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Sample records for air sedimen sungai

  1. SEBARAN KANDUNGAN LOGAM BERAT Cd PADA SEDIMEN DI MUARA SUNGAI WAY KUALA BANDAR LAMPUNG

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    Diky Hidayat; Ni Putu Inda Novita

    2012-01-01

    Penelitian penentuan penyebaran konsentrasi logam berat Cd pada sedimen di muara sungai Way Kuala telah dilakukan. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk melihat penyebaran konsentrasi logam berat pada sedimen di muara tersebut. Konsentrasi Cd ditentukan dengan menggunakan spektrofotometer serapan atom (SSA), dengan menggunakan empat validasi metode yaitu batas deteksi, presisi, akurasi, dan linieritas. Hasil menunjukkan bahwa konsentrasi logam berat Cd dalam sampel sedimen di hulu, badan, dan hi...

  2. SEBARAN KANDUNGAN LOGAM BERAT Cd PADA SEDIMEN DI MUARA SUNGAI WAY KUALA BANDAR LAMPUNG

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    Diky Hidayat

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian penentuan penyebaran konsentrasi logam berat Cd pada sedimen di muara sungai Way Kuala telah dilakukan. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk melihat penyebaran konsentrasi logam berat pada sedimen di muara tersebut. Konsentrasi Cd ditentukan dengan menggunakan spektrofotometer serapan atom (SSA, dengan menggunakan empat validasi metode yaitu batas deteksi, presisi, akurasi, dan linieritas. Hasil menunjukkan bahwa konsentrasi logam berat Cd dalam sampel sedimen di hulu, badan, dan hilir dari muara sungai Way Kuala berada dalam kisaran 20.73 ± 0.18 sampai 23.00 ± 0.81 ppm diatas kualitas standar sedimen (0.65 sampai 2.49 ppm yang telah ditetapkan oleh National Sediment Quality Survey USEPA pada tahun 2004. Validasi metode pada penentuan logam berat Cd dalam sedimen menunjukkan presisi dengan nilai simpangan baku relatif lebih kecil dari 5% (RSD <5%; akurasi 80-120%; batas deteksi dan koefisien korelasi pada logam Cd sebesar 0.01 dan 0.998.

  3. KANDUNGAN LOGAM BERAT PADA AIR DAN SEDIMEN DI PERAIRAN SOCAH DAN KWANYAR KABUPATEN BANGKALAN

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    Wahyu Andy Nugraha

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Logam berat sangat berbahaya bagi biota laut maupun trofik level diatasnya. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui kandungan logam berat di perairan Socah dan Kwanyar kabupaten Bangkalan. Penelitian ini dilaksanakan selama 3 bulan. Pengambilan sampel air menggunakan botol sampel, sedangkan pengambilan sampel sedimen menggunakan grab sampler. Sampel kemudian dianalisa dengan spektrofotometer serapan atom (SSA. Hasil menunjukkan bahwa kandungan logam berat Cd, Cu, Pb, dan Hg pada air di perairan Socah dan Kwanyar masih dibawah ambang batas baku mutu air laut, sedangkan kandungan logam berat di sedimen melebihi ambang batas baku mutu air laut untuk biota laut. Secara umum, kandungan logam berat di sedimen lebih tinggi dari pada kandungan logam berat di air. Kata Kunci : Logam berat, Pencemaran, Spektrophotometer  HEAVY METALS CONTENTS IN WATER AND SEDIMENT IN KWANYAR AND SOCAH WATER, BANGKALANHeavy metals are very dangerous for marine life as well as the trophic level above. This study aims to determine the content of heavy metals in the waters Socah and Kwanyar Bangkalan. This study was conducted over 3 months. Water sampled using a sample bottle, while sediment samples was taken using a grab sampler. The sample was then analyzed by atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS. Results showed that the content of heavy metals Cd, Cu, Pb and Hg in the water in the Socah and Kwanyar waters still below the seawater quality standard limits, whereas the heavy metal content in sediments exceeded the water quality standard for marine sea. In general, the content of heavy metals in sediment is higher than on the water.Keywords: Heavy metals, Pollution, AAS

  4. Kandungan logam berat dalam sedimen di Perairan Teluk Wawobatu, Kendari, Sulawesi Tenggara

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    Edward

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Pengamatan kandungan logam berat dalam sedimen di Perairan Teluk Wawobatu, Kendari telah dilakukan pada bulan Juni 2011. Contoh sedimen diambil dengan menggunakan gravity core pada 5 stasiun penelitian. Kandungan logam berat diukur dengan menggunakan Spektrofotometer Serapan Atom (SSA. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui kandungan logam berat dalam sedimen serta memprediksi kualitas sedimen berdasarkan pendekatan analisis indeks (Indeks geoakumulasi dan Indeks Beban Pencemaran. Hasilnya menunjukkan, kandungan Pb berkisar 3,704-21,892 ppm, Cd 0,784-1,385 ppm, Cu 3,451-12,193 ppm, Zn 24,838-69,973 ppm, dan Ni 37,289-72,329 ppm. Kandungan ke lima logam tersebut masih lebih rendah dari nilai ambang batas yang ditetapkan oleh Kantor Menteri Negara Lingkungan Hidup 2010 dan baku mutu sedimen Ontario (Ontario Sediment Guideline 2008. Kandungan logam berat dalam sedimen di Stasiun 4 lebih tinggi dibandingkan dengan Stasiun lainnya. Hal ini disebabkan oleh perbedaan tekstur sedimen di masing-masing stasiun. Stasiun 4 berada di muara sungai dan mempunyai sedimen dengan tekstur berupa lumpur berwarna hitam. Kandungan logam Ni lebih tinggi dibandingkan dengan yang lain, hal ini menunjukkan adanya masukan sedimen dari Teluk Kendari dan Teluk Lasolo yang terbawa oleh arus, disamping yang berasal dari darat yang masuk melalui aliran sungai. Berdasarkan nilai indeks geoakumulasi (I-geo sedimen di perairan ini termasuk kategori tidak tercemar oleh Pb, Cu, Zn, dan Ni (I_geo<0, dan tercemar sedang oleh Cd (1sedimen di perairan ini belum tercemar oleh logam berat Pb, Cd, Cu, Zn, dan Ni.

  5. UPAYA PENCEGAHAN DAN PENANGGULANGAN PENCEMARAN AIR AKIBAT PENAMBANGAN EMAS DI SUNGAI KAHAYAN

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    Mrs. Heriamariaty

    2012-01-01

    The absence of Public Mining Area and continued use of mercury is responsible for the illegal gold mining and water pollution in Kahayan river. Efforts must be made to avoid and overcome environmental impact by strengthening coordination in central and regional level; empowering local community; and imposing sanction as law enforcement method. Belum adanya Wilayah Pertambangan Rakyat serta penggunaan merkuri mendorong terjadinya penambangan emas tanpa izin dan pencemaran air di Sungai Kahayan...

  6. Analisis Kandungan Logam Berat Timbal (Pb) di Air dan Sedimen Pada Aliran Sungai Percut Provinsi Sumatera Utara

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    Husainy, Irfan Al

    2016-01-01

    River is one of water resources utilized by human for many activities in life. This time, the requisite is increasing so people build industry rapidly. This reality caused a lot of adverse effects for quality and the resources include the river, like a heavy metal pollution. This research aim to analyzed the heavy metal of Pb in water dan sediment then determine the quality of the water based on standart quality. The research held on November-Desember 2013 in Percut catchment area, North S...

