WorldWideScience

Sample records for air springs

  1. Design of Stiffness for Air Spring Based on ABAQUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongguang Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an axisymmetric finite element (FE model of an air spring was carried out with the software ABAQUS to design its target vertical stiffness. The bellows was simulated by the reinforced surface element. The compressed gas in the cavity of the air spring was represented by the hydrostatic fluid element. The target stiffness is obtained by modifying the valid area of the cross section. At last, the results of experiment coincided well with the simulation data. The study shows that the static stiffness of air spring is sensitive to the effective area of the cross section. The conclusion has certain practical significance for the design and the optimization of the same kind of air spring.

  2. The Dynamic Characteristic and Hysteresis Effect of an Air Spring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löcken, F.; Welsch, M.

    2015-02-01

    In many applications of vibration technology, especially in chassis, air springs present a common alternative to steel spring concepts. A design-independent and therefore universal approach is presented to describe the dynamic characteristic of such springs. Differential and constitutive equations based on energy balances of the enclosed volume and the mountings are given to describe the nonlinear and dynamic characteristics. Therefore all parameters can be estimated directly from physical and geometrical properties, without parameter fitting. The numerically solved equations fit very well to measurements of a passenger car air spring. In a second step a simplification of this model leads to a pure mechanical equation. While in principle the same parameters are used, just an empirical correction of the effective heat transfer coefficient is needed to handle some simplification on this topic. Finally, a linearization of this equation leads to an analogous mechanical model that can be assembled from two common spring- and one dashpot elements in a specific arrangement. This transfer into "mechanical language" enables a system description with a simple force-displacement law and a consideration of the nonobvious hysteresis and stiffness increase of an air spring from a mechanical point of view.

  3. The Dynamic Characteristic and Hysteresis Effect of an Air Spring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Löcken F.

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In many applications of vibration technology, especially in chassis, air springs present a common alternative to steel spring concepts. A design-independent and therefore universal approach is presented to describe the dynamic characteristic of such springs. Differential and constitutive equations based on energy balances of the enclosed volume and the mountings are given to describe the nonlinear and dynamic characteristics. Therefore all parameters can be estimated directly from physical and geometrical properties, without parameter fitting. The numerically solved equations fit very well to measurements of a passenger car air spring. In a second step a simplification of this model leads to a pure mechanical equation. While in principle the same parameters are used, just an empirical correction of the effective heat transfer coefficient is needed to handle some simplification on this topic. Finally, a linearization of this equation leads to an analogous mechanical model that can be assembled from two common spring- and one dashpot elements in a specific arrangement. This transfer into ”mechanical language” enables a system description with a simple force-displacement law and a consideration of the nonobvious hysteresis and stiffness increase of an air spring from a mechanical point of view.

  4. Zero-Spring-Rate Mechanism/Air Suspension Cart

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodard, Stanley E.; Cooley, Victor M.

    1991-01-01

    Compact mechanism suspends articulating flexible structures with minimal constraints. Zero-spring-rate mechanism (ZSRM) air suspension cart used to suspend flexible, "mass-critical" articles like lightweight spacecraft undergoing such large motions as slewing, translation, and telescoping/retraction. Suspends flexible article undergoing large rigid-body motion concurrent with vibratory motion, with minimal interaction between suspended article and suspending hardware. Adaptive to active control, which reduces undesirable effects caused by friction, nonlinearity, and mass coupling. Practical for most suspension applications.

  5. A study on calculation method for mechanical impedance of air spring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Changgeng, SHUAI; Penghui, LI; Rustighi, Emiliano

    2016-09-01

    This paper proposes an approximate analytic method of obtaining the mechanical impedance of air spring. The sound pressure distribution in cylindrical air spring is calculated based on the linear air wave theory. The influences of different boundary conditions on the acoustic pressure field distribution in cylindrical air spring are analysed. A 1-order ordinary differential matrix equation for the state vector of revolutionary shells under internal pressure is derived based on the non-moment theory of elastic thin shell. Referring to the transfer matrix method, a kind of expanded homogeneous capacity high precision integration method is introduced to solve the non-homogeneous matrix differential equation. Combined the solved stress field of shell with the calculated sound pressure field in air spring under the displacement harmonic excitation, the approximate analytical expression of the input and transfer mechanical impedance for the air spring can be achieved. The numerical simulation with the Comsol Multiphysics software verifies the correctness of theoretical analysis result.

  6. Air Force Civil Engineer, Volume 9, Number 1, Spring 2001

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    I had to convince people of.� Young, a heavy equipment operator who has worked snow removal at Grand Forks Air Force Base, N.D.; Osan Air Base, Korea...storage tanks at Spangdahlem AB, Germany. Geer is a 2000 Lance P. Sijan Air Force Leadership Award recipient. (Photo by SrA Esperanza Berrios) 31 CE

  7. Springs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    James J. Kilpatrick

    2006-01-01

    @@ Springs are not always the same. In some years, April bursts upon our Virginia hills in one prodigious leap-and all the stage is filled at once, whole choruses of tulips, arabesques of forsythia, cadenzas of flowering plum. The trees grow leaves overnight

  8. The error research on vertical rigidity theory's formula of airborne air spring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Li-guo; ZHANG Jia-zhong

    2010-01-01

    On the basis of analyzing the result of numerical simulation and that of theoretical analysis,the sys tematic error of some air spring' s theoretical formula is researched.The result shows that the vertical stiffness' s theoretical formula of air spring owes the systematic error.And the systematic error is relative to the three supposed conditions which are used in the process of theoretical deduction.However,the systematic error is small enough so that the supposed conditions of theoretical formula are reasonable.Moreover,with the in crease of initial inner pressure,the systematical error increases.

  9. Air & Space Power Journal. Volume 22, Number 1, Spring 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    United States, see the Missouri Department of Natural Resources’ guide: “Earthquake Facts about the New Madrid Seismic Zone,” http://www.dnr.mo.gov...Gen Ronald R. Fogleman, former Air Force chief of staff, notes in a dust- jacket blurb that the loss of Site 85 “should be a subject for mandatory

  10. Influence of pellet seating on the external ballistic parameters of spring-piston air guns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Ronald; Schultz, Benno; Frank, Matthias

    2016-09-01

    In firearm examiners' and forensic specialists' casework as well as in air gun proof testing, reliable measurement of the weapon's muzzle velocity is indispensable. While there are standardized and generally accepted procedures for testing the performance of air guns, the method of seating the diabolo pellets deeper into the breech of break barrel spring-piston air guns has not found its way into standardized test procedures. The influence of pellet seating on the external ballistic parameters was investigated using ten different break barrel spring-piston air guns. Test shots were performed with the diabolo pellets seated 2 mm deeper into the breech using a pellet seater. The results were then compared to reference shots with conventionally loaded diabolo pellets. Projectile velocity was measured with a high-precision redundant ballistic speed measurement system. In eight out of ten weapons, the muzzle energy increased significantly when the pellet seater was used. The average increase in kinetic energy was 31 % (range 9-96 %). To conclude, seating the pellet even slightly deeper into the breech of spring-piston air guns might significantly alter the muzzle energy. Therefore, it is strongly recommended that this effect is taken into account when accurate and reliable measurements of air gun muzzle velocity are necessary.

  11. A SPRING IN BUENOS AIRES: our experience reporting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosemberg Ferracini

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The objective of this paper is to present the activities developed in a stage during four months in 2009, in Buenos Aires. It was possible owing a selection process by Programa Red Macro para Universidades de América Latina y Caribe. This stage took place under the supervision by Ph.D. Perla Zusmán, from Buenos Aires University – UBA, with a schedule based on studies previously built in Brazil. The set of work has been with a Spanish language course, with a participation in study group meetings regarding geographical thinking history, with teaching and methodology search, with a presentation and publication of our reflections in scientific events. We believe that the following report may contribute to new dialogues and to manage new ways. RESUMEN: El objetivo de este trabajo es presentear las actividades desarroladas durante la etapa de cuatro meses em Buenos Aires em 2009. Esto fue posible debido a um processo de seleción para el programa de becas para las universidade de Sud de América y el Caribe. Nuestro escenario se llevó a cabo bajo la direción del Professor Phd, Perla Zusmán de la Universidad de Buenos AiresUBA. Para ella, hemos seguido um programa de estúdio basado em la literatura previamente construída em Brasil. Entre el conjunto de trabajo ha sido el curso de castellano, la participación em las reuniones del grupos de estúdio en la historia de pensamiento de la geografia, la educación y la metodologia de la investigación y publicación de eventos científicos de nuestras reflexiones. RESUMO: O objetivo deste trabalho é apresentar as atividades desenvolvidas durante o estágio de quatro meses na Universidade de Buenos Aires - UBA no ano de 2009. Esse fato foi possível devido a uma seleção no programa de bolsa de estudos da Universidade da América do Sul e Caribe. Nosso programa de trabalho seguiu a orientação da professora Dra. Perla Zusman. Entre o conjunto de atividades participamos de reuniões no

  12. Dynamic analysis and design of air spring mounting system for marine propulsion system

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Lin; Xu, Wei; Bu, Wenjun; Shi, Liang

    2014-09-01

    Marine propulsion unit (MPU) is one of the dominant vibration and noise sources onboard ship. Its vibration can be attenuated effectively by isolating MPU with low-frequency mounting system. But this is difficult to implement due to the stringent requirement of MPU alignment with the propulsion shafting. In this paper a novel air spring mounting system (ASMS) for propulsion system is proposed consisting of air spring subsystem, alignment control subsystem and safety protection subsystem. The load distribution optimization method and dynamic model of ASMS are presented. The factors that affect system stability and natural frequencies are analyzed, as well as the design measures to enhance system performance. A theoretical model is presented to estimate the isolation effect of ASMS. The monitoring model of alignment between MPU and propulsion shafting is established, followed by the alignment control algorithm and converge rule which assures the fast and uniform convergence of both air springs load distribution and alignment control process. Safety protection mechanism is designed to ensure that the MPU can operate safely in case of ASMS failure or other extreme circumstances. A scaled ASMS prototype is manufactured and tested on a special experimental setup. Experimental results validate the effectiveness of theoretical models and show that the performance of ASMS satisfies the operation requirements of MPU.

  13. Pollution characteristic of VOCs of ambient air in winter and spring in Shijiazhuang City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing CHANG

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to further explore the pollution characteristics of volatile organic compounds in ambient air in winter and spring in Shijiazhuang City, the pollution characteristics of 62 volatile organic compounds (VOCs, monthly and quarterly variation, the correlation between VOCs and PM2.5, and the main sources of VOCs are investigated by using EPA TO-15 method. It shows that 40 organic compounds of the 64 VOCs have been quantitatively determined in winter and spring in the city, which are mainly acetone, benzene, carbon tetrachloride, dichloromethane, toluene, ethyl acetate, etc.. In the no-quantitatively determined components, higher ethanol, butyl acetate, butane etc. are detected. The VOCs concentration has positive correlation with the PM2.5 concentration during haze days.

  14. Spring Outing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙芳

    2011-01-01

    It is springtime.The days are getting warmer and the flowers are in bloom.With the pleasantly warm sunshine,gentle breeze and fresh air,it is high time for spring outing and sightseeing.Are you still hesitating? Let’s see what benefits spring outing brings about and then pay attention to some matters while taking a trip out in spring. Benefits of spring outing Spring outing is especially popular with children and teenagers.But many adults also like to go on spring trips.The reason might be that spring outing can have several benefits.

  15. Determination of radon concentration in soil air and in the radioactive spring's bathroom air by passive method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horiuchi, Kimiko [Otsuma Women' s Univ., School of Social Information Studies, Tama, Tokyo (Japan); Ishii, Tadashi [Yamanashi Medical Univ., Radioisotope Lab., Tamaho, Yamanashi (Japan)

    2002-06-01

    There are many kind of passive methods such as open vial method, {alpha}-track method and active carbon method (PICO-RAD detector) or so. The open vial method can determine radon in soil air, which dissolves easily into toluene and afterwards can be measured by the integral counting with a liquid scintillation counter. The {alpha}-track method can record {alpha} ray tracks of radon on thin cellulose nitrate film which can be rendered visible for counting after NaOH solution treatment. The PICO-RAD detectors are passive devices requiring no power. They are integrating detectors used to determine the average radon concentration in air where they are placed. The detectors consist of a plastic liquid scintillation vial which consists a porous canister held securely near the top of the vial. The porous canister contains a bed of a controlled weight of charcoal covered by a layer of desiccant. The securely capped canister has and indefinite shelf life. The {alpha} radioactivity of radon gas adsorbed in fine active charcoal exposed in the air is measured with a liquid scintillation counter. Using of those simple detectors, we have measured distribution of radon concentration in soil air and in the radioactive spring's bathroom air. (author)

  16. [Influence of Burning Fireworks on Air Quality During the Spring Festival in the Pearl River Delta].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wei; Fan, Shao-jia; Xie, Wen-zhang; Sun, Jia-ren

    2015-12-01

    Based on data from the air quality monitoring stations in the Pearl River Delta during the 2015 Spring Festival, the regional air quality was investigated and the impact of burning fireworks on urban air quality was assessed. The results showed that: Zhaoqing was the worst polluted city in PM₁₀, PM₂.₅, SO₂ and CO in terms of concentrations in the region during the period, Huizhou was the worst polluted city in O₃ and Guangzhou was the most polluted city in NO₂ at the same time. Compared to the data of last year, the SO₂, NO₂, CO, PM₁₀ and PM₂.₅ concentrations had decreased significantly, but the O₃ concentration had increased during the Spring Festival. Burning fireworks during the Spring Festival were mainly concentrated in the suburbs. The concentrated discharge of fireworks made the SO₂, PM₁₀ and PM₂.₅ concentrations increased significantly in the New Year's Eve night, even multiplied, but had no significant effect on CO, O₃ and NO₂. The rapid decline in PM₂.₅/PM₁₀ proportion was caused by the discharge of fireworks, and the ratio of PM₂.₅/PM₁₀ reached the minimum when concentration of particles reached the peak. By assessing, the maximum contribution of hourly concentration from burning fireworks in each city was between 16 µg · m⁻³ and 65 µg · m⁻³ for PM₂.₅, between 28 µg · m⁻³ and 138 µg · m⁻³ for PM₁₀ and between 9 µg · m⁻³ and 43 µg · m⁻³ for SO₂.

  17. Spring photosynthetic recovery of boreal Norway spruce under conditions of elevated [CO(2)] and air temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallin, Göran; Hall, Marianne; Slaney, Michelle; Räntfors, Mats; Medhurst, Jane; Linder, Sune

    2013-11-01

    Accumulated carbon uptake, apparent quantum yield (AQY) and light-saturated net CO2 assimilation (Asat) were used to assess the responses of photosynthesis to environmental conditions during spring for three consecutive years. Whole-tree chambers were used to expose 40-year-old field-grown Norway spruce trees in northern Sweden to an elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration, [CO2], of 700 μmol CO2 mol(-1) (CE) and an air temperature (T) between 2.8 and 5.6 °C above ambient T (TE), during summer and winter. Net shoot CO2 exchange (Anet) was measured continuously on 1-year-old shoots and was used to calculate the accumulated carbon uptake and daily Asat and AQY. The accumulated carbon uptake, from 1 March to 30 June, was stimulated by 33, 44 and 61% when trees were exposed to CE, TE, and CE and TE combined, respectively. Air temperature strongly influenced the timing and extent of photosynthetic recovery expressed as AQY and Asat during the spring. Under elevated T (TE), the recovery of AQY and Asat commenced ∼10 days earlier and the activity of these parameters was significantly higher throughout the recovery period. In the absence of frost events, the photosynthetic recovery period was less than a week. However, frost events during spring slowed recovery so that full recovery could take up to 60 days to complete. Elevated [CO2] stimulated AQY and Asat on average by ∼10 and ∼50%, respectively, throughout the recovery period, but had minimal or no effect on the onset and length of the photosynthetic recovery period during the spring. However, AQY, Asat and Anet all recovered at significantly higher T (average +2.2 °C) in TE than in TA, possibly caused by acclimation or by shorter days and lower light levels during the early part of the recovery in TE compared with TA. The results suggest that predicted future climate changes will cause prominent stimulation of photosynthetic CO2 uptake in boreal Norway spruce forest during spring, mainly caused by elevated T

  18. Regional change in snow water equivalent-surface air temperature relationship over Eurasia during boreal spring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Renguang; Chen, Shangfeng

    2016-10-01

    Present study investigates local relationship between surface air temperature and snow water equivalent (SWE) change over mid- and high-latitudes of Eurasia during boreal spring. Positive correlation is generally observed around the periphery of snow covered region, indicative of an effect of snow on surface temperature change. In contrast, negative correlation is usually found over large snow amount area, implying a response of snow change to wind-induced surface temperature anomalies. With the seasonal retreat of snow covered region, region of positive correlation between SWE and surface air temperature shifts northeastward from March to May. A diagnosis of surface heat flux anomalies in April suggests that the snow impact on surface air temperature is dominant in east Europe and west Siberia through modulating surface shortwave radiation. In contrast, atmospheric effect on SWE is important in Siberia and Russia Far East through wind-induced surface sensible heat flux change. Further analysis reveals that atmospheric circulation anomalies in association with snowmelt over east Siberia may be partly attributed to sea surface temperature anomalies in the North Atlantic and the atmospheric circulation anomaly pattern associated with snowmelt over Russia Far East has a close association with the Arctic Oscillation.

  19. Buildup and simulation of a truck model with rear air suspension using leaf spring as guiding rod

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    A new kind of commercial truck is presented, which has rear air suspension using leaf spring as guiding rod instead of original leaf spring. ADAMS/Car is used as a tool to build the whole truck model. The designed truck's constant-radius cornering analysis and its ride performance simulation analysis under B class random road condition are carried out according to national experimental method standards. Compared the simulation results with the field test results indicate that performance index of the designed air suspension truck's constant-radius cornering and its ride performance meets the design requirements and reaches its prospective target. And results from simulation are similar to those from tests in value and trend, which indicates the virtual prototype is correct. The model can be used further to optinize suspension parameters and do some design work on the control system of air suspension.

  20. Spring Tire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asnani, Vivake M.; Benzing, Jim; Kish, Jim C.

    2011-01-01

    The spring tire is made from helical springs, requires no air or rubber, and consumes nearly zero energy. The tire design provides greater traction in sandy and/or rocky soil, can operate in microgravity and under harsh conditions (vastly varying temperatures), and is non-pneumatic. Like any tire, the spring tire is approximately a toroidal-shaped object intended to be mounted on a transportation wheel. Its basic function is also similar to a traditional tire, in that the spring tire contours to the surface on which it is driven to facilitate traction, and to reduce the transmission of vibration to the vehicle. The essential difference between other tires and the spring tire is the use of helical springs to support and/or distribute load. They are coiled wires that deform elastically under load with little energy loss.

  1. Characteristics and dynamic response of 3-D component base isolation system using ball bearings and air springs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsutsumi, Hideaki; Yamada, Hiroyuki; Mori, Kazunari; Ebisawa, Katsumi; Shibata, Katsuyuki [Seismic Emergency Information System Research Team, Tokai Research Establishment, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2001-02-01

    Introduction of the base isolation technique into the seismic design of nuclear power plant components as well as buildings has been expected as one of effective countermeasure to reduce the seismic force applied to components. A research program on the base isolation of nuclear components has been carried out at the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) since 1991. A methodology and a computer code (EBISA: Equipment Base Isolation System Analysis) for evaluating the failure frequency of the nuclear component with the base isolation were developed. In addition, a test program, which is concerned with the above development, aiming at improvement of failure frequency analysis models in the code has been conducted since 1996 to investigate the dynamic behavior and to verify the effectiveness of component base isolation systems. Two base isolation test systems with different characteristics were fabricated and static and dynamic characteristics were measured by static loading and free vibration tests. One which consists of ball bearings and air springs was installed on the test bed to observe the dynamic response under natural earthquake motion. The effect of base isolation system has been observed under several earthquakes. Three-dimensional response and effect of base isolation of another system using multi-layer-rubber-bearings and coil springs has been investigated against various large earthquake motions by shaking table test. This report describes the design specification of the base isolation system using ball bearings and air springs, dynamic characteristics, dynamic response against natural seismic motion and results of dynamic response analysis considering the various characteristics of isolation devices. (author)

  2. Predator Force Structure Changes at Indian Springs Air Force Auxiliary Field, Nevada Environmental Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-07-01

    the North Las Vegas Library (Main Branch), the Indian Springs Library, and online at www.cevp.com and www.nellis.af.mil. A Notice of Availability...USGS (U.S. Geological Survey). 2001. Online Table of Seismic Hazards. http://geohazards.cr.usgs.gov/eq/faults/fsrpage11.html Predator Force...Sincerely, __ ~~~-~ Heather K. Elliott Nevada State Clearinghouse/ SPOC NEVADA STATE CLEARINGHOUSE Department of Administration Budget and Planning

  3. Connections Between the Spring Breakup of the Southern Hemisphere Polar Vortex, Stationary Waves, and Air-sea Roughness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garfinkel, Chaim I.; Oman, Luke David; Barnes, Elizabeth A.; Waugh, Darryn W.; Hurwitz, Margaret H.; Molod, Andrea M.

    2013-01-01

    A robust connection between the drag on surface-layer winds and the stratospheric circulation is demonstrated in NASA's Goddard Earth Observing System Chemistry-Climate Model (GEOSCCM). Specifically, an updated parameterization of roughness at the air-sea interface, in which surface roughness is increased for moderate wind speeds (4ms to 20ms), leads to a decrease in model biases in Southern Hemispheric ozone, polar cap temperature, stationary wave heat flux, and springtime vortex breakup. A dynamical mechanism is proposed whereby increased surface roughness leads to improved stationary waves. Increased surface roughness leads to anomalous eddy momentum flux convergence primarily in the Indian Ocean sector (where eddies are strongest climatologically) in September and October. The localization of the eddy momentum flux convergence anomaly in the Indian Ocean sector leads to a zonally asymmetric reduction in zonal wind and, by geostrophy, to a wavenumber-1 stationary wave pattern. This tropospheric stationary wave pattern leads to enhanced upwards wave activity entering the stratosphere. The net effect is an improved Southern Hemisphere vortex: the vortex breaks up earlier in spring (i.e., the spring late-breakup bias is partially ameliorated) yet is no weaker in mid-winter. More than half of the stratospheric biases appear to be related to the surface wind speed biases. As many other chemistry climate models use a similar scheme for their surface layer momentum exchange and have similar biases in the stratosphere, we expect that results from GEOSCCM may be relevant for other climate models.

  4. [Distribution and air-sea fluxes of methane in the Yellow Sea and the East China Sea in the spring].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Xing-Peng; Zhang, Gui-Ling; Ma, Xiao; Zhang, Guo-Ling; Liu, Su-Mei

    2013-07-01

    A survey was carried out in the Yellow Sea and the East China Sea from March 17 to April 06 of 2011. Dissolved CH4 in various depths were measured and sea-to-air fluxes were estimated. Methane concentrations in surface and bottom waters ranged between 2.39-29.67 nmol x L(-1) and 2.63-30.63 nmol x L(-1), respectively. Methane concentrations in bottom waters were slightly higher than those in surface waters, suggesting the existence of methane source in bottom waters or sediments. The horizontal distribution of dissolved CH4 showed a decrease from the river mouth to the open sea, and was influenced by the freshwater discharge and the Kuroshio intrusion. Surface methane saturations ranged from 93%-1 038%. Sea to air CH4 fluxes were (2.85 +/- 5.11) micromol x (m2 x d)(-1) (5.18 +/- 9.99) micromol x (m2 x d)(-1) respectively, calculated using the Liss and Merlivat (LM86), the Wanninkhof (W92) relationships and in situ wind speeds, and estimated emission rates of methane from the East China Sea and the Yellow Sea range from 7.05 x 10(-2) - 12.0 x 10(-2) Tg x a(-1) and 1.17 x 10(-2) - 2.20 x 10(-2) Tg x a(-1), respectively. The Yellow Sea and East China Sea are the net sources of atmospheric methane in the spring.

  5. Air and Space Power Journal. Volume 25, Number 1, Spring 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Jim Hodges , “The Get-Well Intel Plan,” C4ISR Journal, 1 January 2010, http://www.c4isrjournal .com/story.php?F=4411944. 13. “Air Force Distributed...with Lt Gen Courtney Hodges , commander of Army forces in France. Quesada saw to it that Hodges’s subordinate ground forces under stood the...while simultaneously seeing to his Airmen’s morale and well-being. The title of the book calls to mind the nick - name of Col Gail Halvorsen, who

  6. Contribution of (222)Rn-bearing water to indoor radon and indoor air quality assessment in hot spring hotels of Guangdong, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Gang; Wang, Xinming; Chen, Diyun; Chen, Yongheng

    2011-04-01

    This study investigates the contribution of radon ((222)Rn)-bearing water to indoor (222)Rn in thermal baths. The (222)Rn concentrations in air were monitored in the bathroom and the bedroom. Particulate matter (PM, both PM(10) and PM(2.5)) and carbon dioxide (CO(2)) were also monitored with portable analyzers. The bathrooms were supplied with hot spring water containing 66-260 kBq m(-3) of (222)Rn. The results show that the spray of hot spring water from the bath spouts is the dominant mechanism by which (222)Rn is released into the air of the bathroom, and then it diffuses into the bedroom. Average (222)Rn level was 110-410% higher in the bedrooms and 510-1200% higher in the bathrooms compared to the corresponding average levels when there was no use of hot spring water. The indoor (222)Rn levels were influenced by the (222)Rn concentrations in the hot spring water and the bathing times. The average (222)Rn transfer coefficients from water to air were 6.2 × 10(-4)-4.1 × 10(-3). The 24-h average levels of CO(2) and PM(10) in the hotel rooms were 89% and 22% higher than the present Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) standard of China. The main particle pollutant in the hotel rooms was PM(2.5). Radon and PM(10) levels in some hotel rooms were at much higher concentrations than guideline levels, and thus the potential health risks to tourists and especially to the hotel workers should be of great concern, and measures should be taken to lower inhalation exposure to these air pollutants.

  7. Air Spring Simulation of Commercial Truck Cab Suspension System%商用车驾驶室悬置系统空气弹簧仿真分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫鑫; 姜迪; 王忠校

    2014-01-01

    采用试验数据与仿真分析相结合的方法,通过试验曲线反求空气弹簧的内部特性,同时结合高度调节阀的流量压力控制,可形成系统的实时闭环反馈;将空气弹簧平面模型与某商用车驾驶室悬置系统的3D多体模型进行联合仿真,结果表明,随机路面载荷下的试验与仿真曲线在时域及频域内吻合度较高,可以实时模拟空气弹簧的外输出特性。%By the combination of test data and simulation analysis, the internal characteristic of air spring can be reversed by test curve. And by adapting height control valve to regulate the flow pressure, the real-time closed-loop feedback system is formed. Air spring planar model and 3D cab suspension system MBS model of a commercial vehicle are used for the co-simulation, the results show that comparison curves between test and simulation under random road load in the time and frequency domain achieve a high fitting degree. And real-time simulation on the output characteristics of the air spring can be made.

  8. Spring in the Arab Spring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borg, G.J.A.

    2011-01-01

    Column Gert Borg | Spring in the Arab Spring door dr. Gert Borg, onderzoeker bij Islam en Arabisch aan de Radboud Universiteit Nijmegen en voormalig directeur van het Nederlands-Vlaams Instituut Caïro Spring If, in Google, you type "Arab Spring" and hit the button, you get more than 14 mill

  9. Source attribution and interannual variability of Arctic pollution in spring constrained by aircraft (ARCTAS, ARCPAC and satellite (AIRS observations of carbon monoxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Fisher

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available We use aircraft observations of carbon monoxide (CO from the NASA ARCTAS and NOAA ARCPAC campaigns in April 2008 together with multiyear (2003–2008 CO satellite data from the AIRS instrument and a global chemical transport model (GEOS-Chem to better understand the sources, transport, and interannual variability of pollution in the Arctic in spring. Model simulation of the aircraft data gives best estimates of CO emissions in April 2008 of 26 Tg month−1 for Asian anthropogenic, 9.4 for European anthropogenic, 4.1 for North American anthropogenic, 15 for Russian biomass burning (anomalously large that year, and 23 for Southeast Asian biomass burning. We find that Asian anthropogenic emissions are the dominant source of Arctic CO pollution everywhere except in surface air where European anthropogenic emissions are of similar importance. Russian biomass burning makes little contribution to mean CO (reflecting the long CO lifetime but makes a large contribution to CO variability in the form of combustion plumes. Analysis of two pollution events sampled by the aircraft demonstrates that AIRS can successfully observe pollution transport to the Arctic in the mid-troposphere. The 2003–2008 record of CO from AIRS shows that interannual variability averaged over the Arctic cap is very small. AIRS CO columns over Alaska are highly correlated with the Ocean Niño Index, suggesting a link between El Niño and Asian pollution transport to the Arctic. AIRS shows lower-than-average CO columns over Alaska during April 2008, despite the Russian fires, due to a weakened Aleutian Low hindering transport from Asia and associated with the moderate 2007–2008 La Niña. This suggests that Asian pollution influence over the Arctic may be particularly large under strong El Niño conditions.

  10. Impact of anthropogenic emission on air quality over a megacity – revealed from an intensive atmospheric campaign during the Chinese Spring Festival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Huang

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The Chinese Spring Festival is one of the most important traditional festivals in China. The peak transport in the Spring Festival season (spring travel rush provides a unique opportunity for investigating the impact of human activity on air quality in the Chinese megacities. Emission sources are varied and fluctuate greatly before, during and after the Festival. Increased vehicular emissions during the "spring travel rush" before the 2009 Festival resulted in high level pollutants of NOx (270 μg m−3, CO (2572 μg m−3, black carbon (BC (8.5 μg m−3 and extremely low single scattering albedo of 0.76 in Shanghai, indicating strong, fresh combustion. Organics contributed most to PM2.5, followed by NO3, NH4+, and SO42−. During the Chinese Lunar New Year's Eve and Day, widespread usage of fireworks caused heavy pollution of extremely high aerosol concentration, scattering coefficient, SO2, and NOx. Due to the "spring travel rush" after the festival, anthropogenic emissions gradually climbed and mirrored corresponding increases in the aerosol components and gaseous pollutants. Secondary inorganic aerosol (SO42−, NO3, and NH4+ accounted for a dominant fraction of 74% in PM2.5 due to an increase in human activity. There was a greater demand for energy as vast numbers of people using public transportation or driving their own vehicles returned home after the Festival. Factories and constructions sites were operating again.

    The potential source contribution function (PSCF analysis illustrated the possible source areas for air pollutants of Shanghai. The effects of regional and long-range transport were both revealed. Five major sources, i.e. natural sources, vehicular emissions, burning of fireworks, industrial

  11. Distributions and sea-to-air fluxes of chloroform, trichloroethylene, tetrachloroethylene, chlorodibromomethane and bromoform in the Yellow Sea and the East China Sea during spring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Zhen; Yang, Gui-Peng; Lu, Xiao-Lan; Zhang, Hong-Hai

    2013-06-01

    Halocarbons including chloroform (CHCl3), trichloroethylene (C2HCl3), tetrachloroethylene (C2Cl4), chlorodibromomethane (CHBr2Cl) and bromoform (CHBr3) were measured in the Yellow Sea (YS) and the East China Sea (ECS) during spring 2011. The influences of chlorophyll a, salinity and nutrients on the distributions of these gases were examined. Elevated levels of these gases in the coastal waters were attributed to anthropogenic inputs and biological release by phytoplankton. The vertical distributions of these gases in the water column were controlled by different source strengths and water masses. Using atmospheric concentrations measured in spring 2012 and seawater concentrations obtained from this study, the sea-to-air fluxes of these gases were estimated. Our results showed that the emissions of C2HCl3, C2Cl4, CHBr2Cl, and CHBr3 from the study area could account for 16.5%, 10.5%, 14.6%, and 3.5% of global oceanic emissions, respectively, indicating that the coastal shelf may contribute significantly to the global oceanic emissions of these gases.

  12. The impact of heterogeneous surface temperatures on the 2-m air temperature over the Arctic Ocean in spring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Tetzlaff

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The influence of spatial surface temperature changes over the Arctic Ocean on the 2-m air temperature variability is estimated using backward trajectories based on ERA-Interim and the JRA25 wind fields. They are initiated at Alert, Barrow and at the Tara drifting station. Three different methods are used. The first one compares mean ice surface temperatures along the trajectories to the observed 2-m air temperatures at the stations. The second one correlates the observed temperatures to air temperatures obtained using a simple Lagrangian box model which only includes the effect of sensible heat fluxes. For the third method, mean sensible heat fluxes from the model are correlated with the difference of the air temperatures at the model starting point and the observed temperatures at the stations. The calculations are based on MODIS ice surface temperatures and four different sets of ice concentration derived from SSM/I and AMSR-E data. Under nearly cloud free conditions, up to 90% of the 2-m air temperature variance can be explained for Alert, and 60% for Barrow using these methods. The differences are attributed to the different ice conditions, which are characterized by high ice concentration around Alert and lower ice concentration near Barrow. These results are robust for the different sets of reanalyses and ice concentration data. Near-surface winds of both reanalyses show a large inconsistency in the Central Arctic, which leads to a large difference in the correlations between modeled and observed 2-m air temperatures at Tara. Explained variances amount to 70% using JRA and only 45% using ERA. The results also suggest that near-surface temperatures at a given site are influenced by the variability of surface temperatures in a domain of about 150 to 350 km radius around the site.

  13. Safety analysis of railway vehicle in leakage process of air spring%车辆系统空气弹簧失气安全性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高浩; 罗仁; 池茂儒; 戴焕云

    2012-01-01

    The leakage model of air spring with stiffness decay characteristics and the nonlinear stick-slip contact model were established. The dynamic process in loss of gas and the state of emergency after loss of gas were simulated by combining the two models with vehicle system dynamics. The stability of vehicle system with air spring failure was analyzed. The impact of air spring's sudden leakage on the dynamics performance of vehicle was simulated. The running safeties of vehicle under different times of loss of gas, different speeds and curve negotiation conditions were studied. Analysis result shows that the critical speed of vehicle system with air spring failure significantly decreases from 623 km ·h^-1 to 351 km ·h^-1. Because of air spring's sudden leakage, wheel-rail vertical force decreases and reduction rate of wheel load increases. The shorter the leakage process is, the greater reduction rate of wheel load is. It reaches 0. 651 when the leakage time is 0.2 s. The influence of speed on reduction rate of wheel load and wheelrail force is not obvious when vehicle speed is less than 300 km ·h^-1. But, when it is greater than 300 km ·h^-1 , reduction rate of wheel load increases rapidly with speed increase. Leakage occuring on circular curve is most dangerous when vehicle runs, and the maximum of reduction rate of wheel load is 0. 652. 2 tabs, 12 figs, 15 refs.%建立了具有刚度衰变特性的空气弹簧失气模型和非线性粘滑接触模型,结合车辆系统动力学,模拟空气弹簧失气动态过程与失气后的应急状态,分析了空气弹簧失气后车辆系统的稳定性与空气弹簧突然失气对车辆动力学性能的影响,研究了不同失气过程时长、运行速度与曲线通过工况下空气弹簧失气车辆的安全性。计算结果表明:空气弹簧失气后车辆临界速度由623km.h-1大幅降低为351km.h-1。空气弹簧突然失气导致轮轨垂向力减小,轮重减载率增大,且失气过程越短,

  14. Net sea-air CO2 fluxes and modelled pCO2 in the southwestern subtropical Atlantic continental shelf during spring 2010 and summer 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Rosane Gonçalves; Garcia, Carlos Alberto Eiras; Tavano, Virginia Maria

    2016-05-01

    Sea-air CO2 fluxes over continental shelves vary substantially in time on both seasonal and sub-seasonal scales, driven primarily by variations in surface pCO2 due to several oceanic mechanisms. Furthermore, coastal zones have not been appropriately considered in global estimates of sea-air CO2 fluxes, despite their importance to ecology and to productivity. In this work, we aimed to improve our understanding of the role played by shelf waters in controlling sea-air CO2 fluxes by investigating the southwestern Atlantic Ocean (21-35°S) region, where physical, chemical and biological measurements were made on board the Brazilian R. V. Cruzeiro do Sul during late spring 2010 and early summer 2011. Features such as discharge from the La Plata River, intrusions of tropical waters on the outer shelf due to meandering and flow instabilities of the Brazil Current, and coastal upwelling in the Santa Marta Grande Cape and São Tomé Cape were detected by both in situ measurements and ocean colour and thermal satellite imagery. Overall, shelf waters in the study area were a source of CO2 to the atmosphere, with an average of 1.2 mmol CO2 m-2 day-1 for the late spring and 11.2 mmol CO2 m-2 day-1 for the early summer cruises. The spatial variability in ocean pCO2 was associated with surface ocean properties (temperature, salinity and chlorophyll-a concentration) in both the slope and shelf waters. Empirical algorithms for predicting temperature-normalized surface ocean pCO2 as a function of surface ocean properties were shown to perform well in both shelf and slope waters, except (a) within cyclonic eddies produced by baroclinic instability of the Brazil Current as detected by satellite SST imagery and (b) in coastal upwelling regions. In these regions, surface ocean pCO2 values were higher as a result of upwelled CO2-enriched subsurface waters. Finally, a pCO2 algorithm based on both sea surface temperature and surface chlorophyll-a was developed that enabled the spatial

  15. 铁道车辆空气弹簧动力学键合图建模及仿真%Bond graph dynamic modeling and simulation analysis of railway vehicle air spring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈嫦; 唐进元; 王祁波; 陈海峰

    2011-01-01

    研究空气弹簧键合图建模方法,建立空气弹簧的功率键合图模型,使用20-sim软件进行动态仿真,得到系统压力和位移的动态响应曲线,研究不同负载和节流孔直径对空气弹簧性能的影响规律;通过建立系统的Simulink模型,进行对比仿真分析,验证空气弹簧键合图模型的正确性与仿真结果的可靠性.研究工作为空气弹簧的动力学建模及仿真提供了新方法.%The bond graph model of air spring system was established according to the power bond graph theory.The model' s dynamic simulation results , such as the export pressure and displacement, were conducted with the 20 -sim software environment. The simulation results show that the performance of air spring relates with load and orifice diameter. Comparing the result of simulink model with bond graph model, the validity of the air spring bond model and the reliability of simulation result are proved. The research provides a new method for the modeling of air spring.

  16. Beginning Spring

    CERN Document Server

    Caliskan, Mert

    2015-01-01

    Get up to speed quickly with this comprehensive guide toSpring Beginning Spring is the complete beginner's guide toJava's most popular framework. Written with an eye towardreal-world enterprises, the book covers all aspects of applicationdevelopment within the Spring Framework. Extensive samples withineach chapter allow developers to get up to speed quickly byproviding concrete references for experimentation, building askillset that drives successful application development byexploiting the full capabilities of Java's latest advances. Spring provides the exact toolset required to build anent

  17. Just Spring

    CERN Document Server

    Konda, Madhusudhan

    2011-01-01

    Get a concise introduction to Spring, the increasingly popular open source framework for building lightweight enterprise applications on the Java platform. This example-driven book for Java developers delves into the framework's basic features, as well as advanced concepts such as containers. You'll learn how Spring makes Java Messaging Service easier to work with, and how its support for Hibernate helps you work with data persistence and retrieval. Throughout Just Spring, you'll get your hands deep into sample code, beginning with a problem that illustrates dependency injection, Spring's co

  18. Arctic smoke - record high air pollution levels in the European Arctic due to agricultural fires in Eastern Europe in spring 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stohl, A.; Berg, T.; Burkhart, J. F.; Fjæraa, A. M.; Forster, C.; Herber, A.; Hov, Ø.; Lunder, C.; McMillan, W. W.; Oltmans, S.; Shiobara, M.; Simpson, D.; Solberg, S.; Stebel, K.; Ström, J.; Tørseth, K.; Treffeisen, R.; Virkkunen, K.; Yttri, K. E.

    2007-01-01

    In spring 2006, the European Arctic was abnormally warm, setting new historical temperature records. During this warm period, smoke from agricultural fires in Eastern Europe intruded into the European Arctic and caused the most severe air pollution episodes ever recorded there. This paper confirms that biomass burning (BB) was indeed the source of the observed air pollution, studies the transport of the smoke into the Arctic, and presents an overview of the observations taken during the episode. Fire detections from the MODIS instruments aboard the Aqua and Terra satellites were used to estimate the BB emissions. The FLEXPART particle dispersion model was used to show that the smoke was transported to Spitsbergen and Iceland, which was confirmed by MODIS retrievals of the aerosol optical depth (AOD) and AIRS retrievals of carbon monoxide (CO) total columns. Concentrations of halocarbons, carbon dioxide and CO, as well as levoglucosan and potassium, measured at Zeppelin mountain near Ny Ålesund, were used to further corroborate the BB source of the smoke at Spitsbergen. The ozone (O3) and CO concentrations were the highest ever observed at the Zeppelin station, and gaseous elemental mercury was also elevated. A new O3 record was also set at a station on Iceland. The smoke was strongly absorbing - black carbon concentrations were the highest ever recorded at Zeppelin - and strongly perturbed the radiation transmission in the atmosphere: aerosol optical depths were the highest ever measured at Ny Ålesund. We furthermore discuss the aerosol chemical composition, obtained from filter samples, as well as the aerosol size distribution during the smoke event. Photographs show that the snow at a glacier on Spitsbergen became discolored during the episode and, thus, the snow albedo was reduced. Samples of this polluted snow contained strongly elevated levels of potassium, sulphate, nitrate and ammonium ions, thus relating the discoloration to the deposition of the smoke

  19. Arctic smoke – record high air pollution levels in the European Arctic due to agricultural fires in Eastern Europe in spring 2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Stohl

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In spring 2006, the European Arctic was abnormally warm, setting new historical temperature records. During this warm period, smoke from agricultural fires in Eastern Europe intruded into the European Arctic and caused the most severe air pollution episodes ever recorded there. This paper confirms that biomass burning (BB was indeed the source of the observed air pollution, studies the transport of the smoke into the Arctic, and presents an overview of the observations taken during the episode. Fire detections from the MODIS instruments aboard the Aqua and Terra satellites were used to estimate the BB emissions. The FLEXPART particle dispersion model was used to show that the smoke was transported to Spitsbergen and Iceland, which was confirmed by MODIS retrievals of the aerosol optical depth (AOD and AIRS retrievals of carbon monoxide (CO total columns. Concentrations of halocarbons, carbon dioxide and CO, as well as levoglucosan and potassium, measured at Zeppelin mountain near Ny Ålesund, were used to further corroborate the BB source of the smoke at Spitsbergen. The ozone (O3 and CO concentrations were the highest ever observed at the Zeppelin station, and gaseous elemental mercury was also elevated. A new O3 record was also set at a station on Iceland. The smoke was strongly absorbing – black carbon concentrations were the highest ever recorded at Zeppelin – and strongly perturbed the radiation transmission in the atmosphere: aerosol optical depths were the highest ever measured at Ny Ålesund. We furthermore discuss the aerosol chemical composition, obtained from filter samples, as well as the aerosol size distribution during the smoke event. Photographs show that the snow at a glacier on Spitsbergen became discolored during the episode and, thus, the snow albedo was reduced. Samples of this polluted snow contained strongly elevated levels of potassium, sulphate, nitrate and ammonium ions, thus relating the discoloration to the

  20. Spring Festival

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Spring Festival is the most important festival in China. It's to celebrate the lunar calendar's new year. In the evening before the Spring Festival, families get together and have a big meal. In many places people like to set off firecrackers. Dumplings are

  1. Development of Fixing Clamp of Fitting for Bus /Coach Front Air Spring Suspension%客车前空气悬架安装定位焊工装的开发

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    文广南

    2012-01-01

    The design and manufacture of fixing clamp of fitting a bus /coach front air spring suspension is probed into in the paper.The difficult problems of the course are described in detail.%探讨一种客车前空气悬架安装定位焊工装的设计制作方法,并对制作过程中碰到的难点问题进行分析和解决。

  2. Slightly thermal springs and non-thermal springs at Mount Shasta, California: Chemistry and recharge elevations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathenson, M.; Thompson, J.M.; White, L.D.

    2003-01-01

    Temperature measurements, isotopic contents, and dissolved constituents are presented for springs at Mount Shasta to understand slightly thermal springs in the Shasta Valley based on the characteristics of non-thermal springs. Non-thermal springs on Mount Shasta are generally cooler than mean annual air temperatures for their elevation. The specific conductance of non-thermal springs increases linearly with discharge temperature. Springs at higher and intermediate elevations on Mount Shasta have fairly limited circulation paths, whereas low-elevation springs have longer paths because of their higher-elevation recharge. Springs in the Shasta Valley are warmer than air temperatures for their elevation and contain significant amounts of chloride and sulfate, constituents often associated with volcanic hydrothermal systems. Data for the Shasta Valley springs generally define mixing trends for dissolved constituents and temperature. The isotopic composition of the Shasta Valley springs indicates that water fell as precipitation at a higher elevation than any of the non-thermal springs. It is possible that the Shasta Valley springs include a component of the outflow from a proposed 210??C hydrothermal system that boils to supply steam for the summit acid-sulfate spring. In order to categorize springs such as those in the Shasta Valley, we introduce the term slightly thermal springs for springs that do not meet the numerical criterion of 10??C above air temperature for thermal springs but have temperatures greater than non-thermal springs in the area and usually also have dissolved constituents normally found in thermal waters. ?? 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. The impacts of fireworks burning at Chinese Spring Festival on air quality and human health: insights of tracers, source evolution and aging processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kong

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available To understand the impact of fireworks burning (FW particles on air quality and human health during winter haze period, thirty-nine elements, ten water-soluble ions and eight fractions of carbonaceous species in atmospheric PM2.5 at Nanjing were investigated during 2014 Chinese Spring Festival (SF. Serious regional haze pollution persisted throughout the entire sampling period, PM2.5 averaging at 113 ± 69 μg m−3 and visibility at 4.8 ± 3.2 km. The holiday effect led to almost all the chemical species decreasing during the SF, except for Al, K, Ba and Sr which were related to FW. The source contributions of coal combustion, vehicle emission and road dust descreased dramatically, whereas FW contributed to about half of the PM2.5 during SF period. The intensive emission of FW particles at New Year's Eve accounted for 60.1% of the PM2.5. They also significnatly modified the chemical compositions of PM2.5, with 39.3% contributed by increased organic matter, followed by steadly increased loadings of secondary inorganic ions. The aging processes of the FW particles lasted for at least six days reflected by the variation of SO42−, characterized by heterogeneous reactions of SO2 and NOx on crustal materials directly from FW, the replacement of Cl− by NO3− and SO42− coating of NO3− and SO42− on soot, formation of secondary organic aerosols and metal-catalyzed formation of NO3− and SO42− at higher relative humidity. During aging, the main contributors to the extinction coefficient shifted from elemental carbon and organic matter to sulfate ammonium. The particles raised higher cancer risks by heavy metals (especially for Cd and As as 1.62 ×10−6. This study provided detailed composition data and first comprehensive analysis of the aging processes of FW particles at serious haze pollution period and their potential impact on human health.

