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Sample records for air springs

  1. The Dynamic Characteristic and Hysteresis Effect of an Air Spring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Löcken F.

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In many applications of vibration technology, especially in chassis, air springs present a common alternative to steel spring concepts. A design-independent and therefore universal approach is presented to describe the dynamic characteristic of such springs. Differential and constitutive equations based on energy balances of the enclosed volume and the mountings are given to describe the nonlinear and dynamic characteristics. Therefore all parameters can be estimated directly from physical and geometrical properties, without parameter fitting. The numerically solved equations fit very well to measurements of a passenger car air spring. In a second step a simplification of this model leads to a pure mechanical equation. While in principle the same parameters are used, just an empirical correction of the effective heat transfer coefficient is needed to handle some simplification on this topic. Finally, a linearization of this equation leads to an analogous mechanical model that can be assembled from two common spring- and one dashpot elements in a specific arrangement. This transfer into ”mechanical language” enables a system description with a simple force-displacement law and a consideration of the nonobvious hysteresis and stiffness increase of an air spring from a mechanical point of view.

  2. Modern methods for designing air spring systems; Moderne Verfahren zur Auslegung von Luftfedersystemen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Homeyer, A.; Massmann, C. [ContiTech Luftfedersysteme GmbH, Hannoverr (Germany)

    1998-12-31

    The performance of air spring systems is only partly determined by the actual spring element, the air. The dynamic properties of air spring systems are, on the one hand, essentially dependent on the properties of the rubber mixture employed and the textile reinforcement of the bellows wall and, on the other hand, on the interaction of the different components of the air spring system to be considered in the design of a modern vehicle suspension system. The authors present a number of calculation methods for a rough prediction of the system performance. (orig.) [Deutsch] Das Federverhalten von Luftfedersystemen wird nur zu einem Teil durch das eigentliche federnde Medium, die Luft, bestimmt. Wesentlichen Anteil an den dynamischen Eigenschaften von Luftfedersystemen hat einerseits das Verhalten der eingesetzten Gummimischung und der Textilverstaerkung in der Balgwand, andererseits das Zusammenspiel der unterschiedlichen Systemkomponenten der Luftfederung, das bei der Auslegung einer modernen Fahrzeugabfederung zu beruecksichtigen ist. Die Authoren stellen einige Berechnungsmethoden zur naeherungsweisen Vorhersage des Systemverhaltens vor. (orig.)

  3. Shaking test of 3-dimensional isolator by using air spring and rubber bearing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new 3-dimensional isolator is proposed, where a high-pressure air spring is mounted on a laminated rubber bearing. The vertical flexibility is induced by the air spring, while the horizontal one is primarily by the laminated rubber bearing. To examine the effectiveness of the above concept, shaking tests of experimental models were performed, where a concrete block weighing about 24 tons was mounted on the four isolators. For suppressing rocking motions, an inclined support method was also tested. The results were satisfactory and the effectiveness of new isolators was confirmed

  4. Indoor air quality in elementary schools of Lisbon in spring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pegas, P N; Alves, C A; Evtyugina, M G; Nunes, T; Cerqueira, M; Franchi, M; Pio, C A; Almeida, S M; Freitas, M C

    2011-10-01

    Analysis of indoor air quality (IAQ) in schools usually reveals higher levels of pollutants than in outdoor environments. The aims of this study are to measure indoor and outdoor concentrations of NO(2), speciated volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and carbonyls at 14 elementary schools in Lisbon, Portugal. The investigation was carried out in May-June 2009. Three of the schools were selected to also measure comfort parameters, such as temperature and relative humidity, carbon dioxide (CO(2)), carbon monoxide (CO), total VOCs, and bacterial and fungal colony-forming units per cubic metre. Indoor concentrations of CO(2) in the three main schools indicated inadequate classroom air exchange rates. The indoor/outdoor (I/O) NO(2) ratio ranged between 0.36 and 0.95. At the three main schools, the total bacterial and fungal colony-forming units (CFU) in both indoor and outdoor air were above the advised maximum value of 500 CFU/m(3) defined by Portuguese legislation. The aromatic compounds benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes, followed by ethers, alcohols and terpenes, were usually the most abundant classes of VOCs. In general, the indoor total VOC concentrations were markedly higher than those observed outdoors. At all locations, indoor aldehyde levels were higher than those observed outdoors, particularly for formaldehyde. The inadequate ventilation observed likely favours accumulation of pollutants with additional indoor sources. PMID:21042927

  5. A SPRING IN BUENOS AIRES: our experience reporting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosemberg Ferracini

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The objective of this paper is to present the activities developed in a stage during four months in 2009, in Buenos Aires. It was possible owing a selection process by Programa Red Macro para Universidades de América Latina y Caribe. This stage took place under the supervision by Ph.D. Perla Zusmán, from Buenos Aires University – UBA, with a schedule based on studies previously built in Brazil. The set of work has been with a Spanish language course, with a participation in study group meetings regarding geographical thinking history, with teaching and methodology search, with a presentation and publication of our reflections in scientific events. We believe that the following report may contribute to new dialogues and to manage new ways. RESUMEN: El objetivo de este trabajo es presentear las actividades desarroladas durante la etapa de cuatro meses em Buenos Aires em 2009. Esto fue posible debido a um processo de seleción para el programa de becas para las universidade de Sud de América y el Caribe. Nuestro escenario se llevó a cabo bajo la direción del Professor Phd, Perla Zusmán de la Universidad de Buenos AiresUBA. Para ella, hemos seguido um programa de estúdio basado em la literatura previamente construída em Brasil. Entre el conjunto de trabajo ha sido el curso de castellano, la participación em las reuniones del grupos de estúdio en la historia de pensamiento de la geografia, la educación y la metodologia de la investigación y publicación de eventos científicos de nuestras reflexiones. RESUMO: O objetivo deste trabalho é apresentar as atividades desenvolvidas durante o estágio de quatro meses na Universidade de Buenos Aires - UBA no ano de 2009. Esse fato foi possível devido a uma seleção no programa de bolsa de estudos da Universidade da América do Sul e Caribe. Nosso programa de trabalho seguiu a orientação da professora Dra. Perla Zusman. Entre o conjunto de atividades participamos de reuniões no

  6. Influence of pellet seating on the external ballistic parameters of spring-piston air guns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Ronald; Schultz, Benno; Frank, Matthias

    2016-09-01

    In firearm examiners' and forensic specialists' casework as well as in air gun proof testing, reliable measurement of the weapon's muzzle velocity is indispensable. While there are standardized and generally accepted procedures for testing the performance of air guns, the method of seating the diabolo pellets deeper into the breech of break barrel spring-piston air guns has not found its way into standardized test procedures. The influence of pellet seating on the external ballistic parameters was investigated using ten different break barrel spring-piston air guns. Test shots were performed with the diabolo pellets seated 2 mm deeper into the breech using a pellet seater. The results were then compared to reference shots with conventionally loaded diabolo pellets. Projectile velocity was measured with a high-precision redundant ballistic speed measurement system. In eight out of ten weapons, the muzzle energy increased significantly when the pellet seater was used. The average increase in kinetic energy was 31 % (range 9-96 %). To conclude, seating the pellet even slightly deeper into the breech of spring-piston air guns might significantly alter the muzzle energy. Therefore, it is strongly recommended that this effect is taken into account when accurate and reliable measurements of air gun muzzle velocity are necessary. PMID:27448569

  7. Simulation Research on an Active Anti-Roll System for an Air Spring Passenger Car

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Jun; LI Xi-zhao

    2008-01-01

    To reduce the roll movement of an air spring passenger car, an active anti-roll system is developed, which is constructed with hydraulic and pneumatic units to change spring rate during cornering. For the comparing research between the passive and active system, a two-track vehicle model and a co-simulation model of air spring system are built. For the simulation research on the linear movement of the actuator, a mathematical model is considered as dynamical subsystem in the co-simulation model. To active control the roll angle of vehicle body, a sliding-mode controller with optimized control parameters for the test vehicle is introduced into the model. The characteristics of sliding-mode controller is discussed and the validation of active antiroll control is proved by comparison with other control methods. The results show that the roll angle of air spring vehicle is reduced obviously with the active anti-roll actuator in comparison with that of the passive system. Compared with other control methods, sliding-mode controller has an advantage of shortest switching times, which leads to a longer lifetime of actuator and valves.

  8. The Stiffness and Damping Characteristics of a Dual-Chamber Air Spring Device Applied to Motion Suppression of Marine Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohui Zeng

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Dual-chamber air springs are used as a key component for vibration isolation in some industrial applications. The working principle of the dual-chamber air spring device as applied to motion suppression of marine structures is similar to that of the traditional air spring, but they differ in their specific characteristics. The stiffness and damping of the dual-chamber air spring device determine the extent of motion suppression. In this article, we investigate the stiffness and damping characteristics of a dual-chamber air spring device applied to marine structure motion suppression using orthogonal analysis and an experimental method. We measure the effects of volume ratio, orifice ratio, excitation amplitude, and frequency on the stiffness and damping of the dual-chamber vibration absorber. Based on the experimental results, a higher-order non-linear regression method is obtained. We achieve a rapid calculation model for dual-chamber air spring stiffness and damping, which can provide guidance to project design.

  9. Pollution characteristic of VOCs of ambient air in winter and spring in Shijiazhuang City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing CHANG

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to further explore the pollution characteristics of volatile organic compounds in ambient air in winter and spring in Shijiazhuang City, the pollution characteristics of 62 volatile organic compounds (VOCs, monthly and quarterly variation, the correlation between VOCs and PM2.5, and the main sources of VOCs are investigated by using EPA TO-15 method. It shows that 40 organic compounds of the 64 VOCs have been quantitatively determined in winter and spring in the city, which are mainly acetone, benzene, carbon tetrachloride, dichloromethane, toluene, ethyl acetate, etc.. In the no-quantitatively determined components, higher ethanol, butyl acetate, butane etc. are detected. The VOCs concentration has positive correlation with the PM2.5 concentration during haze days.

  10. Air pathway analysis for cleanup at the chemical plant area of the Weldon Spring site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Weldon Spring site is a mixed waste site located in St. Charles County, Missouri. Cleanup of the site is in the planning and design stage, and various engineering activities were considered for remedial action, including excavating soils, dredging sludge, treating various contaminated media in temporary facilities, transporting and staging supplies and contaminated material, and placing waste in an engineered disposal cell. Both contaminated and uncontaminated emissions from these activities were evaluated to assess air quality impacts and potential health effects for workers and the general public during the cleanup period. A site-specific air quality modeling approach was developed to address several complex issues, such as a variety of emission sources, an array of source/receptor configurations, and complicated sequencing/scheduling. This approach can be readily adapted to reflect changes in the expected activities as engineering plans are finalized

  11. Air pathway analysis for cleanup at the chemical plant area of the Weldon Spring site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Y.S.

    1994-01-01

    The Weldon Spring site is a mixed waste site located in St. Charles County, Missouri. Cleanup of the site is in the planning and design stage, and various engineering activities were considered for remedial action, including excavating soils, dredging sludge, treating various contaminated media in temporary facilities, transporting and staging supplies and contaminated material, and placing waste in an engineered disposal cell. Both contaminated and uncontaminated emissions from these activities were evaluated to assess air quality impacts and potential health effects for workers and the general public during the cleanup period. A site-specific air quality modeling approach was developed to address several complex issues, such as a variety of emission sources, an array of source/receptor configurations, and complicated sequencing/scheduling. This approach can be readily adapted to reflect changes in the expected activities as engineering plans are finalized.

  12. Development of three dimensional seismic isolation device with laminated rubber bearing and rolling seal type air spring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three dimensional (3D) seismic isolation device has been developed to use for the base isolation system of the heavy building like a nuclear reactor building. The developed device is the 3D seismic isolation device that consists of the laminated rubber baring as a horizontal isolation device and the rolling seal type air spring as the vertical isolation device in series. In this research, the 3D seismic isolation device reduction model whose scale is 1/10 is made and the workability of the device by the horizontal and vertical dynamic load is examined. Two experiment parameters are considered. One is the case that the structure of the part that the horizontal load and the vertical load contact is pin condition and the other is the case of the roller condition. As a result of the examination, the workability of the vertical direction is confirmed when the horizontal load acts. The pressure resistant ability test for the air spring is performed by the monotonic pressurization. As the result, it is confirmed that pressure resistant ability improved by restricting the side deformation of the air spring and that the material of the existing air spring can withstand high pressure use sufficiently. As the result, it is confirmed that the developed 3D seismic isolation device is applicable to the actual plant. This study was performed under the sponsorship of the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry of Japan. (author)

  13. Impact of anthropogenic emission on air-quality over a megacity – revealed from an intensive atmospheric campaign during the Chinese Spring Festival

    OpenAIRE

    Deng, C.; Li, J.; Zhang, R.; J. S. Fu; Wang, Q.; Y. Lin; Zhuang, G.; Huang, K.; Q. Fu

    2012-01-01

    The Chinese Spring Festival is one of the most important traditional festivals in China. The peak transport in the Spring Festival season (spring travel rush) provides a unique opportunity for investigating the impact of human activities on air quality in the Chinese megacities as emission sources varied and fluctuated greatly prior to, during and after the festival. Enhanced vehicular emission during the spring travel rush before the festival resulted in high level pollutants of NOx (...

  14. Impact of anthropogenic emission on air quality over a megacity – revealed from an intensive atmospheric campaign during the Chinese Spring Festival

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, K.; Zhuang, G.; Y. Lin; Wang, Q.; J. S. Fu; Zhang, R.; Li, J.; Deng, C.; Q. Fu

    2012-01-01

    The Chinese Spring Festival is one of the most important traditional festivals in China. The peak transport in the Spring Festival season (spring travel rush) provides a unique opportunity for investigating the impact of human activity on air quality in the Chinese megacities. Emission sources are varied and fluctuate greatly before, during and after the Festival. Increased vehicular emissions during the "spring travel rush" before the 2009 Festival resulted in high level pollutants of NO<...

  15. Excretion of radon in expired air after bathing and drinking of radioactive hot spring water at Misasa spa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radon (Rn) content in expired air after bathing in, exposure in a hot air room to and drinking of Misasa radioactive hot spring water was determined, using an ionization chamber equipped with a vibrating reed electrometer. (1) The Rn contents in the indoor and outdoor air of Misasa spa were 0.5 - 1.0 pCi/l and 0.4 - 0.7 pCi/l, respectively. (2) The highest Rn content in the expired air of subjects bathed in radioactive hot spring (Rn 58.0 x 10-10 Ci/kg) was immediately after bathing, 10.8 - 25.9 pCi/l (bathing for 5 min), 16.8 - 27.9 pCi/l (for 10 min) and 38.8 - 59.3 pCi/l (for 15 min). The Rn content in expired air was reduced to about 1.0 pCi/l in 120 - 180 min. The longer the bathing time and the younger the subjects, the higher the Rn content in expired air. (3) The highest the Rn content in the expired air of subjects exposed in a hot air room (Rn in air 54.3 x 10-10 Ci/l, staying for 15 min) was 4.9 - 7.8 pCi/l. (4) The Rn content in the expired air of subjects immediately after drinking radioactive spring water (Rn content 596.8 x 10-10 Ci/kg, drinking 500 ml) was the highest, and 28.0 - 101.5 pCi/l, and reduced to about 1.3 pCi/l in 180 min. (J.P.N.)

  16. Air-Sea CO2 fluxes in the Atlantic as measured during boreal spring and autumn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. F. Ríos

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available A total of fourteen hydrographic cruises from 2000 to 2008 were conducted during the spring and autumn seasons between Spain and the Southern Ocean under the framework of the Spanish research project FICARAM. The underway measurements were processed and analysed to describe the meridional air-sea CO2 fluxes (FCO2 in the covered sector of the Atlantic Ocean. The data has been grouped into different biogeochemical oceanographic provinces based on thermohaline characteristics. The spatial and temporal distributions of FCO2 followed expected distributions and annual trends reproducing the recent climatological ΔfCO2 estimations with a mean difference of −3 ± 18 μatm (Takahashi et al., 2009. The reduction in the CO2 saturation along the meridional FICARAM cruises represented an increase of 0.02 ± 0.14 mol m−2 yr−1 in the ocean uptake of atmospheric CO2. The subtropical waters in both Hemispheres acted as a sink of atmospheric CO2 during the successive spring seasons and as a source in autumn. The coarse reduction of the ocean uptake of atmospheric CO2 observed in the North Atlantic Ocean was linked to conditions of negative phase of the North Atlantic Oscillation that prevailed during the FICARAM period. Surface waters in the North Equatorial Counter Current revealed a significant long-term decrease of sea surface salinity of −0.16 ± 0.01 yr−1 coinciding with a declination of −3.5 ± 0.9 μatm yr−1 in the air–sea disequilibrium of CO2 fugacity and a rise of oceanic CO2 uptake of −0.09 ± 0.03 mol m−2 yr−1. The largest CO2 source was located in the equatorial upwelling system. These tropical waters that reached emissions of 0.7 ± 0.5 and 1.0 ± 0.7 mol m−2 y−1 in spring and autumn, respectively, showed an interannual warming of 0.11 ± 0.03 °C yr−1 and a wind speed decrease of −0.58 ± 0.14 m s−1 yr−1 in spring cruises which suggest the weakening of upwelling events associated with warm El Niño – Southern

  17. Effect of spring water on the radon concentration in the air at Masutomi spa in Yamanashi Prefecture, Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The concentrations of 222Rn existing in air have been studied by using a convenient and highly sensitive Pico-rad detector system at Masutomi spa in Yamanashi Prefecture, Japan. The measurements in air were carried out indoors and outdoors during the winter of 2000 and the summers of 1999 and 2005. The concentrations of 222Rn in spring water in this region were measured by the liquid scintillation method. The concentrations of natural radionuclides contained in soils surrounding spa areas were also examined by means of the γ-ray energy spectrometry technique using a Ge diode detector to investigate the correlation between the radionuclides contents and 222Rn concentrations in air at each point of interest. The atmospheric 222Rn concentrations in these areas were high, ranging from 5 Bq/m3 to 2676 Bq/m3. The radon concentration at each hotel was high in the order of the bath room, the dressing room, the lobby, and the outdoor area near the hotel, with averages and standard deviations of the concentration of 441 ± 79 Bq/m3, 351 ± 283 Bq/m3, 121 ± 5 Bq/m3, and 23 ± 1 Bq/m3, respectively. The source of 222Rn in the air in the bath room is more likely to be the spring water than the soil. The spring water plays carries the radon to the atmosphere. Our measurements indicated that the 222Rn concentration in the air was affected by the 222Rn concentration in spring water rather than that in soil. (author)

  18. Spring Tire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asnani, Vivake M.; Benzing, Jim; Kish, Jim C.

    2011-01-01

    The spring tire is made from helical springs, requires no air or rubber, and consumes nearly zero energy. The tire design provides greater traction in sandy and/or rocky soil, can operate in microgravity and under harsh conditions (vastly varying temperatures), and is non-pneumatic. Like any tire, the spring tire is approximately a toroidal-shaped object intended to be mounted on a transportation wheel. Its basic function is also similar to a traditional tire, in that the spring tire contours to the surface on which it is driven to facilitate traction, and to reduce the transmission of vibration to the vehicle. The essential difference between other tires and the spring tire is the use of helical springs to support and/or distribute load. They are coiled wires that deform elastically under load with little energy loss.

  19. Arctic smoke ? record high air pollution levels in the European Arctic due to agricultural fires in Eastern Europe in spring 2006

    OpenAIRE

    A. Stohl; T. Berg; Burkhart, J. F.; Fjǽraa, A. M.; Forster, C.; Herber, A.; Hov, Ø.; Lunder, C.; McMillan, W. W.; Oltmans, S.; Shiobara, M.; Simpson, D; S. Solberg; K. Stebel; StrÖm, J.

    2007-01-01

    In spring 2006, the European Arctic was abnormally warm, setting new historical temperature records. During this warm period, smoke from agricultural fires in Eastern Europe intruded into the European Arctic and caused the most severe air pollution episodes ever recorded there. This paper confirms that biomass burning (BB) was indeed the source of the observed air pollution, studies the transport of the smoke into the Arctic, and presents an overview of the observations take...

  20. Three-dimensional seismic isolation floor system using air spring and its installation into a nuclear facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As high-precision equipments such as computer systems have been highly advanced in the nuclear field, it is important to protect them from earthquakes. The use of seismic isolation system may provide a practical solution for the object. Research on the use of laminated rubber bearings as seismic isolators has been primarily focused on the development of base-isolated buildings. The laminated rubber bearing shows excellent seismic isolation performance to horizontal directions. However, it cannot reduce the response due to vertical seismic motion. Strength of buildings is usually sufficient to vertical earthquake motion, but high-precision equipments inside of buildings are easily resonant to vertical motion as well as horizontal one. Hence, the use of three-dimensional isolators is necessary to protect them from earthquakes. Development of three-dimensional isolators for base-isolated buildings may not be practical because of its high cost and of the difficulty in suppressing a rocking motion. One of the practical methods for protecting these equipments may be use of a three-dimensional seismic floor isolation system, on which they are set up. A three-dimensional seismic isolation floor system has been developed, where the isolator is constructed by the combination of an air spring and a laminated rubber bearing. In general, isolated structure should be sufficiently stiff relative to an isolator. In three-dimensional seismic isolation floor systems, however, vertical stiffness of floor structure is limited as compared with an isolator, and load distribution on the isolated floor is non-uniform. Therefore, bending deformations of floor structure is easily caused by vertical seismic motion. The use of air springs as vertical isolators enables to attain uniform vertical motion without bending deformations, because its vertical stiffness is proportional to air pressure i.e. its supporting load. The present three-dimensional seismic isolation floor system has been

  1. [Analysis of an Air Pollution Process Using LiDAR in Nanjing, Spring of 2014].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Qing; He, Jun-liang; Zha, Yong; Cheng, Feng; Li, Qian-nan

    2015-04-01

    Based on environmental monitoring data, meteorological data and the results of numerical simulation, a typical air pollution process in Nanjing, from 26th May to 1st June, 2014 was deeply analyzed combining aerosol extinction coefficient derived from LiDAR system. Experimental results showed that the entire pollution process was affected by both local pollution and exogenous inputs including dust and smoke. Meteorological factors played a significant role in the generation and elimination of pollutants. Low pressure and temperature inversion also hindered the diffusion of pollutants, while strong rainfall terminated the pollution process. During the pollution, the height of atmospheric boundary layer was lower than normal situation and changed little during the pollution period, which provided a poor diffusion condition for pollutants. LiDAR could accurately detect aerosol vertical structure which was able to capture the temporal and spatial variation of pollutant distributions. Therefore, LiDAR can be of great significance for the atmospheric pollution monitoring. PMID:26164889

  2. Source attribution and interannual variability of Arctic pollution in spring constrained by aircraft (ARCTAS, ARCPAC) and satellite (AIRS) observations of carbon monoxide

    OpenAIRE

    J. A. Fisher; D. J. Jacob; Purdy, M. T.; Kopacz, M.; Sager, P; C. Carouge; C. D. Holmes; R. M. Yantosca; R. L. Batchelor; Strong, K.; G. S. Diskin; H. E. Fuelberg; Holloway, J. S.; E. J. Hyer; Mcmillan, W. W.

    2010-01-01

    We use aircraft observations of carbon monoxide (CO) from the NASA ARCTAS and NOAA ARCPAC campaigns in April 2008 together with multiyear (2003–2008) CO satellite data from the AIRS instrument and a global chemical transport model (GEOS-Chem) to better understand the sources, transport, and interannual variability of pollution in the Arctic in spring. Model simulation of the aircraft data gives best estimates of CO emissions in April 2008 of 26 Tg month fo...

  3. Research on 3-D base isolation system applied to new power reactor 3-D seismic isolation device with rolling seal type air spring: Pt.2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A three dimensional seismic base isolation device was developed for heavy structures and buildings such as nuclear power reactor buildings. The device realizes 3-D isolation by combining a LRB (laminated rubber bearing) for horizontal isolation with an air spring for vertical isolation in series. In this study, scale models of the 3-D base isolation device were made and were tested to examine the dynamic properties and ultimate strengths of the device. The performance of the device under earthquake excitation was examined through shaking table tests of 1/7 scale models. As the results, it was confirmed that the device worked smoothly under the horizontal and vertical excitations, and that the theoretical formulae of the orifice damping could explain the test results. The high-pressure air springs of trial production were forced to burst to find out which factor influenced ultimate strength. It was confirmed from results of the burst test that the strength of the air spring depended upon the diameter of rolling part of the bellows and the number of layers of the reinforcing fibers. Judging from the results of the shaking table test and the burst test, the developed 3-D base isolation device was applicable to a nuclear power plant building. (authors)

  4. Contribution of 222Rn-bearing water to indoor radon and indoor air quality assessment in hot spring hotels of Guangdong, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study investigates the contribution of radon (222Rn)-bearing water to indoor 222Rn in thermal baths. The 222Rn concentrations in air were monitored in the bathroom and the bedroom. Particulate matter (PM, both PM10 and PM2.5) and carbon dioxide (CO2) were also monitored with portable analyzers. The bathrooms were supplied with hot spring water containing 66-260 kBq m-3 of 222Rn. The results show that the spray of hot spring water from the bath spouts is the dominant mechanism by which 222Rn is released into the air of the bathroom, and then it diffuses into the bedroom. Average 222Rn level was 110-410% higher in the bedrooms and 510-1200% higher in the bathrooms compared to the corresponding average levels when there was no use of hot spring water. The indoor 222Rn levels were influenced by the 222Rn concentrations in the hot spring water and the bathing times. The average 222Rn transfer coefficients from water to air were 6.2 x 10-4-4.1 x 10-3. The 24-h average levels of CO2 and PM10 in the hotel rooms were 89% and 22% higher than the present Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) standard of China. The main particle pollutant in the hotel rooms was PM2.5. Radon and PM10 levels in some hotel rooms were at much higher concentrations than guideline levels, and thus the potential health risks to tourists and especially to the hotel workers should be of great concern, and measures should be taken to lower inhalation exposure to these air pollutants. - Highlights: → 222Rn-bearing water is the main contributor to indoor radon in hot spring hotel. → The PM2.5 and CO2 are also the main indoor pollutants in the hotel rooms. → Higher radon and PM levels might have significant negative health effects to human. → The radon transfer coefficients are consistent with the published data.

  5. Impact of anthropogenic emission on air quality over a megacity - revealed from an intensive atmospheric campaign during the Chinese Spring Festival

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, K.; Zhuang, G.; Lin, Y.; Wang, Q.; Fu, J. S.; Zhang, R.; Li, J.; Deng, C.; Fu, Q.

    2012-12-01

    The Chinese Spring Festival is one of the most important traditional festivals in China. The peak transport in the Spring Festival season (spring travel rush) provides a unique opportunity for investigating the impact of human activity on air quality in the Chinese megacities. Emission sources are varied and fluctuate greatly before, during and after the Festival. Increased vehicular emissions during the "spring travel rush" before the 2009 Festival resulted in high level pollutants of NOx (270 μg m-3), CO (2572 μg m-3), black carbon (BC) (8.5 μg m-3) and extremely low single scattering albedo of 0.76 in Shanghai, indicating strong, fresh combustion. Organics contributed most to PM2.5, followed by NO3-, NH4+, and SO42-. During the Chinese Lunar New Year's Eve and Day, widespread usage of fireworks caused heavy pollution of extremely high aerosol concentration, scattering coefficient, SO2, and NOx. Due to the "spring travel rush" after the festival, anthropogenic emissions gradually climbed and mirrored corresponding increases in the aerosol components and gaseous pollutants. Secondary inorganic aerosol (SO42-, NO3-, and NH4+) accounted for a dominant fraction of 74% in PM2.5 due to an increase in human activity. There was a greater demand for energy as vast numbers of people using public transportation or driving their own vehicles returned home after the Festival. Factories and constructions sites were operating again. The potential source contribution function (PSCF) analysis illustrated the possible source areas for air pollutants of Shanghai. The effects of regional and long-range transport were both revealed. Five major sources, i.e. natural sources, vehicular emissions, burning of fireworks, industrial and metallurgical emissions, and coal burning were identified using the principle component analysis. The average visibility during the whole study period was less than 6 km. It had been estimated that 50% of the total light extinction was due to the high

  6. 3D seismic isolation for advanced N.P.P. application. Development of three-dimensional base isolation system with cable reinforcing air spring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Japan, the study on the development of a three-dimensional base isolation system to be applied to a commercialized FBR plant, which requires the supreme safety for equipment/piping systems against severe earthquakes, has been carried out since 2000. The system is also expected to reduce the construction cost compared with existing two-dimensional base isolation systems. Furthermore, it is also expected to establish a site-free three-dimensional base isolation system design standard for nuclear power plants. An idea with the concept of a cable reinforcing air spring was proposed as the three-dimensional base isolation device. The dimension of the air spring applying to the actual nuclear power plant is 8 meters in outer-diameter and 3.5 meters in height. The allowable half strokes are 1.0 meters in horizontal direction and 0.5 meters in vertical direction, respectively. The supporting weight for a single device is 52 MN, where the inner air pressure is about 1.4 MPa. This device enables to realize three-dimensional base isolation with a single device, whose natural periods are about 4 seconds in horizontal and about 3 seconds in vertical. Furthermore, this device does not require precise mechanical parts but just common building materials, which are steel, cable wire, polyester fabric and a rubber sheet. So, the construction cost for this device could be on the inexpensive level. (author)

  7. Impact of anthropogenic emission on air-quality over a megacity – revealed from an intensive atmospheric campaign during the Chinese Spring Festival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Deng

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The Chinese Spring Festival is one of the most important traditional festivals in China. The peak transport in the Spring Festival season (spring travel rush provides a unique opportunity for investigating the impact of human activities on air quality in the Chinese megacities as emission sources varied and fluctuated greatly prior to, during and after the festival. Enhanced vehicular emission during the spring travel rush before the festival resulted in high level pollutants of NOx (270 μg m−3, CO (2572 μg m−3, BC (8.5 μg m−3 and extremely low single scattering albedo of 0.70, indicating strong fresh combustion. Organics contributed most to PM2.5, followed by NO3−, NH4+, and SO42−. During the Chinese Lunar New Year's Eve and Day, widespread usage of fireworks burning caused heavy pollution of extremely high aerosol mass concentration, scattering coefficient, SO2 and NOx. Due to the spring travel rush after the festival, anthropogenic emission gradually climbed and mirrored corresponding increases in the aerosol components and gaseous pollutants. Secondary inorganic aerosol (SO42−, NO3−, and NH4+ accounted for a dominant fraction of 74% in PM2.5 due to the enhanced human activities, e.g. higher demand of energy usage from returned residents and re-open of factories and construction sites, more vehicle mileages due to returned workers and expanded public transportation. The average visibility during whole study period was less than 6 km. It was estimated that about 50% of the total light extinction was due to the high water vapor in the atmosphere. Of the aerosol extinction, organic aerosol had the largest contribution of 47%, followed by sulfate ammonium, nitrate ammonium and EC of 22%, 14%, and 12%, respectively. Our results indicated the dominant role of traffic-related aerosol species (i.e. organic aerosol, nitrate and EC on the formation of air pollution, and suggested the importance of controlling vehicle numbers and

  8. Impact of anthropogenic emission on air-quality over a megacity - revealed from an intensive atmospheric campaign during the Chinese Spring Festival

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, K.; Zhuang, G.; Lin, Y.; Wang, Q.; Fu, J. S.; Zhang, R.; Li, J.; Deng, C.; Fu, Q.

    2012-07-01

    The Chinese Spring Festival is one of the most important traditional festivals in China. The peak transport in the Spring Festival season (spring travel rush) provides a unique opportunity for investigating the impact of human activities on air quality in the Chinese megacities as emission sources varied and fluctuated greatly prior to, during and after the festival. Enhanced vehicular emission during the spring travel rush before the festival resulted in high level pollutants of NOx (270 μg m-3), CO (2572 μg m-3), BC (8.5 μg m-3) and extremely low single scattering albedo of 0.70, indicating strong fresh combustion. Organics contributed most to PM2.5, followed by NO3-, NH4+, and SO42-. During the Chinese Lunar New Year's Eve and Day, widespread usage of fireworks burning caused heavy pollution of extremely high aerosol mass concentration, scattering coefficient, SO2 and NOx. Due to the spring travel rush after the festival, anthropogenic emission gradually climbed and mirrored corresponding increases in the aerosol components and gaseous pollutants. Secondary inorganic aerosol (SO42-, NO3-, and NH4+) accounted for a dominant fraction of 74% in PM2.5 due to the enhanced human activities, e.g. higher demand of energy usage from returned residents and re-open of factories and construction sites, more vehicle mileages due to returned workers and expanded public transportation. The average visibility during whole study period was less than 6 km. It was estimated that about 50% of the total light extinction was due to the high water vapor in the atmosphere. Of the aerosol extinction, organic aerosol had the largest contribution of 47%, followed by sulfate ammonium, nitrate ammonium and EC of 22%, 14%, and 12%, respectively. Our results indicated the dominant role of traffic-related aerosol species (i.e. organic aerosol, nitrate and EC) on the formation of air pollution, and suggested the importance of controlling vehicle numbers and emissions in mega-cities of China

  9. Source attribution and interannual variability of Arctic pollution in spring constrained by aircraft (ARCTAS, ARCPAC and satellite (AIRS observations of carbon monoxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Fisher

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available We use aircraft observations of carbon monoxide (CO from the NASA ARCTAS and NOAA ARCPAC campaigns in April 2008 together with multiyear (2003–2008 CO satellite data from the AIRS instrument and a global chemical transport model (GEOS-Chem to better understand the sources, transport, and interannual variability of pollution in the Arctic in spring. Model simulation of the aircraft data gives best estimates of CO emissions in April 2008 of 26 Tg month−1 for Asian anthropogenic, 9.4 for European anthropogenic, 4.1 for North American anthropogenic, 15 for Russian biomass burning (anomalously large that year, and 23 for Southeast Asian biomass burning. We find that Asian anthropogenic emissions are the dominant source of Arctic CO pollution everywhere except in surface air where European anthropogenic emissions are of similar importance. Russian biomass burning makes little contribution to mean CO (reflecting the long CO lifetime but makes a large contribution to CO variability in the form of combustion plumes. Analysis of two pollution events sampled by the aircraft demonstrates that AIRS can successfully observe pollution transport to the Arctic in the mid-troposphere. The 2003–2008 record of CO from AIRS shows that interannual variability averaged over the Arctic cap is very small. AIRS CO columns over Alaska are highly correlated with the Ocean Niño Index, suggesting a link between El Niño and Asian pollution transport to the Arctic. AIRS shows lower-than-average CO columns over Alaska during April 2008, despite the Russian fires, due to a weakened Aleutian Low hindering transport from Asia and associated with the moderate 2007–2008 La Niña. This suggests that Asian pollution influence over the Arctic may be particularly large under strong El Niño conditions.

  10. Source attribution and interannual variability of Arctic pollution in spring constrained by aircraft (ARCTAS, ARCPAC and satellite (AIRS observations of carbon monoxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Fisher

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available We use aircraft observations of carbon monoxide (CO from the NASA ARCTAS and NOAA ARCPAC campaigns in April 2008 together with multiyear (2003–2008 CO satellite data from the AIRS instrument and a global chemical transport model (GEOS-Chem to better understand the sources, transport, and interannual variability of pollution in the Arctic in spring. Model simulation of the aircraft data gives best estimates of CO emissions in April 2008 of 26 Tg month for Asian anthropogenic, 9.1 for European anthropogenic, 4.2 for North American anthropogenic, 9.3 for Russian biomass burning (anomalously large that year, and 21 for Southeast Asian biomass burning. We find that Asian anthropogenic emissions are the dominant source of Arctic CO pollution everywhere except in surface air where European anthropogenic emissions are of similar importance. Synoptic pollution influences in the Arctic free troposphere include contributions of comparable magnitude from Russian biomass burning and from North American, European, and Asian anthropogenic sources. European pollution dominates synoptic variability near the surface. Analysis of two pollution events sampled by the aircraft demonstrates that AIRS is capable of observing pollution transport to the Arctic in the mid-troposphere. The 2003–2008 record of CO from AIRS shows that interannual variability averaged over the Arctic cap is very small. AIRS CO columns over Alaska are highly correlated with the Ocean Niño Index, suggesting a link between El Niño and northward pollution transport. AIRS shows lower-than-average CO columns over Alaska during April 2008, despite the Russian fires, due to a weakened Aleutian Low hindering transport from Asia and associated with the moderate 2007–2008 La Niña. This suggests that Asian pollution influence over the Arctic may be particularly large under strong El Niño conditions.

  11. Source Attribution and Interannual Variability of Arctic Pollution in Spring Constrained by Aircraft (ARCTAS, ARCPAC) and Satellite (AIRS) Observations of Carbon Monoxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, J. A.; Jacob, D. J.; Purdy, M. T.; Kopacz, M.; LeSager, P.; Carouge, C.; Holmes, C. D.; Yantosca, R. M.; Batchelor, R. L.; Strong, K.; Diskin, G. S.; Fuelberg, H. E.; Holloway, J. S.; McMillan, W. W.; Warner, J.; Streets, D. G.; Zhang, Q.; Wang, Y.; Wu, S.

    2009-01-01

    We use aircraft observations of carbon monoxide (CO) from the NASA ARCTAS and NOAA ARCPAC campaigns in April 2008 together with multiyear (2003-2008) CO satellite data from the AIRS instrument and a global chemical transport model (GEOS-Chem) to better understand the sources, transport, and interannual variability of pollution in the Arctic in spring. Model simulation of the aircraft data gives best estimates of CO emissions in April 2008 of 26 Tg month-1 for Asian anthropogenic, 9.1 for European anthropogenic, 4.2 for North American anthropogenic, 9.3 for Russian biomass burning (anomalously large that year), and 21 for Southeast Asian biomass burning. We find that Asian anthropogenic emissions are the dominant source of Arctic CO pollution everywhere except in surface air where European anthropogenic emissions are of similar importance. Synoptic pollution influences in the Arctic free troposphere include contributions of comparable magnitude from Russian biomass burning and from North American, European, and Asian anthropogenic sources. European pollution dominates synoptic variability near the surface. Analysis of two pollution events sampled by the aircraft demonstrates that AIRS is capable of observing pollution transport to the Arctic in the mid-troposphere. The 2003-2008 record of CO from AIRS shows that interannual variability averaged over the Arctic cap is very small. AIRS CO columns over Alaska are highly correlated with the Ocean Nino Index, suggesting a link between El Nino and northward pollution transport. AIRS shows lower-than-average CO columns over Alaska during April 2008, despite the Russian fires, due to a weakened Aleutian Low hindering transport from Asia and associated with the moderate 2007-2008 La Nina. This suggests that Asian pollution influence over the Arctic may be particularly large under strong El Nino conditions.

  12. Impact of anthropogenic emission on air quality over a megacity – revealed from an intensive atmospheric campaign during the Chinese Spring Festival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Huang

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The Chinese Spring Festival is one of the most important traditional festivals in China. The peak transport in the Spring Festival season (spring travel rush provides a unique opportunity for investigating the impact of human activity on air quality in the Chinese megacities. Emission sources are varied and fluctuate greatly before, during and after the Festival. Increased vehicular emissions during the "spring travel rush" before the 2009 Festival resulted in high level pollutants of NOx (270 μg m−3, CO (2572 μg m−3, black carbon (BC (8.5 μg m−3 and extremely low single scattering albedo of 0.76 in Shanghai, indicating strong, fresh combustion. Organics contributed most to PM2.5, followed by NO3, NH4+, and SO42−. During the Chinese Lunar New Year's Eve and Day, widespread usage of fireworks caused heavy pollution of extremely high aerosol concentration, scattering coefficient, SO2, and NOx. Due to the "spring travel rush" after the festival, anthropogenic emissions gradually climbed and mirrored corresponding increases in the aerosol components and gaseous pollutants. Secondary inorganic aerosol (SO42−, NO3, and NH4+ accounted for a dominant fraction of 74% in PM2.5 due to an increase in human activity. There was a greater demand for energy as vast numbers of people using public transportation or driving their own vehicles returned home after the Festival. Factories and constructions sites were operating again.

    The potential source contribution function (PSCF analysis illustrated the possible source areas for air pollutants of Shanghai. The effects of regional and long-range transport were both revealed. Five major sources, i.e. natural sources, vehicular emissions, burning of fireworks, industrial

  13. Safety analysis of railway vehicle in leakage process of air spring%车辆系统空气弹簧失气安全性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高浩; 罗仁; 池茂儒; 戴焕云

    2012-01-01

    The leakage model of air spring with stiffness decay characteristics and the nonlinear stick-slip contact model were established. The dynamic process in loss of gas and the state of emergency after loss of gas were simulated by combining the two models with vehicle system dynamics. The stability of vehicle system with air spring failure was analyzed. The impact of air spring's sudden leakage on the dynamics performance of vehicle was simulated. The running safeties of vehicle under different times of loss of gas, different speeds and curve negotiation conditions were studied. Analysis result shows that the critical speed of vehicle system with air spring failure significantly decreases from 623 km ·h^-1 to 351 km ·h^-1. Because of air spring's sudden leakage, wheel-rail vertical force decreases and reduction rate of wheel load increases. The shorter the leakage process is, the greater reduction rate of wheel load is. It reaches 0. 651 when the leakage time is 0.2 s. The influence of speed on reduction rate of wheel load and wheelrail force is not obvious when vehicle speed is less than 300 km ·h^-1. But, when it is greater than 300 km ·h^-1 , reduction rate of wheel load increases rapidly with speed increase. Leakage occuring on circular curve is most dangerous when vehicle runs, and the maximum of reduction rate of wheel load is 0. 652. 2 tabs, 12 figs, 15 refs.%建立了具有刚度衰变特性的空气弹簧失气模型和非线性粘滑接触模型,结合车辆系统动力学,模拟空气弹簧失气动态过程与失气后的应急状态,分析了空气弹簧失气后车辆系统的稳定性与空气弹簧突然失气对车辆动力学性能的影响,研究了不同失气过程时长、运行速度与曲线通过工况下空气弹簧失气车辆的安全性。计算结果表明:空气弹簧失气后车辆临界速度由623km.h-1大幅降低为351km.h-1。空气弹簧突然失气导致轮轨垂向力减小,轮重减载率增大,且失气过程越短,

  14. Framework Spring

    OpenAIRE

    Bobkov, Pavel

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the thesis is to introduce reader to the Spring framework and describe it as a convenient tool for rapid application development and launching projects. It is necessary to grab the Spring issue in a broader context. That's why thesis is trying to note all the relevant technologies that are closely related to Spring, or which is Spring based on. The first step to understanding Spring is a basic knowledge of Java EE. Thesis presents the architecture of Java EE while arguing its flaws...

  15. Net sea-air CO2 fluxes and modelled pCO2 in the southwestern subtropical Atlantic continental shelf during spring 2010 and summer 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Rosane Gonçalves; Garcia, Carlos Alberto Eiras; Tavano, Virginia Maria

    2016-05-01

    Sea-air CO2 fluxes over continental shelves vary substantially in time on both seasonal and sub-seasonal scales, driven primarily by variations in surface pCO2 due to several oceanic mechanisms. Furthermore, coastal zones have not been appropriately considered in global estimates of sea-air CO2 fluxes, despite their importance to ecology and to productivity. In this work, we aimed to improve our understanding of the role played by shelf waters in controlling sea-air CO2 fluxes by investigating the southwestern Atlantic Ocean (21-35°S) region, where physical, chemical and biological measurements were made on board the Brazilian R. V. Cruzeiro do Sul during late spring 2010 and early summer 2011. Features such as discharge from the La Plata River, intrusions of tropical waters on the outer shelf due to meandering and flow instabilities of the Brazil Current, and coastal upwelling in the Santa Marta Grande Cape and São Tomé Cape were detected by both in situ measurements and ocean colour and thermal satellite imagery. Overall, shelf waters in the study area were a source of CO2 to the atmosphere, with an average of 1.2 mmol CO2 m-2 day-1 for the late spring and 11.2 mmol CO2 m-2 day-1 for the early summer cruises. The spatial variability in ocean pCO2 was associated with surface ocean properties (temperature, salinity and chlorophyll-a concentration) in both the slope and shelf waters. Empirical algorithms for predicting temperature-normalized surface ocean pCO2 as a function of surface ocean properties were shown to perform well in both shelf and slope waters, except (a) within cyclonic eddies produced by baroclinic instability of the Brazil Current as detected by satellite SST imagery and (b) in coastal upwelling regions. In these regions, surface ocean pCO2 values were higher as a result of upwelled CO2-enriched subsurface waters. Finally, a pCO2 algorithm based on both sea surface temperature and surface chlorophyll-a was developed that enabled the spatial

  16. Distributions and sea-to-air fluxes of chloroform, trichloroethylene, tetrachloroethylene, chlorodibromomethane and bromoform in the Yellow Sea and the East China Sea during spring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halocarbons including chloroform (CHCl3), trichloroethylene (C2HCl3), tetrachloroethylene (C2Cl4), chlorodibromomethane (CHBr2Cl) and bromoform (CHBr3) were measured in the Yellow Sea (YS) and the East China Sea (ECS) during spring 2011. The influences of chlorophyll a, salinity and nutrients on the distributions of these gases were examined. Elevated levels of these gases in the coastal waters were attributed to anthropogenic inputs and biological release by phytoplankton. The vertical distributions of these gases in the water column were controlled by different source strengths and water masses. Using atmospheric concentrations measured in spring 2012 and seawater concentrations obtained from this study, the sea-to-air fluxes of these gases were estimated. Our results showed that the emissions of C2HCl3, C2Cl4, CHBr2Cl, and CHBr3 from the study area could account for 16.5%, 10.5%, 14.6%, and 3.5% of global oceanic emissions, respectively, indicating that the coastal shelf may contribute significantly to the global oceanic emissions of these gases. -- Highlights: ► Distributions of the VHCs were studied in the YS and the ECS. ► Elevated levels of VHCs were related to terrestrial input from the Yangtze River. ► Biogenic production from diatoms was an important source of the VHCs. ► Shelf seas could significantly contribute to the global oceanic VHCs emission. -- The elevated levels of the volatile halocarbons in the coastal waters were attributed to anthropogenic inputs and biological release by phytoplankton (e.g., diatoms)

  17. Arctic smoke – record high air pollution levels in the European Arctic due to agricultural fires in Eastern Europe in spring 2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Stohl

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In spring 2006, the European Arctic was abnormally warm, setting new historical temperature records. During this warm period, smoke from agricultural fires in Eastern Europe intruded into the European Arctic and caused the most severe air pollution episodes ever recorded there. This paper confirms that biomass burning (BB was indeed the source of the observed air pollution, studies the transport of the smoke into the Arctic, and presents an overview of the observations taken during the episode. Fire detections from the MODIS instruments aboard the Aqua and Terra satellites were used to estimate the BB emissions. The FLEXPART particle dispersion model was used to show that the smoke was transported to Spitsbergen and Iceland, which was confirmed by MODIS retrievals of the aerosol optical depth (AOD and AIRS retrievals of carbon monoxide (CO total columns. Concentrations of halocarbons, carbon dioxide and CO, as well as levoglucosan and potassium, measured at Zeppelin mountain near Ny Ålesund, were used to further corroborate the BB source of the smoke at Spitsbergen. The ozone (O3 and CO concentrations were the highest ever observed at the Zeppelin station, and gaseous elemental mercury was also elevated. A new O3 record was also set at a station on Iceland. The smoke was strongly absorbing – black carbon concentrations were the highest ever recorded at Zeppelin – and strongly perturbed the radiation transmission in the atmosphere: aerosol optical depths were the highest ever measured at Ny Ålesund. We furthermore discuss the aerosol chemical composition, obtained from filter samples, as well as the aerosol size distribution during the smoke event. Photographs show that the snow at a glacier on Spitsbergen became discolored during the episode and, thus, the snow albedo was reduced. Samples of this polluted snow contained strongly elevated levels of potassium, sulphate, nitrate and ammonium ions, thus relating the discoloration to the

  18. Just Spring

    CERN Document Server

    Konda, Madhusudhan

    2011-01-01

    Get a concise introduction to Spring, the increasingly popular open source framework for building lightweight enterprise applications on the Java platform. This example-driven book for Java developers delves into the framework's basic features, as well as advanced concepts such as containers. You'll learn how Spring makes Java Messaging Service easier to work with, and how its support for Hibernate helps you work with data persistence and retrieval. Throughout Just Spring, you'll get your hands deep into sample code, beginning with a problem that illustrates dependency injection, Spring's co

  19. Beginning Spring

    CERN Document Server

    Caliskan, Mert

    2015-01-01

    Get up to speed quickly with this comprehensive guide toSpring Beginning Spring is the complete beginner's guide toJava's most popular framework. Written with an eye towardreal-world enterprises, the book covers all aspects of applicationdevelopment within the Spring Framework. Extensive samples withineach chapter allow developers to get up to speed quickly byproviding concrete references for experimentation, building askillset that drives successful application development byexploiting the full capabilities of Java's latest advances. Spring provides the exact toolset required to build anent

  20. The impacts of fireworks burning at Chinese Spring Festival on air quality and human health: insights of tracers, source evolution and aging processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, S.; Li, L.; Li, X.; Yin, Y.; Chen, K.; Liu, D.; Yuan, L.; Zhang, Y.; Shan, Y.; Ji, Y.

    2014-11-01

    To understand the impact of fireworks burning (FW) particles on air quality and human health during winter haze period, thirty-nine elements, ten water-soluble ions and eight fractions of carbonaceous species in atmospheric PM2.5 at Nanjing were investigated during 2014 Chinese Spring Festival (SF). Serious regional haze pollution persisted throughout the entire sampling period, PM2.5 averaging at 113 ± 69 μg m-3 and visibility at 4.8 ± 3.2 km. The holiday effect led to almost all the chemical species decreasing during the SF, except for Al, K, Ba and Sr which were related to FW. The source contributions of coal combustion, vehicle emission and road dust descreased dramatically, whereas FW contributed to about half of the PM2.5 during SF period. The intensive emission of FW particles at New Year's Eve accounted for 60.1% of the PM2.5. They also significnatly modified the chemical compositions of PM2.5, with 39.3% contributed by increased organic matter, followed by steadly increased loadings of secondary inorganic ions. The aging processes of the FW particles lasted for at least six days reflected by the variation of SO42-, characterized by heterogeneous reactions of SO2 and NOx on crustal materials directly from FW, the replacement of Cl- by NO3- and SO42- coating of NO3- and SO42- on soot, formation of secondary organic aerosols and metal-catalyzed formation of NO3- and SO42- at higher relative humidity. During aging, the main contributors to the extinction coefficient shifted from elemental carbon and organic matter to sulfate ammonium. The particles raised higher cancer risks by heavy metals (especially for Cd and As) as 1.62 ×10-6. This study provided detailed composition data and first comprehensive analysis of the aging processes of FW particles at serious haze pollution period and their potential impact on human health.

  1. The impacts of firework burning at the Chinese Spring Festival on air quality: insights of tracers, source evolution and aging processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, S. F.; Li, L.; Li, X. X.; Yin, Y.; Chen, K.; Liu, D. T.; Yuan, L.; Zhang, Y. J.; Shan, Y. P.; Ji, Y. Q.

