WorldWideScience

Sample records for air toxic emissions

  1. Air toxics emissions from an IGCC process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mojtahedi, W.; Norrbacka, P. [Enviropower Inc., Espoo (Finland); Hinderson, A. [Vattenfall (Sweden); Rosenberg, R.; Zilliacus, R.; Kurkela, E.; Nieminen, M. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland); Hoffren, H. [IVO International Oy, Vantaa (Finland)

    1996-12-01

    The so-called simplified coal gasification combined cycle process, incorporating air gasification and hot gas cleanup, promises high power generation efficiency in an environmentally acceptable manner. Increasingly more stringent environmental regulations have focused attention on the emissions of not only SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} but also on the so-called air toxics which include a number of toxic trace elements. As result of recent amendments to the United States Clean Air Act, IGCC emissions of eleven trace elements: antimony, arsenic, beryllium, cadmium, chromium, cobalt, lead, manganese, mercury, nickel, selenium - as well as the radionuclides uranium and thorium may be regulated. Similarly, air missions standards in Europe include a limit of 0.05 mg Nm{sup 3} for mercury and cadmium and 1.0 3/Nm{sup 3} for other class I trace elements. A suitable sampling/measuring system has been developed in this project (in cooperation with Imatran Voima Oy, Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and Radian Cooperation) which will be used in the pressurized gasification tests. This will enable an accurate measurement of the volatilized trace element species, at high temperature and pressure, which may be found in the vapour phase. Models are being developed that can be used to determine not only the chemical equilibrium composition of gaseous, liquid and solid phases, but also possible interactions of the gaseous species with aerosol particles and surfaces, These should be used to more accurately assess the impact of the toxic trace metals emitted from the simplified IGCC system

  2. Air toxics emission from an IGCC process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mojtahedi, W.; Hovath, A. [Carbona Inc, Helsinki (Finland); Hinderson, A. [Vattenfall Utveckling (Sweden); Nykaenen, J.; Hoffren, H. [Imatran Voima Oy, Vantaa (Finland); Nieminen, M.; Kurkela, E. [VTT, Espoo (Finland)

    1997-10-01

    The emissions of 12 toxic trace element from a coal-fired IGCC plant were calculated based on thermodynamic equilibrium in the gas phase and some of the results published. The theoretical calculations were extended to include some other fuels as well as mixture of some of these fuels. The combustion of the product gas in the gas turbine is also considered. These simulations correspond to gasification of the fuel at 850-1050 deg C (depending on the fuel) and 1823 bar pressure. The gas composition was taken from the measured data as far as possible. In the absence of experimental data, a computer code developed for the U-Gas gasifier was used to determine the fuel gas composition. The gas was then cooled to 550 deg C in the gas cooler and filtered at this same temperature and burned in the gas turbine with an air ratio of 3.2. The results of these simulations are compared with the measured data of an experimental program designed to measure the emissions of a few selected trace elements from a 15 MW,h pressurized fluidized bed gasification pilot plant. The pilot plant was equipped with an advanced hot gas cleanup train which includes a two fluidized-bed reactor system for high-temperature, high-pressure external sulfur removal and a filtration unit housing porous, rigid ceramic candle filters. The trace element concentrations in the fuel, bottom ash, and filter ash are determined and the results compared with EPA regulatory levels

  3. AIR TOXICS EMISSIONS FROM A VINYL SHOWER CURTAIN

    Science.gov (United States)

    The paper reports results of both static and dynamic chamber tests conducted to evaluate emission characteristics of air toxics from a vinyl shower Curtain. (NOTE: Due to the relatively low price and ease of installation, vinyl shower curtains have been widely used in bathrooms i...

  4. Air toxics and the 1990 Clean Air Act: Managing trace element emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has historically regulated air toxics (hazardous air pollutants) under Section 112 of the Clean Air Act. To date, EPA has established emission standards for 8 hazardous air pollutants (arsenic, asbestos, benzene, beryllium, mercury, radionuclides, coke oven emissions and vinyl chloride). The US electric utility industry was not determined to be a source category requiring regulation for any of the eight chemicals. Of the eight, radionuclides were the last species for which EPA established hazardous emissions standards. In this instance, EPA determined that the risks associated with electric utility fossil fuel power plant emissions were sufficiently low that they should not be regulated. However, the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments require a new evaluation of the electric utility industry emissions of hazardous air pollutants. This paper summarizes the key features of the air toxics provisions of the Clean Air Act Amendments, describes EPRI's activities on the subject, and provides some preliminary insights from EPRI's research to date

  5. Ambient and Emission Trends of Toxic Air Contaminants in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Propper, Ralph; Wong, Patrick; Bui, Son; Austin, Jeff; Vance, William; Alvarado, Álvaro; Croes, Bart; Luo, Dongmin

    2015-10-01

    After initiating a toxic air contaminant (TAC) identification and control program in 1984, the California Air Resources Board adopted regulations to reduce TAC emissions from cars, trucks, stationary sources, and consumer products. This study quantifies ambient concentration and emission trends for the period 1990-2012 for seven TACs that are responsible for most of the known cancer risk associated with airborne exposure in California. Of these seven, diesel particulate matter (DPM) is the most important; however DPM is not measured directly. Based on a novel surrogate method, DPM concentrations declined 68%, even though the state's population increased 31%, diesel vehicle-miles-traveled increased 81%, and the gross state product (GSP) increased 74%. Based on monitoring data, concentrations of benzene, 1,3-butadiene, perchloroethylene, and hexavalent chromium declined 88-94%. Also, the ambient and emissions trends for each of these four TACs were similar. Furthermore, these declines generally occurred earlier in California than elsewhere. However, formaldehyde and acetaldehyde, which are formed in the air photochemically from volatile organic compounds (VOCs), declined only 20-21%. The collective cancer risk from exposure to these seven reviewed TACs declined 76%. Significant reduction in cancer risk to California residents from implementation of air toxics controls (especially for DPM) is expected to continue. PMID:26340590

  6. Emission of toxic air pollutants from biomass combustion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Combustion of biomass for power generation, home heating, process steam generation, and waste disposal constitutes a major source of air pollutants nationwide. Emissions from hog-fueled boilers, demolition wood-fired power plants, municipal waste incinerators, woodstoves, fireplaces, pellet stoves, agricultural burning, and forestry burning have been characterized for a variety of purposes. These have included risk assessment, permitting, emission inventory development, source profiling for receptor modeling, and control technology evaluations. From the results of the source characterization studies a compilation of emission factors for criteria and non-criteria pollutants are presented here. Key among these pollutants are polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, priority pollutant metals, carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, nitrous oxides, and PM10 particles. The emission factors from the biomass combustion processes are compared and contrasted with other pollutant sources. In addition, sampling and analysis procedures most appropriate for characterizing emissions from the biomass combustion sources are also discussed

  7. Air toxic emissions from burning of biomass globally-preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emissions of trace gases, particles, and air toxic substances in the smoke plumes from biomass fires are of importance to global climate change. The potential impact of the air toxic emissions on the human population of specific regions globally is another major concern. The toxic materials are produced in high concentrations in areas of heavy biomass burning, e.g., Amazon Basin and Central/southern Africa. We provide new estimates of air toxics based on the combustion efficiency (percent of total carbon released as CO2) for fires burning in different ecosystems on a global basis. Estimates of total biomass consumed on a global basis range from 2 to 10 Pg (1 petagram = 1015g) per year. We apply emission factors for various air toxics (g of emission released per kg of fuel consumed) to the estimate of global biomass consumption of 6.4 Pg per year. The principal air toxics analyzed in this paper include: Total particulate matter, CO, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acrolein, benzene, toluene, o-xylene, m, p-xylene, benzo[a]pyrene, and polycyclic organic material. The total emissions calculated for these materials on a yearly global basis are: 75, 362, 4.9, 1.5, 1.5, 2.1, 2.1, 0.3, 0.6, 0.001, 0.026, Tg (1 teragram = 1012g) per year, respectively. Biomass burning in the United States contributes less than 3% to the total global emissions

  8. Current Status of Air Toxics Management and Its Strategies for Controlling Emissions in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Tien Tsai

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Since the 1970s, hazardous air pollutants (HAPs, so-called air toxics, have been of great concern because they can cause serious human health effects and have adverse effects on the environment. More noticeably, some of them are known to be human carcinogens. The objective of this paper is to investigate the regulatory systems and human health effects of air toxics which have been designated by the Taiwan government under the Air Pollution Control Act. These toxic air pollutants include acutely toxic gas (i.e., ammonia, chlorine, fluorides, hydrochloric acid, hydrogen cyanide, hydrogen sulfide, nitric acid, phosphoric acid and sulfuric acid, gas containing heavy metals, and carcinogenic chemicals (including formaldehyde, vinyl chloride, asbestos and matter containing asbestos, dioxins and furans, volatile organic compounds, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and polychlorinated biphenyls. In line with international concern about the carcinogenic risk and environmental persistence of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDDs/PCDFs and heavy metals in recent years, the current status in monitoring and reducing the emissions of PCDDs/PCDFs from stationary sources was analyzed as a case study in the present study. Furthermore, the control strategies for reducing emissions of air toxics from stationary sources in Taiwan were also addressed.

  9. National Air Toxic Assessments (NATA) Results

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The National Air Toxics Assessment was conducted by EPA in 2002 to assess air toxics emissions in order to identify and prioritize air toxics, emission source types...

  10. Air toxic emissions from the combustion of coal: Identifying and quantifying hazardous air pollutants from US coals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report addresses the key air toxic emissions likely to emanate from continued and expanded use of domestic coal. It identifies and quantifies those trace elements specified in the US 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments, by tabulating selected characterization data on various source coals by region, state, and rank. On the basis of measurements by various researchers, this report also identifies those organic compounds likely to be derived from the coal combustion process (although their formation is highly dependent on specific boiler configurations and operating conditions)

  11. Air toxic emissions from the combustion of coal: Identifying and quantifying hazardous air pollutants from US coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szpunar, C.B.

    1992-09-01

    This report addresses the key air toxic emissions likely to emanate from continued and expanded use of domestic coal. It identifies and quantifies those trace elements specified in the US 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments, by tabulating selected characterization data on various source coals by region, state, and rank. On the basis of measurements by various researchers, this report also identifies those organic compounds likely to be derived from the coal combustion process (although their formation is highly dependent on specific boiler configurations and operating conditions).

  12. Air toxics evaluation of ABB Combustion Engineering Low-Emission Boiler Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wesnor, J.D. [ABB/Combustion Engineering, Inc., Windsor, CT (United States)

    1993-10-26

    The specific goals of the program are to identify air toxic compounds that might be emmitted from the new boiler with its various Air Pollution Control device for APCD alternatives in levels of regulatory concern. For the compounds thought to be of concern, potential air toxic control methodologies will be suggested and a Test Protocol will be written to be used in the Proof of Concept and full scale tests. The following task was defined: Define Replations and Standards; Identify Air Toxic Pollutants of Interest to Interest to Utility Boilers; Assesment of Air Toxic By-Products; State of the Art Assessment of Toxic By-Product Control Technologies; and Test Protocol Definition.

  13. Control of air toxics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For more than 10 years, Argonne National Laboratory has supported the US DOE's Flue Gas Cleanup Program objective by developing new or improved environmental controls for industries that use fossil fuels. Argonne's pollutant emissions research has ranged from experiments in the basic chemistry of pollution-control systems, through laboratory-scale process development and testing, to pilot-scale field tests of several technologies. The work on air toxics is currently divided into two components: Investigating measures to improve the removal of mercury in existing pollution-control systems applied to coal combustion; and, Developing sensors and control techniques for emissions found in the textile industry

  14. Baltimore Air Toxics Study (BATS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, D.A. [Sullivan Environmental Consulting, Inc., Alexandria, VA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    The Baltimore Air Toxics Study is one of the three urban air toxics initiatives funded by EPA to support the development of the national air toxics strategy. As part of this project, the Air Quality Integrated Management System (AIMS) is under development. AIMS is designed to bring together the key components of urban air quality management into an integrated system, including emissions assessment, air quality modeling, and air quality monitoring. Urban area source emissions are computed for a wide range of pollutants and source categories, and are joined with existing point source emissions data. Measured air quality data are used to evaluate the adequacy of the emissions data and model treatments as a function of season, meteorological parameters, and daytime/nighttime conditions. Based on tested model performance, AIMS provides the potential to improve the ability to predict air quality benefits of alternative control options for criteria and toxic air pollutants. This paper describes the methods used to develop AIMS, and provides examples from its application in the Baltimore metropolitan area. The use of AIMS in the future to enhance environmental management of major industrial facilities also will be addressed in the paper.

  15. Between-airport heterogeneity in air toxics emissions associated with individual cancer risk thresholds and population risks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levy Jonathan I

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Airports represent a complex source type of increasing importance contributing to air toxics risks. Comprehensive atmospheric dispersion models are beyond the scope of many applications, so it would be valuable to rapidly but accurately characterize the risk-relevant exposure implications of emissions at an airport. Methods In this study, we apply a high resolution atmospheric dispersion model (AERMOD to 32 airports across the United States, focusing on benzene, 1,3-butadiene, and benzo [a]pyrene. We estimate the emission rates required at these airports to exceed a 10-6 lifetime cancer risk for the maximally exposed individual (emission thresholds and estimate the total population risk at these emission rates. Results The emission thresholds vary by two orders of magnitude across airports, with variability predicted by proximity of populations to the airport and mixing height (R2 = 0.74–0.75 across pollutants. At these emission thresholds, the population risk within 50 km of the airport varies by two orders of magnitude across airports, driven by substantial heterogeneity in total population exposure per unit emissions that is related to population density and uncorrelated with emission thresholds. Conclusion Our findings indicate that site characteristics can be used to accurately predict maximum individual risk and total population risk at a given level of emissions, but that optimizing on one endpoint will be non-optimal for the other.

  16. THE IMPACT OF SHRINKING HANFORD BOUNDARIES ON PERMITS FOR TOXIC AIR POLLUTANT EMISSIONS FROM THE HANFORD 200 WEST AREA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This presentation (CE-580. Graduate Seminar) presents a brief description of an approach to use a simpler dispersion modeling method (SCREEN3) in conjunction with joint frequency tables for Hanford wind conditions to evaluate the impacts of shrinking the Hanford boundaries on the current permits for facilities in the 200 West Area. To fulfill requirements for the graduate student project (CE-702. Master's Special Problems), this evaluation will be completed and published over the next two years. Air toxic emissions play an important role in environmental quality and require a state approved permit. One example relates to containers or waste that are designated as Transuranic Waste (TRU), which are required to have venting devices due to hydrogen generation. The Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) determined that the filters used did not meet the definition of a ''pressure relief device'' and that a permit application would have to be submitted by the Central Waste Complex (CWC) for criteria pollutant and toxic air pollutant (TAP) emissions in accordance with Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 173-400 and 173-460. The permit application submitted in 2000 to Ecology used Industrial Source Code III (ISCIII) dispersion modeling to demonstrate that it was not possible for CWC to release a sufficient quantity of fugitive Toxic Air Pollutant emissions that could exceed the Acceptable Source Impact Levels (ASILs) at the Hanford Site Boundary. The modeled emission rates were based on the diurnal breathing in and out through the vented drums (approximately 20% of the drums), using published vapor pressure, molecular weight, and specific gravity data for all 600+ compounds, with a conservative estimate of one exchange volume per day (208 liters per drum). Two permit applications were submitted also to Ecology for the Waste Receiving and Processing Facility and the T Plant Complex. Both permit applications were based on the Central Waste Complex approach, and

  17. Emission Facilities - Air Emission Plants

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — Represents the Primary Facility type Air Emission Plant (AEP) point features. Air Emissions Plant is a DEP primary facility type related to the Air Quality Program....

  18. Sampling of power plant stacks for air toxic emissions: Final report for Phases 1 and 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-04-28

    A test program to collect and analyze size-fractionated stack gas particulate samples for selected inorganic hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) was conducted . Specific goals of the program are (1) the collection of one-gram quantities of size-fractionated stack gas particulate matter for bulk (total) and surface chemical characterization, and (2) the determination of the relationship between particle size, bulk and surface (leachable) composition, and unit load. The information obtained from this program identifies the effects of unit load, particle size, and wet FGD system operation on the relative toxicological effects of exposure to particulate emissions. Field testing was conducted in two phases. The Phase I field program was performed over the period of August 24 through September 20, 1992, at the Tennessee Valley Authority Widows Creek Unit 8 Power Station, located near Stevenson (Jackson County), Alabama, on the Tennessee River. Sampling activities for Phase II were conducted from September 11 through October 14, 1993. Widows Creek Unit 8 is a 575-megawatt plant that uses bituminous coal averaging 3.7% sulfur and 13% ash. Downstream of the boiler, a venture wet scrubbing system is used for control of both sulfur dioxide and particulate emissions. There is no electrostatic precipitator (ESP) in this system. This system is atypical and represents only about 5% of the US utility industry. However, this site was chosen for this study because of the lack of information available for this particulate emission control system.

  19. Sampling of power plant stacks for air toxic emissions: Topical report for Phases 1 and 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-02-21

    Under contract with the US Department of Energy (DE-AC22-92PCO0367), Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, Radian Corporation has conducted a test program to collect and analyze size-fractionated stack gas particulate samples for selected inorganic hazardous air pollutants (HAPS). Specific goals of the program are (1) the collection of one-gram quantities of size-fractionated stack gas particulate matter for bulk (total) and surface chemical charactization, and (2) the determination of the relationship between particle size, bulk and surface (leachable) composition, and unit load. The information obtained from this program identifies the effects of unit load, particle size, and wet FGD system operation on the relative toxicological effects of exposure to particulate emissions.

  20. Screening methods for the development of air-toxics emission factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Under the program the literature has been surveyed to determine the applicability of existing methodology. The primary goal was to use methodology applicable to the largest number of analytes listed in the Clean Air Act Amendments with the full realization that a broad coverage by a methodology may require some sacrifice of sensitivity and accuracy. The need for validation of proposed methodologies has been recognized. Assignments of analytes to a specific methodology have been made on the basis of previous validation studies and/or physical properties (available physical properties for the chemicals of the Clean Air Act list are supplied in an appendix). The range of applicability of a given sampling or analytical method, when available, is included as a part of the method description. Tables are included which summarize the potentially applicable sampling and analytical methods for chemicals listed in the Clean Air Act Amendments. General information on cost for the sampling and analysis procedures is presented

  1. Criteria Air Emissions Trends

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Air Emissions Trends site provides national trends of criteria pollutant and precursor emissions data based on the the National Emissions Inventory (NEI) from...

  2. 2011 NATA - Air Toxics Monitors

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset includes annual (2005 - 2013) statistics of measured ambient air toxics concentrations (in micrograms per cubic meter) and associated risk estimates...

  3. Estimation of exhaust and non-exhaust gaseous, particulate matter and air toxics emissions from on-road vehicles in Delhi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagpure, Ajay Singh; Gurjar, B. R.; Kumar, Vivek; Kumar, Prashant

    2016-02-01

    Analysis of emissions from on-road vehicles in an Indian megacity, Delhi, have been performed by comparing exhaust emissions of gaseous, particulate matter and mobile source air toxics (MSATs), together with volatile organic compound (VOCs) and PM10 (particulate matter ≤10 μm) from non-exhaust vehicular sources, during the past (1991-2011) and future (2011-2020) scenarios. Results indicate that emissions of most of the pollutants from private vehicles (two wheelers and cars) have increased by 2- to 18-times in 2020 over the 1991 levels. Two wheelers found to be dominating the emissions of carbon monoxide (CO, 29-51%), hydrocarbons (HC, 45-73%), acetaldehyde (46-51%) and total poly aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs, 37-42%). Conversely, private cars were found to be responsible for the majority of the carbon dioxide (CO2, 24-42%), 1,3-butadiene (72-89%), benzene (60-82%), formaldehyde (23-44%) and total aldehyde (27-52%) between 1991 and 2011. The heavy-duty commercial vehicles (HCVs) shows their accountability for most of the nitrogen oxide (NOx, 18-41%) and PM10 (33-43%) emissions during the years 1991-2011. In terms of PM10 emissions, vehicular exhaust contributed by 21-55%, followed by road dust (42-73%) and brake wear (3-5%) between 1991 and 2011. After 2002, non-exhaust emissions (e.g. road dust, brake wear and tyre wear) together indicate higher accountability (66-86%) for PM10 emission than the exhaust emissions (14-34%). The temporal trend of emissions of NOx and CO show reasonable agreement with available ambient air concentrations that were monitored at locations, significantly influenced by vehicular activity. Encouraging results were emerged, showing a good correlation coefficient for CO (0.94) and NOx (0.68).

  4. CAirTOX: A compartment model for assessing the fate of and human exposure to toxic-chemical emissions to air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKone, T.E.

    1993-10-01

    CAirTOX has been developed as a spreadsheet model to assist in making a risk assessment of toxic air emissions. With CAirTOX, one can address how contaminants released to an air basin can lead to contamination of soil, food, surface water, and sediments. The modeling effort includes a multimedia transport and transformation model, exposure scenario models, and efforts to quantify uncertainty in multimedia, multiple-pathway exposure assessments. The multimedia transport and transformation model is a steady-state, but non-equilibrium model that can be used to assess concentrations of contaminants released continuously to air. In Part 1, the authors describe the multimedia transport and transformation model used to determine the fate of air emissions. In Part 2, they describe inputs and data needs for CAirTOX and the development of a set of landscape factors, which can be used to represent regional air basin/water-shed systems in California. In Part 3, they describe the multiple-pathway exposure scenarios and exposure algorithms. In Part 4, they compare the HRA approach and results and the CAirTOX exposure equations. In Part 5, they consider model sensitivity and uncertainty to determine how variability and uncertainty in model inputs affects the precision, accuracy, and credibility of the model output.

  5. The visualization and dissemination of the Great Lakes Regional Toxic Air Emissions Inventory: Using geographic information systems and interactive Internet mapping applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conley, R.M. [Great Lakes Commission, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The eight Great Lakes states, the Canadian province of Ontario and the Great Lakes Commission are involved in a collective effort to develop a regional inventory of toxic air emissions for 49 targeted toxic pollutants from point and area sources. The regional inventory will soon be expanded to include emissions from mobile sources. The inventory, when aggregated for all eight states and Ontario, will eventually reside at the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Great Lakes National Program Office (GLNPO). To aid in the understanding and interpretation of the inventory`s data, an effort has been undertaken to generate two map series for the entire region: (1) choropleth maps of total toxic air emissions at the county level of geography and (2) dot maps showing facility locations. To ensure an effective and efficient dissemination process among the province and various states, an interactive Internet mapping interface prototype was modified and used for the project. With an interactive online visualization tool, the inventory collectors, managers and researchers can quickly and effectively view the inventory`s data on maps, charts or spreadsheets. These graphics can be used as: (1) a QA/QC function for the inventory collectors, (2) a simple communication of complex data to support managers decision making and (3) a means for easy access to complex data and information about any geographic area in the region for the researchers or general public. This paper describes the development and use of PC Arc/Info, ArcView and MapInfo geographic information systems (GIS), mapping and Internet interfacing applications to visualize, disseminate and convey the emissions inventory data in a meaningful and useful manner. The various methods developed and implemented to convert, process and prepare the inventory data and Internet interface for use with a standard Internet web browser also are described in this paper.

  6. Managing air toxics: Status of EPRI's PISCES project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has historically regulated air toxics (hazardous air pollutants) under Section 112 of the Clean Air Act. To date, EPA has established emission standards for 8 hazardous air pollutants (arsenic, asbestos, benzene, beryllium, mercury, radionuclides, coke oven emissions and vinyl chloride). The US electric utility industry was not determined to be a source category requiring regulation for any of the eight chemicals. Of the eight, radionuclides were the last species for which EPA established hazardous emissions standards. In this instance, EPA determined that the risks associated with electric utility fossil fuel power plant emissions were sufficiently low that they should not be regulated. However, the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments require a new evaluation of the electric utility industry emissions of hazardous air pollutants (1). This paper summarizes the key features of the air toxics provisions of the Clean Air Act Amendments, describes EPRI's activities on the subject, and provides some preliminary insights from EPRI's research to date

  7. CHATTANOOGA AIR TOXICS (CATS) MONITORING RISK ASSESSMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Chattanooga-Hamilton County Air Pollution Control Bureau (CHCAPCB), the United States Environmental Protection Agency Region 4 (Region 4), and other stakeholders, in a cooperative effort, conducted an air toxics study in the Chattanooga area (city population approximately 285...

  8. Air toxics from heavy oil production and consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report assesses the potential impact of recent Federal and state regulations for airborne toxic substances on the production and consumption of heavy fuel oils. Emissions of nickel from heavy oil production in California are considered in some detail, in conjunction with California state regulations for toxic emissions. Although the use of thermal energy from heavy crude oils could in theory be impacted by toxic air pollution regulations, recent trends towards the use of natural gas for the required extraction energy appear to provide substantial relief, in addition to reducing emissions of criteria air pollutants. However, the consumption of residual fuel oils containing toxic metals could result in higher population exposures to these substances and their attendant risks may be worthy of more detailed analysis

  9. Controlling air toxics through advanced coal preparation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Straszheim, W.E.; Buttermore, W.H.; Pollard, J.L. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    1995-11-01

    This project involves the assessment of advanced coal preparation methods for removing trace elements from coal to reduce the potential for air toxic emissions upon combustion. Scanning electron microscopy-based automated image analysis (SEM-AIA) and advanced washability analyses are being applied with state-of-the-art analytical procedures to predict the removal of elements of concern by advanced column flotation and to confirm the effectiveness of preparation on the quality of quantity of clean coal produced. Specific objectives are to maintain an acceptable recovery of combustible product, while improving the rejection of mineral-associated trace elements. Current work has focused on determining conditions for controlling column flotation system across its operating range and on selection and analysis of samples for determining trace element cleanability.

  10. Addressing community concerns about asthma and air toxics.

    OpenAIRE

    White, Mary C.; Berger-Frank, Sherri A; Middleton, Dannie C.; Falk, Henry

    2002-01-01

    People with asthma who live near or downwind from a source of toxic emissions commonly express concerns about the possible impact of hazardous air pollution on their health, especially when these emissions are visible or odorous. Citizens frequently turn to their local and state health departments for answers, but health departments face many challenges in addressing these concerns. These challenges include a lack of asthma statistics at the local level, limited exposure information, and a pa...

  11. Air toxics provisions of the Clean Air Act: Potential impacts on energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hootman, H.A.; Vernet, J.E.

    1991-11-01

    This report provides an overview of the provisions of the Clean Air Act and its Amendments of 1990 that identify hazardous air pollutant (HAP) emissions and addresses their regulation by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). It defines the major energy sector sources of these HAPs that would be affected by the regulations. Attention is focused on regulations that would cover coke oven emissions; chromium emission from industrial cooling towers and the electroplating process; HAP emissions from tank vessels, asbestos-related activities, organic solvent use, and ethylene oxide sterilization; and emissions of air toxics from municipal waste combustors. The possible implications of Title III regulations for the coal, natural gas, petroleum, uranium, and electric utility industries are examined. The report discusses five major databases of HAP emissions: (1) TRI (EPA`s Toxic Release Inventory); (2) PISCES (Power Plant Integrated Systems: Chemical Emissions Studies developed by the Electric Power Research Institute); (3) 1985 Emissions Inventory on volatile organic compounds (used for the National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program); (4) Particulate Matter Species Manual (EPA); and (5) Toxics Emission Inventory (National Aeronautics and Space Administration). It also offers information on emission control technologies for municipal waste combustors.

  12. Air toxics provisions of the Clean Air Act: Potential impacts on energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hootman, H.A.; Vernet, J.E.

    1991-11-01

    This report provides an overview of the provisions of the Clean Air Act and its Amendments of 1990 that identify hazardous air pollutant (HAP) emissions and addresses their regulation by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). It defines the major energy sector sources of these HAPs that would be affected by the regulations. Attention is focused on regulations that would cover coke oven emissions; chromium emission from industrial cooling towers and the electroplating process; HAP emissions from tank vessels, asbestos-related activities, organic solvent use, and ethylene oxide sterilization; and emissions of air toxics from municipal waste combustors. The possible implications of Title III regulations for the coal, natural gas, petroleum, uranium, and electric utility industries are examined. The report discusses five major databases of HAP emissions: (1) TRI (EPA's Toxic Release Inventory); (2) PISCES (Power Plant Integrated Systems: Chemical Emissions Studies developed by the Electric Power Research Institute); (3) 1985 Emissions Inventory on volatile organic compounds (used for the National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program); (4) Particulate Matter Species Manual (EPA); and (5) Toxics Emission Inventory (National Aeronautics and Space Administration). It also offers information on emission control technologies for municipal waste combustors.

  13. Air toxics provisions of the Clean Air Act: Potential impacts on energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report provides an overview of the provisions of the Clean Air Act and its Amendments of 1990 that identify hazardous air pollutant (HAP) emissions and addresses their regulation by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). It defines the major energy sector sources of these HAPs that would be affected by the regulations. Attention is focused on regulations that would cover coke oven emissions; chromium emission from industrial cooling towers and the electroplating process; HAP emissions from tank vessels, asbestos-related activities, organic solvent use, and ethylene oxide sterilization; and emissions of air toxics from municipal waste combustors. The possible implications of Title III regulations for the coal, natural gas, petroleum, uranium, and electric utility industries are examined. The report discusses five major databases of HAP emissions: (1) TRI (EPA's Toxic Release Inventory); (2) PISCES (Power Plant Integrated Systems: Chemical Emissions Studies developed by the Electric Power Research Institute); (3) 1985 Emissions Inventory on volatile organic compounds (used for the National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program); (4) Particulate Matter Species Manual (EPA); and (5) Toxics Emission Inventory (National Aeronautics and Space Administration). It also offers information on emission control technologies for municipal waste combustors

  14. Uneven Magnitude of Disparities in Cancer Risks from Air Toxics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satish Kedia

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This study examines race- and income-based disparities in cancer risks from air toxics in Cancer Alley, LA, USA. Risk estimates were obtained from the 2005 National Air Toxics Assessment and socioeconomic and race data from the 2005 American Community Survey, both at the census tract level. Disparities were assessed using spatially weighted ordinary least squares (OLS regression and quantile regression (QR for five major air toxics, each with cancer risk greater than 10−6. Spatial OLS results showed that disparities in cancer risks were significant: People in low-income tracts bore a cumulative risk 12% more than those in high-income tracts (p < 0.05, and those in black-dominant areas 16% more than in white-dominant areas (p < 0.01. Formaldehyde and benzene were the two largest contributors to the disparities. Contributions from emission sources to disparities varied by compound. Spatial QR analyses showed that magnitude of disparity became larger at the high end of exposure range, indicating worsened disparity in the poorest and most highly concentrated black areas. Cancer risk of air toxics not only disproportionately affects socioeconomically disadvantaged and racial minority communities, but there is a gradient effect within these groups with poorer and higher minority concentrated segments being more affected than their counterparts. Risk reduction strategies should target emission sources, risk driver chemicals, and especially the disadvantaged neighborhoods.

  15. Trading emissions improve air quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    While admitting sharply contrasting views exist, James M. Lents of the South Coast Air Quality Management District in southern California sees emissions trading open-quotes as a lifesaver for our troubled planet.close quotes He explains: open-quotes If political support for the environment is to be maintained, we must seek the most economical and flexible means of pursuing cleanup. At present, market incentives and emissions trading represent our best hope.close quotes Lents is putting his money where his pen is. The air quality management district he heads plans to use market incentives, including emissions trading, to reduce air pollution in the notoriously dirty southern California area. When the system goes into operation in 1994, he estimates it will save southern California businesses more than $400 million a year in compliance costs, while also making major improvements in the region's air quality. If the idea works there, why won't it work elsewhere, even on a global scale, Lents asks? He believes it will. But open-quotes the ultimate success of emissions-trading programs, whether regional, national, or international in scope, lies in the proof that they're actually achieving reductions in harmful emissions,close quotes he emphasizes. open-quotes These reductions must be real and verifiable to satisfy the Clean Air Act and a skeptical public.close quotes

  16. SEATTLE AIR TOXICS MONITORING PILOT PROJECT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Since January, 2000, the Washington Department of Ecology has been monitoring for air toxics at two sites in Seattle, Beacon Hill and Georgetown. The Beacon Hill site is in an area of high population density that reflects conditions in a "typical" urban residential neighborhood a...

  17. Biofuels, vehicle emissions, and urban air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallington, Timothy J; Anderson, James E; Kurtz, Eric M; Tennison, Paul J

    2016-07-18

    Increased biofuel content in automotive fuels impacts vehicle tailpipe emissions via two mechanisms: fuel chemistry and engine calibration. Fuel chemistry effects are generally well recognized, while engine calibration effects are not. It is important that investigations of the impact of biofuels on vehicle emissions consider the impact of engine calibration effects and are conducted using vehicles designed to operate using such fuels. We report the results of emission measurements from a Ford F-350 fueled with either fossil diesel or a biodiesel surrogate (butyl nonanoate) and demonstrate the critical influence of engine calibration on NOx emissions. Using the production calibration the emissions of NOx were higher with the biodiesel fuel. Using an adjusted calibration (maintaining equivalent exhaust oxygen concentration to that of the fossil diesel at the same conditions by adjusting injected fuel quantities) the emissions of NOx were unchanged, or lower, with biodiesel fuel. For ethanol, a review of the literature data addressing the impact of ethanol blend levels (E0-E85) on emissions from gasoline light-duty vehicles in the U.S. is presented. The available data suggest that emissions of NOx, non-methane hydrocarbons, particulate matter (PM), and mobile source air toxics (compounds known, or suspected, to cause serious health impacts) from modern gasoline and diesel vehicles are not adversely affected by increased biofuel content over the range for which the vehicles are designed to operate. Future increases in biofuel content when accomplished in concert with changes in engine design and calibration for new vehicles should not result in problematic increases in emissions impacting urban air quality and may in fact facilitate future required emissions reductions. A systems perspective (fuel and vehicle) is needed to fully understand, and optimize, the benefits of biofuels when blended into gasoline and diesel. PMID:27112132

  18. Thermal oxidation for air toxics control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Administration projects annual expenditures of $1.1 billion by 1995, increasing to $6.7 billion by 2005, in order to comply with the new Clean Air Act Title III hazardous air pollutant requirements. The Title III requirements include 189 hazardous air pollutants which must be reduced or eliminated by 2003. Twenty of the 189 listed pollutants account for approximately 75 percent of all hazardous air pollutant emissions. Ninety percent of these 20 pollutants can be effectively controlled through one or mote of the thermal oxidation technologies. This paper reports that the advantages and disadvantages of each thermal oxidation technology vary substantially and must be reviewed for each application in order to establish the most effective thermal oxidation solution. Effective thermal oxidation will meet MACT (maximum achievable control technology) emission standards

  19. Biodiesel and Cold Temperature Effects on Speciated Mobile Source Air Toxics from Modern Diesel Trucks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speciated volatile organic compounds (VOCs) with a particular focus on mobile source air toxics (MSATs) were measured in diesel exhaust from three heavy-duty trucks equipped with modern aftertreatment technologies. Emissions testing was conducted on a temperature controlled chass...

  20. Biodiesel and Cold Temperature Effect on Speciated Mobile Source Air Toxics from Modern Diesel Trucks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speciated volatile organic compounds (VOCs) with a particular focus on mobile source air toxics (MSATs) were measured in diesel exhaust from three heavy-duty trucks equipped with modern aftertreatment technologies. Emissions testing was conducted on a temperature controlled chass...

  1. Sampling frequency guidance for ambient air toxics monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bortnick, Steven M; Stetzer, Shannon L

    2002-07-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is in the process of designing a national network to monitor hazardous air pollutants (HAPs), also known as air toxics. The purposes of the expanded monitoring are to (1) characterize ambient concentrations in representative areas; (2) provide data to support and evaluate dispersion and receptor models; and (3) establish trends and evaluate the effectiveness of HAP emission reduction strategies. Existing air toxics data, in the form of an archive compiled by EPA's Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards (OAQPS), are used in this paper to examine the relationship between estimated annual average (AA) HAP concentrations and their associated variability. The goal is to assess the accuracy, or bias and precision, with which the AA can be estimated as a function of ambient concentration levels and sampling frequency. The results suggest that, for several air toxics, a sampling schedule of 1 in 3 days (1:3) or 1:6 days maybe appropriate for meeting some of the general objectives of the national network, with the more intense sampling rate being recommended for areas expected to exhibit relatively high ambient levels. PMID:12139351

  2. Air Emission Inventory for the INEEL -- 1999 Emission Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zohner, Steven K

    2000-05-01

    This report presents the 1999 calendar year update of the Air Emission Inventory for the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). The INEEL Air Emission Inventory documents sources and emissions of nonradionuclide pollutants from operations at the INEEL. The report describes the emission inventory process and all of the sources at the INEEL, and provides nonradionuclide emissions estimates for stationary sources.

  3. Notice of Construction (NOC) Application for Criteria and Toxic Air Pollutant Emissions from Thermal Stabilization of Polycubes at the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is a notice of construction (NOC) application for thermal stabilization of plutonium in a polystyrene matrix (polycubes) in the muffle furnaces at the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP). This NOC application is required by Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 173-460-040. During the 1960's and 1970's, polycubes were thermally stabilized using a pyrolysis process at PFP. The proposed process of thermal stabilization of polycubes in muffle furnaces results in emissions of air contaminants not emitted since implementation of WAC 173-460 (effective 9/18/91). The new process and related air contaminants are the basis for this NOC application. The proposed activity would use the muffle furnaces in the 234-52 Building to stabilize polycubes. The resulting plutonium oxides would be packaged to meet storage requirements specified in Stabilization, Packaging, and Storage of Plutonium Bearing Materials (DOE-STD-3013). The PFP is located in the 200 West Area of the Hanford Site. The PFP consists of several large and small buildings that are grouped to form the processing complex. The PFP activities are focused on the stabilization of plutonium-bearing materials to a form suitable for long-term storage; immobilization of residual plutonium-bearing materials; and removal of readily retrievable, plutonium-bearing materials left behind in process equipment and process areas

  4. Emission scenario model for regional air pollution

    OpenAIRE

    Karvosenoja, Niko

    2008-01-01

    Air pollution emissions are produced in a wide variety of sources. They often result in detrimental impacts on both environments and human populations. To assess the emissions and impacts of air pollution, mathematical models have been developed. This study presents results from the application of an air pollution emission model, the Finnish Regional Emission Scenario (FRES) model, that covers the emissions of sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen oxides (NOx), ammonia (NH3), non-methane volatile or...

  5. 75 FR 521 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Area Source Standards for Prepared...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-05

    ... provision in 1999 in the Integrated Urban Air Toxics Strategy, (64 FR 38715, July 19, 1999). Specifically... the Integrated Urban Air Toxics Strategy (64 FR 38715, July 19, 1999). A primary goal of the Strategy... Protection Agency 40 CFR Part 63 National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Area...

  6. The Air Toxics Health Effects Database (ATHED)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Air Toxics Health Effects Database (ATHED) is currently used by the EPA's Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards (OAQPS) to support risk assessments for the Residual Risk Program. An assessment of the residual risk is required to be performed at a specified time (typically 8years) following the promulgation of a technology-based Maximum Achievable Control Technologies (MACT) standard. The goal of the Residual Risk Program is to assure that the risk that remains after MACT standards are implemented (i.e., the 'residual risk') is acceptable, and if not, to propose additional regulations to mitigate those risks. ATHED maintains all available reference values for each chemical as separate data records, and includes values for all exposure durations (acute, short-term, subchronic and chronic). These values are used as benchmarks to determine acceptable exposure levels to the hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) listed in Section 112 of the Clean Air Act. ATHED also provides useful background information on the uncertainty and/or modifying factors that were applied in the derivation of each reference value, as well as the point of departure and the critical study/studies. To facilitate comparisons across durations for a specific chemical, ATHED data can be graphically presented

  7. Traffic-Related Air Toxics and Term Low Birth Weight in Los Angeles County, California

    OpenAIRE

    Wilhelm, Michelle; Ghosh, Jo Kay; Su, Jason; Cockburn, Myles; Jerrett, Michael; Ritz, Beate

    2011-01-01

    Background: Numerous studies have linked criteria air pollutants with adverse birth outcomes, but there is less information on the importance of specific emission sources, such as traffic, and air toxics. Objectives: We used three exposure data sources to examine odds of term low birth weight (LBW) in Los Angeles, California, women when exposed to high levels of traffic-related air pollutants during pregnancy. Methods: We identified term births during 1 June 2004 to 30 March 2006 to women res...

  8. Advanced combustor design concept to control NOx and air toxics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eddings, E.G.; Pershing, D.W.; Molina, A.; Sarofim, A.F.; Spinti, J.P.; Veranth, J.

    1999-03-29

    Direct coal combustion needs to be a primary energy source for the electric utility industry and for heavy manufacturing during the next several decades because of the availability and economic advantage of coal relative to other fuels and because of the time required to produce major market penetration in the energy field. However, the major obstacle to coal utilization is a set of ever-tightening environmental regulations at both the federal and local level. It is, therefore, critical that fundamental research be conducted to support the development of low-emission, high-efficiency pulverized coal power systems. The objective of this program was to develop fundamental understanding regarding the impact of fuel and combustion changes on NOx formation, carbon burnout and air toxic emissions from pulverized coal (pc) combustion. During pc combustion, nitrogen in the coal can be oxidized to form nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}). The 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments established much stricter NO{sub x} emissions limits for new and existing coal-fired plants, so there has been renewed interest in the processes by which NO{sub x} forms in pc flames. One of the least understood aspects of NO{sub x} formation from pc combustion is the process by which char-N (nitrogen remaining in the char after devolatilization) forms either NO{sub x} or N{sub 2}, and the development of a fundamental understanding of this process was a major focus of this research. The overall objective of this program was to improve the ability of combustion system designers and boiler manufacturers to build high efficiency, low emission pulverized coal systems by improving the design tools available to the industry. The specific program goals were to: Use laboratory experiments and modeling to develop fundamental understanding for a new submodel for char nitrogen oxidation (a critical piece usually neglected in most NOx models.); Use existing bench scale facilities to investigate alternative schemes to

  9. Maryland air toxics regulation applicable to a natural gas compressor station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Columbia Gas Transmission Corporation submitted an air permit application to the Maryland Department of the Environment to construct a natural gas compressor station near Rutledge, Maryland. The station consists of three natural gas-fueled internal combustion reciprocating engines, each rated at 3200 horsepower. Maximum potential pollutant emissions associated with the station operation did not trigger Prevention of Significant Deterioration review or nonattainment area New Source review. However, a minor source air permit cannot be issued without addressing Maryland's toxic air regulations. Columbia initiated a detailed investigation of toxic air pollutants, including a stack test of an identical engine. Based on this information, the proposed station was subject to the toxic air regulation for acetaldehyde, acrolein, benzene, crotonaldehyde, and formaldehyde. Compliance with the toxic air regulation for crotonaldehyde was demonstrated by having an emission rate less than the threshold emission rate, specified in the regulation. The ambient air quality impact of the other four pollutants was determined using the Industrial Source Complex dispersion model and resulted in predicted concentrations below the pollutant-specific acceptable ambient level. A carcinogenic impact analysis was performed for acetaldehyde, benzene, and formaldehyde to demonstrate compliance with the accepted risk of one in one hundred thousand

  10. Carbon dioxide emissions from international air freight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howitt, Oliver J. A.; Carruthers, Michael A.; Smith, Inga J.; Rodger, Craig J.

    2011-12-01

    Greenhouse gas emissions from international air transport were excluded from reduction targets under the Kyoto Protocol, partly because of difficulties with quantifying and apportioning such emissions. Although there has been a great deal of recent research into calculating emissions from aeroplane operations globally, publicly available emissions factors for air freight emissions are scarce. This paper presents a methodology to calculate the amount of fuel burnt and the resulting CO 2 emissions from New Zealand's internationally air freighted imports and exports in 2007. This methodology could be applied to other nations and/or regions. Using data on fuel uplift, air freight and air craft movements, and assumptions on mean passenger loadings and the mass of passengers and air freight, CO 2 emissions factors of 0.82 kg CO 2 per t-km and 0.69 kg CO 2 per t-km for short-haul and long-haul journeys, respectively, were calculated. The total amount of fuel consumed for the international air transport of New Zealand's imports and exports was calculated to be 0.21 Mt and 0.17 Mt respectively, with corresponding CO 2 emissions of 0.67 Mt and 0.53 Mt.

  11. Impact of methanol and CNG fuels on motor-vehicle toxic emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments require that the Environmental Protection Agency investigate the need for reduction of motor vehicle toxic emissions such as formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, benzene, 1,3-butadiene, and polycyclic organic matter. Toxic organic emissions can be reduced by utilizing the control technologies employed for regulated THC (NMHC) and CO emissions, and by changing fuel composition. The paper examines emissions associated with the use of methanol and compressed natural gas fuels. Both tailpipe and evaporative emissions are examined at varied ambient temperatures ranging from 20 C to 105 F. Tailpipe emissions are also examined over a variety of driving cycles with average speeds ranging from 7 to 48 mph. Results suggest that an equivalent ambient temperatures and average speeds, motor vehicle toxic emissions are generally reduced with methanol and compressed natural gas fuels relative to those with gasoline, except for formaldehyde emissions, which may be elevated. As with gasoline, tailpipe toxic emissions with methanol and compressed natural gas fuels generally increase when ambient temperature or average speed decreases (the sensitivity to these variables is greater with methanol than with compressed natural gas). Evaporative emissions generally increase when fuel volatility or ambient temperature increases (however, the relative contribution of evaporative sources to the aggregate toxic compound emissions is small)

  12. AIR EMISSIONS FROM SCRAP TIRE COMBUSTION

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report discusses air emissions from two types of scrap tire combustion: uncontrolled and controlled. Uncontrolled sources are open tire fires, which produce many unhealthful products of incomplete combustion and release them directly into the atmosphere. Controlled combustion...

  13. Radio Emission AIRES: Results and parameterization

    OpenAIRE

    Riviere, Colas; Montanet, Francois; Chauvin, Joel

    2009-01-01

    Radio emission has been implemented in the simulation software AIRES by M. A. DuVernois, B. Cai and D. Kleckner to perform a full Monte Carlo simulation of the radio emission of cosmic ray extensive air shower. Different sets of showers have been simulated. We present here the detendency of the radio electric field with different parameters (primary energy, radial distance, arrival direction, etc). We stress the effect of the polarization and the arrival direction, which should have a fundame...

  14. Gas-analytical methods for monitoring toxic gases in the air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The article analyzes the problems in detecting small concentrations of hazardous air emissions.The main modern methods of registration of toxic and combustible gases are proposed. The questions used as primary converter photoionizing detector, metal-oxide semiconductor and electrochemical sensory was discussed

  15. Carbon Emissions from air-Conditioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores electricity consumption and carbon emissions associated with air-conditioning. The total heat load of a room fitted with air conditioner of 1.5 ton capacity has been calculated by calculating conduction and ventilation losses. Solar heat gain and internal gain were taken as the other two parameters for the total heat calculation.

  16. Emission to air in Norway. Emission sources and trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report gives an overview of Norwegian emissions that may contribute to global climatic changes, regional acidification problems and local air pollution problems. Included in these emissions are carbon dioxide, methane, dinitrous oxide, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, volatile organic compounds, ammonia, carbon monoxide, particulates and lead. Detailed figures are given for 1991 as well as a description of the development in the period 1973-1992. The development of the amount of emissions is compared with existing international agreement and national goals

  17. Comparative Toxicity of Gasoline and Diesel Engine Emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JeanClare Seagrave; Joe L. Mauderly; Barbara Zielinska; John Sagebiel; Kevin Whitney; Doughlas R. Lawson; Michael Gurevich

    2000-06-19

    Better information on the comparative toxicity of airborne emissions from different types of engines is needed to guide the development of heavy vehicle engine, fuel, lubricant, and exhaust after-treatment technologies, and to place the health hazards of current heavy vehicle emissions in their proper perspective. To help fill this information gap, samples of vehicle exhaust particles and semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOC) were collected and analyzed. The biological activity of the combined particle-SVOC samples is being tested using standardized toxicity assays. This report provides an update on the design of experiments to test the relative toxicity of engine emissions from various sources.

  18. Pumping toxic and radioactive fluids with air lifts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Air lifts provide a simple, reliable method of pumping radioactive or highly toxic liquids because they require remarkably little maintenance. To date these pumps have been used for mine dewatering, ocean mining, dredging, effluent aeration and for flotation of coal. Having no moving parts, an air lift is resistant to damage by solids or particles in the liquid, unlike centrifugal pumps which suffer impeller erosion, so that air lifts can be used to raise difficult slurries or to desludge effluent ponds

  19. 2014 LANL Radionuclide Air Emissions Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuehne, David Patrick [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-07-21

    This report describes the emissions of airborne radionuclides from operations at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) for calendar year 2014, and the resulting off-site dose from these emissions. This document fulfills the requirements established by the National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants in 40 CFR 61, Subpart H – Emissions of Radionuclides other than Radon from Department of Energy Facilities, commonly referred to as the Radionuclide NESHAP or Rad-NESHAP. Compliance with this regulation and preparation of this document is the responsibility of LANL’s RadNESHAP compliance program, which is part of the Environmental Protection Division. The information in this report is required under the Clean Air Act and is being submitted to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Region 6.

  20. Instrument Mixes Addressing Mercury Emissions to Air

    OpenAIRE

    OECD

    2007-01-01

    This study deals with "instruments used to address mercury emissions to air", by which is meant all legislation, regulation and other measures intended to control or reduce anthropogenic, atmospheric mercury emissions. As the links are complex between actual inputs of mercury to society (consumption for intended use and mobilisation of mercury-impurities via industrial processes) and the final release sources, all types of measures addressing any phase in the life-cycle of mercury which may u...

  1. Dioxin air emission inventory 1990-2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Capral Henriksen, T.; Illerup, J.B.; Nielsen, Ole-Kenneth [DMU, Dept. of Policy Analysis (Denmark)

    2006-12-15

    The present Danish dioxin air emission inventory shows that the emission has been reduced from 68.6 g I-TEQ in 1990 to 22.0 g I-TEQ in 2004, or about 68% over this period. Most of the significant reductions have been achieved in the industrial sector, where emissions have been reduced from 14.67 g I-TEQ in 1990 to 0.17 g I-TEQ in 2004; a reduction of almost 99%. Lower emissions from steel and aluminium reclamation industries form the major part of the reduction within industry. Emissions from waste incineration reduced from 32.5 g I-TEQ in 1990 to 2.1 g ITEQ in 2004; which is approx. 94%. This is due to installation of dioxin abatement equipment in incineration plants. The most important source of emission in 2004 is residential wood combustion, at 8.5 g I-TEQ, or around 40% of the total emission. In 2004, accidental fires, which are estimated to emit 6.1 g I-TEQ/year, are the second most important source, contributing with around 28% of the total emission. The present dioxin emission inventory for Denmark shows how emissions in 2004 come from sources other than waste incineration plants and industry, which were the largest sources in 1990. (au)

  2. National Air Toxics Assessment - 2002, EPA Region 2 (EPA.AIR.NATA99_R2)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This data layer is based on the model results of the 1999 National-Scale Assessment (N-SA), a part of the National Air Toxics Assessment (NATA), conducted by EPA's...

  3. National Air Toxics Assessment - 2005, EPA Region 2 (EPA.AIR.NATA99_R2)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This data layer is based on the model results of the 1999 National-Scale Assessment (N-SA), a part of the National Air Toxics Assessment (NATA), conducted by EPA's...

  4. National Air Toxics Assessment - 1999, EPA Region 2 (EPA.AIR.NATA99_R2)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This data layer is based on the model results of the 1999 National-Scale Assessment (N-SA), a part of the National Air Toxics Assessment (NATA), conducted by EPA's...

  5. Toxic emissions and devalued CO2-neutrality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Czeskleba-Dupont, Rolf

    friendly effects of substituting wood burning for fossil fuels. With reference to Bent Sørensen's classical work on 'Renewable Energy' the assumption of CO2-neutrality regarding incineration is problematised when applied to plants with long rotation periods as trees. Registered CO2-emissions from wood...... burning are characterised together with particle and PAH emissions. The positive treatment of wood stove-technology in the Danish strategy for sustainable development (draft 2007) is critically evaluated and approaches to better regulation are identified....

  6. Comprehensive assessment of toxic emissions from coal-fired power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) of the US Department of Energy (DOE) has two current investigations, initiated before passage of the Clean Air Act Amendment (CAAA), that will determine the air toxic emissions from coal-fired electric utilities. DOE has contracted with Battelle Memorial Institute and Radian corporation to conduct studies focusing on the potential air toxics, both organic and inorganic, associated with different size fractions of fine particulate matter emitted from power plant stacks. Table 2 indicates the selected analytes to be investigated during these studies. PETC is also developing guidance on the monitoring of Hazardous Air Pollutants (HAPS) to be incorporated in the Environmental Monitoring plans for the demonstration projects in its Clean Coal Technology Program

  7. Asthma symptoms in Hispanic children and daily ambient exposures to toxic and criteria air pollutants.

    OpenAIRE

    Delfino, Ralph J.; Gong, Henry; Linn, William S.; Pellizzari, Edo D; Hu, Ye

    2003-01-01

    Although acute adverse effects on asthma have been frequently found for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's principal criteria air pollutants, there is little epidemiologic information on specific hydrocarbons from toxic emission sources. We conducted a panel study of 22 Hispanic children with asthma who were 10-16 years old and living in a Los Angeles community with high traffic density. Subjects filled out symptom diaries daily for up to 3 months (November 1999 through January 2000)....

  8. A study of toxic emissions from a coal-fired gasification plant. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-01

    Under the Fine Particulate Control/Air Toxics Program, the US Department of Energy (DOE) has been performing comprehensive assessments of toxic substance emissions from coal-fired electric utility units. An objective of this program is to provide information to the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for use in evaluating hazardous air pollutant emissions as required by the Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) of 1990. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) has also performed comprehensive assessments of emissions from many power plants and provided the information to the EPA. The DOE program was implemented in two. Phase 1 involved the characterization of eight utility units, with options to sample additional units in Phase 2. Radian was one of five contractors selected to perform these toxic emission assessments.Radian`s Phase 1 test site was at southern Company Service`s Plant Yates, Unit 1, which, as part of the DOE`s Clean Coal Technology Program, was demonstrating the CT-121 flue gas desulfurization technology. A commercial-scale prototype integrated gasification-combined cycle (IGCC) power plant was selected by DOE for Phase 2 testing. Funding for the Phase 2 effort was provided by DOE, with assistance from EPRI and the host site, the Louisiana Gasification Technology, Inc. (LGTI) project This document presents the results of that effort.

  9. Toxic emissions and devalued CO2-neutrality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Czeskleba-Dupont, Rolf

    friendly effects of substituting wood burning for fossil fuels. With reference to Bent Sørensen's classical work on 'Renewable Energy' the assumption of CO2-neutrality regarding incineration is problematised when applied to plants with long rotation periods as trees. Registered CO2-emissions from wood...

  10. Toxic emissions and devaluated CO2-neutrality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Czeskleba-Dupont, Rolf

    -productive effect of dioxin formation in the cooling phase of wood burning appliances has been registered akin to de-novo-synthesis in municipal solid waste incinerators. Researchers, regulators and the public are, however, still preoccupied by notions of oven design and operation parameters, assuming that dioxin......Environmental, energy and climate policies need fresh reflections. In order to evaluate toxics reduction policies the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants is mandatory. Denmark's function as lead country for dioxin research in the context of the OSPAR Convention is contrasted with...

  11. 2006 LANL Radionuclide Air Emissions Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David P. Fuehne

    2007-06-30

    This report describes the impacts from emissions of radionuclides at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) for calendar year 2006. This report fulfills the requirements established by the Radionuclide National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (Rad-NESHAP). This report is prepared by LANL's Rad-NESHAP compliance team, part of the Environmental Protection Division. The information in this report is required under the Clean Air Act and is being reported to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The highest effective dose equivalent (EDE) to an off-site member of the public was calculated using procedures specified by the EPA and described in this report. LANL's EDE was 0.47 mrem for 2006. The annual limit established by the EPA is 10 mrem per year. During calendar year 2006, LANL continuously monitored radionuclide emissions at 28 release points, or stacks. The Laboratory estimates emissions from an additional 58 release points using radionuclide usage source terms. Also, LANL uses a network of air samplers around the Laboratory perimeter to monitor ambient airborne levels of radionuclides. To provide data for dispersion modeling and dose assessment, LANL maintains and operates meteorological monitoring systems. From these measurement systems, a comprehensive evaluation is conducted to calculate the EDE for the Laboratory. The EDE is evaluated as any member of the public at any off-site location where there is a residence, school, business, or office. In 2006, this location was the Los Alamos Airport Terminal. The majority of this dose is due to ambient air sampling of plutonium emitted from 2006 clean-up activities at an environmental restoration site (73-002-99; ash pile). Doses reported to the EPA for the past 10 years are shown in Table E1.

  12. Ship emissions and air pollution in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Helge Rørdam; Winther, Morten; Ellermann, Thomas;

    A project has been carried out to map the contribution from ship traffic to air pollution in Denmark. A main element in the project is the establishment of a new, improved inventory of ship emissions for the waters around Denmark. The inventory makes use of the so-called AIS system, which...... continuously keeps track of ship positions. The inventory provides basis for model calculations of air quality in Denmark for the years 2007, 2011 and 2020. The study has focus on identifying the contribution from ships, and on assessing the effect of international regulations of ship pollution. A minor...... component of the study concerns the contribution to local air pollution from ships at port....

  13. Air Quality Modelling and the National Emission Database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, S. S.

    The project focuses on development of institutional strengthening to be able to carry out national air emission inventories based on the CORINAIR methodology. The present report describes the link between emission inventories and air quality modelling to ensure that the new national air emission...

  14. Emissions reduction study for the Ontario Clean Air Alliance (OCAA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A significant portion of Ontario's total emissions of CO2, SO2 and NOx originate from Ontario Hydro's coal-fired generating stations. A study was conducted to provide the Ontario Clean Air Alliance (OCAA) with an analytic tool in the form of a computerized spreadsheet model that would simulate the cost and emissions impacts of replacing coal-fired power generation with natural gas-fired generation. The computer model was designed to assess the cost of establishing caps for Ontario's electricity-related sulphur dioxide emissions which are 25, 50, 70, and 90 per cent lower than Ontario Hydro's status quo sulphur dioxide emission cap. In the case based on the 90 per cent reduction in the SO2 cap, it was determined that the cumulative savings in SO2, CO2 and NOx and toxics emissions are 83, 51, 77 and 83 per cent respectively. The computer model is based on 'best practice' principles and conservative assumptions to ensure that the cost of gas substitution is not understated. 9 tabs., 2 appendices

  15. A study of toxic emissions from a coal-fired gasification plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, A.; Behrens, G. [Radian Corporation, Austin, TX (United States)

    1995-11-01

    Toxic emissions were measured in the gaseous, solid and aqueous effluent streams in a coal-fired gasification plant. Several internal process streams were also characterized to assess pollution control device effectiveness. The program, consisted of three major phases. Phase I was the toxics emission characterization program described above. phase II included the design, construction and shakedown testing of a high-temperature, high-pressure probe for collecting representative trace composition analysis of hot (1200{degrees}F) syngas. Phase III consisted of the collection of hot syngas samples utilizing the high-temperature probe. Preliminary results are presented which show the emission factors and removal efficiencies for several metals that are on the list of compounds defined by the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990.

  16. Air emissions inventory for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory -- 1995 emissions report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-06-01

    This report presents the 1995 update of the Air Emission Inventory for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The INEL Air Emission Inventory documents sources and emissions of non-radionuclide pollutants from operations at the INEL. The report describes the emission inventory process and all of the sources at the INEL, and provides non-radionuclide emissions estimates for stationary sources. The air contaminants reported include nitrogen oxides, sulfur oxides, carbon monoxide, volatile organic compounds, particulates, and hazardous air pollutants (HAPs).