  4. Alignment controllability of air spring vibration isolation system of a ship propulsion plant%船舶推进装置气囊隔振系统对中可控性问题研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卜文俊; 何琳; 施亮

    2015-01-01

    对船舶推进装置气囊隔振系统对中可控性问题进行了系统研究。通过建立控制响应计算模型、多目标对中控制模型,提出了对中可控性分析方法,使得控制系统能够根据不同工作情况自主调整控制系统工作参数,以保持良好的对中控制收敛性能,并通过实验验证了该方法的可行性。该方法已应用于某型船舶推进装置气囊隔振系统,成功实现了气囊柔性支撑状态下的推进装置高效隔振。%The alignment controllability of air spring vibration isolation system of a ship propulsion plant was studied systematically.The controllability analysis was carried out through establishing a control response calculation model and a multi-object alignment control model.The control system was made to adjust control capability parameters automatically and to manifest good alignment control astringency.Experiment results confirmed the feasibility of the method.The method has been used in an air spring vibration isolation system and has realized a high vibration isolation effect triumphantly on a ship propulsive plant mounted on flexible air springs.

  5. NOVA Spring 2000 Teacher's Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombo, Luann; Gregoire, Tanya; Ransick, Kristina; Sammons, Fran Lyons; Sammons, James

    This teacher's guide complements six programs that aired on the Public Broadcasting System (PBS) in the spring of 2000. Programs include: (1) "Lost on Everest"; (2) "Lost Tribes of Israel"; (3) "Crocodiles"; (4) "Lost at Sea: The Search for Longitude"; (5) "Global Warming"; and (6) "Secrets of…

  6. PENGARUH RASIO TEPUNG BERAS DAN AIR TERHADAP KARAKTERISTIK KULIT LUMPIA BASAH [Effect of Flour to Water Ratio on Characteristics of Fresh Rice-Based Spring Rolls Wrappers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Ingani Widjajaseputra1*

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Flour to water ratio in batter compositions affected water availability which was needed to provide physical and chemical changes during fresh rice-based spring rolls wrappers processing, such as gel forming of starches and heat-induced gels, flour’s components interactions in batter systems. Degree of water-starch, water-protein and protein–starch-water interactions were depend on water amount, temperature and duration of heating. The mechanical strength of spring rolls wrappers is one of problems when it is being used. The wrappers could be torn apart due to moisture absorption from the filling and the environment. The goal of this study was to determine the optimum flour to water ratio in formulation of fresh rice-based spring rolls wrappers. The investigation was provided by Randomized Completely Block Design with single factor and three replicates. The factor was rice flour to water ratio in six levels (3.0:4.5; 3.0:5.0;3.0:5.5; 3.0:6.0; 3.0:6.5; and 3.0:7.0 the data were analyzed by Analysis of Variance with 95% degree of confident. Flour to water ratio greatly influenced elongation at break which is important in the utilization of fresh rice-based spring rolls wrappers. Its ratio also influenced the size of swelled rice starch granules, pores size and moisture content of the products. Optimal ratio flour to water is 3.0:6.0 which produced the highest elongation at break.

  7. The impact of heterogeneous surface temperatures on the 2-m air temperature over the Arctic Ocean under clear skies in spring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Tetzlaff

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of spatial surface temperature changes over the Arctic Ocean on the 2-m air temperature variability is estimated using backward trajectories based on ERA-Interim and JRA25 wind fields. They are initiated at Alert, Barrow and at the Tara drifting station. Three different methods are used. The first one compares mean ice surface temperatures along the trajectories to the observed 2-m air temperatures at the stations. The second one correlates the observed temperatures to air temperatures obtained using a simple Lagrangian box model that only includes the effect of sensible heat fluxes. For the third method, mean sensible heat fluxes from the model are correlated with the difference of the air temperatures at the model starting point and the observed temperatures at the stations. The calculations are based on MODIS ice surface temperatures and four different sets of ice concentration derived from SSM/I (Special Sensor Microwave Imager and AMSR-E (Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer for EOS data. Under nearly cloud-free conditions, up to 90% of the 2-m air temperature variance can be explained for Alert, and 70% for Barrow, using these methods. The differences are attributed to the different ice conditions, which are characterized by high ice concentration around Alert and lower ice concentration near Barrow. These results are robust for the different sets of reanalyses and ice concentration data. Trajectories based on 10-m wind fields from both reanalyses show large spatial differences in the Central Arctic, leading to differences in the correlations between modeled and observed 2-m air temperatures. They are most pronounced at Tara, where explained variances amount to 70% using JRA and 80% using ERA. The results also suggest that near-surface temperatures at a given site are influenced by the variability of surface temperatures in a domain of about 200 km radius around the site.

  8. 春天%Spring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    @@ Days get longer and warmer in the spring. There are new leaves on the trees. Flowers begin to grow. Spring rain makes the grass green and helps the plants grow. Nature wears new clothes in many colors red, yellow, blue, white and purple. Spring is the time of new life. I love spring.

  9. Proceedings of Management of Risk and Uncertainty in the Acquisition of Major Programs, U. S. Air Force Academy, Colorado Springs, February 9-11, 1981

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-05-01

    Fl Belvoir, VA, May, 1977. AD/A044 95B. 66. U.S. Air Force Audit Agency, Acquisition of Selected Surveillance and Control Programs, Norton...term "Parametric Factor Evaluation" ( PFE ) as a process of identi- fying variables of interest describing the nature or form of the uncertainty of...Award Survey ■Manufacturing Management/ Production Capability Review Production Readiness Review PROPOSAL AUDIT Allowability

  10. Thermal springs of Wyoming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breckenridge, R.M.; Hinckley, B.S.

    1978-01-01

    This bulletin attempts, first, to provide a comprehensive inventory of the thermal springs of Wyoming; second, to explore the geologic and hydrologic factors producing these springs; and, third, to analyze the springs collectively as an indicator of the geothermal resources of the state. A general discussion of the state's geology and the mechanisms of thermal spring production, along with a brief comparison of Wyoming's springs with worldwide thermal features are included. A discussion of geothermal energy resources, a guide for visitors, and an analysis of the flora of Wyoming's springs follow the spring inventory. The listing and analysis of Wyoming's thermal springs are arranged alphabetically by county. Tabulated data are given on elevation, ownership, access, water temperature, and flow rate. Each spring system is described and its history, general characteristics and uses, geology, hydrology, and chemistry are discussed. (MHR)

  11. Instant Spring Tool Suite

    CERN Document Server

    Chiang, Geoff

    2013-01-01

    Filled with practical, step-by-step instructions and clear explanations for the most important and useful tasks. A tutorial guide that walks you through how to use the features of Spring Tool Suite using well defined sections for the different parts of Spring.Instant Spring Tool Suite is for novice to intermediate Java developers looking to get a head-start in enterprise application development using Spring Tool Suite and the Spring framework. If you are looking for a guide for effective application development using Spring Tool Suite, then this book is for you.

  12. Brief Communication: Trends in sea ice extent north of Svalbard and its impact on cold air outbreaks as observed in spring 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Tetzlaff

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available An analysis of SSM/I satellite data reveals that the Whaler's Bay Polynya north of Svalbard was considerably larger in the last three winters from 2012 to 2014 compared to the previous 20 years. This increased polynya size leads to strong atmospheric convection during cold air outbreaks in a region north of Svalbard that typically was ice covered in the last decades. The change in ice cover can strongly influence local temperature conditions. Dropsonde measurements from March 2013 show that the unusual ice conditions generate extreme convective boundary layer heights that are larger than the regional values reported in previous studies.

  13. Water Treatment Technology - Springs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross-Harrington, Melinda; Kincaid, G. David

    One of twelve water treatment technology units, this student manual on springs provides instructional materials for two competencies. (The twelve units are designed for a continuing education training course for public water supply operators.) The competencies focus on spring basin construction and spring protection. For each competency, student…

  14. Pro Spring Batch

    CERN Document Server

    Minella, Michael T

    2011-01-01

    Since its release, Spring Framework has transformed virtually every aspect of Java development including web applications, security, aspect-oriented programming, persistence, and messaging. Spring Batch, one of its newer additions, now brings the same familiar Spring idioms to batch processing. Spring Batch addresses the needs of any batch process, from the complex calculations performed in the biggest financial institutions to simple data migrations that occur with many software development projects. Pro Spring Batch is intended to answer three questions: *What? What is batch processing? What

  15. Spring integration essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Pandey, Chandan

    2015-01-01

    This book is intended for developers who are either already involved with enterprise integration or planning to venture into the domain. Basic knowledge of Java and Spring is expected. For newer users, this book can be used to understand an integration scenario, what the challenges are, and how Spring Integration can be used to solve it. Prior experience of Spring Integration is not expected as this book will walk you through all the code examples.

  16. Pro Spring Integration

    CERN Document Server

    Lui, M; Chan, Andy; Long, Josh

    2011-01-01

    Pro Spring Integration is an authoritative book from the experts that guides you through the vast world of enterprise application integration (EAI) and application of the Spring Integration framework towards solving integration problems. The book is:. * An introduction to the concepts of enterprise application integration * A reference on building event-driven applications using Spring Integration * A guide to solving common integration problems using Spring Integration What makes this book unique is its coverage of contemporary technologies and real-world information, with a focus on common p

  17. Mockito for Spring

    CERN Document Server

    Acharya, Sujoy

    2015-01-01

    If you are an application developer with some experience in software testing and want to learn more about testing frameworks, then this technology and book is for you. Mockito for Spring will be perfect as your next step towards becoming a competent software tester with Spring and Mockito.

  18. Spring A Developer's Notebook

    CERN Document Server

    Tate, Bruce A

    2009-01-01

    This no-nonsense book quickly gets you up to speed on the new Spring open source framework. Favoring examples and practical application over theory, Spring: A Developer's Notebook features 10 code-intensive labs that'll reveal the many assets of this revolutionary, lightweight architecture. In the end, you'll understand how to produce simple, clean, and effective applications.

  19. Alignment control straegy for an air spring mounting system of marine propulsion engine%船舶主机气囊隔振技术对中控制策略研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卜文俊; 何琳

    2012-01-01

    Alignment control strategy was studied to ensure shaft alignment precision when an air spring was used in marine propulsion engine vibration isolation.A model of alignment response analysis was presented.Pseudo-sensitivity analysis method was put forward to solve the difficulty of gaining accurate input parameters.An alignment control strategy was proposed based on a pseudo-sensitivity matrix.Using this control strategy,the control system had high alignment control precision,good dynamic performance and uniform load distribution under multi-object and strong coupling condition.%针对气囊隔振器应用于船舶主机低频隔振面临的如何保证轴系对中精度技术难题,开展其对中控制策略研究.建立了对中状态响应特性分析模型,为解决该分析模型计算输入参数难以精确获取的问题,提出一种伪灵敏度分析方法.基于控制对象伪灵敏度矩阵,研究出可行的对中控制策略.应用该控制策略可使得控制系统在多目标、强耦合条件下,以良好的动态工作性能实现高精度对中控制,并保持装置承载力的均匀分配.

  20. Executive summary: Weldon Spring Site Environmental Report for calendar year 1992. Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project, Weldon Spring, Missouri

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-06-01

    This report has been prepared to provide information about the public safety and environmental protection programs conducted by the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project. The Weldon Spring site is located in southern St. Charles County, Missouri, approximately 48 km (30 mi) west of St. Louis. The site consists of two main areas, the Weldon Spring Chemical Plant and raffinate pits and the Weldon Spring Quarry. The objectives of the Site Environmental Report are to present a summary of data from the environmental monitoring program, to characterize trends and environmental conditions at the site, and to confirm compliance with environmental and health protection standards and requirements. The report also presents the status of remedial activities and the results of monitoring these activities to assess their impacts on the public and environment. The scope of the environmental monitoring program at the Weldon Spring site has changed since it was initiated. Previously, the program focused on investigations of the extent and level of contaminants in the groundwater, surface waters, buildings, and air at the site. In 1992, the level of remedial activities required monitoring for potential impacts of those activities, particularly on surface water runoff and airborne effluents. This report includes monitoring data from routine radiological and nonradiological sampling activities. These data include estimates of dose to the public from the Weldon Spring site; estimates of effluent releases; and trends in groundwater contaminant levels. Also, applicable compliance requirements, quality assurance programs, and special studies conducted in 1992 to support environmental protection programs are reviewed.

  1. Masters of the springs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Steffen

    2010-01-01

    led to a number of insights into the social organization of the mound cemeteries that will be presented in the paper. It is obvious that there existed a close spatial relation between freshwater springs and the compact mounds cemeteries that emerged c.2050 BC. The mound cemeteries appear to have been...... flanked by villages that relied on these water recourses for agricultural production. The springs emerged in the zone separating the cemeteries from the settlements. The freshwater springs were actively incorporated into the religious landscape of the dead, by consistently erecting mounds of a particular...... high status type right above the head of each spring. These tombs of the masters of the springs are distinguished by their larger size and vertical shaft entrance. It is argued that this particular strategy of power was employed after population growth had intensified conflicts over the rights...

  2. The Spring Festival

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    萧平

    2005-01-01

    Everybody likes to have the Spring Festival, so do I.Because during the Spring Festival there are many good things to eat, to drink and to play with. During the last Spring Festival I had a very good time. On the eve of the festival, our family had a big dinner. My uncle, aunt and cousin came back from Canada to celebrate(庆祝) my grandma's eightieth birthday. They also brought many beautiful gifts to me. My cousin and I watched TV and played games the whole night, while the grown-ups had a long talk. I didn't know when I fell asleep.

  3. 南方塑料大棚冬春季温湿度的神经网络模拟%Neural Network Simulation on Air Temperature and Relative Humidity inside Plastic Greenhouse during Winter and Spring in Southern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李倩; 申双和; 曹雯; 邹学智

    2012-01-01

    Based on the meteorological data both inside and outside the plastic greenhouse in Cixi, Zhejiang province and agricultural meteorological experimental station of Nanjing University of Information Science and Technology, three BP neural network models were established, which the input variable was chosen as radiation solar outdoor, air temperature, relative humidity and wind speed, and output variable was chosen as temperature indoor and relative humidity. The results showed that all of the root mean square error (RMSE) between trained air temperature and measured value from three models was no more than 2℃ and the relative error (RE) no more than 4% respectively. Both RMSE and RE between trained relative humidity and measured value was no more than 7 percent points and 7% . All of the RMSE between predicted air temperature and measured value from three models was 2℃ approximately, and their RE was no more than 6% in spring, less than that in winter. RMSE and RE predicated relative humidity and measured value was no more than 7 percent points and 9% respectively. The results indicated that three BP neural network models had quite precisely for predicting temperature indoor and relative humidity in plastic greenhouse, which could meet the forecast requirements for plastic greenhouse microclimate.%利用浙江省慈溪市草莓塑料大棚和南京信息工程大学农业气象试验站番茄塑料大棚的小气候观测数据及气象站资料,建立3个以棚外辐射、温度、相对湿度和风速为输入变量,棚内温度和相对湿度为输出变量的BP神经网络预测模型.结果表明,3个模型气温训练值与实测值的均方根误差(RMSE)都在2℃以内,相对误差都在4%左右;相对湿度训练值的RMSE都在7个百分点以内,相对误差不超过7%.利用此模型得到的气温预测值与实测值的RMSE都在2℃左右,冬季气温的相对误差较大,春季通风和不通风模型气温的相对误差不超过6%;

  4. 76 FR 70920 - Proposed Amendment of Class E Airspace; Colorado Springs, CO

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-16

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Proposed Amendment of Class E Airspace; Colorado Springs...). SUMMARY: This action proposes to amend Class E airspace at City of Colorado Springs Municipal Airport, Colorado Springs, CO. Decommissioning of the Black Forest Tactical Air Navigation System (TACAN) has...

  5. The Springs at Pipe Spring National Monument, Arizona (pisp_springs)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This is an Arc/Info coverage consisting of 5 points representing the springs, natural and man-made, at Pipe Spring National Monument, Arizona. The springs were...

  6. Learning Spring application development

    CERN Document Server

    Soni, Ravi Kant

    2015-01-01

    This book is intended for those who are interested in learning the core features of the Spring Framework. Prior knowledge of Java programming and web development concepts with basic XML knowledge is expected.

  7. Spring Bottom Trawl Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The standardized NEFSC Spring Bottom Trawl Survey was initiated in 1968 and covered an area from Cape Hatteras, NC, to Nova Scotia, Canada, at depths >27m....

  8. Harbingers of Spring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrao, John

    1976-01-01

    Emphasizing the spring migration of frogs, toads, and salamanders to their watery breeding sites, this article presents information on numerous amphibians and suggests both indoor and outdoor educational activities appropriate for elementary and/or early secondary instruction. (JC)

  9. Fish Springs pond snail

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Communication scenario between the branch of Listing and Recovery, Fish and Wildlife Enhancement, and Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge (NWR), in regards to the...

  10. 一种模拟实际工作状态的空气弹簧疲劳试验机的设计%Design for Air Spring Fatigue Testing Machine by Simulation of Actual Working Conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛茜; 何江华; 赵克刚

    2016-01-01

    A fatigue testing machine is designed in this paper,to acquire relatively real longevity of air spring by simulating the working state of real vehicles.The crank radius range under the condition of am-plitude is deduced by the geometric relationship and crank rod mechanism,and the optimal value of crank radius is determined by using the least square method.The maximal force required to drive the beam is ob-tained by the combination of the simulation and experiment.The test result shows a reduction from 36 000 N to less than 9 000 N by choosing to install two symmetrically instead of install one.The ADAMS soft-ware is used to simulate the movement condition of a cantilever and the speed curve of the center of clamp. The input power of the cantilever is calculated at 4.13 kW.Considering the transmission efficiency of the system and the power factor of the motor,the motor power is determined and the motor is selected.%设计了一种可以模拟实车工作状态的疲劳试验机,能较真实地获取空气弹簧使用寿命。由几何关系和曲柄连杆运动原理,推导得到所要求振幅的曲柄半径范围值,由最小二乘法确定最佳的曲柄半径值。采用仿真和试验相结合的方法,得到驱动悬梁所需的可能最大力,结果显示对称安装2个较单个安装最大力从36000 N降至9000 N以下,节能效果显著;用ADAMS软件模拟悬梁的运动状况,获取夹具中心点的运动速度曲线;计算得到悬梁所需的输入功率为4.13 kW,结合系统传动效率和电机功率因数,确定电机功率,完成电机选型。

  11. JINAN: the City of Springs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    @@ Attractions Jinan is not a hot tourist destination in China, but it has Something special to offer, such as the 72 springs scattered throughout the city. Jinan has an alias of the Spring City (Quan Cheng)because of ouver 700 natural springs run through the city. Among them,the Baotu Spring is the most famous.

  12. Advances in spring development and technologies; Fortschritte in der Federntechnik. Stand der Technik und Entwicklungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, F.; Plitzko, M. [VDFJ Verband der Deutschen Federnindustrie (Germany); Savaidis, G. [Aristoteles Univ. Thessaloniki, Institut fuer Maschinenelemente und Konstruktionslehre (Greece); Wanke, K.

    2003-07-01

    Spring elements and spring systems, applied in constructions for engines and vehicles, are reviewed with regard to their progress in the last decade, their state of the art and the tendencies in the near future. The progress in development of the different metal springs as well as the gas-, air- and rubber springs continued to the technical functions with less weight and in consideration of the cost aspects. (orig.)

  13. Pro Spring security

    CERN Document Server

    Scarioni, Carlo

    2013-01-01

    Security is a key element in the development of any non-trivial application. The Spring Security Framework provides a comprehensive set of functionalities to implement industry-standard authentication and authorization mechanisms for Java applications. Pro Spring Security will be a reference and advanced tutorial that will do the following: Guides you through the implementation of the security features for a Java web application by presenting consistent examples built from the ground-up. Demonstrates the different authentication and authorization methods to secure enterprise-level applications

  14. Instant Spring security starter

    CERN Document Server

    Jagielski, Piotr

    2013-01-01

    Get to grips with a new technology, understand what it is and what it can do for you, and then get to work with the most important features and tasks. A concise guide written in an easy-to-follow format following the Starter guide approach.This book is for people who have not used Spring Security before and want to learn how to use it effectively in a short amount of time. It is assumed that readers know both Java and HTTP protocol at the level of basic web programming. The reader should also be familiar with Inversion-of-Control/Dependency Injection, preferably with the Spring framework itsel

  15. Spring of women?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica Castillo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Terms such as “Islamic feminism” and “women’s movement” refer to those social movements of women that seek to assert their rights in Islamic societies. This brief study focuses on theses social movements of women and will presentan overview of the role and participation of women in the Arab Spring by examining news, events, press articles and opinions in order to contextualize the participation of women and feminists in the Arab Spring from a perspective of the social networking phenomenon as apparent drivers of the revolution.

  16. What's Behind Spring Festival?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ Similar to what the Christmas Day means for the westerners,the Spring Festival is the most important celebration for Chinese people.This big event according to Chinese traditional lunar calendar relaxes and pleases the whole country as the happiest gathering time of the year.National-wide crusade for going back home,too-difficult-to-get train tickets,generous family-going-out shopping,Miaohui laundering,New Year Eve reunion dinner,visiting friends and relatives,watching annual TV gala……each piece of clue reminds us of the smell of Chinese Spring Festival.

  17. Energy Matters - Spring 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2002-03-01

    Quarterly newsletter from DOE's Industrial Technologies Program to promote the use of energy-efficient industrial systems. The focus of the Spring 2002 Issue of Energy Matters focuses on premium energy efficiency systems, with articles on new gas technologies, steam efficiency, the Augusta Newsprint Showcase, and more.

  18. Spring batch essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Rao, P Raja Malleswara

    2015-01-01

    If you are a Java developer with basic knowledge of Spring and some experience in the development of enterprise applications, and want to learn about batch application development in detail, then this book is ideal for you. This book will be perfect as your next step towards building simple yet powerful batch applications on a Java-based platform.

  19. Fish Springs molluscan studies: House and Percy Springs

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the findings of a limited survey of House and Percy Springs molluscan fauna within Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge. Various...

  20. Studying Springs in Series Using a Single Spring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serna, Juan D.; Joshi, Amitabh

    2011-01-01

    Springs are used for a wide range of applications in physics and engineering. Possibly, one of their most common uses is to study the nature of restoring forces in oscillatory systems. While experiments that verify Hooke's law using springs are abundant in the physics literature, those that explore the combination of several springs together are…

  1. Warm Springs pupfish recovery plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document gives a history of pupfish and focuses on the warm springs pupfish. The warm springs pupfish is endangered, and this is a plan to help recover the...

  2. Hot Spring Metagenomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olalla López-López

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Hot springs have been investigated since the XIX century, but isolation and examination of their thermophilic microbial inhabitants did not start until the 1950s. Many thermophilic microorganisms and their viruses have since been discovered, although the real complexity of thermal communities was envisaged when research based on PCR amplification of the 16S rRNA genes arose. Thereafter, the possibility of cloning and sequencing the total environmental DNA, defined as metagenome, and the study of the genes rescued in the metagenomic libraries and assemblies made it possible to gain a more comprehensive understanding of microbial communities—their diversity, structure, the interactions existing between their components, and the factors shaping the nature of these communities. In the last decade, hot springs have been a source of thermophilic enzymes of industrial interest, encouraging further study of the poorly understood diversity of microbial life in these habitats.

  3. Magnetic Spring Device

    OpenAIRE

    Hassam, A. B.; Rodgers, J. C.

    2009-01-01

    A cylindrical system is proposed that will store magnetic energy in a localized azimuthal field that can then be quickly released on Alfvenic timescales, accompanied by the formation of a flowing Z-pinch plasma. The magnetized plasma is MHD in character and will have unilateral axial momentum with Alfvenic speeds. Conventional plasma gun injectors (Marshall type) have a limited parameter space of operation. The "magnetic spring" momentum injector differs from Marshall guns in that it has an a...

  4. Influence of the Spring Arctic Oscillation on Midsummer Surface Air Temperature over the Yangtze River Valley%春季北极涛动对盛夏长江流域地表气温的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张乐英; 徐海明; 施宁

    2015-01-01

    本文基于1958至2002年的ERA-40月平均再分析资料,利用年际增量方法分析了春季北极涛动(Arctic Oscillation,简称AO)与我国夏季长江流域地表气温的关系。结果表明,在扣除前期冬季ENSO影响后,5月AO指数与8月长江流域地表气温存在显著正相关。通过回归分析发现,5月AO可通过影响中低纬度的海气相互作用进而影响8月长江流域地表气温。当5月AO处于正位相时,在(10°~15°N)及赤道附近产生异常下沉气流,对应着西太平洋局地Hadley环流减弱,对流层底层出现了异常的反气旋性辐散气流。与之对应,赤道西太平洋地区出现了显著的东风异常。由于该东风异常位于5月气候平均的局地海表面温度(SST)极大值中心位置上,该东风异常可通过平流作用使得高海温不断地向西堆积,最终造成赤道西太平洋SST出现显著正异常。当该SST正异常持续至8月时,它通过 Gill 响应(Gill,1980)在其西北侧激发出气旋性异常环流,它有利于西太平洋副热带高压在我国长江流域的维持,进而造成长江流域地表气温正异常。反之,则相反。%AbstractBased on ERA-40 monthly mean reanalysis data over the period 1958–2002, this paper studies the relationship between the spring Arctic Oscillation (AO) and the summer surface air temperature (SAT) over the Yangtze River valley by adopting the year-to-year increment approach. The winter ENSO signal is filtered out in advance. Results show that the AO in May is significantly and positively correlated with the SAT over the Yangtze River valley in August. The possible physical mechanism for this relationship is investigated by means of regression analysis. The air–ocean interaction over the middle and low latitudes might play an important role. Following a stronger positive AO in May, an anomalous subsidence flow appears over the region 10°–15°N and the Equator

  5. Magnetic Spring Device

    CERN Document Server

    Hassam, A B

    2009-01-01

    A cylindrical system is proposed that will store magnetic energy in a localized azimuthal field that can then be quickly released on Alfvenic timescales, accompanied by the formation of a flowing Z-pinch plasma. The magnetized plasma is MHD in character and will have unilateral axial momentum with Alfvenic speeds. Conventional plasma gun injectors (Marshall type) have a limited parameter space of operation. The "magnetic spring" momentum injector differs from Marshall guns in that it has an already stored strong magnetic field before release. The resulting parameter space is much broader. There are possible applications to momentum injectors for fusion and to plasma and rail guns.

  6. Joint Force Quarterly. Number 21, Spring 1999

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-03-01

    Fifty Years by Javier Solana 41 Meeting Future Military Challenges to NATO by Wesley K. Clark 47 Transforming NATO Defense Capabilities by Harold W...N T E N T S 2 JFQ / Spring 1999 The cover features F–16 over the Italian Alps (1st Com- bat Camera Squadron/John E. Lasky ). The front inside cover...Imaging Com- mand, Pacific/Michelle R. Hammond); and C–5 landing at Aviano air base (1st Combat Camera Squadron/John E. Lasky ). P H O T O C R E D I T S

  7. Corrective action investigation plan: Cactus Spring Waste Trenches. Revision 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-02-01

    This Correction Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) contains environmental sample collection objectives and logic for the CAU No. 426, which includes the Cactus Spring Waste Trenches, CAS No. RG-08-001-RG-CS. The Cactus Spring Waste Trenches are located at the Tonopah Test Range (TTR) which is part of the Nellis Air Force Range, approximately 255 kilometers (km) (140 miles [mi]) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada, by air. The purpose of this investigation is to generate sufficient data to establish the types of waste buried in the trenches, identify the presence and nature of contamination, determine the vertical extent of contaminant migration below the Cactus Spring Waste Trenches, and determine the appropriate course of action for the site. The potential courses of action for the site are clean closure, closure in place (with or without remediation), or no further action.

  8. Several Moments of the Spring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛竹晨

    2003-01-01

    Spring has finally fallen on Cambridge. After a long, wet and dark winter, sky finally brightens up. The first messenger of spring is the daffodil (水仙花). English daffodils are slightly different from the Chinese ones that we are all familiar with. First of all, they bloom in spring, not in winter as the Chinese daffodils do. Second, they do not grow in water, but on the ground, though they

  9. Spring viremia of carp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahne, W.; Bjorklund, H.V.; Essbauer, S.; Fijan, N.; Kurath, G.; Winton, J.R.

    2002-01-01

    pring viremia of carp (SVC) is an important disease affecting cyprinids, mainly common carp Cyprinus carpio. The disease is widespread in European carp culture, where it causes significant morbidity and mortality. Designated a notifiable disease by the Office International des Epizooties, SVC is caused by a rhabdovirus, spring viremia of carp virus (SVCV). Affected fish show destruction of tissues in the kidney, spleen and liver, leading to hemorrhage, loss of water-salt balance and impairment of immune response. High mortality occurs at water temperatures of 10 to 17°C, typically in spring. At higher temperatures, infected carp develop humoral antibodies that can neutralize the spread of virus and such carp are protected against re-infection by solid immunity. The virus is shed mostly with the feces and urine of clinically infected fish and by carriers. Waterborne transmission is believed to be the primary route of infection, but bloodsucking parasites like leeches and the carp louse may serve as mechanical vectors of SVCV. The genome of SVCV is composed of a single molecule of linear, negative-sense, single-stranded RNA containing 5 genes in the order 3¹-NPMGL-5¹ coding for the viral nucleoprotein, phosphoprotein, matrix protein, glycoprotein, and polymerase, respectively. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of the viral proteins, and sequence homologies between the genes and gene junctions of SVCV and vesicular stomatitis viruses, have led to the placement of the virus as a tentative member of the genus Vesiculovirus in the family Rhabdoviridae. These methods also revealed that SVCV is not related to fish rhabdoviruses of the genus Novirhabdovirus. In vitro replication of SVCV takes place in the cytoplasm of cultured cells of fish, bird and mammalian origin at temperatures of 4 to 31°C, with an optimum of about 20°C. Spring viremia of carp can be diagnosed by clinical signs, isolation of virus in cell culture and molecular methods. Antibodies directed

  10. Spring security 3.x cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Mankale, Anjana

    2013-01-01

    This book follows a cookbook style exploring various security solutions provided by Spring Security for various vulnerabilities and threat scenarios that web applications may be exposed to at the authentication and session level layers.This book is for all Spring-based application developers as well as Java web developers who wish to implement robust security mechanisms into web application development using Spring Security.Readers are assumed to have a working knowledge of Java web application development, a basic understanding of the Spring framework, and some knowledge of the fundamentals o

  11. Large springs of east Tennessee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Pao-chang P.; Criner, J.H.; Poole, J.L.

    1963-01-01

    Springs constitute an important source of water in east Tennessee, and many individual springs are capable of supplying the large quantities needed for municipal and industrial supplies. Most of the springs in east Tennessee issue from solution openings and fractured and faulted zones in limestone and dolomite of the Knox Group, Chickamauga Limestone, and Conasauga Group. The ability of these rocks to yield a sustained flow of water to springs is dependent on a system of interconnected openings through which water can infiltrate from the land surface and move to points of natural discharge. Ninety springs were selected for detailed study, and 84 of these are analyzed in terms of magnitude and variability of discharge. Of the 84 springs analyzed, 4 flow at an average rate of 10 to 100 cfs (cubic feet per second), 62 at an average rate of 1 to 10 cfs, and 18 at an average rate of 1 cfs or less. Of the 90 springs, 75 are variable in their discharge; that is, the ratio of their fluctuations to their average discharges exceeds 100 percent. Mathematical analysis of the flow recession curve of Mill Spring near Jefferson City shows that the hydrologic system contributing to the flow of the spring has an effective capacity of about 70 million cubic feet of water. The rate of depletion of this volume of water, in the absence of significant precipitation, averages 0.0056 cfs per day between the time when the hydrologic system is full and the time when the spring ceases to flow. From such a curve it is possible to determine at any time the residual volume of water remaining in the system and the expected rate of decrease in discharge from that time to cessation of flow. Correlation of discharge measurements of 22 springs with those of Mill Spring shows that rough approximations of discharge can be projected for springs for which few measurements are available. Seventeen of the springs analyzed in this manner show good correlation with Mill Spring: that is, their coefficients

  12. Experimenting with Inexpensive Plastic Springs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Leander; Marques, Adriana; Sánchez, Iván

    2014-01-01

    Acommon undergraduate laboratory experience is the determination of the elastic constant of a spring, whether studying the elongation under a static load or studying the damped harmonic motion of the spring with a suspended mass. An alternative approach to this laboratory experience has been suggested by Menezes et al., aimed at studying the…

  13. Mallow Springs, County Cork, Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldwell, C. R.

    1996-03-01

    Because of its copious and reliable rainfall, Ireland has an abundance of springs. Many of the larger ones issue from the Carboniferous limestone that occurs in over 40% of the country. The spring water is mainly a calcium bicarbonate type with a temperature of about 10°C. In the 18th century, warm and cold springs were developed as spas in various parts of Ireland. The popularity of these springs was short and most were in major decline by 1850. Today only one cold spa at Lisdoonvarna, Co. Clare is still operating. Springs in Ireland were places of religious significance for the pre-Christian Druidic religion. In the Christian period they became holy wells, under the patronage of various saints. Cures for many different ailments were attributed to water from these wells.

  14. Science, Technology, and Warfare. Proceedings of the Military History Symposium (3rd) Held at the United States Air Force Academy (Colorado Springs, Colorado) on 8-9 May 1969

    Science.gov (United States)

    1970-09-01

    practice (unless we call the tram-road and truck, as in Agricola , a conveyor) . I believe we will not go far wrong in supposing that pick, shovel, and...it up-+not of course the really dangerous and dirty business but the definable and fascinating problem of the flight of bodies through the air. It...civilians that the military had no business to be dabbling with technological experiments. Writing for the theatergoers of Puritan London, Ben Jonson

  15. A bountiful spring harvest

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    Although we recently put the clocks forward and spring has officially begun, the view from my window looks more autumnal – befitting of the season of mists and mellow fruitfulness, rather than that of sowing seeds for the future. Which, in a way is appropriate. With the LHC paused, we are reaping a kind of harvest in the form of recognition for our efforts.   Two weeks ago, I was in Edinburgh, on behalf of everyone at CERN, to collect the Edinburgh medal, which we shared with Peter Higgs. I particularly like the citation for this honour: “The Edinburgh Medal is awarded each year to men and women of science and technology whose professional achievements are judged to have made a significant contribution to the understanding and well-being of humanity.” I like this, because it underlines a fact that needs to be shouted louder – that fundamental science does more than build the sum of human knowledge, it is also the foundation of human well-being. A few d...

  16. Spring comes for ATLAS

    CERN Multimedia

    Butin, F.

    2004-01-01

    (First published in the CERN weekly bulletin 24/2004, 7 June 2004.) A short while ago the ATLAS cavern underwent a spring clean, marking the end of the installation of the detector's support structures and the cavern's general infrastructure. The list of infrastructure to be installed in the ATLAS cavern from September 2003 was long: a thousand tonnes of mechanical structures spread over 13 storeys, two lifts, two 65-tonne overhead travelling cranes 25 metres above cavern floor, with a telescopic boom and cradle to access the remaining 10 metres of the cavern, a ventilation system for the 55 000 cubic metre cavern, a drainage system, a standard sprinkler system and an innovative foam fire-extinguishing system, as well as the external cryogenic system for the superconducting magnets and the liquid argon calorimeters (comprising, amongst other things, two helium refrigeration units, a nitrogen refrigeration unit and 5 km of piping for gaseous or liquid helium and nitrogen), not to mention the handling eq...

  17. SPRING FESTIVAL ON THE LOESS PLATEAU

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    亦西; 杨延康

    2005-01-01

    How Spring Festival is celebrated Although the date of the Spring Festival was switched from the beginning of spring to the first day of the first lunar month, the main ways of celebrating it, from bygone days, remain popular.

  18. Report on Fish Springs - 1958

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document discusses field survey results from several trips to Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge during the summer of 1958. The following information is...

  19. Warmer springs, laying date and clutch size of tree sparrows Passer montanus in Croatia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Z. DOLENEC; P. DOLENEC; A.P. MΦLER

    2011-01-01

    Global surface air temperatures increased during the past 100 years. Many long-term studies of birds have reported a climatic influence on breeding performance. We analysed long-term changes in first laying date and clutch size for first clutches of sedentary, hole-nesting and socially monogamous tree sparrows Passer montanus during 1980-2009 in northwestern Croatia. Laying date advanced and spring temperature increased significantly during the study. Date of laying was significantly correlated with mean air spring temperature and advanced by 8.6 days during the 30 years period. Laying date was delayed in extremely cold, but not in extremely warm springs compared to years with normal temperatures. These results suggest that current climate change including extreme change does not have negative effects on timing of laying or clutch size. In contrast to laying date, clutch size did not vary systematically during the study period or with mean spring air temperature changes.

  20. Weldon Spring Site Environmental Report for Calendar Year 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-06-01

    This Weldon Spring Site Environmental Report for Calendar Year 1995 has been prepared to provide information about the public safety and environmental protection programs conducted by the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project (WSSRAP). The Weldon Spring site is located in southern St. Charles County, Missouri, approximately 48 km (30 mi) west of St. Louis. The site consists of two main areas, the Weldon Spring Chemical Plant and raffinate pits and the Weldon Spring Quarry. The chemical plant, raffinate pits, and quarry are located on Missouri State Route 94, southwest of U.S. Route 40/61. The objectives of the Site Environmental Report are to present a summary of data from the environmental monitoring program, to characterize trends and environmental conditions at the site, and to confirm compliance with environmental and health protection standards and requirements. The report also presents the status of remedial activities and the results of monitoring these activities to assess their impacts on the public and environment. This report includes monitoring data from routine radiological and nonradiological sampling activities. These data include estimates of dose to the public from the Weldon Spring site, estimates of effluent releases, and trends in groundwater contaminant levels. Additionally, applicable compliance requirements, quality assurance programs, and special studies conducted in 1995 to support environmental protection programs are discussed. Dose estimates presented in this report are based on hypothetical exposure scenarios for public use of areas near the site. In addition, release estimates have been calculated on the basis of 1995 National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) and air monitoring data. Effluent discharges from the site under routine NPDES and National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPs) monitoring were below permitted levels.

  1. Dynamic characteristics of spring sandstorms in 2000

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周秀骥; 徐祥德; 颜鹏; 翁永辉; 王建林

    2002-01-01

    Systematical analyses of spring sandstorms in 2000 affecting Beijing area are carried out. Results revealed the key dynamic mechanisms of dust storm during its mobilization, lifting, horizontal advection and deposition processes. It turns out that in the processes of sandstorms influencing Beijing area in March-April 2000, the dynamic conditions for dust mobilization are significantly correlated with phenomena, such as cold air-related climatic activities,clay soils area of North China and surface friction velocity anomaly. The characteristics of sandstorm can be described by composite mode of dust particles mobilization-lifting-long-range transport. This paper will provide scientific evidences for further studies,prediction and harness of sandstorms in China.

  2. Biomass burning in eastern Europe during spring 2006 caused high deposition of ammonium in northern Fennoscandia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsson, Per Erik; Ferm, Martin; Pihl Karlsson, Gunilla

    2013-01-01

    High air concentrations of ammonium were detected at low and high altitude sites in Sweden, Finland and Norway during the spring 2006, coinciding with polluted air from biomass burning in eastern Europe passing over central and northern Fennoscandia. Unusually high values for throughfall deposition...

  3. 75 FR 39241 - Hooper Springs Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-08

    ... Bonneville Power Administration Hooper Springs Project AGENCY: Bonneville Power Administration (BPA... Hooper Springs Project). The new BPA substation would be called Hooper Springs Substation and would be... Soda Springs in Caribou County, Idaho. The new 115-kV single-circuit BPA transmission line would...

  4. Spring Research Festival Highlighted on WHAG-TV | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    WHAG-TV (Hagerstown, Md.) visited Fort Detrick to highlight the 2015 Spring Research Festival (SRF), sponsored by the National Interagency Confederation for Biological Research (NICBR). Visit the WHAG-TV website to see the video broadcast, which aired May 6. The video was produced by WHAG Reporter Mallory Sofastaii. The video featured Linganore High School senior Rebecca Matthews, a Werner H. Kirsten student intern in the Human Retrovirus Pathogenesis Section, Vaccine Branch, NCI Center for Cancer Research; Lanessa Hill, public affairs specialist,

  5. Indoor radon levels in selected hot spring hotels in Guangdong, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Gang; Zhang, Boyou; Wang, Xinming; Gong, Jingping; Chan, Daniel; Bernett, John; Lee, S C

    2005-03-01

    Guangdong is one of the provinces that have most hot springs in China, and many hotels have been set up near hot springs, with spring water introduced into the bath inside each hotel room for hot spring bathing to attract tourists. In the present study, we measured radon in indoor and outdoor air, as well as in hot spring waters, in four hot spring hotels in Guangdong by using NR-667A (III) continuous radon detector. Radon concentrations ranged 53.4-292.5 Bq L(-1) in the hot spring water and 17.2-190.9 Bq m(-3) in outdoor air. Soil gas intrusion, indoor hot spring water use and inefficient ventilation all contributed to the elevated indoor radon levels in the hotel rooms. From the variation of radon levels in closed unoccupied hotel rooms, soil gas intrusion was found to be a very important source of indoor radon in hotel rooms with floors in contact with soils. When there was spring water bathing in the bathes, average radon levels were 10.9-813% higher in the hotel rooms and 13.8-489% higher in bathes compared to their corresponding average levels when there was no spring water use. Spring water use in the hotel rooms had radon transfer coefficients from 1.6x10(-4) to 5.0x10(-3). Radon in some hotel rooms maintained in concentrations much higher than guideline levels might thus have potential health risks to the hotel workers, and technical and management measures should be taken to lower their exposure of radon through inhalation.

  6. Motor gasoline assessment, Spring 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-07-01

    The springs of 1996 and 1997 provide an excellent example of contrasting gasoline market dynamics. In spring 1996, tightening crude oil markets pushed up gasoline prices sharply, adding to the normal seasonal gasoline price increases; however, in spring 1997, crude oil markets loosened and crude oil prices fell, bringing gasoline prices down. This pattern was followed throughout the country except in California. As a result of its unique reformulated gasoline, California prices began to vary significantly from the rest of the country in 1996 and continued to exhibit distinct variations in 1997. In addition to the price contrasts between 1996 and 1997, changes occurred in the way in which gasoline markets were supplied. Low stocks, high refinery utilizations, and high imports persisted through 1996 into summer 1997, but these factors seem to have had little impact on gasoline price spreads relative to average spread.

  7. Spring harvest of corn stover

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lizotte, P.L. [Laval Univ., Quebec City, PQ (Canada). Dept. des sols et de genie agroalimentaire; Savoie, P. [Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Quebec City, PQ (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    Corn stover is typically left behind in the field after grain harvest. Although part of the stover should remain in the field for soil organic matter renewal and erosion protection, half of the stover could be removed sustainably. This represents about one million t dry matter (DM) of stover per year in the province of Quebec. Stover harvested in the fall is very wet. While there are applications for wet stover, the available markets currently require a dry product. Preliminary measurements have shown that stover left in the field throughout the winter becomes very dry, and a considerable amount would still be harvestable in the spring. In the spring of 2009, corn stover was harvested at 2 sites, each subdivided into 2 parcels. The first parcel was cut and raked in the fall of 2008 (fall parcel), while the second parcel was cut and raked in spring 2009. Fibre from both parcels was baled in the spring 2009. At the first site, a large square baler was used in late April to produce bales measuring 0.8 m x 0.9 m x 1.8 m. On the second site a round baler was used in late May to produce bales of 1.2 m in width by 1.45 m in diameter. On the second site, a small square baler was also used to produce bales of 0.35 m x 0.45 m x 0.60 m (spring cutting only). With the large square baler, an average of 3.9 t DM/ha was harvested equally on the fall parcel and the spring parcel, representing a 48 per cent recovery of biomass based on stover yields.

  8. Instant Spring for Android starter

    CERN Document Server

    Dahanne, Anthony

    2013-01-01

    Packt Instant Starter: get to grips with a new technology, understand what it is and what it can do for you, and then get to work with the most important features and tasks.This is a Starter which gives you an introduction to Spring for Android with plenty of well-explained practical code examples.If you are an Android developer who wants to learn about RESTful web services and OAuth authentication and authorization, and you also want to know how to speed up your development involving those architectures using Spring for Android abstractions, then this book is for you.But core Java developers

  9. Yarn Expo Spring Concluded the Spring Fair in Beijing Successfully

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    @@ As the 2009 Yarn Expo Spring, organized by Messe Frankfurt (HK) Ltd, the Sub-Council of Textile Industry - CCPIT, China Cotton Textile Association, China Wool Textile Association, China Chemical Fibers Association, China Bast & Leaf Fiber Textiles Association, and China Textile Information Centre, came to an end on 1 April, the organizers had something to smile about.

  10. High Flight: History of the U.S. Air Force Academy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-01

    of Sunshine , Colorado Springs, Colorado. Colorado Springs, CO: Chamber of Commerce. (F 784 .C7 C68 Spec Coll) Curtin, Dave and Rob Lynde. Colorado...1984. (R 154 .W2995 C57 1984) Colorado Springs Chamber of Commerce. City of Sunshine , Colorado Springs, Colorado. Colorado Springs, CO: Chamber...Zielinski, Constantine. " Eternal Faith in a World of Change." Air Force Magazine 42.6 (1959): 91-92.     XXIX. RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGY AT

  11. Finding Spring on Planet X

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simoson, Andrew J.