    2015-02-01

    To understand the impact of firework-burning (FW) particles on air quality and human health during the winter haze period, 39 elements, 10 water-soluble ions and 8 fractions of carbonaceous species in atmospheric PM2.5 in Nanjing were investigated during the 2014 Chinese Spring Festival (SF). Serious regional haze pollution persisted throughout the entire sampling period, with PM2.5 averaging at 113 ± 69 μg m-3 and visibility at 4.8 ± 3.2 km. The holiday effect led to almost all the chemical species decreasing during the SF, except for Al, K, Ba and Sr which were related to FW. The source contributions of coal combustion, vehicle emission and road dust decreased dramatically, whereas FW contributed to about half of the PM2.5 during the SF period. The intensive emission of FW particles on New Year's Eve accounted for 60.1% of the PM2.5. Fireworks also obviously modified the chemical compositions of PM2.5, with 39.3% contributed by increased organic matter, followed by steadily increased loadings of secondary inorganic ions. The aging processes of the FW particles lasted for about 4 days reflected by the variations of Ba, Sr, NH4+, NO3-, SO42- and K+, characterized by heterogeneous reactions of SO2 and NOx on crustal materials directly from FW, the replacement of Cl- by NO3- and SO42-, coating of NO3- and SO42- on soot, formation of secondary organic aerosols and metal-catalyzed formation of NO3- and SO42- at higher relative humidity. During aging, the main contributors to the extinction coefficient shifted from elemental carbon and organic matter to ammonium sulfate. The particles raised higher cancer risk of 1.62 × 10-6 by heavy metals (especially for Cd and As). This study provided detailed composition data and first comprehensive analysis of the aging processes of FW particles during the serious haze pollution period and their potential impact on human health.

  2. The impacts of fireworks burning at Chinese Spring Festival on air quality and human health: insights of tracers, source evolution and aging processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kong

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available To understand the impact of fireworks burning (FW particles on air quality and human health during winter haze period, thirty-nine elements, ten water-soluble ions and eight fractions of carbonaceous species in atmospheric PM2.5 at Nanjing were investigated during 2014 Chinese Spring Festival (SF. Serious regional haze pollution persisted throughout the entire sampling period, PM2.5 averaging at 113 ± 69 μg m−3 and visibility at 4.8 ± 3.2 km. The holiday effect led to almost all the chemical species decreasing during the SF, except for Al, K, Ba and Sr which were related to FW. The source contributions of coal combustion, vehicle emission and road dust descreased dramatically, whereas FW contributed to about half of the PM2.5 during SF period. The intensive emission of FW particles at New Year's Eve accounted for 60.1% of the PM2.5. They also significnatly modified the chemical compositions of PM2.5, with 39.3% contributed by increased organic matter, followed by steadly increased loadings of secondary inorganic ions. The aging processes of the FW particles lasted for at least six days reflected by the variation of SO42−, characterized by heterogeneous reactions of SO2 and NOx on crustal materials directly from FW, the replacement of Cl− by NO3− and SO42− coating of NO3− and SO42− on soot, formation of secondary organic aerosols and metal-catalyzed formation of NO3− and SO42− at higher relative humidity. During aging, the main contributors to the extinction coefficient shifted from elemental carbon and organic matter to sulfate ammonium. The particles raised higher cancer risks by heavy metals (especially for Cd and As as 1.62 ×10−6. This study provided detailed composition data and first comprehensive analysis of the aging processes of FW particles at serious haze pollution period and their potential impact on human health.

  3. Air

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... house) Industrial emissions (like smoke and chemicals from factories) Household cleaners (spray cleaners, air fresheners) Car emissions (like carbon monoxide) *All of these things make up “particle pollution.” They mostly come from cars, trucks, buses, and ...

  4. Air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In recent years several regulations and standards for air quality and limits for air pollution were issued or are in preparation by the European Union, which have severe influence on the environmental monitoring and legislation in Austria. This chapter of the environmental control report of Austria gives an overview about the legal situation of air pollution control in the European Union and in specific the legal situation in Austria. It gives a comprehensive inventory of air pollution measurements for the whole area of Austria of total suspended particulates, ozone, volatile organic compounds, nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide, heavy metals, benzene, dioxin, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and eutrophication. For each of these pollutants the measured emission values throughout Austria are given in tables and geographical charts, the environmental impact is discussed, statistical data and time series of the emission sources are given and legal regulations and measures for an effective environmental pollution control are discussed. In particular the impact of fossil-fuel power plants on the air pollution is analyzed. (a.n.)

  5. Variable stiffness torsion springs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhorn, Dean C. (Inventor); Polites, Michael E. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    In a torsion spring the spring action is a result of the relationships between the torque applied in twisting the spring, the angle through which the torsion spring twists, and the modulus of elasticity of the spring material in shear. Torsion springs employed industrially have been strips, rods, or bars, generally termed shafts, capabable of being flexed by twisting their axes. They rely on the variations in shearing forces to furnish an internal restoring torque. In the torsion springs herein the restoring torque is external and therefore independent of the shearing modulus of elasticity of the torsion spring shaft. Also provided herein is a variable stiffness torsion spring. This torsion spring can be so adjusted as to have a given spring constant. Such variable stiffness torsion springs are extremely useful in gimballed payloads such as sensors, telescopes, and electronic devices on such platforms as a space shuttle or a space station.

  6. 春天%Spring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    @@ Days get longer and warmer in the spring. There are new leaves on the trees. Flowers begin to grow. Spring rain makes the grass green and helps the plants grow. Nature wears new clothes in many colors red, yellow, blue, white and purple. Spring is the time of new life. I love spring.

  7. Thermal springs of Wyoming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breckenridge, R.M.; Hinckley, B.S.

    1978-01-01

    This bulletin attempts, first, to provide a comprehensive inventory of the thermal springs of Wyoming; second, to explore the geologic and hydrologic factors producing these springs; and, third, to analyze the springs collectively as an indicator of the geothermal resources of the state. A general discussion of the state's geology and the mechanisms of thermal spring production, along with a brief comparison of Wyoming's springs with worldwide thermal features are included. A discussion of geothermal energy resources, a guide for visitors, and an analysis of the flora of Wyoming's springs follow the spring inventory. The listing and analysis of Wyoming's thermal springs are arranged alphabetically by county. Tabulated data are given on elevation, ownership, access, water temperature, and flow rate. Each spring system is described and its history, general characteristics and uses, geology, hydrology, and chemistry are discussed. (MHR)

  8. Instant Spring Tool Suite

    CERN Document Server

    Chiang, Geoff

    2013-01-01

    Filled with practical, step-by-step instructions and clear explanations for the most important and useful tasks. A tutorial guide that walks you through how to use the features of Spring Tool Suite using well defined sections for the different parts of Spring.Instant Spring Tool Suite is for novice to intermediate Java developers looking to get a head-start in enterprise application development using Spring Tool Suite and the Spring framework. If you are looking for a guide for effective application development using Spring Tool Suite, then this book is for you.

  9. Comparison of different methods to calibrate torsional spring constant and photodetector for atomic force microscopy friction measurements in air and liquid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A number of atomic force microscopy cantilevers have been exhaustively calibrated by a number of techniques to obtain both normal and frictional force constants to evaluate the relative accuracy of the different methods. These were of either direct or indirect character--the latter relies on cantilever resonant frequencies. The so-called Sader [Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70, 3967 (1999)] and Cleveland [Rev. Sci. Instrum. 64, 403 (1993)] techniques are compared for the normal force constant calibration and while agreement was good, a systematic difference was observed. For the torsional force constants, all the techniques displayed a certain scatter but the agreement was highly encouraging. By far the simplest technique is that of Sader, and it is suggested in view of this validation that this method should be generally adopted. The issue of the photodetector calibration is also addressed since this is necessary to obtain the cantilever twist from which the torsional force is calculated. Here a technique of obtaining the torsional photodetector sensitivity by combining the direct and indirect methods is proposed. Direct calibration measurements were conducted in liquid as well as air, and a conversion factor was obtained showing that quantitative friction measurements in liquid are equally feasible provided the correct calibration is performed

  10. Comparison of different methods to calibrate torsional spring constant and photodetector for atomic force microscopy friction measurements in air and liquid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettersson, Torbjörn; Nordgren, Niklas; Rutland, Mark W.; Feiler, Adam

    2007-09-01

    A number of atomic force microscopy cantilevers have been exhaustively calibrated by a number of techniques to obtain both normal and frictional force constants to evaluate the relative accuracy of the different methods. These were of either direct or indirect character—the latter relies on cantilever resonant frequencies. The so-called Sader [Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70, 3967 (1999)] and Cleveland [Rev. Sci. Instrum. 64, 403 (1993)] techniques are compared for the normal force constant calibration and while agreement was good, a systematic difference was observed. For the torsional force constants, all the techniques displayed a certain scatter but the agreement was highly encouraging. By far the simplest technique is that of Sader, and it is suggested in view of this validation that this method should be generally adopted. The issue of the photodetector calibration is also addressed since this is necessary to obtain the cantilever twist from which the torsional force is calculated. Here a technique of obtaining the torsional photodetector sensitivity by combining the direct and indirect methods is proposed. Direct calibration measurements were conducted in liquid as well as air, and a conversion factor was obtained showing that quantitative friction measurements in liquid are equally feasible provided the correct calibration is performed.

  11. Water Treatment Technology - Springs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross-Harrington, Melinda; Kincaid, G. David

    One of twelve water treatment technology units, this student manual on springs provides instructional materials for two competencies. (The twelve units are designed for a continuing education training course for public water supply operators.) The competencies focus on spring basin construction and spring protection. For each competency, student…

  12. Pro Spring Batch

    CERN Document Server

    Minella, Michael T

    2011-01-01

    Since its release, Spring Framework has transformed virtually every aspect of Java development including web applications, security, aspect-oriented programming, persistence, and messaging. Spring Batch, one of its newer additions, now brings the same familiar Spring idioms to batch processing. Spring Batch addresses the needs of any batch process, from the complex calculations performed in the biggest financial institutions to simple data migrations that occur with many software development projects. Pro Spring Batch is intended to answer three questions: *What? What is batch processing? What

  13. Performance Investigation of Linear Compressor With One Side Springs

    OpenAIRE

    Zou, Huiming; Shao, Shuangquan; Tang, Mingsheng; ZHANG, Liqin; Peng, Guohong

    2012-01-01

    In this paper a linear compressor prototype with a set of cylindrical coil springs connected to one side of the trestle is developed. The initial position of piston head is near to the top dead center and coil springs are on free status. The experiments on the prototype are carried out by compressing air on different working conditions. The experimental results show that the linear compressor with one side springs can take good advantage of the gas springcharacteristics of the compressed work...

  14. Framework Spring MVC

    OpenAIRE

    Jindráček, Petr

    2011-01-01

    The topic of this bachelor thesis is the web application framework Spring MVC which is an integral part of the Spring platform. That means it offers many options of adjustment and support of other significant technologies. The aim is to introduce basic principles of this framework on a theoretical level and subsequently examine them on a real example of application. The thesis is divided into three main parts. The first part is focused on Spring framework in general to introduce basic princip...

  15. Spring integration essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Pandey, Chandan

    2015-01-01

    This book is intended for developers who are either already involved with enterprise integration or planning to venture into the domain. Basic knowledge of Java and Spring is expected. For newer users, this book can be used to understand an integration scenario, what the challenges are, and how Spring Integration can be used to solve it. Prior experience of Spring Integration is not expected as this book will walk you through all the code examples.

  16. Pro Spring Integration

    CERN Document Server

    Lui, M; Chan, Andy; Long, Josh

    2011-01-01

    Pro Spring Integration is an authoritative book from the experts that guides you through the vast world of enterprise application integration (EAI) and application of the Spring Integration framework towards solving integration problems. The book is:. * An introduction to the concepts of enterprise application integration * A reference on building event-driven applications using Spring Integration * A guide to solving common integration problems using Spring Integration What makes this book unique is its coverage of contemporary technologies and real-world information, with a focus on common p

  17. Spring A Developer's Notebook

    CERN Document Server

    Tate, Bruce A

    2009-01-01

    This no-nonsense book quickly gets you up to speed on the new Spring open source framework. Favoring examples and practical application over theory, Spring: A Developer's Notebook features 10 code-intensive labs that'll reveal the many assets of this revolutionary, lightweight architecture. In the end, you'll understand how to produce simple, clean, and effective applications.

  18. Mockito for Spring

    CERN Document Server

    Acharya, Sujoy

    2015-01-01

    If you are an application developer with some experience in software testing and want to learn more about testing frameworks, then this technology and book is for you. Mockito for Spring will be perfect as your next step towards becoming a competent software tester with Spring and Mockito.

  19. Masters of the springs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Steffen

    2010-01-01

    flanked by villages that relied on these water recourses for agricultural production. The springs emerged in the zone separating the cemeteries from the settlements. The freshwater springs were actively incorporated into the religious landscape of the dead, by consistently erecting mounds of a particular...

  20. Executive summary: Weldon Spring Site Environmental Report for calendar year 1992. Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project, Weldon Spring, Missouri

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-06-01

    This report has been prepared to provide information about the public safety and environmental protection programs conducted by the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project. The Weldon Spring site is located in southern St. Charles County, Missouri, approximately 48 km (30 mi) west of St. Louis. The site consists of two main areas, the Weldon Spring Chemical Plant and raffinate pits and the Weldon Spring Quarry. The objectives of the Site Environmental Report are to present a summary of data from the environmental monitoring program, to characterize trends and environmental conditions at the site, and to confirm compliance with environmental and health protection standards and requirements. The report also presents the status of remedial activities and the results of monitoring these activities to assess their impacts on the public and environment. The scope of the environmental monitoring program at the Weldon Spring site has changed since it was initiated. Previously, the program focused on investigations of the extent and level of contaminants in the groundwater, surface waters, buildings, and air at the site. In 1992, the level of remedial activities required monitoring for potential impacts of those activities, particularly on surface water runoff and airborne effluents. This report includes monitoring data from routine radiological and nonradiological sampling activities. These data include estimates of dose to the public from the Weldon Spring site; estimates of effluent releases; and trends in groundwater contaminant levels. Also, applicable compliance requirements, quality assurance programs, and special studies conducted in 1992 to support environmental protection programs are reviewed.

  1. The Springs at Pipe Spring National Monument, Arizona (pisp_springs)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This is an Arc/Info coverage consisting of 5 points representing the springs, natural and man-made, at Pipe Spring National Monument, Arizona. The springs were...

  2. Learning Spring application development

    CERN Document Server

    Soni, Ravi Kant

    2015-01-01

    This book is intended for those who are interested in learning the core features of the Spring Framework. Prior knowledge of Java programming and web development concepts with basic XML knowledge is expected.

  3. Spring Bottom Trawl Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The standardized NEFSC Spring Bottom Trawl Survey was initiated in 1968 and covered an area from Cape Hatteras, NC, to Nova Scotia, Canada, at depths >27m....

  4. Cyanobacteria in ambient springs

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Cantonati, M.; Komárek, Jiří; Montejano, G.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 24, č. 4 (2015), s. 865-888. ISSN 0960-3115 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : Springs * Cyanoprokaryotes * Radiation * Nitrogen Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 2.365, year: 2014

  5. Leaf spring, and electromagnetic actuator provided with a leaf spring

    OpenAIRE

    Berkhoff, Arthur Perry; Lemmen, Remco Louis Christiaan

    2002-01-01

    The invention relates to a leaf spring for an electromagnetic actuator and to such an electromagnetic actuator. The leaf spring is formed as a whole from a disc of plate-shaped, resilient material. The leaf spring comprises a central fastening part, an outer fastening part extending therearound and at least two leaf spring arms extending between the central and outer fastening part. Viewed from the central fastening part, the leaf spring arms (23) have a first zone (24) originating from the c...

  6. Walking with springs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugar, Thomas G.; Hollander, Kevin W.; Hitt, Joseph K.

    2011-04-01

    Developing bionic ankles poses great challenges due to the large moment, power, and energy that are required at the ankle. Researchers have added springs in series with a motor to reduce the peak power and energy requirements of a robotic ankle. We developed a "robotic tendon" that reduces the peak power by altering the required motor speed. By changing the required speed, the spring acts as a "load variable transmission." If a simple motor/gearbox solution is used, one walking step would require 38.8J and a peak motor power of 257 W. Using an optimized robotic tendon, the energy required is 21.2 J and the peak motor power is reduced to 96.6 W. We show that adding a passive spring in parallel with the robotic tendon reduces peak loads but the power and energy increase. Adding a passive spring in series with the robotic tendon reduces the energy requirements. We have built a prosthetic ankle SPARKy, Spring Ankle with Regenerative Kinetics, that allows a user to walk forwards, backwards, ascend and descend stairs, walk up and down slopes as well as jog.

  7. Spring of women?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica Castillo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Terms such as “Islamic feminism” and “women’s movement” refer to those social movements of women that seek to assert their rights in Islamic societies. This brief study focuses on theses social movements of women and will presentan overview of the role and participation of women in the Arab Spring by examining news, events, press articles and opinions in order to contextualize the participation of women and feminists in the Arab Spring from a perspective of the social networking phenomenon as apparent drivers of the revolution.

  8. SpringInside

    OpenAIRE

    Norman, David

    2009-01-01

    This Master Thesis is a product development project that has been carried out in cooperation with a Swedish company called Cleaver Ways. The purpose of the project has been to develop one of Cleaver Ways patents on a new kind of bag-in-box packaging, called SpringInside. The new with SpringInside is that the tap is located in the top of the box, which for example makes it possible to fill up a glass of wine even when the bag-in-box has been placed in the middle of a table. In the bottom of th...

  9. Instant Spring security starter

    CERN Document Server

    Jagielski, Piotr

    2013-01-01

    Get to grips with a new technology, understand what it is and what it can do for you, and then get to work with the most important features and tasks. A concise guide written in an easy-to-follow format following the Starter guide approach.This book is for people who have not used Spring Security before and want to learn how to use it effectively in a short amount of time. It is assumed that readers know both Java and HTTP protocol at the level of basic web programming. The reader should also be familiar with Inversion-of-Control/Dependency Injection, preferably with the Spring framework itsel

  10. Pro Spring security

    CERN Document Server

    Scarioni, Carlo

    2013-01-01

    Security is a key element in the development of any non-trivial application. The Spring Security Framework provides a comprehensive set of functionalities to implement industry-standard authentication and authorization mechanisms for Java applications. Pro Spring Security will be a reference and advanced tutorial that will do the following: Guides you through the implementation of the security features for a Java web application by presenting consistent examples built from the ground-up. Demonstrates the different authentication and authorization methods to secure enterprise-level applications

  11. Spring batch essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Rao, P Raja Malleswara

    2015-01-01

    If you are a Java developer with basic knowledge of Spring and some experience in the development of enterprise applications, and want to learn about batch application development in detail, then this book is ideal for you. This book will be perfect as your next step towards building simple yet powerful batch applications on a Java-based platform.

  12. Spring Festival Cauplets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    In ancient times,Chnese peoplecustomarily hung peach wood to warnagmnst evil on their gates on lunar NewYear’s Eve—a pair of rectangular peachwood tablets inscribed with statues ofgods,and later on with a poetic couplet.and that was the beginning of SpringFestival couplets(also called

  13. Energy Matters - Spring 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2002-03-01

    Quarterly newsletter from DOE's Industrial Technologies Program to promote the use of energy-efficient industrial systems. The focus of the Spring 2002 Issue of Energy Matters focuses on premium energy efficiency systems, with articles on new gas technologies, steam efficiency, the Augusta Newsprint Showcase, and more.

  14. STATIC ANALYSIS OF LEAF SPRING

    OpenAIRE

    E VENUGOPAL GOUD; G HARINATH GOWD

    2012-01-01

    Leaf springs are special kind of springs used in automobile suspension systems. The advantage of leaf spring over helical spring is that the ends of the spring may be guided along a definite path as it deflects to act as a structural member in addition to energy absorbing device. The main function of leaf spring is not only tosupport vertical load but also to isolate road induced vibrations. It is subjected to millions of load cycles leading to fatigue failure. Static analysis determines the ...

  15. Fish Springs molluscan studies: House and Percy Springs

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the findings of a limited survey of House and Percy Springs molluscan fauna within Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge. Various...

  16. Leaf spring, and electromagnetic actuator provided with a leaf spring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berkhoff, Arthur Perry; Lemmen, Remco Louis Christiaan

    2002-01-01

    The invention relates to a leaf spring for an electromagnetic actuator and to such an electromagnetic actuator. The leaf spring is formed as a whole from a disc of plate-shaped, resilient material. The leaf spring comprises a central fastening part, an outer fastening part extending therearound and

  17. Warm Springs pupfish recovery plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document gives a history of pupfish and focuses on the warm springs pupfish. The warm springs pupfish is endangered, and this is a plan to help recover the...

  18. Influence of the Spring Arctic Oscillation on Midsummer Surface Air Temperature over the Yangtze River Valley%春季北极涛动对盛夏长江流域地表气温的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张乐英; 徐海明; 施宁

    2015-01-01

    本文基于1958至2002年的ERA-40月平均再分析资料,利用年际增量方法分析了春季北极涛动(Arctic Oscillation,简称AO)与我国夏季长江流域地表气温的关系。结果表明,在扣除前期冬季ENSO影响后,5月AO指数与8月长江流域地表气温存在显著正相关。通过回归分析发现,5月AO可通过影响中低纬度的海气相互作用进而影响8月长江流域地表气温。当5月AO处于正位相时,在(10°~15°N)及赤道附近产生异常下沉气流,对应着西太平洋局地Hadley环流减弱,对流层底层出现了异常的反气旋性辐散气流。与之对应,赤道西太平洋地区出现了显著的东风异常。由于该东风异常位于5月气候平均的局地海表面温度(SST)极大值中心位置上,该东风异常可通过平流作用使得高海温不断地向西堆积,最终造成赤道西太平洋SST出现显著正异常。当该SST正异常持续至8月时,它通过 Gill 响应(Gill,1980)在其西北侧激发出气旋性异常环流,它有利于西太平洋副热带高压在我国长江流域的维持,进而造成长江流域地表气温正异常。反之,则相反。%AbstractBased on ERA-40 monthly mean reanalysis data over the period 1958–2002, this paper studies the relationship between the spring Arctic Oscillation (AO) and the summer surface air temperature (SAT) over the Yangtze River valley by adopting the year-to-year increment approach. The winter ENSO signal is filtered out in advance. Results show that the AO in May is significantly and positively correlated with the SAT over the Yangtze River valley in August. The possible physical mechanism for this relationship is investigated by means of regression analysis. The air–ocean interaction over the middle and low latitudes might play an important role. Following a stronger positive AO in May, an anomalous subsidence flow appears over the region 10°–15°N and the Equator

  19. Effects of air temperature increase and precipitation change on grain yield and quality of spring wheat in semiarid area of Northwest China%增温和降水变化对西北半干旱区春小麦产量和品质的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王鹤龄; 张强; 王润元; 甘延泰; 牛俊义; 张凯; 赵福年; 赵鸿

    2015-01-01

    In order to predict effects of climate changing on growth,quality and grain yields of spring wheat,a field experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of air temperature increases (0 ℃,1.0 ℃,2.0 ℃ and 3.0 ℃) and precipitation variations (decrease 20%,unchanging and increase 20%) on grain yields,quality,diseases and insect pests of spring wheat at the Dingxi Arid Meteorology and Ecological Environment Experimental Station of the Institute of Arid Meteorology of China Meteorological Administration(35°35′ N,104°37′ E).The results showed that effects of precipitation variations on kernel numbers of spring wheat were not significant when temperature increased by less than 2.0 ℃,but was significant when temperature increased by 3.0 ℃.Temperature increase enhanced kernel numbers,while temperature decrease reduced kernel numbers.The negative effect of temperature on thousand-kernel mass of spring wheat increased with increasing air temperature.The sterile spikelet of spring wheat response to air temperature was quadratic under all precipitation regimes.Compared with control (no temperature increase),the decreases of grain yield of spring wheat when air temperature increased by 1.0 ℃,2.0 ℃ and 3.0 ℃ under each of the three precipitation conditions (decrease 20%,no changing and increase 20%) were 12.1%,24.7% and 42.7%,8.4%,15.1% and 21.8%,and 9.0%,15.5% and 22.2%,respectively.The starch content of spring wheat decreased and the protein content increased with increasing air temperature.The number of aphids increased when air temperature increased by 2.0 ℃,but decreased when air temperature increased by 3.0 ℃.The infection rates of rust disease increased with increasing air temperature.%为了明确未来气候变化对半干旱区春小麦产量和品质的影响,本研究选择典型半干旱区定西试验基地,利用开放式红外增温模拟系统和水分控制装置设置不同降水量(减少20

  20. Studying springs in series using a single spring

    CERN Document Server

    Serna, Juan D

    2010-01-01

    Springs are used for any imaginable purpose and all sort of things in physics and engineering. Possibly, one of its most common uses is to study the real nature of restoring forces in oscillatory systems. While experiments that verify the Hooke's law using springs are abundant in the physics literature, those that explore the combination of several springs together are very rare. In this paper, an experiment designed to study the static properties of a combination of springs in series using only a single spring is presented. The easy setup and accurate results makes this experiment attractive and useful for high school and first-year college students.

  1. The Beijing Spring 1989

    OpenAIRE

    Calhoun, Craig

    1989-01-01

    The climax of China's spring 1989 student protest movement is well known, at least outside of China. Troops acting to clear Tiananmen Square of protesters and enforce martial law succeeded in their charge, firing automatic assault weapons on unarmed citizens and sometimes wildly into neighboring buildings. People were crushed under the tracks of armored personnel carriers as they moved in to smash the statue of the "Goddess of Democracy" that had come almost overnight to symbolize the movemen...

  2. Magnetic Spring Device

    OpenAIRE

    Hassam, A. B.; Rodgers, J. C.

    2009-01-01

    A cylindrical system is proposed that will store magnetic energy in a localized azimuthal field that can then be quickly released on Alfvenic timescales, accompanied by the formation of a flowing Z-pinch plasma. The magnetized plasma is MHD in character and will have unilateral axial momentum with Alfvenic speeds. Conventional plasma gun injectors (Marshall type) have a limited parameter space of operation. The "magnetic spring" momentum injector differs from Marshall guns in that it has an a...

  3. Experiment at SPring-8

    CERN Document Server

    Nakano, T; Ejiri, H; Fujiwara, M; Hotta, T; Matsuoka, N; Matsumura, T; Mibe, T; Nomachi, M; Toki, H; Wang, C W; Wang, S C; Kawai, H; Ooba, T; Iwata, T; Miyachi, Y; Toyama, T; Wakai, A; Hicks, K; Akimune, H; Asano, Y; Sugaya, Y; Daté, S; Kumagai, N; Ohashi, Y; Toyokawa, H; Imai, K; Yosoi, M; Ichikawa, A; Kishimoto, T; Sakaguchi, A; Sumihama, M; Makino, S; Shimizu, H

    2000-01-01

    The GeV photon beam at SPring-8 is produced by backward-Compton scattering of laser photons from 8 GeV electrons. The maximum energy of the photon will be above 3 GeV, and the beam intensity will be 10 sup 7 photons/sec. Polarization of the photon beam will be 100 % at the maximum energy with fully polarized laser photons. We report the outline of the quark nuclear physics project with this high-quality high-intensity beam.

  4. Fun with Automobile Springs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritsch, Klaus

    2006-10-01

    Simple measurements on car suspension systems and their analysis can raise student interest in the elementary discussion of the behavior of springs in oscillating systems. To understand these complicated oscillating systems and to interpret measurements properly, models may be used. Students find out how to make approximations and extract useful information from marginal data using common sense, basic physics, and simple software tools. Basic experiments on a physical model of a car suspension and on a passenger car, as well as the analysis of the data, will be presented. In particular, a value of the bounce mode frequency of a car was obtained using several approaches.

  5. Magnetic Spring Device

    CERN Document Server

    Hassam, A B

    2009-01-01

    A cylindrical system is proposed that will store magnetic energy in a localized azimuthal field that can then be quickly released on Alfvenic timescales, accompanied by the formation of a flowing Z-pinch plasma. The magnetized plasma is MHD in character and will have unilateral axial momentum with Alfvenic speeds. Conventional plasma gun injectors (Marshall type) have a limited parameter space of operation. The "magnetic spring" momentum injector differs from Marshall guns in that it has an already stored strong magnetic field before release. The resulting parameter space is much broader. There are possible applications to momentum injectors for fusion and to plasma and rail guns.

  6. Weldon Spring dose calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In response to a request by the Oak Ridge Operations (ORO) Office of the Department of Energy (DOE) for assistance to the Department of the Army (DA) on the decommissioning of the Weldon Spring Chemical Plant, the Health and Safety Research Division of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) performed limited dose assessment calculations for that site. Based upon radiological measurements from a number of soil samples analyzed by ORNL and from previously acquired radiological data for the Weldon Spring site, source terms were derived to calculate radiation doses for three specific site scenarios. These three hypothetical scenarios are: a wildlife refuge for hunting, fishing, and general outdoor recreation; a school with 40 hr per week occupancy by students and a custodian; and a truck farm producing fruits, vegetables, meat, and dairy products which may be consumed on site. Radiation doses are reported for each of these scenarios both for measured uranium daughter equilibrium ratios and for assumed secular equilibrium. Doses are lower for the nonequilibrium case

  7. Corrective action investigation plan: Cactus Spring Waste Trenches. Revision 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Correction Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) contains environmental sample collection objectives and logic for the CAU No. 426, which includes the Cactus Spring Waste Trenches, CAS No. RG-08-001-RG-CS. The Cactus Spring Waste Trenches are located at the Tonopah Test Range (TTR) which is part of the Nellis Air Force Range, approximately 255 kilometers (km) (140 miles [mi]) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada, by air. The purpose of this investigation is to generate sufficient data to establish the types of waste buried in the trenches, identify the presence and nature of contamination, determine the vertical extent of contaminant migration below the Cactus Spring Waste Trenches, and determine the appropriate course of action for the site. The potential courses of action for the site are clean closure, closure in place (with or without remediation), or no further action

  8. STATIC ANALYSIS OF LEAF SPRING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E VENUGOPAL GOUD

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Leaf springs are special kind of springs used in automobile suspension systems. The advantage of leaf spring over helical spring is that the ends of the spring may be guided along a definite path as it deflects to act as a structural member in addition to energy absorbing device. The main function of leaf spring is not only tosupport vertical load but also to isolate road induced vibrations. It is subjected to millions of load cycles leading to fatigue failure. Static analysis determines the safe stress and corresponding pay load of the leaf spring and also to study the behavior of structures under practical conditions. The present work attempts to analyze the safeload of the leaf spring, which will indicate the speed at which a comfortable speed and safe drive is possible. A typical leaf spring configuration of TATA-407 light commercial vehicle is chosen for study. Finite element analysis has been carried out to determine the safe stresses and pay loads.

  9. Spring security 3.x cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Mankale, Anjana

    2013-01-01

    This book follows a cookbook style exploring various security solutions provided by Spring Security for various vulnerabilities and threat scenarios that web applications may be exposed to at the authentication and session level layers.This book is for all Spring-based application developers as well as Java web developers who wish to implement robust security mechanisms into web application development using Spring Security.Readers are assumed to have a working knowledge of Java web application development, a basic understanding of the Spring framework, and some knowledge of the fundamentals o

  10. Experimenting with Inexpensive Plastic Springs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Leander; Marques, Adriana; Sánchez, Iván

    2014-01-01

    Acommon undergraduate laboratory experience is the determination of the elastic constant of a spring, whether studying the elongation under a static load or studying the damped harmonic motion of the spring with a suspended mass. An alternative approach to this laboratory experience has been suggested by Menezes et al., aimed at studying the…

  11. Spring comes for ATLAS

    CERN Multimedia

    Butin, F.

    2004-01-01

    (First published in the CERN weekly bulletin 24/2004, 7 June 2004.) A short while ago the ATLAS cavern underwent a spring clean, marking the end of the installation of the detector's support structures and the cavern's general infrastructure. The list of infrastructure to be installed in the ATLAS cavern from September 2003 was long: a thousand tonnes of mechanical structures spread over 13 storeys, two lifts, two 65-tonne overhead travelling cranes 25 metres above cavern floor, with a telescopic boom and cradle to access the remaining 10 metres of the cavern, a ventilation system for the 55 000 cubic metre cavern, a drainage system, a standard sprinkler system and an innovative foam fire-extinguishing system, as well as the external cryogenic system for the superconducting magnets and the liquid argon calorimeters (comprising, amongst other things, two helium refrigeration units, a nitrogen refrigeration unit and 5 km of piping for gaseous or liquid helium and nitrogen), not to mention the handling eq...

  12. A bountiful spring harvest

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    Although we recently put the clocks forward and spring has officially begun, the view from my window looks more autumnal – befitting of the season of mists and mellow fruitfulness, rather than that of sowing seeds for the future. Which, in a way is appropriate. With the LHC paused, we are reaping a kind of harvest in the form of recognition for our efforts.   Two weeks ago, I was in Edinburgh, on behalf of everyone at CERN, to collect the Edinburgh medal, which we shared with Peter Higgs. I particularly like the citation for this honour: “The Edinburgh Medal is awarded each year to men and women of science and technology whose professional achievements are judged to have made a significant contribution to the understanding and well-being of humanity.” I like this, because it underlines a fact that needs to be shouted louder – that fundamental science does more than build the sum of human knowledge, it is also the foundation of human well-being. A few d...

  13. SPRING FESTIVAL ON THE LOESS PLATEAU

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    亦西; 杨延康

    2005-01-01

    How Spring Festival is celebrated Although the date of the Spring Festival was switched from the beginning of spring to the first day of the first lunar month, the main ways of celebrating it, from bygone days, remain popular.

  14. Groundwater flow cycling between a submarine spring and an inland fresh water spring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, J. Hal; Verdi, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Spring Creek Springs and Wakulla Springs are large first magnitude springs that derive water from the Upper Floridan Aquifer. The submarine Spring Creek Springs are located in a marine estuary and Wakulla Springs are located 18 km inland. Wakulla Springs has had a consistent increase in flow from the 1930s to the present. This increase is probably due to the rising sea level, which puts additional pressure head on the submarine Spring Creek Springs, reducing its fresh water flow and increasing flows in Wakulla Springs. To improve understanding of the complex relations between these springs, flow and salinity data were collected from June 25, 2007 to June 30, 2010. The flow in Spring Creek Springs was most sensitive to rainfall and salt water intrusion, and the flow in Wakulla Springs was most sensitive to rainfall and the flow in Spring Creek Springs. Flows from the springs were found to be connected, and composed of three repeating phases in a karst spring flow cycle: Phase 1 occurred during low rainfall periods and was characterized by salt water backflow into the Spring Creek Springs caves. The higher density salt water blocked fresh water flow and resulted in a higher equivalent fresh water head in Spring Creek Springs than in Wakulla Springs. The blocked fresh water was diverted to Wakulla Springs, approximately doubling its flow. Phase 2 occurred when heavy rainfall resulted in temporarily high creek flows to nearby sinkholes that purged the salt water from the Spring Creek Springs caves. Phase 3 occurred after streams returned to base flow. The Spring Creek Springs caves retained a lower equivalent fresh water head than Wakulla Springs, causing them to flow large amounts of fresh water while Wakulla Springs flow was reduced by about half.

  15. Alpha activity in Indian thermal springs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Dissolved radon is contained in natural water due to primordial uranium in rocks and soils with which it comes in contact. There is dual exposure from radon in water i.e. due to inhalation of the radon released from the water into the ambient air and through ingestion when water is used for drinking. As radon contaminated water adversely affects the health, it is therefore fundamental from health and hygiene point of view to measure radium concentration and radon exhalation rates in water.Materials and Methods: LR-115, Type-II plastic track detectors were used to measure the radium concentration and radon exhalation rate in water samples collected from various thermal springs. The alpha tracks registered were counted by optical microscope at suitable magnification and converted into radium concentration and subsequently radon exhalation rates were measured. Results: The radon concentration emanated from water samples(air borne) varied from 84 Bqm-3 to 827 Bqm-3 with an average of 429± 12.72 Bqm-3 and the dissolved radon concentration varied from 5.65 Bq 1-1 to 55.66 Bq 1-1 with an average of 28.88± 0.85 Bq 1-1. The radon mass exhalation rates varied from 2.37 m Bq kg-1 hr-1 to 23.39 mBq kg-1 hr-1 with an average of 12.14 ±0.36 mBq kg-1 hr-1 and surface exhalation rates from 52.34 mBq m-2 hr-1 to 515.29 mBq m-2 hr-1 with an average of 267.36 ± 7.93 from different thermal spring water samples. The radium concentration varied from 0.3 0 Bq 1-1 to 2.93 Bq 1-1 with an average of 1.52 ± 0.045 Bq 1-1. Results indicate that the thermal spring water, which is also being used for drinking, is safe as far as radium concentration is concerned with the exception of a few isolated thermal spring sources

  16. Warmer springs, laying date and clutch size of tree sparrows Passer montanus in Croatia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Z. DOLENEC; P. DOLENEC; A.P. MΦLER

    2011-01-01

    Global surface air temperatures increased during the past 100 years. Many long-term studies of birds have reported a climatic influence on breeding performance. We analysed long-term changes in first laying date and clutch size for first clutches of sedentary, hole-nesting and socially monogamous tree sparrows Passer montanus during 1980-2009 in northwestern Croatia. Laying date advanced and spring temperature increased significantly during the study. Date of laying was significantly correlated with mean air spring temperature and advanced by 8.6 days during the 30 years period. Laying date was delayed in extremely cold, but not in extremely warm springs compared to years with normal temperatures. These results suggest that current climate change including extreme change does not have negative effects on timing of laying or clutch size. In contrast to laying date, clutch size did not vary systematically during the study period or with mean spring air temperature changes.

  17. Water treatment of spring Jama

    OpenAIRE

    Stopar, Peter

    2007-01-01

    Spring Jama is one of the three springs that provides sufficient amount of potable water for consumers in water system Kostanjevica na Krki. Main problem with water is its permanent microbiological contamination and periodicaly high turbidity. This graduation thesis – university studies presents several methods to cope mentioned problems. It focuses on two methods, conventional – pressure filters and alternative – ultrafiltration. Both methods are designed for flow of 30 m3 /h. Before water e...

  18. Marble Canyon spring sampling investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Mississippian Leadville Limestone is the most permeable formation in the lower hydrostratigraphic unit underlying the salt beds of the Paradox Formation in Gibson Dome, Paradox Basin, Utah, which is being considered as a potential nuclear waste repository site. The closest downgradient outcrop of the Mississippian limestone is along the Colorado River in Marble Canyon, Arizona. This report describes the sampling and interpretation of springs in that area to assess the relative contribution of Gibson Dome-type Leadville Limestone ground water to that spring discharge. The high-volume (hundreds of liters per second or thousands of gallons per minute) springs discharging from fault zones in Marble Canyon are mixtures of water recharged west of the Colorado River on the Kaibab Plateau and east of the river in the Kaiparowits basin. No component of Gibson Dome-type Leadville Limestone ground water is evident in major and trace element chemistry or isotopic composition of the Marble Canyon Springs. A low-volume (0.3 liters per second or 5 gallons per minute) spring with some chemical and isotopic characteristics of Gibson Dome-type Leadville Limestone water diluted by Kaiparowits basin-type water issues from a travertine mound in the Bright Angel Shale on the Little Colorado River. However, the stable isotopic composition and bromide levels of that spring discharge, in addition to probable ground-water flow paths, contradict the dilution hypothesis

  19. Asude Bahar Ülkesine Yolculuk Olan Ölümün Şair Biyografilerinde İfade Edilmesi In Poet Biographies Expression Of Death A Passage To The Peaceful Spring Country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah AYDIN

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Collection of biographies of poets the sources of Classic TurkishLiterature inform about the poets’ life, character, literal personality andworks. Though the number of collection of biographies in TurkishLiterature has risen to forty, it will increase in number by newresearches possibly. There are both books and articles about how somespecific subjects are held on these works that involve the biographies ofpoets. Along with the informations about the poet’s character, physicalappearance, family, educational background, job, marriage, children,date of birth, place of birth, place of death there are information abouthis poesy.In this study, how the death of the poets are expressed isresearched inspring especially from the writers’ acting responsiblytowards indicating the date of death. The distinctness is formed byexamining former published works and identifying the samples whichwill complete them. Apart from the cause and time of death the wordsand word groups preferred for death knell are examined in terms ofstyle. While the death of poets are expressed by some simple sentencesas “died, expired, slaughtered” sometimes it is expressed in moreartistic ways related to poet’s name, nickname, job and lifestyle.Especially the tenth topic with its under titles is important in terms ofrevealing new styles of expression.Death which we regard ordinary by saying “all livings born, liveand die” and which is expressed in wholy Koran as “Külli nefsinzâikatü'l-mevt”, namely “every soul shall have a taste of death” is holdsometimes sadly but mostly in terms of its beauty. The writers havedeveloped a literary pleasure on death. Klasik Türk Edebiyatının kaynak eserlerinden Şair Tezkireleri şairlerin hayatı, mizacı, edebî kişiliği ve eserleri hakkında bilgi vermektedir. Türk Edebiyatında tezkire sayısı kırka ulaşmış olmakla beraber yeni araştırmalarla bu sayının artması muhtemeldir. Şair biyografilerini kapsayan

  20. Weldon Spring Site Environmental Report for Calendar Year 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-06-01

    This Weldon Spring Site Environmental Report for Calendar Year 1995 has been prepared to provide information about the public safety and environmental protection programs conducted by the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project (WSSRAP). The Weldon Spring site is located in southern St. Charles County, Missouri, approximately 48 km (30 mi) west of St. Louis. The site consists of two main areas, the Weldon Spring Chemical Plant and raffinate pits and the Weldon Spring Quarry. The chemical plant, raffinate pits, and quarry are located on Missouri State Route 94, southwest of U.S. Route 40/61. The objectives of the Site Environmental Report are to present a summary of data from the environmental monitoring program, to characterize trends and environmental conditions at the site, and to confirm compliance with environmental and health protection standards and requirements. The report also presents the status of remedial activities and the results of monitoring these activities to assess their impacts on the public and environment. This report includes monitoring data from routine radiological and nonradiological sampling activities. These data include estimates of dose to the public from the Weldon Spring site, estimates of effluent releases, and trends in groundwater contaminant levels. Additionally, applicable compliance requirements, quality assurance programs, and special studies conducted in 1995 to support environmental protection programs are discussed. Dose estimates presented in this report are based on hypothetical exposure scenarios for public use of areas near the site. In addition, release estimates have been calculated on the basis of 1995 National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) and air monitoring data. Effluent discharges from the site under routine NPDES and National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPs) monitoring were below permitted levels.

  1. Development of transducers for integrated garter spring repositioning system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to reposition the dislocated garter springs in active channels of 235 MW Pressurised Heavy Water Reactors (PHWRs), a tool named as Integrated Garter Spring Repositioning System (INGRES) has been developed. The tool consists of transducers to detect the concentricity between the Pressure Tube (P/T) and Calandria Tube (C/T) and also to detect garter springs in the channel besides different modules for correcting the eccentricity between P/T and C/T and garter spring repositioning. The transducers used in the system namely Concentricity Detection Probe (CDP) and Garter Spring Detection Probe (GSDP) are based on the eddy current techniques. The CDP makes use of four eddy current bobbin probes separated 90 degrees apart in cross sectional plane of channel assembly. The transducer gives output signal in proportional to the air gap between P/T and C/T in two axes (X and Y) which are designed for the purpose. The output of the unit is obtained on the Cathode Ray Oscilloscope (CRO) screen in the form of illuminated dot. The dot position on the CRO screen gives the information about mismatch in concentricity between P/T and C/T of the channel. The GSDP meant for detecting garter springs in PHWR channel uses two sets of primary and secondary coils connected in differential mode. The output signals from the transducers are processed through a signal processing unit devised for the purpose to obtain output from it as a horizontal beam on the CRO screen. The garter spring presence in the channel is indicated by a change in the voltage level of beam and also by audio-visual indication in the form of buzzer and LED illumination on the processing unit. This paper gives general design and development aspects of the CDP and GSDP transducers of the INGRES tool. (author). 3 figs

  2. Dynamic characteristics of spring sandstorms in 2000

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周秀骥; 徐祥德; 颜鹏; 翁永辉; 王建林

    2002-01-01

    Systematical analyses of spring sandstorms in 2000 affecting Beijing area are carried out. Results revealed the key dynamic mechanisms of dust storm during its mobilization, lifting, horizontal advection and deposition processes. It turns out that in the processes of sandstorms influencing Beijing area in March-April 2000, the dynamic conditions for dust mobilization are significantly correlated with phenomena, such as cold air-related climatic activities,clay soils area of North China and surface friction velocity anomaly. The characteristics of sandstorm can be described by composite mode of dust particles mobilization-lifting-long-range transport. This paper will provide scientific evidences for further studies,prediction and harness of sandstorms in China.

  3. Adaption and evaluation of transversal leaf spring suspension design for a lightweight vehicle using Adams/Car

    OpenAIRE

    Christ, Florian

    2015-01-01

    This investigation deals with the suspension of a lightweight medium-class vehicle for four passengers with a curb weight of 1000 kg. The suspension layout consists of a transversal leaf spring and is supported by an active air spring which is included in the damper. The lower control arms are replaced by the leaf spring ends. Active ride height control is introduced to compensate for different vehicle load states. Active steering is applied using electric linear actuators with steer-by wire ...

  4. Indoor radon levels in selected hot spring hotels in Guangdong, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guangdong is one of the provinces that have most hot springs in China, and many hotels have been set up near hot springs, with spring water introduced into the bath inside each hotel room for hot spring bathing to attract tourists. In the present study, we measured radon in indoor and outdoor air, as well as in hot spring waters, in four hot spring hotels in Guangdong by using NR-667A (III) continuous radon detector. Radon concentrations ranged 53.4-292.5 Bq L-1 in the hot spring water and 17.2-190.9 Bq m-3 in outdoor air. Soil gas intrusion, indoor hot spring water use and inefficient ventilation all contributed to the elevated indoor radon levels in the hotel rooms. From the variation of radon levels in closed unoccupied hotel rooms, soil gas intrusion was found to be a very important source of indoor radon in hotel rooms with floors in contact with soils. When there was spring water bathing in the bathes, average radon levels were 10.9-813% higher in the hotel rooms and 13.8-489% higher in bathes compared to their corresponding average levels when there was no spring water use. Spring water use in the hotel rooms had radon transfer coefficients from 1.6x10-4 to 5.0x10-3. Radon in some hotel rooms maintained in concentrations much higher than guideline levels might thus have potential health risks to the hotel workers, and technical and management measures should be taken to lower their exposure of radon through inhalation

  5. Numerical Analysis on Combustion Characteristic of Leaf Spring Rotary Engine

    OpenAIRE

    Yan Zhang; Zhengxing Zuo; Jinxiang Liu

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate combustion characteristics for rotary engine via numerical studies. A 3D numerical model was developed to study the influence of several operative parameters on combustion characteristics. A novel rotary engine called, “Leaf Spring Rotary Engine†, was used to illustrate the structure and principle of the engine. The aims are to (1) improve the understanding of combustion process, and (2) quantify the influence of rotational speed, excess air rat...

  6. Spring Wheat Leaf Appearance and Temperature: Extending the Paradigm?

    OpenAIRE

    McMaster, Gregory S.; WILHELM, W. W.; PALIC, D. B.; Porter, John R.; Jamieson, P. D.

    2003-01-01

    Extensive research shows temperature to be the primary environmental factor controlling the phyllochron, or rate of leaf appearance, of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Experimental results suggest that soil temperature at crown depth, rather than air temperature above the canopy, would better predict wheat leaf appearance rates. To test this hypothesis, leaf appearance in spring wheat (‘Nordic’) was measured in a 2‐year field experiment (Nunn clay loam soil; fine, smectitic, mesic Aridic, Argiu...

  7. Motor gasoline assessment, Spring 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-07-01

    The springs of 1996 and 1997 provide an excellent example of contrasting gasoline market dynamics. In spring 1996, tightening crude oil markets pushed up gasoline prices sharply, adding to the normal seasonal gasoline price increases; however, in spring 1997, crude oil markets loosened and crude oil prices fell, bringing gasoline prices down. This pattern was followed throughout the country except in California. As a result of its unique reformulated gasoline, California prices began to vary significantly from the rest of the country in 1996 and continued to exhibit distinct variations in 1997. In addition to the price contrasts between 1996 and 1997, changes occurred in the way in which gasoline markets were supplied. Low stocks, high refinery utilizations, and high imports persisted through 1996 into summer 1997, but these factors seem to have had little impact on gasoline price spreads relative to average spread.

  8. Be Spring to All Things

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANGKEPING

    2003-01-01

    ONE old saying that is particularly rooted in the Chinese consciousness is“Spring is the most meaningful season.” It has particular significance in rural regions,where spring is the time for plowing, and for planning the work for the coming year. In urban areas,peach and plum blossom and the fresh green shoots that clothe winter-denuded trees signify the time for outings and enjoyment of the warmer weather. One aspect of this season that adds greatly to the overall aesthetic is the sight of young girls, having finally put aside their warm winter wear,dressed in light colorful fabrics that display their maidenly charms to full effect. All in all, from the Chinese point of view, spring is a time of color, charm and cheer.

  9. Spring harvest of corn stover

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lizotte, P.L. [Laval Univ., Quebec City, PQ (Canada). Dept. des sols et de genie agroalimentaire; Savoie, P. [Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Quebec City, PQ (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    Corn stover is typically left behind in the field after grain harvest. Although part of the stover should remain in the field for soil organic matter renewal and erosion protection, half of the stover could be removed sustainably. This represents about one million t dry matter (DM) of stover per year in the province of Quebec. Stover harvested in the fall is very wet. While there are applications for wet stover, the available markets currently require a dry product. Preliminary measurements have shown that stover left in the field throughout the winter becomes very dry, and a considerable amount would still be harvestable in the spring. In the spring of 2009, corn stover was harvested at 2 sites, each subdivided into 2 parcels. The first parcel was cut and raked in the fall of 2008 (fall parcel), while the second parcel was cut and raked in spring 2009. Fibre from both parcels was baled in the spring 2009. At the first site, a large square baler was used in late April to produce bales measuring 0.8 m x 0.9 m x 1.8 m. On the second site a round baler was used in late May to produce bales of 1.2 m in width by 1.45 m in diameter. On the second site, a small square baler was also used to produce bales of 0.35 m x 0.45 m x 0.60 m (spring cutting only). With the large square baler, an average of 3.9 t DM/ha was harvested equally on the fall parcel and the spring parcel, representing a 48 per cent recovery of biomass based on stover yields.

  10. Instant Spring for Android starter

    CERN Document Server

    Dahanne, Anthony

    2013-01-01

    Packt Instant Starter: get to grips with a new technology, understand what it is and what it can do for you, and then get to work with the most important features and tasks.This is a Starter which gives you an introduction to Spring for Android with plenty of well-explained practical code examples.If you are an Android developer who wants to learn about RESTful web services and OAuth authentication and authorization, and you also want to know how to speed up your development involving those architectures using Spring for Android abstractions, then this book is for you.But core Java developers

  11. Yarn Expo Spring Concluded the Spring Fair in Beijing Successfully

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    @@ As the 2009 Yarn Expo Spring, organized by Messe Frankfurt (HK) Ltd, the Sub-Council of Textile Industry - CCPIT, China Cotton Textile Association, China Wool Textile Association, China Chemical Fibers Association, China Bast & Leaf Fiber Textiles Association, and China Textile Information Centre, came to an end on 1 April, the organizers had something to smile about.