  7. PENENTUAN KANDUNGAN LOGAM Pb DAN Cr PADA AIR DAN SEDIMEN DI SUNGAI AO DESA SAM SAM KABUPATEN TABANAN

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    NI PUTU DIANTARIANI

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Research on the heavy metal content, Pb and Cr in water and sediment of Ao River in Sam SamVillage, Tabanan Regency have been carried out. Sample of water taken at 8 location per week during 4weeks, while sample of sediment only taken once at 8 location. Determination of metal content of Pb and Crconducted using destruction method with mixture of HNO3 dan HCl (3:1 and analysed with AbsorptionAtomic Spectrophotometer.The result showed that mean metal content of Pb and Cr in water of Ao river at the location aftertextile industry (location 5 until 8 from four times intake of samples have passed enabled boundarythreshold that is 0,03 mg/L for Pb and 0,05 mg/L for Cr. Mean Pb content in sediment at location 1, 2, 3, 4and 5 still under natural content while location 6, 7 and 8 over the natural boundary threshold. Meanwhile forthe Cr metal only at location 8 over the natural boundary threshold. The highest metal content of Pb and Cr insediment and water found at location 8 that is each of 0,496 mg/L and 0,213 mg/L for Pb and Cr in water and141,844 mg/Kg and 33,489 mg/Kg for Pb and Cr in sediment respectively.

  8. UPAYA PENCEGAHAN DAN PENANGGULANGAN PENCEMARAN AIR AKIBAT PENAMBANGAN EMAS DI SUNGAI KAHAYAN

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    Mrs. Heriamariaty

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The absence of Public Mining Area and continued use of mercury is responsible for the illegal gold mining and water pollution in Kahayan river. Efforts must be made to avoid and overcome environmental impact by strengthening coordination in central and regional level; empowering local community; and imposing sanction as law enforcement method. Belum adanya Wilayah Pertambangan Rakyat serta penggunaan merkuri mendorong terjadinya penambangan emas tanpa izin dan pencemaran air di Sungai Kahayan. Untuk mencegah dan menanggulangi pencemaran ini diperlukan koordinasi di tingkat pusat dan daerah; penyuluhan dan pendekatan di bidang sosial, ekonomi, budaya, hukum, dan teknologi; serta penegakan hukum secara tegas melalui penerapan sanksi.

  9. Rancang Bangun Turbin Air Sungai Poros Vertikal Tipe Savonius dengan Menggunakan Pemandu Arah Aliran

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    Adia Cahya Purnama

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Pemanfaatan sumber energi air terutama digunakan sebagai penyedia energi listrik melalui pembangkit listrik tenaga air maupun mikrohidro. Salah satu permasalahan adalah bagaimana memanfaatkan potensi energi aliran air yang relatif kecil. Maka dari itu guna memanfaatkan dan meningkatkan potensi energi aliran air yang relatif kecil diperlukan penelitian. Pemanfaatan energi air pada penelitian ini adalah pemanfaatan energi kinetik aliran air. Energi mekanik yang merupakan transformasi dari energi kinetik aliran air dimanfaatkan untuk menggerakkan turbin atau kincir. Turbin poros vertikal tipe Savonius ini cocok digunakan untuk memanfaatkan energi aliran air yang relatif kecil. Penelitian dengan judul “Rancang Bangun Turbin Air Sungai Poros Vertikal Tipe Savonius dengan Menggunakan Pemandu Araha Aliran” dilakukan dengan metode eksperimen, dimana hasil dari rancang bangun turbin akan dilakukan pengujian dan pengambilan data. Data pengujian yang diperoleh berdasarkan dari pengaruh variasi kecepatan aliran 0,30 ; 0,57 ; 0,85 dan 1,08 (m/detik serta pengaruh dari pemandu arah aliran. Performansi diperoleh dari hasil pengujian dan pengukuran. Diperoleh Cp maksimum 0,13 pada TSR 1,53. Kecepatan putar turbin maksimum diperoleh sebesar 162 RPM dan daya keluaran maksimum generator sebesar 2,31 Watt. Penggunaan pemandu arah aliran dapat meningkatkan performansi turbin Savonius diperoleh efisiensi mekanis turbin rata-rata 90,40% dan efisiensi elektris generator rata-rata 90,20%. Sehingga dapat disimpulkan bahwa dengan kecepatan aliran air yang sangat rendah turbin tipe Savonius dapat membangkitkan energi listrik.

  10. Perbaikan Metode Penghitungan Debit Sungai Menggunakan Cubic Spline Interpolation

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    Budi I. Setiawan

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Makalah ini menyajikan perbaikan metode pengukuran debit sungai menggunakan fungsi cubic spline interpolation. Fungi ini digunakan untuk menggambarkan profil sungai secara kontinyu yang terbentuk atas hasil pengukuran jarak dan kedalaman sungai. Dengan metoda baru ini, luas dan perimeter sungai lebih mudah, cepat dan tepat dihitung. Demikian pula, fungsi kebalikannnya (inverse function tersedia menggunakan metode. Newton-Raphson sehingga memudahkan dalam perhitungan luas dan perimeter bila tinggi air sungai diketahui. Metode baru ini dapat langsung menghitung debit sungaimenggunakan formula Manning, dan menghasilkan kurva debit (rating curve. Dalam makalah ini dikemukaan satu canton pengukuran debit sungai Rudeng Aceh. Sungai ini mempunyai lebar sekitar 120 m dan kedalaman 7 m, dan pada saat pengukuran mempunyai debit 41 .3 m3/s, serta kurva debitnya mengikuti formula: Q= 0.1649 x H 2.884 , dimana Q debit (m3/s dan H tinggi air dari dasar sungai (m.

  11. STUDI KANDUNGAN DAN DISTRIBUSI SPASIAL LOGAM BERAT TIMBAL (Pb) PADA SEDIMEN DAN KERANG (Anadara Sp) DI WILAYAH PESISIR KOTA MAKASSAR

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    Payung, Febrianti Lolo; Ruslan; Birawida, Agus Bintara

    2013-01-01

    Wilayah pesisir Kota Makassar cukup pesat dengan aktifitas industri dan Kegiatan rumah tangga, serta adanya kegiatan di hulu sungai yang dapat memberikan sumbangsi terbesar bagi pencemaran laut yang berbahaya baik terhadap kehidupan kerang (Anadara sp) dan kesehatan manusia.Penelitian ini bertujuan mengetahui kandungan dan distribusi spasial logam berat timbal (Pb) pada sedimen dan kerang di wilayah pesisir Kota Makassar.Jenis penelitian ini adalah penelitian observasional dengan desain deskr...

  12. SUMBER PENCEMAR YANG MEMPENGARUHI KUALITAS AIR SUNGAI MUMBUL DI KELURAHAN BANJARJAWA, KAMPUNG ANYAR KABUPATEN BULELENG

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    IN SUWIRTA

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Sungai Mumbul is one of the potential water resources to be an alternative to meet the need for clean water in particular urban communities in Singaraja (Buleleng including Banjar Jawa and Kampung Anyar, but its existence need protection from activities in their environment. The objectives of this re.search are: (1 to determine the physical, chemistry, and microbiology of water quality, (2 to determine 1he pollutant load in the sea/ocean, and (3 to determine the activity of people which decrease wate: quality of Sungai Mumbul. The sampling method was purposipe sampling in which the samples were, taken at 5 point.:; Q 0 (source of water, Q1 -out (Kaltag water with a sampling frequency of once a day every two weeks for one month, On Qout, samples were taken 3 times: in the morning, afternoon and evening. Sampel were analys in laboratory. The results were compared with Bali Governor Regulation No. 8 of 2007 and water quality status of water quality refers to the the Environment Decree No 115 of 2003. Load of pollutants COD rrnc1. BOD s (laboratory measurements. Activities of communities obtained from observations by identifying the number of facilities. The results showed that, in general, water quality parameters of Sungai Mumbul such as temperature, TDS, pH, Sulfate, ammonia, and nitrates were still below the threshold quality standards, while the parameters of COD, BOD5, nitrites, sulfides, oils grease, faecal coliform and total coliform exceeded the quality standard, with quality status categories were polluted, and the total value/score was -30. The use of the residential waste disposal fasilities allowing a lower water quality of Sungai Mumbul the primary channel of 172 units (13:26%, the secondary channel of 426 units (32.85%, tertiary of 396 units (30.53%, and the internal channel of 303 units (23.36% . Load pollutants that lead to the beach/ sea of Kampung Anyar for BOD 5 indicator was 434,12 kg/day, and COD load of 1,033 kg/day.

