for laboratory studies ("Non-Thermal Plasma Reactor for Control of Fugitive Emissions of Toxic Gases")

  5. Bridging the air gap: an information assurance perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Richardson, Christopher

    2012-01-01

    The military has 5 domains of operations: Land, Sea, Air, Space and now Cyber. This 5th Domain is a heterogeneous network (of networks) of Communication and Information Systems (CIS) which were designed and accredited to meet Netcentric capability requirements; to be robust, secure and functional to the organisation’s needs. Those needs have changed. In the globalised economy and across the Battlespace, organisations now need to share information. Keeping our secrets, secret has been the watc...

  6. Importance of structural information in predicting human acute toxicity from in vitro cytotoxicity data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, we tried to assess the utility of the structural information of drugs for predicting human acute toxicity from in vitro basal cytotoxicity, and to interpret the informative quality and the pharmacokinetic meaning of each structural descriptor. For this, human acute toxicity data of 67 drugs were taken from literature with their basal cytotoxicity data, and used to develop predictive models. A series of multiple linear regression analyses were performed to construct feasible regression models by combining molecular descriptors and cytotoxicity data. We found that although the molecular descriptors alone had only moderate correlation with human acute toxicity, they were highly useful for explaining the discrepancy between in vitro cytotoxicity and human acute toxicity. Among many possible models, we selected the most explanatory models by changing the number and the type of combined molecular descriptors. The results showed that our selected models had high predictive power (R2: between 0.7 and 0.87). Our analysis indicated that those successful models increased the prediction accuracies by providing the information on human pharmacokinetic parameters which are the major reason for the difference between human acute toxicity and cytotoxicity. In addition, we performed a clustering analysis on selected molecular descriptors to assess their informative qualities. The results indicated that the number of single bonds, the number of hydrogen bond donors and valence connectivity indices are closely related to linking cytotoxicity to acute toxicity, which provides insightful explanation about human toxicity beyond cytotoxicity.

  7. AQUIS: A PC-based air quality and permit information system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Air Quality Utility Information System (AQUIS) was developed to calculate and track emissions, permits, and related information. The system runs on IBM-compatible personal computers using dBASE IV. AQUIS tracks more than 900 data items distributed among various source categories and allows the user to enter specific information on permit control devices, stacks, and related regulatory requirements. The system is currently operating at seven US Air Force Materiel Command facilities, large industrial operations involved in the repair and maintenance of aircraft. Environmental management personnel are responsible for the compliance status of as many as l,000 sources at each facility. The usefulness of the system has been enhanced by providing a flexible reporting capability that permits users who are unfamiliar with database structure to design and prepare reports containing specified information. In addition to the standard six pollutants, AQUIS calculates compound-specific emissions and allows users to enter their own emission estimates. This capability will be useful in developing air toxics inventories and control plans

  8. Air Toxics under the Big Sky: A Real-World Investigation to Engage High School Science Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Earle; Smith, Garon; Ward, Tony J.; Vanek, Diana; Marra, Nancy; Jones, David; Henthorn, Melissa; Striebel, Jim

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes a problem-based chemistry education model in which students perform scientific research on a local environmentally relevant problem. The project is a collaboration among The University of Montana and local high schools centered around Missoula, Montana. "Air Toxics under the Big Sky" involves high school students in collecting…

  9. Dimensions of Air Traffic Control Tower Information Needs: From Information Requests to Display Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durso, Francis T.; Johnson, Brian R.; Crutchfield, Jerry M.

    2010-01-01

    In an effort to determine the information needs of tower air traffic controllers, instructors from the Federal Aviation Administration's Academy in Oklahoma City were asked to control traffic in a high-fidelity tower cab simulator. Information requests were made apparent by eliminating access to standard tower information sources. Instead,…

  10. Mercury and Air Toxic Element Impacts of Coal Combustion By-Product Disposal and Utilizaton

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Hassett; Loreal Heebink; Debra Pflughoeft-Hassett; Tera Buckley; Erick Zacher; Mei Xin; Mae Sexauer Gustin; Rob Jung

    2007-03-31

    The University of North Dakota Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) conducted a multiyear study to evaluate the impact of mercury and other air toxic elements (ATEs) on the management of coal combustion by-products (CCBs). The ATEs evaluated in this project were arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead, nickel, and selenium. The study included laboratory tasks to develop measurement techniques for mercury and ATE releases, sample characterization, and release experiments. A field task was also performed to measure mercury releases at a field site. Samples of fly ash and flue gas desulfurization (FGD) materials were collected preferentially from full-scale coal-fired power plants operating both without and with mercury control technologies in place. In some cases, samples from pilot- and bench-scale emission control tests were included in the laboratory studies. Several sets of 'paired' baseline and test fly ash and FGD materials collected during full-scale mercury emission control tests were also included in laboratory evaluations. Samples from mercury emission control tests all contained activated carbon (AC) and some also incorporated a sorbent-enhancing agent (EA). Laboratory release experiments focused on measuring releases of mercury under conditions designed to simulate CCB exposure to water, ambient-temperature air, elevated temperatures, and microbes in both wet and dry conditions. Results of laboratory evaluations indicated that: (1) Mercury and sometimes selenium are collected with AC used for mercury emission control and, therefore, present at higher concentrations than samples collected without mercury emission controls present. (2) Mercury is stable on CCBs collected from systems both without and with mercury emission controls present under most conditions tested, with the exception of vapor-phase releases of mercury exposed to elevated temperatures. (3) The presence of carbon either from added AC or from unburned coal can result in mercury

  11. System approach for evaluation of air pollution toxic compounds in the 30-km area of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The article shows the importance of a systematic approach to address environmental problems that arise during the construction of nuclear power plants, and identified the need to consider the transformation and biotransformation of primary pollutants and monitoring secondary pollutants. The basic pathways of pollutants in the air a 30-km zone of nuclear power plants established. The content of primary and secondary air pollutants identified. The evaluation of general toxic risk from primary pollutant and the calculation of the carcinogenic risk of secondary pollutants entering the body by inhalation are carried out. (authors)

  12. Epigenetic Changes Induced by Air Toxics: Formaldehyde Exposure Alters miRNA Expression Profiles in Human Lung Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Rager, Julia E.; Smeester, Lisa; Jaspers, Ilona; Sexton, Kenneth G.; Fry, Rebecca C.

    2010-01-01

    Background Exposure to formaldehyde, a known air toxic, is associated with cancer and lung disease. Despite the adverse health effects of formaldehyde, the mechanisms underlying formaldehyde-induced disease remain largely unknown. Research has uncovered microRNAs (miRNAs) as key posttranscriptional regulators of gene expression that may influence cellular disease state. Although studies have compared different miRNA expression patterns between diseased and healthy tissue, this is the first st...

  13. Sampling of power plant stacks for air toxic emissions: Topical report for Phases 1 and 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-02-21

    Under contract with the US Department of Energy (DE-AC22-92PCO0367), Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, Radian Corporation has conducted a test program to collect and analyze size-fractionated stack gas particulate samples for selected inorganic hazardous air pollutants (HAPS). Specific goals of the program are (1) the collection of one-gram quantities of size-fractionated stack gas particulate matter for bulk (total) and surface chemical charactization, and (2) the determination of the relationship between particle size, bulk and surface (leachable) composition, and unit load. The information obtained from this program identifies the effects of unit load, particle size, and wet FGD system operation on the relative toxicological effects of exposure to particulate emissions.

  14. 48 CFR 1552.235-78 - Data Security for Toxic Substances Control Act Confidential Business Information (DEC 1997).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Data Security for Toxic... CONTRACT CLAUSES Texts of Provisions and Clauses 1552.235-78 Data Security for Toxic Substances Control Act...: Data Security for Toxic Substances Control Act Confidential Business Information (DEC 1997)...

  15. Sampling of power plant stacks for air toxic emissions: Final report for Phases 1 and 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-04-28

    A test program to collect and analyze size-fractionated stack gas particulate samples for selected inorganic hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) was conducted . Specific goals of the program are (1) the collection of one-gram quantities of size-fractionated stack gas particulate matter for bulk (total) and surface chemical characterization, and (2) the determination of the relationship between particle size, bulk and surface (leachable) composition, and unit load. The information obtained from this program identifies the effects of unit load, particle size, and wet FGD system operation on the relative toxicological effects of exposure to particulate emissions. Field testing was conducted in two phases. The Phase I field program was performed over the period of August 24 through September 20, 1992, at the Tennessee Valley Authority Widows Creek Unit 8 Power Station, located near Stevenson (Jackson County), Alabama, on the Tennessee River. Sampling activities for Phase II were conducted from September 11 through October 14, 1993. Widows Creek Unit 8 is a 575-megawatt plant that uses bituminous coal averaging 3.7% sulfur and 13% ash. Downstream of the boiler, a venture wet scrubbing system is used for control of both sulfur dioxide and particulate emissions. There is no electrostatic precipitator (ESP) in this system. This system is atypical and represents only about 5% of the US utility industry. However, this site was chosen for this study because of the lack of information available for this particulate emission control system.

  16. Indoor air quality environmental information handbook: Combustion sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-06-01

    This environmental information handbook was prepared to assist both the non-technical reader (i.e., homeowner) and technical persons (such as researchers, policy analysts, and builders/designers) in understanding the current state of knowledge regarding combustion sources of indoor air pollution. Quantitative and descriptive data addressing the emissions, indoor concentrations, factors influencing indoor concentrations, and health effects of combustion-generated pollutants are provided. In addition, a review of the models, controls, and standards applicable to indoor air pollution from combustion sources is presented. The emphasis is on the residential environment. The data presented here have been compiled from government and privately-funded research results, conference proceedings, technical journals, and recent publications. It is intended to provide the technical reader with a comprehensive overview and reference source on the major indoor air quality aspects relating to indoor combustion activities, including tobacco smoking. In addition, techniques for determining potential concentrations of pollutants in residential settings are presented. This is an update of a 1985 study documenting the state of knowledge of combustion-generated pollutants in the indoor environment. 191 refs., 51 figs., 71 tabs.

  17. Identifying inequitable exposure to toxic air pollution in racialized and low-income neighbourhoods to support pollution prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanne Kershaw

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Numerous environmental justice studies have confirmed a relationship between population characteristics such as low-income or minority status and the location of environmental health hazards. However, studies of the health risks from exposure to harmful substances often do not consider their toxicological characteristics. We used two different methods, the unit-hazard and the distance-based approach, to evaluate demographic and socio-economic characteristics of the population residing near industrial facilities in the City of Toronto, Canada. In addition to the mass of air emissions obtained from the national pollutant release inventory (NPRI, we also considered their toxicity using toxic equivalency potential (TEP scores. Results from the unit-hazard approach indicate no significant difference in the proportion of low-income individuals living in host versus non-host census tracts (t(107 = 0.3, P = 0.735. However, using the distance-based approach, the proportion of low-income individuals was significantly higher (+5.1%, t(522 = 6.0, P <0.001 in host tracts, while the indicator for “racialized” communities (“visible minority” was 16.1% greater (t(521 = 7.2, P <0.001 within 2 km of a NPRI facility. When the most toxic facilities by non-carcinogenic TEP score were selected, the rate of visible minorities living near the most toxic NPRI facilities was significantly higher (+12.9%, t(352 = 3.5, P = 0.001 than near all other NPRI facilities. TEP scores were also used to identify areas in Toronto that face a double burden of poverty and air toxics exposure in order to prioritise pollution prevention.

  18. Toxicity persistence following an experimental cypermethrin and chlorpyrifos application in Pampasic surface waters (Buenos Aires, Argentina).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mugni, H; Demetrio, P; Marino, D; Ronco, A; Bonetto, C

    2010-05-01

    The Pampa plain is intensively cultivated, the genetically modified glyphosate-resistant soybean being the main culture. A small first-order stream draining a cultured farm was studied. During the dry 2007 spring, the channel became a wetland with remnant intercalated shallow pools. Toxicity persistence of cypermethrin and chlorpyrifos to the amphipod Hyallela curvispina was assessed following a simulated plane application in the recently formed pools. In situ exposures and laboratory toxicity tests were performed. An ephemeral toxicity pulse lasting 4 h after the application and mortality cessation following that was observed. PMID:20396865

  19. Occurrence and Concentrations of Toxic VOCs in the Ambient Air of Gumi, an Electronics-Industrial City in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung-Ok Baek

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to characterize the occurrence and concentrations of a variety of volatile organic compounds (VOCs including aliphatic, aromatic, halogenated, nitrogenous, and carbonyl compounds, in the ambient air of Gumi City, where a large number of electronics industries are found. Two field monitoring campaigns were conducted for a one year period in 2003/2004 and 2010/2011 at several sampling sites in the city, representing industrial, residential and commercial areas. More than 80 individual compounds were determined in this study, and important compounds were then identified according to their abundance, ubiquity and toxicity. The monitoring data revealed toluene, trichloroethylene and acetaldehyde to be the most significant air toxics in the city, and their major sources were mainly industrial activities. On the other hand, there was no clear evidence of an industrial impact on the concentrations of benzene and formaldehyde in the ambient air of the city. Overall, seasonal variations were not as distinct as locational variations in the VOCs concentrations, whereas the within-day variations showed a typical pattern of urban air pollution, i.e., increase in the morning, decrease in the afternoon, and an increase again in the evening. Considerable decreases in the concentrations of VOCs from 2003 to 2011 were observed. The reductions in the ambient concentrations were confirmed further by the Korean PRTR data in industrial emissions within the city. Significant decreases in the concentrations of benzene and acetaldehyde were also noted, whereas formaldehyde appeared to be almost constant between the both campaigns. The decreased trends in the ambient levels were attributed not only to the stricter regulations for VOCs in Korea, but also to the voluntary agreement of major companies to reduce the use of organic solvents. In addition, a site planning project for an eco-friendly industrial complex is believed to play a contributory

  20. Occurrence and Concentrations of Toxic VOCs in the Ambient Air of Gumi, an Electronics-Industrial City in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, Sung-Ok; Suvarapu, Lakshmi Narayana; Seo, Young-Kyo

    2015-01-01

    This study was carried out to characterize the occurrence and concentrations of a variety of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) including aliphatic, aromatic, halogenated, nitrogenous, and carbonyl compounds, in the ambient air of Gumi City, where a large number of electronics industries are found. Two field monitoring campaigns were conducted for a one year period in 2003/2004 and 2010/2011 at several sampling sites in the city, representing industrial, residential and commercial areas. More than 80 individual compounds were determined in this study, and important compounds were then identified according to their abundance, ubiquity and toxicity. The monitoring data revealed toluene, trichloroethylene and acetaldehyde to be the most significant air toxics in the city, and their major sources were mainly industrial activities. On the other hand, there was no clear evidence of an industrial impact on the concentrations of benzene and formaldehyde in the ambient air of the city. Overall, seasonal variations were not as distinct as locational variations in the VOCs concentrations, whereas the within-day variations showed a typical pattern of urban air pollution, i.e., increase in the morning, decrease in the afternoon, and an increase again in the evening. Considerable decreases in the concentrations of VOCs from 2003 to 2011 were observed. The reductions in the ambient concentrations were confirmed further by the Korean PRTR data in industrial emissions within the city. Significant decreases in the concentrations of benzene and acetaldehyde were also noted, whereas formaldehyde appeared to be almost constant between the both campaigns. The decreased trends in the ambient levels were attributed not only to the stricter regulations for VOCs in Korea, but also to the voluntary agreement of major companies to reduce the use of organic solvents. In addition, a site planning project for an eco-friendly industrial complex is believed to play a contributory role in improving

  1. Information draft on the development of air standards for methanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-01-01

    Methanol is a clear, colourless. very mobile liquid with a slightly alcoholic odour in pure form, but a repulsive pungent odour in crude form. Methanol is the raw material in the production of many gasoline additives, is used as a solvent or antifreeze in paint strippers, aerosol spray paints, wall paints, carburetor cleaners, and car windshield washer compounds. Methanol is one of the top pollutants by release quantities in Ontario, the highest release being generated by the pulp and paper industry. Other large emissions come from the plastics and synthetic resin industry. Total release to the air in Canada was 3,668 tonnes in 1996 and the top ten methanol emitting facilities were in Ontario. Methanol is readily absorbed through inhalation, ingestion and skin exposures. Once absorbed, it is oxidized to formaldehyde and then to formic acid. Common symptoms of exposure are visual disturbances, dizziness, nausea, vertigo, pain in the extremities, and headaches. No information was found as to the carcinogenicity of methanol to humans or animals. Current Ontario half-hour POI standard for methanol is 84,000 microgram/cubic meter and the 24-hour AAQC is 28,000 microgram/cubic meter. Both values were established more than 20 years ago. Review of relevant literature, summarized in this report, indicates that five US states have promulgated air quality guidelines or reference exposure levels for methanol, based on occupational exposure limits. The US Environmental Protection Agency is currently reviewing its reference concentration value for methanol. The World Health Organization and the Canadian federal government have not set air quality guidelines for methanol. 37 refs., 1 tab., appendix.

  2. THE IMPACT OF SHRINKING HANFORD BOUNDARIES ON PERMITS FOR TOXIC AIR POLLUTANT EMISSIONS FROM THE HANFORD 200 WEST AREA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This presentation (CE-580. Graduate Seminar) presents a brief description of an approach to use a simpler dispersion modeling method (SCREEN3) in conjunction with joint frequency tables for Hanford wind conditions to evaluate the impacts of shrinking the Hanford boundaries on the current permits for facilities in the 200 West Area. To fulfill requirements for the graduate student project (CE-702. Master's Special Problems), this evaluation will be completed and published over the next two years. Air toxic emissions play an important role in environmental quality and require a state approved permit. One example relates to containers or waste that are designated as Transuranic Waste (TRU), which are required to have venting devices due to hydrogen generation. The Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) determined that the filters used did not meet the definition of a ''pressure relief device'' and that a permit application would have to be submitted by the Central Waste Complex (CWC) for criteria pollutant and toxic air pollutant (TAP) emissions in accordance with Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 173-400 and 173-460. The permit application submitted in 2000 to Ecology used Industrial Source Code III (ISCIII) dispersion modeling to demonstrate that it was not possible for CWC to release a sufficient quantity of fugitive Toxic Air Pollutant emissions that could exceed the Acceptable Source Impact Levels (ASILs) at the Hanford Site Boundary. The modeled emission rates were based on the diurnal breathing in and out through the vented drums (approximately 20% of the drums), using published vapor pressure, molecular weight, and specific gravity data for all 600+ compounds, with a conservative estimate of one exchange volume per day (208 liters per drum). Two permit applications were submitted also to Ecology for the Waste Receiving and Processing Facility and the T Plant Complex. Both permit applications were based on the Central Waste Complex approach, and

  3. "Air Toxics under the Big Sky": Examining the Effectiveness of Authentic Scientific Research on High School Students' Science Skills and Interest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Tony J.; Delaloye, Naomi; Adams, Earle Raymond; Ware, Desirae; Vanek, Diana; Knuth, Randy; Hester, Carolyn Laurie; Marra, Nancy Noel; Holian, Andrij

    2016-01-01

    "Air Toxics Under the Big Sky" is an environmental science outreach/education program that incorporates the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) 8 Practices with the goal of promoting knowledge and understanding of authentic scientific research in high school classrooms through air quality research. This research explored: (1)…

  4. Future research needs associated with the assessment of potential human health risks from exposure to toxic ambient air pollutants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Möller, Lennart; Schuetzle, Dennis; Autrup, Herman

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents key conclusions and future research needs from a Workshop on the Risk Assessment of Urban Air, Emissions, Exposure, Risk Identification, and Quantification, which was held in Stockholm during June 1992 by 41 participants from 13 countries. Research is recommended in the areas of...... identification and quantification of toxics in source emissions and ambient air, atmospheric transport and chemistry, exposure level assessment, the development of improved in vitro bioassays, biomarker development, the development of more accurate epidemiological methodologies, and risk quantification...... techniques. Studies are described that will be necessary to assess and reduce the level of uncertainties associated with each step of the risk assessment process. International collaborative research efforts between industry and government organizations are recommended as the most effective way to carry out...

  5. PROCEEDINGS OF THE 1990 EPA/AWMA INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM: MEASUREMENT OF TOXIC AND RELATED AIR POLLUTANTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The 1990 EPA/AWMA Symposium was held May 1-4, 1990 in Raleigh, N.C. he technical program consisted of 178 presentations held in 2O separate sessions. he sessions focused on recent advances in the measurement and monitoring of toxic and related pollutants. ew sessions to the sympo...

  6. Air toxics and epigenetic effects: ozone altered microRNAs in the sputum of human subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozone (03) is a criteria air pollutant that is associated with numerous adverse health effects, including altered respiratory immune responses. Despite its deleterious health effects, possible epigenetic mechanisms underlying 03-induced health effects remain understudied. MicroRN...

  7. Indoor air quality environmental information handbook: Building system characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This manual, the third in a series, focuses on residential building system characteristics and their effects on indoor air quality. The manual addresses: residential indoor air pollutants by source, indoor concentrations, health effects, source control and mitigation techniques, standards and guidelines; building system characteristics of air exchange, pollutant source strength, residence volume, site characteristics, structural design, construction, and operation, infiltration and ventilation system, building occupancy; and monitoring methods

  8. SUMMARY OF THE 1993 EPA/AWMA SYMPOSIUM - MEASUREMENT OF TOXIC AND RELATED AIR POLLUTANTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    A joint conference cosponsored for the eighth year by the Atmospheric Research and Exposure Assessment Laboratory (AREAL) of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the Air & Waste Management Association was held in Durham, North Carolina, May 3-7, 1993. he four day technica...

  9. CHARACTERIZATION OF AIR TOXICS FROM AN OIL-FIRED FIRETUBE BOILER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tests were conducted on a commercially available firetube package boiler running on #2 through #6 oils to determine the emissions levels of hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) from the combustion of four fuel oils. Flue gas was sampled to determine levels of volatile and semivolatile...

  10. Roadmaps to sources of information on chemicals listed in the Emergency Planning Community and Community Right-To-Know Act (also known as SARA Title 3), Section 313. Toxic release inventory (for microcomputers). Data file

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-09-01

    EPA has developed a database of sources of information on the chemicals listed in section 313 of the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA). The datbase is intended to assist users of section 313 Toxic Release Inventory data to perform exposure and risk assessments of these chemicals. The Roadmaps system displays and/or prints information for the SARA section 313 chemicals on health and environmental effects, Federal regulations, and state air and water regulations, monitoring data, and state contacts.

  11. Controlled clinical studies of air pollutant exposure: evaluating scientific information in relation to air quality standards.

    OpenAIRE

    Hackney, J D; Linn, W S

    1983-01-01

    In controlled clinical studies, volunteers are deliberately exposed to specific air pollutants under conditions simulating ambient exposures, and health-related responses are documented. Studies of the health risks of air pollution need to be scientifically rigorous and clearly relevant to "real-world" pollution exposures. Their results should be confirmed by independent replication if they are to be used as a basis for air quality regulations. Well-designed controlled clinical studies readil...

  12. Heme oxygenase-1 protects endothelial cells from the toxicity of air pollutant chemicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diesel exhaust particles (DEPs) are a major component of diesel emissions, responsible for a large portion of their toxicity. In this study, we examined the toxic effects of DEPs on endothelial cells and the role of DEP-induced heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) expression. Human microvascular endothelial cells (HMECs) were treated with an organic extract of DEPs from an automobile engine (A-DEP) or a forklift engine (F-DEP) for 1 and 4 h. ROS generation, cell viability, lactate dehydrogenase leakage, expression of HO-1, inflammatory genes, cell adhesion molecules and unfolded protein respone (UPR) gene were assessed. HO-1 expression and/or activity were inhibited by siRNA or tin protoporphyrin (Sn PPIX) and enhanced by an expression plasmid or cobalt protoporphyrin (CoPPIX). Exposure to 25 μg/ml of A-DEP and F-DEP significantly induced ROS production, cellular toxicity and greater levels of inflammatory and cellular adhesion molecules but to a different degree. Inhibition of HO-1 enzymatic activity with SnPPIX and silencing of the HO-1 gene by siRNA enhanced DEP-induced ROS production, further decreased cell viability and increased expression of inflammatory and cell adhesion molecules. On the other hand, overexpression of the HO-1 gene by a pcDNA 3.1D/V5-HO-1 plasmid significantly mitigated ROS production, increased cell survival and decreased the expression of inflammatory genes. HO-1 expression protected HMECs from DEP-induced prooxidative and proinflammatory effects. Modulation of HO-1 expression could potentially serve as a therapeutic target in an attempt to inhibit the cardiovascular effects of ambient PM. - Highlights: • We examined the role of HO-1 expression on diesel exhaust particle (DEP) in endothelial cells. • DEPs exert cytotoxic and inflammatory effects on human microvascular endothelial cells (HMECs). • DEPs induce HO-1 expression in HMECs. • HO-1 protects against the oxidative stress induced by DEps. • HO-1 attenuates the proinflammatory effects

  13. Heme oxygenase-1 protects endothelial cells from the toxicity of air pollutant chemicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawal, Akeem O.; Zhang, Min; Dittmar, Michael [Division of Cardiology, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, 10833 Le Conte Avenue, CHS 43-264, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Lulla, Aaron [Division of Cardiology, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, 10833 Le Conte Avenue, CHS 43-264, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Molecular Toxicology Interdepartmental Program, University of California, Los Angeles (United States); Araujo, Jesus A., E-mail: JAraujo@mednet.ucla.edu [Division of Cardiology, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, 10833 Le Conte Avenue, CHS 43-264, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Molecular Toxicology Interdepartmental Program, University of California, Los Angeles (United States); Molecular Biology Institute, University of California, Los Angeles (United States)

    2015-05-01

    Diesel exhaust particles (DEPs) are a major component of diesel emissions, responsible for a large portion of their toxicity. In this study, we examined the toxic effects of DEPs on endothelial cells and the role of DEP-induced heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) expression. Human microvascular endothelial cells (HMECs) were treated with an organic extract of DEPs from an automobile engine (A-DEP) or a forklift engine (F-DEP) for 1 and 4 h. ROS generation, cell viability, lactate dehydrogenase leakage, expression of HO-1, inflammatory genes, cell adhesion molecules and unfolded protein respone (UPR) gene were assessed. HO-1 expression and/or activity were inhibited by siRNA or tin protoporphyrin (Sn PPIX) and enhanced by an expression plasmid or cobalt protoporphyrin (CoPPIX). Exposure to 25 μg/ml of A-DEP and F-DEP significantly induced ROS production, cellular toxicity and greater levels of inflammatory and cellular adhesion molecules but to a different degree. Inhibition of HO-1 enzymatic activity with SnPPIX and silencing of the HO-1 gene by siRNA enhanced DEP-induced ROS production, further decreased cell viability and increased expression of inflammatory and cell adhesion molecules. On the other hand, overexpression of the HO-1 gene by a pcDNA 3.1D/V5-HO-1 plasmid significantly mitigated ROS production, increased cell survival and decreased the expression of inflammatory genes. HO-1 expression protected HMECs from DEP-induced prooxidative and proinflammatory effects. Modulation of HO-1 expression could potentially serve as a therapeutic target in an attempt to inhibit the cardiovascular effects of ambient PM. - Highlights: • We examined the role of HO-1 expression on diesel exhaust particle (DEP) in endothelial cells. • DEPs exert cytotoxic and inflammatory effects on human microvascular endothelial cells (HMECs). • DEPs induce HO-1 expression in HMECs. • HO-1 protects against the oxidative stress induced by DEps. • HO-1 attenuates the proinflammatory effects

  14. Measurement and improvement of indoor air quality in an information technology classroom

    OpenAIRE

    Tomić Mladen A.; Milutinović Biljana B.; Živković Predrag M.; Đekić Petar S.; Boričić Aleksandra D.

    2014-01-01

    With the rapid development of information technology equipment and its use in the teaching and learning activities, the working environment (especially indoor air quality) in which students and pupils spend a great deal of time in educational institutions has been changing. Therefore, special attention must be paid to indoor air quality and comfort. It is of great importance to maintain indoor air quality in an object, such as information technology classro...

  15. Intermedia transfer factors for fifteen toxic pollutants released to air basins in California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKone, T.E.; Daniels, J.I. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Chiao, F.F.; Hsieh, D.P.H. [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States)

    1993-10-01

    This report provides a summary definition of the intermedia-transfer factors (ITFs). Methods are discussed for estimating these parameters in the absence of measured values, and the estimation errors inherent in these estimation methods are considered. A detailed summary is provided of measured and estimated ITF values for fifteen air contaminants. They include: 1,3 butadiene; cadmium; cellosolve; cellosolve acetate; chloroform; di-2-ethylhexylphthalate; 1,4-dioxame; hexachlorobenzene; inorganic arsenic; inorganic lead; nickel; tetrachloroethylene; toluene; toluene-2,4-diisocyanate; and 1,3-xylene. Recommendations are made regarding the expected value and variance in these values for use in exposure models.

  16. Ambient air toxics monitoring and impact analysis for a resource recovery facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambient air monitoring has been conducted for approximately three years beginning in January of 1988 at four locations surrounding the Greater Detroit Resource Recovery Facility (GDRRF). The GDRRF began burning refuse-derived fuel (RDF) in early 1989. Two sampling locations operated by Roy F. Weston, Inc. are located in Michigan near the facility, and two sampling locations operated by Environment Canada are located across the Detroit River in Ontario. The groups of compounds sampled include dioxins and furans, PCBs, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), trace metals, and inorganic acids. The sampling results comprise one of the most comprehensive databases available for assessment of RRF air quality impacts. This paper presents a comparison of the sampling results between two of the four sampling locations. The site locations were chosen to represent background and impacted sites based on dispersion modeling and climatology. The background and impacted site results are statistically compared to determine impacts from the facility. Also, multiple regression and principal components techniques are used to identify source-receptor relations and source signatures

  17. Real-Time Cell-Electronic Sensing of Coal Fly Ash Particulate Matter for Toxicity-Based Air Quality Monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moe, Birget; Yuan, Chungang; Li, Jinhua; Du, Haiying; Gabos, Stephan; Le, X Chris; Li, Xing-Fang

    2016-06-20

    The development of a unique bioassay for cytotoxicity analysis of coal fly ash (CFA) particulate matter (PM) and its potential application for air quality monitoring is described. Using human cell lines, A549 and SK-MES-1, as live probes on microelectrode-embedded 96-well sensors, impedance changes over time are measured as cells are treated with varying concentrations (1 μg/mL-20 mg/mL) of CFA samples. A dose-dependent impedance change is determined for each CFA sample, from which an IC50 histogram is obtained. The assay was successfully applied to examine CFA samples collected from three coal-fired power plants (CFPs) in China. The samples were separated into three size fractions: PM2.5 (10 μm). Dynamic cell-response profiles and temporal IC50 histograms of all samples show that CFA cytotoxicity depends on concentration, exposure time (0-60 h), and cell-type (SK-MES-1 > A549). The IC50 values differentiate the cytotoxicity of CFA samples based on size fraction (PM2.5 ≈ PM10-2.5 ≫ PM10) and the sampling location (CFP2 > CFP1 ≈ CFP3). Differential cytotoxicity measurements of particulates in human cell lines using cell-electronic sensing provide a useful tool for toxicity-based air quality monitoring and risk assessment. PMID:27124590

  18. Auditing of sampling methods for air toxics at coal-fired power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agbede, R.O.; Clements, J.L.; Grunebach, M.G. [Advanced Technology Systems, Inc., Monroeville, PA (United States)] [and others

    1995-11-01

    Advanced Technology Systems, Inc. (ATS) with subcontract assistance from international Technology Corporation (IT) has provided external audit activities for Phase II of the Department of Energy-Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center`s air emission test program. The objective of the audits is to help ensure that the data obtained from the emission tests are precise, accurate, representative, scientifically sound and legally defensible. This paper presents the criteria that were used to perform the external audits of the emission test program. It also describes the approach used by ATS and It in performing their audits. Examples of findings of the audits along with the actions take to correct problems and the subsequent effect of those actions on the test data are presented. The results of audit spikes performed at the Plant 1 test site are also discussed.

  19. Air-quality monitoring at toxic waste sites: A Hanford perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Air-quality monitoring is part of remedial investigation (RI) activities at waste sites in the 1,100-EM-1 Operable Unit on the U.S. Department of Energy's Hanford Site. Sampling is being conducted for volatile organic compounds, semivolatile organic compounds (including pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls), metals, and asbestos. Monitoring will be conducted in three phases: before, during, and after intrusive RI activities. Battery-powered monitoring equipment is positioned at one location upwind of each site (to measure background) and, typically, at two locations downwind. Control samples identify contamination that may occur during handling or analysis. All samples are analyzed by approved U.S. Environmental Protection Agency methods. Results from the first monitoring have been assessed and are being used to upgrade sampling and laboratory analysis procedures

  20. OpenAIRE Guidelines for CRIS Managers: Supporting Interoperability of Open Research Information through Established Standards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Houssos, Nikos; Jörg, Brigitte; Dvořák, Jan;

    2014-01-01

    OpenAIRE is the European infrastructure enabling researchers to comply with the European Union requirements for Open Access to research results. OpenAIRE collects metadata from data sources across Europe and beyond and defines interoperability guidelines to assist providers in exposing their...... information in a way that is compatible with OpenAIRE. This contribution focuses on a specific type of data source, CRIS systems, and the respective OpenAIRE guidelines, based on CERIF XML. A range of issues, spanning different aspects of information representation and exchange, needed to be addressed by the...

  1. Green conscience: out with toxic cocktails, in with products and services to protect land, water, air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The growing environmental consciousness, the threat of litigation and the realization that it costs less to do oil field work properly from the start than to fix mistakes later at astronomical costs, has speeded up the development of environmentally sound practices in the oil and gas industry. Environmentally 'neutral' drilling muds, cleaner flaring of 'solution' gas associated with oil, reseeding disturbed land with native grasses, and other previously uncommon practices witnessed in recent times add up to a significantly improved environmental performance of the oil and natural gas industry, a veritable 'greening' of the oil patch. Attitudes have changed from 'how do we clean up a spill when it happens' to 'how do we prevent a spill from happening'. The fear of litigation is still present, especially as a result of the new Environmental Protection Enhancement Act, but industry insiders claim that the transition to environmental consciousness began even before the Act came into being. Companies recognized that it it makes good business and economic sense to be environmentally responsible. The evolution of this new spirit of environmental awareness, and examples of the changes it has wrought in the composition of drilling muds, in drastically reducing the toxic substances and the visual and noise pollution problems of solution gas flaring, and in cleaning up land surface disturbances are described. Other major changes such as spraying topsoil piles with a neutral latex product to keep it from blowing away, steam cleaning all heavy equipment before each move to ensure that it does not transfer weeds to clean areas, treatment of contaminated sands from heavy oil projects in bacteria-laden aeration units, fertilizing and seeding three or four times a summer for two or three years until the hydrocarbon content of the soil is down to an acceptable level, are now reported to be common practices

  2. The impact of information on perceived air quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilkins, K.; Wolkoff, Peder; Knudsen, Henrik Nellemose;

    2007-01-01

    As indoor air quality complaints cannot be explained satisfactorily and building materials can be a major source of indoor air pollution, we hypothesized that emissions from building materials perceived as unfamiliar or annoying odors may contribute to such complaints. To test this hypothesis......, emissions from indoor building materials containing linseed oil (organic) and comparable synthetic (synthetic) materials were evaluated by a naı¨ve sensory panel for evaluation of odor intensity (OI) and odor acceptability (OA). The building materials were concealed in ventilated climate chambers of the...

  3. 14 CFR 330.29 - What information must air taxi operators submit on Form 330 (Final) and Form 330-C?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false What information must air taxi operators... COMPENSATION OF AIR CARRIERS Application Procedures § 330.29 What information must air taxi operators submit on Form 330 (Final) and Form 330-C? As an air taxi operator, you must complete Form 330 (Final)...

  4. Integration of site-specific health information: Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry health assessments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lesperance, A.M.; Siegel, M.R.

    1990-12-01

    The Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry is required to conduct a health assessment of any site that is listed on or proposed for the US Environmental Protection Agency's National Priorities List. Sixteen US Department of Energy (DOE) sites currently fall into this category. Health assessments contain a qualitative description of impacts to public health and the environment from hazardous waste sites, as well as recommendations for actions to mitigate or eliminate risk. Because these recommendations may have major impacts on compliance activities at DOE facilities, the health assessments are an important source of information for the monitoring activities of DOE's Office of Environmental Compliance (OEC). This report provides an overview of the activities involved in preparing the health assessment, its role in environmental management, and its key elements.

  5. IMPACT OF INFORMATION ON THE DELIVERY OF CARGO WITH AIR TRANSPORT

    OpenAIRE

    Габріелова, Т.Ю.; National Aviation University; Войцеховський, В.С.; National Aviation University

    2014-01-01

    Peculiarities of the impact of informatization on the process of cargo delivery involving air transport under conditions of competitive environment dynamic development have been considered. Information products providing uploading capacity on an extensive air route network were analysed. The role of international mediation bodies for financial settlements between participants of air transportation process was determined. Basic aspects of the pricing control depending on the condition of fligh...

  6. Informed Trading, Flow Toxicity and the Impact on Intraday Trading Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Chun Wei

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study involves a detailed discussion on the estimation of intraday time-varying volume synchronised probability of informed trading (VPIN, a proxy for levels of informed trading and flow toxicity, followed by intraday analysis on its impact of the behaviour of intraday trading in a limit order book (LOB market. The variation of VPIN used is closely based on the original from Easley, Lopez de Prado and O’Hara (2010, using trade volume imbalance information. This study shows that different capitalisation stocks exhibit different VPIN characteristics. Previous studies on other variations of PIN have looked at its determination on price movements, and whether a lead-lag relationship exists. This study examines if VPIN has an effect on several of intraday trading factors in the Australian market, being a LOB. In particular, it documents if Granger causality exists between (1 VPIN and quote imbalance, 20(2 VPIN and intraday price volatility and (3 VPIN and intraday trade frequency or similarly in an inverse manner, duration.For this analysis the Hsiao-Kang methodology for Granger testing has been followed and the posterior odds ratio test used to measure the strength of Granger causality in equity markets as suggested recently by Atukeren (2005. Feedback causality between VPIN and allthree intraday factors is apparent.

  7. 19 CFR 122.48a - Electronic information for air cargo required in advance of arrival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Electronic information for air cargo required in... OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Aircraft Entry and Entry Documents; Electronic Manifest Requirements for Passengers, Crew Members, and Non-Crew Members...

  8. Between-airport heterogeneity in air toxics emissions associated with individual cancer risk thresholds and population risks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levy Jonathan I

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Airports represent a complex source type of increasing importance contributing to air toxics risks. Comprehensive atmospheric dispersion models are beyond the scope of many applications, so it would be valuable to rapidly but accurately characterize the risk-relevant exposure implications of emissions at an airport. Methods In this study, we apply a high resolution atmospheric dispersion model (AERMOD to 32 airports across the United States, focusing on benzene, 1,3-butadiene, and benzo [a]pyrene. We estimate the emission rates required at these airports to exceed a 10-6 lifetime cancer risk for the maximally exposed individual (emission thresholds and estimate the total population risk at these emission rates. Results The emission thresholds vary by two orders of magnitude across airports, with variability predicted by proximity of populations to the airport and mixing height (R2 = 0.74–0.75 across pollutants. At these emission thresholds, the population risk within 50 km of the airport varies by two orders of magnitude across airports, driven by substantial heterogeneity in total population exposure per unit emissions that is related to population density and uncorrelated with emission thresholds. Conclusion Our findings indicate that site characteristics can be used to accurately predict maximum individual risk and total population risk at a given level of emissions, but that optimizing on one endpoint will be non-optimal for the other.

  9. EPA Region 2 AIRS Aerometric Information Retrieval System and the Air Quality System (AIRS/AQS) GIS Layer

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This ArcGIS 10.2 point feature class contains identification, location and status information for EPA Region 2 facilities (NYS, NJ, Puerto Rico and the US Virgin...

  10. Obtaining Traffic Information by Urban Air Quality Inspection

    CERN Document Server

    Ferrante, P; Nicolosi, S; Scaccianoce, G; Traverso, M; Rizzo, G

    2011-01-01

    The level of air quality in urban centres is affected by emission of several pollutants, mainly coming from the vehicles flowing in their road networks. This is a well known phenomenon that influences the quality of life of people. Despite the deep concern of researchers and technicians, we are far from a total understanding of this phenomenon. On the contrary, the availability of reliable forecasting models would constitute an important tool for administrators in order of assessing suitable actions concerning the transportation policies, public as well private. Referring to the situation of the running fleet and the measured pollutant concentrations concerning the Italian town of Palermo, a data-deduced traffic model is here derived, its truthfulness being justified by a fuzzyfication of the phenomenon. A first validation of the model is supplied by utilising the emissions characteristics and the pollutant concentrations referring to a two years period of time. This work could represent a first attempt in de...

  11. Separation of special toxic substances from the air and incinerator of offgas streams, especially of radioactive iodine and polycyclic carbon hydrogens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the first part of the thesis, the adsorption of radioiodine and methyliodide on different kinds of active charcoal was studied. It was observed that untreated charcoal retains radioiodine sufficiently, while organic compounds as methyliodid could be adsorbed after pretreating with triethylenediamine even at high air velocities. In the presence of moisture in the air the efficiency dropped down to 30% of the original value. In the second part of the work an apparatus using sandfilter columns for the separation of toxic substances and thermochrome column for marking the temperature intervals was developed and posted at different places in athe filtering system of an incineration plant. After extraction of the polycyclic aromates with benzene from the column and chemical separation, the neutral fraction was split by a silicagel column and 14 toxic aromates identified by gas chromatography. It could be proven that 97 +- 2% of the polycyclic aromates were retained by the existing ceramic filter systems. (Author)

  12. DETERMINATION OF CHEMICAL CLASSES FROM MASS SPECTRA OF TOXIC ORGANIC COMPOUNDS BY SIMCA PATTERN RECOGNITION AND INFORMATION THEORY

    Science.gov (United States)

    The low resolution mass spectra of a set of 78 toxic volatile organic compounds were examined for information concerning chemical classes. These compounds were predominately chloro- and/or bromoaromatics, -alkanes, or -alkenes, which are routinely sought at trace levels in ambien...

  13. 40 CFR 2.306 - Special rules governing certain information obtained under the Toxic Substances Control Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Special rules governing certain information obtained under the Toxic Substances Control Act. 2.306 Section 2.306 Protection of Environment... distribution (including for test marketing purposes and for use in research and development), any...

  14. Component modeling in ecological risk assessment: Disturbance in interspecific interactions caused by air toxics introduced into terrestrial ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swider, Jan Zenon

    Ecological Risk Assessment standpoint and examine the impact of air toxics emissions on an ecosystem, with particular emphasis on predator-prey interactions. Such analysis may help to identify the most likely conditions leading to the ecosystem instability and possibility of its recuperation.