  12. Weldon Spring Site Environmental Report for calendar year 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report for Calendar Year 1994 has been prepared to provide information about the public safety and environmental protection programs conducted by the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project (WSSRAP). The Weldon Spring site is located in southern St. Charles County, Missouri, approximately 48 km (30 mi) west of St. Louis. The site consists of two main areas, the Weldon Spring Chemical Plant and raffinate pits and the Weldon Spring Quarry. The chemical plant, raffinate pits, and quarry are located on Missouri State Route 94, southwest of US Route 40/61. The objectives of the Site Environmental Report are to present a summary of data from the environmental monitoring program, to characterize trends and environmental conditions at the site, and to confirm compliance with environmental and health protection standards and requirements. The report also presents the status of remedial activities and the results of monitoring these activities to assess their impacts on the public and environment. This report includes monitoring data from routine radiological and nonradiological sampling activities. These data include estimates of dose to the public from the Weldon Spring site, estimates of effluent releases, and trends in groundwater contaminant levels. Additionally, applicable compliance requirements, quality assurance programs, and special studies conducted in 1994 to support environmental protection programs are discussed. Dose estimates presented in this report are based on hypothetical exposure scenarios of public use of areas near the site. In addition, release estimates have been calculated on the basis of 1994 National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) and air monitoring data. Effluent discharges from the site under routine NPDES and National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPS) monitoring were below permitted levels

  13. Spring for It: First Novels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffert, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    How do publishers describe the first novels they will be releasing this spring and summer? "Amazing," "fabulous," and "unique" are words that pop up frequently, though hats off to one publicist forthright or cheeky enough to call a work "weird Western/horror." The proof of such praise is in the reading, but why not check out this preview of first…

  14. Finding Spring on Planet X

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simoson, Andrew J.

    2007-01-01

    For a given orbital period and eccentricity, we determine the maximum time lapse between the winter solstice and the spring equinox on a planet. In addition, given an axial precession path, we determine the effects on the seasons. This material can be used at various levels to illustrate ideas such as periodicity, eccentricity, polar coordinates,…

  15. A Laboratory of Spring. Introduction

    OpenAIRE

    Witold Wachowski

    2013-01-01

    Introduction to a special issue published on the occasion of the 100th anniversary of the premiere of 'The Rite of Spring' by Igor Stravinsky. The articles cover the field of musicology as well as history, philosophy, psychology, sociology, ethnography and cognitive science of music.

  16. Voronoi Diagrams and Spring Rain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perham, Arnold E.; Perham, Faustine L.

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this geometry project is to use Voronoi diagrams, a powerful modeling tool across disciplines, and the integration of technology to analyze spring rainfall from rain gauge data over a region. In their investigation, students use familiar equipment from their mathematical toolbox: triangles and other polygons, circumcenters and…

  17. Archaeal Nitrification in Hot Springs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, A.; Daims, H.; Reigstad, L.; Wanek, W.; Wagner, M.; Schleper, C.

    2006-12-01

    Biological nitrification, i.e. the aerobic conversion of ammonia to nitrate via nitrite, is a major component of the global nitrogen cycle. Until recently, it was thought that the ability to aerobically oxidize ammonia was confined to bacteria of the phylum Proteobacteria. However, it has recently been shown that Archaea of the phylum Crenarchaeota are also capable of ammonia oxidation. As many Crenarchaeota are thermophilic or hyperthermophilic, and at least some of them are capable of ammonia oxidation we speculated on the existence of (hyper)thermophilic ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA). Using PCR primers specifically targeting the archaeal ammonia monooxygenase (amoA) gene, we were indeed able to confirm the presence of such organisms in several hot springs in Reykjadalur, Iceland. These hot springs exhibited temperatures well above 80 °C and pH values ranging from 2.0 to 4.5. To proof that nitrification actually took place under these extreme conditions, we measured gross nitrification rates by the isotope pool dilution method; we added 15N-labelled nitrate to the mud and followed the dilution of the label by nitrate production from ammonium either in situ (incubation in the hot spring) or under controlled conditions in the laboratory (at 80 °C). The nitrification rates in the hot springs ranged from 0.79 to 2.22 mg nitrate-N per L of mud and day. Controls, in which microorganisms were killed before the incubations, demonstrated that the nitrification was of biological origin. Addition of ammonium increased the gross nitrification rate approximately 3-fold, indicating that the nitrification was ammonium limited under the conditions used. Collectively, our study provides evidence that (1) AOA are present in hot springs and (2) that they are actively nitrifying. These findings have major implications for our understanding of nitrogen cycling of hot environments.

  18. Transportation loads with air versus leaf spring suspensions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butler, T.A.; Weinacht, D.J.; Tafoya, J.I.

    1988-06-01

    Data acquisition equipment was installed on a heavily loaded drop- platform trailer. Accelerations were recorded at various locations on the trailer during a trip from Los Alamos to the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Road conditions varied from paved primary and secondary highways to very rough crushed rock roads at NTS. Data for transient events, such as railroad crossings and bridges, were also recorded. Descriptions of the tractor/trailer configuration, instrumentation, and data analysis techniques are presented. Reduced data are presented in the form of power spectral density plots and response spectra (shock spectra) plots. Finally, recommended load factors for use in designing payloads that are to be transported on heavily loaded trailers are discussed.

  19. Spring water and CO2 interaction at Popocatépetl volcano, Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    2002-01-01

    Six years of monitoring HCO3- and pH at selected springs at Popocatepetl during the present eruptive period are presented. Small peaks in HCO3- concentration and PCO2 in springs are associated with small magmatic pulses at Popocatépetl volcano. The magma provides CO2-rich fluids into the water system controlled by meteoric recharge. The PCO2 in equilibrium with the springs is two to four orders of magnitude higher than air-saturated water. The high partial pressure of CO2 also suggests a ...

  20. Exposure to Particle Matters and Hazardous Volatile Organic Compounds in Selected Hot Spring Hotels in Guangdong, China

    OpenAIRE

    Qiusheng He; Qi Song; Yulong Yan; Zhichun Wang; Lili Guo; Xinming Wang

    2016-01-01

    In Guangdong province, many hot springs were exploited and developed into popular places for tourist. In addition, hotels have been set up near hot spring sites to attract people, including local citizens, to spend their spare time inside these so-called “spring hotels”. In our study, indoor air quality was investigated in four hot spring hotels in Guangdong province, China. Measured indoor pollutants included CO2, CO, PM10, PM2.5 and Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs). As the result show, hig...

  1. Static Analysis of Hybrid Composite Leaf Spring

    OpenAIRE

    B.Arun*1,; P. Chithambaranathan2

    2014-01-01

    Leaf spring is a simple form of suspension spring used to absorb vibrations induced during the motion of a vehicle. The automobile industry has shown increased interest in the replacement of steel leaf spring (65Si7) with hybrid composite leaf spring with Jute/E-glass/Epoxy due to high strength to weight ratio, higher stiffness, high impact energy absorption and lesser stresses. This research is aimed to investigate the suitability of natural and synthetic fiber reinforced hybrid comp...

  2. Spring Arctic Oscillation- Summer Western Pacific connection in CMIP5 Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Miao-ni; Yang, Jing; Gong, Dao-yi

    2014-05-01

    Spring Arctic Oscillation (AO) has been an important predictor for East Asian summer monsoon, and the positive air-sea feedback through cyclonic anomaly over western Pacific (WP) is one of the key processes to memorize the spring AO-associated signal through the following summer. Whether the current models can capture this memory of spring AO over WP is crucial for seasonal prediction of East Asian climate. Based on the 24 state-of-the-art climate models from CMIP5, this study separates their performances into three categories according to the simulation of simultaneous WP circulation associated with spring positive AO. (1) Eight models can well reproduce the simultaneous spring AO-associated WP cyclonic anomaly (WPCA) and this WPCA does persist through summer; (2) Four models can capture the spring WPCA but the simulated WPCA is much weaker which fails to be maintained through summer; (3) Twelve models fail to capture the spring AO-associated WPCA. The evaluation further confirms the important role of WPCA on keeping spring AO signals through summer over East Asia. This study also suggests that the realistic simulations of the atmospheric dipole over western North Pacific, the tropical Pacific trade wind and transient eddies along westerly jet are necessary to form the WPCA in models.

  3. 75 FR 39241 - Hooper Springs Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-08

    ... Bonneville Power Administration Hooper Springs Project AGENCY: Bonneville Power Administration (BPA... Hooper Springs Project). The new BPA substation would be called Hooper Springs Substation and would be... 115-kV Lane Creek Substation, east of the City of Wayan, Idaho. The proposed project would...

  4. Skillful Use of Imagery in Two Odes to Spring--Comment on The Soote Season and Spring, the Sweet Spring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯海荣

    2002-01-01

    The Soote Season and Spring, the Sweet Spring are two lyrics that sing the praise of spring. The common feature of the two lyrics is that the two poets depict a series of pictures of the sweet spring by rich and varied imagery for readers.When these pictures are presented to readers ,readers feel as if they are participating in them,and the enchanting beauty of spring makes readers feel intoxicated with happiness. The two poets express their different feelings toward nature.

  5. Qatar and the Arab Spring

    KAUST Repository

    Coates Ulrichsen, Kristian

    2014-11-15

    This chapter examines how Qatar assumed an extraordinarily visible and interventionist role during the Arab Spring upheaval in 2011. It argues that, after an initial period of caution in January 2011, Qatari officials quickly recognised the changing contours of the Arab Spring and pragmatically readjusted their policy-responses. The lack of domestic constraints on decision-making enabled officials, led by the Emir and the Prime minister, to reposition Qatar (somewhat improbably) as a champion of the popular uprisings in North Africa and later as a key external player in the Syrian Civil War. The chapter also provides historical context to Qatar’s close relationship with the Muslim Brotherhood, and documents why Qatari officials saw the outbreak of the uprisings as far more of an opportunity than a challenge.

  6. AAAI 2006 Spring Symposium Reports

    OpenAIRE

    Abecker, Andreas; Alami, Rachid; Baral, Chitta; Bickmore, Tim; Durfee, Ed; Fong, Terry; Goker, Mehmet H.; Green, Nancy; Liberman, Mark; Lebiere, Christian; Martin, James H.; Mentzas, Gregoris; Musliner, Dave; Nicolov, Nicolas; Nourbakhsh, Illah

    2006-01-01

    The Association for the Advancement of Artificial Intelligence, in cooperation with Stanford University's Computer Science Department, was pleased to present its 2006 Spring Symposium Series held March 27-29, 2006, at Stanford University, California. The titles of the eight symposia were (1) Argumentation for Consumers of Health Care (chaired by Nancy Green); (2) Between a Rock and a Hard Place: Cognitive Science Principles Meet AI Hard Problems (chaired by Christian Lebiere); (3) Computation...

  7. Injector linac of SPring-8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The linac that is SPring-8 injector was completed and started operation from August 1. A beam was able to be transported to the final beam dumping at a tail end on August 8. From now on this linac carries out beam adjustment and be scheduled to do a beam injection to a synchrotron in October. The construction and fundamental performance of the linac are described. (author)

  8. KUNMING: The City of Spring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ Kunming is the political, economic and cultural center of Yunnan province and the most popular center for tourism in Southwest China. Kunming enjoys a pleasant climate and does its best to live up to its title of "the City of Spring". Whenever you are planning to go, the temperature is always pleasant. With its convenient transport links in and out of the city, Kunming welcomes tens of thousands of tourists every day.

  9. ARAB SPRING (COPTIC IN EGYPT)

    OpenAIRE

    Biney–Amissah, Araba

    2013-01-01

    Project Title: ARAB SPRING (COPTIC IN EGYPT) Abstract: The Copts have been discriminated - under Mubarak’s regime and now under Mursi’s - without any certain law to assure them of their basic rights and freedom of speech. The Muslims have the dominant privilege in Egypt (and in Middle Eastern countries in general), however, Christians should also have rights in a democratic Egypt. There is no common understanding of divisions between the legal structure of societies and the differ...

  10. Disaggregation modelling of spring discharges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirilova Bojilova Elena

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Disaggregation models are basically divided into three main groups: temporal, spatial and temporal-spatial. The focus of this paper is the application of temporal disaggregation models to disaggregate the seasonal flow in some large time intervals to sub-seasonal flows in some shorter time intervals. Two basic models are applied: the original model of Mejia and Rousselle and the corrected extended Lin model one-stage disaggregation. The flow totals from some karstic springs are used. Data for five springs in different areas of Bulgaria for the aims of the study are executed. The synthetic data generation for the chosen spring stations for a new realisation of thirty years is obtained. The multi-variate lag-one auto regressive model (AR(1 model is applied for generation of the annual flow sequences. The Lin model single- site is performed for thirty years generation period. The Lin model is an improvement compared to the original extended model. The new Lin approach succeeds in the preservation of the additivity as well as the moments. Applying the Lin model one-stage disaggregation results in consistent model parameter estimates. As a second step in the research multi-site disaggregation schemes are also applied.

  11. The first CERN Spring Campus

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2014-01-01

    From 14 to 16 April, the first edition of the CERN Spring Campus took place in Spain. Taking place over three intensive days, this event brought experts from CERN together at the University of Oviedo, where they met the engineers and scientists of the future in a programme of scientific and technological dissemination and cultural exchange.   The young participants of the first CERN Spring Campus and their instructors show their enthusiasm after the intensive three-day course. “This three-day school focuses on preparing young engineers for the job market, with a particular emphasis on computing,” explains Derek Mathieson, Advanced Information Systems Group Leader in the GS Department and Head of the CERN Spring Campus organising committee. “We organised talks on entrepreneurship and IT, as well as on job interviews and CV writing. It was also an important opportunity for the participants to meet CERN computing engineers to find out what it is like to work in I...

  12. Force of an actin spring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Jennifer; Mahadevan, L.; Matsudaira, Paul

    2003-03-01

    The acrosomal process of the horseshoe crab sperm is a novel mechanochemical molecular spring that converts its elastic stain energy to mechanical work upon the chemical activation by Ca2+. Twisted and bent, the initial state of the acrosomal bundle features a high degree of complexity in its structure and the energy is believed to be stored in the highly strained actin filaments as an elastic potential energy. When activated, the bundle relaxes from the coil of the highly twisted and bent filaments to its straight conformation at a mean velocity of 15um/s. The mean extension velocity increases dramatically from 3um/s to 27um/s when temperature of the medium is changed from 9.6C to 32C (respective viscosities of 1.25-0.75cp), yet it exhibits a very weak dependence on changes in the medium viscosity (1cp-33cp). These experiments suggest that the uncoiling of the actin spring should be limited not by the viscosity of the medium but by the unlatching events of involved proteins at a molecular level. Unlike the viscosity-limited processes, where force is directly related to the rate of the reaction, a direct measurement is required to obtain the spring force of the acrosomal process. The extending acrosomal bundle is forced to push against a barrier and its elastic buckling response is analyzed to measure the force generated during the uncoiling.

  13. Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Air pollution is a mixture of solid particles and gases in the air. Car emissions, chemicals from factories, dust, ... a gas, is a major part of air pollution in cities. When ozone forms air pollution, it's ...

  14. Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Air pollution is a mixture of solid particles and gases in the air. Car emissions, chemicals from factories, dust, pollen and ... Ozone, a gas, is a major part of air pollution in cities. When ozone forms air pollution, ...

  15. Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project quarterly environmental data summary (QEDS) for fourth quarter 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-02-01

    This report contains the Quarterly Environmental Data Summary (QEDS) for the fourth quarter of 1998 in support of the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project Federal Facilities Agreement. The data, except for air monitoring data and site KPA generated data (uranium analyses) were received from the contract laboratories, verified by the Weldon Spring Site verification group, and merged into the database during the fourth quarter of 1998. KPA results for on-site total uranium analyses performed during fourth quarter 1998 are included. Air monitoring data presented are the most recent complete sets of quarterly data.

  16. Spring Recipes A Problem-solution Approach

    CERN Document Server

    Long, Josh; Mak, Gary

    2010-01-01

    With over 3 Million users/developers, Spring Framework is the leading "out of the box" Java framework. Spring addresses and offers simple solutions for most aspects of your Java/Java EE application development, and guides you to use industry best practices to design and implement your applications. The release of Spring Framework 3 has ushered in many improvements and new features. Spring Recipes: A Problem-Solution Approach, Second Edition continues upon the bestselling success of the previous edition but focuses on the latest Spring 3 features for building enterprise Java applications.

  17. Weldon Spring Site environmental report for calendar year 1993. Weldon Springs Site Remedial Action Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-05-01

    This Site Environmental Report for Calendar Year 1993 describes the environmental monitoring programs at the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project (WSSRAP). The objectives of these programs are to assess actual or potential exposure to contaminant effluents from the project area by providing public use scenarios and dose estimates, to demonstrate compliance with Federal and State permitted levels, and to summarize trends and/or changes in contaminant concentrations from environmental monitoring program. In 1993, the maximum committed dose to a hypothetical individual at the chemical plant site perimeter was 0.03 mrem (0.0003 mSv). The maximum committed dose to a hypothetical individual at the boundary of the Weldon Spring Quarry was 1.9 mrem (0.019 mSv). These scenarios assume an individual walking along the perimeter of the site-once a day at the chemical plant/raffinate pits and twice a day at the quarry-250 days per year. This hypothetical individual also consumes fish, sediment, and water from lakes and other bodies of water in the area. The collective dose, based on an effected population of 112,000 was 0.12 person-rem (0.0012 person-Sv). This calculation is based on recreational use of the August A. Busch Memorial Conservation Area and the Missouri Department of Conservation recreational trail (the Katy Trail) near the quarry. These estimates are below the U.S. Department of Energy requirement of 100 mrem (I mSv) annual committed effective dose equivalent for all exposure pathways. Results from air monitoring for the National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPs) program indicated that the estimated dose was 0.38 mrem, which is below the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) standard of 10 mrem per year.

  18. Radiation shielding and safety analysis for SPring-8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The methods of shielding design and safety analysis applied to SPring-8 are summarized. SPring-8, a third generation synchrotron radiation facility, is the facility with the highest stored electron energy of 8 GeV and very low beam emittance of 5.5 nm·rad. Because of these distinguished features, a variety of radiation issues have to be taken up, requiring the latest information for analyses. In this technical report are described the calculational methods and the conditions for the following shielding matters as well as verification of the validity; a bulk shielding, synchrotron radiation beamline shielding, skyshine, streaming through ducts and mazes, induced activities in air, cooling water and targets, and incident analysis due to abnormal beam losses. (author)

  19. Radiation shielding and safety analysis for SPring-8

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asano, Yoshihiro; Sasamoto, Nobuo [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Kamigori, Hyogo (Japan). Kansai Research Establishment

    1998-03-01

    The methods of shielding design and safety analysis applied to SPring-8 are summarized. SPring-8, a third generation synchrotron radiation facility, is the facility with the highest stored electron energy of 8 GeV and very low beam emittance of 5.5 nm{center_dot}rad. Because of these distinguished features, a variety of radiation issues have to be taken up, requiring the latest information for analyses. In this technical report are described the calculational methods and the conditions for the following shielding matters as well as verification of the validity; a bulk shielding, synchrotron radiation beamline shielding, skyshine, streaming through ducts and mazes, induced activities in air, cooling water and targets, and incident analysis due to abnormal beam losses. (author)

  20. Leaf spring assembly for wheel suspension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishiyama, K.; Mishima, Y.; Kuwayama, K.

    1986-09-16

    This patent describes a leaf spring assembly which consists of: a longitudinal leaf spring made of fiber reinforced plastics having a first surface to be applied with a tension force and a second surface to be applied with a compression force, the first surface of the leaf spring being a flat surface, and the second surface of the leaf spring being provided with a protrusion located substantially at the central portion of the leaf spring. The protrusion is made of a number of laminated short fibrous sheet-like materials saturated with synthetic resin, the short fibrous sheet-like materials of the protrusion being laminated independently and separately from reinforcement fibrous sheet-like materials in the leaf spring; a pair of pad members of elastic material attached to the first and second surfaces of the leaf spring; a pair of retainer plates attached to the first and second surfaces of the leaf spring through the pad members, one of the retainer plates being formed with an indented portion coupled with the protrusion of the leaf spring through one of the pad members without any clearance to clamp the leaf spring at its central portion and being further provided with a pair of protruded portions which are arranged adjacent to the indented portion to retain the paid member in place by engagement therewith; and means for clamping the retainer plates to the leaf spring and mounting the same on an axle housing.

  1. Static Analysis of Hybrid Composite Leaf Spring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.Arun*1,

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Leaf spring is a simple form of suspension spring used to absorb vibrations induced during the motion of a vehicle. The automobile industry has shown increased interest in the replacement of steel leaf spring (65Si7 with hybrid composite leaf spring with Jute/E-glass/Epoxy due to high strength to weight ratio, higher stiffness, high impact energy absorption and lesser stresses. This research is aimed to investigate the suitability of natural and synthetic fiber reinforced hybrid composite material in automobile leaf spring application. hybrid composite leaf spring with Jute/E-glass/Epoxy due to high strength to weight ratio, higher stiffness, high impact energy absorption and lesser stresses. This research is aimed to investigate the suitability of natural and synthetic fiber reinforced hybrid composite material in automobile leaf spring application.

  2. Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project quarterly environmental data summary for second quarter 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-08-11

    In support of the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project Federal Facilities Agreement, a copy of the Quarterly Environmental Data Summary (QEDS) for the second quarter of 1998 is enclosed. The data presented constitutes the QEDS. The data were received from the contract laboratories, verified by the Weldon Spring Site verification group and, except for air monitoring data and site KPA generated data (uranium analyses), merged into the database during the second quarter of 1998. Air monitoring data presented are the most recent complete sets of quarterly data. Air data are not stored in the database and KPA data are not merged into the regular database. All data received and verified during the second quarter were within a permissible range of variability, except for those listed. Above normal occurrences are cited for groundwater, air, and NPDES data. There were no above normal occurrences for springs or surface water. The attached tables present the most recent data for air and the data merged into the database during the second quarter 1998 for groundwater, NPDES, surface water, and springs.

  3. Spring hydrology determines summer net carbon uptake in northern ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Increased photosynthetic activity and enhanced seasonal CO2 exchange of northern ecosystems have been observed from a variety of sources including satellite vegetation indices (such as the normalized difference vegetation index; NDVI) and atmospheric CO2 measurements. Most of these changes have been attributed to strong warming trends in the northern high latitudes (⩾50° N). Here we analyze the interannual variation of summer net carbon uptake derived from atmospheric CO2 measurements and satellite NDVI in relation to surface meteorology from regional observational records. We find that increases in spring precipitation and snow pack promote summer net carbon uptake of northern ecosystems independent of air temperature effects. However, satellite NDVI measurements still show an overall benefit of summer photosynthetic activity from regional warming and limited impact of spring precipitation. This discrepancy is attributed to a similar response of photosynthesis and respiration to warming and thus reduced sensitivity of net ecosystem carbon uptake to temperature. Further analysis of boreal tower eddy covariance CO2 flux measurements indicates that summer net carbon uptake is positively correlated with early growing-season surface soil moisture, which is also strongly affected by spring precipitation and snow pack based on analysis of satellite soil moisture retrievals. This is attributed to strong regulation of spring hydrology on soil respiration in relatively wet boreal and arctic ecosystems. These results document the important role of spring hydrology in determining summer net carbon uptake and contrast with prevailing assumptions of dominant cold temperature limitations to high-latitude ecosystems. Our results indicate potentially stronger coupling of boreal/arctic water and carbon cycles with continued regional warming trends. (letters)

  4. Spring Hydrology Determines Summer Net Carbon Uptake in Northern Ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Yonghong; Kimball, John; Reichle, Rolf H.

    2014-01-01

    Increased photosynthetic activity and enhanced seasonal CO2 exchange of northern ecosystems have been observed from a variety of sources including satellite vegetation indices (such as the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index; NDVI) and atmospheric CO2 measurements. Most of these changes have been attributed to strong warming trends in the northern high latitudes (greater than or equal to 50N). Here we analyze the interannual variation of summer net carbon uptake derived from atmospheric CO2 measurements and satellite NDVI in relation to surface meteorology from regional observational records. We find that increases in spring precipitation and snow pack promote summer net carbon uptake of northern ecosystems independent of air temperature effects. However, satellite NDVI measurements still show an overall benefit of summer photosynthetic activity from regional warming and limited impact of spring precipitation. This discrepancy is attributed to a similar response of photosynthesis and respiration to warming and thus reduced sensitivity of net ecosystem carbon uptake to temperature. Further analysis of boreal tower eddy covariance CO2 flux measurements indicates that summer net carbon uptake is positively correlated with early growing-season surface soil moisture, which is also strongly affected by spring precipitation and snow pack based on analysis of satellite soil moisture retrievals. This is attributed to strong regulation of spring hydrology on soil respiration in relatively wet boreal and arctic ecosystems. These results document the important role of spring hydrology in determining summer net carbon uptake and contrast with prevailing assumptions of dominant cold temperature limitations to high-latitude ecosystems. Our results indicate potentially stronger coupling of boreal/arctic water and carbon cycles with continued regional warming trends.

  5. Audiomagnetotelluric data from Spring, Cave, and Coyote Spring Valleys, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPhee, Darcy K.; Chuchel, Bruce A.; Pellerin, Louise

    2006-01-01

    Audiomagnetotelluric (AMT) data along four profiles in Spring, Cave, and Coyote Spring Valleys are presented here. The AMT method is used to estimate the electrical resistivity of the earth over depth ranges of a few meters to greater than one kilometer. This method is a valuable tool for revealing subsurface structure and stratigraphy within the Basin and Range of eastern Nevada, therefore helping to define the geohydrologic framework in this region. We collected AMT data using the Geometrics StrataGem EH4 system, a four-channel, natural and controlled- source tensor system recording in the range of 10 to 92,000 Hz. To augment the low signal in the natural field, an unpolarized transmitter comprised of two horizontal-magnetic dipoles was used from 1,000 to 70,000 Hz. Profiles were 1.4 - 12.6 km in length with station spacing of 100-400 m. Data were recorded with the electrical (E) field parallel to and perpendicular to the regional geologic strike direction. Station locations and sounding curves, showing apparent resistivity, phase data, and coherency data, are presented here.

  6. CACTUS SPRING ROADLESS AREA, CALIFORNIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matti, Jonathan C.; Kuizon, Lucia

    1984-01-01

    Geologic, geochemical, and geophysical studies together with a review of historic mining and prospecting activities indicate that the Cactus Spring Roadless Area in California has little promise for the occurrence of mineral or energy resources. Marble bodies occur in the northern part of the roadless area and are possible resources for building stone, crushed and quarried aggregate, and lime and magnesium for Portland cement and industrial applications. It is recommended that the terrane of marble be mapped and sampled carefully in order to evaluate the quantity and quality of the carbonate resources.

  7. Stretching Instability of Helical Springs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessler, David A.; Rabin, Yitzhak

    2003-01-01

    We show that when a gradually increasing tensile force is applied to the ends of a helical spring with sufficiently large ratios of radius to pitch and twist to bending rigidity, the end-to-end distance undergoes a sequence of discontinuous stretching transitions. Subsequent decrease of the force leads to steplike contraction, and hysteresis is observed. For finite helices, the number of these transitions increases with the number of helical turns but only one stretching and one contraction instability survive in the limit of an infinite helix. We calculate the critical line that separates the region of parameters in which the deformation is continuous from that in which stretching instabilities occur.

  8. Quantum model for entropic springs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chiao-Hsuan; Taylor, Jacob M.

    2016-06-01

    Motivated by understanding the emergence of thermodynamic restoring forces and oscillations, we develop a quantum-mechanical model of a bath of spins coupled to the elasticity of a material. We show our model reproduces the behavior of a variety of entropic springs while enabling investigation of nonequilibrium resonator states in the quantum domain. We find our model emerges naturally in disordered elastic media, such as glasses, and is an additional expected effect in systems with anomalous specific heat and 1 /f noise at low temperatures due to two-level systems that fluctuate.

  9. Phaedrus tandem mirror. Status report, Spring 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the spring of 1983, the Phaedrus group undertook a major up to air to improve diagnostic capabilities, modify RF antennas and clean up the inner vacuum surfaces of accumulated getter material. This time was also used to analyze more thoroughly our present data base and correlate it with relevant theoretical predictions. A neutral beam build up code has been developed to model RF central stream trapping and heating, neutral gas charge exchange losses with finite gyroradius effects, and beam aiming sensitivity. MHD stability of the central cell stand alone operation has been explained by a radial ponderomotive force which opposes the centrifugal force due to bad field line curvature. First drafts of research papers on RF trapping, electron cyclotron heating, the stand alone mode, and MHD instability studies were completed. All of these papers require more experiments to tie up loose ends but the loose ends were identified more clearly by this process. The remainder of this report will be organized by experimental area, describing in limited detail the status of current research, recent modifications to diagnostic and machine hardware and immediate future experimental objectives

  10. Reconstruction of false spring occurrences over the southeastern United States, 1901-2007: an increasing risk of spring freeze damage?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Near-record warmth over much of the United States during March 2007 promoted early growth of crops and vegetation. A widespread arctic air outbreak followed in early April, resulting in extensive agricultural losses over much of the south-central and southeastern US. This 'false spring' event also resulted in widespread damage to newly grown tissues of native deciduous forest species, shown by previous researchers to have had measurable effects on the terrestrial carbon cycle. The current study reconstructed the historical occurrence of false springs over most of the southeastern quarter of the conterminous US (32-39 deg. N; 75-98 deg. W) from 1901 to 2007 using daily maximum and minimum temperature records from 176 stations in the Global Historical Climatology Network database, and enhanced vegetation index (EVI) data derived from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) satellite observations. A false spring index was derived that examined the timing of the start of the growing season (SGS), or leaf emergence, relative to the timing of a potentially damaging last hard freeze (minimum temperature ≤ - 2.2 deg. C). SGS was modeled for the domain by combining EVI data with ground-based temperature 'degree day' calculations reflecting the rate of springtime warming. No significant area-wide, long-term SGS trend was found; however, over much of a contiguous region stretching from Mississippi eastward to the Carolinas, the timing of the last hard freeze was found to occur significantly later, this change occurring along with increased frequency of false springs. Earlier last hard freeze dates and decreased frequency of false springs were found over much of the northwestern part of the study region, including Arkansas and southern Missouri.

  11. Reconstruction of false spring occurrences over the southeastern United States, 1901-2007: an increasing risk of spring freeze damage?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marino, Garrett P [Department of Earth, Atmospheric and Planetary Sciences, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States); Kaiser, Dale P; Gu, Lianhong; Ricciuto, Daniel M, E-mail: kaiserdp@ornl.gov [Environmental Sciences Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2011-04-15

    Near-record warmth over much of the United States during March 2007 promoted early growth of crops and vegetation. A widespread arctic air outbreak followed in early April, resulting in extensive agricultural losses over much of the south-central and southeastern US. This 'false spring' event also resulted in widespread damage to newly grown tissues of native deciduous forest species, shown by previous researchers to have had measurable effects on the terrestrial carbon cycle. The current study reconstructed the historical occurrence of false springs over most of the southeastern quarter of the conterminous US (32-39 deg. N; 75-98 deg. W) from 1901 to 2007 using daily maximum and minimum temperature records from 176 stations in the Global Historical Climatology Network database, and enhanced vegetation index (EVI) data derived from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) satellite observations. A false spring index was derived that examined the timing of the start of the growing season (SGS), or leaf emergence, relative to the timing of a potentially damaging last hard freeze (minimum temperature {<=} - 2.2 deg. C). SGS was modeled for the domain by combining EVI data with ground-based temperature 'degree day' calculations reflecting the rate of springtime warming. No significant area-wide, long-term SGS trend was found; however, over much of a contiguous region stretching from Mississippi eastward to the Carolinas, the timing of the last hard freeze was found to occur significantly later, this change occurring along with increased frequency of false springs. Earlier last hard freeze dates and decreased frequency of false springs were found over much of the northwestern part of the study region, including Arkansas and southern Missouri.

  12. Reconstruction of false spring occurrences over the southeastern United States, 1901 2007: an increasing risk of spring freeze damage?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marino, Garrett P [ORNL; Kaiser, Dale Patrick [ORNL; Gu, Lianhong [ORNL; Ricciuto, Daniel M [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    Near-record warmth over much of the United States during March 2007 promoted early growth of crops and vegetation. A widespread arctic air outbreak followed in early April, resulting in extensive agricultural losses over much of the south-central and southeastern US. This false spring event also resulted in widespread damage to newly grown tissues of native deciduous forest species, shown by previous researchers to have had measurable effects on the terrestrial carbon cycle. The current study reconstructed the historical occurrence of false springs over most of the southeastern quarter of the conterminous US (32 39 N; 75 98 W) from 1901 to 2007 using daily maximum and minimum temperature records from 176 stations in the Global Historical Climatology Network database, and enhanced vegetation index (EVI) data derived from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) satellite observations. A false spring index was derived that examined the timing of the start of the growing season (SGS), or leaf emergence, relative to the timing of a potentially damaging last hard freeze (minimum temperature 2.2 C). SGS was modeled for the domain by combining EVI data with ground-based temperature degree day calculations reflecting the rate of springtime warming. No significant area-wide, long-term SGS trend was found; however, over much of a contiguous region stretching from Mississippi eastward to the Carolinas, the timing of the last hard freeze was found to occur significantly later, this change occurring along with increased frequency of false springs. Earlier last hard freeze dates and decreased frequency of false springs were found over much of the northwestern part of the study region, including Arkansas and southern Missouri.

  13. Trend of earlier spring in central Europe continued

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ungersböck, Markus; Jurkovic, Anita; Koch, Elisabeth; Lipa, Wolfgang; Scheifinger, Helfried; Zach-Hermann, Susanne

    2013-04-01

    Modern phenology is the study of the timing of recurring biological events in the animal and plant world, the causes of their timing with regard to biotic and abiotic forces, and the interrelation among phases of the same or different species. The relationship between phenology and climate explains the importance of plant phenology for Climate Change studies. Plants require light, water, oxygen mineral nutrients and suitable temperature to grow. In temperate zones the seasonal life cycle of plants is primarily controlled by temperature and day length. Higher spring air temperatures are resulting in an earlier onset of the phenological spring in temperate and cool climate. On the other hand changes in phenology due to climate change do have impact on the climate system itself. Vegetation is a dynamic factor in the earth - climate system and has positive and negative feedback mechanisms to the biogeochemical and biogeophysical fluxes to the atmosphere Since the mid of the 1980s spring springs earlier in Europe and autumn is shifting back to the end of the year resulting in a longer vegetation period. The advancement of spring can be clearly attributed to temperature increase in the months prior to leaf unfolding and flowering, the timing of autumn is more complex and cannot easily be attributed to one or some few parameters. To demonstrate that the observed advancement of spring since the mid of 1980s is pro-longed in 2001 to 2010 and the delay of fall and the lengthening of the growing season is confirmed in the last decade we picked out several indicator plants from the PEP725 database www.pep725.eu. The PEP725 database collects data from different European network operators and thus offers a unique compilation of phenological observations; the database is regularly updated. The data follow the same classification scheme, the so called BBCH coding system so they can be compared. Lilac Syringa vulgaris, birch Betula pendula, beech Fagus and horse chestnut Aesculus

  14. Weed infestation in canopy of spring barley in condition of different tillage systems and fertilization and plant protection levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Kraska

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this work was to determine the influence of conventional tillage (fall ploughing at 25 cm and minimum tillage systems (chisel ploughing at 30 cm and two differentiated fertilization and plant protection levels on number, species composition and air dry weed mass in spring barley cv. Rataj. This spring barley was cultivated in crop rotation potato - spring barley - winter rye. The analysis of field infestation was made prior to spring barley harvest with quantitative- weighting method. There was estimated number of weeds, weed species composition and air dry weight of weeds in two randomly chosen areas of each plot of 0.5 m2. The density of weeds and weed air dry weight was statistically analysed by means of variance analysis, and the mean values were estimated with Tukey's confidence intervals (p=0.05. Intensive level of fertilization and chemical crop protection decreased number of monocotyledonous weeds and total weeds in canopy of spring barley. Conventional system of soil cultivation decreased in a canopy of spring barley the following species of weeds: Geranium pusillum, Galinsoga parviflora, Stellaria media, Apera spica-venti, Poa annua and Echinochloa crusgalli. Conventional tillage increases number of Chamomilla suaveolens and Fallopia convolvulus in a canopy of spring barley. Intensive fertilization and plant protection levels decreased weed infestation first of all through Echinochloa crusgalli, Apera spica-venti, Fallopia convolvulus, Galinsoga parviflora, Geranium pusillum, Chenopodium album and Setaria pumila.

  15. Spring Research Festival Highlighted on WHAG-TV | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    WHAG-TV (Hagerstown, Md.) visited Fort Detrick to highlight the 2015 Spring Research Festival (SRF), sponsored by the National Interagency Confederation for Biological Research (NICBR). Visit the WHAG-TV website to see the video broadcast, which aired May 6. The video was produced by WHAG Reporter Mallory Sofastaii. The video featured Linganore High School senior Rebecca Matthews, a Werner H. Kirsten student intern in the Human Retrovirus Pathogenesis Section, Vaccine Branch, NCI Center for Cancer Research; Lanessa Hill, public affairs specialist, 

  16. Analysis of Parabolic Leaf Spring Failure

    OpenAIRE

    Kainulainen, Perttu

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this final project was to make an the fracture analysis for a parabolic leaf spring. The leaf spring type is used in a mining machine. The machine is designed for personnel and equipment transportation in a mine environment. The objectives were to gather information about effects of the improvement in the spring’ structure and study phenomena which eventually lead to the fracture of the spring. The project was divided into theoretical and experimental sections. The theoreti...

  17. Air Abrasion

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... delivered directly to your desktop! more... What Is Air Abrasion? Article Chapters What Is Air Abrasion? What Happens? The Pros and Cons Will I Feel Anything? Is Air Abrasion for Everyone? print full article print this ...

  18. Reactor vessel o-ring spring clip

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A reactor vessel O-ring spring clip is designed to hold a tubular metallic O-ring in the groove of a reactor vessel head flange, especially during vessel head lifting. The spring clip is designed such that the weight of the O-ring acts to increase the friction force between the spring clip and the, typically, threaded hole into which it is inserted. An end of the clip adapted to be inserted through a slot in the tubular O-ring for securement thereto, has a circular member thereon which prevents the spring clip from becoming disengaged from the O-ring during head lifting. (author)

  19. Gas exchange and water relations responses of spring wheat to full-season infrared warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gas exchange and water relations responses to full-season in situ infrared (IR) warming were evaluated for hard red spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv. Yecora Rojo) grown in an open field in a semi-arid desert region of the Southwest USA. A Temperature Free-Air Controlled Enhancement (T-FACE) ap...

  20. Vulcan Hot Springs known geothermal resource area: an environmental analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spencer, S.G.; Russell, B.F. (eds.)

    1979-09-01

    The Vulcan Hot Springs known geothermal resource area (KGRA) is one of the more remote KGRAs in Idaho. The chemistry of Vulcan Hot Springs indicates a subsurface resource temperature of 147/sup 0/C, which may be high enough for power generation. An analysis of the limited data available on climate, meteorology, and air quality indicates few geothermal development concerns in these areas. The KGRA is located on the edge of the Idaho Batholith on a north-trending lineament which may be a factor in the presence of the hot springs. An occasional earthquake of magnitude 7 or greater may be expected in the region. Subsidence or elevation as a result of geothermal development in the KGRA do not appear to be of concern. Fragile granitic soils on steep slopes in the KGRA are unstable and may restrict development. The South fork of the Salmon River, the primary stream in the region, is an important salmon spawning grounds. Stolle Meadows, on the edge of the KGRA, is used as a wintering and calving area for elk, and access to the area is limited during this period. Socioeconomic and demographic surveys indicate that facilities and services will probably not be significantly impacted by development. Known heritage resources in the KGRA include two sites and the potential for additional cultural sites is significant.

  1. Dynamics of an actin spring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riera, Christophe; Mahadevan, L.; Shin, Jennifer; Matsudaira, Paul

    2003-03-01

    The acrosome of the sperm of the horseshoe crab (Limulus Polyphemus) is an unusual actin based system that shows a spectacular dynamical transition in the presence of Ca++ that is present in abundance in the neighborhood of the egg. During this process, the bundle, which is initially bent and twisted uncoils and becomes straight in a matter of a few seconds. Based on microstructural data, we propose a model for the dynamics of uncoiling that is best represented by a triple-well potential corresponding to the different structural arrangements of the supertwisted filaments. Each of the false, true and coiled states corresponds to a local minimum of the energy, with the true state being the one with the lowest energy. Using an evolution equation derived by balancing torques, we investigate the nucleation and propagation of the phase transition and compare the results with those of experiments. Our model quantifies the hypothesis that the acrosomal bundle behaves like a mechano-chemical spring.

  2. Second memorandum on the flow of Aqua Caliente Spring after road construction at Palm Springs, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poland, J.F.; Dutcher, L.C.

    1953-01-01

    This memorandum was prepared at the request of Henry Harris, Acting Area Director, Bureau of Indian Affairs, Sacramento, Calif., to report on recent conditions at the Agua Caliente Spring, Palm Springs, Calif., and to suggest further possibilities for restoring the spring discharge to its pre-road-construction condition.

  3. MR imaging findings in spring ligament insufficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yao, L. [Department of Radiology, MRI, CCC Building, Georgetown University Medical Center, 3800 Reservoir Road, NW, Washington, DC 20007-2197 (United States); Gentili, A. [UCLA Department of Radiological Sciences, West Los Angeles VA Medical Center, CA (United States); Cracchiolo, A. [UCLA Department of Orthopedic Surgery, UCLA Center for the Health Sciences, 10833 LeConte Avenue, Los Angeles, CA 90024 (United States)

    1999-05-01

    Objective. Spring ligament insufficiency is associated with chronic posterior tibial tendon dysfunction, and may constitute an indication for surgical repair or reconstruction. This study examines the accuracy of MRI for the diagnosis of insufficiency of the spring ligament. Design and patients. Two experienced musculoskeletal radiologists independently scored the MRI findings in 13 cases of surgically proven spring ligament insufficiency and in 18 control subjects, using a standardized scoring system. Results. Insufficiency of the spring ligament was associated with increased signal heterogeneity on short TE spin echo images, and an increase in the thickness of the medial portion of the ligament. The sensitivity of MRI for the diagnosis of spring ligament insufficiency was 54-77%, while the specificity was 100%. MRI assessment of the plantar portion of the spring ligament was unreliable (kappa=0.33), but the assessment of global ligament integrity was substantially reproducible (kappa=0.76). Conclusion. The medial portion of the spring ligament can be reliably assessed on routine MRI. The findings of spring ligament insufficiency on MRI are only moderately sensitive but highly specific. (orig.) With 6 figs., 1 tab., 9 refs.

  4. Optimization of a Spring for Dental Attachments

    OpenAIRE

    Hack, P.; Fritzen, C.-P.

    1989-01-01

    Special technological applications like the construction of a dental attachment require structural parts which have very small operall dimensions. Very often these parts are subjected to high loadings. The failure of a small spring was the starting point for an investigation with the aim to design a suitable new spring shape.

  5. Nonlinear Vibration of a Magnetic Spring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Juhua; Cheng, Zhongqi; Ge, Ziming; Zhang, Yuelan; Lu, Wenqiang; Song, Feng; Li, Chuanyong

    2012-01-01

    To demonstrate the different vibration characteristics of a magnetic spring compared with those of a metal one, a magnetic spring apparatus was constructed from a pair of circular magnets of the same size with an inside diameter of 2.07 cm and an outside diameter of 4.50 cm. To keep the upper magnet in a suspension state, the two magnets were…

  6. Spring Showers’ Japanese Snowbell

    Science.gov (United States)

    A Japanese snowbell (Styrax japonicus) cultivar was released in 2011 by the U.S. National Arboretum. ‘Spring Showers’ was selected from a group of open-pollinated seedlings for its delayed bud break, which allows it to escape damage from late spring freezes. It has grown to 12 ft tall and 8 ft wid...

  7. Rocky Mountain Carbonate Spring Deposit development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rainey, Dustin Kyle

    Relict Holocene carbonate spring deposits containing diverse biotic and abiotic depositional textures are present at Fall Creek cold sulphur springs, Alberta, Fairmont Hot Springs, British Columbia, and Hot Creek cold springs, British Columbia. The relict deposits are formed mainly of low-magnesium crystalline calcite contained in laterally continuous strata. Paleo-flow regimes were characterized by extensive sheet flow that increased the surface area of spring water exposed to the atmosphere. Calcite precipitated inorganically from spring water that attained CaCO3 supersaturation through agitation-induced CO2 degassing that was facilitated by elevated flow rates and a large surface area as spring water flowed down-slope. Thus, the deposits contain only minor amounts of detrital, mechanically deposited, and biogenic carbonate. Evaporation was only a minor contributor to CaCO3 supersaturation, mainly in quiescent environments. Photosynthetic CO2 removal did not measurably contribute to CaCO3 supersaturation. Calcite crystals precipitated in biotic facies formed from low to moderately supersaturated spring water, whereas abiotic dendrite crystals formed rapidly from highly supersaturated spring water. Calcite passively nucleated on cyanobacteria, bryophytes and macrophytes, and was probably facilitated by cyanobacterial extracellular polymeric substances. Cyanobacterial filaments and stromatolites are integral parts of all three deposits, whereas bryophytes were restricted to the Fall Creek and Hot Creek deposits. Diagenetic microbial degradation of crystalline calcite was common to all three deposits, but recrystallization was limited to the Fall Creek deposit. The amount and location of calcite precipitation relative to the vents was controlled by the concentrations of Ca2+ and HCO3- in solution, and discharge volume fluctuations. Spring water with high [Ca2+] and [HCO 3-] precipitated large amounts of calcite proximal to the vents (e.g. Fairmont), whereas spring

  8. Shallow Analysis on the First Spring Soaking Rain Weather and Its Precipitation Enhancement Potential Forecast in Jinzhou Area in 2010

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] The research aimed to study the first spring soaking rain weather and its precipitation enhancement potential forecast in Jinzhou area in 2010. [Method] From the weather situation characteristics, main influence system, forecast service, artificial precipitation enhancement operation and so on, the first spring soaking rain weather process in Jinzhou area in 2010 was summarized comprehensively. [Result] The weather situation characteristics of soaking rain were that the high-altitude cold air wa...

  9. RECONSTRUCTION OF FALSE SPRING OCCURRENCE OVER THE SOUTHEASTERN U.S., 1901–2007: INCREASING RISK OF SPRING FREEZE DAMAGE?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marino, G.P.; Kaiser, D.P.

    2009-01-01

    Near-record warmth over much of the United States during March 2007 promoted early growth of crops and vegetation. A widespread arctic air outbreak followed in early April, resulting in extensive agricultural losses over the southeastern U.S. This “false spring” event also resulted in widespread damage to newly grown tissues of native deciduous forest species, shown by previous researchers to have affected the terrestrial carbon cycle. The current study reconstructed the historical occurrence of false springs for the southeastern U.S. (32–39 °N; 75–98 °W) from 1901–2007 using daily maximum and minimum temperature records from 176 stations in the Global Historical Climatology Network database, and Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) data derived from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) satellite observations. A false spring index examined the relative timing of the start of the growing season (SGS), or leaf-out, to the timing of a potentially damaging last hard freeze (≤ -2.2 °C). SGS was modeled for the domain by combining EVI data with ground-based temperature “degree-day” calculations refl ecting the rate of springtime warming. No significant area-wide, long-term SGS trend was found (0.2 days later/decade; p = 0.3). However, the timing of the last hard freeze did occur significantly later (>1 day/decade; p < 0.05) over a contiguous region stretching from Mississippi eastward to the Carolinas. The index also found that false spring risk increased over the same area, although a domain-averaged trend showed no change since 1901. These results illustrate the complexity of observed climate change over the last century. In a generally warming world, the character of temperature changes in some regions does not result in decreasing risk of false spring, and may in fact pose increased risk if occurring during vulnerable plant growth stages.

  10. Executive summary: Weldon Spring Site Environmental Report for calendar year 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report has been prepared to provide information about the public safety and environmental protection programs conducted by the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project. The Weldon Spring site is located in southern St. Charles County, Missouri, approximately 48 km (30 mi) west of St. Louis. The site consists of two main areas, the Weldon Spring Chemical Plant and raffinate pits and the Weldon Spring Quarry. The objectives of the Site Environmental Report are to present a summary of data from the environmental monitoring program, to characterize trends and environmental conditions at the site, and to confirm compliance with environmental and health protection standards and requirements. The report also presents the status of remedial activities and the results of monitoring these activities to assess their impacts on the public and environment. The scope of the environmental monitoring program at the Weldon Spring site has changed since it was initiated. Previously, the program focused on investigations of the extent and level of contaminants in the groundwater, surface waters, buildings, and air at the site. In 1992, the level of remedial activities required monitoring for potential impacts of those activities, particularly on surface water runoff and airborne effluents. This report includes monitoring data from routine radiological and nonradiological sampling activities. These data include estimates of dose to the public from the Weldon Spring site; estimates of effluent releases; and trends in groundwater contaminant levels. Also, applicable compliance requirements, quality assurance programs, and special studies conducted in 1992 to support environmental protection programs are reviewed

  11. Weldon Spring historical dose estimate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meshkov, N.; Benioff, P.; Wang, J.; Yuan, Y.

    1986-07-01

    This study was conducted to determine the estimated radiation doses that individuals in five nearby population groups and the general population in the surrounding area may have received as a consequence of activities at a uranium processing plant in Weldon Spring, Missouri. The study is retrospective and encompasses plant operations (1957-1966), cleanup (1967-1969), and maintenance (1969-1982). The dose estimates for members of the nearby population groups are as follows. Of the three periods considered, the largest doses to the general population in the surrounding area would have occurred during the plant operations period (1957-1966). Dose estimates for the cleanup (1967-1969) and maintenance (1969-1982) periods are negligible in comparison. Based on the monitoring data, if there was a person residing continually in a dwelling 1.2 km (0.75 mi) north of the plant, this person is estimated to have received an average of about 96 mrem/yr (ranging from 50 to 160 mrem/yr) above background during plant operations, whereas the dose to a nearby resident during later years is estimated to have been about 0.4 mrem/yr during cleanup and about 0.2 mrem/yr during the maintenance period. These values may be compared with the background dose in Missouri of 120 mrem/yr.

  12. Weldon Spring historical dose estimate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was conducted to determine the estimated radiation doses that individuals in five nearby population groups and the general population in the surrounding area may have received as a consequence of activities at a uranium processing plant in Weldon Spring, Missouri. The study is retrospective and encompasses plant operations (1957-1966), cleanup (1967-1969), and maintenance (1969-1982). The dose estimates for members of the nearby population groups are as follows. Of the three periods considered, the largest doses to the general population in the surrounding area would have occurred during the plant operations period (1957-1966). Dose estimates for the cleanup (1967-1969) and maintenance (1969-1982) periods are negligible in comparison. Based on the monitoring data, if there was a person residing continually in a dwelling 1.2 km (0.75 mi) north of the plant, this person is estimated to have received an average of about 96 mrem/yr (ranging from 50 to 160 mrem/yr) above background during plant operations, whereas the dose to a nearby resident during later years is estimated to have been about 0.4 mrem/yr during cleanup and about 0.2 mrem/yr during the maintenance period. These values may be compared with the background dose in Missouri of 120 mrem/yr

  13. New package for Belleville spring permits rate change, easy disassembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mac Glashan, W. F.