  13. SUMBER PENCEMAR YANG MEMPENGARUHI KUALITAS AIR SUNGAI MUMBUL DI KELURAHAN BANJARJAWA, KAMPUNG ANYAR KABUPATEN BULELENG

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    IN SUWIRTA; I W. BUDIARSA SUYASA; M.S. Mahendra

    2015-01-01

    Sungai Mumbul is one of the potential water resources to be an alternative to meet the need for clean water in particular urban communities in Singaraja (Buleleng) including Banjar Jawa and Kampung Anyar, but its existence need protection from activities in their environment. The objectives of this re.search are: (1) to determine the physical, chemistry, and microbiology of water quality, (2) to determine 1he pollutant load in the sea/ocean, and (3) to determine the activity of people which d...

  14. Distribusi mikroplastik pada sedimen di Muara Badak, Kabupaten Kutai Kartanegara

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    Intan Sari Dewi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. The distribution of microplastic was studied in the Muara Badak districts Kutai Kartanegara regency in May 2015. Sediment samples were taken from four stations that represent residential, in mangrove, near the beach and away from residential areas. Sediment samples were taken using the pipe at a depth of 0-10 cm - 10-20 cm, then the observed and calculated abundance of microplastic. The results showed that the type microplastic found is a fragment, film and fiber. At Station 1 found fragments about 100.2-201.3 particle/kg, the film about 69.6-79.9 particles/kg and fiber  about 43.1-50.9 particles/kg, the stations 2 found of fragments about 146.5-238.8 particle/kg, the film about 53.2-81.9 particles/kg and fiber about 48.8-75.5 particles/kg, stations 3 found of fragments about 204.2-207.9 particles/kg, the film about 107.7-126.5 particle/kg and fiber about 26.1-39.9 particles/kg, station 4 found of fragments about 167.6-220 particle/kg, the film about 59.7-69.5 particle/ kg and fiber about 47.5-55.3 particles/kg. Keywords: Depth; Microplastic; Muara Badak; Sediment   Abstrak. Distribusi mikroplastik diteliti di Kecamatan Muara Badak Kabupaten Kutai Kartanegara pada bulan Mei 2015. Sampel sedimen diambil dari 4 stasiun yang mewakili pemukiman penduduk, dekat sungai, dekat pantai dan jauh dari pemukiman penduduk. Sampel sedimen diambil menggunakan pipa paralon pada kedalaman 0-10 cm – 10-20 cm, kemudian diamati dan dihitung kelimpahan mikroplastik. Hasil penelitian menunjukan bahwa jenis mikroplastik yang ditemukan adalah fragmen, film dan fiber. Pada stasiun 1 ditemukan fragmen berkisar 100,2-201,3 partikel/kg, film berkisar 69,6-79,9 partikel/kg dan fiber berkisar 43,1-50,9 partikel/kg, stasiun 2 ditemukan fragmen berkisar 146,5-238,8 partikel/kg, film berkisar 53,2-81,9 partikel/kg dan fiber berkisar 48,8-75,2 partikel/kg, stasiun 3 ditemukan fragmen berkisar 204,2-207,9 partikel/kg, film berkisar 107,7-126,5 partikel/kg dan fiber

  15. Rancang Bangun Turbin Air Sungai Poros Vertikal Tipe Savonius dengan Menggunakan Pemandu Arah Aliran

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    Adia Cahya Purnama; Ridho Hantoro; Gunawan Nugroho

    2013-01-01

    Pemanfaatan sumber energi air terutama digunakan sebagai penyedia energi listrik melalui pembangkit listrik tenaga air maupun mikrohidro. Salah satu permasalahan adalah bagaimana memanfaatkan potensi energi aliran air yang relatif kecil. Maka dari itu guna memanfaatkan dan meningkatkan potensi energi aliran air yang relatif kecil diperlukan penelitian. Pemanfaatan energi air pada penelitian ini adalah pemanfaatan energi kinetik aliran air. Energi mekanik yang merupakan transformasi dari energ...

  16. Kelimpahan makrozoobentos pada berbagai tipe sedimen di sekitar perairan Muara Sungai Maros

    OpenAIRE

    saru, amran; Supriadi; Patiung, Frenky

    2005-01-01

    Sedimentation in estuarine tends to be higher than in terrestrial. Macrozoobenthos live in the bottom may experience fluctuation in abundance because of the change in sediment texture. This research was done to identify the abundance of macrozoobenthos in various sediment types in the estuary of Maros River by PCA. Three phylum were found: Arthropoda, Annelida and Nemathelminthes. Only 1 of 9 stations gave the highest abundance of macrozoobenthos. The result of PCA test revealed that Nereis s...

  17. SINTESIS BIOKOAGULAN BERBASIS KITOSAN DARI KULIT UDANG UNTUK PENGOLAHAN AIR SUNGAI YANG TERCEMAR LIMBAH INDUSTRI JAMU DENGAN KANDUNGAN PADATAN TERSUSPENSI TINGGI

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    Shofia Lathifa Ihsani

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Koagulan sintetik telah umum digunakan untuk penjernihan air. Meskipun koagulan tersebut kelihatan lebih praktis dalam penggunaan dan mudah diperoleh tetapi pemakaian koagulan sintetik yang berlebih justru akan menimbulkan efek yang tidak baik bagi lingkungan maupun kesehatan karena koagulan jenis ini tidak mudah terbiodegradasi. Eksplorasi terhadap material alami, yang lebih ramah lingkungan namun mempunyai potensi yang baik perlu terus dikaji. Keunggulan kitosan sebagai koagulan adalah sifatnya tidak beracun, mudah mengalami biodegradasi, tidak mencemari lingkungan, dan mudah bereaksi dengan zat-zat organik lainnya seperti protein. Dengan demikian diharapkan bahwa koagulan yang diperoleh dari kulit udang adalah bahan yang ramah lingkungan dan mempunyai nilai tambah yang tinggi. Pada tugas akhir ini, isolasi kitosan dilakukan melalui tiga tahap yaitu deproteinasi, demineralisasi dan deasetilasi. Deproteinasi dilakukan dengan melarutkan kulit udang menggunakan NaOH 5% (b/v pada perbandingan 1:10 (gr/mL dan direfluks selama 1 jam pada suhu 650C. Sedangkan demineralisasi dilakukan dengan melarutkan serbuk hasil deproteinasi dengan HCl 1M dengan perbandingan 1:15 (g/mL dan direfluks selama 2 jam pada suhu 650C. Serbuk kitin hasil demineralisasi selanjutnya diproses lebih lanjut dengan mereaksikan kitin menggunakan NaOH 50%(b/v dengan perbandingan 1:15 (gr/mL dan direfluks selama 4 jam pada suhu 1000C. Kitosan yang diperoleh diaplikasikan sebagai biokoagulan untuk menjernihkan air sungai yang tercemar limbah industri. Variabel yang diteliti adalah konsentrasi kitosan 0,01 %, 0,4%, 1%, 1,5%, 2%. Kemudian sampel limbah yang sudah diolah diuji pH dan tingkat kekeruhannya. Hasil proses deproteinasi kulit udang menghasilkan rendemen 55,55%, sedangkan proses demineralisasi menghasilkan rendemen 32,65%. Pada proses deasetilasi kitin dari kulit udang menghasilkan rendemen sebesar 69,25%, sedangkan rendemen kitosan yang diperoleh sebanyak 12,466%. Dari hasil