  15. Total reflection x-ray fluorescence (TXRF) - a tool to obtain information about different air masses and air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aerosols are solid particles dissolved in the atmosphere and have strong influence in the earth climate. Their solid surfaces are the only atmospheric medium for condensation of water leading to cloud formation and ultimately to precipitation. Besides their role in cloud formation, the elemental composition of aerosols reveals useful information about air masses and their transport patterns as well as air pollution. The elemental composition can be considered like a fingerprint of an air mass telling the story about its origin and fate. The presence of Al, Ti and Fe for instance indicates a source located in a highly exposed soil or often desert region, whereas Ni, V and Pb can be traced back to anthropogenic activities like fuel combustion or industrial processes. Other important source regions are the oceans, which emit the main aerosol constituents Na, Cl, and S. The concentrations of these elements in the atmosphere are extremely low and long sampling times are necessary to gain reliable results with most of the common analysis techniques. In contrast to this total reflection x-ray fluorescence (TXRF), as a technique capable to cope with tiny sample amounts, offers the unique possibility to reduce collection times to a minimum of minutes to hours. Such short sampling times in turn render it possible to monitor different air masses either passing through a ground based station or -in the ideal case- flown into by a small research aircraft. Different aerosol samples were taken by aircraft during the second aerosol characterization experiment (ACE-2) with sampling times ranging from 15 minutes up to one hour. These filter samples were analyzed by TXRF for trace elements subsequently. Together with background information about back trajectories and size distribution covering the time of sampling the presence of different air masses could be detected. In another project, short-term samples in the Chicago/Lake Michigan area are collected to study the air mass

  16. Monitoring of Pollution of Air Fine Particles (PM2.5) and Study on Their Genetic Toxicity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DONG-QUN XU; WEN-LI ZHANG

    2004-01-01

    To compare PM2.5 pollation level between the city of coal-fuel pollution (Taiyuan) and the city of pollution mixed with coal fuels and vehicle exhausts (Beijing), to analyze the concentration of B[a]p and Pb in the pollutants, and to study the DNA damage by PM2.5. Methods Air fine particles (PM2.5) were collected in Beijing and Taiyuan by means of the filter membrane method, the concentration of B[a]p and Pb were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography and atomic absorption spectroscopy respectveily, and the damage of DNA by PM2.5 was detected by single cell gel-electrophoresis (SCGE) using the human lung epithelial cells (A549) as target cells. Results The concentration of PM2.5 in the winter of Beijing was 0.028-0.436 mg/m3, and that in Taiyuan was 0.132-0.681 mg/m3. The concentration of B[a]p was 0.104 and 0.156 μg/mg on PM2.5 of Beijing and Taiyuan, respectively, whereas the concentration of Pb was 1.094 and 1.137 μg/mg on PM2.5 of Beijing and Taiyuan, respectively. Exposure to PM2.5 at the concentrations of 5, 50, and 200 μg/mL for 12 h and 24 h caused DNA damage of the human alveolar epithelium, and the ratios of the tailing and length of the tail were all significantly different from those of the negative control group (P<0.05), and indicated a dose-response relationship. Conclusion PM2.5 has certain genetic toxicity.

  17. 77 FR 12103 - Notice of Request for Approval of a New Information Collection: Exemptions for Air Taxi Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-28

    ... Notice of Request for Approval of a New Information Collection: Exemptions for Air Taxi Operations AGENCY... the following collection: Exemptions for Air Taxi Operations, responsibility for which has been... air carriers known as air taxi operators and their filing of a one-page form that enables them...

  18. Air ion measurements as a source of information about atmospheric aerosols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hõrrak, Urmas; Mirme, Aadu; Salm, Jaan; Tamm, Eduard; Tammet, Hannes

    The mobility spectra of air ions recorded in the course of routine atmospheric electric measurements contain information about atmospheric aerosols. The mobility spectrum of air ions is correlated with the size spectrum of aerosol particles. Two procedures of conversion (and conversion errors) are considered in this paper assuming the steady state of charge distribution. The first procedure uses the fraction model of the aerosol particle size distribution and algebraic solution of the conversion problem. The second procedure uses the parametric KL model of the particle size distribution and the least square fitting of the mobility measurements. The procedures were tested using simultaneous side-by-side measurements of air ion mobilities and aerosol particle size distributions at a rural site during a monthly period. The comparison of results shows a promising agreement between the measured and calculated size spectra in the common size range. A supplementary information about nanometer particles was obtained from air ion measurements.

  19. Roadmaps to sources of information on chemicals listed in the Emergency Planning Community and Community Right-To-Know Act also known as SARA (Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act) Title III, Section 313. Toxic Release Inventory (for microcomputers). Data file

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leitzke, J.; Edelstein, M.

    1989-07-14

    EPA has developed a database of sources of information on the chemicals listed in Section 313 of the Emergency Preparedness Community Right-To-Know Act, Title III of the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act. The database is intended to assist users of Section 313 Toxic Release Inventory data to perform exposure and risk assessments of these chemicals. The Roadmaps system displays and/or prints out information for the Section 313 chemicals on health and environmental effects, Federal Regulation, and state air and water regulations, monitoring data, and state contacts.

  20. Using geographic information system technology to evaluate the potential for radionuclide air releases from diffuse sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is increasingly concerned about sitewide air emissions at hazardous waste sites and industrial facilities. Under provisions of the National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPs), EPA is beginning to identify and quantify air emissions of certain contaminants from both individual locations and diffuse sources. Development of a multidisciplinary database on a geographic information system (GIS) has been instrumental in organizing, analyzing, and presenting emission data from diffuse sources at the Rocky Flats Plant near Golden, Colorado. The Rocky Flats Plant is a nuclear weapons complex consisting of approximately 6550 acres of land. Based on records of known or suspected historical contaminant releases, some past waste storage and disposal sites have been identified as potential sources of radionuclide air emissions. A database of information describing historical release events was developed to assist in predicting the current distribution of particular contaminants. The database includes information such as suspected contaminants, affected media, timeframe of release, volume of release, and clean-up efforts, as well as prevailing wind characteristics. Based on the severity of historical releases of radionuclides and potential for future dispersion to the atmosphere, areas of greatest concern were identified. These areas, or diffuse sources, were mapped to illustrate their spatial distribution across the site and evaluated with respect to the existing network of air monitoring stations. GIS technology enabled integration of diverse data types and visualization of numerous thematic layers on a sitewide basis

  1. Air

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... house) Industrial emissions (like smoke and chemicals from factories) Household cleaners (spray cleaners, air fresheners) Car emissions (like carbon monoxide) *All of these things make up “particle pollution.” They mostly come from cars, trucks, buses, and ...

  2. Air pollution in Urban Beijing: The role of Government-controlled information

    OpenAIRE

    Chiara Ravetti; Yana Popp Jin; Mu Quan; Zhang Shiqiu; Timothy Swanson

    2014-01-01

    This paper looks at the problem of information control behind the unsustainable levels of air pollution in China. In particular, it focuses on a large urban area, Beijing, and it examines the role of the public, government-controlled information and the adaptation choices of households in response to signals about high pollution. Our analysis is based on a simple theoretical framework in which people migrate from rural areas to polluted cities, receiving a signal from the government about urb...

  3. CAirTOX: A compartment model for assessing the fate of and human exposure to toxic-chemical emissions to air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKone, T.E.

    1993-10-01

    CAirTOX has been developed as a spreadsheet model to assist in making a risk assessment of toxic air emissions. With CAirTOX, one can address how contaminants released to an air basin can lead to contamination of soil, food, surface water, and sediments. The modeling effort includes a multimedia transport and transformation model, exposure scenario models, and efforts to quantify uncertainty in multimedia, multiple-pathway exposure assessments. The multimedia transport and transformation model is a steady-state, but non-equilibrium model that can be used to assess concentrations of contaminants released continuously to air. In Part 1, the authors describe the multimedia transport and transformation model used to determine the fate of air emissions. In Part 2, they describe inputs and data needs for CAirTOX and the development of a set of landscape factors, which can be used to represent regional air basin/water-shed systems in California. In Part 3, they describe the multiple-pathway exposure scenarios and exposure algorithms. In Part 4, they compare the HRA approach and results and the CAirTOX exposure equations. In Part 5, they consider model sensitivity and uncertainty to determine how variability and uncertainty in model inputs affects the precision, accuracy, and credibility of the model output.

  4. Air Toxics Under the Big Sky: examining the effectiveness of authentic scientific research on high school students' science skills and interest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Tony J.; Delaloye, Naomi; Adams, Earle Raymond; Ware, Desirae; Vanek, Diana; Knuth, Randy; Hester, Carolyn Laurie; Marra, Nancy Noel; Holian, Andrij

    2016-04-01

    Air Toxics Under the Big Sky is an environmental science outreach/education program that incorporates the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) 8 Practices with the goal of promoting knowledge and understanding of authentic scientific research in high school classrooms through air quality research. This research explored: (1) how the program affects student understanding of scientific inquiry and research and (2) how the open-inquiry learning opportunities provided by the program increase student interest in science as a career path. Treatment students received instruction related to air pollution (airborne particulate matter), associated health concerns, and training on how to operate air quality testing equipment. They then participated in a yearlong scientific research project in which they developed and tested hypotheses through research of their own design regarding the sources and concentrations of air pollution in their homes and communities. Results from an external evaluation revealed that treatment students developed a deeper understanding of scientific research than did comparison students, as measured by their ability to generate good hypotheses and research designs, and equally expressed an increased interest in pursuing a career in science. These results emphasize the value of and need for authentic science learning opportunities in the modern science classroom.

  5. Informational webinar for EPA STAR RFA on "Air, Climate and Energy (ACE) Centers: Science Supporting Solutions"

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of this webinar presentation is to discuss the application process and required elements for the Air, Climate and Energy (ACE) Centers: Science Supporting Solutions RFA. EPA is seeking research on the development of sound science to systematically inform policy makers...

  6. Control of Toxic Chemicals in Puget Sound, Phase 3: Study of Atmospheric Deposition of Air Toxics to the Surface of Puget Sound

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandenberger, Jill M.; Louchouarn, Patrick; Kuo, Li-Jung; Crecelius, Eric A.; Cullinan, Valerie I.; Gill, Gary A.; Garland, Charity R.; Williamson, J. B.; Dhammapala, R.

    2010-07-05

    The results of the Phase 1 Toxics Loading study suggested that runoff from the land surface and atmospheric deposition directly to marine waters have resulted in considerable loads of contaminants to Puget Sound (Hart Crowser et al. 2007). The limited data available for atmospheric deposition fluxes throughout Puget Sound was recognized as a significant data gap. Therefore, this study provided more recent or first reported atmospheric deposition fluxes of PAHs, PBDEs, and select trace elements for Puget Sound. Samples representing bulk atmospheric deposition were collected during 2008 and 2009 at seven stations around Puget Sound spanning from Padilla Bay south to Nisqually River including Hood Canal and the Straits of Juan de Fuca. Revised annual loading estimates for atmospheric deposition to the waters of Puget Sound were calculated for each of the toxics and demonstrated an overall decrease in the atmospheric loading estimates except for polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and total mercury (THg). The median atmospheric deposition flux of total PBDE (7.0 ng/m2/d) was higher than that of the Hart Crowser (2007) Phase 1 estimate (2.0 ng/m2/d). The THg was not significantly different from the original estimates. The median atmospheric deposition flux for pyrogenic PAHs (34.2 ng/m2/d; without TCB) shows a relatively narrow range across all stations (interquartile range: 21.2- 61.1 ng/m2/d) and shows no influence of season. The highest median fluxes for all parameters were measured at the industrial location in Tacoma and the lowest were recorded at the rural sites in Hood Canal and Sequim Bay. Finally, a semi-quantitative apportionment study permitted a first-order characterization of source inputs to the atmosphere of the Puget Sound. Both biomarker ratios and a principal component analysis confirmed regional data from the Puget Sound and Straits of Georgia region and pointed to the predominance of biomass and fossil fuel (mostly liquid petroleum products such

  7. Development of stable HSPA1A promoter-driven luciferase reporter HepG2 cells for assessing the toxicity of organic pollutants present in air

    OpenAIRE

    Xin, Lili; Li, Xiaohai; Deng, Huaxin; Kuang, Dan; Dai, Xiayun; Huang, Suli; Wang, Feng; He, Meian; Currie, R. William; Wu, Tangchun

    2012-01-01

    HSPA1A (HSP70-1) is a highly inducible heat shock gene up-regulated in response to environmental stresses and pollutants. The aim of our study was to evaluate the sensitivity of the stable metabolically competent HepG2 cells containing a human HSPA1A promoter-driven luciferase reporter (HepG2-luciferase cells) for assessing the toxicity of organic pollutants present in air. The HepG2-luciferase cells were validated by heat shock treatment and testing three organic compounds (pyrene, benzo[a]p...

  8. Air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In recent years several regulations and standards for air quality and limits for air pollution were issued or are in preparation by the European Union, which have severe influence on the environmental monitoring and legislation in Austria. This chapter of the environmental control report of Austria gives an overview about the legal situation of air pollution control in the European Union and in specific the legal situation in Austria. It gives a comprehensive inventory of air pollution measurements for the whole area of Austria of total suspended particulates, ozone, volatile organic compounds, nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide, heavy metals, benzene, dioxin, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and eutrophication. For each of these pollutants the measured emission values throughout Austria are given in tables and geographical charts, the environmental impact is discussed, statistical data and time series of the emission sources are given and legal regulations and measures for an effective environmental pollution control are discussed. In particular the impact of fossil-fuel power plants on the air pollution is analyzed. (a.n.)

  9. ToxPlorerTM: A Comprehensive Knowledgebase of Toxicity Pathways Using Ontology-driven Information Extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Realizing the potential of pathway-based toxicity testing requires a fresh look at how we describe phenomena leading to adverse effects in vivo, how we assess them in vitro and how we extrapolate them in silico across chemicals, doses and species. We developed the ToxPlorer™ fram...

  10. 76 FR 2677 - Request Facilities To Report Toxics Release Inventory Information Electronically or Complete Fill...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-14

    ... the facility complete the form by using a typewriter. Facilities that elect to submit paper forms must... facility may submit a withdrawal request by paper. For detailed instructions concerning withdrawals, please... Release Inventory-Made Easy Web application (TRI-MEweb) to report and submit Toxics Release...

  11. Air pollutants from hydrocarbons and derivatives in micropropagation laboratories: toxicity symptoms on tissue culture of the cherry rootstock Colt (Prunus avium x P. pseudocerasus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Righetti, B

    1990-11-01

    Several air pollutants in research and micropropagation laboratories originate from the combustion of hydrocarbons and their derivatives. The combustion products of some natural gases (propane-butane, propane, methane) and ethanol were analyzed, and the atmosphere composition was investigated inside the laminar flow box, inside the room where transplanting is performed and inside the culture vessels after transplanting. Large quantities of ethylene and other biologically active compounds are produced when hydrocarbons are partially oxidized or unevenly combusted and when ethanol is used for sterilization of dissecting instruments during transplanting operations. Air pollutants' effects have been tested on Prunus Colt shoot cultures; the toxicity symptoms observed suggest the elimination of gas combustion and alcohols during transplanting operations. PMID:24227058

  12. Toxicity tests and sediment chemistry at Site 9 (Neptune Drive Disposal Site) - U.S. Naval Air Station, Brunswick, Maine

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — During a remedial investigation of the U.S. Naval Air Station Superfund Site in Brunswick, Maine (NASB), elevated concentrations of total polycyclic aromatic...

  13. 77 FR 14354 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Information Collection; Submission for OMB Review; U.S.-Flag Air...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-09

    ... Regulation; Information Collection; Submission for OMB Review; U.S.-Flag Air Carriers Statement AGENCIES... information collection requirement concerning U.S. Flag Air Carriers Certification. Public comments are... 9000- 0054, U.S. Flag Carriers Certification by any of the following methods: Regulations.gov :...

  14. Egg incubation position affects toxicity of air cell administered PCB 126 (3,3?4,4?,5- pentachlorobiphenyl) in chicken (Gallus domesticus) embryos

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKernan, M.A.; Rattner, B.A.; Hale, R.C.; Ottinger, M.A.

    2007-01-01

    The avian egg is used extensively for chemical screening and determining the relative sensitivity of species to environmental contaminants (e.g., metals, pesticides, polyhalogenated compounds). The effect of egg incubation position on embryonic survival, pipping, and hatching success was examined following air cell administration of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congener 126 (3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl [PCB 126]; 500?2,000 pg/g egg) on day 4 of development in fertile chicken (Gallus gallus) eggs. Depending on dose, toxicity was found to be up to nine times greater in vertically versus horizontally incubated eggs. This may be due to enhanced embryonic exposure to the injection bolus in vertically incubated eggs compared to more gradual uptake in horizontally incubated eggs. Following air cell administration of PCB 126, horizontal incubation of eggs may more closely approximate uptake and toxicity that has been observed with naturally incorporated contaminants. These data have implications for chemical screening and use of laboratory data for ecological risk assessments.

  15. Use of Segregation Indices, Townsend Index, and Air Toxics Data to Assess Lifetime Cancer Risk Disparities in Metropolitan Charleston, South Carolina, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LaShanta J. Rice

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Studies have demonstrated a relationship between segregation and level of education, occupational opportunities, and risk behaviors, yet a paucity of research has elucidated the association between racial residential segregation, socioeconomic deprivation, and lifetime cancer risk. Objectives: We examined estimated lifetime cancer risk from air toxics by racial composition, segregation, and deprivation in census tracts in Metropolitan Charleston. Methods: Segregation indices were used to measure the distribution of groups of people from different races within neighborhoods. The Townsend Index was used to measure economic deprivation in the study area. Poisson multivariate regressions were applied to assess the association of lifetime cancer risk with segregation indices and Townsend Index along with several sociodemographic measures. Results: Lifetime cancer risk from all pollution sources was 28 persons/million for half of the census tracts in Metropolitan Charleston. Isolation Index and Townsend Index both showed significant correlation with lifetime cancer risk from different sources. This significance still holds after adjusting for other sociodemographic measures in a Poisson regression, and these two indices have stronger effect on lifetime cancer risk compared to the effects of sociodemographic measures. Conclusions: We found that material deprivation, measured by the Townsend Index and segregation measured by the Isolation index, introduced high impact on lifetime cancer risk by air toxics at the census tract level.

  16. Comparative study for toxic elements determination in air particulate reference material by INAA, CCT-ICP-MS, and ICP-MS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although toxic elements are minor components in the atmospheric environment, they play a significant role as important marker for atmospheric science such as risk assessment, long-range transfer study, and source apportionment. Therefore, the techniques, which allow accurate and fast elemental analysis with a minimum pre-treatment, are very important. INAA has a main advantage of non-destruction of air particulate samples, while inductively Coupled plasma with mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) encounters the most significant difficulties in pre-treatment (digestion, fusion, and dilution) and polyatomic spectral interferences for interest toxic elements, Although INAA is still reference method, a number of factors (disadvantages of cost, complexity of the instruments, and scarcity of nuclear reactor) limit its applications. To date, the use of collision cell technology ICP-MS (CCT-ICP-MS) is recommended instead of typical ICP-MS for the analysis of the toxic elements; this is because CCT-ICP-MS technique prevents polyatomic spectral interferences despite of contamination and volatile effects. In this study, a number of toxic elements in reference material, NIST SRM 2783 (air particulate on filter media) were determined by INAA, CCT-ICP-MS, and ICP-MS. For both ICP methods, the filters were decomposed by microwave digestion with 5mL nitric acid. The analytical results by three methods were compared with certificated data; the INAA results showed the most accurate and precise data sets for all target elements among three methods. In detail, the deviation between analytical results and SRM's by INAA fell below 10% for all elements excluding As (14%), while those by CCT-ICP-MS were about 20%. For ICP-MS, the result does not agree with certificated data for several elements, because polyatomic spectral interference (due to 40Ar35Cl, 40Ar23Na, and 35Cl16O) generate positive error of analytical result for As, Cu, and V. Based on our result, INAA is still one of the most powerful

  17. Comparison of immersed liquid and air cooling of NASA's Airborne Information Management System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoadley, A. W.; Porter, A. J.

    1992-01-01

    The Airborne Information Management System (AIMS) is currently under development at NASA Dryden Flight Research Facility. The AIMS is designed as a modular system utilizing surface mounted integrated circuits in a high-density configuration. To maintain the temperature of the integrated circuits within manufacturer's specifications, the modules are to be filled with Fluorinert FC-72. Unlike ground based liquid cooled computers, the extreme range of the ambient pressures experienced by the AIMS requires the FC-72 be contained in a closed system. This forces the latent heat absorbed during the boiling to be released during the condensation that must take within the closed module system. Natural convection and/or pumping carries the heat to the outer surface of the AIMS module where the heat transfers to the ambient air. This paper will present an evaluation of the relative effectiveness of immersed liquid cooling and air cooling of the Airborne Information Management System.

  18. A Framework of Environmental Modelling and Information Sharing for Urban Air Pollution Control and Management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Gang-jun; FU Er-jiang; WANG Yun-jia; ZHANG Ke-fei; HAN Bao-ping; ARROWSMITH Colin

    2007-01-01

    More effective environmental pollution control and management are needed due to the increasing environmental impacts from a range of human activities and the growing public demands for a better living environment. Urban air pollution is a serious environmental issue that poses adverse impacts on the health of people and the environment in most metropolitan areas. In this paper, we propose a geoinformatics augmented framework of environmental modelling and information sharing for supporting effective urban air pollution control and management. This framework is outlined in terms of its key components and processes including: 1) an integrated, adaptive network of sensors for environmental monitoring; 2) a set of distributed, interoperable databases for data management; 3) a set of intelligent, robust algorithms and models for environmental modelling; 4) a set of flexible, efficient user interfaces for data access and information sharing; and 5) a reliable, high capacity, high performance computing and communication infrastructure for integrating and supporting other framework components and processes.

  19. Informal environmental regulation of industrial air pollution: Does neighborhood inequality matter?

    OpenAIRE

    Klara Zwickl; Mathias Moser

    2014-01-01

    This paper analyzes if neighborhood income inequality has an effect on informal regulation of environmental quality, using census tract-level data on industrial air pollution exposure from EPA´s Risk Screening Environmental Indicators and income and demographic variables from the American Community Survey and EPA´s Smart Location Database. Estimating a spatial lag model and controlling for formal regulation at the states level, we find evidence that overall neighborhood inequality - as measur...

  20. 19 CFR 103.31a - Advance electronic information for air, truck, and rail cargo; Importer Security Filing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Advance electronic information for air, truck, and... AVAILABILITY OF INFORMATION Other Information Subject to Restricted Access § 103.31a Advance electronic... following types of advance electronic information are per se exempt from disclosure under §...

  1. AirNow Information Management System - Global Earth Observation System of Systems Data Processor for Real-Time Air Quality Data Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haderman, M.; Dye, T. S.; White, J. E.; Dickerson, P.; Pasch, A. N.; Miller, D. S.; Chan, A. C.

    2012-12-01

    Built upon the success of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) AirNow program (www.AirNow.gov), the AirNow-International (AirNow-I) system contains an enhanced suite of software programs that process and quality control real-time air quality and environmental data and distribute customized maps, files, and data feeds. The goals of the AirNow-I program are similar to those of the successful U.S. program and include fostering the exchange of environmental data; making advances in air quality knowledge and applications; and building a community of people, organizations, and decision makers in environmental management. In 2010, Shanghai became the first city in China to run this state-of-the-art air quality data management and notification system. AirNow-I consists of a suite of modules (software programs and schedulers) centered on a database. One such module is the Information Management System (IMS), which can automatically produce maps and other data products through the use of GIS software to provide the most current air quality information to the public. Developed with Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS) interoperability in mind, IMS is based on non-proprietary standards, with preference to formal international standards. The system depends on data and information providers accepting and implementing a set of interoperability arrangements, including technical specifications for collecting, processing, storing, and disseminating shared data, metadata, and products. In particular, the specifications include standards for service-oriented architecture and web-based interfaces, such as a web mapping service (WMS), web coverage service (WCS), web feature service (WFS), sensor web services, and Really Simple Syndication (RSS) feeds. IMS is flexible, open, redundant, and modular. It also allows the merging of data grids to create complex grids that show comprehensive air quality conditions. For example, the AirNow Satellite Data Processor

  2. SPATIAL ANALYSIS OF VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS FROM A COMMUNITY-BASED AIR TOXICS MONITORING NETWORK IN DEER PARK, TEXAS, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    This RARE Project with EPA Region 6 was a spatial analysis study of select volatile organic compounds (VOC) collected using passive air monitors at outdoor residential locations in the Deer Park, Texas area near the Houston Ship Channel. Correlation analysis of VOC species confi...

  3. Structural information on a cecropin-like synthetic peptide, Shiva-3 toxic to the sporogonic development of Plasmodium berghei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boisbouvier, J; Prochnicka-Chalufour, A; Nieto, A R; Torres, J A; Nanard, N; Rodriguez, M H; Possani, L D; Delepierre, M

    1998-10-01

    This study is a contribution towards the understanding of the mode of action of Shiva-3 and more generally that of cecropin-like peptides. Structural information on Shiva-3 (a cecropin-like synthetic peptide) in water and in a membrane-mimicking environment (trifluoroethanol alcohol, SDS) were obtained using analytical centrifugation, CD and NMR spectroscopies. A total of 20 converged structures were retained on the basis of 197 non-redundant experimental constraints, including 166 distance constraints from the nuclear Overhauser effect measurements and 31 dihedral angle restraints derived from the purged COSY experiments. Some results obtained in presence of SDS are also presented. The toxic effects of the peptides obtained by cleavage (trypsin and lysine-C hydrolysis) of Shiva-3 on Escherichia coli and on Plasmodium berghei sporogonic stages are reported. Biological effects are discussed in relation to the calculated structure. The antiparasite activity and the low mosquito toxicity of Shiva-3 make this peptide a good candidate for genetic transformation of mosquito vectors which warrants further studies aimed at the improvement of the molecule. PMID:9799128

  4. Understanding Resilience and Risks : A Qualitative Case Study of International Disaster Policy and Informal Settlements in Buenos Aires, Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    Hero, John

    2015-01-01

    This study is the result of a two-year long minor field study project of informal settlements in Buenos Aires, Argentina. The aim was to analyse the concept of disaster resilience by describing possible contemporary complications in both theory and practice related to resilience and risks of informal settlements in Buenos Aires. For this reason I have applied the theoretical concept of resilience used by United Nations International Strategy for Disaster Reduction (UNISDR). The research has b...

  5. Analysis and design of a local area network information support system for the Marine Corps Air Station, Yuma, Arizona

    OpenAIRE

    Jordan, Samuel L.

    1988-01-01

    This thesis provides an analysis of the organizational information system of the Marine Corps Air Station, Yuma, Arizona. A discussion of academic theory concerning structured systems analysis and design, local area network communications standards, and the characteristics of a local area network provide the theoretical foundation for the analysis and design of a local area network information support system for the Air Station. A survey was conducted to identify the problems and the function...

  6. Role of ureogenesis in tackling problems of ammonia toxicity during exposure to higher ambient ammonia in the air-breathing walking catfish Clarias batrachus

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Nirmalendu Saha; Shritapa Datta; Kuheli Biswas; Zaiba Y Kharbuli

    2003-12-01

    In the present study, the possible role of ureogenesis to avoid the accumulation of toxic ammonia to a lethal level under hyper-ammonia stress was tested in the air-breathing walking catfish Clarias batrachus by exposing the fish at 25 mM NH4Cl for 7 days. Excretion of ammonia by the NH4Cl-exposed fish was totally suppressed, which was accompanied by significant accumulation of ammonia in different body tissues. The walking catfish, which is otherwise predominantly ammoniotelic, turned totally towards ureotelism from ammoniotelism with a 5- to 6-fold increase of urea-N excretion during exposure to higher ambient ammonia. Stimulation of ureogenesis was accompanied with significant increase of some of the key urea cycle enzymes such as carbamyl phosphate synthetase (urea cycle-related), argininosuccinate synthetase and argininosuccinate lyase both in hepatic and non-hepatic tissues. Due to this unique physiological strategy of turning towards ureotelism from ammoniotelism via the induced urea cycle, this air-breathing catfish is able to survive in very high ambient ammonia, which they face in certain seasons of the year in the natural habitat.

  7. Training needs for toxicity testing in the 21st century: a survey-informed analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapenna, Silvia; Gabbert, Silke; Worth, Andrew

    2012-12-01

    Current training needs on the use of alternative methods in predictive toxicology, including new approaches based on mode-of-action (MoA) and adverse outcome pathway (AOP) concepts, are expected to evolve rapidly. In order to gain insight into stakeholder preferences for training, the European Commission's Joint Research Centre (JRC) conducted a single-question survey with twelve experts in regulatory agencies, industry, national research organisations, NGOs and consultancies. Stakeholder responses were evaluated by means of theory-based qualitative data analysis. Overall, a set of training topics were identified that relate both to general background information and to guidance for applying alternative testing methods. In particular, for the use of in silico methods, stakeholders emphasised the need for training on data integration and evaluation, in order to increase confidence in applying these methods for regulatory purposes. Although the survey does not claim to offer an exhaustive overview of the training requirements, its findings support the conclusion that the development of well-targeted and tailor-made training opportunities that inform about the usefulness of alternative methods, in particular those that offer practical experience in the application of in silico methods, deserves more attention. This should be complemented by transparent information and guidance on the interpretation of the results generated by these methods and software tools. PMID:23398336

  8. Resources for global risk assessment: The International Toxicity Estimates for Risk (ITER) and Risk Information Exchange (RiskIE) databases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The rate of chemical synthesis and use has outpaced the development of risk values and the resolution of risk assessment methodology questions. In addition, available risk values derived by different organizations may vary due to scientific judgments, mission of the organization, or use of more recently published data. Further, each organization derives values for a unique chemical list so it can be challenging to locate data on a given chemical. Two Internet resources are available to address these issues. First, the International Toxicity Estimates for Risk (ITER) database ( (www.tera.org/iter)) provides chronic human health risk assessment data from a variety of organizations worldwide in a side-by-side format, explains differences in risk values derived by different organizations, and links directly to each organization's website for more detailed information. It is also the only database that includes risk information from independent parties whose risk values have undergone independent peer review. Second, the Risk Information Exchange (RiskIE) is a database of in progress chemical risk assessment work, and includes non-chemical information related to human health risk assessment, such as training modules, white papers and risk documents. RiskIE is available at (http://www.allianceforrisk.org/RiskIE.htm), and will join ITER on National Library of Medicine's TOXNET ( (http://toxnet.nlm.nih.gov/)). Together, ITER and RiskIE provide risk assessors essential tools for easily identifying and comparing available risk data, for sharing in progress assessments, and for enhancing interaction among risk assessment groups to decrease duplication of effort and to harmonize risk assessment procedures across organizations

  9. 空气波压力治疗仪治疗奥沙利铂神经毒性的临床观察%Observe the efficacy of the air wave pressure therapeutic equipment in treatment of oxaliplatin nerve toxicity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Weihua Qian; Yingying Pan; Yimin Yang

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to observe the efficacy of air wave pressure therapeutic equipment in prevention of oxaliplatin-inducted neurotoxicity. Methods: Forty-five patients with colorectal cancer were randomly divided into treatment group and control group, treatment group were given the treatment of air wave pressure therapeutic equipment during chemotherapy with oxaliplatin, the control group were given preventive treatment, the oxaliplatin-inducted neurotoxicity was evaluated after each cycle of chemotherapy. Evaluate the chemotherapy efficacy after the third cycle and sixth cycle of chemotherapy. Results: The treatment group have lower incidence of peripheral nerve toxicity than the control group, the difference was statistically significant (χ2 = 13.93; P 0.05). Conclusion: Treatment with air wave pressure therapeutic equipment can reduce the incidence of peripheral nerve toxicity during oxaliplatin chemotherapy.

  10. New Directions: GEIA’s 2020 Vision for Better Air Emissions Information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frost, G. J.; Middleton, Paulette; Tarrason, Leonor; Granier, Claire; Guenther, Alex B.; Cardenas, B.; Denier van der Gon, Hugo; Janssens-Maenhout, Greet; Kaiser, Johannes W.; Keating, Terry; Klimont, Z.; Lamarque, Jean-Francois; Liousse, Catherine; Nickovic, S.; Ohara, Toshimasa; Schultz, Martin; Skiba, Ute; Wang, Y.

    2013-12-01

    We are witnessing a crucial change in how we quantify and understand emissions of greenhouse gases and air pollutants, with an increasing demand for science-based transparent emissions information produced by robust community efforts. Today’s scientific capabilities, with near-real-time in-situ and remote sensing observations combined with forward and inverse models and a better understanding of the controlling processes, are contributing to this transformation and providing new approaches to derive, verify, and forecast emissions (Tong et al., 2011; Frost et al., 2012) and to quantify their impacts on the environment (e.g., Bond et al., 2013). At the same time, the needs for emissions information and the demands for their accuracy and consistency have grown. Changing economies, demographics, agricultural practices, and energy sources, along with mandates to evaluate emissions mitigation efforts, demonstrate compliance with legislation, and verify treaties, are leading to new challenges in emissions understanding. To quote NOAA Senior Technical Scientist David Fahey, "We are in the Century of Accountability. Emissions information is critical not only for environmental science and decision-making, but also as an instrument of foreign policy and international diplomacy." Emissions quantification represents a key step in explaining observed variability and trends in atmospheric composition and in attributing these observed changes to their causes. Accurate emissions data are necessary to identify feasible controls that reduce adverse impacts associated with air quality and climate and to track the success of implemented policies. To progress further, the international community must improve the understanding of drivers and contributing factors to emissions, and it must strengthen connections among and within different scientific disciplines that characterize our environment and entities that protect the environment and influence further emissions. The Global

  11. Estimation of exhaust and non-exhaust gaseous, particulate matter and air toxics emissions from on-road vehicles in Delhi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagpure, Ajay Singh; Gurjar, B. R.; Kumar, Vivek; Kumar, Prashant

    2016-02-01

    Analysis of emissions from on-road vehicles in an Indian megacity, Delhi, have been performed by comparing exhaust emissions of gaseous, particulate matter and mobile source air toxics (MSATs), together with volatile organic compound (VOCs) and PM10 (particulate matter ≤10 μm) from non-exhaust vehicular sources, during the past (1991-2011) and future (2011-2020) scenarios. Results indicate that emissions of most of the pollutants from private vehicles (two wheelers and cars) have increased by 2- to 18-times in 2020 over the 1991 levels. Two wheelers found to be dominating the emissions of carbon monoxide (CO, 29-51%), hydrocarbons (HC, 45-73%), acetaldehyde (46-51%) and total poly aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs, 37-42%). Conversely, private cars were found to be responsible for the majority of the carbon dioxide (CO2, 24-42%), 1,3-butadiene (72-89%), benzene (60-82%), formaldehyde (23-44%) and total aldehyde (27-52%) between 1991 and 2011. The heavy-duty commercial vehicles (HCVs) shows their accountability for most of the nitrogen oxide (NOx, 18-41%) and PM10 (33-43%) emissions during the years 1991-2011. In terms of PM10 emissions, vehicular exhaust contributed by 21-55%, followed by road dust (42-73%) and brake wear (3-5%) between 1991 and 2011. After 2002, non-exhaust emissions (e.g. road dust, brake wear and tyre wear) together indicate higher accountability (66-86%) for PM10 emission than the exhaust emissions (14-34%). The temporal trend of emissions of NOx and CO show reasonable agreement with available ambient air concentrations that were monitored at locations, significantly influenced by vehicular activity. Encouraging results were emerged, showing a good correlation coefficient for CO (0.94) and NOx (0.68).

  12. Selected Information on European Union Research and Development Programmes and Projects focused on Reducing Emissions from Air Transport

    OpenAIRE

    Koblen, Ivan; Szabo, Stanislav; Krnáčová, Katarína

    2013-01-01

    The paper in the introductory part informs on the structure of jet engines emissions and introduce some facts regarding the timing progressive development in the area of aviation emissions reducing. The second part of the paper is focusing on introducing selected information concerning strategies and goals of the international aviation organizations (especially ACARE and IATA) as well as the European Commission in reducing emissions from air transport issue, including principle information ...

  13. NEW HAVEN TOXICS INVENTORY

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA will be working with the New Haven Department of Health to collect data and create an inventory of toxic air pollutants in the New Haven area. Under section 112 of the Clean Air Act, EPA and cities and states are required to reduce cancer and non-cancer health risks in urb...

  14. Indoor Air Pollution (Environmental Health Student Portal)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Students to Environmental Health Information Menu Home Air Pollution Air Pollution Home Indoor Air Pollution Outdoor Air Pollution ... Pollution Indoor Air Pollution Print this Page Air Pollution Air Pollution Home Indoor Air Pollution Outdoor Air Pollution ...

  15. Toxicity of Exhaust Gases and Particles from IC-Engines – International Activities Survey (EngToxIn). 2nd Information Report for IEA Implementing Agreement AMF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Czerwinski, J. [University for Applied Sciences, Biel-Bienne (Switzerland)

    2012-10-15

    Exhaust gases from engines, as well as from other technical combustion processes contain gaseous, semi volatile and solid compounds which are toxic. Some of these compounds are not yet limited by the respective legislations; but may need to be based on ongoing health research findings and some new substances did appear recently, due to the progressing technical developments providing new systems of exhaust gas aftertreatment. A new approach described here is that the toxic effects of exhaust gases as an aerosol containing gaseous components as well as particulate matter and nanoparticles can be investigated in a global way, by exposing the living cells, or cell cultures to the aerosol, which means a simultaneous superposition of all toxic effects from all active components. At several research sites it has been showed, that this method offers more objective results of validation of toxicity, than other methods used until now. It also enables a relatively quick insight in the toxic effects with consideration of all superimposed influences of the aerosol. This new methodology can be applied for all kinds of emission sources. It also bears the potential of giving new contributions to the present state of knowledge in this domain and can in some cases lead to a change of paradigma. The present report gives information about activities concerning the research on toxicity of exhaust gases from IC-engines in different countries. It also gives some ideas about the available information sources. The general situation and the basic information have not changed much so the chapters 1 and 2 are repeated from the last year report, [1] with only a few modifications. We observe fast increasing research activities concerning health effects worldwide. They have different objectives, different approaches and methodologies and sometimes the results can be directly compared to each other. There are mostly common lines and with appropriate efforts there might be possible ways to

  16. 76 FR 20662 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission to OMB for Review and Approval; Comment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-13

    ..., agricultural burning permits, and forestry and silvicultural burning permits in Sec. Sec. 49.132, 49.133, and... Protection Agency Region 10, Office of Air, Waste and Toxics (AWT-107), 1200 Sixth Avenue, Suite 900, Seattle... FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Justin A Spenillo, Office of Air, Waste and Toxics (AWT-107),...

  17. A.Q.M.E.I.S.: Air Quality Meteorological and Enviromental Information System in Western Macedonia, Hellas

    OpenAIRE

    Skordas, Ioannis A.; Fragulis, George F.; Triantafyllou, Athanassios G.

    2014-01-01

    An operational monitoring, as well as high resolution local-scale meteorological and air quality forecasting information system for Western Macedonia, Hellas, has been developed and is operated by the Laboratory of Atmospheric Pollution and Environmental Physics / TEI Western Macedonia since 2002, continuously improved. In this paper the novelty of information system is presented, in a dynamic, easily accessible and user-friendly manner. It consists of a structured system that users have acce...

  18. Communications System Architecture Development for Air Traffic Management and Aviation Weather Information Dissemination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Seana; Olson, Matt; Blythe, Doug; Heletz, Jacob; Hamilton, Griff; Kolb, Bill; Homans, Al; Zemrowski, Ken; Decker, Steve; Tegge, Cindy

    2000-01-01

    This document is the NASA AATT Task Order 24 Final Report. NASA Research Task Order 24 calls for the development of eleven distinct task reports. Each task was a necessary exercise in the development of comprehensive communications systems architecture (CSA) for air traffic management and aviation weather information dissemination for 2015, the definition of the interim architecture for 2007, and the transition plan to achieve the desired End State. The eleven tasks are summarized along with the associated Task Order reference. The output of each task was an individual task report. The task reports that make up the main body of this document include Task 5, Task 6, Task 7, Task 8, Task 10, and Task 11. The other tasks provide the supporting detail used in the development of the architecture. These reports are included in the appendices. The detailed user needs, functional communications requirements and engineering requirements associated with Tasks 1, 2, and 3 have been put into a relational database and are provided electronically.

  19. Bird Activity Analysis Using Avian Radar Information in Naval Air Station airport, WA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J.; Herricks, E.

    2010-12-01

    The number of bird strikes on aircraft has increased sharply over recent years and airport bird hazard management has gained increasing attention in wildlife management and control. Evaluation of bird activity near airport is very critical to analyze the hazard of bird strikes. Traditional methods for bird activity analysis using visual counting provide a direct approach to bird hazard assessment. However this approach is limited to daylight and good visual conditions. Radar has been proven to be a useful and effective tool for bird detection and movement analysis. Radar eliminates observation bias and supports consistent data collection for bird activity analysis and hazard management. In this study bird activity data from the Naval Air Station Whidbey Island was collected by Accipiter Avian Radar System. Radar data was pre-processed by filtering out non-bird noises, including traffic vehicle, aircraft, insects, wind, rainfall, ocean waves and so on. Filtered data is then statistically analyzed using MATLAB programs. The results indicated bird movement dynamics in target areas near the airport, which includes (1) the daily activity varied at dawn and dusk; (2) bird activity varied by target area due to the habitat difference; and (3) both temporal and spatial movement patterns varied by bird species. This bird activity analysis supports bird hazard evaluation and related analysis and modeling to provide very useful information in airport bird hazard management planning.

  20. 76 FR 60020 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Ambient Air...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-28

    ... other supporting measurements. Accompanying the pollutant concentration data are quality assurance... area's (e.g., county, city, neighborhood) air quality in comparison with the established health or... requested in this ICR submit these data electronically to the U.S. EPA's Air Quality System (AQS)...

  1. Approaches for describing and communicating overall uncertainty in toxicity characterizations: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) as a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Nancy B; Becker, Richard A; Erraguntla, Neeraja; Farland, William H; Grant, Roberta L; Gray, George; Kirman, Christopher; LaKind, Judy S; Jeffrey Lewis, R; Nance, Patricia; Pottenger, Lynn H; Santos, Susan L; Shirley, Stephanie; Simon, Ted; Dourson, Michael L

    2016-01-01

    Single point estimates of human health hazard/toxicity values such as a reference dose (RfD) are generally used in chemical hazard and risk assessment programs for assessing potential risks associated with site- or use-specific exposures. The resulting point estimates are often used by risk managers for regulatory decision-making, including standard setting, determination of emission controls, and mitigation of exposures to chemical substances. Risk managers, as well as stakeholders (interested and affected parties), often have limited information regarding assumptions and uncertainty factors in numerical estimates of both hazards and risks. Further, the use of different approaches for addressing uncertainty, which vary in transparency, can lead to a lack of confidence in the scientific underpinning of regulatory decision-making. The overarching goal of this paper, which was developed from an invited participant workshop, is to offer five approaches for presenting toxicity values in a transparent manner in order to improve the understanding, consideration, and informed use of uncertainty by risk assessors, risk managers, and stakeholders. The five approaches for improving the presentation and communication of uncertainty are described using U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) as a case study. These approaches will ensure transparency in the documentation, development, and use of toxicity values at EPA, the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR), and other similar assessment programs in the public and private sector. Further empirical testing will help to inform the approaches that will work best for specific audiences and situations. PMID:26827183

  2. A central ecological information system for the monitoring of the conditions of the air quality in the Republic of Macedonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The central ecology-information system (CEIS) is made up of a distributed network of several categories of autonomous, automatic measuring stations which would carry out a continuous monitoring and registering of all ecological parameters necessary for the assessment of the air quality on the territory of this country. When in regular use, the central ecological system would make the precessing of received data possible in order to make a timely and efficient intervention possible by the authorized authorities, all for a total control and management of the air quality on the territory of Macedonia. (author). 8 ills

  3. Accuracy and reliability of Chile's National Air Quality Information System for measuring particulate matter: Beta attenuation monitoring issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toro A, Richard; Campos, Claudia; Molina, Carolina; Morales S, Raul G E; Leiva-Guzmán, Manuel A

    2015-09-01

    A critical analysis of Chile's National Air Quality Information System (NAQIS) is presented, focusing on particulate matter (PM) measurement. This paper examines the complexity, availability and reliability of monitoring station information, the implementation of control systems, the quality assurance protocols of the monitoring station data and the reliability of the measurement systems in areas highly polluted by particulate matter. From information available on the NAQIS website, it is possible to confirm that the PM2.5 (PM10) data available on the site correspond to 30.8% (69.2%) of the total information available from the monitoring stations. There is a lack of information regarding the measurement systems used to quantify air pollutants, most of the available data registers contain gaps, almost all of the information is categorized as "preliminary information" and neither standard operating procedures (operational and validation) nor assurance audits or quality control of the measurements are reported. In contrast, events that cause saturation of the monitoring detectors located in northern and southern Chile have been observed using beta attenuation monitoring. In these cases, it can only be concluded that the PM content is equal to or greater than the saturation concentration registered by the monitors and that the air quality indexes obtained from these measurements are underestimated. This occurrence has been observed in 12 (20) public and private stations where PM2.5 (PM10) is measured. The shortcomings of the NAQIS data have important repercussions for the conclusions obtained from the data and for how the data are used. However, these issues represent opportunities for improving the system to widen its use, incorporate comparison protocols between equipment, install new stations and standardize the control system and quality assurance. PMID:25796098

  4. Large scale Air pollution and deposition in the National Environmental Outlook 5. Background information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The methods, as applied in the fifth National Environmental Outlook (NMP5), to calculate acidification, eutrophication (1900-2030), transboundary air pollution (1980-2030) and effect indicators climate change (1950-2030)

  5. Autonomous agent-based simulation of an AEGIS Cruiser combat information center performing battle air-defense commander operations

    OpenAIRE

    Calfee, Sharif H.