    1964-01-01

    A spring package, with grooves to hold the spring washers at the inner and outer edges, reduces hysteresis to a minimum. Three-segment retainers permit easy disassembly so that the spring rate can be changed.

  14. Thermal springs of Malaysia and their potentialdevelopment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahim Samsudin, Abdul; Hamzah, Umar; Rahman, Rakmi Ab.; Siwar, Chamhuri; Fauzi Mohd. Jani, Mohd; Othman, Redzuan

    The study on the potential development of hot springs for the tourism industry in Malaysiawas conducted. Out of the 40 hot springs covered, the study identified 9 hot springs having a high potential for development, 14 having medium potential and the remaining 17 having low or least potential for development. This conclusion was arrived at after considering the technical and economic feasibility of the various hot springs. Technical feasibility criteria includes geological factors, water quality, temperature and flow rate. The economic feasibility criteria considers measures such as accessibility, current and market potentials in terms of visitors, surrounding attractions and existing inventory and facilities available. A geological input indicates that high potential hot springs are located close to or within the granite body and associated with major permeable fault zones. They normally occur at low elevation adjacent to topographic highs. High potential hot springs are also characterised by high water temperature, substantial flowrate and very good water quality which is important for water-body contact activities such as soaking. Economic criteria for high potential hot springs are associated with good accessibility, good market, good surrounding attractions like rural and village setting and well developed facilities and infrastructures.

  15. Radioactive disequilibrium in mound spring deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The problem to be resolved was the age of the mound spring sediments on the margin of the Great Artesian Basin to the south and southwest of Lake Eyre. Nine samples from six springs and two from neighbouring dune fields were collected. The parent and daughter nuclides for the uranium and thorium decay chains have been comprehensively measured by a variety of techniques: DNA, thick-source alpha particle counting, field scintillometry, high resolution gamma spectrometry and high resolution alpha spectrometry. Gross radioactive disequilibrium in the uranium chain is found for the spring samples. The activity, in Bq kg-1, for the uranium chain at and below radium, compared with the parent uranium and its immediate daughters, ranges from an excess factor of two to a factor of six, depending on the age of the spring mound deposit. This is interpreted as evidence that radium is being carried up into the springs with artesian groundwater and deposited in the spring mound sediments. There is also evidence for a small excess of thorium. The ages of the spring mound deposits have been successfully found by thermoluminescence. They range from about 20 ka to 500 ka. The disequilibrium suggests why attempts to use uranium series dating have not been successful

  16. Microbial Source Tracking in Adjacent Karst Springs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohad, Shoshanit; Vaizel-Ohayon, Dalit; Rom, Meir; Guttman, Joseph; Berger, Diego; Kravitz, Valeria; Pilo, Shlomo; Huberman, Zohar; Kashi, Yechezkel; Rorman, Efrat

    2015-08-01

    Modern man-made environments, including urban, agricultural, and industrial environments, have complex ecological interactions among themselves and with the natural surroundings. Microbial source tracking (MST) offers advanced tools to resolve the host source of fecal contamination beyond indicator monitoring. This study was intended to assess karst spring susceptibilities to different fecal sources using MST quantitative PCR (qPCR) assays targeting human, bovine, and swine markers. It involved a dual-time monitoring frame: (i) monthly throughout the calendar year and (ii) daily during a rainfall event. Data integration was taken from both monthly and daily MST profile monitoring and improved identification of spring susceptibility to host fecal contamination; three springs located in close geographic proximity revealed different MST profiles. The Giach spring showed moderate fluctuations of MST marker quantities amid wet and dry samplings, while the Zuf spring had the highest rise of the GenBac3 marker during the wet event, which was mirrored in other markers as well. The revelation of human fecal contamination during the dry season not connected to incidents of raining leachates suggests a continuous and direct exposure to septic systems. Pigpens were identified in the watersheds of Zuf, Shefa, and Giach springs and on the border of the Gaaton spring watershed. Their impact was correlated with partial detection of the Pig-2-Bac marker in Gaaton spring, which was lower than detection levels in all three of the other springs. Ruminant and swine markers were detected intermittently, and their contamination potential during the wet samplings was exposed. These results emphasized the importance of sampling design to utilize the MST approach to delineate subtleties of fecal contamination in the environment. PMID:26002893

  17. Environmental assessment for Kelley Hot Spring geothermal project: Kelley Hot Spring Agricultural Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neilson, J.A.

    1981-04-01

    The environmental impacts of an integrated swine production unit are analyzed together with necessary ancillary operations deriving its primary energy from a known geothermal reservoir in accordance with policies established by the National Energy Conservation Act. This environmental assessment covers 6 areas designated as potentially feasible project sites, using as the basic criteria for selection ground, surface and geothermal water supplies. The six areas, comprising +- 150 acres each, are within a 2 mile radius of Kelley Hot Springs, a known geothermal resource of many centuries standing, located 16 miles west of Alturas, the county seat of Modoc County, California. The project consists of the construction and operation of a 1360 sow confined pork production complex expandable to 5440 sows. The farrow to finish system for 1360 sows consists of 2 breeding barns, 2 gestation barns, 1 farrowing and 1 nursery barn, 3 growing and 3 finishing barns, a feed mill, a methane generator for waste disposal and water storage ponds. Supporting this are one geothermal well and 1 or 2 cold water wells, all occupying approximately 12 acres. Environmental reconnaissance involving geology, hydrology, soils, vegetation, fauna, air and water quality, socioeconomic, archaelogical and historical, and land use aspects were carefully carried out, impacts assessed and mitigations evaluated.

  18. Nonlinear Study of Industrial Arc Spring Dampers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lahriri, Said; Santos, Ilmar; Hartmann, Henning

    2011-01-01

    for varying the damping characteristics of the SFD as well as the dynamic forces acting on the SFD. Phase plane orbits together with Poincar´e maps are given for different arc spring damping and static and dynamic load cases. Besides, bifurcation diagrams as a function of the arc spring damping and...... forces acting on the SFD are presented. It is worth mentioning, that the maps and diagrams can be used as design guidance. Finally, a comparison between the numerical results and experimental result is facilitated in form of waterfall diagrams. For this, a full scale model of the arc-spring damper was...

  19. Characterizing Hot Spring Connectivity Using Aqueous Geochemistry in the River Group Springs, Yellowstone NP, Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aunan, M. M.; Lindsey, C.; Price, A. N.; Fairley, J. P., Jr.; Larson, P. B.

    2015-12-01

    Abstract We analyzed the aqueous geochemical components of 11 springs in the River Group, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming. For the springs sampled, we found pHs ranging from a low of ˜4.8 to a high of ˜9.6; TDS (as inferred from electrical conductivity measurements) was roughly correlated to pH, with the lowest pH spring being the most dilute (373 µS) and the highest pH spring having the second highest conductivity (1384 µS). In combination with a shallow ground temperature survey and visual observations of the relative water levels in the springs, the spring chemistries support a conceptual model of fracture-controlled fluid flow in which individual springs demonstrate a surprising level of flowpath isolation. We hypothesize that variations in flowpath permeability lead to steam-heating of low-pH springs, while nearby circumneutral springs are heated by upwelling liquid hydrothermal fluids, high in chlorid and other dissolved components. If our hypothesis is correct, it implies that vaporand liquid-dominated zones of Model III hydrothermal systems can coexist in close proximity, resulting in a complex surface expression of acid-sulfate and chloride-rich circum-neutral springs.

  20. Design of the hydraulic shock absorbers characteristics using relative springs deflections at general excitation of the bus wheels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polach P.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The air-pressure-controlled hydraulic shock absorbers of axles’ air suspension are capable of changing their damping forces in dependence on air pressure in air springs. Due to the possibility of improving dynamic properties of all vehicles that use the axles’ air suspension, BRANO a.s., the Czech producer of shock absorbers, developed semi-active air-pressure-controlled hydraulic telescopic shock absorbers. The force-velocity characteristics of the controlled shock absorbers were designed on the basis of relative deflections of the air springs. As a criterion for the design of the optimum characteristics of the controlled shock absorbers the maximum similarity of dynamic responses of multibody models of the SOR C 12 bus for all the considered weights to the dynamic response of the reference multibody model was chosen. Time histories of relative deflections of the axles’ air springs determined during the simulations are compared. Simulations of running over an obstacle with all the wheels were originally chosen (symmetric kinematic excitation of wheels. Verification of the suitability of the designed force-velocity characteristics of the APCSA described in this paper is performed on the basis of the simulations of general kinematic excitation of wheels. Driving on the artificially created test track according to the ŠKODA VÝZKUM methodology was chosen.

  1. 78 FR 46521 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; State of Colorado; Second 10-Year...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    ... for the Colorado Springs area for the carbon monoxide (CO) National Ambient Air Quality Standard... Subjects in 40 CFR Part 52 Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Carbon monoxide, Incorporation...; Second 10-Year Carbon Monoxide Maintenance Plan for Colorado Springs AGENCY: Environmental...

  2. 78 FR 46552 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; State of Colorado; Second Ten-Year...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    ... Colorado Springs area for the carbon monoxide (CO) National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS). This... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; State of Colorado; Second Ten-Year Carbon Monoxide Maintenance Plan for Colorado Springs AGENCY: Environmental...

  3. Chemical composition and its origin in spring rainwater over Taihu Lake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xuemei; Yang, Longyuan; Qin, Boqiang; Ji, Lingling

    2006-12-01

    Chemical compositions of rainwater collected in three stations in Taihu Lake in Jiangsu Province, China between March and May 2003 were analyzed through numerical simulations and field observation data. In terms of average ion deposition rate in spring at the air/water interface, of all anions, that of SO{4/2-} was the largest followed by NO{3/-}, whereas among all cations, Ca2+ concentration and the rate was the largest, and then NH{4/+} was the next. The correlation of ion concentration indicated that the catchment of the lake has been artificially polluted considerably. Using backward trajectory analysis, the raining water in the stations in Taihu Lake was classified. In spring, marine-originated rain is the main contribution to this area, counting for 92.7% of the total precipitation, in which SO{4/2-}, NO{3/-} and NH{4/-} contributed 89.2%, 88.1%, and 88.3% respectively to the total spring-rain chemicals, whereas land-originated rains contributed in a small amount. However, the ion concentration in the land-originated rain was higher and acidic, causing considerable harm to local ecosystem. The analysis of backward trajectory analysis shows that three types of air masses influenced the chemical composition of the lake water, namely, air mass from NE direction, air mass from SW direction, and local air mass. Although the local air masses often produced small rainfall amount, but the nature of high ion concentration and high acidity impacted the local ecosystem rmmarkably. The ion concentration and rainfall from long-distance boreal air mass are clearly greater than those in austral air.

  4. Chemical composition and its origin in spring rainwater over Taihu Lake

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xuemei; YANG Longyuan; QIN Boqiang; JI Lingling

    2006-01-01

    Chemical compositions of rainwater collected in three stations in Taihu Lake in Jiangsu Province, China between March and May 2003 were analyzed through numerical simulations and field observation data. In terms of average ion deposition rate in spring at the air/water interface, of all anions,that of so2-4 was the largest followed by NO-3, whereas among all cations, Ca2+ concentration and the rate was the largest, and then NH4+ was the next. The correlation of ion concentration indicated that the catchment of the lake has been artificially polluted considerably. Using backward trajectory analysis, the raining water in the stations in Taihu Lake was classified. In spring, marine-originated rain is the main contribution to this area, counting for 92.7% of the total precipitation, in which SO2-4, NO-3 and NH+4 contributed 89.2%, 88.1%, and 88.3% respectively to the total spring-rain chemicals, whereas land-originated rains contributed in a small amount. However, the ion concentration in the land-originated rain was higher and acidic, causing considerable harm to local ecosystem. The analysis of backward trajectory analysis shows that three types of air masses influenced the chemical composition of the lake water, namely, air mass from NE direction, air mass from SW direct ion, and local air mass. Although the local air masses often produced small rainfall amount, but the nature of high ion concentration and high acidity impacted the local ecosystem remarkably. The ion concentration and rainfall from long-distance boreal air mass are clearly greater than those in austral air.

  5. Pagosa Springs geothermal project. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-10-19

    This booklet discusses some ideas and methods for using Colorado geothermal energy. A project installed in Pagosa Springs, which consists of a pipeline laid down 8th street with service to residences retrofitted to geothermal space heating, is described. (ACR)

  6. Phase 1 spring and seep report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pursuant to the overall objective of the WSSRAP to characterize the potential environmental and health impacts posed by the Weldon Spring Site, the Phase I Spring and Seep sampling effort was undertaken to evaluate the migration of site-related contaminants through conduit type groundwater flow. Samples were collected from springs during both high and low flow stages. Samples were analyzed for uranium, nitroaromatic compounds, CLP metals, and inorganic anions. Eight of the 27 springs which were sampled in a 2 mile radius of the site were found to contain levels of contaminants above calculated background levels. This report details the rationale, sampling and analytical methodologies, the analytical results, and the interpretation of transport mechanisms for each of the positive results. 12 refs., 4 figs., 7 tabs

  7. Status report on Fish Springs pond snail

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report provides a life history of the pond snail (Lymnaea Hinkleyia pilsbryi) at Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge. The following information is included;...

  8. SPring-8 and application of nuclear scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harami, Taikan [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Kamigori, Hyogo (Japan). Kansai Research Establishment

    1997-03-01

    The SPring-8 has Linac synchrotron, incidence type facility and an accumulation ring. By preparing a beam line to take out light at the accumulation ring, the SPring-8 is supplied for common applications. Development of science adopting new method to study of properties and organisms by using high brightness source is expected. Construction of the SPring-8 accelerator was finished and adjusting test and commissioning of apparatuses are now in proceeding. At pre-use inspection of the accumulation ring on March, 1997, beam lines for R and D and crystalline structure analysis are applied to the Science and Technology Agency to inspect them simultaneously. And, by activating character of the SPring-8 radiation facility of high brightness and high energy X-ray generator, property study using Moessbauer nuclide to a probe can be conducted. (G.K.)

  9. Inspection report: Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report discusses results of a reconnaissance trip conducted at Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge. The following is outlined; land condition, presence of...

  10. Coffee Cravings May Spring from Your DNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160628.html Coffee Cravings May Spring From Your DNA Genes appear ... research suggests that your genes influence how much coffee you drink. Researchers analyzed genetic data from more ...

  11. [Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge: Summary].

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report for Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge history, natural resources and management objectives. The report begins with a summary...

  12. Biomineralization of pisoliths in hot springs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biological activity can produce complex patterned structures in accretionary carbonate spheres (pisoliths) from hot springs. Pisoliths from a few millimeters to 50 mm diameter were collected from a geyser at the high-salinity Arima Hot Springs near Kobe, Japan. High-resolution electron microscope images show that microorganisms produced concentric laminar layers of aragonite alternating with Si- and Fe-rich layers. STEM elemental distribution maps show that the cementation of aragonite is associated with NaCl-rich bacterial cells and elevated phosphorous and sulfur concentrations. The filamentous microbes build the concentric framework for mineral laminae with a web-like network of microbial strands. The intricate patterns of mineralogical and bacterial variation in the pisoliths correlate with the change of water chemistry in the hot spring. These patterns could improve our understanding of nano-scale biomineralization. In addition, the terrestrial hot spring pisoliths might be a counterpart of the tiny spherules recently found on Mars

  13. EASTER- a floating holiday in spring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周雷生

    2004-01-01

    Approximately 260 million North Americans(85%) are Christians. As in other Christian lands,the greatest religious festival of the year in Canada and the United States is Easter. Easter is a joyous spring day commemorating the res-

  14. Bacterial community analysis of Indonesian hot springs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, G C; Gaffar, S; Cowan, D A; Suharto, A R

    2001-06-12

    We report the first attempts to describe thermophilic bacterial communities in Indonesia's thermal springs using molecular phylogenetic analyses. 16S rRNA genes from laboratory cultures and DNA directly amplified from three hot springs in West Java were sequenced. The 22 sequences obtained were assignable to the taxa Proteobacteria, Bacillus and Flavobacterium, including a number of clades not normally associated with thermophily. PMID:11410357

  15. The Affective Legacy of Silent Spring

    OpenAIRE

    Alex Lockwood

    2012-01-01

    In the fiftieth year since the publication of Silent Spring, the importance of Rachel Carson’s work can be measured in its affective influence on contemporary environmental writing across the humanities. The ground broken by Silent Spring in creating new forms of writing has placed affect at the very centre of contemporary narratives that call for pro-environmental beliefs and behaviours. A critical public-feelings framework is used to explore these issues and trace their passage from the pri...

  16. Failure probability of ceramic coil springs

    OpenAIRE

    Nohut, Serkan; Schneider, Gerold A.

    2009-01-01

    Ceramic springs are commercially available and a detailed reliability analysis of these components would be useful for their introduction in new applications. In this paper an analytical and a numerical analyses of the failure probability for coil springs under compression is presented. Based on analytically derived relationships and numerically calculated results, fitting functions for volume and surface flaws will be introduced which provide the prediction of the failure probability of cera...

  17. Present status of SPring-8 project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SPring-8 (Super Photon ring- 8 GeV) is the facility of a 'third generation' synchrotron radiation source in the X-ray region. The facility consists of an accelerator complex and 61 photon beamlines, and is under construction in Harima Science Garden City, Hyogo Prefecture, Japan. The commissioning of the storage ring is expected in spring 1997 and 10 beamlines will be installed by FY 1998. The present status is described in this paper. (author)

  18. Leaf spring puller for nuclear fuel rods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fogg, J.L.

    1981-11-03

    A fuel rod puller in the form of a collet for pulling fuel rods from a storage area into grids of a nuclear reactor fuel assembly. The rod puller moves longitudinally through the grids to a storage area where projections on the end of leaf springs grasp onto an end plug in a fuel rod. Drive apparatus then pulls the rod puller and connected fuel rod from the storage area into the fuel assembly grids. The rod puller includes an outer tube having leaf springs on one end thereof in one modification, mounted within the outer tube is a movable plunger which acts to urge the leaf springs outwardly to a position to permit passing or with the end of a end plug. Upon withdrawal of the plunger, the leaf springs move into a groove formed in the end of a fuel rod end plug, and the fuel rod subsequently is pulled into the fuel assembly grids. In another modification, the leaf springs on the outer rod are biased in an outward direction and a longitudinally movable tube on the outer rod is moved in a direction to contract the leaf springs into a position where the projections thereof engage the groove formed in a fuel rod end plug.

  19. Tubular spring slip joint and jar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present invention comprises a pressure balanced tubular spring slip-joint and jar including a generally tubular outer housing having longitudinal slot means in the wall thereof, and a hammer area of increased wall thickness at one end thereof, within which housing slidably extends a jar mandrel means having first and second longitudinally spaced enlarged diameter anvil areas, at least one fastener tapped into one of those anvil areas, the heads of said fastener protruding into said slot means. Both said housing and said mandrel means possesses axial bores therethrough, which are placed in communication via the bore of a tubular spring within the housing, whereby during extension and contraction of the slip-joint and jar means of the present invention the area within said axial bores and said spring bore is of a constant volume. The invention may be employed to provide force impulses in either longitudinal direction, said tubular spring aiding the application of those impulses when said housing and said mandrel means move relatively toward each other. By proper selection of spring length and use of a coiled spring having spaced coils, the present invention may also be employed as a bi-directional shock absorber

  20. Tubular spring slip joint and jar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heemstra, T. R.

    1985-04-23

    The present invention comprises a pressure balanced tubular spring slip-joint and jar including a generally tubular outer housing having longitudinal slot means in the wall thereof, and a hammer area of increased wall thickness at one end thereof, within which housing slidably extends a jar mandrel means having first and second longitudinally spaced enlarged diameter anvil areas, at least one fastener tapped into one of those anvil areas, the heads of said fastener protruding into said slot means. Both said housing and said mandrel means possesses axial bores therethrough, which are placed in communication via the bore of a tubular spring within the housing, whereby during extension and contraction of the slip-joint and jar means of the present invention the area within said axial bores and said spring bore is of a constant volume. The invention may be employed to provide force impulses in either longitudinal direction, said tubular spring aiding the application of those impulses when said housing and said mandrel means move relatively toward each other. By proper selection of spring length and use of a coiled spring having spaced coils, the present invention may also be employed as a bi-directional shock absorber.

  1. Preparation of biomimetic photoresponsive polymer springs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iamsaard, Supitchaya; Villemin, Elise; Lancia, Federico; Aβhoff, Sarah-Jane; Fletcher, Stephen P; Katsonis, Nathalie

    2016-10-01

    Polymer springs that twist under irradiation with light, in a manner that mimics how plant tendrils twist and turn under the effect of differential expansion in different sections of the plant, show potential for soft robotics and the development of artificial muscles. The soft springs prepared using this protocol are typically 1 mm wide, 50 μm thick and up to 10 cm long. They are made from liquid crystal polymer networks in which an azobenzene derivative is introduced covalently as a molecular photo-switch. The polymer network is prepared by irradiation of a twist cell filled with a mixture of shape-persistent liquid crystals, liquid crystals having reactive end groups, molecular photo-switches, some chiral dopant and a small amount of photoinitiator. After postcuring, the soft polymer film is removed and cut into springs, the geometry of which is determined by the angle of cut. The material composing the springs is characterized by optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and tensile strength measurements. The springs operate at ambient temperature, by mimicking the orthogonal contraction mechanism that is at the origin of plant coiling. They shape-shift under irradiation with UV light and can be pre-programmed to either wind or unwind, as encoded in their geometry. Once illumination is stopped, the springs return to their initial shape. Irradiation with visible light accelerates the shape reversion. PMID:27583641

  2. Variation of karst spring discharge in the recent five decades as an indicator of global climate change: A case study at Shanxi, northern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO; Qinghai; WANG; Yanxin; MA; Teng; LI; Luxiu

    2005-01-01

    Karst in Shanxi Province is representative of that in northern China, and karst water systems discharge in the form of springs that are among the most important sources for local water supply. Since the 1950s, attenuation has been the major trend of discharge variation of most karst springs at Shanxi. Based on the case study of 7 karst springs including Niangziguan, Xin'an, Guozhuang, Shentou, Jinci, Lancun, and Hongshan springs, the discharge variation process of karst springs was divided into natural fluctuation phase and anthropogenic impact phase. Discharge attenuation of the 7 karst springs was controlled mainly by climate and human activities, with their contributions being respectively about 60% and 40%. According to the difference of the effect of climate and human activities for each spring, attenuation modes of spring discharge fall into three types: natural process dominated attenuation type, exploitation induced process dominated attenuation type, and mixed attenuation type. The total restored discharge variation of 7 karst springs matched well with the global air temperature change in 1956―2000, clearly indicating the trend of global warming and aridity in the last several decades, and the analysis of discharge variation processes of karst springs can be used as a new tool for global change studies.

  3. The source, discharge, and chemical characteristics of water from Agua Caliente Spring, Palm Springs, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    : Martin, Peter, (Edited By); Contributors: Brandt, Justin; Catchings, Rufus D.; Christensen, Allen H.; Flint, Alan L.; Gandhok, Gini; Goldman, Mark R.; Halford, Keith J.; Langenheim, V.E.; Martin, Peter; Rymer, Michael J.; Schroeder, Roy A.; Smith, Gregory A.; Sneed, Michelle

    2011-01-01

    Agua Caliente Spring, in downtown Palm Springs, California, has been used for recreation and medicinal therapy for hundreds of years and currently (2008) is the source of hot water for the Spa Resort owned by the Agua Caliente Band of the Cahuilla Indians. The Agua Caliente Spring is located about 1,500 feet east of the eastern front of the San Jacinto Mountains on the southeast-sloping alluvial plain of the Coachella Valley. The objectives of this study were to (1) define the geologic structure associated with the Agua Caliente Spring; (2) define the source(s), and possibly the age(s), of water discharged by the spring; (3) ascertain the seasonal and longer-term variability of the natural discharge, water temperature, and chemical characteristics of the spring water; (4) evaluate whether water-level declines in the regional aquifer will influence the temperature of the spring discharge; and, (5) estimate the quantity of spring water that leaks out of the water-collector tank at the spring orifice.

  4. Geochemical and hydrologic data for wells and springs in thermal-spring areas of the Appalachians

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hobba, W.A. Jr.; Chemerys, J.C.; Fisher, D.W.; Pearson, F.J. Jr.

    1976-07-01

    Current interest in geothermal potential of thermal-spring areas in the Appalachians makes all data on thermal springs and wells in these areas valuable. Presented here without interpretive comment are maps showing selected springs and wells and tables of physical and chemical data pertaining to these wells and springs. The chemical tables show compositions of gases (oxygen, nitrogen, argon, methane, carbon dioxide, and helium), isotope contents (tritium, carbon (13), and oxygen (18)), trace and minor element chemical data, and the usual complete chemical data.

  5. 扩展Spring MVC模块的Web应用%Web Application of Extended Spring MVC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖福保

    2012-01-01

    This paper described the application of Spring MVC framework. It analyzed the controller, model, and view of MVC framework. To compensate for the deficiency of Spring MVC, it introduced the AJAX technology into Spring MVC to have it extended. The extended Spring MVC is easier to maintain, and has been proved to be feasible and valid in a typical Web application.%叙述了Spring MVC模块的应用,对MVC模块中的控制器、模型和视图进行了分析,然后针对目前Spring MVC模块的不足,对此模块进行了扩展,并将AJAX技术引入到Spring MVC模块中,具有易维护性.在扩展Spring MVC模块的基础上设计了1个典型的Web应用,表明了扩展Spring MVC模块的可行性和有效性.

  6. Establishment of a Spring Design Formula for Low Temperature Use of Spring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. A. Yadav

    1975-04-01

    Full Text Available Normally the springs are designed for room temperature conditions and the equations of elasticity are used to correlate the spring parameters. However, when the spring are required for use at low temperatures, these equations do not hold fairly good for design purpose. In this paper the establishment of new formula, that can be used for designing the springs for use at low temperature conditions has been discussed. Tests have been carried out at 20 degree calcius and -40 degree calcius to check the reliability of this formula. The formula has given satisfactory results.

  7. Weldon Spring Site environmental report for calendar year 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes the environmental monitoring programs at the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project (WSSRAP). The objectives of these programs are to assess actual or potential exposure to contaminant effluents from the project area by providing public use scenarios and dose estimates, to demonstrate compliance with Federal and State permitted levels and regulations, and to summarize trends and/or changes in contaminant concentrations identified through environmental monitoring. Comprehensive monitoring indicated that emissions of radiological compounds in airborne and surface water discharges from the Weldon Spring site consisted primarily of Rn-220 gas, isotopes of thorium and radium, and natural uranium. Airborne Rn-220 emissions were estimated to be 42 Ci (1.6E12 Bq), while emissions from a combination of thorium, radium, and natural uranium isotopes to air and surface water were estimated to be 0.018 Ci (6.7E8 Bq), for a total of 25,000 g (25 kg). There was no measurable impact to any drinking water source

  8. Weldon Spring Site environmental report for calendar year 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-08-01

    This report describes the environmental monitoring programs at the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project (WSSRAP). The objectives of these programs are to assess actual or potential exposure to contaminant effluents from the project area by providing public use scenarios and dose estimates, to demonstrate compliance with Federal and State permitted levels and regulations, and to summarize trends and/or changes in contaminant concentrations identified through environmental monitoring. Comprehensive monitoring indicated that emissions of radiological compounds in airborne and surface water discharges from the Weldon Spring site consisted primarily of Rn-220 gas, isotopes of thorium and radium, and natural uranium. Airborne Rn-220 emissions were estimated to be 42 Ci (1.6E12 Bq), while emissions from a combination of thorium, radium, and natural uranium isotopes to air and surface water were estimated to be 0.018 Ci (6.7E8 Bq), for a total of 25,000 g (25 kg). There was no measurable impact to any drinking water source.

  9. Radioactive mineral springs in Delta County, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadigan, Robert A.; Rosholt, John N.; Felmlee, J. Karen

    1976-01-01

    The system of springs in Delta County, Colo., contains geochemical clues to the nature and location of buried uranium-mineralized rock. The springs, which occur along the Gunnison River and a principal tributary between Delta and Paonia, are regarded as evidence of a still-functioning hydrothermal system. Associated with the springs are hydrogen sulfide and sulfur dioxide gas seeps, carbon dioxide gas-powered geysers, thick travertine deposits including radioactive travertine, and a flowing warm-water (41?C) radioactive well. Geochemical study of the springs is based on surface observations, on-site water-property measurements, and sampling of water, travertine, soft precipitates, and mud. The spring deposits are mostly carbonates, sulfates, sulfides, and chlorides that locally contain notable amounts of some elements, such as arsenic, barium, lithium, and radium. Samples from five localities have somewhat different trace element assemblages even though they are related to the same hydrothermal system. All the spring waters but one are dominated by sodium chloride or sodium bicarbonate. The exception is an acid sulfate water with a pH of 2.9, which contains high concentrations of aluminum and iron. Most of the detectable radioactivity is due to the presence of radium-226, a uranium daughter product, but at least one spring precipitate contains abundant radium-228, a thorium daughter product. The 5:1 ratio of radium-228 to radium-226 suggests the proximity of a vein-type deposit as a source for the radium. The proposed locus of a thorium-uranium mineral deposit is believed to lie in the vicinity of Paonia, Colo. Exact direction and depth are not determinable from data now available.

  10. Algae in Lebanese springs: the influence of wind on the distribution of characterizes species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was conducted by collecting freshwater samples from twenty springs distributed all over Lebanon. These springs vary widely in their altitude and nature. Water samples were analyzed for HCO3-,Cl-, SO42-, and SiO2 and for the major elements Ca, Mg, Na, K and Fe. The analysis of these elements was carried out by atomic absorption Spectrometry using flame air-acetylene whereas the anions were determined by titration and colorimetric methods. It has been found that the major composition in the water samples of the studied springs is predominantly influenced by the composition of parent rocks n Lebanon. The slightly elevated values of pH(7.8) and the large amount of calcium carbonate are a result of dissolution of calcium carbonate, dolomite and lime- stone. The presence of algae is due to wind transportation. In fact, being a country of intersection between the west and the east. Lebanon receives numerous species of Cyanophyta and diatoms of both equatorial and central African origins. Even though most of the Lebanese water springs are calcareous and alkaline, some taxons that usually characterize acidic media were also found to colonize our substrata. Water springs that are characterized by similar chemical composition and similar ecological conditions appear to be dominated by different algae species. Diatoms formed were found in diverse types and species and the pennales were the most dominant in both abundance and diversity. Among the most interesting species encountered in certain stations, it was found Oscillatoria platensis, originating from tropical Africa, probably transported by migratory birds. Its importance lies in its being a food protein source in the ecosystem. In addition, certain species characteristic of the hot European springs, such as Symploca thermalis and Calothrix castelli, were also detected in some springs. The presence of these species appears to be only sporadic.(author)

  11. Prototype screen monitor for XFEL/SPring-8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A prototype screen monitor for XFEL/SPring-8 is developed and verified at the SCSS test accelerator. The imaging apparatus has a high-resolution (<10um) optical system with variable magnification of 1.2x-4x. In order to change the magnification ratio by remote control, a lens and an imaging device are mounted on motorized stages. The screen actuator can hold two screen targets, an OTR target and a fluorescent plate target, and can switch them by an air cylinder. We developed a thin OTR target made of 100um-thick stainless-steel foil in order to reduce demagnetization of undulator magnets due to scattered particles at the target. We performed a beam experiment of the prototype screen monitor with the thin OTR target at the SCSS test accelerator and we appropriately obtained an electron beam profile. (author)

  12. Weldon Spring Site environmental monitoring report, calendar year 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During 1983, an environmental monitoring program was continued at the US Department of Energy (DOE) Weldon Spring Site (WSS), located in St. Charles County, Missouri. The monitoring program measures the radon gas content in air, the radium and uranium content of surface water and groundwater, and external radiation levels. The nitrate content of surface water is also measured. Radiation doses to the public from the radioactive residues stored at the site are also calculated. During 1983, site boundary radon concentrations, including radon emanating from naturally occurring sources, were alll below the DOE CG limit of 3 pCi/1. Groundwater uranium and radium-226 concentrations within the controlled site areas were all below the DOE CG limits for uncontrolled areas. During 1983, various maintenance and investigative activities at the WSS have not disturbed and stored radioactive materials. 9 references, 8 figures, 4 tables

  13. Yeast-like fungi isolated from indoor air in school buildings and the surrounding outdoor air

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elżbieta Ejdys

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A total of 111 isolates of yeast-like fungi and yeasts belonging to 40 species of 19 genera were identified in indoor air and outdoor air. Only one species, Kluyveromyces marxianus, was recorded in both types of air and seasons (spring and autumn. Kluyveromyces lactis and Yarrowia lipolytica, a species having the greatest symbiotic abilities, dominated in indoor air and outdoor air, respectively. Intensely used rooms, especially those with limited access of air, have the broadest range of species of yeast-like fungi. A comparison of both habitats shows that school rooms pose a greater epidemiological risk of yeast-like infections than outdoor air. The indoor as well as outdoor mycobiota undergoes phenological changes although it is determined by other biotic and abiotic factors.

  14. Weldon Spring storage site environmental-monitoring report for 1979 and 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) Weldon Spring Site consists of two separate radioactive waste storage properties: a 52-acre site which is a remnant of the Weldon Spring Feed Materials Plant; and a 9-acre abandoned rock quarry. The larger property has four pits which contain settled sludge from uranium and thorium processing operations. At the quarry, part of the excavation contains contaminated building rubble, scrap, and various residues. During 1979 and 1980 these storage locations were managed by NLO, Inc., contract operator of the DOE Feed Materials Production Center. Air and water samples were collected to provide information about the transfer of radionuclides in the offsite environment. Monitoring results show that uranium and radium concentrations in offsite surface and well water were within DOE Guide values for uncontrolled areas. At offsite locations, radon-222 concentrations in air were well within the Guide value

  15. Weldon Spring storage site environmental-monitoring report for 1979 and 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weidner, R B; Boback, M W

    1982-04-19

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) Weldon Spring Site consists of two separate radioactive waste storage properties: a 52-acre site which is a remnant of the Weldon Spring Feed Materials Plant; and a 9-acre abandoned rock quarry. The larger property has four pits which contain settled sludge from uranium and thorium processing operations. At the quarry, part of the excavation contains contaminated building rubble, scrap, and various residues. During 1979 and 1980 these storage locations were managed by NLO, Inc., contract operator of the DOE Feed Materials Production Center. Air and water samples were collected to provide information about the transfer of radionuclides in the offsite environment. Monitoring results show that uranium and radium concentrations in offsite surface and well water were within DOE Guide values for uncontrolled areas. At offsite locations, radon-222 concentrations in air were well within the Guide value.

  16. Weldon Spring Site environmental report for calendar year 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Site Environmental Report for Calendar Year 1993 describes the environmental monitoring programs at the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project (WSSRAP). The objectives of these programs are to assess actual or potential exposure to contaminant effluents from the project area by providing public use scenarios and dose estimates, to demonstrate compliance with Federal and State permitted levels, and to summarize trends and/or changes in contaminant concentrations from environmental monitoring program. In 1993, the maximum committed dose to a hypothetical individual at the chemical plant site perimeter was 0.03 mrem (0.0003 mSv). The maximum committed dose to a hypothetical individual at the boundary of the Weldon Spring Quarry was 1.9 mrem (0.019 mSv). These scenarios assume an individual walking along the perimeter of the site-once a day at the chemical plant/raffinate pits and twice a day at the quarry-250 days per year. This hypothetical individual also consumes fish, sediment, and water from lakes and other bodies of water in the area. The collective dose, based on an effected population of 112,000 was 0.12 person-rem (0.0012 person-Sv). This calculation is based on recreational use of the August A. Busch Memorial Conservation Area and the Missouri Department of Conservation recreational trail (the Katy Trail) near the quarry. These estimates are below the U.S. Department of Energy requirement of 100 mrem (I mSv) annual committed effective dose equivalent for all exposure pathways. Results from air monitoring for the National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPs) program indicated that the estimated dose was 0.38 mrem, which is below the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) standard of 10 mrem per year

  17. Air Pollution

    OpenAIRE

    Lawther, P. J.

    2014-01-01

    The human costs of air pollution are considerable in Jordan. According to a report published in 2000 by the World Bank under the Mediterranean Environmental Technical Assistance Program (METAP), approximately 600 people die prematurely each year in Jordan because of urban pollution. 50-90% of air pollution in Jordanian towns is caused by road traffic. Readings taken in 2007 by Jordanian researchers showed that levels of black carbon particles in the air were higher in urban areas (caused by v...

  18. Spring Bird Migration Phenology in Eilat, Israel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reuven Yosef

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of the mean date of first captures and median arrival dates of spring migration for 34 species of birds at Eilat, Israel, revealed that the earlier a species migrates through Eilat, the greater is the inter-annual variation in the total time of its passage. Birds arrive during spring migration in Eilat in four structured and independent waves. The annual fluctuation in the initial arrival dates (initial capture dates and median dates (median date of all captures, not including recaptures, did not depend on the length of the migratory route. This implies that migrants crossing the Sahara desert depart from their winter quarters on different Julian days in different years. We suggest that negative correlations between the median date of the spring migration of early and late migrants depends upon the easterly (Hamsin wind period. Moreover, we believe that the phenology of all birds during spring migration in Eilat is possibly also determined by external factors such as weather conditions on the African continent or global climatic processes in the Northern hemisphere. Orphean Warblers (Sylvia hortensis show a strong positive correlation (rs=-0.502 of initial capture date with calendar years, whereas other species such as Barred Warbler (S. nisoria; rs = -0.391 and Spotted Flycatcher (Muscicapa striata; rs = -0.398 display an insignificant trend. The Dead Sea Sparrow (Passer moabiticus and Red-Backed Shrike (Lanius collurio are positively correlated regarding initial arrival date and medians of spring migration.

  19. Sample Return from Ancient Hydrothermal Springs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Carlton C.; Oehler, Dorothy Z.

    2008-01-01

    Hydrothermal spring deposits on Mars would make excellent candidates for sample return. Molecular phylogeny suggests that that life on Earth may have arisen in hydrothermal settings [1-3], and on Mars, such settings not only would have supplied energy-rich waters in which martian life may have evolved [4-7] but also would have provided warm, liquid water to martian life forms as the climate became colder and drier [8]. Since silica, sulfates, and clays associated with hydrothermal settings are known to preserve geochemical and morphological remains of ancient terrestrial life [9-11], such settings on Mars might similarly preserve evidence of martian life. Finally, because formation of hydrothermal springs includes surface and subsurface processes, martian spring deposits would offer the potential to assess astrobiological potential and hydrological history in a variety of settings, including surface mineralized terraces, associated stream deposits, and subsurface environments where organic remains may have been well protected from oxidation. Previous attempts to identify martian spring deposits from orbit have been general or limited by resolution of available data [12-14]. However, new satellite imagery from HiRISE has a resolution of 28 cm/pixel, and based on these new data, we have interpreted several features in Vernal Crater, Arabia Terra as ancient hydrothermal springs [15, 16].

  20. ANALYSIS OF COMPOSITE LEAF SPRING BY USING ANALYTICAL & FEA

    OpenAIRE

    Ranjeet Mithari; Amar Patil; Prof. E. N. Aitavade

    2012-01-01

    Leaf spring are of the oldest suspension component they are still frequently used. The current leaf spring is multiple leaf spring types with a steel material. It has high weight, low natural frequency, high corrosion, more noise. Therefore current multiple leaf spring is replaced by mono composite (E- Glass epoxy) leaf spring which has high natural frequency, low weight etc. The maximum stress produced at the cylindrically joint than fixed joint. Therefore stress analysis of composite materi...

  1. Prediction of Spring Rate and Initial Failure Load due to Material Properties of Composite Leaf Spring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presented analysis methods for adapting E-glass fiber/epoxy composite (GFRP) materials to an automotive leaf spring. It focused on the static behaviors of the leaf spring due to the material composition and its fiber orientation. The material properties of the GFRP composite were directly measured based on the ASTM standard test. A reverse implementation was performed to obtain the complete set of in-situ fiber and matrix properties from the ply test results. Next, the spring rates of the composite leaf spring were examined according to the variation of material parameters such as the fiber angles and resin contents of the composite material. Finally, progressive failure analysis was conducted to identify the initial failure load by means of an elastic stress analysis and specific damage criteria. As a result, it was found that damage first occurred along the edge of the leaf spring owing to the shear stresses

  2. Quarry geotechnical report for the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project, Weldon Spring, Missouri

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report has been prepared for the United States Department of Energy's (DOE) Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project (WSSRAP) by the Project Management Contractor (PMC), which is MK-Ferguson Company (MK-Ferguson) with Jacobs Engineering Group (JEG) as its designated subcontractor. The Weldon Spring site (WSS) comprises the Weldon Spring quarry area and the Weldon Spring chemical plant and raffinate pit areas. This report presents the results of geotechnical investigations conducted during 1989--1990 at the proposed Weldon Spring quarry staging and water treatment facilities in the quarry area. The facilities are intended for treatment of water removed from the quarry area. An access road and a decontamination pad will be necessary for handling and transportation of bulk waste. Results of previous geotechnical investigations performed by other geoscience and environmental engineering firms in the quarry area, were reviewed, summarized and incorporated into this report. Well logging, stratigraphy data, piezometer data, elevations, and soil characteristics are also included

  3. Prediction of Spring Rate and Initial Failure Load due to Material Properties of Composite Leaf Spring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Sung Ha [Maxoft Inc., Seongnam (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Bok Lok [Gangneung-Wonju National University, Gangneung (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-12-15

    This paper presented analysis methods for adapting E-glass fiber/epoxy composite (GFRP) materials to an automotive leaf spring. It focused on the static behaviors of the leaf spring due to the material composition and its fiber orientation. The material properties of the GFRP composite were directly measured based on the ASTM standard test. A reverse implementation was performed to obtain the complete set of in-situ fiber and matrix properties from the ply test results. Next, the spring rates of the composite leaf spring were examined according to the variation of material parameters such as the fiber angles and resin contents of the composite material. Finally, progressive failure analysis was conducted to identify the initial failure load by means of an elastic stress analysis and specific damage criteria. As a result, it was found that damage first occurred along the edge of the leaf spring owing to the shear stresses.

  4. Anthropogenic and forest fire pollution aerosol transported to the Arctic: observations from the POLARCAT-France spring campaign

    OpenAIRE

    B. Quennehen; A. Schwarzenboeck; A. Matsuki; Burkhart, J. F.; A. Stohl; G. Ancellet; Law, K.S.

    2012-01-01

    During the POLARCAT-France airborne measurement campaign in spring 2008, several pollution plumes transported from mid-latitude regions were encountered. The study presented here focuses on air masses from two different geographic origins (Europe and Asia) and from 2 different source types (anthropogenic pollution and forest fires). One case study analyses an European air mass, which was sampled during three consecutive day. Modelling of the aerosol particle ageing by coagulation suggests tha...

  5. Prediction model for spring dust weather frequency in North China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    It is of great social and scientific importance and also very difficult to make reliable prediction for dust weather frequency (DWF) in North China. In this paper, the correlation between spring DWF in Beijing and Tianjin observation stations, taken as examples in North China, and seasonally averaged surface air temperature, precipitation, Arctic Oscillation, Antarctic Oscillation, South Oscillation, near surface meridional wind and Eurasian westerly index is respectively calculated so as to construct a prediction model for spring DWF in North China by using these climatic factors. Two prediction models, i.e. model-I and model-II, are then set up respectively based on observed climate data and the 32-year (1970 -2001) extra-seasonal hindcast experiment data as reproduced by the nine-level Atmospheric General Circulation Model developed at the Institute of Atmospheric Physics (IAP9L-AGCM). It is indicated that the correlation coefficient between the observed and predicted DWF reaches 0.933 in the model-I, suggesting a high prediction skill one season ahead. The corresponding value is high up to 0.948 for the subsequent model-II, which involves synchronous spring climate data reproduced by the IAP9L-AGCM relative to the model-I. The model-II can not only make more precise prediction but also can bring forward the lead time of real-time prediction from the model-I’s one season to half year. At last, the real-time predictability of the two models is evaluated. It follows that both the models display high prediction skill for both the interannual variation and linear trend of spring DWF in North China, and each is also featured by different advantages. As for the model-II, the prediction skill is much higher than that of original approach by use of the IAP9L-AGCM alone. Therefore, the prediction idea put forward here should be popularized in other regions in China where dust weather occurs frequently.

  6. Prediction model for spring dust weather frequency in North China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LANG XianMei

    2008-01-01

    It is of great social and scientific importance and also very difficult to make reliable prediction for dust weather frequency (DWF) in North China. In this paper, the correlation between spring DWF in Beijing and Tianjin observation stations, taken as examples in North China, and seasonally averaged surface air temperature, precipitation, Arctic Oscillation, Antarctic Oscillation, South Oscillation, near surface meridional wind and Eurasian westerly index is respectively calculated so as to construct a prediction model for spring DWF in North China by using these climatic factors. Two prediction models, I.e. Model-Ⅰ and model-Ⅱ, are then set up respectively based on observed climate data and the 32-year (1970--2001) extra-seasonal hindcast experiment data as reproduced by the nine-level Atmospheric General Circulation Model developed at the Institute of Atmospheric Physics (IAP9L-AGCM). It is indicated that the correlation coefficient between the observed and predicted DWF reaches 0.933 in the model-Ⅰ, suggesting a high prediction skill one season ahead. The corresponding value is high up to 0.948 for the subsequent model-Ⅱ, which involves synchronous spring climate data reproduced by the IAP9L-AGCM relative to the model-Ⅰ. The model-Ⅱ can not only make more precise prediction but also can bring forward the lead time of real-time prediction from the model-Ⅰ's one season to half year. At last, the real-time predictability of the two models is evaluated. It follows that both the models display high prediction skill for both the interannual variation and linear trend of spring DWF in North China, and each is also featured by different advantages. As for the model-Ⅱ, the prediction skill is much higher than that of original approach by use of the IAP9L-AGCM alone. Therefore, the prediction idea put forward here should be popularized in other regions in China where dust weather occurs frequently.

  7. Distribution of soil moisture in spring barley field at Lipki agrometeorological station in 1997 and 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the study following factors are presented: 24 hours of soil moisture at the depths of: 5, 20, 30, 50 and 70 cm, radiation, air temperature, precipitation, indicatory evaporation and wind speed. All these data were gathered from 15th May until 31st July in 1997 and 98. Using regression method, the influence of meteorological factors on the soil moisture dynamic in spring barley field are described. From analysed factors, the precipitation exerted the greatest influence on the soil moisture

  8. Environmental conditions of boreal springs explained by capture zone characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Pekka M.; Marttila, Hannu; Jyväsjärvi, Jussi; Ala-aho, Pertti; Isokangas, Elina; Muotka, Timo; Kløve, Bjørn

    2015-12-01

    Springs are unique ecosystems, but in many cases they are severely threatened and there is an urgent need for better spring management and conservation. To this end, we studied water quality and quantity in springs in Oulanka National Park, north-east Finland. Multivariate statistical methods were employed to relate spring water quality and quantity to hydrogeology and land use of the spring capture zone. This revealed that most springs studied were affected by locally atypical dolostone-limestone bedrock, resulting in high calcium, pH, and alkalinity values. Using Ward's hierarchical clustering, the springs were grouped into four clusters based on their water chemistry. One cluster consisted of springs affected by past small-scale agriculture, whereas other clusters were affected by the variable bedrock, e.g., springs only 1 km from the dolostone-limestone bedrock area were beyond its calcium-rich impact zone. According to a random forest model, the best predictors of spring water chemistry were spring altitude and the stable hydrogen isotope ratio of the water (δ2H). Thus stable water isotopes could be widely applicable for boreal spring management. They may also provide a rough estimate of groundwater flow route (i.e., whether it is mainly local or regional), which largely determines the chemical characteristics of spring water. Our approach could be applied in other boreal regions and at larger spatial scales for improved classification of springs and for better targeted spring management.

  9. Depositional facies and aqueous-solid geochemistry of travertine-depositing hot springs (Angel Terrace, Mammoth Hot Springs, Yellowstone National Park, U.S.A.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouke, B. W.; Farmer, J. D.; Des Marais, D. J.; Pratt, L.; Sturchio, N. C.; Burns, P. C.; Discipulo, M. K.

    2000-01-01

    Petrographic and geochemical analyses of travertine-depositing hot springs at Angel Terrace, Mammoth Hot Springs, Yellowstone National Park, have been used to define five depositional facies along the spring drainage system. Spring waters are expelled in the vent facies at 71 to 73 degrees C and precipitate mounded travertine composed of aragonite needle botryoids. The apron and channel facies (43-72 degrees C) is floored by hollow tubes composed of aragonite needle botryoids that encrust sulfide-oxidizing Aquificales bacteria. The travertine of the pond facies (30-62 degrees C) varies in composition from aragonite needle shrubs formed at higher temperatures to ridged networks of calcite and aragonite at lower temperatures. Calcite "ice sheets", calcified bubbles, and aggregates of aragonite needles ("fuzzy dumbbells") precipitate at the air-water interface and settle to pond floors. The proximal-slope facies (28-54 degrees C), which forms the margins of terracette pools, is composed of arcuate aragonite needle shrubs that create small microterracettes on the steep slope face. Finally, the distal-slope facies (28-30 degrees C) is composed of calcite spherules and calcite "feather" crystals. Despite the presence of abundant microbial mat communities and their observed role in providing substrates for mineralization, the compositions of spring-water and travertine predominantly reflect abiotic physical and chemical processes. Vigorous CO2 degassing causes a +2 unit increase in spring water pH, as well as Rayleigh-type covariations between the concentration of dissolved inorganic carbon and corresponding delta 13C. Travertine delta 13C and delta 18O are nearly equivalent to aragonite and calcite equilibrium values calculated from spring water in the higher-temperature (approximately 50-73 degrees C) depositional facies. Conversely, travertine precipitating in the lower-temperature (crystals. Despite the production of H2S and the abundance of sulfide oxidizing microbes

  10. A survey of GFRP composite leaf spring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Rajesh

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Although leaf springs are one of the oldest suspension components, they are still frequently used in the automobile vehicles. Weight reduction is the main focus in the automobile industries. Weight reduction can be achieved primarily by the introduction of better materials, design optimization, and better manufacturing processes. The achievement of weight reduction with adequate improvement of mechanical properties has made composite a very good replacement material for conventional steel. Selection of material is based on the cost and strength of material. The composite materials have more elastic strain energy, storage capacity and high strength to weight ratio compared to steel. This paper briefs about the research carried out for the part of three decades on design, analysis, and selection of material, experiments and fabrication of composite leaf spring.   Keywords: Composite Leaf Spring, Composite Materials, Finite Element Analysis, Weight Reduction, Glass Fiber Reinforced Plastic (GFRP.