  17. Air emissions inventory for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory -- 1995 emissions report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents the 1995 update of the Air Emission Inventory for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The INEL Air Emission Inventory documents sources and emissions of non-radionuclide pollutants from operations at the INEL. The report describes the emission inventory process and all of the sources at the INEL, and provides non-radionuclide emissions estimates for stationary sources. The air contaminants reported include nitrogen oxides, sulfur oxides, carbon monoxide, volatile organic compounds, particulates, and hazardous air pollutants (HAPs)

  18. Grandfather regulations, new source bias, and state air toxics regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper uses plant-level data from the Census of Manufactures and the variation in toxic air pollution regulations across states to measure the effects of laws that are more stringent for new sources of pollution than for existing sources (so-called 'grandfather' regulations). Of particular interest is the resulting 'new source bias' and its effects on capital vintage and investment. Two industries are examined: commercial printing, which has a local product market; and paint manufacturing, which has a more national market. In general, there seem to be no statistically significant differences in capital vintage or investment between plants in states that grandfather new sources of pollution, plants in states that have no air toxics regulations, and plants in states that regulate both new and existing sources

  19. Radionuclide Air Emission Report for 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wahl, Linnea

    2009-05-21

    Berkeley Lab operates facilities where radionuclides are handled and stored. These facilities are subject to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) radioactive air emission regulations in Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Title 40, Part 61, Subpart H (EPA 1989). Radionuclides may be emitted from stacks or vents on buildings where radionuclide production or use is authorized or they may be emitted as diffuse sources. In 2008, all Berkeley Lab sources were minor sources of radionuclides (sources resulting in a potential dose of less than 0.1 mrem/yr [0.001 mSv/yr]). These minor sources include more than 100 stack sources and one source of diffuse emissions. There were no unplanned emissions from the Berkeley Lab site. Emissions from minor sources (stacks and diffuse emissions) either were measured by sampling or monitoring or were calculated based on quantities used, received for use, or produced during the year. Using measured and calculated emissions, and building-specific and common parameters, Laboratory personnel applied the EPA-approved computer code, CAP88-PC, to calculate the effective dose equivalent to the maximally exposed individual (MEI). The effective dose equivalent from all sources at Berkeley Lab in 2008 is 5.2 x 10{sup -3} mrem/yr (5.2 x 10{sup -5} mSv/yr) to the MEI, well below the 10 mrem/yr (0.1 mSv/yr) dose standard. The location of the MEI is at the University of California (UC) Lawrence Hall of Science, a public science museum about 1500 ft (460 m) east of Berkeley Lab's Building 56. The estimated collective effective dose equivalent to persons living within 50 mi (80 km) of Berkeley Lab is 1.1 x 10{sup -1} person-rem (1.1 x 10{sup -3} person-Sv) attributable to the Lab's airborne emissions in 2008.

  20. Radionuclide Air Emission Report for 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wahl, Linnea

    2010-06-01

    Berkeley Lab operates facilities where radionuclides are handled and stored. These facilities are subject to the EPA radioactive air emission regulations in 40CFR61, Subpart H (EPA 1989). Radionuclides may be emitted from stacks or vents on buildings where radionuclide production or use is authorized or they may be emitted as diffuse sources. In 2009, all Berkeley Lab sources were minor sources of radionuclides (sources resulting in a potential dose of less than 0.1 mrem/yr [0.001 mSv/yr]). These minor sources included more than 100 stack sources and one source of diffuse emissions. There were no unplanned emissions from the Berkeley Lab site. Emissions from minor sources (stacks and diffuse emissions) either were measured by sampling or monitoring or were calculated based on quantities used, received for use, or produced during the year. Using measured and calculated emissions, and building-specific and common parameters, Laboratory personnel applied the EPA-approved computer code, CAP88-PC, to calculate the effective dose equivalent to the maximally exposed individual (MEI). The effective dose equivalent from all sources at Berkeley Lab in 2009 is 7.0 x 10{sup -3} mrem/yr (7.0 x 10{sup -5} mSv/yr) to the MEI, well below the 10 mrem/yr (0.1 mSv/yr) dose standard. The location of the MEI is at the University of California (UC) Lawrence Hall of Science, a public science museum about 1500 ft (460 m) east of Berkeley Lab's Building 56. The estimated collective effective dose equivalent to persons living within 50 mi (80 km) of Berkeley Lab is 1.5 x 10{sup -1} person-rem (1.5 x 10{sup -3} person-Sv) attributable to the Lab's airborne emissions in 2009.

  1. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN COMPOSITION AND TOXICITY OF ENGINE EMISSION SAMPLES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    (1)Mauderly, J; Seagrave, J; McDonald; J (2)Eide,I (3)Zielinska, B (4)Lawson, D

    2003-08-24

    Differences in the lung toxicity and bacterial mutagenicity of seven samples from gasoline and diesel vehicle emissions were reported previously [1]. Filter and vapor-phase semivolatile organic samples were collected from normal and high-emitter gasoline and diesel vehicles operated on chassis dynamometers on the Unified Driving Cycle, and the compositions of the samples were measured in detail. The two fractions of each sample were combined in their original mass collection ratios, and the toxicity of the seven samples was compared by measuring inflammation and tissue damage in rat lungs and mutagenicity in bacteria. There was good agreement among the toxicity response variables in ranking the samples and demonstrating a five-fold range of toxicity. The relationship between chemical composition and toxicity was analyzed by a combination of principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least squares regression (PLS, also known as projection to latent surfaces). The PCA /PLS analysis revealed the chemical constituents co-varying most strongly with toxicity and produced models predicting the relative toxicity of the samples with good accuracy. The results demonstrated the utility of the PCA/PLS approach, which is now being applied to additional samples, and it also provided a starting point for confirming the compounds that actually cause the effects.

  2. Air Emission Inventory for the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory - Calendar Year 1999 Emission Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zohner, S.K.

    2000-05-30

    This report presents the 1999 calendar year update of the Air Emission Inventory for the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). The INEEL Air Emission Inventory documents sources and emissions of nonradionuclide pollutants from operations at the INEEL. The report describes the emission inventory process and all of the sources at the INEEL, and provides nonradionuclide emissions estimates for stationary sources.

  3. Air Emission Inventory for the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory - Calendar Year 1998 Emissions Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. K. Zohner

    1999-10-01

    This report presents the 1998 calendar year update of the Air Emission Inventory for the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). The INEEL Air Emission Inventory documents sources and emissions of nonradionuclide pollutants from operations at the INEEL. The report describes the emission inventory process and all of the sources at the INEEL, and provides nonradiological emissions estimates for stationary sources.

  4. Air emission inventory for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory: 1994 emissions report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report Presents the 1994 update of the Air Emission inventory for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The INEL Air Emission Inventory documents sources and emissions of non-radionuclide pollutants from operations at the INEL. The report describes the emission inventory process and all of the sources at the INEL, and provides non-radionuclide emissions estimates for stationary sources

  5. Optimization models for reducing air emissions from ships

    OpenAIRE

    Balland, Océane

    2013-01-01

    This research deals with the reduction of air emissions from ships. Ships are large contributors to air pollution with implications for climate change and human health. Regulations have entered into force or will in the near future, which will force shipowners to reduce the air emissions from their vessels. Multiple technologies or operational measures reducing these main pollutants are available and the term air emission control has here been defined as any effort made by ship-owners, operat...

  6. Parameters and toxicity of internal combustion engines emission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Postrzednik, S.; Zmudka, Z.; Ogierman, L. [Silesian Technical Univ., Gliwice (Poland). Inst. of Thermal Engineering

    1996-12-31

    The relative emission indices of toxic substances (CO, NO{sub x}, HC, ...), one {var_phi}{sub p,i}--in relation to the fuel consumption, and the other {var_phi}{sub e,i}--to the power output, are defined. A general application of these indices for engine evaluation on the basis of toxic substances emitted, is proposed. The defined relative indices {var_phi}{sub p,i} and {var_phi}{sub e,i} depend on the operating factors, and by that explain the basis of the problem of toxic substances emission. For illustration, selected emission indices (for carbon monoxide CO, nitrogen oxides NO{sub x}, and hydrocarbons HC) in the whole operation range of Diesel engine SW500 and spark ignition engine 126A1.076/E, are presented. Additionally, as an instance, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) were determined by means of the gas chromatography. Qualitative determination of 33 substances and quantitative determination of 13 substances were carried out. The developed algorithm and obtained results can be used for quantitative prediction of exhaust gas emission for the driving cycles and determination of the most appropriate running conditions of the tested engines.

  7. Toxic volatile organic compounds in environmental tobacco smoke: Emission factors for modeling exposures of California populations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daisey, J.M.; Mahanama, K.R.R.; Hodgson, A.T. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)

    1994-10-01

    The primary objective of this study was to measure emission factors for selected toxic air contaminants in environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) using a room-sized environmental chamber. The emissions of 23 volatile organic compounds (VOCs), including, 1,3-butadiene, three aldehydes and two vapor-phase N-nitrosamines were determined for six commercial brands of cigarettes and reference cigarette 1R4F. The commercial brands were selected to represent 62.5% of the cigarettes smoked in California. For each brand, three cigarettes were machine smoked in the chamber. The experiments were conducted over four hours to investigate the effects of aging. Emission factors of the target compounds were also determined for sidestream smoke (SS). For almost all target compounds, the ETS emission factors were significantly higher than the corresponding SS values probably due to less favorable combustion conditions and wall losses in the SS apparatus. Where valid comparisons could be made, the ETS emission factors were generally in good agreement with the literature. Therefore, the ETS emission factors, rather than the SS values, are recommended for use in models to estimate population exposures from this source. The variabilities in the emission factors ({mu}g/cigarette) of the selected toxic air contaminants among brands, expressed as coefficients of variation, were 16 to 29%. Therefore, emissions among brands were Generally similar. Differences among brands were related to the smoked lengths of the cigarettes and the masses of consumed tobacco. Mentholation and whether a cigarette was classified as light or regular did not significantly affect emissions. Aging was determined not to be a significant factor for the target compounds. There were, however, deposition losses of the less volatile compounds to chamber surfaces.

  8. Modeling toxic compounds from nitric oxide emission measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallero, Daniel A.; Peirce, Jeffrey; Cho, Ki Don

    Determining the amount and rate of degradation of toxic pollutants in soil and groundwater is difficult and often requires invasive techniques, such as deploying extensive monitoring well networks. Even with these networks, degradation rates across entire systems cannot readily be extrapolated from the samples. When organic compounds are degraded by microbes, especially nitrifying bacteria, oxides or nitrogen (NO x) are released to the atmosphere. Thus, the flux of nitric oxide (NO) from the soil to the lower troposphere can be used to predict the rate at which organic compounds are degraded. By characterizing and applying biogenic and anthropogenic processes in soils the rates of degradation of organic compounds. Toluene was selected as a representative of toxic aromatic compounds, since it is inherently toxic, it is a substituted benzene compound and is listed as a hazardous air pollutant under Section 12 of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990. Measured toluene concentrations in soil, microbial population growth and NO fluxes in chamber studies were used to develop and parameterize a numerical model based on carbon and nitrogen cycling. These measurements, in turn, were used as indicators of bioremediation of air toxic (i.e. toluene) concentrations. The model found that chemical concentration, soil microbial abundance, and NO production can be directly related to the experimental results (significant at P < 0.01) for all toluene concentrations tested. This indicates that the model may prove useful in monitoring and predicting the fate of toxic aromatic contaminants in a complex soil system. It may also be useful in predicting the release of ozone precursors, such as changes in reservoirs of hydrocarbons and oxides of nitrogen. As such, the model may be a tool for decision makers in ozone non-attainment areas.

  9. Air toxics concentrations, source identification, and health risks: An air pollution hot spot in southwest Memphis, TN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Chunrong; Foran, Jeffery

    2013-12-01

    Southwest Memphis is a residential region surrounded by fossil fuel burning, steel, refining, and food processing industries, and considerable mobile sources whose emissions may pose adverse health risks to local residents. This study characterizes cancer and non-cancer risks resulting from exposure to ambient air toxics in southwest Memphis. Air toxics samples were collected at a central location every 6 days from June 5, 2008 to January 8, 2010. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were collected in evacuated stainless-steel canisters and aldehydes by DNPH cartridges, and samples were analyzed for 73 target compounds. A total of 60 compounds were detected and 39 were found in over 86% of the samples. Mean concentrations of many compounds were higher than those measured in many industrial communities throughout the U.S. The cumulative cancer risk associated with exposure to 13 carcinogens found in southwest Memphis air was 2.3 × 10-4, four times higher than the national average of 5.0 × 10-5. Three risk drivers were identified: benzene, formaldehyde, and acrylonitrile, which contributed 43%, 19%, and 14% to the cumulative risk, respectively. This is the first field study to confirm acrylonitrile as a potential risk driver. Mobile, secondary, industrial, and background sources contributed 57%, 24%, 14%, and 5% of the risk, respectively. The results of this study indicate that southwest Memphis, a region of significant income, racial, and social disparities, is also a region under significant environmental stress compared with surrounding areas and communities.

  10. Air Emission Inventory for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, 1993 emissions report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents the 1993 update of the Air Emission Inventory for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The purpose of the Air Emission Inventory is to commence the preparation of the permit to operate application for the INEL, as required by the recently promulgated Title V regulations of the Clean Air Act. The report describes the emission inventory process and all of the sources at the INEL and provides emissions estimates for both mobile and stationary sources

  11. Air Emission Inventory for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, 1993 emissions report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-06-01

    This report presents the 1993 update of the Air Emission Inventory for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The purpose of the Air Emission Inventory is to commence the preparation of the permit to operate application for the INEL, as required by the recently promulgated Title V regulations of the Clean Air Act. The report describes the emission inventory process and all of the sources at the INEL and provides emissions estimates for both mobile and stationary sources.

  12. Analysis of the toxic emission by internal combustion engines using LPG as a fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this final work a description of the toxic emission, and toxic components presence in the exhaust gasses is given . A survey of the possible solutions for toxic emission reduction is analyzed. Further, the analysis of the alternative gaseous fuels application is given as one of the possibilities for toxic emission reduction. At the end the results of the CO concentration measurements for two cases: first using gasoline as a fuel, then Liquid Petrol Gas (LPG) are presented. (Author)

  13. Spatial distribution of emissions to air – the SPREAD model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plejdrup, Marlene Schmidt; Gyldenkærne, Steen

    -range transboundary air pollution, CLRTAP. NERI has developed a model to distribute emissions from the national emission inventories on a 1x1 km grid covering the Danish land and sea territory. The new spatial high resolution distribution model for emissions to air (SPREAD) has been developed according to the......The National Environmental Research Institute (NERI), Aarhus University, completes the annual national emission inventories for greenhouse gases and air pollutants according to Denmark’s obligations under international conventions, e.g. the climate convention, UNFCCC and the convention on long...

  14. Urban land use, air toxics and public health: Assessing hazardous exposures at the neighborhood scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Land use data are increasingly understood as important indicators of potential environmental health risk in urban areas where micro-scale or neighborhood level hazard exposure data are not routinely collected. This paper aims to offer a method for estimating the distribution of air toxics in urban neighborhoods using land use information because actual air monitoring data rarely exist at this scale. Using Geographic Information System spatial modeling tools, we estimate air toxics concentrations across neighborhoods in New York City and statistically compare our model with the US Environmental Protection Agency's National Air Toxic Assessment and air monitoring data across three NYC neighborhoods. We conclude that land use data can act as a good proxy for estimating neighborhood scale air toxics, particularly in the absence of monitoring data. In addition, the paper suggests that land use data can expand the reach of environmental impact assessments that routinely exclude analyses of potential exposures to urban air toxics at the neighborhood scale

  15. Macroscopic model of radio emission from extensive air showers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A macroscopic model of radio emission from extensive air showers is developed. This model is appropriate for calculating this radio emission at frequencies below 100 MHz. It is constructed on the basis of an analysis of the radiation integral and is verified by comparing field observables predicted by the model with the respective results obtained within the microscopic approach to calculating radio emission from extensive air showers.

  16. Air Emission Inventory for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory: 1992 emissions report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stirrup, T.S.

    1993-06-01

    This report presents the 1992 Air Emission Inventory for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Originally, this report was in response to the Environmental Oversight and Monitoring Agreement in 1989 between the State of Idaho and the Department of Energy Idaho Field Office, and a request from the Idaho Air Quality Bureau. The current purpose of the Air Emission Inventory is to provide the basis for the preparation of the INEL Permit-to-Operate (PTO) an Air Emission Source Application, as required by the recently promulgated Title V regulations of the Clean Air Act. This report includes emissions calculations from 1989 to 1992. The Air Emission Inventory System, an ORACLE-based database system, maintains the emissions inventory.

  17. Air Emission Inventory for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory: 1992 emissions report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents the 1992 Air Emission Inventory for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Originally, this report was in response to the Environmental Oversight and Monitoring Agreement in 1989 between the State of Idaho and the Department of Energy Idaho Field Office, and a request from the Idaho Air Quality Bureau. The current purpose of the Air Emission Inventory is to provide the basis for the preparation of the INEL Permit-to-Operate (PTO) an Air Emission Source Application, as required by the recently promulgated Title V regulations of the Clean Air Act. This report includes emissions calculations from 1989 to 1992. The Air Emission Inventory System, an ORACLE-based database system, maintains the emissions inventory

  18. AIR QUALITY IN ROMANIA. MAIN POLLUTANT EMISSIONS AND FINANCING POSSIBILITIES FOR EMISSION REDUCTION

    OpenAIRE

    Carmen Valentina RĂDULESCU; Ildiko IOAN

    2011-01-01

    Air is the environmental factor which is the most important for pollutants transport because it is the support for the fastest transportation throughout the environment. Reducing polluting emissions in air remains a field in which there are needed important investments, considering the commitments assumed by Romania for reducing emissions and the poor quality of the air in certain areas. The paper analyzes the evolution of the main emissions, respectively the ones coming from large burning in...

  19. Savannah River Site radionuclide air emissions annual report for national emission standards for hazardous air pollutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radiological air emission sources at the SRS have been divided into three categories, Point, Grouped and Non-Point, for this report. Point sources, analyzed individually, are listed with a listing of the control devices, and the control device efficiency. The sources listed have been grouped together either for security reasons or where individual samples are composited for analytical purposes. For grouped sources the listed control devices may not be on all sources within a group. Point sources that did not have continuous effluent monitoring/sampling in 1993 are noted. The emissions from these sources was determined from Health Protection smear data, facility radionuclide content or other calculational methods, including process knowledge, utilizing existing analytical data. This report also contain sections on facility descriptions, dose assessment, and supplemental information

  20. Proceedings of the 10th world clean air congress. Emissions and control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rapid economical growth and expansion of human population have produced a number of environmental problems with varying geographic dimensions. While local problems remain near the pollution sources, the focus of the scientific community is more and more shifted towards regional, continental and global consequences of air pollutants. The theme of the 10th Clean Air Congress 'Growing Challenges from Local to Global' reflects the growing demand from the scientific and professional community working in air pollution prevention and environmental protection - more and more complex mechanisms should be understood on a growing spatial scale. The 10th World Clean Air Congress addresses in its more than 400 presentations, documented in three Volumes of Proceedings, the history, the present and the potential futures of the air pollution problems. Air has during different times always represented something valuable to people: the logo of the Congress, the octahedron sign, sympolizes the element of air in acient Greek philosophy. Today air quality is not only valued as important, it is a death serious matter. This Volume includes the presentations of the path A 'Emissions and Control' of the Congress. This path deals with issues related to measurement, monitoring and inventories of air pollutants from mobile and stationary sources, and the various ways to control the emissions of acidifying pollutants, air toxics and aerosols, volatile organic compounds, and odours. Integrated approaches to pollution prevention and non-waste technologies in various industrial sectors, have recently obtained special attention

  1. Observation of Polarised Microwave Emission from Cosmic Ray Air Showers

    CERN Document Server

    Smida, R; Engel, R; Arteaga-Velazquez, J C; Bekk, K; Bertaina, M; Bluemer, J; Bozdog, H; Brancus, I M; Chiavassa, A; Cossavella, F; Di Pierro, F; Doll, P; Fuchs, B; Fuhrmann, D; Grupen, C; Haungs, A; Heck, D; Hoerandel, J R; Huber, D; Huege, T; Kampert, K -H; Kang, D; Klages, H; Kleifges, M; Kroemer, O; Link, K; Luczak, P; Ludwig, M; Mathes, H J; Mayer, H J; Mathys, S; Melissas, M; Morello, C; Neunteufel, P; Oehlschlaeger, J; Palmieri, N; Pekala, J; Pierog, T; Rautenberg, J; Rebel, H; Riegel, M; Roth, M; Salamida, F; Schieler, H; Schoo, S; Schroeder, F G; Sima, O; Stasielak, J; Toma, G; Trinchero, G C; Unger, M; Weber, M; Weindl, A; Wilczynski, H; Will, M; Wochele, J; Zabierowski, J

    2013-01-01

    We report on the first direct measurement of the basic features of microwave radio emission from extensive air showers. Using a trigger provided by the KASCADE-Grande air shower array, the signals of the microwave antennas of the CROME (Cosmic-Ray Observation via Microwave Emission) experiment have been read out and searched for signatures of radio emission by high-energy air showers. Microwave signals have been detected for more than 30 showers with energies above $3\\times10^{16}$\\,eV. The observations presented in this Letter are consistent with a mainly forward-beamed, coherent and polarised emission process in the GHz frequency range. An isotropic, unpolarised radiation is disfavoured as the dominant emission model. The measurements show that microwave radiation offers a new means of studying air showers at very high energy.

  2. USEtox fate and ecotoxicity factors for comparative assessment of toxic emissions in Life Cycle Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andrew D, Henderson; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky; Van de Meent, Dik;

    2011-01-01

    based on quantitative modeling of fate, exposure, and ecotoxicity effects. Taken together, these are represented as chemical-specific characterization factors (CFs). Through analysis of freshwater CFs for approximately 2500 organic chemicals, with special focus on a subset of chemicals with...... orders of magnitude. However, for an emission to air or soil, differences in chemical properties may decrease the CF by up to 10 orders of magnitude, as a result of intermedia transfer and degradation. This result brings new clarity to the relative contributions of fate and freshwater ecotoxicity to the......The USEtox model was developed in a scientific consensus process involving comparison of and harmonization between existing environmental multimedia fate models. For freshwater ecosystem toxicity, it covers the entire impact pathway, i.e., transforming a chemical emission into potential impacts...

  3. Mercury and Air Toxic Element Impacts of Coal Combustion By-Product Disposal and Utilizaton

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Hassett; Loreal Heebink; Debra Pflughoeft-Hassett; Tera Buckley; Erick Zacher; Mei Xin; Mae Sexauer Gustin; Rob Jung

    2007-03-31

    The University of North Dakota Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) conducted a multiyear study to evaluate the impact of mercury and other air toxic elements (ATEs) on the management of coal combustion by-products (CCBs). The ATEs evaluated in this project were arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead, nickel, and selenium. The study included laboratory tasks to develop measurement techniques for mercury and ATE releases, sample characterization, and release experiments. A field task was also performed to measure mercury releases at a field site. Samples of fly ash and flue gas desulfurization (FGD) materials were collected preferentially from full-scale coal-fired power plants operating both without and with mercury control technologies in place. In some cases, samples from pilot- and bench-scale emission control tests were included in the laboratory studies. Several sets of 'paired' baseline and test fly ash and FGD materials collected during full-scale mercury emission control tests were also included in laboratory evaluations. Samples from mercury emission control tests all contained activated carbon (AC) and some also incorporated a sorbent-enhancing agent (EA). Laboratory release experiments focused on measuring releases of mercury under conditions designed to simulate CCB exposure to water, ambient-temperature air, elevated temperatures, and microbes in both wet and dry conditions. Results of laboratory evaluations indicated that: (1) Mercury and sometimes selenium are collected with AC used for mercury emission control and, therefore, present at higher concentrations than samples collected without mercury emission controls present. (2) Mercury is stable on CCBs collected from systems both without and with mercury emission controls present under most conditions tested, with the exception of vapor-phase releases of mercury exposed to elevated temperatures. (3) The presence of carbon either from added AC or from unburned coal can result in mercury

  4. 76 FR 80727 - Flexible Implementation of the Mercury and Air Toxics Standards Rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-27

    ... 21, 2011 [FR Doc. 2011-33337 Filed 12-23-11; 8:45 am] Billing code 6560-50-P ... Documents#0;#0; ] Memorandum of December 21, 2011 Flexible Implementation of the Mercury and Air Toxics... the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), of the final Mercury and Air Toxics Standards rule...

  5. 77 FR 30274 - The Commission's Role Regarding the Environmental Protection Agency's Mercury and Air Toxics...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-22

    .../pkg/FR-2012-02-16/pdf/2012-806.pdf . I. Introduction 2. On December 21, 2011, the EPA released the... Mercury and Air Toxics Standards; Policy Statement on the Commission's Role Regarding the Environmental Protection Agency's Mercury and Air Toxics Standards Before Commissioners: Jon Wellinghoff, Chairman;...

  6. Data Quality Objectives for Regulatory Requirements for Hazardous and Radioactive Air Emissions Sampling and Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document describes the results of the data quality objective (DQO) process undertaken to define data needs for state and federal requirements associated with toxic, hazardous, and/or radiological air emissions under the jurisdiction of the River Protection Project (RPP). Hereafter, this document is referred to as the Air DQO. The primary drivers for characterization under this DQO are the regulatory requirements pursuant to Washington State regulations, that may require sampling and analysis. The federal regulations concerning air emissions are incorporated into the Washington State regulations. Data needs exist for nonradioactive and radioactive waste constituents and characteristics as identified through the DQO process described in this document. The purpose is to identify current data needs for complying with regulatory drivers for the measurement of air emissions from RPP facilities in support of air permitting. These drivers include best management practices; similar analyses may have more than one regulatory driver. This document should not be used for determining overall compliance with regulations because the regulations are in constant change, and this document may not reflect the latest regulatory requirements. Regulatory requirements are also expected to change as various permits are issued. Data needs require samples for both radionuclides and nonradionuclide analytes of air emissions from tanks and stored waste containers. The collection of data is to support environmental permitting and compliance, not for health and safety issues

  7. [Impact of heavy-duty diesel vehicles on air quality and control of their emissions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Lei; Wang, Bo-Guang; Tang, Da-Gang

    2011-08-01

    Through an analysis of the characteristics of diesel vehicle emissions and motor vehicle emissions inventories, this paper examines the impact of heavy-duty diesel vehicles on air quality in China as well as issues related to the control of their emissions. Heavy-duty diesel vehicles emit large amounts of nitrogen oxides and particulate matter. Nitrogen oxides is one of the important precursors for the formation of secondary particles and ozone in the atmosphere, causing regional haze. Diesel particulate matter is a major toxic air pollutant with adverse effect on human health, and in particular, the ultrafine particles in 30-100 nm size range can pose great health risks because of its extremely small sizes. Motor vehicles have become a major source of air pollution in many metropolitan areas and city cluster in China, and among them the heavy-duty diesel vehicles are a dominant contributor of nitrogen oxides and particulate matter emissions. Hence, controlling heavy-duty diesel vehicle emissions should be a key component of an effective air quality management plan, and a number of issues related to heavy-duty diesel vehicle emissions need to be addressed. PMID:22619934

  8. Effect of pyrolysis temperature and air flow on toxicity of gases from a polycarbonate polymer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilado, C. J.; Brick, V. E.; Brauer, D. P.

    1978-01-01

    A polycarbonate polymer was evaluated for toxicity of pyrolysis gases generated at various temperatures without forced air flow and with 1 L/min air flow, using the toxicity screening test method developed at the University of San Francisco. Time to various animal responses decreased with increasing pyrolysis temperature over the range from 500 C to 800 C. There appeared to be no significant toxic effects at 400 C and lower temperatures.

  9. Air pollution, emission 1990-1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emission data are presented for all man-made sources of eight different pollutants in the period 1990-1998. Data are given for combustion and processes per main activity. For mobile sources only the total emission of a few activities is given. The contribution of different policy target groups in the Netherlands to the total emission of 1998 is also presented. The Dutch emission level for carbon dioxide can be presented in four different ways. The basic sources and related calculation methods are explained. 8 refs

  10. VOCs and formaldehyde emissions from cleaning products and air fresheners

    OpenAIRE

    Solal, Cécilia; Rousselle, Christophe; Mandin, Corinne; Manel, Jacques; Maupetit, François

    2008-01-01

    Human indoor exposure to Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) may be associated with the use of household products. However little is known about their emissions and to what extent they contribute to indoor air pollution. The French Agency for Environmental and Occupational Health Safety (Afsset) conducted tests in order to characterize VOCs emissions from 32 consumer products: air fresheners, glass cleaners, furniture polishes, toilet products, carpet and floor cleaning products. All experiment...

  11. Radioactive air emissions notice of construction for HEPA filtered vacuum radioactive air emission units

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, R.E.

    1997-10-27

    This notice of construction (NOC) requests a categorical approval for construction and operation of certain portable high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filtered vacuum radionuclide airborne emission units (HVUs). Approval of this NOC application is intended to allow operation of the HVUs without prior project-specific approval. This NOC does not request replacement or supersedence of any previous agreements/approvals by the Washington State Department of Health (WDOH) for the use of vacuums on the Hanford Site. These previous agreements/approvals include the approved NOCs for the use of EuroClean HEPA vacuums at the T Plant Complex and the Kelly Decontamination System at the Plutonium-Uranium Extraction (PUREX) Plant. Also, this NOC does not replace or supersede the agreement reached regarding the use of HEPA hand-held/shop-vacuum cleaners for routine cleanup activities conducted by the Environmental Restoration Project. Routine cleanup activities are conducted during the surveillance and maintenance of inactive waste sites (Radioactive Area Remedial Action Project) and inactive facilities. HEPA hand-held/shop-vacuum cleaners are used to clean up spot surface contamination areas found during outdoor radiological field surveys, and to clean up localized radiologically contaminated material (e.g., dust, dirt, bird droppings, animal feces, liquids, insects, spider webs, etc.). This agreement, documented in the October 12, 1994 Routine Meeting Minutes, is based on routine cleanup consisting of spot cleanup of low-level contamination provided that, in each case, the source term potential would be below 0.1 millirem per year. This application is intended to request sitewide approval for the new activities, and provide an option for any facility on the site to use this approval, within the terms of this NOC. The HVUs used in accordance with this NOC will support reduction of radiological contamination at various locations on the Hanford Site. Radiation Protection Air

  12. Radioactive air emissions notice of construction for HEPA filtered vacuum radioactive air emissions units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This notice of construction (NOC) requests a categorical approval for construction and operation of certain portable high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filtered vacuum radionuclide airborne emission units (HVUs). Approval of this NOC application is intended to allow operation of the HVUs without prior project-specific approval. This NOC does not request replacement or supersedence of any previous agreements/approvals by the Washington State Department of Health (WDOH) for the use of vacuums on the Hanford Site. These previous agreements/approvals include the approved NOCs for the use of EuroClean HEPA vacuums at the T Plant Complex and the Kelly Decontamination System at the Plutonium-Uranium Extraction (PUREX) Plant. Also, this NOC does not replace or supersede the agreement reached regarding the use of HEPA hand-held/shop-vacuum cleaners for routine cleanup activities conducted by the Environmental Restoration Project. Routine cleanup activities are conducted during the surveillance and maintenance of inactive waste sites (Radioactive Area Remedial Action Project) and inactive facilities. HEPA hand-held/shop-vacuum cleaners are used to clean up spot surface contamination areas found during outdoor radiological field surveys, and to clean up localized radiologically contaminated material (e.g., dust, dirt, bird droppings, animal feces, liquids, insects, spider webs, etc.). This agreement, documented in the October 12, 1994 Routine Meeting Minutes, is based on routine cleanup consisting of spot cleanup of low-level contamination provided that, in each case, the source term potential would be below 0.1 millirem per year. This application is intended to request sitewide approval for the new activities, and provide an option for any facility on the site to use this approval, within the terms of this NOC. The HVUs used in accordance with this NOC will support reduction of radiological contamination at various locations on the Hanford Site. Radiation Protection Air

  13. Radio emission from cosmic ray air showers : Monte Carlo simulations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huege, T.; Falcke, H.D.E.

    2005-01-01

    We present time-domain Monte Carlo simulations of radio emission from cosmic ray air showers in the scheme of coherent geosynchrotron radiation. Our model takes into account the important air shower characteristics such as the lateral and longitudinal particle distributions, the particle track lengt

  14. 75 FR 80833 - Shipboard Air Emission Reduction Technology Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-23

    ..., 2008, issue of the Federal Register (73 FR 3316). Background and Purpose The U.S. implemented the Clean... SECURITY Coast Guard Shipboard Air Emission Reduction Technology Report AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION..., in conjunction with the Environmental Protection Agency, on Ship Emission Reduction Technology...

  15. IMPACT OF A PRIMARY SULFATE EMISSION SOURCE ON AIR QUALITY

    Science.gov (United States)

    A one-month study was carried out at an isolated oil-fired power plant in New York State to assess the impact of primary sulfate emissions on air quality. Emissions of total sulfate from the source varied from 22 kg/hr to 82 kg/hr per boiler with the sulfuric acid concentration a...

  16. Atmospheric emissions and air quality impacts from natural gas production and use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, David T

    2014-01-01

    The US Energy Information Administration projects that hydraulic fracturing of shale formations will become a dominant source of domestic natural gas supply over the next several decades, transforming the energy landscape in the United States. However, the environmental impacts associated with fracking for shale gas have made it controversial. This review examines emissions and impacts of air pollutants associated with shale gas production and use. Emissions and impacts of greenhouse gases, photochemically active air pollutants, and toxic air pollutants are described. In addition to the direct atmospheric impacts of expanded natural gas production, indirect effects are also described. Widespread availability of shale gas can drive down natural gas prices, which, in turn, can impact the use patterns for natural gas. Natural gas production and use in electricity generation are used as a case study for examining these indirect consequences of expanded natural gas availability. PMID:24498952

  17. National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants submittal -- 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report focuses on air quality at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) for 1994. A general description of the effluent sources are presented. Each potential source of NTS emissions was characterized by one of the following: (1) by monitoring methods and procedures previously developed at NTS; (2) by a yearly radionuclide inventory of the source, assuming that volatile radionuclides are released to the environment; (3) by the measurement of tritiated water concentration in liquid effluents discharged to containment ponds and assuming all the effluent evaporates over the course of the year to become an air emission; or (4) by using a combination of environmental measurements and CAP88-PC to calculate emissions. Appendices A through J describe the methods used to determine the emissions from the sources. These National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) emissions are very conservative, are used to calculate the effective dose equivalent to the Maximally Exposed Individual offsite, and exceed, in some cases, those reported in DOE's Effluent Information System (EIS). The NESHAP's worst-case emissions that exceed the EIS reported emissions are noted. Offsite environmental surveillance data are used to confirm that calculated emissions are, indeed, conservative

  18. National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants submittal -- 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Townsend, Y.E. [ed.; Black, S.C.

    1995-06-01

    This report focuses on air quality at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) for 1994. A general description of the effluent sources are presented. Each potential source of NTS emissions was characterized by one of the following: (1) by monitoring methods and procedures previously developed at NTS; (2) by a yearly radionuclide inventory of the source, assuming that volatile radionuclides are released to the environment; (3) by the measurement of tritiated water concentration in liquid effluents discharged to containment ponds and assuming all the effluent evaporates over the course of the year to become an air emission; or (4) by using a combination of environmental measurements and CAP88-PC to calculate emissions. Appendices A through J describe the methods used to determine the emissions from the sources. These National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) emissions are very conservative, are used to calculate the effective dose equivalent to the Maximally Exposed Individual offsite, and exceed, in some cases, those reported in DOE`s Effluent Information System (EIS). The NESHAP`s worst-case emissions that exceed the EIS reported emissions are noted. Offsite environmental surveillance data are used to confirm that calculated emissions are, indeed, conservative.

  19. California Air Resources board's mobil source emission reduction credit guidelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The California Air Resources Board has developed guidance for the generation and use of mobil source emission reduction credits. Mobil source credits can be used to improve air quality, or to mitigate increases in emissions associated with industrial and non-industrial sources. They are created by programs which reduce mobile source emission beyond the reductions required by federal, state, and local laws or air quality attainment plans. Significant amounts of credit can be generated by some types of programs which reduce mobile source emissions of oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and reactive organic gases (ROG). Mobile source credit programs must be carefully structured to ensure that emission reductions are real, accurately quantified, enforceable, and have a defined life. Three potentially feasible programs for the creation of mobile source credits include accelerated retirement of older vehicles, purchase of low-emission buses, and purchase of zero-emission vehicles. These programs are evaluated for their ability to generate credit and to assess their cost effectiveness. Based on the examples presented, two methods of generating mobile source credits, the accelerated retirement of older vehicles and the purchase of low-emission buses, appear to be cost-effective when compared to other emission control measures

  20. Spatial distribution of emissions to air - the SPREAD model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plejdrup, M.S.; Gyldenkaerne, S.

    2011-04-15

    The National Environmental Research Institute (NERI), Aarhus University, completes the annual national emission inventories for greenhouse gases and air pollutants according to Denmark's obligations under international conventions, e.g. the climate convention, UNFCCC and the convention on long-range transboundary air pollution, CLRTAP. NERI has developed a model to distribute emissions from the national emission inventories on a 1x1 km grid covering the Danish land and sea territory. The new spatial high resolution distribution model for emissions to air (SPREAD) has been developed according to the requirements for reporting of gridded emissions to CLRTAP. Spatial emission data is e.g. used as input for air quality modelling, which again serves as input for assessment and evaluation of health effects. For these purposes distributions with higher spatial resolution have been requested. Previously, a distribution on the 17x17 km EMEP grid has been set up and used in research projects combined with detailed distributions for a few sectors or sub-sectors e.g. a distribution for emissions from road traffic on 1x1 km resolution. SPREAD is developed to generate improved spatial emission data for e.g. air quality modelling in exposure studies. SPREAD includes emission distributions for each sector in the Danish inventory system; stationary combustion, mobile sources, fugitive emissions from fuels, industrial processes, solvents and other product use, agriculture and waste. This model enables generation of distributions for single sectors and for a number of sub-sectors and single sources as well. This report documents the methodologies in this first version of SPREAD and presents selected results. Further, a number of potential improvements for later versions of SPREAD are addressed and discussed. (Author)

  1. Silent Discharge Plasma Technology for the Treatment of Air Toxics and Other Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosocha, Louis A. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Chase, Peter J. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Gross, Michael P. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    1998-09-21

    Under this CRADA, the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and High Mesa Technologies, Inc. (HMT) carried out a joint project on the development of the silent discharge plasma (SDP) technology for the treatment of hazardous air pollutants and other hazardous or toxic chemicals. The project had two major components: a technology-demonstration part and a scale-up and commercialization part. In the first part, a small-scale, mobile SDP plasma processor, which was being developed under a CRADA with the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) was the mobile equipment was modified for higher capacity service and employed for an innovative remediation technologies demonstration on soil-vapor extraction off-gases at the McClellan Air Force Base near Sacramento, CA. The performance of the SDP system for the variety of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) encountered at the McClellan site was sufficiently promising to the project HMT and LANL worked together to formulate a scale-up strategy and commercialization/manufacturing plan, and to design a prototype scaled-up SDP unit. HMT and LANL are now in the final stages of completing a licensing agreement for the technology and HMT is in the process of raising funds to engineer and manufacture commercial prototype SDP equipment focused on stack-gas emissions control and environmental remediation. HMT, in collaboration with another Northern New Mexico business, Coyote Aerospace, has also been successful in receiving a Phase I Small Business Innovative Research (SBIR) award from the Army Research Office to develop, design, and construct a small non-thermal plasma reactor for laboratory studies ("Non-Thermal Plasma Reactor for Control of Fugitive Emissions of Toxic Gases")

  2. Relationship of Racial Composition and Cancer Risks from Air Toxics Exposure in Memphis, Tennessee, U.S.A.

    OpenAIRE

    Chunrong Jia; Wesley James; Satish Kedia

    2014-01-01

    African Americans in the U.S. often live in poverty and segregated urban neighborhoods, many of which have dense industrial facilities resulting in high exposure to harmful air toxics. This study aims to explore the relationship between racial composition and cancer risks from air toxics exposure in Memphis/Shelby County, Tennessee, U.S.A. Air toxics data were obtained from 2005 National Air Toxics Assessment (NATA), and the demographic data, including racial composition, were extracted from ...

  3. Data Quality Objectives for Regulatory Requirements for Hazardous and Radioactive Air Emissions Sampling and Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MULKEY, C.H.

    1999-07-06

    This document describes the results of the data quality objective (DQO) process undertaken to define data needs for state and federal requirements associated with toxic, hazardous, and/or radiological air emissions under the jurisdiction of the River Protection Project (RPP). Hereafter, this document is referred to as the Air DQO. The primary drivers for characterization under this DQO are the regulatory requirements pursuant to Washington State regulations, that may require sampling and analysis. The federal regulations concerning air emissions are incorporated into the Washington State regulations. Data needs exist for nonradioactive and radioactive waste constituents and characteristics as identified through the DQO process described in this document. The purpose is to identify current data needs for complying with regulatory drivers for the measurement of air emissions from RPP facilities in support of air permitting. These drivers include best management practices; similar analyses may have more than one regulatory driver. This document should not be used for determining overall compliance with regulations because the regulations are in constant change, and this document may not reflect the latest regulatory requirements. Regulatory requirements are also expected to change as various permits are issued. Data needs require samples for both radionuclides and nonradionuclide analytes of air emissions from tanks and stored waste containers. The collection of data is to support environmental permitting and compliance, not for health and safety issues. This document does not address health or safety regulations or requirements (those of the Occupational Safety and Health Administration or the National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health) or continuous emission monitoring systems. This DQO is applicable to all equipment, facilities, and operations under the jurisdiction of RPP that emit or have the potential to emit regulated air pollutants.

  4. Data Quality Objectives for Regulatory Requirements for Hazardous and Radioactive Air Emissions Sampling and Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document describes the results of the data quality objective (DQO) process undertaken to define data needs for state and federal requirements associated with toxic, hazardous, and/or radiological air emissions under the jurisdiction of the River Protection Project (RPP). Hereafter, this document is referred to as the Air DQO. The primary drivers for characterization under this DQO are the regulatory requirements pursuant to Washington State regulations, that may require sampling and analysis. The federal regulations concerning air emissions are incorporated into the Washington State regulations. Data needs exist for nonradioactive and radioactive waste constituents and characteristics as identified through the DQO process described in this document. The purpose is to identify current data needs for complying with regulatory drivers for the measurement of air emissions from RPP facilities in support of air permitting. These drivers include best management practices; similar analyses may have more than one regulatory driver. This document should not be used for determining overall compliance with regulations because the regulations are in constant change, and this document may not reflect the latest regulatory requirements. Regulatory requirements are also expected to change as various permits are issued. Data needs require samples for both radionuclides and nonradionuclide analytes of air emissions from tanks and stored waste containers. The collection of data is to support environmental permitting and compliance, not for health and safety issues. This document does not address health or safety regulations or requirements (those of the Occupational Safety and Health Administration or the National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health) or continuous emission monitoring systems. This DQO is applicable to all equipment, facilities, and operations under the jurisdiction of RPP that emit or have the potential to emit regulated air pollutants

  5. In vitro assessment of human airway toxicity from major aldehydes in automotive emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grafstroem, R.C. [Karolinska Inst., Stockholm (Sweden). Inst. of Environmental Medicine

    1997-09-01

    Automotive exhausts can significantly contribute to the levels of reactive aldehydes, including formaldehyde, acetaldehyde and acrolein, in urban air. The use of alcohols as an alternative fuel for gasoline or diesel may further increase these emissions. Since it is unclear if aldehyde inhalation may induce pathological states, including cancer, in human airways, the toxic properties of the above-mentioned aldehydes were studied in cultured target cell types. Each aldehyde modified vital cellular functions in a dose-dependent manner, and invariably inhibited growth and induced abnormal terminal differentiation. Decreases of cellular thiols and increases of intracellular Ca{sup 2+} were observed, and moreover, variable types and amounts of short-lived or persistent genetic damage were induced. The concentrations required for specified levels of a particular type of injury varied up to 10000-fold among the aldehydes. Overall, distinctive patterns of cytopathological activity were observed, which differed both qualitatively and quantitatively among the aldehydes. Finally, aldehydes inhibited DNA repair processes and increased cytotoxicity and mutagenesis in synergy with other known toxicants, indicating that aldehydes may also enhance damage by other constituents in automotive exhausts. In summary, the aldehydes, notably {sup m}u{sup M}-mM formaldehyde, caused pathological effects and induced mechanisms that relate to acute toxicity and cancer development in airway epithelial cells. Since `no-effect` levels may not exist for carcinogenic agents, the overall results support a need for elimination of aldehydes in automotive exhausts. 41 refs

  6. Amplified radio emission from cosmic ray air showers in thunderstorms

    CERN Document Server

    Buitink, S; Asch, T; Badea, F; Bähren, L; Bekk, K; Bercuci, A; Bertaina, M; Biermann, P L; Blumer, J; Bozdog, H; Brancus, I M; Bruggemann, M; Buchholz, P; Butcher, H; Chiavassa, A; Cossavella, F; Daumiller, K; Di Pierro, F; Doll, P; Engel, R; Falcke, H; Gemmeke, H; Ghia, P L; Glasstetter, R; Grupen, C; Haungs, A; Heck, D; Hörandel, J R; Horneffer, A; Huege, T; Kampert, K H; Kolotaev, Y; Krömer, O; Kuijpers, J; Lafebre, S; Mathes, H J; Mayer, H J; Meurer, C; Milke, J; Mitrica, B; Morello, C; Navarra, G; Nehls, S; Nigl, A; Obenland, R; Oehlschläger, J; Ostapchenko, S; Over, S; Petcu, M; Petrovic, J; Pierog, T; Plewnia, S; Rebel, H; Risse, A; Roth, M; Schieler, H; Sima, O; Singh, K; Stumpert, M; Toma, G; Trinchero, G C; Ulrich, H; Van Buren, J; Walkowiak, W; Weindl, A; Wochele, J; Zabierowski, J; Zensus, J A; Zimmermann, D; Buitink, Stijn

    2007-01-01

    Cosmic ray air showers produce radio emission, consisting in large part of geosynchrotron emission. Since the radiation mechanism is based on particle acceleration, the atmospheric electric field can play an important role. Especially inside thunderclouds large electric fields can be present. We examine the contribution of an electric field to the emission mechanism theoretically and experimentally. Two mechanisms of amplification of radio emission are considered: the acceleration radiation of the shower particles and the radiation from the current that is produced by ionization electrons moving in the electric field. We selected and evaluated LOPES data recorded during thunderstorms, periods of heavy cloudiness and periods of cloudless weather. We find that during thunderstorms the radio emission can be strongly enhanced. No amplified pulses were found during periods of cloudless sky or heavy cloudiness, suggesting that the electric field effect for radio air shower measurements can be safely ignored during ...

  7. Probing the radio emission from air showers with polarization measurements

    CERN Document Server

    ,

    2014-01-01

    The emission of radio waves from air showers has been attributed to the so-called geomagnetic emission process. At frequencies around 50 MHz this process leads to coherent radiation which can be observed with rather simple setups. The direction of the electric field induced by this emission process depends only on the local magnetic field vector and on the incoming direction of the air shower. We report on measurements of the electric field vector where, in addition to this geomagnetic component, another component has been observed which cannot be described by the geomagnetic emission process. The data provide strong evidence that the other electric field component is polarized radially with respect to the shower axis, in agreement with predictions made by Askaryan who described radio emission from particle showers due to a negative charge-excess in the front of the shower. Our results are compared to calculations which include the radiation mechanism induced by this charge-excess process.

  8. Toxicity and health effects of vehicle emissions in Shanghai

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shunhua Ye; Wei Zhou; Jian Song; Baocheng Peng; Dong Yuan; Yuanming Lu; Pingping Qi [Shanghai Medical University (China). Dept. of Environmental Health

    2000-07-01

    In China, the number of vehicles is increasing rapidly with the continuous development of economy, and vehicle emission pollution in major cities is more serious than ever. In this article, we summarized the results of a series of short-term assays, animal experiments and epidemiology investigations on the genotoxicity, immunotoxicity, respiratory toxicity and health effects of vehicle emissions in Shanghai, including gasoline exhausts (gas condensate and particles), diesel exhaust particles (DEP) and scooter exhaust particles (SEP). The results showed that: (1) Both gases and particulate phases of the exhausts of different kinds of vehicles showed strong mutagenicity in Ames test (TA98 and TA100 strains), rat hepatocyte unscheduled DNA synthesis (UDS) assay, and mouse micronucleus assay, and vehicle emissions could induce the transformation of Syrian hamster embryo (SHE) cells. DEP and SEP could induce the transformation of human diploid cell strain (KMB-13) cells, immunohistochemistry assay showed that c-myc and p21 proteins were highly expressed in the transformed cells. DEP and SEP could also inhibit the gap junctional intercellular communication (GJIC) of BALB/C3T3 cells (2) Vehicle emissions could decrease the number of macrophages in the lung (bronchial alveolar lavage fluid) (BALF) of male SD rats. Vehicle emissions could also increase the proportion of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN), the content of cetyneuraminic acid (NA), the activity of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), alkali phosphate (AKP), acid phosphate (ACP) in the lung BALF of the animals. (3) In epidemiology investigation, the proportion of those who have respiratory symptoms and chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD) in the workers who were exposed to DEP (n = 806) were much higher than those of the controls (n = 413). The OR (odd ratio) values of angina, nasal obstruction, phlegm, short of breath and COPD were 2.27, 3.08, 3.00, 3.19 and 2.32, respectively, and the proportion of those who

  9. Toxicity and health effects of vehicle emissions in Shanghai

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Shun-Hua; Zhou, Wei; Song, Jian; Peng, Bao-Cheng; Yuan, Dong; Lu, Yuan-Ming; Qi, Ping-Ping

    In China, the number of vehicles is increasing rapidly with the continuous development of economy, and vehicle emission pollution in major cities is more serious than ever. In this article, we summarized the results of a series of short-term assays, animal experiments and epidemiology investigations on the genotoxicity, immunotoxicity, respiratory toxicity and health effects of vehicle emissions in Shanghai, including gasoline exhausts (gas condensate and particles), diesel exhaust particles (DEP) and scooter exhaust particles (SEP). The results showed that: (1) Both gases and particulate phases of the exhausts of different kinds of vehicles showed strong mutagenicity in Ames test (TA98 and TA100 strains), rat hepatocyte unscheduled DNA synthesis (UDS) assay, and mouse micronucleus assay, and vehicle emissions could induce the transformation of Syrian hamster embryo (SHE) cells. DEP and SEP could induce the transformation of human diploid cell strain (KMB-13) cells, immunohistochemistry assay showed that c-myc and p21 proteins were highly expressed in the transformed cells. DEP and SEP could also inhibit the gap junctional intercellular communication (GJIC) of BALB/C3T3 cells (2) Vehicle emissions could decrease the number of macrophages in the lung (bronchial alveolar lavage fluid) (BALF) of male SD rats. Vehicle emissions could also increase the proportion of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN), the content of cetyneuraminic acid (NA), the activity of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), alkali phosphate (AKP), acid phosphate (ACP) in the lung BALF of the animals. (3) In epidemiology investigation, the proportion of those who have respiratory symptoms and chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD) in the workers who were exposed to DEP ( n=806) were much higher than those of the controls ( n=413). The OR (odd ratio) values of angina, nasal obstruction, phlegm, short of breath and COPD were 2.27, 3.08, 3.00, 3.19 and 2.32, respectively, and the proportion of those who

  10. Development of a health effects based priority ranking system for air emissions reductions from oil refineries in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents the concept and methodologies behind the development of a health effects priority ranking tool for the reduction of air emissions from oil refineries. The Health Effects Indicators Decision Index- Versions 2 (Heidi II) was designed to assist policy makers in prioritizing air emissions reductions on the basis of estimated risk to human health. Inputs include facility level rankings of potential health impacts associated with carcinogenic air toxics, non-carcinogenic air toxics and criteria air contaminants for each of the 20 refineries in Canada. Rankings of estimated health impacts are presented on predicted incidence of health effects. Heidi II considers site-specific annual pollutant emission data, ambient air concentrations associated with releases and concentration response functions for various types of health effects. Additional data includes location specific background air concentrations, site-specific population densities, and the baseline incidence of different health effects endpoints, such as cancer, non-cancer illnesses and cardiorespiratory illnesses and death. Air pollutants include the 29 air toxics reported annually in Environment Canada's National Pollutant Release Inventory. Three health impact ranking outputs are provided for each facility: ranking of pollutants based on predicted number of annual cases of health effects; ranking of pollutants based on simplified Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALYs); and ranking of pollutants based on more complex DALYs that consider types of cancer, systemic disease or types of cardiopulmonary health effects. Rankings rely on rough statistical estimates of predicted incidence rates for health endpoints. The models used to calculate rankings can provide useful guidance by comparing estimated health impacts. Heidi II has demonstrated that it is possible to develop a consistent and objective approach for ranking priority reductions of air emissions. Heidi II requires numerous types and

  11. Toxic Volatile Organic Compounds in Environmental Tobacco Smoke:Emission Factors for Modeling Exposures of California Populations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daisey, J.M.; Mahanama, K.R.R.; Hodgson, A.T.

    1994-10-01

    The primary objective of this study was to measure emission factors for selected toxic air in environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) using a room-sized environmental chamber. The emissions of 23 volatile organic compounds (VOCs), including 1,3-butadiene, three aldehydes and two vapor-phase N-nitrosarnines were determined for six commercial brands of cigarettes and reference cigarette 1R4F. The commercial brands were selected to represent 62.5% of the cigarettes smoked in California. For each brand, three cigarettes were machine smoked in the chamber. The experiments were conducted over four hours to investigate the effects of aging. Emission factors of the target compounds were also determined for sidestream smoke (SS). For almost all target compounds, the ETS emission factors were significantly higher than the corresponding SS values probably due to less favorable combustion conditions and wall losses in the SS apparatus. Where valid comparisons could be made, the ETS emission factors were generally in good agreement with the literature. Therefore, the ETS emission factors, rather than the SS values, are recommended for use in models to estimate population exposures from this source. The variabilities in the emission factors (pgkigarette) of the selected toxic air contaminants among brands, expressed as coefficients of variation, were 16 to 29%. Therefore, emissions among brands were generally similar. Differences among brands were related to the smoked lengths of the cigarettes and the masses of consumed tobacco. Mentholation and whether a cigarette was classified as light or regular did not significantly affect emissions. Aging was determined not to be a significant factor for the target compounds. There were, however, deposition losses of the less volatile compounds to chamber surfaces.

  12. Atmospheric polychlorinated biphenyls in Indian cities: levels, emission sources and toxicity equivalents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Paromita; Zhang, Gan; Eckhardt, Sabine; Li, Jun; Breivik, Knut; Lam, Paul K S; Tanabe, Shinsuke; Jones, Kevin C

    2013-11-01

    Atmospheric concentration of Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were measured on diurnal basis by active air sampling during Dec 2006 to Feb 2007 in seven major cities from the northern (New Delhi and Agra), eastern (Kolkata), western (Mumbai and Goa) and southern (Chennai and Bangalore) parts of India. Average concentration of Σ25PCBs in the Indian atmosphere was 4460 (± 2200) pg/m(-3) with a dominance of congeners with 4-7 chlorine atoms. Model results (HYSPLIT, FLEXPART) indicate that the source areas are likely confined to local or regional proximity. Results from the FLEXPART model show that existing emission inventories cannot explain the high concentrations observed for PCB-28. Electronic waste, ship breaking activities and dumped solid waste are attributed as the possible sources of PCBs in India. Σ25PCB concentrations for each city showed significant linear correlation with Toxicity equivalence (TEQ) and Neurotoxic equivalence (NEQ) values. PMID:23954623

  13. Development of a forecast model for global air traffic emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaefer, Martin

    2012-07-01

    The thesis describes the methodology and results of a simulation model that quantifies fuel consumption and emissions of civil air traffic. Besides covering historical emissions, the model aims at forecasting emissions in the medium-term future. For this purpose, simulation models of aircraft and engine types are used in combination with a database of global flight movements and assumptions about traffic growth, fleet rollover and operational aspects. Results from an application of the model include emissions of scheduled air traffic for the years 2000 to 2010 as well as forecasted emissions until the year 2030. In a baseline scenario of the forecast, input assumptions (e.g. traffic growth rates) are in line with predictions by the aircraft industry. Considering the effects of advanced technologies of the short-term and medium-term future, the forecast focusses on fuel consumption and emissions of nitric oxides. Calculations for historical air traffic additionally cover emissions of carbon monoxide, unburned hydrocarbons and soot. Results are validated against reference data including studies by the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) and simulation results from international research projects. (orig.)

  14. Toxic and hazardous air pollutants from co-firing biomass fuels, fossil fuels, MSW and RDF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toxic and hazardous pollutants are defined and then are considered from the perspective of pollutants which enter the combustion process with the fuel (principally the metals and metallic compounds) and pollutants which are formed as products of incomplete combustion. Control strategies are reviewed through the entire process including fuel preparation and storage, combustion control and the application of air pollution control devices. Measurement techniques for specific toxic and hazardous air pollutants are discussed

  15. Future research needs associated with the assessment of potential human health risks from exposure to toxic ambient air pollutants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Möller, Lennart; Schuetzle, Dennis; Autrup, Herman

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents key conclusions and future research needs from a Workshop on the Risk Assessment of Urban Air, Emissions, Exposure, Risk Identification, and Quantification, which was held in Stockholm during June 1992 by 41 participants from 13 countries. Research is recommended in the areas of...... identification and quantification of toxics in source emissions and ambient air, atmospheric transport and chemistry, exposure level assessment, the development of improved in vitro bioassays, biomarker development, the development of more accurate epidemiological methodologies, and risk quantification...... techniques. Studies are described that will be necessary to assess and reduce the level of uncertainties associated with each step of the risk assessment process. International collaborative research efforts between industry and government organizations are recommended as the most effective way to carry out...

  16. Effect of low emission sources on air quality in Cracow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nedoma, J. [EKOPOL Environmental Engineering Studies and Design Office, Co. Ltd., Cracow (Poland)

    1995-12-31

    The paper presents calculation of power engineering low emission and results of stimulation of the effect of this emission on air quality in Cracow, Poland. It has been stated that the segment of low emission in central areas of the town makes up ca. 40% of the observed concentration of sulfur dioxide. Furthermore it has been stated that the capital investment must be concentrated in the central part of the town in order to reach noticeable improvement of air quality in Cracow. Neither the output of a separate power source nor the emission level and its individual harmful effect, but the location of the source and especially packing density of the sources must decide the priority of upgrading actions.

  17. Emissions of hazardous air pollutants. Vaarallisten aineiden paeaestoet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mroueh, U.M. (Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo (Finland). Chemical Lab.)

    1992-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compile an inventory of the emissions and sources of hazardous air pollutants in Finland for the year 1990. Hazardous trace air pollutants comprise a multitude of compounds constituting a hazard to human health or environment. This inventory has concentrated on the compounds listed in the Final, Declaration of the Third International Conference on the Protection of North Sea. These include most common heavy metals, commonly used volatile halogenated organic compounds, chlorinated dioxins and furans, tri- and hexachlorobenzene, and hexachlorocyclohexane. The emissions of above mentioned pollutants were estimated on the basis of existing inventories and investigations, statistics on import and consumption, emission registrations, and information supplied by authorities and relevant plants. In addition environmental and health effects of the compounds were summarized and control technologies applicable for emission reduction were evaluated.

  18. U.S. DOE 2004 LANL Radionuclide Air Emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K.W. Jacobson

    2005-08-12

    Amendments to the Clean Air Act, which added radionuclides to the National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP), went into effect in 1990. Specifically, a subpart (H) of 40 CFR 61 established an annual limit on the impact to the public attributable to emissions of radionuclides from U.S. Department of Energy facilities, such as the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). As part of the new NESHAP regulations, LANL must submit an annual report to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency headquarters and the regional office in Dallas by June 30. This report includes results of monitoring at LANL and the dose calculations for the calendar year 2004.