    2003-01-01

    The AEGIS Cruiser Air-Defense Simulation is a program that models the operations of a Combat Information Center (CIC) team performing the ADC duties in a battle group using Multi-Agent System (MAS) technology implemented in the Java programming language. Set in the Arabian Gulf region, the simulation is a top-view, dynamic, graphics-driven software implementation that provides a picture of the CIC team grappling with a challenging, complex problem. Conceived primarily as a system to assist sh...

  6. AirData

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The AirData site provides access to yearly summaries of United States air pollution data, taken from EPA's air pollution databases. AirData has information about...

  7. Information-based mid-upper tropospheric methane derived from Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) and its validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, X.; Barnet, C.; Wei, J.; Maddy, E.

    2009-07-01

    Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) measurements of methane (CH4) generally contain about 1.0 degree of freedom and are therefore dependent on a priori assumptions about the vertical methane distribution as well as the temperature lapse rate and the amount of moisture. Thus it requires that interpretation and/or analysis of the CH4 spatial and temporal variation based on the AIRS retrievals need to use the averaging kernels (AK). To simplify the use of satellite retrieved products for scientific analysis, a method based on the information content of the retrievals is developed, in which the AIRS retrieved CH4 in the layer from 50 to 250 hPa below the tropopause is used to characterize the mid-upper tropospheric CH4 in the mid-high latitude regions. The basis of this method is that in the mid-high latitude regions the maximum sensitive layers of AIRS to CH4 have a good correlation with the tropopause heights, and these layers are usually between 50 and 250 hPa below the tropopause. Validation using the aircraft measurements from NOAA/ESRL/GMD and the campaigns INTEX-A and -B indicated that the correlation of AIRS mid-upper tropospheric CH4 with aircraft measurements is ~0.6-0.7, and its the bias and rms difference are less than ±1% and 1.2%, respectively. Further comparison of the CH4 seasonal cycle indicated that the cycle from AIRS mid-upper tropospheric CH4 is in a reasonable agreement with NOAA aircraft measurements. This method provides a simple way to use the thermal infrared sounders data to approximately analyze the spatial and temporal variation CH4 in the upper free tropospere without referring the AK. This method is applicable to derive tropospheric CH4 as well as other trace gases for any thermal infrared sensors.

  8. Contact Lens Solution Toxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... rash and rashes clinical tools newsletter | contact Share | Contact Lens Solution Toxicity Information for adults A A A This image shows a reaction to contact lens solution. The prominent blood vessels and redness ...

  9. Toxics Release Inventory (TRI)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Toxics Release Inventory (TRI) is a dataset compiled by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). It contains information on the release and waste...

  10. Air issues update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    A government sponsored poll revealed that the primary environmental concern for Ontarians in 2000 was air pollution. While scientists tend to focus on smog episodes, greenhouse gas emissions, acid rain or emissions of toxic pollutants, the public shows concern in more practical terms such as the overall impact of poor air quality on people and the ecosystem, and how this will affect future life on earth. It was emphasized that policy makers should try to apply this holistic approach to the complex issues associated with air quality. Climate change, acid rain and ultraviolet radiation are some examples of how air emissions impact on ecosystems. Other examples include elevated levels of mercury in otters in Ontario. Climate change has also been linked with the re-acidification of lakes, as droughts typically occur in years following an El Nino cycle which has been pronounced as a possible consequence of greenhouse gas emissions. The Environmental Commissioner of Ontario (ECO) has reviewed the efforts of the Ontario Ministry of the Environment (MOE) regarding the regulation of air quality. The MOE has proposed several initiatives, including newer air dispersion models into legislation, establishing a new consultation process for applying new air quality standards to emission sources, an expansion of the Drive Clean Program, and a discussion paper on a proposed emission cap and trade system. This paper presents ECO's review of these initiatives and provides updates on other air quality issues such as control of emissions from Ontario's transportation, industrial and electricity sectors. It also described policy proposals related to standard-setting for air pollutants, as well as the newly adopted Canada-wide Standards for Particulate Matter and Ozone. A progress report on Ontario's Anti-Smog Action Plan (ASAP) confirms that major reductions in NO{sub x} expected from Ontario's coal-fired power plants never materialized. Emissions of nitrogen oxide

  11. Information draft on the development of air standards for n-heptane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-01-01

    Heptane is a colourless, volatile, flammable liquid with nine isomers, the most common being n-heptane, which has a paraffinic odour. It is an ingredient in gasoline, rubber solvents, naphtha and other petroleum solvents. It occurs almost entirely in the vapour phase, where it is degraded primarily by reaction with photochemically-produced hydroxyl radicals. Short-term exposure to n-heptane at relatively low concentration resulted in vertigo and loss of coordination. Exposure to high concentration for less than 40 minutes induced prostration and loss of reflexes prior to convulsion and death. Average ambient air concentration for n-heptane in Ontario between 1988 and 1995 was 0.81 microgram/cubic meter, as measured by Environment Canada. Currently, Ontario does not have air quality criterion for n-heptane. A review of pertinent literature from world-wide sources revealed that only the states of Michigan and New York have developed air quality guidelines specifically for n-heptane, based on occupational exposure. No human or animal data was found to be available to assess the carcinogenicity of this compound. 33 refs., 1 tab., appendix.

  12. Airborne Use of Traffic Intent Information in a Distributed Air-Ground Traffic Management Concept: Experiment Design and Preliminary Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wing, David J.; Adams, Richard J.; Barmore, Bryan E.; Moses, Donald

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents initial findings of a research study designed to provide insight into the issue of intent information exchange in constrained en-route air-traffic operations and its effect on pilot decision making and flight performance. The piloted simulation was conducted in the Air Traffic Operations Laboratory at the NASA Langley Research Center. Two operational modes for autonomous operations were compared under conditions of low and high operational complexity. The tactical mode was characterized primarily by the use of state information for conflict detection and resolution and an open-loop means for the pilot to meet operational constraints. The strategic mode involved the combined use of state and intent information, provided the pilot an additional level of alerting, and allowed a closed-loop approach to meeting operational constraints. Operational constraints included separation assurance, schedule adherence, airspace hazard avoidance, flight efficiency, and passenger comfort. Potential operational benefits of both modes are illustrated through several scenario case studies. Subjective pilot ratings and comments comparing the tactical and strategic modes are presented.

  13. The Many Faces of Information Management. AIR 1998 Annual Forum Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krotseng, Marsha V.; McLaughlin, Gerald W.

    This paper examines the many facets of administrative information management on the college or university campus. It is argued that, depending on the situation, an effective information manager can adopt the outlook of an architect/designer, data administrator, editor, analyst, reporter, planner, broker, collaborator, interpreter, or marketer.…

  14. Background information on sources of low-level radionuclide emissions to air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corbit, C.D.; Herrington, W.N.; Higby, D.P.; Stout, L.A.; Corley, J.P.

    1983-09-01

    This report provides a general description and reported emissions for eight low-level radioactive source categories, including facilties that are licensed by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and Agreement States, and non-Department of Energy (DOE) federal facilities. The eight categories of low-level radioactive source facilities covered by this report are: research and test reactors, accelerators, the radiopharmaceutical industry, source manufacturers, medical facilities, laboratories, naval shipyards, and low-level commercial waste disposal sites. Under each category five elements are addressed: a general description, a facility and process description, the emission control systems, a site description, and the radionuclides released to air (from routine operations).

  15. Background information on sources of low-level radionuclide emissions to air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report provides a general description and reported emissions for eight low-level radioactive source categories, including facilties that are licensed by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and Agreement States, and non-Department of Energy (DOE) federal facilities. The eight categories of low-level radioactive source facilities covered by this report are: research and test reactors, accelerators, the radiopharmaceutical industry, source manufacturers, medical facilities, laboratories, naval shipyards, and low-level commercial waste disposal sites. Under each category five elements are addressed: a general description, a facility and process description, the emission control systems, a site description, and the radionuclides released to air (from routine operations)

  16. Forest fires in Eastern countries: air contamination measurements by the IRSN. Information file

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forest fires sparking of in contaminated territories of Bielorussia, Ukraine and Western Russia can lead to transfrontier contamination in particular in Western Europe. Such radiological events with 137Cs peaks were recorded in France in 2002 (weeks 35 and 37) by the OPERA-Air network of the French Institute of Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety (IRSN). These rises of 137Cs activity can be recorded only when France is under the influence of winds coming from the E-NE. The activity levels of such events is of the order of maximum 1.5 μBq/m3 and cannot represent any threat for the populations' health. (J.S.)

  17. Hanford Site Air Operating Permit Application - Supplemental Information (Supplement 1, Volumes 1 thru 3)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report documents radionuclide air emissions from the Hanford Site in 1998 and the resulting effective dose equivalent to the maximally exposed individual (MEI) member of the public. The report has been prepared in accordance with the Code of Federal Regulations, Title 40, Protection of the Environment, Part 61, National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (40 CFR 61), Subpart H: ''National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other than Radon from Department of Energy Facilities,'' and with the Washington Administrative Code Chapter 246247, Radiation Protection - Air Emissions. The federal regulations in 40 CFR 61, Subpart H, require the measurement and reporting of radionuclides emitted from Department of Energy facilities and the resulting offsite dose from those emissions. A standard of 10 mrem/yr effective dose equivalent (EDE) is imposed on them. The EDE to the MEI due to routine emissions in 1998 from Hanford Site point sources was 1.3 E-02 mrem (1.3 E-04 mSv). which is 0.13 percent of the federal standard. Chapter 246-247 of the Washington Administrative Code (WAC) requires the reporting of radionuclide emissions from all Department of Energy Hanford Site sources. The state has adopted into these regulations the 40 CFR 61 standard of 10 mrem/yr EDE. The EDE to the MEI attributable to diffuse and fugitive radionuclide air emissions from the Hanford Site in 1998 was 2.5 E-02 mrem (2.S E-04 mSv). This dose added to the dose from point sources gives a total for all sources of 3.8 E-02 mrem/yr (3.8 E-04 mSv) EDE. which is 0.38 percent of the 10 mrem/yr standard. An unplanned release on August 26, 1998, in the 300 Area of the Hanford Site resulted in a potential dose of 4.1 E-02 mrem to a hypothetical individual at the nearest point of public access to that area. This hypothetical individual was not the MEI since the wind direction on the day of the release was away from the MEI residence. The potential dose from the unplanned event

  18. Toxic action/toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hathway, D E

    2000-02-01

    Some six or so physiological systems, essential to normal mammalian life, are involved in poisoning; an intoxication that causes severe injury to any one of them could be life threatening. Reversible chemical reactions showing Scatchard-type binding are exemplified by CO, CN- and cyclodiene neurotoxin insecticide intoxications, and by antigen-antibody complex formation. Haemoglobin (Hb) molecular biology accounts for the allosteric co-operativity and other characteristics of CO poisoning, CN- acts as a powerful cytochrome oxidase inhibitor, and antigen binding in a deep antibody cleft between two domains equipped with epitopes for antigen-binding groups explains hapten-specific immune reactions. Covalent chemical reactions with second-order (SN2) kinetics characterize Hg and Cd poisonings, the reactions of organophosphates and phosphonates with acetylcholinesterase and neurotoxic esterase and the reaction sequence whereby Paraquat accepts electrons and generates superoxide under aerobic conditions. Indirect carcinogens require cytochrome P450 activation to form DNA adducts in target-organ DNA and cause cancer, but a battery of detoxifying enzymes clustered with the P450 system must be overcome. Thus, S-metabolism competes ineffectively with target DNA for reactive vinyl chloride (VC) metabolites, epoxide hydrolase is important to the metabolism and carcinogenicity of alfatoxins and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (benzo[a]pyrene, etc.), and the non-toxic 2-naphthylhydroxylamine N-glucuronide acts as a transport form in 2-naphthylamine bladder cancer. VC liver-cancer pathogenesis is explicable in terms of the presence of the glutathione S-transferase detoxifying system in hepatocytes and its absence from the fibroblastic elements, and of the VC concentrations reaching the liver by different administrative routes. In VC carcinogenicity, chemical reactions give imidazo-cyclization products with nucleoside residues of target DNA, and in benzene leukaemia, Z

  19. Benefits of Sharing Information from Commercial Airborne Forward-Looking Sensors in the Next Generation Air Transportation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffner, Philip R.; Harrah, Steven; Neece, Robert T.

    2012-01-01

    The air transportation system of the future will need to support much greater traffic densities than are currently possible, while preserving or improving upon current levels of safety. Concepts are under development to support a Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) that by some estimates will need to support up to three times current capacity by the year 2025. Weather and other atmospheric phenomena, such as wake vortices and volcanic ash, constitute major constraints on airspace system capacity and can present hazards to aircraft if encountered. To support safe operations in the NextGen environment advanced systems for collection and dissemination of aviation weather and environmental information will be required. The envisioned NextGen Network Enabled Weather (NNEW) infrastructure will be a critical component of the aviation weather support services, providing access to a common weather picture for all system users. By taking advantage of Network Enabled Operations (NEO) capabilities, a virtual 4-D Weather Data Cube with aviation weather information from many sources will be developed. One new source of weather observations may be airborne forward-looking sensors, such as the X-band weather radar. Future sensor systems that are the subject of current research include advanced multi-frequency and polarimetric radar, a variety of Lidar technologies, and infrared imaging spectrometers.

  20. Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant technical background document for toxics best available control technology demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document provides information on toxic air pollutant emissions to support the Notice of Construction for the proposed Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) to be built at the the Department of Energy Hanford Site near Richland, Washington. Because approval must be received prior to initiating construction of the facility, state and federal Clean Air Act Notices of construction are being prepared along with necessary support documentation

  1. Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant technical background document for toxics best available control technology demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1992-10-01

    This document provides information on toxic air pollutant emissions to support the Notice of Construction for the proposed Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) to be built at the the Department of Energy Hanford Site near Richland, Washington. Because approval must be received prior to initiating construction of the facility, state and federal Clean Air Act Notices of construction are being prepared along with necessary support documentation.

  2. 14 CFR 330.27 - What information must certificated and commuter air carriers submit?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... seek compensation on both an ASM and RTM basis. Financial and operational data (both actual and... must include the following financial information on Form 330 (Final) for the period September 11, 2001 through December 31, 2001: (1) Your pre-September 11, 2001, profit/loss forecast for the period...

  3. 40 CFR 270.315 - What air emissions control information must I keep at my facility?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... emission control equipment subject to 40 CFR part 264, subpart CC, you must keep the following information...) Documentation for each closed-vent system and control device installed under requirements of 40 CFR 264.1087... monitoring plan for both Method 21 in 40 CFR part 60, appendix A and control device monitoring methods....

  4. Multicriteria Analysis: Managing Complexity in Selecting a Student-Information System. AIR 1988 Annual Forum Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchard, William; And Others

    Seattle University recently decided to replace three separate, computerized student-information systems with a single, integrated system. The complexity of this decision was managed with a multicriteria method that was used to evaluate alternative systems. The method took into account the many and sometimes conflicting concerns of the people who…

  5. Centimeter-scale secondary information on hydraulic conductivity using a hand-held air permeameter on borehole cores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogiers, B.; Winters, P.; Huysmans, M.; Beerten, K.; Mallants, D.; Gedeon, M.; Batelaan, O.; Dassargues, A.

    2012-04-01

    data and the air permeability measurements, but a systematic bias seems to exist. A geostatistical analysis with cross-validation is performed to assess the predictive uncertainty on Ks, using both types of data. We conclude that performing hand-held air permeameter measurements on undisturbed borehole cores provides a very cost-effective way to obtain very detailed information in the framework of stochastic simulation and conditioning of heterogeneous hydraulic conductivity fields.

  6. Retrieving clear-air turbulence information from regular commercial aircraft using Mode-S and ADS-B broadcast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopeć, J. M.; Kwiatkowski, K.; de Haan, S.; Malinowski, S. P.

    2015-11-01

    Navigational information broadcast by commercial aircraft in the form of Mode-S and ADS-B messages can be considered a new and valid source of upper air turbulence measurements. A set of three processing methods is proposed and analysed using a quality record of turbulence encounters made by a research aircraft. The proposed methods are based on processing the vertical acceleration or the background wind into the eddy dissipation rate. All the necessary parameters are conveyed in the Mode-S/ADS-B messages. The comparison of the results of application of the processing against a reference eddy dissipation rate obtained using on-board accelerometer indicate a significant potential of those methods. The advantages and limitation of the presented approaches are discussed.

  7. Introducing Toxics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David C. Bellinger

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available With this inaugural issue, Toxics begins its life as a peer-reviewed, open access journal focusing on all aspects of toxic chemicals. We are interested in publishing papers that present a wide range of perspectives on toxicants and naturally occurring toxins, including exposure, biomarkers, kinetics, biological effects, fate and transport, treatment, and remediation. Toxics differs from many other journals in the absence of a page or word limit on contributions, permitting authors to present their work in as much detail as they wish. Toxics will publish original research papers, conventional reviews, meta-analyses, short communications, theoretical papers, case reports, commentaries and policy perspectives, and book reviews (Book reviews will be solicited and should not be submitted without invitation. Toxins and toxicants concern individuals from a wide range of disciplines, and Toxics is interested in receiving papers that represent the full range of approaches applied to their study, including in vitro studies, studies that use experimental animal or non-animal models, studies of humans or other biological populations, and mathematical modeling. We are excited to get underway and look forward to working with authors in the scientific and medical communities and providing them with a novel venue for sharing their work. [...

  8. Hazardous air pollutant emissions from process units in the synthetic organic chemical manufacturing industry: Background information for proposed standards. Volume 1C. Model emission sources. Draft report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-11-01

    A draft rule for the regulation of emissions of organic hazardous air pollutants (HAP's) from chemical processes of the synthetic organic chemical manufacturing industry (SOCMI) is being proposed under the authority of Sections 112, 114, 116, and 301 of the Clean Air Act, as amended in 1990. The volume of the Background Information Document presents model emission sources that were developed to evaluate the national impacts of the proposed rule.

  9. Notice of Construction (NOC) Application for Criteria and Toxic Air Pollutant Emissions from Thermal Stabilization of Polycubes at the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is a notice of construction (NOC) application for thermal stabilization of plutonium in a polystyrene matrix (polycubes) in the muffle furnaces at the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP). This NOC application is required by Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 173-460-040. During the 1960's and 1970's, polycubes were thermally stabilized using a pyrolysis process at PFP. The proposed process of thermal stabilization of polycubes in muffle furnaces results in emissions of air contaminants not emitted since implementation of WAC 173-460 (effective 9/18/91). The new process and related air contaminants are the basis for this NOC application. The proposed activity would use the muffle furnaces in the 234-52 Building to stabilize polycubes. The resulting plutonium oxides would be packaged to meet storage requirements specified in Stabilization, Packaging, and Storage of Plutonium Bearing Materials (DOE-STD-3013). The PFP is located in the 200 West Area of the Hanford Site. The PFP consists of several large and small buildings that are grouped to form the processing complex. The PFP activities are focused on the stabilization of plutonium-bearing materials to a form suitable for long-term storage; immobilization of residual plutonium-bearing materials; and removal of readily retrievable, plutonium-bearing materials left behind in process equipment and process areas

  10. Beryllium Toxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Favorites Del.icio.us Digg Facebook Google Bookmarks Yahoo MyWeb Beryllium Toxicity Patient Education Care Instruction Sheet ... Favorites Del.icio.us Digg Facebook Google Bookmarks Yahoo MyWeb Page last reviewed: May 23, 2008 Page ...

  11. Antimony Toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shyam Sundar

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Antimony toxicity occurs either due to occupational exposure or during therapy. Occupational exposure may cause respiratory irritation, pneumoconiosis, antimony spots on the skin and gastrointestinal symptoms. In addition antimony trioxide is possibly carcinogenic to humans. Improvements in working conditions have remarkably decreased the incidence of antimony toxicity in the workplace. As a therapeutic, antimony has been mostly used for the treatment of leishmaniasis and schistosomiasis. The major toxic side-effects of antimonials as a result of therapy are cardiotoxicity (~9% of patients and pancreatitis, which is seen commonly in HIV and visceral leishmaniasis co-infections. Quality control of each batch of drugs produced and regular monitoring for toxicity is required when antimonials are used therapeutically.

  12. Toxic Release Inventory Chemicals by Groupings

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Toxics Release Inventory (TRI) makes available information for more than 600 toxic chemicals that are being used, manufactured, treated, transported, or...

  13. Toxics Release Inventory Pollution Prevention Search Tool

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Toxics Release Inventory (TRI) is a publicly available EPA database that contains information on toxic chemical releases and waste management and pollution...

  14. Toxicity data informatics: supporting a new paradigm for toxicity prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, Ann M; Yang, Chihae; Judson, Richard S

    2008-01-01

    ABSTRACT Chemical toxicity data at all levels of description, from treatment-level dose response data to a high-level summarized toxicity "endpoint," effectively circumscribe, enable, and limit predictive toxicology approaches and capabilities. Several new and evolving public data initiatives focused on the world of chemical toxicity information-as represented here by ToxML (Toxicology XML standard), DSSTox (Distributed Structure-Searchable Toxicity Database Network), and ACToR (Aggregated Computational Toxicology Resource)-are contributing to the creation of a more unified, mineable, and modelable landscape of public toxicity data. These projects address different layers in the spectrum of toxicological data representation and detail and, additionally, span diverse domains of toxicology and chemistry in relation to industry and environmental regulatory concerns. For each of the three projects, data standards are the key to enabling "read-across" in relation to toxicity data and chemical-indexed information. In turn, "read-across" capability enables flexible data mining, as well as meaningful aggregation of lower levels of toxicity information to summarized, modelable endpoints spanning sufficient areas of chemical space for building predictive models. By means of shared data standards and transparent and flexible rules for data aggregation, these and related public data initiatives are effectively spanning the divides among experimental toxicologists, computational modelers, and the world of chemically indexed, publicly available toxicity information. PMID:20020908

  15. Mining Information form a Coupled Air Quality Model to Examine the Impacts of Agricultural Management Practices on Air and Groundwater Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attributing nitrogen (N) in the environment to emissions from agricultural management practices is difficult because of the complex and inter-related chemical and biological reactions associated with N and its cascading effects across land, air and water. Such analyses are criti...

  16. Toxic neuropathies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Misra Usha

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Toxic neuropathies generally result in length dependent axonal neuropathy with the exception of diphtheria and a few toxic neuropathies. In spite of occurrence of diphtheria in India there is paucity of published reports on diphtheritic neuropathy. Arsenic neuropathy commonly occurs in Bengal and Bangladesh because of ground water contamination whereas in Punjab it is due to contamination of opium. Lead neuropathy is rare and has been reported in battery workers and silver refining workers. It produces motor neuropathy resulting in foot drop and wrist drop. Organophosphates are used as pesticides, industrial chemicals and food adulterant. Certain organophosphates such as triorthocresyl phosphate used for or oil adulteration inhibit neurotoxic esterase and result in a delayed type of axonal neuropathy. Alcohol related neuropathy is a controversial issue whether it is due to alcohol related toxicity or due to nutritional deficiencies. Indian studies have revealed that neuropathy occurs both in alcoholic and nonalcoholic cirrhosis. Hexane neuropathy is reported in screen printers and these cases highlight the need for better preventive and occupational measures. Iatrogenic toxic neuropathies have been reported with cisplatin and vincristine. Because of geographical, occupational and health related conditions toxic neuropathies are likely to be more common than reported and greater awareness is needed.

  17. Cooking practices, air quality, and the acceptability of advanced cookstoves in Haryana, India: an exploratory study to inform large-scale interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rupak Mukhopadhyay

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: In India, approximately 66% of households rely on dung or woody biomass as fuels for cooking. These fuels are burned under inefficient conditions, leading to household air pollution (HAP and exposure to smoke containing toxic substances. Large-scale intervention efforts need to be informed by careful piloting to address multiple methodological and sociocultural issues. This exploratory study provides preliminary data for such an exercise from Palwal District, Haryana, India. Methods: Traditional cooking practices were assessed through semi-structured interviews in participating households. Philips and Oorja, two brands of commercially available advanced cookstoves with small blowers to improve combustion, were deployed in these households. Concentrations of particulate matter (PM with a diameter <2.5 μm (PM2.5 and carbon monoxide (CO related to traditional stove use were measured using real-time and integrated personal, microenvironmental samplers for optimizing protocols to evaluate exposure reduction. Qualitative data on acceptability of advanced stoves and objective measures of stove usage were also collected. Results: Twenty-eight of the thirty-two participating households had outdoor primary cooking spaces. Twenty households had liquefied petroleum gas (LPG but preferred traditional stoves as the cost of LPG was higher and because meals cooked on traditional stoves were perceived to taste better. Kitchen area concentrations and kitchen personal concentrations assessed during cooking events were very high, with respective mean PM2.5 concentrations of 468 and 718 µg/m3. Twenty-four hour outdoor concentrations averaged 400 µg/m3. Twenty-four hour personal CO concentrations ranged between 0.82 and 5.27 ppm. The Philips stove was used more often and for more hours than the Oorja. Conclusions: The high PM and CO concentrations reinforce the need for interventions that reduce HAP exposure in the aforementioned community. Of the two

  18. Physical and toxic properties of hazardous chemicals regularly stored and transported in the vicinity of nuclear installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report gives a compilation of data based on information assembled by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission and completed by the Safety and Reliability Directorate of the UK AEA, the Dutch Reactor Safety Commission, the French Atomic Energy Commission, and the CSNI Secretariat. Data sheets for a large number of hazardous chemicals are presented (from acetaldehyde to xylene), giving details of their physical and toxic properties such as: molecular weight, boiling point, vapor density, heat of vaporization, toxic concentration in air, flammability limits, toxic effects, vapor pressure data, etc.

  19. Flecainide toxicity.

    OpenAIRE

    Russell, G A; Martin, R P

    1989-01-01

    Flecainide toxicity occurred in an infant being treated for refractory atrioventricular re-entry tachycardia. Ventricular tachycardia developed when dextrose was substituted for milk feeds. We believe that milk was interfering with the absorption of flecainide, and so a high serum concentration developed when milk feeds were stopped.

  20. Health Effects of Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... air pollution How to protect yourself from air pollution Chemicals Noise Quizzes Links to more information girlshealth glossary girlshealth.gov home http://www.girlshealth.gov/ Home The environment and your health Air Health effects of air pollution ... Health effects of air pollution Breathing air that ...

  1. Comprehensive assessment of toxic chemical pollutants at Trombay region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anthropogenic activities like industrial production and transportation, a wide range of chemical pollutants such as trace and toxic metals, pesticides, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons etc. eventually found their way into various environmental compartments. These pollutants get distributed among soil, water bodies, air and if left unattended can cause serious health risk to all exposed ecosystem components including human beings. These compounds may produce immediate toxicity to ecosystems or exhibit long term effects such as mutagenicity, carcinogenicity or biomagnify (concentrations of pollutant increase per unit body weight) in higher trophic organism of the food chain. Thus regular monitoring of these toxic chemicals in all the environmental matrices is unquestionably essential for reclaiming our natural resources. This report describes some of the activities of Environmental Assessment Division which are having direct relevance to the public health and regulatory bodies. Extensive studies were carried out in our laboratories for the Trombay site, over the years; on the organic as well as inorganic pollution in the environment to understand inter compartmental behaviour of these chemical pollutants. In this report attempt has been made to compare the data on various toxic chemical pollutants that are being monitored regularly at Trombay site and their levels are compared with existing regulations. For monitoring, methodologies have been standardized for characterization of toxic chemical pollutants using different analytical techniques. Regular sample collection from different environmental matrices has been done. Sample analysis has been carried out using different analytical instruments such as high performance liquid chromatograph, ion chromatograph, gas chromatograph, atomic absorption spectrophotometer, and differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry. Major portion of the study covers Air quality monitoring of toxic chemical pollutants, as the other

  2. Nanostructured Catalytic Reactors for Air Purification Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This SBIR Phase II project proposes the development of lightweight compact nanostructured catalytic reactors for air purification from toxic gaseous organic...

  3. Nanostructured Catalytic Reactors for Air Purification Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This SBIR Phase I project proposes the development of lightweight compact nanostructured catalytic reactors for air purification from toxic gaseous organic...

  4. Human Toxicity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jolliet, Olivier; Fantke, Peter

    2015-01-01

    This chapter reviews the human toxicological impacts of chemicals and how to assess these impacts in life cycle impact assessment (LCIA), in order to identify key processes and pollutants. The complete cause-effect pathway – from emissions of toxic substances up to damages on human health...... characterisation factors means that results should by default be reported and interpreted in log scales when comparing scenarios or substance contribution! We conclude by outlining future trends in human toxicity modelling for LCIA, with promising developments for (a) better estimates of degradation halflives, (b......) the inclusion of ionization of chemicals in human exposure including bioaccumulation, (c) metal speciation, (d) spatialised models to differentiate the variability associated with spatialisation from the uncertainty, and (e) the assessment of chemical exposure via consumer products and occupational...

  5. Low dose mercury toxicity and human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahir, Farhana; Rizwi, Shamim J; Haq, Soghra K; Khan, Rizwan H

    2005-09-01

    Post Minamata incident there has been awareness about mercury toxicity even among the general public. Previous researches contributed a vast amount of data regarding acute mercury exposure, but gradually information about the low dose [Ninomiya, T., Ohmori, H., Hashimoto, K., Tsuruta, K., Ekino, S., 1995. Expansion of methylmercury poisoning outside minamata: an epidemiological study on chronic methylmercury poisoninig outside of Minamata. Environ. Res. 70 (1) 47-50; Lebel, J., Mergler, D., Lucotte, M., Amorim, M., Dolbec, J., Miranda, D., Arantes, G., Rheault, I., Pichet, P., 1996. Evidence of early nervous system dysfunction in Amazonian populations exposed to low-levels of methylmercury. Neurotoxicology 17 (1) 157-167] of mercury toxicity has been trickling in. With mercury contaminating rain-, ground- and sea-water no one is safe. Polluted water leads to mercury laced fish, meat and vegetable. In aquatic environments, inorganic mercury is microbiologically transformed into lipophilic organic compound 'methylmercury'. This transformation makes mercury more prone to biomagnification in food chains. Consequently, populations with traditionally high dietary intake of food originating from fresh or marine environment have highest dietary exposure to mercury. Extensive research done on locals across the globe have already established this, persons who routinely consume fish or a particular species of fish are at an increased risk of methylmercury poisoning. The easy access of the toxicant to man through multiple pathways air, water, food, cosmetic products and even vaccines increase the exposure. Foetus and children are more susceptible towards mercury toxicity. Mothers consuming diet containing mercury pass the toxicant to foetus and to infants through breast milk. Decreased performance in areas of motor function and memory has been reported among children exposed to presumably safe mercury levels. Similarly, disruption of attention, fine motor function and verbal

  6. The price function of toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Mark D; Dranitsaris, George

    2009-03-01

    The high and accelerating price of new anticancer drugs is giving rise to increased concern. However, monetary price is not the only way to value chemotherapy. Toxic effects can also be seen as a form of payment in which "units" of wellbeing are exchanged for "units" of efficacy. Although this trading analogy is not perfect, a proposal can be made that toxicity is a type of price, and that one of its functions is to signal valuation, similar to the crucial signalling function of monetary price in the real economy. This price function of toxicity, to the extent where there is transparency about the real amounts of toxicity, can have two important and helpful consequences: acting as a brake on the increasing monetary price of new drugs, via a damping effect on demand; and assisting individual patients in the informed contemplation of chemotherapy decisions. However, there are two problems that currently impede the effective dissemination of this highly desirable toxicity information. First, a prediction of toxicity in individual patients is difficult. Second, the vast database of real toxic effects in community practice is rarely made available for public scrutiny. Both of these problems, which together constitute a form of hidden cost, are potentially resolvable at least to some extent. In the absence of accurate information on toxic effects, it is easy for monetary price to progressively diverge from true value. We believe that improved transparency with respect to toxic effects, and better toxicity prediction, offer a better and more genuinely market-orientated solution to the issue of price distortions than the bureaucratic imposition of price controls. PMID:19261259

  7. Toxic Substances Control Act

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-05-15

    This Reference Book contains a current copy of the Toxic Substances Control Act and those regulations that implement the statute and appear to be most relevant to DOE activities. The document is provided to DOE and contractor staff for informational purposes only and should not be interpreted as legal guidance. Questions concerning this Reference Book may be directed to Mark Petts, EH-231 (202/586-2609).

  8. Simulation studies of the information content of muon arrival time observations of high energy extensive air showers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    By extensive Monte Carlo calculations, using the air shower simulation code CORSIKA, EAS muon arrival time distributions and EAS time profiles up to 320 m distances from the shower centre have been generated, for proton, oxygen and iron induced showers using different hadronic interaction models as Monte Carlo generators. The model dependence and mass discriminating features have been scrutinised for three energies ranges, (1.0-1.78) 1015 eV, (1.0-1.78) 1016 eV and (1.78-3.16) 1016 eV. The present studies have been focussed to the exploration of the information carried by EAS time observables and their correlations in view of features discriminating the mass of the cosmic primary and different hadronic interaction models. Advanced non-parametric statistical methods based on Bayesian decision rules have been applied to scrutinise the EAS observables and to specify quantitatively the results. A first inspection allows some tentative conclusions: 1. The correlations of the local muon arrival time variables with the local muon density improves the true classification rate and discrimination features. It turns out that the correlation can be replaced by a single parameter: Δτq/ρμ. The classification gets improved by correlating the muon arrival times with the shower age, the shower size Ne and Nμtr; 2. Correlating the observation of Δτq/ρμ for two radial distances, the mass discrimination of the primaries get only slightly improved, different from our previous results analysing the (global) arrival times of the foremost muon correlated at two different radial distances; 3. Comparing the classification rates for different muon arrival time quantities: the first quartile, the median and the third quartile, by both considered models QGSJET and VENUS similar results have been obtained.The analysis of the median Δτ0.50 and of the slow component of the arrival time distribution, represented by Δτ0.75, improves the true-classification rate of the oxygen component

  9. Determination of Toxic Elements in Cigarettes Smoke, Using Neutron Activation Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of the experiments was to get information of the toxic elements content in cigarettes smoke which could be used to estimate the cigarettes smoke contribution in air pollution. The sample were cigarette smoke from the mixture of 7 popular brand cigarettes collected by The Centre Cigarettes Research, University of kentucky, USA. Neutron activation was done in the Hoger Onderwijs Reactor, IRI Delft Netherlands, using thermal neutron flux 4.8 x 10 16n cm-2 second-1 for 4 hours. Result of the analysis showed that the cigarettes smoke contained Cd, As, Sb, and Br which are toxic elements

  10. ASSESSING ASTHMATIC CHILDREN'S EXPOSURES TO TOXIC AIR POLLUTANTS AND THE POTENTIAL INHALED DOSES USING TIME ACTIVITY INFORMATION AND ENERGY EXPENDITURE DATA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Accurately quantifying human exposures and the potential doses of various populations to environmental pollutants is critical for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency to assess and manage human health risks. The Tampa Asthmatic Children's Study (TACS) was a pilot research stu...

  11. Arabidopsis and the Genetic Potential for the Phytoremediation of Toxic Elemental and Organic Pollutants

    OpenAIRE

    Cobbett, Christopher S.; Meagher, Richard B.

    2002-01-01

    In a process called phytoremediation, plants can be used to extract, detoxify, and/or sequester toxic pollutants from soil, water, and air. Phytoremediation may become an essential tool in cleaning the environment and reducing human and animal exposure to potential carcinogens and other toxins. Arabidopsis has provided useful information about the genetic, physiological, and biochemical mechanisms behind phytoremediation, and it is an excellent model genetic organism to test foreign gene expr...

  12. The Green Heart Initiative: Using Air Quality Information to Reduce Adverse Health Effects in Patients with Heart and Vascular Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Green Heart Initiatives designed to raise public awareness about the role outdoor air pollution plays in cardiovascular health. Developed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to complement the national Million Hearts” initiative1, Green Heart seeks to teach healt...

  13. The APHEIS project. An information source on air pollution and health impacts in Europe; Das Projekt APHEIS. Eine Informationsquelle fuer Luftverschmutzung und Gesundheit in Europa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medina, S. [Institut de Veille Sanitaire, Saint Maurice (France); Plasencia, A. [Institut Municipal de Salut Publica de Barcelona (Spain); Muecke, H.G. [Umweltbundesamt, Berlin (Germany). WHO Collaborating Centre for Air Quality Management and Air Pollution Control

    2001-05-01

    The objectives of the APHEIS project are to: - establish a European epidemiological monitoring system, as well as a special database providing information on air pollution and its impacts on public health, - quantify the time-related effects of air pollution on public health at the local, national and European level, - examine and reveal the impacts of different factors on the cause-and-effect patterns, - publish at regular intervals standardised reports on the impact of air pollution on public health, so as to provide the participating three user groups of APHEIS with the information they need. (orig./CB) [German] Das APHEIS-Projekt soll - ein europaeisches epidemiologisches Ueberwachungssystem schaffen, das eine umfassende Datenbank zum Thema Luftverschmutzung und oeffentliche Gesundheit beinhalten wird, - die Wirkungen von Luftverschmutzung auf die oeffentliche Gesundheit auf der lokalen, nationalen und europaeischen Ebene zeitlich quantifizieren, - den Einfluss von Faktoren auf Expositions- und Wirkungszusammenhaenge bewerten, - regelmaessig standardisierte Berichte ueber den Einfluss von Luftverschmutzung auf die oeffentliche Gesudheit liefern, die den Informationsbeduerfnissen der drei Benutzergruppen von APHEIS entsprechen. (orig.)

  14. Air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Australian cites experience a number of current and emerging air pollution problems. Concentrations of traditional primary pollutants such as CO, lead and dust have fallen in recent years as a consequence of air pollutant control measures, and the widespread introduction of lead-free petrol. However, recommended guidelines for ozone, the principal component of photochemical smog, are regularly exceeded in major capital cities in the summer months. In addition, it is predicted that extensive urban expansion will lead to much greater dependence on the motor vehicle as the primary means of transportation. Effects of air pollution are felt at a variety of scales. Traditionally, concerns about gaseous and particulate emissions from industrial and vehicular sources were focused on local impacts due to exposure to toxic species such as CO and lead. As noted above, concentrations of these pollutants have been reduced by a variety of control measures. Pollutants which have effects at a regional scale, such as photochemically-produced ozone, and acidic gases and particles have proved more difficult to reduce. In general, these pollutants arc not the result of direct emissions to atmosphere, but result from complex secondary processes driven by photochemical reactions of species such as NO2 and aldehydes. In addition, global effects of gaseous and particulate emissions to the atmosphere have received significant recent attention, concentrations of atmospheric CO2 with predicted impacts on global climate, and ozone depletion due to anthropogenic emissions of chlorine-containing chemicals are the two major examples. Combustion processes from petrol- and diesel-fuelled vehicles, make major contributions to air pollution, and the magnitude of this contribution is discussed in this article

  15. Development of a male reproductive toxicity assay for evaluating the success of bioremediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Eglin Air Force Base was contaminated with JP-4 over 10 years ago. The project goal was to develop and evaluate male reproductive toxicity testing procedures and endpoints using the gametes of the South African clawed frog Xenopus laevis with particular emphasis on assessing the toxicity of contaminated soil from Eglin Air Force Base in Florida. Reproductive toxicity tests were done to evaluate several different locations within the original spill area. Specific sites were selected based on their location to the spill site. The site was evaluated before and after remediation. Before remediation, the males were exposed to the JP-4 orally for 73 days, with the contaminant injected into the food source. After remediation, the males were directly exposed to the contaminated soil samples for 60 days. The endpoints measured in both studies were: change in body weight, organ to body weight ratios, sperm counts, number of malformed sperm, and sperm motility. In both the pre and post remediation studies, there were no significant effects on body weight or organ weight data at the p ≤ 0.05 level. However, there were effects seen in sperm count and morphology. The male reproductive toxicity assay under development has given useful information in initially determining the reproductive toxicity of JP-4. Significant effects were seen in both the pre and post remediation direct exposure tests, indicating that the direct exposure route may be the most promising for future testing

  16. The new Internet tool: the information and evaluation system by flight, of exposure to cosmic radiation in the new air transports S.I.E.V.E.R.T

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In France, the public authorities put a new Internet tool at air companies disposal, in order they can evaluate the radiations doses received by their flying crews during their flights. This tool called information and evaluation system by flight of exposure to cosmic radiation in air transport (S.I.E.V.E.R.T.). (N.C.)

  17. Air Quality Monitoring Programme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kemp, K.; Palmgren, F.

    The air quality in Danish cities has been monitored continuously since 1982 within the Danish Air Quality (LMP) network. The aim has been to follow the concentration levels of toxic pollutants in the urban atmosphere and to provide the necessary knowledge to assess the trends, to perform source...... apportionment, and to evaluate the chemical reactions and the dispersion of the pollutants in the atmosphere. In 2002 the air quality was measured in four Danish cities and at two background sites. NO2 and PM10 were at several stations found in concentrations above the new EU limit values, which the Member...

  18. The Transformation of Institutional Research as a Result of Improving Information Technology. AIR Annual 1984 Forum Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Michael R.; Walleri, R. Dan

    The changing nature of institutional research due to the expanded use and capabilities of information technology was explored through a regional survey of institutional researchers, who indicated their involvement in information systems development. Results were analyzed for all respondents, by type of institution (four-year versus two-year), and…

  19. Computing and Interpreting Fisher Information as a Metric of Sustainability: Regime Changes in the United States Air Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    As a key tool in information theory, Fisher Information has been used to explore the observable behavior of a variety of systems. In particular, recent work has demonstrated its ability to assess the dynamic order of real and model systems. However, in order to solidify the use o...

  20. Urbanizaciones de origen informal en Buenos Aires. Lógicas de producción de suelo urbano y acceso a la vivienda

    OpenAIRE

    María Mercedes Di Virgilio

    2015-01-01

    El Área Metropolitana de Buenos Aires (AMBA) convive desde sus orígenes con múltiples modalidades de informalidad urbana. Este trabajo analiza el proceso de producción y transformación de las formas de hábitat informal que se desarrollan sobre tierra vacante en el AMBA. Los resultados que se presentan forman parte de una investigación que indaga sobre las transformaciones de cuatro urbanizaciones populares del AMBA desde su origen hasta la actualidad, por medio de técnicas cuantitativas y cua...

  1. Hanford Site Air Operating Permit Application Supplemental Information [Sec 1 Thru 5] Vol 1 Thru 3 Appendices A Thru C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CURN, B.L.