  11. Springing response due to bidirectional wave excitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vidic-Perunovic, Jelena

    2005-01-01

    -linear (second order) high frequency springing analyses with unidirectional wave excitation are much more scattered. Some of the reasons are different level of wave excitation accounted in the different Executive Summary ivtheories, inclusion of additional hydrodynamic phenomena e.g. slamming in the time......Springing is a two-node high frequency resonant vibration of the hull induced by unsteady wave pressure field on the hull. The excitation force may be rather complex - any wave activity (or their combination) in the Ocean matching the two-node natural hull vibration frequency. With some ship...... theories deal with the unidirectional wave excitation. This is quite standard. The problem is how to include more than one directional wave systems described by a wave spectrum with arbitrary heading. The main objective of the present work has been to account for the additional second-order springing...

  12. Thermal springs and thermal algae in Oman

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mifune, Masaaki (Misasa Branch Hospital, Okayama Univ. Medical School, Misasa Spa, Tottori, Japan)

    1989-03-20

    Oman is situated in the southern east part of the Arabian Peninsula. Specimens of thermal algae in Oman were obtained, and the outlines of thermal springs and thermal algae in Oman are introduced. In Oman, spring waters including thermal springs are precious water resources, and widely used as farming irrigation waters as well as for drinking and bathing purposes. The ranges of temperatures and pH values of the thermal waters are 42.0 - 67.2{sup 0}C and 6.3 - 8.0 respectively. The thermal algae identified were divided into 9 species. The feature of the thermal algae in Oman is that Oscillatorious algae is the dominant species among the alage such as Synechococcus, Cyanidium, Oscillatoria, Phormidium, Mostigocladus, etc. 6 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. Evaluación de Spring MVC

    OpenAIRE

    Mayor Martín, David

    2014-01-01

    Spring Framework cuenta con su propio framework de aplicaciones web basado en el Modelo Vista Controlador (MVC). Los desarrolladores de Spring decidieron escribir su propio framework web como una reacción a lo que percibían como el mal diseño de Jakarta Struts framework web, así como por las deficiencias en otros frameworks disponibles. En particular, sentían que no había la separación suficiente entre las capas de presentación y tratamiento de la petición, y entre las capas de...

  14. Rapid River Hatchery - Spring Chinook, Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, M.

    1996-05-01

    This report presents the findings of the independent audit of the Rapid River Hatchery (Spring Chinook). The hatchery is located in the lower Snake River basin near Riggins Idaho. The hatchery is used for adult collection, egg incubation, and rearing of spring chinook. The audit was conducted in April 1996 as part of a two-year effort that will include 67 hatcheries and satellite facilities located on the Columbia and Snake River system in Idaho, Oregon, and Washington. The hatchery operating agencies include the US Fish and Wildlife Service, Idaho Department of Fish and Game, Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, and Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife.

  15. Rapid River Hatchery - Spring Chinook, Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents the findings of the independent audit of the Rapid River Hatchery (Spring Chinook). The hatchery is located in the lower Snake River basin near Riggins Idaho. The hatchery is used for adult collection, egg incubation, and rearing of spring chinook. The audit was conducted in April 1996 as part of a two-year effort that will include 67 hatcheries and satellite facilities located on the Columbia and Snake River system in Idaho, Oregon, and Washington. The hatchery operating agencies include the US Fish and Wildlife Service, Idaho Department of Fish and Game, Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, and Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife

  16. ITMill Vaadin – Spring Framework -integraatio

    OpenAIRE

    Hännikkälä, Tommi

    2009-01-01

    Tämän opinnäytetyön tarkoituksena oli luoda Affecto Finland Oy:lle integraatiokirjasto ITMill Oy:n Vaadin -näyttökomponenttikirjaston ja Spring Framework -ohjelmistokehyksen välille. Näin pyrittiin tekemään Vaadin-ohjelmistot valmiimmaksi Enterprise-ympäristöihin. Kirjasto luotiin asiakasprojektin oheistuotteena ja sen tekeminen kesti noin vuoden. Sinä aikana integrointitarpeen ratkaisuksi pohdittiin useita erilaisia vaihtoehtoja, kuten Vaadimen oma ohje Spring Frameworkin int...

  17. Air Pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Air quality is affected by many types of pollutants that are emitted from various sources, including stationary and mobile. These sources release both criteria and hazardous air pollutants, which cause health effects, ecological harm, and material damage. They are generally categ...

  18. PERFORMANCE COMPARISON OF CONVENTIONAL AND COMPOSITE LEAF SPRING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.POZHILARASU

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Leaf springs are one of the oldest suspension components that are being still used widely in automobiles. Weight reduction is also given due importance by automobile manufacturers. The automobile industry has shown increased interest in the use of composite leaf spring in the place of conventional steel leaf spring due to its high strength to weight ratio. The introduction of composite materials has made it possible to reduce the weight of the leaf spring without any reduction in load carrying capacity and stiffness. Therefore the objective of this paper is to present a general study on the performance comparison of composite (Glass Fibre Reinforced plastic - GFRP leaf spring and conventional leaf spring. Leaf spring is modelled in Unigraphics NX4 software and it is imported in ANSYS 11.0. The conventional steel leaf spring and the composite leaf spring were analysed under similar conditions using ANSYS software and the results are presented.

  19. [History of hot spring bath treatment in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Wanpeng; Wang, Xiaojun; Xiang, Yinghong; Gu Li, A Man; Li, Ming; Zhang, Xin

    2011-07-01

    As early as the 7th century B.C. (Western Zhou Dynasty), there is a recording as 'spring which contains sulfur could treat disease' on the Wentang Stele written by WANG Bao. Wenquan Fu written by ZHANG Heng in the Easten Han Dynasty also mentioned hot spring bath treatment. The distribution of hot springs in China has been summarized by LI Daoyuan in the Northern Wei Dynasty in his Shuijingzhu which recorded hot springs in 41 places and interpreted the definition of hot spring. Bencao Shiyi (by CHEN Cangqi, Tang Dynasty) discussed the formation of and indications for hot springs. HU Zai in the Song Dynasty pointed out distinguishing hot springs according to water quality in his book Yuyin Conghua. TANG Shenwei in the Song Dynasty noted in Jingshi Zhenglei Beiji Bencao that hot spring bath treatment should be combined with diet. Shiwu Bencao (Ming Dynasty) classified hot springs into sulfur springs, arsenicum springs, cinnabar springs, aluminite springs, etc. and pointed out their individual indications. Geologists did not start the work on distribution and water quality analysis of hot springs until the first half of the 20th century. There are 972 hot springs in Wenquan Jiyao (written by geologist ZHANG Hongzhao and published in 1956). In July 1982, the First National Geothermal Conference was held and it reported that there were more than 2600 hot springs in China. Since the second half of the 20th century, hot spring sanatoriums and rehabilitation centers have been established, which promoted the development of hot spring bath treatment. PMID:22169492

  20. Nuclear reactor spring strip grid spacer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An improved and novel grid spacer for maintaining the fuel rods of a nuclear reactor fuel assembly in substantially parallel array is described. The invention provides for spring strips to maintain the fuel elements in their desired orientation which have more positive alignment than previous types while allowing greater flexibility to counterbalance the effects of differential thermal expansion. (UK)

  1. Nonlinear Resonance and Duffing's Spring Equation II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fay, T. H.; Joubert, Stephan V.

    2007-01-01

    The paper discusses the boundary in the frequency-amplitude plane for boundedness of solutions to the forced spring Duffing type equation x[umlaut] + x + [epsilon]x[cubed] = F cos[omega]t. For fixed initial conditions and for representative fixed values of the parameter [epsilon], the results are reported of a systematic numerical investigation…

  2. Non-Linear Spring Equations and Stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fay, Temple H.; Joubert, Stephan V.

    2009-01-01

    We discuss the boundary in the Poincare phase plane for boundedness of solutions to spring model equations of the form [second derivative of]x + x + epsilonx[superscript 2] = Fcoswt and the [second derivative of]x + x + epsilonx[superscript 3] = Fcoswt and report the results of a systematic numerical investigation on the global stability of…

  3. Ancient Hydrothermal Springs in Arabia Terra, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oehler, Dorothy Z.; Allen, Carlton C.

    2008-01-01

    Hydrothermal springs are important astrobiological sites for several reasons: 1) On Earth, molecular phylogeny suggests that many of the most primitive organisms are hyperthermophiles, implying that life on this planet may have arisen in hydrothermal settings; 2) on Mars, similar settings would have supplied energy- and nutrient-rich waters in which early martian life may have evolved; 3) such regions on Mars would have constituted oases of continued habitability providing warm, liquid water to primitive life forms as the planet became colder and drier; and 4) mineralization associated with hydrothermal settings could have preserved biosignatures from those martian life forms. Accordingly, if life ever developed on Mars, then hydrothermal spring deposits would be excellent localities in which to search for morphological or chemical remnants of that life. Previous attempts to identify martian spring deposits from orbit have been general or limited by resolution of available data. However, new satellite imagery from HiRISE has a resolution of 28 cm/pixel which allows detailed analysis of geologic structure and geomorphology. Based on these new data, we report several features in Vernal Crater, Arabia Terra that we interpret as ancient hydrothermal springs.

  4. The AAAI 1992 Spring Symposium Reports

    OpenAIRE

    AAAI,

    1992-01-01

    The Association for the Advancement of Artificial Intelligence held its 1992 Spring Symposium Series on March 25-27 at Stanford University, Stanford, California. This article contains a summary of the symposia that were conducted: Artificial Intelligence in Medicine, Cognitive Aspects of Knowledge Acquisition, Computational Considerations in Supporting Incremental Modification and Reuse, Knowledge Assimilation, Practical Approaches to Scheduling and Planning, Producing Cooperative Explanation...

  5. Tool Releases Optical Elements From Spring Brackets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gum, J. S.

    1984-01-01

    Threaded hooks retract bracket arms holding element. Tool uses three hooks with threaded shanks mounted in ring-shaped holder to pull on tabs to release optical element. One person can easily insert or remove optical element (such as prism or lens) from spring holder or bracket with minimal risk of damage.

  6. Spring-loaded polymeric gel actuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahinpoor, M.

    1995-02-14

    Spring-loaded electrically controllable polymeric gel actuators are disclosed. The polymeric gels can be polyvinyl alcohol, polyacrylic acid, or polyacrylamide, and are contained in an electrolytic solvent bath such as water plus acetone. The action of the gel is mechanically biased, allowing the expansive and contractile forces to be optimized for specific applications. 5 figs.

  7. Archaeal diversity in Icelandic hot springs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kvist, Thomas; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær; Westermann, Peter

    2007-01-01

    Whole-cell density gradient extractions from three solfataras (pH 2.5) ranging in temperature from 81 to 90 degrees C and one neutral hot spring (81 degrees C, pH 7) from the thermal active area of Hveragerethi (Iceland) were analysed for genetic diversity and local geographical variation of...

  8. Transient behaviour of a vehicle leaf spring

    OpenAIRE

    C. R. Bester; M. C. van Schoor

    1994-01-01

    The quasi-static and dynamic force transfer characteristics of an asymmetric tapered leafspring of a South African truck were experimentally determined by measuring the direction dependent stiffnesses and lowest natural frequency. The test results were also used to verify and modify a Rayleigh-Ritz dynamic model of the spring.

  9. Keqiao Spring Expo: More Professional, More Opportunities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Ting

    2009-01-01

    @@ 2009 (China-Keqiao) International Textile Fabrics & Accessories Exhibition (here named "Spring Expo" for short), organized by Shaoxing County People's Government, China Textile City Exhibition & Convention Co., Ltd., Shanghai Gehua Exhibition Plan Co.,Ltd. as well as Shaoxing City Xingji Exhibition Co.,Ltd., was held during May 8-10, 2009at the China Textile City International Convention & Exhibition Center.

  10. Spring Season Habitat Suitability Index raster

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This raster represents a continuous surface of sage-grouse habitat suitability index (HSI, created using ArcGIS 10.2.2) values for Nevada during spring, which is a...

  11. ANALYSIS OF COMPOSITE LEAF SPRING BY USING ANALYTICAL & FEA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranjeet Mithari

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Leaf spring are of the oldest suspension component they are still frequently used. The current leaf spring is multiple leaf spring types with a steel material. It has high weight, low natural frequency, high corrosion, more noise. Therefore current multiple leaf spring is replaced by mono composite (E- Glass epoxy leaf spring which has high natural frequency, low weight etc. The maximum stress produced at the cylindrically joint than fixed joint. Therefore stress analysis of composite material mono leaf spring is carried out. The result of finite element method is verified with analytical calculation. Also compare the natural frequency by FFT analyzer with FEA.

  12. Thin air

    OpenAIRE

    Jasanoff, Sheila

    2013-01-01

    Clearing the air How do we grasp the air? Without Michel Callon’s guidance, I might never have asked that question. Years ago, when I first entered environmental law practice, I took it for granted that problems such as air pollution exist “out there” in the real world for science to discover and law to fix. It is a measure of Callon’s influence that I understand the law today as a metaphysical instrument, no less powerful in its capacity to order nature than the tools of the ancient oracular...

  13. Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to a close in June 2013 when the company, Conscious Clothing, was awarded the My Air grand ... Page Options: Request Translation Services Facebook Twitter LinkedIn Google+ Reddit Email Evernote More Increase Font Size Decrease ...

  14. Contaminant discharge in habitat springs of the Barton Springs Salamander during storm rainfall events

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Aquatic habitat of the endangered Barton Springs salamander, Eurycea sosorum, in Travis County, Texas can potentially be impacted by contaminants in surface runoff...

  15. Manufacturing methods for machining spring ends parallel at loaded length

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinke, Patrick Thomas (Inventor); Benson, Dwayne M. (Inventor); Atkins, Donald J. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    A first end surface of a coiled compression spring at its relaxed length is machined to a plane transverse to the spring axis. The spring is then placed in a press structure having first and second opposed planar support surfaces, with the machined spring end surface bearing against the first support surface, the unmachined spring end surface bearing against a planar first surface of a lateral force compensation member, and an opposite, generally spherically curved surface of the compensation member bearing against the second press structure support surface. The spring is then compressed generally to its loaded length, and a circumferentially spaced series of marks, lying in a plane parallel to the second press structure support surface, are formed on the spring coil on which the second spring end surface lies. The spring is then removed from the press structure, and the second spring end surface is machined to the mark plane. When the spring is subsequently compressed to its loaded length the precisely parallel relationship between the machined spring end surfaces substantially eliminates undesirable lateral deflection of the spring.

  16. Controls on the speed of spring: challenges for terrestrial carbon cycle models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, L.; Fu, Y.

    2010-12-01

    Numerous studies have investigated how climate change will affect the phenology of terrestrial ecosystems, particularly the start of the growing season. However, little attention has been paid to the issue of how fast the growing season will proceed once it has started and what control this speed. Yet the speed of spring, measured by the temporal rate of recovery of plant community photosynthesis, determines annual carbon budget in a fundamental way. Using data from Fluxnet, a global network of eddy covariance flux sites, we studied the recovery rate of canopy photosynthetic capacity across vegetation types. We found that: - Air temperature is the dominant factor that controls the spring recovery (both the timing and the recovery rate) of canopy photosynthesis in northern ecosystems. - However, it is the increasing rate, rather than the absolute value, of daily mean air temperature (other than minimum, maximum air temperature or soil temperature) that determines the peak recovery rate of canopy photosynthetic capacity. - The gross ecosystem productivity in late-half year affects the peak recovery rate of canopy photosynthetic capacity in the following spring, presumably through the influence of substrate supply for metabolism to support new shoot and leaf growth. - Deciduous broad leaf forests and grasslands are more sensitive to temperature change in spring than evergreen needle leaf forests, probably due to the differences in the life history strategy between deciduous and evergreen leaves. These findings suggest new requirements for climate models and point to new processes that should be represented in terrestrial carbon cycle models to improve future predictions of land carbon sinks and sources.

  17. Exposure to Particle Matters and Hazardous Volatile Organic Compounds in Selected Hot Spring Hotels in Guangdong, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiusheng He

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In Guangdong province, many hot springs were exploited and developed into popular places for tourist. In addition, hotels have been set up near hot spring sites to attract people, including local citizens, to spend their spare time inside these so-called “spring hotels”. In our study, indoor air quality was investigated in four hot spring hotels in Guangdong province, China. Measured indoor pollutants included CO2, CO, PM10, PM2.5 and Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs. As the result show, high concentrations of carbon dioxide might be attributed to poor ventilation; and the variations of indoor PM10, PM2.5 concentrations were related to occupants’ activities. Alpha-pinene and toluene were the most common VOC species in the hot spring hotels other than monocyclic aromatic hydrocarbons like Benzene, Toluene, Ethylbenzene and Xylenes (BTEX, which were at medium levels among the reported indoor pollutants. High cancer risk of benzene in the newly decorated rooms should be seriously taken into consideration in the future. Indoor to Outdoor air concentration ratios (I/O for CO2 and VOCs were higher than 1, indicating their strong indoor sources. Negative correlations were found between indoor CO2 and all the other compounds, and VOCs were shown to be significantly correlated (p < 0.01 to each other, including aromatic hydrocarbons and mono-terpenes. For indoor and outdoor air compounds, correlation coefficients among all compounds did not show a significant correlation, which indicated that these pollutants had different sources. Principal components analysis by SPSS showed that indoor materials, inhabitants’ activities and respiration, cleaning products and outdoor sources were the main sources of indoor detected pollutants in hot spring hotels.

  18. The Spring Festival(高二适用)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    欧阳璠

    2002-01-01

    The Spring Festival, the traditional Chinese New Year's Day, is China's most important national holiday. Almost everyone in China's cities enjoy sat least three days off work to celebrate the Spring Festival. The celebration lasts even longer in the countryside,

  19. EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION & NUMERICAL ANALYSIS OF COMPOSITE LEAF SPRING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. K. JADHAO,

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The Automobile Industry has shown keen interest for replacement of steel leaf spring with that of glass fiber composite leaf spring, since the composite material has high strength to weight ratio, good corrosion resistance and tailor-able properties. The objective of present study was to replace material for leaf spring. In present study the material selected was glass fiber reinforced plastic (GFRP and the polyester resin (NETPOL 1011 can be used which was more economical this will reduce total cost of composite leaf spring. A spring with constant width and thickness was fabricated by hand lay-up technique which was very simple and economical. The experiments were conducted on UTM and numerical analysis was done via (FEA using ANSYS software. Stresses and deflection results were verified for analytical and experimental results. Result shows that, the composite spring has stresses much lower than steel leaf spring and weight of composite spring was nearly reduced up to 85%.

  20. Initial Survey Instructions for Spring Water Monitoring : Quality

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Initial survey instructions for 1.04 spring water monitoring (quality) and 1.06 management unit water monitoring (quality) at Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge....

  1. Archaeological resources of Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge: Preliminary report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document presents results of an archeological survey of two caves located in the Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge. It was concluded that the Fish Springs...

  2. Automobile trip to Fish Springs, March 16, 1959

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — These memoranda describe trips to Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge. The purpose of these trips was to access the condition of the land in the Fish Springs area.

  3. Fatigue and corrosion fatigue of beryllium-copper spring materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fine gage, 0.006-in. d(0.15-mm) thick, beryllium-copper (Be-Cu) spring materials with tensile strength in the range of 70 to 145 ksi were subjected to cyclic loading in air and salt water environments. Plain and notched (center hole) hour glass specimens were subjected to sinusoidal loading with R = (minimum/maximum) stress = 0.1 at cyclic frequencies of 50 Hz in air and 1 Hz in salt water. Fatigue life was typically from 104 to 106 cycles with crack initiation as the dominant fatigue process. The excellence fatigue performance of Be-Cu alloys in salt water is well-known, however, current findings demonstrate 10 to 37% reduction in fatigue strength of unnotched specimens in this environment for a life of 3 x 105 cycles. This strength degradation is attributed to the use of a lower cyclic frequency for present than for previous tests, i.e., 1 versus about 20 Hz. There was no effect of salt water on crack initiation in notched specimens. The ratios of the fatigue strengths, namely (cold-rolled/annealed) and (aged/annealed), for plain and notched specimens tested in air, decreased from 2 to about 1.4 as fatigue life increased from 104 to 106 cycles. This effect is attributed to cyclic hardening of the annealed material. The fatigue stress concentration factor, Kf = (plain/notched) fatigue strength, increased by about 30% as fatigue cycles increased from 104 to 106. The ranking of Kf values of the various material conditions from highest to lowest was: cold-rolled, aged, and annealed

  4. Microbial Ecology at an Arctic Geothermal Spring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starke, V.; Fogel, M. L.; Steele, A.; Arctic Mars Analog Svalbard Expedition (Amase)

    2011-12-01

    A critical question in microbial ecology concerns how variations in environmental conditions affect microbial community makeup. Arctic thermal springs provide an exceptional opportunity to study this question because they have very steep gradients in temperature, moisture, and mobility that place strong selective pressures on microorganisms. Troll Springs, located near 79°23'N, 13°26E in the Svalbard archipelago north of Norway, is one of the northernmost documented thermal springs on land. Precipitation of travertine (calcium carbonate) from Troll's carbonate-rich waters has built a complex terrace structure. Biological materials are present at all levels of the spring structure. To investigate this microbial community in detail, we analyzed DNA extracted from wet biofilms, granular samples and endoliths with 454 parallel-tagged pyrosequencing and automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis (ARISA). The aim is to provide a comprehensive overview of how the community at Troll Springs changes over the gradients in environmental conditions present. The 454 and ARISA data were analyzed using multivariate methods, including non-metric multidimensional scaling (nMDS). Results show a gradual transition in the makeup of the microbial community as the environment changes from aquatic to lithologic. These observations suggest a mechanism by which the rocks are colonized by microorganisms: biofilm becomes entrapped during carbonate precipitation. Use of a range of parameters and techniques in the data processing and multidimensional scaling provides additional insight into how community makeup varies across the environments present at the spring. Some more adaptable species are found across most environments, but change markedly in abundance as the conditions change. Other less adaptable species are found in fewer environments, being wholly absent in most. Continued analysis will help reveal which species are the most adaptable, and how their adaptive capabilities

  5. Spanning Scale and Platform to Track Spring and Autumn Phenology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Mark D.

    2016-04-01

    Important opportunities to further understanding of ecosystem processes can be realized through improved integration and utilization of multiple phenological measures. Combining satellite-derived remote sensing data, which facilitate needed spatial integration and large area coverage with detailed conventional (visual) ground observations, which provide necessary information on species timing differences, is an important path for advancement in this area. A relatively new resource to address this scaling issue is near-surface remote sensing data collected from fixed position cameras. This paper presents on-going findings from a multi-year comparison of the spring and autumn seasonal transitions in Downer Woods, a small urban woodlot on the University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee campus (43.08°N, 87.88°W) dominated by white ash (Fraxinus americana) and basswood (Tilia americana) trees. The study area is under observation from a visible/near-infrared camera installed in March 2013 that is part of the Phenocam network (http://phenocam.sr.unh.edu), and also has detailed ground-based species-specific visual phenological observations collected in both spring and autumn, as well as air/soil temperatures and light sensor data measured under the canopy. The results show that at this location, the Phenocam visible/near-infrared band data series can be successfully compared to aggregated species visual phenological observations. Further, both of these changes can be in turn simulated by process models based on seasonal temperature changes. Thus, the concurrent collection of these data suggest a coherent process whereby more robust ground-based species-aggregated "pixel" data can be produced which will be scalable to large areas, and potentially be applicable to more complex environments and ecosystems. Such an approach could potentially improve phenology-based spatial estimates of carbon and energy flux.

  6. PERFORMANCE COMPARISON OF CONVENTIONAL AND COMPOSITE LEAF SPRING

    OpenAIRE

    V.POZHILARASU; Dr. T.PARAMESHWARAN PILLAI

    2012-01-01

    Leaf springs are one of the oldest suspension components that are being still used widely in automobiles. Weight reduction is also given due importance by automobile manufacturers. The automobile industry has shown increased interest in the use of composite leaf spring in the place of conventional steel leaf spring due to its high strength to weight ratio. The introduction of composite materials has made it possible to reduce the weight of the leaf spring without any reduction in load carryin...

  7. Biogeographic congruency among bacterial communities from terrestrial sulfidic springs

    OpenAIRE

    BrendanHeadd

    2014-01-01

    Terrestrial sulfidic springs support diverse microbial communities by serving as stable conduits for geochemically diverse and nutrient-rich subsurface waters. Microorganisms that colonize terrestrial springs likely originate from groundwater, but may also be sourced from the surface. As such, the biogeographic distribution of microbial communities inhabiting sulfidic springs should be controlled by a combination of spring geochemistry and surface and subsurface transport mechanisms, and not ...

  8. Executive summary for the Weldon Spring Site Environmental Report for calendar year 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is the sixth in a series of annual reports produced by the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project (WSSRAP) since 1986. It reports the results of a comprehensive, year-round program to monitor the impact of the Weldon Spring site (WSS) on the surrounding region's groundwater and surface waters; air quality; vegetation and wildlife; and, through these multiple pathways, the potential for exposure to receptor human populations. Information is also presented on the environmental monitoring quality assurance program, waste management activities, audits and reviews, and special environmental studies. Data are included for both the Weldon Spring Chemical Plant and raffinate pits and the Weldon Spring Quarry. Based on the consistent exercise of quality assurance in both standard operating procedures and quality control sample collection, the WSSRAP asserts that the data presented in the WSS Environmental Report for Calendar Year 1991 accurately reflect the environmental conditions monitored at the WSS. This report presents narratives, summaries, and conclusions on environmental monitoring at the WSS and surrounding vicinity properties for the entire 1991 monitoring year. During 1991 the WSSRAP also published quarterly data reports, wherein all routine monitoring data were tabulated and presented quarterly to allow the public to review the data in a timely fashion prior to issuance of the annual report

  9. 75 FR 3694 - Radio Broadcasting Services, Peach Springs, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-22

    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 Radio Broadcasting Services, Peach Springs, Arizona AGENCY: Federal Communications... Media Licenses, LLC, proposing the allotment of FM Channel 281C3 at Peach Springs, Arizona. The reference coordinates for Channel 281C3 at Peach Springs are 35-33-46 NL and 113-27-12 WL. DATES:...

  10. 78 FR 3877 - Radio Broadcasting Services; Peach Springs, AZ

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-17

    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 Radio Broadcasting Services; Peach Springs, AZ AGENCY: Federal Communications... the Hualapai Tribe, proposing to amend the Table of Allotments by allotting Channel 265A at Peach... second potential service at Peach Springs. Channel 265A can be allotted at Peach Springs, Arizona,...

  11. 75 FR 76293 - Radio Broadcasting Services; Peach Springs, AZ

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-08

    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 Radio Broadcasting Services; Peach Springs, AZ AGENCY: Federal Communications..., allots FM Channel 281C3 at Peach Springs, Arizona, in order to maintain a first local service at that community. Channel 281C3 can be allotted at Peach Springs, Arizona, in compliance with the...

  12. Residue management tactics for corn following spring wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Producers are interested in tactics for managing crop residues when growing corn after spring wheat. We compared five systems of managing spring wheat residues: conventional tillage, no-till, strip-till, cover crop (hairy vetch) with no-till, and cover crop with strip-till following spring wheat. ...

  13. A modified uprighting spring for use in edgewise system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahereh, Hosseinzadeh Nik; Meybodi, Seyed Amir Reza Fatahi

    2011-01-01

    One of the most powerful mechanics for 2nd order correction is uprighting spring. Unfortunately, the vertical tube for inserting the uprighting spring is not included in the majority of commercially available edgewise bracket systems. This article presents a simple method for inserting the uprighting spring in the horizontal slot of the bracket. PMID:22360084

  14. 27 CFR 9.143 - Spring Mountain District.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Spring Mountain District... Spring Mountain District. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Spring Mountain District.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundary of...

  15. 46 CFR 64.59 - Spring loaded pressure relief valve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Spring loaded pressure relief valve. 64.59 Section 64.59... AND CARGO HANDLING SYSTEMS Pressure Relief Devices and Vacuum Relief Devices for MPTs § 64.59 Spring loaded pressure relief valve. A spring loaded pressure relief valve must— (a) Be set at a...

  16. Deceptively Simple Harmonic Motion: A Mass on a Spiral Spring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, F. Alan

    1980-01-01

    Discusses the oscillatory motion of a mass on a spiral (nonhelical) spring, and calculates the lowest eigenfrequency and the associated effective spring mass for a range of values of the attached mass. Analytic and numerical comparisons are made to the helical spring problem. (HM)

  17. The Role of Changes in the Annual Cycle in Earlier Onset of Climatic Spring in Northern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIAN Cheng; FU Congbin; Zhaohua WU; YAN Zhongwei

    2011-01-01

    Climatic changes in the onset of spring in northern China associated with changes in the annual cycle and with a recent warming trend were quantified using a recently developed adaptive data analysis tool,the Ensemble Empirical Mode Decomposition. The study was based on a homogenized daily surface air temperature (SAT) dataset for the period 1955-2003. The annual cycle here is referred to as a refined modulated annual cycle (MAC). The results show that spring at Beijing has arrived significantly earlier by about 2.98 d (10 yr)-1, of which about 1.85 d (10 yr)-1 is due to changes in the annual cycle and 1.13 d (10 yr)-1 due to the long-term warming trend. Variations in the MAC component explain about 92.5% of the total variance in the Beijing daily SAT series and could cause as much as a 20-day shift in the onset of spring from one year to another. The onset of spring has been advancing all over northern China, but more significant in the east than in the west part of the region. These differences are somehow unexplainable by the zonal pattern of the warming trend over the whole region, but can be explained by opposite changes in the spring phase of the MAC, i.e. advancing in the east while delaying in the west. In the east of northern China, the change in the spring phase of MAC explains 40%-60% of the spring onset trend and is attributable to a weakening Asian winter monsoon. The average sea level pressure in Siberia (55°-80°N,50°-110°E), an index of the strength of the winter monsoon, could serve as a potential short-term predictor for the onset of spring in the east of northern China.

  18. Modelling Flat Spring performance using FEA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports how the stiffness of a Flat Spring can be predicted using nonlinear Finite Element Analysis (FEA). The analysis of a Flat Spring is a nonlinear problem involving contact mechanics, geometric nonlinearity and material property nonlinearity. Research has been focused on improving the accuracy of the model by identifying and exploring the significant assumptions contributing to errors. This paper presents results from some of the models developed using FEA software. The validation process is shown to identify where improvements can be made to the model assumptions to increase the accuracy of prediction. The goal is to achieve an accuracy level of ±10 % as the intention is to replace practical testing with FEA modelling, thereby reducing the product development time and cost. Results from the FEA models are compared with experimental results to validate the accuracy.

  19. SPRING BARLEY BREEDING FOR MALTING QUALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alžbeta Žofajová

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this contribution is to illustrate the results of spring barley breeding for malting quality and point out an important position of variety in production of  qualitative  raw material for maltinq and beer  industry as well as the system of evaluation the qualitative parameters of breeding materials and adaptation of barley breeding programms to the  new requirements of  malting and beer industry. As an example of the results obtained most recently description is made of the Ezer, Levan, Donaris, Sladar spring barley varieties with very good malting quality and effective resistance to  powdery mildew.  Cultivation of these varieties  and malting barley production with  reduced use  of pesticidies is environmentally friedly alternative. doi:10.5219/50

  20. Utilities:Water:Spring Water Lines at Pipe Spring National Monument, Arizona (Utilities.gdb:Water:springwtr)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This feature class represents spring water lines at Pipe Spring National Monument, Arizona. The data were collected using Trimble Global Positioning System (GPS)...

  1. Investigating relationships between rainfall and karst-spring discharge by higher-order partial correlation functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jukić, Damir; Denić-Jukić, Vesna

    2015-11-01

    Time series of rainfall and karst-spring discharge are influenced by various space-time-variant processes involved in the transfer of water in hydrological cycle. The effects of these processes can be exhibited in auto-correlation and cross-correlation functions. Consequently, ambiguities with respect to the effects encoded in the correlation functions exist. To solve this problem, a new statistical method for investigating relationships between rainfall and karst-spring discharge is proposed. The method is based on the determination and analysis of higher-order partial correlation functions and their spectral representations. The study area is the catchment of the Jadro Spring in Croatia. The analyzed daily time series are the air temperature, relative humidity, spring discharge, and rainfall at seven rain-gauges over a period of 19 years, from 1995 to 2013. The application results show that the effects of spatial and temporal variations of hydrological time series and the space-time-variant behaviours of the karst system can be separated from the correlation functions. Specifically, the effect of evapotranspiration can be separated to obtain the forms of correlation functions that represent the hydrogeological characteristics of the karst system. Using the proposed method, it is also possible to separate the effects of the process of groundwater recharge that occurs in neighbouring parts of a catchment to identify the specific contribution of each part of the catchment to the karst-spring discharge. The main quantitative results obtained for the Jadro Spring show that the quick-flow duration is 14 days, the intermediate-flow duration is 80 days, and the pure base flow starts after 80 days. The base flow consists of an inter-catchment groundwater flow. The system memory of the spring is 80 days. The presented results indicate the far-reaching applicability of the proposed method in the analyses of relationships between rainfall and karst-spring discharge; e

  2. Gas composition and hydrochemistry of non-volcanic thermal springs in Peninsular Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wuh Terng, Lim; Tsanyao F, Yang; Hsuan-Wen, Chen; Yusoff, Ismail Bin

    2015-04-01

    Peninsular Malaysia is located on Sunda Plate which situated between two major boundaries of tectonic plates, Australian Plate and Eurasian Plate. Over sixty thermal springs have been reported in Peninsular Malaysia, a non-volcanic country, but their water and gas geochemistry characteristic have not been reported yet. The aim of this study is to identify the geochemical characteristics of water and gas samples from selected sixteen thermal springs. This is the first time to study the thermal springs in Peninsular Malaysia in terms of dissolved gas. Due to the chemical inertness, the concentration and isotopic composition of dissolved gas can always become a good indicators of mantle degassing, geothermal circulation and the condition of water-rock interaction. Other parameters such as pH, temperature, electric conductivity, and water radon values will be also recorded. The surface temperature of studied thermal springs range from 40.1° C to 88.7° C, the pH values range from 6.6 to 9.1, and the conductivity varies between 200 μs/cm and 3700 μs/cm. Meanwhile, the water radon analysis which been carried out in the field by using RAD7 Radon Detector. The water radon values of selected thermal springs in Peninsular Malaysia vary from 111,866 Bq/cm3 to 200 Bq/cm3, indicating various radon sources which mainly controlled by the permeability and lithology of host rocks in studied areas. Analysed results show that the constituent of dissolved gas in thermal springs is major in nitrogen and minor in other compositions such as argon, carbon dioxides and oxygen. Isotopic composition of hydrogen (D/H) and oxygen (18O/16O) mostly fall along the MWL, indicating the meteoric water is the major fluid source for those hot springs. However, the helium isotopic ratios of most samples show consistently low value, less than 0.1 Ra (Ra is the 3He/4He ratio of the air). It implies that crust component is the major helium gas source for those hot springs.

  3. Biomineralization of radioactive sulfide minerals in strong acidic Tamagawa hot springs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bioaccumulation of radioactive sulfide minerals by bacteria in strong acidic hot spring water was found at Tamagawa Hot Springs, Akita prefecture in Japan. The hot spring water produces Hokutolite of radioactive minerals high radium and radon. The β-ray measurements of sediments and biofilms indicate 1850-2420 and 5700 cpm, respectively, which are 50-100 times higher than that of the water and the air (50-90 cpm). The characteristics of hot spring water show pH (1.2), Eh (140 mV), EC (29 mS/cm), DO (0.8 mg/l), and water temperature (99.5degC), indicating extremely strong acidic and reducing conditions. The hot spring water contains mainly HCl associated with high concentrations of Ca2+, Al3+, Fe2+, HSO4- and SO42-. SEM-EDX and TEM demonstrate some insight into how microorganisms affect the chemistry and microbiological characteristics of the strong acidic surroundings with high S, As, Ba, and Ca contents in biofilms. Especially SEM-EDX, ED-XRF, and STEM-EDX elemental content maps illustrate the distribution of sulfur-bearing compounds of barite (BaSO4), gypsum (CaSO4·2H2O), elemental sulfur (S) and orpiment(As2S3) in the reddish orange biofilms. The presence of a hydrogen sulfide-rich (H2S) thermal spring and gypsum deposits suggest the volatilization of H2S from the spring water, oxidation of the H2S gas to sulfuric acid, and reaction of the sulfuric acid. TEM micrographs of bacteria in the biofilms reveal in detail the intimate connections between biological and mineralogical processes that the cells are entirely accumulated with spherical grains, 100∼200 nm in diameter. The relationship among sulfide minerals, such as barite, gypsum, sulfur, orpiment, and Hakutolite, associated with bacteria implies that heavy metals have been transported from strong acidic hot spring water to sediments through bacteria metabolism. It is possible that the capability of radioactive sulfide biofilms for heavy metal immobilization can be used to counteract the disastrous

  4. Springs as Ecosystems: Clarifying Groundwater Dependence and Wetland Status (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, L.; Springer, A. E.; Ledbetter, J. D.

    2013-12-01

    Springs ecosystems are among the most productive, biologically diverse and culturally important ecosystems on Earth. Net annual productivity of some springs exceeds 5 kg/m^2/yr. Springs support an estimated 19% of the endangered species and numerous rare taxa in the United States. Springs serve as keystone ecosystems in arid regions, and as cornerstones of indigenous cultural well-being, history, economics, and aesthetics. Despite their significance, the ecosystem ecology and stewardship of springs have received scant scientific and public attention, resulting in loss or impairment of 50-90% of the springs in many regions, both arid and temperate. Six reasons contribute to the lack of attention to springs. Springs are poorly mapped because: 1) their generally small size is less than the pixel area of most remote sensing analyses and they are overlooked; and 2) springs detection is often limited by emergence on cliff faces, beneath heavy vegetation cover, or under water. In addition, 3) high levels of ecosystem complexity at springs require multidisciplinary team approaches for inventory, assessment, and research, but collaboration between the fields of hydrogeology and ecology has been limited. 4) Protectionism by land owners and organizations that manage springs limits the availability information, preventing regional assessment of status. 5) Prior to recent efforts, the absence of a descriptive lexicon of springs types has limited discussion about variation in ecological characteristics and processes. 6) Neither regarded entirely as groundwater or as surface water, springs fall 'between jurisdictional cracks' and are not subject to clear legal and regulatory oversight. With regards to the latter point, two jurisdictional phrases have reduced scientific understanding and stewardship of springs ecosystems: 'jurisdictional wetlands' and 'groundwater-dependent ecosystems' (GDEs). Most springs have insufficient monitoring data to establish perenniality or the range of

  5. Managing instability after the Arab Spring

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    December 11-13, 2012 Washington, D.C. - CCMR's Collaborative and Adaptive Security Initiative (CASI) convened officials from the armed forces, government civilian agencies, inter-governmental organizations, non-governmental organizations, think tanks and academic institutions to a workshop discussing the political, social and security implications of the regional transition commonly referred to as the "Arab Spring". By exploring the challenges faced by the region during this transition, part...

  6. Ozone measurements in Ushuaia: Austral spring 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rafanelli, C.; Di Menno, M.

    1995-09-01

    The preliminary results of the Brewer spectrophotometric measurements in Ushuaia, Tierra del Fuego (Arg), during the 1994 austral spring (September - November) are reported. During this period with an automatic measuring program, the total Ozone, NO2 and SO2 concentrations were determined; Umkehr ozone profile was also evaluated. The comparison with the satellite TOMS data shows a very good agreement. The UV-B spectra obtained were useful to study the dangerous dose (DUV).

  7. Leaf stripe resistance of spring barley cultivars

    OpenAIRE

    Pinnschmidt, Hans O; Nielsen, Bent J.

    2006-01-01

    Results of six years of screening trials clearly indicate that effective resistance against barley leaf stripe is available, also in modern cultivars. Among the spring barley cultivars that are currently most widely grown in Denmark, Cabaret, Troon, Sebastian, Justina and Brazil appear most resistant, but only Brazil combines a favourable resistance performance (= low mean and standard deviation of environment-adjusted leaf stripe incidence) with a high number of observations (= years of test...

  8. A survey of GFRP composite leaf spring

    OpenAIRE

    Rajesh, S; S. Nakkeran; GB. Bhaskar

    2014-01-01

    Although leaf springs are one of the oldest suspension components, they are still frequently used in the automobile vehicles. Weight reduction is the main focus in the automobile industries. Weight reduction can be achieved primarily by the introduction of better materials, design optimization, and better manufacturing processes. The achievement of weight reduction with adequate improvement of mechanical properties has made composite a very good replacement material for conventional steel. Se...

  9. Reports of the AAAI 2012 Spring Symposia

    OpenAIRE

    Alani, Harith; The Open University; An, Bo; University of Southern California; Jain, Manish; University of Southern California; Kido, Takashi; Rikengenesis; Konidaris, George; Massachusetts Institute of Technology; Lawless, William; Paine College; Martin, David; Apple Computer; Pantofaru, Caroline; Willow Garage, Inc.; Sofge, Donald; Naval Research Laboratory; Takadama, Keiki; University of Electro-Communications; Tambe, Milind; University of Southern California; Vitvar, Tomas; Czech Technical University

    2012-01-01

    The Association for the Advancement of Artificial Intelligence, in cooperation with Stanford University’s Department of Computer Science, was pleased to present the 2012 Spring Symposium Series, held Monday through Wednesday, March 26–28, 2012 at Stanford University, Stanford, California USA. The six symposia held were AI, The Fundamental Social Aggregation Challenge (cochaired by W. F. Lawless, Don Sofge, Mark Klein, and Laurent Chaudron); Designing Intelligent Robots (cochaired by George Ko...

  10. The 1995 AAAI Spring Symposia Reports

    OpenAIRE

    AAAI,

    1995-01-01

    The Association for the Advancement of Artificial Intelligence held its 1995 Spring Symposium Series on March 27 to 29 at Stanford University. This article contains summaries of the nine symposia that were conducted: (1) Empirical Methods in Discourse Interpretation and Generation; (2) Extending Theories of Action: Formal Theory and Practical Applications; (3) Information Gathering from Heterogeneous, Distributed Environments; (4) Integrated Planning Applications; (5) Interactive Story System...

  11. AAAI 1994 Spring Symposium Series Reports

    OpenAIRE

    Woods, William; Uckun, Sendar; Kohane, Isaac; Bates, Joseph; Hulthage, Ingemar; Gasser, Les; Hanks, Steve; Gini, Maria; Ram, Ashwin; desJardins, Marie; Johnson, Peter; Etzioni, Oren; Coombs, David; Whitehead, Steven

    1994-01-01

    The Association for the Advancement of Artificial Intelligence (AAAI) held its 1994 Spring Symposium Series on 19-23 March at Stanford University, Stanford, California. This article contains summaries of 10 of the 11 symposia that were conducted: Applications of Computer Vision in Medical Image Processing; AI in Medicine: Interpreting Clinical Data; Believable Agents; Computational Organization Design; Decision-Theoretic Planning; Detecting and Resolving Errors in Manufacturing Systems; Goal-...

  12. Environmental toxicology: the legacy of Silent Spring

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    The period immediately following the Second World War brought great hopes of continuing benefits from widespread use of organochlorine and organophosphorus insecticides and other pesticides whilst the health risks of pre-war and other later practices were largely ignored. Rachel Carson’s Silent Spring (1962) coincided with the adoption of a more cautious approach to the use of pesticides, and the ensuing decades have been characterized by continued identification of both natural and man-made ...

  13. Using Euler buckling springs for vibration isolation

    CERN Document Server

    Winterflood, J; Blair, D G

    2002-01-01

    Difficulties in obtaining ideal vertical vibration isolation with mechanical springs are identified as being due to the mass of the elastic element which is in turn due to its energy storage requirement. A new technique to minimize this energy is presented - being an Euler column undergoing elastic buckling. The design of a high performance vertical vibration isolation stage based on this technique is presented together with its measured performance.

  14. Using Euler buckling springs for vibration isolation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Difficulties in obtaining ideal vertical vibration isolation with mechanical springs are identified as being due to the mass of the elastic element which is in turn due to its energy storage requirement. A new technique to minimize this energy is presented - being an Euler column undergoing elastic buckling. The design of a high performance vertical vibration isolation stage based on this technique is presented together with its measured performance

  15. AAAI 2007 Spring Symposium Series Reports

    OpenAIRE

    Barkowsky, Thomas; Bruza, Peter; Dodds, Zachary; Etzioni, Oren; Ferguson, George; Gmytrasiewicz, Piotr; Hommel, Bernhard; Kuipers, Benjamin; Miller, Rob; Morgenstern, Leora; Parsons, Simon; Schultheis, Holger; Tapus, Adriana; Yorke-Smith, Neil

    2007-01-01

    The 2007 Spring Symposium Series was held Monday through Wednesday, March 26-28, 2007, at Stanford University, California. The titles of the nine symposia in this symposium series were (1) Control Mechanisms for Spatial Knowledge Processing in Cognitive/Intelligent Systems, (2) Game Theoretic and Decision Theoretic Agents, (3) Intentions in Intelligent Systems, (4) Interaction Challenges for Artificial Assistants, (5) Logical Formalizations of Commonsense Reasoning, (6) Machine Reading, (7) M...

  16. Depleted uranium in the air during the cleanup operations at Cape Arza

    OpenAIRE

    PERKO VUKOTIC; MILOJKO KOVACEVIC; TOMISLAV ANDJELIC; MIRJANA RADENKOVIC

    2004-01-01

    Cape Arza was contaminated with depleted uranium (DU) in the air strikes of NATO aeroplanes on May 30, 1999. The cleanup and decontamination of the site started in 2001. Here the results of air monitoring performed during the cleanup operations in Spring 2002. are presented. The collected air samples were analyzed by high-resolution alpha spectrometry. The obtained concentrations of airborne uranium are about ten times higher than the average value usually reported for air. The ratio of the 2...

  17. Spring viraemia of carp virus: recent advances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashraf, Usama; Lu, Yuanan; Lin, Li; Yuan, Junfa; Wang, Min; Liu, Xueqin

    2016-05-01

    Spring viraemia of carp is an environmentally and economically important disease affecting cyprinids, primarily common carp (Cyprinus carpio). The causative agent of this disease is Spring viraemia of carp virus (SVCV) - a member of the genus Vesiculovirus of the family Rhabdoviridae. The disease is presently endemic in Europe, America and several Asian countries, where it causes significant morbidity and mortality in affected fish. SVCV infection is generally associated with exophthalmia; abdominal distension; petechial haemorrhage of the skin, gills, eyes and internal organs; degeneration of the gill lamellae; a swollen and coarse-textured spleen; hepatic necrosis; enteritis; and pericarditis. The SVCV genome is composed of linear, negative-sense, ssRNA containing five genes in the order 3'-N-P-M-G-L-5', encoding a nucleoprotein, phosphoprotein, matrix protein, glycoprotein and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, respectively. Fully sequenced SVCV strains exhibit distinct amino acid substitutions at unique positions, which may contribute to as-yet unknown strain-specific characteristics. To advance the study of SVCV and the control of spring viraemia of carp disease in the future, this review summarizes our current understanding of SVCV in terms of its genomic characteristics, genetic diversity and pathogenesis, and provides insights into antiviral immunity against SVCV, diagnosis of SVCV and vaccination strategies to combat SVCV. PMID:26905065

  18. Reactor vessel O-ring spring clip

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This patent describes in a nuclear reactor pressure vessel including a vessel closure head having a bottom surface adapted to be sealingly engaged with the pressure vessel, the vessel head having an annular groove therein for receiving a tubular O-ring having slots therein, the vessel head also having threaded apertures in the bottom surface concentrically disposed with respect to the annular groove, a reactor vessel O-ring spring clip for securing the O-ring to the vessel head. The spring clip comprising a horizontal leg having one end thereof adapted to be received within one of the slots in the O-ring and an opposite end adapted to frictionally engage one of the threaded apertures, such that the weight of the O-ring increases the friction force between the spring clip and the threaded aperture, wherein the one end of the horizontal leg adapted to engage the O-ring includes; a generally vertical leg extending upward from the one end of the horizontal leg; and a generally circular member depending from the vertical leg such that it lies in a vertical plane parallel with that of the horizontal leg

  19. Rain-induced spring wheat harvest losses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, A.; Black, A. L. (Principal Investigator)

    1983-01-01

    When rain or a combination of rain and high humidity delay wheat harvest, losses can occur in grain yield and/or grain quality. Yield losses can result from shattering, from reduction in test weight, and in the case of windrowed grain, from rooting of sprouting grain at the soil: windrow contact. Losses in grain quality can result from reduction in test weight and from sprouting. Sprouting causes a degradation of grain proteins and starches, hence flour quality is reduced, and the grain price deteriorates to the value of feed grain. Although losses in grain yield and quality are rain-induced, these losses do not necessarily occur because a standing or windrowed crop is wetted by rain. Spike water concentration in hard red spring wheat must be increased to about 45-49% before sprouting is initiated in grain that has overcome dormancy. The time required to overcome this dormancy after the cultivar has dried to 12 to 14% water concentration differs with hard red spring cultivars. The effect of rain on threshing-ready standing and windrowed hard red spring wheat grain yeild and quality was evaluated. A goal was to develop the capability to forecast the extent of expected loss of grain yield and quality from specific climatic events that delay threshing.

  20. Spring bloom onset in the Nordic Seas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mignot, Alexandre; Ferrari, Raffaele; Mork, Kjell Arne

    2016-06-01

    The North Atlantic spring bloom is a massive annual growth event of marine phytoplankton, tiny free-floating algae that form the base of the ocean's food web and generates a large fraction of the global primary production of organic matter. The conditions that trigger the onset of the spring bloom in the Nordic Seas, at the northern edge of the North Atlantic, are studied using in situ data from six bio-optical floats released north of the Arctic Circle. It is often assumed that spring blooms start as soon as phytoplankton cells daily irradiance is sufficiently abundant that division rates exceed losses. The bio-optical float data instead suggest the tantalizing hypothesis that Nordic Seas blooms start when the photoperiod, the number of daily light hours experienced by phytoplankton, exceeds a critical value, independently of division rates. The photoperiod trigger may have developed at high latitudes where photosynthesis is impossible during polar nights and phytoplankton enters into a dormant stage in winter. While the first accumulation of biomass recorded by the bio-optical floats is consistent with the photoperiod hypothesis, it is possible that some biomass accumulation started before the critical photoperiod but at levels too low to be detected by the fluorometers. More precise observations are needed to test the photoperiod hypothesis.

  1. Elliptical Leaf Spring Shock and Vibration Mounts with Enhanced Damping and Energy Dissipation Capabilities Using Lead Spring

    OpenAIRE

    Moussa Leblouba; Salah Altoubat; Muhammad Ekhlasur Rahman; Balaji Palani Selvaraj

    2015-01-01

    We present an enhancement to the existing elliptical leaf spring (ELS) for improved damping and energy dissipation capabilities. The ELS consists of a high tensile stainless steel elliptical leaf spring with polymer or rubber compound. This device is conceived as a shock and vibration isolator for equipment and lightweight structures. The enhancement to the ELS consists of a lead spring plugged vertically between the leaves (referred to as lead-rubber elliptical leaf spring (LRELS)). The lead...