    2007-01-01

    For a given orbital period and eccentricity, we determine the maximum time lapse between the winter solstice and the spring equinox on a planet. In addition, given an axial precession path, we determine the effects on the seasons. This material can be used at various levels to illustrate ideas such as periodicity, eccentricity, polar coordinates,…

  12. Spring for It: First Novels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffert, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    How do publishers describe the first novels they will be releasing this spring and summer? "Amazing," "fabulous," and "unique" are words that pop up frequently, though hats off to one publicist forthright or cheeky enough to call a work "weird Western/horror." The proof of such praise is in the reading, but why not check out this preview of first…

  13. Weldon Spring Site Environmental Report for calendar year 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-05-01

    This report for Calendar Year 1994 has been prepared to provide information about the public safety and environmental protection programs conducted by the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project (WSSRAP). The Weldon Spring site is located in southern St. Charles County, Missouri, approximately 48 km (30 mi) west of St. Louis. The site consists of two main areas, the Weldon Spring Chemical Plant and raffinate pits and the Weldon Spring Quarry. The chemical plant, raffinate pits, and quarry are located on Missouri State Route 94, southwest of US Route 40/61. The objectives of the Site Environmental Report are to present a summary of data from the environmental monitoring program, to characterize trends and environmental conditions at the site, and to confirm compliance with environmental and health protection standards and requirements. The report also presents the status of remedial activities and the results of monitoring these activities to assess their impacts on the public and environment. This report includes monitoring data from routine radiological and nonradiological sampling activities. These data include estimates of dose to the public from the Weldon Spring site, estimates of effluent releases, and trends in groundwater contaminant levels. Additionally, applicable compliance requirements, quality assurance programs, and special studies conducted in 1994 to support environmental protection programs are discussed. Dose estimates presented in this report are based on hypothetical exposure scenarios of public use of areas near the site. In addition, release estimates have been calculated on the basis of 1994 National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) and air monitoring data. Effluent discharges from the site under routine NPDES and National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPS) monitoring were below permitted levels.

  14. Springs, streams, and gas vent on and near Mount Adams volcano, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathenson, Manuel; Mariner, Robert H.

    2013-01-01

    Springs and some streams on Mount Adams volcano have been sampled for chemistry and light stable isotopes of water. Spring temperatures are generally cooler than air temperatures from weather stations at the same elevation. Spring chemistry generally reflects weathering of volcanic rock from dissolved carbon dioxide. Water in some springs and streams has either dissolved hydrothermal minerals or has reacted with them to add sulfate to the water. Some samples appear to have obtained their sulfate from dissolution of gypsum while some probably involve reaction with sulfide minerals such as pyrite. Light stable isotope data for water from springs follow a local meteoric water line, and the variation of isotopes with elevation indicate that some springs have very local recharge and others have water from elevations a few hundred meters higher. No evidence was found for thermal or slightly thermal springs on Mount Adams. A sample from a seeping gas vent on Mount Adams was at ambient temperature, but the gas is similar to that found on other Cascade volcanoes. Helium isotopes are 4.4 times the value in air, indicating that there is a significant component of mantle helium. The lack of fumaroles on Mount Adams and the ambient temperature of the gas indicates that the gas is from a hydrothermal system that is no longer active.

  15. Portrait of a Geothermal Spring, Hunter's Hot Springs, Oregon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castenholz, Richard W

    2015-01-27

    Although alkaline Hunter's Hot Springs in southeastern Oregon has been studied extensively for over 40 years, most of these studies and the subsequent publications were before the advent of molecular methods. However, there are many field observations and laboratory experiments that reveal the major aspects of the phototrophic species composition within various physical and chemical gradients of these springs. Relatively constant temperature boundaries demark the upper boundary of the unicellular cyanobacterium, Synechococcus at 73-74 °C (the world-wide upper limit for photosynthesis), and 68-70 °C the upper limit for Chloroflexus. The upper limit for the cover of the filamentous cyanobacterium, Geitlerinema (Oscillatoria) is at 54-55 °C, and the in situ lower limit at 47-48 °C for all three of these phototrophs due to the upper temperature limit for the grazing ostracod, Thermopsis. The in situ upper limit for the cyanobacteria Pleurocapsa and Calothrix is at ~47-48 °C, which are more grazer-resistant and grazer dependent. All of these demarcations are easily visible in the field. In addition, there is a biosulfide production in some sections of the springs that have a large impact on the microbiology. Most of the temperature and chemical limits have been explained by field and laboratory experiments.

  16. Fish Springs NWR Water Use Report : 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge (NWR) for 2010. A general background is presented on historical spring water...

  17. Top 5 Spring Festival Customs in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁小明

    2016-01-01

    The Spring Festival is the largest and most important festival in China.It is the first day of the lunar calendar~1 and usually occurs somewhere between January30 and February 20,heralding~2 the beginning of spring,thus it is known as the Spring Festival.1.Spring Couplets On the Chinese New Year,families in China decorate their front doors with poetic couplets

  18. An Evaluation of Chinese Spring Festival

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李艳蕊

    2012-01-01

    Nowadays,many Chinese people felt that Spring Festival is bored;feeling of celebrating Spring Festival is not as strong as before.Some experts stated that the physical part of Spring Festival shrouded the cultural celebrations.This article analysis the phenomenon through comparing how Chinese people had Spring Festivals in the past and now,and comparing different economic status Chinese people have in these two periods.

  19. Qatar and the Arab Spring

    KAUST Repository

    Coates Ulrichsen, Kristian

    2014-11-15

    This chapter examines how Qatar assumed an extraordinarily visible and interventionist role during the Arab Spring upheaval in 2011. It argues that, after an initial period of caution in January 2011, Qatari officials quickly recognised the changing contours of the Arab Spring and pragmatically readjusted their policy-responses. The lack of domestic constraints on decision-making enabled officials, led by the Emir and the Prime minister, to reposition Qatar (somewhat improbably) as a champion of the popular uprisings in North Africa and later as a key external player in the Syrian Civil War. The chapter also provides historical context to Qatar’s close relationship with the Muslim Brotherhood, and documents why Qatari officials saw the outbreak of the uprisings as far more of an opportunity than a challenge.

  20. Spring-forward in composite plate elements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijskamp, S.; Lamers, E.A.D.; Akkerman, R.

    2005-01-01

    Spring-forward is a distortion of corner sections in continuous fibre reinforced composite products. The linear thermoelastic prediction for the spring-forward of single curved geometries is incorporated in a FE formulation for plate elements in order to simulate the spring-forward of doubly curved

  1. Radon in Himalayan springs: a geohydrological control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choubey, V.M.; Bartarya, S.K. [Wadia Inst. of Himalayan Geology, Dehra Dun (India); Ramola, R.C. [Garhwal Univ., Srinagar, Uttar Pradesh (India). Dept. of Physics

    2000-04-01

    This paper presents the results of radon measurements in springs of the Himalayan region by using radon emanometry technique. The radon was measured in different springs, draining from different geohydrological setups, and from stream water in order to find the geohydrological control over radon concentration in groundwater emanating in the form of spring. The radon values were found to vary from 0.4 Bq/l to 887 Bq/l, being observed lowest for a turbulent stream and highest for the spring. The radon values were recorded highest in the springs draining through gneiss, granite, mylonite, etc. Radon concentrations have been related with four spring types viz. fracture-joint related spring, fault-lineament related spring, fluvial related spring and colluvial related spring, showing geohydrological characteristics of the rocks through which they are emanating. The high radon concentration in fracture-joint and fault-lineament springs is related to increased ratio of rock surface area to water volume and uranium mineralisation in the shear zones present in the close vicinity of fault and thrust. The low concentration of radon in fluvial and colluvial springs is possibly because of high transmissivity and turbulent flow within such deposits leading to natural de-emanation of gases. (orig.)

  2. 49 CFR 236.822 - Switch, spring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Switch, spring. 236.822 Section 236.822 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Switch, spring. A switch equipped with a spring device which forces the points to their original...

  3. 14 CFR 27.687 - Spring devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Spring devices. 27.687 Section 27.687... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Control Systems § 27.687 Spring devices. (a) Each control system spring device whose failure could cause flutter or other unsafe...

  4. 14 CFR 23.687 - Spring devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Spring devices. 23.687 Section 23.687 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS... Systems § 23.687 Spring devices. The reliability of any spring device used in the control system must...

  5. 14 CFR 29.687 - Spring devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Spring devices. 29.687 Section 29.687... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Control Systems § 29.687 Spring devices. (a) Each control system spring device whose failure could cause flutter or other unsafe...

  6. Skillful Use of Imagery in Two Odes to Spring--Comment on The Soote Season and Spring, the Sweet Spring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯海荣

    2002-01-01

    The Soote Season and Spring, the Sweet Spring are two lyrics that sing the praise of spring. The common feature of the two lyrics is that the two poets depict a series of pictures of the sweet spring by rich and varied imagery for readers.When these pictures are presented to readers ,readers feel as if they are participating in them,and the enchanting beauty of spring makes readers feel intoxicated with happiness. The two poets express their different feelings toward nature.

  7. The Arab Spring in Jordan

    OpenAIRE

    Eriksson, Elsa Annaklara; Hansen, Ditte Ingemann

    2013-01-01

    This project contains analysis and discussion of several social movements in Jordan. The uprising in Jordan and demands for more democratization are inspired by the Arab Spring observed in the Middle East. The most highlighted Jordanian social movements being the religious Muslim Brotherhood, the radical Salafi Movement and the newly proclaimed Popular Mobilization. Questions concerning the identification of them, their goals and ways of mobilizing and the hindrances for these movements to mo...

  8. Controlling proteins through molecular springs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zocchi, Giovanni

    2009-01-01

    We argue that the mechanical control of proteins-the notion of controlling chemical reactions and processes by mechanics-is conceptually interesting. We give a brief review of the main accomplishments so far, leading to our present approach of using DNA molecular springs to exert controlled stresses on proteins. Our focus is on the physical principles that underlie both artificial mechanochemical devices and natural mechanisms of allostery.

  9. KUNMING: The City of Spring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ Kunming is the political, economic and cultural center of Yunnan province and the most popular center for tourism in Southwest China. Kunming enjoys a pleasant climate and does its best to live up to its title of "the City of Spring". Whenever you are planning to go, the temperature is always pleasant. With its convenient transport links in and out of the city, Kunming welcomes tens of thousands of tourists every day.

  10. Spring Framework 5: Themes & Trends

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2017-01-01

    Spring Framework 5.0/5.1, scheduled for release in early/late 2017, focuses on several key themes: reactive web applications based on Reactive Streams, comprehensive support for JDK 9 and HTTP/2, as well as the latest API generations in the Enterprise Java ecosystem. This talk presents the overall story in the context of wider industry trends, highlighting Spring’s unique programming model strategy.

  11. Climate-induced warming imposes a threat to north European spring ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jyväsjärvi, Jussi; Marttila, Hannu; Rossi, Pekka M; Ala-Aho, Pertti; Olofsson, Bo; Nisell, Jakob; Backman, Birgitta; Ilmonen, Jari; Virtanen, Risto; Paasivirta, Lauri; Britschgi, Ritva; Kløve, Bjørn; Muotka, Timo

    2015-12-01

    Interest in climate change effects on groundwater has increased dramatically during the last decade. The mechanisms of climate-related groundwater depletion have been thoroughly reviewed, but the influence of global warming on groundwater-dependent ecosystems (GDEs) remains poorly known. Here we report long-term water temperature trends in 66 northern European cold-water springs. A vast majority of the springs (82%) exhibited a significant increase in water temperature during 1968-2012. Mean spring water temperatures were closely related to regional air temperature and global radiative forcing of the corresponding year. Based on three alternative climate scenarios representing low (RCP2.6), intermediate (RCP6) and high-emission scenarios (RCP8.5), we estimate that increase in mean spring water temperature in the region is likely to range from 0.67 °C (RCP2.6) to 5.94 °C (RCP8.5) by 2086. According to the worst-case scenario, water temperature of these originally cold-water ecosystems (regional mean in the late 1970s: 4.7 °C) may exceed 12 °C by the end of this century. We used bryophyte and macroinvertebrate species data from Finnish springs and spring-fed streams to assess ecological impacts of the predicted warming. An increase in spring water temperature by several degrees will likely have substantial biodiversity impacts, causing regional extinction of native, cold-stenothermal spring specialists, whereas species diversity of headwater generalists is likely to increase. Even a slight (by 1 °C) increase in water temperature may eliminate endemic spring species, thus altering bryophyte and macroinvertebrate assemblages of spring-fed streams. Climate change-induced warming of northern regions may thus alter species composition of the spring biota and cause regional homogenization of biodiversity in headwater ecosystems.

  12. The first CERN Spring Campus

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2014-01-01

    From 14 to 16 April, the first edition of the CERN Spring Campus took place in Spain. Taking place over three intensive days, this event brought experts from CERN together at the University of Oviedo, where they met the engineers and scientists of the future in a programme of scientific and technological dissemination and cultural exchange.   The young participants of the first CERN Spring Campus and their instructors show their enthusiasm after the intensive three-day course. “This three-day school focuses on preparing young engineers for the job market, with a particular emphasis on computing,” explains Derek Mathieson, Advanced Information Systems Group Leader in the GS Department and Head of the CERN Spring Campus organising committee. “We organised talks on entrepreneurship and IT, as well as on job interviews and CV writing. It was also an important opportunity for the participants to meet CERN computing engineers to find out what it is like to work in I...

  13. Disaggregation modelling of spring discharges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirilova Bojilova Elena

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Disaggregation models are basically divided into three main groups: temporal, spatial and temporal-spatial. The focus of this paper is the application of temporal disaggregation models to disaggregate the seasonal flow in some large time intervals to sub-seasonal flows in some shorter time intervals. Two basic models are applied: the original model of Mejia and Rousselle and the corrected extended Lin model one-stage disaggregation. The flow totals from some karstic springs are used. Data for five springs in different areas of Bulgaria for the aims of the study are executed. The synthetic data generation for the chosen spring stations for a new realisation of thirty years is obtained. The multi-variate lag-one auto regressive model (AR(1 model is applied for generation of the annual flow sequences. The Lin model single- site is performed for thirty years generation period. The Lin model is an improvement compared to the original extended model. The new Lin approach succeeds in the preservation of the additivity as well as the moments. Applying the Lin model one-stage disaggregation results in consistent model parameter estimates. As a second step in the research multi-site disaggregation schemes are also applied.

  14. Air & Space Power Journal. Volume 19, Number 1, Spring 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-03-01

    inbound anti- radiation missile, and the Patriot battery fired in self-defense.11 A similar incident occurred less than 24 hours later. A flight...complaining about the food but never chal­ lenging the authorities who sent them there. This reporting was a far cry from that done by “ hotel warriors...com­ mercially viable for tourism and extensive research and, soon thereafter, for commercial applications (some not yet thought of). Imagine a space

  15. Air Force Academy Aeronautics Digest - Spring/Summer 1981.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-12-01

    technical culture in nec-primitive or anti-rational mytholoei(s. For example, during the 1930’s the American writer Henry Miller found expression for his...Mailer, and Henry Miller so astutely noted. To deal with it we must insure that students can program a computer and edit a paper on phys cs as well as

  16. Air Force Academy Aeronautics Digest, Spring/Summer 1980

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-10-01

    is programmed in a high-level lan- guage using matrix notation, the actual programming is quite compact end ntreamlined. Netter (Ref. 7) described the...Methods for Determining Wind Speed and Direction." London: Her Majesty’s Stationery Office, 1971. 7. Netter , J. and W. Wasserman. Applied Linear

  17. Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project quarterly environmental data summary (QEDS) for fourth quarter 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-02-01

    This report contains the Quarterly Environmental Data Summary (QEDS) for the fourth quarter of 1998 in support of the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project Federal Facilities Agreement. The data, except for air monitoring data and site KPA generated data (uranium analyses) were received from the contract laboratories, verified by the Weldon Spring Site verification group, and merged into the database during the fourth quarter of 1998. KPA results for on-site total uranium analyses performed during fourth quarter 1998 are included. Air monitoring data presented are the most recent complete sets of quarterly data.

  18. Weldon Spring Site environmental report for calendar year 1993. Weldon Springs Site Remedial Action Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-05-01

    This Site Environmental Report for Calendar Year 1993 describes the environmental monitoring programs at the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project (WSSRAP). The objectives of these programs are to assess actual or potential exposure to contaminant effluents from the project area by providing public use scenarios and dose estimates, to demonstrate compliance with Federal and State permitted levels, and to summarize trends and/or changes in contaminant concentrations from environmental monitoring program. In 1993, the maximum committed dose to a hypothetical individual at the chemical plant site perimeter was 0.03 mrem (0.0003 mSv). The maximum committed dose to a hypothetical individual at the boundary of the Weldon Spring Quarry was 1.9 mrem (0.019 mSv). These scenarios assume an individual walking along the perimeter of the site-once a day at the chemical plant/raffinate pits and twice a day at the quarry-250 days per year. This hypothetical individual also consumes fish, sediment, and water from lakes and other bodies of water in the area. The collective dose, based on an effected population of 112,000 was 0.12 person-rem (0.0012 person-Sv). This calculation is based on recreational use of the August A. Busch Memorial Conservation Area and the Missouri Department of Conservation recreational trail (the Katy Trail) near the quarry. These estimates are below the U.S. Department of Energy requirement of 100 mrem (I mSv) annual committed effective dose equivalent for all exposure pathways. Results from air monitoring for the National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPs) program indicated that the estimated dose was 0.38 mrem, which is below the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) standard of 10 mrem per year.

  19. Spring Recipes A Problem-solution Approach

    CERN Document Server

    Long, Josh; Mak, Gary

    2010-01-01

    With over 3 Million users/developers, Spring Framework is the leading "out of the box" Java framework. Spring addresses and offers simple solutions for most aspects of your Java/Java EE application development, and guides you to use industry best practices to design and implement your applications. The release of Spring Framework 3 has ushered in many improvements and new features. Spring Recipes: A Problem-Solution Approach, Second Edition continues upon the bestselling success of the previous edition but focuses on the latest Spring 3 features for building enterprise Java applications.

  20. Spring Hydrology Determines Summer Net Carbon Uptake in Northern Ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Yonghong; Kimball, John; Reichle, Rolf H.

    2014-01-01

    Increased photosynthetic activity and enhanced seasonal CO2 exchange of northern ecosystems have been observed from a variety of sources including satellite vegetation indices (such as the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index; NDVI) and atmospheric CO2 measurements. Most of these changes have been attributed to strong warming trends in the northern high latitudes (greater than or equal to 50N). Here we analyze the interannual variation of summer net carbon uptake derived from atmospheric CO2 measurements and satellite NDVI in relation to surface meteorology from regional observational records. We find that increases in spring precipitation and snow pack promote summer net carbon uptake of northern ecosystems independent of air temperature effects. However, satellite NDVI measurements still show an overall benefit of summer photosynthetic activity from regional warming and limited impact of spring precipitation. This discrepancy is attributed to a similar response of photosynthesis and respiration to warming and thus reduced sensitivity of net ecosystem carbon uptake to temperature. Further analysis of boreal tower eddy covariance CO2 flux measurements indicates that summer net carbon uptake is positively correlated with early growing-season surface soil moisture, which is also strongly affected by spring precipitation and snow pack based on analysis of satellite soil moisture retrievals. This is attributed to strong regulation of spring hydrology on soil respiration in relatively wet boreal and arctic ecosystems. These results document the important role of spring hydrology in determining summer net carbon uptake and contrast with prevailing assumptions of dominant cold temperature limitations to high-latitude ecosystems. Our results indicate potentially stronger coupling of boreal/arctic water and carbon cycles with continued regional warming trends.

  1. CACTUS SPRING ROADLESS AREA, CALIFORNIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matti, Jonathan C.; Kuizon, Lucia

    1984-01-01

    Geologic, geochemical, and geophysical studies together with a review of historic mining and prospecting activities indicate that the Cactus Spring Roadless Area in California has little promise for the occurrence of mineral or energy resources. Marble bodies occur in the northern part of the roadless area and are possible resources for building stone, crushed and quarried aggregate, and lime and magnesium for Portland cement and industrial applications. It is recommended that the terrane of marble be mapped and sampled carefully in order to evaluate the quantity and quality of the carbonate resources.

  2. Trend of earlier spring in central Europe continued

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ungersböck, Markus; Jurkovic, Anita; Koch, Elisabeth; Lipa, Wolfgang; Scheifinger, Helfried; Zach-Hermann, Susanne

    2013-04-01

    Modern phenology is the study of the timing of recurring biological events in the animal and plant world, the causes of their timing with regard to biotic and abiotic forces, and the interrelation among phases of the same or different species. The relationship between phenology and climate explains the importance of plant phenology for Climate Change studies. Plants require light, water, oxygen mineral nutrients and suitable temperature to grow. In temperate zones the seasonal life cycle of plants is primarily controlled by temperature and day length. Higher spring air temperatures are resulting in an earlier onset of the phenological spring in temperate and cool climate. On the other hand changes in phenology due to climate change do have impact on the climate system itself. Vegetation is a dynamic factor in the earth - climate system and has positive and negative feedback mechanisms to the biogeochemical and biogeophysical fluxes to the atmosphere Since the mid of the 1980s spring springs earlier in Europe and autumn is shifting back to the end of the year resulting in a longer vegetation period. The advancement of spring can be clearly attributed to temperature increase in the months prior to leaf unfolding and flowering, the timing of autumn is more complex and cannot easily be attributed to one or some few parameters. To demonstrate that the observed advancement of spring since the mid of 1980s is pro-longed in 2001 to 2010 and the delay of fall and the lengthening of the growing season is confirmed in the last decade we picked out several indicator plants from the PEP725 database www.pep725.eu. The PEP725 database collects data from different European network operators and thus offers a unique compilation of phenological observations; the database is regularly updated. The data follow the same classification scheme, the so called BBCH coding system so they can be compared. Lilac Syringa vulgaris, birch Betula pendula, beech Fagus and horse chestnut Aesculus

  3. Weed infestation in canopy of spring barley in condition of different tillage systems and fertilization and plant protection levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Kraska

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this work was to determine the influence of conventional tillage (fall ploughing at 25 cm and minimum tillage systems (chisel ploughing at 30 cm and two differentiated fertilization and plant protection levels on number, species composition and air dry weed mass in spring barley cv. Rataj. This spring barley was cultivated in crop rotation potato - spring barley - winter rye. The analysis of field infestation was made prior to spring barley harvest with quantitative- weighting method. There was estimated number of weeds, weed species composition and air dry weight of weeds in two randomly chosen areas of each plot of 0.5 m2. The density of weeds and weed air dry weight was statistically analysed by means of variance analysis, and the mean values were estimated with Tukey's confidence intervals (p=0.05. Intensive level of fertilization and chemical crop protection decreased number of monocotyledonous weeds and total weeds in canopy of spring barley. Conventional system of soil cultivation decreased in a canopy of spring barley the following species of weeds: Geranium pusillum, Galinsoga parviflora, Stellaria media, Apera spica-venti, Poa annua and Echinochloa crusgalli. Conventional tillage increases number of Chamomilla suaveolens and Fallopia convolvulus in a canopy of spring barley. Intensive fertilization and plant protection levels decreased weed infestation first of all through Echinochloa crusgalli, Apera spica-venti, Fallopia convolvulus, Galinsoga parviflora, Geranium pusillum, Chenopodium album and Setaria pumila.

  4. Aquatic beetles (Coleoptera in springs of a small lowland river: habitat factors vs. landscape factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pakulnicka J.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We identified the beetle fauna of springs of a small lowland river and attempted to determine the direction and magnitude of beetle migration between the springs and neighboring water bodies in the river valley, as well as the local environmental factors and landscape parameters that most influence the character of aquatic beetle assemblages in the springs. We studied springs of three limnological types, along the entire length of the river valley, and identified 42 beetle species. All types of springs were dominated by stagnobiontic species, which enter springs from other aquatic environments, mainly via dispersion by air. We also found a small proportion of crenophiles and a substantial proportion of rheophiles and tyrphophiles, which was linked to the close proximity of the river and dystrophic water bodies. The fauna of the springs was affected to a similar degree by local environmental factors and by landscape factors acting on a broader scale. This indicates the need for broader consideration of landscape factors, which are often neglected in ecological studies.

  5. Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Air pollution is a mixture of solid particles and gases in the air. Car emissions, chemicals from factories, dust, ... a gas, is a major part of air pollution in cities. When ozone forms air pollution, it's ...

  6. INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGIES OF THE METAL-PLATE SPRINGS PRODUCTION AND HARDENING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Klubovich

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A methods and technology of the periodic rolling billets variable profile. Given schematic diagrams and technical specification of equipment for making plastic and surface treatment of small leaf springs and the guide bearings air suspension trucks. An assessment of the influence of ultrasonic vibrations on the structure and operating characteristics of the elastic elements of the suspension of vehicles.

  7. Running springs: speed and animal size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farley, C T; Glasheen, J; McMahon, T A

    1993-12-01

    Trotting and hopping animals use muscles, tendons and ligaments to store and return elastic energy as they bounce along the ground. We examine how the musculoskeletal spring system operates at different speeds and in animals of different sizes. We model trotting and hopping as a simple spring-mass system which consists of a leg spring and a mass. We find that the stiffness of the leg spring (k(leg)) is nearly independent of speed in dogs, goats, horses and red kangaroos. As these animals trot or hop faster, the leg spring sweeps a greater angle during the stance phase, and the vertical excursion of the center of mass during the ground contact phase decreases. The combination of these changes to the spring system causes animals to bounce off the ground more quickly at higher speeds. Analysis of a wide size range of animals (0.1-140 kg) at equivalent speeds reveals that larger animals have stiffer leg springs (k(leg) [symbol: see text] M0.67, where M is body mass), but that the angle swept by the leg spring is nearly independent of body mass. As a result, the resonant period of vertical vibration of the spring-mass system is longer in larger animals. The length of time that the feet are in contact with the ground increases with body mass in nearly the same way as the resonant period of vertical vibration.

  8. Vulcan Hot Springs known geothermal resource area: an environmental analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spencer, S.G.; Russell, B.F. (eds.)

    1979-09-01

    The Vulcan Hot Springs known geothermal resource area (KGRA) is one of the more remote KGRAs in Idaho. The chemistry of Vulcan Hot Springs indicates a subsurface resource temperature of 147/sup 0/C, which may be high enough for power generation. An analysis of the limited data available on climate, meteorology, and air quality indicates few geothermal development concerns in these areas. The KGRA is located on the edge of the Idaho Batholith on a north-trending lineament which may be a factor in the presence of the hot springs. An occasional earthquake of magnitude 7 or greater may be expected in the region. Subsidence or elevation as a result of geothermal development in the KGRA do not appear to be of concern. Fragile granitic soils on steep slopes in the KGRA are unstable and may restrict development. The South fork of the Salmon River, the primary stream in the region, is an important salmon spawning grounds. Stolle Meadows, on the edge of the KGRA, is used as a wintering and calving area for elk, and access to the area is limited during this period. Socioeconomic and demographic surveys indicate that facilities and services will probably not be significantly impacted by development. Known heritage resources in the KGRA include two sites and the potential for additional cultural sites is significant.

  9. RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN SPRING KUROSHIO SSTA AND SUMMER RAINFALL IN CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Tian-yu; SUN Zhao-bo; LI Zhong-xian; WANG Dong-yu

    2007-01-01

    Based on the data of SST and NCEP/NCAR reanalysis data, the relationship is analyzed of spring SSTA in the Kuroshio region with summer precipitation in China, summer 500 hPa field and water vapor transport, using the methods of Morlet wave, correlation and composite analysis. The results show that annual and interdecadal change of spring SST in the Kuroshio region is distinct. Spring SST displays a significantly increasing trend and there exist different periodic oscillations in the Kuroshio region, with the 23-year periodic oscillation being the most obvious. Troughs and ridges in the mid- and higher- latitudes turn deeper in high Kuroshio SSTA years. At the same time, the western Pacific subtropical high strengthens and stretches westwards. As a result, the warm / wet air from the west of the subtropical high locates in the mid- and lower- reaches of the Yangtze River and south China and summer rainfall in the above regions increases accordingly. Composite anomalous water vapor flux fields indicate that the vapor transport from the South China Sea and western Pacific and the vapor from the north converge over the midand lower- reaches of the Yangtze River and south China, which results in the increase of the summer rainfall in the mid- and lower- reaches of the Yangtze River and south China. On the contrary, the summer rainfall in the mid- and lower- reaches of the Yangtze River and south China decreases correspondingly in low Kuroshio SSTA years.

  10. DOD HPC Insights. Spring 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-01

    that would make an immediate impact, the Daikin -McQuay magnetic chiller and Baltimore Air Coil evapora- tor towers were selected. Magnetic chillers...such as the Daikin -McQuay pictured below, utilizes magnetic levi- tation to “float” the compressor shaft and eliminate the need for oil in the

  11. Snow Conditions Near Barrow in Spring 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, M.; Rigor, I.; Nghiem, S. V.; Sturm, M.; Kurtz, N. T.; Farrell, S. L.; Gleason, E.; Lieb-Lappen, R.; Saiet, E.

    2012-12-01

    Snow has a dual role in the growth and decay of Arctic sea ice. It provides insulation from colder air temperatures during the winter, which hinders sea ice formation. Snow is highly reflective and, as a result, it delays the surface ice melt during the spring. Summer snow melt influences the formation and location of melt ponds on sea ice, which further modifies heat transport into sea ice and the underlying ocean. Identifying snow thickness and extent is of key importance in understanding the surface heat budget, particularly during the early spring when the maximum snowfall has surpassed, and surface melt has not yet occurred. Regarding Arctic atmospheric chemical processes, snow may sustain or terminate halogen chemical recycling and distribution, depending on the state of the snow cover. Therefore, an accurate assessment of the snow cover state in the changing Arctic is important to identify subsequent impacts of snow change on both physical and chemical processes in the Arctic environment. In this study, we assess the springtime snow conditions near Barrow, Alaska using coordinated airborne and in situ measurements taken during the NASA Operation IceBridge and BRomine, Ozone, and Mercury EXperiment (BROMEX) field campaigns in March 2012, and compare these to climatological records. Operation IceBridge was conceived to bridge the gap between satellite retrievals ice thickness by ICESat which ceased operating in 2009 and ICESat-2 which is planned for launch in 2016. As part of the IceBridge mission, snow depth may be estimated by taking the difference between the snow/air surface and the snow/ice interface measured by University of Kansas's snow radar installed on a P-3 Orion and the measurements have an approximate spatial resolution of 40 m along-track and 16 m across-track. The in situ snow depth measurements were measured by an Automatic Snow Depth Probe (Magnaprobe), which has an accuracy of 0.5 cm. Samples were taken every one-to-two meters at two sites

  12. Joystick With Cable Springs Offers Better Feel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerley, James; Ecklund, Wayne

    1992-01-01

    Improved joystick allows motion in 6 degrees of freedom, biased toward central position and orientation by 16 segments of cable serving as springs. Improvement in feel and control results from nonlinear compliance of cable-spring assembly. Nonlinear variations accommodate natural reactions of hand and brain. Operator functions as part of feedback control loop. More comfortable, increases ability to exert control and reduces fatigue.

  13. Rocky Mountain Carbonate Spring Deposit development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rainey, Dustin Kyle

    Relict Holocene carbonate spring deposits containing diverse biotic and abiotic depositional textures are present at Fall Creek cold sulphur springs, Alberta, Fairmont Hot Springs, British Columbia, and Hot Creek cold springs, British Columbia. The relict deposits are formed mainly of low-magnesium crystalline calcite contained in laterally continuous strata. Paleo-flow regimes were characterized by extensive sheet flow that increased the surface area of spring water exposed to the atmosphere. Calcite precipitated inorganically from spring water that attained CaCO3 supersaturation through agitation-induced CO2 degassing that was facilitated by elevated flow rates and a large surface area as spring water flowed down-slope. Thus, the deposits contain only minor amounts of detrital, mechanically deposited, and biogenic carbonate. Evaporation was only a minor contributor to CaCO3 supersaturation, mainly in quiescent environments. Photosynthetic CO2 removal did not measurably contribute to CaCO3 supersaturation. Calcite crystals precipitated in biotic facies formed from low to moderately supersaturated spring water, whereas abiotic dendrite crystals formed rapidly from highly supersaturated spring water. Calcite passively nucleated on cyanobacteria, bryophytes and macrophytes, and was probably facilitated by cyanobacterial extracellular polymeric substances. Cyanobacterial filaments and stromatolites are integral parts of all three deposits, whereas bryophytes were restricted to the Fall Creek and Hot Creek deposits. Diagenetic microbial degradation of crystalline calcite was common to all three deposits, but recrystallization was limited to the Fall Creek deposit. The amount and location of calcite precipitation relative to the vents was controlled by the concentrations of Ca2+ and HCO3- in solution, and discharge volume fluctuations. Spring water with high [Ca2+] and [HCO 3-] precipitated large amounts of calcite proximal to the vents (e.g. Fairmont), whereas spring

  14. Shallow Analysis on the First Spring Soaking Rain Weather and Its Precipitation Enhancement Potential Forecast in Jinzhou Area in 2010

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] The research aimed to study the first spring soaking rain weather and its precipitation enhancement potential forecast in Jinzhou area in 2010. [Method] From the weather situation characteristics, main influence system, forecast service, artificial precipitation enhancement operation and so on, the first spring soaking rain weather process in Jinzhou area in 2010 was summarized comprehensively. [Result] The weather situation characteristics of soaking rain were that the high-altitude cold air wa...

  15. Distribution map of hot springs in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sumi, K.

    1975-01-01

    This map (scale 1:2,000,000) provides the distribution and locations of hot springs in Japan. A hot spring is defined as hot water, mineral water, vapor or other gases (excluding natural gases containing hydrocarbons as the major component) issuing from underground at a temperature of 25/sup 0/C or higher and/or containing substances listed on the map in specific concentrations. Springs are classified according to their chemical composition. Each class of spring is assigned one of five different symbols (per class) according to its temperature. Where appropriate, the geologic age of the spring location is identified. A comprehensive place name index is provided in both Japanese and English transliteration. The map is also isothermically graduated in HFU and references are given for descriptive textual materials that may be used as supplements.

  16. RECONSTRUCTION OF FALSE SPRING OCCURRENCE OVER THE SOUTHEASTERN U.S., 1901–2007: INCREASING RISK OF SPRING FREEZE DAMAGE?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marino, G.P.; Kaiser, D.P.

    2009-01-01

    Near-record warmth over much of the United States during March 2007 promoted early growth of crops and vegetation. A widespread arctic air outbreak followed in early April, resulting in extensive agricultural losses over the southeastern U.S. This “false spring” event also resulted in widespread damage to newly grown tissues of native deciduous forest species, shown by previous researchers to have affected the terrestrial carbon cycle. The current study reconstructed the historical occurrence of false springs for the southeastern U.S. (32–39 °N; 75–98 °W) from 1901–2007 using daily maximum and minimum temperature records from 176 stations in the Global Historical Climatology Network database, and Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) data derived from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) satellite observations. A false spring index examined the relative timing of the start of the growing season (SGS), or leaf-out, to the timing of a potentially damaging last hard freeze (≤ -2.2 °C). SGS was modeled for the domain by combining EVI data with ground-based temperature “degree-day” calculations refl ecting the rate of springtime warming. No significant area-wide, long-term SGS trend was found (0.2 days later/decade; p = 0.3). However, the timing of the last hard freeze did occur significantly later (>1 day/decade; p < 0.05) over a contiguous region stretching from Mississippi eastward to the Carolinas. The index also found that false spring risk increased over the same area, although a domain-averaged trend showed no change since 1901. These results illustrate the complexity of observed climate change over the last century. In a generally warming world, the character of temperature changes in some regions does not result in decreasing risk of false spring, and may in fact pose increased risk if occurring during vulnerable plant growth stages.

  17. Spring plant phenology and false springs in the conterminous US during the 21st century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allstadt, Andrew J.; Vavrus, Stephen J.; Heglund, Patricia J.; Pidgeon, Anna M.; Thogmartin, Wayne E.; Radeloff, Volker C.

    2015-01-01

    The onset of spring plant growth has shifted earlier in the year over the past several decades due to rising global temperatures. Earlier spring onset may cause phenological mismatches between the availability of plant resources and dependent animals, and potentially lead to more false springs, when subsequent freezing temperatures damage new plant growth. We used the extended spring indices to project changes in spring onset, defined by leaf out and by first bloom, and predicted false springs until 2100 in the conterminous United States (US) using statistically-downscaled climate projections from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project 5 ensemble. Averaged over our study region, the median shift in spring onset was 23 days earlier in the Representative Concentration Pathway 8.5 scenario with particularly large shifts in the Western US and the Great Plains. Spatial variation in phenology was due to the influence of short-term temperature changes around the time of spring onset versus season long accumulation of warm temperatures. False spring risk increased in the Great Plains and portions of the Midwest, but remained constant or decreased elsewhere. We conclude that global climate change may have complex and spatially variable effects on spring onset and false springs, making local predictions of change difficult.

  18. Genetic Algorithms Based Approach for Designing Spring Brake Orthosis – Part I: Spring Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. Huq

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Spring brake orthosis (SBO concentrates purely on the knee to generate the swing phase of the paraplegic gait with the required hip flexion occurring passively as a consequence of the ipsilateral knee flexion, generated by releasing the torsion spring mounted at the knee joint. Electrical stimulation then drives the knee back to full extension, as well as restores the spring potential energy. In this paper, genetic algorithm (GA and its variant multi-objective GA (MOGA is used to perform the search operation for the ‘best’ spring parameters for the SBO spring mounted on an average sized subject simulated in the sagittal plane. Conventional torsion spring is tested against constant torque type spring in terms of swing duration as, based on first principles, it is hypothesized that constant torque spring would be able to produce slower SBO swing phase as might be preferred in assisted paraplegic gait. In line with the hypothesis, it is found that it is not possible to delay the occurrence of the flexion peak of the SBO swing phase further than its occurrence in the natural gait. The use of conventional torsion spring causes the swing knee flexion peak to appear rather faster than that of the natural gait, resulting in a potentially faster swing phase and hence gait cycle. The constant torque type spring on the other hand is able to stretch duration of the swing phase to some extent, rendering it the preferable spring type in SBO.

  19. Weldon Spring historical dose estimate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meshkov, N.; Benioff, P.; Wang, J.; Yuan, Y.

    1986-07-01

    This study was conducted to determine the estimated radiation doses that individuals in five nearby population groups and the general population in the surrounding area may have received as a consequence of activities at a uranium processing plant in Weldon Spring, Missouri. The study is retrospective and encompasses plant operations (1957-1966), cleanup (1967-1969), and maintenance (1969-1982). The dose estimates for members of the nearby population groups are as follows. Of the three periods considered, the largest doses to the general population in the surrounding area would have occurred during the plant operations period (1957-1966). Dose estimates for the cleanup (1967-1969) and maintenance (1969-1982) periods are negligible in comparison. Based on the monitoring data, if there was a person residing continually in a dwelling 1.2 km (0.75 mi) north of the plant, this person is estimated to have received an average of about 96 mrem/yr (ranging from 50 to 160 mrem/yr) above background during plant operations, whereas the dose to a nearby resident during later years is estimated to have been about 0.4 mrem/yr during cleanup and about 0.2 mrem/yr during the maintenance period. These values may be compared with the background dose in Missouri of 120 mrem/yr.

  20. Fabrication and experimentation of FRP helical spring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekanthappa, J.; Shiva Shankar, G. S.; Amith, B. M.; Gagan, M.

    2016-09-01

    In present scenario, the automobile industry sector is showing increased interest in reducing the unsprung weight of the automobile & hence increasing the fuel Efficiency. One of the feasible sub systems of a vehicle where weight reduction may be attempted is vehicle- suspension system. Usage of composite material is a proven way to lower the component weight without any compromise in strength. The composite materials are having high specific strength, more elastic strain energy storage capacity in comparison with those of steel. Therefore, helical coil spring made of steel is replaceable by composite cylindrical helical coil spring. This research aims at preparing a re-usable mandrel (mould) of Mild steel, developing a setup for fabrication, fabrication of FRP helical spring using continuous glass fibers and Epoxy Resin (Polymer). Experimentation has been conducted on fabricated FRP helical spring to determine its strength parameters & for failure analysis. It is found that spring stiffness (K) of Glass/Epoxy helical-spring is greater than steel-coil spring with reduced weight.

  1. Thermal springs of Malaysia and their potentialdevelopment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahim Samsudin, Abdul; Hamzah, Umar; Rahman, Rakmi Ab.; Siwar, Chamhuri; Fauzi Mohd. Jani, Mohd; Othman, Redzuan

    The study on the potential development of hot springs for the tourism industry in Malaysiawas conducted. Out of the 40 hot springs covered, the study identified 9 hot springs having a high potential for development, 14 having medium potential and the remaining 17 having low or least potential for development. This conclusion was arrived at after considering the technical and economic feasibility of the various hot springs. Technical feasibility criteria includes geological factors, water quality, temperature and flow rate. The economic feasibility criteria considers measures such as accessibility, current and market potentials in terms of visitors, surrounding attractions and existing inventory and facilities available. A geological input indicates that high potential hot springs are located close to or within the granite body and associated with major permeable fault zones. They normally occur at low elevation adjacent to topographic highs. High potential hot springs are also characterised by high water temperature, substantial flowrate and very good water quality which is important for water-body contact activities such as soaking. Economic criteria for high potential hot springs are associated with good accessibility, good market, good surrounding attractions like rural and village setting and well developed facilities and infrastructures.

  2. Environmental assessment for Kelley Hot Spring geothermal project: Kelley Hot Spring Agricultural Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neilson, J.A.

    1981-04-01

    The environmental impacts of an integrated swine production unit are analyzed together with necessary ancillary operations deriving its primary energy from a known geothermal reservoir in accordance with policies established by the National Energy Conservation Act. This environmental assessment covers 6 areas designated as potentially feasible project sites, using as the basic criteria for selection ground, surface and geothermal water supplies. The six areas, comprising +- 150 acres each, are within a 2 mile radius of Kelley Hot Springs, a known geothermal resource of many centuries standing, located 16 miles west of Alturas, the county seat of Modoc County, California. The project consists of the construction and operation of a 1360 sow confined pork production complex expandable to 5440 sows. The farrow to finish system for 1360 sows consists of 2 breeding barns, 2 gestation barns, 1 farrowing and 1 nursery barn, 3 growing and 3 finishing barns, a feed mill, a methane generator for waste disposal and water storage ponds. Supporting this are one geothermal well and 1 or 2 cold water wells, all occupying approximately 12 acres. Environmental reconnaissance involving geology, hydrology, soils, vegetation, fauna, air and water quality, socioeconomic, archaelogical and historical, and land use aspects were carefully carried out, impacts assessed and mitigations evaluated.

  3. Chemical composition and its origin in spring rainwater over Taihu Lake

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xuemei; YANG Longyuan; QIN Boqiang; JI Lingling

    2006-01-01

    Chemical compositions of rainwater collected in three stations in Taihu Lake in Jiangsu Province, China between March and May 2003 were analyzed through numerical simulations and field observation data. In terms of average ion deposition rate in spring at the air/water interface, of all anions,that of so2-4 was the largest followed by NO-3, whereas among all cations, Ca2+ concentration and the rate was the largest, and then NH4+ was the next. The correlation of ion concentration indicated that the catchment of the lake has been artificially polluted considerably. Using backward trajectory analysis, the raining water in the stations in Taihu Lake was classified. In spring, marine-originated rain is the main contribution to this area, counting for 92.7% of the total precipitation, in which SO2-4, NO-3 and NH+4 contributed 89.2%, 88.1%, and 88.3% respectively to the total spring-rain chemicals, whereas land-originated rains contributed in a small amount. However, the ion concentration in the land-originated rain was higher and acidic, causing considerable harm to local ecosystem. The analysis of backward trajectory analysis shows that three types of air masses influenced the chemical composition of the lake water, namely, air mass from NE direction, air mass from SW direct ion, and local air mass. Although the local air masses often produced small rainfall amount, but the nature of high ion concentration and high acidity impacted the local ecosystem remarkably. The ion concentration and rainfall from long-distance boreal air mass are clearly greater than those in austral air.

  4. Process for Forming a High Temperature Single Crystal Canted Spring

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeMange, Jeffrey J (Inventor); Ritzert, Frank J (Inventor); Nathal, Michael V (Inventor); Dunlap, Patrick H (Inventor); Steinetz, Bruce M (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    A process for forming a high temperature single crystal canted spring is provided. In one embodiment, the process includes fabricating configurations of a rapid prototype spring to fabricate a sacrificial mold pattern to create a ceramic mold and casting a canted coiled spring to form at least one canted coil spring configuration based on the ceramic mold. The high temperature single crystal canted spring is formed from a nickel-based alloy containing rhenium using the at least one coil spring configuration.

  5. Biogeochemistry of hypersaline springs supporting a mid-continent marine ecosystem: an analogue for martian springs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grasby, Stephen E; Londry, Kathleen L

    2007-08-01

    Hypersaline springs that host unique mid-continent marine ecosystems were examined in central Manitoba, Canada. The springs originate from a reflux of glacial meltwater that intrudes into underlying bedrock and dissolved buried salt beds. Two spring types were distinguished based both on flow rate and geochemistry. High flow springs (greater than 10 L/s) hosted extensive marine microbial mats, which were dominated by algae but also included diverse microbes. These varied somewhat between springs as indicated by changes in profiles of fatty acid methyl esters. Culture studies confirmed the presence of sulfate-reducing bacteria in sediments at the high flow sites. In contrast, low flow springs were affected by solar evaporation, increasing salinity, and temperature. These low flow springs behaved more like closed nutrient-limited systems and did not support microbial mats. Direct comparison of the high and low flow springs revealed interesting implications for the potential to record biosignatures in the rock record. High flow springs have abundant, well-developed microbial mats, which desiccate and are cemented along the edges of the spring pools; however, the high mass flux overwhelms any geochemical signature of microbial activity. In contrast, the nutrient-limited low flow sites develop strong geochemical signatures of sulfate reduction, even in the absence of microbial mats, due to less dilution with the lower flows. Geochemical and physical evidence for life did not correlate with the abundance of microbial life but, rather, with the extent to which the biological system formed a closed ecosystem.

  6. Spring Enterprise Recipes A Problem-solution Approach

    CERN Document Server

    Mak, Gary

    2010-01-01

    The Spring Framework is a widely adopted enterprise and general Java framework. The release of Spring Framework 3.0 has added many improvements and new features for Spring development. Written by Gary Mak of the best-selling Spring Recipes and Josh Long, an expert Spring user and developer, Spring Enterprise Recipes is one of the first books on the new Spring 3. This key book focuses on Spring Framework 3.0, the latest version available, and a framework-related suite of tools, extensions, plug-ins, modules, and more-all of which you may want and need for building three-tier Java EE application

  7. Spring Creek Common Allotment habitat management plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Management plan for the Spring Creek Common Allotment on Charles M. Russell National Wildlife Refuge, in McCone and Garfield Counties, Montana. This plan discusses...

  8. SPring-8 and application of nuclear scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harami, Taikan [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Kamigori, Hyogo (Japan). Kansai Research Establishment

    1997-03-01

    The SPring-8 has Linac synchrotron, incidence type facility and an accumulation ring. By preparing a beam line to take out light at the accumulation ring, the SPring-8 is supplied for common applications. Development of science adopting new method to study of properties and organisms by using high brightness source is expected. Construction of the SPring-8 accelerator was finished and adjusting test and commissioning of apparatuses are now in proceeding. At pre-use inspection of the accumulation ring on March, 1997, beam lines for R and D and crystalline structure analysis are applied to the Science and Technology Agency to inspect them simultaneously. And, by activating character of the SPring-8 radiation facility of high brightness and high energy X-ray generator, property study using Moessbauer nuclide to a probe can be conducted. (G.K.)