    2000-05-01

    This report documents radionuclide air emissions from the Hanford Site in 1998 and the resulting effective dose equivalent to the maximally exposed individual (MEI) member of the public. The report has been prepared in accordance with the Code of Federal Regulations, Title 40, Protection of the Environment, Part 61, National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (40 CFR 61), Subpart H: ''National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other than Radon from Department of Energy Facilities,'' and with the Washington Administrative Code Chapter 246247, Radiation Protection - Air Emissions. The federal regulations in 40 CFR 61, Subpart H, require the measurement and reporting of radionuclides emitted from Department of Energy facilities and the resulting offsite dose from those emissions. A standard of 10 mrem/yr effective dose equivalent (EDE) is imposed on them. The EDE to the MEI due to routine emissions in 1998 from Hanford Site point sources was 1.3 E-02 mrem (1.3 E-04 mSv). which is 0.13 percent of the federal standard. Chapter 246-247 of the Washington Administrative Code (WAC) requires the reporting of radionuclide emissions from all Department of Energy Hanford Site sources. The state has adopted into these regulations the 40 CFR 61 standard of 10 mrem/yr EDE. The EDE to the MEI attributable to diffuse and fugitive radionuclide air emissions from the Hanford Site in 1998 was 2.5 E-02 mrem (2.S E-04 mSv). This dose added to the dose from point sources gives a total for all sources of 3.8 E-02 mrem/yr (3.8 E-04 mSv) EDE. which is 0.38 percent of the 10 mrem/yr standard. An unplanned release on August 26, 1998, in the 300 Area of the Hanford Site resulted in a potential dose of 4.1 E-02 mrem to a hypothetical individual at the nearest point of public access to that area. This hypothetical individual was not the MEI since the wind direction on the day of the release was away from the MEI residence. The potential dose from

  2. Distributed Structure Searchable Toxicity

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Distributed Structure Searchable Toxicity (DSSTox) online resource provides high quality chemical structures and annotations in association with toxicity data....

  3. A study of toxic emissions from a coal-fired gasification plant. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-01

    Under the Fine Particulate Control/Air Toxics Program, the US Department of Energy (DOE) has been performing comprehensive assessments of toxic substance emissions from coal-fired electric utility units. An objective of this program is to provide information to the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for use in evaluating hazardous air pollutant emissions as required by the Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) of 1990. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) has also performed comprehensive assessments of emissions from many power plants and provided the information to the EPA. The DOE program was implemented in two. Phase 1 involved the characterization of eight utility units, with options to sample additional units in Phase 2. Radian was one of five contractors selected to perform these toxic emission assessments.Radian`s Phase 1 test site was at southern Company Service`s Plant Yates, Unit 1, which, as part of the DOE`s Clean Coal Technology Program, was demonstrating the CT-121 flue gas desulfurization technology. A commercial-scale prototype integrated gasification-combined cycle (IGCC) power plant was selected by DOE for Phase 2 testing. Funding for the Phase 2 effort was provided by DOE, with assistance from EPRI and the host site, the Louisiana Gasification Technology, Inc. (LGTI) project This document presents the results of that effort.

  4. Study on protective facility information price management of civil air defense engineering%人防工程防护设备信息价格管理研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张桂萍

    2015-01-01

    论述了人防工程防护设备价格信息管理存在的主要问题,对产生各种问题的原因进行了分析,提出了进一步开放市场、建立全国性的人防工程防护设备信息价网络系统、加强质量监督等对策,以维护防护设备市场的稳定性。%The paper discusses protective facility information price management problems of civil air defense engineering,analyzes various cau-ses,puts forward a series of countermeasures,such as opening market,establishing national civil air defense engineering protecting facility infor-mation price network system,and strengthening quality supervision and so on,with a view to maintain the stability of protective facility market.

  5. Air quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This chapter of the 'Assessment of the state of the environment in Lebanon' describes the air quality and identifies the most important air quality issues. Baseline information about the factors affecting dispersion and the climate of Lebanon presents as well and overall estimation of total emissions in Lebanon. Emissions from vehicles, electricity and power plants generation are described. Industrial emitters of air pollutants are described for each kind of industry i.e.cement plants, Selaata fertilizer factory, sugar-beet factory, refineries and for those derived from the use of leaded fuel . Impact of economic and human activities on air quality in Lebanon (especially in Beirut and Tripoli) are quantified by quantities of CO2, SO2, NOx, total suspended particulates(TSP), deposition and their environmental effects on health. In abscence of emissions monitoring, data available are expressed in terms of fuel use, output and appropriate empirical factors, national output and workfores sizes. Finally key issues and some potential mitigation /management approaches are presented

  6. Biological monitors of air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Direct biological monitoring of air pollution was introduced about 30 years ago. Although still under development, the application of biological monitors, or indicators, may provide important information on the levels, availability, and pathways of a variety of pollutants including heavy metals and other toxic trace elements in the air. A survey is given of the most frequently used biomonitors, such as herbaceous plants, tree leaves or needles, bryophytes, and lichens, with their possible advantages and/or limitations. In addition to using naturally-occurring biomonitors, a possibility of employing ''transplanted'' species in the study areas, for instance grasses grown in special containers in standard soils or lichens transplanted with their natural substrate to an exposition site, is also mentioned. Several sampling and washing procedures are reported. The important of employing nuclear analytical methods, especially instrumental neutron activation analysis, for multielemental analysis of biomonitors as a pre-requisite for unlocking the information contained in chemical composition of monitor's tissues, such as apportionment of emission sources using multivariate statistical procedures, is also outlined. (author). 32 refs, 2 figs

  7. Air quality of Pasir Gudang industrial estate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The composition and distribution of anthropogenic aerosols are of interest mainly because of the health effects from atmospheric pollution to man. The department of environment and the local authority have been monitoring the levels of TSP and PM 10 respectively at two different sites in Pasir Gudang for a number of years. This study was conducted to determine concentrations of TSP and respirable air particulate matter at another station situated in the middle of the industrial zone. The particulate matter samples were collected by using high volume samplers for 24 hours periods during February to March and September to October 1993. Data included in this paper also provide information on concentrations of water soluble anions and cations and toxic metals in the air particulate

  8. Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Air pollution is a mixture of solid particles and gases in the air. Car emissions, chemicals from factories, dust, ... a gas, is a major part of air pollution in cities. When ozone forms air pollution, it's ...

  9. Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Air pollution is a mixture of solid particles and gases in the air. Car emissions, chemicals from factories, dust, pollen and ... Ozone, a gas, is a major part of air pollution in cities. When ozone forms air pollution, ...

  10. Ecological risk assessment on a cadmium contaminated soil landfill-a preliminary evaluation based on toxicity tests on local species and site-specific information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In recent years, methodology of ecological risk assessment has been developed and applied frequently for addressing various circumstances where ecological impacts are suspected or have occurred due to environmental contamination; however, its practice is very limited in Taiwan. In 1982, brown rice from rice paddy fields in Da-Tan, Tau-Yuan, was found to be contaminated with Cd and Pb due to illegal discharges of wastewater, known as the 'Cd rice' incidence. Cadmium laden soil was transferred to a constructed landfill in an industrial park 15 years after the incident. Possible leakage of the landfill was suspected by committee members of a supervising board for the remediation process, and a preliminary ecological risk evaluation was requested. A possible risk scenario was that groundwater contamination due to the leachate containing Cd and Pb from the landfill could result in pollution of coastal water, and subsequently produce toxic effects to aquatic organisms. Chemical dissipation in groundwater systems was simulated and short-term chronic toxicity tests on larvae of three local aquatic species were also performed to determine the no-observed adverse-effect concentrations (NOAECs), as well as the predicted no effect concentrations (PNECs), of the two metals in the organisms tested. The hazard quotient (HQ), the ratio of predicted environmental concentrations (PECs) to PNECs, was used for risk characterization. A worst-case-scenario calculation showed that the maximum Cd concentration at 60 m and farther downstream from the site in the groundwater system would be 0.0028 mg l-1 with a maximum initial concentration of 0.65 mg l-1 in the leachate, while for Pb, the highest concentration of 0.044 mg l-1 would be reached at a distance of 40 m and farther, which was based on an initial concentration of 4.4 mg l-1 in the leachate; however, both cases would only occur 80 years after the initiation of leakage. A presumed dilution factor of 100 was used to calculate the

  11. Ecological risk assessment on a cadmium contaminated soil landfill--a preliminary evaluation based on toxicity tests on local species and site-specific information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chien-Min; Liu, Ming-Chao

    2006-04-15

    In recent years, methodology of ecological risk assessment has been developed and applied frequently for addressing various circumstances where ecological impacts are suspected or have occurred due to environmental contamination; however, its practice is very limited in Taiwan. In 1982, brown rice from rice paddy fields in Da-Tan, Tau-Yuan, was found to be contaminated with Cd and Pb due to illegal discharges of wastewater, known as the "Cd rice" incidence. Cadmium laden soil was transferred to a constructed landfill in an industrial park 15 years after the incident. Possible leakage of the landfill was suspected by committee members of a supervising board for the remediation process, and a preliminary ecological risk evaluation was requested. A possible risk scenario was that groundwater contamination due to the leachate containing Cd and Pb from the landfill could result in pollution of coastal water, and subsequently produce toxic effects to aquatic organisms. Chemical dissipation in groundwater systems was simulated and short-term chronic toxicity tests on larvae of three local aquatic species were also performed to determine the no-observed adverse-effect concentrations (NOAECs), as well as the predicted no effect concentrations (PNECs), of the two metals in the organisms tested. The hazard quotient (HQ), the ratio of predicted environmental concentrations (PECs) to PNECs, was used for risk characterization. A worst-case-scenario calculation showed that the maximum Cd concentration at 60 m and farther downstream from the site in the groundwater system would be 0.0028 mg l(-1) with a maximum initial concentration of 0.65 mg l(-1) in the leachate, while for Pb, the highest concentration of 0.044 mg l(-1) would be reached at a distance of 40 m and farther, which was based on an initial concentration of 4.4 mg l(-1) in the leachate; however, both cases would only occur 80 years after the initiation of leakage. A presumed dilution factor of 100 was used to

  12. Jatropha toxicity--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devappa, Rakshit K; Makkar, Harinder P S; Becker, Klaus

    2010-08-01

    Jatropha is a nonedible oil seed plant belonging to Euphorbiaceae family. Global awareness of sustainable and alternative energy resources has propelled research on Jatropha oil as a feedstock for biodiesel production. During the past two decades, several cultivation projects were undertaken to produce Jatropha oil. In future, the increased cultivation of toxic Jatropha plants and utilization of its agro-industrial by-products may raise the frequency of contact with humans, animals, and other organisms. An attempt was thus made to present known information on toxicity of Jatropha plants. The toxicity of Jatropha plant extracts from fruit, seed, oil, roots, latex, bark, and leaf to a number of species, from microorganisms to higher animals, is well established. Broadly, these extracts possess moluscicidal, piscicidal, insecticidal, rodenticidal, antimicrobial, and cytotoxic properties, and exert adverse effects on animals including rats, poultry, and ruminants. The toxicity attributed to these seeds due to their accidental consumption by children is also well documented. An attempt was also made to identify areas that need further study. The information provided in this review may aid in enhancing awareness in agroindustries involved in the cultivation, harvesting, and utilization of Jatropha plants and its products with respect to the potential toxicity of Jatropha, and consequently in application and enforcement of occupational safety measures. Data on the wide range of bioactivities of Jatropha and its products were collated and it is hoped will create new avenues for exploiting these chemicals by the phamaceutical industry to develop chemotherapeutic agents. PMID:20711929

  13. Information sources in the field of air pollution control - update. Informationsquellen auf dem Fachgebiet Reinhaltung der Luft - Fortschreibung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lahmann, E. (comp.)

    1990-01-01

    This guide to information sources and publications from Germany and other countries is classified as follows: (1) Books and publishing houses; (2) VDI specifications; (3) summary reports; (4) serials, reports published at regular intervals, 'grey' literature (reports); (5) scientific reports, measurement reports; (6) scientific journals; (7) abstract journals. (HP).

  14. A geospatial time-aware web interface to deliver information about air pollution and exposure in a big city and its surroundings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogliolo, M. P.; Contino, G.

    2014-11-01

    A GIS-based web-mapping system is presented, aimed at providing specialists, stakeholders and population with a simple, while scientifically rigorous, way to obtain information about people exposure to air pollution in the city of Rome (Italy). It combines a geo-spatial visualization with easy access to time dimension and to quantitative information. The study is part of the EXPAH (Population Exposure to PAHs) LIFE+ EC Project, which goal is to identify and quantify children and elderly people exposure to PM2.5-bound Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the atmosphere of Rome, and to assess the impact on human health. The core of the system is a GIS, which database contains data and results of the project research activity. They include daily indoor and outdoor ground measurements and daily maps from simulation modeling of atmospheric PAHs and PM2.5 concentration for the period June 2011-May 2012, and daily and average exposure maps. Datasets have been published as time-enabled standard OGC Web Map Services (WMS). A set of web mapping applications query the web services to produce a set of interactive and time-aware thematic maps. Finding effective ways to communicate risk for human health, and environmental determinants for it, is a topical and challenging task: the web mapping system presented is a prototype of a possible model to disseminate scientific results on these items, providing a sight into impacts of air pollution on people living and working in a big city, and shipping information about the overall exposure, its spatial pattern and levels at specific locations.

  15. Assessment and prediction of air quality using fuzzy logic and autoregressive models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbajal-Hernández, José Juan; Sánchez-Fernández, Luis P.; Carrasco-Ochoa, Jesús A.; Martínez-Trinidad, José Fco.

    2012-12-01

    In recent years, artificial intelligence methods have been used for the treatment of environmental problems. This work, presents two models for assessment and prediction of air quality. First, we develop a new computational model for air quality assessment in order to evaluate toxic compounds that can harm sensitive people in urban areas, affecting their normal activities. In this model we propose to use a Sigma operator to statistically asses air quality parameters using their historical data information and determining their negative impact in air quality based on toxicity limits, frequency average and deviations of toxicological tests. We also introduce a fuzzy inference system to perform parameter classification using a reasoning process and integrating them in an air quality index describing the pollution levels in five stages: excellent, good, regular, bad and danger, respectively. The second model proposed in this work predicts air quality concentrations using an autoregressive model, providing a predicted air quality index based on the fuzzy inference system previously developed. Using data from Mexico City Atmospheric Monitoring System, we perform a comparison among air quality indices developed for environmental agencies and similar models. Our results show that our models are an appropriate tool for assessing site pollution and for providing guidance to improve contingency actions in urban areas.

  16. Simulation studies of the information content of muon arrival time observations of high energy extensive air showers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    By extensive Monte Carlo calculations, using the air shower simulation code CORSIKA, EAS muon arrival time distributions and EAS time profiles up to 320 m distances from the shower centre have been generated, for proton, oxygen and iron induced showers using different hadronic interaction models as Monte Carlo generators. The model dependence and mass discriminating features have been scrutinized for three energy ranges, (1-1.7783) 1015 eV, (1.-1.78) 1016 eV and (1.78-3.16) 1016 eV, by use of non-parametric statistical inference method applied to multidimensional distributions, correlating the EAS time quantities with different other EAS observables. The correlations of local muon arrival times with the local muon density and the shower age indicate a good mass separation quality at larger shower distances. The best discrimination was obtained by adding the correlation with Nμtr quantity. The comparison between 'local times', with reference to the first registered muon and 'global times' with reference to the arrival time of the shower core, indicates a slightly better mass discrimination in the case of muon 'global' time distributions. (authors)

  17. Xenobiotics and toxic substances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mglinets, A.I.; Katserikova, N.V.

    2003-07-01

    This literature review focuses on health issues associated with the intake into the human body of xenobiotics (foreign substances) and toxic substances in foods, water and air. Toxicity is defined as being the ability of a substance to cause harm to a living organism. Of the factors that determine the action of xenobiotics on the human body, the most important are daily dose, duration of intake, route and conditions of intake, and the ability of specific substances to act, either at the time of consumption or at a later time. Hygiene regulations require experimental validation of maximum permissible concentrations of foreign compounds in different environments. In food hygiene, the emphasis is on the acceptable daily intake. It is necessary to determine the maximum levels at which substances can be present in a food without causing any harm to human health or to the sensory properties of the food or adversely affecting technological processes. Ways in which harmful chemical compounds (e.g.heavy metals) may arise in foods are discussed. These include corrosion of metals in equipment and vessels used in food preparation. Where aluminium vessels or foil is used in food preparation, this can lead to an accumulation of aluminium in the human body; this has been associated with the development of Alzheimer's Disease. For this reason the use of stainless steel vessels and equipment is recommended for food processing. The process of smoking food - in particular cold smoking of fish - can result in high levels of heavy metal contamination in smoked foods, particularly where poor-quality wood or coal is used. Ways of minimizing levels of heavy metals in smoked foods are briefly considered. 17 refs.

  18. Engineered Nanoparticle (Eco)Toxicity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cupi, Denisa

    -chemical characteristics. It is these unique physico-chemical properties that have raised concerns during the last decade regarding the potential risk nanomaterials pose towards human health and the environment. Similar to other chemicals, nanomaterials have to be tested and ranked in order to obtain information on hazard...... in stabilizing ZnO ENPs suspensions, it caused agglomeration in TiO2 ENP stock suspensions and an underestimation of toxicity for Ag ENPs. Likewise, aging only aided in the stability of ZnO ENPs. It was concluded that NOM can mitigate or eliminate toxicity of Ag ENPs and is not recommended for use. The ratio...

  19. Development of standardized air-blown coal gasifier/gas turbine concepts for future electric power systems. Volume 5, Appendix D: Cost support information: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadowski, R.S.; Brown, M.J.; Harriz, J.T.; Ostrowski, E.

    1991-01-01

    The cost estimate provided for the DOE sponsored study of Air Blown Coal Gasification was developed from vendor quotes obtained directly for the equipment needed in the 50 MW, 100 MW, and 200 MW sized plants and from quotes from other jobs that have been referenced to apply to the particular cycle. Quotes were generally obtained for the 100 MW cycle and a scale up/down factor was used to generate the cost estimates for the 200 MW and 50 MW cycles, respectively. Information from GTPro (property of Thermoflow, Inc.) was used to estimate the cost of the 200 MW and 50 MW gas turbine, HRSG, and steam turbines. To available the use of GTPro`s estimated values for this equipment, a comparison was made between the quotes obtained for the 100 MW cycle (ABB GT 11N combustion turbine and a HSRG) against the estimated values by GTPro.

  20. Toxic compounds in honey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Md Nazmul; Khalil, Md Ibrahim; Islam, Md Asiful; Gan, Siew Hua

    2014-07-01

    There is a wealth of information about the nutritional and medicinal properties of honey. However, honey may contain compounds that may lead to toxicity. A compound not naturally present in honey, named 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF), may be formed during the heating or preservation processes of honey. HMF has gained much interest, as it is commonly detected in honey samples, especially samples that have been stored for a long time. HMF is a compound that may be mutagenic, carcinogenic and cytotoxic. It has also been reported that honey can be contaminated with heavy metals such as lead, arsenic, mercury and cadmium. Honey produced from the nectar of Rhododendron ponticum contains alkaloids that can be poisonous to humans, while honey collected from Andromeda flowers contains grayanotoxins, which can cause paralysis of limbs in humans and eventually leads to death. In addition, Melicope ternata and Coriaria arborea from New Zealand produce toxic honey that can be fatal. There are reports that honey is not safe to be consumed when it is collected from Datura plants (from Mexico and Hungary), belladonna flowers and Hyoscamus niger plants (from Hungary), Serjania lethalis (from Brazil), Gelsemium sempervirens (from the American Southwest), Kalmia latifolia, Tripetalia paniculata and Ledum palustre. Although the symptoms of poisoning due to honey consumption may differ depending on the source of toxins, most common symptoms generally include dizziness, nausea, vomiting, convulsions, headache, palpitations or even death. It has been suggested that honey should not be considered a completely safe food. PMID:24214851

  1. The new Internet tool: the information and evaluation system by flight, of exposure to cosmic radiation in the new air transports S.I.E.V.E.R.T; Un nouvel outil internet: le systeme d'information et d'evaluation par vol, de l'exposition au rayonnement cosmique dans les transports aeriens SIEVERT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-03-01

    In France, the public authorities put a new Internet tool at air companies disposal, in order they can evaluate the radiations doses received by their flying crews during their flights. This tool called information and evaluation system by flight of exposure to cosmic radiation in air transport (S.I.E.V.E.R.T.). (N.C.)

  2. Lateral charged particle distribution of extensive air showers - source of information about energy and nature of the primary cosmic particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The CORSIKA simulated showers for H, C and Fe cosmic primaries in 8 energy intervals from 1016 eV to 1018 eV, taking into account the response of KASCADE-Grande detectors, have been used to reconstruct the charged particle density for KASCADE-Grande observations, based on the Linsley lateral distribution function (LDF). Extensive studies have been done to investigate features for energy estimation and mass discrimination of cosmic primaries around 1017 eV. It has been found that the charged particle density distribution of EAS exhibits interesting information for both aspects: at larger distances from shower core, around 500 m - 600 m the charge particle density could be used as energy identifier, and at shorter distances from shower core, around, 100 m - 200 m, it signals the mass of the EAS primary. (author)

  3. Air pollution and public health: emerging hazards and improved understanding of risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Frank J; Fussell, Julia C

    2015-08-01

    Despite past improvements in air quality, very large parts of the population in urban areas breathe air that does not meet European standards let alone the health-based World Health Organisation Air Quality Guidelines. Over the last 10 years, there has been a substantial increase in findings that particulate matter (PM) air pollution is not only exerting a greater impact on established health endpoints, but is also associated with a broader number of disease outcomes. Data strongly suggest that effects have no threshold within the studied range of ambient concentrations, can occur at levels close to PM2.5 background concentrations and that they follow a mostly linear concentration-response function. Having firmly established this significant public health problem, there has been an enormous effort to identify what it is in ambient PM that affects health and to understand the underlying biological basis of toxicity by identifying mechanistic pathways-information that in turn will inform policy makers how best to legislate for cleaner air. Another intervention in moving towards a healthier environment depends upon the achieving the right public attitude and behaviour by the use of optimal air pollution monitoring, forecasting and reporting that exploits increasingly sophisticated information systems. Improving air quality is a considerable but not an intractable challenge. Translating the correct scientific evidence into bold, realistic and effective policies undisputedly has the potential to reduce air pollution so that it no longer poses a damaging and costly toll on public health. PMID:26040976

  4. Toxicity alarm: Case history

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In late fall 1991, the Novacor petrochemical plant near Joffre, Alberta experienced a toxicity alarm, the first since its startup 14 years ago. Fish exposed to a normal toxicity test were stressed within 2 h and showed 100% mortality after 24 h. A history of the events leading up to, during, and after the toxicity alarm is presented. The major effluent sources were three cooling water systems. Although these sources are well characterized, the event causes were not immediately clear. Initial toxic screening indicated that one was very toxic, another moderately toxic, and the third not toxic at all. All three systems utilized the same chemical treatment program to avoid fouling: stabilized phosphates with minor variants. The most toxic of the cooling systems operated at 10-12 cycles, had three chemicals for biocide control, and had three makeup streams. Toxic and nontoxic system characteristics were compared. An in-depth modified toxicity identification and evaluation program was then performed to identify and evaluate the cause of the toxicity alarm for future prevention. The most probable causes of toxicity were identified by elimination. The combination of high numbers of cycles, hydrocarbons in the makeup water, and bromine added as an antifoulant resulted in formation of aromatic bromamines which are capable of causing the toxic condition experienced. 2 tabs

  5. Air Quality in Lithuania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pietilae, P. [Tampere University of Technology / ECAT-Lithuania (Lithuania); Kliucininkas, L. [Department for Environmental Engineering, Kaunas University of Technology (Lithuania)

    2000-07-01

    Sustainable monitoring of the ambient air is the major preventive measure of ensuring its proper quality. Only with a monitoring procedure going-on a continuous basis it is possible to make an objective evaluation of air pollution trends, of the efficiency of air protection measures and, partially, to a certain extent of the impact the pollution exerts on a human health. The information stemming from the monitoring procedure must be reliable, sustainable and efficient. (orig.)

  6. Bad traffic, bad air

    OpenAIRE

    Duca, Edward

    2012-01-01

    Air pollution is one of Malta’s greatest concerns. Transportation is the principal source with over 300,000 vehicles belching out smoke, which damages our environment and health. Emissions from vehicles need to be monitored and controlled, and the information used to improve the current system and ensure an acceptable air quality. By using the pollution data set, Nicolette Formosa (supervised by Dr Kenneth Scerri) mapped the air pollution levels and major sources around Malta. http://www....

  7. Toxic shock syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a toxin produced by some types of Staphylococcus bacteria. A similar problem, called toxic shock-like syndrome (TSLS), can be caused by Streptococcal bacteria. Not all staph or strep infections cause toxic ...

  8. Toxic Amblyopia (Nutritional Amblyopia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Sugar Control Helps Fight Diabetic Eye Disease Are 'Workaholics' Prone to OCD, Anxiety? ALL NEWS > Resources First ... exposure to toxic substances or take nutritional supplements. Causes Toxic amblyopia may be caused by a nutritional ...

  9. A.P.H.E.I.S.:air Pollution and Health: A European Information System Health Impact Assessment of Air Pollution In 26 European Cities; Synthese des resultats europeens et resultats detailles des villes francaises issus du rapport paru en octobre 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-10-15

    Air pollution is a public health problem, in spite of more severe norms in matter of emissions rates, a stricter surveillance of the atmospheric pollution and the decrease of levels of some atmospheric pollutants. this situation has lead to the creation of a programme A.p.h.e.i.s. in 1999, in order to supply to Europeans authorities information on air pollution. In the report are presented the results of E.I.S. (evaluation of sanitary impact) made in towns.

  10. An Overview of the Toxicity of Naphthalene, EDB and Ethanol

    Science.gov (United States)

    This presentation is a short summary of information on the toxicity and carcinogenicity of naphthalene and 1,2-dibromoethane (EDB) that is available in the EPA Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) and information on the toxicity of ethanol available from the Health, Environm...

  11. CHIRONOMIDAE TOXICITY TESTS--BIOLOGICAL BACKGROUND AND PROCEDURES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toxicity tests must be based on an understanding of the test animal's life cycle. The first section of this report describes the biological information needed to develop toxicity test procedures. The second section describes three categories of toxicity test systems - short-expos...

  12. Air Abrasion

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... delivered directly to your desktop! more... What Is Air Abrasion? Article Chapters What Is Air Abrasion? What Happens? The Pros and Cons Will I Feel Anything? Is Air Abrasion for Everyone? print full article print this ...

  13. Air Pollution, Teachers' Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavaroni, Charles W.; O'Donnell, Patrick A.

    One of three in a series about pollution, this teacher's guide for a unit on air pollution is designed for use in junior high school grades. It offers suggestions for extending the information and activities contained in the textual material for students. Chapter 1 discusses the problem of air pollution and involves students in processes of…

  14. Evaluating the health significance of hazardous air pollutants using monitoring data.

    OpenAIRE

    Kyle, A. D.; Wright, C C; Caldwell, J. C.; Buffler, P A; Woodruff, T J

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Though many contaminants are released into the atmosphere, in the US only six air pollutants-ozone, particulate matter, sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, and lead-are closely monitored and carefully assessed for health significance. Other pollutants, even if highly toxic, are neither widely monitored nor routinely assessed at the national level. The goal of this study was to analyze the availability of information needed to characterize the health significance of h...

  15. Progress in the prevention and control of air pollution in 1988: Report to congress. Annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Contents of this study: air quality trends, monitoring, and modeling; air pollution research programs; development of national ambient air; quality standards; assessment and control of toxic air pollutants; status of air quality management programs; control of stationary source emissions; stationary source compliance; control of mobile source emissions; stratospheric ozone protection; indoor air quality; acid deposition; radon assessment and remediation; litigation

  16. 40 CFR 80.820 - What gasoline is subject to the toxics performance requirements of this subpart?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What gasoline is subject to the toxics... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Toxics Gasoline Toxics Performance Requirements § 80.820 What gasoline is subject to the toxics...

  17. TOXIC SUBSTANCES FROM COAL COMBUSTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolker, A.; Sarofim, A.F.; Palmer, C.A.; Huggins, F.E.; Huffman, G.P.; Lighty, J.; Veranth, J.; Helble, J.J.; Wendt, J.O.L.; Ames, M.R.; Finkelman, R.; Mamani-Paco, M.; Sterling, R.; Mroczkowsky, S.J.; Panagiotou, T.; Seames, W.

    1999-05-10

    The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 identify a number of hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) as candidates for regulation. Should regulations be imposed on HAP emissions from coal-fired power plants, a sound understanding of the fundamental principles controlling the formation and partitioning of toxic species during coal combustion will be needed. With support from the Federal Energy Technology Center (FETC), the Electric Power Research Institute, and VTT (Finland), Physical Sciences Inc. (PSI) has teamed with researchers from USGS, MIT, the University of Arizona (UA), the University of Kentucky (UK), the University of Connecticut (UC), the University of Utah (UU) and the University of North Dakota Energy and Environ-mental Research Center (EERC) to develop a broadly applicable emissions model useful to regulators and utility planners. The new Toxics Partitioning Engineering Model (ToPEM) will be applicable to all combustion conditions including new fuels and coal blends, low-NOx combustion systems, and new power generation plants. Development of ToPEM will be based on PSI's existing Engineering Model for Ash Formation (EMAF). This report covers the reporting period from 1 January 1999 to 31 March 1999. During this period, a full Program Review Meeting was held at the University of Arizona. At this meeting, the progress of each group was reviewed, plans for the following 9 month period were discussed, and action items (principally associated with the transfer of samples and reports among the various investigators) were identified.

  18. Big Data in Chemical Toxicity Research: The Use of High-Throughput Screening Assays To Identify Potential Toxicants

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Hao; Zhang, Jun; Kim, Marlene T.; Boison, Abena; Sedykh, Alexander; Moran, Kimberlee

    2014-01-01

    High-throughput screening (HTS) assays that measure the in vitro toxicity of environmental compounds have been widely applied as an alternative to in vivo animal tests of chemical toxicity. Current HTS studies provide the community with rich toxicology information that has the potential to be integrated into toxicity research. The available in vitro toxicity data is updated daily in structured formats (e.g., deposited into PubChem and other data-sharing web portals) or in an unstructured way ...

  19. Geographical information system and environmental epidemiology: a cross-sectional spatial analysis of the effects of traffic-related air pollution on population respiratory health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carrozzi Laura

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Traffic-related air pollution is a potential risk factor for human respiratory health. A Geographical Information System (GIS approach was used to examine whether distance from a main road (the Tosco-Romagnola road affected respiratory health status. Methods We used data collected during an epidemiological survey performed in the Pisa-Cascina area (central Italy in the period 1991-93. A total of 2841 subjects participated in the survey and filled out a standardized questionnaire on health status, socio-demographic information, and personal habits. A variable proportion of subjects performed lung function and allergy tests. Highly exposed subjects were defined as those living within 100 m of the main road, moderately exposed as those living between 100 and 250 m from the road, and unexposed as those living between 250 and 800 m from the road. Statistical analyses were conducted to compare the risks for respiratory symptoms and diseases between exposed and unexposed. All analyses were stratified by gender. Results The study comprised 2062 subjects: mean age was 45.9 years for men and 48.9 years for women. Compared to subjects living between 250 m and 800 m from the main road, subjects living within 100 m of the main road had increased adjusted risks for persistent wheeze (OR = 1.76, 95% CI = 1.08-2.87, COPD diagnosis (OR = 1.80, 95% CI = 1.03-3.08, and reduced FEV1/FVC ratio (OR = 2.07, 95% CI = 1.11-3.87 among males, and for dyspnea (OR = 1.61, 95% CI = 1.13-2.27, positivity to skin prick test (OR = 1.83, 95% CI = 1.11-3.00, asthma diagnosis (OR = 1.68, 95% CI = 0.97-2.88 and attacks of shortness of breath with wheeze (OR = 1.67, 95% CI = 0.98-2.84 among females. Conclusion This study points out the potential effects of traffic-related air pollution on respiratory health status, including lung function impairment. It also highlights the added value of GIS in environmental health research.

  20. Toxicities of selected substances to freshwater biota

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hohreiter, D.W.

    1980-05-01

    The amount of data available concerning the toxicity of various substances to freshwater biota is so large that it is difficult to use in a practical situation, such as environmental impact assessment. In this document, summary tables are presented showing acute and/or chronic toxicity of selected substances for various groups of aquatic biota. Each entry is referenced to its original source so that details concerning experimental conditions may be consulted. In addition, general information concerning factors modifying toxicity, synergisms, evidence of bioaccumulation, and water quality standards and criteria for the selected substances is given. The final table is a general toxicity table designed to provide an easily accessible and general indication of toxicity of selected substances in aquatic systems.

  1. Geographical information systems as a tool in limnological studies An applied case study in a shallow .lake of a plain area, Buenos Aires province, Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The understanding of the hydrological functioning and the interaction among the different water bodies in an area is essential when a sustainable use of the hydric resources is considered. The aim of the present paper is to assess both hydrological-limnological methods and GIS as an integrated methodology applied to the study of shallow lakes, and the hydrological behavior of shallow wetlands in plain areas. La Salada is an areic permanent shallow lake with an area of 5,78 km2 located near La Dulce town (SE of Buenos Aires Province, Argentina). In this paper we applied methods and tools of the Geographical information Systems in order to assess both, the evolution and state of the wetland. Topographic profiles, showing the relationship among the lake and the other aquatic systems, and also a multi temporal assessment of the morphometric parameters were performed by using a Digital Terrain Model of the area. A sample grid was designed to obtain bathymetric, hydrogeochemical and isotopic data. The chemical water composition is homogeneous in area and depth. changes in the conductivity values along depth, the isotopic contents and the Gibbs diagram showed that the evaporation is the main process controlling the water chemistry. Physical-chemical parameters established water quality and uses of the lake.

  2. Information

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    There are unstructured abstracts (no more than 256 words) and structured abstracts (no more than 480). The specific requirements for structured abstracts are as follows:An informative, structured abstracts of no more than 4-80 words should accompany each manuscript. Abstracts for original contributions should be structured into the following sections. AIM (no more than 20 words): Only the purpose should be included. Please write the aim as the form of "To investigate/ study/..."; MATERIALS AND METHODS (no more than 140 words); RESULTS (no more than 294 words): You should present P values where appropnate and must provide relevant data to illustrate how they were obtained, e.g. 6.92 ± 3.86 vs 3.61 ± 1.67, P< 0.001; CONCLUSION (no more than 26 words).

  3. A Breath of Fresh Air

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Have you ever driven by a sewage-treatment plant and noticed a rotten-eggstink? Air-quality requirements force these plants touse devices called chemical scrubbers to eliminate malodorous hydrogen sulfide from the gases createdby bacteria in sewageslurry. The process works,but it's expensive and depends on filtering gasthrough toxic chemicalssuch as lye and bleach.

  4. Toxicity of lunar dust

    OpenAIRE

    Linnarsson, Dag; Carpenter, James; Fubini, Bice; Gerde, Per; Karlsson, Lars L.; Loftus, David J.; Prisk, G. Kim; Staufer, Urs; Tranfield, Erin M.; van Westrenen, Wim

    2012-01-01

    The formation, composition and physical properties of lunar dust are incompletely characterised with regard to human health. While the physical and chemical determinants of dust toxicity for materials such as asbestos, quartz, volcanic ashes and urban particulate matter have been the focus of substantial research efforts, lunar dust properties, and therefore lunar dust toxicity may differ substantially. In this contribution, past and ongoing work on dust toxicity is reviewed, and major knowle...

  5. CHEMICAL TOXICITY OF URANIUM

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    Uranium, occurs naturally in the earth’s crust, is an alpha emitter radioactive element from the actinide group. For this reason, U-235 and U-238, are uranium isotopes with long half lives, have got radiological toxicity. But, for natural-isotopic-composition uranium (NatU), there is greater risk from chemical toxicity than radiological toxicity. When uranium is get into the body with anyway, also its chemical toxicity must be thought. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2007; 6(3.000): 215-220

  6. CHEMICAL TOXICITY OF URANIUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sermin Cam

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Uranium, occurs naturally in the earth’s crust, is an alpha emitter radioactive element from the actinide group. For this reason, U-235 and U-238, are uranium isotopes with long half lives, have got radiological toxicity. But, for natural-isotopic-composition uranium (NatU, there is greater risk from chemical toxicity than radiological toxicity. When uranium is get into the body with anyway, also its chemical toxicity must be thought. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2007; 6(3.000: 215-220

  7. Toxicity. Chapter 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toxicological studies of radioprotective substances are reviewed. Some variations in reported results are ascribed to differences in the initial purity of the compounds tested, to the use of different strains of animals, and to the deterioration of stocks and thiols on storage despite all protective measures. Consideration is first given to the toxicity of various sulphydryl compounds when separately administered. The most active sulphur-containing radioprotective chemicals are toxic to all living systems and particularly to mammals; the range between the active and the toxic dose is narrow. Deleterious effects occur at cellular, tissue and general levels, and cellular toxicity appears to be the responsible factor for the protective power, at least in mammals. Studies have been made of the acute and subacute toxicity, the LD50 and tolerated doses, long-term and embryonic toxicity, the cumulative toxicity of repeated injections and the effects of continuous feeding. Mixtures of chemical protective agents have been used to increase protection against radiation damage, while decreasing some of the general toxic effects, but these potent mixtures may have side effects not seen with single compounds. Attempts have been made to diminish the toxicity of protective compounds by giving substances counteracting their generally deleterious effects. Further investigations are necessary before these radioprotective substances may be tried in man. (U.K.)

  8. Air Research Program: Key Pathways research track

    Science.gov (United States)

    The pathways research track applies animal, cellular, and human studies to discern whether there is a common molecular mechanism (e.g. production of oxidative stress, phosphatase inhibition, disruption of iron homeostasis) through which air pollutants induce toxicity of air pollu...

  9. Air pollution-related burden of illness in Toronto : 2004 update, technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pengelly, D.; Sommerfreund, J. [McMaster Univ., Hamilton, ON (Canada). McMaster Inst. of Environment and Health

    2004-03-01

    A study was conducted to assess the air pollution burden of illness (BOI) related to air quality measurements in Toronto. BOI estimates can assess the human health risk of existing or expected levels of air pollution. New scientific literature, data and measuring methods allow for the quantification of adverse health effects associated with exposure to air pollution. The information provides numerical coefficients associating a broad range of health end points with air pollutants. The coefficients can be used to estimate the air pollution BOI in a community if the air pollution levels have been measured and if the disease specific overall BOI data from hospitals are also available. This report described the factors influencing the direction of scientific research in air pollution. It also provided a literature review of epidemiological studies. The risk coefficients for BOI estimation, air quality measurements, and health outcome data were also described. Air pollution-related BOI was discussed in terms of premature non-traumatic mortality and hospital admissions for respiratory and cardiovascular disease. The report reveals that Toronto has seen an increase in air pollution related to fossil-fuelled electrical generation, a decrease in transportation related primary pollutants, and a large increase in ozone. The dominant air problem in Toronto is the impact of transportation-related pollutants, particularly from diesel-powered heavy vehicles. In terms of policy implications, the literature suggests that focus should be placed on susceptible groups such as infants, children and the elderly. It was suggested that more studies should examine the role of the pollutant mix on susceptible groups instead of examining the effects of individual pollutants on the entire population. It was also suggested that air quality management strategies should be aimed at the sources of the most toxic components of the pollutant mix. 57 refs., 9 tabs., 2 figs., 3 appendices.

  10. Automated Test Systems for Toxic Vapor Detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattson, C. B.; Hammond, T. A.; Schwindt, C. J.

    1997-01-01

    The NASA Toxic Vapor Detection Laboratory (TVDL) at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC), Florida, has been using Personal Computer based Data Acquisition and Control Systems (PCDAS) for about nine years. These systems control the generation of toxic vapors of known concentrations under controlled conditions of temperature and humidity. The PCDAS also logs the test conditions and the test article responses in data files for analysis by standard spreadsheets or custom programs. The PCDAS was originally developed to perform standardized qualification and acceptance tests in a search for a commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) toxic vapor detector to replace the hydrazine detectors for the Space Shuttle launch pad. It has since become standard test equipment for the TVDL and is indispensable in producing calibration standards for the new hydrazine monitors at the 10 part per billion (ppb) level. The standard TVDL PCDAS can control two toxic vapor generators (TVG's) with three channels each and two flow/ temperature / humidity (FTH) controllers and it can record data from up to six toxic vapor detectors (TVD's) under test and can deliver flows from 5 to 50 liters per minute (L/m) at temperatures from near zero to 50 degrees Celsius (C) using an environmental chamber to maintain the sample temperature. The concentration range for toxic vapors depends on the permeation source installed in the TVG. The PCDAS can provide closed loop control of temperature and humidity to two sample vessels, typically one for zero gas and one for the standard gas. This is required at very low toxic vapor concentrations to minimize the time required to passivate the sample delivery system. Recently, there have been several requests for information about the PCDAS by other laboratories with similar needs, both on and off KSC. The purpose of this paper is to inform the toxic vapor detection community of the current status and planned upgrades to the automated testing of toxic vapor detectors at the

  11. Air pollution meteorology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is intended as a training cum reference document for scientists posted at the Environmental Laboratories at the Nuclear Power Station Sites and other sites of the Department of Atomic Energy with installations emitting air pollutants, radioactive or otherwise. Since a manual already exists for the computation of doses from radioactive air pollutants, a general approach is take here i.e. air pollutants in general are considered. The first chapter presents a brief introduction to the need and scope of air pollution dispersion modelling. The second chapter is a very important chapter discussing the aspects of meteorology relevant to air pollution and dispersion modelling. This chapter is important because without this information one really does not understand the phenomena affecting dispersion, the scope and applicability of various models or their limitations under various weather and site conditions. The third chapter discusses the air pollution models in detail. These models are applicable to distances of a few tens of kilometres. The fourth chapter discusses the various aspects of meteorological measurements relevant to air pollution. The chapters are followed by two appendices. Apendix A discusses the reliability of air pollution estimates. Apendix B gives some practical examples relevant to general air pollution. It is hoped that the document will prove very useful to the users. (author)

  12. Gulf of Mexico Air Quality: CALIPSO Support for Gulf of Mexico Air Quality Relating to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Myngoc T.; Lapointe, Stephen; Jennings, Brittney; Zoumplis, Angela

    2011-01-01

    On April 20, 2010, an oil platform belonging to BP exploded and leaked a huge volume of oil into the Gulf of Mexico. In an effort to control the spread of the oil, BP applied dispersants such as Corexit and conducted in-situ burnings of the oil. This catastrophe created a complex chain of events that affected not only the fragile water and land ecosystems, but the humans who breathe the air every day. Thousands of people were exposed to fumes associated with oil vapors from the spill, burning of the oil, and the toxic mixture of dispersants. While aiding in clean-up efforts, local fishermen were directly exposure to fumes when working on the Gulf. A notable amount of Gulf Coast residents were also exposed to the oil fumes as seasonal southeasterly winds blew vapors toward land. The Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC) found in oil vapors include: benzene, toluene, ethyl benzene, xylene, naphthalene, hydrogen sulfide and particulate matter (PM). Increases in water temperature and sunlight due to the summer season allow for these VOCs and PM to evaporate into the air more rapidly. Aside from the VOCs found in oil vapors, the dispersant being used to break up the oil is highly toxic and is thought to be even more toxic than the oil itself (EPA website, 2010). To protect human health, the environment, and to make informed policy decisions relevant to the spill, the EPA Region 6 has continuously monitored the affected areas carefully for levels of pollutants in the outdoor air that are associated with petroleum products and the burning of oil along the coast. In an effort to prevent, prepare for, and respond to future oil spills that occur in and around inland waters of the United States, the EPA has been working with local, state, and federal response partners. Air quality measurements were collected by the EPA at five active monitoring systems stationed along the coast.