  2. Air surveillance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patton, G.W.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the air surveillance and monitoring programs currently in operation at that Hanford Site. Atmospheric releases of pollutants from Hanford to the surrounding region are a potential source of human exposure. For that reason, both radioactive and nonradioactive materials in air are monitored at a number of locations. The influence of Hanford emissions on local radionuclide concentrations was evaluated by comparing concentrations measured at distant locations within the region to concentrations measured at the Site perimeter. This section discusses sample collection, analytical methods, and the results of the Hanford air surveillance program. A complete listing of all analytical results summarized in this section is reported separately by Bisping (1995).

  3. Haloalkanes at air-water and air-ice interfaces: A computational study with implications in atmospheric chemistry and water treatment

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Roeselová, Martina; Habartová, Alena; Minofar, Babak; Toubin, C.

    Dallas: American Chemical Society, 2014. 214PHYS. ISSN 0065-7727. [National Spring Meeting of the American Chemical Society (ACS) /247./. 16.03.2014-20.03.2014, Dallas] Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : haloalkanes * air-water interfaces * air-ice interfaces Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry

  4. New SPring-8 control room: towards unified operation with SACLA and SPring-8 II era

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have renovated the SPring-8 control room. This is its first major renovation since its inauguration in 1997. In 2011, the construction of the SACLA (SPring-8 Angstrom Compact Laser) was completed. Plans are to control it from the new control room for it to work in close cooperation with the SPring-8 storage ring. It was expected that the upcoming SPring-8 II project would require more workstations than the current control room could accommodate. We have therefore extended the control room area for these anticipated requirements. In this renovation, we employed new technologies that did not exist 14 years ago, such as a large LCD and silent, liquid-cooling workstations for a comfortable operation environment. We have incorporated many ideas which were obtained during the 14 years experience of the operation. The fish-shaped desk islands met the scalability requirement for the SACLA and SPring-8 II. The interlock panel placed at the center of the consoles and the interlock signal at the back area enabled close coordination between the safety systems and the accelerators operations, and the division between the control area and the back area helped to create an environment specific to the control area

  5. Integrated Field Analyses of Thermal Springs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shervais, K.; Young, B.; Ponce-Zepeda, M. M.; Rosove, S.

    2011-12-01

    A group of undergraduate researchers through the SURE internship offered by the Southern California Earthquake Center (SCEC) have examined thermal springs in southern Idaho, northern Utah as well as mud volcanoes in the Salton Sea, California. We used an integrated approach to estimate the setting and maximum temperature, including water chemistry, Ipad-based image and data-base management, microbiology, and gas analyses with a modified Giggenbach sampler.All springs were characterized using GISRoam (tmCogent3D). We are performing geothermometry calculations as well as comparisons with temperature gradient data on the results while also analyzing biological samples. Analyses include water temperature, pH, electrical conductivity, and TDS measured in the field. Each sample is sealed and chilled and delivered to a water lab within 12 hours.Temperatures are continuously monitored with the use of Solinst Levelogger Juniors. Through partnership with a local community college geology club, we receive results on a monthly basis and are able to process initial data earlier in order to evaluate data over a longer time span. The springs and mudpots contained microbial organisms which were analyzed using methods of single colony isolation, polymerase chain reaction, and DNA sequencing showing the impact of the organisms on the springs or vice versa. Soon we we will collect gas samples at sites that show signs of gas. This will be taken using a hybrid of the Giggenbach method and our own methods. Drawing gas samples has proven a challenge, however we devised a method to draw out gas samples utilizing the Giggenbach flask, transferring samples to glass blood sample tubes, replacing NaOH in the Giggenbach flask, and evacuating it in the field for multiple samples using a vacuum pump. We also use a floating platform devised to carry and lower a levelogger, to using an in-line fuel filter from a tractor in order to keep mud from contaminating the equipment.The use of raster

  6. Multibody simulations of trolleybus vertical dynamics and influences of spring-damper structural elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polach P.

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Vertical dynamic properties of the ŠKODA 21 Tr low-floor trolleybus were investigated on an artificial test track when driving with a real vehicle and when simulating driving with a multibody model along a virtual test track. Driving along the artificial test track was aimed to determine vertical dynamic properties of the real trolleybus and on the basis of them to verify computer trolleybus models. Time histories and extreme values of the air springs relative deflections are the monitored quantities. Due to differences of the experiments and the computer simulations results the influences of the characteristics of the spring-damper structural elements of the axles suspension and the radial characteristics of the tires used in the trolleybus multibody model on the extreme values of the monitored quantities are evaluated.

  7. Healthy Air Outdoors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... lung.org > Our Initiatives > Healthy Air > Outdoor Healthy Air Outdoors The quality of the air we breathe ... families and can even shorten their lives. Outdoor Air Pollution and Health Outdoor air pollution continues to ...

  8. Air quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This chapter of the 'Assessment of the state of the environment in Lebanon' describes the air quality and identifies the most important air quality issues. Baseline information about the factors affecting dispersion and the climate of Lebanon presents as well and overall estimation of total emissions in Lebanon. Emissions from vehicles, electricity and power plants generation are described. Industrial emitters of air pollutants are described for each kind of industry i.e.cement plants, Selaata fertilizer factory, sugar-beet factory, refineries and for those derived from the use of leaded fuel . Impact of economic and human activities on air quality in Lebanon (especially in Beirut and Tripoli) are quantified by quantities of CO2, SO2, NOx, total suspended particulates(TSP), deposition and their environmental effects on health. In abscence of emissions monitoring, data available are expressed in terms of fuel use, output and appropriate empirical factors, national output and workfores sizes. Finally key issues and some potential mitigation /management approaches are presented

  9. Experimental investigation of hinged and spring loaded rolling piston compressors pertaining to a turbo rotary engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinged rolling piston compressor of a new thermodynamic cycle Pars engine promises high performance figures such as single stage high compression levels and higher volume flow discharge with competitively low input power and torque. The pumping characteristic of the present engine compressor unit has been increased by the implementation of a spring less vane configuration. The reciprocating vane which is usually operated by spring compression in air conditioning and refrigeration unit has been replaced by a hinge vane mechanism. At high speeds, the conventional spring loaded vane which is forced against the eccentrically moving rotor periphery does disconnect and starts rocking. With the new configuration, this mishap has been eliminated and subsequently resulting compressor pressure leaks have been avoided. Compressor experiments have been carried out at predetermined rotor speeds and compressed volume flow amounts and required shaft powers have been measured and derived accordingly. Experimentally determined pressure-volume relations have been compared with isentropic, isothermal, isochoric compressions as well as isobaric process. It is seen that at lower speeds, hinged vane compression is half way between isentropic and isochoric compressions whereas at high speed the compression process approaches further isochoric compression behavior. The isentropic compression efficiency of the hinged vane compressor is around 85% for pressures reaching 9 atm. - Research highlights: → Volume flow rate of rotary vane compressor unit has been increased by a hinged vane mechanism. → Hinged compressor pressure output is almost twice the performance of a spring loaded compressor. → The slipping and rocking of the spring loaded vane against the rolling piston have been eliminated.

  10. Spatial and temporal variations of spring dust emissions in northern China over the last 30 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Hongquan; Zhang, Kesheng; Piao, Shilong; Wan, Shiqiang

    2016-02-01

    Dust emissions caused by wind erosion have significant impacts on land degradation, air quality, and climate change. Dust from the arid and semiarid regions of China is a main contributor to atmospheric dust aerosols in East Asia, and their impacts can stretch far beyond the territory of China. Spatial-temporal patterns of dust emissions in China over the last several decades, however, are still lacking, especially during the spring season. In this study, we simulated the spatial-temporal dynamics of spring dust emissions from 1982 to 2011 in arid and semi-arid areas of China using the Integrated Wind Erosion Modeling System. Results showed that the most severe dust emission events occurred in the Taklimakan Desert, Badain Jaran Desert, Tengger Desert, and Ulan Buh Desert. Over the last three decades, the magnitude of spring dust emissions generally decreased at the regional scale, with an annual spring dust emission of ˜401.10 Tg. Among different vegetation types, the highest annual spring dust emission occurred in the desert steppes (˜163.95 Tg), followed by the deserts (˜103.26 Tg). The dust emission intensity in the desert steppes and the deserts was ˜150.83 kg km-2·yr-1 and ˜205.46 kg km-2·yr-1, respectively. The spatial patterns of the inter-decadal variation are related to climate change and human activities. Mitigation strategies such as returning farmland to grassland, fenced grazing, and adequate grass harvesting, must be taken to prevent further soil losses and grassland degradation in northern China.

  11. A hypersaline spring analogue in Manitoba, Canada for potential ancient spring deposits on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berard, Genevieve; Applin, Daniel; Cloutis, Edward; Stromberg, Jessica; Sharma, Raven; Mann, Paul; Grasby, Stephen; Bezys, Ruth; Horgan, Briony; Londry, Kathleen; Rice, Melissa; Last, Bill; Last, Fawn; Badiou, Pascal; Goldsborough, Gordon; Bell, James

    2013-06-01

    This study explores the possible applications of a spring complex, East German Creek (EGC), Manitoba, Canada, as a terrestrial analogue for similar environments on Mars. Potential ancient spring deposits have been identified by Allen and Oehler (Allen, C.C., Oehler, D.Z. [2008]. Astrobiology 8, 1093-1112) in Vernal Crater, Arabia Terra, as well as in the intercrater plains of Terra Sirenum by Wray et al. (Wray et al. [2011]. J. Geophys. Res., 116, 1-41). EGC can provide guidance in the search for fossil spring deposits on Mars by using comparative mineralogy to contrast mineral identification from field studies to that available from remote sensing instruments such as the CRISM instrument aboard the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter. The formation processes of EGC are also useful for finding spring-like environments on Mars. A variety of techniques were employed (X-ray diffractometry, reflectance spectra, water chemistry analysis) to analyze mineralogical changes in spring water precipitates with distance from the main springs at EGC, which were compared with concentrations of dissolved species in outflow water. Biosignatures in outflow stream sediments as well as the effect of surficial Fe oxyhydroxide coatings on the detection of underlying carbonate absorption features have also been spectrally characterized. Halite is the main mineral precipitated at EGC, followed by gypsum, and calcite. The presence of gypsum is readily detected in surficial precipitate spectra while halite does not have a diagnostic spectral signature in the 0.35-2.5 μm region. An absorption feature indicative of chlorophyll a is present in stream sediment spectra from most sampling stations and on outwash plain sediments. Carbonates appear to be spectrally detectable through a coating of ferric minerals, such as goethite by a characteristic absorption band near 2.3 μm. We attempted to detect significant spectral changes over an area of potential spring features in Vernal Crater on Mars using

  12. Scoping assessment of radiological doses to aquatic organisms and wildlife -- N Springs. [N Springs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poston, T.M.; Soldat, J.K.

    1992-10-01

    Estimated does rates were determined for endemic biota inhabiting the N Springs area based primarily on spring water data collected from the first 6 months of 1991. Radiological dose estimates were computed from measured values of specific radionuclides and modeled levels of radionuclides using established computer codes. The highest doses were predicted in hypothetical populations of clams, fish-eating ducks, and rabbits. The calculated dose estimates did not exceed 1 rad/d, an administrative dose rate established by the US Department of Energy for the protection of native aquatic biota. An administrative dose rate has not been established for terrestrial wildlife.

  13. WSSRAP chemical plant geotechnical investigations for the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project, Weldon Spring, Missouri

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document has been prepared for the United states Department of Energy (DOE) Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project (WSSRAP) by the Project Management Contractor (PMC), which consists of MK-Ferguson Company (MKF) and Morrison Knudsen Corporation Environmental Services Group (MKES) with Jacobs Engineering Group (JEG) as MKF's predesignated subcontractor. This report presents the results of site geotechnical investigations conducted by the PMC in the vicinity of the Weldon Spring chemical plant and raffinate pits (WSCP/RP) and in potential on-site and off-site clayey material borrow sources. The WSCP/RP is the proposed disposal cell (DC) site. 39 refs., 24 figs., 12 tabs

  14. Indoor air radon concentration in schools in Prizren, Kosovo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Indoor air radon (222Rn) concentrations were measured in spring and winter in 30 rooms of 9 elementary schools and 19 rooms of 6 high schools in Prizren, Kosovo, using alpha scintillation cells. Only in three rooms of elementary schools and four rooms of high schools did winter concentrations exceed 400 Bq m-3. (authors)

  15. Environmental Factors Influencing Arctic Halogen Chemistry During Late Spring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burd, J.; Nghiem, S. V.; Simpson, W. R.

    2015-12-01

    Reactive halogen radicals (e.g. Br, Cl atoms and their oxides, BrO, ClO) are important oxidizers in the troposphere that decrease atmospheric pollutants and deplete tropospheric ozone, affecting the abundance of other oxidizers such as the hydroxyl radical. During Arctic springtime, the heterogeneous chemical cycles (often called the "bromine explosion") produce high levels of bromine monoxide (BrO), through reactions on saline snow, ice, and/or aerosol surfaces. Multi-AXis Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (MAX-DOAS) measured BrO at Barrow, AK, from 2008-2009 and 2012-2015, as well at various locations above the frozen Arctic Ocean with O-Buoys in 2008 and 2011-2015. Observed BrO levels drop suddenly during late spring (May-June) and generally do not recover, which indicates the bromine explosion cycle can no longer produce significant amounts of BrO. We have established, through an objective algorithm, the local day of year of this drop in BrO as the "seasonal end." Additionally, in about half of the years, "recurrence" events were observed where BrO levels recover for at least a day. This study investigates the environmental factors influencing seasonal end and recurrence events including: temperature, relative humidity, precipitation and snowmelt. Analysis of BrO and air temperature revealed the temperature reaches 0°C within five days of the seasonal end event; however, temperatures drop below freezing during a recurrence event. In addition, there are periods where the temperature remains below freezing, but no recurrence event is observed. This BrO and temperature analysis indicates above-freezing air temperature prevents reactive bromine release; however, it is not the only environmental factor influencing this heterogeneous recycling. Further analysis of additional environmental influences on the bromine explosion cycle could help to better understand and model bromine chemistry in the Arctic.

  16. Royal Danish Air Force. Air Operations Doctrine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørby, Søren

    This brief examines the development of the first Danish Air Force Air Operations Doctrine, which was officially commissioned in October 1997 and remained in effect until 2010. The development of a Danish air power doctrine was heavily influenced by the work of Colonel John Warden (USAF), both...... through his book ”The Air Campaign” and his subsequent planning of the air campaign against Iraq in 1990-1991. Warden’s ideas came to Denmark and the Danish Air Force by way of Danish Air Force students attending the United States Air Force Air University in Alabama, USA. Back in Denmark, graduates from...... the Air University inspired a small number of passionate airmen, who then wrote the Danish Air Operations Doctrine. The process was supported by the Air Force Tactical Command, which found that the work dovetailed perfectly with the transformation process that the Danish Air Force was in the midst of...

  17. Proceedings of the KNS 2015 Spring Meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This proceedings contains articles of 2015 spring meeting of the Korean Nuclear Society. It was held on May 6-8 in Jeju, Korea. This proceedings is comprised of 11 sessions. The main subject titles of session are as follows: Reactor system technology, Nuclear data, reactor physics and computational science, Radioactive waste management, Nuclear fuel and materials, Thermal hydraulics and safety, Radiation utilization and protection, Quantum engineering and nuclear fusion, Nuclear power plant construction and operation technology, Nuclear policy, human resources and cooperation, Nuclear I and C and automatic remote systems, Competition Session. (Yi, J. H.)

  18. Proceedings of the KNS 2015 Spring Meeting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2015-05-15

    This proceedings contains articles of 2015 spring meeting of the Korean Nuclear Society. It was held on May 6-8 in Jeju, Korea. This proceedings is comprised of 11 sessions. The main subject titles of session are as follows: Reactor system technology, Nuclear data, reactor physics and computational science, Radioactive waste management, Nuclear fuel and materials, Thermal hydraulics and safety, Radiation utilization and protection, Quantum engineering and nuclear fusion, Nuclear power plant construction and operation technology, Nuclear policy, human resources and cooperation, Nuclear I and C and automatic remote systems, Competition Session. (Yi, J. H.)

  19. Radon concentrations in Neitaping cold spring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neitaping cold spring is one of the recreation attractions in the northwestern part of Taiwan. It is located in Peipu Village of Hsinchu County about one-hour drive from the National Tsing Hua University. In summer time many tourists enjoy swimming in a small pool specially constructed for recreation purpose. There are several water sources situated in different places around the pool. The cold water flows into a creek called Shangping. All samples were taken from the sources, pool, and along the creek for a period starting in December 1996 and finished sampling in July 1997. During the eight-month monitoring period, electret ion chambers (EICs) have extensively been used. (author)

  20. Spring-block Model for Barkhausen Noise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A simple mechanical spring-block model is used for studying Barkhausen noise (BN). The model incorporates the generally accepted physics of domain wall movement and pinning. Computer simulations on this model reproduces the main features of the hysteresis loop and Barkhausen jumps. The statistics of the obtained Barkhausen jumps follows several scaling laws, in qualitative agreement with experimental results. The model consists of a one-dimensional frictional spring-block system. The blocks model the Bloch-walls that separate inversely oriented magnetic domains, and springs correspond to the magnetized regions. Three types of realistic forces are modelled with this system: 1. the force resulting from the magnetic energy of the neighboring domains in external magnetic field (modelled by forces having alternating orientations and acting directly on the blocks); 2. the force resulting from the magnetic self-energy of each domain (modelled by the elastic forces of the springs); 3. the pinning forces acting on the domain walls (modelled by position dependent static friction acting on blocks). The dynamics of the system is governed by searching for equilibrium: one particular domain wall can jump to the next pinning center if the resultant of forces 1. and 2. is greater then the pinning force. The external magnetic field is successively increased (or decreased) and the system is relaxed to mechanical equilibrium. During the simulations we are monitoring the variation of the magnetization focusing on the shape of the hysteresis loop, power spectrum, jump size (avalanche size) distribution, signal duration distribution, signal area distribution. The simulated shape of the hysteresis loops fulfills all the requirements for real magnetization phenomena. The power spectrum indicates different behavior in the low (1/f noise) and high (white noise) frequency region. All the relevant distribution functions show scaling behavior over several decades of magnitude with a naturally

  1. Proceedings of the KNS spring meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This proceedings contains articles of 2003 spring meeting of the Korean Nuclear Society. It was held on May 29-30, 2003 in Gyeongju, Korea. This proceedings is comprised of 12 sessions. The main subject titles of session are as follows: reactor physics and nuclear reactor design, reactor operation and control, thermodynamics and fluid flow, reactor safety, reactor fuels and nuclear materials, fuel cycle and waste management, radiation protection, nuclear fusion and laser technology, fuel cycle and waste management, nuclear fuel and nuclear materials, radiation protection, radiation application, life time management and decontamination, nuclear structure, nuclear physics and nuclear fusion, nuclear policy. (Yi, J. H.)

  2. SPRING FLORA OF CEMETERIES OF ODESSA

    OpenAIRE

    SPRING FLORA OF CEMETERIES OF ODESSA

    2014-01-01

    The spring flora was analyzed on six cemeteries in Odessa, such cemeteries as Vtoroe xristianskoe, Troickoe, Tairovskoe, Trete evrejskoe, Oficerskoe (Dmitrievskое) and Severnoe. There were found and identified 235 species of plants, which belong to 186 genera and 67 families. There was taken a taxonomic analysis of flora of the cemeteries also of spreding of plants by ekobiomorphs, the analysis of hronotyp and origin. The proportion of the flora on the cemeteries is 1:2,8:3,5. The dominan...

  3. Theory of CPP magnetoresistance in spring ferromagnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Jun-ichiro; Mitani, Seiji; Itoh, Hiroyoshi; Takanashi, Koki

    2004-05-01

    Magnetoresistance (MR) for currents perpendicular to planes (CPP) is calculated for spring ferromagnets in which an artificial domain wall is formed by external magnetic fields. We consider two contributions to the MR: one is caused by a twisting of the magnetization and the other is due to a mismatch of the electronic structure at interfaces. We show that the resulting MR may show a non-monotonic dependence on the width of the domain walls and can be either positive or negative according to the magnitude of these two contributions.

  4. Theory of CPP magnetoresistance in spring ferromagnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnetoresistance (MR) for currents perpendicular to planes (CPP) is calculated for spring ferromagnets in which an artificial domain wall is formed by external magnetic fields. We consider two contributions to the MR: one is caused by a twisting of the magnetization and the other is due to a mismatch of the electronic structure at interfaces. We show that the resulting MR may show a non-monotonic dependence on the width of the domain walls and can be either positive or negative according to the magnitude of these two contributions

  5. Excitation of finite viscoelastic solid on springs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this study is to predict the dynamic response of a finite three-dimensional cylindrical standard viscoelastic body supported on the bottom by a spring foundation and subjected to periodic axial force, twist, shear and rocking moment disturbances transmitted through a rigid circular plate bonded concentrically to the top of the body. The results of the analysis may be of use to aid in the proper design of foundations for radar towers, massive reciprocating engines or compressors, vibration and earthquake simulators, etc. (orig.)

  6. Analysis of Spring Barley Actual Evapotranspiration

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pozníková, Gabriela; Fischer, Milan; Pohanková, Eva; Žalud, Zdeněk; Trnka, Miroslav

    Brno: Mendel university, 2013 - (Škarpa, P.; Ryant, P.; Cerkal, R.; Polák, O.; Kovárník, J.), s. 357-361 ISBN 978-80-7375-908-7. [MendelNet 2013. Mendelova univerzita v Brně (CZ), 20.11.2013-21.11.2013] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.20.0248; GA MZe QJ1310123 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : reference evapotranspiration * Bowen ratio/energy balance method * crop coefficient * spring barley * Czech Republic Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  7. The United States and the Arab Spring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timo Kivimäki

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This article reveals, by studying correlative relationships between US regime support and regime properties, that the US foreign policy in the Middle East has traditionally helped governments to limit the political participation of Islamists, communists, enemies of Israel and populations that could be hostile to the US oil interests. This way the US economic and strategic security interests have contributed to human insecurity in the region. With the exception of the last interest, the US has relaxed its support for repression of the above-mentioned groups. This seems to be one of the international factors that made the Arab Spring possible.

  8. Stress responses of spring rape plants to soil flooding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balakhnina, T.; Bennicelli, R.; Stêpniewska, Z.; Stêpniewski, W.; Borkowska, A.; Fomina, I.

    2012-10-01

    Stress responses of spring rape to soil hypoxia were investigated during 8-days flooding. Soil air-filled porosity decreased from 25-30% to 0%, oxygen diffusion rate - from 2.6-3.5 to 0.34 μmol O2 m-2 s-1, and redox potential - from 460 to 150mVwithin few hours. Alcohol dehydrogenase activity in roots increased up to 7-fold after one day of flooding and then decreased to 170% of control. Superoxide dismutase activity in roots increased by 27% during first 3 days and then dropped to 60% of control; in the leaves superoxide dismutase activity increased in average by 44%. Ascorbate peroxidase activity in leaves increased by 37% during first 3 days and then decreased to control value. Glutathione reductase activity increased by 45% in roots of flooded plants but did not change in leaves. Proline concentration in leaves increased up to 4-fold on the 3d day of flooding and then decreased to control value. Thus soil flooding induces increase of alcohol dehydrogenase activity and subsequent increase of superoxide dismutase and glutathione reductase activities in roots while the leaves display a few days increase of free proline concentration and ascorbate peroxidase activity, and a long-term increase of superoxide dismutase activity.

  9. Numerical Analysis on Combustion Characteristic of Leaf Spring Rotary Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Zhang

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to investigate combustion characteristics for rotary engine via numerical studies. A 3D numerical model was developed to study the influence of several operative parameters on combustion characteristics. A novel rotary engine called, “Leaf Spring Rotary Engine”, was used to illustrate the structure and principle of the engine. The aims are to (1 improve the understanding of combustion process, and (2 quantify the influence of rotational speed, excess air ratio, initial pressure and temperature on combustion characteristics. The chamber space changed with crankshaft rotation. Due to the complexity of chamber volume, an equivalent modeling method was presented to simulate the chamber space variation. The numerical simulations were performed by solving the incompressible, multiphase Unsteady Reynolds-Averaged Navier–Stokes Equations via the commercial code FLUENT using a transport equation-based combustion model; a realizable  turbulence model and finite-rate/eddy-dissipation model were used to account for the effect of local factors on the combustion characteristics.

  10. Climate field reconstruction of East Asian spring temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ohyama

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available We describe a first attempt of dendroclimatic field reconstruction, based upon five ring-width chronologies from living trees, in Japan and Korea. Mean March–May temperature derived from a gridded land air temperature dataset (CRUTEM3 between 35–40° E and 125–140° N was reconstructed for the period of 1784–1990 AD. The reconstruction accounted for 19.4% of the temperature variance in the calibration period. This reconstruction showed remarkably similar fluctuations to regional dendroclimatic reconstructions in Japan and Korea, indicating the past spatial coherency of spring temperatures in the region. The reconstruction was validated against other climate proxies. A fairly good agreement was found with cold periods as estimated from documentary records in China and Japan. The west-Japan temperature series recovered also showed a reasonable agreement with the reconstruction. These comparisons revealed that climatic field reconstruction using tree-ring chronologies in this area offers a good potential for reconstructing long-term and large-scale past temperature patterns for East Asia.

  11. Air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Australian cites experience a number of current and emerging air pollution problems. Concentrations of traditional primary pollutants such as CO, lead and dust have fallen in recent years as a consequence of air pollutant control measures, and the widespread introduction of lead-free petrol. However, recommended guidelines for ozone, the principal component of photochemical smog, are regularly exceeded in major capital cities in the summer months. In addition, it is predicted that extensive urban expansion will lead to much greater dependence on the motor vehicle as the primary means of transportation. Effects of air pollution are felt at a variety of scales. Traditionally, concerns about gaseous and particulate emissions from industrial and vehicular sources were focused on local impacts due to exposure to toxic species such as CO and lead. As noted above, concentrations of these pollutants have been reduced by a variety of control measures. Pollutants which have effects at a regional scale, such as photochemically-produced ozone, and acidic gases and particles have proved more difficult to reduce. In general, these pollutants arc not the result of direct emissions to atmosphere, but result from complex secondary processes driven by photochemical reactions of species such as NO2 and aldehydes. In addition, global effects of gaseous and particulate emissions to the atmosphere have received significant recent attention, concentrations of atmospheric CO2 with predicted impacts on global climate, and ozone depletion due to anthropogenic emissions of chlorine-containing chemicals are the two major examples. Combustion processes from petrol- and diesel-fuelled vehicles, make major contributions to air pollution, and the magnitude of this contribution is discussed in this article

  12. FEMP Focus - Winter/Spring 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2005-04-04

    Features information about technical assistance, distibuted energy, energy efficiennt products, alternative financing, solar air conditioning, solar heating and lighting, wastewater digester, T5 fluorescent technology, and more for federal agencies.

  13. Sol Duc Hot Springs feasibility study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-12-01

    Sol Duc Springs is located in the Olympic National Park in western Washington state. Since the turn of the century, the area has served as a resort, offering hot mineral baths, lodge and overnight cabin accommodations. The Park Service, in conjunction with the concessionaire, is in the process of renovating the existing facilities, most of which are approximately 50 years old. The present renovation work consists of removing all of the existing cabins and replacing them with 36 new units. In addition, a new hot pool is planned to replace the existing one. This report explores the possibility of a more efficient use of the geothermal resource to accompany other planned improvements. It is important to note that the system outlined is based upon the resource development as it exists currently. That is, the geothermal source is considered to be: the two existing wells and the hot springs currently in use. In addition, every effort has been made to accommodate the priorities for utilization as set forth by the Park Service.

  14. Air filtration and indoor air quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bekö, Gabriel

    2006-01-01

    Demands for better indoor air quality are increasing, since we spend most of our time indoors and we are more and more aware of indoor air pollution. Field studies in different parts of the world have documented that high percentage of occupants in many offices and buildings find the indoor air...... decent ventilation and air cleaning/air filtration, high indoor air quality cannot be accomplished. The need for effective air filtration has increased with increasing evidence on the hazardous effects of fine particles. Moreover, the air contains gaseous pollutants, removal of which requires various air...... cleaning techniques. Supply air filter is one of the key components in the ventilation system. Studies have shown that used ventilation filters themselves can be a significant source of indoor air pollution with consequent impact on perceived air quality, sick building syndrome symptoms and performance...

  15. Lagrangian photochemical modeling studies of the 1987 Antarctic spring vortex. I - Comparison with AAOE observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, R. L.; Austin, J.; Mckenna, D. S.; Anderson, J. G.; Fahey, D. W.; Farmer, C. B.; Vedder, J. F.

    1989-01-01

    Results from the Lagrangian photochemical model integrated along computed air parcel trajectories intersected by the ER-2 aircraft are presented and compared with AAOE observations. According to the model, the BrO observations made from the ER-2 within the dehydrated denitrified region are consistent with there being approximately 5 parts per trillion by volume of BrO(y) at 428 K in spring. Within the high ClO region, ozone destruction rates are expected to exceed 2 percent/d with approximately 80 percent due to the ClO dimer mechanism.

  16. Wrap spring clutch syringe ram and frit mixer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Frank B.

    2006-07-25

    A wrap spring clutch syringe ram pushes at least one syringe with virtually instantaneous starting and stopping, and with constant motion at a defined velocity during the intervening push. The wrap spring clutch syringe ram includes an electric motor, a computer, a flywheel, a wrap spring clutch, a precision lead screw, a slide platform, and syringe reservoirs, a mixing chamber, and a reaction incubation tube. The electric motor drives a flywheel and the wrap spring clutch couples the precision lead screw to the flywheel when a computer enables a solenoid of the wrap spring clutch. The precision lead screw drives a precision slide which causes syringes to supply a portion of solution into the mixing chamber and the incubation tube. The wrap spring clutch syringe ram is designed to enable the quantitative study of solution phase chemical and biochemical reactions, particularly those reactions that occur on the subsecond time scale.

  17. Developing a composite based elliptic spring for automotive applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An automotive suspension system is designed to provide both safety and comfort for the vehicle occupants. In this study, finite element models were developed to optimize the material and geometry of the composite elliptical spring based on the spring rate, log life and shear stress parameters. The influence of the ellipticity ratio on the performance of woven roving-wrapped composite elliptical springs was investigated both experimentally and numerically. The study demonstrated that composite elliptical springs can be used for light and heavy trucks with substantial weight reduction. The results showed that the ellipticity ratio significantly influenced the design parameters. Composite elliptic springs with ellipticity ratios of a/b = 2 had the optimum spring parameters.

  18. Satellite observations of changes in snow-covered land surface albedo during spring in the Northern Hemisphere

    OpenAIRE

    K. Atlaskina; Berninger, F.; De Leeuw, G.

    2015-01-01

    Thirteen years of MODIS surface albedo data for the Northern Hemisphere during the spring months (March–May) were analysed to determine temporal and spatial changes over snow-covered land surfaces. Tendencies in land surface albedo change north of 50° N were analysed using data on snow cover fraction, air temperature, vegetation index and precipitation. To this end, the study domain was divided into six smaller areas, based on their geographical position an...

  19. An undergraduate study of harmonic and parametric motion of a simple spring-mass system from motion waveforms

    OpenAIRE

    Boscolo, Ilario; Castelli, Fabrizio; Stellato, Marco

    2012-01-01

    The spring-mass system studied in undergraduate physics laboratories may show complex dynamics due to the simultaneous action of gravitational, elastic, and torsional forces, in addition to air friction. In this paper, we describe a laboratory exercise that caters to beginning students while giving those with more background an opportunity to explore more complex aspects of the motion. If students are not given predefined apparatus but are allowed to design the experiment setup, they may also...

  20. Spring spacer device for resiliently supporting nuclear fuel rods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lantern type spring spacers which are mounted in a latticed frame by cross-pieces are respectively composed of square configured cylindrical end portions supported in the cross-pieces and four leaf spring members respectively provided between corresponding sides of the square cylindrical end portions. Each of the leaf springs includes flat end portions and a central outwardly bent portion which is projected against a nuclear fuel rod to be supported in the latticed frame. (Official Gazette)

  1. Closure of large midline diastema by a "HIV-Spring".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harikrishnan, Pandurangan

    2015-01-01

    Midline diastema is a common orthodontic problem in mixed dentition caused by various factors like genetic, supernumery teeth, abnormal frenum attachment, habits and microdontia etc. Large diastemas need closure for the eruption of adjacent teeth. I present here a newly designed customized self active HIV-Spring (Hari Inverted 'V' Spring) for closing a large diastema with minimum orthodontic materials and less activation visits. The spring can be modfied for the three dimensional movement of central incisors. PMID:25881378

  2. Modeling of Axial Spring Stiffness in Active Vibration Controlled Drilling

    OpenAIRE

    Pao William; Hashim Fakhruldin M; Parman Setyamartana

    2014-01-01

    During drilling process, substantial amount of vibration and shock are induced to the drill string. Active vibration controlled drilling is introduced to reduce the vibration and increase the efficiency of drilling process. In this system, two main components that determine the damping coefficient are magnetorheological (MR) damper and spring assembly. Performance of vibration damping system is depending on the viscosity of MR fluid in the damper and spring constant of spring assembly. One of...

  3. Design and Analysis of Leaf Spring with Composite materials

    OpenAIRE

    Mr. Tharigonda Niranjan Babu

    2014-01-01

    In automobile sector tends to increasing competition and innovation in design and tends to modify the existing products by new and advanced materials. Leaf springs are special kind of springs used in automobile suspension systems. The main function of leaf spring is not only to support vertical load but also to isolate road induced vibrations. It is subjected to millions of load cycles leading to fatigue failure. The introduction of composite materials has made it possible to ...

  4. EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION & NUMERICAL ANALYSIS OF COMPOSITE LEAF SPRING

    OpenAIRE

    K. K. JADHAO,; DR. R.S DALU

    2011-01-01

    The Automobile Industry has shown keen interest for replacement of steel leaf spring with that of glass fiber composite leaf spring, since the composite material has high strength to weight ratio, good corrosion resistance and tailor-able properties. The objective of present study was to replace material for leaf spring. In present study the material selected was glass fiber reinforced plastic (GFRP) and the polyester resin (NETPOL 1011) can be used which was more economical this will reduce ...

  5. PREDICTION OF LEAF SPRING PARAMETERS USING ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORKS

    OpenAIRE

    Dr.D.V.V.KRISHNA PRASAD; J.P.KARTHIK

    2013-01-01

    In this paper an attempt is made to predict the optimum design parameters using artificial neural networks. For this static and dynamic analysis on various leaf spring configuration is carried out by ANSYS and is used as training data for neural network. Training data includes cross section of the leaf, load on the leaf spring, stresses, displacement and natural frequencies. By creating a network using thickness and width of the leaf, load on the leaf spring as input parameters and stresses, ...

  6. Commodification of nature : social construction of bottled spring water

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    This thesis aims to investigate the social processes that are involved in constructing a commodity and a consumer need in a commercial society. In Norway bottled spring water is a symbol of nature while representing the power of marketing and consumer culture. The study explores how spring water has been transformed into a commodity without loosing its symbolic value. Ringnes launched Imsdal in 1994, and is regarded as the first successful brand within bottled spring water in this country. I ...

  7. Buckling analysis of planar compression micro-springs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Jing; Sui, Li; Shi, Gengchen [School of Mechanical Engineering, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 (China); Science and Technology on Electromechanical Dynamic Control Laboratory, 5 South Street Zhongguancun, Haidian 100081, Beijing (China)

    2015-04-15

    Large compression deformation causes micro-springs buckling and loss of load capacity. We analyzed the impact of structural parameters and boundary conditions for planar micro-springs, and obtained the change rules for the two factors that affect buckling. A formula for critical buckling deformation of micro-springs under compressive load was derived based on elastic thin plate theory. Results from this formula were compared with finite element analysis results but these did not always correlate. Therefore, finite element analysis is necessary for micro-spring buckling analysis. We studied the variation of micro-spring critical buckling deformation caused by four structural parameters using ANSYS software under two constraint conditions. The simulation results show that when an x-direction constraint is added, the critical buckling deformation increases by 32.3-297.9%. The critical buckling deformation decreases with increase in micro-spring arc radius or section width and increases with increase in micro-spring thickness or straight beam width. We conducted experiments to confirm the simulation results, and the experimental and simulation trends were found to agree. Buckling analysis of the micro-spring establishes a theoretical foundation for optimizing micro-spring structural parameters and constraint conditions to maximize the critical buckling load.

  8. Fuel Cell Vehicle Learning Demonstration: Spring 2008 Results; Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wipke, K.; Sprik, S.; Kurtz, J.; Garbak, J.

    2008-04-01

    Conference paper presented at the 2008 National Hydrogen Association Meeting that describes the spring, 2008 results of the Controlled Hydrogen Fleet and Infrastructure Demonstration and Validation Project.

  9. R9 Air Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Region 9 Air Districts layer is a compilation of polygons representing the California Air Pollution Control and Air Quality Management Districts, Arizona Air...

  10. AirData

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The AirData site provides access to yearly summaries of United States air pollution data, taken from EPA's air pollution databases. AirData has information about...

  11. California Air Basins

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Air ResourcesCalifornia Air Resources BoardThe following datasets are from the California Air Resources Board: * arb_california_airbasins - California Air BasinsThe...

  12. Hazardous Air Pollutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Facebook Twitter Google+ Pinterest Contact Us Hazardous Air Pollutants Hazardous air pollutants are those known to cause ... protect against adverse environmental effects. About Hazardous Air Pollutants What are hazardous air pollutants? Health and Environmental ...

  13. Weldon Spring Site. Annual site environmental monitoring report, calendar year 1985. Surplus Facilities Management Program (SFMP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The monitoring program at the WSS measures uranium, 226Ra, and 230Th concentrations in surface water, groundwater, and sediment; radon gas concentrations in air; and external gamma radiation exposure rates. Potential radiation doses to the public are also calculated. During 1985, annual average radon concentrations at the WSS ranged from 3 to 43% of the DOE limit for uncontrolled areas. The highest measured external dose rate was 50 mrem/yr above natural background. The measured background dose rate for the WSS area is 99 mrem/yr. The WSS was formerly used for the processing of radioactive materials. Radioactivity above currently applicable limits exists at the site, and elevated levels of radiation will be present until remedial action is completed. Radon concentrations, external dose rates, and radionuclide concentrations in groundwater and surface water at the site were generally equivalent to 1984 levels. The calculated radiation dose to the maximally exposed individual at the Weldon Spring Raffinate Pits/Weldon Spring Chemical Plant was 0.2 mrem, which is <1% of the radiation protection standard. The calculated radiation dose to the maximally exposed individual at the Weldon Spring Quarry was 0.9 mrem, which is also <1% of the radiation protection standard

  14. A spring-driven press device for hot embossing and thermal bonding of PMMA microfluidic chips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhi; Zhang, Luyan; Chen, Gang

    2010-08-01

    A novel spring-driven press device was designed and manufactured for hot embossing and thermal bonding of PMMA microfluidic chips in this work. This simple device consisted of two semi-cylinder silicone rubber press heads, three steel clamping plates, and three compression springs that were assembled together using two screw bolts and two butterfly nuts. The three springs were clamped between the upper and the middle clamping plates, whereas the two press heads were assembled between the middle and the lower clamping plates. After an epoxy template covered by a PMMA plate or a PMMA channel plate together with a cover were sandwiched between two microscopic glass slides for embossing or bonding, respectively, they were clamped between the two elastic press heads of the press device by fastening the screw nuts on the upper clamping plate. Because the convex press heads applied pressure along the middle line of the glass slides, they would deform resulting in a negative pressure gradient from the middle to the sides so that air bubbles between the sandwiched parts could be squeezed out during embossing and bonding processes. High-quality PMMA microfluidic chips were prepared by using this unique device and were successfully applied in the electrophoretic separation of several cations. PMID:20665912

  15. Geothermal heating from Pinkerton Hot Springs at Colorado Timberline Academy, Durango, Colorado. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, C.C.; Allen, R.W.; Beldock, J.

    1981-11-08

    The efforts to establish a greater pool of knowledge in the field of low temperature heat transfer for the application of geothermal spring waters to space heating are described. A comprehensive set of heat loss experiments involving passive radiant heating panels is conducted and the results presented in an easily interpretable form. Among the conclusions are the facts that heating a 65 to 70 F/sup 0/ space with 90 to 100 F/sup 0/ liquids is a practical aim. The results are compared with the much lower rates published in the American Society of Heating Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Engineers SYSTEMS, 1976. A heat exchange chamber consisting of a 1000 gallon three compartment, insulated and buried tank is constructed and a control and pumping building erected over the tank. The tank is intended to handle the flow of geothermal waters from Pinkerton Hot Springs at 50 GPM prior to the wasting of the spring water at a disposal location. Approximately 375,000 Btu per hour should be available for heating assuming a 15 F/sup 0/ drop in water temperature. A combination of the panel heat loss experiments, construction of the heat exchange devices and ongoing collection of heat loss numbers adds to the knowledge available to engineers in sizing low temperature heat systems, useful in both solar and geothermal applications where source temperature may be often below 110 F/sup 0/.

  16. Estimation of torsional strength for spring steel 60SiCrV7 designed on spring suspension in automobile vehicle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of the work was determining the Kirchoff's modulus G for 11.7 [mm] rods made of industrial spring steel grade 60SiCrV7. These rods are designed on spring suspension in automobile vehicles. Additionally the material studies were performed in order to determining of hardness and metallographic structure of examined steel. The obtained result of G value enables to increase the accuracy of numerical strength calculations for constructed spring. (author)

  17. Magnetically coupled magnet-spring oscillators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donoso, G; Ladera, C L; Martin, P [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad Simon BolIvar, Apdo. 89000, Caracas 1086 (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of)], E-mail: clladera@usb.ve, E-mail: pmartin@usb.ve

    2010-05-15

    A system of two magnets hung from two vertical springs and oscillating in the hollows of a pair of coils connected in series is a new, interesting and useful example of coupled oscillators. The electromagnetically coupled oscillations of these oscillators are experimentally and theoretically studied. Its coupling is electromagnetic instead of mechanical, and easily adjustable by the experimenter. The coupling of this new coupled oscillator system is determined by the currents that the magnets induce in two coils connected in series, one to each magnet. It is an interesting case of mechanical oscillators with field-driven coupling, instead of mechanical coupling. Moreover, it is both a coupled and a damped oscillating system that lends itself to a detailed study and presentation of many properties and phenomena of such a system of oscillators. A set of experiments that validates the theoretical model of the oscillators is presented and discussed.

  18. Hot Springs-Garrison Fiber Optic Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-10-01

    Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) is proposing to upgrade its operational telecommunications system between the Hot Springs Substation and the Garrison Substation using a fiber optic system. The project would primarily involve installing 190 kilometers (120 miles) of fiber optic cable on existing transmission structures and installing new fiber optic equipment in BPA`s substation yards and control houses. BPA prepared an environmental assessment (EA) evaluating the proposed action. This EA was published in October 1994. The EA identifies a number of minor impacts that might occur as a result of the proposed action, as well as some recommended mitigation measures. This Mitigation Action Plan (MAP) identifies specific measures to avoid, minimize, or compensate for impacts identified in the EA.

  19. Wall current monitor for SPring-8 linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A fast rise time, broad band width and wide dynamic range wall current monitor was developed for SPring-8 linac. The performances are a rise time of ∼250ps, an effective impedance of 1.4Ω (output of ∼1.4V/A) and a bandwidth of 18kHz-2GHz. From a result of examination using 40ns electron beam, a significant change of effective impedance was not observed when a peak current was changed up to 12A or when a beam was moved by 8mm in a vacuum pipe. A circuit model that includes a core inductor loop was constructed. Using this model effective impedance and band width were calculated and compared to measured ones. They agreed very well except one part. In consequence the mechanism of wall current monitor can be explained by means of this model. (author)

  20. Submarine thermal springs on the Galapagos Rift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corliss, J.B.; Dymond, J.; Gordon, L.I.; Edmond, J.M.; Von Herzen, R. P.; Ballard, Richard D.; Green, K.; Williams, D.; Bainbridge, A.; Crane, K.; Van Andel, T. H.

    1979-01-01

    The submarine hydrothermal activity on and near the Galápagos Rift has been explored with the aid of the deep submersible Alvin. Analyses of water samples from hydrothermal vents reveal that hydrothermal activity provides significant or dominant sources and sinks for several components of seawater; studies of conductive and convective heat transfer suggest that two-thirds of the heat lost from new oceanic lithosphere at the Galápagos Rift in the first million years may be vented from thermal springs, predominantly along the axial ridge within the rift valley. The vent areas are populated by animal communities. They appear to utilize chemosynthesis by sulfur-oxidizing bacteria to derive their entire energy supply from reactions between the seawater and the rocks at high temperatures, rather than photosynthesis

  1. Design of SPring-8 control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The control system of SPring-8 facility is designed. A distributed computer system is adopted with a three-hierarchy levels. All the computers are linked by computer networks. The network of upper level is a high-speed multi-media LAN such as FDDI which links sub-system control computers, and middle are Ethernet or MAP networks which link front end processors (FEP) such as VME system. The lowest is a field level bus which links VME and controlled devices. Workstations (WS) or X-terminals are useful for man-machine interfaces. For operating system (OS), UNIX is useful for upper level computers, and real-time OS's for FEP's. We will select hardwares and OS of which specifications are close to international standards. Since recently the cost of software has become higher than that of hardware, we introduce computer aided tools as many as possible for program developments. (author)

  2. Magnetically coupled magnet-spring oscillators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A system of two magnets hung from two vertical springs and oscillating in the hollows of a pair of coils connected in series is a new, interesting and useful example of coupled oscillators. The electromagnetically coupled oscillations of these oscillators are experimentally and theoretically studied. Its coupling is electromagnetic instead of mechanical, and easily adjustable by the experimenter. The coupling of this new coupled oscillator system is determined by the currents that the magnets induce in two coils connected in series, one to each magnet. It is an interesting case of mechanical oscillators with field-driven coupling, instead of mechanical coupling. Moreover, it is both a coupled and a damped oscillating system that lends itself to a detailed study and presentation of many properties and phenomena of such a system of oscillators. A set of experiments that validates the theoretical model of the oscillators is presented and discussed.

  3. Hot Springs-Garrison Fiber Optic Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) is proposing to upgrade its operational telecommunications system between the Hot Springs Substation and the Garrison Substation using a fiber optic system. The project would primarily involve installing 190 kilometers (120 miles) of fiber optic cable on existing transmission structures and installing new fiber optic equipment in BPA's substation yards and control houses. BPA prepared an environmental assessment (EA) evaluating the proposed action. This EA was published in October 1994. The EA identifies a number of minor impacts that might occur as a result of the proposed action, as well as some recommended mitigation measures. This Mitigation Action Plan (MAP) identifies specific measures to avoid, minimize, or compensate for impacts identified in the EA

  4. Radon concentration measurements in therapeutic spring water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is believed that people undergoing a curative cycle in a given spa, may receive a dose in the range of 400 mSv/year which is many times the average annual dose so that their risk of lung cancer may increase by 3% or more. To determine the risk due to the natural radioactivity, of the most frequented spas in Budapest (H), we selected four and some others located on the country side being of particular interest. Results of the radon concentration in spring water are presented, with the evidence that some spas have a high radon concentration. We conclude that patients receiving treatment may be exposed to an additional dose in the range of 29-76 mSv/year that at the bronchia could be between 445-1182 mSv/year. (authors). 6 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs

  5. Present status of STA SPring-8 project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) and the Institute of Physical and Chemical Research (RIKEN), both of which are supervised by Science and Technology Agency (STA), are going to construct a high-brilliant synchrotron radiation source (SPring-8) at Harima Science Park City. Hyougo Prefecture. The 8-GeV storage ring with natural emittance of 7.2 nm·rad has a circumference of 1436 m. The ring has 34 straight sections of 6.5m long and 4 long straight sections of 30m long. More than 17 beam lines will be built from the bending magnets. Injectors for the storage ring consists of a 1 GeV linac, a 0.25 GeV linac for positron production, and a 8 GeV synchrotron. Construction will start in next fiscal year. (author)

  6. Submarine thermal springs on the Galapagos rift

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corliss, J.B. (Oregon State Univ., Corvallis); Dymond, J.; Gordon, L.I.; Edmond, J.M.; von Herzen, R.P.; Ballard, R.D.; Green, K.; Williams, D.; Bainbridge, A.; Crane, K.; van Andel, T.H.

    1979-03-16

    The submarine hydrothermal activity on and near the Galapagos Rift has been explored with the aid of the deep submersible Alvin. Analyses of water samples from hydrothermal vents reveal that hydrothermal activity provides significant or dominant sources and sinks for several components of seawater; studies of conductive and convective heat transfer suggest that two-thirds of the heat lost from new oceanic lithosphere at the Galapagos Rift in the first million years may be vented from thermal springs, predominantly along the axial ridge within the rift valley. The vent areas are populated by animal communities. They appear to utilize chemosynthesis by sulfur-oxidizing bacteria to derive their entire energy supply from reactions between the seawater and the rocks at high temperatures, rather than photosynthesis.