  18. Penentuan Kadar Kesadahan Total Dalam Air Baku Dan Air Bersih Dengan Titrasi Kompleksiometri Di PT Inalum Kuala Tanjung

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    Irmaliasari Banurea

    2009-01-01

    Telah dilakukan penentuan kadar kesadahan total air sungai Tanjung yang merupakan sumber air baku yang diolah menjadi air bersih di PT INALUM KUALA TANJUNG. Analisis air ini dilakukan dengan menggunakan metode titrasi kompleksiometri dengan menggunakan larutan EDTA dan indikator EBT. Air baku dari sungai dan air bersih yang dianalisa masing-masing 10 sampel dan pengolahan air sungai ini memberikan kadar kesadahan total seperti ditetapkan menurut KEP MENKES RI NO. 416/ MENKES/ PER/ IX/ 1990.

  19. Uji Korelasi Terhadap Debit Aliran Sungai dan Konsentrasi Sedimen pada Muara Sub Das Padang di Kota Tebing Tinggi

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    Maulana, Rian Asnul

    2016-01-01

    (Rian Asnul Maulana ):Correlation Test of Stream debit river to sediment load at sub Watershed Padang Tebing Tinggi City. Watershed management is very important handled for ecological insight river. One of the parameter to know the watershed problem is sedimentation load. Sediment can observed from large of mud in the water which caught by stream water river. This research observing about relationship between stream Debit and Sediment load which influenced hydrologic condition on Padang Water...

  20. TERITORIALITAS PERMUKIMAN TEPI SUNGAI CODE

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    Hastuti Saptorini

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Spontaneous settlement of waterfront Code River as unplanned development have demonstrated the spacial behaviour phenomena. The occupants have utilised the expansion lands for domestic, economic, and social activities, both individually and communally. These phenomena have implicated to the numerous senses of territory by signing the area. These spasial responses which contain territorial development meaning have special fenomenal studies which have encouraged architectural meaning. The case study data adopted from author's research group with Arif Budi Solihah, ST in 2004 by the title 'Typology and Morphology Study of Waterfront Housing Caracters; Code River Housing Case Study which funded by High Education General Directorate, National Education Department numbered 199/P4T/DPPM/DM,SKW,SOSAg/ III/2004, have indicated some findings. Authorizing of "independent land" mechanism as research findings show that housing expansion to public space towards the river have utilised in accommodating domestic, social and economic activities. These were signed by some hanging tools and landscape development which are built by two reasons. First, the land status that is encouraging people use riverbank walkway as part of their houses territory. Secondly, the expansion process, both individually and communally, represents the cultural, economic and social demand. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : Permukiman spontan di tepi sungai Code merupakan manifestasi perilaku spasial yang diwujudkan melalui ekspansi lahan "kepemilikan" untuk kepentingan kegiatan domestic, ekonomi, dan social, baik yang bersifat individu maupun komunal. Respons perilaku ini telah menggejala melalui "penguasaan" lahan yang bersifat teritoris dalam bentuk pemanfaatan area untuk variasi kegiatan dengan berbagai "penandaan". Sehingga, bentuk pengolahan lahan yang mengandung makna "pembangunan" teritori tersebut merupakan kajian fenomena spasial yang memperkaya referens makna arsitektural. Melalui

  1. Gross Pollutant Traps: Wet Load Assessment at Sungai Kerayong, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohd Shah, M. R.; Zahari, N. M.; Said, N. F. Md; Sidek, L. M.; Basri, H.; Noor, M. S. F. Md; Husni, M. M. Mohammad; Jajarmizadeh, Milad; Roseli, ZA; Mohd. Dom, N.

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this project is to carry out assessment on the effectiveness and performance of Gross Pollutant Traps (GPTs) stormwater quality control in the urban areas. The study aims to provide a management and planning tool for effective management of the gross pollutants in the urban areas specifically in River of Life (ROL) project. ROL project is a Malaysian Government initiative under the Economic Transformation Program. One of the program in the greater Klang Valley is to transform Klang River into a vibrant and livable waterfront by the year 2020. The main river in ROL catchment is Sungai Klang (upper catchment), with main tributaries Sungai Gombak, Sungai Batu, Sungai Jinjang, Sungai Keroh, Sungai Bunus, Sungai Ampang and Sungai Kerayong. This paper objective is to study the gross pollutant wet load at Sungai Kerayong 1 and Sungai Kerayong 2 which is located at the downstream location of the ROL project. The result shows that Sungai Kerayong 2 produced higher gross pollutant wet load (8025.33 kg/ha/yr) than Sungai Kerayong 1 (4695.12 kg/ha/yr). This could be due to high contributions amounts of gross pollutant traps from residential area, the degree of develop area, and also the location of the river itself related to climate and rainfall.

  2. Salinity intrusion modeling for Sungai Selangor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salinity intrusion into estuary of the Sungai Selangor has been carried out on a hydrodynamic numerical modeling to access the parameter that governed the amount of salt in the river. Issues such as water pollution and extraction of water from Sungai Selangor system has been said to be the cause of fading fireflies. The berembang trees on the river bank that become the fireflies habitat need some amount of salt for proper growth. Living at the lower reaches of Sungai Selangor, the fireflies are affected not only by the activities in their vicinity, but by activities in the entire river basin. Rapid economic development in the basin and the strong demand for the water resources puts pressure on the ecosystem. This research has been carried out to investigate the effect of water extraction along Sungai Selangor towards altering the amount of salt content in the river. The hydrodynamic modeling with regards to the salt content is expected to support long term assessment that may affect the berembang trees as a result of changes in the flow from upstream because of the water abstraction activity for domestic water supply. (Author)

  3. KAJIAN PERUBAHAN TUTUPAN LAHAN DAERAH ALIRAN SUNGAI BRANTAS BAGIAN HILIR MENGGUNAKAN CITRA SATELIT MULTI TEMPORAL (STUDI KASUS: KALI PORONG, KABUPATEN SIDOARJO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aninda Nurry

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Perubahan tutupan lahan (land cover change ditandai dengan adanya perubahan alih fungsi penggunaan lahan. Pada daerah aliran sungai perubahan tutupaan lahan sekitar daerah aliran sungai tersebut biasanya terjadi pada daerah sisi kanan dan kiri sungai yang digunakan sebagai pemukiman atau daerah industri (pabrik. Sungai Porong sebagai bagian dari Sungai Brantas yang sudah lama beralih fungsi sebagai tempat pembuangan luapan lumpur panas Sidoarjo telah banyak mengalami perubahan.  Terjadinya bencana lumpur Sidoarjo pada 29 Mei 2006 membuat suatu perubahan yang mempengaruhi kondisi air, pemukiman dan sosial ekonomi di wilayah tersebut. Untuk  mengetahui  besarnya  perubahan  tutupan lahan daerah tersebut  dapat digunakan  teknologi  penginderaan  jauh  yang  berbasis  citra  satelit  menggunakan  citra Landsat  7  dan  citra  Landsat  8.  Penggunaan  kedua  citra  yang  berbeda  tersebut  dapat dikatakan sebagai citra multitemporal.  Salah satu metode  yang  digunakan  untuk  mengetahui perubahan tutupan  lahan  yaitu  dengan melakukan klasifikasi berdasarkan kemiripan maksimum (maximum likelihood. Dari hasil klasifikasi tersebut, akan diketahui perubahan tutupan lahan daerah sekitar aliran sungai Porong tahun 2002 dan 2013. Hasil tutupan lahan di area kali Porong dari tahun 2002 dan 2013 menunjukan adanya perubahan antara lain luas sawah, luas lahan terbangun, luas lahan kosong, luas badan air (sungai, luas hutan, luas tegalan, luas tambak, dan adanya penambahan kelas lumpur panas Sidoarjo pada landsat 8 dikarenakan  semburan lumpur yang berlangsung sejak tahun 2006 sehingga menghilangkan ratusan hektar sawah dan lahan terbangun. Perubahan tutupan lahan pada landsat 8 yang lain juga muncul yaitu adanya kelas pulau Sarinah yang merupakan hasil pembentukan dari buangan lumpur panas Sidoarjo yang dialirkan melalui kali Porong.