  13. Low toxicity corrosion inhibitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper discusses the design and testing of low toxicity corrosion inhibitors. New chemistries have been investigated with respect to corrosion protection and impact on the marine environment. The resulting chemicals, while they are effective corrosion inhibitors, present significant improvements in terms of environmental properties over current products. The discussion includes results of the corrosion inhibition, toxicity, biodegradability and partitioning studies

  14. a Study of Liquid - of Atomization Droplet Size Velocity and Temperature Distribution via Information Theory Spray Interaction with Ambient Air Motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xianguo

    Linear temporal instability analysis of a moving thin viscous liquid sheet of uniform thickness in an inviscid gas medium shows that surface tension always opposes, while surrounding gas and relative velocity between the sheet and gas favour the onset and development of instability. For gas Weber number smaller than the density ratio of gas to liquid, liquid viscosity enhances instability; If gas Weber number is slightly larger, aerodynamic and viscosity -induced instabilities interact with each other, displaying complicated effects of viscosity via Ohnesorge number; For much larger values of gas Weber numbers, aerodynamic instability dominates, liquid viscosity reduces disturbance growth rate and increases the dominant wavelength. Droplet probability distribution function (PDF) in sprays is formulated through information theory without resorting to the details of atomization processes. The derived analytical droplet size PDF is Nukiyama-Tanasawa type if conservation of mass is considered alone. If conservation of mass, momentum and energy is all taken into account, the joint droplet size and velocity PDF depends on Weber number, and compares favourably with measurements. Droplet velocity PDF is truncated Gaussian for any specific droplet size. Mean velocity approaches a constant value and velocity variance decreases as droplet size increases. Mean droplet diameters calculated agree well with observations. The computation indicates that atomization efficiency is very low, usually less than 1%. Droplet size, velocity and temperature PDF in sprays under combusting environment has also been derived. Effects of combustion on PDF occur mainly through the heat transferred into liquid sheet prior to its breakup. Experimental studies identify three modes of spray behaviours due to its interaction with various annular air flows, and show that bluff-body type of combustor has ability and easement to control aerodynamically spray angle, shape and droplet trajectories. It is

  15. Big data in chemical toxicity research: the use of high-throughput screening assays to identify potential toxicants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Hao; Zhang, Jun; Kim, Marlene T; Boison, Abena; Sedykh, Alexander; Moran, Kimberlee

    2014-10-20

    High-throughput screening (HTS) assays that measure the in vitro toxicity of environmental compounds have been widely applied as an alternative to in vivo animal tests of chemical toxicity. Current HTS studies provide the community with rich toxicology information that has the potential to be integrated into toxicity research. The available in vitro toxicity data is updated daily in structured formats (e.g., deposited into PubChem and other data-sharing web portals) or in an unstructured way (papers, laboratory reports, toxicity Web site updates, etc.). The information derived from the current toxicity data is so large and complex that it becomes difficult to process using available database management tools or traditional data processing applications. For this reason, it is necessary to develop a big data approach when conducting modern chemical toxicity research. In vitro data for a compound, obtained from meaningful bioassays, can be viewed as a response profile that gives detailed information about the compound's ability to affect relevant biological proteins/receptors. This information is critical for the evaluation of complex bioactivities (e.g., animal toxicities) and grows rapidly as big data in toxicology communities. This review focuses mainly on the existing structured in vitro data (e.g., PubChem data sets) as response profiles for compounds of environmental interest (e.g., potential human/animal toxicants). Potential modeling and mining tools to use the current big data pool in chemical toxicity research are also described. PMID:25195622

  16. The physicochemical basis of QSARs for baseline toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackay, D; Arnot, J A; Petkova, E P; Wallace, K B; Call, D J; Brooke, L T; Veith, G D

    2009-01-01

    The physico-chemical properties relevant to the equilibrium partitioning (bioconcentration) of chemicals between organisms and their respired media of water and air are reviewed and illustrated for chemicals that range in hydrophobicity. Relationships are then explored between freely dissolved external concentrations such as LC50s and chemical properties for one important toxicity mechanism, namely baseline toxicity or narcosis. The 'activity hypothesis' proposed by Ferguson in 1939 provides a coherent and compelling explanation for baseline toxicity of chemicals in both water- and air-respiring organisms, as well as a reference point for identifying more specific toxicity pathways. From inhalation studies with fish and rodents, narcosis is shown to occur at a chemical activity exceeding approximately 0.01 and there is no evidence of narcosis at activities less than 0.001. The activity hypothesis provides a framework for directly comparing the toxic potency of chemicals in both air- and water-breathing animals. The activity hypothesis is shown to be consistent with the critical body residue concept, but it has the advantage of avoiding the confounding effect of lipid content of the test organism. It also provides a theoretically sound basis for assessing the baseline toxicity of mixtures. It is suggested that since activity is readily calculated from fugacity, observed or predicted environmental abiotic and biotic fugacities can be used to evaluate the potential for baseline toxicity. Further, models employing fugacity or activity can be used to improve the experimental design of bioassays, thus possibly reducing unnecessary animal testing. PMID:19544198

  17. 75 FR 521 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Area Source Standards for Prepared...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-05

    ... provision in 1999 in the Integrated Urban Air Toxics Strategy, (64 FR 38715, July 19, 1999). Specifically... the Integrated Urban Air Toxics Strategy (64 FR 38715, July 19, 1999). A primary goal of the Strategy... Protection Agency 40 CFR Part 63 National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Area...

  18. Mechanisms of Phosphine Toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nisa S. Nath

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Fumigation with phosphine gas is by far the most widely used treatment for the protection of stored grain against insect pests. The development of high-level resistance in insects now threatens its continued use. As there is no suitable chemical to replace phosphine, it is essential to understand the mechanisms of phosphine toxicity to increase the effectiveness of resistance management. Because phosphine is such a simple molecule (PH3, the chemistry of phosphorus is central to its toxicity. The elements above and below phosphorus in the periodic table are nitrogen (N and arsenic (As, which also produce toxic hydrides, namely, NH3 and AsH3. The three hydrides cause related symptoms and similar changes to cellular and organismal physiology, including disruption of the sympathetic nervous system, suppressed energy metabolism and toxic changes to the redox state of the cell. We propose that these three effects are interdependent contributors to phosphine toxicity.

  19. Relation of air pollution with epidemiology of respiratory diseases in isfahan, Iran from 2005 to 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maasoumeh Rashidi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS scientists shows that long-term exposure to air pollutants increases the risk of respiratory diseases such as allergies, asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and lung cancer. Children and the elderly are particularly vulnerable to the health effects of ozone, fine particles, and other airborne toxicants. Air pollution factors are considered as one of the underlying causes of respiratory diseases. This study aimed to determine the association of respiratory diseases documented in medical records and air pollution (Map distribution of accumulation in Isfahan province, Iran. By plotting the prevalence and spatial distribution maps, important differences from different points can be observed. Materials and Methods: The geographic information system (GIS, pollutant standards index (PSI measurements, and remote Sensing (RS technology were used after entering data in the mapping information table; spatial distribution was mapped and distribution of Geographical Epidemiology of Respiratory Diseases in Isfahan province (Iran was determined in this case study from 2005 to 2009. Results: Space with tracing the distribution of respiratory diseases was scattered based on the distribution of air pollution in the points is an important part of this type of diseases in Isfahan province where air pollution was more abundant. Conclusion: The findings of this study emphasis on the importance of preventing the exposure to air pollution, and to control air pollution product industries, to improve work environmental health, and to increase the health professionals and public knowledge in this regard.

  20. Chlorpyrifos toxicity in fish: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Nobonita Deb; Suchismita Das

    2013-01-01

    Chlorpyrifos (CPF) is a broad spectrum organophosphate insecticide (OP) which is commercially used for more than a decade to control insect pest. It is the second largest selling OP and found to be more toxic to fish than organochlorine compounds. CPF passes via air drift or surface runoff into natural waters, where it is accumulated in different organisms living in water, especially in fish, thus making it vulnerable to several prominent effects. CPF is known to inhibit acetylcholinesterase,...

  1. NRC Information Notice No. 92-67: Deficiency in design modifications to address failures of Hiller actuators upon a gradual loss of air pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On January 7, 1992, Carolina Power and Light Company (Shearon Harris Plant) components associated with the air supply to the actuators of the three main feedwater preheater bypass isolation valves were not qualified for a Q class application. Specifically, the failure of the air pump in the non-Q Class, non-seismic instrument air supply to the valve actuator accumulator could prevent pressure switches upstream of the air pump from detecting slow leakage in the Q Class, seismic portion of the actuator air lines. The pressure switches were installed to ensure valve closure by sending an automatic close signal if the instrument air system pressure (upstream of the actuator air pump) dropped to 66 psig as discussed in IN 82-25. The main feedwater preheater bypass isolation valves function as containment isolation valves upon receipt of a feedwater isolation signal. The function of the air pump is to raise the normal instrument air supply pressure from 70 to 100 psig to approximately 150 psig. If accumulator pressure drops from 150 psig to 122 psig, the main feedwater preheater bypass isolation valve may not close within 10 seconds. If pressure drops to a value as low as 20 psig, it may not be sufficient to close the main feedwater preheater bypass isolation valve and keep it closed against the maximum differential pressure across the valve seat. Upon discovery of this condition, Shearon Harris established a surveillance interval for verifying that the actuators' components were functioning properly and that the accumulators were fully pressurized. On January 12, 1992, non-Q components were replaced with suitable components and testing was completed satisfactorily

  2. Polish Toxic Currency Options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waldemar Gontarski

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Toxic currency options are defined on the basis of the opposition to the nature (essence of an option contract, which is justified in terms of norms founded on the general law clause of characteristics (nature of a relation (which represents an independent premise for imposing restrictions on the freedom of contracts. So-understood toxic currency options are unlawful. Indeed they contravene iuris cogentis regulations. These include for instance option contracts, which are concluded with a bank, if the bank has not informed about option risk before concluding the contract; or the barrier options, which focus only on the protection of bank’s interests. Therefore, such options may appear to be invalid. Therefore, performing contracts for toxic currency options may be qualified as a criminal mismanagement. For the sake of security, the manager should then take into consideration filing a claim for stating invalidity (which can be made in a court verdict. At the same time, if the supervisory board member in a commercial company, who can also be a subject to mismanagement offences, commits an omission involving lack of reaction (for example, if he/she fails to notify of the suspected offence committed by the management board members acting to the company’s detriment when the management board makes the company conclude option contracts which are charged with absolute invalidity the supervisory board member so acting may be considered to act to the company’s detriment. In the most recent Polish jurisprudence and judicature the standard of a “good host” is treated to be the last resort for determining whether the manager’s powers resulting from criminal regulations were performed. The manager of the exporter should not, as a rule, issue any options. Issuing options always means assuming an obligation. In the case of currency put options it is an absolute obligation to purchase a given amount in euro at exchange rate set in advance. On the

  3. Radioactive pollution: Air pollution (excluding radon pollution). (Latest citations from the INSPEC: Information services for the Physics and Engineering Communities database). Published Search

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the contamination of air by radioisotopes emitted from nuclear power plants, radioactive waste burial sites, mines, and nuclear weapons testing. Measurements of radioactive particles in the air in a number of locations worldwide are included. Absorption of radioisotopes from the air to the food chain is examined. Models and computer programs estimating the release of radioactive particles to the atmosphere in the event of a nuclear power plant accident, and measurements of radioactive atmospheric pollution from the Chernobyl accident are emphasized. Monitoring instrumentation is briefly described. Radon pollution is covered in other bibliographies. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  4. Sensor Networks for Detecting Toxic Releases in Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sohn, MIchael D.; Gadgil, Ashok J.; Sreedharan, Priya; Nazaroff, William W.

    2009-03-01

    Sudden releases of a toxic agent indoors can cause immediate and long-term harm to occupants. In order to protect building occupants from such threats, it is necessary to have a robust air monitoring system that can detect, locate, and characterize accidental or deliberate toxic gas releases. However, developing such a system is complicated by several requirements, in particular the need to operate in real-time. This task is further complicated when monitoring sensors are prone to false positive and false negative readings. We report on work towards developing an indoor monitoring system that is robust even in the presence of poor quality sensor data. The algorithm, named BASSET, combines deterministic modeling and Bayesian statistics to join prior knowledge of the contaminant transport in the building with real-time sensor information. We evaluate BASSET across several data sets, which vary in sensor characteristics such as accuracy, response time, and trigger level. Our results suggest that optimal designs are not always intuitive. For example, a network comprised of slower but more accurate sensors may locate the contaminant source more quickly than a network with faster but less accurate sensors.

  5. Air/liquid collectors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Søren Østergaard; Olesen, Ole; Kristiansen, Finn Harken

    1997-01-01

    This report determine efficiency equations for combined air/liquid solar collectors by measurements on to different air/liquid collectors. Equations which contain all relevant informations on the solar collectors. A simulation program (Kviksol) has been modified in order to be able to handle this...... kind of collectors. The modified simulation program has been used for the determination of the surplus in performance which solar heating systems with this type of solar collectors for combined preheating of ventilation air and domestic hot water will have. The simulation program and the efficiency...

  6. Assessing Nanoparticle Toxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Sara A.; Maurer-Jones, Melissa A.; Thompson, John W.; Lin, Yu-Shen; Haynes, Christy L.

    2012-07-01

    Nanoparticle toxicology, an emergent field, works toward establishing the hazard of nanoparticles, and therefore their potential risk, in light of the increased use and likelihood of exposure. Analytical chemists can provide an essential tool kit for the advancement of this field by exploiting expertise in sample complexity and preparation as well as method and technology development. Herein, we discuss experimental considerations for performing in vitro nanoparticle toxicity studies, with a focus on nanoparticle characterization, relevant model cell systems, and toxicity assay choices. Additionally, we present three case studies (of silver, titanium dioxide, and carbon nanotube toxicity) to highlight the important toxicological considerations of these commonly used nanoparticles.

  7. TOXIC SUBSTANCES FROM COAL COMBUSTION: A COMPREHENSIVE ASSESSMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C.L. Senior; T. Panagiotou; J.O.L. Wendt; W. Seames; F.E. Huggins; G.P Huffman; N. Yap; M.R. Ames; I.Olmez; T. Zeng; A.F. Sarofim; A. Kolker; R. Finkelman; J.J. Helble

    1998-07-16

    The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 identify a number of hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) as candidates for regulation. Should regulations be imposed on HAP emissions from coal-fired power plants, a sound understanding of the fundamental principles controlling the formation and partitioning of toxic species during coal combustion will be needed. With support from the Federal Energy Technology Center (FETC), the Electric Power Research Institute, and VTT (Finland), Physical Sciences Inc. (PSI) has teamed with researchers from USGS, the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), the University of Arizona (UA), the University of Kentucky (UK), the University of Connecticut (UC), the University of Utah (W) and the University of North Dakota Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC) to develop a broadly applicable emissions model useful to regulators and utility planners. The new Toxics Partitioning Engineering Model (ToPEM) will be applicable to all combustion conditions including new fuels and coal blends, low-NO{sub x} combustion systems, and new power generation plants. Development of ToPEM will be based on PSI's existing Engineering Model for Ash Formation (EMAF). This report covers the reporting period from the submission of the draft Phase 1 Final Report through the end of June, 1998. During this period two of the three Phase 2 coals were procured and pulverized samples were distributed to team members. Analysis of Phase 1 X-Ray Absorption Fine Structure (XAFS) data, particularly of mercury in sorbent samples, continued. An improved method for identifying mercury compounds on sorbents was developed, leading to a clearer understanding of forms of mercury in char and sorbents exposed to flue gas. Additional analysis of Phase 1 large scale combustion data was performed to investigate mechanistic information related to the fate of the radionuclides Cs, Th, and Co. Modeling work for this period was focused on building and testing a sub-model for

  8. A retrospective look at air quality management in Los Angeles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The history of air quality management in Los Angeles is discussed. Successful as well as unsuccessful programs and control measures are described. Specific air pollutants discussed are sulfur dioxide, lead, carbon monoxide, particulate matter, nitrogen oxides, ozone, and toxic air contaminants

  9. Acute Methylenedioxypyrovalerone Toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froberg, Blake A; Levine, Michael; Beuhler, Michael C; Judge, Bryan S; Moore, Philip W; Engebretsen, Kristin M; Mckeown, Nathanael J; Rosenbaum, Christopher D; Young, Amy C; Rusyniak, Daniel E

    2015-06-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize the acute clinical effects, laboratory findings, complications, and disposition of patients presenting to the hospital after abusing synthetic cathinone. We conducted a retrospective multicenter case series of patients with synthetic cathinone abuse by searching for the terms bath salts, MDPV, methylenedioxypyrovalerone, mephedrone, methcathinone, methylone, methedrone, and cathinone within the "agent" field of a national clinical toxicology database (ToxIC). The medical records of these patients were obtained and abstracted by investigators at each study site. Patients with confirmatory testing that identified a synthetic cathinone in either blood or urine were included in the series. Patients who had either an undetectable synthetic cathinone test or no confirmatory testing were excluded. A data abstraction sheet was used to obtain information on each patient. We entered data into an Excel spreadsheet and calculated descriptive statistics. We identified 23 patients with confirmed synthetic cathinone exposure--all were positive for methylenedioxyprovalerone (MDPV). Eighty-three percent were male and 74 % had recreational intent. The most common reported clinical effects were tachycardia (74 %), agitation (65 %), and sympathomimetic syndrome (65 %). Acidosis was the most common laboratory abnormality (43 %). Seventy-eight percent of patients were treated with benzodiazepines and 30 % were intubated. Ninety-six percent of patients were hospitalized and 87 % were admitted to the ICU. The majority (61 %) of patients was discharged home but 30 % required inpatient psychiatric care. There was one death in our series. The majority of patients presenting to the hospital after abusing MDPV have severe sympathomimetic findings requiring hospitalization. A number of these patients require inpatient psychiatric care after their acute presentation. PMID:25468313

  10. Air quality in Europe - 2012 report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-09-15

    This report presents an overview and analysis of the status and trends of air quality in Europe based on concentration measurements in ambient air and data on anthropogenic emissions and trends from 2001 - when mandatory monitoring of ambient air concentrations of selected pollutants first produced reliable air quality information - to 2010. (Author)

  11. Toxic Substances Portal- Arsenic

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Favorites Del.icio.us Digg Facebook Google Bookmarks Yahoo MyWeb Page last reviewed: February 12, 2013 Page ... Favorites Del.icio.us Digg Facebook Google Bookmarks Yahoo MyWeb Contact Us: Agency for Toxic Substances and ...

  12. Toxicity Reference Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Toxicity Reference Database (ToxRefDB) contains approximately 30 years and $2 billion worth of animal studies. ToxRefDB allows scientists and the interested...

  13. Toxicity of lunar dust

    CERN Document Server

    Linnarsson, Dag; Fubini, Bice; Gerde, Per; Karlsson, Lars L; Loftus, David J; Prisk, G Kim; Staufer, Urs; Tranfield, Erin M; van Westrenen, Wim

    2012-01-01

    The formation, composition and physical properties of lunar dust are incompletely characterised with regard to human health. While the physical and chemical determinants of dust toxicity for materials such as asbestos, quartz, volcanic ashes and urban particulate matter have been the focus of substantial research efforts, lunar dust properties, and therefore lunar dust toxicity may differ substantially. In this contribution, past and ongoing work on dust toxicity is reviewed, and major knowledge gaps that prevent an accurate assessment of lunar dust toxicity are identified. Finally, a range of studies using ground-based, low-gravity, and in situ measurements is recommended to address the identified knowledge gaps. Because none of the curated lunar samples exist in a pristine state that preserves the surface reactive chemical aspects thought to be present on the lunar surface, studies using this material carry with them considerable uncertainty in terms of fidelity. As a consequence, in situ data on lunar dust...

  14. Air Pollution

    OpenAIRE

    Lawther, P. J.

    2014-01-01

    The human costs of air pollution are considerable in Jordan. According to a report published in 2000 by the World Bank under the Mediterranean Environmental Technical Assistance Program (METAP), approximately 600 people die prematurely each year in Jordan because of urban pollution. 50-90% of air pollution in Jordanian towns is caused by road traffic. Readings taken in 2007 by Jordanian researchers showed that levels of black carbon particles in the air were higher in urban areas (caused by v...

  15. 基于不完全信息空战的火力分配建模与应用%Research on Weapon-Target Assignment Modeling and Application Based on Incomplete Information Air Combat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    隋永华; 郭雷; 俞利新; 王海晏

    2012-01-01

    To solve the problem of weapon-target assignment in an incomplete information air combat, the common weapon-target assignment model is analized, the defect of which is pointed out, and an improved weapon-target assignment model is built. The computation method of the key arguments of the model is proposed according to the character of incomplete information air combat. The improved mode can work efficiently based on the limited papameters obtained easily in the condition of incomplete information. Finally,the efficiency of the model is validated through a typical air combat example.%为了解决不完全信息空战中的火力分配问题,分析了常规空战火力分配模型,指出了其中的不足,建立了一种改进的火力分配模型.针对不完全信息空战特点,给出了其中关键参数的确定方法.该改进模型可有效利用战机在不完全信息条件下容易获取的有限参数进行火力分配,具有很强的实用性.最后通过典型应用实例验证了模型的有效性.

  16. Delayed and time-cumulative toxicity of imidacloprid in bees, ants and termites

    OpenAIRE

    Rondeau, Gary; Sánchez-Bayo, Francisco; Tennekes, Henk A.; Decourtye, Axel; Ramírez-Romero, Ricardo; DESNEUX, Nicolas

    2014-01-01

    Imidacloprid, one of the most commonly used insecticides, is highly toxic to bees and other beneficial insects. The regulatory challenge to determine safe levels of residual pesticides can benefit from information about the time-dependent toxicity of this chemical. Using published toxicity data for imidacloprid for several insect species, we construct time-to-lethal-effect toxicity plots and fit temporal power-law scaling curves to the data. The level of toxic exposure that results in 50% mor...

  17. Streptococcal toxic shock syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gvozdenović Ljiljana

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Streptococcal toxic shock syndrome is now recognized as a toxin-mediated, multisystem illness. It is characterized by an early onset of shock with multiorgan failure and continues to be associated with high morbidity and mortality, caused by group A Streptococcus pyogenes. The symptoms for staphylococcal and streptococcal toxic shock syndrome are similar. Streptococcal toxic shock syndrome was not well described until 1993, when children who had suffered from varicella presented roughly 2-4 weeks later with a clinical syndrome highly suggestive of toxic shock syndrome. Characteristics, complications and therapy. It is characterized by a sudden onset of fever, chills, vomiting, diarrhea, muscle aches and rash. It can rapidly progress to severe and intractable hypotension and multisystem dysfunction. Almost every organ system can be involved. Complications of streptococcal toxic shock syndrome may include kidney failure, liver failure and even death. Crystalloids and inotropic agents are used to treat the hypovolemic shock aggressively, with close monitoring of the patient’s mean arterial pressure and central venous pressure. An immediate and aggressive management of hypovolemic shock is essential in streptococcal toxic shock syndrome. Targeted antibiotics are indicated; penicillin or a betalactam antibiotic is used for treating group A streptococci, and clindamycin has emerged as a key portion of the standard treatment.

  18. Air sampling in the workplace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report provides technical information on air sampling that will be useful for facilities following the recommendations in the NRC's Regulatory Guide 8.25, Revision 1, ''Air sampling in the Workplace.'' That guide addresses air sampling to meet the requirements in NRC's regulations on radiation protection, 10 CFR Part 20. This report describes how to determine the need for air sampling based on the amount of material in process modified by the type of material, release potential, and confinement of the material. The purposes of air sampling and how the purposes affect the types of air sampling provided are discussed. The report discusses how to locate air samplers to accurately determine the concentrations of airborne radioactive materials that workers will be exposed to. The need for and the methods of performing airflow pattern studies to improve the accuracy of air sampling results are included. The report presents and gives examples of several techniques that can be used to evaluate whether the airborne concentrations of material are representative of the air inhaled by workers. Methods to adjust derived air concentrations for particle size are described. Methods to calibrate for volume of air sampled and estimate the uncertainty in the volume of air sampled are described. Statistical tests for determining minimum detectable concentrations are presented. How to perform an annual evaluation of the adequacy of the air sampling is also discussed

  19. Environmental impact by toxic compounds from waste treatment; Miljoepaaverkan fraan toxiska aemnen vid hantering av avfall

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loefblad, Gun; Bisaillon, Mattias; Sundberg, Johan (Profu AB (Sweden))

    2010-07-01

    The study deals with emissions of toxic compounds from waste treatment to the environment with the aim of improving the state of knowledge and to find a way of describing the environmental impact from these substances. Toxicity is one of a number of environmental aspects necessary to address in the planning of waste treatment and in the daily waste treatment routines in order to fulfill the environmental objective A Non-Toxic Environment and other environmental requirements. The study includes waste to incineration, composting and anaerobic digestion. A comparison between methods were made for biological household waste. According to our study, the compounds of importance for waste treatment are metals and persistent organic compounds. These tend to bioaccumulate and enrich in food chains. The substances are important for the environmental objective A Non-Toxic Environment. In a first step the compounds chosen in this study may be suggested for describing toxicity from waste treatment: As, Cd, Cu, Hg, Pb, dioxin, PCB, the phthalate DEHP and the brominated flame retardant HBCDD. Other substances may be added to the list in a next step from up-dated and quality-assured characterisation factors or from other requirements or preferences. There is a limited knowledge on toxic compounds in waste flows and in different environmental compartments. More data are available for metals than for organic substances. There is also a limited knowledge on the fate of the compounds during the waste treatment processes. Most information is found for incineration. During composting and anaerobic digestion the metals will mainly be emitted to the environment by use of the compost and the anaerobic digestion residue. Organic substances will to some extent be degraded during the processes. However, there are gaps of knowledge to fill for the further work on estimating toxic emissions. There is mainly a need for more extensive data on toxic compounds in waste and their variations. A test

  20. Toxic releases and risk disparity: a spatiotemporal model of industrial ecology and social empowerment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoyagi, Hannah; Ogunseitan, Oladele A

    2015-06-01

    Information-based regulations (IBRs) are founded on the theoretical premise that public participation in accomplishing policy goals is empowered by open access to information. Since its inception in 1988, the Toxics Release Inventory (TRI) has provided the framework and regulatory impetus for the compilation and distribution of data on toxic releases associated with industrial development, following the tenets of IBR. As TRI emissions are reputed to disproportionately affect low-income communities, we investigated how demographic characteristics are related to change in TRI emissions and toxicity risks between 1989 and 2002, and we sought to identify factors that predict these changes. We used local indicators of spatial association (LISA) maps and spatial regression techniques to study risk disparity in the Los Angeles urban area. We also surveyed 203 individuals in eight communities in the same region to measure the levels of awareness of TRI, attitudes towards air pollution, and general environmental risk. We discovered, through spatial lag models, that changes in gross and toxic emissions are related to community ethnic composition, poverty level, home ownership, and base 1989 emissions (R-square=0.034-0.083). We generated a structural equation model to explain the determinants of social empowerment to act on the basis of environmental information. Hierarchical confirmatory factor analysis (HCFA) supports the theoretical model that individual empowerment is predicted by risk perception, worry, and awareness (Chi-square=63.315, p=0.022, df=42). This study provides strong evidence that spatiotemporal changes in regional-scale environmental risks are influenced by individual-scale empowerment mediated by IBRs. PMID:26042368

  1. Toxic Releases and Risk Disparity: A Spatiotemporal Model of Industrial Ecology and Social Empowerment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah Aoyagi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Information-based regulations (IBRs are founded on the theoretical premise that public participation in accomplishing policy goals is empowered by open access to information. Since its inception in 1988, the Toxics Release Inventory (TRI has provided the framework and regulatory impetus for the compilation and distribution of data on toxic releases associated with industrial development, following the tenets of IBR. As TRI emissions are reputed to disproportionately affect low-income communities, we investigated how demographic characteristics are related to change in TRI emissions and toxicity risks between 1989 and 2002, and we sought to identify factors that predict these changes. We used local indicators of spatial association (LISA maps and spatial regression techniques to study risk disparity in the Los Angeles urban area. We also surveyed 203 individuals in eight communities in the same region to measure the levels of awareness of TRI, attitudes towards air pollution, and general environmental risk. We discovered, through spatial lag models, that changes in gross and toxic emissions are related to community ethnic composition, poverty level, home ownership, and base 1989 emissions (R-square = 0.034–0.083. We generated a structural equation model to explain the determinants of social empowerment to act on the basis of environmental information. Hierarchical confirmatory factor analysis (HCFA supports the theoretical model that individual empowerment is predicted by risk perception, worry, and awareness (Chi-square = 63.315, p = 0.022, df = 42. This study provides strong evidence that spatiotemporal changes in regional-scale environmental risks are influenced by individual-scale empowerment mediated by IBRs.

  2. Photoinduced toxicity of engineered nanomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Philip Scott

    Engineered nanomaterials including metal, metal oxide and carbon based nanomaterials are extensively used in a wide variety of applications to the extent that their presence in the environment is expected to increase dramatically over the next century. These nanomaterials may be photodegraded by solar radiation and thereby release metal ions into the environment that can produce cytotoxic and genotoxic effects. Photoinduced toxicity experiments are performed exposing human lung epithelial carcinoma cells [H1650] to engineered semiconductor nanoparticles such as CdSe quantum dots and ZnO nanoparticles after exposure to 3, 6, and 9 hours of solar simulated radiation. Cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of the metal ions are evaluated using ZnSO4 and CdCl2 solutions for the MTT assay and Comet assay respectively. The objective of the dissertation is to obtain quantitative information about the environmental transformation of engineered nanomaterials and their mechanism of toxicity. This information is critical for addressing the environmental health and safety risks of engineered nanomaterials to workers, consumers and the environment.

  3. Air Cleaning at the USAEC Y-12 Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes some of the air-cleaning requirements of production, research, development and biological facilities in the Y-12 area. Problems and their solutions in hazardous-material containment, air cleaning, contamination control, and air pollution control are enumerated. Bioclean and laminar-flow clean rooms, germ-free supply air systems, exhaust systems for handling toxic and radioactive materials, virus containment and exhaust facilities are described. The Plant's practices regarding air cleaning are discussed including standardization of specifications for high-efficiency particulate air filters and mounting frames, DOP testing of air filter systems, and the replacement of sub-standard filter installations. (author)

  4. Air Pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Air quality is affected by many types of pollutants that are emitted from various sources, including stationary and mobile. These sources release both criteria and hazardous air pollutants, which cause health effects, ecological harm, and material damage. They are generally categ...

  5. Indoor air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although official efforts to control air pollution have traditionally focused on outdoor air, it is now apparent that elevated contaminant concentrations are common inside some private and public buildings. Concerns about potential public health problems due to indoor air pollution are based on evidence that urban residents typically spend more than 90 percent of their time indoors, concentrations of some contaminants are higher indoors than outdoors, and for some pollutants personal exposures are not characterized adequately by outdoor measurements. Among the more important indoor contaminants associated with health or irritation effects are passive tobacco smoke, radon decay products, carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, formaldehyde, asbestos fibers, microorganisms and aeroallergens. Efforts to assess health risks associated with indoor air pollution are limited by insufficient information about the number of people exposed, the pattern and severity of exposures, and the health consequences of exposures. An overall strategy should be developed to investigate indoor exposures, health effects, control options, and public policy alternatives

  6. Radioactive air sampling methods

    CERN Document Server

    Maiello, Mark L

    2010-01-01

    Although the field of radioactive air sampling has matured and evolved over decades, it has lacked a single resource that assimilates technical and background information on its many facets. Edited by experts and with contributions from top practitioners and researchers, Radioactive Air Sampling Methods provides authoritative guidance on measuring airborne radioactivity from industrial, research, and nuclear power operations, as well as naturally occuring radioactivity in the environment. Designed for industrial hygienists, air quality experts, and heath physicists, the book delves into the applied research advancing and transforming practice with improvements to measurement equipment, human dose modeling of inhaled radioactivity, and radiation safety regulations. To present a wide picture of the field, it covers the international and national standards that guide the quality of air sampling measurements and equipment. It discusses emergency response issues, including radioactive fallout and the assets used ...

  7. Mapping air pollution by biological monitoring in the metropolitan Tel Aviv area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavi, Aya; Potchter, Oded; Omer, Itzhak; Fireman, Elizabeth

    2016-06-01

    Conventional environmental monitoring is not surrogate of personal exposure. In contrast, biomonitoring provides information on the presence of substances in the human body, making it highly relevant to the assessment of exposure to toxic substances. Induced sputum (IS) is a noninvasive technique for detecting inflammation and reflecting particulate matter content in the airways. In this study, we mapped particulate matter dispersion in metropolitan Tel Aviv by both biomonitoring techniques employing IS samples and by environmental monitoring. All adults referred to the Pulmonary Lab for respiratory symptom evaluation in 2007 and in 2009 were enrolled. Pulmonary function tests were performed by conventional methods. Particulate size distribution in IS was analyzed, and maps of air pollution were created. Biomonitoring was more informative and enabled mapping of wider areas. Integration of biomonitoring and environmental monitoring should be considered in forming public health policy on containment of airborne particles of toxic substances. PMID:26600473

  8. 40 CFR 798.2450 - Inhalation toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... CONTROL ACT (CONTINUED) HEALTH EFFECTS TESTING GUIDELINES Subchronic Exposure § 798.2450 Inhalation... initial information on toxicity has been obtained by acute testing. The subchronic inhalation study has... daily exposure of experimental animals to a chemical by inhalation for part (approximately 10...

  9. 40 CFR 798.3260 - Chronic toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... requirements as specified under 40 CFR part 792 subpart J, the following specific information should be... Environmental Pathology and Toxicology, 1:161-182 (1977). (8) Schwartz, E. “Toxicology of Neuroleptic Agents....3260 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL...

  10. Manual on indoor air quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diamond, R.C.; Grimsrud, D.T.

    1983-12-01

    This reference manual was prepared to assist electric utilities in helping homeowners, builders, and new home buyers to understand a broad range of issues related to indoor air quality. The manual is directed to technically knowledgeable persons employed by utility companies - the customer service or marketing representative, applications engineer, or technician - who may not have specific expertise in indoor air quality issues. In addition to providing monitoring and control techniques, the manual summarizes the link between pollutant concentrations, air exchange, and energy conservation and describes the characteristics and health effects of selected pollutants. Where technical information is too lengthy or complex for inclusion in this volume, reference sources are given. Information for this manual was gathered from technical studies, manufacturers' information, and other materials from professional societies, institutes, and associations. The aim has been to provide objective technical and descriptive information that can be used by utility personnel to make informed decisions about indoor air quality issues.

  11. Manual on indoor air quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This reference manual was prepared to assist electric utilities in helping homeowners, builders, and new home buyers to understand a broad range of issues related to indoor air quality. The manual is directed to technically knowledgeable persons employed by utility companies - the customer service or marketing representative, applications engineer, or technician - who may not have specific expertise in indoor air quality issues. In addition to providing monitoring and control techniques, the manual summarizes the link between pollutant concentrations, air exchange, and energy conservation and describes the characteristics and health effects of selected pollutants. Where technical information is too lengthy or complex for inclusion in this volume, reference sources are given. Information for this manual was gathered from technical studies, manufacturers' information, and other materials from professional societies, institutes, and associations. The aim has been to provide objective technical and descriptive information that can be used by utility personnel to make informed decisions about indoor air quality issues

  12. Seneca Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES) Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2012-11-30

    This document provides specifications for the process air compressor for a compressed air storage project, requests a budgetary quote, and provides supporting information, including compressor data, site specific data, water analysis, and Seneca CAES value drivers.

  13. Toxic substances from coal combustion: Laboratory studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Senior, C.L.; Bool, L.E. III [PSI Technologies, Andover, MA (United States); Huffman, G.P.; Huggins, F.E.; Shah, N. [Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States); Sarofim, A.F.; Olmez, I.; Zheng, T. [Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 identify a number of hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) as candidates for regulation. Should regulations be imposed on HAP emissions from coal-fired power plants, a sound understanding of the fundamental principles controlling the formation and partitioning of toxic species during coal combustion will be needed. PSI Technologies (PSIT) is teaming with researches from USGS, MIT, the University of Arizona, the University of Kentucky, the University of Connecticut, and Princeton University to develop a broadly applicable emissions model useful to regulators and utility planners. The new Toxics Partitioning Engineering Model (ToPEM) will be applicable to all combustion conditions including new fuels and coal blends, low-NO{sub x} combustion systems, and new power generation plants. Development of ToPEM will be based on PSIT`s existing Engineering Model for Ash Formation (EMAF). Extensive coal characterization and laboratory work will be conducted in order to develop and test new sub-models, including direct identification of the modes of occurrence of trace inorganic species in coal and ash using unique analytical techniques such as XAFS analysis and selective leaching and combustion testing too evaluate the formation and partitioning of inorganic toxic compounds as a function of mode of occurrence and combustion conditions at a range of combustion scales. Preliminary analysis of two American bituminous coals has focused on the forms of arsenic in both coal and ash. Trends in trace metal concentration in coal particles as a function of particle size have also been documented.

  14. Atmospheric emissions and air quality impacts from natural gas production and use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, David T

    2014-01-01

    The US Energy Information Administration projects that hydraulic fracturing of shale formations will become a dominant source of domestic natural gas supply over the next several decades, transforming the energy landscape in the United States. However, the environmental impacts associated with fracking for shale gas have made it controversial. This review examines emissions and impacts of air pollutants associated with shale gas production and use. Emissions and impacts of greenhouse gases, photochemically active air pollutants, and toxic air pollutants are described. In addition to the direct atmospheric impacts of expanded natural gas production, indirect effects are also described. Widespread availability of shale gas can drive down natural gas prices, which, in turn, can impact the use patterns for natural gas. Natural gas production and use in electricity generation are used as a case study for examining these indirect consequences of expanded natural gas availability. PMID:24498952

  15. Ames Air Revitalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Roger Z.

    2015-01-01

    This is an informal presentation presented to the University of Colorado, Boulder Bioastronautics group seminar. It highlights the key focal areas of the Air Revitalization Group research over the past year, including progress on the CO2 Removal and Compression System, testing of CDRA drying bed configurations, and adsorption research.

  16. Iron toxicity in yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiśnicka, R; Krzepiłko, A; Wawryn, J; Biliński, T

    1997-01-01

    It has been found that yeast cells are sensitive to iron overload only when grown on glucose as a carbon source. Effective concentration of ferrous iron is much higher than that found in natural environments. Effects of ferrous iron are strictly oxygen dependent, what suggest that the formation of hydroxyl radicals in the Fenton reaction is a cause of the toxicity. Respiratory deficiency and pretreatment of cells with antimycin A prevent toxic effects in the late exponential phase of growth, whereas uncouplers and 2mM magnesium salts completely protect even the most vulnerable exponential cells. Generally, toxic effects correlate with the ability of cells to take up this metal. The results presented suggest that during ferrous iron overload iron is transported through the unspecific divalent cation uptake system which is known in fungi. The data suggest that recently described high and low affinity systems of iron uptake in yeast are the only source of iron in natural environments. PMID:9516981

  17. Thin air

    OpenAIRE

    Jasanoff, Sheila

    2013-01-01

    Clearing the air How do we grasp the air? Without Michel Callon’s guidance, I might never have asked that question. Years ago, when I first entered environmental law practice, I took it for granted that problems such as air pollution exist “out there” in the real world for science to discover and law to fix. It is a measure of Callon’s influence that I understand the law today as a metaphysical instrument, no less powerful in its capacity to order nature than the tools of the ancient oracular...

  18. Toxic and Metabolic Myelopathies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramalho, Joana; Nunes, Renato Hoffmann; da Rocha, Antonio José; Castillo, Mauricio

    2016-10-01

    Myelopathy describes any neurologic deficit related to the spinal cord. It is most commonly caused by its compression by neoplasms, degenerative disc disease, trauma, or infection. Less common causes of myelopathy include spinal cord tumors, infection, inflammatory, neurodegenerative, vascular, toxic, and metabolic disorders. Conditions affecting the spinal cord must be recognized as early as possible to prevent progression that may lead to permanent disability. Biopsy is rarely performed, thus the diagnosis and management rely on patient׳s history, physical examination, laboratory results, and imaging findings. Here we review the clinical presentations, pathophysiological mechanisms, and magnetic resonance imaging findings of myelopathies related to metabolic or toxic etiologies. PMID:27616316

  19. Psychostimulant toxicity in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozalp Ekinci

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Methylphenidate is used for the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in children above the age of 6 with a high safety and tolerability. When used above the recommended dosage, methylphenidate has been reported to cause toxicity symptoms including neuro-psychiatric and cardiac adverse reactions. In this overview paper, the available literature on psyhcostimulant toxicity in children and the clinical symptoms and follow-up of a 4-year-old child who accidentally used high dose of methylphenidate will be discussed. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2013; 22(2.000: 184-193

  20. BIBRA toxicity profile of butylated hydroxytoluene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1989-12-31

    The BIBRA Toxicity Profile is a comprehensive yet concise review of the toxicological data on the profiled chemical. All studies identified have been carefully evaluated (using primary data sources wherever possible), but only the data most pertinent to hazard assessment are included. Information is summarized, where available, on the effects in man, as well as other species, and studies relating to the principal exposure routes are given precedence. The Profile is divided into the following main sections: Summary, Identification, Local Effects (including skin, eye and respiratory tract irritation), Sensitization and Intolerance, General Systemic Effects (including single and repeated administration), Reproductive Toxicity, Carcinogenicity and Other Genotoxicity.

  1. The Federal Air Pollution Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Air Pollution Control Administration (DHEW), Washington, DC.

    Described is the Federal air pollution program as it was in 1967. The booklet is divided into these major topics: History of the Federal Program; Research; Assistance to State and Local Governments; Abatement and Prevention of Air Pollution; Control of Motor Vehicle Pollution; Information and Education; and Conclusion. Federal legislation has…

  2. Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to a close in June 2013 when the company, Conscious Clothing, was awarded the My Air grand ... Page Options: Request Translation Services Facebook Twitter LinkedIn Google+ Reddit Email Evernote More Increase Font Size Decrease ...

  3. Monitoring of the radiological impact of Russia's fires: results of air radioactivity measurements performed by the IRSN from July 20 to August 10, 2010. Information file

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this file, the French Institute of Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety (IRSN) presents the results of 137Cs measurements performed on atmospheric dusts (aerosols) collected by filters at 10 sampling stations of its OPERA-Air network covering the French territory. During the July 20 - August 10, 2010 period, where the forest fires in Russia were particularly intense, no rise of the 137Cs activity (tracer of Chernobyl's accident fallouts) was observed in France. (J.S.)

  4. An operational system for the assimilation of satellite information on wild-land fires for the needs of air quality modelling and forecasting

    OpenAIRE

    Sofiev, M.; R. Vankevich; M. Lanne; Prank, M.; V. Petukhov; T. Ermakova; J. Kukkonen

    2009-01-01

    This paper investigates a potential of two remotely sensed wild-land fire characteristics: 4-μm Brightness Temperature Anomaly (TA) and Fire Radiative Power (FRP) for the needs of operational chemical transport modelling and the short-term forecasting of the atmospheric composition and air quality. Two treatments of the TA and FRP data are presented and a methodology for evaluating the emission fluxes is described. The method does not contain a complicated analysis of vegetation state, fuel l...

  5. An operational system for the assimilation of the satellite information on wild-land fires for the needs of air quality modelling and forecasting

    OpenAIRE

    Sofiev, M.; R. Vankevich; M. Lotjonen; Prank, M.; V. Petukhov; T. Ermakova; Koskinen, J. (Joonas); J. Kukkonen

    2009-01-01

    This paper investigates a potential of two remotely sensed wild-land fire characteristics: 4-μm Brightness Temperature Anomaly (TA) and Fire Radiative Power (FRP) for the needs of operational chemical transport modelling and short-term forecasting of atmospheric composition and air quality. The treatments of the TA and FRP data are presented and a methodology for evaluating the emission fluxes of primary aerosols (PM2.5 and total PM) is described. The method does...

  6. Trace Contaminant Monitor for Air in Spacecraft Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A need exists for analyzers that can measure trace contaminants in air on board spacecraft. Toxic gas buildup can endanger the crew particularly during long...

  7. A Monitoring of Air Pollutants (CO, SO2 and NO) in Ambient Air Near an Industrial Area

    OpenAIRE

    Radin Mohamed Radin Maya Saphira; Hakim Rahim Ahmad Faizol; Mohd Kassim Amir Hashim

    2016-01-01

    A monitoring assessment was carried out to measure the concentration of air pollutants in ambient air in the university campus, which is located adjacent to the industrial area. The air pollutants were monitored for CO (Carbon monoxide), SO2 (Sulfur dioxide) and NO (Nitrous oxide) at the three sampling points, with distance reference based from the industrial area. Air pollutant gases were sampled from the I-Brid Toxic Gases Analyzer with the sampling hour referred to the Recommended Malaysia...