  7. Geothermal Exploration in Hot Springs, Montana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toby McIntosh, Jackola Engineering

    2012-09-26

    The project involves drilling deeper in the Camp Aqua well dri lled in June 1982 as part of an effort to develop an ethanol plant. The purpose of the current drill ing effort is to determine if water at or above 165°F exists for the use in low temperature resource power generation. Previous geothermal resource study efforts in and around Hot Springs , MT and the Camp Aqua area (NE of Hot Springs) have been conducted through the years. A confined gravel aquifer exists in deep alluvium overlain by approximately 250 of si lt and c lay deposits from Glacial Lake Missoula. This gravel aquifer overlies a deeper bedrock aquifer. In the Camp Aqua area several wel l s exist in the gravel aquifer which receives hot water f rom bedrock fractures beneath the area. Prior to this exploration, one known well in the Camp Aqua area penetrated into the bedrock without success in intersecting fractures transporting hot geothermal water. The exploration associated with this project adds to the physical knowledge database of the Camp Aqua area. The dri l l ing effort provides additional subsurface information that can be used to gain a better understanding of the bedrock formation that i s leaking hot geothermal water into an otherwise cold water aquifer. The exi s t ing well used for the explorat ion is located within the center of the hottest water within the gravel aquifer. This lent i t sel f as a logical and economical location to continue the exploration within the existing well. Faced with budget constraints due to unanticipated costs, changing dril l ing techniques stretched the limited project resources to maximize the overa l l well depth which f e l l short of original project goals. The project goal of finding 165°F or hotter water was not achieved; however the project provides additional information and understanding of the Camp Aqua area that could prove valuable in future exploration efforts

  8. Sanitary state and yielding of spring barley as dependent on soil tillage method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz P. Kurowski

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The effects of traditional tillage cultivation (control treatment, no tillage (instead of tillage the soil was loosened with scruff, and direct sowing (with a special drill into unploughed soil on the health of spring barley cultivar. Klimek were compared in three-field crop rotation (field bean, winter wheat, spring barley in an experiment performed in the years 1997-1999 on the soil of a good wheat complex. The results of phytopathological observations carried out over the vegetation season are presented in the form of an injury index. The following diseases were recorded on spring barley: net blotch (Drechslera teres - net type and spot type, powdery mildew (Blumeria graminis, leaf blotch (Rhynchosporium secalis, eyespot (Tapesia yallundae and foot rot (fungal complex. Tillage system had no a significant influence on the occurrence of both types of net blotch. The intensity of powdery mildew and leaf blotch was the highest in the case of traditional tillage cultivation, and the lowest - in that of no tillage. Direct sowing was conductive to the development of eyespot, and no tillage - to foot rot. Fungi of the genus Fusarium, mainly F. culmorum, and the species Bipolaris sorokiniana, were isolated most frequently from infested stem bases. The weather conditions differed during spring barley grown in the three years analyzed. Mean air temperature in 1997 and 1998 was similar to the many-year average for the city of Olsztyn and its surroundings (13.8°C. In the vegetation season 1999 mean air temperature reached 14.6°C, and was considerably higher than the many-year average. Taking into account total precipitation and distribution in the three-year experimental cycle, 1997 and 1998 can be considered average, and 1999 - wet.The weather conditions had a significant effect on the intensity of all diseases observed on spring barley. The highest yield grain was obtained in the case of traditional tillage cultivation (on average 3.06 t·ha-1 for the

  9. Recent measurements of 234U/238U isotope ratio in spring waters from the Hadzici area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidic, Alfred; Ilić, Zorana; Benedik, Ljudmila

    2013-06-01

    The Hadzici area has become interesting for investigation since depleted uranium ammunition had been employed in 1995 during the NATO air strike campaign in Bosnia and Herzegovina. The purpose of this study is to determine uranium concentration and (234)U/(238)U activity ratio in the spring waters of this area and to investigate their relationship, as well as spatial variations. The spring water samples were taken at 18 sites in total. For the determination of uranium radioisotopes, radiochemical separation procedure followed by alpha-particle spectrometry was applied. Uranium concentration in analyzed waters range from 0.15 to 1.12 μg/L. Spring waters from carbonate based sediments have a lower uranium concentration of between 0.15 and 0.43 μg/L, in comparison to waters sampled within sandstone-based sediments ranging from 0.53 to 1.12 μg/L. Dissolved uranium shows significant spatial variability and correlation with bedrock type confirmed by Principal Component Analysis and Hierarchical Cluster Analysis. The majority of the analyzed waters have a (234)U/(238)U activity ratio ranging from 1.02 to 1.90, of which half of the results range between 1.02 and 1.16. No apparent depleted uranium (DU) contamination was observed, as (234)U/(238)U activity ratio is dependent on geochemical conditions in the environment. Even though the tested spring waters demonstrate significant variability in uranium concentration, (234)U/(238)U activity ratio and (234)U excess, waters with similar uranium isotopic signatures are observable within the region. The guidelines on the spatial redistribution of dissolved uranium (corresponding to (238)U mass concentration), along with (234)U/(238)U activity ratios were provided by the Inverse Distance Weighting (IDW) method. Waters having similar isotopic signature have been delineated. PMID:23410592

  10. The Spring Festival Celebration of the Nianzhe Family Clan---An Ethnography of a Mosuo Family's Spring Festival

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Peixi; ZHANG Bo; YANG Lifen; ZHANG Yongyi

    2014-01-01

    The Nianzhe ( family name ) family is a Mosuo family in Dapo village , Yongning Town-ship , Ninglang Yi Autonomous County in Yunnan Province .The Nianzhe family is a big Mosuo fami-ly full of harmony and warmth .The Spring Festival in 2011 was the happiest festival for the matriarch of the family, Nianzhe· Cierlamu ( “Old Mom”) who was 72 years, and for the patriarch, Laya· Danducier (“Old Daddy”) who was 73 years old. This was because , except for Nianzhe · Yongzhen-duma , their third daughter who married to a Naxi man, their other five children , two son-in-laws and five grandchildren came back to celebrate the spring festival with them . The Nianzhe family has a very strong sense of family, and the Spring Festival is the most impor-tant time for them to express their feelings to the family.All the family members place their joy and hope on the New Year's celebration ( Spring Festi-val).Actually, upon entering the twelfth month of the lunar year , the family began to busy them-selves with preparing food , new clothes and other things.They collected fire wood, made salted pork, prepared special wine , milled flour, made“huahuatang” ( a kind of handmade candy ) , and also prepared a special kind of bean curd , pieces of dried rice, butter, oil, Tsampa, and vegeta-bles.They also prepared other things such as“couplets”, prayer flags, and butter lamps. In accordance with the custom of the Mosuo , the Nianzhe family chose the 25 th day of the twelfth lunar month of the year to clean the house .This is because the animal zodiac sign of that day was not the same as any of the family members'birth ani-mal zodiac signs .If it were , it would be inauspi-cious for those family members whose birth signs were the same as that day .After they cleaned the house , a lama was invited to chant; some dough figures were made and the “zananiao muqi” ( the purifying scripture ) was recited . On the 27 th day of the twelfth lunar month , the Nianzhe clan family

  11. Feasibility study for management of the bulk wastes at the Weldon Spring quarry, Weldon Spring, Missouri

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The US Department of Energy (DOE), under its Surplus Facilities Management Program, is responsible for conducting remedial actions at the Weldon Spring site in St. Charles County, Missouri. The Weldon Spring site, which is listed on the National Priorities List of the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), became contaminated as a result of processing and disposal activities that took place from the 1940s through the 1960s. The site consists of a quarry and a chemical plant area located about 6.4 km (4 mi) northeast of the quarry. The quarry is surrounded by the Weldon Spring Wildlife Area and is near a well field that constitutes a major source of potable water for St. Charles County; the nearest supply well is located about 0.8 km (0.5 mi) southeast of the quarry. From 1942 to 1969, the quarry was used for the disposal of various radioactively and chemically contaminated materials. Bulk wastes in the quarry consist of contaminated soils and sediments, rubble, metal debris, and equipment. As part of overall site remediation, DOE is proposing to conduct an interim remedial action at the quarry to manage the radioactively and chemically contaminated bulk waste contained therein. 105 refs., 33 figs., 42 tabs

  12. Applying spatial analysis techniques to assess the suitability of multipurpose uses of spring water in the Jiaosi Hot Spring Region, Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Cheng-Shin

    2016-04-01

    The Jiaosi Hot Spring Region is located in northeastern Taiwan and is rich in geothermal springs. The geothermal development of the Jiaosi Hot Spring Region dates back to the 18th century and currently, the spring water is processed for various uses, including irrigation, aquaculture, swimming, bathing, foot spas, and recreational tourism. Because of the proximity of the Jiaosi Hot Spring Region to the metropolitan area of Taipei City, the hot spring resources in this region attract millions of tourists annually. Recently, the Taiwan government is paying more attention to surveying the spring water temperatures in the Jiaosi Hot Spring Region because of the severe spring water overexploitation, causing a significant decline in spring water temperatures. Furthermore, the temperature of spring water is a reliable indicator for exploring the occurrence and evolution of springs and strongly affects hydrochemical reactions, components, and magnitudes. The multipurpose uses of spring water can be dictated by the temperature of the water. Therefore, accurately estimating the temperature distribution of the spring water is critical in the Jiaosi Hot Spring Region to facilitate the sustainable development and management of the multipurpose uses of the hot spring resources. To evaluate the suitability of spring water for these various uses, this study spatially characterized the spring water temperatures of the Jiaosi Hot Spring Region by using ordinary kriging (OK), sequential Gaussian simulation (SGS), and geographical information system (GIS). First, variogram analyses were used to determine the spatial variability of spring water temperatures. Next, OK and SGS were adopted to model the spatial distributions and uncertainty of the spring water temperatures. Finally, the land use (i.e., agriculture, dwelling, public land, and recreation) was determined and combined with the estimated distributions of the spring water temperatures using GIS. A suitable development strategy

  13. An investigation of contaminant impacts to watercress darter, Etheostama nuchale, habitat at Roebuck Springs, Thomas' Spring, and Glenn Springs, Jefferson Country, Alabama

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes a study with the following results: 1. Roebuck Springs was the only site found with contaminant loading with PAH's at levels suspected of...

  14. 78 FR 25861 - Radio Broadcasting Services; Peach Springs, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-03

    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 Radio Broadcasting Services; Peach Springs, Arizona AGENCY: Federal Communications... Channel 265A as a first Tribal Allotment and a potential second local transmission service at Peach....) Channel 265A can be allotted at Peach Springs, consistent with the minimum distance...

  15. The Motion Of A Spring Released From Uniform Circular Motion

    CERN Document Server

    Dooling, Thomas; Carnaghi, Matthew; Titus, Aaron

    2015-01-01

    A weak spring is connected at one end to a rotor turning at constant angular velocity. The spring extends to a stretched length as determined by the spring mass, rest length, spring constant, rotor radius and rotor angular velocity. When released from the rotor, the inner end of the spring pulls away as expected, causing a wave to travel down the spring as it collapses. During this time interval, the outer end of the spring continues to move along its original circular path in uniform circular motion, as if the spring were still connected to the rotor. This is analogous to the effect of a hanging Slinky released from rest whose bottom end remains at a fixed position above the ground until a wave from the top of the Slinky reaches the bottom of the Slinky. Values from a numerical model and measurements from video analysis show that upon release the inner end travels along a circle of similar radius as the outer end. The effect appears as a series of alternating semi-circles. In addition, the simulation and dat...

  16. EQUATION OF RAPIDLY CHANGING MOVEMENT FOR HYDRAULIC SPRING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belovol, O.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The equation concerning the rapidly changing liquid movement in open streams is obtained. On the bases of the equation obtained there has been considered the task concerning hydraulic spring open surface determination. There have also been offered analytical solutions for absolute and wave spring open space in the right angled stream.

  17. The Design of Reactor Internals Hold-Down Spring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guohong Xue

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hold down spring(HDS, clamped between the upper support plate flange and the core barrel flange inside a pressurized reactor vessel, is used to provide a downward force to keep the core barrel stable and from being lifted off from the vessel ledge during reactor normal operation. Spring designer used to think under certain extreme operating conditions, the spring could be lifted off from the ledge because the spring is not stiff enough to prevent the “lift-off”. Therefore, the spring was designed as stiff as it practically can be. However, finite element study indicated that the magnitude of preload is a strong function of friction coefficient. To find the magnitude of the friction coefficient, a series of tests were conducted on 1/10 scale hold down spring samples of three different spring designs. From the test results, it was found that the friction coefficient increases rapidly as the number of loading cycles increases. This implies that the spring preload would increase rapidly during plant operation. Therefore, it is concluded that, because of the strong frictional effect, not only the current design is more than adequate, but also should be made even softer.

  18. Chemical characteristics of the major thermal springs of Montana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mariner, R.H.; Presser, T.S.; Evans, W.C.

    1976-07-01

    Twenty-one thermal springs in western Montana were sampled for chemical, isotope, and gas compositions. Most of the springs issue dilute to slightly saline sodium-bicarbonate waters of neutral to slightly alkaline pH. A few of the springs issue sodium-mixed anion waters of near neutral pH. Fluoride concentrations are high in most of the thermal waters, up to 18 miligrams per litre, while F/Cl ratios range from 3/1 in the dilute waters to 1/10 in the slightly saline waters. Most of the springs are theoretically in thermodynamic equilibrium with respect to calcite and fluorite. Nitrogen is the major gas escaping from most of the hot springs; however, Hunters Hot Springs issue principally methane. The deuterium content of the hot spring waters is typical of meteoric water in western Montana. Geothermal calculations based on silica concentrations and Na-K-Ca ratios indicate that most of the springs are associated with low temperature aquifers (less than 100/sup 0/C). Chalcedony may be controlling the silica concentrations in these low temperature aquifers even in ''granitic'' terranes.

  19. Comparative metagenomics of eight geographically remote terrestrial hot springs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Menzel, Peter; Islin, Sóley Ruth; Rike, Anne Gunn;

    2015-01-01

    Hot springs are natural habitats for thermophilic Archaea and Bacteria. In this paper, we present the metagenomic analysis of eight globally distributed terrestrial hot springs from China, Iceland, Italy, Russia, and the USA with a temperature range between 61 and 92 (∘)C and pH between 1.8 and 7...

  20. Stiffness analysis of parallel leaf-spring flexures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, D.M.; Meijaard, J.P.; Jonker, J.B.

    2010-01-01

    Approximate straight displacements are often made using a parallel leaf-spring flexure. This flexure serves as a typical case for studying the influence of shear and the compliance of the reinforced mid sections of the leaf-springs in the support stiffnesses cz and cy. The conclusions drawn, however

  1. Design and Analysis of Leaf Spring with Composite materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mr. Tharigonda Niranjan Babu

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In automobile sector tends to increasing competition and innovation in design and tends to modify the existing products by new and advanced materials. Leaf springs are special kind of springs used in automobile suspension systems. The main function of leaf spring is not only to support vertical load but also to isolate road induced vibrations. It is subjected to millions of load cycles leading to fatigue failure. The introduction of composite materials has made it possible to reduce the weight of the leaf spring without any reduction in load carrying capacity and stiffness. Therefore the objective of this paper is to present a general study on the performance comparison of composite (E-Glass/Epoxy and Jute E-Glass leaf spring and conventional leaf spring. Leaf spring is modeled in CATIA V5R20 software and it is imported in ANSYS 12.0. The conventional composite leaf springs were analyzed under similar conditions using ANSYS software and the results are presented.

  2. 36 CFR 7.18 - Hot Springs National Park.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hot Springs National Park. 7.18 Section 7.18 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.18 Hot Springs National Park. (a)...

  3. Reconstruction of late spring phenophases in Poland and their response to climate change, 1951–2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartosz Czernecki

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Phenology is primarily seen as an indicator of the impacts of climate change. The strongest biological signal of climatic change is revealed by phenological data from the period after 1990. Unfortunately, the Polish nationwide network of phenological monitoring was terminated in 1992, and was only reactivated in 2005. Here, we attempt to reconstruct late spring phenophases of flowering of Syringa vulgaris L. and Aesculus hippocastanum L. across several sites in Poland from 1951 to 2014 using the GIS-based approach (if observations from neighboring stations were available and multiple regression modeling with stepwise screening and bootstrap resampling. It was found that the air temperature and its indices explain over 60% of the variance, giving an accuracy of 3.0–3.4 days (mean absolute error and correlation coefficients of 0.83 and 0.78 for lilac and horse chestnut, respectively. Altogether, both plant species showed a statistically significant advancement in the onset of flowering with an average rate of 1.7 days per decade. We also found that the final trend is the result of rapid acceleration of the increase in air temperature after the 1990s, while most of the trends for late spring were ambiguous before that period.

  4. Preliminary analysis of geothermal aspects of Brazilian thermal spring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Information on more than 400 geothermal springs in Brazil has been assembled. On the basis of the data colected the temperatures at the maximum depths of circulation of spring waters are calculated using the quality of silica dissolved in water. For some thermal springs temperatures are calculated on the basis of silica determination carrried out by us. Applying linear relations between silica temperature and geothermal flux the average depths of water circulation in the Parana Basin and the Brazilian folded belts surrounding the San Francisco craton are calculated. The radioactivity of the water, derived mainly from the dissolved radon can be correlated with the temperature of the spring. An inverse correlation, as was observed for thermal springs of Pocos de Caldas, can be used to calculate the ascent velocity of thermal waters, where as, a positive correlations could be interpreted as due to the mixing of thermal with surface waters. (Author)

  5. Torsional spring constant obtained for an atomic force microscope cantilever

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Sangmin; Braiman, Yehuda; Thundat, Thomas

    2004-03-01

    In this letter, a method to measure the torsional spring constant of a microcantilever is described. The cantilever was twisted laterally without any normal load by inducing the Lorentz force. An electrical current was applied to the cantilever in a magnetic field, and the torsional resonance frequency of the cantilever was obtained. Based on the observation that the torsional resonance frequency is the same as the second resonance peak of the thermally vibrating cantilever, the ratio of deflection spring constant to torsional spring constant is easily obtained from a simple relationship. For the cantilever used here, the torsional spring constant is 11.24 N/m, 28 times greater than the deflection spring constant.

  6. Seismic performance of isolation system of rolling friction with springs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏标; 戴公连; 文颖; 夏烨

    2014-01-01

    In order to study an isolation system of rolling friction with springs, computer programs were compiled to evaluate the seismic performance based on its movement characteristics. Through the programs, the influences of various seismic performance factors, e.g., rolling friction coefficient, spring constant, were systematically investigated. Results show that by increasing the rolling friction coefficient, the structural relative displacement due to seismic load effectively decreases, while the structural response magnitude varies mainly depending on the correlations between the following factors:the spring constant, the earthquake intensity, and the rolling friction coefficient. Furthermore, increasing the spring constant can decrease the structural relative displacement, as well as residual displacement, however, it increases the structural response magnitude. Finally, based on the analyses of various seismic performance factors subjected to the scenario earthquakes, optimized theoretical seismic performance can be achieved by reasonably combining the spring constant and the rolling friction coefficient.

  7. Pressurized air supply device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ventilation air-conditioning facilities in a nuclear reactor building are adapted to suck clean external air not containing radioactivity through air supply filters disposed at an air intake port of the nuclear reactor building by means of an air supply blower and then supply the sucked air through an air supply duct and an air supply port to the inside of the power plant. Futher, pipeways for supplying sucked air to a compressor is branched from the air supply duct, through which air is supplied to an air compressor for instrumentation and an air compressor used in the power plant. The air sucked and compressed in the air compressor for instrumentation is further supplied by way of pipeways for supplying air for instrumentation to air-actuated valves, instruments, etc. Further, air sucked and compressed in the air compressor used in the power plant is further supplied by way of air supply pipeways for the power plant to a reservoir, air mask, etc. By supplying clean compressed air in this way, operators exposure dose can be reduced. (T.M.)

  8. Long-term variability of the spring taryn-aufeises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. R. Alekseev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Long-term variability of large taryn-aufeises was studied for several decades in different regions of the USA (Alaska and Russia (Chukotka, Kolyma, Southern Yakutia, Transbaikalia, and Eastern Sayan. Differences between volumes of individual ice massifs and the recorded maximal values change from 2–3 to 95–100%, and they do not depend on sizes of ice fields and their geographical locations. No statistically significant dependence of the aufeis volumes on the atmospheric precipitation amount and the air temperature was revealed in the most of the above areas. However, a general tendency for decreasing of the annual maxima of the ice reserves due to the climate warming was noticed. The long-term variations of the aufeises show existence of cycles of increase and decrease in their maximum sizes with their durations of 3, 7 and 11 years with the 25–30% amplitude of variations relative to the mean long-term values. In the Arctic areas, some of the giant aufeises do not melt completely during the summer and remain for a next winter. The volume of pereletoks (shortterm permafrost varies within the range of 5–25%, averaging 16% of the spring ice reserves. In the southern geocryological zone, a clearly pronounced dependence of activity of the aufeis processes on the snow thickness was found: when the snow depth increased from 70 to 100 cm, volumes of aufeises decreased by a factor of three, and the aufeises disappeared completely under the thickness larger 120 cm. It should be noted that the processes producing the aufeis-forming sources of subsurface water, and the factors of their layered-ice accumulation remain almost unexplored.

  9. How does the anthropogenic activity affect the spring discharge?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Yonghong; Zhang, Juan; Wang, Jiaojiao; Li, Ruifang; Hao, Pengmei; Zhan, Hongbin

    2016-09-01

    Karst hydrological process has largely been altered by climate change and human activity. In many places throughout the world, human activity (e.g. groundwater pumping and dewatering from mining) has intensified and surpassed climate change, where human activity becomes the primary factor that affects groundwater system. But it is still largely unclear how the human activity affects spring discharge in magnitude and periodicity. This study investigates the effects of anthropogenic activity on spring discharge, using the Xin'an Springs of China as an example. The Xin'an Spring discharge were divided into two time periods: the pre-development period from 1956 to 1971 and the post-development period from 1972 to 2013. We confirm the dividing time (i.e. 1971) of these two periods using the Wilcoxon rank-sum test. Then the wavelet transform and wavelet coherence were used to analyze the karst hydrological processes for the two periods respectively. We analyze the correlations of precipitation and the Xin'an spring discharge with the monsoons including the Indian Summer Monsoon (ISM) and the West North Pacific Monsoon (WNPM) and the climate teleconnections including El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO), respectively. The results indicated that the spring discharge was attenuated about 19.63% under the influence of human activity in the Xin'an Springs basin. However, human activity did not alter the size of the resonance frequencies between the spring discharge and the monsoons. In contrast, it reinforced the periodicities of the monsoons-driven spring discharge. It suggested that human has adapted to the major climate periodicities, and human activity had the same rhyme with the primary climate periodicity. In return, human activity enhances the correlation between the monsoons and the spring discharge.

  10. Estimation of evapotranspiration in the Rainbow Springs and Silver Springs basins in North-Central Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowles, Leel, Jr.

    1996-01-01

    Estimates of evapotranspiration (ET) for the Rainbow and Silver Springs ground-water basins in north-central Florida were determined using a regional water-~budget approach and compared to estimates computed using a modified Priestley-Taylor (PT) model calibrated with eddy-correlation data. Eddy-correlation measurements of latent 0~E) and sensible (H) heat flux were made monthly for a few days at a time, and the PT model was used to estimate 3,E between times of measurement during the 1994 water year. A water-budget analysis for the two-basin area indicated that over a 30-year period (196594) annual rainfall was 51.7 inches. Of the annual rainfall, ET accounted for about 37.9 inches; springflow accounted for 13.1 inches; and the remaining 0.7 inch was accounted for by stream-flow, by ground-water withdrawals from the Floridan aquifer system, and by net change in storage. For the same 30-year period, the annual estimate of ET for the Silver Springs basin was 37.6 inches and was 38.5 inches for the Rainbow Springs basin. Wet- and dry-season estimates of ET for each basin averaged between nearly 19 inches and 20 inches, indicating that like rainfall, ET rates during the 4-month wet season were about twice the ET rates during the 8-month dry season. Wet-season estimates of ET for the Rainbow Springs and Silver Springs basins decreased 2.7 inches, and 3.4 inches, respectively, over the 30-year period; whereas, dry-season estimates for the basins decreased about 0.4 inch and1.0 inch, respectively, over the 30-year period. This decrease probably is related to the general decrease in annual rainfall and reduction in net radiation over the basins during the 30-year period. ET rates computed using the modified PT model were compared to rates computed from the water budget for the 1994 water year. Annual ET, computed using the PT model, was 32.0 inches, nearly equal to the ET water-budget estimate of 31.7 inches computed for the Rainbow Springs and Silver Springs basins

  11. Depleted uranium in the air during the cleanup operations at Cape Arza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PERKO VUKOTIC

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Cape Arza was contaminated with depleted uranium (DU in the air strikes of NATO aeroplanes on May 30, 1999. The cleanup and decontamination of the site started in 2001. Here the results of air monitoring performed during the cleanup operations in Spring 2002. are presented. The collected air samples were analyzed by high-resolution alpha spectrometry. The obtained concentrations of airborne uranium are about ten times higher than the average value usually reported for air. The ratio of the 234U/238U activities indicates the presence of depleted uranium in the air during the cleanup action, due to resuspension and soil disturbance in the contaminated teritory.

  12. Air movement and perceived air quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melikov, Arsen Krikor; Kaczmarczyk, J.

    2012-01-01

    The impact of air movement on perceived air quality (PAQ) and sick building syndrome (SBS) symptoms was studied. In total, 124 human subjects participated in four series of experiments performed in climate chambers at different combinations of room air temperature (20, 23, 26 and 28 °C), relative...... humidity (30, 40 and 70%) and pollution level (low and high). Most of the experiments were performed with and without facially applied airflow at elevated velocity. The importance of the use of recirculated room air and clean, cool and dry outdoor air was studied. The exposures ranged from 60. min to 235....... min. Acceptability of PAQ and freshness of the air improved when air movement was applied. The elevated air movement diminished the negative impact of increased air temperature, relative humidity and pollution level on PAQ. The degree of improvement depended on the pollution level, the temperature and...

  13. Flip-flop between soft-spring and hard-spring bistabilities in the approximated Toda oscillator analysis

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    B K Goswami

    2011-11-01

    We study theoretically the effect of truncating the nonlinear restoring force (exp $()−1 = \\Sum^{∞}_{n=1} ^n/n!$) in the bistability pattern of the periodically driven, damped one-degree-of-freedom Toda oscillator that originally exhibits soft-spring bistability with counterclockwise hysteresis cycle. We observe that if the truncation is made third order, the harmonic bistability changes to hard-spring type with a clockwise hysteresis cycle. In contrast, for the fourth-order truncation, the bistability again becomes soft-spring type, overriding the effect of third-order nonlinearity. Furthermore, each higher odd-order truncation attempts to introduce hard-spring nature while each even-order truncation turns to soft-spring type of bistability. Overall, the hard-spring effect of every odd-order nonlinear term is weaker in comparison to the soft-spring effect of the next even-order nonlinear term. As a consequence, higher-order approximations ultimately converge to the soft-spring nature. Similar approximate analysis of Toda lattice has in recent past revealed remarkably similar flip-flop pattern between stochasticity (chaotic behaviour) and regularity (integrability).

  14. Note: Determination of torsional spring constant of atomic force microscopy cantilevers: Combining normal spring constant and classical beam theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Álvarez-Asencio, R.; Thormann, Esben; Rutland, M.W.

    2013-01-01

    A technique has been developed for the calculation of torsional spring constants for AFM cantilevers based on the combination of the normal spring constant and plate/beam theory. It is easy to apply and allow the determination of torsional constants for stiff cantilevers where the thermal power...

  15. Modeling the effects of pumping wells in spring management: The case of Scirca spring (central Apennines, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dragoni, W.; Mottola, A.; Cambi, C.

    2013-06-01

    One of the techniques used to increase the water yield of springs during dry seasons and droughts is drilling wells close to them. Where there is a low-hydraulic conductivity boundary close to a spring (the case considered here), this technique implies low well efficiency, high drawdown, and high cost of withdrawals. In addition, a set of pumping wells close to a spring can cause both it and the stream originating from it to dry up - a situation which is not always acceptable from an environmental point of view. In order to study better management strategies, this paper presents a finite difference model of the Scirca spring (Umbria - Marche Apennines, Italy), which originates from a limestone massif in which some formations are karstified. The model, built with Modflow using the equivalent porous media (EPM) approach, simulated the effects of pumping wells at various distances from the spring. Hydraulic Conductivity and Storativity were calibrated and validated on discharge data during recession, when recharge is nil. "Inverse modeling" was then used to estimate the daily recharge of the hydro-geological system of the Scirca spring for a period of several years. Lastly, the efficiency of various management schemes was evaluated by simulating the reaction of the spring, in terms of discharge, to a series of pumping scenarios, all guaranteeing a certain imposed withdrawal during summer, much larger than the natural spring discharge, given by spring discharge and well drawdown. The wells were located between 2850 and 100 m from the spring, the pumping time-span was set at 90 days, and pumping rates of 60, 90 and 120 l/s were applied. Results show that the maximum discharge at which spring drainage is avoided and that minimum vital flow is guaranteed is 90 l/s. The higher water volumes extracted during summer (dry season) are balanced by a lowering of the maximum natural discharges in winter and spring (recharge seasons). Simulations indicate that, by drilling pumping

  16. Air filtration and indoor air quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bekö, Gabriel

    decent ventilation and air cleaning/air filtration, high indoor air quality cannot be accomplished. The need for effective air filtration has increased with increasing evidence on the hazardous effects of fine particles. Moreover, the air contains gaseous pollutants, removal of which requires various air...... contradictions should motivate manufacturers and researchers to develop new efficient filtration techniques and/or improve the existing ones. Development of low polluting filtration techniques, which are at the same time easy and inexpensive to maintain is the way forward in the future....

  17. Section concerns addressed at Spring Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bales, Roger C.

    To keep abreast of current issues and plan future activities, Hydrology Section President Steve Burges brought a full agenda to the Executive Committee meeting held in Baltimore last May. The following highlights of that meeting are offered to keep you informed about what's new in the Hydrology Section.To communicate scientific results more effectively to the press at the Fall and Spring Meetings, section Press Officer Harry Lins is organizing a media-interest session that can highlight both science and policy aspects of a subject. Such a session will also help communicate scientific results to a more general audience. Special session convenors are also encouraged to open their session with a 5-10-minute introduction that highlights important issues to be presented in subsequent papers. These introductions are intended mainly for press representatives and nonspecialists in the audience. In general, the press is not well versed on water issues, and there is often less press interest in hydrology than in other areas of geophysics.

  18. Adaptive Optics Simulations for Siding Spring

    CERN Document Server

    Goodwin, Michael; Lambert, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    Using an observational derived model optical turbulence profile (model-OTP) we have investigated the performance of Adaptive Optics (AO) at Siding Spring Observatory (SSO), Australia. The simulations cover the performance for AO techniques of single conjugate adaptive optics (SCAO), multi-conjugate adaptive optics (MCAO) and ground-layer adaptive optics (GLAO). The simulation results presented in this paper predict the performance of these AO techniques as applied to the Australian National University (ANU) 2.3 m and Anglo-Australian Telescope (AAT) 3.9 m telescopes for astronomical wavelength bands J, H and K. The results indicate that AO performance is best for the longer wavelengths (K-band) and in the best seeing conditions (sub 1-arcsecond). The most promising results are found for GLAO simulations (field of view of 180 arcsecs), with the field RMS for encircled energy 50% diameter (EE50d) being uniform and minimally affected by the free-atmosphere turbulence. The GLAO performance is reasonably good over...

  19. Spring 2013 Graduate Engineering Internship Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrlich, Joshua

    2013-01-01

    In the spring of 2013, I participated in the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Pathways Intern Employment Program at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) in Florida. This was my final internship opportunity with NASA, a third consecutive extension from a summer 2012 internship. Since the start of my tenure here at KSC, I have gained an invaluable depth of engineering knowledge and extensive hands-on experience. These opportunities have granted me the ability to enhance my systems engineering approach in the field of payload design and testing as well as develop a strong foundation in the area of composite fabrication and testing for repair design on space vehicle structures. As a systems engineer, I supported the systems engineering and integration team with final acceptance testing of the Vegetable Production System, commonly referred to as Veggie. Verification and validation (V and V) of Veggie was carried out prior to qualification testing of the payload, which incorporated the process of confirming the system's design requirements dependent on one or more validation methods: inspection, analysis, demonstration, and testing.

  20. Self potential survey, Roosevelt Hot Springs, Utah

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sill, W.R.; Johng, D.S.

    1979-01-01

    A large scale (35 km/sup 2/) self potential (SP) survey was made at Roosevelt Hot Springs. The survey consisted of approximately 47 line-km of profiles at station spacings of 100 m. The profiles were run using a fixed electrode and a traveling electrode out to distances of 1 to 2 km, before advancing the fixed electrode up to the last occupied station. Repeated measurements show a standard deviation about +- 6mv, although the spread on groups of measurements might be as large as 30 mv. Some of the SP profiles show correlations with the thermal system, having generally low values over the thermal high and the coincident resistivity low. Some of the smaller scale features appear to be associated with mapped faults. In plan view, the contoured self potential shows a character very similar to the 300 m, dipole-dipole resistivity. The SP values are generally low, where the resistivity is low. Along the eastern margin of the system, in the vicinity of steep resistivity gradients, the contour map show a series of localized highs.

  1. Study on Somaclonal Variation of Spring Wheat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Shu-mei; HU Shang-lian; LI Wen-xiong

    2004-01-01

    Somaclonal variation of calli and regenerated plants of spring wheat ware detected by using technique RAPD in the study. Calli at different culture stages and regenerated plants derived from young spikes and immature embryos were used as materials. Molecular variation could be reflected from electrophoresis patternof RAPD fragments at different culture stage in calli, and in regenerated plants derived from different explants, even no phenotype variations were found. Somaclonal variation in calli and in regenerated plants appeared regularly: A higher frequency of variation in hybrids F2 was detected than that of the cultivar that is stable genetically. High variation frequency of RAPD fragments appeared in calli when cultured 75 days. The identical variations of RAPD fragments were observed in calli and in the regenerated plants induced from different genotype or explants. The variation frequency detected is higher in regenerated plants than that of in calli. RAPD could be applied easily and simply to determine variation in level of DNA at each stage cultured in vitro.

  2. Transport properties of Topopah Spring tuff

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electrical resistivity, ultrasonic P-waves velocity, and water permeability were measured simultaneously on both intact and fractured Topopah Spring tuff samples at a confining pressure of 5.0 MPa, pore pressures to 2.5 MPa, and temperatures to 1400C. The tested samples were subjected to three dehydration and rehydration cycles. The dehydrations were accomplished at a temperature of 1400C, and the rehydrations were accomplished at various combinations of temperature and pore pressures so that the wetting fluid was either liquid water, steam or both. The electrical resistivity measurements indicate that for the intact sample, the drying and resaturation took place fairly uniformly throughout the sample. On the other hand, for the fractured sample, the drying and resaturation was spatially quite nonuniform. When samples had been subjected to 5 MPa of confining pressure and 1400C for several weeks, a gradual monotonic drift in resistivity was measured (decreasing resistivity when dry; increasing resistivity when wet). This may be the result of either minerological changes or grain boundary movement. In any case, the phenomenon may have important consequences on long term repository performance, and should be studied further. The permeability of the intact sample was independent of temperature, dehydration and rehydration cycles, and time. The permeability of the fractured sample, initially dominated by the fracture, decreased by about one order of magnitude after each dehydration and rehydration cycle. 11 references, 12 figures, 3 tables

  3. Preferred temperatures of Tarentola mauritanica in spring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel A. Carretero

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Variation of the preferred temperatures (Tp by the Moorish gecko (Tarentola mauritanica in spring was analysed in a population from NE Iberia. Ten adult specimens were exposed to a thermal gradient and Tp was measured at seven time intervals between 16 and 24 h. Tp values were low (23.44 ± 0.61 ºC, 20.7-26.9 ºC, mean ± SE, range but geckoes gradually increased Tps between late afternoon and early evening. Surprisingly, mean, maximum and minimum Tps inversely correlated with the body size (SVL, but the results of the analyses remained after size correction. Compared to a previous study carried out in summer, Tps found here were much lower but diel variation persisted. Such patterns are more similar to other nocturnal or crepuscular geckonids rather than to the well-studied diurnal lacertids living in the same sites. Specifically, Tp seems to be more plastic and the relationships with body size are opposite. Possible adaptive explanations and guidelines for further work are suggested.

  4. Detecting Springs in the Coastal Area of the Gunungsewu Karst Terrain, Yogyakarta Special Province, Indonesia, Analysis using Fractal Geometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sari Bahagiarti Kusumayudha

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The Gunungsewu area is a karst terrain with water scarcity, located in the Yogyakarta Special Province, adjacent to the open sea of Indian Ocean in the South. Shorelines of the Gunungsewu southern parts show fractal geometry phenomenon, and there can be found some groundwater outlets discharging to the Indian Ocean. One of the coastal outlets exists at the Baron Beach.The amount of water discharge from this spring reaches 20,000 l/sec in wet season, and approximately 9000 in dry season. In order to find other potential coastal springs, shoreline of the south coast is divided into some segments. By applying fractal analysis utilizing air photo of 1 : 30,000 scale, the fractal dimension of every shore line segment is determined, and then the fractal dimension value is correlated to the existence of spring in the segment being analyzed. The results inform us that shoreline segments having fractal dimension (D > 1.300 are potential for the occurrence of coastal springs.

  5. Interannual variability of the spring atmospheric heat source over the Tibetan Plateau forced by the North Atlantic SSTA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Yangfan; Duan, Anmin; Liu, Yimin; Wu, Guoxiong

    2015-09-01

    Data analysis indicates that the interannual variability of the spring atmospheric heat source over the Tibetan Plateau (TP) depends largely on the intensity of the overlying subtropical westerly jet (WJ), which is closely related to the early spring (February-March-April) sea surface temperature anomaly (SSTA) tripole pattern over the North Atlantic, i.e., the SSTA tripole pattern with a warm core to the southeast of Newfoundland and two cold cores to the south of Iceland and southeast of Bermuda, respectively. Such an SSTA pattern can be regarded as a response to the atmospheric forcing of the preceding January-February-March North Atlantic Oscillation. Numerical experiment results from both linear baroclinic model with an idealized diabatic heating profile and an atmospheric general circulation model with prescribed SSTA forcing demonstrate that the warm core alone of the tripole pattern can stimulate a steady downstream Rossby wave train, which further intensifies the spring WJ over the TP. As a result, a positive anomaly of surface sensible heating occurs over most parts of the TP, whereas the precipitation and corresponding latent heating is characterized by a seesaw pattern with a positive/negative anomaly over the northern/southern TP. Meanwhile, the air column radiation cooling effect is enhanced to a certain degree over the plateau. Further analysis suggests that the early spring SSTA over the North Atlantic may exert a seasonal-lagged impact upon the East Asian summer monsoon by modulating the thermal forcing over the TP.

  6. Wing-pitch modulation in maneuvering fruit flies is explained by an interplay between aerodynamics and a torsional spring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beatus, Tsevi; Cohen, Itai

    2015-11-01

    While the wing kinematics of many flapping insects have been well characterized, understanding the underlying physiological mechanisms that determine these kinematics is still a challenge. Two of the main difficulties arise from the complexity of the interaction between a flapping wing and its own unsteady flow, as well as the intricate mechanics the insect wing-hinge, which is among the most complicated joints in the animal kingdom. These difficulties call for the application of reduced-order approaches. Here, we model the torques exerted by the wing-hinge along the wing-pitch axis of maneuvering fruit flies as a damped torsional spring with elastic and damping coefficients as well as a rest angle. Furthermore, we model the air flows using simplified quasi-static aerodynamics. Our findings suggest that flies take advantage of the passive coupling between aerodynamics and the damped torsional spring to indirectly control their wing-pitch kinematics by modulating the spring damping and elastic coefficients. These results, in conjunction with the previous literature, indicate flies can accurately control their wing-pitch kinematics on a sub-wing-beat time-scale by modulating all three effective spring parameters on longer time-scales.

  7. Hatcheries, Harvest and Wild Fish: An Integrated Program at Warm Springs National Fish Hatchery, Oregon

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Warm Springs National Fish Hatchery is operated by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and is located on the Warm Springs River within the Warm Springs Indian...

  8. Patterns of Macroinvertebrate and Fish Diversity in Freshwater Sulphide Springs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan Greenway

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Extreme environments are characterised by the presence of physicochemical stressors and provide unique study systems to address problems in evolutionary ecology research. Sulphide springs provide an example of extreme freshwater environments; because hydrogen sulphide’s adverse physiological effects induce mortality in metazoans even at micromolar concentrations. Sulphide springs occur worldwide, but while microbial communities in sulphide springs have received broad attention, little is known about macroinvertebrates and fish inhabiting these toxic environments. We reviewed qualitative occurrence records of sulphide spring faunas on a global scale and present a quantitative case study comparing diversity patterns in sulphidic and adjacent non-sulphidic habitats across replicated river drainages in Southern Mexico. While detailed studies in most regions of the world remain scarce, available data suggests that sulphide spring faunas are characterised by low species richness. Dipterans (among macroinvertebrates and cyprinodontiforms (among fishes appear to dominate the communities in these habitats. At least in fish, there is evidence for the presence of highly endemic species and populations exclusively inhabiting sulphide springs. We provide a detailed discussion of traits that might predispose certain taxonomic groups to colonize sulphide springs, how colonizers subsequently adapt to cope with sulphide toxicity, and how adaptation may be linked to speciation processes.

  9. An isotope study of hot springs in Nagano Prefecture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The water samples from 28 hotsprings and mineral springs in Nagano Prefecture were examined for their stable isotope ratios of hydrogen, oxygen, carbon and sulfur. The spring water of Kashio was highly saline and rich in heavy isotopes of oxygen and hydrogen. This spring water seems to be the mixture of deep brine and local surface water. The extrapolation of the linear relationship indicated that the deep brine was both isotopically and chemically very similar to the deep brine suggested for the springs at Arima, Takarazuka and Ishibotoke. A yet unknown common origin may be warranted among these postulated brines. The hot springs in Matsushiro are a Na-Ca-Cl type with high content of carbonate. Their hydrogen and oxygen isotope ratios were higher than the local surface water. From the data, these hot springs seemed to be the mixture of fossil sea water and the water of meteoric origin. The water samples from the other hot springs studied were of simple meteoric origin, belonging to the green tuff type water. (J.P.N.)

  10. Earlier vegetation green-up has reduced spring dust storms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Bihang; Guo, Li; Li, Ning; Chen, Jin; Lin, Henry; Zhang, Xiaoyang; Shen, Miaogen; Rao, Yuhan; Wang, Cong; Ma, Lei

    2014-01-01

    The observed decline of spring dust storms in Northeast Asia since the 1950s has been attributed to surface wind stilling. However, spring vegetation growth could also restrain dust storms through accumulating aboveground biomass and increasing surface roughness. To investigate the impacts of vegetation spring growth on dust storms, we examine the relationships between recorded spring dust storm outbreaks and satellite-derived vegetation green-up date in Inner Mongolia, Northern China from 1982 to 2008. We find a significant dampening effect of advanced vegetation growth on spring dust storms (r = 0.49, p = 0.01), with a one-day earlier green-up date corresponding to a decrease in annual spring dust storm outbreaks by 3%. Moreover, the higher correlation (r = 0.55, p dust storm outbreak ratio (the ratio of dust storm outbreaks to times of strong wind events) indicates that such effect is independent of changes in surface wind. Spatially, a negative correlation is detected between areas with advanced green-up dates and regional annual spring dust storms (r = -0.49, p = 0.01). This new insight is valuable for understanding dust storms dynamics under the changing climate. Our findings suggest that dust storms in Inner Mongolia will be further mitigated by the projected earlier vegetation green-up in the warming world. PMID:25343265

  11. Baseline risk evaluation for exposure to bulk wastes at the Weldon Spring Quarry, Weldon Spring, Missouri

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The US Department of Energy (DOE), under its Surplus Facilities Management Program (SFMP), is responsible for cleanup activities at the Weldon Spring site, Weldon Spring, Missouri. The site consists of a raffinate pits and chemical plant area and a quarry. This baseline risk evaluation has been prepared to support a proposed response action for management of contaminated bulk wastes in the quarry. The quarry became chemically and radioactively contaminated as a result of various wastes that were disposed of there between 1942 and 1969. This risk evaluation assesses potential impacts on human health and the environment that may result from exposure to releases of contaminants from the quarry under current site conditions. Risk assessment is a key component of the remedial investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) process, as identified in guidance from the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA); this process addresses sites subject to the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) of 1980, as amended by the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986. Response actions at the Weldon Spring quarry are subject to CERCLA requirements because the quarry is listed on the EPA's National Priorities List. The DOE is also responsible for complying with the requirements of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969, which requires federal agencies to consider the environmental consequences of a proposed action as part of the decision-making process for that action. Although this document has not been prepared to fulfill specific NEPA requirements, the analyses contained herein --- along with the analyses provided in the remedial investigation, feasibility study, and other supporting documents --- are intended to meet the environmental assessment requirements of NEPA

  12. The finishing problem of stress on pipe with cold spring and hanger spring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Fluid temperature influence stream in piping from pump nozzle to tank nozzle will cause expansion or contraction. This condition will pull or press to the nozzle. The consequences of piping displacement, so will rise return force to piping. Because of that must calculated the displacement using Caesar 11.4.program so that force of rising can support by piping without fracture and break. From calculation, resulted displacement Dy = -30,224 mm, Restraint summary Fy = 75,851 kg and Stress = 5.026,9 kg/cm2 and then It done to cut of Dy with Cold Spring method, and so Running on Caesar 11.4 program, resulted that It not different with the first data namely that is Dy = -30,038 mm, Restraint Summary Fy = 75.562 kg dan stress = 5.006,7 kg/cm2. Because of data still stress on Piping Installation indicated by value of Restraint summary and stress were height. And then It has taken solution by consideration that pipe of ∅30 very rigid, namely to lose The support and change with the spring hanger, so program of Caesar II.4 has run and result of support displacement is 45,588 mm, Restraint summary Fy = -1.823 kg dan Stress 2.1178 kg/cm2 with allowable stress 2.121,1 kg/cm2. It see result of calculate with spring hanger, in fact The stress more little than allowable stress, so that this condition is safety to install. (author)

  13. Three for One:Spring Operation——2009 spring expos

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    In Chinese culture, spring heralds thriving, and now it already knocked 2009’s door and begins inseminating hopes. Hence, although the finance turmoil continues to sweep the globe, Chinese business community has strong ambitions to further expand its presence and market share, so does Chinese textile industry. Under such circumstance, in March, Chinese National Textile & Apparel Council (CNTAC) decides to launch a campaign consisting of China International Clothing & Accessories Fair (CHIC), Yarn Expo, Intertextile Beijing Apparel Fabrics, which feature "new product, new technique, new technology as well as new trend" to refresh market and seek more opportunities……

  14. The influence of reduced spring tillage on soil properties, crop yield and profitability in a rotation

    OpenAIRE

    FEIZA, VIRGINIJUS; Feizienė, Dalia; Deveikytė, Irena

    2006-01-01

    The goal of this research was to evaluate different reduced spring tillage methods on yielding capacity of spring sown crops, soil physical and chemical properties and to evaluate the profitability of reduced tillage methods investigated. The field experiment was set up at the Lithuanian Institute of Agriculture in 2003-2005. Spring barley, spring oil-seed rape and spring wheat were grown. Five soil tillage systems were investigated in the field trial: 1. Shallow spring-time ploughing (15-17 ...

  15. FATIGUE LIFE PREDICTION OF COMPOSITE SEMI - ELLIPTICA L LEAF SPRING FOR HEAVY VEHICLE

    OpenAIRE

    Pradeep B. Tapkir; Prof. Balaji Nelge

    2015-01-01

    A leaf spring is a simple form of spring, commonly used for the suspension in wheeled vehicles. Leaf Springs are long and narrow plates attached to the frame of a trailer that rest above or below the trailer's axle. There are mono leaf springs, or single - l eaf springs, that consist of simply one plate of spring steel. These are usually thick in the middle and taper out toward the end, and they don't typically offer too much strength and su...

  16. Weed infestation of a spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L. crop under the conditions of plough and ploughless tillage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Woźniak

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A field experiment was conducted in the period 2007- 2009 in the Uhrusk Experimental Farm (Lublin region belonging to the University of Life Sciences in Lublin. Different tillage systems - plough and ploughless tillage - were the experimental factors. In the plough tillage system, tillage involved skimming done after the harvest of the forecrop and autumn ploughing. In the ploughless tillage system, only the herbicide Roundup 360 SL (active substance - glyphosate was applied after the harvest of the forecrop. In both tillage treatments, spring tillage involved field cultivating and the use of a tillage assembly consisting of a cultivator, cage roller, and harrow. The present experiment evaluated weed infestation of the crop expressed by the number and air-dry weight of weeds and their species composition. Under the conditions of ploughless tillage, air-dry weight of weeds in the spring wheat crop was shown to increase significantly compared to plough tillage. The tillage systems under comparison did not differentiate the number of weeds per 1 m2. Spring wheat sown using plough tillage was colonized most extensively by the following weed species: Avena fatua L., Stellaria media (L. Vill., Galium aparine L., Amaranthus retroflexus L., Chenopodium album L., and Consolida regalis Gray. In the ploughless tillage treatments, the following weeds were predominant: Stellaria media (L. Vill., Avena fatua L., Fallopia convolvulus (L. A. Löve, Papaver rhoeas L., Amaranthus retroflexus L., Galium aparine L., and Chenopodium album L.

  17. Influences of the El Nino Southern Oscillation and the Pacific Decadal Oscillation on the Timing of the North American Spring

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, Gregory J.; Ault, Toby R.; Cook, Benjamin I.; Betancourt, Julio L.; Schwartz, Mark D.

    2012-01-01

    Detrended, modelled first leaf dates for 856 sites across North America for the period 1900-2008 are used to examine how the El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) separately and together might influence the timing of spring. Although spring (mean March through April) ENSO and PDO signals are apparent in first leaf dates, the signals are not statistically significant (at a 95% confidence level (p Nino and positive PDO conditions. An analysis of the spatial distributions of first leaf dates for separate and combined ENSO/PDO conditions features a northwest-southeast dipole that is significantly (at p <0.05) different than the distributions for neutral conditions. The nature of the teleconnection between Pacific SST's and first leaf dates is evident in comparable composites for detrended sea level pressure (SLP) in the spring months. During positive ENSO/PDO, there is an anomalous flow of warm air from the southwestern US into the northwestern US and an anomalous northeasterly flow of cold air from polar regions into the eastern and southeastern US. These flow patterns are reversed during negative ENSO/PDO. Although the magnitudes of first leaf date departures are not necessarily significantly related to ENSO and PDO, the spatial patterns of departures are significantly related to ENSO and PDO. These significant relations and the long-lived persistence of SSTs provide a potential tool for forecasting the tendencies for first leaf dates to be early or late.

  18. Empirically Bounding of Space Booms with Tape Spring Hinges

    OpenAIRE

    Jennings, A. L.; Black, J; C. Allen

    2013-01-01

    Self-deploying structures seek to provide a compact launch package for large, lightweight satellite booms. One self-deploying method is a foldable tape spring. This paper examines the large scale behavior of a boom attached by a tape spring hinge during mock deployments. A boom attached by tape spring to a rigid stand was released and the boom bounced up to 60° before coming to rest (as opposed to snap-through behavior). These large amplitude bounces can cause the boom to collide with sensors...

  19. The Redox Potential of Hot Springs in Taiwan

    OpenAIRE

    Wen-Fu Chen and Menghau Sung

    2009-01-01

    Scientists began acquiring the basic of geology, occurrence, water temperature and chemistry of hot springs in Tai wan over a century ago. However, data regarding redox potential and important redox couples still remains limited. This study explores the redox status of hot springs in Taiwan by measuring Eh in the field and by determining the concentrations of commonly found redox couples, i.e., O2/H2O, NO3 -/NH4 +, and HS-/SO4 -2. Water samples were collected at hot spring discharge pools or ...

  20. Direct experimental study of the exchange spring formation process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gornakov, V. S.; Nikitenko, V. I.; Shapiro, A. J.; Shull, R. D.; Jiang, J. Samuel; Bader, S. D.

    2002-04-01

    The remagnetization of a soft ferromagnetic film exchange coupled with a high-coercivity ferromagnetic film is studied by a magneto-optic imaging technique. If the magnetic field is antiparallel to the macroscopic unidirectional in-plane anisotropy, the soft layer reverses via the formation of exchange springs consisting of subdomains with opposite spin twistings. However, if the field is instead rotated in-plane, remagnetization initially proceeds via formation of a single uniform exchange spring. Then, at a critical angle, the spring incoherently untwists, leading again to subdomains with opposite chirality. These phenomena are attributed to the influence of inhomogeneity in the unidirectional magnetic anisotropy.

  1. Air protection. Ochrana ovzdusia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siska, F.

    1980-01-01

    This paper discusses problems of air pollution control, air pollution abatement and effects of air pollution. Air pollution caused by black and brown coal combustion, by fossil-fuel power plants and by coking plants is evaluated. Air pollution by dusts, sulfur oxides, nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, ammonia as well arsenic, barium, beryllium, boron, chromium, gallium, cobalt, manganese, copper, nickel, lead, plutonium, titanium and vanadium, which sometimes accompany ashes in coal, is analyzed. Methods of air pollution abatement such as fluidized bed combustion, coal preparation, desulfurization or dry coke quenching are described. Systems for air pollution control are presented: air filtration, cyclones, electrostatic precipitators. Systems of air pollution measurement and recording are evaluated. Propagation of air pollutants in the atmosphere as well as the factors which influence pollutant propagation are characterized. Problems associated with site selection for fossil-fuel power plants are also discussed. An analysis of economic aspects of air pollution abatement and air pollution control is made. (55 refs.)