  19. Emission to air, water and ground: legislation in Norway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The article discusses Norwegian legislation on emission to air, water and ground. Pollution in the sense of the law is defined as ''the addition of solid matter, gas or liquid to air, water or ground''. The concept of pollution is, however, more far-reaching as even noise, light and radiation may be regarded as pollution although these are not discussed. Any pollution is prohibited. But there are two exceptions: commonly accepted pollutions such as arising from wood burning and agriculture, and emissions allowed by special permission from the National State Pollution Control Authority. The article also discusses liability issues

  20. U.S. DOE 2004 LANL Radionuclide Air Emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amendments to the Clean Air Act, which added radionuclides to the National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP), went into effect in 1990. Specifically, a subpart (H) of 40 CFR 61 established an annual limit on the impact to the public attributable to emissions of radionuclides from U.S. Department of Energy facilities, such as the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). As part of the new NESHAP regulations, LANL must submit an annual report to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency headquarters and the regional office in Dallas by June 30. This report includes results of monitoring at LANL and the dose calculations for the calendar year 2004

  1. Polarized radio emission from extensive air showers measured with LOFAR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present LOFAR measurements of radio emission from extensive air showers. We find that this emission is strongly polarized, with a median degree of polarization of nearly 99%, and that the angle between the polarization direction of the electric field and the Lorentz force acting on the particles, depends on the observer location in the shower plane. This can be understood as a superposition of the radially polarized charge-excess emission mechanism, first proposed by Askaryan and the geomagnetic emission mechanism proposed by Kahn and Lerche. We calculate the relative strengths of both contributions, as quantified by the charge-excess fraction, for 163 individual air showers. We find that the measured charge-excess fraction is higher for air showers arriving from closer to the zenith. Furthermore, the measured charge-excess fraction also increases with increasing observer distance from the air shower symmetry axis. The measured values range from (3.3± 1.0)% for very inclined air showers at 25 m to (20.3± 1.3)% for almost vertical showers at 225 m. Both dependencies are in qualitative agreement with theoretical predictions

  2. Physical Sciences Facility Air Emission Control Equivalency Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, David M.; Belew, Shan T.

    2008-10-17

    This document presents the adequacy evaluation for the application of technology standards during design, fabrication, installation and testing of radioactive air exhaust systems at the Physical Sciences Facility (PSF), located on the Horn Rapids Triangle north of the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) complex. The analysis specifically covers the exhaust portion of the heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) systems associated with emission units EP-3410-01-S, EP-3420-01-S and EP 3430-01-S.

  3. Building and characterizing regional and global emission inventories of toxic pollutants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cucurachi, Stefano; Sala, Serenella; Laurent, Alexis; Heijungs, Reinout

    2014-01-01

    in the world, the current work explores different opportunities to compile representative inventories of toxic emissions. In this study, we build global and European emission inventories using three extrapolation proxies, namely the gross domestic product, the emissions of carbon dioxide, and the...

  4. Sequim Site Radionuclide Air Emissions Report for Calendar Year 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snyder, Sandra F.; Barnett, J. Matthew; Gervais, Todd L.

    2013-04-01

    This report is prepared to document compliance with the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Title 40, Protection of the Environment, Part 61, National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP), Subpart H, National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other than Radon from Department of Energy Facilities and ashington Administrative Code (WAC) Chapter 246-247, Radiation Protection Air Emissions. This report meets the calendar year 2012 Sequim Site annual reporting requirement for its operations as a privately-owned facility as well as its federally-contracted status that began in October 2012. Compliance is indicated by comparing the estimated dose to the maximally exposed individual (MEI) with the 10 mrem/yr Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) standard. The MSL contains only sources classified as fugitive emissions. Despite the fact that the regulations are intended for application to point source emissions, fugitive emissions are included with regard to complying with the EPA standard. The dose to the Sequim Site MEI due to routine operations in 2012 was 9E-06 mrem (9E-08 mSv). No non-routine emissions occurred in 2012. The MSL is in compliance with the federal and state 10 mrem/yr standard.

  5. 77 FR 16508 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions: Group IV Polymers and Resins...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-21

    ..., was published on January 9, 2012 (77 FR 1268). EPA has established the public docket for the proposed...: Group IV Polymers and Resins; Pesticide Active Ingredient Production; and Polyether Polyols Production... pollutants: National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions: Group IV Polymers and...

  6. Review of Maritime Transportation Air Emission Pollution and Policy Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Haifeng; LIU Dahai; DAI Guilin

    2009-01-01

    The study of air emission in maritime transportation is new, and the recognition of its importance has been rising in the recent decade. The emissions of CO2, SO2, NO2 and particulate matters from maritime transportation have contributed to climate change and environmental degradation. Scientifically, analysts still have controversies regarding how to calculate the emissions and how to choose the baseline and methodologies. Three methods are generally used, namely the 'bottom up' approach, the 'top down' approach and the STEEM, which produce very different results, leading to various papers with great uncertainties. This, in turn, results in great difficulties to policy makers who attempt to regulate the emissions. A recent technique, the STEEM, is intended to combine the former two methods to reduce their drawbacks. However, the regulations based on its results may increase the costs of shipping companies and cause the competitiveness of the port states and coastal states. Quite a few papers have focused on this area and provided another fresh perspective for the air emission to be incorporated in maritime transportation regulations; these facts deserve more attention. This paper is to review the literature on the debates over air emission calculation, with particular attention given to the STEEM and the refined estimation methods. It also reviews related literature on the economic analysis of maritime transportation emission regulations, and provides an insight into such analysis. At the end of this paper, based on a review and analysis of previous literature, we conclude with the policy indications in the future and work that should be done. As the related regulations in maritime transportation emissions are still at their beginning stage in China, this paper provides specific suggestions on how China should regulate emissions in the maritime transportation sector.

  7. Modeling natural emissions in the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model – Part 1: Building an emissions data base

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, S. N.; S. F. Mueller

    2010-01-01

    A natural emissions inventory for the continental United States and surrounding territories is needed in order to use the US Environmental Protection Agency Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) Model for simulating natural air quality. The CMAQ air modeling system (including the Sparse Matrix Operator Kernel Emissions (SMOKE) emissions processing system) currently estimates volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from biogenic sources, nitrogen oxide (NOx) emission...

  8. Modeling natural emissions in the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) Model–I: building an emissions data base

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, S. N.; S. F. Mueller

    2010-01-01

    A natural emissions inventory for the continental United States and surrounding territories is needed in order to use the US Environmental Protection Agency Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) Model for simulating natural air quality. The CMAQ air modeling system (including the Sparse Matrix Operator Kernel Emissions (SMOKE) emissions processing system) currently estimates non-methane volatile organic compound (NMVOC) emissions from biogenic sources, nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions from so...

  9. Observation of microwave emission from extensive air showers with CROME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilczyński H.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available We report on the measurement of microwave radio signals from air showers with the CROME (Cosmic Ray Observation via Microwave Emission experiment. CROME is located in the center of the KASCADE-Grande air shower array. The radio signals of the CROME antennas are stored for each high-energy trigger from the KASCADE-Grande array and matched offine with the KASCADE-Grande data. After almost one year of data taking microwave signals have been observed for more than ten air showers.

  10. Seward CFB boilers will curb water pollution and air emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-03-01

    When Reliant Energy Co's Seward station begins commercial operation in 2004, it will replace an 80-yr-old pulverized-coal plant with a circulating fluidized bed (CFB) facility that more than doubles the capacity while slashing total air emissions. The baseload facility, located in Indiana County, PA, will be fuelled by local low-grade waste coal. Added to the back end of the two 292-MW CFB boilers, selective noncatalytic reduction equipment will lower NOx emissions, and ALSTOM's flash dryer absorber (FDA) system will lower SO{sub 2} emissions whilst using less limestone. 3 photos.

  11. Unpaid ecological costs related to emissions in the air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study proposes an analysis of unpaid ecological terms based on the use of new economic indicators related to sustainable development (going beyond the GDP, adjusted accounting aggregates, accounting unpaid ecological costs), an analysis of unpaid ecological costs related to climate change (context, used results and data, definitions of trajectories associated with greenhouse gas emissions, cost to be applied to emissions to get rid of, assessment of unpaid ecological costs), and an analysis of unpaid ecological costs related to air pollution (objectives, standard to be adopted, towards more ambitious emission reduction and re-assessed costs, unpaid ecological costs in 2010)

  12. Radioactive air emissions notice of construction HEPA filtered vacuum radioactive air emission units

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JOHNSON, R.E.

    1999-09-01

    This notice of construction (NOC) requests a categorical approval for construction and operation of certain portable high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filtered vacuum radionuclide airborne emission units (HVUs). Approval of this NOC application is intended to allow operation of the HVUs without prior project-specific approval. This NOC does not request replacement or supersedence of any previous agreements/approvals by the Washington State Department of Health for the use of vacuums on the Hanford Site. These previous agreement/approvals include the approved NOCs for the use of EuroClean HEPA vacuums at the T Plant Complex (routine technical meeting 12/10/96) and the Kelly Decontamination System at the Plutonium-Uranium Extraction (PUREX) Plant (routine technical meeting 06/25/96). Also, this NOC does not replace or supersede the agreement reached regarding the use of HEPA hand-held/shop-vacuum cleaners for routine cleanup activities conducted by the Environmental Restoration Project. Routine cleanup activities are conducted during the surveillance and maintenance of inactive waste sites (Radioactive Area Remedial Action Project) and inactive facilities. HEPA hand-held/shop-vacuum cleaners are used to clean up spot surface contamination areas found during outdoor radiological field surveys, and to clean up localized radiologically contaminated material (e.g., dust, dirt, bird droppings, animal feces, liquids, insects, spider webs, etc.). This agreement, documented in the October 12, 1994 Routine Meeting Minutes, is based on routine cleanup consisting of spot cleanup of low-level contamination provided that, in each case, the source term potential would be below 0.1 millirem per year.

  13. Anthropogenic Vanadium emissions to air and ambient air concentrations in North-West Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Visschedijk A. H. J.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available An inventory of Vanadium emissions for North-West Europe for the year 2005 was made based on an identification of the major sources. The inventory covers Belgium, Germany, Denmark, France, United Kingdom, Luxembourg, Netherlands and the OSPAR region of the North Sea. Vanadium emission were calculated bottom-up using energy use activity data and collected fuel and sector-specific emissions factors, taking into account various emission control measures. The NW European emissions were dominated by combustion of heavy fuel oil and petroleum cokes. Total emissions for 2005 amounted to 1569 tons/yr. The major sources are sea going ships (39%, petroleum refineries (35% and industry (19%. Emission is strongly concentrated at the densely populated cities with major sea ports. The location of sources at or near the major port cities was confirmed by observational data, as was the downward trend in emissions due to emission control, fuel switches in industry and fuel quality improvement. The results show the positive impact of lower sulphur fuels on other possible health relevant air pollutants such as particle bound Vanadium. The emission inventory can be expanded to the full European domain and can be used to for air quality modeling and particularly for the tracing of source contributions from certain types of fossil fuels (petroleum coke and residual fuel oil. Moreover, it will allow the monitoring of changes in fuel use over time.

  14. Hanford Site radionuclide national emission standards for hazardous air pollutants registered stack source assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On February 3, 1993, the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office received a Compliance Order and Information Request from the Director of the Air and Toxics Division of the US Environmental Protection Agency,, Region 10. The Compliance Order requires the Richland Operations Office to evaluate all radionuclide emission points at the Hanford Site . The evaluation also determined if the effective dose equivalent from any of these stack emissions exceeded 0.1 mrem/yr, which will require the stack to have continuous monitoring. The result of this assessment identified a total of 16 stacks as having potential emissions that,would cause an effective dose equivalent greater than 0.1 mrem/yr

  15. Hanford Site radionuclide national emission standards for hazardous air pollutants registered stack source assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, W.E.; Barnett, J.M.

    1994-07-01

    On February 3, 1993, the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office received a Compliance Order and Information Request from the Director of the Air and Toxics Division of the US Environmental Protection Agency,, Region 10. The Compliance Order requires the Richland Operations Office to evaluate all radionuclide emission points at the Hanford Site . The evaluation also determined if the effective dose equivalent from any of these stack emissions exceeded 0.1 mrem/yr, which will require the stack to have continuous monitoring. The result of this assessment identified a total of 16 stacks as having potential emissions that,would cause an effective dose equivalent greater than 0.1 mrem/yr.

  16. Improving ammonia emissions in air quality modelling for France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamaoui-Laguel, Lynda; Meleux, Frédérik; Beekmann, Matthias; Bessagnet, Bertrand; Génermont, Sophie; Cellier, Pierre; Létinois, Laurent

    2014-08-01

    We have implemented a new module to improve the representation of ammonia emissions from agricultural activities in France with the objective to evaluate the impact of such emissions on the formation of particulate matter modelled with the air quality model CHIMERE. A novel method has been set up for the part of ammonia emissions originating from mineral fertilizer spreading. They are calculated using the one dimensional 1D mechanistic model “VOLT'AIR” which has been coupled with data on agricultural practices, meteorology and soil properties obtained at high spatial resolution (cantonal level). These emissions display high spatiotemporal variations depending on soil pH, rates and dates of fertilization and meteorological variables, especially soil temperature. The emissions from other agricultural sources (animal housing, manure storage and organic manure spreading) are calculated using the national spatialised inventory (INS) recently developed in France. The comparison of the total ammonia emissions estimated with the new approach VOLT'AIR_INS with the standard emissions provided by EMEP (European Monitoring and Evaluation Programme) used currently in the CHIMERE model shows significant differences in the spatiotemporal distributions. The implementation of new ammonia emissions in the CHIMERE model has a limited impact on ammonium nitrate aerosol concentrations which only increase at most by 10% on the average for the considered spring period but this impact can be more significant for specific pollution episodes. The comparison of modelled PM10 (particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter smaller than 10 μm) and ammonium nitrate aerosol with observations shows that the use of the new ammonia emission method slightly improves the spatiotemporal correlation in certain regions and reduces the negative bias on average by 1 μg m-3. The formation of ammonium nitrate aerosol depends not only on ammonia concentrations but also on nitric acid availability, which

  17. APPLICATION OF JET REMPI AND LIBS TO AIR TOXIC MONITORING

    Science.gov (United States)

    The paper discusses three advanced, laser-based monitoring techniques that the EPA is assisting in developing for real time measurement of toxic aerosol compounds. One of the three techniques is jet resonance enhanced multiphoton ionization (Jet REMPI) coupled with a time-of-flig...

  18. 40 CFR 204.52 - Portable air compressor noise emission standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Portable air compressor noise emission... ABATEMENT PROGRAMS NOISE EMISSION STANDARDS FOR CONSTRUCTION EQUIPMENT Portable Air Compressors § 204.52 Portable air compressor noise emission standard. (a) Effective January 1, 1978, portable air...

  19. Monitoring plan for routine organic air emissions at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex Waste Storage Facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This monitoring plan provides the information necessary to perform routine organic air emissions monitoring at the Waste Storage Facilities located at the Transuranic Storage Area of the Radioactive Waste Management Complex at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. The Waste Storage Facilities include both the Type I and II Waste Storage Modules. The plan implements a dual method approach where two dissimilar analytical methodologies, Open-Path Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (OP-FTIR) and ancillary SUMMA reg-sign canister sampling, following the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) analytical method TO-14, will be used to provide qualitative and quantitative volatile organic concentration data. The Open-Path Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy will provide in situ, real time monitoring of volatile organic compound concentrations in the ambient air of the Waste Storage Facilities. To supplement the OP-FTIR data, air samples will be collected using SUMMA reg-sign, passivated, stainless steel canisters, following the EPA Method TO-14. These samples will be analyzed for volatile organic compounds with gas chromatograph/mass spectrometry analysis. The sampling strategy, procedures, and schedules are included in this monitoring plan. The development of this monitoring plan is driven by regulatory compliance to the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, State of Idaho Toxic Air Pollutant increments, Occupational Safety and Health Administration. The various state and federal regulations address the characterization of the volatile organic compounds and the resultant ambient air emissions that may originate from facilities involved in industrial production and/or waste management activities

  20. Hanford Site radionuclide national emission standards for hazardous air pollutants unregistered stack (power exhaust) source assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On February 3, 1993, the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office received a Compliance Order and Information Request from the Director of the Air and Toxics Division of the US Environmental Protection Agency, Region 10. The Compliance Order requires the Richland Operations Office to evaluate all radionuclide emission points at the Hanford Site to determine which are subject to continuous emission measurement requirements in 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 61, Subpart H, and to continuously measure radionuclide emissions in accordance with 40 CFR 61.93. This evaluation provides an assessment of the 39 unregistered stacks, under Westinghouse Hanford Company's management, and their potential radionuclide emissions, i.e., emissions with no control devices in place. The evaluation also determined if the effective dose equivalent from any of these stack emissions exceeded 0.1 mrem/yr, which will require the stack to have continuous monitoring. The result of this assessment identified three stacks, 107-N, 296-P-26 and 296-P-28, as having potential emissions that would cause an effective dose equivalent greater than 0.1 mrem/yr. These stacks, as noted by 40 CFR 61.93, would require continuous monitoring

  1. Personal and ambient exposures to air toxics in Camden, New Jersey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lioy, Paul J; Fan, Zhihua; Zhang, Junfeng; Georgopoulos, Panos; Wang, Sheng-Wei; Ohman-Strickland, Pamela; Wu, Xiangmei; Zhu, Xianlei; Harrington, Jason; Tang, Xiaogang; Meng, Qingyu; Jung, Kyung Hwa; Kwon, Jaymin; Hernandez, Marta; Bonnano, Linda; Held, Joann; Neal, John

    2011-08-01

    Personal exposures and ambient concentrations of air toxics were characterized in a pollution "hot spot" and an urban reference site, both in Camden, New Jersey. The hot spot was the city's Waterfront South neighborhood; the reference site was a neighborhood, about 1 km to the east, around the intersection of Copewood and Davis streets. Using personal exposure measurements, residential ambient air measurements, statistical analyses, and exposure modeling, we examined the impact of local industrial and mobile pollution sources, particularly diesel trucks, on personal exposures and ambient concentrations in the two neighborhoods. Presented in the report are details of our study design, sample and data collection methods, data- and model-analysis approaches, and results and key findings of the study. In summary, 107 participants were recruited from nonsmoking households, including 54 from Waterfront South and 53 from the Copewood-Davis area. Personal air samples were collected for 24 hr and measured for 32 target compounds--11 volatile organic compounds (VOCs*), four aldehydes, 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and particulate matter (PM) with an aerodynamic diameter fixed monitoring sites, one each in the Waterfront South and Copewood-Davis neighborhoods. To understand the potential impact of local sources of air toxics on personal exposures caused by temporal (weekdays versus weekend days) and seasonal (summer versus winter) variations in source intensities of the air toxics, four measurements were made of each subject, two in summer and two in winter. Within each season, one measurement was made on a weekday and the other on a weekend day. A baseline questionnaire and a time diary with an activity questionnaire were administered to each participant in order to obtain information that could be used to understand personal exposure to specific air toxics measured during each sampling period. Given the number of emission sources of air toxics in Waterfront

  2. Atmospheric polychlorinated biphenyls in Indian cities: Levels, emission sources and toxicity equivalents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atmospheric concentration of Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were measured on diurnal basis by active air sampling during Dec 2006 to Feb 2007 in seven major cities from the northern (New Delhi and Agra), eastern (Kolkata), western (Mumbai and Goa) and southern (Chennai and Bangalore) parts of India. Average concentration of Σ25PCBs in the Indian atmosphere was 4460 (±2200) pg/m−3 with a dominance of congeners with 4–7 chlorine atoms. Model results (HYSPLIT, FLEXPART) indicate that the source areas are likely confined to local or regional proximity. Results from the FLEXPART model show that existing emission inventories cannot explain the high concentrations observed for PCB-28. Electronic waste, ship breaking activities and dumped solid waste are attributed as the possible sources of PCBs in India. Σ25PCB concentrations for each city showed significant linear correlation with Toxicity equivalence (TEQ) and Neurotoxic equivalence (NEQ) values. Highlights: •Unlike decreasing trend of PCBs in United States and European countries, high levels of PCBs remain in the Indian atmosphere. •Existing emission inventories cannot explain the high PCB concentrations in Indian atmosphere. •Electronic waste recycling, ship dismantling and open burning of municipal solid waste are implicated as potential sources. -- Measurement of atmospheric Polychlorinated biphenyls in seven major Indian cities

  3. 1990 INEL national emission standards for hazardous air pollutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Environmental Protection Agency issued on December 15, 1989 final rules governing air emissions of radionuclides. Requirements concerning radionuclide emissions from Department of Energy Facilities are addressed under Title 40, Code Federal Regulations (CFR) 61, Subpart H, ''National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides other Than Radon From Department of Energy Facilities.'' Section 61.94 of the regulations require that each DOE facility submit on an annual basis a report documenting compliance with the Subpart H requirements. This report addresses the section 61.94 reporting requirements for operations at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) for calendar year 1990. The Idaho Operations Office of the Department of Energy is the primary contact concerning NESHAPs compliance at the INEL

  4. Health effects of SRS non-radiological air emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stewart, J.

    1997-06-16

    This report examines the potential health effects of non radiological emissions to the air resulting from operations at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The scope of this study was limited to the 55 air contaminants for which the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has quantified risk by determining unit risk factors (excess cancer risks) and/or reference concentrations (deleterious non cancer risks). Potential health impacts have been assessed in relation to the maximally exposed individual. This is a hypothetical person who resides for a lifetime at the SRS boundary. The most recent (1994) quality assured SRS emissions data available were used. Estimated maximum site boundary concentrations of the air contaminants were calculated using air dispersion modeling and 24-hour and annual averaging times. For the emissions studied, the excess cancer risk was found to be less than the generally accepted risk level of 1 in 100,000 and, in most cases, was less than 1 in 1,000,000. Deleterious non cancer effects were also found to be very unlikely.

  5. Air toxic issues for the electric utility industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Improved control devices, advances in fuel stack measurements and ambient sampling techniques have clarified some of the issues associated with the release of trace substance emissions into the atmosphere, particularly mercury emissions, from electric utilities. It has been determined that mercury emissions to the atmosphere from all sources globally, including utilities, has an approximate lifetime of 1-2 years before deposition, but 30 -70 per cent of mercury emissions are deposited locally within hours to days. Recent and continual field studies are being conducted to determine how much mercury is actually emitted from background sources and how this mercury enters general atmospheric circulations. The issue of how much mercury deposits locally versus being transported regionally or globally is also under study along with how mercury enters the food chain for fish in lakes and ultimately the consumer. Current health effects studies have indicated that there are slight differences in some of the earlier estimates of mercury's health effects. More studies are underway to help determine the degree of health threat to U.S. consumers of fish and to determine if mercury emissions are carried beyond U.S. borders to global dispersion. Some studies have also indicated a net reduction of mercury in clouds

  6. Allometric scaling of UK urban emissions: interpretation and implications for air quality management

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKenzie, Rob; Barnes, Matt; Whyatt, Duncan; Hewitt, Nick

    2016-04-01

    Allometry uncovers structures and patterns by relating the characteristics of complex systems to a measure of scale. We present an allometric analysis of air quality for UK urban settlements, beginning with emissions and moving on to consider air concentrations. We consider both airshed-average 'urban background' concentrations (cf. those derived from satellites for NO2) and local pollution 'hotspots'. We show that there is a strong and robust scaling (with respect to population) of the non-point-source emissions of the greenhouse gases carbon dioxide and methane, as well as the toxic pollutants nitrogen dioxide, PM2.5, and 1,3-butadiene. The scaling of traffic-related emissions is not simply a reflection of road length, but rather results from the socio-economic patterning of road-use. The recent controversy regarding diesel vehicle emissions is germane to our study but does not affect our overall conclusions. We next develop an hypothesis for the population-scaling of airshed-average air concentrations, with which we demonstrate that, although average air quality is expected to be worse in large urban centres compared to small urban centres, the overall effect is an economy of scale (i.e., large cities reduce the overall burden of emissions compared to the same population spread over many smaller urban settlements). Our hypothesis explains satellite-derived observations of airshed-average urban NO2 concentrations. The theory derived also explains which properties of nature-based solutions (urban greening) can make a significant contribution at city scale, and points to a hitherto unforeseen opportunity to make large cities cleaner than smaller cities in absolute terms with respect to their airshed-average pollutant concentration.

  7. Evaluating NOx emission inventories for regulatory air quality modeling using satellite and air quality model data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemball-Cook, Susan; Yarwood, Greg; Johnson, Jeremiah; Dornblaser, Bright; Estes, Mark

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the accuracy of NOx emissions in the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality's (TCEQ) State Implementation Plan (SIP) modeling inventories of the southeastern U.S. We used retrieved satellite tropospheric NO2 columns from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) together with NO2 columns from the Comprehensive Air Quality Model with Extensions (CAMx) to make top-down NOx emissions estimates using the mass balance method. Two different top-down NOx emissions estimates were developed using the KNMI DOMINO v2.0 and NASA SP2 retrievals of OMI NO2 columns. Differences in the top-down NOx emissions estimates made with these two operational products derived from the same OMI radiance data were sufficiently large that they could not be used to constrain the TCEQ NOx emissions in the southeast. The fact that the two available operational NO2 column retrievals give such different top-down NOx emissions results is important because these retrievals are increasingly being used to diagnose air quality problems and to inform efforts to solve them. These results reflect the fact that NO2 column retrievals are a blend of measurements and modeled data and should be used with caution in analyses that will inform policy development. This study illustrates both benefits and challenges of using satellite NO2 data for air quality management applications. Comparison with OMI NO2 columns pointed the way toward improvements in the CAMx simulation of the upper troposphere, but further refinement of both regional air quality models and the NO2 column retrievals is needed before the mass balance and other emission inversion methods can be used to successfully constrain NOx emission inventories used in U.S. regulatory modeling.

  8. Hazardous air emissions potential from a wood-fired furnace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the first week of April, 1991 the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources (WDNR) conducted a series of air emissions tests of a small industrial wood-fired boiler in northern Wisconsin. The boiler was firing a virgin hogged wood/wood waste fuel with a moisture content of about 35 percent. The pollutants measured were particulates, nitrogen oxides (NOx), carbon monoxide (GO), total hydrocarbons (THC), benzene, formaldehyde (CHOH), polycyclic organic matter (POM, e.g. Benzo (a) pyrene), aldehydes, and trace metals (As, Ba, Cu, Pb, Mn, Ni, K, Se, Na, and Zn). For two and a half days continuous emissions data were recorded by laboratory-certified continuous emissions monitors for CO, NOx, 0-2, THC, and COq2 while the EPA reference method stack tests were being conducted for the other pollutants. In addition, a WDNR test team measured CO, 0-2, and flue gas temperature with a Rosemount portable combustion analyzer for several hours over the course of those two and a half days. The principal purpose behind the study was to evaluate the hazardous air emissions potential of a small industrial furnace firing a virgin wood fuel. To that end, it was hoped that a surrogate pollutant could be identified which would represent the levels of hazardous air emissions (e.g., benzene) present in the wood-fired furnace flue gases. If a readily monitorable pollutant could be identified, then a regulatory strategy of measuring one representative pollutant could be put in place to continually assess the hazardous emissions potential of virgin wood combustion. (UK)

  9. Projections of air pollutant emissions and its impacts on regional air quality in China in 2020

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Xing

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Anthropogenic emissions of air pollutants in China influence not only local and regional environments but also the global atmospheric environment; therefore, it is important to understand how China's air pollutant emissions will change and how they will affect regional air quality in the future. Emission scenarios in 2020 were projected using forecasts of energy consumption and emission control strategies based on emissions in 2005, and on recent development plans for key industries in China. We developed four emission scenarios: REF[0] (current control legislations and implementation status, PC[0] (improvement of energy efficiencies and current environmental legislation, PC[1] (improvement of energy efficiencies and better implementation of environmental legislation, and PC[2] (improvement of energy efficiencies and strict environmental legislation. Under the REF[0] scenario, the emission of SO2, NOx, VOC and NH3 will increase by 17%, 50%, 49% and 18% in 2020, while PM will be reduced by 10% over East China, compared to that in 2005. In PC[2], sustainable energy polices will reduce SO2, NOx and PM10 emissions by 4.1 Tg, 2.6 Tg and 1.8 Tg, respectively; better implementation of current control policies will reduce SO2, NOx and PM10 emission by 2.9 Tg, 1.8 Tg, and 1.4 Tg, respectively; strict emission standards will reduce SO2, NOx and PM10 emissions by 3.2 Tg, 3.9 Tg, and 1.7 Tg, respectively. Under the PC[2] scenario, SO2 and PM10 emissions will decrease by 18% and 38%, while NOx and VOC emissions will increase by 3% and 8%, compared to that in 2005. Future air quality in China was simulated using the Community Multi-scale Air Quality Model (CMAQ with 2005 emissions and 2020 emission scenarios. Under REF[0] emissions, the concentrations of SO2, NO2, hourly

  10. MEASUREMENT OF TOXIC AND RELATED AIR POLLUTANTS - 1993

    Science.gov (United States)

    A joint conference cosponsored for the eighth year by the Atmospheric Research and Exposure Assessment Laboratory (AREAL) of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the Air & Waste Management Association was held in Durham, North Carolina, May 3-7, 1993. he four day technica...

  11. Toxic potency and effects of diffuse air pollution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hamers, T.H.M.

    2002-01-01

    Diffuse air pollution consists of an omnipresent complex mixture of pollutants that is emitted from many widely dispersed sources as traffic, industries, households, energy plants, waste incinerators, and agriculture. It can be deposited in relatively remote areas as a result of (long-range) airborn

  12. MEASUREMENT OF LOW LEVEL AIR TOXICS WITH MODIFIED UV DOAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    To further understand near source impacts, EPA is working to develop open-path optical techniques for spatiotemporal-resolved measurement of air pollutants. Of particular interest is near real time quantification of mobile-source generated CO, Nox and hydrocarbons measured in cl...

  13. Characterization of process air emissions in automotive production plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Arcy, J B; Dasch, J M; Gundrum, A B; Rivera, J L; Johnson, J H; Carlson, D H; Sutherland, J W

    2016-01-01

    During manufacturing, particles produced from industrial processes become airborne. These airborne emissions represent a challenge from an industrial hygiene and environmental standpoint. A study was undertaken to characterize the particles associated with a variety of manufacturing processes found in the auto industry. Air particulates were collected in five automotive plants covering ten manufacturing processes in the areas of casting, machining, heat treatment and assembly. Collection procedures provided information on air concentration, size distribution, and chemical composition of the airborne particulate matter for each process and insight into the physical and chemical processes that created those particles. PMID:26273851

  14. Cosmic ray radio emission as air shower detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The possibility of radio-detection of ultra-high energy cosmic rays (within the 10 to 100 MHz range) are discussed. Currently, air showers are detected by various methods, mainly based on particle detectors (KASCADE, Auger) or optical detection (Cerenkov radiation). Recently,to detect radio emission from cosmic ray air showers a method using electromagnetic radiation in low frequency domain (LOFAR) was proposed. We are investigating this possibility, using simulation codes created to investigate electromagnetic radiation of intricate antennae structure, for example fractal antennas. Some of the preliminary results will be communicated in this session. (authors)

  15. Relationship between Composition and Toxicity of Motor Vehicle Emission Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Jacob D.; Eide, Ingvar; Seagrave, JeanClare; Zielinska, Barbara; Whitney, Kevin; Lawson, Douglas R.; Mauderly, Joe L.

    2004-01-01

    In this study we investigated the statistical relationship between particle and semivolatile organic chemical constituents in gasoline and diesel vehicle exhaust samples, and toxicity as measured by inflammation and tissue damage in rat lungs and mutagenicity in bacteria. Exhaust samples were collected from “normal” and “high-emitting” gasoline and diesel light-duty vehicles. We employed a combination of principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least-squares regression (PLS; also known as projection to latent structures) to evaluate the relationships between chemical composition of vehicle exhaust and toxicity. The PLS analysis revealed the chemical constituents covarying most strongly with toxicity and produced models predicting the relative toxicity of the samples with good accuracy. The specific nitro-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons important for mutagenicity were the same chemicals that have been implicated by decades of bioassay-directed fractionation. These chemicals were not related to lung toxicity, which was associated with organic carbon and select organic compounds that are present in lubricating oil. The results demonstrate the utility of the PCA/PLS approach for evaluating composition–response relationships in complex mixture exposures and also provide a starting point for confirming causality and determining the mechanisms of the lung effects. PMID:15531438

  16. National air toxics information clearinghouse: Bibliography of selected reports and federal register notices related to air toxics. Volume 6. Citations, 1992. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of the report is to provide State and local agencies with citations of reports and Federal Register notices useful in developing and operating air toxics control programs. The reports selected for the bibliography were published by the following agencies: EPA, NAS, NCI, NIEHS, NTP, NIOSH, ATSDR, CPSC, WHO, and IARC. Relevant reports published by various State and local agencies are also included in the edition. The citations selected this year were compiled from sources available through January 31, 1992

  17. Projections of air pollutant emissions and its impacts on regional air quality in China in 2020

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Xing

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Anthropogenic emissions of air pollutants in China influence not only local and regional environments but also the global atmospheric environment; therefore, it is important to understand how China's air pollutant emissions will change and how they will affect regional air quality in the future. Emission scenarios in 2020 were projected using forecasts of energy consumption and emission control strategies based on emissions in 2005, and on recent development plans for key industries in China. We developed four emission scenarios: REF[0] (current control legislations and implementation status, PC[0] (improvement of energy efficiencies and current environmental legislation, PC[1] (improvement of energy efficiencies and better implementation of environmental legislation, and PC[2] (improvement of energy efficiencies and strict environmental legislation. Under the REF[0] scenario, the emission of SO2, NOx, VOC and NH3 will increase by 17%, 50%, 49% and 18% in 2020, while PM10 emissions will be reduced by 10% over East China, compared to that in 2005. In PC[2], sustainable energy polices will reduce SO2, NOx and PM10 emissions by 4.1 Tg, 2.6 Tg and 1.8 Tg, respectively; better implementation of current control policies will reduce SO2, NOx and PM10 emission by 2.9 Tg, 1.8 Tg, and 1.4 Tg, respectively; strict emission standards will reduce SO2, NOx and PM10 emissions by 3.2 Tg, 3.9 Tg, and 1.7 Tg, respectively. Under the PC[2] scenario, SO2 and PM10 emissions will decrease by 18% and 38%, while NOx and VOC emissions will increase by 3% and 8%, compared to that in 2005. Future air quality in China was simulated using the Community Multi-scale Air Quality Model (CMAQ. Under REF[0] emissions, compared to 2005, the surface concentrations of SO2, NO2, hourly

  18. Development of In Vitro Methods for Toxicity Testing of Workplace Air Contaminants

    OpenAIRE

    Chris Winder; Amanda Hayes; Shahnaz Bakand

    2009-01-01

    While the OECD test guidelines and mostly animal assays have been used to study the toxic effects of chemicals for many years, very little is known about the potential toxicity of vast majority of inhaled chemicals. Considering large number of chemicals and complex mixtures present in indoor and outdoor air, heavy reliance on animal test methods appear to be not adequate. Continuing scientific developments are needed to improve the process of safety evaluation for the vast number of chemicals...

  19. Identifying inequitable exposure to toxic air pollution in racialized and low-income neighbourhoods to support pollution prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanne Kershaw

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Numerous environmental justice studies have confirmed a relationship between population characteristics such as low-income or minority status and the location of environmental health hazards. However, studies of the health risks from exposure to harmful substances often do not consider their toxicological characteristics. We used two different methods, the unit-hazard and the distance-based approach, to evaluate demographic and socio-economic characteristics of the population residing near industrial facilities in the City of Toronto, Canada. In addition to the mass of air emissions obtained from the national pollutant release inventory (NPRI, we also considered their toxicity using toxic equivalency potential (TEP scores. Results from the unit-hazard approach indicate no significant difference in the proportion of low-income individuals living in host versus non-host census tracts (t(107 = 0.3, P = 0.735. However, using the distance-based approach, the proportion of low-income individuals was significantly higher (+5.1%, t(522 = 6.0, P <0.001 in host tracts, while the indicator for “racialized” communities (“visible minority” was 16.1% greater (t(521 = 7.2, P <0.001 within 2 km of a NPRI facility. When the most toxic facilities by non-carcinogenic TEP score were selected, the rate of visible minorities living near the most toxic NPRI facilities was significantly higher (+12.9%, t(352 = 3.5, P = 0.001 than near all other NPRI facilities. TEP scores were also used to identify areas in Toronto that face a double burden of poverty and air toxics exposure in order to prioritise pollution prevention.

  20. Vehicle emissions and effects on air quality: indoors and outdoors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vehicle emissions of non-regulated volatile organic compounds (VOCs), such as benzene, can form a major contribution to pollution of the indoor as well as the outdoor environment. Several of these compounds are considered to be a health risk and are important factors in the production of photochemical smog. The introduction of unleaded and particularly 'super unleaded' fuels has significantly increased levels of aromatic compounds in petrol world-wide and has led to changes in fuel composition with respect to olefins and the use of oxygenates. Increased aromatics, olefins and other compounds in fuels used in vehicles not fitted with catalytic converters have shown to increase emissions of benzene, 1,4-budatiene and other VOCs as well as contributing to increases in photochemical smog precursors. Increases in VOC levels in ambient air clearly produce increased indoor air pollution, particularly in naturally ventilated buildings. (author) 6 figs., 5 tabs., 30 refs

  1. Improved Estimates of Air Pollutant Emissions from Biorefinery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan, Eric C. D.

    2015-11-13

    We have attempted to use detailed kinetic modeling approach for improved estimation of combustion air pollutant emissions from biorefinery. We have developed a preliminary detailed reaction mechanism for biomass combustion. Lignin is the only biomass component included in the current mechanism and methane is used as the biogas surrogate. The model is capable of predicting the combustion emissions of greenhouse gases (CO2, N2O, CH4) and criteria air pollutants (NO, NO2, CO). The results are yet to be compared with the experimental data. The current model is still in its early stages of development. Given the acknowledged complexity of biomass oxidation, as well as the components in the feed to the combustor, obviously the modeling approach and the chemistry set discussed here may undergo revision, extension, and further validation in the future.

  2. 77 FR 16547 - Radionuclide National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants; Notice of Construction...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Radionuclide National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants; Notice of Construction... modification of sources subject to the Radionuclide National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air...

  3. Measurement of Radio Emission from Extensive Air Showers with LOPES

    OpenAIRE

    Hoerandel, J. R.; Collaboration, for the LOPES

    2009-01-01

    A new method is explored to detect extensive air showers: the measurement of radio waves emitted during the propagation of the electromagnetic shower component in the magnetic field of the Earth. Recent results of the pioneering experiment LOPES are discussed. It registers radio signals in the frequency range between 40 and 80 MHz. The intensity of the measured radio emission is investigated as a function of different shower parameters, such as shower energy, angle of incidence, and distance ...

  4. New technology on Otto engines for reducing the exhaust emission toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The exhaust emission from the Otto engines with internal combustion contains a lot of toxicant components for human being as well as for the surrounding. There are a lot of possibilities to realize the engine work with minimum emission of toxicant components. However, all solutions could not be racial, especially if the engine should work with minimum fuel consumption. The engineers look for the solutions where the reducing of the exhaust emission toxicity could be done with the total fuel utilization in the engine's cylinder, without additionally combustion in catalytic or thermal reactors. The paper describes the new technologies for detail investigation of the combustion processes and optimization of all influence parameters on exhaust gases emission. (Original)

  5. Air pollution control techniques and a case study of industrial air emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Air pollutants are the most dangerous type of pollution and they effect our environment the worst. The main air pollutants are CO/sub 2/, CO, NOx, SOx and particulate matter. These pollutants are causing some major environmental and health concerns. There are number of techniques to control these emissions to the atmosphere. The flue gas data of boilers and generators from ICI polyester industry is also included in this paper. The techniques in use to control the pollutants are discussed. One of the most common techniques is the switching of the fuel. The Natural gas emits almost 30 percent less carbon dioxide than oil, and just under 45 percent less carbon dioxide than coal. Emissions of particulates from natural gas combustion are 90 percent lower than from the combustion of oil, and 99 percent lower than burning coal. Natural gas emits virtually no sulfur dioxide, and upto 80 percent less nitrogen oxides than the combustion of coal. Similarly, use of compressed natural gas in vehicle reduces the amount of these emissions considerably. The other methods for the control and reduction of these emissions are combustion control techniques, Flue gas treatment and Fuel re-burning. NOx can be reduced considerably by combustion control techniques like Low excess air, staged air combustion, staged fuel combustion, external flue gas recirculation, Fuel induced recirculation and steam/water injection. The flue gas treatments like selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR) and selective catalytic reduction (SCR) are also used for reduction of NOx. (author)

  6. Air pollutants emissions from waste treatment and disposal facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamoda, Mohamed F

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the atmospheric pollution created by some waste treatment and disposal facilities in the State of Kuwait. Air monitoring was conducted in a municipal wastewater treatment plant, an industrial wastewater treatment plant established in a petroleum refinery, and at a landfill site used for disposal of solid wastes. Such plants were selected as models for waste treatment and disposal facilities in the Arabian Gulf region and elsewhere. Air measurements were made over a period of 6 months and included levels of gaseous emissions as well as concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Samples of gas and bioaerosols were collected from ambient air surrounding the treatment facilities. The results obtained from this study have indicated the presence of VOCs and other gaseous pollutants such as methane, ammonia, and hydrogen sulphide in air surrounding the waste treatment and disposal facilities. In some cases the levels exceeded the concentration limits specified by the air quality standards. Offensive odors were also detected. The study revealed that adverse environmental impact of air pollutants is a major concern in the industrial more than in the municipal waste treatment facilities but sitting of municipal waste treatment and disposal facilities nearby the urban areas poses a threat to the public health. PMID:16401572

  7. US Department of Energy report 1996 LANL radionuclide air emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobson, K.W.

    1997-08-01

    Presented is the Laboratory-wide certified report regarding radioactive effluents released into the air by the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) in 1996. This information is required under the Clean Air Act and is being reported to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The effective dose equivalent (EDE) to a hypothetical maximum exposed individual (MEI) of the public was calculated, using procedures specified by the EPA and described in this report. That dose was 1.93 mrem for 1996. Emissions of {sup 11}C, {sup 13}N, and {sup 15}O from a 1-mA, 800 MeV proton accelerator contributed over 92% of the EDE to LANL`s MEI. Using CAP88, the EPA`s dose assessment model, more than 86% of the total dose received by the MEI was via the air immersion pathway.

  8. Simulating radio emission from air showers with CoREAS

    CERN Document Server

    Huege, T; James, C W

    2013-01-01

    CoREAS is a Monte Carlo code for the simulation of radio emission from extensive air showers. It implements the endpoint formalism for the calculation of electromagnetic radiation directly in CORSIKA. As such, it is parameter-free, makes no assumptions on the emission mechanism for the radio signals, and takes into account the complete complexity of the electron and positron distributions as simulated by CORSIKA. In this article, we illustrate the capabilities of CoREAS with simulations carried out in different frequency ranges from tens of MHz up to GHz frequencies, and describe in particular the emission characteristics at high frequencies due to Cherenkov effects arising from the varying refractive index of the atmosphere.

  9. Social, economic, and resource predictors of variability in household air pollution from cookstove emissions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gautam N Yadama

    Full Text Available We examine if social and economic factors, fuelwood availability, market and media access are associated with owning a modified stove and variation in household emissions from biomass combustion, a significant environmental and health concern in rural India. We analyze cross-sectional household socio-economic data, and PM(2.5 and particulate surface area concentration in household emissions from cookstoves (n=100. This data set combines household social and economic variables with particle emissions indexes associated with the household stove. The data are from the Foundation for Ecological Society, India, from a field study of household emissions. In our analysis, we find that less access to ready and free fuelwood and higher wealth are associated with owning a replacement/modified stove. We also find that additional kitchen ventilation is associated with a 12% reduction in particulate emissions concentration (p<0.05, after we account for the type of stove used. We did not find a significant association between replacement/modified stove on household emissions when controlling for additional ventilation. Higher wealth and education are associated with having additional ventilation. Social caste, market and media access did not have any effect on the presence of replacement or modified stoves or additional ventilation. While the data available to us does not allow an examination of direct health outcomes from emissions variations, adverse environmental and health impacts of toxic household emissions are well established elsewhere in the literature. The value of this study is in its further examination of the role of social and economic factors and available fuelwood from commons in type of stove use, and additional ventilation, and their effect on household emissions. These associations are important since the two direct routes to improving household air quality among the poor are stove type and better ventilation.

  10. Energy and air emission effects of water supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokes, Jennifer R; Horvath, Arpad

    2009-04-15

    Life-cycle air emission effects of supplying water are explored using a hybrid life-cycle assessment For the typically sized U.S. utility analyzed, recycled water is preferable to desalination and comparable to importation. Seawater desalination has an energy and air emission footprint that is 1.5-2.4 times larger than that of imported water. However, some desalination modes fare better; brackish groundwater is 53-66% as environmentally intensive as seawater desalination. The annual water needs (326 m3) of a typical Californian that is met with imported water requires 5.8 GJ of energy and creates 360 kg of CO2 equivalent emissions. With seawater desalination, energy use would increase to 14 GJ and 800 kg of CO2 equivalent emissions. Meeting the water demand of California with desalination would consume 52% of the state's electricity. Supply options were reassessed using alternative electricity mixes, including the average mix of the United States and several renewable sources. Desalination using solar thermal energy has lower greenhouse gas emissions than that of imported and recycled water (using California's electricity mix), but using the U.S. mix increases the environmental footprint by 1.5 times. A comparison with a more energy-intensive international scenario shows that CO2 equivalent emissions for desalination in Dubai are 1.6 times larger than in California. The methods, decision support tool (WEST), and results of this study should persuade decision makers to make informed water policy choices by including energy consumption and material use effects in the decision-making process. PMID:19475934

  11. Road construction: Emissions Factors and Air Quality Impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Font Font, Anna M.; Baker, Timothy; Mudway, Ian; Fuller, Gary W.

    2014-05-01

    Very few studies have investigated the air pollution impacts of road construction. Over a 17 month period a congested main road in south east London was widened from two lanes to four. Emissions factors for road construction were determined and a notable deterioration in residential air quality was found with the final expanded road layout. Air quality monitoring sites measuring PM10, PM2.5, NOX, NO2 and meteorological variables were deployed on both sides of the road construction to quantify ambient air quality before, during and after the completion of the road works, with additional measurements from a nearby background site. PM10 samples were collected for oxidative potential measurements. PM10 was the only pollutant to increase during the construction; mean PM10 from the road increased by 15 µg m-3 during working hours; weekdays between 6 am and 5 pm; and on Saturdays between 6 am and 12 pm, compared to concentrations before the road works. During the construction the number of days with daily mean PM10 concentrations greater than 50 µg m-3 was more than 35 for both sides of the road, breaching the European Union Limit Value (LV). Downwind-upwind differences were used to calculate real-world PM10 emissions associated to the construction activity by means of box modelling. The quantity of PM10 emitted per area and month of construction was 0.0009 kg PM10 m-2 month-1 for the construction period. This emission factor was similar to the one used in the UK National Atmospheric Emissions Inventory (NAEI). Worst case construction emissions factors were 0.0105 kg PM10 m-2 month-1, compared to 0.0448 kg PM10 m-2 month-1 and 0.1038 kg PM10 m-2 month-1 used in current European and US inventories, respectively. After the completion of the road widening an increase in all pollutants was measured during rush hour peaks: 2-4 µg m-3 for PM10; 1 µg m-3 for PM2.5; 20 and 4 ppbv (40 and 8 µg m-3) for NOX and NO2, respectively, leading to a breach of the NO2 annual mean LV

  12. Proposed Identification of Environmental Tobacco Smoke as a Toxic Air Contaminant

    OpenAIRE

    California Environmental Protection Agency: Air Resources Board

    2005-01-01

    This report provides a comprehensive assessment of the effects of environmental tobacco smoke (secondhand smoke) as of mid-2005 produced by the California Air Resources Board and Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment as part of the process of identifying ETS as a toxic air contaminant. Part A of the report includes information about the chemical composition of secondhand smoke and exposure of the public to secondhand smoke, including outdoor exposures. Part B of t...

  13. Aromatic compound emissions from municipal solid waste landfill: Emission factors and their impact on air pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yanjun; Lu, Wenjing; Guo, Hanwen; Ming, Zhongyuan; Wang, Chi; Xu, Sai; Liu, Yanting; Wang, Hongtao

    2016-08-01

    Aromatic compounds (ACs) are major components of volatile organic compounds emitted from municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills. The ACs emissions from the working face of a landfill in Beijing were studied from 2014 to 2015 using a modified wind tunnel system. Emission factors (EFs) of fugitive ACs emissions from the working face of the landfill were proposed according to statistical analyses to cope with their uncertainty. And their impacts on air quality were assessed for the first time. Toluene was the dominant AC with an average emission rate of 38.8 ± 43.0 μg m-2 s-1 (at a sweeping velocity of 0.26 m s-1). An increasing trend in AC emission rates was observed from 12:00 to 18:00 and then peaked at 21:00 (314.3 μg m-2 s-1). The probability density functions (PDFs) of AC emission rates could be classified into three distributions: Gaussian, log-normal, and logistic. EFs of ACs from the working face of the landfill were proposed according to the 95th percentile cumulative emission rates and the wind effects on ACs emissions. The annual ozone formation and secondary organic aerosol formation potential caused by AC emissions from landfills in Beijing were estimated to be 8.86 × 105 kg year-1 and 3.46 × 104 kg year-1, respectively. Toluene, m + p-xylene, and 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene were the most significant contributors to air pollution. Although ACs pollutions from landfills accounts for less percentage (∼0.1%) compared with other anthropogenic sources, their fugitive emissions which cannot be controlled efficiently deserve more attention and further investigation.

  14. Air quality monitoring at toxic waste sites: A Hanford perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Air quality monitoring is being conducted as part of remedial investigation activities at waste sites in the 1100-EM-1 Operating Unit at the US Department of Energy's Hanford Site. Sampling is being conducted for volatile organic compounds (VOCs), semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs) (including pesticides and PCBs), metals, and asbestos. The monitoring program is being conducted in three phases: before, during, and after intrusive remedial investigation activities. At each waste site, battery-powered monitoring equipment is positioned at one location upwind of the site (to measure background concentrations of pollutants) and typically at two locations downwind of the site. Control samples are used to identify sample contamination that may occur during handling or analysis. All samples are analyzed using methods approved by the US Environmental Protection Agency. The results from the first phase of sampling have been assessed and are being used to upgrade sampling and laboratory analysis procedures. 5 refs

  15. Occurrence and Concentrations of Toxic VOCs in the Ambient Air of Gumi, an Electronics-Industrial City in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung-Ok Baek

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to characterize the occurrence and concentrations of a variety of volatile organic compounds (VOCs including aliphatic, aromatic, halogenated, nitrogenous, and carbonyl compounds, in the ambient air of Gumi City, where a large number of electronics industries are found. Two field monitoring campaigns were conducted for a one year period in 2003/2004 and 2010/2011 at several sampling sites in the city, representing industrial, residential and commercial areas. More than 80 individual compounds were determined in this study, and important compounds were then identified according to their abundance, ubiquity and toxicity. The monitoring data revealed toluene, trichloroethylene and acetaldehyde to be the most significant air toxics in the city, and their major sources were mainly industrial activities. On the other hand, there was no clear evidence of an industrial impact on the concentrations of benzene and formaldehyde in the ambient air of the city. Overall, seasonal variations were not as distinct as locational variations in the VOCs concentrations, whereas the within-day variations showed a typical pattern of urban air pollution, i.e., increase in the morning, decrease in the afternoon, and an increase again in the evening. Considerable decreases in the concentrations of VOCs from 2003 to 2011 were observed. The reductions in the ambient concentrations were confirmed further by the Korean PRTR data in industrial emissions within the city. Significant decreases in the concentrations of benzene and acetaldehyde were also noted, whereas formaldehyde appeared to be almost constant between the both campaigns. The decreased trends in the ambient levels were attributed not only to the stricter regulations for VOCs in Korea, but also to the voluntary agreement of major companies to reduce the use of organic solvents. In addition, a site planning project for an eco-friendly industrial complex is believed to play a contributory

  16. Occurrence and Concentrations of Toxic VOCs in the Ambient Air of Gumi, an Electronics-Industrial City in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, Sung-Ok; Suvarapu, Lakshmi Narayana; Seo, Young-Kyo

    2015-01-01

    This study was carried out to characterize the occurrence and concentrations of a variety of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) including aliphatic, aromatic, halogenated, nitrogenous, and carbonyl compounds, in the ambient air of Gumi City, where a large number of electronics industries are found. Two field monitoring campaigns were conducted for a one year period in 2003/2004 and 2010/2011 at several sampling sites in the city, representing industrial, residential and commercial areas. More than 80 individual compounds were determined in this study, and important compounds were then identified according to their abundance, ubiquity and toxicity. The monitoring data revealed toluene, trichloroethylene and acetaldehyde to be the most significant air toxics in the city, and their major sources were mainly industrial activities. On the other hand, there was no clear evidence of an industrial impact on the concentrations of benzene and formaldehyde in the ambient air of the city. Overall, seasonal variations were not as distinct as locational variations in the VOCs concentrations, whereas the within-day variations showed a typical pattern of urban air pollution, i.e., increase in the morning, decrease in the afternoon, and an increase again in the evening. Considerable decreases in the concentrations of VOCs from 2003 to 2011 were observed. The reductions in the ambient concentrations were confirmed further by the Korean PRTR data in industrial emissions within the city. Significant decreases in the concentrations of benzene and acetaldehyde were also noted, whereas formaldehyde appeared to be almost constant between the both campaigns. The decreased trends in the ambient levels were attributed not only to the stricter regulations for VOCs in Korea, but also to the voluntary agreement of major companies to reduce the use of organic solvents. In addition, a site planning project for an eco-friendly industrial complex is believed to play a contributory role in improving

  17. Survey of gas turbine hazardous air pollutant emission factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hazardous air pollutant (HAP) emission factors from natural gas and liquid fueled turbines have been determined by surveying the literature and combining available data. Of the 189 US EPA HAPs, only a few have been found in turbine exhaust at concentrations above ambient levels. Test data are available from several different turbine models burning natural gas and distillate oils, but data at part loads is limited, and data from newer, dry low NOx turbines is virtually non-existent. Most of the liquid fueled turbine data is from military aircraft engines and small (less than 20 MW) stationary units. All of the data was critically evaluated, but only a small fraction was judged of poor quality and, therefore, excluded from this study. Mean HAP emissions from natural gas fired turbines are very low at base load, totaling only about 0.5 ppm by weight (ppmw), or 21 pounds of HAPs per million (MM) pounds of fuel. Median HAP emissions from natural gas fired turbines are even lower, totaling only about 0.02 ppmw, or 0.8 lb HAPs/MM lb fuel. The difference between the mean and the median reflects the relatively large number of observations that are reported as below detectable levels. Mean and median HAP emissions from liquid fueled turbines are slightly higher than natural gas fired turbine emissions. Of the organic compounds found in turbine exhaust, formaldehyde is one of the most abundant. Other HAPs found in turbine exhaust include nickel, phosphorus, and manganese. The limited part load data suggests that organic HAP emissions increase as load decreases, while inorganic HAP emissions remain constant or decrease slightly as load decreases

  18. Social, economic, and resource predictors of variability in household air pollution from cookstove emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadama, Gautam N; Peipert, John; Sahu, Manoranjan; Biswas, Pratim; Dyda, Venkat

    2012-01-01

    We examine if social and economic factors, fuelwood availability, market and media access are associated with owning a modified stove and variation in household emissions from biomass combustion, a significant environmental and health concern in rural India. We analyze cross-sectional household socio-economic data, and PM(2.5) and particulate surface area concentration in household emissions from cookstoves (n=100). This data set combines household social and economic variables with particle emissions indexes associated with the household stove. The data are from the Foundation for Ecological Society, India, from a field study of household emissions. In our analysis, we find that less access to ready and free fuelwood and higher wealth are associated with owning a replacement/modified stove. We also find that additional kitchen ventilation is associated with a 12% reduction in particulate emissions concentration (pwealth and education are associated with having additional ventilation. Social caste, market and media access did not have any effect on the presence of replacement or modified stoves or additional ventilation. While the data available to us does not allow an examination of direct health outcomes from emissions variations, adverse environmental and health impacts of toxic household emissions are well established elsewhere in the literature. The value of this study is in its further examination of the role of social and economic factors and available fuelwood from commons in type of stove use, and additional ventilation, and their effect on household emissions. These associations are important since the two direct routes to improving household air quality among the poor are stove type and better ventilation. PMID:23056293

  19. Health Status and Residential Exposure to Air Toxics: What Are the Effects on Children's Academic Achievement?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark-Reyna, Stephanie E; Grineski, Sara E; Collins, Timothy W

    2016-01-01

    This article examines the effects of children's subjective health status and exposure to residential environmental toxins on academic performance for the first time, while adjusting for school-level effects using generalized estimating equations. The analysis employs National Air Toxics Assessment risk estimates and individual-level data collected through a mail survey. Results indicate that poorer subjective health status and higher levels of residential air toxins are statistically significantly associated with lower grade point averages, meaning that there is an independent effect of air pollution on children's academic achievement that cannot be explained by poor health alone. PMID:27214671

  20. The effects of forced air flow and oxygen concentration on flammability, smoke density, and pyrolytic toxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauers, D. G.

    1976-01-01

    The question is posed whether forced air flow should be incorporated into flammability tests as a relevant variable. A test apparatus is described which permits tests to be conducted on small test specimens in a forced flow which is (continuously) variable over flow velocities from zero to 300 feet per minute (1.52 m/s). The effects of air-flow rate and oxygen concentration on flame propagation rate, maximum smoke density, and pyrolytic product toxicity were measured for a single material and were statistically evaluated. Regression analysis was used to graph the resulting relationships. It is concluded that air velocity is an important variable for laboratory flammability testing.