  9. Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge : Wildlife list

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This checklist is a comprehensive list of Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge wildlife species. The checklist contains all wildlife species documented on the...

  10. Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge habitat map

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Habitat map for Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge. This habitat map was created along with the National Vegetation Classification (NVC) map of the refuge. Refuge...

  11. Coastal Energy Corporation, Willow Springs, MO

    Science.gov (United States)

    notice of a proposed Administrative Penalty Assessment against Coastal Energy Corporation, located at 232 Burnham Road, Willow Springs, Missouri, for alleged violations at the facility located at or near that facility.

  12. Optical spring effect in nanoelectromechanical systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Feng; Zhou, Guangya; Du, Yu; Chau, Fook Siong; Deng, Jie

    2014-08-01

    In this Letter, we report a hybrid system consisting of nano-optical and nano-mechanical springs, in which the optical spring effect works to adjust the mechanical frequency of a nanoelectromechanical systems resonator. Nano-scale folded beams are fabricated as the mechanical springs and double-coupled one-dimensional photonic crystal cavities are used to pump the "optical spring." The dynamic characteristics of this hybrid system are measured and analyzed at both low and high input optical powers. This study leads the physical phenomenon of optomechanics in complex nano-opto-electro-mechanical systems (NOEMS) and could benefit the future applications of NOEMS in chip-level communication and sensing.

  13. Coffee Cravings May Spring from Your DNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160628.html Coffee Cravings May Spring From Your DNA Genes appear ... research suggests that your genes influence how much coffee you drink. Researchers analyzed genetic data from more ...

  14. Stravinsky: The Rite of Spring. Canticum sacrum

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    1996-01-01

    Uuest heliplaadist "Stravinsky: The Rite of Spring. Canticum sacrum. Requiem canticles. Choral Variations on "Vom Himmel hoch". Lausanne Pro Arte Choir, Suisse Romande Chamber Choir and Orchestra, Neeme Järvi" Chandos CHAN 9408 (75 minutes:DDD)

  15. EASTER- a floating holiday in spring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周雷生

    2004-01-01

    Approximately 260 million North Americans(85%) are Christians. As in other Christian lands,the greatest religious festival of the year in Canada and the United States is Easter. Easter is a joyous spring day commemorating the res-

  16. Status report on Fish Springs pond snail

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report provides a life history of the pond snail (Lymnaea Hinkleyia pilsbryi) at Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge. The following information is included;...

  17. Fish Springs pond snail : Refuge communication scenario

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Communication scenario between the branch of Listing and Recovery, Fish and Wildlife Enhancement, and Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge (NWR), in regards to the...

  18. Pagosa Springs geothermal project. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-10-19

    This booklet discusses some ideas and methods for using Colorado geothermal energy. A project installed in Pagosa Springs, which consists of a pipeline laid down 8th street with service to residences retrofitted to geothermal space heating, is described. (ACR)

  19. Inspection report: Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report discusses results of a reconnaissance trip conducted at Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge. The following is outlined; land condition, presence of...

  20. Spring-back deformation in tube bending

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Da-xin E; Hua-hui He; Xiao-yi Liu; Ru-xin Ning

    2009-01-01

    The spring-back of a bending metal tube was studied through extensive experiments and finite element method (FEM) analysis. An approximate equation for the spring-back angle of bending was deduced. It is noted that the mechanical properties of the material (in a tubular form) are quite different from those found in the standard tensile tests (when the materials are in bar forms). This is one of the major reasons that result in the discrepancies in the outcomes of experimental study, FEM calculations, and spring-back analysis. It is therefore of crucial importance to study the mechanical properties of the materials in their tubular forms. The experiments and FEM simulations prove that the spring-back angle is significantly affected by the mechanical properties of the materials. The angle decreases accordingly with plastic modulus, but changes inversely with the hardening index and elastic modulus. The spring-back angle is also affected by the conditions of tube deformation: it increases accordingly with the relative bending radius but changes inversely with the relative wall thickness. In addition, the spring-back angle increases nonlinearly with the bending an-gle.

  1. Preparation of biomimetic photoresponsive polymer springs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iamsaard, Supitchaya; Villemin, Elise; Lancia, Federico; Aβhoff, Sarah-Jane; Fletcher, Stephen P; Katsonis, Nathalie

    2016-10-01

    Polymer springs that twist under irradiation with light, in a manner that mimics how plant tendrils twist and turn under the effect of differential expansion in different sections of the plant, show potential for soft robotics and the development of artificial muscles. The soft springs prepared using this protocol are typically 1 mm wide, 50 μm thick and up to 10 cm long. They are made from liquid crystal polymer networks in which an azobenzene derivative is introduced covalently as a molecular photo-switch. The polymer network is prepared by irradiation of a twist cell filled with a mixture of shape-persistent liquid crystals, liquid crystals having reactive end groups, molecular photo-switches, some chiral dopant and a small amount of photoinitiator. After postcuring, the soft polymer film is removed and cut into springs, the geometry of which is determined by the angle of cut. The material composing the springs is characterized by optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and tensile strength measurements. The springs operate at ambient temperature, by mimicking the orthogonal contraction mechanism that is at the origin of plant coiling. They shape-shift under irradiation with UV light and can be pre-programmed to either wind or unwind, as encoded in their geometry. Once illumination is stopped, the springs return to their initial shape. Irradiation with visible light accelerates the shape reversion.

  2. 扩展Spring MVC模块的Web应用%Web Application of Extended Spring MVC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖福保

    2012-01-01

    This paper described the application of Spring MVC framework. It analyzed the controller, model, and view of MVC framework. To compensate for the deficiency of Spring MVC, it introduced the AJAX technology into Spring MVC to have it extended. The extended Spring MVC is easier to maintain, and has been proved to be feasible and valid in a typical Web application.%叙述了Spring MVC模块的应用,对MVC模块中的控制器、模型和视图进行了分析,然后针对目前Spring MVC模块的不足,对此模块进行了扩展,并将AJAX技术引入到Spring MVC模块中,具有易维护性.在扩展Spring MVC模块的基础上设计了1个典型的Web应用,表明了扩展Spring MVC模块的可行性和有效性.

  3. The source, discharge, and chemical characteristics of water from Agua Caliente Spring, Palm Springs, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    : Martin, Peter; Contributors: Brandt, Justin; Catchings, Rufus D.; Christensen, Allen H.; Flint, Alan L.; Gandhok, Gini; Goldman, Mark R.; Halford, Keith J.; Langenheim, V.E.; Martin, Peter; Rymer, Michael J.; Schroeder, Roy A.; Smith, Gregory A.; Sneed, Michelle

    2011-01-01

    Agua Caliente Spring, in downtown Palm Springs, California, has been used for recreation and medicinal therapy for hundreds of years and currently (2008) is the source of hot water for the Spa Resort owned by the Agua Caliente Band of the Cahuilla Indians. The Agua Caliente Spring is located about 1,500 feet east of the eastern front of the San Jacinto Mountains on the southeast-sloping alluvial plain of the Coachella Valley. The objectives of this study were to (1) define the geologic structure associated with the Agua Caliente Spring; (2) define the source(s), and possibly the age(s), of water discharged by the spring; (3) ascertain the seasonal and longer-term variability of the natural discharge, water temperature, and chemical characteristics of the spring water; (4) evaluate whether water-level declines in the regional aquifer will influence the temperature of the spring discharge; and, (5) estimate the quantity of spring water that leaks out of the water-collector tank at the spring orifice.

  4. Variation of karst spring discharge in the recent five decades as an indicator of global climate change: A case study at Shanxi, northern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO; Qinghai; WANG; Yanxin; MA; Teng; LI; Luxiu

    2005-01-01

    Karst in Shanxi Province is representative of that in northern China, and karst water systems discharge in the form of springs that are among the most important sources for local water supply. Since the 1950s, attenuation has been the major trend of discharge variation of most karst springs at Shanxi. Based on the case study of 7 karst springs including Niangziguan, Xin'an, Guozhuang, Shentou, Jinci, Lancun, and Hongshan springs, the discharge variation process of karst springs was divided into natural fluctuation phase and anthropogenic impact phase. Discharge attenuation of the 7 karst springs was controlled mainly by climate and human activities, with their contributions being respectively about 60% and 40%. According to the difference of the effect of climate and human activities for each spring, attenuation modes of spring discharge fall into three types: natural process dominated attenuation type, exploitation induced process dominated attenuation type, and mixed attenuation type. The total restored discharge variation of 7 karst springs matched well with the global air temperature change in 1956―2000, clearly indicating the trend of global warming and aridity in the last several decades, and the analysis of discharge variation processes of karst springs can be used as a new tool for global change studies.

  5. Environmental air toxics: role in asthma occurrence?

    OpenAIRE

    Larsen, Gary L.; Beskid, Craig; Shirnamé-Moré, Lata

    2002-01-01

    The National Urban Air Toxics Research Center (NUATRC) hosted its first scientific workshop in 1994 that focused on possible relationships between air toxics and asthma. From that meeting came recommendations for future research including a need for more complete individual personal exposure assessments so that determinations of personal exposures to pollutants could be made. In the spring of 2001, NUATRC held a second such workshop to review progress made in this area during the intervening ...

  6. Weldon Spring Site environmental report for calendar year 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-08-01

    This report describes the environmental monitoring programs at the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project (WSSRAP). The objectives of these programs are to assess actual or potential exposure to contaminant effluents from the project area by providing public use scenarios and dose estimates, to demonstrate compliance with Federal and State permitted levels and regulations, and to summarize trends and/or changes in contaminant concentrations identified through environmental monitoring. Comprehensive monitoring indicated that emissions of radiological compounds in airborne and surface water discharges from the Weldon Spring site consisted primarily of Rn-220 gas, isotopes of thorium and radium, and natural uranium. Airborne Rn-220 emissions were estimated to be 42 Ci (1.6E12 Bq), while emissions from a combination of thorium, radium, and natural uranium isotopes to air and surface water were estimated to be 0.018 Ci (6.7E8 Bq), for a total of 25,000 g (25 kg). There was no measurable impact to any drinking water source.

  7. Reconstruction of northeast Asia spring temperature 1784–1990

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ohyama

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe a first attempt of wide-area dendroclimatic reconstruction, based upon seven spring temperature-sensitive chronologies from the ring widths of living trees, in Japan and Korea. Mean March–May temperature derived from a gridded land air temperature dataset (CRUTEM4 between 35–40° N and 125–140° E was reconstructed for the period of AD 1784–1990. Of the seven, two Japanese chronologies were eliminated during the calibration trials. The reconstruction accounted for 19.4% of the temperature variance in the calibration period, and is considered to be skillful for estimating interannual-to-interdecadal variations and not for long-term change. This reconstruction showed remarkably similar fluctuations to regional dendroclimatic reconstructions in Japan and Korea, indicating the past spatial coherency of spring temperatures in the region. The reconstruction was validated against other climate proxies. A fairly good agreement was found with cold periods as estimated from documentary records in southeast China and Japan. The west Japan temperature series recovered from instrumental records also showed a reasonable agreement with the reconstruction. On the other hand, the reconstruction did not show clear abrupt depressions after the Laki and the Tambora eruptions. These comparisons revealed that dendroclimatic spatial reconstruction in this area offers a good potential for reconstructing long-term and large-scale past temperature patterns for northeast Asia.

  8. The Cultural Impact on the Traditional Spring Festival Activities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘琳琳

    2015-01-01

    Spring Festival will surely be considered as the most important festival among Chinese colorful occasions.This study attempts to analyze several typical rituals of Spring Festival from the cultural aspects,digging out the cultural factors and cultur-al connotation from the activity like the Family Reunion Dinner,Spring Couplets,the Spring Festival Gala,etc.

  9. Experimental Investigation Of Polymeric Compound Cross Section Springs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayas Al-Mahasne

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an experimental investigation of the characteristic of the compound cross section springs on models made from polymeric materials (organic glass. Two constructive variants of the compound spring sections were specified with the help of criteria of similarity. The criterion of similarity of natural and model springs was determined by the simulation method at particular spring deflection. The problem of simulation was brought to accurate determination of the magnitudes that characterize the physical and mechanical properties of materials for natural and model springs. It was experimentally proved that the use of the proposed new type of springs significantly increases the spring stiffness.

  10. Geothermal energy and hot springs in Ethiopia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koga, T. (Hot Springs Therapeutics Research Institute, Kyushu, Univ., Japan)

    1971-01-01

    The hot springs in Ethiopia are concentrated in two areas: the North Afar depression and adjacent Red Sea shore, and a geothermal field 100 km from northeast to southwest in the central part of Ethiopia. The latter extends not only to the Great Rift Valley but also to the Aden Gulf. In the lake district in the central Great Rift Valley, there are a number of hot springs on the lake shore. These are along NE-SW fault lines, and the water is a sodium bicarbonate-type rich in HCO/sub 3/ and Na but low in C1 and Ca. In Dallol in the North Afar depression, CO/sub 2/-containing hot springs with high temperatures (110/sup 0/C) and a specific gravity of 1.4, were observed. In the South Afar depression, located in the northeastern part of the Rift Valley, there are many active volcanoes and hot springs between the lake district and the Danakil depression. The spring water is a sodium bicarbonate saline type. Nine graphs and maps are included.

  11. Spring Bird Migration Phenology in Eilat, Israel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reuven Yosef

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of the mean date of first captures and median arrival dates of spring migration for 34 species of birds at Eilat, Israel, revealed that the earlier a species migrates through Eilat, the greater is the inter-annual variation in the total time of its passage. Birds arrive during spring migration in Eilat in four structured and independent waves. The annual fluctuation in the initial arrival dates (initial capture dates and median dates (median date of all captures, not including recaptures, did not depend on the length of the migratory route. This implies that migrants crossing the Sahara desert depart from their winter quarters on different Julian days in different years. We suggest that negative correlations between the median date of the spring migration of early and late migrants depends upon the easterly (Hamsin wind period. Moreover, we believe that the phenology of all birds during spring migration in Eilat is possibly also determined by external factors such as weather conditions on the African continent or global climatic processes in the Northern hemisphere. Orphean Warblers (Sylvia hortensis show a strong positive correlation (rs=-0.502 of initial capture date with calendar years, whereas other species such as Barred Warbler (S. nisoria; rs = -0.391 and Spotted Flycatcher (Muscicapa striata; rs = -0.398 display an insignificant trend. The Dead Sea Sparrow (Passer moabiticus and Red-Backed Shrike (Lanius collurio are positively correlated regarding initial arrival date and medians of spring migration.

  12. Prediction of Spring Rate and Initial Failure Load due to Material Properties of Composite Leaf Spring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Sung Ha [Maxoft Inc., Seongnam (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Bok Lok [Gangneung-Wonju National University, Gangneung (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-12-15

    This paper presented analysis methods for adapting E-glass fiber/epoxy composite (GFRP) materials to an automotive leaf spring. It focused on the static behaviors of the leaf spring due to the material composition and its fiber orientation. The material properties of the GFRP composite were directly measured based on the ASTM standard test. A reverse implementation was performed to obtain the complete set of in-situ fiber and matrix properties from the ply test results. Next, the spring rates of the composite leaf spring were examined according to the variation of material parameters such as the fiber angles and resin contents of the composite material. Finally, progressive failure analysis was conducted to identify the initial failure load by means of an elastic stress analysis and specific damage criteria. As a result, it was found that damage first occurred along the edge of the leaf spring owing to the shear stresses.

  13. 76 FR 46288 - Adequacy Determination for Colorado Springs, Cañon City, Greeley, Pagosa Springs, and Telluride...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-02

    ... AGENCY Adequacy Determination for Colorado Springs, Ca on City, Greeley, Pagosa Springs, and Telluride... Carbon Monoxide Attainment/Maintenance Plan Colorado Springs Attainment/ Maintenance Area'' and ``Revised...,'' ``Final Revised PM10 Maintenance Plan for the Pagosa Springs Attainment/Maintenance Area,'' and...

  14. ANALYSIS OF COMPOSITE LEAF SPRING BY USING ANALYTICAL & FEA

    OpenAIRE

    Ranjeet Mithari; Amar Patil; Prof. E. N. Aitavade

    2012-01-01

    Leaf spring are of the oldest suspension component they are still frequently used. The current leaf spring is multiple leaf spring types with a steel material. It has high weight, low natural frequency, high corrosion, more noise. Therefore current multiple leaf spring is replaced by mono composite (E- Glass epoxy) leaf spring which has high natural frequency, low weight etc. The maximum stress produced at the cylindrically joint than fixed joint. Therefore stress analysis of composite materi...

  15. Prediction model for spring dust weather frequency in North China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LANG XianMei

    2008-01-01

    It is of great social and scientific importance and also very difficult to make reliable prediction for dust weather frequency (DWF) in North China. In this paper, the correlation between spring DWF in Beijing and Tianjin observation stations, taken as examples in North China, and seasonally averaged surface air temperature, precipitation, Arctic Oscillation, Antarctic Oscillation, South Oscillation, near surface meridional wind and Eurasian westerly index is respectively calculated so as to construct a prediction model for spring DWF in North China by using these climatic factors. Two prediction models, I.e. Model-Ⅰ and model-Ⅱ, are then set up respectively based on observed climate data and the 32-year (1970--2001) extra-seasonal hindcast experiment data as reproduced by the nine-level Atmospheric General Circulation Model developed at the Institute of Atmospheric Physics (IAP9L-AGCM). It is indicated that the correlation coefficient between the observed and predicted DWF reaches 0.933 in the model-Ⅰ, suggesting a high prediction skill one season ahead. The corresponding value is high up to 0.948 for the subsequent model-Ⅱ, which involves synchronous spring climate data reproduced by the IAP9L-AGCM relative to the model-Ⅰ. The model-Ⅱ can not only make more precise prediction but also can bring forward the lead time of real-time prediction from the model-Ⅰ's one season to half year. At last, the real-time predictability of the two models is evaluated. It follows that both the models display high prediction skill for both the interannual variation and linear trend of spring DWF in North China, and each is also featured by different advantages. As for the model-Ⅱ, the prediction skill is much higher than that of original approach by use of the IAP9L-AGCM alone. Therefore, the prediction idea put forward here should be popularized in other regions in China where dust weather occurs frequently.

  16. Prediction model for spring dust weather frequency in North China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    It is of great social and scientific importance and also very difficult to make reliable prediction for dust weather frequency (DWF) in North China. In this paper, the correlation between spring DWF in Beijing and Tianjin observation stations, taken as examples in North China, and seasonally averaged surface air temperature, precipitation, Arctic Oscillation, Antarctic Oscillation, South Oscillation, near surface meridional wind and Eurasian westerly index is respectively calculated so as to construct a prediction model for spring DWF in North China by using these climatic factors. Two prediction models, i.e. model-I and model-II, are then set up respectively based on observed climate data and the 32-year (1970 -2001) extra-seasonal hindcast experiment data as reproduced by the nine-level Atmospheric General Circulation Model developed at the Institute of Atmospheric Physics (IAP9L-AGCM). It is indicated that the correlation coefficient between the observed and predicted DWF reaches 0.933 in the model-I, suggesting a high prediction skill one season ahead. The corresponding value is high up to 0.948 for the subsequent model-II, which involves synchronous spring climate data reproduced by the IAP9L-AGCM relative to the model-I. The model-II can not only make more precise prediction but also can bring forward the lead time of real-time prediction from the model-I’s one season to half year. At last, the real-time predictability of the two models is evaluated. It follows that both the models display high prediction skill for both the interannual variation and linear trend of spring DWF in North China, and each is also featured by different advantages. As for the model-II, the prediction skill is much higher than that of original approach by use of the IAP9L-AGCM alone. Therefore, the prediction idea put forward here should be popularized in other regions in China where dust weather occurs frequently.

  17. Integrated geophysical investigations of Main Barton Springs, Austin, Texas, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saribudak, By Mustafa; Hauwert, Nico M.

    2017-03-01

    Barton Springs is a major discharge site for the Barton Springs Segment of the Edwards Aquifer and is located in Zilker Park, Austin, Texas. Barton Springs actually consists of at least four springs. The Main Barton Springs discharges into the Barton Springs pool from the Barton Springs fault and several outlets along a fault, from a cave, several fissures, and gravel-filled solution cavities on the floor of the pool west of the fault. Surface geophysical surveys [resistivity imaging, induced polarization (IP), self-potential (SP), seismic refraction, and ground penetrating radar (GPR)] were performed across the Barton Springs fault and at the vicinity of the Main Barton Springs in south Zilker Park. The purpose of the surveys was two-fold: 1) locate the precise location of submerged conduits (caves, voids) carrying flow to Main Barton Springs; and 2) characterize the geophysical signatures of the fault crossing Barton Springs pool. Geophysical results indicate significant anomalies to the south of the Barton Springs pool. A majority of these anomalies indicate a fault-like pattern, in front of the south entrance to the swimming pool. In addition, resistivity and SP results, in particular, suggest the presence of a large conduit in the southern part of Barton Springs pool. The groundwater flow-path to the Main Barton Springs could follow the locations of those resistivity and SP anomalies along the newly discovered fault, instead of along the Barton Springs fault, as previously thought.

  18. FATIGUE PROPERTIES OF SPRING REINFORCES POLYMER GEARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilal CAN

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Failure of gears, occur surface pressure stress and fracture at base of teeth. For steel gears, it is known that process of carburizing increases fatigue strength. Internal stress on the surface increases of fracture fatigue strength. In this study fatigue properties of polypropylene gear reinforced with 1.2 mm wire diameter metallic springs was investigated. Extension springs were used as reinforcement element and placed into the mould and stretched before injection of polypropylene material into the mould. After injection of polypropylene, stretched springs were loosened in order to obtain pre-stressing. Fatigue tests were performed on the produced gear. Reinforcement increased the strength of gears. At result of experiments, pre-stressing increase in service life 12 times more than that of specimens without reinforcement.

  19. Archaeal diversity in Icelandic hot springs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kvist, Thomas; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær; Westermann, Peter

    2007-01-01

    Whole-cell density gradient extractions from three solfataras (pH 2.5) ranging in temperature from 81 to 90 degrees C and one neutral hot spring (81 degrees C, pH 7) from the thermal active area of Hveragerethi (Iceland) were analysed for genetic diversity and local geographical variation...... of Archaea by analysis of amplified 16S rRNA genes. In addition to the three solfataras and the neutral hot spring, 10 soil samples in transects of the soil adjacent to the solfataras were analysed using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (t-RFLP). The sequence data from the clone libraries...... enzymes AluI and BsuRI. The sequenced clones from this solfatara belonged to Sulfolobales, Thermoproteales or were most closest related to sequences from uncultured Archaea. Sequences related to group I.1b were not found in the neutral hot spring or the hyperthermophilic solfatara (90 degrees C)....

  20. Spring-Assisted Cranioplasty for Bicoronal Synostosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tovetjärn, Robert; Maltese, Giovanni; Kölby, Lars;

    2012-01-01

    surgical technique with advancement and remodeling of the forehead combined with spring distraction of the occipital area. The aim of the current study was to evaluate this operative technique. Eighteen consecutive patients (9 boys and 9 girls) with bicoronal synostosis operated on using this technique......, with a mean perioperative bleeding of 237 (SD, 95) mL. The mean hospital stay was 6.3 (SD, 1.5) days, of which the mean intensive care unit stay was 1.6 (SD, 1.2) days. In 2 patients, one of the springs had to be reinserted because of postoperative dislocation. No other major complications were observed....... CONCLUSIONS: Spring-assisted cranioplasty for bicoronal synostosis is a safe technique, is less invasive than many other cranioplasties, and results in marked improvement in the calvarial shape....

  1. Micrometeorological data for energy-budget studies near Rogers Spring, Ash Meadows National Wildlife Refuge, Nye County, Nevada, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nichols, W.D.; Rapp, T.R.

    1996-05-01

    The data were collected at two sites near Rogers Spring for use in energy-budget studies beginning in 1994. The data collected at each site included net radiation, air temperature at two heights, dew- point temperature at two heights, windspeed at two heights, soil heat flux, and soil temperature in the interval between the land surface and the buried heat-flux plates.

  2. 76 FR 40118 - Spring 2011 Regulatory Agenda

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-07

    ... for Renewable Fuels Produced Under the Final RFS2 Program From Palm Oil. 10Clean Air Act--Long-Term... Renewable Fuels Produced Under the Final RFS2 Program From Palm Oil Legal Authority: Clean Air Act sec 211(o... No. 266 National Emission 2060-AP52 Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants From Coal- and...

  3. Yeast-like fungi isolated from indoor air in school buildings and the surrounding outdoor air

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elżbieta Ejdys

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A total of 111 isolates of yeast-like fungi and yeasts belonging to 40 species of 19 genera were identified in indoor air and outdoor air. Only one species, Kluyveromyces marxianus, was recorded in both types of air and seasons (spring and autumn. Kluyveromyces lactis and Yarrowia lipolytica, a species having the greatest symbiotic abilities, dominated in indoor air and outdoor air, respectively. Intensely used rooms, especially those with limited access of air, have the broadest range of species of yeast-like fungi. A comparison of both habitats shows that school rooms pose a greater epidemiological risk of yeast-like infections than outdoor air. The indoor as well as outdoor mycobiota undergoes phenological changes although it is determined by other biotic and abiotic factors.

  4. Foreign Friends Join Spring Tea Picking

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rong; You

    2013-01-01

    <正>Foreign Friends Picking Spring Tea, one of the activities of the Fourth China Tea Festival, was held in Pujiang County, Sichuan Province on March 17. Pang Te Cheng, Singaporean Consul General in Chengdu, Komate Kamalanavin, Thai Consul General in Chengdu, and Claudia Spahl, German

  5. Experimental demonstration of coupled optical springs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, N. A.; Barr, B. W.; Bell, A.; Graef, C.; Hild, S.; Huttner, S. H.; Leavey, S. S.; Macarthur, J.; Sorazu, B.; Wright, J.; Strain, K. A.

    2017-02-01

    Optical rigidity will play an important role in improving the sensitivity of future generations of gravitational wave (GW) interferometers, which employ high laser power in order to reach and exceed the standard quantum limit. Several experiments have demonstrated the combined effect of two optical springs on a single system for very low-weight mirror masses or membranes. In this paper we investigate the complex interactions between multiple optical springs and the surrounding apparatus in a system of comparable dynamics to a large-scale GW detector. Using three 100 g mirrors to form a coupled cavity system capable of sustaining two or more optical springs, we demonstrate a number of different regimes of opto-mechanical rigidity and measurement techniques. Our measurements reveal couplings between each optical spring and the control loops that can affect both the achievable increase in sensitivity and the stability of the system. Hence this work establishes a better understanding of the realisation of these techniques and paves the way to their application in future GW observatories, such as upgrades to Advanced LIGO.

  6. Spring Season Habitat Suitability Index raster

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This raster represents a continuous surface of sage-grouse habitat suitability index (HSI, created using ArcGIS 10.2.2) values for Nevada during spring, which is a...

  7. Registration of ‘Faller’ Spring Wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    ‘Faller’ (Reg. No. CV-1026, PI 648350) hard red spring wheat (HRSW) (Triticum aestivum L.) was developed at North Dakota State University(NDSU) and released by the North Dakota Agricultural Experiment Station (NDAES). Faller was derived from the ND2857/ND2814 cross made at NDSU in fall 1997. ND2857 ...

  8. Magnetically Coupled Magnet-Spring Oscillators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donoso, G.; Ladera, C. L.; Martin, P.

    2010-01-01

    A system of two magnets hung from two vertical springs and oscillating in the hollows of a pair of coils connected in series is a new, interesting and useful example of coupled oscillators. The electromagnetically coupled oscillations of these oscillators are experimentally and theoretically studied. Its coupling is electromagnetic instead of…

  9. Keqiao Spring Expo: More Professional, More Opportunities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Ting

    2009-01-01

    @@ 2009 (China-Keqiao) International Textile Fabrics & Accessories Exhibition (here named "Spring Expo" for short), organized by Shaoxing County People's Government, China Textile City Exhibition & Convention Co., Ltd., Shanghai Gehua Exhibition Plan Co.,Ltd. as well as Shaoxing City Xingji Exhibition Co.,Ltd., was held during May 8-10, 2009at the China Textile City International Convention & Exhibition Center.

  10. Hard Spring Wheat Technical Committee 2016 Crop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seven experimental lines of hard spring wheat were grown at up to five locations in 2016 and evaluated for kernel, milling, and bread baking quality against the check variety Glenn. Wheat samples were submitted through the Wheat Quality Council and processed and milled at the USDA-ARS Hard Red Spri...

  11. Failure Analysis of Aviation Torsional Springs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HOU Weiguo; ZHANG Weifang; LIU Xiao; WANG Zongren; DING Meili

    2011-01-01

    Cracks and fractures occur during the assembly process to a type of torsional springs used in the aviation mechanism.Besides visual examination,other experimental techniques used for the investigation are:1) fracture characteristics,damage morphology and ffactography by scanning electron microscopy(SEM),2) spectrum analysis of covering,3) metallographic observation of cracks and 4) hydrogen content testing.The results are obtained through the analysis of manufacture process and experimental data.Since no changes of microstructure are found,failures are irrelevant to the material.The cracks and fractures initiate on the inner surface,cracks initiate before the cadmium plating and after the winding.No obvious stress corrosion cracks are found near the crack source region.The opening direction of cracks is consistent with the residual tensile stress of the spring inner surface,and the springs are easy to contact hydrogen media between the spring winding and the cadmium plating.The cracks are caused by hydrogen-induced delayed cracking under the action of the residual tensile stress and hydrogen.

  12. Hydrogeochemistry of Damt thermal springs, Yemen Republic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fara, M. [Sana' a University, Yemen Republic (Yemen). Dept. of Geology; Chandrasekharam, D. [Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay (India). Dept. of Earth Sciences; C.N.R. Center for Minerogenesis and Applied Geochemistry, Florence (Italy); Minissale, A. [C.N.R. Center for Minerogenesis and Applied Geochemistry, Florence (Italy)

    1999-04-01

    The Damt thermal springs (40-45{sup o}C), flowing through travertine deposits, belong to the Na-HCO{sub 3} type of water, and have higher pCO{sub 2} (from -1.18 to -0.58 = PCO{sub 2} from 0.07 to 0.26 atm) relative to cold Ca-SO{sub 4}-(Cl) groundwaters. The cold waters have pCO{sub 2} ranging from -1.86 to -2.50 (= PCO{sub 2} from 0.014 to 0.0035 atm). The chemical composition of the cold springs is controlled by evaporate deposits present in the Tawilah sandstone and Amran limestone formations, while simple crustal dissolution, coupled with CO{sub 2}-rich fluid-rock interaction control the chemical signature of the hot spring waters. The temperature of the feeding system, based on the K{sup 2}/Mg geothermometer, varies between 80 and 120{sup o}C. Damt thermal springs appear to be related to a 10,000 year-old volcanic activity that led to the appearance of several craters in the area. (author)

  13. Cold Spring Harbor symposia on quantitative biology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-01-01

    Volume 55 of the Cold Spring Harbor Symposium on Quantitative Biology is dedicated to the study of the brain. The symposium was subdivided into four major sections. Papers were presented in Molecular Mechanisms for Signalling; Neural Development; Sensory and Motor Systems; and Cognitive Neuroscience. Individual papers from the symposium are abstracted separately. (MHB)

  14. Cold Spring Harbor symposia on quantitative biology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-01-01

    This volume contains the first part of the proceeding of the 53rd Cold Springs Harbor Symposium on Quantitative Biology. This years topic was Immune Recognition. Part 1, this volume, contains papers prepared by presenters of the sessions entitled Introduction, Lymphocyte Development and Receptor Selection, and Recognition by Antibodies, Antigen Recognition by T cells. (DT)

  15. Cold Spring Harbor symposia on quantitative biology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-01-01

    This volume contains the second part of the proceedings of the 53rd Cold Springs Harbor Symposium on Quantitative Biology. This years topic was Immune Recognition. This volume, part 2, contains papers prepared by presenters for two sessions entitled Signals for Lymphocyte Activation, Proliferation, and Adhesion, and entitled Tolerance and Self Recognition. (DT)

  16. Nonlinear Study of Industrial Arc Spring Dampers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lahriri, Said; Santos, Ilmar; Hartmann, Henning

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to present a numerical approach for analyzing parameter excited vibrations on a gas compressor, induced by the nonlinear characteristic of the arc spring feature of certain designs of squeeze film dampers, SFDs. The behavior of the journal is studied in preparation ...

  17. Novel sulfur-oxidizing streamers thriving in perennial cold saline springs of the Canadian high Arctic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niederberger, Thomas D; Perreault, Nancy N; Lawrence, John R; Nadeau, Jay L; Mielke, Randall E; Greer, Charles W; Andersen, Dale T; Whyte, Lyle G

    2009-03-01

    The perennial springs at Gypsum Hill (GH) and Colour Peak (CP), situated at nearly 80 degrees N on Axel Heiberg Island in the Canadian high Arctic, are one of the few known examples of cold springs in thick permafrost on Earth. The springs emanate from deep saline aquifers and discharge cold anoxic brines rich in both sulfide and sulfate. Grey-coloured microbial streamers form during the winter months in snow-covered regions of the GH spring run-off channels (-1.3 degrees C to 6.9 degrees C, approximately 7.5% NaCl, 0-20 p.p.m. dissolved sulfide, 1 p.p.m. dissolved oxygen) but disappear during the Arctic summer. Culture- and molecular-based analyses of the 16S rRNA gene (FISH, DGGE and clone libraries) indicated that the streamers were uniquely dominated by chemolithoautotrophic sulfur-oxidizing Thiomicrospira species. The streamers oxidized both sulfide and thiosulfate and fixed CO(2) under in situ conditions and a Thiomicrospira strain isolated from the streamers also actively oxidized sulfide and thiosulfate and fixed CO(2) under cold, saline conditions. Overall, the snow-covered spring channels appear to represent a unique polar saline microhabitat that protects and allows Thiomicrospira streamers to form and flourish via chemolithoautrophic, phototrophic-independent metabolism in a high Arctic winter environment characterized by air temperatures commonly below -40 degrees C and with an annual average air temperature of -15 degrees C. These results broaden our knowledge of the physical and chemical boundaries that define life on Earth and have astrobiological implications for the possibility of life existing under similar Martian conditions.

  18. What caused the spring intensification and winter demise of the 2011 drought over Texas?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernando, D. Nelun; Mo, Kingtse C.; Fu, Rong; Pu, Bing; Bowerman, Adam; Scanlon, Bridget R.; Solis, Ruben S.; Yin, Lei; Mace, Robert E.; Mioduszewski, John R.; Ren, Tong; Zhang, Kai

    2016-11-01

    The 2011 Texas drought, the worst 1-year drought on record, was characterized by spring intensification of rainfall deficit and surface dryness. Such spring intensification was led by an unusually strong increase of convective inhibition (CIN), which suppressed convection at the time critical for the onset of the April-June rainfall season. The CIN increase appeared to be caused by strong sub-seasonal anomalously westerly winds at 850 hPa (U850) in April, in addition to surface dryness due to cumulative rainfall deficit since fall of 2010. The anomalous U850 advected warm dry air from the Mexican Plateau to Texas, enhancing cap inversion, and exacerbating static stability initially elevated by an anomalously high surface Bowen ratio due to rainfall deficits from winter through spring over Texas. Strengthened westerly U850 in April, in addition to the persistent rainfall deficits from winter through spring, are common characteristics in other strong drought events experienced over Texas. Atmospheric Model Intercomparison Project-type simulations with prescribed La Niña SSTAs in the tropical Pacific do not show a strengthening of westerly U850 in April, suggesting that internal atmospheric variability at intraseasonal scale, instead of La Niña, may initiate the spring drought intensification over Texas. Soil moisture deficits in late spring are significantly correlated with positive 500 hPa geopotential height anomalies over the south central U.S. 2-3 weeks later, suggesting that intensified surface dryness in late-spring could reinforce the drought-inducing anomalous mid-tropospheric high. The drought diminished in the winter of 2011/2012 despite a second La Niña event. Our analysis suggests an important role for strong westerly wind anomalies, the resultant increase of CIN in spring, and subsequent positive feedback between dry surface anomalies and the anomalous large-scale circulation pattern in drought intensification. Clarification of the mechanisms behind

  19. ANALYSIS OF COMPOSITE LEAF SPRING BY USING ANALYTICAL & FEA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranjeet Mithari

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Leaf spring are of the oldest suspension component they are still frequently used. The current leaf spring is multiple leaf spring types with a steel material. It has high weight, low natural frequency, high corrosion, more noise. Therefore current multiple leaf spring is replaced by mono composite (E- Glass epoxy leaf spring which has high natural frequency, low weight etc. The maximum stress produced at the cylindrically joint than fixed joint. Therefore stress analysis of composite material mono leaf spring is carried out. The result of finite element method is verified with analytical calculation. Also compare the natural frequency by FFT analyzer with FEA.

  20. Sources of groundwater and characteristics of surface-water recharge at Bell, White, and Suwannee Springs, Florida, 2012–13

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamm, John F.; McBride, W. Scott

    2016-12-21

    considered together, evidence from water-level, specific conductance, major-ion concentration, and isotope data indicated that groundwater at Bell Springs and the UFA well was a mixture of surface water and groundwater from the upper confining unit, and that groundwater at White and Suwannee Springs was a mixture of surface water, groundwater from the upper confining unit, and groundwater from the Upper Floridan aquifer. Higher concentrations of magnesium in groundwater samples at the UFA well than in samples at Bell Springs might indicate less mixing with surface water at the UFA well than at Bell Springs. Characteristics of surface-water recharge, such as residence time at the surface, apparent age, and recharge water temperature, were estimated on the basis of isotopic ratios, and dissolved concentrations of gases such as argon, tritium, and sulfur hexafluoride. Oxygen and deuterium isotopic ratios were consistent with rapid recharge by rainwater for samples collected in 2012, and longer residence time at the surface (ponding) for samples collected in 2013. Apparent ages of groundwater samples, computed on the basis of tritium activity and sulfur hexafluoride concentration, indicated groundwater recharge occurred after the late 1980s; however, the estimated apparent ages likely represent the average of ages of multiple sources. Recharge since the 1980s is consistent with groundwater from shallow sources, such as the upper confining unit and Upper Floridan aquifer. Recharge water temperature computed for the three springs and UFA well averaged 20.1 degrees Celsius, which is similar to the mean annual air temperature of 20.6 degrees Celsius at a nearby weather station for 1960–2014.

  1. Radioactivity of the Bulgarian spring waters. I. Springs in the region Svidnja (Province Svoge)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karamihaylova, E.; Zhelev, Zh.T.

    1975-01-01

    The methods of determining radon, radium and elements of the thorium row in spring waters used in this paper are considered. The various factors and their interrelations which are mainly responsible for the radioactivity of given waters are reviewed. Seventeen cold springs in the region Svidnja (Province Svoge, Sofia District) were investigated. Activity over 44 em was not observed. The radon concentrations in the various springs correspond to the rock composition. Seasonal measurements of the radioactivity and temperature were undertaken for three spring waters. Lesser radioactivity of the water is observed during October after the summer drought and an increase in the radon during May--July before the drought. Radium up to 10/sup -11/ g/dm/sup 3/ and elements of the thorium row up to 5 x 10/sup -4/ g/dm/sup 3/ were not found.

  2. Contaminant discharge in habitat springs of the Barton Springs Salamander during storm rainfall events

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Aquatic habitat of the endangered Barton Springs salamander, Eurycea sosorum, in Travis County, Texas can potentially be impacted by contaminants in surface runoff...

  3. Manufacturing methods for machining spring ends parallel at loaded length

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinke, Patrick Thomas (Inventor); Benson, Dwayne M. (Inventor); Atkins, Donald J. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    A first end surface of a coiled compression spring at its relaxed length is machined to a plane transverse to the spring axis. The spring is then placed in a press structure having first and second opposed planar support surfaces, with the machined spring end surface bearing against the first support surface, the unmachined spring end surface bearing against a planar first surface of a lateral force compensation member, and an opposite, generally spherically curved surface of the compensation member bearing against the second press structure support surface. The spring is then compressed generally to its loaded length, and a circumferentially spaced series of marks, lying in a plane parallel to the second press structure support surface, are formed on the spring coil on which the second spring end surface lies. The spring is then removed from the press structure, and the second spring end surface is machined to the mark plane. When the spring is subsequently compressed to its loaded length the precisely parallel relationship between the machined spring end surfaces substantially eliminates undesirable lateral deflection of the spring.

  4. Carbamazepine breakthrough as indicator for specific vulnerability of karst springs: application on the Jeita spring, Lebanon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doummar, J.; Geyer, T.; Noedler, K.; Sauter, M.

    2014-12-01

    The pharmaceutical drug carbamazepine is considered an effective wastewater marker. The varying concentration of this drug was analyzed in a mature karst spring following a precipitation event. The results show that carbamazepine is an indicator of wastewater entering the system through a fast flow pathway, leading to an increase of the drug concentrations in spring water shortly after a strong rainfall event. The analysis of the breakthrough curve of carbamazepine along with the electrical conductivity signal and major ions chemograph allowed the development of a conceptual model for precipitation event-based flow and transport in the investigated karst system. Furthermore the amount of newly recharged water and the mass of carbamazepine reaching the aquifer system during the event could be estimated using a simple mixing approach. The distance between the karst spring and the potential carbamazepine source was estimated by the combination of results from artificial tracer tests and the carbamazepine breakthrough curve. The assessment of spring responses to precipitation event using persistent drugs like carbamazepine helps assess the effect of waste water contamination at a spring and gives therefore insights to the specific vulnerability of a karst spring.

  5. Initial Survey Instructions for Spring Water Monitoring : Flow

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Initial survey instructions for the Spring Water Monitoring - Flow 1.02 survey at Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge. This coop baseline monitoring survey has...

  6. EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION & NUMERICAL ANALYSIS OF COMPOSITE LEAF SPRING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. K. JADHAO,

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The Automobile Industry has shown keen interest for replacement of steel leaf spring with that of glass fiber composite leaf spring, since the composite material has high strength to weight ratio, good corrosion resistance and tailor-able properties. The objective of present study was to replace material for leaf spring. In present study the material selected was glass fiber reinforced plastic (GFRP and the polyester resin (NETPOL 1011 can be used which was more economical this will reduce total cost of composite leaf spring. A spring with constant width and thickness was fabricated by hand lay-up technique which was very simple and economical. The experiments were conducted on UTM and numerical analysis was done via (FEA using ANSYS software. Stresses and deflection results were verified for analytical and experimental results. Result shows that, the composite spring has stresses much lower than steel leaf spring and weight of composite spring was nearly reduced up to 85%.

  7. On the Usefulness of Radioactive Hot Springs in Mars Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rask, J. C.; Bywaters, K. F.; Magnuson, T. S.

    2016-09-01

    We report on a systematic characterization of the radiation environment, water temperatures, and microbial systems of Worswick Hot Springs, as a model for future characterization of polar hot spring environments.

  8. Archaeological resources of Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge: Preliminary report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document presents results of an archeological survey of two caves located in the Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge. It was concluded that the Fish Springs...

  9. Initial Survey Instructions for Spring Water Monitoring : Quality

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Initial survey instructions for 1.04 spring water monitoring (quality) and 1.06 management unit water monitoring (quality) at Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge....

  10. Automobile trip to Fish Springs, March 16, 1959

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — These memoranda describe trips to Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge. The purpose of these trips was to access the condition of the land in the Fish Springs area.

  11. Quaternary geology of Fish Springs flat, Juab county, Utah

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Fish Springs Flat is a sediment-filled valley between two tilted mountain blocks, the Thomas Range and the Fish Springs Range, in the Basin and Range physiographic...

  12. Spanning Scale and Platform to Track Spring and Autumn Phenology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Mark D.

    2016-04-01

    Important opportunities to further understanding of ecosystem processes can be realized through improved integration and utilization of multiple phenological measures. Combining satellite-derived remote sensing data, which facilitate needed spatial integration and large area coverage with detailed conventional (visual) ground observations, which provide necessary information on species timing differences, is an important path for advancement in this area. A relatively new resource to address this scaling issue is near-surface remote sensing data collected from fixed position cameras. This paper presents on-going findings from a multi-year comparison of the spring and autumn seasonal transitions in Downer Woods, a small urban woodlot on the University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee campus (43.08°N, 87.88°W) dominated by white ash (Fraxinus americana) and basswood (Tilia americana) trees. The study area is under observation from a visible/near-infrared camera installed in March 2013 that is part of the Phenocam network (http://phenocam.sr.unh.edu), and also has detailed ground-based species-specific visual phenological observations collected in both spring and autumn, as well as air/soil temperatures and light sensor data measured under the canopy. The results show that at this location, the Phenocam visible/near-infrared band data series can be successfully compared to aggregated species visual phenological observations. Further, both of these changes can be in turn simulated by process models based on seasonal temperature changes. Thus, the concurrent collection of these data suggest a coherent process whereby more robust ground-based species-aggregated "pixel" data can be produced which will be scalable to large areas, and potentially be applicable to more complex environments and ecosystems. Such an approach could potentially improve phenology-based spatial estimates of carbon and energy flux.

  13. Springing response due to bidirectional wave excitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vidic-Perunovic, Jelena

    2005-01-01

    theories deal with the unidirectional wave excitation. This is quite standard. The problem is how to include more than one directional wave systems described by a wave spectrum with arbitrary heading. The main objective of the present work has been to account for the additional second-order springing...... a discrepancy with full-scale measurements exists, but worse is that no tendency in the measurement trend is captured. An important source of high frequency springing excitation is undoubtedly missing. The full-scale measurements that are presented in the thesis and have been used for the validation are unique...... because, to the author's knowledge, this is the first time that the wave data were collected simultaneously with stress records on the deck of the ship. This is highly appreciated because one can use the precise input and not only the most probable sea state statistics. The actual picture of the sea waves...

  14. Cavity optomechanical spring sensing of single molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Wenyan; Jiang, Wei C.; Lin, Qiang; Lu, Tao

    2016-07-01

    Label-free bio-sensing is a critical functionality underlying a variety of health- and security-related applications. Micro-/nano-photonic devices are well suited for this purpose and have emerged as promising platforms in recent years. Here we propose and demonstrate an approach that utilizes the optical spring effect in a high-Q coherent optomechanical oscillator to dramatically enhance the sensing resolution by orders of magnitude compared with conventional approaches, allowing us to detect single bovine serum albumin proteins with a molecular weight of 66 kDa at a signal-to-noise ratio of 16.8. The unique optical spring sensing approach opens up a distinctive avenue that not only enables biomolecule sensing and recognition at individual level, but is also of great promise for broad physical sensing applications that rely on sensitive detection of optical cavity resonance shift to probe external physical parameters.