  8. TRI.NET data engine for EPA Toxics Release Inventory

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — TRI.NET ("T-R-I-dot-net") is a new application developed by EPA to help you analyze Toxics Release Inventory (TRI) information. This application is capable of...

  9. EPA Region 2 Toxic Release Inventory (TRI) Reporters GIS Layer

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This ArcGIS 10.2 point feature class contains identification, location and status information on facilities regulated under EPA’s Toxics Release Inventory Program...

  10. Kongres IFLA v Buenos Aires

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Burgetová, Jarmila

    -, č. 4 (2004), s. 4-7. ISSN 1210-8502 Keywords : IFLA * International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions * Congress 2004 * Buenos Aires Subject RIV: AF - Documentation, Librarianship, Information Studies

  11. Quebec's Toxic Pollution Concern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mingie, Walter

    The best solution to the problems of increased pollution of Quebec lakes and rivers with toxic wastes and increased incidence of pollution related diseases is to educate children, to make them aware of the environment and man's interrelationship with it. Attitudes of concern, based on knowledge, must be developed so that as adults, they will take…

  12. Uranium: biokinetics and toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report was achieved as a part of a collaboration with the Fuel Cycle Direction. Its aim was to give the state of the art about: the behaviour of uranium in the human organism (biokinetics) after ingestion, its toxicity (mainly renal) and the current regulation about its incorporation. Both in the upstream and in the downstream of the fuel cycle, uranium remains, quantitatively, the first element in the cycle which is, at the present time, temporarily disposed or recycled. Such a considerable quantity of uranium sets the problem of its risk on the health. In the long term, the biosphere may be affected and consequently the public may ingest water or food contaminated with uranium. In this way, radiological and chemical toxicity risk may be activated. This report emphasizes: the necessity of confirming some experimental and epidemiological biokinetic data used or not in the ICRP models. Unsolved questions remain about the gastrointestinal absorption according to chemical form (valency state, mixtures...), mass and individual variations (age, disease) further a chronic ingestion of uranium. It is well established that uranium is mainly deposited in the skeleton and the kidney. But the skeleton kinetics following a chronic ingestion and especially in some diseases has to be more elucidated; the necessity of taking into account uranium at first as a chemical toxic, essentially in the kidney and determining the threshold of functional lesion. In this way, it is important to look for some specific markers; the problem of not considering chemical toxicity of uranium in the texts regulating its incorporation

  13. Interspecies quantitative structure-toxicity-toxicity (QSTTR) relationship modeling of ionic liquids. Toxicity of ionic liquids to V. fischeri, D. magna and S. vacuolatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Rudra Narayan; Roy, Kunal; Popelier, Paul L A

    2015-12-01

    Considering the increasing uses of ionic liquids (ILs) in various industrial processes and chemical engineering operations, a complete assessment of their hazardous profile is essential. In the absence of adequate experimental data, in silico modeling might be helpful in filling data gaps for the toxicity of ILs towards various ecological indicator organisms. Using the rationale of taxonomic relatedness, the development of predictive quantitative structure-toxicity-toxicity relationship (QSTTR) models allows predicting the toxicity of ILs to a particular species using available experimental toxicity data towards a different species. Such studies may employ, along with the available experimental toxicity data to a species, molecular structure features and physicochemical properties of chemicals as independent variables for prediction of the toxicity profile against another closely related species. A few such interspecies toxicity correlation models have been reported in the literature for diverse chemicals in general, but this approach has been rarely applied to the class of ionic liquids. The present study involves the use of IL toxicity data towards the bacteria Vibrio fischeri along with molecular structure derived information or computational descriptors like extended topochemical atom (ETA) indices, quantum topological molecular similarity (QTMS) descriptors and computed lipophilicity measure (logk0) for the interspecies exploration of the toxicity data towards green algae S. vacuolatus and crustacea Daphnia magna, separately. This modeling study has been performed in accordance with the OECD guidelines. Finally, predictions for a true external set have been performed to fill the data gap of toxicity towards daphnids and algae using the Vibrio toxicity data and molecular structure attributes. PMID:26414597

  14. Occupational and Community Exposures to Toxic Metals: Lead, Cadmium, Mercury and Arsenic

    OpenAIRE

    Landrigan, Philip J.

    1982-01-01

    Lead, cadmium, mercury and arsenic are widely dispersed in the environment. Adults are primarily exposed to these contaminants in the workplace. Children may be exposed to toxic metals from numerous sources, including contaminated air, water, soil and food.

  15. DOE contractor's meeting on chemical toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Office of Health and Environmental Research (OHER) is required to determine the potential health and environmental effects associated with energy production and use. To ensure appropriate communication among investigators and scientific disciplines that these research studies represent, OHER has sponsored workshops. This document provides a compilation of activities at the Third Annual DOE/OHER Workshop. This year's workshop was broadened to include all OHER activities identified as within the chemical effects area. The workshop consisted of eight sessions entitled Isolation and Detection of Toxic chemicals; Adduct Formation and Repair; Chemical Toxicity (Posters); Metabolism and Genotoxicity; Inhalation Toxicology; Gene Regulation; Metals Toxicity; and Biological Mechanisms. This document contains abstracts of the information presented by session

  16. ECVAM and new technologies for toxicity testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouvier d'Yvoire, Michel; Bremer, Susanne; Casati, Silvia; Ceridono, Mara; Coecke, Sandra; Corvi, Raffaella; Eskes, Chantra; Gribaldo, Laura; Griesinger, Claudius; Knaut, Holger; Linge, Jens P; Roi, Annett; Zuang, Valérie

    2012-01-01

    The development of alternative empirical (testing) and non-empirical (non-testing) methods to traditional toxicological tests for complex human health effects is a tremendous task. Toxicants may potentially interfere with a vast number of physiological mechanisms thereby causing disturbances on various levels of complexity of human physiology. Only a limited number of mechanisms relevant for toxicity ('pathways' of toxicity) have been identified with certainty so far and, presumably, many more mechanisms by which toxicants cause adverse effects remain to be identified. Recapitulating in empirical model systems (i.e., in vitro test systems) all those relevant physiological mechanisms prone to be disturbed by toxicants and relevant for causing the toxicity effect in question poses an enormous challenge. First, the mechanism(s) of action of toxicants in relation to the most relevant adverse effects of a specific human health endpoint need to be identified. Subsequently, these mechanisms need to be modeled in reductionist test systems that allow assessing whether an unknown substance may operate via a specific (array of) mechanism(s). Ideally, such test systems should be relevant for the species of interest, i.e., based on human cells or modeling mechanisms present in humans. Since much of our understanding about toxicity mechanisms is based on studies using animal model systems (i.e., experimental animals or animal-derived cells), designing test systems that model mechanisms relevant for the human situation may be limited by the lack of relevant information from basic research. New technologies from molecular biology and cell biology, as well as progress in tissue engineering, imaging techniques and automated testing platforms hold the promise to alleviate some of the traditional difficulties associated with improving toxicity testing for complex endpoints. Such new technologies are expected (1) to accelerate the identification of toxicity pathways with human

  17. Toxic Test Chambers

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Description/History: Hazardous material test facility Both facilities have 16,000 cubic foot chambers, equipped with 5000 CFM CBR filter systems with an air change...

  18. 2004 Toxic Release Inventory Sites in Louisiana, Geographic NAD83, EPA (2006) [toxic_release_inventory_site_LA_EPA_2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — Data extracted from the EPA Toxics Release Inventory (TRI) system for reporting year 2004. The dataset contains facility identification, submitted and/or preferred...

  19. Chlorpyrifos toxicity in fish: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobonita Deb

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Chlorpyrifos (CPF is a broad spectrum organophosphate insecticide (OP which is commercially used for more than a decade to control insect pest. It is the second largest selling OP and found to be more toxic to fish than organochlorine compounds. CPF passes via air drift or surface runoff into natural waters, where it is accumulated in different organisms living in water, especially in fish, thus making it vulnerable to several prominent effects. CPF is known to inhibit acetylcholinesterase, cause behavioural, neurological, oxidative, histopathological, endocrine and other effects at low doses. The present study reviews the various effects of CPF in fish

  20. Comparative Toxicity of Gasoline and Diesel Engine Emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JeanClare Seagrave; Joe L. Mauderly; Barbara Zielinska; John Sagebiel; Kevin Whitney; Doughlas R. Lawson; Michael Gurevich

    2000-06-19

    Better information on the comparative toxicity of airborne emissions from different types of engines is needed to guide the development of heavy vehicle engine, fuel, lubricant, and exhaust after-treatment technologies, and to place the health hazards of current heavy vehicle emissions in their proper perspective. To help fill this information gap, samples of vehicle exhaust particles and semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOC) were collected and analyzed. The biological activity of the combined particle-SVOC samples is being tested using standardized toxicity assays. This report provides an update on the design of experiments to test the relative toxicity of engine emissions from various sources.

  1. 40 CFR Table 2 of Subpart Ec to... - Toxic Equivalency Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Subpart Ec to Part 60 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Pt. 60, Subpt. Ec, Table 2 Table 2 of Subpart Ec to Part 60—Toxic Equivalency Factors Dioxin/furan congener Toxic equivalency factor...

  2. Acute toxicity of oil sands wastewater: A toxic balance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study was conducted to identify and determine the relative importance of the acutely toxic fractions of wastewater from oil sands extraction using a bioassay directed toxicity identification evaluation (TIE), to use these data to construct a toxic balance, and to determine whether the same fractions were acutely toxic to Microtox, Daphnia, and rainbow trout. Samples of extraction wastewater were obtained from the Mildred Lake tailings pond in Alberta during summer 1991 and 1992. The samples were centrifuged to remove suspended solids and the toxicity of the supernatant was evaluated. Seven manipulations, each of which was designed to remove a different class of compounds, was performed on the supernatant samples. A complete TIE was performed using the Microtox bacterial bioassay. All acute toxicity of the surface tailings pond water to Microtox was removed by precipitation of organic acids or by removal of nonpolar organics. These results suggest that the main toxic fraction was a surfactant. In the interstitial water of the fine tails, volatiles accounted for 15% of the acute toxicity. However, all the acute toxicity of interstitial water was removed by precipitation of organic acids or by removal of nonpolar organics. Organic acids accounted for all the acute toxicity of tailings pond water to Daphnia and rainbow trout. Differences in relative sensitivity of test organisms to the toxic fraction demonstrate the importance of using more than one test organism to evaluate acute toxicity. Daphnia was 0.4 times less sensitive and rainbow trout 3 times more sensitive than Microtox. 20 refs., 6 tabs

  3. Toxic hazards of underground excavation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, R.; Chitnis, V.; Damasian, M.; Lemm, M.; Popplesdorf, N.; Ryan, T.; Saban, C.; Cohen, J.; Smith, C.; Ciminesi, F.

    1982-09-01

    Inadvertent intrusion into natural or man-made toxic or hazardous material deposits as a consequence of activities such as mining, excavation or tunnelling has resulted in numerous deaths and injuries in this country. This study is a preliminary investigation to identify and document instances of such fatal or injurious intrusion. An objective is to provide useful insights and information related to potential hazards due to future intrusion into underground radioactive-waste-disposal facilities. The methodology used in this study includes literature review and correspondence with appropriate government agencies and organizations. Key categories of intrusion hazards are asphyxiation, methane, hydrogen sulfide, silica and asbestos, naturally occurring radionuclides, and various mine or waste dump related hazards.

  4. Toxic hazards of underground excavation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inadvertent intrusion into natural or man-made toxic or hazardous material deposits as a consequence of activities such as mining, excavation or tunnelling has resulted in numerous deaths and injuries in this country. This study is a preliminary investigation to identify and document instances of such fatal or injurious intrusion. An objective is to provide useful insights and information related to potential hazards due to future intrusion into underground radioactive-waste-disposal facilities. The methodology used in this study includes literature review and correspondence with appropriate government agencies and organizations. Key categories of intrusion hazards are asphyxiation, methane, hydrogen sulfide, silica and asbestos, naturally occurring radionuclides, and various mine or waste dump related hazards

  5. Guía de recomendaciones para el sistema informático de la mediación prejudicial obligatoria en la provincia de Buenos Aires

    OpenAIRE

    Luz Clara, Bibiana Beatriz; Nazarre, Susana Beatriz

    2014-01-01

    La Ley 13.951 de la Provincia de Buenos Aires estableció la vigencia a partir del 14 de Mayo de 2.012 de la mediación prejudicial obligatoria, como etapa previa a la iniciación de las acciones judiciales. Su objetivo legal es promover y facilitar la comunicación directa entre las partes que permita la solución de los conflictos. El Ministerio de Justicia provincial tiene a su cargo el registro de los mediadores autorizados y la distribución de las causas que quedan sujetas a mediación. Dic...

  6. Toxics Release Inventory (TRI) Widget

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Toxics Release Inventory (TRI) widget allows users to identify facilities in a user-specified area of interest that have toxic releases as reported by the...

  7. Air surveillance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patton, G.W.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the air surveillance and monitoring programs currently in operation at that Hanford Site. Atmospheric releases of pollutants from Hanford to the surrounding region are a potential source of human exposure. For that reason, both radioactive and nonradioactive materials in air are monitored at a number of locations. The influence of Hanford emissions on local radionuclide concentrations was evaluated by comparing concentrations measured at distant locations within the region to concentrations measured at the Site perimeter. This section discusses sample collection, analytical methods, and the results of the Hanford air surveillance program. A complete listing of all analytical results summarized in this section is reported separately by Bisping (1995).

  8. NRC Information No. 90-18: Potential problems with Crosby safety relief valves used on diesel generator air start receiver tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On March 31, 1989, Cooper Industries was made aware of circumstances at Perry Unit 1 that led to the Division I EDG being declared inoperable. A Crosby safety relief valve on one of the two EDG starting air receiving tanks was inadvertently hit during maintenance activities. The force of the impact caused the valve to open and blow down both air receiving tanks. The safety relief valve did not reseat until approximately 30 psig below the EDG automatic start lockout signal. On January 12, 1990, Cooper Industries learned that a similar event had occurred at Comanche Peak. On January 17, 1990, Cooper Industries submitted a 10 CFR Part 21 report on the affected safety relief valves (Crosby style JMBU and JRU safety relief valves). Although Crosby-style JMBU and JRU safety relief valves were designed to meet the requirements of Section VIII of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, they were not seismically qualified. In addition, the blowdown characteristics of the valves were not consistent with the functional requirements of the system in which they were installed. Cooper Industries has recommended replacing these valves with seismically qualified valves that have the proper blowdown reseat characteristics

  9. Air ions and aerosol science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tammet, Hannes

    1996-03-01

    Collaboration between Gas Discharge and Plasma Physics, Atmospheric Electricity, and Aerosol Science is a factor of success in the research of air ions. The concept of air ion as of any carrier of electrical current through the air is inherent to Atmospheric Electricity under which a considerable statistical information about the air ion mobility spectrum is collected. A new model of air ion size-mobility correlation has been developed proceeding from Aerosol Science and joining the methods of neighboring research fields. The predicted temperature variation of the mobility disagrees with the commonly used Langevin rule for the reduction of air ion mobilities to the standard conditions. Concurrent errors are too big to be neglected in applications. The critical diameter distinguishing cluster ions and charged aerosol particles has been estimated to be 1.4-1.8 nm.

  10. Air ions and aerosol science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tammet, H. [Department of Environmental Physics, Tartu University, Tartu, Estonia (Estonia) 2400

    1996-03-01

    Collaboration between Gas Discharge and Plasma Physics, Atmospheric Electricity, and Aerosol Science is a factor of success in the research of air ions. The concept of air ion as of any carrier of electrical current through the air is inherent to Atmospheric Electricity under which a considerable statistical information about the air ion mobility spectrum is collected. A new model of air ion size-mobility correlation has been developed proceeding from Aerosol Science and joining the methods of neighboring research fields. The predicted temperature variation of the mobility disagrees with the commonly used Langevin rule for the reduction of air ion mobilities to the standard conditions. Concurrent errors are too big to be neglected in applications. The critical diameter distinguishing cluster ions and charged aerosol particles has been estimated to be 1.4{endash}1.8 nm. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  11. Air toxic issues for the electric utility industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Improved control devices, advances in fuel stack measurements and ambient sampling techniques have clarified some of the issues associated with the release of trace substance emissions into the atmosphere, particularly mercury emissions, from electric utilities. It has been determined that mercury emissions to the atmosphere from all sources globally, including utilities, has an approximate lifetime of 1-2 years before deposition, but 30 -70 per cent of mercury emissions are deposited locally within hours to days. Recent and continual field studies are being conducted to determine how much mercury is actually emitted from background sources and how this mercury enters general atmospheric circulations. The issue of how much mercury deposits locally versus being transported regionally or globally is also under study along with how mercury enters the food chain for fish in lakes and ultimately the consumer. Current health effects studies have indicated that there are slight differences in some of the earlier estimates of mercury's health effects. More studies are underway to help determine the degree of health threat to U.S. consumers of fish and to determine if mercury emissions are carried beyond U.S. borders to global dispersion. Some studies have also indicated a net reduction of mercury in clouds

  12. Risk Assessment for Toxic Air Pollutants: A Citizen's Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... inhales. To do this, scientists combine estimates of breathing rates and lifespan of an average person with estimates ... to account for animal-human differences (such as breathing rate) and for underlying uncertainties (such as the difference ...

  13. L’information diffusée par l’exploitant sur le risque nucléaire : quelle réponse aux attentes des parties prenantes ?

    OpenAIRE

    Plot-Vicard, Emmanuelle

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this research is to know if there are distances between the expectations of the stakeholders and the information disclosed by the firm on the nuclear risk in its annual report. First of all, I wonder about the motives which lead companies to disclose environmental information, by associating the theories of the legitimacy and the stakeholders. I notice then the report which the financial accounting does not allow to report the whole nuclear risk. In particular, accounting (pr...

  14. Toxic waste liquor disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toxic waste liquors, especially radio active liquors, are disposed in a sub-zone by feeding down a bore hole a first liquid, then a buffer liquid (e.g. water), then the toxic liquors. Pressure variations are applied to the sub-zone to mix the first liquid and liquors to form gels or solids which inhibit further mixing and form a barrier between the sub-zone and the natural waters in the environment of the sub-zone. In another example the location of the sub-zone is selected so that the environement reacts with the liquors to produce a barrier around the zone. Blind bore holes are used to monitor the sub-zone profile. Materials may be added to the liquor to enhance barrier formation. (author)

  15. Portable, accurate toxicity testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ever tightening environmental regulations, severe penalties for non-compliance, and expensive remediation costs have stimulated development of methods to detect and measure toxins. Most of these methods are bioassays that must be performed in the laboratory; none previously devised has been truly portable. The US Army, through the Small Business Innovative Research program, has developed a hand-held, field deployable unit for testing toxicity of battlefield water supplies. This patented system employs the measurable quenching, in the presence of toxins, of the natural bioluminescence produced by the marine dinoflagellate alga Pyrocystis lunula. The procedure's inventor used it for years to measure toxicity concentrations of chemical warfare agents actually, their simulants, primarily in the form of pesticides and herbicides plus assorted toxic reagents, waterbottom samples, drilling fluids, even blood. While the procedure is more precise, cheaper, and faster than most bioassays, until recently it was immobile. Now it is deployable in the field. The laboratory apparatus has been proven to be sensitive to toxins in concentrations as low as a few parts per billion, repeatable within a variation of 10% or less, and unlike some other bioassays effective in turbid or colored media. The laboratory apparatus and the hand-held tester have been calibrated with the EPA protocol that uses the shrimplike Mysidopsis bahia. The test organism tolerates transportation well, but must be rested a few hours at the test site for regeneration of its light-producing powers. Toxicity now can be measured confidently in soils, water columns, discharge points, and many other media in situ. Most significant to the oil industry is that drilling fluids can be monitored continuously on the rig

  16. Bats and toxic pollutants

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zukal, Jan; Pikula, J.; Bandouchová, H.

    Granollers: Museum of Natural Sciences, 2012 - (Flaquer, C.; Montserrat, X.), s. 75-79 ISBN 978-84-87790-69-0. [International Symposium on the Importance of Bats as Bioindicators. Granollers (ES), 05.12.2012-09.12.2012] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP506/12/1064 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : bats * toxic pollutants * bioindication Subject RIV: EG - Zoology

  17. Manganese toxicity upon overexposure

    OpenAIRE

    Crossgrove, Janelle; Zheng, Wei

    2004-01-01

    Manganese (Mn) is a required element and a metabolic byproduct of the contrast agent mangafodipir trisodium (MnDPDP). The Mn released from MnDPDP is initially sequestered by the liver for first-pass elimination, which allows an enhanced contrast for diagnostic imaging. The administration of intravenous Mn impacts its homeostatic balance in the human body and can lead to toxicity. Human Mn deficiency has been reported in patients on parenteral nutrition and in micronutrient studies. Mn toxicit...

  18. Cleaning products and air fresheners: exposure to primary and secondary air pollutants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nazaroff, W.; Weschler, Charles J.

    2004-01-01

    Building occupants, including cleaning personnel, are exposed to a wide variety of airborne chemicals when cleaning agents and air fresheners are used in buildings. Certain of these chemicals are listed by the state of California as toxic air contaminants (TACs) and a subset of these are regulated...... chemicals that can react with other air contaminants to yield potentially harmful secondary products. For example, terpenes can react rapidly with ozone in indoor air generating many secondary pollutants, including TACs such as formaldehyde. Furthermore, ozone-terpene reactions produce the hydroxyl radical...

  19. Clean air Hamilton

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCarry, B.E. [McMaster Univ., Hamilton, ON (Canada)

    2002-07-01

    The industrial City of Hamilton is located on Lake Ontario, downwind from the Ohio Valley. The Hamilton Air Quality Initiative (HAQI) was divided in several phases, one of which is Clean Air Hamilton. This most recent phase was described in this presentation. Two major goals of this phase were: to ensure that the City of Hamilton has the best air quality of any major urban area in Ontario, and to reduce the emissions of greenhouse gases by 20 per cent compared to the levels in 1990. There were five main objectives to this initiative, namely: (1) the identification of priority air quality issues, (2) achieving an understanding of air quality issues, (3) the identification of sources, the evaluation of impacts and the recommendation of solutions, (4) the assessment of human health, and (5) the identification of further research. The reduction of air quality impacts is progressing through the support provided to the Drive Clean Program, the discouragement of vehicle idling, the support to car pooling initiatives, and the promotion of green vehicles. The implementation of pollution control technologies is taking place on the industrial side, as well as the development of plans to reduce steel industry emissions, the development of energy conservation measures and the promotion of green building practices. Efforts are being deployed over fleet greening partnerships, community tree planting program, an international air conference, an electronic information network linking the United States and the communities of Southern Ontario, a road dust study, a truck emissions research project, the assessment of human health impacts, and finally methods for the monitoring of local improvements. figs.

  20. Healthy Air Outdoors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... lung.org > Our Initiatives > Healthy Air > Outdoor Healthy Air Outdoors The quality of the air we breathe ... families and can even shorten their lives. Outdoor Air Pollution and Health Outdoor air pollution continues to ...

  1. Effects of brine addition on effluent toxicity and marine toxicity identification evaluation (TIE) manipulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ho, K.T.; Burgess, R.M. (Environmental Protection Agency, Narragansett, RI (United States)); Mitchell, K. (Xavier Univ. of Louisiana, New Orleans, LA (United States). Biology Dept.); Zappala, M. (Univ. of Rhode Island, Kingston, RI (United States))

    1995-02-01

    Little information is available concerning the effect of salinity adjustment on effluent storage and toxicity identification evaluation (TIE) performance. These factors are important for accurate assessments of potential toxicity to marine organisms. The objective of this study was to determine (a) the effect of salinity adjustment using hypersaline brine on the toxicity of effluents stored up to 40 d, and (b) to determine the effect of salinity adjustment on TIE manipulations. Changes in effluent toxicity over time were examined by using a municipal and an industrial effluent. A toxicity time series was performed for 16 d for the industrial effluent and 40 d for the municipal effluent. Toxicity was measured with modified 48-h acute Mysidopsis bahia and Menidia beryllina tests. Results indicate that, compared to day 0 test results, effluent stored with brine had fewer significant changes in toxicity than did effluent stored without brine. To determine the effects of brine addition on TIE manipulations, the authors conducted a series of manipulations in which one aliquot of an effluent had brine added prior to the TIE manipulations and the other aliquot had brine added after the TIE manipulation. The manipulations conducted were EDTA addition, sodium thiosulfate addition, C[sub 18] extraction, aeration, filtration, and graduated pH manipulations. Toxicity was measured with the modified 48-h acute mysid test. Addition of brine had no effect on the outcome of TIE manipulations. They have concluded that it is operationally easier to add brine as soon as possible after sampling and that effluent tests should be conducted as soon as practical.

  2. Thyroid cancer in toxic and non-toxic multinodular goiter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cerci C

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Many authors have claimed that hyperthyroidism protects against thyroid cancer and believed that the incidence of malignancy is lower in patients with toxic multinodular goiter (TMG than in those with non-toxic multinodular goiter. But in recent studies, it was reported that the incidence of malignancy with TMG is not as low as previously thought. Aim : To compare the thyroid cancer incidence in patients with toxic and non-toxic multinodular goiter. Settings and Design : Histology reports of patients treated surgically with a preoperative diagnosis of toxic and non-toxic multinodular goiter were reviewed to identify the thyroid cancer incidence. Patients having a history of neck irradiation or radioactive iodine therapy were excluded from the study. Materials and Methods : We reviewed 294 patients operated between 2001-2005 from toxic and non-toxic multinodular goiter. One hundred and twenty-four of them were toxic and 170 were non-toxic. Hyperthyroidism was diagnosed by elevated tri-iodothyroinine / thyroxine ratios and low thyroid-stimulating hormone with clinical signs and symptoms. All patients were evaluated with ultrasonography and scintigraphy and fine needle aspiration biopsy. Statistical Analysis Used : Significance of the various parameters was calculated by using ANOVA test. Results : The incidence of malignancy was 9% in the toxic and 10.58% in the non-toxic multinodular goiter group. Any significant difference in the incidence of cancer and tumor size between the two groups could not be detected. Conclusions : The incidence of malignancy in toxic multinodular goiter is not very low as thought earlier and is nearly the same in non-toxic multinodular goiter.

  3. Air cleaning using regenerative silica gel wheel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fang, Lei

    2011-01-01

    This paper discussed the necessity of indoor air cleaning and the state of the art information on gas-phase air cleaning technology. The performance and problems of oxidation and sorption air cleaning technology were summarized and analysed based on the literature studies. Eventually, based on an...

  4. Alternative transportation fuels and air quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper discusses the air quality impact of the following alternative fuels: reformulated gasoline, methanol, ethanol, diesel, compressed natural gas, liquid petroleum gases, hydrogen, and electric power. Emissions of NOx, CO, and toxic compounds, as well as global climatic change impacts are described

  5. Foliage Plants for Improving Indoor Air Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolverton, B. C.

    1988-01-01

    NASA's research with foliage houseplants during the past 10 years has produced a new concept in indoor air quality improvement. This new and exciting technology is quite simple. Both plant leaves and roots are utilized in removing trace levels of toxic vapors from inside tightly sealed buildings. Low levels of chemicals such as carbon monoxide and formaldehyde can be removed from indoor environments by plant leaves alone, while higher concentrations of numerous toxic chemicals can be removed by filtering indoor air through the plant roots surrounded by activated carbon. The activated carbon absorbs large quantities of the toxic chemicals and retains them until the plant roots and associated microorganisms degrade and assimilate these chemicals.

  6. Air quality and communication. Special issue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In six articles Attention is paid to mainly the practical appliances of communication in relation to the aspects of air quality: the perceptions of air pollution of those people who are affected by it; the tuning of information on air quality to the wishes and needs of citizens; tools enabling visualisation of future situations in the living environment in various scenarios; results of a study of the need for information on air quality among citizens and general practitioners; experiences with websites on air quality obtained in two European projects. (mk)

  7. LONG-TERM EFFECTS OF AIR POLLUTANTS: IN CANINE SPECIES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Clean Air Act of 1970 as amended in 1977 requires that a comprehensive data base be established to assess human health effects caused by air pollution from mobile sources. The spectrum of potential toxic effects can be viewed from two perspectives: The first is the identifica...

  8. La automatización y los servicios de las bibliotecas de acceso público de la ciudad autónoma de Buenos Aires y sus alrededores en el marco de la sociedad de la información Public libraries automation and services in buenos aires and surrounding areas in the information society framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsa Barber

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Se estudia la relación existente entre el nivel de automatización alcanzado y el uso de las nuevas tecnologías para brindar servicios de alto valor agregado, en el ámbito de las bibliotecas de acceso público de la Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires y sus alrededores. Se presenta un diagnóstico de la situación actual, con el objetivo de determinar si estas unidades están preparadas para responder a las necesidades de la comunidad a la cual sirven en la sociedad de la información. Se aplica una encuesta, con preguntas cerradas, estructurada sobre la base de las siguientes categorías: información general, recursos, automatización, control bibliográfico, integración en redes, servicios y financiamiento. La investigación se realiza sobre la base de 73 respuestas proporcionadas por las bibliotecas relevadas. Se verifica la falta de adopción de estándares con miras al intercambio y el procesamiento distribuido de la información, la ausencia del control de calidad de la información, el aprovechamiento limitado de las tecnologías de información y comunicaciónThe existing relationship between the achieved automation level and the use of new technologies to provide high value-added services, in the context of public libraries in the Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires and surrounding areas is studied. It presents a diagnosis of the current situation, aiming to determine whether these information units are prepared to respond to the needs of the community they serve within the information society. A survey with closed questions is applied based on the following categories: general information, resources, library automation, bibliographic control, networks integration, services, and financing sources. Research is made upon 73 responses provided by the libraries surveyed. The analysis verifies the lack of use of standards looking towards information exchange and the distributed processing of information, the abscence of information quality

  9. Royal Danish Air Force. Air Operations Doctrine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørby, Søren

    This brief examines the development of the first Danish Air Force Air Operations Doctrine, which was officially commissioned in October 1997 and remained in effect until 2010. The development of a Danish air power doctrine was heavily influenced by the work of Colonel John Warden (USAF), both...... through his book ”The Air Campaign” and his subsequent planning of the air campaign against Iraq in 1990-1991. Warden’s ideas came to Denmark and the Danish Air Force by way of Danish Air Force students attending the United States Air Force Air University in Alabama, USA. Back in Denmark, graduates from...... the Air University inspired a small number of passionate airmen, who then wrote the Danish Air Operations Doctrine. The process was supported by the Air Force Tactical Command, which found that the work dovetailed perfectly with the transformation process that the Danish Air Force was in the midst of...

  10. The California fuel cell partnership: an avenue to clean air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, Alan C.

    The California Fuel Cell Partnership presently consists of eight private companies, two state agencies and a federal government representative that will attempt to demonstrate the feasibility of fuel cell cars and buses. California has attempted to advance the commercialization of zero-emission vehicles for much of the past decade to help the state reduce its high levels of air pollution. A special advisory panel convened by the California Air Resources Board concluded last year that fuel cell technology could meet the key requirements for automobiles. The successful commercialization of fuel cell vehicles would help to reduce the levels of ozone, fine particles and toxic air contaminants that pose health risks to California's population. This technology can also help to reduce carbon dioxide emissions. California regulations now encourage the development of zero and near-zero emission vehicle technologies, including fuel cells. The Fuel Cell Partnership will operate approximately 50 fuel cell cars and buses until the year 2003 in order to produce important information on the vehicles and fueling infrastructure needed to support them.

  11. Metal metabolism and toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This research focuses on the role of pregnancy and lactation in susceptibility to the toxic effects of cadmium and lead. Responses under investigation include lead-induced changes in pathways for vitamin D and calcium metabolism and cadmium-induced alterations in kidney function and skeletal structure. The second area focuses on the gastrointestinal absorption of plutonium and other actinide elements. Studies currently being conducted in nonhuman primates to develop a procedure to determine GI absorption values of uranium and plutonium that does not require sacrifice of the animal. 6 refs

  12. Herbal toxicity in Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyazema, N Z

    1986-01-01

    Indigenous natural drugs are in common use in Zimbabwe because modern life-saving drugs are beyond the reach of nearly 85% of the population. These natural drugs have caused a number of poisoning cases. In a study of the records of four hospitals from 1971 to 1982, carried out to see how many people had been poisoned with herbal remedies, it was found that the number had increased since 1971. 50 traditional healers were questioned about record-keeping and knowledge of toxicity and Health Assistants were also interviewed. PMID:3798540

  13. Phosphorus flame retardants: properties, production, environmental occurrence, toxicity and analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Veen, Ike; de Boer, Jacob

    2012-08-01

    for TCP, which suggest that those PFRs would not be suitable alternatives for BFRs. TPhP, diphenylcresylphosphate (DCP) and TCP would not be suitable alternatives either, because they are considered to be toxic to (aquatic) organisms. Diethylphosphinic acid is, just like TCEP, considered to be very persistent. From an environmental perspective, resorcinol-bis(diphenylphosphate) (RDP), bisphenol-A diphenyl phosphate (BADP) and melamine polyphosphate, may be suitable good substitutes for BFRs. Information on PFR analysis in air, water and sediment is limited to TCEP, TCPP, TPhP, TCP and some other organophosphate esters. For air sampling passive samplers have been used as well as solid phase extraction (SPE) membranes, SPE cartridges, and solid phase micro-extraction (SPME). For extraction of PFRs from water SPE is recommended, because this method gives good recoveries (67-105%) and acceptable relative standard deviations (RSDs) (GC-ICP-MS is a promising method, because it provides much less complex chromatograms while offering the same recoveries and limits of detection (LOD) (instrumental LOD is 5-10 ng mL(-1)) compared to GC-NPD and GC-MS, which are frequently used methods for PFR analysis. GC-MS offers a higher selectivity than GC-NPD and the possibility of using isotopically labeled compounds for quantification. PMID:22537891

  14. TOXIC SUBSTANCES FROM COAL COMBUSTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A KOLKER; AF SAROFIM; CL SENIOR; FE HUGGINS; GP HUFFMAN; I OLMEZ; J LIGHTY; JOL WENDT; JOSEPH J HELBLE; MR AMES; N YAP; R FINKELMAN; T PANAGIOTOU; W SEAMES

    1998-12-08

    The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 identify a number of hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) as candidates for regulation. Should regulations be imposed on HAP emissions from coal-fired power plants, a sound understanding of the fundamental principles controlling the formation and partitioning of toxic species during coal combustion will be needed. With support from the Federal Energy Technology Center (FETC), the Electric Power Research Institute, the Lignite Research Council, and VTT (Finland), Physical Sciences Inc. (PSI) has teamed with researchers from USGS, MIT, the University of Arizona (UA), the University of Kentucky (UK), the University of Connecticut (UC), the University of Utah (UU) and the University of North Dakota Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC) to develop a broadly applicable emissions model useful to regulators and utility planners. The new Toxics Partitioning Engineering Model (ToPEM) will be applicable to all combustion conditions including new fuels and coal blends, low-NO combustion systems, and new power generation x plants. Development of ToPEM will be based on PSI's existing Engineering Model for Ash Formation (EMAF). This report covers the reporting period from 1 July 1998 through 30 September 1998. During this period distribution of all three Phase II coals was completed. Standard analyses for the whole coal samples were also completed. Mössbauer analysis of all project coals and fractions received to date has been completed in order to obtain details of the iron mineralogy. The analyses of arsenic XAFS data for two of the project coals and for some high arsenic coals have been completed. Duplicate splits of the Ohio 5,6,7 and North Dakota lignite samples were taken through all four steps of the selective leaching procedure. Leaching analysis of the Wyodak coal has recently commenced. Preparation of polished coal/epoxy pellets for probe/SEM studies is underway. Some exploratory mercury LIII XAFS work was

  15. The toxicity of tritium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Among radionuclides of importance in atomic energy, 3H has relatively low toxicity. There is concern, however, because very large amounts are involved in nuclear fission and fusion, impressive quantities are released to the environment and tritium in its preferred state, water, has free access to living cells and organisms. The main health and environmental worry is the possibility that significant biological effects may follow from protracted exposure to low concentrations in water. To examine this possible hazard and measure toxicity at low tritium concentrations, chronic exposure studies were done on mice and monkeys. During vulnerable developmental periods animals were exposed to 3HOH and mice were exposed also to 60Co gamma irradiation and energy-related chemical agents. The biological endpoint measured was the irreversible loss of female germ cells. Effects from tritium were observed at surprisingly low concentrations where 3H was found more damaging than previously thought. Comparisons between tritium and gamma radiation showed the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) to be greater than 1 and to reach approximately 3 at very low exposures. For perspective, other comparisons were made: between radiation and chemical agents, which revealed parallels in action on germ cells; and between pre- and postnatal exposure, which warn of possible special hazard to the foetus from both classes of energy-related byproducts. (author)

  16. Management of thalidomide toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghobrial, Irene M; Rajkumar, S Vincent

    2003-01-01

    Thalidomide has re-emerged as a novel antineoplastic agent with immunomodulatory and antiangiogenic activities. In the early sixties, it was withdrawn from the market after its infamous association with congenital abnormalities that left about 10,000 children affected world-wide. With strict regulations and precautions, thalidomide is now approved by the FDA for the treatment of erythema nodosum leprosum. Its role in cancer therapy is promising, with clinical trials in the past 5 years showing significant activity in multiple myeloma. Several trials are ongoing in other malignancies, such as myelodysplastic syndrome, agnogenic myeloid metaplasia, renal cell carcinoma, and prostate cancer. The major toxicities of thalidomide are birth defects, sensorimotor peripheral neuropathy, somnolence, rash, fatigue, and constipation. Less common side effects include deep venous thrombosis, Stevens-Johnson syndrome, elevated liver enzymes, malaise, and peripheral edema. The incidence and severity of adverse events are related to dose and duration of therapy. Doses of the drug of 200 mg/day or less are usually well tolerated. In this review, we will discuss the incidence and management of the side effects of thalidomide and the precautions and interventions needed to minimize the toxicities of this drug. PMID:15334875

  17. Assessing mistletoe toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, A H; Spoerke, D G; Rumack, B H

    1986-11-01

    To assess the potential toxicity of mistletoe ingestion, data were collected on 14 cases of ingestion of one to three berries or one or two leaves of American mistletoe (Phoradendron sp) from 1982 to 1985. Eleven patients ingested berries and three ingested leaves; none became symptomatic. Nine patients were observed at home without intervention except poison center telephone follow-up. Five had induced emesis, including two who were referred to emergency departments for evaluation, where no findings other than ipecac-induced vomiting were noted. Also reviewed were data on a total of 318 cases of mistletoe ingestion reported to the Food and Drug Administration Poison Control case reporting system between 1978 and 1983 (n = 177) and the American Association of Poison Control Centers national data collection system (n = 141) in 1984. The majority remained asymptomatic and no deaths were recorded. These data allow the conclusion that ingestion of one to three mistletoe berries or one or two leaves is unlikely to produce serious toxicity. PMID:2877602

  18. Acute toxicity of uranium hexafluoride, uranyl fluoride and hydrogen fluoride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uranium hexafluoride (UF6) released into the atmosphere will react rapidly with moisture in the air to form the hydrolysis products uranyl fluoride (UO2F2) and hydrogen fluoride (HF). Uranium compounds such as UF6 and UO2F2 exhibit both chemical toxicity and radiological effects, while HF exhibits only chemical toxicity. This paper describes the development of a methodology for assessing the human health consequences of a known acute exposure to a mixture of UF6, UO2F2, and HF. 4 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs

  19. Hypersalinity toxicity thresholds for nine California ocean plan toxicity test protocols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voorhees, Jennifer P; Phillips, Bryn M; Anderson, Brian S; Siegler, Katie; Katz, Scott; Jennings, Lydia; Tjeerdema, Ron S; Jensen, Joanna; de la Paz Carpio-Obeso, Maria

    2013-11-01

    Currently, several desalination facilities have been proposed to operate or are actually operating in California. These facilities' use of reverse osmosis (RO) may discharge hypersaline reject brine into the marine environment. The risks, if any, this brine would pose to coastal receiving waters are unknown. To test the toxicity of hypersaline brine in the absence of any additional toxic constituents, we prepared brine and tested it with the seven toxicity test organisms listed in the 2009 California Ocean Plan. The most sensitive protocols were the marine larval development tests, whereas the most tolerant to increased salinities were the euryhaline topsmelt, mysid shrimp, and giant kelp tests. Reject brines from the Monterey Bay Aquarium's RO desalination facility were also tested with three species. The effects of the aquarium's brine effluent on topsmelt, mussels, and giant kelp were consistent with those observed in the salinity tolerance experiments. This information will be used by regulators to establish receiving water limitations for hypersaline discharges. PMID:23821235

  20. Air filtration and indoor air quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bekö, Gabriel

    2006-01-01

    Demands for better indoor air quality are increasing, since we spend most of our time indoors and we are more and more aware of indoor air pollution. Field studies in different parts of the world have documented that high percentage of occupants in many offices and buildings find the indoor air...... decent ventilation and air cleaning/air filtration, high indoor air quality cannot be accomplished. The need for effective air filtration has increased with increasing evidence on the hazardous effects of fine particles. Moreover, the air contains gaseous pollutants, removal of which requires various air...... cleaning techniques. Supply air filter is one of the key components in the ventilation system. Studies have shown that used ventilation filters themselves can be a significant source of indoor air pollution with consequent impact on perceived air quality, sick building syndrome symptoms and performance...

  1. Mobile air quality studies (MAQS in inner cities: particulate matter PM10 levels related to different vehicle driving modes and integration of data into a geographical information program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uibel Stefanie

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Particulate matter (PM is assumed to exert a major burden on public health. Most studies that address levels of PM use stationary measure systems. By contrast, only few studies measure PM concentrations under mobile conditions to analyze individual exposure situations. Methods By combining spatial-temporal analysis with a novel vehicle-mounted sensor system, the present Mobile Air Quality Study (MAQS aimed to analyse effects of different driving conditions in a convertible vehicle. PM10 was continuously monitored in a convertible car, driven with roof open, roof closed, but windows open, or windows closed. Results PM10 values inside the car were nearly always higher with open roof than with roof and windows closed, whereas no difference was seen with open or closed windows. During the day PM10 values varied with high values before noon, and occasional high median values or standard deviation values due to individual factors. Vehicle speed in itself did not influence the mean value of PM10; however, at traffic speed (10 – 50 km/h the standard deviation was large. No systematic difference was seen between PM10 values in stationary and mobile cars, nor was any PM10 difference observed between driving within or outside an environmental (low emission zone. Conclusions The present study has shown the feasibility of mobile PM analysis in vehicles. Individual exposure of the occupants varies depending on factors like time of day as well as ventilation of the car; other specific factors are clearly identifiably and may relate to specific PM10 sources. This system may be used to monitor individual exposure ranges and provide recommendations for preventive measurements. Although differences in PM10 levels were found under certain ventilation conditions, these differences are likely not of concern for the safety and health of passengers.

  2. Protection of plants against air pollutants: Role of chemical protectants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The protection of plants against air pollution damage can best be achieved either by developing pollution-tolerant cultivars or by using chemical protectants. Use of chemical protectants such as pesticides, growth regulators, anti-oxidants, fertilizers, etc. is a short-term solution to reduce the risk of air pollution damage. In addition, these protectants help in understanding the mechanism of air pollution toxicity and provide a scientific basis for assessing crop losses in field conditions. 95 refs

  3. Enabling Mobile Air Quality App Development with an AirNow API

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dye, T.; White, J. E.; Ludewig, S. A.; Dickerson, P.; Healy, A. N.; West, J. W.; Prince, L. A.