  1. Life-cycle air emissions from PV power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper addresses the air emission of grid supply versus grid-connected and off-grid photovoltaic power generation, using the framework of life-cycle assessment, in the contents of rural household energy supply in Australia. Emissions of carbon dioxide, sulphur dioxde and nitrous oxides are calculated for the three life-cycle stages of manufacture, use and disposal. Sensitivities to materials and data inputs, as well as to component efficiencies, lifetimes and sizing are discussed. For each supply option, demand management options, including insulation and appliance choice, and the substitution of solar heating or bottled gas for electricity are considered. The best option in all cases, in terms of life-cycle air emissions, is a grid-connected photovoltaic system used to supply an energy-efficient household with a mix of solar, gas and electric appliances. However, in financial terms, with current Australian energy prices, this option represents a high capital and life-cycle costs. Additionally, for the grid options, electricity costs do not significantly disadvantage the high demand scenarios. Both results provide a clear illustration of current Australian energy-pricing policies being in conflict with long-term environmental sustainability. (Author)

  2. A search for microwave emission from cosmic ray air showers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Christopher Lee

    At the highest energies, the sources of cosmic rays should be among the most powerful extragalactic accelerators. Large observatories have revealed a flux suppression above a few 1019 eV, similar to the expected effect of the interaction of ultrahigh energy cosmic rays (UHECR) with the cosmic microwave background. The Pierre Auger Observatory has measured the largest sample of cosmic ray induced extensive air showers (EAS) at the highest energies leading to a precise measurement of the energy spectrum, hints of spatial anisotropy, and a surprising change in the chemical composition at the highest energies. To answer the question of the origin of UHECRs a larger sample of high quality data will be required to reach a statistically significant result. One of the possible techniques suggested to achieve this much larger data sample, in a cost effective way, is ultra-wide field of view microwave telescopes which would operate in an analogous way to the already successful fluorescence detection (FD) technique. Detecting EAS in microwaves could be done with 100% duty cycle and essentially no atmospheric effects. This presents many advantages over the FD which has a 10% duty cycle and requires extensive atmospheric monitoring for calibration. We have pursued both prototype detector designs and improved laboratory measurements, the results of which are reported herein, and published in (Alvarez-Muniz et al., 2013; Alvarez-Muniz et al., 2012a; Williams et al., 2013; Alvarez-Muniz et al., 2013). The Microwave Detection of Air Showers (MIDAS) experiment is the first ultra-wide field of view imaging telescope deployed to detect isotropic microwave emission from EAS. With 61 days of livetime data operating on the University of Chicago campus we were able to set new limits on isotropic microwave emission from extensive air showers. The new limits rule out current laboratory air plasma measurements (Gorham et al., 2008) by more than five sigma. The MIDAS experiment continues to

  3. Innovative technologies for removing toxic compounds from groundwater and air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Innovative waste treatment technologies are being developed to remove hazardous organic wastes from water and air. These technologies involve the generation of highly reactive free radicals and their reaction with organic compounds. Two efficient methods of producing these reactive free radicals are radiolysis and electrical-discharge plasmas. Radiolytic technology involves the irradiation of contaminated media with high-energy electron beams or x rays generated from the beams (megavolt energies, hundreds of kilorad doses). This process is best understood in aqueous solutions, in which sizable quantities of the free radicals eaq-, OH*, and H*, as well as the more stable oxidant H202, are produced. These highly reactive species react with organic contaminants to produce C02, H20, and salts, which are no longer hazardous. Nonequilibrium electrical-discharge plasmas involve the generation of copious quantities of reactive free radicals from the dissociation of molecular oxygen by energetic electrons in the gas-based discharge. One of the most promising technologies for plasma processing is based upon the ''silent electrical discharge'' that has proven to be industrially dependable for the generation of large quantities of ozone

  4. Comprehensive assessment of toxic emissions from coal-fired power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-09-01

    The 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) have two primary goals: pollution prevention and a market-based least-cost approach to emission control. To address air quality issues as well as permitting and enforcement, the 1990 CAAA contain 11 sections or titles. The individual amendment titles are as follows: Title I - National Ambient Air Quality Standards Title II - Mobile Sources Title III - Hazardous Air Pollutants Title IV - Acid Deposition Control Title V - Permits Title VI - Stratospheric Ozone Protection Chemicals Title VII - Enforcement Title VIII - Miscellaneous Provisions Title IX - Clean Air Research Title X - Disadvantaged Business Concerns Title XI - Clean Air Employment Transition Assistance Titles I, III, IV, and V will change or have the potential to change how operators of coal-fired utility boilers control, monitor, and report emissions. For the purpose of this discussion, Title III is the primary focus.

  5. Experimental study of the microwave emission from electrons in air

    CERN Document Server

    Conti, E; Sartori, G

    2014-01-01

    We searched for the emission of microwave radiation in the Ku band generated by a 95 keV electron beam in air. We unequivocally detected the radiation, and measured its yield and angular dependence. Both the emitted power and its angular pattern are well described by a model, where microwave photons are generated via bremsstrahlung in the free-electron atomic-nucleus collisions, during the slowdown of the electrons. As a consequence, the radiation is not isotropic but peaked in the forward direction. The emission yield scales proportionally with the number of electrons. This contrasts a previous claim that the yield scales with the number squared, due to coherence. With a Monte Carlo simulation we extrapolate our results to the Ultra High Energy Cosmic Ray energy range.

  6. Considerations on the radio emission from extended air showers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conti, E.; Sartori, G.

    2016-05-01

    The process of radio emission from extended air showers produced by high energy cosmic rays has reached a good level of comprehension and prediction. It has a coherent nature, so the emitted power scales quadratically with the energy of the primary particle. Recently, a laboratory measurement has revealed that an incoherent radiation mechanism exists, namely, the bremsstrahlung emission. In this paper we expound why bremsstrahlung radiation, that should be present in showers produced by ultra high energy cosmic rays, has escaped detection so far, and why, on the other side, it could be exploited, in the 1–10 GHz frequency range, to detect astronomical γ-rays. We propose an experimental scheme to verify such hypothesis, which, if correct, would deeply impact on the observational γ-ray astronomy.

  7. Adsorbent comparisons for anesthetic gas capture in hospital air emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrata, Mina; Moralejo, Carol; Anderson, William A

    2016-08-23

    For the development of emission control strategies, activated carbon, zeolite, molecular sieves, and a silica gel were tested for adsorption of the newer anesthetic gases isoflurane, sevoflurane, and desflurane from air. The activated carbon Norit GCA 48 was selected for the best performance, and adsorption isotherms at room temperature were developed for the three anesthetics. Equilibrium capacities for this carbon were in the range of 500 to 1,000 mg g(-1) for these anesthetics at partial pressures ranging from 5 to 45 Torr, with the most volatile compound (desflurane) showing the least favorable adsorption. Activated carbons are therefore suggested for use as effective adsorbents in emission control of these anesthetic gases from hospitals. PMID:27222158

  8. Emissions of air pollutants from indoor charcoal barbecue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hsiao-Lin; Lee, Whei-May Grace; Wu, Feng-Shu

    2016-01-25

    Ten types of commercial charcoal commonly used in Taiwan were investigated to study the potential health effects of air pollutants generated during charcoal combustion in barbecue restaurants. The charcoal samples were combusted in a tubular high-temperature furnace to simulate the high-temperature charcoal combustion in barbecue restaurants. The results indicated that traditional charcoal has higher heating value than green synthetic charcoal. The amount of PM10 and PM2.5 emitted during the smoldering stage increased when the burning temperature was raised. The EF for CO and CO2 fell within the range of 68-300 and 644-1225 g/kg, respectively. Among the charcoals, the lowest EF for PM2.5 and PM10 were found in Binchōtan (B1). Sawdust briquette charcoal (I1S) emitted the smallest amount of carbonyl compounds. Charcoal briquettes (C2S) emitted the largest amount of air pollutants during burning, with the EF for HC, PM2.5, PM10, formaldehyde, and acetaldehyde being the highest among the charcoals studied. The emission of PM2.5, PM10, formaldehyde, and acetaldehyde were 5-10 times those of the second highest charcoal. The results suggest that the adverse effects of the large amounts of air pollutants generated during indoor charcoal combustion on health and indoor air quality must not be ignored. PMID:26476306

  9. Wind Energy and Air Emission Reduction Benefits: A Primer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobson, D.; High, C.

    2008-02-01

    This document provides a summary of the impact of wind energy development on various air pollutants for a general audience. The core document addresses the key facts relating to the analysis of emission reductions from wind energy development. It is intended for use by a wide variety of parties with an interest in this issue, ranging from state environmental officials to renewable energy stakeholders. The appendices provide basic background information for the general reader, as well as detailed information for those seeking a more in-depth discussion of various topics.

  10. Effect of fuel-air-ratio nonuniformity on emissions of nitrogen oxides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, V. J.

    1981-01-01

    The inlet fuel-air ratio nonuniformity is studied to deterine how nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions are affected. An increase in NOx emissions with increased fuel-air ratio nonuniformity for average equivalence ratios less than 0.7 and a decrease in NOx emissions for average equivalence ratios near stoichiometric is predicted. The degree of uniformityy of fuel-air ratio profiles that is necessary to achieve NOx emissions goals for actual engines that use lean, premixed, prevaporized combustion systems is determined.

  11. Evaluating the Spatial Distribution of Toxic Air Contaminants in Multiple Ecosystem Indicators in the Sierra Nevada-Southern Cascades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanus, L.; Simonich, S. L.; Rocchio, J.; Flanagan, C.

    2013-12-01

    Toxic air contaminants originating from agricultural areas of the Central Valley in California threaten vulnerable sensitive receptors including surface water, vegetation, snow, sediments, fish, and amphibians in the Sierra Nevada-Southern Cascades region. The spatial distribution of toxic air contaminants in different ecosystem indicators depends on variation in atmospheric concentrations and deposition, and variation in air toxics accumulation in ecosystems. The spatial distribution of organic air toxics and mercury at over 330 unique sampling locations and sample types over two decades (1990-2009) in the Sierra Nevada-Southern Cascades region were compiled and maps were developed to further understand spatial patterns and linkages between air toxics deposition and ecological effects. Potential ecosystem impacts in the Sierra Nevada-Southern Cascades region include bioaccumulation of air toxics in both aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems, reproductive disruption, and immune suppression. The most sensitive ecological end points in the region that are affected by bioaccumulation of toxic air contaminants are fish. Mercury was detected in all fish and approximately 6% exceeded human consumption thresholds. Organic air toxics were also detected in fish yielding variable spatial patterns. For amphibians, which are sensitive to pesticide exposure and potential immune suppression, increasing trends in current and historic use pesticides are observed from north to south across the region. In other indicators, such as vegetation, pesticide concentrations in lichen increase with increasing elevation. Current and historic use pesticides and mercury were also observed in snowpack at high elevations in the study area. This study shows spatial patterns in toxic air contaminants, evaluates associated risks to sensitive receptors, and identifies data gaps. Future research on atmospheric modeling and information on sources is needed in order to predict which ecosystems are the

  12. Air

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... house) Industrial emissions (like smoke and chemicals from factories) Household cleaners (spray cleaners, air fresheners) Car emissions (like carbon monoxide) *All of these things make up “particle pollution.” They mostly come from cars, trucks, buses, and ...

  13. Urban scale air quality modelling using detailed traffic emissions estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrego, C.; Amorim, J. H.; Tchepel, O.; Dias, D.; Rafael, S.; Sá, E.; Pimentel, C.; Fontes, T.; Fernandes, P.; Pereira, S. R.; Bandeira, J. M.; Coelho, M. C.

    2016-04-01

    The atmospheric dispersion of NOx and PM10 was simulated with a second generation Gaussian model over a medium-size south-European city. Microscopic traffic models calibrated with GPS data were used to derive typical driving cycles for each road link, while instantaneous emissions were estimated applying a combined Vehicle Specific Power/Co-operative Programme for Monitoring and Evaluation of the Long-range Transmission of Air Pollutants in Europe (VSP/EMEP) methodology. Site-specific background concentrations were estimated using time series analysis and a low-pass filter applied to local observations. Air quality modelling results are compared against measurements at two locations for a 1 week period. 78% of the results are within a factor of two of the observations for 1-h average concentrations, increasing to 94% for daily averages. Correlation significantly improves when background is added, with an average of 0.89 for the 24 h record. The results highlight the potential of detailed traffic and instantaneous exhaust emissions estimates, together with filtered urban background, to provide accurate input data to Gaussian models applied at the urban scale.

  14. The effects of energy paths and emission controls and standards on future trends in China's emissions of primary air pollutants

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Y.; Zhang, J.; C. P. Nielsen

    2014-01-01

    To examine the efficacy of China's actions to control atmospheric pollution, three levels of growth of energy consumption and three levels of implementation of emission controls are estimated, generating a total of nine combined activity-emission control scenarios that are then used to estimate trends of national emissions of primary air pollutants through 2030. The emission control strategies are expected to have more effects than the energy paths on the future emission tre...

  15. Unusually high soil nitrogen oxide emissions influence air quality in a high-temperature agricultural region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oikawa, P. Y.; Ge, C.; Wang, J.; Eberwein, J. R.; Liang, L. L.; Allsman, L. A.; Grantz, D. A.; Jenerette, G. D.

    2015-11-01

    Fertilized soils have large potential for production of soil nitrogen oxide (NOx=NO+NO2), however these emissions are difficult to predict in high-temperature environments. Understanding these emissions may improve air quality modelling as NOx contributes to formation of tropospheric ozone (O3), a powerful air pollutant. Here we identify the environmental and management factors that regulate soil NOx emissions in a high-temperature agricultural region of California. We also investigate whether soil NOx emissions are capable of influencing regional air quality. We report some of the highest soil NOx emissions ever observed. Emissions vary nonlinearly with fertilization, temperature and soil moisture. We find that a regional air chemistry model often underestimates soil NOx emissions and NOx at the surface and in the troposphere. Adjusting the model to match NOx observations leads to elevated tropospheric O3. Our results suggest management can greatly reduce soil NOx emissions, thereby improving air quality.

  16. TOXIC ORGANIC EMISSIONS FROM SYNFUELS AND RELATED INDUSTRIAL WASTEWATER TREATMENT SYSTEMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report gives results of an examination of the potential for toxic organic emissions from synfuels wastewater treatment systems. The synthetic fuels facilities examined were coal gasification, direct and indirect coal liquefaction, shale oil, by-product coke, and associated pe...

  17. Compliance plan for national emission standards for hazardous air pollutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PORTS) is owned by the Department of Energy (DOE) and is managed by Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. (MMES). The facility is located in sparsely populated, rural Pike County, Ohio, on a 16.2-km2 (6.3-mile2) site about 1.6 km (1 mile) east of the Scioto River Valley at an elevation approximately 36.6 m (120 ft) above the Scioto River floodplain. The terrain surrounding the plant, except for the Scioto River floodplain, consists of marginal farmland and densely forested hills. The principal site process is the separation of uranium isotopes through gaseous diffusion. Support operations include the feed and withdrawal of material from the primary process, treatment of water for both potable and cooling purposes, steam generation for heating purposes, decontamination of equipment removed from the process for maintenance or replacement, recovery of uranium from various waste materials, and treatment of industrial wastes generated on-site. PORTS will comply with National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) regulations as a single facility as specified under ''Discussion of Source Categories, VI.A.4.d Definition of a Facility'' in Volume 54, No. 240 p. 51665 of the Federal Register. Continuous vent stack monitoring and dose modeling as specified in 40 CFR 61.93 of Subpart H will be used to demonstrate compliance with radionuclide NESHAP regulations. Ambient air monitoring stations near receptor sites and Health Physics monitoring in plant process buildings will be used to give assurance that unmonitored sources, or fugitive emission sources, are not emitting sufficient radionuclides to add a significant contribution to total plant emissions

  18. Glass science tutorial: Lecture No. 4, commercial glass melting and associated air emission issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document serves as a manual for a workshop on commercial glass melting and associated air emission issues. Areas covered include: An overview of the glass industry; Furnace design and construction practices; Melting furnace operation; Energy input methods and controls; Air legislation and regulations; Soda lime emission mechanisms; and, Post furnace emission controls. Supporting papers are also included

  19. Glass science tutorial: Lecture No. 4, commercial glass melting and associated air emission issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kruger, A.A.

    1995-01-01

    This document serves as a manual for a workshop on commercial glass melting and associated air emission issues. Areas covered include: An overview of the glass industry; Furnace design and construction practices; Melting furnace operation; Energy input methods and controls; Air legislation and regulations; Soda lime emission mechanisms; and, Post furnace emission controls. Supporting papers are also included.

  20. Hazardous air pollutant emissions from gas-fired combustion sources: emissions and the effects of design and fuel type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    England, G C; McGrath, T P; Gilmer, L; Seebold, J G; Lev-On, M; Hunt, T

    2001-01-01

    Air emissions from gas-fired combustion devices such as boilers, process heaters, gas turbines and stationary reciprocating engines contain hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) subjected to consideration under the federal clean air act (CAA). This work presents a recently completed major research project to develop an understanding of HAP emissions from gas-fired boilers and process heaters and new HAP emission factors based on field emission tests of gas-fired external combustion devices used in the petroleum industry. The effect of combustion system design and operating parameters on HAP emissions determined by both field and research tests are discussed. Data from field tests of gas-fired petroleum industry boilers and heaters generally show very low emission levels of organic HAPs. A comparison of the emission data for boilers and process heaters, including units with and without various forms of NOx emission controls, showed no significant difference in organic HAP emission characteristics due to process or burner design. This conclusion is also supported by the results of research tests with different burner designs. Based on field tests of units fired with natural gas and various petroleum industry process gases and research tests in which gas composition was intentionally varied, organic HAP emissions were not determined to be significantly affected by the gas composition. Research data indicate that elevated organic HAP emission levels are found only under extreme operating conditions (starved air or high excess air combustion) associated with poor combustion. PMID:11219701

  1. Hazardous air pollutant emissions from gas-fired combustion sources: emissions and the effects of design and fuel type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Air emissions from gas-fired combustion devices such as boilers, process heaters, gas turbines and stationary reciprocating engines contain hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) subjected to consideration under the federal clean air act (CAA). This work presents a recently completed major research project to develop an understanding of HAP emissions from gas-fired boilers and process heaters and new HAP emission factors based on field emission tests of gas-fired external combustion devices used in the petroleum industry. The effect of combustion system design and operating parameters on HAP emissions determined by both field and research tests are discussed. Data from field tests of gas-fired petroleum industry boilers and heaters generally show very low emission levels of organic HAPs. A comparison of the emission data for boilers and process heaters, including units with and without various forms of NOx emission controls, showed no significant difference in organic HAP emission characteristics due to process or burner design. This conclusion is also supported by the results of research tests with different burner designs. Based on field tests of units fired with natural gas and various petroleum industry process gases and research tests in which gas composition was intentionally varied, organic HAP emissions were not determined to be significantly affected by the gas composition. Research data indicate that elevated organic HAP emission levels are found only under extreme operating conditions (starved air or high excess air combustion) associated with poor combustion. (author)

  2. An air quality survey and emissions inventory at Aberdeen Harbour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marr, I. L.; Rosser, D. P.; Meneses, C. A.

    A network of 10 stations, with passive sampling for VOCs (including benzene), NO 2, and SO 2, over 2-week periods, grab sampling for CO, and 48-h pumped sampling for PM 10, was set up to make an air quality survey for 12 months around Aberdeen Harbour. Benzene, CO, SO 2 and PM 10 were always well below the AQS target values. However, NO 2 frequently showed a pronounced gradient across the harbour reaching its highest concentrations at the city end, indicating that the road traffic was the principal source of the pollution. This was backed up by the predominance of aromatics in the VOCs in the city centre, derived from petrol engined vehicles, compared to the predominance of alkanes and alkenes around the docks, derived from diesel engined heavy trucks and possibly ships. Black carbon on the PM 10 filters also showed a gradient with highest levels in the city centre. It is proposed that for such surveys in future, NO 2 and black carbon would be the two most informative parameters. This emissions inventory has shown first, that trucks contribute very little to the total, and second, that the ro-ro ferries are the major contributors as they burn light fuel oil while the oil platform supply vessels burn low-sulphur marine gas oil with around 0.1% S. When the whole picture of the emissions from the city is considered, the emissions from the harbour constitute only a small part.

  3. Influence of future anthropogenic emissions on climate, natural emissions, and air quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Mark Z.; Streets, David G.

    2009-04-01

    This study examines the effects of future anthropogenic emissions on climate, and the resulting feedback to natural emissions and air quality. Speciated sector- and region-specific 2030 emission factors were developed to produce gas and particle emission inventories that followed Special Report on Emission Scenarios (SRES) A1B and B1 emission trajectories. Current and future climate model simulations were run, in which anthropogenic emission changes affected climate, which fed back to natural emissions from lightning (NO, NO2, HONO, HNO3, N2O, H2O2, HO2, CO), soils (dust, bacteria, NO, N2O, H2, CH4, H2S, DMS, OCS, CS2), the ocean (bacteria, sea spray, DMS, N2O, H2, CH4), vegetation (pollen, spores, isoprene, monoterpenes, methanol, other VOCs), and photosynthesis/respiration. New methods were derived to calculate lightning flash rates as a function of size-resolved collisions and other physical principles and pollen, spore, and bacteria emissions. Although the B1 scenario was "cleaner" than the A1B scenario, global warming increased more in the B1 scenario because much A1B warming was masked by additional reflective aerosol particles. Thus neither scenario is entirely beneficial from a climate and health perspective, and the best control measure is to reduce warming gases and warming/cooling particles together. Lightning emissions declined by ˜3% in the B1 scenario and ˜12% in the A1B scenario as the number of ice crystals, thus charge-separating bounceoffs, decreased. Net primary production increased by ˜2% in both scenarios. Emissions of isoprene and monoterpenes increased by ˜1% in the A1B scenario and 4-5% in the B1 scenario. Near-surface ozone increased by ˜14% in the A1B scenario and ˜4% in the B1 scenario, reducing ambient isoprene in the latter case. Gases from soils increased in both scenarios due to higher temperatures. Near-surface PM2.5 mass increased by ˜2% in the A1B scenario and decreased by ˜2% in the B1 scenario. The resulting 1.4% higher

  4. Trend analysis air pollution. The effects of the working programme 'Clean and Efficient' on the emission of air pollutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report explores the effects of the Dutch Climate Programme 'Clean and Efficient - Opportunities for Tomorrow' on the emissions of air pollutants, as included in the National Emissions Ceilings. The starting point for the analysis is the ex ante evaluation of Clean and Efficient as published in September 2007. On the national level, the relative effects on air pollutant emissions are invariably much smaller than those on domestic greenhouse gas emissions. With a 1% decrease in domestic greenhouse emissions, SO2 emission decrease between 0.3 and 0.5%, NOx emissions between 0.1 and 0.2%, NMVOC emissions decrease about 0.02 % and PM10 emissions decrease about 0.1%. Some general causes explain the differences between the effects on GHG emissions and NEC-emissions. Only part of both the NEC-emissions and the GHG-emissions is linked to energy use. Further, replacement of fossil fuels by biomass results in lower fossil CO2 emissions, but NEC-emissions remain roughly the same. Finally, emission factors of NEC-emissions vary strongly with energy carriers and processes, and reduction of energy use is unevenly divided among energy carriers and processes. Specifically for the Netherlands, the role of electricity exports is important. Strong climate policies and high CO2 prices are likely to result in lower electricity demand, more renewable electricity generation and more cogeneration. However, they are likely to improve the international competitiveness of the Dutch electricity generation as well. As a result, electricity exports rise and part of the emission reductions materialize outside the Netherlands, rather than within its borders. In the case of GHG-emissions, burden sharing mechanisms and trade in emission right make sure that this is not a real problem. As comparable mechanisms for NEC-emissions do not exist, the GHG burden sharing and emission trading pose a risk for the attainment of Dutch NEC-targets

  5. National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants Calendar Year 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Nevada Test Site (NTS) is operated by the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO). From 1951 through 1992, the NTS was operated as the nation's site for nuclear weapons testing. The release of man-made radionuclides from the NTS as a result of testing activities has been monitored since the first decade of atmospheric testing. After 1962, when nuclear tests were conducted only underground, the radiation exposure to the public surrounding the NTS was greatly reduced. After the 1992 moratorium on nuclear testing, radiation monitoring on the NTS focused on detecting airborne radionuclides that are resuspended into the air (e.g., by winds, dust-devils) along with historically-contaminated soils on the NTS. To protect the public from harmful levels of man-made radiation, the Clean Air Act, National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) (40 Code of Federal Regulations 61 Subpart H) limits the release of radioactivity from a U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) facility (e.g., the NTS) to 10 millirem per year (mrem/yr) effective dose equivalent (EDE) to any member of the public. This is the dose limit established for someone living off of the NTS for inhaling radioactive particles that may be carried by wind off of the NTS. This limit assumes that members of the public surrounding the NTS may also inhale 'background levels' or radioactive particles unrelated to NTS activities that come from naturally-occurring elements in the environment (e.g., radon gas from the earth or natural building materials) or from other man-made sources (e.g., cigarette smoke). The U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) requires DOE facilities (e.g., the NTS) to demonstrate compliance with the NESHAP dose limit by annually estimating the dose to a hypothetical member of the public, referred to as the maximally exposed individual (MEI), or the member of the public who resides within an 80-kilometer (50-mile) radius

  6. CAP-88, Dose Risk Assessment from Air Emissions of Radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1 - Description of program or function: The Clean Air Act Assessment Package-1988 (CAP-88) is designed for assessment of dose and risk from radionuclide emissions to air in compliance with National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPs) for Radionuclides. CAP-88 estimates health impacts from the inhalation, ingestion, air immersion and ground surface irradiation pathways, and tabulates results for maximally exposed individuals and regional populations out to 80 kilometers. The system provides risk information in a concise, easy-to-read format and prints an echo of the input. CAP-88 consists of updated versions of the mainframe codes AIRDOS-EPA and DARTAB. Atmospheric dispersion and deposition are calculated by AIRDOS2. Dose and risk assessment tables are calculated by DARTAB2 from the binary output file produced by AIRDOS2 and a file of dose and risk factors calculated by RADRISK. Pre-processors (PREPAR2 and PREDA) for AIRDOS2 and DARTAB2 access data bases of element and nuclide dependent data to simplify the execution of the principal programs. 2 - Method of solution: AIRDOS-EPA implements a long term average Gaussian Plume model. The associated terrestrial model for deposition is based on NRC Regulatory Guide 1.109. The 50-year effective dose equivalent factors for DARTAB2 are calculated by RADRISK and use weighting factors from ICRP-26. Risks are calculated using a linear Life Table model consistent with BEIR-3. The resultant risk factors are 4.0E-4 cancer deaths per rem and 3.6E-4 cancer deaths per person working-level-month exposure to radon decay products. CAP88-PC (CCC-0542/02) is able to use population data and weather data downloaded from mainframe versions of CAP-88. CAP88-PC also comes with sample population arrays from some DOE facilities, and includes weather data from many DOE sites and major U.S. cities. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: Programs are limited to 36 radionuclides and to 20 downwind distances for each

  7. CHARACTERIZATION OF AIR TOXICS FROM AN OIL-FIRED FIRETUBE BOILER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tests were conducted on a commercially available firetube package boiler running on #2 through #6 oils to determine the emissions levels of hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) from the combustion of four fuel oils. Flue gas was sampled to determine levels of volatile and semivolatile...

  8. Pollution of atmospheric air with toxic and radioactive particulate matter investigated by means of nuclear techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The application of spectrometric methods of nuclear techniques to the investigations of atmospheric air pollution by toxic and radioactive elements and results of these investigations conducted in the highly industrialized and urbanized regions of Poland have been presented. The method of precipitation of the samples, the measurements and analysis of radiation spectra of alpha and gamma radiation emitted by isotopes present in the samples have been described. The concentrations of toxic metal dust in the air have been evaluated by neutron activation and X-ray fluorescence analysis. Appropriate methods of measurement, calibration of instrument and the discussion of results have been presented. The work presents the results of investigations performed in Siersza within the years 1973-1974 and in Warsaw in the period of 1975-1977, which have permitted to estimate the mean monthly values of concentration in the atmospheric air of the following radioisotopes: 7Be, 54Mn, 95Zr, 103Ru, 106Ru, 125Sb, 131I, 137Cs, 140Ba, 141Ce, 144Ce, 226Ra, Th-nat, U-nat and the following stable elements: Sc, Cr, Fe, Co, Zn, As, Se, Sb, W, Pb. The analysis of changes in concentration of each particular artificial radioisotope in the air for the region of Poland in connection with Chinese nuclear explosions have been given. On the basis of the performed environmental investigations the method of analysis of relations between the concentrations of particular elements present in the dust has been discussed. The applications of this method have been presented. The hazard to the population and the environment caused by the radioactive and toxic dust present in the atmospheric air has been estimated. (author)

  9. 76 FR 15266 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants; Notice of Reconsideration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-21

    ... Pollutants; Notice of Reconsideration AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice of... aspects of the national emission standards for hazardous air pollutants (NESHAP) for new and existing... Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Major Sources: Industrial, Commercial, and Institutional...

  10. Air microwave yield (AMY): an experiment for measuring the GHz emission from air shower plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The AMY experiment aim is to measure and characterize the microwave emission from plasmas induced in air by an electron beam. The study of this phenomenon could provide the development of new techniques for detecting high-energy cosmic rays over large area with a 100% duty cycle. We present the results of a first test beam done at the electron Beam Test Facility (BTF) of the Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati (LNF, Roma Italy) in November 2011. The measurements were performed with an electron beam of 510MeV energy. A frequency range between 1 and 20 GHz has been investigated.

  11. Radionuclide air emissions report for the Hanford Site, calendar year 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report documents radionuclide air emissions from the Hanford Site in 1992 and the resulting effective dose equivalent to an member of the public. The report has been prepared and will be submitted in accordance with reporting requirements in the Code of Federal Regulations, Title 40, Protection of the Environment, Part 61, ''National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants,'' Subpart H, ''National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other than Radon from Department of Energy Facilities.''

  12. Radionuclide air emissions report for the Hanford site, Calendar year 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gleckler, B.P.; Diediker, L.P. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); Jette, S.J.; Rhoads, K.; Soldat, S.K. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1995-06-01

    This report documents radionuclide air emissions from the Hanford Site in 1994, and the resulting effective dose equivalent to the maximally exposed member of the public, referred to as the ``MEI.`` The report has been prepared and will be submitted in accordance with reporting requirements in the Code of Federal Regulations, title 40, Protection of the Environment, Part 61, ``National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants,`` Subpart H, ``National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other than Radon from Department of Energy Facilities.``

  13. Development of tools for presenting and managing air pollutant emission data

    OpenAIRE

    Munther, Joonas

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the possibilities to enhance the representational value of national air pollutant emissions. Based on the observations a system was developed, which allows the presentation of emissions graphically and in tabular formats to be used for compiling data of air pollutant emissions. Tools were developed for the Finnish Environment Institute (SYKE). A mirror database of emissions database was constructed for public use by taking into consideration the re...

  14. Radionuclide air emissions report for the Hanford site, Calendar year 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report documents radionuclide air emissions from the Hanford Site in 1994, and the resulting effective dose equivalent to the maximally exposed member of the public, referred to as the ''MEI.'' The report has been prepared and will be submitted in accordance with reporting requirements in the Code of Federal Regulations, title 40, Protection of the Environment, Part 61, ''National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants,'' Subpart H, ''National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other than Radon from Department of Energy Facilities.''

  15. Radionuclide air emissions report for the Hanford Site, calendar year 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diediker, L.P.; Johnson, A.R. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); Rhoads, K.; Klages, D.L.; Soldat, J.K. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Rokkan, D.J. [Science Applications International Corp., Richland, WA (United States)

    1993-06-01

    This report documents radionuclide air emissions from the Hanford Site in 1992 and the resulting effective dose equivalent to an member of the public. The report has been prepared and will be submitted in accordance with reporting requirements in the Code of Federal Regulations, Title 40, Protection of the Environment, Part 61, ``National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants,`` Subpart H, ``National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other than Radon from Department of Energy Facilities.``

  16. The effects of energy paths and emission controls and standards on future trends in China's emissions of primary air pollutants

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Y.; Zhang, J.; C. P. Nielsen

    2014-01-01

    To examine the efficacy of China's actions to control atmospheric pollution, three levels of growth of energy consumption and three levels of implementation of emission controls are estimated, generating a total of nine combined activity-emission control scenarios that are then used to estimate trends of national emissions of primary air pollutants through 2030. The emission control strategies are expected to have more effects than the energy paths on the fu...

  17. Air quality impacts of power plant emissions in Beijing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The CALMET/CALPUFF modeling system was applied to estimate the air quality impacts of power plants in 2000 and 2008 in Beijing, and the intake fractions (IF) were calculated to see the public health risks posed. Results show that in 2000 the high emission contribution induced a relatively small contribution to average ambient concentration and a significant impact on the urban area (9.52 μg/m3 of SO2 and 5.29 μg/m3 of NOx). The IF of SO2, NOx and PM10 are 7.4 x 10-6, 7.4 x 10-6 and 8.7 x 10-5, respectively. Control measures such as fuel substitution, flue gas desulfurization, dust control improvement and flue gas denitration planned before 2008 will greatly mitigate the SO2 and PM10 pollution, especially alleviating the pressure on the urban area to reach the National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS). NOx pollution will be mitigated with 34% decrease in concentration but further controls are still needed. - CALMET/CALPUFF modeling estimates sizeable reductions in SO2, PM10 and NOx pollution from power plants by 2008 for Beijing

  18. Energy and air emission implications of a decentralized wastewater system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Both centralized and decentralized wastewater systems have distinct engineering, financial and societal benefits. This paper presents a framework for analyzing the environmental effects of decentralized wastewater systems and an evaluation of the environmental impacts associated with two currently operating systems in California, one centralized and one decentralized. A comparison of energy use, greenhouse gas emissions and criteria air pollutants from the systems shows that the scale economies of the centralized plant help lower the environmental burden to less than a fifth of that of the decentralized utility for the same volume treated. The energy and emission burdens of the decentralized plant are reduced when accounting for high-yield wastewater reuse if it supplants an energy-intensive water supply like a desalination one. The centralized facility also reduces greenhouse gases by flaring methane generated during the treatment process, while methane is directly emitted from the decentralized system. The results are compelling enough to indicate that the life-cycle environmental impacts of decentralized designs should be carefully evaluated as part of the design process. (letter)

  19. Volatile organic compound emissions from unconventional natural gas production: Source signatures and air quality impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swarthout, Robert F.

    Advances in horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing over the past two decades have allowed access to previously unrecoverable reservoirs of natural gas and led to an increase in natural gas production. Intensive unconventional natural gas extraction has led to concerns about impacts on air quality. Unconventional natural gas production has the potential to emit vast quantities of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) into the atmosphere. Many VOCs can be toxic, can produce ground-level ozone or secondary organic aerosols, and can impact climate. This dissertation presents the results of experiments designed to validate VOC measurement techniques, to quantify VOC emission rates from natural gas sources, to identify source signatures specific to natural gas emissions, and to quantify the impacts of these emissions on potential ozone formation and human health. Measurement campaigns were conducted in two natural gas production regions: the Denver-Julesburg Basin in northeast Colorado and the Marcellus Shale region surrounding Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. An informal measurement intercomparison validated the canister sampling methodology used throughout this dissertation for the measurement of oxygenated VOCs. Mixing ratios of many VOCs measured during both campaigns were similar to or higher than those observed in polluted cities. Fluxes of natural gas-associated VOCs in Colorado ranged from 1.5-3 times industry estimates. Similar emission ratios relative to propane were observed for C2-C6 alkanes in both regions, and an isopentane:n-pentane ratio ≈1 was identified as a unique tracer for natural gas emissions. Source apportionment estimates indicated that natural gas emissions were responsible for the majority of C2-C8 alkanes observed in each region, but accounted for a small proportion of alkenes and aromatic compounds. Natural gas emissions in both regions accounted for approximately 20% of hydroxyl radical reactivity, which could hinder federal ozone standard

  20. Air Dispersion Modeling for the INL Application for a Synthetic Minor Sitewide Air Quality Permit to Construct with a Facility Emission Cap Component

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sondrup, Andrus Jeffrey [Idaho National Laboratory

    2015-10-01

    The Department of Energy Idaho Operations Office (DOE-ID) is applying for a synthetic minor, Sitewide, air quality permit to construct (PTC) with a facility emission cap (FEC) component from the Idaho Department of Environmental Quality (DEQ) for Idaho National Laboratory (INL) to limit its potential to emit to less than major facility limits for criteria air pollutants (CAPs) and hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) regulated under the Clean Air Act. This document is supplied as an appendix to the application, Idaho National Laboratory Application for a Synthetic Minor Sitewide Air Quality Permit to Construct with a Facility Emissions Cap Component, hereafter referred to as “permit application” (DOE-ID 2015). Air dispersion modeling was performed as part of the permit application process to demonstrate pollutant emissions from the INL will not cause a violation of any ambient air quality standards. This report documents the modeling methodology and results for the air dispersion impact analysis. All CAPs regulated under Section 109 of the Clean Air Act were modeled with the exception of lead (Pb) and ozone which are not required to be modeled by DEQ. Modeling was not performed for toxic air pollutants (TAPs) as uncontrolled emissions did not exceed screening emission levels for carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic TAPs. Modeling for CAPs was performed with the EPA approved AERMOD dispersion modeling system (Version 14134) (EPA 2004a) and five years (2000 2004) of meteorological data. The meteorological data set was produced with the companion AERMET model (Version 14134) (EPA 2004b) using surface data from the Idaho Falls airport, and upper-air data from Boise International Airport supplied by DEQ. Onsite meteorological data from the Grid 3 Mesonet tower located near the center of the INL (north of INTEC) and supplied by the local National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) office was used for surface wind directions and wind speeds. Surface data (i

  1. Air Dispersion Modeling for the INL Application for a Synthetic Minor Sitewide Air Quality Permit to Construct with a Facility Emission Cap Component

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sondrup, Andrus Jeffrey [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-10-01

    The Department of Energy Idaho Operations Office (DOE-ID) is applying for a synthetic minor, Sitewide, air quality permit to construct (PTC) with a facility emission cap (FEC) component from the Idaho Department of Environmental Quality (DEQ) for Idaho National Laboratory (INL) to limit its potential to emit to less than major facility limits for criteria air pollutants (CAPs) and hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) regulated under the Clean Air Act. This document is supplied as an appendix to the application, Idaho National Laboratory Application for a Synthetic Minor Sitewide Air Quality Permit to Construct with a Facility Emissions Cap Component, hereafter referred to as “permit application” (DOE-ID 2015). Air dispersion modeling was performed as part of the permit application process to demonstrate pollutant emissions from the INL will not cause a violation of any ambient air quality standards. This report documents the modeling methodology and results for the air dispersion impact analysis. All CAPs regulated under Section 109 of the Clean Air Act were modeled with the exception of lead (Pb) and ozone, which are not required to be modeled by DEQ. Modeling was not performed for toxic air pollutants (TAPs) as uncontrolled emissions did not exceed screening emission levels for carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic TAPs. Modeling for CAPs was performed with the EPA approved AERMOD dispersion modeling system (Version 14134) (EPA 2004a) and five years (2000-2004) of meteorological data. The meteorological data set was produced with the companion AERMET model (Version 14134) (EPA 2004b) using surface data from the Idaho Falls airport, and upper-air data from Boise International Airport supplied by DEQ. Onsite meteorological data from the Grid 3 Mesonet tower located near the center of the INL (north of INTEC) and supplied by the local National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) office was used for surface wind directions and wind speeds. Surface data (i

  2. Modeling natural emissions in the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ Model–I: building an emissions data base

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. F. Mueller

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available A natural emissions inventory for the continental United States and surrounding territories is needed in order to use the US Environmental Protection Agency Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ Model for simulating natural air quality. The CMAQ air modeling system (including the Sparse Matrix Operator Kernel Emissions (SMOKE emissions processing system currently estimates non-methane volatile organic compound (NMVOC emissions from biogenic sources, nitrogen oxide (NOx emissions from soils, ammonia from animals, several types of particulate and reactive gas emissions from fires, as well as sea salt emissions. However, there are several emission categories that are not commonly treated by the standard CMAQ Model system. Most notable among these are nitrogen oxide emissions from lightning, reduced sulfur emissions from oceans, geothermal features and other continental sources, windblown dust particulate, and reactive chlorine gas emissions linked with sea salt chloride. A review of past emissions modeling work and existing global emissions data bases provides information and data necessary for preparing a more complete natural emissions data base for CMAQ applications. A model-ready natural emissions data base is developed to complement the anthropogenic emissions inventory used by the VISTAS Regional Planning Organization in its work analyzing regional haze based on the year 2002. This new data base covers a modeling domain that includes the continental United States plus large portions of Canada, Mexico and surrounding oceans. Comparing July 2002 source data reveals that natural emissions account for 16% of total gaseous sulfur (sulfur dioxide, dimethylsulfide and hydrogen sulfide, 44% of total NOx, 80% of reactive carbonaceous gases (NMVOCs and carbon monoxide, 28% of ammonia, 96% of total chlorine (hydrochloric acid, nitryl chloride and sea salt chloride, and 84% of fine particles (i.e., those smaller than 2.5 μm in size released into the

  3. Modeling natural emissions in the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ model – Part 1: Building an emissions data base

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. N. Smith

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A natural emissions inventory for the continental United States and surrounding territories is needed in order to use the US Environmental Protection Agency Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ Model for simulating natural air quality. The CMAQ air modeling system (including the Sparse Matrix Operator Kernel Emissions (SMOKE emissions processing system currently estimates volatile organic compound (VOC emissions from biogenic sources, nitrogen oxide (NOx emissions from soils, ammonia from animals, several types of particulate and reactive gas emissions from fires, as well as windblown dust and sea salt emissions. However, there are several emission categories that are not commonly treated by the standard CMAQ Model system. Most notable among these are nitrogen oxide emissions from lightning, reduced sulfur emissions from oceans, geothermal features and other continental sources, and reactive chlorine gas emissions linked with sea salt chloride. A review of past emissions modeling work and existing global emissions data bases provides information and data necessary for preparing a more complete natural emissions data base for CMAQ applications. A model-ready natural emissions data base is developed to complement the anthropogenic emissions inventory used by the VISTAS Regional Planning Organization in its work analyzing regional haze based on the year 2002. This new data base covers a modeling domain that includes the continental United States plus large portions of Canada, Mexico and surrounding oceans. Comparing July 2002 source data reveals that natural emissions account for 16% of total gaseous sulfur (sulfur dioxide, dimethylsulfide and hydrogen sulfide, 44% of total NOx, 80% of reactive carbonaceous gases (VOCs and carbon monoxide, 28% of ammonia, 96% of total chlorine (hydrochloric acid, nitryl chloride and sea salt chloride, and 84% of fine particles (i.e., those smaller than 2.5 μm in size released into the

  4. Air quality improvements following implementation of Lisbon's Low Emission Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, F.; Gomes, P.; Tente, H.; Carvalho, A. C.; Pereira, P.; Monjardino, J.

    2015-12-01

    Air pollution levels within Lisbon city limits have been exceeding the limit values established in European Union and national legislation since 2001, with the most problematic cases related to the levels of fine particles (PM10) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2), mainly originated by road traffic. With the objective of answering this public health issue, an Air Quality Action Plan was developed in 2006 and the respective Enforcement Plan was published in 2009. From the overall strategy, one of the major measures presented in this strategy was the creation of a Low Emission Zone (LEZ) in Lisbon, which has been operating since July 2011. Implemented at different stages it has progressively expanded its area, including more vehicle types and adopting more stringent requirements in terms of minimum emission standards (currently LEZ phase 2 with EURO 2 in the city center - zone 1 and EURO 1 in the rest of the LEZ area - zone 2). At the same time the road axis comprised of Marquês de Pombal square and Avenida da Liberdade was subjected to profound changes in its traffic circulation model, reducing road traffic volumes. The analysis of the air quality data before and after the LEZ phase 2 has shown positive evolution when comparing the period between 2011 (before measures) and 2013 (after measures). In 2013, there was a reduction in PM10 annual average concentration of 23% and NO2 annual average concentrations of 12%, compared with the year 2011. Although PM10 reductions were more significant inside the LEZ area, the same was not valid for NO2, suggesting that the implementation of these measures was not as effective in reducing NO2 levels as shown by results in other cities like Berlin and London. The results from road traffic characterization indicate a relevant effect on fleet renewal with an overall decrease in the relative weight of pre-EURO 2 vehicles in 2012/2013, compared with data from 2011. An important increase in the share of EURO 4 and EURO 5 vehicles was also

  5. Recent Developments in the Quantification and Regulation of Air Emissions from Animal Feeding Operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinzen, Tarah

    2015-03-01

    Animal feeding operations (AFOs) emit various air pollutants, including ammonia, hydrogen sulfide, particulate matter, volatile organic compounds, methane, and nitrous oxide. Several of these pollutants are regulated under federal clean air statutes, yet AFOs have largely escaped regulation under these laws because of challenges in accurately estimating the rate and quantity of emissions from various types of livestock operations. Recent Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) efforts to collect emissions data, develop an emissions model capable of estimating emissions at AFOs nationwide, and establish emissions estimating methodologies for certain key livestock air pollutants suffered from design flaws and omitted pollutants of concern. Moreover, this process seems to have stalled, delaying other regulatory reforms needed to increase transparency and increase regulation of these facilities. Until EPA establishes these methodologies, significant AFO pollution regulation under the Clean Air Act or emissions reporting statutes will be very difficult to achieve, and the public health and environmental impacts of these emissions will continue unabated. PMID:26231239

  6. Air emission points for facilities in Iowa with operating permits for Title V of the Federal Clean Air Act_considered MAJOR permits

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — Air emission points for facilities in Iowa with operating permits for Title V of the Federal Clean Air Act, considered "major" permits. Also includes emission...

  7. Development of In Vitro Methods for Toxicity Testing of Workplace Air Contaminants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Winder

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available While the OECD test guidelines and mostly animal assays have been used to study the toxic effects of chemicals for many years, very little is known about the potential toxicity of vast majority of inhaled chemicals. Considering large number of chemicals and complex mixtures present in indoor and outdoor air, heavy reliance on animal test methods appear to be not adequate. Continuing scientific developments are needed to improve the process of safety evaluation for the vast number of chemicals and inhaled materials. The aim of this study was to optimise in vitro methods for toxicity testing of airborne contaminants. An integrated approach was designed in which appropriate exposure techniques were developed. A diversified range of in vitro assays using multiple human cell systems were implemented. Direct exposure of cells to airborne contaminants was developed by culturing cells on porous membranes in conjunction with a horizontal diffusion chamber system. Dose-response curves were generated allowing the measurement of toxicity endpoints. Toxicity ranking of test chemicals, based on obtained IC50 (50% inhibitory concentration values, in different human cells and in vitro assays were determined. Airborne IC50 values were calculated for selected volatile organic compounds (xylene; 5350 ± 328 ppm > toluene; 10500 ± 527 ppm and gaseous contaminants (NO2; 11 ± 3.54 ppm > SO2; 48 ± 2.83 ppm > and NH3; 199 ± 1.41 ppm. Results of this research indicate the significant potential of in vitro methods as an advanced technology for toxicity assessment of airborne contaminants.

  8. Impact of air pressure on volatile organic compound emissions from a carpet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高鹏; 邓琴琴; LIN; Chao-hsin; 杨旭东

    2009-01-01

    The measurement of volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from materials is normally conducted under standard environmental conditions, i.e., (23±1) ℃ temperature, (50±5)% relative humidity, and 0.1 MPa pressure. In order to define VOC emissions in non-standard environmental conditions, it is necessary to study the impact of key environmental parameters on emissions. This paper evaluates the impact of air pressure on VOC emissions from an aircraft carpet. The correlation between air pressure and VOC diffusion coefficient is derived, and the emission model is applied to studying the VOC emissions under pressure conditions of less than 0.1 MPa.

  9. Calculating emissions into the air. General methodological principles; Calcul des emissions dans l'air. Principes methodologiques generaux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-05-01

    Knowing the quantities of certain substances discharged into the atmosphere is a necessary and fundamental stage in any environmental protection policy to tackle today's problems such as acid rain, the degradation of air quality, global warming and climate change, the depletion of the ozone layer, etc. This quantification, usually known as an 'emission inventory', is built on a set of specific rules which may vary from one inventory to another. This state of affairs presents the enormous disadvantage that the data available are not comparable. At the international level, an attempt at harmonization has been going on for some years between the various international bodies. This work is being pursued in parallel with the improvement of methodologies to estimate discharges from various types of source. To take account of changes in specifications and of improvements in our understanding of phenomena giving rise to atmospheric pollution, the results of inventories of emissions need to be regularly revised, even retrospectively, to maintain a consistent series. CITEPA, which acts as a National Reference Centre, has developed a system of inventories as part of the CORALIE programme with financial help from the French Ministry for Planning and the Environment. (author)

  10. National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants - Radionuclide Emissions Calendar Year 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warren, R.

    2013-06-10

    The U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Field Office (NNSA/NFO) operates the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) and North Las Vegas Facility (NLVF). From 1951 through 1992, the NNSS was the continental testing location for U.S. nuclear weapons. The release of radionuclides from NNSS activities has been monitored since the initiation of atmospheric testing. Limitation to underground detonations after 1962 greatly reduced radiation exposure to the public surrounding the NNSS. After nuclear testing ended in 1992, NNSS radiation monitoring focused on detecting airborne radionuclides from historically contaminated soils. These radionuclides are derived from re-suspension of soil (primarily by wind) and emission of tritium-contaminated soil moisture through evapotranspiration. Low amounts of legacy-related tritium are also emitted to air at the NLVF, an NNSS support complex in North Las Vegas. To protect the public from harmful levels of man-made radiation, the Clean Air Act, National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) (Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations [CFR] Part 61 Subpart H) (CFR 2010a) limits the release of radioactivity from a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) facility to that which would cause 10 millirem per year (mrem/yr) effective dose equivalent to any member of the public. This limit does not include radiation unrelated to NNSS activities. Unrelated doses could come from naturally occurring radioactive elements, from sources such as medically or commercially used radionuclides, or from sources outside of the United States, such as the damaged Fukushima nuclear power plant in Japan in 2011. NNSA/NFO demonstrates compliance with the NESHAP limit by using environmental measurements of radionuclide air concentrations at critical receptor locations on the NNSS (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency [EPA] and DOE 1995). This method was approved by the EPA for use on the NNSS in 2001 (EPA 2001a) and has

  11. National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants - Radionuclide Emissions Calendar Year 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warren, R.

    2014-06-04

    The U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Field Office (NNSA/NFO) operates the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) and North Las Vegas Facility (NLVF). From 1951 through 1992, the NNSS was the continental testing location for U.S. nuclear weapons. The release of radionuclides from NNSS activities has been monitored since the initiation of atmospheric testing. Limitations to underground detonations after 1962 greatly reduced radiation exposure to the public surrounding the NNSS. After nuclear testing ended in 1992, NNSS radiation monitoring focused on detecting airborne radionuclides from historically contaminated soils. These radionuclides are derived from re-suspension of soil (primarily by wind) and emission of tritium-contaminated soil moisture through evapotranspiration. Low amounts of legacy-related tritium are also emitted to air at the NLVF, an NNSS support complex in North Las Vegas. To protect the public from harmful levels of man-made radiation, the Clean Air Act, National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) (Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations [CFR] Part 61 Subpart H) (CFR 2010a) limits the release of radioactivity from a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) facility to that which would cause 10 millirem per year (mrem/yr) effective dose equivalent to any member of the public. This limit does not include radiation unrelated to NNSS activities. Unrelated doses could come from naturally occurring radioactive elements, from sources such as medically or commercially used radionuclides, or from sources outside of the United States, such as the damaged Fukushima nuclear power plant in Japan in 2011. NNSA/NFO demonstrates compliance with the NESHAP limit by using environmental measurements of radionuclide air concentrations at critical receptor locations on the NNSS (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency [EPA] and DOE 1995). This method was approved by the EPA for use on the NNSS in 2001 (EPA 2001a) and has

  12. National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants - Radionuclide Emissions, Calendar Year 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NSTec Ecological and Environmental Monitoring

    2012-06-19

    The U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office operates the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) and North Las Vegas Facility (NLVF). From 1951 through 1992, the NNSS was the continental testing location for U.S. nuclear weapons. The release of radionuclides from NNSS activities has been monitored since the initiation of atmospheric testing. Limitation to underground detonations after 1962 greatly reduced radiation exposure to the public surrounding the NNSS. After nuclear testing ended in 1992, NNSS radiation monitoring focused on detecting airborne radionuclides from historically contaminated soils. These radionuclides are derived from re-suspension of soil (primarily by wind) and emission of tritium-contaminated soil moisture through evapotranspiration. Low amounts of legacy-related tritium are also emitted to air at the NLVF, an NNSS support complex in North Las Vegas. To protect the public from harmful levels of man-made radiation, the Clean Air Act, National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) (Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations [CFR] Part 61 Subpart H) limits the release of radioactivity from a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) facility to that which would cause 10 millirem per year (mrem/yr) effective dose equivalent to any member of the public. This limit does not include radiation unrelated to NNSS activities. Unrelated doses could come from naturally occurring radioactive elements, from sources such as medically or commercially used radionuclides, or from sources outside of the United States, such as the damaged Fukushima nuclear power plant in Japan. Radionuclides from the Fukushima nuclear power plant were detected at the NNSS in March 2011 and are discussed further in Section III. The NNSS demonstrates compliance with the NESHAP limit by using environmental measurements of radionuclide air concentrations at critical receptor locations. This method was approved by the EPA for use on the

  13. A study of toxic emissions from a coal-fired power plant utilizing an ESP while demonstrating the ICCT CT-121 FGD Project. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-06-16

    The US Department of Energy is performing comprehensive assessments of toxic emissions from eight selected coal-fired electric utility units. This program responds to the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990, which require the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to evaluate emissions of hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) from electric utility power plants for Potential health risks. The resulting data will be furnished to EPA utility power plants and health risk determinations. The assessment of emissions involves the collection and analysis of samples from the major input, process, and output streams of each of the eight power plants for selected hazardous Pollutants identified in Title III of the Clean Air Act. Additional goals are to determine the removal efficiencies of pollution control subsystems for these selected pollutants and the Concentrations associated with the particulate fraction of the flue gas stream as a function of particle size. Material balances are being performed for selected pollutants around the entire power plant and several subsystems to identify the fate of hazardous substances in each utility system. Radian Corporation was selected to perform a toxics assessment at a plant demonstrating an Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT) Project. The site selected is Plant Yates Unit No. 1 of Georgia Power Company, which includes a Chiyoda Thoroughbred-121 demonstration project.

  14. 76 FR 78872 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Wool Fiberglass Manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-20

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 63 RIN 2060-AQ90 National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Wool... Pollutants: Mineral Wool Production and Wool Fiberglass Manufacturing.'' The EPA was asked to hold a public... docket for the proposed rule, ``National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Wool...

  15. 77 FR 41146 - Delegation of National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Source Categories...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 63 Delegation of National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Source... delegation of specific national emission standards for hazardous air pollutants (NESHAP) to the Gila...

  16. National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants - Radionuclide Emissions Calendar Year 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office operates the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and North Las Vegas Facility (NLVF). From 1951 through 1992, the NTS was the continental testing location for U.S. nuclear weapons. The release of radionuclides from NTS activities has been monitored since the initiation of atmospheric testing. Limitation to underground detonations after 1962 greatly reduced radiation exposure to the public surrounding the NTS. After nuclear testing ended in 1992, NTS radiation monitoring focused on detecting airborne radionuclides from historically contaminated soils. These radionuclides are derived from re-suspension of soil (primarily by wind) and emission of tritium-contaminated soil moisture through evapotranspiration. Low amounts of tritium were also emitted to air at the NLVF, an NTS support complex in North Las Vegas. To protect the public from harmful levels of man-made radiation, the Clean Air Act, National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) (Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 61 Subpart H) limits the release of radioactivity from a U.S. Department of Energy facility to 10 millirem per year (mrem/yr) effective dose equivalent to any member of the public. This limit does not include radiation not related to NTS activities. Unrelated doses could come from naturally occurring radioactive elements or from sources such as medically or commercially used radionuclides. The NTS demonstrates compliance with the NESHAP limit by using environmental measurements of radionuclide air concentrations at critical receptor locations. This method was approved by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for use on the NTS in 2001 and has been the sole method used since 2005. Six locations on the NTS have been established to act as critical receptor locations to demonstrate compliance with the NESHAP limit. These locations are actually pseudo-critical receptor stations, because no

  17. Geothermal ground gas emissions and indoor air pollution in Rotorua, New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durand, Michael; Scott, Bradley J

    2005-06-01

    The emission of toxic gases from the soil is a hazard in geothermal regions that are also urbanized because buildings constructed on geothermal ground may be subject to the ingress of gases from the soil directly into the structure. The Rotorua geothermal field, New Zealand, is extensively urbanized but to date no studies have evaluated the extent of the ground gas hazard. The main gases emitted are hydrogen sulphide (H2S) and carbon dioxide (CO2), both of which are highly toxic and denser than air. This paper reports preliminary findings from a study of selected buildings constructed in the gas anomaly area. Properties were investigated for evidence of ingress by H2S, CO2, and 222Rn, with a view to determine the means and rates of gas entry and the nature of any consequent hazard. H2S and CO2 were investigated using infrared active gas analysers and passive detector tubes left in place for 10-48 h. 222Rn was measured over a period of 3 months by poly-allyl diglycol carbonate sensors. Eight of the nine buildings studied were found to suffer problems with soil gases entering the indoor air through the structure. The primary means of gas entry was directly from the ground through the floors, walls, and subsurface pipes. Indoor vents were located and found emitting up to approximately 200 ppm H2S and approximately 15% CO2, concentrations high enough to present an acute respiratory hazard to persons close to the vent (e.g., children playing at floor level). In some properties, gas problems occurred despite preventative measures having been made during construction or during later renovations. Typically, these measures include the under-laying of concrete floors with a gas-proof butanol seal, under-floor ventilation systems or the installation of positive-pressure air conditioning. Recently constructed buildings (<10 years) with butanol seals were nevertheless affected by ground gas emissions, and we conclude that such measures are not always effective in the long term

  18. Comparison of the RAINS Emission Control Cost Curves for Air Pollutants with Emission Control Costs Computed by the GAINS Model

    OpenAIRE

    F. Wagner; Schoepp, W.

    2007-01-01

    This paper compares cost curves of SO2, NOx and PM2.5 emission controls generated with the RAINS (Regional Air Pollution Information and Simulation) model with cost estimates obtained from the GAINS (Greenhouse Gas - Air Pollution Interactions and Synergies) model. Based on the same set of input data, results from both models are very similar, and differences are considered as insignificant.

  19. Polychlorinated naphthalenes in the air over the equatorial Indian Ocean: Occurrence, potential sources, and toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yumei; Li, Jun; Xu, Yue; Xu, Weihai; Zhong, Guangcai; Liu, Xiang; Zhang, Gan

    2016-06-15

    Monitoring of marine polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) is crucial, as they are considered persistent organic pollutants (POPs) by the Stockholm Convention. Data on PCNs in marine environment are scarce. In this study, 19 air samples were collected during a cruise in the equatorial Indian Ocean on board the Chinese research vessel Shiyan I from 4/2011 to 5/2011. PCN concentration of these air samples ranged from 0.033 to 2.56pgm(-3), with an average of 0.518pgm(-3), equal to or lower than the values reported for other oceans, seas, and lakes worldwide. Tri- and tetra-CNs were the main homologues in most samples. Reemission of Halowax mixtures and incineration processes were the major sources of atmospheric PCNs in the study area. The PCN-corresponding toxic equivalency values ranged from 0 to 0.190fgm(-3) (average: 0.038fgm(-3)), falling in the low end of global range. PMID:27084202

  20. NMVOCs speciated emissions from mobile sources and their effect on air quality and human health in the metropolitan area of Buenos Aires, Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Angiola, Ariela; Dawidowski, Laura; Gomez, Dario; Granier, Claire

    2014-05-01

    gasoline and diesel vehicles and the USEPA SPECIATE (Simon et al., 2010) profile for CNG vehicles. NMVOCs emissions were composed of 31% aromatic compounds, 29% linear alkanes, 20% olefins, 12% ramified alkanes, 7% aldehydes and negligible contributions from cycloalkanes, ketones, Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) and other NMVOCs. Aromatic compounds dominated gasoline light-duty vehicles' emissions (~45%), while linear alkanes those of CNG light-duty vehicles (~80%). Aldehydes' contributions increased for diesel light and heavy-duty vehicles. VOCs speciation schemes for transport emissions were collected from the literature from Europe, USA, Asia, Oceania and Latin America with the aim to account for the associated uncertainty by compound for each fuel and technology type. The resulting individual NMVOCs emissions were used to calculate the corresponding tropospheric ozone formation (Carter, 1994), as well as the human toxicity potential in terms of 1.4 dichlorobenzene. Olefins and aromatic compounds in terms of species, and gasoline in terms of fuels, were found to impose the highest risk in urban environments regarding air quality and human health.

  1. Air quality and radiative forcing impacts of anthropogenic volatile organic compound emissions from ten world regions

    OpenAIRE

    M. M. Fry; M. D. Schwarzkopf; Adelman, Z.; West, J. J.

    2013-01-01

    Non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs) influence air quality and global climate change through their effects on secondary air pollutants and climate forcers. Here we simulate the air quality and radiative forcing (RF) impacts of changes in ozone, methane, and sulfate from halving anthropogenic NMVOC emissions globally and from 10 regions individually, using a global chemical transport model and a standalone radiative transfer model. Halving global NMVOC emissions decreases glo...