  4. Pengaruh Pemberian Sedimen Bakau dan Sedimen Rawa Terhadap Perubahan Populasi Bakteri dan Kandungan Sulfat Dalam Air Asam Tambang

    OpenAIRE

    Qalbi, Nur

    2014-01-01

    ???Influence of Mangrove Sediments and Marsh Sediments to change in Bacterial Population and Content of Sulfate in Acid mine Drainage??? By Nur Qalbi (H41110260) . This research aims to overcome the problem of acid mine drainage by using sulfate reducing bacteria on mangrove sediments and marsh sediments. Spesifically, this research aims to know the change of total number bacteria and raise the pH on water acid mine drainage after given a treatment of mangrove sediments and marsh sediments. P...

  5. KEANEKARAGAMAN JENIS KATAK DAN KODOK (ORDO ANURA DI SEPANJANG SUNGAI OPAK PROPINSI DAERAH ISTIMEWA YOGYAKARTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donan Satria Yudha

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Anura sering disebut sebagai katak dan kodok (Iskandar, 1998. Penelitian mengenai keanekaragaman anggota Anura di Daerah Istimewa Yogyakarta (DIY telah banyak dilakukan. Penelitian tersebut sebagian besar difokuskan di lereng selatan Gunung Merapi, tetapi beberapa penelitian juga telah dilakukan di sekitar kampus UGM dan di Sungai Code (Eprilurahman, 2007; Eprilurahman & Kusuma, 2011; Yudha, dkk, 2013. Wilayah DIY dialiri oleh banyak sungai, beberapa diantaranya yang banyak dikenal, diurutkan dari barat ke timur adalah Sungai Progo,Sungai Winongo, Sungai Code, Sungai Gajah Wong dan Sungai Opak (Anonim, 2010; Brontowiyono, 2010; Siradz et al., 2008. Sungai Opak merupakan salah satu sungai besar di DIY yang berhulu di Gunung Merapi. Jalur utama Sungai Opak menjadi pertemuan beberapa sungai, hal tersebut dapat diasumsikan bahwa pada beberapa titik pertemuan merupakan area yang subur dan rimbun. Daerah yang rimbun tersebut merupakan habitat yang baik bagi herpetofauna, terutama anggota Anura. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui keanekaragaman spesiesAnura. Pengambilan sampel disepanjang Sungai Opak dari hulu hingga hilir menggunakan gabungan beberapa metode, yaitu VES (Visual Encounter Survey, River bank cruising dantransek. Sampling secara umum dibagi tiga bagian, bagian hulu, tengah dan hilir. Hasil yang diperoleh adalah 9 spesies anggota Ordo Anura dengan 2 spesies Anura arboreal, 3 spesies Anura terrestrial dan 4 spesies Anura akuatik dan semi-akuatik. Berdasarkan hasil tersebut dapat diketahui bahwa Sungai Opak merupakan habitat bagi banyak spesies Anura.

  6. KERJASAMA INDIA DAN PAKISTAN DALAM PENGELOLAAN SUNGAI INDUS

    OpenAIRE

    ANUGRAH, RARA

    2015-01-01

    Rara Anugrah E131 11 261, Kerjasama India dan Pakistan Dalam Pengelolaan Sungai Indus, dibawah bimbingan Bapak Muh.Nasir Badu, Ph.D sebagai pembimbing I dan Ibu Nur Isdah, S.IP, MA sebagai pembimbing II, Jurusan Ilmu Hubungan Internasional, Fakultas Ilmu Sosial dan Ilmu Politik, Universitas Hasanuddin. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui kerjasama India dan Pakistan dalam mengelola Sungai Indus berdasarkan pada per...

  7. Komunitas Makrozoobenthos di Sungai Batang Gadis Kabupaten Mandailing Natal Sumatera Utara.

    OpenAIRE

    Pahrurrozi

    2015-01-01

    Sungai Batang Gadis merupakan sungai utama terpanjang dan terbesar bahkan aliran sungai ini mengalir hampir keseluruh Kabupaten Mandailing Natal. Mulai dari hulu di Ulu Pakantan Muara Sipongi, melewati beberapa kecamatan dan bermuara di Kecamatan Muara Batang Gadis. Keanekaragaman makrozoobentos dan pengukuran faktor fisika dan kimia merupakan salah satu parameter yang yang di ukur pada saat penelitian di Sungai Batang Gadis. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui keanekaragaman m...

  8. AKUMULASI KROMIUM (Cr PADA DAGING IKAN NILA MERAH (Oreochromis ssp. DALAM KARAMBA JARING APUNG DI SUNGAI WINONGO YOGYAKARTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RI Handayani

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Sungai Winongo merupakan salah satu sungai penting di Yogyakarta, karena berperan dalam menunjang dan memenuhi kebutuhan hidup masyarakat sekitarnya. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah mengetahui kandungan logam berat kromium (Cr pada air dan daging ikan nila merah di Sungai Winongo Yogyakarta serta mengetahui kelayakannya untuk dikonsumsi. Penelitian menggunakan rancangan eksplorasi dengan metode survai, dengan penetapan pengambilan sampel menggunakan teknik Purposive Random Sampling. Metode analisis uji kandungan logam berat Cr pada air dan ikan nila merah menggunakan AAS. Konsentrasi Cr pada air di Sungai Winongo Yogyakarta adalah 0,0213 mg/L, nilai ini masih berada di bawah ambang batas yang sudah ditetapkan PPRI No. 82 Tahun 2001 yakni  sebesar 0,05 mg/L. Pada ikan nila merah diketahui akumulasi tertinggi pada stasiun 1 sebesar 10,2265 mg/Kg; kemudian pada stasiun 3 dan 2 sebesar 9,81075 mg/Kg dan 9,2245 mg/Kg. Nilai ini melebihi baku mutu yang sudah ditetapkan oleh Dirjen POM 1989 yakni sebesar 2,5 mg/Kg. Simpulan dari penelitian ini adalah kandungan Cr dalam air masih di bawah ambang batas. Ikan nila merah di sungai Winongo sudah mengakumulasi Cr di atas ambang batas, sehingga tidak layak konsumsi.Winongo river is one of the important rivers in Yogyakarta because this supports and fulfils the people’s needs. The purpose of this study was to determine the heavy metal content of Cr in water and red tilapia fish meat captured in Winongo Yogyakarta and to know whether the meat is edible or not. The study design was used exploration design with survey method, in which the determination of sampling was using purposive random sampling. Method of test analysis of heavy metals Cr in water and red tilapia was using AAS. Chromium concentration in water of Winongo river was 0.0213 mg/l, this value remains below the threshold set by PPRI No. 82 year 2001 which was 0.05 mg/L, the highest accumulation of Cr in red tilapia meat was at station 1 i.e. 10

  9. Penilaian tingkat pencemaran logam berat dalam sedimen di perairan Pulau Morotai, Maluku Utara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward .

    2015-09-01

    , namun dalam kadar yang tinggi bersifat racun. Pengukuran kadar logam berat Pb, Cd, Cu, Zn, Ni, dan Cr dalam sedimen di perairan Morotai telah dilakukan pada bulan Juni 2005. Contoh sedimen diambil dengan menggunakan gravity core pada 13 stasiun penelitian. Kadar logam berat diukur dengan menggunakan Spektrofotometer Serapan Atom (SSA. Tujuan  penelitian ini adalah untuk menilai tingkat kontaminasi dan tingkat  pencemaran logam berat dalam sedimen di perairan Pulau Morotai dengan menggunakan nilai faktor kontaminasi (CF, indeks geoakumulasi (I_geo dan indeks beban pencemaran (PLI. Hasilnya menunjukkan berdasarkan nilai CF, I_geo, dan PLI, sedimen di perairan ini termasuk kategori tidak terkontaminasi dan tidak tercemar oleh logam berat Pb, Cd, Cu, Zn, Ni, dan Cr, serta masih aman untuk kehidupan biota laut (CF<0, I_geo<0 dan PLI<1. Kata Kunci: Morotai; sedimen; logam berat; pencemaran

  10. Evaluation of Gross Pollutant Wet Load in Sungai Sering, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noor, M. S. F. M.; Sidek, L. M.; Basri, H.; Zahari, N. M.; Said, N. F. M.; Roseli, ZA; Mohd. Dom, N.

    2016-03-01

    The gross pollutant wet load of Sungai Sering catchment, a tributary of Sungai Klang was evaluated. The catchment represents an urban catchment with rapid growth rate due to urbanization process. Urbanization frequently relates to drop of stormwater quality due to many factors such as uncontrolled pollution and improper waste disposal. The study aims to improve the understanding on the wet load trapped in 10 Gross Pollutant Traps (GPTs) in the study area. The amount of wet load analysed based on data collected in the duration from August to December 2015. There is a linear relationship between the amount of gross pollutant wet load and rainfall depth.

  11. STUDI PREVALENS FASCIOLOPSIASIS DI KABUPATEN HULU SUNGAI UTARA - KALSEL TAHUN 2002 DAN 2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anorital Anorital

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Fasciolopsiasis adalah penyakit kecacingan yang disebabkan oleh cacing Fasciolopsis buski. Cacing ini merupakan salah satu parasit trematoda terbesar yang dapat menginfeksi manusia dan bermanifestasi di dalam lumen usus.  Manusia terinfeksi cacing ini dikarenakan memakan tumbuhan air yang mentah atau yang tidak dimasak dengan baik. Secara endemik, penyakit kecacingan ini di Indonesia hanya ditemukan  di beberapa desa di kabupaten Hulu Sungai Utara dengan prevalens antara 1,2-7,8%. Sampai saat ini angka prevalens penyakit tidak menunjukkan kecenderungan turun, akan tetapi menunjukkan adanya penyebaran penyakit ke wilayah lainnya. Rancang penelitian adalah cross sectional dengan mengumpulkan data parasitologis untuk mengetahui besarnya prevalens  fasciolopsiasis yang dilakukan dengan cara pemeriksaan tinja penduduk pada 7 desa di 3 kecamatan pada kabupaten Hulu Sungai Utara. Hasil survei parasitologis yang dilaksanakan pada 7 desa penelitian (Sei Papuyu, Kalumpang Dalam, Sarang Burung, Talaga Mas, Putat Atas, Padang Bangkal dan Sapala-Bararawa yang mencakup 1.555 penduduk diperoleh angka prevalens sebanyak 7,8% positif fasciolopsiasis. Anak-anak usia di bawah 10 tahun merupakan penderita fasciolopsiasis yang paling banyak yaitu 67,8% atau 5,2% dari total penduduk yang diperiksa. Oleh karena itu perlu dikembangkan suatu upaya surveilans untuk memantau prevalens fasciolopsiasis dengan pemeriksaan tinja dan pengobatan penderita yang difokuskan kepada anak­ anak sekolah dasar. Pelaksanaannya 2 kali dalam setahun yaitu pada pertengahan musim hujan (Februari-Maret dan pertengahan musim kemarau (Agustus-September.

  12. Stochastic modeling for river pollution of Sungai Perlis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    River pollution has been recognized as a contributor to a wide range of health problems and disorders in human. It can pose health dangers to humans who come into contact with it, either directly or indirectly. Therefore, it is most important to measure the concentration of Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) as a water quality parameter since the parameter has long been the basic means for determining the degree of water pollution in rivers. In this study, BOD is used as a parameter to estimate the water quality at Sungai Perlis. It has been observed that Sungai Perlis is polluted due to lack of management and improper use of resources. Therefore, it is of importance to model the Sungai Perlis water quality in order to describe and predict the water quality systems. The BOD concentration secondary data set is used which was extracted from the Drainage and Irrigation Department Perlis State website. The first order differential equation from Streeter – Phelps model was utilized as a deterministic model. Then, the model was developed into a stochastic model. Results from this study shows that the stochastic model is more adequate to describe and predict the BOD concentration and the water quality systems in Sungai Perlis by having smaller value of mean squared error (MSE)

  13. Stochastic modeling for river pollution of Sungai Perlis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yunus, Nurul Izzaty Mohd.; Rahman, Haliza Abd. [Department of Mathematical Sciences, Faculty of Science, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia,81310 Johor Bahru, Johor (Malaysia); Bahar, Arifah [UTM-Centre of Industrial and Applied Mathematics (UTM-CIAM) Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 Johor Bahru, Johor (Malaysia)

    2015-02-03

    River pollution has been recognized as a contributor to a wide range of health problems and disorders in human. It can pose health dangers to humans who come into contact with it, either directly or indirectly. Therefore, it is most important to measure the concentration of Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) as a water quality parameter since the parameter has long been the basic means for determining the degree of water pollution in rivers. In this study, BOD is used as a parameter to estimate the water quality at Sungai Perlis. It has been observed that Sungai Perlis is polluted due to lack of management and improper use of resources. Therefore, it is of importance to model the Sungai Perlis water quality in order to describe and predict the water quality systems. The BOD concentration secondary data set is used which was extracted from the Drainage and Irrigation Department Perlis State website. The first order differential equation from Streeter – Phelps model was utilized as a deterministic model. Then, the model was developed into a stochastic model. Results from this study shows that the stochastic model is more adequate to describe and predict the BOD concentration and the water quality systems in Sungai Perlis by having smaller value of mean squared error (MSE)

  14. ANALISIS KONSENTRASI LOGAM BERAT TIMBAL (Pb DI MUARA SUNGAI PORONG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewi Parawita