  15. 49 CFR 213.139 - Spring rail frogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION TRACK SAFETY STANDARDS Track Structure § 213.139 Spring rail frogs. (a) The outer edge of a wheel tread shall not contact the gage side of a spring wing rail. (b) The toe of each... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Spring rail frogs. 213.139 Section...

  16. 75 FR 76293 - Radio Broadcasting Services; Peach Springs, AZ

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-08

    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 Radio Broadcasting Services; Peach Springs, AZ AGENCY: Federal Communications..., allots FM Channel 281C3 at Peach Springs, Arizona, in order to maintain a first local service at that community. Channel 281C3 can be allotted at Peach Springs, Arizona, in compliance with the...

  17. 77 FR 54493 - Special Anchorage Area; Stockton Springs, ME

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-05

    ... Number USCG-2012-0172] RIN 1625-AA01 Special Anchorage Area; Stockton Springs, ME AGENCY: Coast Guard... anchorage area in Stockton Springs, Maine. This proposed action is necessary to facilitate safe navigation.... This action is intended to increase the safety of life and property in Stockton Springs, improve...

  18. 75 FR 3694 - Radio Broadcasting Services, Peach Springs, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-22

    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 Radio Broadcasting Services, Peach Springs, Arizona AGENCY: Federal Communications... Media Licenses, LLC, proposing the allotment of FM Channel 281C3 at Peach Springs, Arizona. The reference coordinates for Channel 281C3 at Peach Springs are 35-33-46 NL and 113-27-12 WL. DATES:...

  19. 78 FR 25861 - Radio Broadcasting Services; Peach Springs, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-03

    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 Radio Broadcasting Services; Peach Springs, Arizona AGENCY: Federal Communications... Springs, Arizona. (The symbol `` '' will be used to denote a channel reserved as a Tribal Allotment.) Channel 265A can be allotted at Peach Springs, consistent with the minimum distance...

  20. 78 FR 40402 - Radio Broadcasting Services; Roaring Springs, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-05

    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 Radio Broadcasting Services; Roaring Springs, Texas AGENCY: Federal Communications... Channel 227A and deletes FM Channel 249A at Roaring Springs, Texas, and allots FM Channel 249C3 and deletes FM Channel 276C3 at Roaring Springs. These allotment changes are part of a rule making and...

  1. 78 FR 61251 - Radio Broadcasting Services; Heber Springs, Arkansas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-03

    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 Radio Broadcasting Services; Heber Springs, Arkansas. AGENCY: Federal... Making filed by Sydney Allison Sugg, proposing the allotment of Channel 270C3 at Heber Springs, Arkansas, as the community's third local service. Channel 270C3 can be allotted to Heber Springs...

  2. Joint Force Quarterly. Number 7, Spring 1995

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-02-01

    never again be confident in their relationship with the government. See Gregory Bateson , “The Cybernetics of ‘Self’: A The- ory of Alcoholism,” Steps to...Marie, Haiti. DOD ( Gregory S. Cinelli) 1407 Wilson 3/3/04 3:00 PM Page 55 56 JFQ / Spring 1995 different-sized staffs and capabilities). More- over...Press, 1985); Gregory Henderson, Korea: The Politics of the Vortex (Cambridge: Harvard Univer- sity Press, 1968); James Merrill, Korea: The Peninsular

  3. A survey of GFRP composite leaf spring

    OpenAIRE

    Rajesh, S.; S. Nakkeran; GB. Bhaskar

    2014-01-01

    Although leaf springs are one of the oldest suspension components, they are still frequently used in the automobile vehicles. Weight reduction is the main focus in the automobile industries. Weight reduction can be achieved primarily by the introduction of better materials, design optimization, and better manufacturing processes. The achievement of weight reduction with adequate improvement of mechanical properties has made composite a very good replacement material for conventional steel. Se...

  4. Reports of the AAAI 2010 Spring Symposia

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    The Association for the Advancement of Artificial Intelligence, in cooperation with Stanford University’s Department of Computer Science, is pleased to present the 2010 Spring Symposium Series, to be held Monday through Wednesday, March 22–24, 2010 at Stanford University. The titles of the seven symposia are Artificial Intelligence for Development; Cognitive Shape Processing; Educational Robotics and Beyond: Design and Evaluation; Embedded Reasoning: Intelligence in Embedded Systems Intellige...

  5. Virus Silicification under Simulated Hot Spring Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laidler, James R.; Stedman, Kenneth M.

    2010-07-01

    Silicification of organisms in silica-depositing environments can impact both their ecology and their presence in the fossil record. Although microbes have been silicified under laboratory and environmental conditions, viruses have not. Bacteriophage T4 was successfully silicified under laboratory conditions that closely simulated those found in silica-depositing hot springs. Virus morphology was maintained, and a clear elemental signature of phosphorus was detected by energy-dispersive X-ray spectrophotometry (EDS).

  6. Dynamical behavior of disordered spring networks

    OpenAIRE

    Yucht, M. G.; Sheinman, M.; Broedersz, C. P.

    2013-01-01

    We study the dynamical rheology of spring networks with a percolation model constructed by bond dilution in a two-dimensional triangular lattice. Hydrodynamic interactions are implemented by a Stokesian viscous coupling between the network nodes and a uniformly deforming liquid. Our simulations show that in a critical connectivity regime, these systems display weak power law rheology in which the complex shear modulus scales with frequency as G^* ~ (i * omega)^Delta where Delta = 0.41, in dis...

  7. Utilities:Water:Spring Water Lines at Pipe Spring National Monument, Arizona (Utilities.gdb:Water:springwtr)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This feature class represents spring water lines at Pipe Spring National Monument, Arizona. The data were collected using Trimble Global Positioning System (GPS)...

  8. The Role of Changes in the Annual Cycle in Earlier Onset of Climatic Spring in Northern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIAN Cheng; FU Congbin; Zhaohua WU; YAN Zhongwei

    2011-01-01

    Climatic changes in the onset of spring in northern China associated with changes in the annual cycle and with a recent warming trend were quantified using a recently developed adaptive data analysis tool,the Ensemble Empirical Mode Decomposition. The study was based on a homogenized daily surface air temperature (SAT) dataset for the period 1955-2003. The annual cycle here is referred to as a refined modulated annual cycle (MAC). The results show that spring at Beijing has arrived significantly earlier by about 2.98 d (10 yr)-1, of which about 1.85 d (10 yr)-1 is due to changes in the annual cycle and 1.13 d (10 yr)-1 due to the long-term warming trend. Variations in the MAC component explain about 92.5% of the total variance in the Beijing daily SAT series and could cause as much as a 20-day shift in the onset of spring from one year to another. The onset of spring has been advancing all over northern China, but more significant in the east than in the west part of the region. These differences are somehow unexplainable by the zonal pattern of the warming trend over the whole region, but can be explained by opposite changes in the spring phase of the MAC, i.e. advancing in the east while delaying in the west. In the east of northern China, the change in the spring phase of MAC explains 40%-60% of the spring onset trend and is attributable to a weakening Asian winter monsoon. The average sea level pressure in Siberia (55°-80°N,50°-110°E), an index of the strength of the winter monsoon, could serve as a potential short-term predictor for the onset of spring in the east of northern China.

  9. Spring viraemia of carp virus: recent advances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashraf, Usama; Lu, Yuanan; Lin, Li; Yuan, Junfa; Wang, Min; Liu, Xueqin

    2016-05-01

    Spring viraemia of carp is an environmentally and economically important disease affecting cyprinids, primarily common carp (Cyprinus carpio). The causative agent of this disease is Spring viraemia of carp virus (SVCV) - a member of the genus Vesiculovirus of the family Rhabdoviridae. The disease is presently endemic in Europe, America and several Asian countries, where it causes significant morbidity and mortality in affected fish. SVCV infection is generally associated with exophthalmia; abdominal distension; petechial haemorrhage of the skin, gills, eyes and internal organs; degeneration of the gill lamellae; a swollen and coarse-textured spleen; hepatic necrosis; enteritis; and pericarditis. The SVCV genome is composed of linear, negative-sense, ssRNA containing five genes in the order 3'-N-P-M-G-L-5', encoding a nucleoprotein, phosphoprotein, matrix protein, glycoprotein and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, respectively. Fully sequenced SVCV strains exhibit distinct amino acid substitutions at unique positions, which may contribute to as-yet unknown strain-specific characteristics. To advance the study of SVCV and the control of spring viraemia of carp disease in the future, this review summarizes our current understanding of SVCV in terms of its genomic characteristics, genetic diversity and pathogenesis, and provides insights into antiviral immunity against SVCV, diagnosis of SVCV and vaccination strategies to combat SVCV.

  10. Multifractal modelling of runoffs of karstic springs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Márkus, L.

    2003-04-01

    A new multifractal stochastic process, Terdik and Iglói call the Limit of the Integrated Superposition of Diffusion processes with Linear differential Generator (LISDLG) , has been defined for modelling network traffic multifractality. The process is stationary, and exhibits long range dependency or long memory. Its characteristic property is that its bispectrum is real. It serves as the basis of distinction e.g. from the superposition of Levy-processes driven Ornstein-Uhlenbeck processes. Its further appealing property is that its finite dimensional distribution stems from multivariate Gamma, therefore it is inherently positive and skewed (and hence non-Gaussian). All together, this makes it a very promising candidate for modelling e.g. runoff data of springs or river flows. Quite recently Labat et al. (2002, J. of Hydrology, Vol 256, pp.176-195) pointed out multifractal properties of the runoff time series of French karstic springs. We show that runoff data of karstic springs in north-east Hungary possesses multifractal and cumulant-multifractal property as well as long range dependency and fit the above described LISDLG process, to model the phenomenon. Acknowledgement: This research was supported by the Nat. Sci. Research Fund OTKA, grant No.: T 032725.

  11. N Springs expedited response action proposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-01-01

    Since signing the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement) in 1989, the parties to the agreement have recognized the need to modify the approach to conducting investigations, studies, and cleanup actions at Hanford. To implement this approach, the parties have jointly developed the Hanford Past-Practice Strategy. The strategy defines a non-time-critical expedited response action (ERA) as a response action ``needed to abate a threat to human health or welfare or the environment where sufficient time exists for formal planning prior to initiation of response. In accordance with the past-practice strategy, DOE proposes to conduct an ERA at the N Springs, located in the Hanford 100 N Area, to substantially reduce the strontium-90 transport into the river through the groundwater pathway. The purpose of this ERA proposal is to provide sufficient information to select a preferred alternative at N Springs. The nature of an ERA requires that alternatives developed for the ERA be field ready; therefore, all the technologies proposed for the ERA should be capable of addressing the circumstances at N Springs. A comparison of these alternatives is made based on protectiveness, cost, technical feasibility, and institutional considerations to arrive at a preferred alternative. Following the selection of an alternative, a design phase will be conducted; the design phase will include a detailed look at design parameters, performance specifications, and costs of the selected alternative. Testing will be conducted as required to generate design data.

  12. Spring bloom onset in the Nordic Seas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mignot, Alexandre; Ferrari, Raffaele; Mork, Kjell Arne

    2016-06-01

    The North Atlantic spring bloom is a massive annual growth event of marine phytoplankton, tiny free-floating algae that form the base of the ocean's food web and generates a large fraction of the global primary production of organic matter. The conditions that trigger the onset of the spring bloom in the Nordic Seas, at the northern edge of the North Atlantic, are studied using in situ data from six bio-optical floats released north of the Arctic Circle. It is often assumed that spring blooms start as soon as phytoplankton cells daily irradiance is sufficiently abundant that division rates exceed losses. The bio-optical float data instead suggest the tantalizing hypothesis that Nordic Seas blooms start when the photoperiod, the number of daily light hours experienced by phytoplankton, exceeds a critical value, independently of division rates. The photoperiod trigger may have developed at high latitudes where photosynthesis is impossible during polar nights and phytoplankton enters into a dormant stage in winter. While the first accumulation of biomass recorded by the bio-optical floats is consistent with the photoperiod hypothesis, it is possible that some biomass accumulation started before the critical photoperiod but at levels too low to be detected by the fluorometers. More precise observations are needed to test the photoperiod hypothesis.

  13. Quarry geotechnical report for the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project, Weldon Spring, Missouri

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-11-01

    This report has been prepared for the United States Department of Energy's (DOE) Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project (WSSRAP) by the Project Management Contractor (PMC), which is MK-Ferguson Company (MK-Ferguson) with Jacobs Engineering Group (JEG) as its designated subcontractor. The Weldon Spring site (WSS) comprises the Weldon Spring quarry area and the Weldon Spring chemical plant and raffinate pit areas. This report presents the results of geotechnical investigations conducted during 1989--1990 at the proposed Weldon Spring quarry staging and water treatment facilities in the quarry area. The facilities are intended for treatment of water removed from the quarry area. An access road and a decontamination pad will be necessary for handling and transportation of bulk waste. Results of previous geotechnical investigations performed by other geoscience and environmental engineering firms in the quarry area, were reviewed, summarized and incorporated into this report. Well logging, stratigraphy data, piezometer data, elevations, and soil characteristics are also included.

  14. Winter soil warming exacerbates the impacts of spring low temperature stress on wheat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Xiangnan; Jiang, D.; Liu, Fulai

    2016-01-01

    The increase in global mean air temperature is likely to affect the soil temperatures in agricultural areas. This study aims to study the effects of winter soil warming on the responses of wheat to low temperature stress in spring. Wheat plants were grown under either normal or increased soil...... temperature by 2.5 °C for 82 days in winter. The physiological and yield responses of the plants to a 2-day low temperature stress (4/2 °C in the day/night) at jointing stage were investigated. After exposing to low spring temperature, the plants that had experienced winter soil warming showed lower leaf...... and root water potential, lower oxygen scavenging capacity and poor photosynthetic performance as compared with the plants grown under normal soil temperature during winter. WL plants had significantly lower sugar content in shoot than the CL plants, which might have contributed to their higher...

  15. Dynamic simulation on rubber spring supporting equipment of vibrating screen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SU Rong-hua; PENG Chen-yu

    2011-01-01

    By ANSYS, dynamic simulation analysis of rubber spring supporting equipment used in vibrating screen was made. The modal frequency, mode, and harmonic displacement under working frequency were obtained. Variation of rubber spring supporting equipment's dynamic performance was discussed first, which is under the condition of existing spring stiffness difference and exciting force bias. Also, the quantitative calculation formulas were given. The results indicate that the performance of vibrating screen is closely related with rubber spring supporting equipment's dynamic performance. Differences of springs' stiffness coefficients reduce the modal frequency reduced, decrease the dynamic stiffness, and increase vibration displacement. Exciting force bias induces a larger lateral displacement. When rubber springs' stiffness coefficients exist, differences and lateral force accounts for 5% in total exciting force; rubber spring supporting equipment's side swing is larger than 1 mm, exceeding the side swing limit.

  16. Characteristics Analysis and Testing of SMA Spring Actuator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianzuo Ma

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The biasing form two-way shape memory alloy (SMA actuator composed of SMA spring and steel spring is analyzed. Based on the force equilibrium equation, the relationship between load capacity of SMA spring and geometric parameters is established. In order to obtain the characteristics of SMA spring actuator, the output force and output displacement of SMA spring under different temperatures are analyzed by the theoretical model and the experimental method. Based on the shape memory effect of SMA, the relationship of the SMA spring actuator's output displacement with the temperature, the stress and strain, the material parameters, and the size parameters is established. The results indicate that the trend of theoretical results is basically consistent with the experimental data. The output displacement of SMA spring actuator is increased with the increasing temperature.

  17. Acidification and Increasing CO2 Flux Associated with Five, Springs Coast, Florida Springs (1991-2014)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrera, Kira E.; Robbins, Lisa L.

    2017-01-01

    Scientists from the South West Florida Management District (SWFWMD) acquired and analyzed over 20 years of seasonally-sampled hydrochemical data from five first-order-magnitude (springs that discharge 2.83 m3 s-1 or more) coastal springs located in west-central Florida. These data were subsequently obtained by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) for further analyses and interpretation. The spring study sites (Chassahowitzka, Homosassa, Kings Bay, Rainbow, and Weeki Wachee), which are fed by the Floridan Aquifer system and discharge into the Gulf of Mexico were investigated to identify temporal and spatial trends of pH, alkalinity, partial pressure of carbon dioxide (pCO2) and CO2 flux.

  18. Environmental Factors Influencing Arctic Halogen Chemistry During Late Spring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burd, J.; Nghiem, S. V.; Simpson, W. R.

    2015-12-01

    Reactive halogen radicals (e.g. Br, Cl atoms and their oxides, BrO, ClO) are important oxidizers in the troposphere that decrease atmospheric pollutants and deplete tropospheric ozone, affecting the abundance of other oxidizers such as the hydroxyl radical. During Arctic springtime, the heterogeneous chemical cycles (often called the "bromine explosion") produce high levels of bromine monoxide (BrO), through reactions on saline snow, ice, and/or aerosol surfaces. Multi-AXis Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (MAX-DOAS) measured BrO at Barrow, AK, from 2008-2009 and 2012-2015, as well at various locations above the frozen Arctic Ocean with O-Buoys in 2008 and 2011-2015. Observed BrO levels drop suddenly during late spring (May-June) and generally do not recover, which indicates the bromine explosion cycle can no longer produce significant amounts of BrO. We have established, through an objective algorithm, the local day of year of this drop in BrO as the "seasonal end." Additionally, in about half of the years, "recurrence" events were observed where BrO levels recover for at least a day. This study investigates the environmental factors influencing seasonal end and recurrence events including: temperature, relative humidity, precipitation and snowmelt. Analysis of BrO and air temperature revealed the temperature reaches 0°C within five days of the seasonal end event; however, temperatures drop below freezing during a recurrence event. In addition, there are periods where the temperature remains below freezing, but no recurrence event is observed. This BrO and temperature analysis indicates above-freezing air temperature prevents reactive bromine release; however, it is not the only environmental factor influencing this heterogeneous recycling. Further analysis of additional environmental influences on the bromine explosion cycle could help to better understand and model bromine chemistry in the Arctic.

  19. WSSRAP chemical plant geotechnical investigations for the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project, Weldon Spring, Missouri

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-12-01

    This document has been prepared for the United states Department of Energy (DOE) Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project (WSSRAP) by the Project Management Contractor (PMC), which consists of MK-Ferguson Company (MKF) and Morrison Knudsen Corporation Environmental Services Group (MKES) with Jacobs Engineering Group (JEG) as MKF's predesignated subcontractor. This report presents the results of site geotechnical investigations conducted by the PMC in the vicinity of the Weldon Spring chemical plant and raffinate pits (WSCP/RP) and in potential on-site and off-site clayey material borrow sources. The WSCP/RP is the proposed disposal cell (DC) site. 39 refs., 24 figs., 12 tabs.

  20. Scoping assessment of radiological doses to aquatic organisms and wildlife -- N Springs. [N Springs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poston, T.M.; Soldat, J.K.

    1992-10-01

    Estimated does rates were determined for endemic biota inhabiting the N Springs area based primarily on spring water data collected from the first 6 months of 1991. Radiological dose estimates were computed from measured values of specific radionuclides and modeled levels of radionuclides using established computer codes. The highest doses were predicted in hypothetical populations of clams, fish-eating ducks, and rabbits. The calculated dose estimates did not exceed 1 rad/d, an administrative dose rate established by the US Department of Energy for the protection of native aquatic biota. An administrative dose rate has not been established for terrestrial wildlife.

  1. Getting started with Spring Framework a hands-on guide to begin developing applications using Spring Framework

    CERN Document Server

    Sharma, J

    2016-01-01

    Getting started with Spring Framework is a hands-on guide to begin developing applications using Spring Framework. The examples (consisting of 74 sample projects) that accompany this book are based on Spring 4.3 and Java 8. You can download the examples described in this book from the following GitHub project:github.com/getting-started-with-spring/3rdEdition This book is meant for Java developers with little or no knowledge of Spring Framework. Getting started with Spring Framework, Third Edition has been updated to reflect changes in Spring 4.3 and also includes new chapters on Java-based configuration and Spring Data (covers Spring Data JPA and Spring Data MongoDB projects). The existing chapters have been revised to include information on Java-based configuration. The book also includes some new information on bean definition profiles, importing application context XML files, lazy autowiring, creating custom qualifier annotations, JSR 349 annotations, spring-messaging module, Java 8's Optional type, and s...

  2. Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to view this content or go to source URL . What NIEHS is Doing on Air Pollution Who ... Junction Last Reviewed: February 06, 2017 This page URL: NIEHS website: https://www.niehs.nih.gov/ Email ...

  3. ANISOTROPY DETERMINATIONS IN EXCHANGE SPRING MAGNETS.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LEWIS,L.H.; HARLAND,C.L.

    2002-08-18

    Ferromagnetic nanocomposites, or ''exchange spring'' magnets, possess a nanoscaled microstructure that allows intergrain magnetic exchange forces to couple the constituent grains and alter the system's effective magnetic anisotropies. While the effects of the anisotropy alterations are clearly seen in macroscopic magnetic measurement, it is extremely difficult to determine the detailed effects of the system's exchange coupling, such as the interphase exchange length, the inherent domain wall widths or the effective anisotropies of the system. Clarification of these materials parameters may be obtained from the ''micromagnetic'' phenomenological model, where the assumption of magnetic reversal initiating in the magnetically-soft regions of the exchange-spring maqet is explicitly included. This approach differs from that typically applied by other researchers and allows a quantitative estimate of the effective anisotropies of an exchange spring system. Hysteresis loops measured on well-characterized nanocomposite alloys based on the composition Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B + {alpha}-Fe at temperatures above the spin reorientation temperature were analyzed within the framework of the micromagnetic phenomenological model. Preliminary results indicate that the effective anisotropy constant in the material is intermediate to that of bulk {alpha}-Fe and bulk Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B and increases with decreasing temperature. These results strongly support the idea that magnetic reversal in nanocomposite systems initiates in the lower-anisotropy regions of the system, and that the soft-phase regions become exchange-hardened by virtue of their proximity to the magnetically-hard regions.

  4. Numerical Analysis on Combustion Characteristic of Leaf Spring Rotary Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Zhang

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to investigate combustion characteristics for rotary engine via numerical studies. A 3D numerical model was developed to study the influence of several operative parameters on combustion characteristics. A novel rotary engine called, “Leaf Spring Rotary Engine”, was used to illustrate the structure and principle of the engine. The aims are to (1 improve the understanding of combustion process, and (2 quantify the influence of rotational speed, excess air ratio, initial pressure and temperature on combustion characteristics. The chamber space changed with crankshaft rotation. Due to the complexity of chamber volume, an equivalent modeling method was presented to simulate the chamber space variation. The numerical simulations were performed by solving the incompressible, multiphase Unsteady Reynolds-Averaged Navier–Stokes Equations via the commercial code FLUENT using a transport equation-based combustion model; a realizable  turbulence model and finite-rate/eddy-dissipation model were used to account for the effect of local factors on the combustion characteristics.

  5. Climate field reconstruction of East Asian spring temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ohyama

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available We describe a first attempt of dendroclimatic field reconstruction, based upon five ring-width chronologies from living trees, in Japan and Korea. Mean March–May temperature derived from a gridded land air temperature dataset (CRUTEM3 between 35–40° E and 125–140° N was reconstructed for the period of 1784–1990 AD. The reconstruction accounted for 19.4% of the temperature variance in the calibration period. This reconstruction showed remarkably similar fluctuations to regional dendroclimatic reconstructions in Japan and Korea, indicating the past spatial coherency of spring temperatures in the region. The reconstruction was validated against other climate proxies. A fairly good agreement was found with cold periods as estimated from documentary records in China and Japan. The west-Japan temperature series recovered also showed a reasonable agreement with the reconstruction. These comparisons revealed that climatic field reconstruction using tree-ring chronologies in this area offers a good potential for reconstructing long-term and large-scale past temperature patterns for East Asia.

  6. Joint Force Quarterly. Number 4, Spring 1994

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-05-01

    Littoral Warfare Joint Operations in the Civil War World War II Campaigns Page 2 - no folio P H O T O C R E D I T S The reproduction of the portrait of...destruction of their cities and two atomic bombs, until they were given guarantees on the survival of the emperor . This was a moral issue of such great...The Penguin Encyclopedia of Modern Warfare by Kenneth Macksey and William Woodhouse 30 JFQ / Spring 1994 strict arms control regime in a fiscally con

  7. Ultraviolet radiation levels during the Antarctic spring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederick, John E.; Snell, Hilary E.

    1988-01-01

    The decrease in atmospheric ozone over Antarctica during spring implies enhanced levels of ultraviolet (UV) radiation received at the earth's surface. Model calculations show that UV irradiances encountered during the occurrence of an Antarctic 'ozone hole' remain less than those typical of a summer solstice at low to middle latitudes. However, the low ozone amounts observed in October 1987 imply biologically effective irradiances for McMurdo Station, Antarctica, that are comparable to or greater than those for the same location at December solstice. Life indigenous to Antarctica thereby experiences a greatly extended period of summerlike UV radiation levels.

  8. K+ photoproduction at SPring-8/LEPS

    CERN Document Server

    Sumihama, M

    2003-01-01

    A series of experiments have been carried out by using a linearly polarized photon beam at the SPring-8/LEPS facility from December 2000 to June 2001. The photon beam asymmetries and differential cross sections of the p(gamma,K+)Lambda and p(gamma,K+)Sigma^0 reactions have been measured in the photon energy range from 1.5 GeV to 2.4 GeV at forward angles, 0 deg. < Theta_cm < 60 deg.. We report preliminary results of the photon beam asymmetries.

  9. Creation of an antiferromagnetic exchange spring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scholl, A.; Liberati, M.; Arenholz, E.; Ohldag, H.; Stohr, J.

    2004-04-06

    We present evidence for the creation of an exchange spring in an antiferromagnet due to exchange coupling to a ferromagnet. X-ray magnetic linear dichroism spectroscopy on single crystal Co/NiO(001) shows that a partial domain wall is wound up at the surface of the antiferromagnet when the adjacent ferromagnet is rotated by a magnetic field. We determine the interface exchange stiffness and the antiferromagnetic domain wall energy from the field dependence of the direction of the antiferromagnetic axis, the antiferromagnetic pendant to a ferromagnetic hysteresis loop. The existence of a planar antiferromagnetic domain wall, proven by our measurement, is a key assumption of most exchange bias models.

  10. Influence of Locally Derived Recharge on the Water Quality and Temperature of Springs in Hot Springs National Park, Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Richard W.; Hays, Phillip D.

    2007-01-01

    The hot springs of Hot Springs National Park consist of a mixture of water from two recharge components: a primary hot-water component and a secondary cold-water component. Widespread distribution of fractures enables mixing of the hot- and cold-water components of flow near the discharge area for the springs. Urbanization in the area near the hot springs of Hot Springs National Park has increased the potential for degradation of the quality of surface-water runoff and locally derived ground-water recharge to the hot springs. Previous studies by the U.S. Geological Survey have indicated that water from some cold-water springs and wells in the vicinity of Hot Springs, Arkansas, showed evidence of contamination and that water from locally derived cold-water recharge might contribute 25 percent of the total flow to the hot springs after storms. Water samples were collected during base-flow conditions at nine hot springs and two cold-water springs in September 2000. Nine hot springs and one cold-water spring were resampled in October 2001 after a storm that resulted in a measurable decrease in water temperature in selected hot springs. Water samples were analyzed for a variety of dissolved chemical constituents (nutrients, major ions, trace elements, pesticides, semivolatile compounds, isotopes, and radiochemicals), physical properties, field measurements, and bacteria. Comparison of analyses of samples collected during base-flow conditions from the springs in 2000 and during a storm event in 2001 with the results from earlier studies dating back to the late 1800's indicates that little change in major, minor, and trace constituent chemistry has occurred and that the water continues to be of excellent quality. Water-quality data show distinguishable differences in water chemistry of the springs during base-flow and stormflow conditions, indicating changing input of cold-water recharge relative to hot-water recharge. Silica, total dissolved solids, strontium, barium

  11. Fractures and stresses in Bone Spring sandstones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lorenz, J.C.; Warpinski, N.R.; Sattler, A.R.; Northrop, D.A.

    1990-09-01

    This project is a collaboration between Sandia National Laboratories and Harvey E. Yates Company being conducted under the auspices of the Oil Recovery Technology Partnership. The project seeks to apply perspectives related to the effects of natural fractures, stress, and sedimentology to the simulation and production of low-permeability gas reservoirs to low-permeability oil reservoirs as typified by the Bone Spring sandstones of the Permian Basin, southeast New Mexico. This report presents the results and analysis obtained in 1989 from 233 ft of oriented core, comprehensive suite of logs, various in situ stress measurements, and detailed well tests conducted in conjunction with the drilling of two development wells. Natural fractures were observed in core and logs in the interbed carbonates, but there was no direct evidence of fractures in the sandstones. However, production tests of the sandstones indicated permeabilities and behavior typical of a dual porosity reservoir. A general northeast trend for the maximum principal horizontal stress was observed in an elastic strain recovery measurements and in strikes of drilling-induced fractures; this direction is subparallel to the principal fracture trend observed in the interbed carbonates. Many of the results presented are believed to be new information for the Bone Spring sandstones. 57 figs., 18 tabs.

  12. Cold spring harbor symposia on quantitative biology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-01-01

    For many decades, it has been clear that cells have a multitude of ways of sensing their environment and converting a plethora of external signals into measured intracellular responses. Now we realize that many first messengers do not act directly through second messengers, but instead work at the genetic level by binding to cytoplasmically located receptors, which can then bind to DNA and turn on or off the functioning of specific genes. Today, we refer to the way that external signals are passed through various cellular components as signal transduction processes, with receptors and their associated molecules known as biological transducers. Because most transducer molecules are present in very limited amounts, their study at the biochemical level until recently was at best difficult, and hypothesis as to how they functioned were almost impossible to test rigorously. Today, recombinant DNA techniques have dramatically changed the picture. Even very rare receptors are now open to analyses if their respective genes can be cloned, and virtually every month, the amino acid sequence of a new key biological transducer is established. The time was thus appropriate last June to hold a Cold Spring Harbor Symposium on the Molecular Biology of Signal Transduction. The final program consisted of 119 speakers, who spoke before an audience of 439, the largest ever yet to attend a Cold spring Harbor Symposium. This volume contains 61 papers. Individual papers are indexed separately on the energy data base.

  13. Cold spring harbor symposia on quantitative biology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-01-01

    For many decades, it has been clear that cells have a multitude of ways of sensing their environment and converting a plethora of external signals into measured intracellular responses. Now we realize that many first messengers do not act directly through second messengers, but instead work at the genetic level by binding to cytoplasmically located receptors, which can then bind to DNA and turn on or off the functioning of specific genes. Today, we refer to the way that external signals are passed through various cellular components as signal transduction processes, with receptors and their associated molecules known as biological transducers. Because most transducer molecules are present in very limited amounts, their study at the biochemical level until recently was at best difficult, and hypotheses as to how they functioned were almost impossible to test rigorously. Today, recombinant DNA techniques have dramatically changed the picture. Even very rare receptors are now open to analysis if their respective genes can be cloned, and virtually every month the amino acid sequence of a new key biological transducer is established. The time was thus appropriate last June to hold a Cold Spring Harbor Symposium on the Molecular Biology of Signal Transduction. The final program consisted of 119 speakers, who spoke before an audience of 439, the largest ever yet to attend a Cold Spring Harbor Symposium. This volume contains 54 papers. Individual papers are indexed separately on the energy data base.

  14. Chlorine Monoxide in the Antarctic Spring Stratosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaramillo-Ayerbe, Mauricio

    1988-06-01

    A series of observations of stratospheric chlorine monoxide (ClO) were carried out during the austral springs of 1986 and 1987 in McMurdo Station, Antarctica, as part of two experimental campaigns sent to investigate the seasonal decrease in ozone over the antarctic continent (the ozone "hole"). Measurements of the vertical distribution of ClO were obtained by high resolution ground-based emission spectroscopy at 278 GHz, using the Stony Brook mm-wave receiver. They show the presence of an anomalous layer of lower stratospheric ClO which is not observed at other latitudes. This anomalous layer is centered at ~20 km altitude and exhibits a pronounced diurnal variation, reaching a maximum at midday and disappearing at night. During the period of Sep. 20-24, 1987, the lower-stratospheric ClO had a maximum volume mixing ratio of 1.8_sp{+0cdot5}{ -0cdot9} ppbv. A normal ClO layer centered at ~36 km was also observed, with concentrations and diurnal behavior similar to those seen in tropical latitudes. These findings are evidence of anomalous chlorine chemistry taking place in the lower stratosphere during the antarctic spring, and indicate that increasing anthropogenic chlorine is a prime causative agent in the formation of the ozone hole.

  15. The Egyptian Arab Spring and Political Islam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayman Gad El ashkar

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This study elaborates and analyzes the phenomenon and concept of political Islam, the reasons of the increased role of the Islamists and their political and reformist tendencies in the light of the Egyptian revolution of Arab Spring, reasons and the main factors that have contributed on their advent into power and their influence in that time, the issue of the application of Islamic Sharia and complex realities about this dilemma. The revolutions of Arab Spring, including the Egyptian revolution, are considered one of the most important and most dangerous events in the XXI century after the terrorist attacks of 11 September 2001, not only in the Middle East but throughout the world because of their impact on peace and global security. The growth of the phenomenon of political Islam and the advent of Islamists into power in Egypt has represented one of the most remarkable features of this sudden revolution. No doubt that the issue of the relationship between Islam and the state's political system raises many confusing questions for many people. In this sense the importance of this study will directly identify the fact that the leadership of Islamists in Egypt is not the implementation of Islamic Sharia but their movements and ideology.

  16. ThermoTecSpring {sup registered}. High-strength lightweight spring as a contribution to CO{sub 2} reduction; ThermoTecSpring {sup registered}. Hochfeste Leichtbau-Feder als Beitrag zur CO{sub 2}-Reduzierung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gross, Marcel [ThyssenKrupp Bilstein Suspension GmbH, Hagen-Hohenlimburg (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    By adapting the thermomechanical forming process to the requirements of coil spring manufacturing, ThyssenKrupp Bilstein Suspension has succeeded in changing the properties of the material to produce higher-strength springs. This clears the way for lighter springs with smaller wire diameters and shorter spring designs with the same level of performance. Compared with normal-strength suspension springs, the ThermoTecSpring {sup registered} technology permits weight savings of 15 to 20% per spring depending on application. The ThermoTecSpring {sup registered} therefore contributes to lowering fuel consumption and reducing CO{sub 2} emissions. (orig.)

  17. Hydrosalinity studies of the Virgin River, Dixie Hot Springs, and Littlefield Springs, Utah, Arizona, and Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerner, Steven J.; Thiros, Susan A.; Gerner, Steven J.; Thiros, Susan A.

    2014-01-01

    The Virgin River contributes a substantial amount of dissolved solids (salt) to the Colorado River at Lake Mead in the lower Colorado River Basin. Degradation of Colorado River water by the addition of dissolved solids from the Virgin River affects the suitability of the water for municipal, industrial, and agricultural use within the basin. Dixie Hot Springs in Utah are a major localized source of dissolved solids discharging to the Virgin River. The average measured discharge from Dixie Hot Springs during 2009–10 was 11.0 cubic feet per second (ft3/s), and the average dissolved-solids concentration was 9,220 milligrams per liter (mg/L). The average dissolved-solids load—a measurement that describes the mass of salt that is transported per unit of time—from Dixie Hot Springs during this period was 96,200 tons per year (ton/yr). Annual dissolved-solids loads were estimated at 13 monitoring sites in the Virgin River Basin from streamflow data and discrete measurements of dissolved-solids concentrations and (or) specific conductance. Eight of the sites had the data needed to estimate annual dissolved-solids loads for water years (WYs) 1999 through 2010. During 1999–2010, the smallest dissolved-solids loads in the Virgin River were upstream of Dixie Hot Springs (59,900 ton/yr, on average) and the largest loads were downstream of Littlefield Springs (298,200 ton/yr, on average). Annual dissolved-solids loads were smallest during 2002–03, which was a period of below normal precipitation. Annual dissolved-solids loads were largest during 2005—a year that included a winter rain storm that resulted in flooding throughout much of the Virgin River Basin. An average seepage loss of 26.7 ft3/s was calculated from analysis of monthly average streamflow from July 1998 to September 2010 in the Virgin River for the reach that extends from just upstream of the Utah/Arizona State line to just above the Virgin River Gorge Narrows. Seepage losses from three river reaches

  18. EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION & NUMERICAL ANALYSIS OF COMPOSITE LEAF SPRING

    OpenAIRE

    K. K. JADHAO,; DR. R.S DALU

    2011-01-01

    The Automobile Industry has shown keen interest for replacement of steel leaf spring with that of glass fiber composite leaf spring, since the composite material has high strength to weight ratio, good corrosion resistance and tailor-able properties. The objective of present study was to replace material for leaf spring. In present study the material selected was glass fiber reinforced plastic (GFRP) and the polyester resin (NETPOL 1011) can be used which was more economical this will reduce ...

  19. Biogeographic Congruency among Bacterial Communities from Terrestrial Sulfidic Springs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brendan eHeadd

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Terrestrial sulfidic springs support diverse microbial communities by serving as stable conduits for geochemically diverse and nutrient-rich subsurface waters. Microorganisms that colonize terrestrial springs likely originate from groundwater, but may also be sourced from the surface. As such, the biogeographic distribution of microbial communities inhabiting sulfidic springs should be controlled by a combination of spring geochemistry and surface and subsurface transport mechanisms, and not necessarily geographic proximity to other springs. We examined the bacterial diversity of seven springs to test the hypothesis that occurrence of taxonomically similar microbes, important to the sulfur cycle, at each spring is controlled by geochemistry. Complementary Sanger sequencing and 454 pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes retrieved five proteobacterial classes, and Bacteroidetes, Chlorobi, Chloroflexi, and Firmicutes phyla from all springs, which suggested the potential for a core sulfidic spring microbiome. Among the putative sulfide-oxidizing groups (Epsilonproteobacteria and Gammaproteobacteria, up to 83% of the sequences from geochemically similar springs clustered together. Abundant populations of Hydrogenimonas-like or Sulfurovum-like spp. (Epsilonproteobacteria occurred with abundant Thiothrix and Thiofaba spp. (Gammaproteobacteria, but Arcobacter-like and Sulfurimonas spp. (Epsilonproteobacteria occurred with less abundant gammaproteobacterial populations. These distribution patterns confirmed that geochemistry rather than biogeography regulates bacterial dominance at each spring. Potential biogeographic controls were related to paleogeologic sedimentation patterns that could control long-term microbial transport mechanisms that link surface and subsurface environments. Knowing the composition of a core sulfidic spring microbial community could provide a way to monitor diversity changes if a system is threatened by anthropogenic processes or

  20. Air surveillance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patton, G.W.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the air surveillance and monitoring programs currently in operation at that Hanford Site. Atmospheric releases of pollutants from Hanford to the surrounding region are a potential source of human exposure. For that reason, both radioactive and nonradioactive materials in air are monitored at a number of locations. The influence of Hanford emissions on local radionuclide concentrations was evaluated by comparing concentrations measured at distant locations within the region to concentrations measured at the Site perimeter. This section discusses sample collection, analytical methods, and the results of the Hanford air surveillance program. A complete listing of all analytical results summarized in this section is reported separately by Bisping (1995).

  1. Simultaneous determination of trace pesticides in urban air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haraguchi, Kimiko; Kitamura, Eri; Yamashita, Toshiro; Kido, Azuma

    Thirty-nine kinds of pesticides in the air were monitored in Kitakyushu City. Air samples were collected by a high-volume air sampler equipped with a quartz fiber filter and XAD-2 resin trap. After sampling about 700 m' of air, pesticides were extracted with dichloromethane from the quartz fiber filter and XAD-2 resin separately by ultrasonic method. The extracts were concentrated and fractionated by silica gel column chromatography. After adding internal standards, the sample solutions were analysed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry with a selected ion monitor (GC/MS-SIM) using a fused silica capillary column for the quantification of 39 kinds of pesticides. In order to evaluate the accuracy of this method, a recovery test was performed. Standard compounds were spiked into the XAD-2 resin trap at a concentration level of l μg by sucking 700 m 3 of sample air. The recovery efficiencies of almost all tested pesticides yielded more than 70% and their relative standard deviations were less than 20%. This method was applied to monitor pesticides in air collected in summer and spring seasons in Kitakyushu City. Of the 39 pesticides examined, 23 were detected in summer and 21 detected in spring. The concentration of Isofenphos, 10 ng m ·, was the highest in the summer sample and the concentration of propoxur, 11 ng m -3, in the spring sample.

  2. Analysis of Composite Leaf Spring Enhanced With Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Ganesan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Weight reduction is now the main issue in automobile industries. In this work due to reduce the weight of steel spring with composite leaf spring due to high strength ratio is need to improve. The main aim is to compare to the load carrying capacity, stiffness and weight savings of composite leaf spring with that of steel leaf spring at rated-load and over-load condition. The analysis has been carried out for the leaf spring made up of steel and Composite materials. Composite specimens are fabricated with two different staking sequences like the (resin with clay and enhanced with Nanoparticles. The thickness and width for constant cross section is maintained on the moulding techniques. The design of multi leaf spring was modeled in PRO-E and imported in ANSYS 14.5.the dimensions of an existing multi leaf spring is taken for modeling and analysis of a laminated composite multi leaf spring with different composite sequence materials subjected to the same load as that of steel spring.

  3. Buckling analysis of planar compression micro-springs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Jing; Sui, Li; Shi, Gengchen [School of Mechanical Engineering, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 (China); Science and Technology on Electromechanical Dynamic Control Laboratory, 5 South Street Zhongguancun, Haidian 100081, Beijing (China)

    2015-04-15

    Large compression deformation causes micro-springs buckling and loss of load capacity. We analyzed the impact of structural parameters and boundary conditions for planar micro-springs, and obtained the change rules for the two factors that affect buckling. A formula for critical buckling deformation of micro-springs under compressive load was derived based on elastic thin plate theory. Results from this formula were compared with finite element analysis results but these did not always correlate. Therefore, finite element analysis is necessary for micro-spring buckling analysis. We studied the variation of micro-spring critical buckling deformation caused by four structural parameters using ANSYS software under two constraint conditions. The simulation results show that when an x-direction constraint is added, the critical buckling deformation increases by 32.3-297.9%. The critical buckling deformation decreases with increase in micro-spring arc radius or section width and increases with increase in micro-spring thickness or straight beam width. We conducted experiments to confirm the simulation results, and the experimental and simulation trends were found to agree. Buckling analysis of the micro-spring establishes a theoretical foundation for optimizing micro-spring structural parameters and constraint conditions to maximize the critical buckling load.

  4. Analytical Technique of Selection of Constructive Parameters Pneumatichydraulic Springs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Tsipilev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article "Technique for Analytical Selection of Design Parameters of Pneumatichydraulic Springs concerns the ride smoothness of high-speed vehicles. Author of article Tsipilev A.A. is an assistant at chair "Multi-purpose Tracked Vehicles and Mobile Robots" of BMSTU. The article represents a synthesis of known information on the springing systems and an analysis of relation between spring design data and running gear. It describes standard units of running gear of vehicle in the context of springing systems. Classification of springing systems is considered. Modernization general policy for existing suspensions and prospects for creation of new ones are given. The article considers a design of various pneumatic-hydraulic springs to be set on domestic tracked vehicles. A developed technique allows us to have elastic characteristics of pneumatic-hydraulic springs of various types using these design data and kinematics of the running gear. The article provides recommendations to calculate characteristics of springing systems. The adequacy analysis of the given technique based on the comparison of real and rated characteristics of the existing suspension is conducted. This article can be useful to the experts dealing with springing systems of wheel and tracked vehicles.

  5. Installation Restoration Program. Phase I. Records Search, Peterson Air Force Base, Colorado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-08-05

    GUNN so" a. 105VI A [ads SALIDA to(, A- I Ponce, Tous 50 2 Haswell Creek AP ’all or & Ca , Lm enross Arlington Sargent, 1 10Park IF renc Sugar 6...headquartered at Ent Air Force Base near downtown Colorado Springs, thus reopening the base. When the 15th Air Force moved to California in December 1949

  6. Geothermal heating from Pinkerton Hot Springs at Colorado Timberline Academy, Durango, Colorado. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, C.C.; Allen, R.W.; Beldock, J.

    1981-11-08

    The efforts to establish a greater pool of knowledge in the field of low temperature heat transfer for the application of geothermal spring waters to space heating are described. A comprehensive set of heat loss experiments involving passive radiant heating panels is conducted and the results presented in an easily interpretable form. Among the conclusions are the facts that heating a 65 to 70 F/sup 0/ space with 90 to 100 F/sup 0/ liquids is a practical aim. The results are compared with the much lower rates published in the American Society of Heating Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Engineers SYSTEMS, 1976. A heat exchange chamber consisting of a 1000 gallon three compartment, insulated and buried tank is constructed and a control and pumping building erected over the tank. The tank is intended to handle the flow of geothermal waters from Pinkerton Hot Springs at 50 GPM prior to the wasting of the spring water at a disposal location. Approximately 375,000 Btu per hour should be available for heating assuming a 15 F/sup 0/ drop in water temperature. A combination of the panel heat loss experiments, construction of the heat exchange devices and ongoing collection of heat loss numbers adds to the knowledge available to engineers in sizing low temperature heat systems, useful in both solar and geothermal applications where source temperature may be often below 110 F/sup 0/.

  7. Hot Springs-Garrison Fiber Optic Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-10-01

    Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) is proposing to upgrade its operational telecommunications system between the Hot Springs Substation and the Garrison Substation using a fiber optic system. The project would primarily involve installing 190 kilometers (120 miles) of fiber optic cable on existing transmission structures and installing new fiber optic equipment in BPA`s substation yards and control houses. BPA prepared an environmental assessment (EA) evaluating the proposed action. This EA was published in October 1994. The EA identifies a number of minor impacts that might occur as a result of the proposed action, as well as some recommended mitigation measures. This Mitigation Action Plan (MAP) identifies specific measures to avoid, minimize, or compensate for impacts identified in the EA.

  8. Weed suppression ability of spring barley varieties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Svend

    1995-01-01

    Three years of experiments with spring barley showed significant differences in weed suppression ability among varieties. Weed dry matter in the most suppressive variety, Ida, was 48% lower than the mean weed dry matter of all varieties, whereas it was 31% higher in the least suppressive variety......, Grit. Ranking varietal responses to weed competition in terms of grain yield loss corresponded well to ranking weed dry matter produced in crop weed mixtures. There was no correspondence between the varietal grain yields in pure stands and their competitiveness, suggesting that breeding to optimize...... interception model was developed to describe the light interception profiles of the varieties. A study of the estimated parameters showed significant correlation between weed dry matter, rate of canopy height development and the light interception profile. However, when estimates were standardized to eliminate...