    2013-12-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) AirNow program works with over 130 participating state, local, and federal air quality agencies to obtain, quality control, and store real-time air quality observations and forecasts. From these data, the AirNow system generates thousands of maps and products each hour. Each day, information from AirNow is published online and in other media to assist the public in making health-based decisions related to air quality. However, an increasing number of people use mobile devices as their primary tool for obtaining information, and AirNow has responded to this trend by publishing an easy-to-use Web API that is useful for mobile app developers. This presentation will describe the various features of the AirNow application programming interface (API), including Representational State Transfer (REST)-type web services, file outputs, and RSS feeds. In addition, a web portal for the AirNow API will be shown, including documentation on use of the system, a query tool for configuring and running web services, and general information about the air quality data and forecasts available. Data published via the AirNow API includes corresponding Air Quality Index (AQI) levels for each pollutant. We will highlight examples of mobile apps that are using the AirNow API to provide location-based, real-time air quality information. Examples will include mobile apps developed for Minnesota ('Minnesota Air') and Washington, D.C. ('Clean Air Partners Air Quality'), and an app developed by EPA ('EPA AirNow').

  4. Identification of alpha-beta unsaturated aldehydes as sources of toxicity to activated sludge biomass in polyester manufacturing wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caffaro-Filho, R A; Wagner, R; Umbuzeiro, G A; Grossman, M J; Durrant, L R

    2010-01-01

    Wastewater generated in industrial production processes are often contaminated by hazardous chemicals. Characterization by means of toxicity-directed analysis is useful for identifying which fractions of a waste stream possess the most toxicity. We applied this approach to evaluate toxic components of a polyester manufacturing wastewater. Using the reduction in oxygen uptake rate of activated sludge as an indicator of toxicity, it was determined that increasing the pH from 3 to 11 followed by air stripping significantly reduced the toxicity of the wastewater. Comparative headspace GC/MS analysis of wastewater at different pHs selected a group of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) associated with the observed effect of air stripping at pH 11. Ten of these compounds were identified as alpha,beta unsaturated aldehydes (acrolein (2-propenal) congeners); these compounds are known to be toxic as well as mutagenic. Confirmation that these compounds were a cause of toxicity was achieved by demonstrating that removal of these compounds by air stripping significantly reduced the wastewater mutagenic potency in a Salmonella mutagenicity assay. Formation of these volatile compounds by base catalyzed aldol condensation at pH 11 may account for the effectiveness of air stripping in reducing toxicity. To date there is no record in the literature about the toxicity and presence of acrolein congeners in polyester manufacturing wastewater. PMID:20418629

  5. Quantal health effects for a combination of several toxic agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quantal health effects caused by the combined action of a number of toxic agents are modeled using the information available for each toxicant acting in isolation. Two basic models are used; one assumes no interaction, the other postulates a separable kind of interaction in which each agent contributes an enhancement factor independent of all other agents. These two models provide yardsticks by which to measure synergisms and antagonisms in the interaction between the effects of toxic agents. Equations are given in approximations for small and large values of the risk. (author)

  6. Off-air treatment in waste treatment systems and landfills - consequences for practical operation. 62. information meeting of ANS e.V.; Abluftbehandlung bei MBA und Deponiebetrieb - Konsequenzen fuer die Praxis. 62. Informationsgespraech des ANS e.V.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fricke, K.; Burth, M.; Dichtl, N.; Wallmann, R. (eds.)

    2001-07-01

    The new German Landfill Ordinance of 1 March 2001 specifies the requirements on construction and operation of mechanical-biological waste treatment plants and landfills as well as the continued operation of existing landfills. The conference provided current information of R + D projects as well as practical experience in Austria and Germany, with particular regard to the issues of off-air emissions and landfilling. [German] Seit dem 1. Maerz 2001 ist die Artikelverordnung rechtswirksam. Sie enthaelt Anforderungen an den Bau und Betrieb von mechanisch-biologischen Restabfallbehandlungsanlagen und Deponien. Die Abfallablagerungsverordnung hat darueber hinaus weitreichende Konsequenzen fuer die Betriebsdauer bestehender Deponien. Ziel der Tagung ist es, aktuelle Informationen aus laufenden Forschungs- und Entwicklungsvorhaben sowie Erfahrungen bei der praktischen Umsetzung zu praesentieren, die insbesondere zu den Themenkomplexen Abluftemissionen und Deponierung zur Zeit in Oesterreich und Deutschland vorliegen. (orig.)

  7. Norma Primaria de calidad del aire AIR QUALITY STANDARD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PATRICIA MATUS C.

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Las normas primarias de calidad del aire tienen por finalidad proteger la salud de la población de la contaminación atmosférica. Ellas establecen un nivel de riesgo socialmente aceptado. Este artículo describe los antecedentes considerados durante el proceso de actualización de la regulación vigente en Chile. Detalla conceptos sobre la calidad del aire, describe los efectos en la salud de los contaminantes, y el procedimiento seguido para fijar los nuevos estándares Finaliza enumerando la norma primaria de calidad del aire, sus valores y los limites definidos para ser considerados en el ámbito de la gestión de los episodios críticos o de alta contaminaciónThe main purpose of air quality standards is to protect people health from air pollution. They establish a socially accepted level of risk. This article describes the background information considered during the process for updating the current Chilean regulation. Concepts about quality of air, and the effects of the pollutants on the health are described. The procedure followed to fix the new standards is detailed. Finally we state the primary air quality norm, its values as well as the critical limits in order to control critical events of high air pollution

  8. Functional toxicology: tools to advance the future of toxicity testing

    OpenAIRE

    Gaytán, Brandon D.; Vulpe, Chris D.

    2014-01-01

    The increased presence of chemical contaminants in the environment is an undeniable concern to human health and ecosystems. Historically, by relying heavily upon costly and laborious animal-based toxicity assays, the field of toxicology has often neglected examinations of the cellular and molecular mechanisms of toxicity for the majority of compounds—information that, if available, would strengthen risk assessment analyses. Functional toxicology, where cells or organisms with gene deletions o...

  9. Monitoring plan for routine organic air emissions at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex Waste Storage Facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This monitoring plan provides the information necessary to perform routine organic air emissions monitoring at the Waste Storage Facilities located at the Transuranic Storage Area of the Radioactive Waste Management Complex at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. The Waste Storage Facilities include both the Type I and II Waste Storage Modules. The plan implements a dual method approach where two dissimilar analytical methodologies, Open-Path Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (OP-FTIR) and ancillary SUMMA reg-sign canister sampling, following the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) analytical method TO-14, will be used to provide qualitative and quantitative volatile organic concentration data. The Open-Path Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy will provide in situ, real time monitoring of volatile organic compound concentrations in the ambient air of the Waste Storage Facilities. To supplement the OP-FTIR data, air samples will be collected using SUMMA reg-sign, passivated, stainless steel canisters, following the EPA Method TO-14. These samples will be analyzed for volatile organic compounds with gas chromatograph/mass spectrometry analysis. The sampling strategy, procedures, and schedules are included in this monitoring plan. The development of this monitoring plan is driven by regulatory compliance to the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, State of Idaho Toxic Air Pollutant increments, Occupational Safety and Health Administration. The various state and federal regulations address the characterization of the volatile organic compounds and the resultant ambient air emissions that may originate from facilities involved in industrial production and/or waste management activities

  10. An operational system for the assimilation of the satellite information on wild-land fires for the needs of air quality modelling and forecasting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sofiev

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates a potential of two remotely sensed wild-land fire characteristics: 4-μm Brightness Temperature Anomaly (TA and Fire Radiative Power (FRP for the needs of operational chemical transport modelling and short-term forecasting of atmospheric composition and air quality. The treatments of the TA and FRP data are presented and a methodology for evaluating the emission fluxes of primary aerosols (PM2.5 and total PM is described. The method does not include the complicated analysis of vegetation state, fuel load, burning efficiency and related factors, which are uncertain but inevitably involved in approaches based on burnt-area scars or similar products. The core of the current methodology is based on the empirical emission factors that are used to convert the observed temperature anomalies and fire radiative powers into emission fluxes. These factors have been derived from the analysis of several fire episodes in Europe (28.4–5.5.2006, 15.8–25.8.2006 and in August 2008. These episodes were characterised by: (i well-identified FRP and TA values, and (ii available ground-based observations of aerosol concentrations, and optical thickness for the regions where the contribution of the fire smoke to the concentrations of PM2.5 was dominant, in comparison with those of other pollution sources. The emission factors were determined separately for the forested and grassland areas; in case of mixed-type land use, an intermediate scaling was assumed. Despite significant differences between the TA and FRP methodologies, an accurate non-linear fitting was found between the predictions of these approaches. The agreement was comparatively weak only for small fires, for which the accuracy of both products is expected to be low. The applications of the Fire Assimilation System (FAS in combination with the dispersion model SILAM showed that both the TA and FRP products are suitable for the evaluation of the emission

  11. An operational system for the assimilation of satellite information on wild-land fires for the needs of air quality modelling and forecasting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sofiev

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates a potential of two remotely sensed wild-land fire characteristics: 4-μm Brightness Temperature Anomaly (TA and Fire Radiative Power (FRP for the needs of operational chemical transport modelling and the short-term forecasting of the atmospheric composition and air quality. Two treatments of the TA and FRP data are presented and a methodology for evaluating the emission fluxes is described. The method does not contain a complicated analysis of vegetation state, fuel load, burning efficiency and related factors, which are comparatively uncertain but inevitably involved in approaches based on burnt-area scars or similar products. The core of the current methodology is based on the empirical emission factors that have been derived from the analysis of several fire episodes in Europe (28 April–5 May 2006, 15–25 August 2006, August 2008 etc.. These episodes were characterised by: (i well-identified FRP and TA values, and (ii available independent observations of aerosol concentrations and optical thickness for the regions where fire smoke was dominant in comparison with contributions of other pollution sources. The emission factors were determined separately for the forested and grassland areas; in case of mixed-type land use an intermediate scaling was assumed. Despite significant difference between the TA and FRP products, an accurate non-linear fitting between the approaches was found. The agreement was comparatively weak only for small fires where the accuracy of both products is low. The re-analysis and forecasting applications of the Fire Assimilation System (FAS showed that both TA and FRP products are suitable for evaluation of the emission fluxes from the wild-land fires. The concentrations of aerosols predicted by the regional dispersion modelling system SILAM appear within a factor of 2–3 from observations. The main areas of improvement include further refining the emission factors over the globe, explicit

  12. Evaluating the risk of air pollution to forests in central and Eastern Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellsworth, D.S. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Oleksyn, J. [Polish Academy of Sciences, Kornik (Poland). Institute of Dendrology

    1996-09-01

    Foliar damage to trees by air pollution in Central and Eastern Europe has been a major scientific and political issue. Emissions of toxic gases such as sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides can have wide-ranging effects on local and regional vegetation that can be compounded by other environmental stresses to plant growth. Since uptake and physiological effects of these gases on tree leaves we largely, mediated by stomata, surrogate methods for estimating pollutant conductances into leaves and forest canopies may lead to risk assessments for major vegetation types that can then be used in regional planning. Management options to ameliorate or mitigate air pollutant damage to forests and losses in productivity are likely to be more difficult to widely implement than on-the-stack emissions abatement. Informed management and policy decisions regarding Central and Eastern European forests are dependent on the development of quantitative tools and models for risk assessment of the effects of atmospheric pollutants on ecosystem health and productivity.

  13. Wagging ETOM's Long Tail: MOOCs, Hangouts on Air, and Formal and Informal Undergraduate Experiences with Climate Change Science and Clean Energy Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haines-Stiles, G.; Alley, R. B.; Akuginow, E.; McNeal, K.; Blockstein, D.

    2014-12-01

    Climate change can reasonably be described as a "wicked problem" meaning that it is complex, difficult and multi-faceted, although critical to equitable development and the sustainability of human civilization. But while the Wikipedia definition says such problems are "impossible" to solve, not even to try will lead to certain failure. "Earth: The Operators' Manual" (ETOM) was an NSF-funded informal science education project with 3 hour-long TV programs appearing on PBS in 2011 and 2012, along with live presentations by series host, Penn State's Richard Alley, and others at 5 major science centers. Uniquely among climate change programming, ETOM gave equal time to identifying solutions along with climate science, and made all its materials freely available via YouTube. Formal and informal science educators can register to download HD videos for classroom and outreach use, and signups have ranged from middle schools to 4-year colleges. Building on the success of the series and Alley's companion tradebook of the same name, Penn State working with Coursera invited Alley to develop a MOOC entitled "Energy, The Environment and Our Future" that similarly combined the essential science along with clean energy solutions. The course reached more than 30,000 students in the first semester of 2014. More recently the ETOM team has partnered with the National Council for Science and the Environment (NCSE) to develop "READ for the EARTH," an NSF EAGER project, offering campuses the opportunity to adopt Alley's book, the ETOM videos (including "How To Talk To An Ostrich"), NCSE's www.CAMELclimatechange.org web site and other resources for both formal and informal uses. Some campuses have used the book with honors classes, and some are exploring adapting ETOM as a first year reading experience for all freshman. Our presentation will share reactions to the MOOC, to the pilot phases of "READ for the EARTH" and present both qualitative and quantitative results. Some of the most

  14. Deoxynivalenol and its toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobrova, Pavlina; Adam, Vojtech; Vasatkova, Anna; Beklova, Miroslava; Zeman, Ladislav; Kizek, Rene

    2010-09-01

    Deoxynivalenol (DON) is one of several mycotoxins produced by certain Fusarium species that frequently infect corn, wheat, oats, barley, rice, and other grains in the field or during storage. The exposure risk to human is directly through foods of plant origin (cereal grains) or indirectly through foods of animal origin (kidney, liver, milk, eggs). It has been detected in buckwheat, popcorn, sorgum, triticale, and other food products including flour, bread, breakfast cereals, noodles, infant foods, pancakes, malt and beer. DON affects animal and human health causing acute temporary nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain, headache, dizziness, and fever. This review briefly summarizes toxicities of this mycotoxin as well as effects on reproduction and their antagonistic and synergic actions. PMID:21217881

  15. Coaching the toxic leader.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, Manfred F R Kets

    2014-04-01

    In his work as an executive coach, psychotherapist Kets de Vries sometimes comes across bosses with mental demons. The four kinds he encounters most frequently are pathological narcissists, who are selfish and entitled, have grandiose fantasies, and pursue power at all costs; manic-depressives, who can leave a trail of emotional blazes behind them; passive-aggressives, who shy away from confrontation but are obstructive and under-handed; and the emotionally disconnected--literal-minded people who cannot describe or even recognize their feelings. Left unchecked, these personalities can warp the interactions, plans, and systems of entire organizations. But with appropriate coaching, toxic bosses can learn to manage their conditions and become effective mentors and leaders. This article describes how to recognize each pathology and, step by step, guide people who suffer from it toward healthier and more-productive interactions. PMID:24830286

  16. Rethinking guideline toxicity testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saghir, Shakil Ahmed

    2015-07-01

    The guidelines for risk assessment of plant protection products (PPPs) and other non-pharmaceuticals were developed over three decades ago and have generally not been updated to incorporate advancements in toxicology and exposure sciences. These guidelines recommend using maximum-tolerated-dose (MTD) even when human relevance of such high doses is mostly limited due to orders of magnitude margin-of-exposure. Conducting animal studies at such high doses often requires further mode-of-action (MoA) studies elucidating human relevance. In order to improve data, ILSI/HESI-ACSA technical committee proposed a tiered approach with emphasis on determining systemic dose of parent and/or metabolite(s) in test animals as biological effects are reflective of systemic rather than administered dose. Any deviation from linearity in systemic dose (saturation of absorption or elimination) in animal studies may have profound toxic effect(s) not expected to occur in likely human exposure scenarios and should be avoided. Toxicity studies should ideally be conducted at kinetically linear doses or slightly above the point of departure from linearity or kinetically-derived maximum dose (KMD) as the systemic dose nonlinearity is a more sensitive parameter occurring much earlier than the MTD endpoints. Therefore, determining systemic dose, especially KMD, in study animals is an improvement to hazard assessment of PPPs and other non-pharmaceuticals allowing toxicologists to better understand findings in animals at systemically linear as well as nonlinear doses to likely human exposures which can easily be accomplished using core study animals as outlined below. Determining systemic dose in studies will also increase the understanding of initial potential MoA of a PPPs and other non-pharmaceuticals and reduce the use of animals by avoiding unnecessary additional MoA studies. PMID:25980640

  17. Cadmium potentiates toxicity of cypermethrin in zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ye; Ye, Xiaoqing; He, Buyuan; Liu, Jing

    2016-02-01

    Co-occurrence of pesticides such as synthetic pyrethroids and metals in aquatic ecosystems raises concerns over their combined ecological effects. Cypermethrin, 1 of the top 5 synthetic pyrethroids in use, has been extensively detected in surface water. Cadmium (Cd) has been recognized as 1 of the most toxic metals and is a common contaminant in the aquatic system. However, little information is available regarding their joint toxicity. In the present study, combined toxicity of cypermethrin and Cd and the underlying mechanisms were investigated. Zebrafish embryos and adults were exposed to the individual contaminant or binary mixtures. Co-exposure to cypermethrin and Cd produced synergistic effects on the occurrence of crooked body, pericardial edema, and noninflation of swim bladder. The addition of Cd significantly potentiated cypermethrin-induced spasms and caused more oxidative stress in zebrafish larvae. Cypermethrin-mediated induction of transcription levels and catalytic activities of cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzyme were significantly down-regulated by Cd in both zebrafish larvae and adults. Chemical analytical data showed that in vitro elimination of cypermethrin by CYP1A1 was inhibited by Cd. The addition of Cd caused an elevation of in vivo cypermethrin residue levels in the mixture-exposed adult zebrafish. These results suggest that the enhanced toxicity of cypermethrin in the presence of Cd results from the inhibitory effects of Cd on CYP-mediated biotransformation of this pesticide. The authors' findings provide a deeper understanding of the mechanistic basis accounting for the joint toxicity of cypermethrin and Cd. PMID:26267556

  18. Children's Ability to Recognise Toxic and Non-Toxic Fruits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fancovicova, Jana; Prokop, Pavol

    2011-01-01

    Children's ability to identify common plants is a necessary prerequisite for learning botany. However, recent work has shown that children lack positive attitudes toward plants and are unable to identify them. We examined children's (aged 10-17) ability to discriminate between common toxic and non-toxic plants and their mature fruits presented in…

  19. R9 Air Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Region 9 Air Districts layer is a compilation of polygons representing the California Air Pollution Control and Air Quality Management Districts, Arizona Air...

  20. California Air Basins

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Air ResourcesCalifornia Air Resources BoardThe following datasets are from the California Air Resources Board: * arb_california_airbasins - California Air BasinsThe...

  1. Hazardous Air Pollutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Facebook Twitter Google+ Pinterest Contact Us Hazardous Air Pollutants Hazardous air pollutants are those known to cause ... protect against adverse environmental effects. About Hazardous Air Pollutants What are hazardous air pollutants? Health and Environmental ...

  2. Senate passes clean air bill

    Science.gov (United States)

    In an 89 to 11 vote the Senate passed a clean air bill aimed at reducing pollution by the turn of the century by imposing tougher controls on American industry. The bill is the first revision of the Clean Air Act of 1970 in 13 years and calls for new limits on auto pollution to clean up smog in most U.S. cities, decreasing by half emissions by power plants that cause acid rain to protect the ecology, and increasing technological controls on factories to protect against cancer-causing and toxic substances. The bill will add about $20 billion per year to the estimated $33 billion cost of complying with current pollution laws.

  3. Determination of radionuclides in air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The air in certain work areas at the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant is monitored for selected radionuclides to assure safety FR-om toxic effects to personnel in the area. Some of the radionuclides that are determined are shown with their Radiation Protection Standard (RPS) values by means of a table. The RPS is the maximum average airborne contamination to which personnel may be exposed for one week without respiratory protection and is expressed as disintegrations per minute (dpm) per cubic meter (m/sup 3/) of air. It is desirable to make reliable measurements at a level which is 10% of the RPS to ensure that the detection limits are well below the RPS. Thorium, neptunium, plutonium, and uranium all have alpha emitting isotopes and it is their alpha activity which is measured. Results are tabulated

  4. Nanomaterials and nanoparticles : Sources and toxicity

    CERN Document Server

    Buzea, Cristina; Robbie, Kevin

    2008-01-01

    This review is written with the goal of informing public health concerns related to nanoscience, while raising awareness of nanomaterials toxicity among scientists and manufacturers handling them. We show that humans have always been exposed to nanoparticles and dust from natural sources and human activities, the recent development of industry and combustion-based engine transportation profoundly increasing anthropogenic nanoparticulate pollution. The key to understanding the toxicity of nanoparticles is that their minute size, smaller than cells and cellular organelles, allows them to penetrate these basic biological structures, disrupting their normal function. Among diseases associated with nanoparticles are asthma, bronchitis, lung cancer, neurodegenerative diseases (such as Parkinson`s and Alzheimer`s diseases), Crohn`s disease, colon cancer. Nanoparticles that enter the circulatory system are related to occurrence of arteriosclerosis, and blood clots, arrhythmia, heart diseases, and ultimately cardiac d...

  5. Air transport system

    CERN Document Server

    Schmitt, Dieter

    2016-01-01

    The book addresses all major aspects to be considered for the design and operation of aircrafts within the entire transportation chain. It provides the basic information about the legal environment, which defines the basic requirements for aircraft design and aircraft operation. The interactions between  airport, air traffic management and the airlines are described. The market forecast methods and the aircraft development process are explained to understand the very complex and risky business of an aircraft manufacturer. The principles of flight physics as basis for aircraft design are presented and linked to the operational and legal aspects of air transport including all environmental impacts. The book is written for graduate students as well as for engineers and experts, who are working in aerospace industry, at airports or in the domain of transport and logistics.

  6. Identifying the cause of toxicity in an algal whole effluent toxicity study - an unanticipated toxicant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naddy, Rami B; Tapp, Kelly; Rehner, Anita B; Pillard, David A; Schrage, Laura

    2011-10-01

    Toxicity was observed in whole effluent toxicity (WET) studies with the freshwater alga, Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata, in three consecutive monthly studies, (NOEC=50-75%). Toxicity was not observed to Ceriodaphnia dubia or the fathead minnow, Pimephales promelas in concurrent studies. Selected toxicity identification evaluation (TIE) tests were conducted in a tiered approach to eliminate possible toxicants and progressively identify the causative agent. Filtration following alkaline adjustment (pH 10 or 11) was effective in eliminating significant growth effects and also reduced phosphate concentration. The TIE studies confirmed that the observed effluent toxicity was caused by excess ortho-phosphate in the effluent not by overstimulation or related to unfavorable N:P ratios; but due to direct toxicity. The 96-h 25% inhibition concentration (IC25) of ortho-phosphate to P. subcapitata was 3.4 mg L⁻¹ while the maximum acceptable toxicant concentration was 4.8 mg L⁻¹. This study illustrates the value of multi-species testing and also provides an example of an effective TIE using algae identifying an unanticipated toxicant. PMID:21840029

  7. Systematic Review of Radiation Therapy Toxicity Reporting in Randomized Controlled Trials of Rectal Cancer: A Comparison of Patient-Reported Outcomes and Clinician Toxicity Reporting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilbert, Alexandra, E-mail: a.gilbert@leeds.ac.uk [Leeds Institute of Cancer & Pathology, University of Leeds, Leeds (United Kingdom); Ziegler, Lucy; Martland, Maisie [Leeds Institute of Cancer & Pathology, University of Leeds, Leeds (United Kingdom); Davidson, Susan [The Christie Hospital, Manchester (United Kingdom); Efficace, Fabio [Italian Group for Adult Hematologic Diseases, Rome (Italy); Sebag-Montefiore, David; Velikova, Galina [Leeds Institute of Cancer & Pathology, University of Leeds, Leeds (United Kingdom)

    2015-07-01

    The use of multimodal treatments for rectal cancer has improved cancer-related outcomes but makes monitoring toxicity challenging. Optimizing future radiation therapy regimens requires collection and publication of detailed toxicity data. This review evaluated the quality of toxicity information provided in randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of radiation therapy in rectal cancer and focused on the difference between clinician-reported and patient-reported toxicity. Medline, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library were searched (January 1995-July 2013) for RCTs reporting late toxicity in patients treated with regimens including preoperative (chemo)radiation therapy. Data on toxicity measures and information on toxicity reported were extracted using Quantitative Analyses of Normal Tissue Effects in the Clinic recommendations. International Society for Quality of Life Research standards on patient-reported outcomes (PROs) were used to evaluate the quality of patient-reported toxicity. Twenty-one RCT publications met inclusion criteria out of 4144 articles screened. All PRO studies reported higher rates of toxicity symptoms than clinician-reported studies and reported on a wider range and milder symptoms. No clinician-reported study published data on sexual dysfunction. Of the clinician-reported studies, 55% grouped toxicity data related to an organ system together (eg “Bowel”), and 45% presented data only on more-severe (grade ≥3) toxicity. In comparison, all toxicity grades were reported in 79% of PRO publications, and all studies (100%) presented individual symptom toxicity data (eg bowel urgency). However, PRO reporting quality was variable. Only 43% of PRO studies presented baseline data, 28% did not use any psychometrically validated instruments, and only 29% of studies described statistical methods for managing missing data. Analysis of these trials highlights the lack of reporting standards for adverse events and reveals the differences between clinician and

  8. Systematic Review of Radiation Therapy Toxicity Reporting in Randomized Controlled Trials of Rectal Cancer: A Comparison of Patient-Reported Outcomes and Clinician Toxicity Reporting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of multimodal treatments for rectal cancer has improved cancer-related outcomes but makes monitoring toxicity challenging. Optimizing future radiation therapy regimens requires collection and publication of detailed toxicity data. This review evaluated the quality of toxicity information provided in randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of radiation therapy in rectal cancer and focused on the difference between clinician-reported and patient-reported toxicity. Medline, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library were searched (January 1995-July 2013) for RCTs reporting late toxicity in patients treated with regimens including preoperative (chemo)radiation therapy. Data on toxicity measures and information on toxicity reported were extracted using Quantitative Analyses of Normal Tissue Effects in the Clinic recommendations. International Society for Quality of Life Research standards on patient-reported outcomes (PROs) were used to evaluate the quality of patient-reported toxicity. Twenty-one RCT publications met inclusion criteria out of 4144 articles screened. All PRO studies reported higher rates of toxicity symptoms than clinician-reported studies and reported on a wider range and milder symptoms. No clinician-reported study published data on sexual dysfunction. Of the clinician-reported studies, 55% grouped toxicity data related to an organ system together (eg “Bowel”), and 45% presented data only on more-severe (grade ≥3) toxicity. In comparison, all toxicity grades were reported in 79% of PRO publications, and all studies (100%) presented individual symptom toxicity data (eg bowel urgency). However, PRO reporting quality was variable. Only 43% of PRO studies presented baseline data, 28% did not use any psychometrically validated instruments, and only 29% of studies described statistical methods for managing missing data. Analysis of these trials highlights the lack of reporting standards for adverse events and reveals the differences between clinician and

  9. Exposure to toxic pollution in new york state, 1998

    OpenAIRE

    Bríd G Hanna; Daniel Hatch; Christopher Lominac

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of our study is to estimate the relationship between a New York State census tract''s exposure to toxic industrial pollutants and various socioeconomic variables. Our measure of exposure takes into account not only the distance between each pollution source – census tract pair, but ours is the first such study to use a measure that also incorporates meteorological conditions, including wind direction, wind speed, and air temperature. The measure is based upon a model of air poll...

  10. 77 FR 55465 - US Air Force Exclusive Patent License

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-10

    ... Department of the Air Force US Air Force Exclusive Patent License AGENCY: Air Force Research Laboratory Information Directorate, Rome, New York, Department of the Air Force, DOD. ACTION: Notice of Intent to Issue... Research Laboratory, Office of the Staff Judge Advocate, AFRL/RIJ, 26 Electronic Parkway, Rome, New...

  11. Toxic risks of inappropriate therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, M J

    1990-02-01

    Drug therapy may produce toxicity. Patient individuality or drug interactions account for many cases of poisoning, but other factors such as genetic predisposition, drug contamination or human error are also known causes. Examples of various types of drug poisoning are given, illustrating the role of the clinical chemist in minimizing or studying drug toxicity. PMID:2184960

  12. The toxicity of X material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferry, J.L.

    1943-12-31

    This report addresses toxicity (largely chemical) of Manhattan Project materials from the point of worker protection. Known chemical toxicities of X material (uranium), nitrous fumes, fluorine, vanadium, magnesium, and lime are described followed by safe exposure levels, symptoms of exposure, and treatment recommendations. The report closes with an overview of general policy in a question and answer format.

  13. Toxicology Selective Toxicity dan Test

    OpenAIRE

    Mansyur

    2002-01-01

    Toxicology adalah pemahaman-pemahaman mengenai effek-effek bahan kimia yang merugikan bagi organisme. Dari definisi tersebut, jelas terdapat unsur-unsur bahan kimia dan organisme, dimana didalam kedua unsur-unsur ini terdapat istilah-istilah toksisitas dan animal test-test. Tulisan ini bermaskud membicarakan mengenai selective toxicity dan animal toxicity tetst. kedokteran-mansyur5

  14. In silico approach for predicting toxicity of peptides and proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudheer Gupta

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Over the past few decades, scientific research has been focused on developing peptide/protein-based therapies to treat various diseases. With the several advantages over small molecules, including high specificity, high penetration, ease of manufacturing, peptides have emerged as promising therapeutic molecules against many diseases. However, one of the bottlenecks in peptide/protein-based therapy is their toxicity. Therefore, in the present study, we developed in silico models for predicting toxicity of peptides and proteins. DESCRIPTION: We obtained toxic peptides having 35 or fewer residues from various databases for developing prediction models. Non-toxic or random peptides were obtained from SwissProt and TrEMBL. It was observed that certain residues like Cys, His, Asn, and Pro are abundant as well as preferred at various positions in toxic peptides. We developed models based on machine learning technique and quantitative matrix using various properties of peptides for predicting toxicity of peptides. The performance of dipeptide-based model in terms of accuracy was 94.50% with MCC 0.88. In addition, various motifs were extracted from the toxic peptides and this information was combined with dipeptide-based model for developing a hybrid model. In order to evaluate the over-optimization of the best model based on dipeptide composition, we evaluated its performance on independent datasets and achieved accuracy around 90%. Based on above study, a web server, ToxinPred has been developed, which would be helpful in predicting (i toxicity or non-toxicity of peptides, (ii minimum mutations in peptides for increasing or decreasing their toxicity, and (iii toxic regions in proteins. CONCLUSION: ToxinPred is a unique in silico method of its kind, which will be useful in predicting toxicity of peptides/proteins. In addition, it will be useful in designing least toxic peptides and discovering toxic regions in proteins. We hope that the

  15. Modeling toxic compounds from nitric oxide emission measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallero, Daniel A.; Peirce, Jeffrey; Cho, Ki Don

    Determining the amount and rate of degradation of toxic pollutants in soil and groundwater is difficult and often requires invasive techniques, such as deploying extensive monitoring well networks. Even with these networks, degradation rates across entire systems cannot readily be extrapolated from the samples. When organic compounds are degraded by microbes, especially nitrifying bacteria, oxides or nitrogen (NO x) are released to the atmosphere. Thus, the flux of nitric oxide (NO) from the soil to the lower troposphere can be used to predict the rate at which organic compounds are degraded. By characterizing and applying biogenic and anthropogenic processes in soils the rates of degradation of organic compounds. Toluene was selected as a representative of toxic aromatic compounds, since it is inherently toxic, it is a substituted benzene compound and is listed as a hazardous air pollutant under Section 12 of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990. Measured toluene concentrations in soil, microbial population growth and NO fluxes in chamber studies were used to develop and parameterize a numerical model based on carbon and nitrogen cycling. These measurements, in turn, were used as indicators of bioremediation of air toxic (i.e. toluene) concentrations. The model found that chemical concentration, soil microbial abundance, and NO production can be directly related to the experimental results (significant at P < 0.01) for all toluene concentrations tested. This indicates that the model may prove useful in monitoring and predicting the fate of toxic aromatic contaminants in a complex soil system. It may also be useful in predicting the release of ozone precursors, such as changes in reservoirs of hydrocarbons and oxides of nitrogen. As such, the model may be a tool for decision makers in ozone non-attainment areas.

  16. VARIATIONS IN REPRODUCTIVE TOXICANT IDENTIFICATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simmons, F

    2008-05-13

    Reproductive toxicants are a very important class of compounds. They present unique hazards to those of child bearing ages, perform their 'dirty work' using a wide variety of mechanisms on a number of different organs, and are regulatorily important. Because of all of this, properly identifying reproductive toxicants is important, but fraught with difficulty. In this paper we will describe types or reproductive toxicants, their importance, and both mistakes and good practices that people who are not experts in reproductive toxicology may use in their attempts to identify them. Additionally, this paper will focus on chemical reproductive toxicants and will not address biological agents that could affect reproductive toxicity although many principles outlined here could be applied to that endeavor.

  17. Variants of P Systems with Toxic Objects

    OpenAIRE

    Alhazov, Artiom; Freund, Rudolf; Ivanov, Sergiu; Research Group on Natural Computing (Universidad de Sevilla) (Coordinador)

    2015-01-01

    Toxic objects have been introduced to avoid trap rules, especially in (purely) catalytic P systems. No toxic object is allowed to stay idle during a valid derivation in a P system with toxic objects. In this paper we consider special variants of toxic P systems where the set of toxic objects is prede ned { either by requiring all objects to be toxic or all catalysts to be toxic or all objects except the catalysts to be toxic. With all objects staying inside and being toxic, pur...

  18. Providing cleaner air to Canadians

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This booklet is designed to explain salient aspects of the Ozone Annex, negotiated and signed recently by Canada and the United States, in a joint effort to improve air quality in North America. By significantly reducing the transboundary flows of air pollutants that cause smog, the Ozone Annex will benefit some 16 million people in central and eastern Canada and provide an example for a future round of negotiations to address concerns of the millions of Canadians and Americans who live in the border area between British Columbia and Washington State. The brochure provide summaries of the Canadian and American commitments, focusing on transportation, monitoring and reporting. The Ozone Annex complements other air quality initiatives by the Government of Canada enacted under the Environmental Protection Act, 1999. These measures include regulations to reduce sulphur content to 30 parts per million by Jan 1, 2005; proposing to restrict toxic particulate matter (PM) to less than 10 microns; establishing daily smog forecasts in the Maritimes and committing to a national program built upon existing smog advisories and forecasts in Quebec, Ontario and British Columbia; and investing in more clean air research through the newly created Canadian Foundation for Climate and Atmospheric Sciences

  19. Bioremediation of toxic and hazardous wastes by denitrifying bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This papers discusses the wastes coming rom domestic, industrial and agricultural sources are polluting the forests, rivers lakes, groundwater, and air and there are some measures like the physicochemical and biological measures are being utilized to remedy the destruction of resources; and of the measures, bioremediation offers great potential in cleaning up the environment of pollutants which is a cost-effective and environment-friendly technology that uses microorganisms to degrade hazardous substances into less toxic

  20. Keratinous Materials as Novel Absorbent Systems for Toxic Pollutants

    OpenAIRE

    Arun Ghosh; Stewart R. Collie

    2014-01-01

    A range of hazardous organic and inorganic compounds, and metal ions generated by human and industrialactivities leads to serious concerns for environments. Adsorption technologies based on polymeric materials are beingused to remove toxic substances from air and wastewater streams. Keratin protein, found abundantly in sheep’s wool,human hair and bird feathers, is an interesting and potentially useful renewable biopolymer. It contains a variety offunctional groups on the backbone and side cha...

  1. Air sampling in the workplace. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hickey, E.E.; Stoetzel, G.A.; Strom, D.J.; Cicotte, G.R. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Wiblin, C.M. [Advanced Systems Technology, Inc., Atlanta, GA (United States); McGuire, S.A. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States). Div. of Regulatory Applications

    1993-09-01

    This report provides technical information on air sampling that will be useful for facilities following the recommendations in the NRC`s Regulatory Guide 8.25, Revision 1, ``Air sampling in the Workplace.`` That guide addresses air sampling to meet the requirements in NRC`s regulations on radiation protection, 10 CFR Part 20. This report describes how to determine the need for air sampling based on the amount of material in process modified by the type of material, release potential, and confinement of the material. The purposes of air sampling and how the purposes affect the types of air sampling provided are discussed. The report discusses how to locate air samplers to accurately determine the concentrations of airborne radioactive materials that workers will be exposed to. The need for and the methods of performing airflow pattern studies to improve the accuracy of air sampling results are included. The report presents and gives examples of several techniques that can be used to evaluate whether the airborne concentrations of material are representative of the air inhaled by workers. Methods to adjust derived air concentrations for particle size are described. Methods to calibrate for volume of air sampled and estimate the uncertainty in the volume of air sampled are described. Statistical tests for determining minimum detectable concentrations are presented. How to perform an annual evaluation of the adequacy of the air sampling is also discussed.

  2. Air quality in Europe - 2011 report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerreiro, C.; Larssen, S. (Norsk Inst. for Luftforskning (NILU), Lillestroem (Norway)); Leeuw, F. de (RIVM, Bilthoven (Netherlands)); Foltescu, V. (EEA, Copenhagen (Denmark))

    2011-11-15

    The annual report 'Air quality in Europe' summarises the most recent evaluation of Europe's air quality status. It is mainly based on air quality measurement data that have been made available officially by 32 EEA member countries as well as 6 EEA cooperating countries. The report includes maps and analyses of air quality status over the calendar year 2009. It also analyses air quality trends over the past years. The evaluation of the status and trends of air quality is based on ambient air measurements, in conjunction with reported anthropogenic emissions. The report summarizes the main effects of different air pollutants on human health, the environment and the climate. An overview of policies and measures at European level is also given for each pollutant. This report reviews progress towards meeting the requirements of the two air quality directives in force as well as the air quality guidelines set by the World Health Organization (WHO). The report is produced in support of European and national policy development and implementation in the field of air quality. It also supports air quality management and informs the general public on the current status and trends of air quality in Europe. (Author)

  3. [Toxic anterior segment syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornut, P-L; Chiquet, C

    2011-01-01

    Toxic anterior segment syndrome (TASS) is a general term used to describe acute, sterile postoperative inflammation due to a non-infectious substance that accidentally enters the anterior segment at the time of surgery and mimics infectious endophthalmitis. TASS most commonly occurs acutely following anterior segment surgery, typically 12-72h after cataract extraction. Anterior segment inflammation is usually quite severe with hypopyon. Endothelial cell damage is common, resulting in diffuse corneal edema. No bacterium is isolated from ocular samples. The causes of TASS are numerous and difficult to isolate. Any device or substance used during the surgery or in the immediate postoperative period may be implicated. The major known causes include: preservatives in ophthalmic solutions, denatured ophthalmic viscosurgical devices, bacterial endotoxin, and intraocular lens-induced inflammation. Clinical features of infectious and non-infectious inflammation are initially indistinguishable and TASS is usually diagnosed and treated as acute endophthalmitis. It usually improves with local steroid treatment but may result in chronic elevation of intraocular pressure or irreversible corneal edema due to permanent damage of trabecular meshwork or endothelial cells. PMID:21176994

  4. Review of Quantitative Structure - Activity Relationships for Acute Mammalian Toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iglika Lessigiarska

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship (QSAR models for acute mammalian toxicity published in the last decade. A number of QSAR models based on cytotoxicity data from mammalian cell lines are also included because of their possible use as a surrogate system for predicting acute toxicity to mammals. On the basis of the review, the following conclusions can be made: i a relatively small number of models for in vivo toxicity are published in the literature. This is due to the nature of the endpoint - acute systemic toxicity is usually related to whole body phenomena and therefore is very complex. The complexity of the mechanisms involved leads to difficulties in the QSAR modelling; ii most QSAR models identify hydrophobicity as a parameter of high importance for the modelled toxicity. In addition, many models indicate the role of the electronic and steric effects; iii most of the literature-based models are restricted to single chemical classes. Models based on more heterogeneous data sets are those incorporated in expert systems. In general, the QSAR models for mammalian toxicity identified in this review are considered useful for investigating the mechanisms of toxicity of defined chemical classes. However, for predictive purposes in the regulatory assessment of chemicals most of the models require additional information to satisfy internationally agreed validation principles. In addition, the development of new models covering larger chemical domains would be useful for the regulatory assessment of chemicals.

  5. Enrichment of toxic lead in Karachi aerosols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enrichment of toxic metal in urban atmosphere is one of the indicators of air quantity. The concentration of atmospheric lead was determined at various busy sites in Karachi. Enrichment of Pb based on Mn concentration was determined along the busy roadsides, as well as in the ambient aerosols. These results indicate the typical relationship between lead being emitted by automobiles and the traffic density. The automobile source of atmospheric lead has caused the urban concentrations of lead of 2 to 7 mg/m3, with maximum value of 16 mg/m3 in areas of heavy traffic in Karachi, whereas there is little rise in ambient lead levels away from the main roads compared to our previous studies. This study points out the significance of lead related health hazard to people who live in areas close to some of the city's busy roads. (author)

  6. Pressurized air supply device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ventilation air-conditioning facilities in a nuclear reactor building are adapted to suck clean external air not containing radioactivity through air supply filters disposed at an air intake port of the nuclear reactor building by means of an air supply blower and then supply the sucked air through an air supply duct and an air supply port to the inside of the power plant. Futher, pipeways for supplying sucked air to a compressor is branched from the air supply duct, through which air is supplied to an air compressor for instrumentation and an air compressor used in the power plant. The air sucked and compressed in the air compressor for instrumentation is further supplied by way of pipeways for supplying air for instrumentation to air-actuated valves, instruments, etc. Further, air sucked and compressed in the air compressor used in the power plant is further supplied by way of air supply pipeways for the power plant to a reservoir, air mask, etc. By supplying clean compressed air in this way, operators exposure dose can be reduced. (T.M.)

  7. Monitoring the aquatic toxicity of mosquito vector control spray pesticides to freshwater receiving waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Bryn M; Anderson, Brian S; Voorhees, Jennifer P; Siegler, Katie; Denton, Debra; TenBrook, Patti; Larsen, Karen; Isorena, Philip; Tjeerdema, Ron S

    2014-07-01

    Pesticides are applied to state and local waterways in California to control insects such as mosquitoes, which are known to serve as a vector for West Nile Virus infection of humans. The California State Water Resources Control Board adopted a National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System General Permit to address the discharge to waters of the United States of pesticides resulting from adult and larval mosquito control. Because pesticides used in spray activities have the potential to cause toxicity to nontarget organisms in receiving waters, the current study was designed to determine whether toxicity testing provides additional, useful environmental risk information beyond chemical analysis in monitoring spray pesticide applications. Monitoring included a combination of aquatic toxicity tests and chemical analyses of receiving waters from agricultural, urban, and wetland habitats. The active ingredients monitored included the organophosphate pesticides malathion and naled, the pyrethroid pesticides etofenprox, permethrin, and sumithrin, pyrethrins, and piperonyl butoxide (PBO). Approximately 15% of the postapplication water samples were significantly toxic. Toxicity of half of these samples was attributed to the naled breakdown product dichlorvos. Toxicity of 2 other water samples likely occurred when PBO synergized the effects of pyrethroid pesticides that were likely present in the receiving system. Four of 43 postapplication sediment samples were significantly more toxic than their corresponding pre-application samples, but none of the observed toxicity was attributed to the application events. These results indicate that many of the spray pesticides used for adult mosquito control do not pose significant acute toxicity risk to invertebrates in receiving systems. In the case of naled in water, analysis of only the active ingredient underestimated potential impacts to the receiving system, because toxicity was attributed to the breakdown product, dichlorvos

  8. Air Contamination With Fungals In Museum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarlat, Iuliana; Haiducu, Maria; Stepa, Raluca

    2015-07-01

    The aim of the studies was to determine the level and kind of fungal contamination of air in museum, deposits patrimony, restoration and conservation laboratories and their effects on health of workers. Microbiological air purity was measured with a SAS-100 Surface Air System impactor. The fungal contamination was observed in all 54 rooms where we made determinations. The highest levels of fungal were recorded at rooms with hygroscopic patrimony objects, eg carpets, chairs, upholstered chairs, books etc. The most species identified included under common allergens: Aspergillus, Penicillium, and Mucor. There fungal species belonging to the genus identified in this study, can trigger serious diseases museum workers, such as for example Aspergillus fumigatus, known allergies and toxic effects that may occur. In some places of the museum, occupational exposure limit values to fungi present in the air in the work environment, recommended by the specialized literature, have been overcome.