  2. Air quality and radiative forcing impacts of anthropogenic volatile organic compound emissions from ten world regions

    OpenAIRE

    M. M. Fry; M. D. Schwarzkopf; Adelman, Z.; West, J. J.

    2014-01-01

    Non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs) influence air quality and global climate change through their effects on secondary air pollutants and climate forcers. Here we simulate the air quality and radiative forcing (RF) impacts of changes in ozone, methane, and sulfate from halving anthropogenic NMVOC emissions globally and from 10 regions individually, using a global chemical transport model and a standalone radiative transfer model. Halving global NMVOC emissions de...

  3. Auditing of sampling methods for air toxics at coal-fired power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agbede, R.O.; Clements, J.L.; Grunebach, M.G. [Advanced Technology Systems, Inc., Monroeville, PA (United States)] [and others

    1995-11-01

    Advanced Technology Systems, Inc. (ATS) with subcontract assistance from international Technology Corporation (IT) has provided external audit activities for Phase II of the Department of Energy-Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center`s air emission test program. The objective of the audits is to help ensure that the data obtained from the emission tests are precise, accurate, representative, scientifically sound and legally defensible. This paper presents the criteria that were used to perform the external audits of the emission test program. It also describes the approach used by ATS and It in performing their audits. Examples of findings of the audits along with the actions take to correct problems and the subsequent effect of those actions on the test data are presented. The results of audit spikes performed at the Plant 1 test site are also discussed.

  4. Unusually high soil nitrogen oxide emissions influence air quality in a high-temperature agricultural region

    OpenAIRE

    Oikawa, P. Y.; C. Ge; Wang, J.; Eberwein, J. R.; Liang, L. L.; Allsman, L. A.; Grantz, D.A.; Jenerette, G. D.

    2015-01-01

    Fertilized soils have large potential for production of soil nitrogen oxide (NOx=NO+NO2), however these emissions are difficult to predict in high-temperature environments. Understanding these emissions may improve air quality modelling as NOx contributes to formation of tropospheric ozone (O3), a powerful air pollutant. Here we identify the environmental and management factors that regulate soil NOx emissions in a high-temperature agricultural region of California. We also investigate whethe...

  5. Monte Carlo simulations of geosynchrotron radio emission from CORSIKA-simulated air showers

    OpenAIRE

    Huege, T.; Ulrich, R.(Institut für Experimentelle Kernphysik, Karlsruhe, Germany); Engel, R.

    2006-01-01

    We present simulations performed with REAS2, a new Monte Carlo code for the calculation of geosynchrotron radio emission from extensive air showers. The code uses thoroughly tested time-domain radio emission routines in conjunction with a realistic air shower model based on per-shower multi-dimensional CORSIKA-generated histograms. We assess in detail how the transition from simpler, parametrised, to realistic, CORSIKA-based particle distributions affects the predicted radio emission from a t...

  6. Up the stack : coal-fired electricity's toxic impact : an OCAA air quality report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ontario Power Generation (OPG) must report annually its releases and transfers of 268 chemicals to the federal National Pollutant Release Inventory (NPRI). Each OPG facility reports the amount of chemicals released to the air, land, water and injected under ground at the facility site. The facilities must also report the amount of chemicals that are transferred off-site for treatment, sewage, disposal, recycling or energy recovery. In 1999 and 2000, atmospheric releases from OPG's coal-fired plants accounted for a significant percentage of the total pollutants released for Ontario and Canada. OPG's facilities are often in the top 5 in Ontario and Canada for releases of various chemicals, including persistent toxic chemicals. In 1999, the Nanticoke coal-fired power plant on Lake Erie was ranked first in Canada for releases to the air. Data reported for the 1999 and 2000 reporting period for dioxins and furans, hexachlorobenzene, mercury, metals (chromium, nickel and arsenic), and acid gases such as hydrochloric acid, hydrogen fluoride, and sulphuric acid clearly indicates that OPG coal-fired plants are a leading source of air pollution in Canada and Ontario. The Ontario Clean Air Alliance suggests the data is sufficient to phase-out the use of coal for power generation in Ontario. It recommends conserving energy and replacing coal-fired power with renewable energy sources such as wind and water power. Converting coal facilities to high-efficiency natural gas units would also reduce the toxic impacts of OPG's coal-fired power plants. As an immediate first step, it was recommended that the government should ban non-emergency exports of coal-fired electricity during smog-alert periods in Ontario. 11 tabs

  7. 40 CFR 86.166-12 - Method for calculating emissions due to air conditioning leakage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... to air conditioning leakage. 86.166-12 Section 86.166-12 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... for calculating emissions due to air conditioning leakage. This section describes procedures used to determine a refrigerant leakage rate in grams per year from vehicle-based air conditioning units....

  8. 76 FR 74708 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Source Categories

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 63 National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Source Categories CFR... means mineral wool to which a hazardous air pollutant-based binder (containing such hazardous air pollutants as phenol or formaldehyde) has been applied. CO means, for the purposes of this subpart,...

  9. Emissions of an AVCO Lycoming 0-320-DIAD air cooled light aircraft engine as a function of fuel-air ratio, timing, and air temperature and humidity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, P. R.; Skorobatckyi, M.; Cosgrove, D. V.; Kempke, E. E., Jr.

    1976-01-01

    A carbureted aircraft engine was operated over a range of test conditions to establish the exhaust levels over the EPA seven-mode emissions cycle. Baseline (full rich production limit) exhaust emissions at an induction air temperature of 59 F and near zero relative humidity were 90 percent of the EPA standard for HC, 35 percent for NOx, and 161 percent for CO. Changes in ignition timing around the standard 25 deg BTDC from 30 deg BTDC to 20 deg BTDC had little effect on the exhaust emissions. Retarding the timing to 15 deg BTDC increased both the HC and CO emissions and decreased NOx emissions. HC and CO emissions decreased as the carburetor was leaned out, while NOx emissions increased. The EPA emission standards were marginally achieved at two leanout conditions. Variations in the quantity of cooling air flow over the engine had no effect on exhaust emissions. Temperature-humidity effects at the higher values of air temperature and relative humidity tested indicated that the HC and CO emissions increased significantly, while the NOx emissions decreased.

  10. Nevada Test Site National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants - Radionuclide Emissions Calendar Year 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Nevada Test Site (NTS) is operated by the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office. From 1951 through 1992, the NTS was the continental testing location for U.S. nuclear weapons. The release of radionuclides from NTS activities has been monitored since the initiation of atmospheric testing. Limitation to under-ground detonations after 1962 greatly reduced radiation exposure to the public surrounding the NTS. After nuclear testing ended in 1992, NTS radiation monitoring focused on detecting airborne radionuclides from historically contaminated soils. These radionuclides are derived from re-suspension of soil (primarily by winds) and emission of tritium-contaminated soil moisture through evapotranspiration. Low amounts of tritium were also emitted to air at the North Las Vegas Facility (NLVF), an NTS support complex in the city of North Las Vegas. To protect the public from harmful levels of man-made radiation, the Clean Air Act, National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) (Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 61 Subpart H) (CFR, 2008a) limits the release of radioactivity from a U.S. Department of Energy facility (e.g., the NTS) to 10 millirem per year (mrem/yr) effective dose equivalent to any member of the public. This limit does not include radiation not related to NTS activities. Unrelated doses could come from naturally occurring radioactive elements or from other man-made sources such as medical treatments. The NTS demonstrates compliance with the NESHAP limit by using environmental measurements of radionuclide air concentrations at critical receptor locations. This method was approved by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for use on the NTS in 2001 and has been the sole method used since 2005. Six locations on the NTS have been established to act as critical receptor locations to demonstrate compliance with the NESHAP limit. These locations are actually pseudo

  11. Pulsed laser deposition of graphite in air and in vacuum for field emission studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jadhav, Harshada; Singh, A.K.; Sinha, Sucharita, E-mail: ssinha@barc.gov.in

    2015-07-15

    A comparative study of pulsed laser deposition (PLD) based carbon films when deposited either, in atmospheric air, or under vacuum, has been performed. Micro-structural characterization of deposited films was carried out employing X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopic techniques. While, nanocrystalline graphite phase was observed in carbon films deposited in air, PLD films deposited under vacuum were largely amorphous in nature. Field emission (FE) properties of films deposited in air and under vacuum were investigated. Superior FE behavior characterized by a lower turn-on field (2.72 V/μm) and high field enhancement factor (∼2580) was observed for PLD films deposited in air. This improved field emission demonstrated by carbon films deposited via PLD in air can be attributed to presence of nanocrystalline graphite aggregates in such carbon films and local field enhancement near the sp{sup 2} sites. Our results therefore, establish PLD in air as a simple technique for deposition of carbon films having good field emission capability. - Highlights: • Pulsed laser deposition of graphite films, deposited in air and in vacuum. • Micro-structural, X-ray diffraction and micro-Raman spectroscopic characterization of deposited films. • Field emission properties of deposited films investigated. • Superior field emission behavior observed for films deposited in air than in vacuum. • Pulsed laser deposition in air leads to carbon films with excellent field emission capability.

  12. Pulsed laser deposition of graphite in air and in vacuum for field emission studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A comparative study of pulsed laser deposition (PLD) based carbon films when deposited either, in atmospheric air, or under vacuum, has been performed. Micro-structural characterization of deposited films was carried out employing X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopic techniques. While, nanocrystalline graphite phase was observed in carbon films deposited in air, PLD films deposited under vacuum were largely amorphous in nature. Field emission (FE) properties of films deposited in air and under vacuum were investigated. Superior FE behavior characterized by a lower turn-on field (2.72 V/μm) and high field enhancement factor (∼2580) was observed for PLD films deposited in air. This improved field emission demonstrated by carbon films deposited via PLD in air can be attributed to presence of nanocrystalline graphite aggregates in such carbon films and local field enhancement near the sp2 sites. Our results therefore, establish PLD in air as a simple technique for deposition of carbon films having good field emission capability. - Highlights: • Pulsed laser deposition of graphite films, deposited in air and in vacuum. • Micro-structural, X-ray diffraction and micro-Raman spectroscopic characterization of deposited films. • Field emission properties of deposited films investigated. • Superior field emission behavior observed for films deposited in air than in vacuum. • Pulsed laser deposition in air leads to carbon films with excellent field emission capability

  13. Quantifying the air pollutants emission reduction during the 2008 Olympic games in Beijing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shuxiao; Zhao, Meng; Xing, Jia; Wu, Ye; Zhou, Yu; Lei, Yu; He, Kebin; Fu, Lixin; Hao, Jiming

    2010-04-01

    Air quality was a vital concern for the Beijing Olympic Games in 2008. To strictly control air pollutant emissions and ensure good air quality for the Games, Beijing municipal government announced an "Air Quality Guarantee Plan for the 29th Olympics in Beijing". In order to evaluate the effectiveness of the guarantee plan, this study analyzed the air pollutant emission reductions during the 29th Olympiad in Beijing. In June 2008, daily emissions of SO(2), NO(X), PM(10), and NMVOC in Beijing were 103.9 t, 428.5 t, 362.7 t, and 890.0 t, respectively. During the Olympic Games, the daily emissions of SO(2), NO(X), PM(10), and NMVOC in Beijing were reduced to 61.6 t, 229.1 t, 164.3 t, and 381.8 t -41%, 47%, 55%, and 57% lower than June 2008 emission levels. Closing facilities producing construction materials reduced the sector's SO(2) emissions by 85%. Emission control measures for mobile sources, including high-emitting vehicle restrictions, government vehicle use controls, and alternate day driving rules for Beijing's 3.3 million private cars, reduced mobile source NO(X) and NMVOC by 46% and 57%, respectively. Prohibitions on building construction reduced the sector's PM(10) emissions by approximately 90% or total PM(10) by 35%. NMVOC reductions came mainly from mobile source and fugitive emission reductions. Based on the emission inventories developed in this study, the CMAQ model was used to simulate Beijing's ambient air quality during the Olympic Games. The model results accurately reflect the environmental monitoring data providing evidence that the emission inventories in this study are reasonably accurate and quantitatively reflect the emission changes attributable to air pollution control measures taken during the 29th Olympic Games in 2008. PMID:20222727

  14. Influence of constricted air distribution on NOx emissions in pulverized coal combustion boiler

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEI Feng(魏风); ZHANG Jun-ying(张军营); TANG Bi-guang(唐必光); ZHENG Chu-guang(郑楚光)

    2003-01-01

    This paper reports a field testing of full scale PCC (Pulverized Coal Combustion) boiler study into the influence of constricted air distribution on NOx emissions at unit 3 (125 MW power units, 420 t/h boiler) of Guixi power station, Jiangxi and puts forward the methods to decrease NOx emissions and the principle of boiler operation and regulation through analyzing NOx emissions state under real running condition. Based on boiler constricted air distribution, the experiment mainly tested the influence of primary air, excessive air, boiler load and milling sets (tertiary air) on NOx emissions and found its influence characteristics. A degraded bituminous coal is simply adopted to avoid the test results from other factors.

  15. The effects of energy paths and emission controls and standards on future trends in China's emissions of primary air pollutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Y.; Zhang, J.; Nielsen, C. P.

    2014-09-01

    To examine the efficacy of China's actions to control atmospheric pollution, three levels of growth of energy consumption and three levels of implementation of emission controls are estimated, generating a total of nine combined activity-emission control scenarios that are then used to estimate trends of national emissions of primary air pollutants through 2030. The emission control strategies are expected to have more effects than the energy paths on the future emission trends for all the concerned pollutants. As recently promulgated national action plans of air pollution prevention and control (NAPAPPC) are implemented, China's anthropogenic pollutant emissions should decline. For example, the emissions of SO2, NOx, total suspended particles (TSP), PM10, and PM2.5 are estimated to decline 7, 20, 41, 34, and 31% from 2010 to 2030, respectively, in the "best guess" scenario that includes national commitment of energy saving policy and implementation of NAPAPPC. Should the issued/proposed emission standards be fully achieved, a less likely scenario, annual emissions would be further reduced, ranging from 17 (for primary PM2.5) to 29% (for NOx) declines in 2015, and the analogue numbers would be 12 and 24% in 2030. The uncertainties of emission projections result mainly from the uncertain operational conditions of swiftly proliferating air pollutant control devices and lack of detailed information about emission control plans by region. The predicted emission trends by sector and chemical species raise concerns about current pollution control strategies: the potential for emissions abatement in key sectors may be declining due to the near saturation of emission control devices use; risks of ecosystem acidification could rise because emissions of alkaline base cations may be declining faster than those of SO2; and radiative forcing could rise because emissions of positive-forcing carbonaceous aerosols may decline more slowly than those of SO2 emissions and thereby

  16. The effects of energy paths and emission controls and standards on future trends in China's emissions of primary air pollutants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Zhao

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available To examine the efficacy of China's actions to control atmospheric pollution, three levels of growth of energy consumption and three levels of implementation of emission controls are estimated, generating a total of nine combined activity-emission control scenarios that are then used to estimate trends of national emissions of primary air pollutants through 2030. The emission control strategies are expected to have more effects than the energy paths on the future emission trends for all the concerned pollutants. As recently promulgated national action plans of air pollution prevention and control (NAPAPPC are implemented, China's anthropogenic pollutant emissions should decline. For example, the emissions of SO2, NOx, total primary particulate matter (PM, PM10, and PM2.5 are estimated to decline 7%, 20%, 41%, 34%, and 31% from 2010 to 2030, respectively, in the "best guess" scenario that includes national commitment of energy saving policy and partial implementation of NAPAPPC. Should the issued/proposed emission standards be fully achieved, a less likely scenario, annual emissions would be further reduced, ranging from 17% (for primary PM2.5 to 29% (for NOx declines in 2015, and the analogue numbers would be 12% and 24% in 2030. The uncertainties of emission projections result mainly from the uncertain operational conditions of swiftly proliferating air pollutant control devices and lack of detailed information about emission control plans by region. The predicted emission trends by sector and chemical species raise concerns about current pollution control strategies: the potential for emissions abatement in key sectors may be declining due to the near saturation of emission control devices use; risks of ecosystem acidification could rise because emissions of alkaline base cations may be declining faster than those of SO2; and radiative forcing could rise because emissions of positive-forcing carbonaceous aerosols may decline more slowly than

  17. Emission of toxic components as a factor of the best practice options for waste management: Application of LCA (Life Cycle Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stevanović-Čarapina Hristina D.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Health and safety have been the major concerns in waste management. Waste must be managed in a way that minimizes risk to human health. Environmental concerns over the management and disposal of waste can be divided into two major areas: conservation of resources and pollution of the environment. Integrated Waste Management (IWM systems combine waste streams, waste collection, treatment and disposal methods, with the objective of achieving environmental benefits, economic optimization and societal acceptability. Integrated waste management using Life Cycle Assessment (LCA attempts to offer the most benign options for waste management. LCA is a compilation and evaluation of the inputs, the outputs and the potential environmental impacts of a product system throughout its life cycle. It can be successfully applied to municipal solid waste management systems to identify the overall environmental burdens and to assess the potential environmental impacts. This paper deals with the LCA of the two waste management options for final disposal of municipal waste, landfilling (landfill without landfill gas collection or leachate collection and sanitary landfilling (landfill with landfill gas collection and recovery and leachate collection and treatments analyzed for town Sombor, Serbia. The research is conducted with the use of the Software Package IWM-2. The indicators which are used in the assessment are air and water emissions of toxic compounds. The results indicated that waste disposal practice has a significant effect on the emission of the toxic components and environmental burdens. Sanitary landfilling of municipal solid waste significantly reduces toxic emission and negative influence on the environment.

  18. Air Quality Responses to Changes in Black Carbon and Nitrogen Oxide Emissions

    OpenAIRE

    Millstein, Dev

    2009-01-01

    Fine particulate matter (PM) affects public health, visibility, climate, and influences ecosystem productivity and species diversity. Diesel engines are an important source of air pollution and will face a variety of new regulations, so emissions from these vehicles are expected to undergo changes over the next decade that will have important effects on primary PM emissions, especially black carbon (BC) emissions, as well as nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions and therefore secondary pollutants su...

  19. Source fingerprint monitoring of air pollutants from petrochemical industry and the determination of their annual emission flux using open path Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yih-Shiaw Huang; Shih-Yi Chang; Tai-Ly Tso [National Tsing Hua Univ., Hsinchu (China)

    1996-12-31

    Toxic air pollutants were investigated in several petrochemical industrial park in Taiwan using a movable open-path Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The results show the qualitative and quantitative analysis of emission gases from plants, and also provide the emission rates of various compounds. More than twenty compounds under usual operation were found from these industrial park. The concentration variation with time could be correlated exactly with the distances from the emission source along the wind direction. This means that by changing the measuring points the source of emission could be unambiguously identified. The point, area and line source (PAL) plume dispersion model has been applied to estimate the emission rate of either a point or an area source. The local atmospheric stability was determined by releasing an SF{sub 6} tracer. The origin of errors came mainly from the uncertainty of the source configuration and the variation of the meteorological condition. Through continuous measurement using a portable open-path Fourier transform infrared (POP-FTIR) spectrometer, the maximum value of the emission rate and the annual amount of emission could be derived. The emission rate of the measured toxic gases was derived by the model technique, and the results show that the emission amount is on the order of ten to hundred tons per year.

  20. AIR PERMIT COMPLIANCE FOR WASTE RETRIEVAL OEPRATIONS INVOLVING MULTI-UNIT EMISSIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since 1970, approximately 38,000 suspect-transuranic and transuranic waste containers have been placed in retrievable storage on the Hanford Site in the 200 Areas burial grounds. Hanford's Waste Retrieval Project is retrieving these buried containers and processing them for safe storage and disposition. Container retrieval activities require an air emissions permit to account for potential emissions of radionuclides. The air permit covers the excavation activities as well as activities associated with assaying containers and installing filters in the retrieved transuranic containers lacking proper venting devices. Fluor Hanford, Inc. is required to track radioactive emissions resulting from the retrieval activities. Air, soil, and debris media contribute to the emissions and enabling assumptions allow for calculation of emissions. Each of these activities is limited to an allowed annual emission (per calendar year) and .contributes to the overall total emissions allowed for waste retrieval operations. Tracking these emissions is required to ensure a permit exceedance does not occur. A tracking tool was developed to calculate potential emissions in real time sense. Logic evaluations are established within the tracking system to compare real time data against license limits to ensure values are not exceeded for either an individual activity or the total limit. Data input are based on field survey and workplace air monitoring activities. This tracking tool is used monthly and quarterly to verify compliance to the license limits. Use of this tool has allowed Fluor Hanford, Inc. to successfully retrieve a significant number of containers in a safe manner without any exceedance of emission limits

  1. 2011 NATA - Emissions Sources

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset includes all emissions sources that were modeled in the 2011 National Air Toxics Assessment (NATA), inlcluding point, nonpoint, and mobile sources, and...

  2. Radionuclide air emission report for the Hanford Site Calendar Year 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report documents radionuclide air emissions from the Hanford Site in 1993 and the resulting effective dose equivalent to any member of the public. The report has been prepared and will be submitted in accordance with reporting requirements in the Code of Federal Regulations, Title 40, Protection of the Environment, Part 61, open-quotes National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants,close quotes Subpart H, open-quotes National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other than Radon from Department of Energy Facilities.close quotes

  3. National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants—Calendar Year 2010 INL Report for Radionuclides (2011)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mark Verdoorn; Tom Haney

    2011-06-01

    This report documents the calendar Year 2010 radionuclide air emissions and resulting effective dose equivalent to the maximally exposed individual member of the public from operations at the Department of Energy's Idaho National Laboratory Site. This report was prepared in accordance with the Code of Federal Regulations, Title 40, 'Protection of the Environment,' Part 61, 'National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants,' Subpart H, 'National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other than Radon from Department of Energy Facilities.'

  4. Radionuclide air emission report for the Hanford Site Calendar Year 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diediker, L.P.; Curn, B.L. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); Rhoads, K.; Damberg, E.G.; Soldat, J.K.; Jette, S.J. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1994-08-01

    This report documents radionuclide air emissions from the Hanford Site in 1993 and the resulting effective dose equivalent to any member of the public. The report has been prepared and will be submitted in accordance with reporting requirements in the Code of Federal Regulations, Title 40, Protection of the Environment, Part 61, {open_quotes}National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants,{close_quotes} Subpart H, {open_quotes}National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other than Radon from Department of Energy Facilities.{close_quotes}

  5. Inventory of conventional air pollutants emissions from road transportation for the state of Rio de Janeiro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Road transportation has contributed to increased emissions of conventional air pollutants and, consequently, to the increase in problems associated with the environment and human health, depending on the type of pollutant and the concentration of it. To support the development of public policies aimed to decrease total tonnes of emissions, we used a bottom-up approach to estimate the amount of air pollutants, such as carbon monoxide (CO), total hydrocarbons (THC), nitrogen oxides (NOx), particulate matter (PM), and aldehydes (RCHO), that are emitted by road transportation in the state of Rio de Janeiro (RJ) from 1980 to 2010. The results from 2010 show that cars are responsible for 55% of CO emissions, 61% of THC emissions, and 93% of RCHO emissions. Due to the use of hydrated ethanol and compressed natural gas (CNG) instead of petroleum based fuels during the period analyzed, 1,760,370 t of air pollutant emissions were avoided. Compared to Brazil, in 2010, RJ had a quantity of emissions per vehicle from 12% (CO) to 59% (PM) smaller than the national average. As strategies to reduce air pollutant emissions, we consider reducing the intensity of use, with a proportional reduction in emissions, and increased the use of biodiesel. - Highlights: ► We estimate road transportation emissions for Rio de Janeiro from 1980 to 2010. ► C gasoline was most responsible for CO (74%) and diesel for PM (91%). ► Emissions/vehicle for Rio de Janeiro are (12% to 59%) smaller than Brazilian. ► 1,760,370 t of emissions was avoided using non-petroleum-based fuels. ► Strategies to reduce the emissions of these air pollutants were proposed.

  6. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Campus Radionuclide Air Emissions Report for Calendar Year 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snyder, Sandra F.; Barnett, J. Matthew; Bisping, Lynn E.

    2014-06-01

    This report documents radionuclide air emissions that result in the highest effective dose equivalent (EDE) to a member of the public, referred to as the maximally exposed individual (MEI). The report has been prepared in compliance with the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Title 40, Protection of the Environment, Part 61, National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP), Subpart H, National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other than Radon from Department of Energy Facilities and Washington Administrative Code (WAC) Chapter 246-247, Radiation Protection Air Emissions. The dose to the PNNL Site MEI due to routine major and minor point source emissions in 2013 from PNNL Site sources is 2E-05 mrem (2E-07 mSv) EDE. The dose from fugitive emissions (i.e., unmonitored sources) is 2E-6 mrem (2E-8 mSv) EDE. The dose from radon emissions is 1E-11 mrem (1E-13 mSv) EDE. No nonroutine emissions occurred in 2013. The total radiological dose for 2013 to the MEI from all PNNL Site radionuclide emissions, including fugitive emissions and radon, is 2E-5 mrem (2E-7 mSv) EDE, or 100,000 times smaller than the federal and state standard of 10 mrem/yr, to which the PNNL Site is in compliance

  7. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Site Radionuclide Air Emissions Report for Calendar Year 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snyder, Sandra F.; Barnett, J. Matthew; Bisping, Lynn E.

    2013-06-06

    This report documents radionuclide air emissions that result in the highest effective dose equivalent (EDE) to a member of the public, referred to as the maximally exposed individual (MEI). The report has been prepared in compliance with the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Title 40, Protection of the Environment, Part 61, National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP), Subpart H, National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other than Radon from Department of Energy Facilities and Washington Administrative Code (WAC) Chapter 246-247, Radiation Protection Air Emissions. The dose to the PNNL Site MEI due to routine major and minor point source emissions in 2012 from PNNL Site sources is 9E-06 mrem (9E-08 mSv) EDE. The dose from fugitive emissions (i.e., unmonitored sources) is 1E-7 mrem (1E-9 mSv) EDE. The dose from radon emissions is 2E-6 mrem (2E-08 mSv) EDE. No nonroutine emissions occurred in 2012. The total radiological dose for 2012 to the MEI from all PNNL Site radionuclide emissions, including fugitive emissions and radon, is 1E-5 mrem (1E-7 mSv) EDE, or 100,000 times smaller than the federal and state standard of 10 mrem/yr, to which the PNNL Site is in compliance.

  8. Progress in the prevention and control of air pollution in 1988: Report to congress. Annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Contents of this study: air quality trends, monitoring, and modeling; air pollution research programs; development of national ambient air; quality standards; assessment and control of toxic air pollutants; status of air quality management programs; control of stationary source emissions; stationary source compliance; control of mobile source emissions; stratospheric ozone protection; indoor air quality; acid deposition; radon assessment and remediation; litigation

  9. 77 FR 60341 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Reciprocating Internal Combustion...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-03

    ... Source Performance Standards for Stationary Internal Combustion Engines'' (77 FR 33812). The June 7, 2012... Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines; New Source Performance Standards for Stationary Internal Combustion... Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Stationary Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines...

  10. First Experimental Characterization of Microwave Emission from Cosmic Ray Air Showers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smída, R; Werner, F; Engel, R; Arteaga-Velázquez, J C; Bekk, K; Bertaina, M; Blümer, J; Bozdog, H; Brancus, I M; Chiavassa, A; Cossavella, F; Di Pierro, F; Doll, P; Fuchs, B; Fuhrmann, D; Grupen, C; Haungs, A; Heck, D; Hörandel, J R; Huber, D; Huege, T; Kampert, K-H; Kang, D; Klages, H; Kleifges, M; Krömer, O; Link, K; Luczak, P; Ludwig, M; Mathes, H J; Mathys, S; Mayer, H J; Melissas, M; Morello, C; Neunteufel, P; Oehlschläger, J; Palmieri, N; Pekala, J; Pierog, T; Rautenberg, J; Rebel, H; Riegel, M; Roth, M; Salamida, F; Schieler, H; Schoo, S; Schröder, F G; Sima, O; Stasielak, J; Toma, G; Trinchero, G C; Unger, M; Weber, M; Weindl, A; Wilczyński, H; Will, M; Wochele, J; Zabierowski, J

    2014-11-28

    We report the first direct measurement of the overall characteristics of microwave radio emission from extensive air showers. Using a trigger provided by the KASCADE-Grande air shower array, the signals of the microwave antennas of the Cosmic-Ray Observation via Microwave Emission experiment have been read out and searched for signatures of radio emission by high-energy air showers in the GHz frequency range. Microwave signals have been detected for more than 30 showers with energies above 3×10^{16}  eV. The observations presented in this Letter are consistent with a mainly forward-directed and polarized emission process in the GHz frequency range. The measurements show that microwave radiation offers a new means of studying air showers at E≥10^{17}  eV. PMID:25494064

  11. First Experimental Characterization of Microwave Emission from Cosmic Ray Air Showers

    CERN Document Server

    Smida, R; Engel, R; Arteaga-Velazquez, J C; Bekk, K; Bertaina, M; Bluemer, J; Bozdog, H; Brancus, I M; Chiavassa, A; Cossavella, F; Di Pierro, F; Doll, P; Fuchs, B; Fuhrmann, D; Grupen, C; Haungs, A; Heck, D; Hoerandel, J R; Huber, D; Huege, T; Kampert, K -H; Kang, D; Klages, H; Kleifges, M; Kroemer, O; Link, K; Luczak, P; Ludwig, M; Mathes, H J; Mathys, S; Mayer, H J; Melissas, M; Morello, C; Neunteufel, P; Oehlschlaeger, J; Palmieri, N; Pekala, J; Pierog, T; Rautenberg, J; Rebel, H; Riegel, M; Roth, M; Salamida, F; Schieler, H; Schoo, S; Schroeder, F G; Sima, O; Stasielak, J; Toma, G; Trinchero, G C; Unger, M; Weber, M; Weindl, A; Wilczynski, H; Will, M; Wochele, J; Zabierowski, J

    2014-01-01

    We report the first direct measurement of the overall characteristics of microwave radio emission from extensive air showers. Using a trigger provided by the KASCADE-Grande air shower array, the signals of the microwave antennas of the CROME (Cosmic-Ray Observation via Microwave Emission) experiment have been read out and searched for signatures of radio emission by high-energy air showers in the GHz frequency range. Microwave signals have been detected for more than 30 showers with energies above 3*10^16 eV. The observations presented in this Letter are consistent with a mainly forward-directed and polarised emission process in the GHz frequency range. The measurements show that microwave radiation offers a new means of studying air showers at energies above 10^17 eV.

  12. TOF-SIMS measurements for toxic air pollutants adsorbed on the surface of airborne particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomiyasu, Bunbunoshin; Hoshi, Takahiro; Owari, Masanori; Nihei, Yoshimasa

    2003-01-01

    Three kinds of particulate matter were collected: diesel and gasoline exhaust particles emitted directly from exhaust nozzle, and suspended particulate matter (SPM) near the traffic route. Soxhlet extraction was performed on each sample. By gas-chromatograph-mass spectrometer (GC-MS) analysis of these extracts, di-ethyl phthalate and di- n-butyl phthalate were detected from the extract of SPM and diesel exhaust particles (DEPs). Because these phthalates were sometimes suspected as contamination, time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS) measurements were also performed on the samples collected at the same environment. By comparing obtained spectra, it is clear that these environmental endocrine disrupters (EEDs) were adsorbed on DEP surface. Thus, we concluded that the combination of conventional method and TOF-SIMS measurement is one of the most powerful techniques for analyzing the toxic air pollutants adsorbed on SPM surface.

  13. EXTRAN: A computer code for estimating concentrations of toxic substances at control room air intakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents the NRC staff with a tool for assessing the potential effects of accidental releases of radioactive materials and toxic substances on habitability of nuclear facility control rooms. The tool is a computer code that estimates concentrations at nuclear facility control room air intakes given information about the release and the environmental conditions. The name of the computer code is EXTRAN. EXTRAN combines procedures for estimating the amount of airborne material, a Gaussian puff dispersion model, and the most recent algorithms for estimating diffusion coefficients in building wakes. It is a modular computer code, written in FORTRAN-77, that runs on personal computers. It uses a math coprocessor, if present, but does not require one. Code output may be directed to a printer or disk files. 25 refs., 8 figs., 4 tabs

  14. Evaluation of consequences from emissions to air from the petroleum industry at Haltenbanken

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report discusses the consequences of emissions to air from the petroleum industry at Haltenbanken. The evaluation includes prognoses for photochemical activity, concentration distributions and deposition of nitrogen and sulphur for the years 2000, 2009 and a base alternative for 2000 but with different emissions. The greatest emission of nitrogen oxides comes from ships, especially from shuttle tankers. The gas turbines give the greatest NOx emission from stationary installations. Hydrocarbon emission is largely due to buoy loading. The emissions of NOx, CO, methane and NMVOC from Haltenbanken are considerable compared to the total emissions from the Norwegian shelf of the North Sea and also from continental Norway. The report discusses calculated impact of the emissions at some measurement stations in that part of Norway which will be affected by the emissions, for each of the three alternatives. 62 refs., 13 figs., 12 tabs

  15. Air humidity incidence on the carbon monoxide emissions a gas atmospheric burner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study to determine the variation of the carbon monoxide emission was carried out when the humidity of the premix air was modified in an atmospheric burner working with petroleum liquid gas and natural gas. When the total humidity from the primary air was modified from 0,01223 to 0,03493 water kg/dry air kg in the case of PLG, it was found that the level of co emissions varied in volume from 0,1819 % to 0,2540 %, representing an increase of 38 %. With natural gas the humidity was modified from 0,01397 to 0,03228 water kg/dry air kg, obtaining emissions of CO in volume from 0,0942 % to 0,1020 %, for a total increase of 8,5 %. The study showed that the effect on the air humidity was more pronounced when the combustion with PLG was made, over passing the maximum levels allowed of carbon monoxide

  16. Radionuclide air emissions report for the Hanford site calendar year 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gleckler, B.P., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-06-26

    This report documents radionuclide air emissions from the Hanford Site in 1995, and the resulting effective dose equivalent (FDE) to the maximally exposed member of the public, referred to as the `MEI.` The report has been prepared and will be submitted in accordance with reporting requirements in the Code of Federal Regulations, Title 40, Protection of the Environment, Part 61, `National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants,` Subpart H, `National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other than Radon from Department of Energy Facilities.` This report has also been prepared for and will be submitted in accordance with the reporting requirements of the Washington Administrative Code Chapter 246-247, `Radiation Protection-Air Emissions.`

  17. The air shower maximum probed by Cherenkov effects from radio emission

    CERN Document Server

    de Vries, Krijn D; Werner, Klaus; 10.1016/j.astropartphys.2013.02.003

    2013-01-01

    Radio detection of cosmic-ray-induced air showers has come to a flight the last decade. Along with the experimental efforts, several theoretical models were developed. The main radio-emission mechanisms are established to be the geomagnetic emission due to deflection of electrons and positrons in Earth's magnetic field and the charge-excess emission due to a net electron excess in the air shower front. It was only recently shown that Cherenkov effects play an important role in the radio emission from air showers. In this article we show the importance of these effects to extract quantitatively the position of the shower maximum from the radio signal, which is a sensitive measure for the mass of the initial cosmic ray. We also show that the relative magnitude of the charge-excess and geomagnetic emission changes considerably at small observer distances where Cherenkov effects apply.

  18. Air quality impacts of European wildfire emissions in a changing climate

    OpenAIRE

    Knorr, W.; Dentener, F.; Hantson, S.; Jiang, L.; Klimont, Z.; A. Arneth

    2016-01-01

    Wildfires are not only a threat to human property and a vital element of many ecosystems, but also an important source of air pollution. In this study, we first review the available evidence for a past or possible future climate-driven increase in wildfire emissions in Europe. We then introduce an ensemble of model simulations with a coupled wildfire–dynamic-ecosystem model, which we combine with published spatial maps of both wildfire and anthropogenic emissions of several major air pollutan...

  19. Research Spotlight: Satellites monitor air pollutant emissions in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tretkoff, Ernie

    A new satellite study verifies that Chinese emission control efforts did reduce power plant emissions of sulfur dioxide (SO2), a harmful gas that causes acid rain and can form sulfate aerosols; these aerosols play an important role in the climate system by affecting clouds and precipitation patterns and altering the amount of sunlight that is reflected away from Earth.

  20. Product-related emissions of Mercury to Air in the European Union

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kindbom, Karin; Munthe, John

    2007-06-15

    Mercury emissions to air from the use of mercury in products have been estimated for the EU for the year 2005. The consumption of mercury in the EU in 2005 was amounted to 125 tonnes in technical products. Estimates of emissions of mercury from dental amalgam were derived from information on cremations in European countries and average contents of amalgam fillings. Annual emissions of mercury to air from product use in EU27 have been estimated to be in the range 10-18 tonnes (best estimate 14 tonnes) from technical products and to 2-5 tonnes from cremation, in total 12-23 tonnes. Of the mercury consumed in technical products, 11% was calculated to be emitted to air, 31% to end up in safe storage while 58% would still be accumulated in society or disposed of in landfills. From the share still accumulated in society, as well as from the already land filled amounts, further emissions of mercury to air may occur in the longer term. Emissions from technical products are calculated based on the consumption of mercury in 2005. Emissions occurring in the same year but caused by consumption in the previous 10 years were derived using the consumption in 2005 and assuming the same patterns of distribution and emissions. The latest available estimates of total anthropogenic emissions of mercury in EU27 refer to the year 2000 and are in the order of 140-190 tonnes, probably to have declined to 2005. Based on these figures the contribution to anthropogenic mercury emissions to air in EU from product use and cremation in 2005 is at least 6-16%. In a previous report product related air emissions of 72 tonnes were estimated for Europe in the mid 1990s, corresponding to 18% of the total air emissions. A significant decrease of emissions has thus occurred which is in line with a decreasing use of mercury in technical products, more efficient collection of remaining products and better emission control. However, the calculations show that the use of mercury in products still

  1. Impact of urban emission on air-quality over central Europe: present day and future emissions perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huszar, Peter; Belda, Michal; Halenka, Tomas; Karlicky, Jan

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of the study is to quantify the impact of present-day and future urban emission from central European cities on the regional air-quality (AQ), based on a modeling couple of the regional climate model RegCM4.2 and the chemistry transport model CAMx, including two-way interactions. A series of simulations was carried out for the present (2001-2010) decade and two future decades (2026-2035 and 2046-2055) either with all urban emissions included (base case) or without considering urban emissions. As we are interested on the impact of emission changes only, the impact of different driving meteorological conditions in the future (due to climate change) are not considered. The emissions used is the TNO MEGAPOLI European emission database that includes country/sector based scenarios for years 2030 and 2050, which were used for the encompassing decades. Further, the sensitivity of ozone production to urban emissions was examined by performing reduction experiments with -20% emission perturbation of NOx and/or NMVOC. The model was also validated using surface measurements of key pollutants. Selected air-quality measures were used as metrics describing the cities emission impact on regional air pollution. Due to urban emissions, significant ozone titration occurs over cities while over rural areas further from, ozone production is modeled, mainly in terms of number of exceedances and accumulated exceedances over the threshold of 40 ppbv. Urban NOx, SO2 and PM2.5 emissions also significantly contribute to concentrations in the cities themselves (up to 50-70% for NOx and SO2 , and up to 55% for PM2.5), but the contribution is large over rural areas as well (10-20%). Although air pollution over cities is largely determined by the local urban emissions, considerable (often a few tens of %) fraction of the concentration is attributable to other sources from rural areas and minor cities. The future urban emission AQ fingerprint is, in general, slightly smaller than in

  2. Probing atmospheric electric fields in thunderstorms through radio emission from cosmic-ray induced air showers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schellart, P.; Trinh, T.N.G.; Buitink, S.; Corstanje, A.; Enriquez, J.E; Falcke, H.; Bentum, M.J.

    2015-01-01

    We present measurements of radio emission from cosmic ray air showers that took place during thunder storms. The intensity and polarization patterns of these air showers are radically different from those measured during fair-weather conditions. With the use of a simple two-layer model for the atmos

  3. 76 FR 14636 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Primary Lead Smelting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-17

    ... Air Pollutants for Primary Lead Smelting (76 FR 9410). The EPA is extending the deadline for written... Pollutants: Primary Lead Smelting, was published February 17, 2011 (76 FR 9410). EPA has established the... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 63 RIN 2060-AQ42 National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants:...

  4. 77 FR 2677 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Primary Aluminum Reduction Plants...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-19

    ... Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Primary Aluminum Reduction Plants'' is being extended for 12 days. DATES: Comments. The public comment period for the proposed rule published December 6, 2011, (76 FR... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 63 RIN 2060-AQ-92 National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants:...

  5. 76 FR 21692 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Primary Lead Smelting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-18

    ... Air Pollutants for Primary Lead Smelting (76 FR 9410). The EPA is extending the deadline for written... Pollutants: Primary Lead Smelting, was published February 17, 2011 (76 FR 9410). EPA has established the... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 63 RIN 2060-AQ43 National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants:...

  6. 77 FR 11476 - Delegation of National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Source Categories; Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 63 Delegation of National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Source... for hazardous air pollutants (NESHAP) to the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection on October...

  7. 76 FR 38591 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Secondary Lead Smelting; Extension of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-01

    ... the National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Secondary Lead Smelting (76 FR 29032... Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Secondary Lead Smelting, was published May 19, 2011 (76 FR 29032... current rule. DATES: Comments on the proposed rule published May 19, 2011 (76 FR 29032) must be...

  8. Urban air quality: the challenge of traffic non-exhaust emissions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amato, Fulvio; Cassee, Flemming R.; Denier van der Gon, Hugo A C; Gehrig, Robert; Gustafsson, Mats; Hafner, Wolfgang; Harrison, Roy M.; Jozwicka, Magdalena; Kelly, Frank J.; Moreno, Teresa; Prevot, Andre S H; Schaap, Martijn; Sunyer, Jordi; Querol, Xavier

    2014-01-01

    About 400,000 premature adult deaths attributable to air pollution occur each year in the European Region. Road transport emissions account for a significant share of this burden. While important technological improvements have been made for reducing particulate matter (PM) emissions from motor exha

  9. Urban air quality: The challenge of traffic non-exhaust emissions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amato, F.; Cassee, F.R.; Denier van der Gon, H.A.C.; Gehrig, R.; Gustafsson, M.; Hafner, W.; Harrison, R.M.; Jozwicka, M.; Kelly, F.J.; Moreno, T.; Prevot, A.S.H.; Schaap, M.; Sunyer, J.; Querol, X.

    2014-01-01

    About 400,000 premature adult deaths attributable to air pollution occur each year in the European Region. Road transport emissions account for a significant share of this burden. While important technological improvements have been made for reducing particulate matter (PM) emissions from motor exha

  10. A model for the estimation of energy consumption and air pollutant emissions from rail transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindgreen, Erik Bjørn Grønning; Sorenson, Spencer C

    2003-01-01

    A model is presented for the calculation of energy consumption and air pollutant emissions from rail transport. It is based on the estimation of energy consumption from a matirx describing the distribution of speeds and accelerations for operation. It is shown that calculations can be performed on...... on energy consumption and emissions....

  11. 77 FR 24440 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; North Carolina; Annual Emissions...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-24

    ... ozone national ambient air quality standard (NAAQS). See 73 FR 16436. The current action, however, is...; Annual Emissions Reporting AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY... meet the emissions statements requirement for North Carolina. EPA is proposing to approve the...

  12. Emission scenarios for a global hydrogen economy and the consequences for global air pollution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ruijven, B.J.; Lamarque, J.F.; van Vuuren, D.P.; Kram, T.; Eerens, H.

    2011-01-01

    Hydrogen is named as possible energy carrier for future energy systems. However, the impact of large-scale hydrogen use on the atmosphere is uncertain. Application of hydrogen in clean fuel cells reduces emissions of air pollutants, but emissions from hydrogen production and leakages of molecular hy

  13. Indices for summary judgement of the emission of several air pollutants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolar, J. (Energie- und Wasserversorgung A.G. (EWAG), Nuernberg (Germany, F.R.); VAG Verkehrs-Aktien-Gesellschaft Nuernberg (Germany, F.R.))

    1979-02-01

    After a survey of the many air pollutants, some aspects are mentioned by which emissions can be categorized and some quantitative measures of determination are given. For an objective, comprehensive assessment of emissions of different air-polluting substances, there is an emission index which consists in an additive linking of the product of weight and characteristic value of the emission. The best suitable weights appear to be the ratios of limiting values for immissions, so-called 'effect values'. After a discussion of these 'effect values', emission indices proposed until now are compiled in a clear form. The article closes on a few hints concerning the general possibilities of applying the emission index which are illustrated by a few examples.

  14. A multi-methodological approach to study the temporal and spatial distribution of air quality related to road transport emissions in Madrid, Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Pedro; Miranda, Regina

    2013-04-01

    The traffic-related atmospheric emissions, composition and transport of greenhouse gases (GHGs) and air toxic pollutants (ATPs), are an important environmental problem that affect climate change and air pollution in Madrid, Spain. Carbon dioxide (CO2) affects the regional weather and particularly fine particle matter (PM) translocate to the people resulting in local health problems. As the main source of emissions comes from road transport, and subsequent combustion of fossil fuels, air quality deterioration may be elevated during weekdays and peak hours. We postulate that traffic-related air quality (CO2, methane CH4, PM, volatile organic compounds VOCs, nitrogen oxides NOx and carbon monoxide CO contents) impairs epidemiology in part via effects on health and disease development, likely increasing the external costs of transport in terms of climate change and air pollution. First, the paper intends to estimate the local air quality related to the road transport emissions of weeks over a domain covering Madrid (used as a case study). The local air quality model (LAQM) is based on gridded and shaped emission fields. The European Environmental Agency (EEA) COPERT modeling system will provide GHGs and ATPs gridded and shaped emission data and mobile source parameters, available for Madrid from preliminary emission inventory records of the Municipality of Madrid and from disaggregated traffic counts of the Traffic Engineering Company and the Metropolitan Company of Metro (METRO-Madrid). The paper intends to obtain estimates of GHGs and ATPs concentrations commensurate with available ground measurements, 24-hour average values, from the Municipality of Madrid. The comparison between estimated concentrations and measurements must show small errors (e.g. fractional error, fractional bias and coefficient of determination). The paper's expected results must determine spatial and temporal patterns in Madrid. The estimates will be used to cross check the primary local

  15. Compensation of CO2 emissions by air travels: an example

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lombardi F

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, several aircraft companies launched awareness campaigns, offering to their passenger the opportunity to known and also calculate their own per-capita CO2 emissions related to the flight they are going to make. Such campaigns permits to the passenger to pay a volunteer contribution in order to compensate their CO2 emissions. In this short communication, some programs undertaken by airline companies are showed. These initiatives are all characterized by a common denominator: the achievement of concrete, proved and verifiable results to compensate the aircraft CO2 emissions. Moreover, also a concrete case is reported as example: it is useful to show which is the per capita CO2 emission for a sample flight in Europe and, quantitatively, the amount of compensation measurements. Finally, this communication highlights on how the estimates of such measurements are usually miscalculated, considering that the capability of forest ecosystems to store CO2 are often underestimated.

  16. Air Emissions from Agriculture in Austria and Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANDERL M.

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available A comparative picture of the trends in GHG emissions during 1990 – 2007 in Austria and Romania, within EU –27 tendencies context, with accent on agriculture sources is presented. The green house gases (GHG emissions fromagriculture in EU – 27 during 1990 and 2007 are mainly represented by methane (CH4 nitrous oxide (N2O andammonia (NH3. In Austria, all sectors have a decreasing tendency during the analyzed interval. In Romania, duringanalyzed interval, the GHG emissions from Romanian sector agriculture had the same decreasing tendency. The maindriving force in methane and nitrous oxide decrease, in both studied situations (Austrian and Romanian agriculturalsectors, respectively, is the declining number of animals. Concerning the ammonia emissions, the decrease was theresult of improvement in different sectors: housing, storage, spreading, and animal diets.

  17. Valuation of plug-in vehicle life-cycle air emissions and oil displacement benefits

    OpenAIRE

    Michalek, Jeremy J.; Chester, Mikhail; Jaramillo, Paulina; Samaras, Constantine; Shiau, Ching-Shin Norman; Lester B. Lave

    2011-01-01

    We assess the economic value of life-cycle air emissions and oil consumption from conventional vehicles, hybrid-electric vehicles (HEVs), plug-in hybrid-electric vehicles (PHEVs), and battery electric vehicles in the US. We find that plug-in vehicles may reduce or increase externality costs relative to grid-independent HEVs, depending largely on greenhouse gas and SO2 emissions produced during vehicle charging and battery manufacturing. However, even if future marginal damages from emissions ...

  18. Impacts of aircraft emissions on the air quality near the ground

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, H; S. C. Olsen; Wuebbles, D. J.; D. Youn

    2013-01-01

    The continuing increase in demand for commercial aviation transport raises questions about the effects of resulting emissions on the environment. The purpose of this study is to investigate, using a global chemistry transport model, to what extent aviation emissions outside the boundary layer influence air quality in the boundary layer. The effects of current levels of aircraft emissions were studied through comparison of multiple simulations allowing for the separated effects of aviation emi...

  19. Impacts of aircraft emissions on the air quality near the ground

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, H; S. C. Olsen; Wuebbles, D. J.; D. Youn

    2013-01-01

    The continuing increase in demand for commercial aviation transport raises questions about the effects of resulting emissions on the environment. The purpose of this study is to investigate, using a global chemistry transport model, to what extent aviation emissions outside the boundary layer influence air quality in the boundary layer. The large-scale effects of current levels of aircraft emissions were studied through comparison of multiple simulations allowing for the separated effects of ...

  20. Impacts of aircraft emissions on the air quality near the ground

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, H; S. C. Olsen; Wuebbles, D. J.; D. Youn

    2013-01-01

    The continuing increase in demand for commercial aviation transport raises questions about the effects of resulting emissions on the environment. The purpose of this study is to investigate, using a global chemistry transport model, to what extent aviation emissions outside the boundary layer influence air quality in the boundary layer. The large-scale effects of current levels of aircraft emissions were studied through comparison of multiple simulations allowing for the sep...

  1. On the long term impact of emissions from central European cities on regional air-quality

    OpenAIRE

    P. Huszar; M. Belda; T. Halenka

    2015-01-01

    For the purpose of qualifying and quantifying the impact of urban emission from Central European cities on the present-day regional air-quality, the regional climate model RegCM4.2 was coupled with the chemistry transport model CAMx, including two-way interactions. A series of simulations was carried out for the 2001–2010 period either with all urban emissions included (base case) or without considering urban emissions. Further, the sensitivity of ozone production to urban e...

  2. Impact of NOx vehicle emission standards failure on Air Quality in Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Borken-Kleefeld, J.; Kiesewetter, G.; Papageorgiou, T.; Ntziachristos, L.

    2012-01-01

    Vehicle exhaust emission standards have been tightened in the EU for several decades now, in order to protect health and the environment. This has led to a substantial decrease in total pollutant emissions, despite the growing volumes of passenger and freight transport. However, national emissions, particularly of NOx, exceed the ceilings accorded under the Gothenburg Protocol of the UNECE's Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution (LRTAP) (EEA 2012) in twelve EU Member States. T...

  3. Coherence Measurement of White Light Emission from Femtosecond Laser Propagation in Air

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIN Zhan; WANG Zhao-Hua; LING Wei-Jun; WEI Zhi-Yi; ZHANG Jie; LIU Yun-Quan; LI Kun; YUAN Xiao-Hui; HAO Zuo-Qiang; ZHENG Jun; LU Xin; LI Yu-Tong

    2005-01-01

    @@ Strong white light emission is observed from femtosecond laser propagation in air. The divergence angle of the white light emission is measured to be about 5mrad. Young's double-slits and a Michelson interferometer are used to investigate the coherence. The wavelength components of the white light emission are identified to have a good spatial coherence and a coherence time of about 0.5ps.

  4. Air pollution prevention manual on emission monitoring. 2. rev. ed.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-08-15

    The Manual on Emission Monitoring covers the need for information about the national practice in the field of emission control at plants, requiring official approval. The legal bases for discontinuous and continuous measurements for emission control at plants, requiring official approval, are treated. Thereby also the European environmental legislation is considered. The publication procedure for testing institutes, which execute such measurements, is described. The execution of discontinuous emission measurements (course of the measurement and measurement requests) and for continuous emission measurement (suitability test, installation, maintenance, functional test and calibration of the automated measuring system) including the evaluation and documentation of the measured values is described. The procedure of remote emission monitoring is explained. The most important measuring procedures (continuous and discontinuous) are reported. The guide also includes an up-to-date list of tested and appropriate measurement devices. Such tested measuring devices are described by their manufacturers. Indications are given as to how the devices function together with their technical data (e. g. parameters from the suitability test). (orig.)

  5. Component modeling in ecological risk assessment: Disturbance in interspecific interactions caused by air toxics introduced into terrestrial ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swider, Jan Zenon

    Ecological Risk Assessment standpoint and examine the impact of air toxics emissions on an ecosystem, with particular emphasis on predator-prey interactions. Such analysis may help to identify the most likely conditions leading to the ecosystem instability and possibility of its recuperation.

  6. Radionuclide air emissions report for the Hanford Site. Calendar year 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report documents radionuclide air emission from the Hanford Site in 1997, and the resulting effective dose equivalent to the maximally exposed member of the public, referred to as the MEI. The report has been prepared in accordance with reporting requirements in the Code of Federal Regulations, Title 40, Protection of the Environment, Part 61, National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants, Subpart H, National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other than Radon from Department of Energy Facilities. This report has also been prepared in accordance with the reporting requirements of the Washington Administrative Code Chapter 246-247, Radiation Protection-Air Emissions. The effective dose equivalent to the MEI from the Hanford Site's 1997 point source emissions was 1.2 E-03 mrem (1.2 E-05 mSv), which is well below the 40 CFR 61 Subpart H regulatory limit of 10 mrem/yr. Radon and thoron emissions, exempted from 40 CFR 61 Subpart H, resulted in an effective dose equivalent to the MEI of 2.5 E-03 mrem (2.5 E-05 mSv). The effective dose equivalent to the MEI attributable to diffuse and fugitive emissions was 2.2 E-02 mrem (2.2 E-04 mSv). The total effective dose equivalent from all of the Hanford Site's air emissions was 2.6 E-02 mrem (2.6 E-04 mSv). The effective dose equivalent from all of the Hanford Site's air emissions is well below the Washington Administrative Code, Chapter 246-247, regulatory limit of 10 mrem/yr

  7. Air Toxics under the Big Sky: A Real-World Investigation to Engage High School Science Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Earle; Smith, Garon; Ward, Tony J.; Vanek, Diana; Marra, Nancy; Jones, David; Henthorn, Melissa; Striebel, Jim

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes a problem-based chemistry education model in which students perform scientific research on a local environmentally relevant problem. The project is a collaboration among The University of Montana and local high schools centered around Missoula, Montana. "Air Toxics under the Big Sky" involves high school students in collecting…

  8. Local-scale variability in regional air quality modelling: Implications on temporal distribution of emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergemann, Christoph; Meyer-Arnek, Julian

    2010-05-01

    In the field of air quality modeling, the comparison of model results with ground-based measurements is essential for validation purposes. The usefulness of these measurements for regional air quality modeling is however limited by the extremely local nature of station measurements. This is especially true for short-lived species like NO2, which is of high importance for public health. Nevertheless station observations are the only continuously available source of data on ground level air quality besides model results. Uncertainties in air quality models mainly arise from the lack of precise knowledge of the spatial and temporal distribution of pollutants. Most emission inventories provide aggregated values for long periods of time and yield no information on the temporal (diurnal) distribution of emissions. By applying ground-based measurements, our study yields optimized diurnal variations of anthropogenic emissions for different urban regions of Germany. In the course of the study the variability of air pollution on the urban scale (the model's subgrid scale) is also addressed. The study applies the newly established POLYPHEMUS/DLR model at a moderate resolution. In the framework of the GMES project "PROMOTE", this model system operationally analyzes and forecasts air quality in Bavaria, Germany. The model employs the latest version of the EMEP emission register in combination with high-resolution emission data provided by Bavarian authorities.

  9. Impact of air staging along furnace height on NO{sub x} emissions from pulverized coal combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fan, Weidong; Lin, Zhengchun; Kuang, Jinguo; Li, Youyi [School of Mechanical and Power Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, No. 800, Dongchuan Road, Minhang District, Shanghai 20024 (China)

    2010-06-15

    Experiments were carried out on an electrically heated multi-path air inlet one-dimensional furnace to assess NO{sub x} emission characteristics of an overall air-staged (also termed air staging along furnace height) combustion of bituminous coal. The impact of main parameters of overall air-staged combustion technology, including burnout air position, air stoichiometric ratio, levels of burnout air (the number of burnout air arranged at different heights of the furnace), and the ratios of the burnout air flow rates and pulverized coal fineness of industrial interest, on NO{sub x} emission were simulated to study in the experimental furnace, as well as the impact of air staging on the carbon content of the fly ash produced. These results suggest that air-staged combustion affects a pronounced reduction in NO{sub x} emissions from the combustion of bituminous coal. The more deeply the air is staged, the further the NO{sub x} emission is reduced. Two-level air staging yields a greater reduction in NO{sub x} emission than single-level air staging. For pulverized coal of differing fineness, the best ratio between the burnout air rates in the two-level staging ranges from 0.6 to 0.3. In middle air-staged degree combustion with f{sub M} = 0.75, pulverized coal fineness, R{sub 90} (%), has a greater influence on NO{sub x} emission, whereas R{sub 90} has little influence on NO{sub x} emission for deep air-staged degree with f{sub M} = 0.61. Air-staged combustion with proper burnout air position has little effect on the burnout. For overall air-staged combustion, proper burnout air position and air-staged rate should be considered together in order to achieve high combustion efficiency. (author)

  10. Air Quality and Road Emission Results for Fort Stewart, Georgia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirkham, Randy R.; Driver, Crystal J.; Chamness, Mickie A.; Barfuss, Brad C.

    2004-02-02

    The Directorate of Public Works Environmental & Natural Resources Division (Fort Stewart /Hunter Army Airfield) contracted with the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to monitor particulate matter (PM) concentrations on Fort Stewart, Georgia. The purpose of this investigation was to establish a PM sampling network using monitoring equipment typically used in U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) ''saturation sampling'', to determine air quality on the installation. In this initial study, the emphasis was on training-generated PM, not receptor PM loading. The majority of PM samples were 24-hr filter-based samples with sampling frequency ranging from every other day, to once every six days synchronized with the EPA 6th day national sampling schedule. Eight measurement sites were established and used to determine spatial variability in PM concentrations and evaluate whether fluctuations in PM appear to result from training activities and forest management practices on the installation. Data collected to date indicate the average installation PM2.5 concentration is lower than that of nearby urban Savannah, Georgia. At three sites near the installation perimeter, analyses to segregate PM concentrations by direction of air flow across the installation boundary indicate that air (below 80 ft) leaving the installation contains less PM2.5 than that entering the installation. This is reinforced by the observation that air near the ground is cleaner on average than the air at the top of the canopy.

  11. Union Gas assessment protocol for power generator air and noise emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper outlined a procedure for obtaining data to facilitate air and noise compliance assessments for emergency and other fuel-fired power generators. Facilities with the generators may contain additional sources of nitrogen oxides (NOx). The assessments are required for each new or modified generator in order to ensure that regulatory requirements in the Air Pollution Local Air Quality Regulation and the Noise Pollution Control documents are met. The air emission assessments follow the Ontario Ministry of the Environment (MOE) report. The paper included a screening process to screen out generators with negligible emissions. A maximum power rating was calculated using AP-2 emission factors and a conservative heat rating assumption. Maximum power ratings for various types of generators were presented. The information requirements included a description of the type of engine used; sound power level data; octave band insertion loss data; and plan and section drawings of the generator room. 2 tabs.