  9. The Siding Spring Hazard at Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Michael; Bauer, James; Bodewits, Dennis; Farnham, Tony; Li, Jian-Yang; Samarasinha, Nalin; Stevenson, Rachel; Tricarico, Pasquale

    2014-02-01

    Comet C/2013 A1 (Siding Spring) will pass Mars at the extremely close distance of 136,000 km in Oct 2014, giving Mars orbiting spacecraft an up-close and unprecedented view of this dynamically new comet. However, 100 minutes after the closest approach to the nucleus, Mars passes within 30,000 km of the comet's orbit. Here, large dust grains may be found on impacting trajectories, potentially posing a fatal hazard to the spacecraft. Such large grains must be ejected from the comet nucleus well before the time of encounter. Therefore, we propose IRAC imaging of this comet to assess the present-day gas production rate, which will aid dust impact hazard assessment.

  10. Best Student Papers for 1987 Spring Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    As they did at previous national meetings, several AGU sections selected Best Student Papers at the 1987 Spring Meeting in Baltimore, Md., during May 1987 as a means of encouraging student participation.Pal Wessel was selected by the Geodesy Section to receive their Best Student Paper Award for his paper entitled “Global Gravity Crossover Corrections: Implications and Applications,” which was coauthored by A. B. Watts (Lamont-Doherty Geological Observatory (LDGO), Palisades, N.Y.). Wessel received his B.Sc. (1982) and M.S. (1984) from the University of Oslo, Norway, in applied geophysics, while working on inversion of gravity anomalies over a continental rift (Oslo Graben). He is currently a Ph.D. candidate at LDGO. Wessel's research in gravity includes statistical analysis of shipboard gravity data, gridding algorithms, and computation of gravimetric geoids. He is also working on flexre of young oceanic lithosphere caused by thermal stresses.

  11. Geothermal Exploration in Hot Springs, Montana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toby McIntosh, Jackola Engineering

    2012-09-26

    The project involves drilling deeper in the Camp Aqua well dri lled in June 1982 as part of an effort to develop an ethanol plant. The purpose of the current drill ing effort is to determine if water at or above 165°F exists for the use in low temperature resource power generation. Previous geothermal resource study efforts in and around Hot Springs , MT and the Camp Aqua area (NE of Hot Springs) have been conducted through the years. A confined gravel aquifer exists in deep alluvium overlain by approximately 250 of si lt and c lay deposits from Glacial Lake Missoula. This gravel aquifer overlies a deeper bedrock aquifer. In the Camp Aqua area several wel l s exist in the gravel aquifer which receives hot water f rom bedrock fractures beneath the area. Prior to this exploration, one known well in the Camp Aqua area penetrated into the bedrock without success in intersecting fractures transporting hot geothermal water. The exploration associated with this project adds to the physical knowledge database of the Camp Aqua area. The dri l l ing effort provides additional subsurface information that can be used to gain a better understanding of the bedrock formation that i s leaking hot geothermal water into an otherwise cold water aquifer. The exi s t ing well used for the explorat ion is located within the center of the hottest water within the gravel aquifer. This lent i t sel f as a logical and economical location to continue the exploration within the existing well. Faced with budget constraints due to unanticipated costs, changing dril l ing techniques stretched the limited project resources to maximize the overa l l well depth which f e l l short of original project goals. The project goal of finding 165°F or hotter water was not achieved; however the project provides additional information and understanding of the Camp Aqua area that could prove valuable in future exploration efforts

  12. Okanogan Basin Spring Spawner Report for 2007.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colville Tribes, Department of Fish & Wildlife

    2007-09-01

    The Okanogan Basin Monitoring and Evaluation Program collected data related to spring spawning anadromous salmonid stocks across the entire Okanogan River basin. Data were collected using redd surveys, traps, underwater video, and PIT-tag technology then summarized and analyzed using simple estimate models. From these efforts we estimated that 1,266 summer steelhead spawned in the Okanogan River basin and constructed 552 redds;152 of these fish where of natural origin. Of these, 121 summer steelhead, including 29 of natural origin, created an estimated 70 redds in the Canadian portion of the Okanagan basin. We estimated summer steelhead spawner escapement into each sub-watershed along with the number from natural origin and the number and density of redds. We documented redd desiccation in Loup Loup Creek, habitat utilization in Salmon Creek as a result of a new water lease program, and 10 spring Chinook returning to Omak Creek. High water through most of the redd survey period resulted in development of new modeling techniques and allowed us to survey additional tributaries including the observation of summer steelhead spawning in Wanacut Creek. These 2007 data provide additional support that redd surveys conducted within the United States are well founded and provide essential information for tracking the recovery of listed summer steelhead. Conversely, redd surveys do not appear to be the best approach for enumerating steelhead spawners or there distribution within Canada. We also identified that spawning distributions within the Okanogan River basin vary widely and stocking location may play an over riding roll in this variability.

  13. Sanitary state and yielding of spring barley as dependent on soil tillage method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz P. Kurowski

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The effects of traditional tillage cultivation (control treatment, no tillage (instead of tillage the soil was loosened with scruff, and direct sowing (with a special drill into unploughed soil on the health of spring barley cultivar. Klimek were compared in three-field crop rotation (field bean, winter wheat, spring barley in an experiment performed in the years 1997-1999 on the soil of a good wheat complex. The results of phytopathological observations carried out over the vegetation season are presented in the form of an injury index. The following diseases were recorded on spring barley: net blotch (Drechslera teres - net type and spot type, powdery mildew (Blumeria graminis, leaf blotch (Rhynchosporium secalis, eyespot (Tapesia yallundae and foot rot (fungal complex. Tillage system had no a significant influence on the occurrence of both types of net blotch. The intensity of powdery mildew and leaf blotch was the highest in the case of traditional tillage cultivation, and the lowest - in that of no tillage. Direct sowing was conductive to the development of eyespot, and no tillage - to foot rot. Fungi of the genus Fusarium, mainly F. culmorum, and the species Bipolaris sorokiniana, were isolated most frequently from infested stem bases. The weather conditions differed during spring barley grown in the three years analyzed. Mean air temperature in 1997 and 1998 was similar to the many-year average for the city of Olsztyn and its surroundings (13.8°C. In the vegetation season 1999 mean air temperature reached 14.6°C, and was considerably higher than the many-year average. Taking into account total precipitation and distribution in the three-year experimental cycle, 1997 and 1998 can be considered average, and 1999 - wet.The weather conditions had a significant effect on the intensity of all diseases observed on spring barley. The highest yield grain was obtained in the case of traditional tillage cultivation (on average 3.06 t·ha-1 for the

  14. Aircraft Survivability: Susceptibility Reduction, Spring 2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    ability from attacks by man-portable air defense systems (MANPADS)? Not too long ago, it would have struck many as unnecessary to seri- ously debate ...this drying process required an auto- clave and took several weeks to com- pletely remove the fluid. Much of the aerogel research since the 1930s has

  15. Royal Danish Air Force. Air Operations Doctrine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørby, Søren

    This brief examines the development of the first Danish Air Force Air Operations Doctrine, which was officially commissioned in October 1997 and remained in effect until 2010. The development of a Danish air power doctrine was heavily influenced by the work of Colonel John Warden (USAF), both...... through his book ”The Air Campaign” and his subsequent planning of the air campaign against Iraq in 1990-1991. Warden’s ideas came to Denmark and the Danish Air Force by way of Danish Air Force students attending the United States Air Force Air University in Alabama, USA. Back in Denmark, graduates from...... the Air University inspired a small number of passionate airmen, who then wrote the Danish Air Operations Doctrine. The process was supported by the Air Force Tactical Command, which found that the work dovetailed perfectly with the transformation process that the Danish Air Force was in the midst...

  16. The Spring Festival Celebration of the Nianzhe Family Clan---An Ethnography of a Mosuo Family's Spring Festival

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Peixi; ZHANG Bo; YANG Lifen; ZHANG Yongyi

    2014-01-01

    The Nianzhe ( family name ) family is a Mosuo family in Dapo village , Yongning Town-ship , Ninglang Yi Autonomous County in Yunnan Province .The Nianzhe family is a big Mosuo fami-ly full of harmony and warmth .The Spring Festival in 2011 was the happiest festival for the matriarch of the family, Nianzhe· Cierlamu ( “Old Mom”) who was 72 years, and for the patriarch, Laya· Danducier (“Old Daddy”) who was 73 years old. This was because , except for Nianzhe · Yongzhen-duma , their third daughter who married to a Naxi man, their other five children , two son-in-laws and five grandchildren came back to celebrate the spring festival with them . The Nianzhe family has a very strong sense of family, and the Spring Festival is the most impor-tant time for them to express their feelings to the family.All the family members place their joy and hope on the New Year's celebration ( Spring Festi-val).Actually, upon entering the twelfth month of the lunar year , the family began to busy them-selves with preparing food , new clothes and other things.They collected fire wood, made salted pork, prepared special wine , milled flour, made“huahuatang” ( a kind of handmade candy ) , and also prepared a special kind of bean curd , pieces of dried rice, butter, oil, Tsampa, and vegeta-bles.They also prepared other things such as“couplets”, prayer flags, and butter lamps. In accordance with the custom of the Mosuo , the Nianzhe family chose the 25 th day of the twelfth lunar month of the year to clean the house .This is because the animal zodiac sign of that day was not the same as any of the family members'birth ani-mal zodiac signs .If it were , it would be inauspi-cious for those family members whose birth signs were the same as that day .After they cleaned the house , a lama was invited to chant; some dough figures were made and the “zananiao muqi” ( the purifying scripture ) was recited . On the 27 th day of the twelfth lunar month , the Nianzhe clan family

  17. Portrait of a Geothermal Spring, Hunter’s Hot Springs, Oregon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard W. Castenholz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Although alkaline Hunter’s Hot Springs in southeastern Oregon has been studied extensively for over 40 years, most of these studies and the subsequent publications were before the advent of molecular methods. However, there are many field observations and laboratory experiments that reveal the major aspects of the phototrophic species composition within various physical and chemical gradients of these springs. Relatively constant temperature boundaries demark the upper boundary of the unicellular cyanobacterium, Synechococcus at 73–74 °C (the world-wide upper limit for photosynthesis, and 68–70 °C the upper limit for Chloroflexus. The upper limit for the cover of the filamentous cyanobacterium, Geitlerinema (Oscillatoria is at 54–55 °C, and the in situ lower limit at 47–48 °C for all three of these phototrophs due to the upper temperature limit for the grazing ostracod, Thermopsis. The in situ upper limit for the cyanobacteria Pleurocapsa and Calothrix is at ~47–48 °C, which are more grazer-resistant and grazer dependent. All of these demarcations are easily visible in the field. In addition, there is a biosulfide production in some sections of the springs that have a large impact on the microbiology. Most of the temperature and chemical limits have been explained by field and laboratory experiments.

  18. Recent measurements of 234U/238U isotope ratio in spring waters from the Hadzici area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidic, Alfred; Ilić, Zorana; Benedik, Ljudmila

    2013-06-01

    The Hadzici area has become interesting for investigation since depleted uranium ammunition had been employed in 1995 during the NATO air strike campaign in Bosnia and Herzegovina. The purpose of this study is to determine uranium concentration and (234)U/(238)U activity ratio in the spring waters of this area and to investigate their relationship, as well as spatial variations. The spring water samples were taken at 18 sites in total. For the determination of uranium radioisotopes, radiochemical separation procedure followed by alpha-particle spectrometry was applied. Uranium concentration in analyzed waters range from 0.15 to 1.12 μg/L. Spring waters from carbonate based sediments have a lower uranium concentration of between 0.15 and 0.43 μg/L, in comparison to waters sampled within sandstone-based sediments ranging from 0.53 to 1.12 μg/L. Dissolved uranium shows significant spatial variability and correlation with bedrock type confirmed by Principal Component Analysis and Hierarchical Cluster Analysis. The majority of the analyzed waters have a (234)U/(238)U activity ratio ranging from 1.02 to 1.90, of which half of the results range between 1.02 and 1.16. No apparent depleted uranium (DU) contamination was observed, as (234)U/(238)U activity ratio is dependent on geochemical conditions in the environment. Even though the tested spring waters demonstrate significant variability in uranium concentration, (234)U/(238)U activity ratio and (234)U excess, waters with similar uranium isotopic signatures are observable within the region. The guidelines on the spatial redistribution of dissolved uranium (corresponding to (238)U mass concentration), along with (234)U/(238)U activity ratios were provided by the Inverse Distance Weighting (IDW) method. Waters having similar isotopic signature have been delineated.

  19. Climatic Controls on Spring Onset of the Tibetan Plateau Grasslands from 1982 to 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenjiang Zhang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Understanding environmental controls on vegetation spring onset (SO in the Tibetan Plateau (TP is crucial to diagnosing regional ecosystem responses to climate change. We investigated environmental controls on the SO of the TP grasslands using satellite vegetation index (VI from the 3rd Global Inventory Modeling and Mapping Studies (GIMMS3g product, with in situ air temperature (Ta and precipitation (Prcp measurement records from 1982 to 2008. The SO was determined using a dynamic threshold method based on a 25% threshold of seasonal VI amplitude. We find that SO shows overall close associations with spring Ta, but is also subject to regulation from spring precipitation. In relatively dry but increasingly wetting (0.50 mm·year−1, p < 0.10 grasslands (mean spring Prcp = 22.8 mm; Ta = −3.27 °C, more precipitation tends to advance SO (−0.146 day·mm−1, p = 0.150 before the mid-1990s, but delays SO (0.110 day·mm−1, p = 0.108 over the latter record attributed to lower solar radiation and cooler temperatures associated with Prcp increases in recent years. In contrast, in relatively humid TP grasslands (73.0 mm; −3.51 °C, more precipitation delays SO (0.036 day·mm−1, p = 0.165 despite regional warming (0.045 °C·year−1, p < 0.05; the SO also shows a delaying response to a standardized drought index (mean R = 0.266, indicating a low energy constraint to vegetation onset. Our results highlight the importance of surface moisture status in regulating the phenological response of alpine grasslands to climate warming.

  20. An investigation of contaminant impacts to watercress darter, Etheostama nuchale, habitat at Roebuck Springs, Thomas' Spring, and Glenn Springs, Jefferson Country, Alabama

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes a study with the following results: 1. Roebuck Springs was the only site found with contaminant loading with PAH's at levels suspected of...

  1. Reconstruction of late spring phenophases in Poland and their response to climate change, 1951–2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartosz Czernecki

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Phenology is primarily seen as an indicator of the impacts of climate change. The strongest biological signal of climatic change is revealed by phenological data from the period after 1990. Unfortunately, the Polish nationwide network of phenological monitoring was terminated in 1992, and was only reactivated in 2005. Here, we attempt to reconstruct late spring phenophases of flowering of Syringa vulgaris L. and Aesculus hippocastanum L. across several sites in Poland from 1951 to 2014 using the GIS-based approach (if observations from neighboring stations were available and multiple regression modeling with stepwise screening and bootstrap resampling. It was found that the air temperature and its indices explain over 60% of the variance, giving an accuracy of 3.0–3.4 days (mean absolute error and correlation coefficients of 0.83 and 0.78 for lilac and horse chestnut, respectively. Altogether, both plant species showed a statistically significant advancement in the onset of flowering with an average rate of 1.7 days per decade. We also found that the final trend is the result of rapid acceleration of the increase in air temperature after the 1990s, while most of the trends for late spring were ambiguous before that period.

  2. 36 CFR 7.18 - Hot Springs National Park.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hot Springs National Park. 7.18 Section 7.18 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.18 Hot Springs National Park. (a)...

  3. The Design of Reactor Internals Hold-Down Spring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guohong Xue

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hold down spring(HDS, clamped between the upper support plate flange and the core barrel flange inside a pressurized reactor vessel, is used to provide a downward force to keep the core barrel stable and from being lifted off from the vessel ledge during reactor normal operation. Spring designer used to think under certain extreme operating conditions, the spring could be lifted off from the ledge because the spring is not stiff enough to prevent the “lift-off”. Therefore, the spring was designed as stiff as it practically can be. However, finite element study indicated that the magnitude of preload is a strong function of friction coefficient. To find the magnitude of the friction coefficient, a series of tests were conducted on 1/10 scale hold down spring samples of three different spring designs. From the test results, it was found that the friction coefficient increases rapidly as the number of loading cycles increases. This implies that the spring preload would increase rapidly during plant operation. Therefore, it is concluded that, because of the strong frictional effect, not only the current design is more than adequate, but also should be made even softer.

  4. Chemical characteristics of the major thermal springs of Montana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mariner, R.H.; Presser, T.S.; Evans, W.C.

    1976-07-01

    Twenty-one thermal springs in western Montana were sampled for chemical, isotope, and gas compositions. Most of the springs issue dilute to slightly saline sodium-bicarbonate waters of neutral to slightly alkaline pH. A few of the springs issue sodium-mixed anion waters of near neutral pH. Fluoride concentrations are high in most of the thermal waters, up to 18 miligrams per litre, while F/Cl ratios range from 3/1 in the dilute waters to 1/10 in the slightly saline waters. Most of the springs are theoretically in thermodynamic equilibrium with respect to calcite and fluorite. Nitrogen is the major gas escaping from most of the hot springs; however, Hunters Hot Springs issue principally methane. The deuterium content of the hot spring waters is typical of meteoric water in western Montana. Geothermal calculations based on silica concentrations and Na-K-Ca ratios indicate that most of the springs are associated with low temperature aquifers (less than 100/sup 0/C). Chalcedony may be controlling the silica concentrations in these low temperature aquifers even in ''granitic'' terranes.

  5. Fabrication and modeling of shape memory alloy springs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidari, B.; Kadkhodaei, M.; Barati, M.; Karimzadeh, F.

    2016-12-01

    In this paper, shape memory alloy (SMA) helical springs are produced by shape setting two sets of NiTi (Ti-55.87 at% Ni) wires, one of which showing shape memory effect and another one showing pseudoelasticity at the ambient temperature. Different pitches as well as annealing temperatures are tried to investigate the effect of such parameters on the thermomechanical characteristics of the fabricated springs. Phase transformation temperatures of the products are measured by differential scanning calorimetry and are compared with those of the original wires. Compression tests are also carried out, and stiffness of each spring is determined. The desired pitches are so that a group of springs experiences phase transition during loading while the other does not. The former shows a varying stiffness upon the application of compression, but the latter acts as passive springs with a predetermined stiffness. Based on the von-Mises effective stress and strain, an enhanced one-dimensional constitutive model is further proposed to describe the shear stress-strain response within the coils of an SMA spring. The theoretically predicted force-displacement responses of the produced springs are shown to be in a reasonable agreement with the experimental results. Finally, effects of variations in geometric parameters on the axial force-displacement response of an SMA spring are investigated.

  6. Comparative metagenomics of eight geographically remote terrestrial hot springs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Menzel, Peter; Islin, Sóley Ruth; Rike, Anne Gunn

    2015-01-01

    Hot springs are natural habitats for thermophilic Archaea and Bacteria. In this paper, we present the metagenomic analysis of eight globally distributed terrestrial hot springs from China, Iceland, Italy, Russia, and the USA with a temperature range between 61 and 92 (∘)C and pH between 1.8 and 7...

  7. Fall and spring tillage effects on sugarbeet production

    Science.gov (United States)

    The ability to vary primary tillage timing between fall and spring for sugarbeet production could benefit producers by providing flexibility for when field work occurs and may allow earlier planting in the spring. This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of strip and conventional tillage co...

  8. Thermal Springs and the Search for Past Life on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    DesMarais, D. J.; Farmer, J. D.; Walter, M. R.

    1995-01-01

    Ancient thermal spring sites have several features which make them significant targets in a search for past life. Chemical (including redox) reactions in hydrothermal systems possibly played a role in the origin of life on Earth and elsewhere. Spring waters frequently contain reduced species (sulfur compounds, Fe(sup +2), etc.) which can provide chemical energy for organic synthesis. Relatively cool hydrothermal systems can sustain abundant microbial life (on Earth, at temperatures greater than 110 C). A spring site on Mars perhaps might even have maintained liquid water for periods sufficiently long to sustain surface-dwelling biota had they existed. On Earth, a variety of microbial mat communities can be sampled along the wide range of temperatures surrounding the spring, thus offering an opportunity to sample a broad biological diversity. Thermal spring waters frequently deposit minerals (carbonates, silica, etc.) which can entomb and preserve both fluid inclusions and microbial communities. These deposits can be highly fossiliferous and preserve biological inclusions for geologically long periods of time. Such deposits can cover several square km on Earth, and their distinctive mineralogy (e.g., silica- and/or carbonate-rich) can contrast sharply with that of the surrounding region. As with Martian volcanoes, Martian thermal spring complexes and their deposits might typically be much larger than their counterparts on Earth. Thus Martian spring deposits are perhaps readily detectable and even accessible. Elysium Planitia is an example of a promising region where hydrothermal activity very likely remobilized ground ice and sustained springs.

  9. The Motion Of A Spring Released From Uniform Circular Motion

    CERN Document Server

    Dooling, Thomas; Carnaghi, Matthew; Titus, Aaron

    2015-01-01

    A weak spring is connected at one end to a rotor turning at constant angular velocity. The spring extends to a stretched length as determined by the spring mass, rest length, spring constant, rotor radius and rotor angular velocity. When released from the rotor, the inner end of the spring pulls away as expected, causing a wave to travel down the spring as it collapses. During this time interval, the outer end of the spring continues to move along its original circular path in uniform circular motion, as if the spring were still connected to the rotor. This is analogous to the effect of a hanging Slinky released from rest whose bottom end remains at a fixed position above the ground until a wave from the top of the Slinky reaches the bottom of the Slinky. Values from a numerical model and measurements from video analysis show that upon release the inner end travels along a circle of similar radius as the outer end. The effect appears as a series of alternating semi-circles. In addition, the simulation and dat...

  10. A Project on Soft Springs and the Slinky

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gluck, P.

    2010-01-01

    Slinkies and soft springs readily lend themselves to experimental and theoretical investigations which are extensions of the usual high school material. We describe both the static and dynamic properties of these springs and suggest that some may be used in regular class work, while other aspects are ideal for individual projects. (Contains 9…

  11. The natural shock absorption of the leg spring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Wangdo; João, Filipa; Tan, John; Mota, Patricia; Vleck, Veronica; Aguiar, Liliana; Veloso, Antonio

    2013-01-04

    When a human being runs, muscles, tendons, and ligaments together behave like a single linear spring. This "leg spring" can be described remarkably well by spring/mass models. Although leg-stiffness during running (and logically, therefore, in hopping) has been shown to be adjusted in line with the individual characteristics of the external contact surface, the relative contribution of each of the sub-components of the leg spring to the mechanics of running is unclear. We proposed the three-degree-of-freedom leg spring chain in a position of stable equilibrium under the action of the leg stiffness. If the leg spring receives a displacement in hopping, the forces will no longer equilibrate, but the system will be exposed to the action of a force on a leg spring chain. We thus have two corresponding sets of modes, one set being the mode about which the chain is displaced, the other set for the forces which are evoked in consequence of the displacement. We found that if the leg has been displaced from a position of equilibrium about one of harmonic modes, then a vibration about this harmonic mode evokes a system of forces in the leg spring which in its turn tends to produce a motion on the original harmonic mode, and thus produce oscillation about the same harmonic mode. Our results suggest that the desired harmonic mode can be explained in terms of the natural shock absorption ability of the leg.

  12. Applying spatial analysis techniques to assess the suitability of multipurpose uses of spring water in the Jiaosi Hot Spring Region, Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Cheng-Shin

    2016-04-01

    The Jiaosi Hot Spring Region is located in northeastern Taiwan and is rich in geothermal springs. The geothermal development of the Jiaosi Hot Spring Region dates back to the 18th century and currently, the spring water is processed for various uses, including irrigation, aquaculture, swimming, bathing, foot spas, and recreational tourism. Because of the proximity of the Jiaosi Hot Spring Region to the metropolitan area of Taipei City, the hot spring resources in this region attract millions of tourists annually. Recently, the Taiwan government is paying more attention to surveying the spring water temperatures in the Jiaosi Hot Spring Region because of the severe spring water overexploitation, causing a significant decline in spring water temperatures. Furthermore, the temperature of spring water is a reliable indicator for exploring the occurrence and evolution of springs and strongly affects hydrochemical reactions, components, and magnitudes. The multipurpose uses of spring water can be dictated by the temperature of the water. Therefore, accurately estimating the temperature distribution of the spring water is critical in the Jiaosi Hot Spring Region to facilitate the sustainable development and management of the multipurpose uses of the hot spring resources. To evaluate the suitability of spring water for these various uses, this study spatially characterized the spring water temperatures of the Jiaosi Hot Spring Region by using ordinary kriging (OK), sequential Gaussian simulation (SGS), and geographical information system (GIS). First, variogram analyses were used to determine the spatial variability of spring water temperatures. Next, OK and SGS were adopted to model the spatial distributions and uncertainty of the spring water temperatures. Finally, the land use (i.e., agriculture, dwelling, public land, and recreation) was determined and combined with the estimated distributions of the spring water temperatures using GIS. A suitable development strategy

  13. Long-term variability of the spring taryn-aufeises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. R. Alekseev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Long-term variability of large taryn-aufeises was studied for several decades in different regions of the USA (Alaska and Russia (Chukotka, Kolyma, Southern Yakutia, Transbaikalia, and Eastern Sayan. Differences between volumes of individual ice massifs and the recorded maximal values change from 2–3 to 95–100%, and they do not depend on sizes of ice fields and their geographical locations. No statistically significant dependence of the aufeis volumes on the atmospheric precipitation amount and the air temperature was revealed in the most of the above areas. However, a general tendency for decreasing of the annual maxima of the ice reserves due to the climate warming was noticed. The long-term variations of the aufeises show existence of cycles of increase and decrease in their maximum sizes with their durations of 3, 7 and 11 years with the 25–30% amplitude of variations relative to the mean long-term values. In the Arctic areas, some of the giant aufeises do not melt completely during the summer and remain for a next winter. The volume of pereletoks (shortterm permafrost varies within the range of 5–25%, averaging 16% of the spring ice reserves. In the southern geocryological zone, a clearly pronounced dependence of activity of the aufeis processes on the snow thickness was found: when the snow depth increased from 70 to 100 cm, volumes of aufeises decreased by a factor of three, and the aufeises disappeared completely under the thickness larger 120 cm. It should be noted that the processes producing the aufeis-forming sources of subsurface water, and the factors of their layered-ice accumulation remain almost unexplored.

  14. GSPEL - Air Filtration Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Evaluation capabilities for air filtration devices The Air Filtration Lab provides testing of air filtration devices to demonstrate and validate new or legacy system...

  15. Diversity of Bamboos around springs in Malang East Java

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solikin Solikin

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Bamboos have important roles to people in the villages area. They are planted and used by the people for making houses, food, buckets, fences, ropes, fuels, musical instruments and plaits. The root distribution of Bamboos is large and fibrous, also the growth of their new clumps is ascendant so the Bamboos has good potency for water and soil conservation on river banks, around the springs, hillsides and scarps. The survey to invent the bamboos growing around the springs was conducted in Singosari, Lawang, Karangploso, Dau and Lowokwaru Malang East Java in May 2009. The Bamboos invented at 0-100 m from the springs. The results Showed that there were four Bamboos founded around the springs namely Bambusa blumeana,Dendrocalamus asper, Gigantochloa atter and Gigantochloa apus. Dendrocalamus asper was the most dominant species founded around the springs with relative frequency, relative density and important value index is 45.83 ; 58.49 and 104.32 respectively.

  16. Springing Response Due to Directional Wave Field Excitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vidic-Perunovic, Jelena; Jensen, Jørgen Juncher

    2004-01-01

    This paper analyses the wave-induced high-frequency bending moment response of ships, denoted springing. The aim is to predict measured severe springing responses in a large bulk carrier. It is shown that the most important springing contribution is due to the resultant second order excitation...... in multidirectional sea. The incident pressure field from the second order bidirectional wave field is derived, including the non-linear cross-coupling terms between the two wave systems (e.g. wind driven waves and swell). The resulting effect of the super-harmonic cross-coupling interaction terms on the springing...... response is discussed. An example with opposing waves is given, representing probably the 'worst' case for energy exchange between the wave systems. Theoretical predictions of standard deviation of wave- and springing-induced stress amidships are compared with full-scale measurements for a bulk carrier....

  17. How does the anthropogenic activity affect the spring discharge?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Yonghong; Zhang, Juan; Wang, Jiaojiao; Li, Ruifang; Hao, Pengmei; Zhan, Hongbin

    2016-09-01

    Karst hydrological process has largely been altered by climate change and human activity. In many places throughout the world, human activity (e.g. groundwater pumping and dewatering from mining) has intensified and surpassed climate change, where human activity becomes the primary factor that affects groundwater system. But it is still largely unclear how the human activity affects spring discharge in magnitude and periodicity. This study investigates the effects of anthropogenic activity on spring discharge, using the Xin'an Springs of China as an example. The Xin'an Spring discharge were divided into two time periods: the pre-development period from 1956 to 1971 and the post-development period from 1972 to 2013. We confirm the dividing time (i.e. 1971) of these two periods using the Wilcoxon rank-sum test. Then the wavelet transform and wavelet coherence were used to analyze the karst hydrological processes for the two periods respectively. We analyze the correlations of precipitation and the Xin'an spring discharge with the monsoons including the Indian Summer Monsoon (ISM) and the West North Pacific Monsoon (WNPM) and the climate teleconnections including El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO), respectively. The results indicated that the spring discharge was attenuated about 19.63% under the influence of human activity in the Xin'an Springs basin. However, human activity did not alter the size of the resonance frequencies between the spring discharge and the monsoons. In contrast, it reinforced the periodicities of the monsoons-driven spring discharge. It suggested that human has adapted to the major climate periodicities, and human activity had the same rhyme with the primary climate periodicity. In return, human activity enhances the correlation between the monsoons and the spring discharge.

  18. 75 FR 57976 - Designation of Service Area for Confederated Tribes of the Warm Springs of Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-23

    ... Bureau of Indian Affairs Designation of Service Area for Confederated Tribes of the Warm Springs of... Tribes of Warm Springs of Oregon, Warm Springs, Oregon (Warm Springs Tribe) for financial assistance and...: The Warm Springs Tribe submitted to BIA a request with supporting documentation to modify its...

  19. 77 FR 30187 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Rock Springs, WY

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-22

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class E Airspace; Rock Springs, WY AGENCY... airspace at Rock Springs-Sweetwater County Airport, Rock Springs, WY. Decommissioning of the Rock Springs... Rock Springs, WY (77 FR 11796). Interested parties were invited to participate in this...

  20. Aircraft Survivability: Vulnerability Reduction, Spring 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    US Air Force Reserve (USAFR), at 850/678–8333 or Charles . Larson3@wpafb.af.mil. ■ New Fast Shotline Generator (FASTGEN) and Computation of...Award. Left to right: Gregg Hurla, Bobbie Myers, Dave Hudgins, Mike Kubina, Mike Cosgrove, Skip Bukowski , Bill Leach, RDML J. Wieringa. Not pictured...Dave Hudgins, Mike Kubina, Mike Cosgrove, Skip Bukowski , Bill Leach, Marco Tedeschi, Joe Dolinar, and Brian Berchtold The NAVAIR Fire Protection

  1. Spring 2006. Industry Study. Environment Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    often our choices have produced devastating results, ranging from lethal contamination of air, land, and water resources to extinction of species and...in Brazil and the Guyana Shield to conserve the largest remaining tracts of tropical rainforests .45 In Bogotá, the government energized several...Greenpeace, the World Wild Life Fund (WWF) , Earthwatch, Earthscan, the Foundation for Environmental Education (FEE), Rainforest Action Network

  2. Air-to-Air Missile Vector Scoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-22

    64 4.6. Unscented Kalman Filter Performance in Air-to-Air Missile Scor - ing Application with Continuous Velocity Dynamics Model (Tar- get...Filter Performance in Air-to-Air Missile Scor - ing Application with Continuous Velocity Dynamics Model (Tar- get Aircraft Executing a Vertical Climb...Kalman Filter Performance in Air-to-Air Missile Scor - ing Application with Continuous Velocity Dynamics Model (Tar- get Aircraft Non-maneuvering

  3. Flip-flop between soft-spring and hard-spring bistabilities in the approximated Toda oscillator analysis

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    B K Goswami

    2011-11-01

    We study theoretically the effect of truncating the nonlinear restoring force (exp $()−1 = \\Sum^{∞}_{n=1} ^n/n!$) in the bistability pattern of the periodically driven, damped one-degree-of-freedom Toda oscillator that originally exhibits soft-spring bistability with counterclockwise hysteresis cycle. We observe that if the truncation is made third order, the harmonic bistability changes to hard-spring type with a clockwise hysteresis cycle. In contrast, for the fourth-order truncation, the bistability again becomes soft-spring type, overriding the effect of third-order nonlinearity. Furthermore, each higher odd-order truncation attempts to introduce hard-spring nature while each even-order truncation turns to soft-spring type of bistability. Overall, the hard-spring effect of every odd-order nonlinear term is weaker in comparison to the soft-spring effect of the next even-order nonlinear term. As a consequence, higher-order approximations ultimately converge to the soft-spring nature. Similar approximate analysis of Toda lattice has in recent past revealed remarkably similar flip-flop pattern between stochasticity (chaotic behaviour) and regularity (integrability).

  4. Note: Determination of torsional spring constant of atomic force microscopy cantilevers: Combining normal spring constant and classical beam theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Álvarez-Asencio, R.; Thormann, Esben; Rutland, M.W.

    2013-01-01

    A technique has been developed for the calculation of torsional spring constants for AFM cantilevers based on the combination of the normal spring constant and plate/beam theory. It is easy to apply and allow the determination of torsional constants for stiff cantilevers where the thermal power...

  5. Seeking Clocks in the Clouds: Nonlinearity and American Precision Air Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    to be complex and impossible to foresee in detail." Eugene B. Skolnikoff, The Elusive Transformation: Science, Technology, and the Evolution of...Air, 200. ൴ Eugene M. Emme, "Technological’ Change and Western Military Thought, 1914-1945," Military Affairs 24/1 (Spring 1960), 10-11. See, for...marshalling yards was failing to slow German movement, air commanders turned increasingly to the tactical air forces. 159 During Operation CHATTANOOGA CHOO

  6. Conference scene: DGVS spring conference 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolligs, Frank Thomas

    2009-10-01

    The 3rd annual DGVS Spring Conference of the German Society for Gastroenterology (Deutsche Gesellschaft für Verdauungs- und Stoffwechselkrankheiten) was held at the Seminaris Campus Hotel in Berlin, Germany, on 8-9 May, 2009. The conference was organized by Roland Schmid and Matthias Ebert from the Technical University of Munich, Germany. The central theme of the meeting was 'translational gastrointestinal oncology: towards personalized medicine and individualized therapy'. The conference covered talks on markers for diagnosis, screening and surveillance of colorectal cancer, targets for molecular therapy, response prediction in clinical oncology, development and integration of molecular imaging in gastrointestinal oncology and translational research in clinical trial design. Owing to the broad array of topics and limitations of space, this article will focus on biomarkers, response prediction and the integration of biomarkers into clinical trials. Presentations mentioned in this summary were given by Matthias Ebert (Technical University of Munich, Germany), Esmeralda Heiden (Epigenomics, Berlin, Germany), Frank Kolligs (University of Munich, Germany), Florian Lordick (University of Heidelberg, Germany), Hans Jorgen Nielsen (University of Copenhagen, Denmark), Anke Reinacher-Schick (University of Bochum, Germany), Christoph Röcken (University of Berlin, Germany), Wolff Schmiegel (University of Bochum, Germany) and Thomas Seufferlein (University of Halle, Germany).

  7. Study on Somaclonal Variation of Spring Wheat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Shu-mei; HU Shang-lian; LI Wen-xiong

    2004-01-01

    Somaclonal variation of calli and regenerated plants of spring wheat ware detected by using technique RAPD in the study. Calli at different culture stages and regenerated plants derived from young spikes and immature embryos were used as materials. Molecular variation could be reflected from electrophoresis patternof RAPD fragments at different culture stage in calli, and in regenerated plants derived from different explants, even no phenotype variations were found. Somaclonal variation in calli and in regenerated plants appeared regularly: A higher frequency of variation in hybrids F2 was detected than that of the cultivar that is stable genetically. High variation frequency of RAPD fragments appeared in calli when cultured 75 days. The identical variations of RAPD fragments were observed in calli and in the regenerated plants induced from different genotype or explants. The variation frequency detected is higher in regenerated plants than that of in calli. RAPD could be applied easily and simply to determine variation in level of DNA at each stage cultured in vitro.

  8. Adaptive Optics Simulations for Siding Spring

    CERN Document Server

    Goodwin, Michael; Lambert, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    Using an observational derived model optical turbulence profile (model-OTP) we have investigated the performance of Adaptive Optics (AO) at Siding Spring Observatory (SSO), Australia. The simulations cover the performance for AO techniques of single conjugate adaptive optics (SCAO), multi-conjugate adaptive optics (MCAO) and ground-layer adaptive optics (GLAO). The simulation results presented in this paper predict the performance of these AO techniques as applied to the Australian National University (ANU) 2.3 m and Anglo-Australian Telescope (AAT) 3.9 m telescopes for astronomical wavelength bands J, H and K. The results indicate that AO performance is best for the longer wavelengths (K-band) and in the best seeing conditions (sub 1-arcsecond). The most promising results are found for GLAO simulations (field of view of 180 arcsecs), with the field RMS for encircled energy 50% diameter (EE50d) being uniform and minimally affected by the free-atmosphere turbulence. The GLAO performance is reasonably good over...

  9. R9 Air Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Region 9 Air Districts layer is a compilation of polygons representing the California Air Pollution Control and Air Quality Management Districts, Arizona Air...

  10. AirData

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The AirData site provides access to yearly summaries of United States air pollution data, taken from EPA's air pollution databases. AirData has information about...

  11. California Air Basins

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Air ResourcesCalifornia Air Resources BoardThe following datasets are from the California Air Resources Board: * arb_california_airbasins - California Air BasinsThe...

  12. Wing-pitch modulation in maneuvering fruit flies is explained by an interplay between aerodynamics and a torsional spring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beatus, Tsevi; Cohen, Itai

    2015-11-01

    While the wing kinematics of many flapping insects have been well characterized, understanding the underlying physiological mechanisms that determine these kinematics is still a challenge. Two of the main difficulties arise from the complexity of the interaction between a flapping wing and its own unsteady flow, as well as the intricate mechanics the insect wing-hinge, which is among the most complicated joints in the animal kingdom. These difficulties call for the application of reduced-order approaches. Here, we model the torques exerted by the wing-hinge along the wing-pitch axis of maneuvering fruit flies as a damped torsional spring with elastic and damping coefficients as well as a rest angle. Furthermore, we model the air flows using simplified quasi-static aerodynamics. Our findings suggest that flies take advantage of the passive coupling between aerodynamics and the damped torsional spring to indirectly control their wing-pitch kinematics by modulating the spring damping and elastic coefficients. These results, in conjunction with the previous literature, indicate flies can accurately control their wing-pitch kinematics on a sub-wing-beat time-scale by modulating all three effective spring parameters on longer time-scales.

  13. Detecting Springs in the Coastal Area of the Gunungsewu Karst Terrain, Yogyakarta Special Province, Indonesia, Analysis using Fractal Geometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sari Bahagiarti Kusumayudha

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The Gunungsewu area is a karst terrain with water scarcity, located in the Yogyakarta Special Province, adjacent to the open sea of Indian Ocean in the South. Shorelines of the Gunungsewu southern parts show fractal geometry phenomenon, and there can be found some groundwater outlets discharging to the Indian Ocean. One of the coastal outlets exists at the Baron Beach.The amount of water discharge from this spring reaches 20,000 l/sec in wet season, and approximately 9000 in dry season. In order to find other potential coastal springs, shoreline of the south coast is divided into some segments. By applying fractal analysis utilizing air photo of 1 : 30,000 scale, the fractal dimension of every shore line segment is determined, and then the fractal dimension value is correlated to the existence of spring in the segment being analyzed. The results inform us that shoreline segments having fractal dimension (D > 1.300 are potential for the occurrence of coastal springs.

  14. Patterns of Macroinvertebrate and Fish Diversity in Freshwater Sulphide Springs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan Greenway

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Extreme environments are characterised by the presence of physicochemical stressors and provide unique study systems to address problems in evolutionary ecology research. Sulphide springs provide an example of extreme freshwater environments; because hydrogen sulphide’s adverse physiological effects induce mortality in metazoans even at micromolar concentrations. Sulphide springs occur worldwide, but while microbial communities in sulphide springs have received broad attention, little is known about macroinvertebrates and fish inhabiting these toxic environments. We reviewed qualitative occurrence records of sulphide spring faunas on a global scale and present a quantitative case study comparing diversity patterns in sulphidic and adjacent non-sulphidic habitats across replicated river drainages in Southern Mexico. While detailed studies in most regions of the world remain scarce, available data suggests that sulphide spring faunas are characterised by low species richness. Dipterans (among macroinvertebrates and cyprinodontiforms (among fishes appear to dominate the communities in these habitats. At least in fish, there is evidence for the presence of highly endemic species and populations exclusively inhabiting sulphide springs. We provide a detailed discussion of traits that might predispose certain taxonomic groups to colonize sulphide springs, how colonizers subsequently adapt to cope with sulphide toxicity, and how adaptation may be linked to speciation processes.

  15. Relationship between input power and power density of SMA spring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Cheol Hoon; Ham, Sang Yong; Son, Young Su

    2016-04-01

    The important required characteristics of an artificial muscle for a human arm-like manipulator are high strain and high power density. From this viewpoint, an SMA (shape memory alloy) spring is a good candidate for the actuator of a robotic manipulator that utilizes an artificial muscle. In this study, the maximum power density of an SMA spring was evaluated with respect to the input power. The spring samples were fabricated from SMA wires of different diameters ranging between 0.1 and 0.3 mm. For each diameter, two types of wires with different transition temperatures were used. The relationship between the transition temperature and maximum power density was also evaluated. Each SMA spring was stretched downward by an attached weight and the temperature was increased through the application of an electric current. The displacement, velocity, and temperature of the SMA spring were measured by laser displacement sensors and a thermocouple. Based on the experimental data, it was determined that the maximum power densities of the different SMA springs ranged between 1,300 and 5,500 W/kg. This confirmed the applicability of an SMA spring to human arm-like robotic manipulators. The results of this study can be used as reference for design.

  16. Electrical resistance sensors record spring flow timing, Grand Canyon, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, E.A.; Monroe, S.A.; Springer, A.E.; Blasch, K.W.; Bills, D.J.

    2006-01-01

    Springs along the south rim of the Grand Canyon, Arizona, are important ecological and cultural resources in Grand Canyon National Park and are discharge points for regional and local aquifers of the Coconino Plateau. This study evaluated the applicability of electrical resistance (ER) sensors for measuring diffuse, low-stage (flow in the steep, rocky spring-fed tributaries of the south rim. ER sensors were used to conduct a baseline survey of spring flow timing at eight sites in three spring-fed tributaries in Grand Canyon. Sensors were attached to a nearly vertical rock wall at a spring outlet and were installed in alluvial and bedrock channels. Spring flow timing data inferred by the ER sensors were consistent with observations during site visits, with flow events recorded with collocated streamflow gauging stations and with local precipitation gauges. ER sensors were able to distinguish the presence of flow along nearly vertical rock surfaces with flow depths between 0.3 and 1.0 cm. Laboratory experiments confirmed the ability of the sensors to monitor the timing of diffuse flow on impervious surfaces. A comparison of flow patterns along the stream reaches and at springs identified the timing and location of perennial and intermittent flow, and periods of increased evapotranspiration.

  17. Earlier vegetation green-up has reduced spring dust storms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Bihang; Guo, Li; Li, Ning; Chen, Jin; Lin, Henry; Zhang, Xiaoyang; Shen, Miaogen; Rao, Yuhan; Wang, Cong; Ma, Lei

    2014-01-01

    The observed decline of spring dust storms in Northeast Asia since the 1950s has been attributed to surface wind stilling. However, spring vegetation growth could also restrain dust storms through accumulating aboveground biomass and increasing surface roughness. To investigate the impacts of vegetation spring growth on dust storms, we examine the relationships between recorded spring dust storm outbreaks and satellite-derived vegetation green-up date in Inner Mongolia, Northern China from 1982 to 2008. We find a significant dampening effect of advanced vegetation growth on spring dust storms (r = 0.49, p = 0.01), with a one-day earlier green-up date corresponding to a decrease in annual spring dust storm outbreaks by 3%. Moreover, the higher correlation (r = 0.55, p green-up date and dust storm outbreak ratio (the ratio of dust storm outbreaks to times of strong wind events) indicates that such effect is independent of changes in surface wind. Spatially, a negative correlation is detected between areas with advanced green-up dates and regional annual spring dust storms (r = -0.49, p = 0.01). This new insight is valuable for understanding dust storms dynamics under the changing climate. Our findings suggest that dust storms in Inner Mongolia will be further mitigated by the projected earlier vegetation green-up in the warming world.

  18. Holy springs and holy water: underestimated sources of illness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirschner, Alexander K T; Atteneder, Michael; Schmidhuber, Angelika; Knetsch, Sonja; Farnleitner, Andreas H; Sommer, Regina

    2012-09-01

    Use of holy springs and holy water is inherent in religious activities. Holy spring water is also used extensively for personal drinking water, although not assessed according to drinking water standards. Holy water in churches and chapels may cause infections via wetting of lips and sprinkling on persons. Our aim was to assess the microbiological and chemical water quality of holy springs and holy water in churches and hospital chapels. Of the holy springs investigated, only 14% met the microbiological and chemical requirements of national drinking water regulations. Considering results from sanitary inspections of the water catchments, no spring was assessed as a reliable drinking water source. All holy water samples from churches and hospital chapels showed extremely high concentrations of HPC; fecal indicators, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus occurred only in the most frequently visited churches. We conclude that it is highly necessary to include holy springs in programs for assessment and management of water quality. Public awareness has to be raised to perceive holy springs as potential sources of illness. Holy water can be another source of infection, especially in hospital chapels and frequently visited churches. Recommendations are made for proper water quality management of both water types.

  19. Spring climate and salinity in the San Francisco Bay Estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cayan, Daniel R.; Peterson, David H.