  9. Air movement and perceived air quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melikov, Arsen Krikor; Kaczmarczyk, J.

    2012-01-01

    The impact of air movement on perceived air quality (PAQ) and sick building syndrome (SBS) symptoms was studied. In total, 124 human subjects participated in four series of experiments performed in climate chambers at different combinations of room air temperature (20, 23, 26 and 28 °C), relative...... humidity (30, 40 and 70%) and pollution level (low and high). Most of the experiments were performed with and without facially applied airflow at elevated velocity. The importance of the use of recirculated room air and clean, cool and dry outdoor air was studied. The exposures ranged from 60. min to 235....... min. Acceptability of PAQ and freshness of the air improved when air movement was applied. The elevated air movement diminished the negative impact of increased air temperature, relative humidity and pollution level on PAQ. The degree of improvement depended on the pollution level, the temperature and...

  10. SYSTEM OF ECOLOGICAL TOXICANT IDENTIFICATION IN CLOSED PREMISES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. B. Rudakov

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Statement of the problem. Increase in ecological safety of building materials, products and structures as well as in real-time monitoring of hazardous substances content in closed premises is an urgent problem. The aim of the paper is to develop a modern pattern of a multisensor system based on chemical sensors to recognize the presence of typical ecological toxicants in closed premises at a level exceeding maximum permissible concentrations. The system is aimed at the control of environmental safety in building construction and municipal services.Results. A mathematical model of toxicant detection system of using the intelligent processing of information based on the neural computer technology was suggested. An algorithm for analytical monitoring of organic pollutants as well as a scheme for gas analysis of toxic substances. The sys-tem is designed to detect hazardous substances in closed spaces.Conclusions. The methodology of artificial neural networks for signal processing multisensory recognition system toxicants indoors is proposed.

  11. Air quality indices : a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pollution Probe presents some background information that will help in the development of a national Air Quality Index (AQI) in Canada. This report examines the issues that should be addressed in revising the national Index of the Quality of Air (IQUA) or creating a new national Air Quality Index. The IQUA was devised in 1976 and provides Canadians with real-time information on the state of community air quality by including major pollutants and their synergies. It is currently being used for air quality management plans and air quality alert systems. At the same time that the IQUA was devised, the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) produced a parallel air quality index known as the Pollution Standard Index (PSI) which incorporated 5 criteria pollutants (particulate matter, sulphur dioxide, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxide and ground level ozone) for which national health-based standards were devised. In 1999, the US EPA renamed their index the Air Quality Index (AQI) and made revisions to the primary health-based national ambient air quality standards for ground-level ozone and particulate matter. Separate values for PM2.5 and PM10 were incorporated and mandatory reporting was required for metropolitan areas with populations of 350,000 or more. Similarly, the IQUA has undergone major developments that affect the validity of the index, including: rejection by the Working Group on Air Quality Objectives and Guidelines of the previous maximum desirable and maximum acceptable air quality criteria, recognition that standards for many of the contaminants are outdated, developing more sensitive instrumentation for real-time monitoring of contaminants. This report also describes the use of the national short term Air Quality Index by provincial, territorial and local authorities in Canada. Pollution Probe recommends setting up a mechanism to review and revise IQUA on a regular basis that would incorporate governments, the medical profession, special

  12. Removal of soluble toxic metals from water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The removal of selected, soluble toxic metals from aqueous solutions has been accomplished using a combination of chemical treatment and ultrafiltration. The process has been evaluated at the bench-scale and is undergoing pilot-scale testing. Removal efficiencies in excess of 95-99% have been realized. The test program at the bench-scale investigated the limitations and established the optimum range of operating parameters for the process, while the tests conducted with the pilot-scale process equipment are providing information on longer-term process efficiencies, effective processing rates, and fouling potential of the membranes. With the typically found average concentrations of the toxic metals in groundwaters at Superfund sites used as the feed solution, the process has decreased levels up to 100-fold or more. Experiments were also conducted with concentrated solutions to determine their release from silica-based matrices. The solidified wastes were subjected to EP Toxicity test procedures and met the criteria successfully. The final phase of the program involving a field demonstration at a uranium tailings site will be outlined

  13. Air Leakage and Air Transfer Between Garage and Living Space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudd, A.

    2014-09-01

    This research project focused on evaluation of air transfer between the garage and living space in a single-family detached home constructed by a production homebuilder in compliance with the 2009 International Residential Code and the 2009 International Energy Conservation Code. The project gathered important information about the performance of whole-building ventilation systems and garage ventilation systems as they relate to minimizing flow of contaminated air from garage to living space. A series of 25 multi-point fan pressurization tests and additional zone pressure diagnostic testing characterized the garage and house air leakage, the garage-to-house air leakage, and garage and house pressure relationships to each other and to outdoors using automated fan pressurization and pressure monitoring techniques. While the relative characteristics of this house may not represent the entire population of new construction configurations and air tightness levels (house and garage) throughout the country, the technical approach was conservative and should reasonably extend the usefulness of the results to a large spectrum of house configurations from this set of parametric tests in this one house. Based on the results of this testing, the two-step garage-to-house air leakage test protocol described above is recommended where whole-house exhaust ventilation is employed. For houses employing whole-house supply ventilation (positive pressure) or balanced ventilation (same pressure effect as the Baseline condition), adherence to the EPA Indoor airPLUS house-to-garage air sealing requirements should be sufficient to expect little to no garage-to-house air transfer.

  14. CAirTOX, An inter-media transfer model for assessing indirect exposures to hazardous air contaminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Risk assessment is a quantitative evaluation of information on potential health hazards of environmental contaminants and the extent of human exposure to these contaminants. As applied to toxic chemical emissions to air, risk assessment involves four interrelated steps. These are (1) determination of source concentrations or emission characteristics, (2) exposure assessment, (3) toxicity assessment, and (4) risk characterization. These steps can be carried out with assistance from analytical models in order to estimate the potential risk associated with existing and future releases. CAirTOX has been developed as a spreadsheet model to assist in making these types of calculations. CAirTOX follows an approach that has been incorporated into the CalTOX model, which was developed for the California Department of Toxic Substances Control, With CAirTOX, we can address how contaminants released to an air basin can lead to contamination of soil, food, surface water, and sediments. The modeling effort includes a multimedia transport and transformation model, exposure scenario models, and efforts to quantify uncertainty in multimedia, multiple-pathway exposure assessments. The capacity to explicitly address uncertainty has been incorporated into the model in two ways. First, the spreadsheet form of the model makes it compatible with Monte-Carlo add-on programs that are available for uncertainty analysis. Second, all model inputs are specified in terms of an arithmetic mean and coefficient of variation so that uncertainty analyses can be carried out

  15. Toxicity of Uranium Adsorbent Materials using the Microtox Toxicity Test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jiyeon [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Jeters, Robert T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Gill, Gary A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Kuo, Li-Jung [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Bonheyo, George T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-10-01

    The Marine Sciences Laboratory at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory evaluated the toxicity of a diverse range of natural and synthetic materials used to extract uranium from seawater. The uranium adsorbent materials are being developed as part of the U. S. Department of Energy, Office of Nuclear Energy, Fuel Resources Program. The goal of this effort was to identify whether deployment of a farm of these materials into the marine environment would have any toxic effects on marine organisms.

  16. Multidrug toxicity involving sumatriptan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knittel, Jessica L; Vorce, Shawn P; Levine, Barry; Hughes, Rhome L; Bosy, Thomas Z

    2015-01-01

    A multidrug fatality involving sumatriptan is reported. Sumatriptan is a tryptamine derivative that acts at 5-HT(1B/1D) receptors and is used for the treatment of migraines. The decedent was a 21-year-old white female found dead in bed by her spouse. No signs of physical trauma were observed and a large number of prescription medications were discovered at the scene. Toxicological analysis of the central blood revealed sumatriptan at a concentration of 1.03 mg/L. Following therapeutic dosing guidelines, sumatriptan concentrations do not exceed 0.095 mg/L. Sumatriptan was isolated by solid-phase extraction and analyzed using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry in multiple reaction monitoring mode. A tissue distribution study was completed with the following concentrations measured: 0.61 mg/L in femoral blood, 0.56 mg/L in iliac blood, 5.01 mg/L in urine, 0.51 mg/kg in liver, 3.66 mg/kg in kidney, 0.09 mg/kg in heart, 0.32 mg/kg in spleen, 0.01 mg/kg in brain, 15.99 mg/kg in lung and 78.54 mg/45 mL in the stomach contents. Carisoprodol, meprobamate, fluoxetine, doxylamine, orphenadrine, dextromethorphan and hydroxyzine were also present in the blood at the following concentrations: 3.35, 2.36, 0.63, 0.19, 0.06, 0.55 and 0.16 mg/L. The medical examiner ruled the cause of death as acute mixed drug toxicity and the manner of death as accident. PMID:25324526

  17. Air filtration and indoor air quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bekö, Gabriel

    decent ventilation and air cleaning/air filtration, high indoor air quality cannot be accomplished. The need for effective air filtration has increased with increasing evidence on the hazardous effects of fine particles. Moreover, the air contains gaseous pollutants, removal of which requires various air...... contradictions should motivate manufacturers and researchers to develop new efficient filtration techniques and/or improve the existing ones. Development of low polluting filtration techniques, which are at the same time easy and inexpensive to maintain is the way forward in the future....

  18. Chronic Toxicity Study of Neosaxitoxin in Rats

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Neosaxitoxin (NeoSTX) is a specific reversible blocker of voltage gated sodium channels on excitable cells. In the last decade, it has been tested in a number of interesting clinical trials, however there is still little information available on mammalian toxicity. Rats were treated for 12 weeks with doses of 1, 3 or 6 μg/kg of subcutaneous NeoSTX. At weeks 12 and 17, animals were sacrificed and blood samples collected for hematological and biochemical analysis. Organs were harvested for weig...

  19. Understanding mechanisms of toxicity: Insights from drug discovery research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toxicology continues to rely heavily on use of animal testing for prediction of potential for toxicity in humans. Where mechanisms of toxicity have been elucidated, for example endocrine disruption by xenoestrogens binding to the estrogen receptor, in vitro assays have been developed as surrogate assays for toxicity prediction. This mechanistic information can be combined with other data such as exposure levels to inform a risk assessment for the chemical. However, there remains a paucity of such mechanistic assays due at least in part to lack of methods to determine specific mechanisms of toxicity for many toxicants. A means to address this deficiency lies in utilization of a vast repertoire of tools developed by the drug discovery industry for interrogating the bioactivity of chemicals. This review describes the application of high-throughput screening assays as experimental tools for profiling chemicals for potential for toxicity and understanding underlying mechanisms. The accessibility of broad panels of assays covering an array of protein families permits evaluation of chemicals for their ability to directly modulate many potential targets of toxicity. In addition, advances in cell-based screening have yielded tools capable of reporting the effects of chemicals on numerous critical cell signaling pathways and cell health parameters. Novel, more complex cellular systems are being used to model mammalian tissues and the consequences of compound treatment. Finally, high-throughput technology is being applied to model organism screens to understand mechanisms of toxicity. However, a number of formidable challenges to these methods remain to be overcome before they are widely applicable. Integration of successful approaches will contribute towards building a systems approach to toxicology that will provide mechanistic understanding of the effects of chemicals on biological systems and aid in rationale risk assessments

  20. Cellular mechanisms of cadmium-induced toxicity: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rani, Anju; Kumar, Anuj; Lal, Ankita; Pant, Manu

    2014-08-01

    Cadmium is a widespread toxic pollutant of occupational and environmental concern because of its diverse toxic effects: extremely protracted biological half-life (approximately 20-30 years in humans), low rate of excretion from the body and storage predominantly in soft tissues (primarily, liver and kidneys). It is an extremely toxic element of continuing concern because environmental levels have risen steadily due to continued worldwide anthropogenic mobilization. Cadmium is absorbed in significant quantities from cigarette smoke, food, water and air contamination and is known to have numerous undesirable effects in both humans and animals. Cadmium has a diversity of toxic effects including nephrotoxicity, carcinogenicity, teratogenicity and endocrine and reproductive toxicities. At the cellular level, cadmium affects cell proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis and other cellular activities. Current evidence suggests that exposure to cadmium induces genomic instability through complex and multifactorial mechanisms. Most important seems to be cadmium interaction with DNA repair mechanism, generation of reactive oxygen species and induction of apoptosis. In this article, we have reviewed recent developments and findings on cadmium toxicology. PMID:24117228

  1. Investigation of Diesel Exhaust Gas Toxicity on Transient Modes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivashchenko Nikolay Antonovich

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Currently, the generation of heat engines and their control systems are based on ecological indices such as the toxicity of the fulfilled gases. When designing motors, software packages are widely used. These software packages provide the ability to calculate the workflow of engine at steady-state conditions. The definition of indicators emissions is a difficult task. The distribution statistics of the modes shows that the engines of the transport units work on unsteady modes most of the time. The calculation of toxicity indicators is even less developed. In this article experimental and numeric study of the diesel engine with turbocharger exhaust toxicity was considered. As a result of the experimental study, which was conducted with single-cylinder diesel engine compartment simulated work on the transient state, working process characteristics of a diesel engine were obtained, including carbon and nitrogen oxides concentrations. Functional dependencies of concentrations of toxic exhaust components, such as carbon and nitrogen oxides, on excess air ratio and exhaust temperature were obtained. Diesel engine transient processes were simulated using developed mathematical dynamic model of combined engine in locomotive power plant with a change in control signal (position of locomotive driver’s controller and external influence signal (resistance moment. The analysis of exhaust gas toxicity was conducted.

  2. DeepTox: Toxicity Prediction using Deep Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas eMayr

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The Tox21 Data Challenge has been the largest effort of the scientific community to compare computational methods for toxicity prediction. This challenge comprised 12,000 environmental chemicals and drugs which were measured for 12 different toxic effects by specifically designed assays. We participated in this challenge to assess the performance of Deep Learning in computational toxicity prediction. Deep Learning has already revolutionized image processing, speech recognition, and language understanding but has not yet been applied to computational toxicity. Deep Learning is founded on novel algorithms and architectures for artificial neural networks together with the recent availability of very fast computers and massive datasets. It discovers multiple levels of distributed representations of the input, with higher levels representing more abstract concepts. We hypothesized that the construction of a hierarchy of chemical features gives Deep Learning the edge over other toxicity prediction methods. Furthermore, Deep Learning naturally enables multi-task learning, that is, learning of all toxic effects in one neural network and thereby learning of highly informative chemical features.In order to utilize Deep Learning for toxicity prediction, we have developed the DeepTox pipeline. First, DeepTox normalizes the chemical representations of the compounds. Then it computes a large number of chemical descriptors that are used as input to machine learning methods. In its next step, DeepTox trains models, evaluates them, and combines the best of them to ensembles. Finally, DeepTox predicts the toxicity of new compounds. In the Tox21 Data Challenge, DeepTox had the highest performance of all computational methods winning the grand challenge, the nuclear receptor panel, the stress response panel, and six single assays (teams ``Bioinf@JKU''. We found that Deep Learning excelled in toxicity prediction and outperformed many other computational approaches

  3. Analysis of Ammonia Toxicity in Landfill Leachates

    OpenAIRE

    Takuya Osada; Keisuke Nemoto; Hiroki Nakanishi; Ayumi Hatano; Ryo Shoji; Tomohiro Naruoka; Masato Yamada

    2011-01-01

    Toxicity identification evaluation (TIE) phase I manipulations and toxicity test with D. magna were conducted on leachates from an industrial waste landfill site in Japan. Physicochemical analysis detected heavy metals at concentrations insufficient to account for the observed acute toxicity. The graduated pH and aeration manipulations identified the prominent toxicity of ammonia. Based on joint toxicity with additive effects of unionized ammonia and ammonium ions, the unionized ammonia toxic...

  4. Modern methods of water and air purification from mercury

    OpenAIRE

    Dolina, L. F.; Chornaya, A. Yu.; Nagornaya, E. K.

    2015-01-01

    People can be exposed to mercury in any form in different circumstances. Depending on the amount of mercury and duration of exposure potential acute poisoning, chronic poisoning, micromercurialism. As of release into the environment (air, sediment, water), it undergoes a series of complex transformations. Methylmercury is the most highly toxic form of mercury, it is especially enhanced in the food chain. Extreme danger as contaminants in natural waters are heavy metals, have a toxic effect on...

  5. Forest fires in Eastern countries: air contamination measurements by the IRSN. Information file; Incendies de forets dans les pays de l'Est: mesures de la contamination de l'air par l'IRSN. Fiche d'information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    Forest fires sparking of in contaminated territories of Bielorussia, Ukraine and Western Russia can lead to transfrontier contamination in particular in Western Europe. Such radiological events with {sup 137}Cs peaks were recorded in France in 2002 (weeks 35 and 37) by the OPERA-Air network of the French Institute of Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety (IRSN). These rises of {sup 137}Cs activity can be recorded only when France is under the influence of winds coming from the E-NE. The activity levels of such events is of the order of maximum 1.5 {mu}Bq/m{sup 3} and cannot represent any threat for the populations' health. (J.S.)

  6. Evaluation of exposure limits to toxic gases for nuclear reactor control room operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have evaluated ammonia, chlorine, Halon (actually a generic name for several halogenated hydro-carbons), and sulfur dioxide for their possible effects during an acute two-minute exposure in order to derive recommendations for maximum exposure levels. To perform this evaluation, we conducted a search to find the most pertinent literature regarding toxicity in humans and in experimental animals. Much of the literature is at least a decade old, not an unexpected finding since acute exposures are less often performed now than they were a few years ago. In most cases, the studies did not specifically examine the effects of two-minute exposures; thus, extrapolations had to be made from studies of longer-exposure periods. Whenever possible, we gave the greatest weight to human data, with experimental animal data serving to strengthen the conclusion arrived at from consideration of the human data. Although certain individuals show hypersensitivity to materials like sulfur dioxide, we have not attempted to factor this information into the recommendations. After our evaluation of the data in the literature, we held a small workshop. Major participants in this workshop were three consultants, all of whom were Diplomates of the American Board of Toxicology, and staff from the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Our preliminary recommendations for two-minute exposure limits and the rationale for them were discussed and consensus reached on final recommendations. These recommendations are: (1) ammonia-300 to 400-ppm; (2) chlorine-30 ppm; (3) Halon 1301-5%; Halon 1211-2%; and (4) sulfur dioxide-100 ppm. Control room operators should be able to tolerate two-minute exposures to these levels, don fresh-air masks, and continue to operate the reactor if the toxic material is eliminated, or safely shut down the reactor if the toxic gas remains. 96 refs., 9 tabs

  7. Consideration Of The Toxicity of Manufactured Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haasch, Mary L.; McClellan-Green, Patricia; Oberdörster, Eva

    2005-09-01

    Fullerene (C60 and single- and multi-wall carbon nanotubes, SWCNT and MWCNT, respectively) is engineered to be redox active and it is thought that the potential toxicity of fullerene exposure is related to the formation of reactive oxygen species. During manufacture, transport or during scientific investigation, there is a potential for human or environmental exposure to nanoparticles. Several studies regarding human exposure have indicated reasons for concern. There is a lack of studies addressing the toxicity of engineered nanoparticles in aquatic species but one study using the fish, largemouth bass, exposed to fullerene has shown increased (10-17-fold) lipid peroxidation (LPO) in the brain. It is likely that repair enzymes or anti-oxidants may have been induced in gill and liver tissues that had reduced LPO compared to control tissues (Oberdörster, 2004). In support of that hypothesis, suppressive subtractive hybridization was used with liver tissue and the biotransformation enzyme, cytochrome P450, specifically CYP2K4, and other oxidoreductases related to metabolism, along with repair enzymes, were increased while proteins related to normal physiological homeostasis were decreased in fullerene-exposed fish. In a new study involving the exposure of a toxicological model fish species, the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) to water-soluble fullerene (nC60), uptake and distribution indicated that nC60 elevated LPO in the brain and induced expression of CYP2 family isozymes in the liver. In an in vitro study, BSA-coated SWCNT interfered with biotransformation enzyme activity. These studies taken together provide support to the hypothesis that the toxicity of manufactured nanoparticles is related to oxidative stress and provide insight into possible mechanisms of toxicity as well as providing information for evaluating the risk to aquatic organisms exposed to manufactured nanoparticles.

  8. Toxicity Data to Determine Refrigerant Concentration Limits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calm, James M.

    2000-09-30

    This report reviews toxicity data, identifies sources for them, and presents resulting exposure limits for refrigerants for consideration by qualified parties in developing safety guides, standards, codes, and regulations. It outlines a method to calculate an acute toxicity exposure limit (ATEL) and from it a recommended refrigerant concentration limit (RCL) for emergency exposures. The report focuses on acute toxicity with particular attention to lethality, cardiac sensitization, anesthetic and central nervous system effects, and other escape-impairing effects. It addresses R-11, R-12, R-22, R-23, R-113, R-114, R-116, R-123, R-124, R-125, R-134, R-134a, R-E134, R-141b, R-142b, R-143a, R-152a, R-218, R-227ea, R-236fa, R-245ca, R-245fa, R-290, R-500, R-502, R-600a, R-717, and R-744. It summarizes additional data for R-14, R-115, R-170 (ethane), R-C318, R-600 (n-butane), and R-1270 (propylene) to enable calculation of limits for blends incorporating them. The report summarizes the data a nd related safety information, including classifications and flammability data. It also presents a series of tables with proposed ATEL and RCL concentrations-in dimensionless form and the latter also in both metric (SI) and inch-pound (IP) units of measure-for both the cited refrigerants and 66 zerotropic and azeotropic blends. They include common refrigerants, such as R-404A, R-407C, R-410A, and R-507A, as well as others in commercial or developmental status. Appendices provide profiles for the cited single-compound refrigerants and for R-500 and R-502 as well as narrative toxicity summaries for common refrigerants. The report includes an extensive set of references.

  9. Evaluation of the toxic properties of naturally weathered Exxon Valdez crude oil to surrogate wildlife species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The toxic properties of naturally weathered Exxon Valdez crude oil (WEVC) to avian and mammalian wildlife species were evaluated using the surrogate species, mallard duck, Anas platyrhynchos, and European ferret, Mustela putorius. This study was conducted to evaluate the potential for toxic (rather than physical) injury to wildlife species that may have been exposed to WEVC, either through external contact or through dietary uptake. Previous studies have assessed the toxicity of unweathered crude oils, including Alaska North Slope Crude, but little information exists regarding the toxicity of a naturally weathered crude oil, typical of that encountered following a spill. A battery of laboratory toxicity tests was conducted, in compliance with standard and published test procedures, to evaluate acute and subchronic toxicity of WEVC. These included tests of food avoidance, reproductive effects, and direct eggshell application toxicity. Naturally weathered EVC, recovered postspill from Prince William Sound, was used as the test material. 36 refs., 7 figs., 4 tabs

  10. Non-Toxic HAN Monopropellant Propulsion Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Non-toxic monopropellants have been developed that provide better performance than toxic hydrazine. Formulations based on hydroxylammonium nitrate (HAN) have...

  11. Mercury Information Clearinghouse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chad A. Wocken; Michael J. Holmes; Dennis L. Laudal; Debra F. Pflughoeft-Hassett; Greg F. Weber; Nicholas V. C. Ralston; Stanley J. Miller; Grant E. Dunham; Edwin S. Olson; Laura J. Raymond; John H. Pavlish; Everett A. Sondreal; Steven A. Benson

    2006-03-31

    The Canadian Electricity Association (CEA) identified a need and contracted the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) to create and maintain an information clearinghouse on global research and development activities related to mercury emissions from coal-fired electric utilities. With the support of CEA, the Center for Air Toxic Metals{reg_sign} (CATM{reg_sign}) Affiliates, and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the EERC developed comprehensive quarterly information updates that provide a detailed assessment of developments in the various areas of mercury monitoring, control, policy, and research. A total of eight topical reports were completed and are summarized and updated in this final CEA quarterly report. The original quarterly reports can be viewed at the CEA Web site (www.ceamercuryprogram.ca). In addition to a comprehensive update of previous mercury-related topics, a review of results from the CEA Mercury Program is provided. Members of Canada's coal-fired electricity generation sector (ATCO Power, EPCOR, Manitoba Hydro, New Brunswick Power, Nova Scotia Power Inc., Ontario Power Generation, SaskPower, and TransAlta) and CEA, have compiled an extensive database of information from stack-, coal-, and ash-sampling activities. Data from this effort are also available at the CEA Web site and have provided critical information for establishing and reviewing a mercury standard for Canada that is protective of environment and public health and is cost-effective. Specific goals outlined for the CEA mercury program included the following: (1) Improve emission inventories and develop management options through an intensive 2-year coal-, ash-, and stack-sampling program; (2) Promote effective stack testing through the development of guidance material and the support of on-site training on the Ontario Hydro method for employees, government representatives, and contractors on an as-needed basis; (3) Strengthen laboratory analytical capabilities through

  12. Prediction of moist air specific enthalpy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prediction of moist air specific enthalpy is realized through the analysis of hourly air temperature and relative humidity long term observation. With climatic information for the outdoor air states in the past twenty-five years, a new climatic curve of the Skopje region is provided. A comprehensive database containing hourly weather records is prepared for calculation of others elements of the Macedonian thermal basis.

  13. Toxicity testing (Stormwater mitigation effectiveness)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Numerous low impact development (LID; green infrastructure) technologies are being developed and implemented to reduce the impacts of toxic stormwater runoff on...

  14. Borocaptate sodium (BSH) toxicity issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ISU's Center for Toxicology Research has been conducting toxicity testing of borocaptate sodium (BSH) to aid in assessing if proposed human studies of BSH are likely to be acceptably safe. This report describes BSH interactions with other biological agents

  15. Air Quality – monitoring and modelling

    OpenAIRE

    Marius DEACONU; Cretu, Mihaiella

    2012-01-01

    Air pollution is a major concern for all nations, regardless of their development. The rapid growth of the industrial sector and urban development have lead to significant quantities of substances and toxic materials, mostly discharged into the atmosphere and having adverse effects both on human health and environment in general. Human society has to recognize that environment has only a limited capacity to process all of its waste without major changes. Each of us is a pollutant but also a v...

  16. Persistent effect of aluminum chronic toxicity on memory in adult Wistar male rat

    OpenAIRE

    F-Z Azzaoui

    2010-01-01

    Aluminum is the 3rd abundant metallic element in the nature after oxygen and silicon; it constitutes about 8% of the Earth’s crust. It is present in numerous sources, including air, food, drugs, cosmetics, vaccines, household materials and water. It was considered, for long time, as non toxic element and completely excreted out of the body by renal way. However, currently, its toxicity appears more and more threatening to exposed population and its principal target is the nervous sys...

  17. Innovative approaches for evaluation of dietary exposure to toxic persistent and emerging contaminants.

    OpenAIRE

    Cutarelli, Anna

    2014-01-01

    Persistent, Bioaccumulative and Toxic (PBT) Contaminants are toxic substances mainly released into the environment as a result of human activities (eg, industrial production, agro-animal husbandry practices, waste production/disposal). They are equipped with a high intrinsic stability that allows them to remain unchanged in the environment for a long time, undergoing a wide geographical spread between environmental compartments (air, water, soil and biota) and accumulating in living organisms...

  18. Social [and health] relevance of psychotropic substances monitoring in air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drug abuse assessment methods based on measuring illicit substances in waste waters are consolidated. The approach of ambient air monitoring looks questionable, nonetheless it can be explored if the variables determining the drug burdens are accounted for, or suitable co-contaminants are adopted to normalize concentrations to environmental and human contours. The general approach linking the airborne drug concentrations to consumption is presented and the case of cocaine is discussed according to measurements conducted in Italy. The cocaine/nicotine concentration ratio, identified as the most suitable tool, fitted well with anti-drug Police operations and people noticed for drug-related crimes, and with the abuse prevalence estimated in the cities investigated. According to that, the conversion factors of drug concentrations into prevalence estimates seem assessable, provided sufficient databases over space and time are collected. Further investigations are necessary to understand if airborne drugs cause adverse sanitary effects. -- Highlights: •The drug contents in the air were discussed to draw information about abuse prevalence. •The time and site drug modulations were compared to those of the airborne toxicants. •Nicotine looks suitable to normalize the cocaine concentrations to human and environmental contours. •The health impact of illicit and licit drugs onto non-abusers is still insufficiently understood. -- The airborne cocaine/nicotine concentration ratio looks a promising tool to estimate the cocaine abuse prevalence

  19. The Toxicity of Depleted Uranium

    OpenAIRE

    Wayne Briner

    2010-01-01

    Depleted uranium (DU) is an emerging environmental pollutant that is introduced into the environment primarily by military activity. While depleted uranium is less radioactive than natural uranium, it still retains all the chemical toxicity associated with the original element. In large doses the kidney is the target organ for the acute chemical toxicity of this metal, producing potentially lethal tubular necrosis. In contrast, chronic low dose exposure to depleted uranium may not produce a c...

  20. Ethanol toxicity and oxidative stress

    OpenAIRE

    Bondy, SC

    1992-01-01

    The mechanisms underlying the toxicity of ethanol have been the subject of much study, but are not well understood. Unlike many selective pharmacological agents, ethanol clearly has several major loci of action. One deleterious factor in ethanol metabolism is the potential for generation of excess amounts of free radicals. The extent to which this activity accounts for the overall toxicity of ethanol is unknown. This review outlines the enzymic steps that have the capacity to generate reactiv...

  1. TOXIC AND DRUG INDUCED MYOPATHIES

    OpenAIRE

    Dalakas, Marinos C.

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Although the ?do no harm? dogma of Hippocrates is faithfully followed by all practitioners, drugs used for therapeutic interventions either alone or in combination, may sometimes cause unexpected toxicity to the muscles, resulting in a varying degree of symptomatology, from mild discomfort and inconvenience to permanent damage and disability. The clinician should suspect a toxic myopathy when a patient without a pre-existing muscle disease develops myalgia, fatigue, weakn...

  2. CAESAR models for developmental toxicity

    OpenAIRE

    Piclin Nadège; Pintore Marco; Young Douglas; Martin Todd; Manganaro Alberto; Cassano Antonio; Bigoni Davide; Benfenati Emilio

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background The new REACH legislation requires assessment of a large number of chemicals in the European market for several endpoints. Developmental toxicity is one of the most difficult endpoints to assess, on account of the complexity, length and costs of experiments. Following the encouragement of QSAR (in silico) methods provided in the REACH itself, the CAESAR project has developed several models. Results Two QSAR models for developmental toxicity have been developed, using diffe...

  3. Toxic femininity 4.0

    OpenAIRE

    Risam, Roopika

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines constructions of toxic femininity within fourth-wave feminism. Taking hashtag feminism as its focus, this article contends that charges of toxicity lobbed online reproduce divisive dynamics that have shaped earlier trends within feminist movements in the United States. It further suggests that Twitter, as a platform, amplifies deep discomfort with theories of intersectional feminism while shaping how normative gender is reproduced online.

  4. Determination and evaluation of air quality control. Manual of ambient air quality control in Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lahmann, E.

    1997-07-01

    Measurement of air pollution emissions and ambient air quality are essential instruments for air quality control. By undertaking such measurements, pollutants are registered both at their place of origin and at the place where they may have an effect on people or the environment. Both types of measurement complement each other and are essential for the implementation of air quality legislation, particularly, in compliance with emission and ambient air quality limit values. Presented here are similar accounts of measurement principles and also contains as an Appendix a list of suitability-tested measuring devices which is based on information provided by the manufacturers. In addition, the guide of ambient air quality control contains further information on discontinuous measurement methods, on measurement planning and on the assessment of ambient air quality data. (orig./SR)

  5. AIR POLLUTION AND INFANT HEALTH: LESSONS FROM NEW JERSEY*

    OpenAIRE

    Janet Currie; Matthew J. Neidell; Johannes Schmieder

    2009-01-01

    We examine the impact of three "criteria" air pollutants on infant health in New Jersey in the 1990s by combining information about mother's residential location from birth certificates with information from air quality monitors. In addition to large sample size, our work offers three important innovations: First, because we know the exact addresses of mothers, we select those mothers closest to air monitors to ensure a more accurate measure of air quality. Second, since we follow mothers ove...

  6. Meeting Report: Estimating the Benefits of Reducing Hazardous Air Pollutants—Summary of 2009 Workshop and Future Considerations

    OpenAIRE

    Gwinn, Maureen R.; Craig, Jeneva; Axelrad, Daniel A.; Cook, Rich; Dockins, Chris; Fann, Neal; Fegley, Robert; Guinnup, David E.; Helfand, Gloria; Hubbell, Bryan; Mazur, Sarah L.; Palma, Ted; Smith, Roy L.; Vandenberg, John; Sonawane, Babasaheb

    2010-01-01

    Background Quantifying the benefits of reducing hazardous air pollutants (HAPs, or air toxics) has been limited by gaps in toxicological data, uncertainties in extrapolating results from high-dose animal experiments to estimate human effects at lower doses, limited ambient and personal exposure monitoring data, and insufficient economic research to support valuation of the health impacts often associated with exposure to individual air toxics. Objectives To address some of these issues, the U...

  7. Air Leakage and Air Transfer Between Garage and Living Space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudd, Armin [Building Science Corporation, Westford, MA (United States)

    2014-09-01

    This research project focused on evaluation of air transfer between the garage and living space in a single-family detached home constructed by a production homebuilder in compliance with the 2009 International Residential Code and the 2009 International Energy Conservation Code. The project gathered important information about the performance of whole-building ventilation systems and garage ventilation systems as they relate to minimizing flow of contaminated air from garage to living space. A series of 25 multi-point fan pressurization tests and additional zone pressure diagnostic testing characterized the garage and house air leakage, the garage-to-house air leakage, and garage and house pressure relationships to each other and to outdoors using automated fan pressurization and pressure monitoring techniques. While the relative characteristics of this house may not represent the entire population of new construction configurations and air tightness levels (house and garage) throughout the country, the technical approach was conservative and should reasonably extend the usefulness of the results to a large spectrum of house configurations from this set of parametric tests in this one house. Based on the results of this testing, the two-step garage-to-house air leakage test protocol described above is recommended where whole-house exhaust ventilation is employed.

  8. Removal of So2 from Contaminated Air Using a Peat Biofilter

    OpenAIRE

    Kristina Skemundrytė; Rasa Vaiškūnaitė

    2013-01-01

    About 64 thousand tons of contaminated air is annually released into ambient air. More than 30% of such pollution includes toxic sulfur compounds. The article discusses the properties of biofiltration - biological air cleaning technology. Research was performed using a biofilter produced in the laboratory at Vilnius Gediminas Technical University. During testing, ambient air contaminated with sulfur dioxide was pulled through biomedia with a division of Thiobacillus microorganisms, and calcul...

  9. Practice Teaching of Features Professional Education of Air Materiel Management Information System%《航材管理信息系统应用》特色任职教育实践教学环节研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    史玉敏

    2012-01-01

    The practice of teaching is an important way to understand the theory in professional education, and is an important platform to train students integrating theory with practice, master the scientific methods and improve practical ability. To build education practice teaching system is a priority for professional education, but also is a long-term development plans. In this paper, based on the characteristics of Air Materiel Management Information System course, the practice teaching of professional education is studied.%实践教学是任职教育中加深对理论认识的重要途径,是培养学员理论联系实际、掌握科学方法和提高动手能力的重要平台.构建育实践教学体系,既是任职教育的当务之急,也是长久发展大计.本文针对《航材管理信息系统应用》课程的特点来研究特色任职教育实践教学环节.

  10. Air protection. Ochrana ovzdusia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siska, F.

    1980-01-01

    This paper discusses problems of air pollution control, air pollution abatement and effects of air pollution. Air pollution caused by black and brown coal combustion, by fossil-fuel power plants and by coking plants is evaluated. Air pollution by dusts, sulfur oxides, nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, ammonia as well arsenic, barium, beryllium, boron, chromium, gallium, cobalt, manganese, copper, nickel, lead, plutonium, titanium and vanadium, which sometimes accompany ashes in coal, is analyzed. Methods of air pollution abatement such as fluidized bed combustion, coal preparation, desulfurization or dry coke quenching are described. Systems for air pollution control are presented: air filtration, cyclones, electrostatic precipitators. Systems of air pollution measurement and recording are evaluated. Propagation of air pollutants in the atmosphere as well as the factors which influence pollutant propagation are characterized. Problems associated with site selection for fossil-fuel power plants are also discussed. An analysis of economic aspects of air pollution abatement and air pollution control is made. (55 refs.)

  11. Indoor Air Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... protect yourself and your family. Learn more Air Quality at Work Workers should breathe easy while on the job, but worksites with poor air quality put employees at risk. Healthy air is essential ...

  12. HEPA air filter (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... pet dander and other irritating allergens from the air. Along with other methods to reduce allergens, such ... controlling the amount of allergens circulating in the air. HEPA filters can be found in most air ...

  13. Bad Air Day

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... link, please review our exit disclaimer . Subscribe Bad Air Day Air Quality and Your Health In many parts of the country, summer has the worst air quality of any season. When the forecast says ...

  14. Ethnobotanical survey of toxic plants and plant parts in Ogun State, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Adediwura A Fred-Jaiyesimi; Kola K Ajibesin

    2012-01-01

    Background: Several plants considered toxic are sometimes identified in traditional medicinal recipes. This study identified and inventoried the plants and plant parts identified as toxic in targeted local government areas of Ogun State, Nigeria. Materials and Methods: By administering tested questionnaires, information on the poisonous or toxic plants, poisonous parts, poisonous effects, modes of poisoning, and antidotes was obtained. Results and Conclusion: Ninety-two species belonging to 4...

  15. The UKAEA mechanical test programs in air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The design of CDFR will be based on the mechanical behaviour of materials in air, although at a later date account may need to be taken of sodium effects. The need for this Information is outlined in the introductory paper. The extent of the air programs and preliminary findings are described in this paper

  16. Public Communication on Urban Air Pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to analyze the state of public information in the field of air pollution in Spain. We conducted semi-structured interviews with members of public agencies, technical experts, scientists, and members of non governmental associations together with a documentary analysis of air pollution documents (plans, reports, etc.). We tried to characterize the information actions on air quality carried out in Spanish cities during the last years. In the results section we first analyze the ideas, concerns and considerations that underlie the actions of public information on air pollution, as well as the main challenges of public communication on this subject, according to the documents and the different experts consulted. We analyze the various contents of information transmitted nowadays (on levels of pollution, health impacts and mitigation or protection actions), as well as the mechanisms by which it is communicated, both continuously and in the case of threshold overcoming episodes. We also review the different media used to communicate air pollution information (Internet, mobile applications and other forms) and other issues such as information audiences, or the perceived impacts of information provided. Finally, the implications for more diverse and effective public involvement strategies in air pollution are discussed. (Author)

  17. Toxic assessment of urban atmospheric particle-bound PAHs: Relevance of composition and particle size in Barcelona (Spain)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zebrafish embryotoxicity and dioxin-like activity levels were tested for particulate air samples from an urban background site in Barcelona (Spain). Samples were collected during 14 months, and maximal values for both biological activities corresponded to samples collected during late autumn months, correlating with elevated PAH levels. Vehicle and combustion emissions appeared as the potentially most toxic sources, whereas total PM mass and mineral content appeared to be poor predictors of the biological activity of the samples. Samples simultaneously collected at different particle size cut-offs (10, 2.5, and 1 μm) did not differ significantly in dioxin-like PAH levels and biological activity, indicating that the sub-micron particle fraction (PM1) concentrated essentially all observed toxicity. Our results support the need for a tighter control on sub-micron particle emissions and show that total PM mass and, particularly, PM10, may not fully characterize the toxic potential of air samples. Highlights: • Dioxin-like activity was found in all air particle samples collected in Barcelona. • 50% of the samples showed different levels of fish embryotoxicity. • Toxic effects associated to PAHs and linked to vehicle and combustion emissions. • The toxicity was not correlated to PM mass or mineral content. • The sub-micron particle fraction PM1 concentrated essentially all observed toxicity. -- In vivo toxic effects associated to sub-micron urban air particles from combustion and vehicle emissions

  18. FDA toxicity databases and real-time data entry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Structure-searchable electronic databases are valuable new tools that are assisting the FDA in its mission to promptly and efficiently review incoming submissions for regulatory approval of new food additives and food contact substances. The Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition's Office of Food Additive Safety (CFSAN/OFAS), in collaboration with Leadscope, Inc., is consolidating genetic toxicity data submitted in food additive petitions from the 1960s to the present day. The Center for Drug Evaluation and Research, Office of Pharmaceutical Science's Informatics and Computational Safety Analysis Staff (CDER/OPS/ICSAS) is separately gathering similar information from their submissions. Presently, these data are distributed in various locations such as paper files, microfiche, and non-standardized toxicology memoranda. The organization of the data into a consistent, searchable format will reduce paperwork, expedite the toxicology review process, and provide valuable information to industry that is currently available only to the FDA. Furthermore, by combining chemical structures with genetic toxicity information, biologically active moieties can be identified and used to develop quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) modeling and testing guidelines. Additionally, chemicals devoid of toxicity data can be compared to known structures, allowing for improved safety review through the identification and analysis of structural analogs. Four database frameworks have been created: bacterial mutagenesis, in vitro chromosome aberration, in vitro mammalian mutagenesis, and in vivo micronucleus. Controlled vocabularies for these databases have been established. The four separate genetic toxicity databases are compiled into a single, structurally-searchable database for easy accessibility of the toxicity information. Beyond the genetic toxicity databases described here, additional databases for subchronic, chronic, and teratogenicity studies have been prepared

  19. Canada's toxic tar sands : the most destructive project on earth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document addressed the environmental problems associated with tar sands development in Alberta, with particular reference to toxicity problems associated with global warming and the impending destruction of the boreal forest. The authors cautioned that the tar sand projects are highly destructive, leaving downstream toxics equivalent to that of a massive slow motion oil spill that has the potential to poison people. Negligent oversights by the government regarding the impact of tar sands development were also discussed, with reference to toxics on site; toxics downwind; and toxics down the pipe. The report also provided information on the future of tar sands development and global warming in Canada. It included a discussion of reverse alchemy; Canada's failed climate politics; a tar sands tax; and taking responsibility. Last, the report addressed toxic enforcement, including the Fisheries Act; Canadian Environmental Protection Act; Canadian Environmental Assessment Act; and Alberta law. It was concluded that while it is a stretch to believe the tar sands can truly be sustainable, there is a great deal that can be done to clean it up. The authors recommended that new tar sands approvals should wait until certain reform elements are implemented, such as passing a real carbon cap; using dry tailings; requiring wildlife offsets; cleaning up refineries and upgraders; ensuring Aboriginal control and benefit; and having regulation and independent monitoring. 104 refs., 6 figs

  20. Functional toxicology: tools to advance the future of toxicity testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brandon David Gaytán

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The increased presence of chemical contaminants in the environment is an undeniable concern to human health and ecosystems. Historically, by relying heavily upon costly and laborious animal-based toxicity assays, the field of toxicology has often neglected examinations of the cellular and molecular mechanisms of toxicity for the majority of compounds – information that, if available, would strengthen risk assessment analyses. Functional toxicology, where cells or organisms with gene deletions or depleted proteins are used to assess genetic requirements for chemical tolerance, can advance the field of toxicity testing by contributing data regarding chemical mechanisms of toxicity. Functional toxicology can be accomplished using available genetic tools in yeasts, other fungi and bacteria, and eukaryotes of increased complexity, including zebrafish, fruit flies, rodents, and human cell lines. Underscored is the value of using less complex systems such as yeasts to direct further studies in more complex systems such as human cell lines. Functional techniques can yield (1 novel insights into chemical toxicity; (2 pathways and mechanisms deserving of further study; and (3 candidate human toxicant susceptibility or resistance genes.