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Laut merupakan tempat bermuaranya semua sungai, baik sungai kecil maupun sungai besar. Pembuangan lumpur lapindo ke laut yang di alirkan melalui muara sungai Porong mengandung logam berat, salah satunya yaitu timbal. Konsentrasi timbal yang melebihi baku mutu akan berpengaruh pada efek negatif biota. Tujuan dari penelitian adalah mengetahui konsentrasi timbal di muara sungai Porong. Metode yang digunakan adalah observasi, pengambila sampel dilakukan tiga kali tiap minggu pada waktu pagi hari. Hasil dari penelitian ini diketahui bahwa kondisi fisika kimia perairan antara lain : konsentrasi timbal di muara sungai Porong berada jauh di ambang batas dengan nilai konsentrasi timbal yaitu berkisar antara 0-0,490 mg/l, pH berkisar antara 7,6-7,7, suhu berkisar antara 30-32 0C, salinitas berkisar antara 11,3-12,3 ‰, DO berkisar antara 4,7-5,3 mg/l, dan TSS berkisar antara 482,6-926,6 mg/l. Kata Kunci : Konsentrasi, Timbal (Pb, Muara.  HEAVY METAL CONCENTRATION ANALYSIS OF LEAD (Pb IN PORONG RIVER DELTALapindo mud disposed into the sea which is piped through Porong river estuary contain heavy metals, one of which is lead. Lead concentrations that exceeded the quality standard will have the negative effects to biota. The aim of the study was to determine the concentration of lead in the Porong river estuary. The method used is observation, the samples was taken three times per week in the morning. Results of this research showed that the physical condition of the water chemistry, among others: the concentration of lead in the Porong river estuary was above the threshold value of lead concentrations ranging from 0 to 0.490 mg / l, pH ranging from 7.6 to 7.7, the temperature ranging from 30-32 oC, salinity ranged from 11.3 to 12.3 ‰, DO ranged from 4.7 to 5.3 mg / l and TSS ranged from 482.6 to 926.6 mg / l.Keywords: Heavy metals, Concentration, Lead (Pb, Delta

  15. Evolusi pengendapan sedimen Kuarter di daerah utara Air Musi, Kota Palembang - Sumatera Selatan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herman Moechtar

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.17014/ijog.vol2no1.20071In the studied area, the sedimentary Quaternary facies consists of fl uvial channel separated by fl oodbasin, swamp, and fl oodplain deposits. Changes in channel style from channel 1, 2, and to 3 are interpreted as the result of a change in the type of river discharge from low to high sinuosity channels. Vertical changes in the character of these fl uvial channels can be related to changes in humidity. The lateral and vertical succession of the fl oodbasin and swamp environments shows evidence of decreasing and increasing of these facies. They are the result of changes in climate. Vertical changes of the Quaternary deposit successions can be related to changes in climate. It is concluded that the subinterval facies I.a to I.c as form of channel 2 and fl oodplain facies (subinterval facies I.b refl ects a continuosly increase in climate from minimum to climatic maximum. Whereas, from the subinterval facies I.c to II.c during deposition of the subinterval facies II.b by the occurrence of fl oodbasin facies 2, the humid climate decreased from climatic maximum to minimum. Probably, this can be called as astrostratigraphy or orbital stratigraphy.    

  16. Pengaruh Sedimen Rawa dalam Menurunkan Kandungan Sulfat dan Pertumbuhan Populasi Mikroba dalam Air Asam Tambang

    OpenAIRE

    Takasihaeng, Clara Arista; Fahruddin; dwyana, Zaraswati

    2015-01-01

    Acid mine drainage (AMD) was the waste from the mine of industry, could be overcome used by microbial biology. This research has aimed to determine the effect of marsh sediments in reduced the content of sulfate and increased pH in acid mine drainage, known the growth of microbial populations in the treatment of acid mine water marsh sediments, and for known the kind of microbes based on morphological characteristics. AMD treatment was made with three kinds of treatment were treatment I was A...

  17. PENGARUH JENIS SEDIMEN WETLAND DALAM REDUKSI SULFAT PADA LIMBAH AIR ASAM TAMBANG (AAT)

    OpenAIRE

    Fahruddin

    2013-01-01

    Increasing mining activities in several regions in Indonesia, began to face problems, namely of environmental pollution. One of the mining waste that is liquid sulfur, or acid mine water, which can lower the pH of the water and dissolves heavy metals. Countermeasures for the chemical method is to use lime, but this is less effective. The method is good and is environmentally friendly way by using biological bacteria sulphate reduction bacteria (SRB) that naturally there are many in the sedime...

  18. Water and suspended sediment dynamics in the Sungai Selangor estuary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Observations of salinity, temperature, suspended sediment concentration (SSC) and tidal current velocity were made in the lower and along the longitudinal axis sungai Selangor estuary over near-spring cycles. The variations of these parameters at the measurement stations and along the channel are presented to illustrate the water and sediment dynamics in the estuary. The results shows that the Sungai Selangor estuary changes from a partially-mixed type during neaps to a well-mixed one during springs. promoted by stronger tidal energy during the higher tidal ranges. The strong neap density stratification is also promoted by the high river discharges during the measurement period maximum concentration of suspended sediment 2000 mg,'/) occurs during maximum current velocities both during flood and ebb. The maximum salinity was achieved during high water slack but the salt water was totally flushed out of estuary during low water springs. The longitudinal axis measurement indicates that a partially-developed zone of turbidity maximum with a sediment concentration over 1000 mg/l was observed at the limit of salt water intrusion in salinity range less than 1 ppt. Tidal pumping as oppose to the estuarine circulation is the more dominant factor in the maximum formation as the salt water is totally excluded at low water. (author)

  19. TINGKAT KANDUNGAN UNSUR RADIOAKTIF AIR SUNGAI AYUNG DI DENPASAR BALI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewa Nyoman Alit Ardana

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Ayung river is one of the longest rivers in Bali. The upstream of the river is in regency of Bangli, Badung, Buleleng, Tabananand downstream is located in Padang Galak beach, East Denpasar Sub-regency. As the sample of the study, the water of the river wastaken from the stream entering the city of Denpasar. The sample was taken in five different points and for each point was taken twice. Thefirst was taken at 5 p.m, and the second was at 6 a.m. This study aims at finding out the rate of radioactive content of Ayung river water inthe city of Denpasar.The water sample was analyzed in Radiometry Analysis Group of Radiation Physics and environmental research centre andNuclear Technique Development, Jalan Taman Sari 71 Bandung – 40132. The process of counting was conducted in this place in order toknow the rate of the element activities and then identification of elements contens in the sample. The result of the counting and identifyingwas compered with standard grade of radioactivity in the area.The element of identification result and the amount of activity rate found showed that the element were natural radioactiveelements, the content: 40K (Kalium-40, 234Th (Thorium-234, 233Th (Thorium-233, 228Ac (Actinium-288, 114mIn (Indium-114m. Thehighest activity of radioactive elements in each sample point: in E2 point content element 40K with the activity 2.08 Bq/lt, in point A1 234Thwith the activity 16.34 Bq/lt, in point E1 containts 233Th with activity 598.29 Bq/lt, in point E1 and E2 contain 228Ac with the activity939.63 Bq/lt. The height of activity value of the counting and identifying elements was still under the rate of the highest level.The result of the study showed that radioactive elements 40K had the tendency of increasing radioactivity. The same thinghappened to 233Th at the peak of energi 185.00 keV. The content of its radioactive tends to exist in each point of sample point and theactivity tends to increase. Though the rate of radioactivity content was still under the highest permitted level (1x104 Bq/lt for 40K and7x102 for 233Th bu the case needs to be watched out that the dangerus grade pollution would take place.

  20. Penentuan Konsentrasi Tanah dalam Air Sungai Berdasarkan Perbedaan Warna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imam Sofi'i

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Information of soil erosion is very useful related with prevention action and planning in the future. The objective of this research is to determine soil concentration in water river based on colour differences using image processing and artificial neural network (ANN. Soil and water mixture image was taken using a digital camera then was processed by an image processing program. Two ANN Models were developed. The first model had 3 input parameters while the second model had 6 input parameters. Both models had altogether one output parameters of the soil concentration. The accuracy of the first model was 38% while the second one was 36%.

  1. ?????? STUDI PENETAPAN DAERAH SEMPADAN SUNGAI WOSI KOTA MANOKWARI PROVINSI PAPUA BARAT ??????