    1993-01-01

    Salinity in the San Francisco Bay Estuary almost always experiences its yearly maximum during late summer, but climate variability produces marked interannual variations. The atmospheric circulation pattern impacts the estuary primarily through variations of runoff from rainfall and snowmelt from the Sierra Nevada and, secondarily, through variations in the near-surface salinity in the coastal ocean. While winter precipitation is the primary influence upon salinity in the estuary, spring climate variations also contribute importantly to salinity fluctuations. Spring atmospheric circulation influences both the magnitude and the timing of freshwater flows, through anomalies of precipitation and temperature. To help discriminate between the effects of these two influences, the record is divided into subsets according to whether spring conditions in the region are cool and wet, warm and wet, cool and dry, or warm and dry. Warm springs promote early snowmelt-driven flows, and cool springs result in delayed flows. In addition to effects of winter and spring climate variability operating on the watershed, there are more subtle effects that are transmitted into the estuary from the coastal ocean. These influences are most pronounced in cool and dry springs with high surface salinity (SS) in the coastal ocean versus cool and wet springs with low SS in the coastal ocean. A transect of SS records at stations from the mouth to the head of the bay suggests that the coastal ocean anomaly signal is attenuated from the mouth to the interior of the estuary. In contrast, a delayed, postsummer signal caused by winter and spring runoff variations from the upstream watershed are most pronounced at the head of the estuary and attenuate toward the mouth.

  20. Air Warfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-03-01

    undoubtedly begat the shield; poisonous gases were countered by the mask. Surely men on the surface of the earth will not have to submit to violent air attack...properties, production methods and cost of helium are given in “Balloon and Airship Gases ,” a volume of the Ronald Aeronautic Library. 5 More complete...becomes and more inse - cure. We shall see later that even some of the men who were advancing in the path prescribed by the principle of mass

  1. Hatcheries, Harvest and Wild Fish: An Integrated Program at Warm Springs National Fish Hatchery, Oregon

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Warm Springs National Fish Hatchery is operated by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and is located on the Warm Springs River within the Warm Springs Indian...

  2. 78 FR 73886 - Atmel Corporation, Colorado Springs, Colorado; Amended Certification Regarding Eligibility To...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-09

    ... Employment and Training Administration Atmel Corporation, Colorado Springs, Colorado; Amended Certification... Corporation, Colorado Springs, Colorado. The Department's notice of determination was published in the Federal... workers at Atmel Corporation, Colorado Springs, Colorado were engaged in activities related to...

  3. 75 FR 71463 - Woodland Mills Corporation Mill Spring, NC; Notice of Revised Determination on Reconsideration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-23

    ... Employment and Training Administration Woodland Mills Corporation Mill Spring, NC; Notice of Revised... of Woodland Mills Corporation, Mill Spring, North Carolina, to apply for Trade Adjustment Assistance... yarn produced by Woodland Mills Corporation, Mill Spring, North Carolina Woodland Mills...

  4. Weed infestation of a spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L. crop under the conditions of plough and ploughless tillage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Woźniak

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A field experiment was conducted in the period 2007- 2009 in the Uhrusk Experimental Farm (Lublin region belonging to the University of Life Sciences in Lublin. Different tillage systems - plough and ploughless tillage - were the experimental factors. In the plough tillage system, tillage involved skimming done after the harvest of the forecrop and autumn ploughing. In the ploughless tillage system, only the herbicide Roundup 360 SL (active substance - glyphosate was applied after the harvest of the forecrop. In both tillage treatments, spring tillage involved field cultivating and the use of a tillage assembly consisting of a cultivator, cage roller, and harrow. The present experiment evaluated weed infestation of the crop expressed by the number and air-dry weight of weeds and their species composition. Under the conditions of ploughless tillage, air-dry weight of weeds in the spring wheat crop was shown to increase significantly compared to plough tillage. The tillage systems under comparison did not differentiate the number of weeds per 1 m2. Spring wheat sown using plough tillage was colonized most extensively by the following weed species: Avena fatua L., Stellaria media (L. Vill., Galium aparine L., Amaranthus retroflexus L., Chenopodium album L., and Consolida regalis Gray. In the ploughless tillage treatments, the following weeds were predominant: Stellaria media (L. Vill., Avena fatua L., Fallopia convolvulus (L. A. Löve, Papaver rhoeas L., Amaranthus retroflexus L., Galium aparine L., and Chenopodium album L.

  5. Joint Force Quarterly. Number 34, Spring 2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-07-01

    Trevor J. Bender • Drew A. Bennett • Sumner Benson • Alvin H. Bernstein • Richard K. Betts Stephen Biddle • Price T. Bingham • Hans Binnendijk • James R...the RAND Corporation and author of The Icarus Syndrome , an analysis of airpower theory in the evolution of the Air Force. Keeping the Strategic Flame...Brian M. Lewis • William H. Lewis • Martin C. Libicki • Joseph I. Lieberman • Charles D. Link Brian M. Linn • Thomas C. Linn • James R. Locher III • John

  6. Development of a New Kind of High Strength Spring Steel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dexiang XU; Zhongda YIN; Defu LIU

    2004-01-01

    A new kind of high strength, high toughness and high plasticity spring steel has been developed. The strength, the reduction of area and the elongation of the steel are all higher than those of the steel 60Si2CrVA. The decarburization resistance and the sag resistance are also higher than those of the steel 60Si2CrVA. It has good hardenability, and is suitable for making springs with big cross section. The bogie springs made of this kind of steel have passed 2×106 cycles without broken under the conditions of maximum stress of 906 MPa and the minimum stress of 388 MPa.

  7. A Numerical/Experimental Study of Nitinol Actuator Springs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auricchio, Ferdinando; Scalet, Giulia; Urbano, Marco

    2014-07-01

    This study deals with the numerical modeling, simulation and experimental analysis of shape-memory alloy (SMA) helicoidal springs. An experimental campaign is conducted on both SMA straight wires and helicoidal springs that experienced the same annealing process. Then, we use such experimental results to investigate three phenomenological constitutive models able to represent SMA macroscopic behavior. In particular, after the identification of all the material parameters from experimental results on SMA wires, we inspect the thermo-mechanical behavior of SMA helicoidal springs by comparing numerical predictions to experimental data. Finally, we discuss models capabilities and some aspects characterizing SMA material behavior.

  8. Connections between winter snowpack and subsequent spring floods in Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlichting, Lena; Engeland, Kolbjørn; Holmqvist, Erik; Bache Stranden, Heidi

    2016-04-01

    In Norway many inland and mountainous catchments have a hydrological regime where snow accumulates during winter. The runoff is delayed until the snow melts during spring. These processes are important for flood forecasting and water resource management, such as operation of hydropower reservoirs. It is commonly assumed that spring flood volume and peak linked to antecedent conditions such as winter snowpack, i.e. a large winter snowpack results in a high spring flood. The aims of this study are (i) to identify for which catchments a high correlation between snow water equivalent (SWE) at the end of the snow accumulation season and the subsequent spring flood, and (ii) establish regression models for these catchments to be used for seasonal flood forecasting. Daily runoff data from 43 distributed catchments all over Norway, each with at least 50 years of observations and a flood regime which is significantly influenced by snowmelt, were used. For each of these catchments we extracted SWE, precipitation and temperature on daily resolution from the on gridded data of Senorge.no. A peak-over-threshold approach was used to select independent flood events above the 90-th percentile. Maximum discharge, duration and volume were calculated for each event. The contribution of rain and snowmelt to each flood was additionally determined, based on snowmelt, precipitation and temperature data. The spring flood was defined as the first flood event that occurs after the date of maximum SWE, and the snowmelt contribution of at least 70%. The contribution of rain to a spring flood is independent of maximum SWE, resulting in a weaker correlation between maximum SWE and spring flood size. We therefore scaled the flood with the percentage of snow contribution to the flood event in order to adjust for the contribution from rain. The correlations between SWE and the spring flood were higher for scaled spring floods than for the unscaled ones. The results show for half of the stations a

  9. Characterization of closed nickel-titanium orthodontic coil springs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langeron, T. [Rene Descartes Univ., Paris V, Pontoise (France). Faculte de Chirurgie Dentaire; Filleul, M.P. [Rene Descartes Univ., Paris V, Pontoise (France). Faculte de Chirurgie Dentaire; ENSCP, Paris (France). Lab. de Metallurgie Structurale; Humbeeck, J. van [Katholieke Univ. Leuven, Heverlee (Belgium). Faculteit Toegepaste Wetenschappen, Metaalkunde en Toegepaste Materialkund

    2001-11-01

    Nickel-titanium orthodontic coil springs are used to move teeth with low forces and slow deactivation. The present paper provides data on transformation temperatures and on load-deflection rate at buccal temperature of closed Nickel-Titanium coil springs available on the market from ORMCO {sup trademark} and GAC {sup trademark}. All the springs exhibited superelasticity but their properties were not stable in the range of buccal temperatures and varied not only from one manufacturer to the other but they also varied from one batch to the other of each supplier. The need for more stability is stressed. (orig.)

  10. Simulation of a mass-spring model for global deformation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tong CUI; Aiguo SONG; Juan WU

    2009-01-01

    This article addresses a largely open problem in haptic simulation and rendering:contact force and deformation modeling for haptic simulation of a discrete globe mass-spring model,especially for global deforma-tion.The mass-spring system is composed of nodes connected with radially distributed springs.We tackle the problem using the theory of virtual work,and relations between the virtual force and nodal displacements are analyzed to obtain elastic deformations.The global deformation is controlled by the total nodal deformations based on a force equation at each node.The simulation results verify the efficiency of the contact force and deformation model with reasonable realism.

  11. Timescales for nitrate contamination of spring waters, northern Florida, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, B.G.; Böhlke, J.K.; Hornsby, H.D.

    2001-01-01

    Residence times of groundwater, discharging from springs in the middle Suwannee River Basin, were estimated using chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), tritium (3H), and tritium/helium-3 (3H/3He) age-dating methods to assess the chronology of nitrate contamination of spring waters in northern Florida. During base-flow conditions for the Suwannee River in 1997-1999, 17 water samples were collected from 12 first, second, and third magnitude springs discharging groundwater from the Upper Floridan aquifer. Extending age-dating techniques, using transient tracers to spring waters in complex karst systems, required an assessment of several models [piston-flow (PFM), exponential mixing (EMM), and binary-mixing (BMM)] to account for different distributions of groundwater age. Multi-tracer analyses of four springs yielded generally concordant PFM ages of around 20 ?? 2 years from CFC-12, CFC-113, 3H, and 3He, with evidence of partial CFC-11 degradation. The EMM gave a reasonable fit to CFC-113, CFC-12, and 3H data, but did not reproduce the observed 3He concentrations or 3H/3He ratios, nor did a combination PFM-EMM. The BMM could reproduce most of the multi-tracer data set only if both endmembers had 3H concentrations not much different from modern values. CFC analyses of 14 additional springs yielded apparent PFM ages from about 10 to 20 years from CFC-113, with evidence of partial CFC-11 degradation and variable CFC-12 contamination. While it is not conclusive, with respect to the age distribution within each spring, the data indicate that the average residence times were in the order of 10-20 years and were roughly proportional to spring magnitude. Applying similar models to recharge and discharge of nitrate based on historical nitrogen loading data yielded contrasting trends for Suwanee County and Lafayette County. In Suwanee County, spring nitrate trends and nitrogen isotope data were consistent with a peak in fertilizer input in the 1970s and a relatively high overall ratio of

  12. Folding, stowage, and deployment of viscoelastic tape springs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kwok, Kawai; Pellegrino, Sergio

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents an experimental and numerical study of the folding, stowage, and deployment behavior of viscoelastic tape springs. Experiments show that during folding the relationship between load and displacement is nonlinear and varies with rate and temperature. In particular, the limit...... deployment and ends with a slow creep recovery. Unlike elastic tape springs, localized folds in viscoelastic tape springs do not move during deployment. Finite-element simulations based on a linear viscoelastic constitutive model with an experimentally determined relaxation modulus are shown to accurately...

  13. UV albedo of arctic snow in spring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Meinander

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available The relevance of snow for climate studies is based on its physical properties, such as high surface reflectivity. Surface ultraviolet (UV albedo is an essential parameter for various applications based on radiative transfer modeling. Here, new continuous measurements of the local UV albedo of natural Arctic snow were made at Sodankylä (67.37° N, 26.63° E, 179 m a.s.l. during the spring of 2007. The data were logged at 1-min intervals. The accumulation of snow was up to 68 cm. The surface layer thickness varied from 0.5 to 35 cm with the snow grain size between 0.2 and 2.5 mm. The midday erythemally weighted UV albedo ranged from 0.6 to 0.8 in the accumulation period and 0.5–0.7 during melting. During the snow melt period, under cases of an almost clear sky and variable cloudiness, an unexpected diurnal decrease of 0.05 in albedo soon after midday, and recovery thereafter, was detected. This diurnal decrease in albedo was found to be asymmetric with respect to solar midday, thus indicating a change in the properties of the snow. Independent UV albedo results with two different types of instruments confirm these findings. The measured temperature of the snow surface was below 0°C on the following mornings. Hence, the reversible diurnal change, evident for ~1–2 h, could be explained by the daily metamorphosis of the surface of the snowpack, in which the temperature of the surface increases, melting some of the snow to liquid water, after which the surface freezes again.

  14. SPRING FLORA OF CEMETERIES OF ODESSA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. Gerasimyuk

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The spring flora was analyzed on six cemeteries in Odessa, such cemeteries as Vtoroe xristianskoe, Troickoe, Tairovskoe, Trete evrejskoe, Oficerskoe (Dmitrievskое and Severnoe. There were found and identified 235 species of plants, which belong to 186 genera and 67 families. There was taken a taxonomic analysis of flora of the cemeteries also of spreding of plants by ekobiomorphs, the analysis of hronotyp and origin. The proportion of the flora on the cemeteries is 1:2,8:3,5. The dominant family of the flora of Odessa’s cemeteries is Asteraceae. There are other leading families such as Rosaceae, Fabaceae, Poaceae, Brassicaceae, Lamiaceae. Herbs and trees are dominant among the life forms. Mesophytes and kseromezophytes are in the majority among hihromorphs. Heliophytes are on the first place by adapting to the light. Our results showed that the adventitious plants occupy up to 44% of all amount of plants at the cemeteries in Odessa. Kenophytes is a dominant group among them. Floragenetics analysis revealed the dominance of the plants from Asia. There have been allocated plants that were met at all six cemeteries independently of the location religious and age characteristics of the cemetery. "Core" of the flora of Odessa’s cemetery have made weed Acer negundo L., Ballota nigra L. and decorative Hedera helix L., Centaurea dealbata Willd., Buxus sempervirens L., Convallaria majalis L., Sedum kamtschaticum Fisch., Thuja occidentalis L., Hemerocalis fulva (L. L. There were found 4 species of plants that belong to the rare and endangered plants of Odessa’s region: Convallaria majalis L., Hyacinthella leucophaea (K. Koch Schur, Clematis integrifolia L., Paeonia tenuifolia L. Moreover Convallaria majalis L. grows on all six investigated cemeteries. Also two species: Hyacinthella leucophaea (K. Koch Schur and Clematis Keywords: cemeteries, Odessa, flora, plants, ekobiomorphs.

  15. Experimental Investigation on Laminated Composite Leaf springs Subjected to Cyclic Loading

    OpenAIRE

    Rajesh, S.; G.B.Bhaskar

    2014-01-01

    An automobile industry have an interest in replacement of conventional leaf spring with composite leaf spring to get better performance with less weight. This paper deals with by replacing the conventional leaf spring with composite leaf spring. The dimensions of an existing conventional steel leaf spring of a light commercial vehicle were taken to fabricate the special die which is further used to manufacture the composite leaf spring. A single leaf with constant cross sectional area similar...

  16. Kelly Hot Spring Geothermal Project: Kelly Hot Spring Agricultural Center preliminary design. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Longyear, A.B. (ed.)

    1980-08-01

    A Phase 1 Preliminary Design, Construction Planning and Economic Analysis has been conducted for the Kelly Hot Spring Agricultural Center in Modoc County, California. The core activity is a 1360 breeding sow, swine raising complex that utilizes direct heat energy from the Kelly Hot Spring geothermal resource. The swine is to be a totally confined operation for producing premium pork in controlled-environment facilities. The complex contains a feed mill, swine raising buildings and a complete waste management facility that produces methane gas to be delivered to a utility company for the production of electricity. The complex produces 6.7 million pounds of live pork (29,353 animals) shipped to slaughter per year; 105,000 cu. ft. of scrubbed methane per day; and fertilizer. Total effluent is less than 200 gpm of agricultural quality-water with full odor control. The methane production rate made possible with geothermal direct heat is equivalent to at least 400 kw continuous. Sale of the methane on a co-generation basis is being discussed with the utility company. The use of geothermal direct heat energy in the complex displaces nearly 350,000 gallons of fuel oil per year. Generation of the biogas displaces an additional 300,000 gallons of fuel oil per year.

  17. Web Service Based on Spring JavaBean%基于Spring JavaBean的Web Service服务

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟琼

    2012-01-01

    Spring是目前使用比较多的轻量级框架,而Axis2是下一代Apache Axisl.X,具有更灵活并可扩展的体系结构.将Spring与Axis2相结合,可以将Spring中装载的JavaBean发布成为Web Service服务.%Spring is the use of more lightweight framework, Axis2 is the next generation of Apache Axisl. X, with more flexibleand scalable architecture. Combination of the Spring and Axis2 can be released in Spring loaded into the JavaBean Web Serviceservices.

  18. Invertebrate sampling at Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document presents results from an invertebrate study conducted on Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge. The purposes of this study were to: 1) quanitify...

  19. Wading bird nesting survey Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report discusses results of a wading bird survey conducted at Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge. The objectives of the survey include; 1) quantify nest...

  20. Mammals of Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge [1966

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The following is a summary of mammals observed at Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge, Juab County, Utah. These observations were made in May 1966, by the...

  1. [Analysis of Canada goose banding at Fish Springs NWR

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Memorandum containing an analysis of the Canada goose banding data from Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge (NWR). Banding data is analyzed for the following...

  2. SEAMAP 2011 Spring Plankton Survey (CU1101, EK60)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The primary survey objective was to assess the occurrence, abundance and geographical distribution of the early life stages of spring spawning fishes, especially...

  3. Trip to Fish Springs - August 21, 22, 1959

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document discusses field survey results from several trips to Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge in August 1959. The following topics are outlined; water...

  4. Steelhead returns to Warm Springs National Fish Hatchery, 1978 - 2003

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Warm Springs River is a major tributary of the Deschutes River in north-central Oregon, and supports a population of wild summer steelhead (Oncorhynchusmykiss)....

  5. Amended wildlife inventory plan : Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This amended wildlife inventory plan for Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge summarizes refuge objectives, wildlife inventory procedures, and manpower and...

  6. Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge [Land Status Map

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This map was produced by the Division of Realty to depict landownership at Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge. It was generated from rectified aerial photography,...

  7. NEFSC 2001 Spring Bottom Trawl Survey (AL0104, EK500)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The objectives of the cruise are to: (1) determine the spring distribution and relative abundance of fish and selected invertebrate species; (2) collect biological...

  8. NEFSC 1999 Spring Bottom Trawl Survey (AL9903, EK500)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The objectives of the cruise are to: (1) determine the spring distribution and relative abundance of fish and selected invertebrate species; (2) collect biological...

  9. [Title conveyance: Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge: Papers and documentation

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is a collection of documents pertaining to title conveyance of Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge. The following material is included; tract description,...

  10. [Case closure: Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge: Papers and documentation

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is a collection of documents pertaining to the acquisition of Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge. The following material is included; tract description,...

  11. [Title papers: Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge: Papers and documentation

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is a collection of documents pertaining to the purchase of Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge. The following material is included; memoranda, purchase...

  12. Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge National Vegetation Classification (NVC) map

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — National Vegetation Classification (NVC) map for Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge. NVC provides a standardized hierarchical approach to classifying vegetation...

  13. The Trail Inventory of Spring Creek NFH [Cycle 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to create a baseline inventory of all non-motorized trails on Spring Creek National Fish Hatchery. Trails in this inventory are...

  14. Integrated Pest Management Plan - Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of the Integrated Pest Management Plan is to provide a comprehensive, environmentally sensitive approach to managing pests on the Fish Springs NWR. The...

  15. Sulphur Spring: Busy Intersection and Possible Martian Analogue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nankivell, A.; Andre, N.; Thomas-Keprta, K.; Allen, C.; McKay, D.

    2000-01-01

    Life in extreme environments exhibiting conditions similar to early Earth and Mars, such as Sulphur Spring, may harbor microbiota serving as both relics from the past as well as present day Martian analogues.

  16. Hydrogeologic and geothermal investigation of Pagosa Springs, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galloway, M.J.

    1980-01-01

    The following topics are covered: geology; geophysical surveys; geothermal wells, springs, and heat flow; hydrology; drilling program, well testing, and mineralogical and petrographic studies of samples from geothermal wells. (MHR)

  17. Monthly report of activities - Fish Springs Refuge - July, 1964

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report describes activities on Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge in July 1964. Weather conditions are discussed as well as wildlife - including waterfowl...

  18. The Redox Potential of Hot Springs in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Fu Chen Menghau Sung

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Scientists began acquiring the basic of geology, occurrence, water temperature and chemistry of hot springs in Tai wan over a century ago. However, data regarding redox potential and important redox couples still remains limited. This study explores the redox status of hot springs in Taiwan by measuring Eh in the field and by determining the concentrations of commonly found redox couples, i.e., O2/H2O, NO3 -/NH4 +, and HS-/SO4 -2. Water samples were collected at hot spring discharge pools or the heads of water wells using a pump. A total of 11 hot springs located at 9 different locations across Taiwan were surveyed.

  19. NEFSC 2000 Spring Bottom Trawl Survey (AL0002, EK500)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The objectives of the cruise are to: (1) determine the spring distribution and relative abundance of fish and selected invertebrate species; (2) collect biological...

  20. Mammals of Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge [1998

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The following checklist was derived from mammals collected in 1998, observed or heard in the environs of Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge. It also includes...

  1. Estimated spring inflow to the Frenchglen area of Malheur NWR

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — There are four spring systems that contribute flow to the Frenchglen or P Ranch Area of Malheur NWR. One of these systems flows into the Blitzen River and the other...

  2. Checklist of collected plants from the Fish Springs study area

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This checklist contains 34 families and 99 species of plants which were identified from collections made in marshes at Fish Springs study area.

  3. Fish Springs NWR mammal, fish, amphibian, and reptile list

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The following is a species list for mammals, fishes, amphibians, and reptiles found on or adjacent to Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge, as of October, 1996.

  4. Coastal Energy Corporation, Willow Springs, MO - Public Notice Document

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notice of a proposed Administrative Penalty Assessment against Coastal Energy Corporation, located at 232 Burnham Road, Willow Springs, Missouri, for alleged violations at the facility located at or near that facility

  5. Stravinsky: The Rite of Spring / Hartmut, Lück

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lück, Hartmut

    1996-01-01

    Uuest heliplaadist "Stravinsky: The Rite of Spring. Canticum Sacrum. Requiem Canticles. Choral Variations on "Vom Himmel hoch". Lausanne Pro Arte Choir, Suisse Romande Chamber Choir and Orchestra, Neeme Järvi. Chandos CHAN 9408 (75 minutes:DDD)

  6. 1989 duck production study : Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report presents the results of a duck production study at Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge. Nest dragging was initiated on the refuge for the first time in...

  7. 1989 Canada goose production study: Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report presents the results of a goose production study at Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge. The objectives of this study were; 1) determine the...

  8. Wildland fire management plan : Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This plan considers fire on Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge as a tool for management and as a potential problem to be dealt with. This document discusses...

  9. Archeological survey of Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge: Special report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document presents information from an archeological reconnaissance which was conducted at Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge on April 17 - 24, 1961. The...

  10. Spring Chinook Distribution, Pacific Northwest (updated March, 2006)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Pacific States Marine Fisheries Commission — This dataset is a record of fish distribution and activity for SPRING CHINOOK contained in the StreamNet database. This feature class was created based on linear...

  11. Duck food report on Fish Springs, Juab County Utah

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report discusses land conditions and availability of food for waterfowl at Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge. The following information is outlined; sources...

  12. Comprehensive Conservation Plan: Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Comprehensive Conservation Plan (CCP) was written to guide management on Fish Springs NWR for the next 15 years. This plan outlines the Refuge vision and...

  13. Monthly report of activities - Fish Springs Refuge - March, 1968

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report describes activities on Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge in March 1968. Weather conditions are discussed as well as wildlife - including waterfowl...

  14. Monthly report of activities - Fish Springs Refuge - September, 1968

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report describes activities on Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge in September 1968. Weather conditions are discussed as well as wildlife - including...

  15. Monthly report of activities - Fish Springs Refuge - January, 1968

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report describes activities on Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge in January 1968. Weather conditions are discussed as well as wildlife - including waterfowl...

  16. Monthly report of activities - Fish Springs Refuge - December, 1968

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report describes activities on Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge in December 1968. Weather conditions are discussed as well as wildlife - including...

  17. Monthly report of activities - Fish Springs Refuge - April, 1968

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report describes activities on Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge in April 1968. Weather conditions are discussed as well as wildlife - including waterfowl...

  18. Monthly report of activities - Fish Springs Refuge - May, 1968

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report describes activities on Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge in May 1968. Weather conditions are discussed as well as wildlife - including waterfowl and...

  19. Monthly report of activities - Fish Springs Refuge - November, 1968

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report describes activities on Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge in November 1968. Weather conditions are discussed as well as wildlife - including...

  20. Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge water regime map

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Water regime map for Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge. This map of water regimes on the refuge was created along with the National Vegetation Classification...

  1. Monthly report of activities - Fish Springs Refuge - September, 1965

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report describes activities on Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge in September 1965. Weather conditions are discussed as well as wildlife - including...

  2. Monthly report of activities - Fish Springs Refuge - December, 1964

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report describes activities on Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge in December 1964. Weather conditions are discussed as well as wildlife - including...

  3. Monthly report of activities - Fish Springs Refuge - September, 1964

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report describes activities on Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge in September 1964. Weather conditions are discussed as well as wildlife - including...

  4. SEAMAP Spring 2016 Plankton Survey (R21601, EK60)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — During the 2016 Spring Plankton Survey, plankton samples were collected from a systematic grid of stations to assess distribution, occurrence and abundance of the...

  5. NEFSC 2001 Spring Bottom Trawl Survey (AL0103, EK500)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The objectives of the cruise are to: (1) determine the spring distribution and relative abundance of fish and selected invertebrate species; (2) collect biological...

  6. Waterfowl spring migration records on the Seney Migratory Waterfowl Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to compare the numbers of migratory waterfowl using the Seney Refuge area during the spring of 1937 with the numbers recorded during...

  7. Intertextile Shanghai Home Textiles Spring Received Positive Response

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    "To accommodate the sourcing period of the Chinese domestic market,the new fair was strategically held during the Spring season.The positive feedback received from the participants confirmed the show to be asuccess,"

  8. Honeymoon Trail at Pipe Spring National Monument, Arizona (honeytrl)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This is an Arc/Info coverage consisting of 1 arc that represents the Honeymoon Trail inside of Pipe Spring National Monument, Arizona. The Honeymoon Trail was...

  9. The Orchard points at Pipe Spring National Monument, Arizona (orchard)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This is an Arc/Info coverage consisting of 56 points representing the bubblers of mid-point of planting spots in the orchard at Pipe Spring National Monument,...

  10. Springs at Cedar Breaks National Monument, Utah (allsprgs)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This is an Arc/Info coverage consisting of 151 points representing spring locations in and surrounding Cedar Breaks National Monument, Utah. This data originates...

  11. Roads at Pipe Spring National Monument, Arizona 2006 (roads)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This is an Arc/Info coverage consisting of 30 arcs representing the roads in Pipe Spring National Monument, Arizona. Twenty-five of the road arcs were collected by a...

  12. Walkways at Pipe Spring National Monument, Arizona (pisp_walkways)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This is an Arc/Info coverage consisting of 23 arcs representing the walkways (or sidewalks) at Pipe Spring National Monument, Arizona. The walkways were collected by...

  13. The Gates at Pipe Spring National Monument, Arizona (gates)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This is an Arc/Info coverage consisting of 7 points representing gates at Pipe Spring National Monument, Arizona. The gates were collected by a Trimble GeoXT GPS...

  14. The Tree Lines at Pipe Spring National Monument, Arizona (treeline)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This is an Arc/Info coverage consisting of 7 arcs representing the tree lines at Pipe Spring National Monument, Arizona. The tree lines were collected by a Trimble...

  15. Elk Distributions Relative to Spring Normalized Difference Vegetation Index Values

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel T. Smallidge

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus that winter near San Antonio Mountain in northern New Mexico provide important recreational and economic benefits while creating management challenges related to temporospatial variation in their spring movements. Our objective was to examine spring distributions of elk in relation to vegetative emergence as it progresses across the landscape as measured by remote sensing. Spring distributions of elk were closely associated with greater photosynthetic activity of spring vegetation in 2 of 3 years as determined using NDVI values derived from AVHRR datasets. Observed elk locations were up to 271% greater than expected in the category representing the most photosynthetic activity. This association was not observed when analyses at a finer geographic scale were conducted. Managers facing challenges involving human-wildlife interactions and land-use issues should consider environmental conditions that may influence variation in elk association with greener portions of the landscape.

  16. Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge Odonata records 2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Records of Odonata (damselflies and dragonflies) found at Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge in August, 2007. This dataset provides managers with an inventory of...

  17. Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge Odonata records 2015

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Records of Odonata (damselflies and dragonflies) found at Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge in August, 2015. This dataset provides managers with an inventory of...

  18. Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge Odonata species checklist 2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Species check list for Odonata (damselflies and dragonflies) located at Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge in August, 2007. Scientific name and common name is...

  19. Final Critical Habitat for the Leon springs pupfish (Cyprinodon bovinus)

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — To provide the user with a general idea of areas where final critical habitat for Leon springs pupfish (Cyprinodon bovinus) occur based on the description provided...

  20. Geochemical characteristics of modern hot springs from northwest Hunan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王蔚; 张景荣; 胡桂兴; 杨帆; 许祖鸣

    1995-01-01

    The studies of chemical compositions of modern hot spring water and gases,isotopiccompositions of H2O,He,Ar,CH4,CO2 in northwest Hunan show that the chemical characteristics of springwater are markedly different,which indicates the difference of background value of country rocks and the dif-ference of the effect of water-rock reaction.The geothermal systems in the studied regions are middle-hightemperature geothermal systems.The distributions of springs are controlled by the press and press-shearfaults that do not dissect deeply to the mantle.The hot spring water is of meteoric water.The origin of ma-terials in the hot springs is correlated with the sedimentary rocks.

  1. Monthly report of activities - Fish Springs Refuge - October, 1964

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report describes activities on Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge in October 1964. Weather conditions are discussed as well as wildlife - including waterfowl...

  2. 78 FR 3877 - Radio Broadcasting Services; Peach Springs, AZ

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 Radio Broadcasting Services; Peach Springs, AZ AGENCY: Federal Communications..., Radio broadcasting. Federal Communications Commission. Nazifa Sawez, Assistant Chief, Audio...

  3. 77 FR 58799 - Radio Broadcasting Services; Roaring Springs, TX

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 Radio Broadcasting Services; Roaring Springs, TX AGENCY: Federal Communications... 47 CFR Part 73 Radio, Radio broadcasting. Federal Communications Commission. Nazifa Sawez,...

  4. 1990 Canada goose production study: Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report presents the results of a goose production study at Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge. The objectives of this study were; 1) determine the...

  5. 1992 Canada goose production study: Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report presents the results of a goose production study at Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge. The objectives of this study were; 1) determine the...

  6. 1991 Canada goose production study: Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report presents the results of a goose production study at Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge. The objectives of this study were; 1) determine the...

  7. An undergraduate study of harmonic and parametric motion of a simple mass-spring system from motion waveforms

    CERN Document Server

    Boscolo, Ilario; Stellato, Marco

    2012-01-01

    The motion of a mass vertically appended to a spring, worldwide used as initiating experiment in a physics undergraduate laboratory, shows generally a complex behaviour owing to the simultaneous action of gravitational, elastic and torsional forces. Moreover, since the friction force, caused by air against the mass movement, has not a simple dependence on the velocity, a further difficulty is added to the study of the motion. The article presents a path to manage the complexity of the experiment maintaining the objective of treating and enlightening the physics of the harmonic motion via the mass-spring experiment. The system is firstly approached as a harmonic oscillator. The notable deviation from that simple dynamics, in particular the parametric oscillation behaviour observed along the lab work, is briefly discussed and modeled at that conjunction. The approach to the parametric behavior is done via the analysis of the motion waveforms.

  8. FES-Assisted Walking with Spring Brake Orthosis: Simulation Studies

    OpenAIRE

    R. Jailani; Tokhi, M.O.; Gharooni, S. C.; B.S.K.K Ibrahim

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a simulation of bipedal locomotion to generate stimulation pulses for activating muscles for paraplegic walking with wheel walker using functional electrical stimulation (FES) with spring brake orthosis (SBO). A new methodology for paraplegic gait, based on exploiting natural dynamics of human gait, is introduced. The work is a first effort towards restoring natural like swing phase in paraplegic gait through a new hybrid orthosis, referred to as spring brake orthosis (SBO...

  9. Yakima River Spring Chinook Enhancement Study Appendices, 1991 Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fast, David E.

    1991-05-01

    This document consists of the appendices for annual report DOE/BP/39461--9 which is summarized as follows. The population of Yakima River spring chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tschawytscha) has been drastically reduced from historic levels reported to be as high as 250,000 adults (Smoker 1956). This reduction is the result of a series of problems including mainstem Columbia dams, dams within the Yakima itself, severely reduced flows due to irrigation diversions, outmigrant loss in irrigation canals, increased thermal and sediment loading, and overfishing. Despite these problems, the return of spring chinook to the Yakima River has continued at levels ranging from 854 to 9,442 adults since 1958. In October 1982, the Bonneville Power Administration contracted the Yakima Indian Nation to develop methods to increase production of spring chinook in the Yakima system. The Yakima Nation's current enhancement policy attempts to maintain the genetic integrity of the spring chinook stock native to the Yakima Basin. Relatively small numbers of hatchery fish have been released into the basin in past years. The goal of this study was to develop data that will be used to present management alternatives for Yakima River spring chinook. A major objective of this study is to determine the distribution, abundance and survival of wild Yakima River spring chinook. The second major objective of this study is to determine the relative effectiveness of different methods of hatchery supplementation. The last three major objectives of the study are to locate and define areas in the watershed that may be used for the rearing of spring chinook; to define strategies for enhancing natural production of spring chinook in the Yakima River; and to determine the physical and biological limitations on production within the system.

  10. Green Team Readies for Spring with Plant Swap | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    By Carolynne Keenan, Contributing Writer Those looking for a cost-effective way to spruce up their yards this spring can stop by the National Cancer Institute at Frederick Green Team’s booth during the Spring Research Festival (SRF) on May 7 and 8. Pick up a free plant, donate overgrown plants from your yard, or swap for a new plant. Everyone is invited to participate in the swap, whether you have plants to donate or not.

  11. Androgenesis in anther culture of Lithuanian spring barley cultivars

    OpenAIRE

    Asakavičiūtė, Rita; Pašakinskienė, Izolda

    2006-01-01

    The method of anther culture was used for the production of doubled haploids in Lithuanian spring barley cultivars. Two methods, (i) regeneration from callus (Szarjeko’s method) and (ii) direct regeneration from embryoids (Caredda’s method) were applied to determine the androgenic potential according to the green regenerant yield and other morphogenetic factors. Green double haploid regenerants were obtained in four Lithuanian spring barley cultivars (‘Aura’, ‘Aidas’, ‘Alsa’ and ‘Auksiniai’) ...

  12. Travertine-Depositing Cool-Springs of the Rio Grande Rift, New Mexico: Links Between Geochemistry, Tectonic Setting, and Microbial Diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newell, D. L.; Crossey, L. J.; Dahm, C. N.; Takacs-Vesbach, C.

    2005-12-01

    Travertine-depositing cool springs found within the Rio Grande rift in New Mexico may represent the distal discharges of deep hydrothermal systems related to continental rifting. We hypothesize that these springs represent overlooked ecological niches that host chemolithotrophic microorganisms relying on spring chemistry for metabolism. The geochemistry of these springs is in many ways similar to seafloor and continental hot springs, such as Yellowstone, where thermophilic microbes representing the deepest branches of the universal phylogenetic tree are found. We analyzed cool springs that varied in water type from Ca-Mg-HCO3 to Na-Cl and Na-SO4 waters and ranged from dilute to high (23,000 ppm) in total dissolved solids. Carbon dioxide comprised up to 99% of the water-free spring gases. Hydrogen was present up to tenths of percent, equating to 7-3400 nM dissolved H2. Methane and hydrogen sulfide were detected in some springs up to 0.1 and 4%, respectively. Oxygen was deficient to absent. 3 He4He ratios ranged from 0.1 to 0.6 RA (relative to air), equating to 1-7% mantle-derived helium. The δ13CO2 of spring gases ranged from -4.6 to -1.0 permil PDB, overlapping the mantle and marine limestone ranges. Mixing models using carbon and helium isotopes suggest that at least 5% of the CO2 was mantle derived. We hypothesize that the source of high H2 levels was mantle-derived magmatism. The lack of oxygen, abundance of hydrogen and carbon (dissolved CO2), and high concentrations of aqueous species such as sulfate have created an environment suitable for chemolithotrophic microbes. The presence of methane and hydrogen sulfide suggest that methanogenic and sulfate reducing microbes are active. Microbial community analysis using PCR-DGGE will test for microbial diversity and identify potential trends in metabolism related to spring geochemistry. The apparent link between mantle-derived gases and deeply-circulated fluids in a continental rift setting with the presence of

  13. Effects of heating the inlet air with a burner when natural air drying

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stock, W.F.; Lischynski, D.E.; Wassermann, J.D.; Frehlich, G.E.; Sokhansanj, S.

    1987-03-01

    During the 1985 and 1986 harvest seasons in Saskatchewan, cool and humid conditions reduced the performance of natural air drying systems for grains. This prompted many producers to consider supplemental heat when natural air drying. Research was conducted to investigate the implications of supplemental heating during grain drying and to develop recommendations about adding supplemental heat. Field tests were performed to compare drying time, energy consumption, quality of work, and ease of operation with different supplemental heat strategies. A computer model was developed to simulate adding supplemental heat during natural air drying, and the simulation was verified by comparing the computer simulation results with those obtained in the field tests. Natural air drying without heat was found to be more economical than with heat in the early fall. In late fall, drying costs by both methods were nearly equal but higher than in early fall. It is therefore recommended to attempt to complete all drying in early fall using natural air. If the harvest is delayed to late fall, natural air drying or supplemental heat drying can both be used. However, by adding supplemental heat, there is a very good chance of completing drying in the fall. Drying by natural air would likely have to be completed in the spring. 30 refs., 15 figs., 28 tabs.

  14. South Polar Cryptic Terrain in Early Spring

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    This image of the south polar region of Mars was taken by the Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) at 1557 UTC (10:57 a.m. EST) on Feb. 10, 2007, near 77.55 degrees south latitude, 131.98 degrees east longitude. CRISM's image was taken in 544 colors covering 0.36-3.92 micrometers, and shows features as small as 30 meters (98 feet) across. The region covered is just over 9 kilometers (5.6 miles) wide at its narrowest point, and is one of several in which CRISM is monitoring the evaporation (or 'sublimation') of the seasonal frost cap. The Martian south polar seasonal cap consists of carbon dioxide ice and frost, whose sublimation in the Martian spring creates a variety of features unlike anything in Earth's circumpolar regions. Part of the cap known as the 'cryptic region' is so cold that it must be covered with carbon dioxide frost, but it is also unexpectedly low in brightness and exhibits a variety of unusual dark blotches. Many scientists believe that carbon dioxide gas trapped below the sublimating ice is released in bursts, which carry along dust that gradually darkens the ice. One idea is that geyser-like dust eruptions form the dark blotches, and that the blotches grow, coalesce, and eventually hide the frost under a thin layer of dust. This image was taken shortly after sunrise with the Sun only about five degrees above the horizon. The left version shows brightness of the surface at 1.3 micrometers. The right version shows strength of an absorption band due to carbon dioxide frost at 1.435 micrometers; brighter areas have a stronger absorption and more carbon dioxide frost. However, even the darkest areas still have frost. The correlation between brightness and carbon dioxide frost abundance is striking, supporting the idea that the frost is being darkened by dust. Frost in the upper right corner shows the expected dark blotches, whereas the frost over the rest of the image is more uniformly dark, hinting that another darkening

  15. Elastic Sag Property of Low Carbon Martensite Spring Steel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Ye-sheng; CHEN Mi-song; WU Zi-ping; ZHU Yin-lu; DUO Tie-yun

    2004-01-01

    This paper studies the elastic sag resistance of new low-carbon martensite spring steel 35Si2CrVB developed recently and points out that the cause of elastic sag is attributed to cyclic softening of spring steel engendered during its serving,also considers that elastic sag property should be evaluated by dynamic mechanical properties of spring material such as dynamic yield strength σ'0.2, ratio of dynamic yield strength σ'0.2 vs. tensile strength σb (σ'0.2/σb) and ratio of dynamic yield strength σ' 0.2vs. static yield strengthσ0.2 (σ'0.2/σ0. 2 )etc. , which are measured by the cyclic stress-strain curve test. Compared with conventional spring steel 60Si2MnA, 35Si2CrVB has good advantages in both dynamic and static properties, which show it possesses higher elastic sag resistance than 60Si2MnA because of its lath-martensite structure tempering in low temperature different from 60Si2MnA steel's plate martensite structure tempering inmedium temperature. So it can be demonstrated that low carbon martensite spring steel is more appropriate for the demands of spring.

  16. Numerical and Experimental Stress Analysis of a Composite Leaf Spring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaveri A. Katake

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Automobile sector is always focusing on enhancing level of comfort, fuel economy, customer satisfaction and safety. Vehicle weight reduction increases the overall fuel efficiency. Use of composite materials has made it possible to reduce the weight of the vehicle, without reduction in load carrying capacity. Now a day's manufacturers and researchers are trying to replace conventional material parts with composites. The composite materials have more elastic strain energy storage capacity and high strength to weight ratio as compared to steel. This paper is related to Numerical and experimental strength analysis of suspension leaf springs for a light motor vehicle made of composite materials. Two materials Glass Fiber Reinforced Plastic (GFRP and Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastic (CFRP are selected for manufacturing of leaf spring. The strength of these composite depends on angle orientation, volume to weight ratio of reinforcement and length to depth ratio of fiber. In this work two leaf springs made of GFRP and a sandwich of CFRP and GFRP are developed. Numerical and experimental static stress analyses are carried out for these two springs. These results are compared with analytical results of conventional metal spring. The comparison shows that composite material springs have compatible strength to withstand load. Comparative results for weight, cost and deformation are presented at the end of the paper.

  17. Normal modes of a defected linear system of beaded springs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghamohammadi, Amir; Foulaadvand, M. Ebrahim; Yaghoubi, Mohammad Hassan; Mousavi, Amir Hossein

    2017-03-01

    A model of a one-dimensional mass-spring chain with mass or spring defects is investigated. With a mass defect, all oscillators except the central one have the same mass, and with a spring defect, all the springs except those connected to the central oscillator have the same stiffness constant. The motion is assumed to be one-dimensional and frictionless, and both ends of the chain are assumed to be fixed. The system vibrational modes are obtained analytically, and it is shown that if the defective mass is lighter than the others, then a high frequency mode appears in which the amplitudes decrease exponentially with the distance from the defect. In this sense, the mode is localized in space. If the defect mass is greater than the others, then there will be no localized mode and all modes are extended throughout the system. Analogously, for some values of the defective spring constant, there may be one or two localized modes. If the two defected spring constants are less than that of the others, there is no localized mode.

  18. Spring Festival Celebrations inside the High Walls——How the prison inmates celebrate Spring Festival in Henan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN CHUN'AN

    2011-01-01

    @@ All the prisons in Henan put on a festive atmosphere as the Spring Festival approached.The red lanterns, colorful door couplets, beautiful China knots, New Year's paintings and the big red giant character "福", meaning happiness were seen everywhere.

  19. Progressive Diagenetic Alteration of Macro- and Micro-Scopic Biosignatures in Ancient Springs and Spring-Fed Lacustrine Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter-McIntyre, S. L.; Williams, J.; Phillips-Landers, C.; O'Connell, L.

    2016-05-01

    Microscopic and macroscopic biosignatures in modern spring deposits are compared with the Quaternary and Jurassic examples to show how these features are progressively altered and preserved on geologic time scales.