  12. NOx emission and thermal efficiency of a 300 MWe utility boiler retrofitted by air staging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, S.; Xu, T.M.; Hui, S.; Wei, X.L. [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China). Inst. of Mechanics

    2009-09-15

    Full-scale experiments were performed on a 300 MWe utility boiler retrofitted with air staging. In order to improve boiler thermal efficiency and to reduce NOx emission, the influencing factors including the overall excessive air ratio, the secondary air distribution pattern, the damper openings of CCOFA and SOFA, and pulverized coal fineness were investigated. Through comprehensive combustion adjustment, NOx emission decreased 182 ppm (NOx reduction efficiency was 44%), and boiler heat efficiency merely decreased 0.21%. After combustion improvement, high efficiency and low NOx emission was achieved in the utility coal-fired boiler retrofitted with air staging, and the unburned carbon in ash can maintain at a desired level where the utilization of fly-ash as byproducts was not influenced.

  13. USEtox human exposure and toxicity factors for comparative assessment of toxic emissions in life cycle analysis: sensitivity to key chemical properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenbaum, Ralph K.; Huijbregts, Mark; Henderson, Andrew D.;

    2011-01-01

    USEtoxTM, primarily by extrapolating from an oral route to exposure in air (and optionally acute-to-chronic). Some exposure pathways (e.g. indoor inhalation, pesticide residues, dermal exposure) will be included in a later stage. USEtoxTM is applicable in various comparative toxicity impact assessments...... pathway considered (i.e. inhalation through air, ingestion through i) drinking water, ii) agricultural produce, iii) meat and milk, and iv) fish). The calculation of human health effect factors for cancer and non-cancer effects via ingestion and inhalation exposure respectively is described. This section...

  14. Measurements of air pollution emission factors for marine transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alföldy, B.; Balzani Lööv, J.; Lagler, F.; Mellqvist, J.; Berg, N.; Beecken, J.; Weststrate, H.; Duyzer, J.; Bencs, L.; Horemans, B.; Cavalli, F.; Putaud, J.-P.; Janssens-Maenhout, G.; Pintér Csordás, A.; Van Grieken, R.; Borowiak, A.; Hjorth, J.

    2012-12-01

    The chemical composition of the plumes of seagoing ships was investigated during a two weeks long measurement campaign in the port of Rotterdam, Hoek van Holland, The Netherlands, in September 2009. Altogether, 497 ships were monitored and a statistical evaluation of emission factors (g kg-1 fuel) was provided. The concerned main atmospheric components were SO2, NO2, NOx and the aerosol particle number. In addition, the elemental and water-soluble ionic composition of the emitted particulate matter was determined. Emission factors were expressed as a function of ship type, power and crankshaft rotational speed. The average SO2 emission factor was found to be roughly half of what is allowed in sulphur emission control areas (16 vs. 30 g kg-1 fuel), and exceedances of this limit were rarely registered. A significant linear relationship was observed between the SO2 and particle number emission factor. The intercept of the regression line, 0.5 × 1016 (kg fuel)-1, gives the average number of particles formed during the burning of 1 kg zero sulphur content fuel, while the slope, 2 × 1018, provides the average number of particles formed with 1 kg sulphur burnt with the fuel. Water-soluble ionic composition analysis of the aerosol samples from the plumes showed that ~144 g of particulate sulphate was emitted from 1 kg sulphur burnt with the fuel. The mass median diameter of sulphate particles estimated from the measurements was ~42 nm.

  15. Development and application of methods for the evaluation of air pollutant emissions and emission reduction scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Within the first of the two projects introduced in this report methods are developed to provide hourly emission data in grids of 1 km * 1 km for the year 1990. The design of the input data base allows to calculate emission inventories for different simulated emission reduction measures. In the second project methods have been worked out for the evaluation of yearly VOC emissions in Baden-Wuerttemberg, which can be updated each year to show long-term developments of the emission situation. Generaly considering VOC emissions instead of NOx or SO2 a new modelling or an adaption of existing models is required. New models are developed for the calculation of emissions out of evaporation processes. The most important processes are solvent use and gasoline handling. For example the adaption of existing models is carried out for exhaust emissions of cars and combustion in households. As a result of the application of the new methods emission inventories of the region ''Suedlicher Oberrheingraben in Baden-Wuerttemberg'' for the year 1990 are shown. Within the project dealing with yearly emissions an analysis of the emissions out of the traffic from 1980 to 1990 is given. The data display an increase of the emissions of lorries and a slow decrease of the emissions of passenger cars. (orig.)

  16. 76 FR 80531 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Area Sources: Industrial, Commercial...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-23

    ..., particularly an institution, provides logistical issues with completion of tune-ups on a biennial basis. We are... is not a major source. On March 21, 2011 (76 FR 15554), we issued the NESHAP for industrial.... The EPA implemented this provision in 1999 in the Integrated Urban Air Toxics Strategy, (64 FR...

  17. 78 FR 7487 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Area Sources: Industrial, Commercial...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-01

    .... The EPA implemented this provision in 1999 in the Integrated Urban Air Toxics Strategy, (64 FR 38715... reads: ``A boiler required to have a permit under section 3005 of the Solid Waste Disposal Act or... standards based on GACT for the urban HAP, other than Hg and POM, emitted from coal-fired boilers that...

  18. 77 FR 4522 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Chemical Manufacturing Area Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-30

    .... On October 29, 2009 (74 FR 56008), the EPA issued the NESHAP for the nine chemical manufacturing area... in 1999 in the Integrated Urban Air Toxics Strategy, (64 FR 38715, July 19, 1999) (Strategy... requirement in 2011 (76 FR 15308, March 21, 2011). The chemical manufacturing area source categories...

  19. Large Gain in Air Quality Compared to an Alternative Anthropogenic Emissions Scenario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daskalakis, Nikos; Tsigaridis, Kostas; Myriokefalitakis, Stelios; Fanourgakis, George S.; Kanakidou, Maria

    2016-01-01

    During the last 30 years, significant effort has been made to improve air quality through legislation for emissions reduction. Global three-dimensional chemistrytransport simulations of atmospheric composition over the past 3 decades have been performed to estimate what the air quality levels would have been under a scenario of stagnation of anthropogenic emissions per capita as in 1980, accounting for the population increase (BA1980) or using the standard practice of neglecting it (AE1980), and how they compare to the historical changes in air quality levels. The simulations are based on assimilated meteorology to account for the yearto- year observed climate variability and on different scenarios of anthropogenic emissions of pollutants. The ACCMIP historical emissions dataset is used as the starting point. Our sensitivity simulations provide clear indications that air quality legislation and technology developments have limited the rapid increase of air pollutants. The achieved reductions in concentrations of nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, black carbon, and sulfate aerosols are found to be significant when comparing to both BA1980 and AE1980 simulations that neglect any measures applied for the protection of the environment. We also show the potentially large tropospheric air quality benefit from the development of cleaner technology used by the growing global population. These 30-year hindcast sensitivity simulations demonstrate that the actual benefit in air quality due to air pollution legislation and technological advances is higher than the gain calculated by a simple comparison against a constant anthropogenic emissions simulation, as is usually done. Our results also indicate that over China and India the beneficial technological advances for the air quality may have been masked by the explosive increase in local population and the disproportional increase in energy demand partially due to the globalization of the economy.

  20. Large gain in air quality compared to an alternative anthropogenic emissions scenario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daskalakis, Nikos; Tsigaridis, Kostas; Myriokefalitakis, Stelios; Fanourgakis, George S.; Kanakidou, Maria

    2016-08-01

    During the last 30 years, significant effort has been made to improve air quality through legislation for emissions reduction. Global three-dimensional chemistry-transport simulations of atmospheric composition over the past 3 decades have been performed to estimate what the air quality levels would have been under a scenario of stagnation of anthropogenic emissions per capita as in 1980, accounting for the population increase (BA1980) or using the standard practice of neglecting it (AE1980), and how they compare to the historical changes in air quality levels. The simulations are based on assimilated meteorology to account for the year-to-year observed climate variability and on different scenarios of anthropogenic emissions of pollutants. The ACCMIP historical emissions dataset is used as the starting point. Our sensitivity simulations provide clear indications that air quality legislation and technology developments have limited the rapid increase of air pollutants. The achieved reductions in concentrations of nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, black carbon, and sulfate aerosols are found to be significant when comparing to both BA1980 and AE1980 simulations that neglect any measures applied for the protection of the environment. We also show the potentially large tropospheric air quality benefit from the development of cleaner technology used by the growing global population. These 30-year hindcast sensitivity simulations demonstrate that the actual benefit in air quality due to air pollution legislation and technological advances is higher than the gain calculated by a simple comparison against a constant anthropogenic emissions simulation, as is usually done. Our results also indicate that over China and India the beneficial technological advances for the air quality may have been masked by the explosive increase in local population and the disproportional increase in energy demand partially due to the globalization of the economy.

  1. Different toxic mechanisms are activated by emission PM depending on combustion efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uski, O.; Jalava, P. I.; Happo, M. S.; Leskinen, J.; Sippula, O.; Tissari, J.; Mäki-Paakkanen, J.; Jokiniemi, J.; Hirvonen, M.-R.

    2014-06-01

    Ambient air levels of fine particulate matter (PM ≤ 2.5 μm) are associated with mortality and morbidity. In addition to traffic, large quantities of fine and ultrafine particles (UFPs ≤ 100 nm) are emitted by residential wood combustion. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) and soot-rich emissions from small scale heating appliances have been linked with a plethora of toxicological effects. Recently, new technology appliances have been introduced into use although there are several uncertainties related to the toxicological properties of those emissions. In this study, PM1 (PM ≤ 1 μm) emissions from three different biomass combustion situations were compared. PM samples were produced in a novel adjustable biomass combustion reactor to avoid the problems encountered if one uses different appliances to generate the desired combustion conditions. The combustion conditions represented efficient, intermediate and smoldering situations. The concentration related effects of the particles (15, 50,150 and 300 μg ml-1) were investigated in a RAW264.7 macrophage cell line after 24 h' exposure. We analyzed cellular metabolic activity, cell cycle, and indicators of genotoxicty, oxidative stress and proinflammatory responses. Interestingly, the particles collected from smoldering and intermediate combustion conditions decreased cellular metabolic activity less than those from efficient combustion (10-fold difference). However, the samples from intermediate and smoldering combustion evoked greater DNA damage in the comet assay (2.5-fold difference). In contrast, only the particulate samples from efficient combustion triggered G2-cell cycle arrest and oxidative stress in the macrophages. These results indicate that ash rich PM emissions from appliances with almost complete combustion may still exert health impacts. However, particulate emissions from efficient combustion were small when compared to the two other situations. Thus, even with their faults and the obvious

  2. Marine Sciences Laboratory Radionuclide Air Emissions Report for Calendar Year 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snyder, Sandra F.; Barnett, J. Matthew; Ballinger, Marcel Y.

    2014-05-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science (DOE-SC) Pacific Northwest Site Office (PNSO) has oversight and stewardship duties associated with the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) Marine Sciences Laboratory (MSL) located on Battelle Land – Sequim (Sequim). This report is prepared to document compliance with the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Title 40, Protection of the Environment, Part 61, National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP), Subpart H, “National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other than Radon from Department of Energy Facilities” and Washington Administrative Code (WAC) Chapter 246-247, “Radiation Protection–Air Emissions.” The EDE to the Sequim MEI due to routine operations in 2013 was 5E-05 mrem (5E-07 mSv). No non-routine emissions occurred in 2013. The MSL is in compliance with the federal and state 10 mrem/yr standard.

  3. Marine Sciences Laboratory Radionuclide Air Emissions Report for Calendar Year 2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snyder, Sandra F.; Barnett, J. Matthew

    2015-05-04

    The U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science (DOE-SC) Pacific Northwest Site Office (PNSO) has oversight and stewardship duties associated with the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) Marine Sciences Laboratory (MSL) located on Battelle Land – Sequim.This report is prepared to document compliance with the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Title 40, Protection of the Environment, Part 61, National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP), Subpart H, ''National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other than Radon from Department of Energy Facilities” and Washington Administrative Code (WAC) Chapter 246-247, “Radiation Protection–Air Emissions.'' The EDE to the MSL MEI due to routine operations in 2014 was 9E-05 mrem (9E-07 mSv). No non-routine emissions occurred in 2014. The MSL is in compliance with the federal and state 10 mrem/yr standard.

  4. Air pollution with gaseous emissions and methods for their removal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Information concerning gaseous pollutants generated in the atmosphere, as a result of fuel incineration processes in thermal power and industrial plants, was summarized. The main methods and technologies for flue gases purification from the most ecologically hazardous pollutants are comparatively discussed. Keywords: gaseous pollutants, aerosols, flue gas purification systems and technologies, air ecology control

  5. LOPES Detecting Radio Emission from Cosmic Ray Air Showers

    CERN Document Server

    Horneffer, A; Apel, W D; Badea, F; Bekk, K; Bercuci, A; Bertaina, M; Blümer, H; Bozdog, H; Brancus, I M; Bruggemann, M; Buchholz, P; Büttner, C; Chiavassa, A; Daumiller, K; De Vos, C M; Doll, P; Engel, R; Engler, J; Falcke, H; Fessler, F; Ghia, P L; Gils, H J; Glasstetter, R; Haungs, A; Heck, D; Hörandel, J R; Huege, T; Kampert, K H; Kant, G W; Klages, H O; Kolotaev, Yu; Maier, G; Mathes, H J; Mayer, H J; Milke, J; Morello, C; Müller, M; Navarra, G; Obenland, R; Oehlschläger, J; Ostapchenko, S; Petcu, M; Plewnia, S; Rebel, H; Risse, A; Roth, M; Schieler, H; Scholz, J; Stumpert, M; Thouw, T; Trinchero, G C; Ulrich, H; Valchierotti, S; Van Buren, J; Walkowiak, W; Weindl, A; Wochele, J; Zabierowski, J; Zagromski, S

    2004-01-01

    Radio pulses emitted in the atmosphere during the air shower development of high-energy primary cosmic rays were measured during the late 1960ies in the frequency range from 2 MHz to 520 MHz. Mainly due to difficulties with radio interference these measurements ceased in the late 1970ies. LOFAR (Low Frequency Array) is a new digital radio interferometer under development. Using high bandwidth ADCs and fast data processing it will be able to filter out most of the interference. By storing the whole waveform information in digital form one can analyze transient events like air showers even after they have been recorded. To test this new technology and to demonstrate its ability to measure air showers a "LOFAR Prototype Station" (LOPES) is set up to operate in conjunction with an existing air shower array (KASCADE-Grande). The first phase consisting of 10 antennas is already running. It operates in the frequency range of 40 to 80 MHz, using simple short dipole antennas and direct 2nd Nyquist sampling of the inco...

  6. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Site Radionuclide Air Emissions Report for Calendar Year 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snyder, Sandra F.; Barnett, J. M.; Bisping, Lynn E.

    2012-06-12

    This report documents radionuclide air emissions that result in the highest effective dose equivalent (EDE) to a member of the public, referred to as the maximally exposed individual (MEI). The report has been prepared in compliance with the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Title 40, Protection of the Environment, Part 61, National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP), Subpart H, National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other than Radon from Department of Energy Facilities and Washington Administrative Code (WAC) Chapter 246-247, Radiation Protection Air Emissions. The EDE to the PNNL Site MEI due to routine emissions in 2011 from PNNL Site sources was 1.7E 05 mrem (1.7E-7 mSv) EDE. No nonroutine emissions occurred in 2011. The total radiological dose for 2011 to the MEI from all PNNL Site radionuclide emissions was more than 10,000 times smaller than the federal and state standard of 10 mrem/yr, to which the PNNL Site is in compliance.

  7. Vehicle Emissions Risk Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vehicle emissions are considered as a main source for air pollution. Emissions regulation is now well developed in most countries to meet cleaner air quality. Reducing emissions by using cleaner fuels, which meet certain specification, is not enough to get cleaner air, yet the vehicle technology is not improved. Here we will outline the following: - development in fuel specification and emissions regulation. main facts linking vehicle emissions, fuel properties and air quality. catalytic converter technology. Emissions sources: In modem cities, vehicle traffic is potentially a major source of emissions. However sometimes other sources of emissions from industry and other stationary sources can be equally important and include emissions that are of greater toxicity than those from vehicles

  8. Heme oxygenase-1 protects endothelial cells from the toxicity of air pollutant chemicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diesel exhaust particles (DEPs) are a major component of diesel emissions, responsible for a large portion of their toxicity. In this study, we examined the toxic effects of DEPs on endothelial cells and the role of DEP-induced heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) expression. Human microvascular endothelial cells (HMECs) were treated with an organic extract of DEPs from an automobile engine (A-DEP) or a forklift engine (F-DEP) for 1 and 4 h. ROS generation, cell viability, lactate dehydrogenase leakage, expression of HO-1, inflammatory genes, cell adhesion molecules and unfolded protein respone (UPR) gene were assessed. HO-1 expression and/or activity were inhibited by siRNA or tin protoporphyrin (Sn PPIX) and enhanced by an expression plasmid or cobalt protoporphyrin (CoPPIX). Exposure to 25 μg/ml of A-DEP and F-DEP significantly induced ROS production, cellular toxicity and greater levels of inflammatory and cellular adhesion molecules but to a different degree. Inhibition of HO-1 enzymatic activity with SnPPIX and silencing of the HO-1 gene by siRNA enhanced DEP-induced ROS production, further decreased cell viability and increased expression of inflammatory and cell adhesion molecules. On the other hand, overexpression of the HO-1 gene by a pcDNA 3.1D/V5-HO-1 plasmid significantly mitigated ROS production, increased cell survival and decreased the expression of inflammatory genes. HO-1 expression protected HMECs from DEP-induced prooxidative and proinflammatory effects. Modulation of HO-1 expression could potentially serve as a therapeutic target in an attempt to inhibit the cardiovascular effects of ambient PM. - Highlights: • We examined the role of HO-1 expression on diesel exhaust particle (DEP) in endothelial cells. • DEPs exert cytotoxic and inflammatory effects on human microvascular endothelial cells (HMECs). • DEPs induce HO-1 expression in HMECs. • HO-1 protects against the oxidative stress induced by DEps. • HO-1 attenuates the proinflammatory effects

  9. Heme oxygenase-1 protects endothelial cells from the toxicity of air pollutant chemicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawal, Akeem O.; Zhang, Min; Dittmar, Michael [Division of Cardiology, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, 10833 Le Conte Avenue, CHS 43-264, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Lulla, Aaron [Division of Cardiology, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, 10833 Le Conte Avenue, CHS 43-264, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Molecular Toxicology Interdepartmental Program, University of California, Los Angeles (United States); Araujo, Jesus A., E-mail: JAraujo@mednet.ucla.edu [Division of Cardiology, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, 10833 Le Conte Avenue, CHS 43-264, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Molecular Toxicology Interdepartmental Program, University of California, Los Angeles (United States); Molecular Biology Institute, University of California, Los Angeles (United States)

    2015-05-01

    Diesel exhaust particles (DEPs) are a major component of diesel emissions, responsible for a large portion of their toxicity. In this study, we examined the toxic effects of DEPs on endothelial cells and the role of DEP-induced heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) expression. Human microvascular endothelial cells (HMECs) were treated with an organic extract of DEPs from an automobile engine (A-DEP) or a forklift engine (F-DEP) for 1 and 4 h. ROS generation, cell viability, lactate dehydrogenase leakage, expression of HO-1, inflammatory genes, cell adhesion molecules and unfolded protein respone (UPR) gene were assessed. HO-1 expression and/or activity were inhibited by siRNA or tin protoporphyrin (Sn PPIX) and enhanced by an expression plasmid or cobalt protoporphyrin (CoPPIX). Exposure to 25 μg/ml of A-DEP and F-DEP significantly induced ROS production, cellular toxicity and greater levels of inflammatory and cellular adhesion molecules but to a different degree. Inhibition of HO-1 enzymatic activity with SnPPIX and silencing of the HO-1 gene by siRNA enhanced DEP-induced ROS production, further decreased cell viability and increased expression of inflammatory and cell adhesion molecules. On the other hand, overexpression of the HO-1 gene by a pcDNA 3.1D/V5-HO-1 plasmid significantly mitigated ROS production, increased cell survival and decreased the expression of inflammatory genes. HO-1 expression protected HMECs from DEP-induced prooxidative and proinflammatory effects. Modulation of HO-1 expression could potentially serve as a therapeutic target in an attempt to inhibit the cardiovascular effects of ambient PM. - Highlights: • We examined the role of HO-1 expression on diesel exhaust particle (DEP) in endothelial cells. • DEPs exert cytotoxic and inflammatory effects on human microvascular endothelial cells (HMECs). • DEPs induce HO-1 expression in HMECs. • HO-1 protects against the oxidative stress induced by DEps. • HO-1 attenuates the proinflammatory effects

  10. Radionuclide Air Emissions Report for the Hanford Site Calendar Year 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report documents radionuclide air emissions from the US. Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site in 1999 and the resulting effective dose equivalent to the maximally exposed individual (MEI) member of the public. The report has been prepared in accordance with the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR). Title 40, Protection of the Environment, Part 61. National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants, Subpart H, ''National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other than Radon from Department of Energy Facilities'', and with the Washington Administrative Code (WAC) Chapter 246-247. Radiation Protection-Air Emissions. The federal regulations in Subpart H of 40 CFR 61 require the measurement and reporting of radionuclides emitted from US. Department of Energy (DOE) facilities and the resulting offsite dose from those emissions. A standard of 10 mrem/yr effective dose equivalent (EDE) is imposed on them. The EDE to the MEI due to routine emissions in 1999 from Hanford Site point sources was 0.029 mrem (2.9 E-04 mSv), which is less than 0.3 percent of the federal standard. WAC 246-247 requires the reporting of radionuclide emissions from all Hanford Site sources, during routine as well as nonroutine operations. The state has adopted the 40 CFR 61 standard of 10 mrem/yr EDE into their regulations. The state further requires that the EDE to the MEI be calculated not only from point source emissions but also from diffuse and fugitive sources of emissions. The EDE from diffuse and fugitive emissions at the Hanford Site in 1999 was 0.039 mrem (3.9 E-04 mSv) EDE. The total dose from point sources and from diffuse and fugitive sources of radionuclide emissions during all operating conditions in 1999 was 0.068 mrem (6.8 E-04 mSv) EDE, which is less than 0.7 percent of the state standard

  11. Radionuclide Air Emissions Report for the Hanford Site Calendar Year 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ROKKAN, D.J.

    2000-06-01

    This report documents radionuclide air emissions from the US. Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site in 1999 and the resulting effective dose equivalent to the maximally exposed individual (MEI) member of the public. The report has been prepared in accordance with the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR). Title 40, Protection of the Environment, Part 61. National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants, Subpart H, ''National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other than Radon from Department of Energy Facilities'', and with the Washington Administrative Code (WAC) Chapter 246-247. Radiation Protection-Air Emissions. The federal regulations in Subpart H of 40 CFR 61 require the measurement and reporting of radionuclides emitted from US. Department of Energy (DOE) facilities and the resulting offsite dose from those emissions. A standard of 10 mrem/yr effective dose equivalent (EDE) is imposed on them. The EDE to the MEI due to routine emissions in 1999 from Hanford Site point sources was 0.029 mrem (2.9 E-04 mSv), which is less than 0.3 percent of the federal standard. WAC 246-247 requires the reporting of radionuclide emissions from all Hanford Site sources, during routine as well as nonroutine operations. The state has adopted the 40 CFR 61 standard of 10 mrem/yr EDE into their regulations. The state further requires that the EDE to the MEI be calculated not only from point source emissions but also from diffuse and fugitive sources of emissions. The EDE from diffuse and fugitive emissions at the Hanford Site in 1999 was 0.039 mrem (3.9 E-04 mSv) EDE. The total dose from point sources and from diffuse and fugitive sources of radionuclide emissions during all operating conditions in 1999 was 0.068 mrem (6.8 E-04 mSv) EDE, which is less than 0.7 percent of the state standard.

  12. Measurements of air pollution emission factors for marine transportation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Alföldy

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The chemical composition of the plumes of seagoing ships was investigated during a two weeks long measurement campaign in the port of Rotterdam, Hoek van Holland, The Netherlands, in September 2009. Altogether, 497 ships were monitored and a statistical evaluation of emission factors (g kg−1 fuel was provided. The concerned main atmospheric components were SO2, NO2, NOx and the aerosol particle number. In addition, the elemental and water-soluble ionic composition of the emitted particulate matter was determined. Emission factors were expressed as a function of ship type, power and crankshaft rotational speed. The average SO2 emission factor was found to be roughly half of what is allowed in sulphur emission control areas (16 vs. 30 g kg−1 fuel, and exceedances of this limit were rarely registered. A significant linear relationship was observed between the SO2 and particle number emission factor. The intercept of the regression line, 0.5 × 1016 (kg fuel−1, gives the average number of particles formed during the burning of 1 kg zero sulphur content fuel, while the slope, 2 × 1018, provides the average number of particles formed with 1 kg sulphur burnt with the fuel. Water-soluble ionic composition analysis of the aerosol samples from the plumes showed that ~144 g of particulate sulphate was emitted from 1 kg sulphur burnt with the fuel. The mass median diameter of sulphate particles estimated from the measurements was ~42 nm.

  13. [A comparative study on domestic and foreign emission standards of air pollutants for cement industry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Mei; Li, Xiao-Qian; Ji, Liang; Zou, Lan; Wei, Yu-Xia; Zhao, Guo-Hua; Che, Fei; Li, Gang; Zhang, Guo-Ning

    2014-12-01

    The new National Emission Standard of Air Pollutants for Cement Industry (GB 4915-2013) becomes effective on Mar. 1st, 2014. It will play an important role in pollution prevention, total emission reduction, structure adjustment, and layout optimization for cement industry. Based on the research of emission standard in China, U. S., EU and Japan, the similarities and differences in the pollutant projects, control indicators, limits and means of implementation were discussed and advice was proposed, with the purpose to provide a reference for revision of emission standard, and to improve the level of environmental management and pollution control. PMID:25826950

  14. Hazardous emissions, operating practices, and air regulations at industrial wood-fired facilities in Wisconsin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since October of 1988 the State of Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources has regulated over four hundred substances as hazardous air pollutants. The rule regulates new as well as existing sources of air pollution in Wisconsin. Consequently, all permits to operate an air pollution source in Wisconsin must address the hazardous air emissions potential of the source. While widely perceived as a clean-burning fuel, wood is often burned in a manner which clearly results in significant emissions of very hazardous air pollutants. Research conducted on a 20 million BTU per hour wood-fired spreader stoker boiler in northern Wisconsin showed that this boiler has the potential to emit 0.022 pound of benzene and 0.012 pound of formaldehyde per ton (lb/ton) of wood fired. Recent stack tests at more than a dozen other small industrial wood-fired facilities in Wisconsin show a range of formaldehyde emissions of 0.0007--0.1950 lb/ton. Work at Birchwood Lumber ampersand Veneer showed that the benzene and formaldehyde emission rates under good firing conditions are an order of magnitude lower than the benzene and formaldehyde emission rates under poor firing conditions. This finding has supported Wisconsin's regulatory approach of encouraging wood-fired facilities to enhance the quality of the combustion process as a technique to minimize the hazardous air pollution potential of industrial wood combustion. The Wisconsin strategy is to define open-quotes good combustion technologyclose quotes through easily measurable combustion parameters rather than emission standards. This paper presents several techniques in use in Wisconsin to comply with open-quotes good combustion technologyclose quotes for industrial wood-fired furnaces. These techniques include fuel blending overfire air, furnace insulation, and proper grate design

  15. Various Perspectives of Mitigating Fossil Fuel Use and Air Pollutant Emissions in China's Megacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, H.

    2014-12-01

    It is critical to reduce energy use and air pollutions in metropolitan areas because these areas usually serve as economic engines and have large, dense populations. Fossil fuel use and air-polluting emissions were analyzed in Beijing between 1997 and 2010 from both a bottom-up and a top-down perspective. From a bottom-up perspective, the key energy-intensive industrial sectors directly caused changes in Beijing's air pollution by means of a series of energy and economic policies. From a top-down perspective, variation in industrial production caused increases in most emissions between 2000 and 2010, however, there were decreases in PM10 and PM2.5 emissions during 2005-2010. Population growth was found to be the largest driver of energy consumption and emissions between1997 and 2010. Energy use and air pollutant emissions were also found to outsource from Beijing to other regions in China. Policies for reducing urban energy consumption and emissions should consider not only the key industrial sectors but also socioeconomic drivers.

  16. Oak Ridge Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) Incinerator test bed for continuous emissions monitoring systems (CEMS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) Incinerator, located on the K-25 Site at Oak Ridge, Tennessee, continues to be the only operational incinerator in the country that can process hazardous and radioactively contaminated polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) waste. During 1996, the US Department of Energy (DOE) Environmental Management Office of Science and Technology (EM-50) and Lockheed Martin Energy Systems established a continuous emissions monitoring systems (CEMS) test bed and began conducting evaluations of CEMS under development to measure contaminants from waste combustion and thermal treatment stacks. The program was envisioned to promote CEMS technologies meeting requirements of the recently issued Proposed Standards for Hazardous Waste Combustors as well as monitoring technologies that will allay public concerns about mixed waste thermal treatment and accelerate the development of innovative treatment technologies. Fully developed CEMS, as well as innovative continuous or semi-continuous sampling systems not yet interfaced with a pollutant analyzer, were considered as candidates for testing and evaluation. Complementary to other Environmental Protection Agency and DOE sponsored CEMS testing and within compliant operating conditions of the TSCA Incinerator, prioritization was given to multiple metals monitors also having potential to measure radionuclides associated with particulate emissions. In August 1996, developers of two multiple metals monitors participated in field activities at the incinerator and a commercially available radionuclide particulate monitor was acquired for modification and testing planned in 1997. This paper describes the CEMS test bed infrastructure and summarizes completed and planned activities

  17. National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants Calendar Year 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NSTec Environmental Technical Services

    2007-06-01

    The Nevada Test Site (NTS) is operated by the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO). From 1951 through 1992, the NTS was operated as the nation's site for nuclear weapons testing. The release of man-made radionuclides from the NTS as a result of testing activities has been monitored since the first decade of atmospheric testing. After 1962, when nuclear tests were conducted only underground, the radiation exposure to the public surrounding the NTS was greatly reduced. After the 1992 moratorium on nuclear testing, radiation monitoring on the NTS focused on detecting airborne radionuclides which come from historically-contaminated soils resuspended into the air (e.g., by winds) and tritium-contaminated soil moisture emitted to the air from soils through evapotranspiration.

  18. Residential demand response reduces air pollutant emissions on peak electricity demand days in New York City

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many urban areas in the United States have experienced difficulty meeting the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS), partially due to pollution from electricity generating units. We evaluated the potential for residential demand response to reduce pollutant emissions on days with above average pollutant emissions and a high potential for poor air quality. The study focused on New York City (NYC) due to non-attainment with NAAQS standards, large exposed populations, and the existing goal of reducing pollutant emissions. The baseline demand response scenario simulated a 1.8% average reduction in NYC peak demand on 49 days throughout the summer. Nitrogen oxide and particulate matter less than 2.5 μm in diameter emission reductions were predicted to occur (−70, −1.1 metric tons (MT) annually), although, these were not likely to be sufficient for NYC to meet the NAAQS. Air pollution mediated damages were predicted to decrease by $100,000–$300,000 annually. A sensitivity analysis predicted that substantially larger pollutant emission reductions would occur if electricity demand was shifted from daytime hours to nighttime hours, or the total consumption decreased. Policies which incentivize shifting electricity consumption away from periods of high human and environmental impacts should be implemented, including policies directed toward residential consumers. - Highlights: • The impact of residential demand response on air emissions was modeled. • Residential demand response will decrease pollutant emissions in NYC. • Emissions reductions occur during periods with high potential for poor air quality. • Shifting demand to nighttime hours was more beneficial than to off-peak daytime hours

  19. The Impact of Residential Combustion Emissions on Air Quality and Human Health in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer-Nicholls, S.; Wiedinmyer, C.; Baumgartner, J.; Brauer, M.; Cohen, A.; Carter, E.; Frostad, J.; Forouzanfar, M.; Xiao, Q.; Liu, Y.; Yang, X.; Hongjiang, N.; Kun, N.

    2015-12-01

    Solid fuel cookstoves are used heavily in rural China for both residential cooking and heating purposes. Their use contributes significantly to regional emissions of several key pollutants, including carbon monoxide, volatile organic compounds, oxides of nitrogen, and aerosol particles. The residential sector was responsible for approximately 36%, 46% and 81% of China's total primary PM2.5, BC and OC emissions respectively in 2005 (Lei et al., 2011). These emissions have serious consequences for household air pollution, ambient air quality, tropospheric ozone formation, and the resulting population health and climate impacts. This paper presents initial findings from the modeling component of a multi-disciplinary energy intervention study currently being conducted in Sichuan, China. The purpose of this effort is to quantify the impact of residential cooking and heating emissions on regional air quality and human health. Simulations with varying levels of residential emissions have been carried out for the whole of 2014 using the Weather Research and Forecasting model with Chemistry (WRF-Chem), a fully-coupled, "online" regional chemical transport model. Model output is evaluated against surface air quality measurements across China and compared with seasonal (winter and summer) ambient air pollution measurements conducted at the Sichuan study site in 2014. The model output is applied to available exposure—response relationships between PM2.5 and cardiopulmonary health outcomes. The sensitivity in different regions across China to the different cookstove emission scenarios and seasonality of impacts are presented. By estimating the mortality and disease burden risk attributable to residential emissions we demonstrate the potential benefits from large-scale energy interventions. Lei Y, Zhang Q, He KB, Streets DG. 2011. Primary anthropogenic aerosol emission trends for China, 1990-2005. Atmos. Chem. Phys. 11:931-954.

  20. Past, Present, and Future Anthropogenic Emissions over Asia: a Regional Air Quality Modeling Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Jung-Hun; Jung, Bujeon; Choi, Ki-Chul; Seo, Ji-Hyun; Kim, Tae Hyung; Park, Rokjin J.; Youn, Daeok; Jeong, Jaein; Moon, Byung-Kwon; Yeh, Sang-Wook

    2010-05-01

    Climate change will also affect future regional air quality which has potential human health, ecosystem, and economic implications. To analyze the impacts of climate change on Asian air quality, the NIER (National Institute of Environmental Research, Korea) integrated modeling framework was developed based on global-to-regional climate and atmospheric chemistry models. In this study, we developed emission inventories for the modeling framework for 1980~2100 with an emphasis on Asia emissions. Two emission processing systems which have functions of emission projection, spatial/temporal allocation, and chemical speciation have been also developed in support of atmospheric chemistry models including GEOS-Chem and Models-3/CMAQ. Asia-based emission estimates, projection factors, temporal allocation parameters were combined to improve regional modeling capability of past, present and future air quality over Asia. The global CO emissions show a 23% decrease from the years 1980 to 2000. For the future CO (from year 2000 to 2100), the A2 scenario shows a 95% increase due to the B40 (Residential-Biofuel) sector of Western Africa, Eastern Africa and East Asia and the F51 (Transport Road-Fossil fuel) sector of Middle East, USA and South Asia. The B1 scenario, however, shows a 79% decrease of emissions due to B40 and F51 sectors of East Asia, South Asia and USA for the same period. In many cases, Asian emissions play important roles for global emission increase or decrease depending on the IPCC scenarios considered. The regional ozone forming potential will be changed due to different VOC/NOx emission ratio changes in the future. More similarities and differences of Asian emission characteristics, in comparison with its global counterpart, are investigated.

  1. New Directions: GEIA’s 2020 Vision for Better Air Emissions Information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frost, G. J.; Middleton, Paulette; Tarrason, Leonor; Granier, Claire; Guenther, Alex B.; Cardenas, B.; Denier van der Gon, Hugo; Janssens-Maenhout, Greet; Kaiser, Johannes W.; Keating, Terry; Klimont, Z.; Lamarque, Jean-Francois; Liousse, Catherine; Nickovic, S.; Ohara, Toshimasa; Schultz, Martin; Skiba, Ute; Wang, Y.

    2013-12-01

    We are witnessing a crucial change in how we quantify and understand emissions of greenhouse gases and air pollutants, with an increasing demand for science-based transparent emissions information produced by robust community efforts. Today’s scientific capabilities, with near-real-time in-situ and remote sensing observations combined with forward and inverse models and a better understanding of the controlling processes, are contributing to this transformation and providing new approaches to derive, verify, and forecast emissions (Tong et al., 2011; Frost et al., 2012) and to quantify their impacts on the environment (e.g., Bond et al., 2013). At the same time, the needs for emissions information and the demands for their accuracy and consistency have grown. Changing economies, demographics, agricultural practices, and energy sources, along with mandates to evaluate emissions mitigation efforts, demonstrate compliance with legislation, and verify treaties, are leading to new challenges in emissions understanding. To quote NOAA Senior Technical Scientist David Fahey, "We are in the Century of Accountability. Emissions information is critical not only for environmental science and decision-making, but also as an instrument of foreign policy and international diplomacy." Emissions quantification represents a key step in explaining observed variability and trends in atmospheric composition and in attributing these observed changes to their causes. Accurate emissions data are necessary to identify feasible controls that reduce adverse impacts associated with air quality and climate and to track the success of implemented policies. To progress further, the international community must improve the understanding of drivers and contributing factors to emissions, and it must strengthen connections among and within different scientific disciplines that characterize our environment and entities that protect the environment and influence further emissions. The Global

  2. Improving the City-scale Emission Inventory of Anthropogenic Air Pollutants: A Case Study of Nanjing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, L.; Zhao, Y.; Xu, R.; Xie, F.; Wang, H.; Qin, H.; Wu, X.; Zhang, J.

    2014-12-01

    To evaluate the improvement of city-scale emission inventory, a high-resolution emission inventory of air pollutants for Nanjing is first developed combining detailed source information, and then justified through quantitative analysis with observations. The best available domestic emission factors and unit-/facility-based activity level data were compiled based on a thorough field survey on major emission sources. Totally 1089 individual emission sources were identified as point sources and all the emission-related parameters including burner type, combustion technology, fuel quality, and removal efficiency of pollution control devices, are carefully investigated and analyzed. Some new data such as detailed information of city fueling-gas stations, construction sites, monthly activity level, data from continuous emission monitoring systems and traffic flow information were combined to improve spatiotemporal distribution of this inventory. For SO2, NOX and CO, good spatial correlations were found between ground observation (9 state controlling air sampling sites in Nanjing) and city-scale emission inventory (R2=0.34, 0.38 and 0.74, respectively). For TSP, PM10 and PM2.5, however, poorer correlation was found due to relatively weaker accuracy in emission estimation and spatial distribution of road dust. The mixing ratios between specific pollutants including OC/EC, BC/CO and CO2/CO, are well correlated between those from ground observation and emission. Compared to MEIC (Multi-resolution Emission Inventory for China), there is a better spatial consistence between this city-scale emission inventory and NO2 measured by OMI (Ozone Monitoring Instrument). In particular, the city-scale emission inventory still correlated well with satellite observations (R2=0.28) while the regional emission inventory showed little correlation with satellite observations (R2=0.09) when grids containing power plants are excluded. It thus confirms the improvement of city-scale emission

  3. Emission Inventories for Regional Air Quality Planning in the Western U.S

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, C. T.

    2011-12-01

    Emissions affecting western U.S. regional air quality are different in several ways from those of the Midwestern and Eastern U.S. regions. Natural or quasi-natural sources such as wildland fire and windblown dust are significant but episodic and stochastic. Anthropogenic sources such as coal-fired power plants are much smaller than the rest of the U.S. This results in air quality that is quite good across much of the rural areas and smaller cities in the West, with the exception of large urban complexes and other well-known industrial source areas. Much of the West is public lands with unique emissions profiles and complex terrain concentrates emissions under poor circulation conditions. To address areas in the West violating more stringent future national ambient air quality standards and aesthetic/ecosystem protection goals, a broader range of source types must be inventoried, for which emissions rates, chemical profiles, and source activity is difficult to measure and track, but emissions from these poorly characerized sources (relative to power plants and automobiles) are equally important to determining which sources to control and to what degree. This talk will provide data and description of current Western emissions inventories and identify key data gaps where the research community could develop analysis techniques, surrogate estimation methods, and apply remote sensing tools to assist with Western emission inventories.

  4. Impacts of aircraft emissions on the air quality near the ground

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Lee

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The continuing increase in demand for commercial aviation transport raises questions about the effects of resulting emissions on the environment. The purpose of this study is to investigate, using a global chemistry transport model, to what extent aviation emissions outside the boundary layer influence air quality in the boundary layer. The large-scale effects of current levels of aircraft emissions were studied through comparison of multiple simulations allowing for the separated effects of aviation emissions occurring in the low, middle and upper troposphere. We show that emissions near cruise altitudes (9–11 km in altitude rather than emissions during landing and take-off are responsible for most of the total odd-nitrogen (NOy, ozone (O3 and aerosol perturbations near the ground with a noticeable seasonal difference. Overall, the perturbations of these species are smaller than 1 ppb even in winter when the perturbations are greater than in summer. Based on the widely used air quality standards and uncertainty of state-of-the-art models, we conclude that aviation-induced perturbations have a negligible effect on air quality even in areas with heavy air traffic. Aviation emissions lead to a less than 1% aerosol enhancement in the boundary layer due to a slight increase in ammonium nitrate (NH4NO3 during cold seasons and a statistically insignificant aerosol perturbation in summer. In addition, statistical analysis using probability density functions, Hellinger distance, and p value indicate that aviation emissions outside the boundary layer do not affect the occurrence of extremely high aerosol concentrations in the boundary layer. An additional sensitivity simulation assuming the doubling of surface ammonia emissions demonstrates that the aviation induced aerosol increase near the ground is highly dependent on background ammonia concentrations whose current range of uncertainty is large.

  5. Impacts of aircraft emissions on the air quality near the ground

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Lee

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The continuing increase in demand for commercial aviation transport raises questions about the effects of resulting emissions on the environment. The purpose of this study is to investigate, using a global chemistry transport model, to what extent aviation emissions outside the boundary layer influence air quality in the boundary layer. The effects of current levels of aircraft emissions were studied through comparison of multiple simulations allowing for the separated effects of aviation emissions occurring in the low, middle and upper troposphere. We show that emissions near cruise altitudes rather than emissions during landing and take-off are responsible for most of the total odd-nitrogen (NOy, ozone (O3 and aerosol perturbations near the ground with a noticeable seasonal difference. Overall, the perturbations of these species are smaller than 1 ppb even in winter when the perturbations are greater than in summer. Based on the widely used air quality standards and uncertainty of state-of-the-art models, we conclude that aviation-induced perturbations have a negligible effect on air quality even in areas with heavy air traffic. Aviation emissions lead to a less than 1% aerosol enhancement in the boundary layer due to a slight increase in ammonium nitrate (NH4NO3 during cold seasons and a statistically insignificant aerosol perturbation in summer. In addition, statistical analysis using probability density functions, Hellinger distance, and p-value indicate that aviation emissions outside the boundary layer do not affect the occurrence of extremely high aerosol concentrations in the boundary layer. An additional sensitivity simulation assuming the doubling of surface ammonia emissions demonstrates that the aviation induced aerosol increase near the ground is highly dependent on background ammonia concentrations whose current range of uncertainty is large.

  6. Emissions of Toxic Components from Firing of Used Oils in a 102 kW Burner Boiler

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tydlitát, Vratislav; Janota, J.; Pekárek, Vladimír; Punčochář, Miroslav

    Vol. 5. Prague: Process Engineering Publisher, 2002, s. 190. ISBN 80-86059-33-2. [International Congress of Chemical and Process Engineering CHISA 2002 /15./. Prague (CZ), 25.08.2002-29.08.2002] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4072921 Keywords : toxic emission * wasre oil * burner Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry

  7. NOx emission characteristics in turbulent hydrogen jet flames with coaxial air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The characteristics of NOx emissions in pure hydrogen nonpremixed jet flames with coaxial air are analyzed numerically for a wide range of coaxial air conditions. Among the models tested in simple nonpremixed jet flame, the one-half power scaling law could be reproduced only by the Model C using the HO2/H2O2 reaction, implying the importance of chemical nonequilibrium effect. The flame length is reduced significantly by augmenting coaxial air, and could be represented as a function of the ratio of coaxial air to fuel velocity. Predicted EINOx scaling showed a good concordance with experimental data, and the overall one-half power scaling was observed in coaxial flames with Model C when flame residence time was defined with flame volume instead of a cubic of the flame length. Different level of oxygen mass fraction at the stoichiometric surface was observed as coaxial air was increased. These different levels imply that the coaxial air strengthens the nonequilibrium effect

  8. The contribution of ship emissions to air pollution in the North Sea regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a consequence of the global distribution of manufacturing sites and the increasing international division of labour, ship traffic is steadily increasing and is becoming more and more important as an origin of air pollution. This study investigates the impact of ship emissions in coastal areas of the North Sea under conditions of the year 2000 by means of a regional chemistry transport model which runs on a sufficiently high resolution to study air pollution in coastal regions. It was found that northern Germany and Denmark in summer suffer from more than 50% higher sulphate, nitrate and ammonium aerosol concentrations due to contributions from ships. The implementation of a sulphur emission control area (SECA) in the North Sea, as it was implemented at the end of 2007, directly results in reduced sulphur dioxide and sulphate aerosol concentrations while nitrate aerosol concentrations are slightly increased. - Ship emissions lead to significantly enhanced air pollution by secondary inorganic aerosols in North Sea coastal areas.

  9. The impact of temperature and humidity on perception and emission of indoor air pollutants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fang, Lei; Clausen, Geo; Fanger, Povl Ole

    1996-01-01

    Sensory response to air polluted by five building materials under different combinations of temperature and humidity in the ranges 18°C-28°C and 30%-70% was studied in the laboratory. The experiments were designed to study separately the impact of temperature and humidity on the perception of air...... polluted by materials, and on the emission of pollutants from the materials. At all tested pollution levels of the five materials, the air was perceived significantly less acceptable with increasing temperature and humidity, and the impact of temperature and humidity on perception decreased with increasing...... pollution level. A significant linear correlation between acceptability and enthalpy of the air was found to describe the influence of temperature and humidity on perception. The impact of temperature and humidity on sensory emission was less significant than the impact on perception; however, the sensory...

  10. Advanced Emissions Control Development Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A.P.Evans; K.E. Redinger; M.J. Holmes

    1998-04-01

    The objective of the Advanced Emissions Control Development Program (AECDP) is to develop practical, cost-effective strategies for reducing the emissions of air toxics from coal-fired boilers. Ideally, the project aim is to effectively control air toxic emissions through the use of conventional flue gas cleanup equipment such as electrostatic precipitators (ESPS), fabric filters (baghouse), and wet flue gas desulfurization. Development work to date has concentrated on the capture of mercury, other trace metals, fine particulate and hydrogen chloride. Following the construction and evaluation of a representative air toxics test facility in Phase I, Phase II focused on the evaluation of mercury and several other air toxics emissions. The AECDP is jointly funded by the United States Department of Energy's Federal Energy Technology Center (DOE), the Ohio Coal Development Office within the Ohio Department of Development (oCDO), and Babcock& Wilcox-a McDermott company (B&W).

  11. Fuelling clean air : municipal fuel purchasing policies that reduce emissions contributing to poor air quality and climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Air quality can be improved by low sulphur fuels in two ways: through the direct reduction of sulphates, sulphur dioxide and PM; and by improving the effectiveness of existing emission control devices. This report examined three case studies involving the fuel purchasing policies in three Ontario municipalities: Toronto, Waterloo, and Brampton. Toronto favors purchasing conventional fuels with lower sulphur levels. Waterloo will purchase on-road diesel for its off-road diesel fleet; ultra low sulphur diesel (ULSD) for buses; and 10 per cent ethanol blended with 90 per cent gasoline (E10) for its gasoline-fuelled fleet. Brampton purchased 20 per cent biodiesel blended with 80 per cent on-road diesel (B20). Two approaches were examined for lowering emissions from gasoline fuelled vehicles: favouring gasoline with the lowest sulphur levels, and purchasing E10. It was recommended that the Greater Toronto Area (GTA) Clean Air Council look into: ownership of emissions trading credits created as a result of fuel purchasing policies; the benefits of, and mechanisms available for, pooling fuel purchases; and, establishing a subcommittee to monitor developments related to fuels, vehicles and emission control technologies. 48 refs., 18 tabs

  12. Satellite Characterization of Fire Emissions of Aerosols and Gases Relevant to Air-Quality Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichoku, C. M.; Ellison, L.; Yue, Y.; Wang, J.

    2015-12-01

    Because of the transient and widespread nature of wildfires and other types of open biomass burning, satellite remote sensing has become an indispensable technique for characterizing their smoke emissions for modeling applications, especially at regional to global scales. Fire radiative energy (FRE), whose instantaneous rate of release or fire radiative power (FRP) is measurable from space, has been found to be proportional to both the biomass consumption and emission of aerosol particulate matter. We have leveraged this relationship to generate a global, gridded smoke-aerosol emission coefficients (Ce) dataset based on FRP and aerosol optical thickness (AOT) measurements from the MODIS sensors aboard the Terra and Aqua satellites. Ce is a simple coefficient to convert FRE to smoke aerosol emissions, in the same manner as traditional emission factors are used to convert burned biomass to emissions. The first version of this Fire Energetics and Emissions Research (FEER.v1) global gridded Ce product at 1°x1° resolution is available at http://feer.gsfc.nasa.gov/. Based on published emission ratios, the FEER.v1 Ce product for total smoke aerosol has also been used to generate similar products for specific fire-emitted aerosols and gases, including those that are regulated as 'criteria pollutants' under the US Environmental Protection Agency's National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS), such as particulate matter (PM) and carbon monoxide (CO). These gridded Ce products were used in conjunction with satellite measurements of FRP to derive emissions of several smoke constituents, which were applied to WRF-Chem fully coupled meteorology-chemistry-aerosol model simulations, with promising results. In this presentation, we analyze WRF-Chem simulations of surface-level concentrations of various pollutants based on FEER.v1 emission products to illustrate their value for air-quality modeling, particularly in parts of Africa and southeast Asia where ground-based air

  13. National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants—Calendar Year 2011 INL Report for Radionuclides (2012)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mark Verdoorn; Tom Haney

    2012-06-01

    This report documents the calendar year 2011 radionuclide air emissions and resulting effective dose equivalent to the maximally exposed individual member of the public from operations at the Department of Energy's Idaho National Laboratory Site. This report was prepared in accordance with the Code of Federal Regulations, Title 40, 'Protection of the Environment,' Part 61, 'National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants,' Subpart H, 'National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other than Radon from Department of Energy Facilities.' The effective dose equivalent to the maximally exposed individual member of the public was 4.58E-02 mrem per year, 0.46 percent of the 10 mrem standard.

  14. National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants. Calendar Year 2013 INL Report for Radionuclides [2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verdoorn, Mark; Haney, Tom

    2014-06-01

    This report documents the calendar year 2013 radionuclide air emissions and resulting effective dose equivalent to the maximally exposed individual member of the public from operations at the Department of Energy’s Idaho National Laboratory Site. This report was prepared in accordance with the Code of Federal Regulations, Title 40, ''Protection of the Environment,'' Part 61, ''National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants,'' Subpart H, ''National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other than Radon from Department of Energy Facilities.'' The effective dose equivalent to the maximally exposed individual member of the public was 3.02 E-02 mrem per year, 0.30 percent of the 10 mrem standard.

  15. National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants. Calendar Year 2012 INL Report for Radionuclides (2013)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verdoorn, Mark; Haney, Tom

    2013-06-01

    This report documents the calendar year 2011 radionuclide air emissions and resulting effective dose equivalent to the maximally exposed individual member of the public from operations at the Department of Energy’s Idaho National Laboratory Site. This report was prepared in accordance with the Code of Federal Regulations, Title 40, ''Protection of the Environment,'' Part 61, ''National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants,'' Subpart H, ''National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other than Radon from Department of Energy Facilities.'' The effective dose equivalent to the maximally exposed individual member of the public was 4.58E-02 mrem per year, 0.46 percent of the 10 mrem standard.

  16. Emission of hydrocarbons and NOx at low levels of excess air in CFB

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Low NOx operation at low excess air levels heighten the risk of increasing the level of hazardous and polluting emissions from the boiler. These emissions are mainly of two types, greenhouse gases and the mutageneous compounds. The aim of this project has been to show which types of emissions and their correlation you can expect when firing a CFB at low excess air levels. Results: The NOx emission decreases asymptotically with increased CO-level. High load gives higher NOx -emissions. There is no significant difference in average NOx value between wood fuel and RDF-mix. The total hydrocarbon (THC) emission level increases exponentially with increased COlevel. There was no significant difference between wood and RDF-mix. Measurements of NOx, O2, CO (dry gas) and THC were made each second. The measurements of light hydrocarbons (VOC) showed only methane and ethene, both with a good correlation to CO. Below 1000 ppm of CO there is practically no ethene. Above 1000-2000 ppm of CO there is a rapidly increasing emission of ethene. The emission levels at given CO-level are influenced by the furnace temperature. The POM, PNA and Ames test analysis showed good correlation with CO and THC. The results indicate an emission increase at about 200-500 ppm of CO and 10-20 ppm of THC. Dioxin was measured on three occasions with RDF-mix as fuel. The measurements showed an increase of dioxin emission at increased THC-emission. The supply of ammonia, into the flue gas before the cyclones, gave no significant change in hydrocarbon or CO-emission levels. CO, THC and Ames Test are probably good indicators of environmental hazardous compounds. The amount of mutageneous compounds are in general only increased when a certain level of CO is reached. 6 refs, 45 figs, 5 tabs, 7 appendices

  17. Air pollutant emission rates for sources at the Deaf Smith County repository site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-11-01

    This document summarizes the air-quality source terms used for the Deaf Smith County, Texas environmental assessment report and explains their derivation. The engineering data supporting these source terms appear as appendixes to this report and include summary equipment lists for the repository and detailed equipment lists for the exploratory shaft. Although substantial work has been performed in establishing the current repository design, a greater effort will be required for the final design. Consequently, the repository emission rates presented here should be considered as preliminary estimates. Another set of air pollution emission rates will be calculated after design data are more firmly established. 18 refs., 15 tabs.

  18. U.S. Department of Energy Report, 2005 LANL Radionuclide Air Emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keith W. Jacobson, David P. Fuehne

    2006-09-01

    Amendments to the Clean Air Act, which added radionuclides to the National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP), went into effect in 1990. Specifically, a subpart (H) of 40 CFR 61 established an annual limit on the impact to the public attributable to emissions of radionuclides from U.S. Department of Energy facilities, such as the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). As part of the new NESHAP regulations, LANL must submit an annual report to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency headquarters and the regional office in Dallas by June 30. This report includes results of monitoring at LANL and the dose calculations for the calendar year 2006.

  19. Air pollutant emission rates for sources at the Davis Canyon Repository site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document summarizes the air-quality source terms used for the Davis Canyon, Utah environmental assessment report and explains their derivation. The engineering data supporting these source terms appear as appendixes to the report and include summary equipment lists for the repository (December, 1984) and detailed equipment lists for the exploratory shaft (June and July, 1985). Although substantial work has been performed in establishing the current repository design, a greater effort will be required for the final design. Consequently, the repository emission rates presented here should be considered as preliminary estimates. Another set of air pollutant emission rates will be calculated after design data are more firmly established. 19 refs., 18 tabs

  20. Air pollutant emission rates for sources at the Deaf Smith County repository site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document summarizes the air-quality source terms used for the Deaf Smith County, Texas environmental assessment report and explains their derivation. The engineering data supporting these source terms appear as appendixes to this report and include summary equipment lists for the repository and detailed equipment lists for the exploratory shaft. Although substantial work has been performed in establishing the current repository design, a greater effort will be required for the final design. Consequently, the repository emission rates presented here should be considered as preliminary estimates. Another set of air pollution emission rates will be calculated after design data are more firmly established. 18 refs., 15 tabs

  1. Comment on ‘Energy and air emission implications of a decentralized wastewater system’

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the article ‘Energy and air emission implications of a decentralized wastewater system’ published in Environmental Research Letters (2012 Environ. Res. Lett. 7 024007), Shehabi et al compared a decentralized and a centralized system on the basis of energy use, greenhouse gas emissions and air pollutants, and claimed that economies of scale lower the environmental impacts from a centralized system on a per-volume basis. In this comment, we present literature and data from New York State, USA to argue that the authors’ comparison between a small decentralized system (0.015 MGD) and a large centralized system (66.5 MGD) is unconventional and inappropriate. (comment)

  2. Consequential life cycle air emissions externalities for plug-in electric vehicles in the PJM interconnection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weis, Allison; Jaramillo, Paulina; Michalek, Jeremy

    2016-02-01

    We perform a consequential life cycle analysis of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs), hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), and conventional gasoline vehicles in the PJM interconnection using a detailed, normative optimization model of the PJM electricity grid that captures the change in power plant operations and related emissions due to vehicle charging. We estimate and monetize the resulting human health and environmental damages from life cycle air emissions for each vehicle technology. We model PJM using the most recent data available (2010) as well as projections of the PJM grid in 2018 and a hypothetical scenario with increased wind penetration. We assess a range of sensitivity cases to verify the robustness of our results. We find that PEVs have higher life cycle air emissions damages than gasoline HEVs in the recent grid scenario, which has a high percentage of coal generation on the margin. In particular, battery electric vehicles with large battery capacity can produce two to three times as much air emissions damage as gasoline HEVs, depending on charge timing. In our future 2018 grid scenarios that account for predicted coal plant retirements, PEVs would produce air emissions damages comparable to or slightly lower than HEVs.

  3. Air quality impacts of European wildfire emissions in a changing climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knorr, Wolfgang; Dentener, Frank; Hantson, Stijn; Jiang, Leiwen; Klimont, Zbigniew; Arneth, Almut

    2016-05-01

    Wildfires are not only a threat to human property and a vital element of many ecosystems, but also an important source of air pollution. In this study, we first review the available evidence for a past or possible future climate-driven increase in wildfire emissions in Europe. We then introduce an ensemble of model simulations with a coupled wildfire-dynamic-ecosystem model, which we combine with published spatial maps of both wildfire and anthropogenic emissions of several major air pollutants to arrive at air pollutant emission projections for several time slices during the 21st century. The results indicate moderate wildfire-driven emission increases until 2050, but there is a possibility of large increases until the last decades of this century at high levels of climate change. We identify southern and north-eastern Europe as potential areas where wildfires may surpass anthropogenic pollution sources during the summer months. Under a scenario of high levels of climate change (Representative Concentration Pathway, RCP, 8.5), emissions from wildfires in central and northern Portugal and possibly southern Italy and along the west coast of the Balkan peninsula are projected to reach levels that could affect annual mean particulate matter concentrations enough to be relevant for meeting WHO air quality targets.