  2. Indoor Air Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... protect yourself and your family. Learn more Air Quality at Work Workers should breathe easy while on the job, but worksites with poor air quality put employees at risk. Healthy air is essential ...

  3. HEPA air filter (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... pet dander and other irritating allergens from the air. Along with other methods to reduce allergens, such ... controlling the amount of allergens circulating in the air. HEPA filters can be found in most air ...

  4. Bad Air Day

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... link, please review our exit disclaimer . Subscribe Bad Air Day Air Quality and Your Health In many parts of the country, summer has the worst air quality of any season. When the forecast says ...

  5. IASI carbon monoxide validation over the Arctic during POLARCAT spring and summer campaigns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Pommier

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we provide a detailed comparison between carbon monoxide (CO data measured by the Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI/MetOp and aircraft observations over the Arctic. The CO measurements were obtained during North American (NASA ARCTAS and NOAA ARCPAC and European campaigns (POLARCAT-France, POLARCAT-GRACE and YAK-AEROSIB as part of the International Polar Year (IPY POLARCAT activity in spring and summer 2008. During the campaigns different air masses were sampled including clean air, polluted plumes originating from anthropogenic sources in Europe, Asia and North America, and forest fire plumes originating from Siberia and Canada. The paper illustrates that CO-rich plumes following different transport pathways were well captured by the IASI instrument, in particular due to the high spatial coverage of IASI. The comparison between IASI CO total columns, 0–5 km partial columns and profiles with collocated aircraft data was achieved by taking into account the different sensitivity and geometry of the sounding instruments. A detailed analysis is provided and the agreement is discussed in terms of information content and surface properties at the location of the observations. For profiles, the data were found to be in good agreement in spring with differences lower than 17%, whereas in summer the difference can reach 20% for IASI profiles below 8 km for polluted cases. For total columns the correlation coefficients ranged from 0.15 to 0.74 (from 0.47 to 0.77 for partial columns in spring and from 0.26 to 0.84 (from 0.66 to 0.88 for partial columns in summer. A better agreement is seen over the sea in spring (0.73 for total column and 0.78 for partial column and over the land in summer (0.69 for total columns and 0.81 for partial columns. The IASI vertical sensitivity was better over land than over sea, and better over land than over sea ice and snow allowing a higher potential to detect CO vertical distribution during

  6. UV albedo of arctic snow in spring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Meinander

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available The relevance of snow for climate studies is based on its physical properties, such as high surface reflectivity. Surface ultraviolet (UV albedo is an essential parameter for various applications based on radiative transfer modeling. Here, new continuous measurements of the local UV albedo of natural Arctic snow were made at Sodankylä (67.37° N, 26.63° E, 179 m a.s.l. during the spring of 2007. The data were logged at 1-min intervals. The accumulation of snow was up to 68 cm. The surface layer thickness varied from 0.5 to 35 cm with the snow grain size between 0.2 and 2.5 mm. The midday erythemally weighted UV albedo ranged from 0.6 to 0.8 in the accumulation period and 0.5–0.7 during melting. During the snow melt period, under cases of an almost clear sky and variable cloudiness, an unexpected diurnal decrease of 0.05 in albedo soon after midday, and recovery thereafter, was detected. This diurnal decrease in albedo was found to be asymmetric with respect to solar midday, thus indicating a change in the properties of the snow. Independent UV albedo results with two different types of instruments confirm these findings. The measured temperature of the snow surface was below 0°C on the following mornings. Hence, the reversible diurnal change, evident for ~1–2 h, could be explained by the daily metamorphosis of the surface of the snowpack, in which the temperature of the surface increases, melting some of the snow to liquid water, after which the surface freezes again.

  7. SPRING FLORA OF CEMETERIES OF ODESSA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SPRING FLORA OF CEMETERIES OF ODESSA

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The spring flora was analyzed on six cemeteries in Odessa, such cemeteries as Vtoroe xristianskoe, Troickoe, Tairovskoe, Trete evrejskoe, Oficerskoe (Dmitrievskое and Severnoe. There were found and identified 235 species of plants, which belong to 186 genera and 67 families. There was taken a taxonomic analysis of flora of the cemeteries also of spreding of plants by ekobiomorphs, the analysis of hronotyp and origin. The proportion of the flora on the cemeteries is 1:2,8:3,5. The dominant family of the flora of Odessa’s cemeteries is Asteraceae. There are other leading families such as Rosaceae, Fabaceae, Poaceae, Brassicaceae, Lamiaceae. Herbs and trees are dominant among the life forms. Mesophytes and kseromezophytes are in the majority among hihromorphs. Heliophytes are on the first place by adapting to the light. Our results showed that the adventitious plants occupy up to 44% of all amount of plants at the cemeteries in Odessa. Kenophytes is a dominant group among them. Floragenetics analysis revealed the dominance of the plants from Asia. There have been allocated plants that were met at all six cemeteries independently of the location religious and age characteristics of the cemetery. "Core" of the flora of Odessa’s cemetery have made weed Acer negundo L., Ballota nigra L. and decorative Hedera helix L., Centaurea dealbata Willd., Buxus sempervirens L., Convallaria majalis L., Sedum kamtschaticum Fisch., Thuja occidentalis L., Hemerocalis fulva (L. L. There were found 4 species of plants that belong to the rare and endangered plants of Odessa’s region: Convallaria majalis L., Hyacinthella leucophaea (K. Koch Schur, Clematis integrifolia L., Paeonia tenuifolia L. Moreover Convallaria majalis L. grows on all six investigated cemeteries. Also two species: Hyacinthella leucophaea (K. Koch Schur and Clematis

  8. Recent measurements of 234U/238U isotope ratio in spring waters from the Hadzici area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Hadzici area has become interesting for investigation since depleted uranium ammunition had been employed in 1995 during the NATO air strike campaign in Bosnia and Herzegovina. The purpose of this study is to determine uranium concentration and 234U/238U activity ratio in the spring waters of this area and to investigate their relationship, as well as spatial variations. The spring water samples were taken at 18 sites in total. For the determination of uranium radioisotopes, radiochemical separation procedure followed by alpha-particle spectrometry was applied. Uranium concentration in analyzed waters range from 0.15 to 1.12 μg/L. Spring waters from carbonate based sediments have a lower uranium concentration of between 0.15 and 0.43 μg/L, in comparison to waters sampled within sandstone-based sediments ranging from 0.53 to 1.12 μg/L. Dissolved uranium shows significant spatial variability and correlation with bedrock type confirmed by Principal Component Analysis and Hierarchical Cluster Analysis. The majority of the analyzed waters have a 234U/238U activity ratio ranging from 1.02 to 1.90, of which half of the results range between 1.02 and 1.16. No apparent depleted uranium (DU) contamination was observed, as 234U/238U activity ratio is dependent on geochemical conditions in the environment. Even though the tested spring waters demonstrate significant variability in uranium concentration, 234U/238U activity ratio and 234U excess, waters with similar uranium isotopic signatures are observable within the region. The guidelines on the spatial redistribution of dissolved uranium (corresponding to 238U mass concentration), along with 234U/238U activity ratios were provided by the Inverse Distance Weighting (IDW) method. Waters having similar isotopic signature have been delineated. -- Highlights: ► Uranium concentration in analyzed spring waters ranges from 0.15 to 1.12 μg/L. ► Dissolved uranium shows correlation with bedrock type. ► Low 234U/238U

  9. Spring 1995 wildlife and vegetation survey, Norton Air Force Base, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-07-18

    The objectives of the 1994 and 1995 wildlife and vegetation surveys were to gather data to be used for various applications including: (1) basewide Environmental Risk Assessment (ERA) Work Plan (Scoping Document), (2) the completion of the basewide ERA, (3) determining remedial activities, and (4) determining the distribution of state and federal list plant and animal species on Norton AFB. Data gathering included an inventory of plant and animal species present, the identification of potential ecological receptors, mapping of habitats, and constructing the ecological food web present on or near the IRP sites of concern.

  10. Kelly Hot Spring Geothermal Project: Kelly Hot Spring Agricultural Center preliminary design. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Longyear, A.B. (ed.)

    1980-08-01

    A Phase 1 Preliminary Design, Construction Planning and Economic Analysis has been conducted for the Kelly Hot Spring Agricultural Center in Modoc County, California. The core activity is a 1360 breeding sow, swine raising complex that utilizes direct heat energy from the Kelly Hot Spring geothermal resource. The swine is to be a totally confined operation for producing premium pork in controlled-environment facilities. The complex contains a feed mill, swine raising buildings and a complete waste management facility that produces methane gas to be delivered to a utility company for the production of electricity. The complex produces 6.7 million pounds of live pork (29,353 animals) shipped to slaughter per year; 105,000 cu. ft. of scrubbed methane per day; and fertilizer. Total effluent is less than 200 gpm of agricultural quality-water with full odor control. The methane production rate made possible with geothermal direct heat is equivalent to at least 400 kw continuous. Sale of the methane on a co-generation basis is being discussed with the utility company. The use of geothermal direct heat energy in the complex displaces nearly 350,000 gallons of fuel oil per year. Generation of the biogas displaces an additional 300,000 gallons of fuel oil per year.

  11. Honeymoon Trail at Pipe Spring National Monument, Arizona (honeytrl)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This is an Arc/Info coverage consisting of 1 arc that represents the Honeymoon Trail inside of Pipe Spring National Monument, Arizona. The Honeymoon Trail was...

  12. Monthly report of activities - Fish Springs Refuge - July, 1970

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report describes activities on Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge in July 1970. Weather conditions are discussed as well as wildlife including waterfowl and...

  13. Duck food report on Fish Springs, Juab County Utah

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report discusses land conditions and availability of food for waterfowl at Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge. The following information is outlined;...

  14. Final Critical Habitat for the Leon springs pupfish (Cyprinodon bovinus)

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — To provide the user with a general idea of areas where final critical habitat for Leon springs pupfish (Cyprinodon bovinus) occur based on the description provided...

  15. Comprehensive Conservation Plan: Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Comprehensive Conservation Plan (CCP) was written to guide management on Fish Springs NWR for the next 15 years. This plan outlines the Refuge vision and...

  16. NEFSC 1999 Spring Bottom Trawl Survey (AL9903, EK500)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The objectives of the cruise are to: (1) determine the spring distribution and relative abundance of fish and selected invertebrate species; (2) collect biological...

  17. NEFSC 2001 Spring Bottom Trawl Survey (AL0104, EK500)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The objectives of the cruise are to: (1) determine the spring distribution and relative abundance of fish and selected invertebrate species; (2) collect biological...

  18. NEFSC 2000 Spring Bottom Trawl Survey (AL0002, EK500)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The objectives of the cruise are to: (1) determine the spring distribution and relative abundance of fish and selected invertebrate species; (2) collect biological...

  19. NEFSC 2001 Spring Bottom Trawl Survey (AL0103, EK500)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The objectives of the cruise are to: (1) determine the spring distribution and relative abundance of fish and selected invertebrate species; (2) collect biological...

  20. Invertebrate sampling at Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document presents results from an invertebrate study conducted on Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge. The purposes of this study were to: 1) quanitify...

  1. Macroinvertebrate sampling on Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document discusses the results of macroinvertebrate sampling that was conducted on Fish Springs National Refuge between May and August 1983. The purpose of...

  2. Invertebrate sampling on Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge in 1984

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document discusses the results of macroinvertebrate sampling that was conducted on Fish Springs National Refuge between May and August 1984. The purpose of...

  3. 1990 Canada goose production study: Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report presents the results of a goose production study at Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge. The objectives of this study were; 1) determine the...

  4. 1991 Canada goose production study: Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report presents the results of a goose production study at Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge. The objectives of this study were; 1) determine the...

  5. 1989 Canada goose production study: Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report presents the results of a goose production study at Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge. The objectives of this study were; 1) determine the...

  6. 1992 Canada goose production study: Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report presents the results of a goose production study at Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge. The objectives of this study were; 1) determine the...

  7. The Tree Lines at Pipe Spring National Monument, Arizona (treeline)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This is an Arc/Info coverage consisting of 7 arcs representing the tree lines at Pipe Spring National Monument, Arizona. The tree lines were collected by a Trimble...

  8. 77 FR 58799 - Radio Broadcasting Services; Roaring Springs, TX

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 Radio Broadcasting Services; Roaring Springs, TX AGENCY: Federal Communications... 47 CFR Part 73 Radio, Radio broadcasting. Federal Communications Commission. Nazifa Sawez,...

  9. Leaf spring made of fiber-reinforced resin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hori, J.

    1986-01-01

    A leaf spring made of a matrix reinforced by at least two types of reinforcing fibers with different Young's modulus is described in this Japanese patent. At least two layers of reinforcing fibers are formed by partially arranging the reinforcing fibers toward the direction of the thickness of the leaf spring. A mixture of different types of reinforced fibers is used at the area of boundary between the two layers of reinforced fibers. The ratio of blending of each type of reinforced fiber is frequently changed to eliminate the parts where discontinuous stress may be applied to the leaf spring. The objective of this invention is to prevent the rapid change in Young's modulus at the boundary area between each layer of reinforced fibers in the leaf spring.

  10. SPRING RAPE CULTIVATION TECHNOLOGY IN THE ORENBURG PREDURALYE

    OpenAIRE

    Orlov, Aleksey; Gromov, Aleksandr

    2009-01-01

    The major technological practices of spring rape cultivation in the above region are considered. These include crop rotation predecessors, soil tillage, sowing, measures of plant protection from pests, harvesting and seed treatment.

  11. [Title papers: Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge: Papers and documentation

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is a collection of documents pertaining to the purchase of Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge. The following material is included; memoranda, purchase...

  12. Archeological survey of Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge: Special report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document presents information from an archeological reconnaissance which was conducted at Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge on April 17 - 24, 1961. The...

  13. Integrated Pest Management Plan - Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of the Integrated Pest Management Plan is to provide a comprehensive, environmentally sensitive approach to managing pests on the Fish Springs NWR. The...

  14. Springs at Cedar Breaks National Monument, Utah (allsprgs)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This is an Arc/Info coverage consisting of 151 points representing spring locations in and surrounding Cedar Breaks National Monument, Utah. This data originates...

  15. Kidney disease postorbital lesions in spring chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendricks, Jerry D.; Leek, Steve L.

    1975-01-01

    Gross exophthalmos in one or both eyes of yearling spring chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) was caused by postorbital, granulomatous inflammatory tissue that developed in response to invasion of the site by Corynebacterium sp., the causative agent of bacterial kidney disease.

  16. Thermoelectric materials evaluation program spring design to minimize load relaxation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grimm, F.R.

    1980-03-31

    The recommended spring material for use in thermoelectric modules is either Inconel x or Elgiloy based on their excellent performance and availability. The stress level for generator applications is 75,000 psi. (FS)

  17. Walkways at Pipe Spring National Monument, Arizona (pisp_walkways)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This is an Arc/Info coverage consisting of 23 arcs representing the walkways (or sidewalks) at Pipe Spring National Monument, Arizona. The walkways were collected...

  18. The Gates at Pipe Spring National Monument, Arizona (gates)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This is an Arc/Info coverage consisting of 7 points representing gates at Pipe Spring National Monument, Arizona. The gates were collected by a Trimble GeoXT GPS...

  19. The Orchard points at Pipe Spring National Monument, Arizona (orchard)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This is an Arc/Info coverage consisting of 56 points representing the bubblers of mid-point of planting spots in the orchard at Pipe Spring National Monument,...

  20. Roads at Pipe Spring National Monument, Arizona 2006 (roads)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This is an Arc/Info coverage consisting of 30 arcs representing the roads in Pipe Spring National Monument, Arizona. Twenty-five of the road arcs were collected by...

  1. Steelhead returns to Warm Springs National Fish Hatchery, 1978 - 2003

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Warm Springs River is a major tributary of the Deschutes River in north-central Oregon, and supports a population of wild summer steelhead (Oncorhynchusmykiss)....

  2. Monthly report of activities - Fish Springs Refuge - June, 1966

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report describes activities on Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge in June 1966. Weather conditions are discussed as well as wildlife including waterfowl and...

  3. Elk Distributions Relative to Spring Normalized Difference Vegetation Index Values

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus) that winter near San Antonio Mountain in northern New Mexico provide important recreational and economic benefits while creating management challenges related to temporospatial variation in their spring movements. Our objective was to examine spring distributions of elk in relation to vegetative emergence as it progresses across the landscape as measured by remote sensing. Spring distributions of elk were closely associated with greater photosynthetic activity of spring vegetation in 2 of 3 years as determined using NDVI values derived from AVHRR datasets. Observed elk locations were up to 271% greater than expected in the category representing the most photosynthetic activity. This association was not observed when analyses at a finer geographic scale were conducted. Managers facing challenges involving human-wildlife interactions and land-use issues should consider environmental conditions that may influence variation in elk association with greener portions of the landscape.

  4. Spring Chinook Distribution, Pacific Northwest (updated March, 2006)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Pacific States Marine Fisheries Commission — This dataset is a record of fish distribution and activity for SPRING CHINOOK contained in the StreamNet database. This feature class was created based on linear...

  5. Waterfowl spring migration records on the Seney Migratory Waterfowl Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to compare the numbers of migratory waterfowl using the Seney Refuge area during the spring of 1937 with the numbers recorded during...

  6. Observations of Birds Northern Great Plains: Spring 1981

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This survey summarizes bird observations on the eastern half of North Dakota during the spring, between 311981 to 5311981. A species list and comments are included...

  7. Monthly report of activities - Fish Springs Refuge - May, 1970

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report describes activities on Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge in May 1970. Weather conditions are discussed as well as wildlife including waterfowl and...

  8. AIR POLLUTION FROM TRAFFIC AND RESPIRATORY HEALTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Nikolić

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Air pollution has very important influence on human health. Earlier investigations were not employed with estimation of influence of air pollution, which spring from traffic, on people health who live near busy cross – road.The aim of this paper was to determine how living near busy cross – road influences on appearance of respiratory symptoms and illness.400 adult people between 18-76 age who live five year least on this location at took a part in investigation. One group (200 live in Nis near the busiest cross-road, another group live in Niska Banja near cross-road with the smallest concentration of pollutants in last five years.We have determined that examines, who live near busy cross – road had statistical signify greater prevalence of all respiratory symptoms and pneumonia.Our investigation showed that living near busy cross road present risk factor for appearance of respiratory symptoms and pneumonia.

  9. Travertine-Depositing Cool-Springs of the Rio Grande Rift, New Mexico: Links Between Geochemistry, Tectonic Setting, and Microbial Diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newell, D. L.; Crossey, L. J.; Dahm, C. N.; Takacs-Vesbach, C.

    2005-12-01

    Travertine-depositing cool springs found within the Rio Grande rift in New Mexico may represent the distal discharges of deep hydrothermal systems related to continental rifting. We hypothesize that these springs represent overlooked ecological niches that host chemolithotrophic microorganisms relying on spring chemistry for metabolism. The geochemistry of these springs is in many ways similar to seafloor and continental hot springs, such as Yellowstone, where thermophilic microbes representing the deepest branches of the universal phylogenetic tree are found. We analyzed cool springs that varied in water type from Ca-Mg-HCO3 to Na-Cl and Na-SO4 waters and ranged from dilute to high (23,000 ppm) in total dissolved solids. Carbon dioxide comprised up to 99% of the water-free spring gases. Hydrogen was present up to tenths of percent, equating to 7-3400 nM dissolved H2. Methane and hydrogen sulfide were detected in some springs up to 0.1 and 4%, respectively. Oxygen was deficient to absent. 3 He4He ratios ranged from 0.1 to 0.6 RA (relative to air), equating to 1-7% mantle-derived helium. The δ13CO2 of spring gases ranged from -4.6 to -1.0 permil PDB, overlapping the mantle and marine limestone ranges. Mixing models using carbon and helium isotopes suggest that at least 5% of the CO2 was mantle derived. We hypothesize that the source of high H2 levels was mantle-derived magmatism. The lack of oxygen, abundance of hydrogen and carbon (dissolved CO2), and high concentrations of aqueous species such as sulfate have created an environment suitable for chemolithotrophic microbes. The presence of methane and hydrogen sulfide suggest that methanogenic and sulfate reducing microbes are active. Microbial community analysis using PCR-DGGE will test for microbial diversity and identify potential trends in metabolism related to spring geochemistry. The apparent link between mantle-derived gases and deeply-circulated fluids in a continental rift setting with the presence of

  10. An undergraduate study of harmonic and parametric motion of a simple mass-spring system from motion waveforms

    CERN Document Server

    Boscolo, Ilario; Stellato, Marco

    2012-01-01

    The motion of a mass vertically appended to a spring, worldwide used as initiating experiment in a physics undergraduate laboratory, shows generally a complex behaviour owing to the simultaneous action of gravitational, elastic and torsional forces. Moreover, since the friction force, caused by air against the mass movement, has not a simple dependence on the velocity, a further difficulty is added to the study of the motion. The article presents a path to manage the complexity of the experiment maintaining the objective of treating and enlightening the physics of the harmonic motion via the mass-spring experiment. The system is firstly approached as a harmonic oscillator. The notable deviation from that simple dynamics, in particular the parametric oscillation behaviour observed along the lab work, is briefly discussed and modeled at that conjunction. The approach to the parametric behavior is done via the analysis of the motion waveforms.

  11. Quality Management System of Agricultural Products Based on Spring

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Ya-Nan; Zhao, Quan-dong

    2012-01-01

    This article gives an overview of important property of the integrated management of agricultural product quality safety system, analyzes the lightweight characteristics of Spring technical system, hierarchical organization of MVC, and the technology SSH+ Ajax associated with the Spring framework system. On the basis of this technical system, we design the quality management system of agricultural products under B/S model. This article points out that this system is realized mainly through co...

  12. Spring Cleaning: Rural Water Impacts, Valuation and Property Rights Institutions

    OpenAIRE

    Michael Kremer; Jessica Leino; Edward Miguel; Alix Peterson Zwane

    2009-01-01

    In many societies, social norms create common property rights in natural resources, limiting incentives for private investment. This paper uses a randomized evaluation in Kenya to measure the health impacts of investments to improve source water quality through spring protection, estimate the value that households place on spring protection, and simulate the welfare impacts of alternative water property rights norms and institutions, including common property, freehold private property, and a...

  13. Green Team Readies for Spring with Plant Swap | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    By Carolynne Keenan, Contributing Writer Those looking for a cost-effective way to spruce up their yards this spring can stop by the National Cancer Institute at Frederick Green Team’s booth during the Spring Research Festival (SRF) on May 7 and 8. Pick up a free plant, donate overgrown plants from your yard, or swap for a new plant. Everyone is invited to participate in the swap, whether you have plants to donate or not.

  14. Mycobacterium parascrofulaceum in Acidic Hot Springs in Yellowstone National Park▿

    OpenAIRE

    Santos, Ricardo; Fernandes, João,; Fernandes, Nuno; Oliveira, Fernanda; Cadete, Manuela

    2007-01-01

    Mycobacterium parascrofulaceum was found in Norris Geyser Basin, Yellowstone National Park, in a system composed of two acidic (pH 3.0) springs with temperatures between 56°C at the source and 40°C at the confluence of both springs. Growth and survival assays at 56°C for 60 days were performed, confirming the origin of the strain.

  15. Yakima River Spring Chinook Enhancement Study Appendices, 1991 Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fast, David E.

    1991-05-01

    This document consists of the appendices for annual report DOE/BP/39461--9 which is summarized as follows. The population of Yakima River spring chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tschawytscha) has been drastically reduced from historic levels reported to be as high as 250,000 adults (Smoker 1956). This reduction is the result of a series of problems including mainstem Columbia dams, dams within the Yakima itself, severely reduced flows due to irrigation diversions, outmigrant loss in irrigation canals, increased thermal and sediment loading, and overfishing. Despite these problems, the return of spring chinook to the Yakima River has continued at levels ranging from 854 to 9,442 adults since 1958. In October 1982, the Bonneville Power Administration contracted the Yakima Indian Nation to develop methods to increase production of spring chinook in the Yakima system. The Yakima Nation's current enhancement policy attempts to maintain the genetic integrity of the spring chinook stock native to the Yakima Basin. Relatively small numbers of hatchery fish have been released into the basin in past years. The goal of this study was to develop data that will be used to present management alternatives for Yakima River spring chinook. A major objective of this study is to determine the distribution, abundance and survival of wild Yakima River spring chinook. The second major objective of this study is to determine the relative effectiveness of different methods of hatchery supplementation. The last three major objectives of the study are to locate and define areas in the watershed that may be used for the rearing of spring chinook; to define strategies for enhancing natural production of spring chinook in the Yakima River; and to determine the physical and biological limitations on production within the system.

  16. On the nonlinear design of industrial arc spring dampers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lahriri, Said; Santos, Ilmar; Hartmann, Henning

    2011-01-01

    for varying the damping characteristics of the SFD as well as the dynamic forces acting on the SFD. Phase plane orbits together with Poincar´e maps are given for different arc spring damping and static and dynamic load cases. Besides, bifurcation diagrams as a function of the arc spring damping and...... forces acting on the SFD are presented. It is worth mentioning, that the maps and diagrams can be used as design guidance....

  17. Precipitation impacts on vegetation spring phenology on the Tibetan Plateau

    OpenAIRE

    Shen, Miaogen; Piao, Shilong; Cong, Nan; Zhang, Gengxin; Jassens, Ivan A.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract: The ongoing changes in vegetation spring phenology in temperate/cold regions are widely attributed to temperature. However, in arid/semiarid ecosystems, the correlation between spring temperature and phenology is much less clear. We test the hypothesis that precipitation plays an important role in the temperature dependency of phenology in arid/semiarid regions. We therefore investigated the influence of preseason precipitation on satellite-derived estimates of starting date of vege...

  18. Analytical and experimental analysis of a parallel leaf spring guidance

    OpenAIRE

    Meijaard, J.P.; Brouwer, D. M.; Jonker, J.B.; Denier, J.; Finn, M

    2008-01-01

    A parallel leaf spring guidance is defined as a benchmark problem for flexible multibody formalisms and codes. The mechanism is loaded by forces and an additional moment or misalignment. Buckling loads, changes in compliance and frequencies, and large-amplitude vibrations are calculated. A previously developed beam element for modelling the leaf springs is shown to be able to describe these phenomena with a limited number of elements. The results are validated by experiments.

  19. Spring Mediated Cranioplasty for the Treatment of Craniosynostosis

    OpenAIRE

    Hurst, William James

    2003-01-01

    Craniosynostosis is a disorder characterized by the premature fusion of one or more cranial sutures in the infant skull, resulting in an abnormal shape of the cranium. An effective surgical procedure for treatment of this disorder has been developed and is currently use called â Dynamic Spring Mediated Craniofacial Reshaping.â This technique involves surgical removal of the fused suture and insertion of springs to expand the gap created by the suture removal in order to gradually reshap...

  20. Study on improving seal character of spring reacting safety valves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seal specific pressure of the spring reaction safety valves is a progressive decrease function of system working pressure, thus the leakage in normal pressure before the valve working have not been resolved. A new seal principle is given. According to the principle, the seal specific pressure of the spring reaction safety valves become a step function of system pressure, so that the seal performance of the valves is improved

  1. Yakima River Spring Chinook Enhancement Study, 1991 Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fast, David E.

    1991-05-01

    The population of Yakima River spring chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tschawytscha) has been drastically reduced from historic levels reported to be as high as 250,000 adults (Smoker 1956). This reduction is the result of a series of problems including mainstem Columbia dams, dams within the Yakima itself, severely reduced flows due to irrigation diversions, outmigrant loss in irrigation canals, increased thermal and sediment loading, and overfishing. Despite these problems, the return of spring chinook to the Yakima River has continued at levels ranging from 854 to 9,442 adults since 1958. In October 1982, the Bonneville Power Administration contracted the Yakima Indian Nation to develop methods to increase production of spring chinook in the Yakima system. The Yakima Nation's current enhancement policy attempts to maintain the genetic integrity of the spring chinook stock native to the Yakima Basin. Relatively small numbers of hatchery fish have been released into the basin in past years. The goal of this study was to develop data that will be used to present management alternatives for Yakima River spring chinook. A major objective of this study is to determine the distribution, abundance and survival of wild Yakima River spring chinook. The second major objective of this study is to determine the relative effectiveness of different methods of hatchery supplementation. The last three major objectives of the study are to locate and define areas in the watershed that may be used for the rearing of spring chinook; to define strategies for enhancing natural production of spring chinook in the Yakima River; and to determine the physical and biological limitations on production within the system. 47 refs., 89 figs., 67 tabs.

  2. Development of alternative materials for BWR fuel springs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Major sources of radioactivity introduced into reactor water of BWR were estimated fuel crud and in-core materials (especially, fuel springs). Fuel springs are used for fixation of fuel cladding tubes with spacer grid. Those are small parts (total length is only within 25 mm) and so many numbers are loaded simultaneously and then total surfaces area are calculated up to about 200 m2. Fuel springs are located under high radiation field and high oxidative environment. Conventional fuel spring is made of alloy-X750 which is one of nickel-based alloy and is reported to show relatively higher corrosion release rate. 58Co and 60Co will be released directly into reactor water from intensely radio-activated fuel springs surface and increase radioactivity concentrations in primary coolant. Corrosion release control from fuel springs is an important technical item and a development of alternative material instead of alloy-X750 for fuel spring is a key subject to achieve ultra low man-rem exposure BWR plant. In present work, alloy-X718 which started usage for PWR fuel springs and stainless steel type 316L which has many mechanical property data are picked up for alternative materials and compared their corrosion behaviors with conventional material. Corrosion experiment was conducted under vapor-water two phases flow which is simulated fuel cladding surface boiling condition. After exposure, corrosion film formed under corrosion test was analyzed in detail and corrosion film amount and corrosion release amount are estimated among three materials. (authors)

  3. Winter and Spring Cereal Production in the Maritimes

    OpenAIRE

    Nelson, Karen; MacKenzie, Joanna; Hammermeister, Andy

    2010-01-01

    Organic producers have expressed an interest in diversifying their crop rotations through the inclusion of winter cereals. Winter cereals have many potential benefits, as they provide soil cover over the winter months, can often out-compete weeds in the spring and can be harvested earlier than other cereal crops. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of management history on the performance of winter cereals versus spring cereals.

  4. Reengineering to reduce outage costs: Spring hanger pinning during outages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the key steps in the reengineering process requires us to ask the question, open-quotes Is this step in our work process necessary?close quotes This paper describes one such redesign of a maintenance procedure, resulting in significant gains in cost reduction and schedule compression for plant outages. Before draining a water-filled piping system, maintenance procedures at many power plants require pinning of all spring hangers supporting the system. This requirement ensures that piping system components are not overloaded by the spring force that is no longer counteracted by the weight of water in the pipeline. Unfortunately, pinning spring hangers can be a time-consuming and costly endeavor. Because spring hangers quite often are located in congested areas that are inaccessible from floor level, scaffolding must be erected to allow physical access by maintenance personnel. At Clinton power station, the subject power plant for this paper, this activity was costing approximately $250 000 per refueling outage and a personnel radiation exposure of -5 person-rems. In the past, the only alternative to this costly requirement was to perform case-by-case analysis to evaluate the effects of the spring uplift forces on the drained piping and associated components. However, these analyses are costly (approximately $8000 per piping subsystem) and time consuming. Given these rather significant costs, it is highly advantageous to limit or eliminate the spring hanger pinning requirement. This paper presents an overview of an evaluation performed for Clinton power station to address this issue

  5. Modeling of Axial Spring Stiffness in Active Vibration Controlled Drilling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pao William

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available During drilling process, substantial amount of vibration and shock are induced to the drill string. Active vibration controlled drilling is introduced to reduce the vibration and increase the efficiency of drilling process. In this system, two main components that determine the damping coefficient are magnetorheological (MR damper and spring assembly. Performance of vibration damping system is depending on the viscosity of MR fluid in the damper and spring constant of spring assembly. One of the key issues that are unclear from the design is the correlation between the axial spring stiffness configuration and the damping force which needs to be tuned actively. There has been lack of studies on how the viscosity of MR fluid on the active vibration damper affects the damping stiffness of the whole system. The objective of the project is to extract the correlations for the viscous damping coefficient, equivalent spring stiffness and power input to the system. Simplified vibration model is thus created using Simulink, together with experimental data fed from APS Technology’s in-house team. Inputs of the simulation such as force exerted, mass of mandrel, spring constant and step time are based on the experimental data and can be adjusted to suit different experiments. By having the model, behavior of the system can be studied and analyzed. From the simulation, it is also observed that the relationship between damping coefficient and power input of the system is linear.

  6. Elastic Sag Property of Low Carbon Martensite Spring Steel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Ye-sheng; CHEN Mi-song; WU Zi-ping; ZHU Yin-lu; DUO Tie-yun

    2004-01-01

    This paper studies the elastic sag resistance of new low-carbon martensite spring steel 35Si2CrVB developed recently and points out that the cause of elastic sag is attributed to cyclic softening of spring steel engendered during its serving,also considers that elastic sag property should be evaluated by dynamic mechanical properties of spring material such as dynamic yield strength σ'0.2, ratio of dynamic yield strength σ'0.2 vs. tensile strength σb (σ'0.2/σb) and ratio of dynamic yield strength σ' 0.2vs. static yield strengthσ0.2 (σ'0.2/σ0. 2 )etc. , which are measured by the cyclic stress-strain curve test. Compared with conventional spring steel 60Si2MnA, 35Si2CrVB has good advantages in both dynamic and static properties, which show it possesses higher elastic sag resistance than 60Si2MnA because of its lath-martensite structure tempering in low temperature different from 60Si2MnA steel's plate martensite structure tempering inmedium temperature. So it can be demonstrated that low carbon martensite spring steel is more appropriate for the demands of spring.

  7. Ecological patterns of Chironomidae assemblages in Dynaric karst springs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Płóciennik M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Springs are one of important freshwater habitats in the Dynaric Mountains. Nevertheless, there were no intensive studies on dipteran communities in the region. Here we present an ecological analysis of Chironomidae communities recorded from a set of 27 springs along the Cvrcka River mainstream (the Republic of Srpska, Bosnia and Herzegovina. Environmental classification of Cvrcka springs divide them into three groups reflecting the level of human impact. Chironomidae communities divide investigated springs into three groups more dependent on bottom substrate quality. CCA indicates that the hard bottom and altitude are primary (significant factors determining midge assemblages. Secondary factors influencing communities are oxygen concentration and conductivity. There are clear differences in diversity and abundance in these three types of spring communities. Type II aggregates natural sites for Cvrcka valley. Samples characterized by high abundance of Chironomus seems to be an outliers in Cvrcka canyon. Eucrenon and hypocrenon communities are distinct, but no differences in the diversity level or the environmental assemblage relation were recorded for both mesohabitats. This study proves that solely environmental classification of spring habitats reflects well human impact, but invertebrate communities may not clearly follow general classification, reacting to a set of natural and altered conditions.

  8. South Polar Cryptic Terrain in Early Spring

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    This image of the south polar region of Mars was taken by the Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) at 1557 UTC (10:57 a.m. EST) on Feb. 10, 2007, near 77.55 degrees south latitude, 131.98 degrees east longitude. CRISM's image was taken in 544 colors covering 0.36-3.92 micrometers, and shows features as small as 30 meters (98 feet) across. The region covered is just over 9 kilometers (5.6 miles) wide at its narrowest point, and is one of several in which CRISM is monitoring the evaporation (or 'sublimation') of the seasonal frost cap. The Martian south polar seasonal cap consists of carbon dioxide ice and frost, whose sublimation in the Martian spring creates a variety of features unlike anything in Earth's circumpolar regions. Part of the cap known as the 'cryptic region' is so cold that it must be covered with carbon dioxide frost, but it is also unexpectedly low in brightness and exhibits a variety of unusual dark blotches. Many scientists believe that carbon dioxide gas trapped below the sublimating ice is released in bursts, which carry along dust that gradually darkens the ice. One idea is that geyser-like dust eruptions form the dark blotches, and that the blotches grow, coalesce, and eventually hide the frost under a thin layer of dust. This image was taken shortly after sunrise with the Sun only about five degrees above the horizon. The left version shows brightness of the surface at 1.3 micrometers. The right version shows strength of an absorption band due to carbon dioxide frost at 1.435 micrometers; brighter areas have a stronger absorption and more carbon dioxide frost. However, even the darkest areas still have frost. The correlation between brightness and carbon dioxide frost abundance is striking, supporting the idea that the frost is being darkened by dust. Frost in the upper right corner shows the expected dark blotches, whereas the frost over the rest of the image is more uniformly dark, hinting that another darkening

  9. Development of device for grid spring fatigue and a cell-based fuel rod fretting wear tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyung Kyu; Yoon, Kyung Ho; Kang, Heung Seok; Song, Kee Nam

    2001-05-01

    As an activity of experimental research on the cause and the remedy of LWR fuel fretting failure, developed is test equipment for fatigue of grid spring and cell-based fuel rod fretting wear test. The equipment enables to perform the fretting wear test in the case of gap existence between spring and cladding, which has not been possible by the previously developed one (KAERI/TR-1570/2000). It can also provide fatigue test capability with the frequency of more than 10 Hz. Used are a servo-motor, an eccentric cylinder and lever mechanism for driving system as was similarly used for the previous equipment. In fretting wear test, up to 2 span-length of a fuel cladding tube can be accommodated. For fatigue test, on the other hand, a device for clamping the spring fixture is installed additionally. As a feature of the present equipment, the gap or the contacting force between a spring and a tube can be adjusted during the fretting wear test, while an initial spring force can be simulated for the fatigue test. Tests will be conducted in air at room temperature. In this report, every part of the equipment is explained with photographs, which will provide an easy understanding. Test procedure such as specimen installation, sequence of operation and program handling is also given. As a performance test of the present equipment, displacement range is measured when the hinge of the lever locates at its maximum and minimum positions. This will be used as basic information when additional eccentric cylinder is necessary for different displacement ranges.

  10. Diets of Lesser Scaup during spring migration throughout the upper-Midwest are consistent with the spring condition hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anteau, M.J.; Afton, A.D.

    2008-01-01

    The spring condition hypothesis (SCH) states that the current decline of the North American scaup population (Lesser [Aythya affinis] and Greater Scaup [A. marila] combined) is due to a decline in quality or availability of scaup foods on wintering, spring migration, or breeding areas that has caused a reduction in female body condition and subsequent reproductive success. Our previous research indicated that forage quality in diets of Lesser Scaup (hereafter scaup) at two sites in Northwestern Minnesota was lower in springs 2000-2001 than that reported for springs 1986-1988, consistent with the SCH. Accordingly, we further tested the SCH at a landscape scale, by comparing amounts of amphipods in diets (index of forage quality) of scaup (N = 263) collected in springs 2003-2005 from seven eco-physiographic regions in Iowa, Minnesota, and North Dakota in relation to data from Northwestern Minnesota during springs 2000-2001. We found that aggregate percentages of Gammarus lacustris and Hyalella azteca (amphipods) in scaup diets during springs 2000-2001 in Northwest Minnesota were similar to those in the Iowa Prairie Pothole, Minnesota Morainal, Minnesota Glaciated Plains, Red River Valley, and Northwestern Minnesota in springs 2003-2005; however, scaup consumed relatively higher aggregate percentages of Gammarus lacustris and Hyalella azteca in North Dakota Missouri Coteau and North Dakota Glaciated Plains. Females in Iowa were over three times less likely to have consumed food than those in North Dakota, despite previous research indicating similar foraging rates among these regions. Mean mass of scaup diet samples throughout the upper-Midwest were 77 mg (49%) and 87 mg (52%) lower than those of historical studies in Minnesota and Manitoba, respectively. We conclude that there has been a decrease in forage quality for scaup in Iowa and Minnesota and a decrease in the amount of forage consumed throughout the upper-Midwest, consistent with the SCH.

  11. Dissolved oxygen fluctuations in karst spring flow and implications for endemic species: Barton Springs, Edwards aquifer, Texas, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahler, Barbara J.; Bourgeais, Renan

    2013-01-01

    Karst aquifers and springs provide the dissolved oxygen critical for survival of endemic stygophiles worldwide, but little is known about fluctuations of dissolved oxygen concentrations (DO) and factors that control those concentrations. We investigated temporal variation in DO at Barton Springs, Austin, Texas, USA. During 2006–2012, DO fluctuated by as much as a factor of 2, and at some periods decreased to concentrations that adversely affect the Barton Springs salamander (Eurycea sorosum) (≤4.4 mg/L), a federally listed endangered species endemic to Barton Springs. DO was lowest (≤4.4 mg/L) when discharge was low (≤1 m3/s) and spring water temperature was >21 °C, although not at a maximum; the minimum DO recorded was 4.0 mg/L. Relatively low DO (3/s) and maximum T (22.2 °C). A four-segment linear regression model with daily data for discharge and spring water temperature as explanatory variables provided an excellent fit for mean daily DO (Nash–Sutcliffe coefficient for the validation period of 0.90). DO also fluctuated at short-term timescales in response to storms, and DO measured at 15-min intervals could be simulated with a combination of discharge, spring temperature, and specific conductance as explanatory variables. On the basis of the daily-data regression model, we hypothesize that more frequent low DO corresponding to salamander mortality could result from (i) lower discharge from Barton Springs resulting from increased groundwater withdrawals or decreased recharge as a result of climate change, and (or) (ii) higher groundwater temperature as a result of climate change.

  12. REACH. Air Conditioning Units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrison, Joe; And Others

    As a part of the REACH (Refrigeration, Electro-Mechanical, Air-Conditioning, Heating) electromechanical cluster, this student manual contains individualized instructional units in the area of air conditioning. The instructional units focus on air conditioning fundamentals, window air conditioning, system and installation, troubleshooting and…

  13. Lake Bogoria, Kenya: Hot and warm springs, geysers and Holocene stromatolites

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCall, Joseph

    2010-11-01

    I carried out the first regional geological survey of the central Gregory Rift Valley in Kenya in 1958-60, and review here the numerous subsequent specialised studies focused on the unique endoreic Lake Bogoria (formerly Hannington), studies which embraced the sedimentology of the Holocene sediments around the lake shores, the hot-spring and geyser activities and the coring of the sediments beneath the lake. I focus on the occurrences of stromatolites in a hydrothermal environment, both in two closely spaced late Holocene (~ 4500 yr BP) generations at the lake margin, associated with algae and cyanobacteria, which represent a final more humid climatic phase after the several interglacial more humid phases (also represented by stromatolite occurrences in other rift valley lakes); and also at present being formed, at the edge of the now highly saline lake, in the very hot springs in association with thermophilic bacteria and with silica. I briefly mention the older occurrences in Lake Magadi to the south, which are quite different; and form three generations; and also present-day occurrences of stromatolites in a flood-plain environment, unlike the present-day environment at Lake Bogoria. Other stromatolite occurrences are mentioned, around Lake Turkana and the former lake in the Suguta River valley to the north. I suggest that the hot waterfall at Kapedo, at the head of the Suguta River, and the central island of Ol Kokwe (with hot springs, amidst the fresh water Lake Baringo) could well be investigated for stromatolite occurrences. Lake Bogoria, an empty wilderness occupied only by flamingos when I mapped it, is now more accessible and provides a unique open-air laboratory for such researches, but like all the Rift Valley lakes, is unique, sui generis. Results of detailed investigations of the type reviewed here, can only be applied to other occurrences of stromatolites elsewhere in the rift system or beyond the rift system with reservation.

  14. The characteristics of sea fog with different airflow over the Huanghai Sea in boreal spring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Jian; WANG Xin; ZHOU Wen; HUANG Huijun; WANG Dongxiao; ZHOU Faxiu

    2010-01-01

    Using the observations from ICOADS datasets and contemporaneous NCEP/NCAR reanalysis datasets during 1960-2002, the study classifies the airflows in favor of sea fog over the Huang-hai (Yellow) Sea in boreal spring (April-May) with the method of trajectory analysis, and analyzes the changes of proportions of warm and cold sea fogs along different paths of airflow. According to the heat balance equation, we investigate the relationships between the marine meteorological conditions and the proportion of warm and cold sea fog along different airflow paths. The major results are summarized as follows. (1) Sea fogs over the Huanghai Sea in spring are not only warm fog but also cold fog. The proportion of warm fog only accounts for 44% in April, while increases as high as 57% in May. (2) Four primary airflow paths leading to spring sea fog are identified. They are originated from the northwest, east, southeast and southwest of the Huanghai Sea, respectively. The occurrence ratios of the warm sea fog along the east and southeast airflow paths are high of 55% and 70%, while these along the southwest and northwest airflow paths are merely 17.9% and 50%. (3) The key physical processes governing the warm/cold sea fog are heat advection transport, longwave radiation cooling at fog top, solar shortwave warming and latent heat flux between air-sea interfaces. (4) The characteristics of sea fog along the four airflow paths relate closely to the conditions of water vapor advection, and the vertical distribution of relative humidity.

  15. Cold-induced accumulation of protein in the leaves of spring and winter barley cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimzadeh, G; Darvishzadeh, R; Jalali-Javaran, M; Dehghani, H

    2005-01-01

    Electrophoretic pattern and quantitative changes in soluble proteins were determined in the leaves of spring and winter cultivars of barley (Hordeum vulgare L., cv. Makouei and cv. Reyhan, respectively) exposed to 4 degrees C for 14 d. Seedlings were grown in a controlled growth chamber for 2 weeks at a constant air temperature of 20 degrees C and then transferred to constant 4 degrees C for 14 d followed by returning to 20 degrees C (cold treatment), or they were maintained throughout at 20 degrees C during the experimental period of 40 d (control treatment). Plants were sampled every 48 h for leaf fresh weight measurements. Total leaf soluble proteins were extracted and their concentration was either determined by a colorimetric method, or size-fractionated on SDS-PAGE. Low temperature-induced increases in protein amount occurred over the second week of exposure to cold treatment irrespective of cultivar: the winter cultivar was 2 d prior in this response. The protein patterns and their density showed differences between-cultivars and between-temperature treatments. A new cold-induced polypeptide was recognized in the leaves of winter barley cultivar on day 22 (8 d at 4 degrees C) compared to the control. This polypeptide was produced earlier over the first 48 h of low temperature in the winter cultivar compared with the spring one, recognizing in the leaves of cold-treated seedling until day 26. This more rapid response to a low temperature by the winter barley cultivar indicates a more sensitive response compared with the spring barley, probably cold-shock protein is a component of this cold-induced response. PMID:15813217

  16. Proposed plan for the management of bulk wastes at the Weldon Spring quarry, Weldon Spring, Missouri

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This proposed plan addresses the management of contaminated bulk wastes at the Weldon Spring quarry. Activities at the site are being conducted by the US Department of Energy under its Surplus Facilities Management Program. A remedial investigation/feasibility study has been prepared in accordance with requirements of the Comprehensive Environmental Response. The purposes of the proposed plan are to present a notice and brief analysis of the proposed quarry bulk waste remedial action, describe the remedial action alternatives for this interim remedial action, identify the currently preferred alternative for managing the bulk wastes and present the rationale for this preference, serve as a companion document to the RI/FS and administrative record file for this action, and outline the public's role in the decision-making process for this action. 2 figs., 4 tabs

  17. The Distinctive Feature of Nashe's Poetry Spring-A Study of Spring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈鲁华

    2002-01-01

    Thomas Nashe's Spring is a lyric poem extracted from his comedy "Will Summer's Testament". It is a poem of iambic pentameter. The whole poem is made up of three stanzas. Simple and plain as its language is , it is the language of common speech of his own time, ingeniously chosen, refined,modified and heightened. The author's use of a combination of alliteration, mediate and end rhyme in its rhyme scheme makes the poem read as smoothly and briskly as singing a song. His arrangement of four rhythm or beating schemes in a single poem makes the poem confirm to no conventional pattern. His employment of many rhetorical devices makes the poem vivid, imaginative and perfective.[ Key words] distinctive feature, beauty of language and vision, arrangement of various rhymes andrhythms, employment of rhetorical devices.

  18. Radiological survey report for the Weldon Spring Raffinate Pits site, Weldon Spring, Missouri

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Weldon Spring Site (WSS) is a US Department of Energy (DOE) surplus facility comprising the Raffinate Pits facility, the Quarry, and potentially contaminated vicinity properties. Radiological characterization of the WSS will be conducted in three phases: the Raffinate Pits facility, Quarry, and the vicinity properties. Bechtel National, Inc. (BNI) and its radiological support subcontractor, Eberline Instrument Corporation (EIC), conducted a radiological characterization survey of the Raffinate Pits during 1982 and 1983 in support of on-site construction work and a technical evaluation of site geology. The survey consisted of direct beta-gamma surface readings, near-surface gamma readings, exposure level measurements, and gamma-logs of boreholes. Soil samples were also collected from the surface, shallow boreholes, and trenches on the site. This report describes the radiological characterization of the Raffinate Pits facility, the procedures used to conduct the survey, the survey results, and their significance. 5 references, 9 figures, 8 tables

  19. Parsimonious Hydrologic and Nitrate Response Models For Silver Springs, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klammler, Harald; Yaquian-Luna, Jose Antonio; Jawitz, James W.; Annable, Michael D.; Hatfield, Kirk

    2014-05-01

    Silver Springs with an approximate discharge of 25 m3/sec is one of Florida's first magnitude springs and among the largest springs worldwide. Its 2500-km2 springshed overlies the mostly unconfined Upper Floridan Aquifer. The aquifer is approximately 100 m thick and predominantly consists of porous, fractured and cavernous limestone, which leads to excellent surface drainage properties (no major stream network other than Silver Springs run) and complex groundwater flow patterns through both rock matrix and fast conduits. Over the past few decades, discharge from Silver Springs has been observed to slowly but continuously decline, while nitrate concentrations in the spring water have enormously increased from a background level of 0.05 mg/l to over 1 mg/l. In combination with concurrent increases in algae growth and turbidity, for example, and despite an otherwise relatively stable water quality, this has given rise to concerns about the ecological equilibrium in and near the spring run as well as possible impacts on tourism. The purpose of the present work is to elaborate parsimonious lumped parameter models that may be used by resource managers for evaluating the springshed's hydrologic and nitrate transport responses. Instead of attempting to explicitly consider the complex hydrogeologic features of the aquifer in a typically numerical and / or stochastic approach, we use a transfer function approach wherein input signals (i.e., time series of groundwater recharge and nitrate loading) are transformed into output signals (i.e., time series of spring discharge and spring nitrate concentrations) by some linear and time-invariant law. The dynamic response types and parameters are inferred from comparing input and output time series in frequency domain (e.g., after Fourier transformation). Results are converted into impulse (or step) response functions, which describe at what time and to what magnitude a unitary change in input manifests at the output. For the

  20. Indoor Air Pollution (Environmental Health Student Portal)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Students to Environmental Health Information Menu Home Air Pollution Air Pollution Home Indoor Air Pollution Outdoor Air Pollution ... Pollution Indoor Air Pollution Print this Page Air Pollution Air Pollution Home Indoor Air Pollution Outdoor Air Pollution ...