  20. Air and Space Power Journal. Volume 20, Number 1, Spring 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    books as Albert Camus ’ The Stranger, Joseph Conrad’s Lord Jim, Viktor Frankl’s Man’s Search for Meaning, William Golding’s Lord of the Flies, Harper...even in the mass graves. Additionally, the nation suffers from the de- struction of its infrastructure, and backward- ness plagues the Iraqi people

  1. Air Force Journal of Logistics. Volume 35, Numbers 1 and 2. Spring/Summer 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Congressional Research Service predicts that within the next five to ten years evolutionary changes based on nanotechnology will occur in the fields of medicine ...What’s Next for Nanotechnology. Amherst. New York: Prometheus Books. 2005, 30. Garreau. Radical Evolution. 53. 58-9. Hall. 17. Hall. 37. Richard...discoveries at the atomic level in biology, engineering, or chemistry can be directly translated over to other fields like medicine . Medical needs

  2. Air and Space Power Journal. Volume 18, Number 1, Spring 2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    aircraft buffeting, the latter designating the shaking sensation one feels when the aircraft performs at the edge of the flight envelope during a high...had foiled a successful rescue attempt.1 Does history repeat itself? It is a pungent question. A little more than 19 years later, American and

  3. Air and Space Power Journal. Volume 17, Number 1, Spring 2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-03-01

    forces during the Revolutionary War.3 The Germans used anthrax (Bacillus anthracis) and glanders ( Pseudomonas mallei) against the horses and mules...Disease, Glanders, Maize Rust, Newcastle Disease, Potato Virus, Psittacosis, Rice Blast, Rinder­ pest, Rye Blast, Tobacco Mosaic, Venezuelan Equine

  4. Verification and Validation of the Spring Model Parachute Air Delivery System in Subsonic Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-27

    Almeida at Oak Ridge National Lab on the study of phase transition problems in nuclear reactor . References [1] D. L. Brown, R. Cortez, and M. L. Minion...functionality. Modularization is emphasized in our code development. The parachute module is an independent application program. This new module consists of

  5. Installation Restoration Program. Phase 1. Records Search, United States Air Force Academy, Colorado Springs, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-12-01

    part of the formation. The lower part is cemented by iron oxide and forms the huge vertical sheets (hogback) at the Garden of the Gods._ Cretaceous...due to incrustation and corrosion of the casing. U.S. Geological Survey personnel examined that wells and provided remedial recommendations, but...placed above the gravel pack. Grout Six to one bentonite/ cement mix to 2 feet below surface. Grout em- placed with a grout pipe. Grout pumped through

  6. Creech Air Force Base Resort Property in Indian Springs, Nevada. Environmental Baseline Survey Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    8217-eC-=tec:~:.:t~-=on-=T:’-’Ii’E=m:::i~=li-or=~:::~-=po::::=i-=~=~=rp=oTI::.se-=~=-’]ll=N=Do:~=:=-o-t-D-e-te-ct-’-:"- dnc ::"’~:-’~-’-:"-ail’-’n...ii-or=~"’~’-’p :.:o~=ti-=~::.g .:::u.::ur:cp:.;o T::cse-=~=-· .::~.::D:cE:==::.::=-o-t -D-e-te_c_:_t:-" dnc ::::.~Yc:l::.:::.:::ai:.:1n R’-’d ~=-c 5:.:a

  7. Air and Space Power Journal. Volume 21, Number 1, Spring 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    Marshall Mcluhan and Quentin Fiore, The Medium Is the Message (new York: Random House, 1967). 3. Ibid.; John naisbitt, Megatrends: Ten New...Dr. Kendall K. Brown NASA Marshall Space Flight Center Brig Gen Phillip D. Caine, USAF, Retired Monument, Colorado Col Steven D. Carey USAF...servicing its own community of users. Why Cyberspace Is Relevant Marshall Mcluhan’s aphorism “the medium is the message” characterizes our expectations of

  8. Air and Space Power Journal. Volume 24, Number 1, Spring 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    death and defeat. Unlike physical war, cyber- space is not only the medium but also the message.15 Media theorist Marshall McLuhan suggested that...NASA Marshall Space Flight Center Col Steven D. Carey, USAF, Retired Daphne, Alabama Dr. Clayton K. S. Chun US Army War College Dr. Mark Clodfelter...the world. Furthermore, McLuhan the- orized that evolutions in communication systems would lead to the creation of a global network or village.16 An

  9. Air and Space Power Journal. Volume 23, Number 1, Spring 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    only current, applicable scenarios for robust counterspace operations. even in the most vivid dreams of such advocates, the development of space...carry a 10,000-pound atomic bomb out to an ap­ preciable range. At the time, few dreamed that nukes would soon shrink to the point that a standard...from the local one. Overall, both volumes of Beyond al-Qaeda are valuable. Rabasa’s lucid and timely analysis has im­ plications for the defense

  10. Spring 1995 wildlife and vegetation survey, Norton Air Force Base, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-07-18

    The objectives of the 1994 and 1995 wildlife and vegetation surveys were to gather data to be used for various applications including: (1) basewide Environmental Risk Assessment (ERA) Work Plan (Scoping Document), (2) the completion of the basewide ERA, (3) determining remedial activities, and (4) determining the distribution of state and federal list plant and animal species on Norton AFB. Data gathering included an inventory of plant and animal species present, the identification of potential ecological receptors, mapping of habitats, and constructing the ecological food web present on or near the IRP sites of concern.

  11. Dissolved oxygen fluctuations in karst spring flow and implications for endemic species: Barton Springs, Edwards aquifer, Texas, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahler, Barbara J.; Bourgeais, Renan

    2013-01-01

    Karst aquifers and springs provide the dissolved oxygen critical for survival of endemic stygophiles worldwide, but little is known about fluctuations of dissolved oxygen concentrations (DO) and factors that control those concentrations. We investigated temporal variation in DO at Barton Springs, Austin, Texas, USA. During 2006–2012, DO fluctuated by as much as a factor of 2, and at some periods decreased to concentrations that adversely affect the Barton Springs salamander (Eurycea sorosum) (≤4.4 mg/L), a federally listed endangered species endemic to Barton Springs. DO was lowest (≤4.4 mg/L) when discharge was low (≤1 m3/s) and spring water temperature was >21 °C, although not at a maximum; the minimum DO recorded was 4.0 mg/L. Relatively low DO (3/s) and maximum T (22.2 °C). A four-segment linear regression model with daily data for discharge and spring water temperature as explanatory variables provided an excellent fit for mean daily DO (Nash–Sutcliffe coefficient for the validation period of 0.90). DO also fluctuated at short-term timescales in response to storms, and DO measured at 15-min intervals could be simulated with a combination of discharge, spring temperature, and specific conductance as explanatory variables. On the basis of the daily-data regression model, we hypothesize that more frequent low DO corresponding to salamander mortality could result from (i) lower discharge from Barton Springs resulting from increased groundwater withdrawals or decreased recharge as a result of climate change, and (or) (ii) higher groundwater temperature as a result of climate change.

  12. Air filtration and indoor air quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bekö, Gabriel

    2006-01-01

    decent ventilation and air cleaning/air filtration, high indoor air quality cannot be accomplished. The need for effective air filtration has increased with increasing evidence on the hazardous effects of fine particles. Moreover, the air contains gaseous pollutants, removal of which requires various air....... These contradictions should motivate manufacturers and researchers to develop new efficient filtration techniques and/or improve the existing ones. Development of low polluting filtration techniques, which are at the same time easy and inexpensive to maintain is the way forward in the future....

  13. The characteristics of sea fog with different airflow over the Huanghai Sea in boreal spring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Jian; WANG Xin; ZHOU Wen; HUANG Huijun; WANG Dongxiao; ZHOU Faxiu

    2010-01-01

    Using the observations from ICOADS datasets and contemporaneous NCEP/NCAR reanalysis datasets during 1960-2002, the study classifies the airflows in favor of sea fog over the Huang-hai (Yellow) Sea in boreal spring (April-May) with the method of trajectory analysis, and analyzes the changes of proportions of warm and cold sea fogs along different paths of airflow. According to the heat balance equation, we investigate the relationships between the marine meteorological conditions and the proportion of warm and cold sea fog along different airflow paths. The major results are summarized as follows. (1) Sea fogs over the Huanghai Sea in spring are not only warm fog but also cold fog. The proportion of warm fog only accounts for 44% in April, while increases as high as 57% in May. (2) Four primary airflow paths leading to spring sea fog are identified. They are originated from the northwest, east, southeast and southwest of the Huanghai Sea, respectively. The occurrence ratios of the warm sea fog along the east and southeast airflow paths are high of 55% and 70%, while these along the southwest and northwest airflow paths are merely 17.9% and 50%. (3) The key physical processes governing the warm/cold sea fog are heat advection transport, longwave radiation cooling at fog top, solar shortwave warming and latent heat flux between air-sea interfaces. (4) The characteristics of sea fog along the four airflow paths relate closely to the conditions of water vapor advection, and the vertical distribution of relative humidity.

  14. Kelley Hot Spring Geothermal Project: Kelly Hot Spring Agricultural Center conceptual design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Longyear, A.B. (ed.)

    1980-06-01

    The proposed core activity in the Kelly Hot Spring Agricultural Center is a nominal 1200 sow swine raising complex. The swine raising is to be a totally confined operation for producing premium pork in controlled environment facilities that utilize geothermal energy. The complex will include a feedmill for producing the various feed formulae required for the animals from breeding through gestation, farrowing, nursery, growing and finishing. The market animals are shipped live by truck to slaughter in Modesto, California. A complete waste management facility will include manure collection from all raising areas, transport via a water flush sysem to methane (biogas) generators, manure separation, settling ponds and disposition of the surplus agricultural quality water. The design is based upon the best commercial practices in confined swine raising in the US today. The most unique feature of the facility is the utilization of geothermal hot water for space heating and process energy throughout the complex.

  15. The Distinctive Feature of Nashe's Poetry Spring-A Study of Spring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈鲁华

    2002-01-01

    Thomas Nashe's Spring is a lyric poem extracted from his comedy "Will Summer's Testament". It is a poem of iambic pentameter. The whole poem is made up of three stanzas. Simple and plain as its language is , it is the language of common speech of his own time, ingeniously chosen, refined,modified and heightened. The author's use of a combination of alliteration, mediate and end rhyme in its rhyme scheme makes the poem read as smoothly and briskly as singing a song. His arrangement of four rhythm or beating schemes in a single poem makes the poem confirm to no conventional pattern. His employment of many rhetorical devices makes the poem vivid, imaginative and perfective.[ Key words] distinctive feature, beauty of language and vision, arrangement of various rhymes andrhythms, employment of rhetorical devices.

  16. Visit to valuable water springs (47). Valuable water springs in Kagawa prefecture; Meisui wo tazunete (47). Kagawaken no meisui

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shinmi, O. [Kagawa Univ., Kagawa (Japan). Faculty of Education

    1999-11-30

    Kagawa Pref. has the most scarce land area among Japan's prefectures, but there exist a number of springs in various sites including mountains, hills, and plains, even though gushing quantities are not large. These waters have been used for regional people's life and rice paddy irrigation. Kagawa Pref. nominated, in 1993, 10 springs as springs of Sanuki (Kagawa)>, which include with an Environment Agency's nomination as one of Japan's 100 valuable waters. Among them, this paper picks up (1) water of Yubune of Shodo Island, (2) spring of Karato, (3) spring of Yasoba, (4) waters of Uwai and Takebayashi, (5) waters of Futagashira and Kasuga in Marugame plain, and introduces their hydrological features and relation with people. The waters of these springs were sampled and analyzed in Oct.-Dec. 1998. Water of Yubune contains much HCO{sub 3} and SiO{sub 3} showing a water quality type of Ca-HCO{sub 3}, and others show the intermediate type between Ca-HCO{sub 3} type and Ca-SO{sub 4} type. It is urgently important, for creating regional environment, to reevaluate gushing waters, which are liable to be neglected among recent abrupt land utilization change and water utilization improvement, and to make efforts to preserve them. (NEDO)

  17. Shift of extreme spring streamflow on the Belorussian rivers and its association with changes of cyclonic activity over Eastern Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partasenok, Irina; Chekan, Gregory

    2014-05-01

    The intra-annual distribution of precipitation is the most variable component of the water resources of Belarus. This distribution is controlled by extratropical cyclones from the Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean that bring most of precipitation to the nation. That's why the aim of our study was to quantify major characteristics of these cyclones and to estimate effects of their passing through the Belorussian territory on regional water budget including floods and low water conditions. We documented the long-term fluctuations of streamflow and occurrence of extreme phenomena on the rivers of Belarus during the post-World War II period. It was established that annual water budget of the nation vary from year to year without systematic tendencies. At the same time, analysis of intra-annual distribution of streamflow reveals significant changes since the 1970s: increase of winter and decrease of spring runoff. As a result, the frequency of extreme spring floods has decreased. These changes in water regime are associated with climatic anomalies caused by large-scale alterations in atmospheric circulation, specifically in trajectories of cyclones. As a manifestation of these circulation changes, we observe increase of the surface air temperatures, more frequent cold season thaws, redistribution of seasonal precipitation totals, and decrease of the fraction of frozen precipitation in the shoulder seasons. Analysis of cyclonic activity over Belarus during the past 60 years in the cold season (December through February) shows the largest number of cyclones in 1950-1970. During this period, the largest number of spring floods caused by snowmelt on the rivers of Belarus was reported. Since 1970, we observe a decrease in the total number of cyclones but also an increasing strength (deepening) of the remaining cyclones in the cold season. That has led to some precipitation increase. During the last four decades, more frequent zonal air movement in the atmosphere and

  18. Air pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1974-12-01

    Air pollution conditions in Iwakuni city were monitored at 9 monitoring stations, and 21 locations where sulfur oxides were measured by the lead peroxide candle method, and 13 locations where particulates concentrations were determined by the deposit cage method. The average SO/sub x/ concentrations in 1973 measured by the lead peroxide candle method ranged from 0.17 mg sulfur trioxide/day/100 sq cm at the Miso Office to 0.58 mg SO/sub 3//day/100 sq cm at Mitsui Sekiyu Shataku. The average SO/sub x/ concentrations measured by the conductivity method ranged from 0.021 ppM at Kazuki Kominkan to 0.037 ppM at the Higashi Fire Department. Only 58% of a total of 264 measurement days gave hourly average concentrations below the environmental standard of 0.04 ppM at the Higashi Fire Deparment. The average airborne particulate concentrations ranged from 0.050 mg/cu m at Totsu Kominkan to 0.056 mg/cu at the Higashi Fire Department. The average nitrogen oxides concentrations measured by the Saltzman method ranged from 0.007 ppM to 0.061 ppM. The average oxidant concentrations at the Iwakuni Municipal Office and Kazuki Kominkan were 0.028 ppM and 0.037 ppM, respectively.

  19. Geothermal heat pump system assisted by geothermal hot spring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, M.; Koizumi, Y.

    2016-01-01

    The authors propose a hybrid geothermal heat pump system that could cool buildings in summer and melt snow on the pedestrian sidewalks in winter, utilizing cold mine water and hot spring water. In the proposed system, mine water would be used as cold thermal energy storage, and the heat from the hot spring after its commercial use would be used to melt snow for a certain section of sidewalks. Neither of these sources is viable for direct use application of geothermal resources, however, they become contributing energy factors without producing any greenhouse gases. To assess the feasibility of the proposed system, a series of temperature measurements in the Edgar Mine (Colorado School of Mines' experimental mine) in Idaho Springs, Colorado, were first conducted, and heat/mass transfer analyses of geothermal hot spring water was carried out. The result of the temperature measurements proved that the temperature of Edgar Mine would be low enough to store cold groundwater for use in summer. The heat loss of the hot spring water during its transportation was also calculated, and the heat requirement for snow melt was compared with the heat available from the hot spring water. It was concluded that the heat supply in the proposed usage of hot spring water was insufficient to melt the snow for the entire area that was initially proposed. This feasibility study should serve as an example of "local consumption of locally available energy". If communities start harnessing economically viable local energy in a responsible manner, there will be a foundation upon which to build a sustainable community.

  20. Herbicide contamination and dispersion pattern in lowland springs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laini, Alex; Bartoli, Marco; Lamastra, Lucrezia; Capri, Ettore; Balderacchi, Matteo; Trevisan, Marco

    2012-11-01

    Herbicides reduce the diversity of flora and fauna in freshwater ecosystems and also contaminate groundwater due to leaching. Herbicide contamination can be a serious threat for all groundwater-dependent ecosystems (GDE), altering their chemical and biological quality. Successful management to protect GDE is dependent on detailed knowledge of the hydrogeological and hydrochemical features of the surrounding environment. We consider the possible diffuse contamination by herbicides of groundwater and of GDE as lowland springs, semi-artificial ecosystems with elevated biodiversity. The main objectives of the present work were thus: (1) to map herbicide contamination in lowland springs, (2) to evaluate the potential risk for biota and (3) to quantify the extent of the area from which the herbicide use can affect the water quality of lowland springs. In June and August 2009, nearly 23 springs within the Po River Plain (Northern Italy) were sampled and analyzed for five herbicides used to control weeds in maize. Hydrogeological properties, half-lives of the herbicides and their concentrations in both groundwater and springs were used to quantify the area from which the contamination could originate. Such evaluation was performed by means of GIS techniques. Terbuthylazine were the only herbicide found, together with its metabolite desethylterbuthylazine. In 16 out of 84 measurements, their concentrations were above the threshold for drinking water; however, they were always below the ecotoxicological end-points of aquatic flora and fauna. Spatial analyses reveal that the theoretical area from which herbicides can contaminate spring water is within a distance varying between a few and 1800 m. Our findings indicate that conservation plans should focus on the fields adjacent to or surrounding the springs and should address the optimization of irrigation practices, restoration of buffer strips, crop rotation and in general more sustainable agricultural practices in the

  1. 78 FR 63100 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Revised Critical Habitat for the Comal Springs...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-23

    ... beetle at Fern Bank Springs have occurred at spring outlets and orifices along the bluff adjacent to the... justification for any critical habitat on the north side of the Blanco River at Fern Bank Springs, since the... the north side of the Blanco River at Fern Bank Springs. The area of critical habitat that extends...

  2. 77 FR 9840 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Colorado Springs, CO

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-21

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class E Airspace; Colorado Springs, CO AGENCY... airspace at City of Colorado Springs Municipal Airport, Colorado Springs, CO. Decommissioning of the Black... controlled airspace at Colorado Springs, CO (76 FR 70920). Interested parties were invited to participate...

  3. Initial characterization of carbon flows through microbial communities in Beowulf spring, an acidic hot spring in Yellowstone National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreuzer, H.; Moran, J.; Ehrhardt, C.; Melville, A.; Kranz, A.; Inskeep, W. P.

    2011-12-01

    Beowulf Springs are acidic, sulfidic hot springs in Yellowstone National Park. Visual inspection of the springs reveals distinct geochemical regions starting with a sulfur deposition zone followed by a transition to iron oxide deposition downstream. The relatively rapid sulfur and iron oxide deposition rates in this spring suggests the processes are microbially mediated (since, for instance, abiotic iron oxidation is kinetically slow at this temperature and pH) and previous diversity studies identify microbial communities consistent with the observed metabolic products (namely sulfur and iron oxide). While the energetics of sulfide and iron oxidation are sufficient for supporting microbial activity, a suitable carbon source remains undocumented. The temperatures in Beowulf approach 80 °C, which is above the photosynthetic upper temperature limit thus precluding photosynthetic-based autotrophy within the spring itself. Observed potential carbon sources in Beowulf include dissolved inorganic carbon, dissolved organic carbon, and methane. We are employing geochemical and stable isotope techniques to assess carbon inventories in the system. With thorough analysis we hope to identify both the major carbon stores in the system and track how they are transferred between microbial components in Beowulf. Initial stable isotope measurements focused on bulk isotope analysis of major carbon pools; both directly in the spring and in surrounding areas that may affect the spring water through runoff or ground water migration. We are analyzing bulk carbon isotopes of different microbial groups in the spring, the dissolved organic and inorganic carbon in the spring, and surrounding soils and potential plant inputs. Isotopic similarity between dissolved organic carbon and soil organic carbon is consistent with a common carbon source (local vegetation) but has not yet been confirmed as such. Correlation between δ13C of microbial biomass and dissolved organic carbon are suggestive

  4. Air Sensor Toolbox

    Science.gov (United States)

    Air Sensor Toolbox provides information to citizen scientists, researchers and developers interested in learning more about new lower-cost compact air sensor technologies and tools for measuring air quality.

  5. HEPA air filter (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... pet dander and other irritating allergens from the air. Along with other methods to reduce allergens, such ... controlling the amount of allergens circulating in the air. HEPA filters can be found in most air ...

  6. GSPEL - Air Filtration Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Evaluation capabilities for air filtration devicesThe Air Filtration Lab provides testing of air filtration devices to demonstrate and validate new or legacy system...

  7. Lead (Pb) Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... States Environmental Protection Agency Search Search Lead (Pb) Air Pollution Share Facebook Twitter Google+ Pinterest Contact Us As ... and protect aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. Lead (Pb) Air Pollution Lead Air Pollution Basics How does lead get ...

  8. AirPEx: Air Pollution Exposure Model

    OpenAIRE

    Freijer JI; Bloemen HJTh; de Loos S; Marra M; Rombout PJA; Steentjes GM; Veen MP van; LBO

    1997-01-01

    Analysis of inhalatory exposure to air pollution is an important area of investigation when assessing the risks of air pollution for human health. Inhalatory exposure research focuses on the exposure of humans to air pollutants and the entry of these pollutants into the human respiratory tract. The principal grounds for studying the inhalatory exposure of humans to air pollutants are formed by the need for realistic exposure/dose estimates to evaluate the health effects of these pollutants. T...

  9. AirPEx: Air Pollution Exposure Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Freijer JI; Bloemen HJTh; Loos S de; Marra M; Rombout PJA; Steentjes GM; Veen MP van; LBO

    1997-01-01

    Analysis of inhalatory exposure to air pollution is an important area of investigation when assessing the risks of air pollution for human health. Inhalatory exposure research focuses on the exposure of humans to air pollutants and the entry of these pollutants into the human respiratory tract. The

  10. Air Pollution Monitoring | Air Quality Planning & Standards ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-08

    The basic mission of the Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards is to preserve and improve the quality of our nation's air. To accomplish this, OAQPS must be able to evaluate the status of the atmosphere as compared to clean air standards and historical information.

  11. Coupled decadal variability of the North Atlantic Oscillation, regional rainfall and karst spring discharges in the Campania region (southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. De Vita

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Thus far, studies on climate change have focused mainly on the variability of the atmospheric and surface components of the hydrologic cycle, investigating the impact of this variability on the environment, especially with respect to the risks of desertification, droughts and floods. Conversely, the impacts of climate change on the recharge of aquifers and on the variability of groundwater flow have been less investigated, especially in Mediterranean karst areas whose water supply systems depend heavily upon groundwater exploitation.

    In this paper, long-term climatic variability and its influence on groundwater recharge were analysed by examining decadal patterns of precipitation, air temperature and spring discharges in the Campania region (southern Italy, coupled with the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO.

    The time series of precipitation and air temperature were gathered over 90 yr, from 1921 to 2010, using 18 rain gauges and 9 air temperature stations with the most continuous functioning. The time series of the winter NAO index and of the discharges of 3 karst springs, selected from those feeding the major aqueducts systems, were collected for the same period.

    Regional normalised indexes of the precipitation, air temperature and karst spring discharges were calculated, and different methods were applied to analyse the related time series, including long-term trend analysis using smoothing numerical techniques, cross-correlation and Fourier analysis.

    The investigation of the normalised indexes highlighted the existence of long-term complex periodicities, from 2 to more than 30 yr, with differences in average values of up to approximately ±30% for precipitation and karst spring discharges, which were both strongly correlated with the winter NAO index.

    Although the effects of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO had already been demonstrated in the long-term precipitation and streamflow patterns of

  12. The Redox Potential of Hot Springs in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Fu Chen and Menghau Sung

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Scientists began acquiring the basic of geology, occurrence, water temperature and chemistry of hot springs in Tai wan over a century ago. However, data regarding redox potential and important redox couples still remains limited. This study explores the redox status of hot springs in Taiwan by measuring Eh in the field and by determining the concentrations of commonly found redox couples, i.e., O2/H2O, NO3 -/NH4 +, and HS-/SO4 -2. Water samples were collected at hot spring discharge pools or the heads of water wells using a pump. A total of 11 hot springs located at 9 different locations across Taiwan were surveyed. The measured values of Eh ranging from -23 to -277 mV indicate reducing conditions. Most of the water samples from the hot spring sources contained sulfide and ammonium. In the Tatun Volcano Group, hot springs originating from a mixture of fumarolic gas and stream water contained high concentrations of hydrogen sulfide as the dominant reducing agent. Ammonium, with concentrations ranging from 1 to 55 mg L-1, is another important electron donor. The finding revealed that there were negative Eh measured-values for dissolved oxy gen-contained waters, both in the field and in the laboratory. The presence of sulfide or ammonium was also detected in the samples. These results confirm that the Eh sensor displayed a more height ened sensitivity to sulfide and ammonium than dissolved oxygen and nitrate. Hot springs with deep circulations (Samples S1-S4 and M1-M4 lack in oxygen gas and may re act with mineral reducers such that they will consequently be in a reducing state rather than oxidizing. Hot spring waters containing dissolved ox y gen (S2, S4, and M2 and nitrate (S3, S4, and M2-M4 most likely have mixed with shallow groundwaters. Discussions reveal implications for redox potentials and redox couples for arsenic speciation, disinfection of ammonium-containing hot springs for the spa industry as well as the possibility of using redox

  13. Differential performance Of ventral fin clipped and adipose fin clipped/coded-wire tagged spring Chinook Salmon at Warm Springs National Fish Hatchery, Oregon

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Warm Springs National Fish Hatchery is operated by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, and is located on the Warm Springs River within the Confederated Tribes of the...

  14. Distribution and survival of adult hatchery spring Chinook Salmon radio-tagged and released upstream of Warm Springs National Fish Hatchery in 2008: Progress report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Warm Springs River supports the largest population of wild spring Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in the Deschutes River Basin. Located on the Warm...

  15. Site-based data curation based on hot spring geobiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Carole L.; Thomer, Andrea K.; Baker, Karen S.; Wickett, Karen M.; Hendrix, Christie L.; Rodman, Ann; Sigler, Stacey; Fouke, Bruce W.

    2017-01-01

    Site-Based Data Curation (SBDC) is an approach to managing research data that prioritizes sharing and reuse of data collected at scientifically significant sites. The SBDC framework is based on geobiology research at natural hot spring sites in Yellowstone National Park as an exemplar case of high value field data in contemporary, cross-disciplinary earth systems science. Through stakeholder analysis and investigation of data artifacts, we determined that meaningful and valid reuse of digital hot spring data requires systematic documentation of sampling processes and particular contextual information about the site of data collection. We propose a Minimum Information Framework for recording the necessary metadata on sampling locations, with anchor measurements and description of the hot spring vent distinct from the outflow system, and multi-scale field photography to capture vital information about hot spring structures. The SBDC framework can serve as a global model for the collection and description of hot spring systems field data that can be readily adapted for application to the curation of data from other kinds scientifically significant sites. PMID:28253269

  16. Lanthanoid abundance of some neutral hot spring waters in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kikawada, Yoshikazu; Oi, Takao [Jochi Univ., Tokyo (Japan); Honda, Teruyuki

    1999-06-01

    Contents of lanthanoids (Ln's) in some neutral hot spring waters as well as in acidic hot spring waters were determined by neutron activation analysis. It was found that a higher pH resulted in lower concentrations of Ln's; the value of correlation coefficient (r) between the logarithm of the concentration of Sm ([Sm]), chosen as the representative of Ln's, and the logarithm of pH was -0.90. The sum of [Al] and [Fe] was strongly correlated with [Ln]'s in the pH range of 1.3 and 8.8; the correlation was expressed as log[Sm] = 0.893 log([Al] + [Fe]) - 5.45 with the r value of 0.98. The sum of [Al] and [Fe] was thus a good measure of the Ln contents in acidic and neutral hot spring waters. The Ln abundance patterns of neutral hot spring waters with normal CO{sub 2} concentrations had concave shapes with relative depletion in the middle-heavy Ln's and seemed to reflect the solubility of Ln carbonates. The neutral hot spring water with a high CO{sub 2} content of 1,800 ppm showed a Ln pattern with a relative enrichment in the heavy Ln's and seemed to reflect the solubility of Ln's observed for CO{sub 2}-rich solutions. (author)

  17. A spring forward for hominin evolution in East Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark O Cuthbert

    Full Text Available Groundwater is essential to modern human survival during drought periods. There is also growing geological evidence of springs associated with stone tools and hominin fossils in the East African Rift System (EARS during a critical period for hominin evolution (from 1.8 Ma. However it is not known how vulnerable these springs may have been to climate variability and whether groundwater availability may have played a part in human evolution. Recent interdisciplinary research at Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania, has documented climate fluctuations attributable to astronomic forcing and the presence of paleosprings directly associated with archaeological sites. Using palaeogeological reconstruction and groundwater modelling of the Olduvai Gorge paleo-catchment, we show how spring discharge was likely linked to East African climate variability of annual to Milankovitch cycle timescales. Under decadal to centennial timescales, spring flow would have been relatively invariant providing good water resource resilience through long droughts. For multi-millennial periods, modelled spring flows lag groundwater recharge by 100 s to 1000 years. The lag creates long buffer periods allowing hominins to adapt to new habitats as potable surface water from rivers or lakes became increasingly scarce. Localised groundwater systems are likely to have been widespread within the EARS providing refugia and intense competition during dry periods, thus being an important factor in natural selection and evolution, as well as a vital resource during hominin dispersal within and out of Africa.

  18. A spring forward for hominin evolution in East Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuthbert, Mark O; Ashley, Gail M

    2014-01-01

    Groundwater is essential to modern human survival during drought periods. There is also growing geological evidence of springs associated with stone tools and hominin fossils in the East African Rift System (EARS) during a critical period for hominin evolution (from 1.8 Ma). However it is not known how vulnerable these springs may have been to climate variability and whether groundwater availability may have played a part in human evolution. Recent interdisciplinary research at Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania, has documented climate fluctuations attributable to astronomic forcing and the presence of paleosprings directly associated with archaeological sites. Using palaeogeological reconstruction and groundwater modelling of the Olduvai Gorge paleo-catchment, we show how spring discharge was likely linked to East African climate variability of annual to Milankovitch cycle timescales. Under decadal to centennial timescales, spring flow would have been relatively invariant providing good water resource resilience through long droughts. For multi-millennial periods, modelled spring flows lag groundwater recharge by 100 s to 1000 years. The lag creates long buffer periods allowing hominins to adapt to new habitats as potable surface water from rivers or lakes became increasingly scarce. Localised groundwater systems are likely to have been widespread within the EARS providing refugia and intense competition during dry periods, thus being an important factor in natural selection and evolution, as well as a vital resource during hominin dispersal within and out of Africa.

  19. Nonlinear Quantum Optical Springs and Their Nonclassical Properties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M.J. Faghihi; M.K. Tavassoly

    2011-01-01

    The original idea of quantum optical spring arises from the requirement of quantization of the frequency of oscillations in the Hamiltonian of harmonic oscillator. This purpose is achieved by considering a spring whose constant (and so its frequency) depends on the quantum states ofanother system. Recently, it is realized that by the assumption of frequency modulation of ω to ω √1+ μα+α the mentioned idea can be established. In the present paper, we generalize the approach of quantum optical spring with particular attention to the dependence or trequency to the intensity of radiation field that naturally observes in the nonlinear coherent states, from which we arrive at a physical system has been called by us as nonlinear quantum optical spring. Then, after the introduction of the generalized tlamiltonian of nonlinear quantum optical spring and it's solution, we will investigate the nonclassical properties of the obtained states. Specially, typical collapse and revival in the distribution functions and squeezing parameters, as particular quantum features, will be revealed.

  20. Is spring wild turkey gobbler harvest additive or compensatory?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, William, F.; Kilgo, John, C.; Guynn, David, C., Jr.; Davis, James, R.

    2008-10-01

    Abstract: We compared survival rates of eastern wild turkey (Meleagris gallopavo sylvestris) gobblers in hunted (Crackerneck Wildlife Management Area and Ecological reserve [CWMA]) and unhunted (Savannah River Site [SRS]) populations in South Carolina to assess impact of spring gobbler-only hunts. Annual survival rate of gobblers on SRS (0.71) was greater (χ2 = 5.11; df = 1; P = 0.02) than that of gobblers on CWMA (0.54). Our results indicate that spring gobbler harvests constitute additive mortality to turkey populations. However, even in years when reproductive rates were relatively low, a spring-only gobbler harvest rate of 25% appeared to have a minimal effect on turkey populations.

  1. Design Considerations for Optimized Lateral Spring Structures for Wearable Electronics

    KAUST Repository

    Hussain, Aftab M.

    2016-03-07

    The market for wearable electronics has been gaining momentum in the recent years. For completely electronic wearable textiles with integrated sensors, actuators, computing units and communication circuitry, it is important that there is significant stretchability. This stretchability can be obtained by introducing periodic stretchable structures between the electronic circuits. In this work, we derive the equations and constraints governing the stretchability in horseshoe lateral spring structures. We have derived the optimum design and the parameters therein, to help develop the best spring structures for a given stretchability. We have also developed a figure of merit, called area efficiency of stretchability, to compare all twodimensional stretchable systems. Finally, we experimentally verify the validity of our equations by fabricating a metal/polymer bilayer thin film based stretchable horseshoe lateral spring structures. We obtain a stretchability of 1.875 which is comparable to the theoretical maxima of 2.01 for the given parameters.

  2. Yakima River Spring Chinook Enhancement Study, 1985 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fast, David E.

    1986-02-01

    The purpose was to evaluate enhancement methodologies that can be used to rebuild runs of spring chinook salmon in the Yakima River basin. The objectives were to: (1) determine the abundance, distribution and survival of naturally produced fry and smolts in the Yakima River; (2) evaluate different methods of fry and smolt supplementation into the natural rearing environment while maintaining as much as possible the gentic integrity of naturally produced stocks; (3) locate and define areas in the watershed which may be used for the rearing of spring chinook; (4) define strategies for enhancing natural production of spring chinook in the Yakima River; and (5) determine physical and biological limitations for production within the system.

  3. Rational design of the exchange-spring permanent magnet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, J S; Bader, S D

    2014-02-12

    The development of the optimal exchange-spring permanent magnet balances exchange hardening, magnetization enhancement, and the feasibility of scalable fabrication. These requirements can be met with a rational design of the microstructural characteristics. The magnetization processes in several model exchange-spring structures with different geometries have been analyzed with both micromagnetic simulations and nucleation theory. The multilayer geometry and the soft-cylinders-in-hard-matrix geometry have the highest achievable figure of merit (BH)max, while the soft-spheres-in-hard-matrix geometry has the lowest upper limit for (BH)max. The cylindrical geometry permits the soft phase to be larger and does not require strict size control. Exchange-spring permanent magnets based on the cylindrical geometry may be amenable to scaled-up fabrication.

  4. Structurally-Tailorable, Nonlinear, Snap-Through Spring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starnes, James H., Jr.; Farley, Gary L.; Mantay, Wayne R.

    1989-01-01

    Abrupt change in load/deflection response controllable and predictable. Structurally-tailorable, nonlinear, snap-through spring (STNSTS) exhibits controllable and predictable abrupt change in load/deflection response and based upon known phenomenon of snap-through structural response. Composed of pin-connected two-bar linkage which depicts combined tension/compression springs. As load applied to STNSTS, stiffness is function of internal spring and bending stiffness of pin-connected bars. As load increases, bars deform laterally until they collapse and snap through. Has application in passively-tailored rotor-blade flap, pitch, and lag response, to improve aerodynamic performance and stability characteristics of rotors; in aerodynamically- and aeroelastically-tailored wing spars and ribs, to produce tailored deformation state for improved effectiveness in maneuvering, aerodynamic performance, and stability characteristics; and in energy absorbers for automobile bumpers and aircraft land

  5. Compacted cancellous bone has a spring-back effect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kold, S; Bechtold, JE; Ding, Ming;

    2003-01-01

    A new surgical technique, compaction, has been shown to improve implant fixation. It has been speculated that the enhanced implant fixation with compaction could be due to a spring-back effect of compacted bone. However, such an effect has yet to be shown. Therefore we investigated in a canine...... model whether implant cavities prepared with compaction had spring back. Before killing the animals, we used one of two surgical techniques to make implant cavities of identical dimensions in both lateral femoral condyles of 7 dogs. One side had the implant cavity prepared with compaction, the other....... Thus we found a spring-back effect of compacted bone, which may be important for increasing implant fixation by reducing initial gaps between the implant and bone....

  6. Mining Hot Springs for Biodiversity and Novel Enzymes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Islin, Sóley Ruth

    The existence of microbial life at extreme environments, such as hot springs, has been known for a few decades. The remarkable ability of microorganisms to withstand the extreme conditions of their habitats, has astounded scientist and pushed the limits of what was considered possible. Thermophilic...... culture-dependent as well as culture-independent methods. Each hot spring sample was enriched on various polymeric substrates at high temperatures in the search of thermophilic microorganism with the ability to degrade the substrate. Enzymatic activity of the cultures was confirmed, the most promising...... the biodiversity within the environment. By comparing several metagenomic data sets from hot spring from around the world, we could analyze community structures of cellular microorganisms as well as the biodiversity of viral sequences. We found that crenarchaeal viruses are dominant in these environments...

  7. Geologic reconnaissance of the Hot Springs Mountains, Churchill County, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voegtly, Nickolas E.

    1981-01-01

    A geologic reconnaissance of the Hot Springs Mountains and adjacent areas, which include parts of the Brady-Hazen and the Stillwater-Soda Lake Known Geothermal Resource Areas, during June-December 1975, resulted in a reinterpretation of the nature and location of some Basin and Range faults. In addition, the late Cenozoic stratigraphy has been modified, chiefly on the basis of radiometric dates of volcanic rocks by U.S. Geological Survey personnel and others. The Hot Springs Mountains are in the western part of the Basin and Range province, which is characterized by east-west crustal extension and associated normal faulting. In the surrounding Trinity, West Humboldt, Stillwater, and Desert Mountains, Cenozoic rocks overlie ' basement ' rocks of the Paleozoic and Mesozoic age. A similar relation is inferred in the Hot Springs Mountains. Folding and faulting have taken place from the late Tertiary to the present. (USGS)

  8. In Vivo Force Decay of Niti Closed Coil Springs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Crystal; Nguyen, Tung; Koroluk, Lorne; Ko, Ching-Chang

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Nickel-titanium (NiTi) closed coil springs are purported to deliver constant forces over extended ranges of activation and working times. In vivo studies supporting this claim are limited. The objective of this study is to evaluate changes in force decay properties of NiTi closed coil springs after clinical use. Methods Pseudoelastic force-deflection curves for 30 NiTi coil springs (used intra-orally) and 15 matched laboratory control springs (simulated intra-oral conditions - artificial saliva, 37°C) were tested pre- and post-retrieval via Dynamic Mechanical Analysis (DMA) and the Instron machine, respectively, to evaluate amount of force loss and hysteresis change following 4, 8, or 12 weeks of working time (n=10 per group). Effect of the oral environment and clinical use on force properties were evaluated by comparing in vivo and in vitro data. Results The springs studied showed a statistically significant decrease in force (~12%) following 4 weeks of clinical use (p<0.01), with a further significant decrease (~7%) from 4–8 weeks (p=0.03) and force levels appearing to remain steady thereafter. Clinical space closure at an average rate of 0.91mm per month was still observed despite this decrease in force. In vivo and in vitro force loss data were not statistically different. Conclusions NiTi closed coil springs do not deliver constant forces when used intra-orally, but they still allow for space closure rates of ~1mm/month. PMID:24703289

  9. Are running speeds maximized with simple-spring stance mechanics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Kenneth P; Weyand, Peter G

    2014-09-15

    Are the fastest running speeds achieved using the simple-spring stance mechanics predicted by the classic spring-mass model? We hypothesized that a passive, linear-spring model would not account for the running mechanics that maximize ground force application and speed. We tested this hypothesis by comparing patterns of ground force application across athletic specialization (competitive sprinters vs. athlete nonsprinters, n = 7 each) and running speed (top speeds vs. slower ones). Vertical ground reaction forces at 5.0 and 7.0 m/s, and individual top speeds (n = 797 total footfalls) were acquired while subjects ran on a custom, high-speed force treadmill. The goodness of fit between measured vertical force vs. time waveform patterns and the patterns predicted by the spring-mass model were assessed using the R(2) statistic (where an R(2) of 1.00 = perfect fit). As hypothesized, the force application patterns of the competitive sprinters deviated significantly more from the simple-spring pattern than those of the athlete, nonsprinters across the three test speeds (R(2) <0.85 vs. R(2) ≥ 0.91, respectively), and deviated most at top speed (R(2) = 0.78 ± 0.02). Sprinters attained faster top speeds than nonsprinters (10.4 ± 0.3 vs. 8.7 ± 0.3 m/s) by applying greater vertical forces during the first half (2.65 ± 0.05 vs. 2.21 ± 0.05 body wt), but not the second half (1.71 ± 0.04 vs. 1.73 ± 0.04 body wt) of the stance phase. We conclude that a passive, simple-spring model has limited application to sprint running performance because the swiftest runners use an asymmetrical pattern of force application to maximize ground reaction forces and attain faster speeds.

  10. Quality Management System of Agricultural Products Based on Spring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    This article gives an overview of important property of the integrated management of agricultural product quality safety system,analyzes the lightweight characteristics of Spring technical system,hierarchical organization of MVC,and the technology SSH+Ajax associated with the Spring framework system.On the basis of this technical system,we design the quality management system of agricultural products under B/S model.This article points out that this system is realized mainly through consumers’information feedback and order management;then discusses operation environment,expandability,portability and security of the system.

  11. Hot-spring cure of atomic-bomb survivors, 16

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ouchi, Tamon (Beppu Genbaku Senta (Japan))

    1984-03-01

    Though a cold winter with snowfalls, in the fiscal year 1983, the number of the atomic-bomb sufferers using the Beppu Atomic-bomb Center (a medical hot spring) was large in January and February, 1984; throughout the fiscal year, the total number was about 3,800 persons. The diseases of the sufferers, mostly in locomotion organs, are such as osteoarthritis of spine, lame hip and knee arthropathy. Being the typical diseases for which hot spring treatment is good, the effect is clear, and those desiring to enter the Center twice in a year are increasing. The situation of usage of the Center from April, 1983, to March, 1984, is described.

  12. Large Capacity Constant Spring Support Hanger Design Optimization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Xian-wei

    2012-01-01

    This article discussed how to improve constant force performance of the large capacity constant spring support hangers. Large deviations have been found between product testing results and theoretical calculations after years of research and testing. The deviations mainly are caused by internal frictions inside the constant spring support hangers. By reducing or properly using internal frictions, consistent results between testing and theoretical calculation have been achieved. Based on product performance testing results recently, constant force performance of hangers has been improved greatly by adopting new methodology.

  13. The HISH-alliance and the Arab spring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dandan, Salem Ben Souhail

    , in terms of relative strength, as being essential in understanding the alliance. It then goes on to look at what the Arab-spring has so far meant for the different actors and how this has impacted the alliance. It is argued that the ability of the non-state armed entities, Hezbollah and Hamas...... within the global community, due to the current systemic situation and the Arab-spring. In short, the paper aims to establish a correlation between the international and regional changes, the newly found autonomy of the non-state entities and the decreasing capabilities of the states, in order...

  14. Annual summary of ground-water conditions in Arizona, spring 1979 to spring 1980

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    1981-01-01

    Withdrawal of ground water, about 4.0 million acre-feet in Arizona in 1979, is about 200,000 acre-feet less than the amount withdrawn in 1978. The withdrawals in 1978 and 1979 are the smallest since the mid-1950 's except in 1966. Nearly all the decrease was in the amount of ground water used for irrigation in the Basin and Range lowlands province. The large amount of water in storage in the surface-water reservoirs, release of water from the reservoirs, floods, and conservation practices contributed to the decrease in ground-water use and caused water-level rises in the Salt River Valley, Gila Bend basin, and Gila River drainage from Painted Rock Dam to Texas Hill. Two small-scale maps show ground-water pumpage by areas and the status of the ground-water inventory in the State. The main map, which is at a scale of 1:500,000, shows potential well production, depth to water in selected wells in spring 1980, and change in water level in selected wells from 1975 to 1980. A brief text summarizes the current ground-water conditions in the State. (USGS)

  15. [Effects of increasng field temperature on growth, development and yield of spring wheat in semi-arid area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kai; Wang, Run-yuan; Wang, He-ling; Zhao, Hong; Zhao, Fu-nian; Yang, Fu-lin; Lei, Jun

    2015-09-01

    A field infrared temperature-increasing simulation experiment was conducted to investi- gate the effects of air temperature increases (0, 1 and 2 °C ) on growth, development and yield of spring wheat at the Dingxi Arid Meteorology and Ecological Environment Experimental Station of the Institute of Arid Meteorology of China Meteorological Administration. The results showed that the growth period of spring wheat was shortened by 7-11 d when the temperature increased by 1-2 °C. The plant height and leaf area index increased at early growth stage, decreased after entering the jointing stage, and warming 2 °C had a higher effect than warming 1 °C. Warming treatment induced an obvious decrease in chlorophyll content, especially from late grain filling stage to milk ripe stage. Compared with the control, increasing temperature by 1-2 °C decreased the spring wheat yield by 25.4%-45.5%, mainly due to obvious decreases in number of grains and grain mass per panicle. Water consumption of 0-100 cm soil horizons increased with the increase of temperature, while the variation tendency of water consumption of 100-160 cm soil horizons was not obvious.

  16. REACH. Air Conditioning Units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrison, Joe; And Others

    As a part of the REACH (Refrigeration, Electro-Mechanical, Air-Conditioning, Heating) electromechanical cluster, this student manual contains individualized instructional units in the area of air conditioning. The instructional units focus on air conditioning fundamentals, window air conditioning, system and installation, troubleshooting and…

  17. Statistical air quality mapping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kassteele, van de J.

    2006-01-01

    This thesis handles statistical mapping of air quality data. Policy makers require more and more detailed air quality information to take measures to improve air quality. Besides, researchers need detailed air quality information to assess health effects. Accurate and spatially highly resolved maps

  18. Spring Security Web-based Application Development%基于 Spring Security安全的Web应用开发

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖云

    2011-01-01

    Web安全一直是应用开发中非常重要的方面.从安全性来说,需要考虑用户认证和授权.为Web应用增加安全性并不容易,需要考虑不同的认证和授权机制.Spring Security为使用Spring框架的Web应用提供了良好的支持.%In Web application development, security is a very important aspect. From security perspective, it needs to consider users authentication and authorization. The increase for the security of Web applications is not easy, needs to consider the different authentication and authorization mechanisms. Spring Security for the Web application using Spring framework provides a good support.

  19. AirSea Battle: A Point-of-Departure Operational Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    advanced foreign ASCMs available on the market. See http://www.navy.mil/navydata/ fact_display.asp? cid =2200&tid= 200&ct=2. The US Navy had 250 nm...No. 2 (Spring 2008), pp. 79–95. AirSea Battle: A Point-of-Departure operational Concept 77 interception operations ( MIO ) against ships bound for...priority taskings, and thus would not generally be available to support MIO operations. However, Air Force bombers with their large payloads and long

  20. ANALISIS KUALITAS AIR PADA SUMBER MATA AIR DI KECAMATAN KARANGAN DAN KALIORANG KABUPATEN KUTAI TIMUR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iin Sumbada Sulistyorini

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine the water quality based on some parameters of physical, chemical and biological properties of the three springs. One location site in the district of Kaliorang and then two location site in the District of Karangan. Landscape characteristics in the two districts almost equal in the hills with a small incision. Likewise, the third location of water sources is a hilly area of karst (limestone. Karst landscapes not only provide material goods, biodiversity, but also providers of ecosystem services such as clean water, the water regulator and the potential of the upper and lower surfaces such as caves. The results showed that the physical quality of water from the three water sources meet the quality standards required. From the results of laboratory testing, chemical water quality at three locations contain BOD (Biochemical Oxygen Demand and COD (Chemical Oxygen Demand is relatively high. The high value of BOD and COD indicated that the water conditions have polluted by the accumulation of organic materials, especially the litter of the forest vegetation. Furthermore, for total coliform and fecal coliform although the amount is below the threshold quality standards required, but its existence in the water indicates the contamination of water sources by sewage as from agricultural run-off, animal feces containing the bacteria, viruses, or disease-causing organisms more, Based on the designated class of water, the springs at the third location is very suitable for use as irrigation, facilities or infrastructure freshwater fish farming, recreation, and other designation that requires the same quality standards. As for the water designation for drinking water must through the processing or specific treatment. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui kualitas air berdasarkan beberapa parameter fisik, kimia dan biologi dari tiga sumber mata air, yaitu satu lokasi di kecamatan Kaliorang dan dua lokasi di