  4. Consequential life cycle air emissions externalities for plug-in electric vehicles in the PJM interconnection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We perform a consequential life cycle analysis of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs), hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), and conventional gasoline vehicles in the PJM interconnection using a detailed, normative optimization model of the PJM electricity grid that captures the change in power plant operations and related emissions due to vehicle charging. We estimate and monetize the resulting human health and environmental damages from life cycle air emissions for each vehicle technology. We model PJM using the most recent data available (2010) as well as projections of the PJM grid in 2018 and a hypothetical scenario with increased wind penetration. We assess a range of sensitivity cases to verify the robustness of our results. We find that PEVs have higher life cycle air emissions damages than gasoline HEVs in the recent grid scenario, which has a high percentage of coal generation on the margin. In particular, battery electric vehicles with large battery capacity can produce two to three times as much air emissions damage as gasoline HEVs, depending on charge timing. In our future 2018 grid scenarios that account for predicted coal plant retirements, PEVs would produce air emissions damages comparable to or slightly lower than HEVs. (letter)

  5. Probing Atmospheric Electric Fields in Thunderstorms through Radio Emission from Cosmic-Ray-Induced Air Showers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schellart, P; Trinh, T N G; Buitink, S; Corstanje, A; Enriquez, J E; Falcke, H; Hörandel, J R; Nelles, A; Rachen, J P; Rossetto, L; Scholten, O; Ter Veen, S; Thoudam, S; Ebert, U; Koehn, C; Rutjes, C; Alexov, A; Anderson, J M; Avruch, I M; Bentum, M J; Bernardi, G; Best, P; Bonafede, A; Breitling, F; Broderick, J W; Brüggen, M; Butcher, H R; Ciardi, B; de Geus, E; de Vos, M; Duscha, S; Eislöffel, J; Fallows, R A; Frieswijk, W; Garrett, M A; Grießmeier, J; Gunst, A W; Heald, G; Hessels, J W T; Hoeft, M; Holties, H A; Juette, E; Kondratiev, V I; Kuniyoshi, M; Kuper, G; Mann, G; McFadden, R; McKay-Bukowski, D; McKean, J P; Mevius, M; Moldon, J; Norden, M J; Orru, E; Paas, H; Pandey-Pommier, M; Pizzo, R; Polatidis, A G; Reich, W; Röttgering, H; Scaife, A M M; Schwarz, D J; Serylak, M; Smirnov, O; Steinmetz, M; Swinbank, J; Tagger, M; Tasse, C; Toribio, M C; van Weeren, R J; Vermeulen, R; Vocks, C; Wise, M W; Wucknitz, O; Zarka, P

    2015-04-24

    We present measurements of radio emission from cosmic ray air showers that took place during thunderstorms. The intensity and polarization patterns of these air showers are radically different from those measured during fair-weather conditions. With the use of a simple two-layer model for the atmospheric electric field, these patterns can be well reproduced by state-of-the-art simulation codes. This in turn provides a novel way to study atmospheric electric fields. PMID:25955053

  6. Probing Atmospheric Electric Fields in Thunderstorms through Radio Emission from Cosmic-Ray-Induced Air Showers

    CERN Document Server

    Schellart, P; Buitink, S; Corstanje, A; Enriquez, J E; Falcke, H; Hörandel, J R; Nelles, A; Rachen, J P; Rossetto, L; Scholten, O; ter Veen, S; Thoudam, S; Ebert, U; Koehn, C; Rutjes, C; Alexov, A; Anderson, J M; Avruch, I M; Bentum, M J; Bernardi, G; Best, P; Bonafede, A; Breitling, F; Broderick, J W; Brüggen, M; Butcher, H R; Ciardi, B; de Geus, E; de Vos, M; Duscha, S; Eislöffel, J; Fallows, R A; Frieswijk, W; Garrett, M A; Grießmeier, J; Gunst, A W; Heald, G; Hessels, J W T; Hoeft, M; Holties, H A; Juette, E; Kondratiev, V I; Kuniyoshi, M; Kuper, G; Mann, G; McFadden, R; McKay-Bukowski, D; McKean, J P; Mevius, M; Moldon, J; Norden, M J; Orru, E; Paas, H; Pandey-Pommier, M; Pizzo, R; Polatidis, A G; Reich, W; Röttgering, H; Scaife, A M M; Schwarz, D J; Serylak, M; Smirnov, O; Steinmetz, M; Swinbank, J; Tagger, M; Tasse, C; Toribio, M C; van Weeren, R J; Vermeulen, R; Vocks, C; Wise, M W; Wucknitz, O; Zarka, P

    2015-01-01

    We present measurements of radio emission from cosmic ray air showers that took place during thunderstorms. The intensity and polarization patterns of these air showers are radically different from those measured during fair-weather conditions. With the use of a simple two-layer model for the atmospheric electric field, these patterns can be well reproduced by state-of-the-art simulation codes. This in turn provides a novel way to study atmospheric electric fields.

  7. Investigations on the distribution of air transport traffic and CO2 emissions within the European Union

    OpenAIRE

    Alonso Rodrigo, Gustavo; Benito, A; Lonza, L.; Kousoulidou, M.

    2014-01-01

    This study analyses the structure of air traffic and its distribution among the different countries in the European Union, as well as traffic with an origin or destination in non-EU countries. Data sources are Eurostat statistics and actual flight information from EUROCONTROL. Relevant variables such as the number of flights, passengers or cargo tonnes and production indicators (RPKs) are used together with fuel consumption and CO2 emissions data. The segmentation of air traffic in terms of d...

  8. Emission characteristics of kerosene-air spray combustion with plasma assistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingjian Liu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A plasma assisted combustion system for combustion of kerosene-air mixtures was developed to study emission levels of O2, CO2, CO, and NOx. The emission measurement was conducted by Testo 350-Pro Flue Gas Analyzer. The effect of duty ratio, feedstock gas flow rate and applied voltage on emission performance has been analyzed. The results show that O2 and CO emissions reduce with an increase of applied voltage, while CO2 and NOx emissions increase. Besides, when duty ratio or feedstock gas flow rate decreases, the same emission results would appear. The emission spectrum of the air plasma of plasma assisted combustion actuator was also registered to analyze the kinetic enhancement effect of plasma, and the generation of ozone was believed to be the main factor that plasma makes a difference in our experiment. These results are valuable for the future optimization of kerosene-fueled aircraft engine when using plasma assisted combustion devices to exert emission control.

  9. Air pollutant emissions from Chinese households: A major and underappreciated ambient pollution source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jun; Mauzerall, Denise L; Chen, Qi; Zhang, Qiang; Song, Yu; Peng, Wei; Klimont, Zbigniew; Qiu, Xinghua; Zhang, Shiqiu; Hu, Min; Lin, Weili; Smith, Kirk R; Zhu, Tong

    2016-07-12

    As part of the 12th Five-Year Plan, the Chinese government has developed air pollution prevention and control plans for key regions with a focus on the power, transport, and industrial sectors. Here, we investigate the contribution of residential emissions to regional air pollution in highly polluted eastern China during the heating season, and find that dramatic improvements in air quality would also result from reduction in residential emissions. We use the Weather Research and Forecasting model coupled with Chemistry to evaluate potential residential emission controls in Beijing and in the Beijing, Tianjin, and Hebei (BTH) region. In January and February 2010, relative to the base case, eliminating residential emissions in Beijing reduced daily average surface PM2.5 (particulate mater with aerodynamic diameter equal or smaller than 2.5 micrometer) concentrations by 14 ± 7 μg⋅m(-3) (22 ± 6% of a baseline concentration of 67 ± 41 μg⋅m(-3); mean ± SD). Eliminating residential emissions in the BTH region reduced concentrations by 28 ± 19 μg⋅m(-3) (40 ± 9% of 67 ± 41 μg⋅m(-3)), 44 ± 27 μg⋅m(-3) (43 ± 10% of 99 ± 54 μg⋅m(-3)), and 25 ± 14 μg⋅m(-3) (35 ± 8% of 70 ± 35 μg⋅m(-3)) in Beijing, Tianjin, and Hebei provinces, respectively. Annually, elimination of residential sources in the BTH region reduced emissions of primary PM2.5 by 32%, compared with 5%, 6%, and 58% achieved by eliminating emissions from the transportation, power, and industry sectors, respectively. We also find air quality in Beijing would benefit substantially from reductions in residential emissions from regional controls in Tianjin and Hebei, indicating the value of policies at the regional level. PMID:27354524

  10. Intake fraction of primary pollutants: motor vehicle emissions in the South Coast Air Basin

    OpenAIRE

    J. D. Marshall; W. J. Riley; McKone, T.E.; Nazaroff, William W.

    2003-01-01

    The intake fraction is defined for a specific species and emission source as the ratio of attributable population intake to total emissions. Focusing on California's South Coast Air Basin (SoCAB) as a case study, we combine ambient monitoring data with time-activity patterns to estimate the population intake of carbon monoxide and benzene emitted from motor vehicles during 1996-1999. In addition to exposures to ambient concentrations, three microenvironments are considered in which the exposu...

  11. Air quality impacts of European wildfire emissions in a changing climate

    OpenAIRE

    KNORR Wolfgang; Dentener, Frank; Hantson, Stijn; Jiang, Leiwen; Klimont, Zbigniew; Arneth, Almut

    2016-01-01

    Wildfires are not only a threat to human property and a vital element of many ecosystems, but also an important source of air pollution. In this study, we first review the available evidence for a past or possible future climate-driven increase in wildfire emissions in Europe. We then introduce an ensemble of model simulations with a coupled wildfire–dynamic-ecosystem model, which we combine with published spatial maps of both wildfire and anthropogenic emissions of several ...

  12. Dynamic Modeling of Kosovo's Electricity Supply-Demand, Gaseous Emissions and Air Pollution

    OpenAIRE

    Sadik Bekteshi; Skender Kabashi; Skender Ahmetaj; Ivo Šlaus; Aleksander Zidanšek; Kushtrim Podrimqaku; Shkurta Kastrati

    2015-01-01

    In this paper is described the developing of an integrated electricity supply–demand, gaseous emission and air pollution model for study of possible baseline electricity developments and available options to mitigate emissions. This model is constructed in STELLA software, which makes use of Systems Dynamics Modeling as the methodology. Several baseline scenarios have been developed from this model and a set of options of possible developments of Kosovo's Electricity Supply–De...

  13. LOPES 3D - vectorial measurements of radio emission from cosmic ray induced air showers

    CERN Document Server

    Apel, W D; Bähren, L; Bekk, K; Bertaina, M; Biermann, P L; Blümer, J; Bozdog, H; Brancus, I M; Chiavassa, A; Daumiller, K; de Souza, V; Di Pierro, F; Doll, P; Engel, R; Falcke, H; Fuchs, B; Fuhrmann, D; Gemmeke, H; Grupen, C; Haungs, A; Heck, D; Hörandel, J R; Horneffer, A; Huber, D; Huege, T; Isar, P G; Kampert, K -H; Kang, D; Krömer, O; Kuijpers, J; Link, K; Luczak, P; Ludwig, M; Mathes, H J; Melissas, M; Morello, C; Oehlschläger, J; Palmieri, N; Pierog, T; Rautenberg, J; Rebel, H; Roth, M; Rühle, C; Saftoiu, A; Schieler, H; Schmidt, A; Schröder, F G; Sima, O; Toma, G; Trinchero, G C; Weindl, A; Wochele, J; Zabierowski, J; Zensus, J A

    2013-01-01

    LOPES 3D is able to measure all three components of the electric field vector of the radio emission from air showers. This allows a better comparison with emission models. The measurement of the vertical component increases the sensitivity to inclined showers. By measuring all three components of the electric field vector LOPES 3D demonstrates by how much the reconstruction accuracy of primary cosmic ray parameters increases. Thus LOPES 3D evaluates the usefulness of vectorial measurements for large scale applications.

  14. MONITORING AND MODELLING OF AIR POLLUTION PRODUCED BY AIRCRAFT ENGINE EMISSION INSIDE THE ATHENS INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleksander I. Zaporozhets

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available  Experimental measuring of air pollution inside the airport, produced by aircraft engine emission during accelaration and take-off on the runway. Measurement data were used for verification of modelling results according to complex model «PolEmiCa». It consists of the following basic components: engine emission inventory calculation; transport of the contaminants by engine jets, dispersion of the contaminants in atmosphere due to wind and atmospheric turbulence.

  15. Contribution of ship emissions to the concentration and deposition of air pollutants in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksoyoglu, Sebnem; Baltensperger, Urs; Prévôt, André S. H.

    2016-02-01

    Emissions from the marine transport sector are one of the least-regulated anthropogenic emission sources and contribute significantly to air pollution. Although strict limits were introduced recently for the maximum sulfur content in marine fuels in the SECAs (sulfur emission control areas) and in EU ports, sulfur emissions outside the SECAs and emissions of other components in all European maritime areas have continued to increase in the last two decades. We have used the air quality model CAMx (Comprehensive Air Quality Model with Extensions) with and without ship emissions for the year 2006 to determine the effects of international shipping on the annual as well as seasonal concentrations of ozone, primary and secondary components of PM2.5, and the dry and wet deposition of nitrogen and sulfur compounds in Europe. The largest changes in pollutant concentrations due to ship emissions were predicted for summer. Concentrations of particulate sulfate increased due to ship emissions in the Mediterranean (up to 60 %), the English Channel and the North Sea (30-35 %), while increases in particulate nitrate levels were found especially in the north, around the Benelux area (20 %), where there were high NH3 land-based emissions. Our model results showed that not only are the atmospheric concentrations of pollutants affected by ship emissions, but also depositions of nitrogen and sulfur compounds increase significantly along the shipping routes. NOx emissions from the ships, especially in the English Channel and the North Sea, cause a decrease in the dry deposition of reduced nitrogen at source regions by moving it from the gas phase to the particle phase which then contributes to an increase in the wet deposition at coastal areas with higher precipitation. In the western Mediterranean region, on the other hand, model results show an increase in the deposition of oxidized nitrogen (mostly HNO3) due to the ship traffic. Dry deposition of SO2 seems to be significant along

  16. System approach for evaluation of air pollution toxic compounds in the 30-km area of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The article shows the importance of a systematic approach to address environmental problems that arise during the construction of nuclear power plants, and identified the need to consider the transformation and biotransformation of primary pollutants and monitoring secondary pollutants. The basic pathways of pollutants in the air a 30-km zone of nuclear power plants established. The content of primary and secondary air pollutants identified. The evaluation of general toxic risk from primary pollutant and the calculation of the carcinogenic risk of secondary pollutants entering the body by inhalation are carried out. (authors)

  17. Radio emission of extensive air showers at microwave frequencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filonenko, A. D.

    2016-05-01

    It is found that the power of the incoherent radiation of ionization electrons of an extensive air shower in the frequency range of 150 GHz is more than 10-24 W/m2Hz, with the shower energy ~1018 eV at a distance of 5 km from its axis. This means that, unlike fluorescent detectors, a radio telescope with an effective area of more than 300 m2 can monitor the trajectory of showers with an energy higher than 1018 eV at any time of the day regardless of the weather. The spectrum maximum near the frequency of 150 GHz is roughly three orders of magnitude higher than the value experimentally measured in the characteristic band (~5-10 GHz).

  18. Development of emissions inventories for the Auto/Oil Air Quality Improvement Research Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The air quality effects of different reformulated gasolines, various other alternative fuels, and developments in automotive technologies are being studied as part of a joint research project conducted by a consortium of three domestic auto companies and fourteen petroleum companies. As part of the air quality modeling effort, emission inventories are being developed in a near-term year (1995), and 21 fuels in a long-term year (2005 or 2010). A distinctive feature of this effort is that these inventories are the first used in an air quality study that treat light duty vehicle emissions by operating mode as well as by class, and base the speciation characteristics of each operating mode on actual vehicle test results. This incorporates an unusual amount of detail on the relative importance of each of the three vehicle exhaust, two evaporative, and running loss operating modes, both in terms of overall mass emission amounts and in terms of the hydrocarbon speciation and ozone reactivity. This study also allows a better estimate of the relative importance of each vehicle class and technology type to an overall emission inventory, and of the differences in the effects of alternative fuels between vehicle technologies and classes. In addition, the role of mobile source emissions relative to other sources of emissions for both short-term and long-term emission projections, and across a wide geographic range is being assessed. This paper first describes the techniques used in developing these emission inventories, and then examines regional, temporal, and fuel/vehicle effects on emissions

  19. Regional air quality impacts of future fire emissions in Sumatra and Kalimantan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fire emissions associated with land cover change and land management contribute to the concentrations of atmospheric pollutants, which can affect regional air quality and climate. Mitigating these impacts requires a comprehensive understanding of the relationship between fires and different land cover change trajectories and land management strategies. We develop future fire emissions inventories from 2010–2030 for Sumatra and Kalimantan (Indonesian Borneo) to assess the impact of varying levels of forest and peatland conservation on air quality in Equatorial Asia. To compile these inventories, we combine detailed land cover information from published maps of forest extent, satellite fire radiative power observations, fire emissions from the Global Fire Emissions Database, and spatially explicit future land cover projections using a land cover change model. We apply the sensitivities of mean smoke concentrations to Indonesian fire emissions, calculated by the GEOS-Chem adjoint model, to our scenario-based future fire emissions inventories to quantify the different impacts of fires on surface air quality across Equatorial Asia. We find that public health impacts are highly sensitive to the location of fires, with emissions from Sumatra contributing more to smoke concentrations at population centers across the region than Kalimantan, which had higher emissions by more than a factor of two. Compared to business-as-usual projections, protecting peatlands from fires reduces smoke concentrations in the cities of Singapore and Palembang by 70% and 40%, and by 60% for the Equatorial Asian region, weighted by the population in each grid cell. Our results indicate the importance of focusing conservation priorities on protecting both forested (intact or logged) peatlands and non-forested peatlands from fire, even after considering potential leakage of deforestation pressure to other areas, in order to limit the impact of fire emissions on atmospheric smoke concentrations

  20. Regional air quality impacts of future fire emissions in Sumatra and Kalimantan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marlier, Miriam E.; DeFries, Ruth S.; Kim, Patrick S.; Gaveau, David L. A.; Koplitz, Shannon N.; Jacob, Daniel J.; Mickley, Loretta J.; Margono, Belinda A.; Myers, Samuel S.

    2015-05-01

    Fire emissions associated with land cover change and land management contribute to the concentrations of atmospheric pollutants, which can affect regional air quality and climate. Mitigating these impacts requires a comprehensive understanding of the relationship between fires and different land cover change trajectories and land management strategies. We develop future fire emissions inventories from 2010-2030 for Sumatra and Kalimantan (Indonesian Borneo) to assess the impact of varying levels of forest and peatland conservation on air quality in Equatorial Asia. To compile these inventories, we combine detailed land cover information from published maps of forest extent, satellite fire radiative power observations, fire emissions from the Global Fire Emissions Database, and spatially explicit future land cover projections using a land cover change model. We apply the sensitivities of mean smoke concentrations to Indonesian fire emissions, calculated by the GEOS-Chem adjoint model, to our scenario-based future fire emissions inventories to quantify the different impacts of fires on surface air quality across Equatorial Asia. We find that public health impacts are highly sensitive to the location of fires, with emissions from Sumatra contributing more to smoke concentrations at population centers across the region than Kalimantan, which had higher emissions by more than a factor of two. Compared to business-as-usual projections, protecting peatlands from fires reduces smoke concentrations in the cities of Singapore and Palembang by 70% and 40%, and by 60% for the Equatorial Asian region, weighted by the population in each grid cell. Our results indicate the importance of focusing conservation priorities on protecting both forested (intact or logged) peatlands and non-forested peatlands from fire, even after considering potential leakage of deforestation pressure to other areas, in order to limit the impact of fire emissions on atmospheric smoke concentrations and

  1. Epigenetic Changes Induced by Air Toxics: Formaldehyde Exposure Alters miRNA Expression Profiles in Human Lung Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Rager, Julia E.; Smeester, Lisa; Jaspers, Ilona; Sexton, Kenneth G.; Fry, Rebecca C.

    2010-01-01

    Background Exposure to formaldehyde, a known air toxic, is associated with cancer and lung disease. Despite the adverse health effects of formaldehyde, the mechanisms underlying formaldehyde-induced disease remain largely unknown. Research has uncovered microRNAs (miRNAs) as key posttranscriptional regulators of gene expression that may influence cellular disease state. Although studies have compared different miRNA expression patterns between diseased and healthy tissue, this is the first st...

  2. Emissions of halocarbons from mobile vehicle air conditioning system in Hong Kong

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, H.H.; Guo, H., E-mail: ceguohai@polyu.edu.hk; Ou, J.M.

    2014-08-15

    Highlights: • Halocarbon emissions from MVACS were characterized using bottom up approach. • Quantification of emission inventory was revealed using AUV Tools. • Potential emission reduction was estimated under 3 possible mitigation scenarios. • The results are useful for the policy makers to formulate and implement future phase-out schedule. - Abstract: During the implementation of Montreal Protocol, emission inventories of halocarbons in different sectors at regional scale are fundamental to the formulation of relevant management strategy and inspection of the implementation efficiency. This study investigated the emission profile of halocarbons used in the mobile vehicle air conditioning system, the leading sector of refrigeration industry in terms of the refrigerant bank, market and emission, in the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, using a bottom-up approach developed by 2006 IPCC Good Practice Guidance. The results showed that emissions of CFC-12 peaked at 53 tons ODP (Ozone Depletion Potential) in 1992 and then gradually diminished, whereas HFC-134a presented an increasing emission trend since 1990s and the emissions of HFC-134a reached 65,000 tons CO{sub 2}-equivelant (CO{sub 2}-eq) by the end of 2011. Uncertainty analysis revealed relatively high levels of uncertainties for special-purpose vehicles and government vehicles. Moreover, greenhouse gas (GHG) abatements under different scenarios indicated that potential emission reduction of HFC-134a ranged from 4.1 to 8.4 × 10{sup 5} tons CO{sub 2}-eq. The findings in this study advance our knowledge of halocarbon emissions from mobile vehicle air conditioning system in Hong Kong.

  3. An emissions inventory of air pollutants for the city of Bogota, Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Robra, Jan Philipp

    2010-01-01

    More than 8.5 million people live in the urban area of Bogotá and more than 1.4 million vehicles are taking the road every day. Air pollution is becoming more and more of a problem. Today, air pollution related respiratory diseases are the main cause of death in young children in Bogotá and more than 6000 people die prematurely every year in Colombia from cardiopulmonary diseases or lung cancer related to air pollution. The creation of a spatially and temporally distributed emission inventor...

  4. Aircraft engine exhaust emissions and other airport-related contributions to ambient air pollution: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masiol, Mauro; Harrison, Roy M.

    2014-10-01

    Civil aviation is fast-growing (about +5% every year), mainly driven by the developing economies and globalisation. Its impact on the environment is heavily debated, particularly in relation to climate forcing attributed to emissions at cruising altitudes and the noise and the deterioration of air quality at ground-level due to airport operations. This latter environmental issue is of particular interest to the scientific community and policymakers, especially in relation to the breach of limit and target values for many air pollutants, mainly nitrogen oxides and particulate matter, near the busiest airports and the resulting consequences for public health. Despite the increased attention given to aircraft emissions at ground-level and air pollution in the vicinity of airports, many research gaps remain. Sources relevant to air quality include not only engine exhaust and non-exhaust emissions from aircraft, but also emissions from the units providing power to the aircraft on the ground, the traffic due to the airport ground service, maintenance work, heating facilities, fugitive vapours from refuelling operations, kitchens and restaurants for passengers and operators, intermodal transportation systems, and road traffic for transporting people and goods in and out to the airport. Many of these sources have received inadequate attention, despite their high potential for impact on air quality. This review aims to summarise the state-of-the-art research on aircraft and airport emissions and attempts to synthesise the results of studies that have addressed this issue. It also aims to describe the key characteristics of pollution, the impacts upon global and local air quality and to address the future potential of research by highlighting research needs.

  5. Effects of biocomponents (RME) on diesel emissions, DPF, SCR and toxic potentials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Czerwinski, J. [AFHB Biel (Switzerland); Dimopoulos Eggenschwiler, P.; Heeb, N.; Liati, A. [EMPA, Duebendorf (Switzerland); Astorga, M.C. [JRC, Ispra (Italy); Mayer, A. [TTM, Niederrohrdorf (Switzerland); Heitzer, A. [Erdoel-Vereinigung, Zuerich (Switzerland); D' Urbano, G. [Bundesamt fuer Umwelt (Switzerland); Hermle, S.; Renz, S. [Bundesamt fuer Energie (BfE) (Switzerland)

    2013-06-01

    The use of alternative fuels and among them the biofuels of 1{sup st} generation - FAME's and pure plants oils - for propulsion of IC engines is an important objective in several countries in order to save the fossil fuels and to limit the CO{sub 2-} production. The properties of bio-fuels and bio-blend-fuels can vary and this has an impact on the operation and emissions of Diesel engines and on the modem exhaust aftertreatment systems. The present paper represents the most important results obtained with RME at AFHB, EMPA and EC-JRC. Most of the activities were performed in the network project BioExDi (Biofuels, Exhaust Systems Diesel) in collaboration between industry and research institutes. Following short statements can be given about the treated subjects: - combustion and emissions (engine-out) are influenced by RME in the sense less CO, HC and PM, more NO{sub x} and more SOF, - there are positive influences of RME on the functionality of DOC and DPF due to higher reactivity of RME, no influence on SCR, - the long term functionality of exhaust aftertreatment systems with RME can be influenced by the potential higher availability of elements, like Ca, Mg, Zn, P, S, K, - without DPF there are slight tendencies of lowering TEQ at low load with RME and increasing TEQ at high load of the engine; with DPF there is a strong reduction of all toxic substances and no effect of RME on P AH and TEQ. Some practical recommendations for the users of biofuels of the 1{sup st} generation are given at the end of the paper. Generally there is a necessity of higher costs and efforts for more frequent service and maintenance and for the quality controls of fuel and fuel supply chain. (orig.)

  6. Aircraft emission inventories for scheduled air traffic for the 1976-92 time period. Historical trends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baughcum, S.L.; Henderson, S.C.; Tritz, T.G. [Boeing Co., Seattle, WA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Emission inventories of fuel burned, NO{sub x}, CO, and hydrocarbons have been calculated for scheduled air traffic in 1976, 1984, 1990 and 1992 on a 1 deg latitude x 1 deg longitude x 1 km pressure altitude grid. Using this database, the seasonal variation and historical trends in aircraft emissions have been calculated for selected geographical regions (e.g., North Atlantic, Europe, North America, North Pacific). The trend in emissions is a combination of the effects of passenger demand growth, improved aircraft efficiency, changes in combustor characteristics, and aircraft size. (author) 8 refs.

  7. Trends in aircraft emissions. Simulation of two air traffic scenarios in Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larson, L.G.; Palsson, A. [The Aeronautical Research Inst. of Sweden, Bromma (Sweden). The Swedish Civil Aviation Administration

    1997-12-31

    The developing trends of emissions from aviation in Sweden have been studied by means of flight and emissions simulation. The objective was to investigate whether technical improvements will allow Swedish air traffic to increase, without exceeding national regulations for pollution in the future. It was found that, due to development of aircraft engines and, to some extent, improvement of aerodynamic designs, the fuel consumption and thus the emissions of carbon dioxide will decrease in the future. The decrease of nitrous oxides is predicted to be significant due to advances in engine technology. (author) 4 refs.

  8. PARTICLE SPECIATION AND EMISSION PROFILES OF SMALL 2-STROKE ENGINES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Human Exposure and Atmospheric Sciences Division (HEASD) conducts studies designed to acquire information from emission sources for use in source apportionment studies. The objective of this work is to characterize a complete, speciated emission profile (PM and air toxics) ...

  9. Air quality enhancement by reducing emissions from electric power industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The electric power industry is responsible for electricity generations, transmission and distribution. The system is dominated by thermal electricity generation (in Syria its share is about 80%). The fossil fuels used in te thermal power plants are a major stationary source of greenhouse gases (GHG) in addition to other pollutant. The primary GHG are CO2, NOx, SO2, CO, and VOC, of which CO2 is believed to account for about half of the global warming. There are many approaches to reduce the amount of pollutants emitted from power systems. The best measures as given mainly by Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), 1996 are presented in the paper. From the efficiency and sustainability side of view, the implementation of these approaches cannot be done optimally without an integrated environmental management program (EMP). The paper proposes an EMP as a conceptual strategy using a set of evaluation criteria to be applied on the power system on concern. As a final item, a case study of the Syrian power system is presented. The energy system in Syria emitted about 115 million tons of CO2 in the year 2000. The electric power system alone consumes approximately 36% of the total consumed fossil fuels in the country, and is responsible of about 35-40% of the CO2 emissions. The Syrian power system has three major problems (like many systems in the region) which need to be resolved in order to improve its operation and consequently to reduce the emission of green house gases. First, the technical electrical losses are about 25-30% of net generated electricity. Second, the power factor has reached alarming levels in various parts of the power system. Third, the efficiencies in all power plant units are very low and still decreasing rapidly. The paper gives an overview of the energy sector in Syria showing a significant potential for energy efficiency and environmental protection projects. The main outcome of the case study is a comprehensive program designed for one

  10. Shale-to-well energy use and air pollutant emissions of shale gas production in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • We developed a hybrid LCI model to calculate the shale-to-well energy and emissions of shale gas production in China. • The process model is based on the first horizontal well in China, and IO model uses 2007 economy benchmark data. • The shale-to-well energy was calculated to be 59 TJ, 42% of product chain use and 58% of on-site consumption. • The shale-to-well GHG emissions were 5500 metric tons of CO2e. • The onsite water consumption of well construction was 25,000 m3, and was dominated by fracturing water use, about 95%. - Abstract: Tapping its large reserves of unconventional gas, China has launched shale gas exploration and started drilling wells in trial development zones. To better understand the potential energy and air pollution implications of shale gas production in China, this study developed a hybrid life cycle inventory (LCI) model that combines process and input–output (IO) based LCI methods for estimating “shale-to-well” energy use, resource use, and emissions of air pollutants. The model’s structure and inputs are based on data from the first shale gas horizontal well in China. The IO model was constructed using the 2007 benchmark IO table for China. Results suggest shale-to-well energy use of 59 TJ and shale-to-well greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of 5500 metric tons of carbon dioxide equivalents (CO2e). Shale-to-well energy use and air emissions were dominated by the production and use of diesel fuel for oil-based drilling fluids and for on-site combustion, and by fugitive emissions and flaring from well completion. The results shed light on some potential energy and air pollutant emission impacts of a shift from coal to shale gas in China, and highlight opportunities for reducing these impacts moving forward

  11. [Situation and Characteristics of Air Pollutants Emission from Crematories in Beijing, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Yi-feng; Yan, Jing; Tian, He-zhong; Xiong, Cheng-cheng; Li, Jing-dong; Wu, Xiao-ing; Wang, Wei

    2015-06-01

    Hazardous Air Pollutants (HAPs) such as exhaust particulate matter (PM), carbon monoxide (CO), sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen oxide (NOx), mercury (Hg) and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzo-furans ( PCDD/Fs) are emitted by the process of cremation and the burning of oblation. Risks to health posed by emissions of hazardous air pollutants from crematories are emerging concerns. Through field investigation and data collection, we obtained the related activity levels and monitored the concentrations of air pollutants from typical cremators, so as to better understand the current pollutants emission levels for crematory. Using the emission factor method, we calculated the emission inventory of HAPs for crematory of Beijing in 2012 and quantified the range of uncertainty. Using atmospheric diffusion model ADMS, we evaluated the influence of crematories on the surrounding environment, and identified the characteristics of air pollution. The results showed that: for the cremators installed with flue gas purification system, the emission concentration of exhaust PM was rather low, and the CO emission concentration fluctuated greatly. However, relative high emission concentrations of PCDD/Fs were detected mainly due to insufficient combustion. Exhaust PM, CO, SO2, NOx, Hg and PCDD/Fs emitted by crematory of Beijing in 2012 were estimated at about 11. 5 tons, 41.25 tons, 2.34 tons, 7.65 tons, 13.76 kg and 0.88 g, respectively; According to the results of dispersion model simulation, the concentration contributions of exhaust PM, CO, SO2, NOx, Hg, PCDD/Fs from crematories were 0.05947 microg x m(-3), 0.2009 microg x m(-3) and 0.0126 microg x m(-3), 0.03667 microg x m(-3) and 0.06247 microg x m(-3), 0.004213 microg x m(-3), respectively. PMID:26387295

  12. National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants Submittal - 1998; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Nevada Test Site (NTS) is operated by the U.S. Department of Energy Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV) as the site for nuclear weapons testing, now limited to readiness activities and experiments in support of the national Stockpile Stewardship Management Program. It is located in Nye County, Nevada, with the southeast corner about 105 km (65 mi) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. The NTS covers about 3,500 km2 (1,350 mi2), an area larger than Rhode Island. Its size is about 46 to 56 km (28 to 35 mi) east to west and from 64 to 88 km (40 to 55 mi)north to south. The NTS is surrounded, except on the south side, by public exclusion areas (Nellis Air Force Range) that provide another 24 to 104 km (15 to 65 mi) between the NTS and public lands. The NTS is characterized by desert valley and Great Basin mountain topography, with a climate, flora, and fauna typical of the southwest deserts. Surface waters are scarce on the NTS and there is great depth to slow-moving groundwater

  13. Air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In recent years several regulations and standards for air quality and limits for air pollution were issued or are in preparation by the European Union, which have severe influence on the environmental monitoring and legislation in Austria. This chapter of the environmental control report of Austria gives an overview about the legal situation of air pollution control in the European Union and in specific the legal situation in Austria. It gives a comprehensive inventory of air pollution measurements for the whole area of Austria of total suspended particulates, ozone, volatile organic compounds, nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide, heavy metals, benzene, dioxin, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and eutrophication. For each of these pollutants the measured emission values throughout Austria are given in tables and geographical charts, the environmental impact is discussed, statistical data and time series of the emission sources are given and legal regulations and measures for an effective environmental pollution control are discussed. In particular the impact of fossil-fuel power plants on the air pollution is analyzed. (a.n.)

  14. [Study on the mechanisms of hazardous air pollutant emissions from green sand casting].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu-Jue; Zhao, Qi; Zhang, Ying; Hong, Chao-Peng; Huang, Tian-You

    2010-10-01

    Analytic pyrolysis was conducted to simulate the heating conditions that green sand and bituminous coal would experience during metal casting process. The hazardous air pollutant (HAP) emissions from analytical pyrolysis were analyzed by GC-FID/MS. The major components of the HAP emissions included benzene, toluene, xylene (BTX), phenol, and naphthalene. These HAPs were generated from the pyrolysis of bituminous coal that was added as carbonaceous additives in the green sand. During TGA slow pyrolysis, HAPs were mainly generated at 350-700 degrees C. The yield of HAPs increased considerably when the coal was flash pyrolyzed. The HAP emissions from analytical pyrolysis exhibited some similarity in the compositions and distributions with those from actual casting processes. Compared with the conventional actual metal pouring emission tests, analytical pyrolysis techniques offered a fast and cost-effective way to establish the HAP emission inventories of green sand during metal casting. PMID:21229769

  15. 77 FR 37361 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Reciprocating Internal Combustion...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-21

    ....gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2012-06-07/pdf/2012-13193.pdf and also in the docket identified below. The public... Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines; New Source Performance Standards for Stationary Internal Combustion... proposed rule, ``National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Reciprocating...

  16. 78 FR 14457 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Reciprocating Internal Combustion...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Parts 60 and 63 RIN 2060-AQ58 National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines; New Source Performance Standards for Stationary Internal...

  17. 75 FR 32682 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Major Sources: Industrial...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-09

    ... the deadline for written comments on the proposed rules (75 FR 32006 (major source boilers), 75 FR 31896 (area source boilers), 75 FR 31938 (CISWI), and 75 FR 31844 (waste definition)) to August 3, 2010... 2050-AG44 National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Major Sources:...

  18. Updating sea spray aerosol emissions in the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sea spray aerosols (SSA) impact the particle mass concentration and gas-particle partitioning in coastal environments, with implications for human and ecosystem health. In this study, the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model is updated to enhance fine mode SSA emissions,...

  19. 75 FR 31895 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Area Sources: Industrial, Commercial...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-04

    ...-AM44 National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Area Sources: Industrial, Commercial... standards today pursuant to CAA section 129 for commercial and industrial solid waste incineration units. In... industrial solid waste material at all--subject to the four statutory exceptions identified .'' NRDC v....

  20. Lateral distribution of radio emission and its dependence on air shower longitudinal development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The lateral distribution function (LDF) of radio emission from an extensive air shower is considered as the basic signature sensitive to the shower longitudinal development and, as a consequence, to the mass of a primary cosmic ray's particle that initiated a given shower. The peculiarities in the LDF's structure as well as their sensitivity to the height of shower maximum are investigated and explained

  1. Radio emission from cosmic ray air showers : simulation results and parametrization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huege, T.; Falcke, H.D.E.

    2005-01-01

    We have developed a sophisticated model of the radio emission from extensive air showers in the scheme of coherent geosynchrotron radiation, providing a theoretical foundation for the interpretation of experimental data from current and future experiments. Having verified the model through compariso

  2. Effects of air pollutants on the carbon dioxide (CO2) emission rate of human subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bako-Biro, Zsolt; Wargocki, Pawel; Wyon, David;

    2004-01-01

    Several laboratory studies have shown the negative effects of emissions from typical indoor pollution sources on perceived air quality, SBS symptoms and the performance of office work. The subjects performed typical office tasks at their own pace while they were exposed for several hours to diffe...

  3. Air Pollutant Emissions from Oil and Gas Production pads (Investigating Low Cost Passive Samplers)

    Science.gov (United States)

    To help achieve the goal of sustainable, environmentally responsible development of oil and gas resources, it isnecessary to understand the potential for air pollutant emissions from various extraction and production (E&P)processes at the upstream, wellpad level. Upstream oil and...

  4. 40 CFR 60.752 - Standards for air emissions from municipal solid waste landfills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... municipal solid waste landfills. 60.752 Section 60.752 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... of Performance for Municipal Solid Waste Landfills § 60.752 Standards for air emissions from municipal solid waste landfills. (a) Each owner or operator of an MSW landfill having a design capacity...

  5. 76 FR 81903 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Ferroalloys Production; Extension of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-29

    ... Pollutants: Ferroalloys Production'' is being extended for 22 days. DATES: Comments. The public comment period for the proposed rule published November 23, 2011 (76 FR 72508), is being extended for 22 days to... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 63 RIN 2060-AQ11 National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants:...

  6. 76 FR 80261 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Area Source Standards for Prepared...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-23

    ... Air Pollutant (HAP) emissions control (75 FR 533). We added the 95-percent design efficiency... published on January 5, 2010, (75 FR 522) if adverse comments are received on this direct final rule. If we.... V. What amendments are being made to this rule? On January 5, 2010 (75 FR 522), the EPA...

  7. COMPARISON OF AIR POLLUTANT EMISSIONS FROM VAPORIZING AND AIR ATOMIZING WASTE OIL HEATERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The paper gives results of a characterization of gaseous and particulate emissions and vaporizing pot solid residues resulting from the combustion of waste crankcase oil in space heaters. Two types of waste oil burners were tested: a vaporizing oil burner rated at 35.2 kW, and an...

  8. National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants Calendar Year 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Nevada Test Site (NTS) is operated by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Operations Office (NNSA/NV) as the site for nuclear weapons testing, now limited to readiness activities, experiments in support of the national Stockpile Stewardship Program, and the activities listed below. Located in Nye County, Nevada, the site's southeast corner is about 88 km (55 mi) northwest of the major population center, Las Vegas, Nevada. The NTS covers about 3,561 km2 (1,375 mi2), an area larger than Rhode Island. Its size is 46 to 56 km (28 to 35 mi) east to west and from 64 to 88 km (40 to 55 mi) north to south. The NTS is surrounded, except on the south side, by public exclusion areas (Nellis Air Force Range [NAFR]) that provide another 24 to 104 km (15 to 65 mi) between the NTS and public lands (Figure 1.0). The NTS is characterized by desert valley and Great Basin mountain topography, with a climate, flora, and fauna typical of the southwest deserts. Population density within 150 km (93 mi) of the NTS is only about 0.2 persons per square kilometer, excluding the Las Vegas area. Restricted access, low population density in the surrounding area, and extended wind transport times are advantageous factors for the activities conducted at the NTS. Surface waters are scarce on the NTS, and slow-moving groundwater is present hundreds to thousands of feet below the land surface. The sources of radionuclides include current and previous activities conducted on the NTS (Figure 2.0). The NTS was the primary location for testing of nuclear explosives in the Continental U.S. between 1951 and 1992. Historical testing above or at ground surface has included (1) atmospheric testing in the 1950s and early 1960s, (2) earth-cratering experiments, and (3) open-air nuclear reactor and rocket engine testing. Since the mid-1950s, testing of nuclear explosive devices has occurred underground in drilled vertical holes or in mined tunnels (DOE 1996a

  9. [Major Air Pollutant Emissions of Coal-Fired Power Plant in Yangtze River Delta].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Qing-qing; Wei, Wei; Shen, Qun; Sun, Yu-han

    2015-07-01

    The emission factor method was used to estimate major air pollutant emissions of coal-fired power plant in the Yangtze River Delta (YRD) region of the year 2012. Results showed that emissions of SO2, NOx, dust, PM10, PM2.5 were respectively 473 238, 1 566 195, 587 713, 348 773 and 179 820 t. For SO2 and NOx, 300 MW and above class units made contributions of 85% and 82% in emission; while in the respect of dust, PM10 and PM2.5 contribution rates of 100 MW and below class units were respectively 81%, 53% and 40%. Considering the regional distribution, Jiangsu discharged the most, followed by Zhejiang, Shanghai. According to discharge data of several local power plants, we also calculated and made a comparative analysis of emission factors in different unit levels in Shanghai, which indicated a lower emission level. Assuming an equal level was reached in whole YRD, SO2 emission would cut down 55. 8% - 65. 3%; for NOx and dust emissions were 50. 5% - 64. 1% and 3. 4% - 11. 3%, respectively. If technologies and pollution control of lower class units were improved, the emission cuts would improve. However, according to the pollution realities of YRD, we suggested to make a multiple-cuts plan, which could effectively improve the reaional atmospheric environment. PMID:26489303

  10. Improving the indoor air quality by using a surface emissions trap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markowicz, Pawel; Larsson, Lennart

    2015-04-01

    The surface emissions trap, an adsorption cloth developed for reducing emissions of volatile organic compounds and particulate matter from surfaces while allowing evaporation of moisture, was used to improve the indoor air quality of a school building with elevated air concentrations of 2-ethyl-1-hexanol. An improvement of the perceived air quality was noticed a few days after the device had been attached on the PVC flooring. In parallel, decreased air concentrations of 2-ethyl-1-hexanol were found as well as a linear increase of the amounts of the same compound adsorbed on the installed cloth as observed up to 13 months after installation. Laboratory studies revealed that the performance of the device is not affected by differences in RH (35-85%), temperature (30-40 °C) or by accelerated aging simulating up to 10 years product lifetime, and, from a blinded exposure test, that the device efficiently blocks chemical odors. This study suggests that the device may represent a fast and efficient means of restoring the indoor air quality in a building e.g. after water damage leading to irritating and potentially harmful emissions from building material surfaces indoors.

  11. Volatile Organic Compound Emissions from Dairy Farming and their effect on San Joaquin Valley Air Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, D. R.; Yang, M.; Meinardi, S.; Krauter, C.; Rowland, F. S.

    2009-05-01

    The San Joaquin Valley Air Pollution Control District of California issued a report identifying dairies as a main source of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs). A dairy study funded by the California Air Resources Board commenced shortly after the report was issued. Our University of California Irvine group teamed with California State University Fresno to determine the major sources of VOCs from various dairy operations and from a variety of dairy types. This study identified ethanol and methanol as two gases produced in major quantities throughout the dairies in the San Joaquin valley as by-products of yeast fermentation of silage. Three different types of sampling protocols were employed in order to determine the degree of enhancement of the target oxygenates in the valley air shed. Their sources, emission profiles, and emission rates were determined from whole air samples collected at various locations at the six dairies studied. An assessment of the impact of dairy emissions in the valley was achieved by using data obtained on low altitude NASA DC-8 flights through the valley, and from ground level samples collected though out the valley in a grid like design. Our data suggest that a significant amount of O3 production in the valley may come from methanol, ethanol, and acetaldehyde (a photochemical by-product ethanol oxidation). Our findings indicate that improvement to valley air quality may be obtained by focusing on instituting new silage containment practices and regulations.

  12. Ship emissions and air pollution in Denmark. Present situation and future scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roerdam Olesen, H.; Winther, M.; Ellermann, T.; Christensen, Jesper; Plejdrup, M. (Aarhus Univ., National Environmental Research Institute, Aarhus (Denmark))

    2009-07-01

    Ship traffic in the Danish marine waters is considered to be important for air quality in Danish cities and in Denmark in general. Since 2006 the so-called Automatic Identification System (AIS) has registered ship activities in Danish marine waters. All ships larger than 300 GT (Gross Tonnage) are required to carry a transponder, which transmits information on the ship's identity and position to land-based receiving stations. This information makes it possible to map ship emissions in much greater detail than previously feasible. This opportunity has now been utilised to create a new emission inventory for ships in the Danish marine waters. A main objective of this work is to assess the contribution from ships to concentration levels of various pollutants. For the modelling of concentrations, a new version of the air pollution model DEHM (Danish Eulerian Hemispheric Model) has been applied - a version with a higher geographical resolution than the previous version. The International Maritime Organisation (IMO) has adopted new regulations in order to reduce pollution from ships with sulphur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) and nitrogen oxides (NO{sub X}) in the period until 2020. It is also the objective of this work to investigate the effect of this regulation on air quality in Denmark. This is done through scenario calculations for air quality for 2020 based on expected emission reductions. Also for land-based sources of SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x} and particles, emission reductions are envisaged before 2020. The scenario calculation for 2020 takes account of these reductions. As one of the main parts of the study a new, improved inventory of ship emissions in the Danish marine waters has been established. Both new (NERI) and old (EMEP, 2008) emission inventories have been applied for model calculations of air quality in Denmark, thus allowing an assessment of the effect of the revised inventory. Furthermore, scenario calculations for 2011 and 2020 have been carried out, in

  13. Air quality assessment of low emission zones in Copenhagen. [Denmark]; Luftkvalitetsvurdering af ren-luftzone i Koebenhavn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solvang Jensen, S.; Ketzel, M.; Brandt, J.; Winther, M.; Ellermann, T.

    2012-09-15

    According to the government agreement from 2011 improved low emission zones have been identified as a measure to improve the air quality in greater Danish cities, and to ensure compliance with air quality limit values for NO{sub 2} of 40 {mu}g/m{sup 3} as an annual mean. The limit value is violated at H.C. Andersens Boulevard in Copenhagen which is one of the busiest urban streets in Denmark and a fixed air quality monitor station is also located in the street. Air quality model calculations also shows that some other busy streets in Copenhagen violate the annual air quality limit values for NO{sub 2}. The objective of the project is to assess the impacts of a number of improved low emission zone measures in Copenhagen regarding emissions and air quality with focus on NO{sub 2}. The impact assessment of different scenarios includes assessment of emissions and air quality. The assessment is carried out in great details for NO{sub 2} and to a lesser degree for PM exhaust, PM{sub 2.5} and PM{sub 10}. Since air quality assessment is resource demanding only the main scenarios are carried out with the full air quality model whereas the air quality of the scenario variants are assessed based on regression analysis between emissions and air quality in scenarios calculated with the full air quality model. (LN)

  14. Transport and Environment Database System (TRENDS): Maritime Air Pollutant Emission Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Georgakaki, Aliki; Coffey, R. A.; Lock, G.;

    2003-01-01

    This paper reports the development of the maritime module within the framework of the TRENDS project. A detailed database has been constructed, which includes all stages of the energy consumption and air pollutant emission calculations. The technical assumptions and factors incorporated in the...... database are presented, including changes from MEET findings. The database operates on statistical data provided by Eurostat. Data is at port to MCA level, so a bottom-up approach is used. This was the first attempt to use Eurostat maritime statistics for emission modelling, and the problems that have been...... encountered since the statistical data collection was not undertaken with a view to this purpose are mentioned. Examples of the results obtained by the database are presented. These include detailed air pollutant emission results per port and vessel type, to aggregate results for different types of movements...

  15. Data Quality Objectives Supporting Radiological Air Emissions Monitoring for the PNNL Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnett, J. M.; Meier, Kirsten M.; Snyder, Sandra F.; Fritz, Brad G.; Poston, Ted M.; Rhoads, Kathleen

    2010-05-25

    This document of Data Quality Objectives (DQOs) was prepared based on the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Guidance on Systematic Planning Using the Data Quality Objectives Process, EPA, QA/G4, 2/2006 (EPA 2006) as well as several other published DQOs. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is in the process of developing a radiological air monitoring program for the PNNL Site that is distinct from that of the nearby Hanford Site. Radiological emissions at the PNNL Site result from Physical Sciences Facility (PSF) major emissions units. A team was established to determine how the PNNL Site would meet federal regulations and address guidelines developed to monitor and estimate offsite air emissions of radioactive materials. The result is a program that monitors the impact to the public from the PNNL Site.

  16. Effect of outside air ventilation rate on VOC concentrations and emissions in a call center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study of the relationship between outside air ventilation rate and concentrations of VOCs generated indoors was conducted in a call center. Ventilation rates were manipulated in the building's four air handling units (AHUs). Concentrations of VOCs in the AHU returns were measured on 7 days during a 13-week period. Indoor minus outdoor concentrations and emission factors were calculated. The emission factor data was subjected to principal component analysis to identify groups of co-varying compounds based on source type. One vector represented emissions of solvents from cleaning products. Another vector identified occupant sources. Direct relationships between ventilation rate and concentrations were not observed for most of the abundant VOCs. This result emphasizes the importance of source control measures for limiting VOC concentrations in buildings

  17. Climate change and pollutant emissions impacts on air quality in 2050 over Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sá, E.; Martins, H.; Ferreira, J.; Marta-Almeida, M.; Rocha, A.; Carvalho, A.; Freitas, S.; Borrego, C.

    2016-04-01

    Changes in climate and air pollutant emissions will affect future air quality from global to urban scale. In this study, regional air quality simulations for historical and future periods are conducted, with CAMx version 6.0, to investigate the impacts of future climate and anthropogenic emission projections on air quality over Portugal and the Porto metropolitan area in 2050. The climate and the emission projections were derived from the Representative Concentrations Pathways (RCP8.5) scenario. Modelling results show that climate change will impact NO2, PM10 and O3 concentrations over Portugal. The NO2 and PM10 annual means will increase in Portugal and in the Porto municipality, and the maximum 8-hr daily O3 value will increase in the Porto suburban areas (approximately 5%) and decrease in the urban area (approximately 2%). When considering climate change and projected anthropogenic emissions, the NO2 annual mean decreases (approximately 50%); PM10 annual mean will increase in Portugal and decrease in Porto municipality (approximately 13%); however PM10 and O3 levels increase and extremes occur more often, surpassing the currently legislated annual limits and displaying a higher frequency of daily exceedances. This air quality degradation is likely to be related with the trends found for the 2046-2065 climate, which implies warmer and dryer conditions, and with the increase of background concentrations of ozone and particulate matter. The results demonstrate the need for Portuguese authorities and policy-makers to design and implement air quality management strategies that take climate change impacts into account.

  18. MEASUREMENT OF AIR ENTRAINMENT AND DUST EMISSION DURING SHELLED CORN RECEIVING OPERATIONS WITH SIMULATED HOPPER BOTTOM GRAIN TRAILERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dust emissions from grain elevator operations can be a safety and health risk, and a nuisance. Dust emission and air entrainment data are needed for designing adequate and effective control methods. This study measured the dust emitted and air entrained during corn receiving operations at an eleva...

  19. PERFORMANCE EVALUATION AND EMISSION CHARACTERISTICS OF LOW HEAT REJECTION ENGINE USING AIR GAP INSULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. IRSHAD AHMED

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available It is well known fact that about 30% of the energy supplied is lost through the coolant and the 30% is wasted through friction and other losses, thus leaving only about 30% of energy utilization for useful purposes. In view of the above, the major thrust in engine research during the last two decades has been on the development of low heat rejection engines. The Low Heat Rejection (LHR engine has been given considerable attention recently as engine builders struggle to find remaining avenues to improve economy and lower emissions. The concept of air gap insulated piston has been explored by providing 1mm air gap within the piston by using bolted type piston. The bolted air gapinsulated piston provides complete sealing of air gap necessary for continued insulation. The design evolved provides high insulation combining adequate durability. In order to provide high insulation andreliability, proper designing of the air gap piston has to be ensured. The piston with 1mm thickness of air gap are designed with two different material. The insulation provides betterment in fuelconsumption at normal operating condition than a conventional piston engine and also the delay period tends to reduce the emissions levels of Hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide. The combustion rate is increased because of insulation and hence there is reduced vibration and noise level.

  20. Emissions inventory and scenario analyses of air pollutants in Guangdong Province, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hui; Meng, Jing

    2016-03-01

    Air pollution, causing significantly adverse health impacts and severe environmental problems, has raised great concerns in China in the past few decades. Guangdong Province faces major challenges to address the regional air pollution problem due to the lack of an emissions inventory. To fill this gap, an emissions inventory of primary fine particles (PM2.5) is compiled for the year 2012, and the key precursors (sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides) are identified. Furthermore, policy packages are simulated during the period of 2012-2030 to investigate the potential mitigation effect. The results show that in 2012, SO2, NO x , and PM2.5 emissions in Guangdong Province were as high as (951.7, 1363.6, and 294.9) kt, respectively. Industrial production processes are the largest source of SO2 and PM2.5 emissions, and transport is the top contributor of NO x emissions. Both the baseline scenario and policy scenario are constructed based on projected energy growth and policy designs. Under the baseline scenario, SO2, NO x , and PM2.5 emissions will almost double in 2030 without proper emissions control policies. The suggested policies are categorized into end-of-pipe control in power plants (ECP), end-of-pipe control in industrial processes (ECI), fuel improvement (FI), energy efficiency improvement (EEI), substitution-pattern development (SPD), and energy saving options (ESO). With the implementation of all these policies, SO2, NO x , and PM2.5 emissions are projected to drop to (303.1, 585.4, and 102.4) kt, respectively, in 2030. This inventory and simulated results will provide deeper insights for policy makers to understand the present situation and the evolution of key emissions in Guangdong Province.

  1. Atmospheric ammonia over China: emission estimates and impacts on air quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lin; Zhao, Yuanhong; Chen, Youfan; Henze, Daven

    2016-04-01

    Ammonia (NH3) in the atmosphere is an important precursor of inorganic aerosols, and its deposition through wet and dry processes can cause adverse effects on ecosystems. The ammonia emissions over China are particularly large due to intensive agricultural activities, yet our current estimates of Chinese ammonia emissions and associated consequences on air quality are subject to large errors. Here we use the GEOS-Chem chemical transport model and its adjoint model to better quantify this issue. The TES satellite observations of ammonia concentrations and surface measurements of wet deposition fluxes are assimilated into the model to constrain the ammonia emissions over China. Optimized emissions show a strong seasonal variability with emissions in summer a factor of 3 higher than winter. We improve the bottom-up estimate of Chinese ammonia emissions from fertilizer use by using more practical feritilizer application rates for different crop types, which explains most of the discrepancies between our top-down estimates and prior emission estimates. We further use the GEOS-Chem adjoint at 0.25x0.3125 degree resolution to examine the sources contributing to the PM2.5 air pollution over North China. We show that wintertime PM2.5 over Beijing is largely contributed by residential and industrial sources, and ammonia emissions from agriculture activities. PM2.5 concentrations over North China are particularly sensitive to NH3 emissions in cold seasons due to strong nitrate formation. By converting shorted-lived nitric acid to aerosol nitrate, NH3 significantly promotes the regional transport influences of PM2.5 sources.

  2. 77 FR 6627 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions: Hard and Decorative Chromium...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-08

    ... action. C. Overview of the Steel Pickling Source Category Steel pickling is a treatment process in which... acid pickling solution from spent pickle liquor using a thermal treatment process. The HAP emission...; and Steel Pickling-HCl Process Facilities and Hydrochloric Acid Regeneration Plants; Proposed Rule...

  3. 77 FR 58219 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions: Hard and Decorative Chromium...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-19

    ... Steel pickling is a treatment process in which the heavy oxide crust or mill scale that develops on the...) pickling solution from spent pickle liquor using a thermal treatment process. The HAP emission points from...; and Steel Pickling--HCl Process Facilities and Hydrochloric Acid Regeneration Plants; Final Rules...

  4. 76 FR 22565 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions: Group I Polymers and Resins...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-21

    ... Emissions: Group I Polymers and Resins were promulgated on September 5, 1996 (62 FR 46925), and codified at... Document. On October 21, 2010 (75 FR 65068), EPA proposed revisions to six NESHAP that regulate 16... Rubber Production; Butyl Rubber Production; and Polysulfide Rubber Production. See 73 FR 76220,...

  5. Collaborative Emission Reduction Model Based on Multi-Objective Optimization for Greenhouse Gases and Air Pollutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Qing-chun; Rong, Xiao-xia; Zhang, Yi-min; Wan, Xiao-le; Liu, Yuan-yuan; Wang, Yu-zhi

    2016-01-01

    CO2 emission influences not only global climate change but also international economic and political situations. Thus, reducing the emission of CO2, a major greenhouse gas, has become a major issue in China and around the world as regards preserving the environmental ecology. Energy consumption from coal, oil, and natural gas is primarily responsible for the production of greenhouse gases and air pollutants such as SO2 and NOX, which are the main air pollutants in China. In this study, a mathematical multi-objective optimization method was adopted to analyze the collaborative emission reduction of three kinds of gases on the basis of their common restraints in different ways of energy consumption to develop an economic, clean, and efficient scheme for energy distribution. The first part introduces the background research, the collaborative emission reduction for three kinds of gases, the multi-objective optimization, the main mathematical modeling, and the optimization method. The second part discusses the four mathematical tools utilized in this study, which include the Granger causality test to analyze the causality between air quality and pollutant emission, a function analysis to determine the quantitative relation between energy consumption and pollutant emission, a multi-objective optimization to set up the collaborative optimization model that considers energy consumption, and an optimality condition analysis for the multi-objective optimization model to design the optimal-pole algorithm and obtain an efficient collaborative reduction scheme. In the empirical analysis, the data of pollutant emission and final consumption of energies of Tianjin in 1996-2012 was employed to verify the effectiveness of the model and analyze the efficient solution and the corresponding dominant set. In the last part, several suggestions for collaborative reduction are recommended and the drawn conclusions are stated. PMID:27010658

  6. Collaborative Emission Reduction Model Based on Multi-Objective Optimization for Greenhouse Gases and Air Pollutants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing-chun Meng

    Full Text Available CO2 emission influences not only global climate change but also international economic and political situations. Thus, reducing the emission of CO2, a major greenhouse gas, has become a major issue in China and around the world as regards preserving the environmental ecology. Energy consumption from coal, oil, and natural gas is primarily responsible for the production of greenhouse gases and air pollutants such as SO2 and NOX, which are the main air pollutants in China. In this study, a mathematical multi-objective optimization method was adopted to analyze the collaborative emission reduction of three kinds of gases on the basis of their common restraints in different ways of energy consumption to develop an economic, clean, and efficient scheme for energy distribution. The first part introduces the background research, the collaborative emission reduction for three kinds of gases, the multi-objective optimization, the main mathematical modeling, and the optimization method. The second part discusses the four mathematical tools utilized in this study, which include the Granger causality test to analyze the causality between air quality and pollutant emission, a function analysis to determine the quantitative relation between energy consumption and pollutant emission, a multi-objective optimization to set up the collaborative optimization model that considers energy consumption, and an optimality condition analysis for the multi-objective optimization model to design the optimal-pole algorithm and obtain an efficient collaborative reduction scheme. In the empirical analysis, the data of pollutant emission and final consumption of energies of Tianjin in 1996-2012 was employed to verify the effectiveness of the model and analyze the efficient solution and the corresponding dominant set. In the last part, several suggestions for collaborative reduction are recommended and the drawn conclusions are stated.

  7. Collaborative Emission Reduction Model Based on Multi-Objective Optimization for Greenhouse Gases and Air Pollutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yi-min; Wan, Xiao-le; Liu, Yuan-yuan; Wang, Yu-zhi

    2016-01-01

    CO2 emission influences not only global climate change but also international economic and political situations. Thus, reducing the emission of CO2, a major greenhouse gas, has become a major issue in China and around the world as regards preserving the environmental ecology. Energy consumption from coal, oil, and natural gas is primarily responsible for the production of greenhouse gases and air pollutants such as SO2 and NOX, which are the main air pollutants in China. In this study, a mathematical multi-objective optimization method was adopted to analyze the collaborative emission reduction of three kinds of gases on the basis of their common restraints in different ways of energy consumption to develop an economic, clean, and efficient scheme for energy distribution. The first part introduces the background research, the collaborative emission reduction for three kinds of gases, the multi-objective optimization, the main mathematical modeling, and the optimization method. The second part discusses the four mathematical tools utilized in this study, which include the Granger causality test to analyze the causality between air quality and pollutant emission, a function analysis to determine the quantitative relation between energy consumption and pollutant emission, a multi-objective optimization to set up the collaborative optimization model that considers energy consumption, and an optimality condition analysis for the multi-objective optimization model to design the optimal-pole algorithm and obtain an efficient collaborative reduction scheme. In the empirical analysis, the data of pollutant emission and final consumption of energies of Tianjin in 1996–2012 was employed to verify the effectiveness of the model and analyze the efficient solution and the corresponding dominant set. In the last part, several suggestions for collaborative reduction are recommended and the drawn conclusions are stated. PMID:27010658

  8. Emission trends and mitigation options for air pollutants in East Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, S. X.; Zhao, B.; Cai, S. Y.; Klimont, Z.; Nielsen, C. P.; Morikawa, T.; Woo, J. H.; Kim, Y.; Fu, X.; Xu, J. Y.; Hao, J. M.; He, K. B.

    2014-07-01

    Emissions of air pollutants in East Asia play an important role in the regional and global atmospheric environment. In this study we evaluated the recent emission trends of sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen oxides (NOx), particulate matter (PM), and non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOC) in East Asia, and projected their future emissions up until 2030 with six emission scenarios. The results will provide future emission projections for the modeling community of the model inter-comparison program for Asia (MICS-Asia). During 2005-2010, the emissions of SO2 and PM2.5 in East Asia decreased by 15 and 12%, respectively, mainly attributable to the large-scale deployment of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) at China's power plants, and the promotion of highly efficient PM removal technologies in China's power plants and cement industry. During this period, the emissions of NOx and NMVOC increased by 25 and 15%, driven by rapid increase in the emissions from China due to inadequate control strategies. In contrast, the NOx and NMVOC emissions in East Asia except China decreased by 13-17%, mainly due to the implementation of stringent vehicle emission standards in Japan and South Korea. Under current regulations and current levels of implementation, NOx, SO2, and NMVOC emissions in East Asia are projected to increase by about one-quarter over 2010 levels by 2030, while PM2.5 emissions are expected to decrease by 7%. Assuming enforcement of new energy-saving policies, emissions of NOx, SO2, PM2.5 and NMVOC in East Asia are expected to decrease by 28, 36, 28, and 15%, respectively, compared with the baseline case. The implementation of "progressive" end-of-pipe control measures would lead to another one-third reduction of the baseline emissions of NOx, and about one-quarter reduction of SO2, PM2.5, and NMVOC. Assuming the full application of technically feasible energy-saving policies and end-of-pipe control technologies, the emissions of NOx, SO2, and PM2.5 in East Asia

  9. Emission trends and mitigation options for air pollutants in East Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. X. Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Emissions of air pollutants in East Asia play an important role in the regional and global atmospheric environment. In this study we evaluated the recent emission trends of sulfur dioxide (SO2, nitrogen oxides (NOx, particulate matters (PM, and non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOC in East Asia, and projected their future emissions up to 2030 with six emission scenarios. The results will provide future emission projections for the modeling community of the model inter-comparison program for Asia (MICS-Asia. During 2005–2010, the emissions of SO2 and PM2.5 in East Asia decreased by 15 % and 11%, respectively, mainly attributable to the large scale deployment of FGD for China's power plants, and the promotion of high-efficient PM removal technologies in China's power plants and cement industry. During this period, the emissions of NOx and NMVOC increased by 25% and 15%, driven by the rapid increase in the emissions from China owing to inadequate control strategies. In contrast, the NOx and NMVOC emissions in East Asia except China decreased by 13–17% mainly due to the implementation of tight vehicle emission standards in Japan and South Korea. Under current legislation and current implementation status, NOx, SO2, and NMVOC emissions in East Asia are estimated to increase by about one quarter by 2030 from the 2010 levels, while PM2.5 emissions are expected to decrease by 7%. Assuming enforcement of new energy-saving policies, emissions of NOx, SO2, PM2.5 and NMVOC in East Asia are expected to decrease by 28%, 36%, 28%, and 15% respectively compared with the baseline case. The implementation of the "progressive" end-of-pipe control measures is expected to lead to another one third reduction of the baseline emissions of NOx, and about one quarter reduction for SO2, PM2.5, and NMVOC. With the full implementation of maximum feasible reduction measures, the emissions of NOx, SO2, and PM2.5 in East Asia are expected to account for only about

  10. On the long term impact of emissions from central European cities on regional air-quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huszar, P.; Belda, M.; Halenka, T.

    2015-11-01

    For the purpose of qualifying and quantifying the impact of urban emission from Central European cities on the present-day regional air-quality, the regional climate model RegCM4.2 was coupled with the chemistry transport model CAMx, including two-way interactions. A series of simulations was carried out for the 2001-2010 period either with all urban emissions included (base case) or without considering urban emissions. Further, the sensitivity of ozone production to urban emissions was examined by performing reduction experiments with -20 % emission perturbation of NOx and/or NMVOC. The validation of the modeling system's air-quality related outputs using AirBase and EMEP surface measurements showed satisfactory reproduction of the monthly variation for ozone (O3), nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and sulfur dioxide (SO2). In terms of hourly correlations, reasonable values are achieved for ozone (r around 0.5-0.8) and for NO2 (0.4-0.6), but SO2 is poorly or not correlated at all with measurements (r around 0.2-0.5). The modeled fine particulates (PM2.5) are usually underestimated, especially in winter, mainly due to underestimation of nitrates and carbonaceous aerosols. EC air-quality measures were chosen as metrics describing the cities emission impact on regional air pollution. Due to urban emissions, significant ozone titration occurs over cities while over rural areas remote from cities, ozone production is modeled, mainly in terms of number of exceedances and accumulated exceedances over the threshold of 40 ppbv. Urban NOx, SO2 and PM2.5 emissions also significantly contribute to concentrations in the cities themselves (up to 50-70 % for NOx and SO2, and up to 60 % for PM2.5), but the contribution is large over rural areas as well (10-20 %). Although air pollution over cities is largely determined by the local urban emissions, considerable (often a few tens of %) fraction of the concentration is attributable to other sources from rural areas and minor cities. Further

  11. Evaluation of consequences of emissions to air from the Sture oil terminal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report evaluates the consequences of emissions of NOx and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from a planned gas recovery plant at Sture in the Norwegian municipality of Oeygarden. The new plant will distill methane and naphtha from crude oil and the emissions of VOC from loading the oil will be partly recovered. The report discusses the effects of emissions to air locally around the plant, regional deposition of nitrogen compounds and formation of ozone caused by the emissions of VOC and NOx. Calculations show that depositions of nitrogen compounds from emissions of nitrogen oxides from Sture contribute little to the nitrogen deposition in the area. The contribution of acids from nitrogen oxide emission will be too low to have measurable consequences for the acidification of the lakes in the region concerned. At times the present background level of ozone at Sture is high enough to cause reduced photosynthesis and plant growth. The ozone concentration will be little influenced by VOC emissions. The increased ozone concentration at ground level following emissions of nitrogen oxides and hydrocarbons is too low to affect the vegetation in the area. 9 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs

  12. Particulate emission rates from light-duty vehicles in the South Coast Air Quality Management District

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents the results of a particulate emission rate study conducted on 129 light-duty gasoline and 19 light-duty diesel vehicles for the Coordinating Research Council's (CRC's) Project E-24-2. Total particulate emission rates for newer gasoline vehicles were low with modest increases with vehicle age and older technology. Average FTP particulate emission rates as a function of model year for gasoline vehicles were found to be 2.5 mg/mi for 1991 and newer models, 14.4 mg/mi for 1986--1990 models, 49.0 mg/mi for 1981--1985 models, and 33.8 mg/mi for 1980 and older models. High gaseous emitters were found to have approximately 5--10 times the particulate emission rates of normal emitters. The diesel vehicles had an average particulate emission rate of 561 mg/mi. It should be noted that the light-duty diesel vehicles were predominantly older, pre-1985 vehicles; the 1985 and newer diesel vehicles had substantially lower particulate emissions, i.e., less than 100 mg/mi. Emission inventory estimates in the South Coast Air Basin based on the fleet emission rates were higher than those obtained using the default values in EMFAC7G, due primarily to the contribution of high emitters

  13. Cleaner co-combustion of lignite-biomass-waste blends by utilising inhibiting compounds of toxic emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skodras, G; Palladas, A; Kaldis, S P; Sakellaropoulos, G P

    2007-04-01

    In this paper, the co-combustion behaviour of coal with wastes and biomass and the related toxic gaseous emissions were investigated. The objective of this work is to add on towards a cleaner co-combustion of lignite-waste-biomass blends by utilizing compounds that could inhibit the formation of toxic pollutants. A series of co-combustion tests was performed in a pilot scale incinerator, and the emissions of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and dibenzofurans (PCDFs) were measured. The co-combustion behaviour of lignite with olive kernels, MDF and sawdust was studied and the ability of additives such as urea, almond shells and municipal sewage sludge to reduce the PCDD/F emissions was examined. All blends were proven good fuels and reproducible combustion conditions were achieved. The addition of inhibitors prior to combustion showed in some cases, relatively high PCDD/F emissions reduction. Among the inhibitors tested, urea seems to achieve a reduction of PCDD/F emissions for all fuel blends, while an unstable behaviour was observed for the others. PMID:17204304

  14. Cleaner co-combustion of lignite-biomass-waste blends by utilising inhibiting compounds of toxic emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skodras, G.; Palladas. A.; Kaldis, S.P.; Sakellaropoulos, G.P. [Chemical Process Engineering Research Institute, Thermi-Thessaloniki (Greece). Laboratory of Environmental and Energy Processes

    2007-04-15

    In this paper, the co-combustion behaviour of coal with wastes and biomass and the related toxic gaseous emissions were investigated. The objective of this work is to add on towards a cleaner co-combustion of lignite-waste-biomass blends by utilizing compounds that could inhibit the formation of toxic pollutants. A series of co-combustion tests was performed in a pilot scale incinerator, and the emissions of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and dibenzofurans (PCDFs) were measured. The co-combustion behaviour of lignite with olive kernels, MDF and sawdust was studied and the ability of additives such as urea, almond shells and municipal sewage sludge to reduce the PCDD/F emissions was examined. All blends were proven good fuels and reproducible combustion conditions were achieved. The addition of inhibitors prior to combustion showed in some cases, relatively high PCDD/F emissions reduction. Among the inhibitors tested, urea seems to achieve a reduction of PCDD/F emissions for all fuel blends, while an unstable behaviour was observed for the others.

  15. Toxicity persistence following an experimental cypermethrin and chlorpyrifos application in Pampasic surface waters (Buenos Aires, Argentina).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mugni, H; Demetrio, P; Marino, D; Ronco, A; Bonetto, C

    2010-05-01

    The Pampa plain is intensively cultivated, the genetically modified glyphosate-resistant soybean being the main culture. A small first-order stream draining a cultured farm was studied. During the dry 2007 spring, the channel became a wetland with remnant intercalated shallow pools. Toxicity persistence of cypermethrin and chlorpyrifos to the amphipod Hyallela curvispina was assessed following a simulated plane application in the recently formed pools. In situ exposures and laboratory toxicity tests were performed. An ephemeral toxicity pulse lasting 4 h after the application and mortality cessation following that was observed. PMID:20396865

  16. Effect of pressure and stoichiometric air ratio on NOx emissions in gas turbine dump combustor with double cone burner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work presents an experimental investigation of NOx emissions according to inlet air temperature (550-660K), stoichiometric air ratio (λ, 1.4-2.1), and elevated pressure (2-5bar) in a High Press Combustor (HPC) equipped with a double cone burner, which was designed by Pusan Clean Coal Center (PC3). The exhaust gas temperature and NOx emissions were measured at the end of the combustion chamber. The NOx emissions generally decreased as a function of increasing λ. On the other hand, NOx emissions were influenced by λ, inlet air temperature and pressure of the combustion chamber. In particular, when the inlet air temperature increased, the flammability limit was extended to leaner conditions. As a result, a higher adiabatic temperature and lower NOx emissions could be achieved under these operation conditions. The NOx emissions that were governed by thermal NOx were greatly increased under elevated pressures, and slightly increased at sufficiently low fuel concentrations (λ>1.8)

  17. The Air Microwave Yield (AMY experiment to measure the GHz emission from air shower plasmas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smida R.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The AMY experiment aims to measure the Microwave Bremsstrahlung Radiation (MBR emitted by air-showers secondary electrons accelerating in collisions with neutral molecules of the atmosphere. The measurements are performed at the Beam Test Facility (BTF of Frascati INFN National Laboratories and the final purpose is to characterize the process to be used in a next generation detectors of ultra-high energy cosmic rays (up to 1020eV. We describe the experimental set-up and the first test measurement performed in November 2011.

  18. Assessment of China's virtual air pollution transport embodied in trade by using a consumption-based emission inventory

    OpenAIRE

    H. Y. Zhao; Q. Zhang; D. B. Guan; S. J. Davis; Liu, Z.; H. Huo; J. T. Lin; Liu, W. D.; K. B. He

    2015-01-01

    © Author(s) 2015. Substantial anthropogenic emissions from China have resulted in serious air pollution, and this has generated considerable academic and public concern. The physical transport of air pollutants in the atmosphere has been extensively investigated; however, understanding the mechanisms how the pollutant was transferred through economic and trade activities remains a challenge. For the first time, we quantified and tracked China's air pollutant emission flows embodied in interpr...

  19. Radionuclide Air Emissions Report for the Hanford Site Calendar year 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DIEDIKER, L.P.

    1999-06-15

    This report documents radionuclide air emissions from the Hanford Site in I998 and the resulting effective dose equivalent to the maximally exposed individual (MEI) member of the public. The report has been prepared in accordance with the Code of Federal Regulations, Title 40, Protection of the Environment, Part 61, National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (40 CFR SI), Subpart H, ''National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other than Radon from Department of Energy Facilities,'' and with the Washington Administrative Code Chapter 246-247, Radiation Protection--Air Emissions. The federal regulations in 40 CFR 61, Subpart H; require the measurement and reporting of radionuclides emitted from Department of Energy facilities and the resulting offsite dose from those emissions. A standard of 10 mrem/yr effective dose equivalent (EDE) is imposed on them. The EDE to the MEI due to routine emissions in 1998 from Hanford Site point sources was 1.3 E-02 mrem (1.3 E-04 mSv), which is 0.13 percent of the federal standard. Chapter 246-247 of the Washington Administrative Code (WAC) requires the reporting of radionuclide emissions from all Department of Energy Hanford Site sources. The state has adopted into these regulations the 40 CFR 61 standard of 10 mrem/yr EDE. The EDE to the MEI attributable to diffuse and fugitive radionuclide air emissions from the Hanford Site in 1998 was 2.5 E-02 mrem (2.5 E-04 mSv). This dose added to the dose from point sources gives a total for all sources of 3.8 E-02 mrem/yr (3.8 E-04 mSv) EDE, which is 0.38 percent of the 10 mrem/yr standard. An unplanned release on August 26, 1998, in the 300 Area of the Hanford Site resulted in a potential dose of 4.1 E-02 mrem to a hypothetical individual at the nearest point of public access to that area. This hypothetical individual was not the MEI since the wind direction on the day of the release was away from the MEI residence. The potential dose from

  20. Chemical emissions from building structures : emission sources and their impact on indoor air

    OpenAIRE

    Glader, Annika

    2012-01-01

    Chemical compounds in indoor air can adversely affect our comfort and health. However, in most cases there is only a limited amount of information available that can be used to assess their health risk. Instead the precautionary principle is often applied, i.e. efforts are made to ensure that the concentrations of pollutants are kept at a minimum when constructing new buildings or conducting renovations by using low-emitting building materials. Today, when investigating buildings in order to ...

  1. Toxic industrial chemical (TIC) source emissions modeling for pressurized liquefied gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britter, Rex; Weil, Jeffrey; Leung, Joseph; Hanna, Steven

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this article is to report current toxic industrial chemical (TIC) source emissions formulas appropriate for use in atmospheric comprehensive risk assessment models so as to represent state-of-the-art knowledge. The focus is on high-priority scenarios, including two-phase releases of pressurized liquefied gases such as chlorine from rail cars. The total mass released and the release duration are major parameters, as well as the velocity, thermodynamic state, and amount and droplet sizes of imbedded aerosols of the material at the exit of the rupture, which are required as inputs to the subsequent jet and dispersion modeling. Because of the many possible release scenarios that could develop, a suite of model equations has been described. These allow for gas, two-phase or liquid storage and release through ruptures of various types including sharp-edged and "pipe-like" ruptures. Model equations for jet depressurization and phase change due to flashing are available. Consideration of the importance of vessel response to a rupture is introduced. The breakup of the jet into fine droplets and their subsequent suspension and evaporation, or rainout is still a significant uncertainty in the overall modeling process. The recommended models are evaluated with data from various TIC field experiments, in particular recent experiments with pressurized liquefied gases. It is found that there is typically a factor of two error in models compared with research-grade observations of mass flow rates. However, biases are present in models' estimates of the droplet size distributions resulting from flashing releases.

  2. Development of air conditioning technologies to reduce CO2 emissions in the commercial sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshida Yukiko

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Architectural methods that take into account global environmental conservation generally concentrate on mitigating the heat load of buildings. Here, we evaluate the reduction of carbon dioxide (CO2 emissions that can be achieved by improving heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC technologies. Results The Climate Change Research Hall (CCRH of the National Institute for Environmental Studies (NIES is used as a case study. CCRH was built in line with the "Green Government Buildings" program of the Government Buildings Department at the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport in Japan. We have assessed the technology used in this building, and found that there is a possibility to reduce energy consumption in the HVAC system by 30%. Conclusion Saving energy reduces CO2 emissions in the commercial sector, although emission factors depend on the country or region. Consequently, energy savings potential may serve as a criterion in selecting HVAC technologies with respect to emission reduction targets.

  3. Evaluation of national emissions inventories of anthropogenic air pollutants for Brunei Darussalam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dotse, Sam-Quarcoo; Dagar, Lalit; Petra, Mohammad Iskandar; De Silva, Liyanage C.

    2016-05-01

    Haze and other air pollution related problems are getting more significant in Brunei Darussalam but till date there is absence of comprehensive national emission inventory for Brunei Darussalam. Although there are few regional and global inventories available for Brunei Darussalam, large variations in the emission estimates exist in these datasets. Therefore, there is an important need for an updated inventory, based on data available from government and other sources. This study presents a sector-wise anthropogenic emission estimates and trends (2001-2012) for the pollutants CO2, CH4, N2O, NOX, NMVOC, CO, SOX, and PM10. The results suggest no significant contributions from residential sector (wastewater handling (∼92%). There were also significant contributions from industrial processes and solvent use to NMVOC and PM10 emissions (∼74% and ∼45% respectively).

  4. Influence of laser polarization on plasma fluorescence emission during the femtosecond filamentation in air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yan; Chen, Anmin; Jiang, Yuanfei; Li, Suyu; Jin, Mingxing

    2016-05-01

    The laser polarization state has a great influence on the plasma fluorescence emission during femtoseond filamentation in air. For the spectral lines from N2, in the case of focusing lens with longer focal length (f=100 cm), due to the impact excitation, circular polarization leads to stronger fluorescence emission when the laser energy is higher than the 'energy threshold' (2.0 mJ). As a lens with shorter focal length (f=40 cm) is used, a similar phenomenon can be observed, however, the 'energy threshold' is much lower, which is lower than 0.8 mJ. For the lines from N2+, especially for the 391 nm one, their emission is stronger in the linear polarization state. The mechanism of plasma fluorescence emission during femtosecond filamentation is discussed based on the analysis of these phenomena, which will be helpful to the remote sensing and spectrum analysis.

  5. Atmospheric emission data inventory for air quality planning at a regional scale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cosmi, C. [C.N.R., Ist. di Metodologie Avanzate di Analisi Ambientali, Tito Scalo (Italy); Cuomo, V. [Universita degli Studi della Basilicata, Dipt. di Ingegneria e Fisica dell' Ambiente, Potenza (Italy)]|[C.N.R., Ist. di Metodologie Avanzate di Analisi Ambientali, Tito Scalo (Italy); Macchiato, M. [Unita di Napoli, Ist. Nazionale per la Fisica della Materia, Napoli (Italy); Mangiamele, L.; Marmo, G.; Salvia, M. [Universita degli Studi della Basilicata, Dipt. di Ingegneria e Fisica dell' Ambiente, Potenza (Italy)

    1999-07-01

    The inventory of pollutant emissions data and its management is the first step to assess the potential environmental impacts and the social-economic implications of different planning strategies. This requires to prepare a very flexible database which allows the user an easy querying of data, their up-grading, the possibility of comparing different information and to use software tools based on Geographical Information Systems to represent the localisation of emissions sources and their fallout on the territory. This paper describes the pollutant emissions inventory carried out for the Basilicata Region (Southern Italy) in the framework of a regional plan for air quality and environmental recovery. This inventory was built up taking into account the most recent normative framework, and points out the most important features of the emissions sources relatively to the investigated pollutants and to the different territorial areas. (Author)

  6. Actual car fleet emissions estimated from urban air quality measurements and street pollution models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method to determine emissions from the actual car fleet under realistic driving conditions has been developed. The method is based on air quality measurements, traffic counts and inverse application of street air quality models. Many pollutants are of importance for assessing the adverse impact of the air pollution, e.g. NO2, CO, lead, VOCs and particulate matter. Aromatic VOCs are of special great concern due to their adverse health effects. Measurements of benzene, toluene and xylenes were carried out in central Copenhagen since 1994. Significant correlation was observed between VOCs and CO concentrations, indicating that the petrol engine vehicles are the major sources of VOC air pollution in central Copenhagen. Hourly mean concentrations of benzene were observed to reach values of up to 20 ppb, what is critically high according to the WHOs recommendations. Based on inverse model calculation of dispersion of pollutants in street canyons, an average emission factor of benzene for the fleet of petrol fuelled vehicles was estimated to be 0.38 g/km in 1994 and 0.11 in 1997. This decrease was caused by the reduction of benzene content in Danish petrol since summer 1995 and increasing percentage of cars equipped with three-way catalysts. The emission factors for benzene for diesel-fuelled vehicles were low

  7. Integration of Linear Dynamic Emission and Climate Models with Air Traffic Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sridhar, Banavar; Ng, Hok K.; Chen, Neil Y.

    2012-01-01

    Future air traffic management systems are required to balance the conflicting objectives of maximizing safety and efficiency of traffic flows while minimizing the climate impact of aviation emissions and contrails. Integrating emission and climate models together with air traffic simulations improve the understanding of the complex interaction between the physical climate system, carbon and other greenhouse gas emissions and aviation activity. This paper integrates a national-level air traffic simulation and optimization capability with simple climate models and carbon cycle models, and climate metrics to assess the impact of aviation on climate. The capability can be used to make trade-offs between extra fuel cost and reduction in global surface temperature change. The parameters in the simulation can be used to evaluate the effect of various uncertainties in emission models and contrails and the impact of different decision horizons. Alternatively, the optimization results from the simulation can be used as inputs to other tools that monetize global climate impacts like the FAA s Aviation Environmental Portfolio Management Tool for Impacts.

  8. Monte Carlo simulations of geosynchrotron radio emission from CORSIKA-simulated air showers

    CERN Document Server

    Huege, T; Engel, R

    2006-01-01

    We present simulations performed with REAS2, a new Monte Carlo code for the calculation of geosynchrotron radio emission from extensive air showers. The code uses thoroughly tested time-domain radio emission routines in conjunction with a realistic air shower model based on per-shower multi-dimensional CORSIKA-generated histograms. We assess in detail how the transition from simpler, parametrised, to realistic, CORSIKA-based particle distributions affects the predicted radio emission from a typical 10^17 eV air shower. The effects of eliminating a previously needed free parameter and adopting realistic electron to positron ratios are also discussed. Compared with earlier calculations based on parametrised showers, REAS2 simulations predict slightly weaker and in some cases narrower pulses. In addition, a pronounced east-west versus north-south asymmetry arises in the emission pattern, and the radio pulses become generally unipolar. Finally, we demonstrate how REAS2 can be used to study radio pulse shapes and ...

  9. An emission source inversion model based on satellite data and its application in air quality forecasts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    This paper aims at constructing an emission source inversion model using a variational processing method and adaptive nudging scheme for the Community Multiscale Air Quality Model (CMAQ) based on satellite data to investigate the applicability of high resolution OMI (Ozone Monitoring Instrument) column concentration data for air quality forecasts over the North China. The results show a reasonable consistency and good correlation between the spatial distributions of NO2 from surface and OMI satellite measurements in both winter and summer. Such OMI products may be used to implement integrated variational analysis based on observation data on the ground. With linear and variational corrections made, the spatial distribution of OMI NO2 clearly revealed more localized distributing characteristics of NO2 concentration. With such information, emission sources in the southwest and southeast of North China are found to have greater impacts on air quality in Beijing. When the retrieved emission source inventory based on high-resolution OMI NO2 data was used, the coupled Weather Research Forecasting CMAQ model (WRF-CMAQ) performed significantly better in forecasting NO2 concentration level and its tendency as reflected by the more consistencies between the NO2 concentrations from surface observation and model result. In conclusion, satellite data are particularly important for simulating NO2 concentrations on urban and street-block scale. High-resolution OMI NO2 data are applicable for inversing NOx emission source inventory, assessing the regional pollution status and pollution control strategy, and improving the model forecasting results on urban scale.

  10. Economic development and multiple air pollutant emissions from the industrial sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Hidemichi; Managi, Shunsuke

    2016-02-01

    This study analyzed the relationship between economic growth and emissions of eight environmental air pollutants (carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O), nitrogen oxide (NOx), sulfur oxide (SOx), carbon monoxide (CO), non-methane volatile organic compound (NMVOC), and ammonia (NH3)) in 39 countries from 1995 to 2009. We tested an environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) hypothesis for 16 individual industry sectors and for the total industrial sector. The results clarified that at least ten individual industries do not have an EKC relationship in eight air pollutants even though this relationship was observed in the country and total industrial sector level data. We found that the key industries that dictated the EKC relationship in the country and the total industrial sector existed in CO2, N2O, CO, and NMVOC emissions. Finally, the EKC turning point and the relationship between economic development and trends of air pollutant emissions differ among industries according to the pollution substances. These results suggest inducing new environmental policy design such as the sectoral crediting mechanism, which focuses on the industrial characteristics of emissions. PMID:26452654

  11. On the long-term impact of emissions from central European cities on regional air quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huszar, P.; Belda, M.; Halenka, T.

    2016-02-01

    For the purpose of qualifying and quantifying the impact of urban emission from Central European cities on the present-day regional air quality, the regional climate model RegCM4.2 was coupled with the chemistry transport model CAMx, including two-way interactions. A series of simulations was carried out for the 2001-2010 period either with all urban emissions included (base case) or without considering urban emissions. Further, the sensitivity of ozone production to urban emissions was examined by performing reduction experiments with -20 % emission perturbation of NOx and/or non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOC). The modeling system's air quality related outputs were evaluated using AirBase, and EMEP surface measurements showed reasonable reproduction of the monthly variation for ozone (O3), but the annual cycle of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and sulfur dioxide (SO2) is more biased. In terms of hourly correlations, values achieved for ozone and NO2 are 0.5-0.8 and 0.4-0.6, but SO2 is poorly or not correlated at all with measurements (r around 0.2-0.5). The modeled fine particulates (PM2.5) are usually underestimated, especially in winter, mainly due to underestimation of nitrates and carbonaceous aerosols. European air quality measures were chosen as metrics describing the cities emission impact on regional air pollution. Due to urban emissions, significant ozone titration occurs over cities while over rural areas remote from cities, ozone production is modeled, mainly in terms of number of exceedances and accumulated exceedances over the threshold of 40 ppbv. Urban NOx, SO2 and PM2.5 emissions also significantly contribute to concentrations in the cities themselves (up to 50-70 % for NOx and SO2, and up to 60 % for PM2.5), but the contribution is large over rural areas as well (10-20 %). Although air pollution over cities is largely determined by the local urban emissions, considerable (often a few tens of %) fraction of the concentration is attributable to

  12. The impact of shipping emissions on air pollution in the greater North Sea region - Part 1: Current emissions and concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aulinger, A.; Matthias, V.; Zeretzke, M.; Bieser, J.; Quante, M.; Backes, A.

    2016-01-01

    The North Sea is one of the areas with the highest ship traffic densities worldwide. At any time, about 3000 ships are sailing its waterways. Previous scientific publications have shown that ships contribute significantly to atmospheric concentrations of NOx, particulate matter and ozone. Especially in the case of particulate matter and ozone, this influence can even be seen in regions far away from the main shipping routes. In order to quantify the effects of North Sea shipping on air quality in its bordering states, it is essential to determine the emissions from shipping as accurately as possible. Within Interreg IVb project Clean North Sea Shipping (CNSS), a bottom-up approach was developed and used to thoroughly compile such an emission inventory for 2011 that served as the base year for the current emission situation. The innovative aspect of this approach was to use load-dependent functions to calculate emissions from the ships' current activities instead of averaged emission factors for the entire range of the engine loads. These functions were applied to ship activities that were derived from hourly records of Automatic Identification System signals together with a database containing the engine characteristics of the vessels that traveled the North Sea in 2011. The emission model yielded ship emissions among others of NOx and SO2 at high temporal and spatial resolution that were subsequently used in a chemistry transport model in order to simulate the impact of the emissions on pollutant concentration levels. The total emissions of nitrogen reached 540 Gg and those of sulfur oxides 123 Gg within the North Sea - including the adjacent western part of the Baltic Sea until 5° W. This was about twice as much of those of a medium-sized industrialized European state like the Netherlands. The relative contribution of ships to, for example, NO2 concentration levels ashore close to the sea can reach up to 25 % in summer and 15 % in winter. Some hundred kilometers

  13. Device with Complex System for Heat Utilization and Reduction of Hazardous Air Emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Kascheeva

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Investigations concern heat utilization and reduction of hazardous emissions occurring in residential buildings and accompanying operation of a great number of industrial enterprises in particular heat and power objects, and firstly, heat-generating units of small power located in densely populated residential areas without centralized heat supply.The investigation target is to reduce cost of heat produced by independent system of building heat supply, reduction of air pollution  due to hazardous gas emissions and reduction of heat pollution of the environment as a result of building ventilation system operation, ventilation of their internal and external sewerage network and higher reliability of their operation.The target is achieved because the device with complex system for heat utilization and reduction of hazardous air emissions has additionally an assembly tank for mixing flue gases, ventilation emissions and atmospheric air, heat pump. Evaporation zone of the pump is a condensator of the gas mixture and its condensate zone contains a heat supply line for a heat consumer. The line is equipped with assembling  and distributing collectors, pipeline connecting the heat supply line with the system of direct and return delivery water from a boiler house, a separator for division of liquid and gaseous mixture phases, neutralizing devices for separate reduction of concentrations of hazardous and odorous substances being released in gaseous and liquid portions of the mixture, a pipeline for periodic supply of air with higher concentration of hazardous and odorous substances in the boiler furnace. The supplied air is obtained as a result of its passing through gas filters at their regeneration when their exchange capacity is exhausted.

  14. Effect of VOC emissions from vegetation on urban air quality during hot periods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Churkina, Galina; Kuik, Friderike; Bonn, Boris; Lauer, Axel; Grote, Ruediger; Butler, Tim

    2016-04-01

    Programs to plant millions of trees in cities around the world aim at the reduction of summer temperatures, increase of carbon storage, storm water control, and recreational space, as well as at poverty alleviation. These urban greening programs, however, do not take into account how closely human and natural systems are coupled in urban areas. Compared with the surroundings of cities, elevated temperatures together with high anthropogenic emissions of air and water pollutants are quite typical in urban systems. Urban and sub-urban vegetation respond to changes in meteorology and air quality and can react to pollutants. Neglecting this coupling may lead to unforeseen negative effects on air quality resulting from urban greening programs. The potential of emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOC) from vegetation combined with anthropogenic emissions of air pollutants to produce ozone has long been recognized. This ozone formation potential increases under rising temperatures. Here we investigate how emissions of VOC from urban vegetation affect corresponding ground-level ozone and PM10 concentrations in summer and especially during heat wave periods. We use the Weather Research and Forecasting Model with coupled atmospheric chemistry (WRF-CHEM) to quantify these feedbacks in the Berlin-Brandenburg region, Germany during the two summers of 2006 (heat wave) and 2014 (reference period). VOC emissions from vegetation are calculated by MEGAN 2.0 coupled online with WRF-CHEM. Our preliminary results indicate that the contribution of VOCs from vegetation to ozone formation may increase by more than twofold during heat wave periods. We highlight the importance of the vegetation for urban areas in the context of a changing climate and discuss potential tradeoffs of urban greening programs.

  15. Nitrogen oxide air pollution: emissions studies. 1978-August, 1980 (citations from the NTIS data base). Report for 1978-August 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cavagnaro, D.M.

    1980-10-01

    The bibliography cites studies on emissions from both stationary and mobile sources, emissions factors, regional emission inventories, and general studies. Air quality data is excluded. Nitrogen oxide detection and analysis, industrial control techniques, atmospheric chemistry, and biological effects are covered in Parts 1 through 4. (This updated bibliography contains 174 citations, 62 of which are new entries to the previous edition.)

  16. 77 FR 18297 - Air Traffic Noise, Fuel Burn, and Emissions Modeling Using the Aviation Environmental Design Tool...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-27

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Air Traffic Noise, Fuel Burn, and Emissions Modeling Using the Aviation... Aviation Environmental Design Tool version 2a (AEDT 2a) to analyze noise, fuel burn, and emissions for FAA... assess noise, fuel burn, and emissions impacts of such actions under the National Environmental...

  17. Energy and Greenhouse Gas Emission Assessment of Conventional and Solar Assisted Air Conditioning Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaofeng Li

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Energy consumption in the buildings is responsible for 26% of Australia’s greenhouse gas emissions where cooling typically accounts for over 50% of the total building energy use. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential for reducing the cooling systems’ environmental footprint with applications of alternative renewable energy source. Three types of cooling systems, water cooled, air cooled and a hybrid solar-based air-conditioning system, with a total of six scenarios were designed in this work. The scenarios accounted for the types of power supply to the air-conditioning systems with electricity from the grid and with a solar power from highly integrated building photovoltaics (BIPV. Within and between these scenarios, systems’ energy performances were compared based on energy modelling while the harvesting potential of the renewable energy source was further predicted based on building’s detailed geometrical model. The results showed that renewable energy obtained via BIPV scenario could cover building’s annual electricity consumption for cooling and reduce 140 tonnes of greenhouse gas emissions each year. The hybrid solar air-conditioning system has higher energy efficiency than the air cooled chiller system but lower than the water cooled system.

  18. Gas and Particulate Aircraft Emissions Measurements: Impacts on local air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayne, J. T.; Onasch, T.; Northway, M.; Canagaratna, M.; Worsnop, D.; Timko, M.; Wood, E.; Miake-Lye, R.; Herndon, S.; Knighton, B.; Whitefield, P.; Hagen, D.; Lobo, P.; Anderson, B.

    2007-12-01

    Air travel and freight shipping by air are becoming increasingly important and are expected to continue to expand. The resulting increases in the local concentrations of pollutants, including particulate matter (PM), volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and nitrogen oxides (NOX), can have negative impacts on regional air quality, human health and can impact climate change. In order to construct valid emission inventories, accurate measurements of aircraft emissions are needed. These measurements must be done both at the engine exit plane (certification) and downwind following the rapid cooling, dilution and initial atmospheric processing of the exhaust plume. We present here results from multiple field experiments which include the Experiment to Characterize Volatile Aerosol and Trace Species Emissions (EXCAVATE) and the four Aircraft Particle Emissions eXperiments (APEX- 1/Atlanta/2/3) which characterized gas and particle emissions from both stationary or in-use aircraft. Emission indices (EIs) for NOx and VOCs and for particle number concentration, refractory PM (black carbon soot) and volatile PM (primarily sulfate and organic) particles are reported. Measurements were made at the engine exit plane and at several downstream locations (10 and 30 meters) for a number of different engine types and engine thrust settings. A significant fraction of organic particle mass is composed of low volatility oil-related compounds and is not combustion related, potentially emitted by vents or heated surfaces within aircraft engines. Advected plumes measurements from in-use aircraft show that the practice of reduced thrust take-offs has a significant effect on total NOx and soot emitted in the vicinity of the airport. The measurements reported here represent a first observation of this effect and new insights have been gained with respect to the chemical processing of gases and particulates important to the urban airshed.

  19. Urban air quality: the challenge of traffic non-exhaust emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amato, Fulvio; Cassee, Flemming R; Denier van der Gon, Hugo A C; Gehrig, Robert; Gustafsson, Mats; Hafner, Wolfgang; Harrison, Roy M; Jozwicka, Magdalena; Kelly, Frank J; Moreno, Teresa; Prevot, Andre S H; Schaap, Martijn; Sunyer, Jordi; Querol, Xavier

    2014-06-30

    About 400,000 premature adult deaths attributable to air pollution occur each year in the European Region. Road transport emissions account for a significant share of this burden. While important technological improvements have been made for reducing particulate matter (PM) emissions from motor exhausts, no actions are currently in place to reduce the non-exhaust part of emissions such as those from brake wear, road wear, tyre wear and road dust resuspension. These "non-exhaust" sources contribute easily as much and often more than the tailpipe exhaust to the ambient air PM concentrations in cities, and their relative contribution to ambient PM is destined to increase in the future, posing obvious research and policy challenges. This review highlights the major and more recent research findings in four complementary fields of research and seeks to identify the current gaps in research and policy with regard to non-exhaust emissions. The objective of this article is to encourage and direct future research towards an improved understanding on the relationship between emissions, concentrations, exposure and health impact and on the effectiveness of potential remediation measures in the urban environment. PMID:24837462

  20. Impact of ship emissions on air pollution and AOD over North Atlantic and European Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaminski, Jacek W.; Struzewska, Joanna; Jefimow, Maciej; Durka, Pawel

    2016-04-01

    The iAREA project is combined of experimental and theoretical research in order to contribute to the new knowledge on the impact of absorbing aerosols on the climate system in the European Arctic (http://www.igf.fuw.edu.pl/iAREA). A tropospheric chemistry model GEM-AQ (Global Environmental Multiscale Air Quality) was used as a computational tool. The core of the model is based on a weather prediction model with environmental processes (chemistry and aerosols) implanted on-line and are interactive (i.e. providing feedback of chemistry on radiation and dynamics). The numerical grid covered the Euro-Atlantic region with the resolution of 50 km. Emissions developed by NILU in the ECLIPSE project was used (Klimont et al., 2013). The model was run for two 1-year scenarios. 2014 was chosen as a base year for simulations and analysis. Scenarios include a base run with most up-to-date emissions and a run without maritime emissions. The analysis will focus on the contribution of maritime emissions on levels of particulate matter and gaseous pollutants over the European Arctic, North Atlantic and coastal areas. The annual variability will be assessed based on monthly mean near-surface concentration fields. Analysis of shipping transport on near-surface air pollution over the Euro-Atlantic region will be assessed for ozone, NO2, SO2, CO, PM10, PM2.5. Also, a contribution of ship emissions to AOD will be analysed.

  1. Comments on the discussion of health effects, air pollution and emissions of diesel particulates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since many years diesel particulates are an important topic in public and political discussions on health effects of automotive emissions. Up to now lung cancer was the main issue but recently also toxicological impacts of environmental particles in general are gaining in importance. Some studies indicate that health could be especially affected by the very small particles and their number concentration. Mass related concentration is therefore scrutinized as responsible dose measure. All intensive toxicologic and epidemiologic scientific research activities in the past decades could not supply to date a reliable causative evidence of a hazardous potential of diesel particles for humans- neither inhalation experiments with rats nor epidemiologic studies. Also a quantitative risk assessment is not possible. The level of air pollution is determined by the emission of several sources, however emission from road traffic is generally not the main contributor for particles in the environment. The emission behaviour of advanced diesel technologies with high pressure injection is obviously improved concerning mass and number of particles when compared to conventional diesel engines. Increases of particle number emission or an unfavourable shift of the size distribution could not be realized. Considerations about suitable measures to improve air quality should take into account all main sources and should be guided by cost benefit viewpoints, too. (orig.)

  2. CO emission in the air return corner of the working face in shallow burial mining areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Botao Qin; Yi Lu; Yuwei Jia

    2014-01-01

    In shallow burial mining areas, abnormal CO emission and the spontaneous combustion of coal are great threats to safety production at a fully-mechanised working face. In order to prevent the CO concentration in the air return corner from exceeding the critical limit, the paper studied the CO emission regularity and characteristics through theoretical analysis, experimental research and field observation. The results show that the main sources of CO emission were the spontaneous combustion of coal in the goaf and the exhaust emissions coming from underground motorised vehicles. The effect factors of CO emission were also investigated, such as seasonal climate changes, the advancing distance and advancing speed of the working face, the number of underground motorised vehicles and some other factors. In addition to these basic analyses, the influence mechanism of each influence factor was also summarised theoret-ically. Finally, this study researched the distribution and change law of CO concentration in the fully-mechanised working face in two aspects: controlling the change of monitoring points and time respectively. The research results provide a theoretical basis for preventing the CO concentration from exceeding the critical limit in the air return corner and reducing the possibility of spontaneous combus-tion of coal. Additionally, the results also provide important theoretical and practical guidelines for pro-tecting miners’ health in modern mines featuring high production and high efficiency all over the world.

  3. Comparative Analysis of Air Emission from Cement Plant Using TDF as Partial Substitute for Coal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syeda Fateeha Arshed

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Tyre derived fuel (TDF has a potential advantage for its use as a co-fuel with coal in rotary kilns of cement plants.  In this study we analyzed the emissions of selected criteria pollutants; CO2, CO, NOx, SOx and PM to suggest suitable proportion of TDF to replace coal when different proportions of TDF and coal were used as cement kiln feed. Emissions of CO2, CO, NO, NO2, SO2 and total PM from stack and concentrations of CO, NOx, SOx and PM10 in ambient air were assessed using USEPA recommended methods. Substitution such as 85% coal and 15% TDF, 80% coal and 20% TDF, 75% coal and 25% TDF and 70% coal and 30% TDF were applied in this study. Results of the current study revealed a rise in CO and TPM stack emissions with an increase in proportions of TDF and crossed standards at 80% coal and 20% TDF. Decline in NOx emissions up-till 15% proportion of TDF was observed and remained lower than the emission of NOx at 100% coal use in spite of an increase in its concentration at each increased proportion of TDF above 15% TDF use. No significant difference (p > 0.05 in ambient air pollutant concentration with and without TDF use was observed. The study suggested 15% TDF substitution as a preferable proportion for the selected cement plant. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.erem.68.2.6471

  4. Swedish Environmental and Economic Accounts. Physical accounts for energy and emissions to air 1993 and 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Statistical Report presents results from the physical Swedish Environmental and Economic Accounts for the years 1993 and 1995 according to the classification NACE. The Environmental Economic Accounts constitute an integrated and comprehensive system for environmental and economic statistics. Environmental data are systematically presented together with economic data in a common framework. The system can be used for analyses of various relationships between economy and environment. Data on emissions to air of carbon dioxide, sulphur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, methane, nitrous oxide and ammonia are presented for 39 industries, government services and private consumption. The use of energy commodities in monetary and physical terms are also presented for the same sectors. Economic, energy and emission data are also presented in environmental and economic profiles and indicators. Environmental and economic profiles provide an illustration of the relationship between industry, consumption of energy commodities and emission to air. Indicators, that show e.g. emissions (in kg) by value added (in SEK) for economic activities, is another way to illustrate the relation between emissions and economic data

  5. Heavy-duty truck emissions in the South Coast Air Basin of California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Gary A; Schuchmann, Brent G; Stedman, Donald H

    2013-08-20

    California and Federal emissions regulations for 2007 and newer heavy-duty diesel engines require an order of magnitude reduction in particulate matter and oxides of nitrogen spurring the introduction of new aftertreatment systems. Since 2008, four emission measurement campaigns have been conducted at a Port of Los Angeles location and an inland weigh station in the South Coast Air Basin of California. Fuel specific oxides of nitrogen emissions at the Port have decreased 12% since 2010 while infrared opacity (a measure of particulate matter) remained low, showing no diesel particulate filter deterioration. The weigh station truck's fuel specific oxides of nitrogen emission reductions since 2010 (18.5%) almost double the previous three year's reductions and are the result of new trucks using selective catalytic reduction systems. Trucks at the weigh station equipped with these systems have a skewed oxides of nitrogen emissions distribution (half of the emissions were from 6% of the measurements) and had significantly lower emissions than similarly equipped Port trucks. Infrared thermographs of truck exhaust pipes revealed that the mean temperature observed at the weigh station (225 ± 4.5 °C) was 70 °C higher than for Port trucks, suggesting that the catalytic aftertreatment systems on trucks at our Port site were often below minimum operating temperatures. PMID:23926948

  6. Sulfur dioxide emissions and market effects under the Clean Air Act Acid Rain Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA90) established a national program to control sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions from electricity generation. CAAA90's market-based approach includes trading and banking of SO2-emissions allowances. The paper presents an analysis of data describing electric utility SO2 emissions in 1995, the first year of the program's Phase I, and market effects over the 1990-95 period. Fuel switching and flue-gas desulfurization were the dominant means used in 1995 by targeted generators to reduce emissions to 51% of 1990 levels. Flue-gas desulfurization costs, emissions allowance prices, low-sulfur coal prices, and average sulfur contents of coals shipped to electric utilities declined over the 1990-95 period. Projections indicate that 13-15 million allowances will have been banked during the programs' Phase I, which ends in 1999, a quantity expected to last through the first decade of the program's stricter Phase II controls. In 1995, both allowance prices and SO2 emissions were below pre-CAAA90 expectations. The reduction of SO2 emissions beyond pre-CAAA90 expectations, combined with lower-than-expected allowance prices and declining compliance costs, can be viewed as a success for market-based environmental controls. 21 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs

  7. Plume-based analysis of vehicle fleet air pollutant emissions and the contribution from high emitters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J. M.; Jeong, C.-H.; Zimmerman, N.; Healy, R. M.; Wang, D. K.; Ke, F.; Evans, G. J.

    2015-08-01

    An automated identification and integration method has been developed for in-use vehicle emissions under real-world conditions. This technique was applied to high-time-resolution air pollutant measurements of in-use vehicle emissions performed under real-world conditions at a near-road monitoring station in Toronto, Canada, during four seasons, through month-long campaigns in 2013-2014. Based on carbon dioxide measurements, over 100 000 vehicle-related plumes were automatically identified and fuel-based emission factors for nitrogen oxides; carbon monoxide; particle number; black carbon; benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (BTEX); and methanol were determined for each plume. Thus the automated identification enabled the measurement of an unprecedented number of plumes and pollutants over an extended duration. Emission factors for volatile organic compounds were also measured roadside for the first time using a proton transfer reaction time-of-flight mass spectrometer; this instrument provided the time resolution required for the plume capture technique. Mean emission factors were characteristic of the light-duty gasoline-dominated vehicle fleet present at the measurement site, with mean black carbon and particle number emission factors of 35 mg kg fuel-1 and 7.5 × 1014 # kg fuel-1, respectively. The use of the plume-by-plume analysis enabled isolation of vehicle emissions, and the elucidation of co-emitted pollutants from similar vehicle types, variability of emissions across the fleet, and the relative contribution from heavy emitters. It was found that a small proportion of the fleet (fleet emissions: 100, 100, 81, and 77 % for black carbon, carbon monoxide, BTEX, and particle number, respectively. Emission factors of a single pollutant may help classify a vehicle as a high emitter; however, regulatory strategies to more efficiently target multi-pollutant mixtures may be better developed by considering the co-emitted pollutants as well.

  8. Interactions between energy efficiency and emission trading under the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments affect electric utilities in numerous ways. The feature that probably has received the greatest attention is the provision to let utilities trade emissions of sulfur dioxide (SO2), while at the same time requiring them to reduce S02 emissions in 2000 by an aggregate 43%. The emission trading system was welcomed by many as a way of reducing the cost of reducing emissions, by providing greater flexibility than past approaches. This report examines some of the potential interactions between trading emissions and increasing end-use energy efficiency. The analysis focuses on emission trading in the second phase of the trading program, which begins in 2000. The aggregate effects, calculated by an emission compliance and trading model, turn out to be rather small. Aggressive improvement of end-use efficiency by all utilities might reduce allowance prices by $22/ton (1990 dollars), which is small compared to the reduction that has occurred in the estimates of future allowance prices and when compared to the roughly $400/ton price we estimate as a base case. However, the changes in the allowance market that result are large enough to affect some compliance decisions. If utilities in only a few states improve end-use efficiency aggressively, their actions may not have a large effect on the price of an allowance, but they could alter the demand for allowances and thereby the compliance decisions of utilities in other states. The analysis shows how improving electricity end-use efficiency in some states can cause smaller emission reductions in other states, relative to what would have happened without the improvements. Such a result, while not surprising given the theory behind the emission trading system, is upsetting to people who view emissions, environmental protection, and energy efficiency in moral rather than strictly economic terms

  9. Plume-based analysis of vehicle fleet air pollutant emissions and the contribution from high emitters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Wang

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available An automated identification and integration method has been developed to investigate in-use vehicle emissions under real-world conditions. This technique was applied to high time resolution air pollutant measurements of in-use vehicle emissions performed under real-world conditions at a near-road monitoring station in Toronto, Canada during four seasons, through month-long campaigns in 2013–2014. Based on carbon dioxide measurements, over 100 000 vehicle-related plumes were automatically identified and fuel-based emission factors for nitrogen oxides; carbon monoxide; particle number, black carbon; benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (BTEX; and methanol were determined for each plume. Thus the automated identification enabled the measurement of an unprecedented number of plumes and pollutants over an extended duration. Emission factors for volatile organic compounds were also measured roadside for the first time using a proton transfer reaction time-of-flight mass spectrometer; this instrument provided the time resolution required for the plume capture technique. Mean emission factors were characteristic of the light-duty gasoline dominated vehicle fleet present at the measurement site, with mean black carbon and particle number emission factors of 35 mg kg−1 and 7.7 × 1014 kg−1, respectively. The use of the plume-by-plume analysis enabled isolation of vehicle emissions, and the elucidation of co-emitted pollutants from similar vehicle types, variability of emissions across the fleet, and the relative contribution from heavy emitters. It was found that a small proportion of the fleet (< 25% contributed significantly to total fleet emissions; 95, 93, 76, and 75% for black carbon, carbon monoxide, BTEX, and particle number, respectively. Emission factors of a single pollutant may help classify a vehicle as a high emitter. However, regulatory strategies to more efficiently target multi-pollutants mixtures may be better developed by

  10. Annual European Community LRTAP convention emission inventory 1990-2004[Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-10-15

    This report is the annual European Community LRTAP Convention Emission Inventory presenting the European Community air pollution data from the year 1990 to 2004. The report provides an overview of emission trends and data availability for EU-25; NFR Tables IV 1A are provided for EU-15 only. Due to data gaps, EU-15 totals were estimated for NOx, CO, NMVOs and SOx covering 1990 to 2004, and NH{sub 3} was estimated for certain years. Data reported for particulate matter (PM), persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and heavy metals (HM) are presented in Allex F. (au)

  11. Electrode-emission effects on the saturation current in free-air ionization chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The saturation current Isub(s) in a free-air parallel grid-plate ionization chamber is found to differ for positive and negative ion-collection at the plate. The difference deltaIsub(s)=(Isub(s)+-Isub(s)-) is sensitive to the metallic nature of the collector and is explained by the electron-emission due to the impact of positive ions on the electrode's metal surface. These results can be of practical interest in radiation exposure measurements and the study of electrode emission effects from the metal surfaces. (Auth.)

  12. Background information on sources of low-level radionuclide emissions to air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corbit, C.D.; Herrington, W.N.; Higby, D.P.; Stout, L.A.; Corley, J.P.

    1983-09-01

    This report provides a general description and reported emissions for eight low-level radioactive source categories, including facilties that are licensed by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and Agreement States, and non-Department of Energy (DOE) federal facilities. The eight categories of low-level radioactive source facilities covered by this report are: research and test reactors, accelerators, the radiopharmaceutical industry, source manufacturers, medical facilities, laboratories, naval shipyards, and low-level commercial waste disposal sites. Under each category five elements are addressed: a general description, a facility and process description, the emission control systems, a site description, and the radionuclides released to air (from routine operations).

  13. An evaluation of possible EU air transport emissions trading scheme allocation methods

    OpenAIRE

    Morrell, Peter

    2007-01-01

    The European Commission has been requested by member states to study the incorporation of air transport into their existing emissions trading scheme (ETS). Only CO2 is to be included, at least initially. This paper focuses on the method of allocation of emissions permits in the EU context. It has been assumed here that the EU ETS will be applied only to intra-EU flights and that airlines will be the entities selected for implementation. Three UK airlines were selected to evaluate three ma...

  14. Background information on sources of low-level radionuclide emissions to air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report provides a general description and reported emissions for eight low-level radioactive source categories, including facilties that are licensed by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and Agreement States, and non-Department of Energy (DOE) federal facilities. The eight categories of low-level radioactive source facilities covered by this report are: research and test reactors, accelerators, the radiopharmaceutical industry, source manufacturers, medical facilities, laboratories, naval shipyards, and low-level commercial waste disposal sites. Under each category five elements are addressed: a general description, a facility and process description, the emission control systems, a site description, and the radionuclides released to air (from routine operations)

  15. Emissions and air exposure of carcinogens and co-carcinogens in four Nordic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fauser, Patrik; Plejdrup, Marlene Schmidt; Ketzel, Matthias;

    This project (KoL 12-08) was performed for the Climate and Air Quality Group (KlimaogLuftgruppen, KoL), Nordic Council of Ministers by atmospheric emission, exposureand epidemiology experts from Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden. Emission inventory methods and exposure models were presented. A...... sources, traffic and residential wood combustion. An overview of local studies on exposure for cities or communities with emphasis on wood combustion and traffic and a discussion of existing epidemiological studies on cancer and environment were given...

  16. Organochlorine pesticides in soils and air of southern Mexico: Chemical profiles and potential for soil emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Fiona; Alegria, Henry A.; Jantunen, Liisa M.; Bidleman, Terry F.; Salvador-Figueroa, Miguel; Gold-Bouchot, Gerardo; Ceja-Moreno, Victor; Waliszewski, Stefan M.; Infanzon, Raul

    The extent of organochlorine pesticides (OCs) contamination in southern Mexico was investigated in this study. Biweekly air samplings were carried out in two sites in the state of Chiapas (during 2002-2003), and one in each state of Veracruz and Tabasco (during 2003-2004). Corresponding to the air sampling locations, soil samples were also collected to gauge the soil-air exchange of OCs in the region. ∑DDTs in soils ranged from 0.057 to 360 ng g -1 whereas those in air ranged from 240 to 2400 pg m -3. DDT and metabolite DDE were expressed as fractional values, FDDTe = p, p'-DDT/( p, p'-DDT + p, p'-DDE) and FDDTo = p,p'-DDT/( p,p'-DDT + o,p'-DDT). FDDTe in soils ranged from 0.30 to 0.69 while those in air ranged from 0.45 to 0.84. FDDTe in air at a farm in Chiapas (0.84) was closer to that of technical DDT (0.95) which is suggestive of fresh DDT input. Enantiomer fractions (EF) of o,p'-DDT in air were racemic at all locations (0.500-0.504). However, nonracemic o,p'-DDT was seen in the soils (EFs = 0.456-0.647). Fugacities of OCs in soil ( fs) and air ( fa) were calculated, and the fugacity fraction, ff = fs/( fs + fa) of DDTs ranged from 0.013 to 0.97 which indicated a mix of net deposition ( ff 0.5) from soil among the sites. It is suggested that DDTs in Mexico air are due to a combination of ongoing regional usage and re-emission of old DDT residues from soils. Total toxaphene in soils ranged from 0.066 to 69 ng g -1 while levels in air ranged from 6.2 to 230 pg m -3. Chromatographic profiles of toxaphenes in both air and soil showed depletion of Parlar congeners 39 and 42. Fugacity fractions of toxaphene were within the equilibrium range or above the upper equilibrium threshold boundary. These findings suggested that soil emission of old residues is the main source of toxaphenes to the atmosphere. Results from this study provide baseline data for establishing a long-term OC monitoring program in Mexico.

  17. Exposure information in environmental health research: Current opportunities and future directions for particulate matter, ozone, and toxic air pollutants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKone, Thomas E.; Ryan, P. Barry; Ozkaynak, Haluk

    2007-02-01

    Understanding and quantifying outdoor and indoor sources of human exposure are essential but often not adequately addressed in health-effects studies for air pollution. Air pollution epidemiology, risk assessment, health tracking and accountability assessments are examples of health-effects studies that require but often lack adequate exposure information. Recent advances in exposure modeling along with better information on time-activity and exposure factors data provide us with unique opportunities to improve the assignment of exposures for both future and ongoing studies linking air pollution to health impacts. In September 2006, scientists from the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) along with scientists from the academic community and state health departments convened a symposium on air pollution exposure and health in order to identify, evaluate, and improve current approaches for linking air pollution exposures to disease. This manuscript presents the key issues, challenges and recommendations identified by the exposure working group, who used cases studies of particulate matter, ozone, and toxic air pollutant exposure to evaluate health-effects for air pollution. One of the over-arching lessons of this workshop is that obtaining better exposure information for these different health-effects studies requires both goal-setting for what is needed and mapping out the transition pathway from current capabilities to meeting these goals. Meeting our long-term goals requires definition of incremental steps that provide useful information for the interim and move us toward our long-term goals. Another over-arching theme among the three different pollutants and the different health study approaches is the need for integration among alternate exposure assessment approaches. For example, different groups may advocate exposure indicators, biomonitoring, mapping methods (GIS), modeling, environmental media

  18. Hazardous air pollutant emissions from process units in the synthetic organic chemical manufacturing industry: Background information for proposed standards. Volume 1C. Model emission sources. Draft report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-11-01

    A draft rule for the regulation of emissions of organic hazardous air pollutants (HAP's) from chemical processes of the synthetic organic chemical manufacturing industry (SOCMI) is being proposed under the authority of Sections 112, 114, 116, and 301 of the Clean Air Act, as amended in 1990. The volume of the Background Information Document presents model emission sources that were developed to evaluate the national impacts of the proposed rule.

  19. Transport and Environment Database System (TRENDS): Maritime Air Pollutant Emission Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Georgakaki, Aliki; Coffey, Robert; Lock, Grahm;

    2005-01-01

    This paper reports the development of the maritime module within the framework of the Transport and Environment Database System (TRENDS) project. A detailed database has been constructed for the calculation of energy consumption and air pollutant emissions. Based on an in-house database of...... commercial vessels kept at the Technical University of Denmark, relationships between the fuel consumption and size of different vessels have been developed, taking into account the fleet's age and service speed. The technical assumptions and factors incorporated in the database are presented, including...... changes from findings reported in Methodologies for Estimating air pollutant Emissions from Transport (MEET). The database operates on statistical data provided by Eurostat, which describe vessel and freight movements from and towards EU 15 major ports. Data are at port to Maritime Coastal Area (MCA...

  20. Air Emissions and Health Benefits from Using Sugarcane Waste as a Cellulosic Ethanol Feedstock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsao, C.; Campbell, E.; Chen, Y.; Carmichael, G.; Mena-Carrasco, M.; Spak, S.

    2010-12-01

    Brazil, as the largest ethanol exporter in the world, faces rapid expansion of ethanol production due to the increase of global biofuels demand. Current production of Brazilian sugarcane ethanol causes significant air emissions mainly from the open burning phase of agriculture wastes (i.e. sugarcane straws and leaves) resulting in potential health impacts. One possible measure to avoid undesired burning practices is to increase the utilization of unburned sugarcane residues as a feedstock for cellulosic ethanol. To explore the benefits of this substitution, here we first apply a bottom-up approach combining agronomic data and life-cycle models to investigate spatially and temporally explicit emissions from sugarcane waste burning. We further quantify the health benefits from preventing burning practices using the CMAQ regional air quality model and the BenMAP health benefit analysis tool adapted for Brazilian applications. Furthermore, the health impacts will be converted into monetary values which provide policymakers useful information for the development of cellulosic ethanol.