    OpenAIRE

    HENDRIK JUDHA AHAB

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRAK ?????? STUDI PENETAPAN DAERAH SEMPADAN SUNGAI WOSI KOTA MANOKWARI PROVINSI PAPUA BARAT ?????? Oleh HENDRIK JUDHA AHAB D111 08 888 (Program Studi Teknik Sipil Fakultas Teknik Universitas Hasanuddin) Pembimbing I : PROF. DR. IR. H. MUH. SALEH PALLU, M.ENG Pembimbing II : DR.ENG MUKSHAN PUTRA HATTA, ST. MT. Banjir di suatu daerah mengakibatkan kerusakan sarana fasilitas umum, daerah pemukiman, kerusakan tebing sungai yang mengancam fasilitas-fasilitas penting ya...

  2. DISTRIBUSI PARASIT USUS PROTOZOA DI KABUPATEN HULU SUNGAI UTARA KALIMANTAN SELATAN

    OpenAIRE

    Anorital Anorital; Dewi, Rita M; Sahat Ompusunggu

    2012-01-01

    The intestinal infection disease caused by protozoa: amoeba is one of the public health problem with high incidence in the community. From the research activity conducted in Hulu Sungai Utara Regency in the year 2002, to obtain of prevalence of protozoa infection from stool examination from resident in 6 villages at 3 subdistrict in Hulu Sungai Utara Regency. The research has conducted to be carry out survey parasite to the community. Sample size will be examination are 230 persons per villag...

  3. Pemberdayaan Ekonomi Rakyat Berbasis Pesantren di Kabupaten Hulu Sungai Utara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surya Supi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Pesantren are widely spread in Indonesia reaching to the most remote areas, hence have the potential to empower people’s economy. Pesantren are involved in fostering self sufficiency among its members as well as the general society, which makes them a potential capital for empowering people’s economy. Using the integrity and capacity to mobilize resources. Pesantren are an important source in effort to increase community production and productivity. The study focused on two Pesantren Nurul Fajri of pesantren and Kholidiyah of pesantren located in Hulu Sungai Utara Regency, as example to evaluate the interchange and interactive between Islamic institutes / school and society. Society benefit from the existence of pesantren through various services and products of its business unit which contribute to solving their economic problems, contribute to community capital through the nurturing and promoting of cooperatives and employment. In addition, in the context capacity development, pesantren education contributes to community rejuvenation and society development, instill values and norm of hardworking, diligence, commitment, which vital for harmonious human existence, self actualization, and development.

  4. Benthic macroinvertebrates diversity and water quality assessment at Sungai Congkak recreational area, Hulu Langat, Selangor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustaqim-Alias, M.; Ahmad, A. K.

    2013-11-01

    A study on benthic macroinvertebrates diversity and water quality assessment was conducted at Sungai Congkak recreational area in Hulu Langat, Selangor. Sums of eight sampling stations were selected with a distance of 100-200 m interval between each station. Benthic macroinvertebrates was sampled using a Surber net, while water sampling and analysis were undertaken according to HACH standard methods. A total of 3754 individuals from 40 families of benthic macroinvertebrates were recorded at this river. Ecological indices namely Shannon diversity index (2.49), Pielou evenness index (0.77) and Margalef richness index (4.06) demonstrate that Sungai Congkak is at good condition and benthic macroinvertebrates has homogeneous distribution along the sampling sites. Elmidae, Hydrophilidae, Baetidae and Perlidae were most dominant families present in that area and adapted progressively with excellent water quality (> 300 individuals). As regards to Malaysian's Water Quality Index (WQI), the study area at Sungai Congkak is classified in class I which has good water quality conditions. The Pearson correlation test indicates that ecological indices have strong correlation toward WQI at all sampling stations. As a conclusion, the benthic macroinvertebrates and WQI data demonstrated that Sungai Congkak is clean and suitable as recreational stream based on this study.

  5. Hydrological assessment for mini hydropower potential at Sungai Pahang - Temerloh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sg Pahang at Temerloh was considered for assessment of hydropower potential using hydrological analysis method and hydrological model. The available data related to topography, soil, land use, weather and discharge pertaining to the study catchment were used to characterize the catchment. The characterization was required for water resources hence hydropower assessment. The hydrology of the study catchment was simulated through the model. This hydrological study is required due to the proposed mini hydroelectric power plant at Pulau Temerloh. It is essential to evaluate the existing river flow characteristic and to model the environmental flow assessment of the river. Two rainfalll stations, JPS Temerloh and Pintu Kawalan Paya Kertam Station are selected to develop the Rainfall Intensity Duration frequency (RIDF) Curve to determine the rainfall intensity of the area. Daily river flow were recorded at Sg Pahang at Temerloh and Sg Pahang at Lubok Paku were used to develop the Flow Duration Curve (FDC) to study the characteristic of Sungai Pahang flow. The 7 days low flow with 10 years return period (7Q10 low flow) was obtained using both Gumbel Method and Log Pearson Type III Method. The results from FDC shows that 50% percentage of time the Sg Pahang - Temerloh is exceeded over a historical period is 400 m3/s and 50% percentage of time the Sg Pahang - Lubok Paku is exceeded over a historical period is 650 m3/s. The required environmental flow are set to be 7Q10 low flow which is 64.215 m3/s for Sg Pahang at Temerloh and 79.24 m3/s for Sg Pahang at Lubok Paku. The results show the water resources are abundant and hence boost the mini hydropower potentiality at Sg Pahang.

  6. Hydrological assessment for mini hydropower potential at Sungai Pahang @ Temerloh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidek, L. M.; Zaki, A. Z. A.; Mustaffa, Z.; Ibrahim, M. I. H.; Muda, Z. C.; Thiruchelvam, S.; Basri, H.

    2013-06-01

    Sg Pahang at Temerloh was considered for assessment of hydropower potential using hydrological analysis method and hydrological model. The available data related to topography, soil, land use, weather and discharge pertaining to the study catchment were used to characterize the catchment. The characterization was required for water resources hence hydropower assessment. The hydrology of the study catchment was simulated through the model. This hydrological study is required due to the proposed mini hydroelectric power plant at Pulau Temerloh. It is essential to evaluate the existing river flow characteristic and to model the environmental flow assessment of the river. Two rainfalll stations, JPS Temerloh and Pintu Kawalan Paya Kertam Station are selected to develop the Rainfall Intensity Duration frequency (RIDF) Curve to determine the rainfall intensity of the area. Daily river flow were recorded at Sg Pahang at Temerloh and Sg Pahang at Lubok Paku were used to develop the Flow Duration Curve (FDC) to study the characteristic of Sungai Pahang flow. The 7 days low flow with 10 years return period (7Q10 low flow) was obtained using both Gumbel Method and Log Pearson Type III Method. The results from FDC shows that 50% percentage of time the Sg Pahang @ Temerloh is exceeded over a historical period is 400 m3/s and 50% percentage of time the Sg Pahang @ Lubok Paku is exceeded over a historical period is 650 m3/s. The required environmental flow are set to be 7Q10 low flow which is 64.215 m3/s for Sg Pahang at Temerloh and 79.24 m3/s for Sg Pahang at Lubok Paku. The results show the water resources are abundant and hence boost the mini hydropower potentiality at Sg Pahang.

  7. Monitoring Dan Analisis Kadar Aluminium (Al) Dan Besi (Fe) Pada Pengolahan Air Minum Pdam Tirtanadi Sunggal

    OpenAIRE

    Alwin Parulian

    2009-01-01

    Telah dilakukan penelitian berupa monitoring dan analisis kadar logam-logam Aluminium (Al) dan Besi (Fe) dalam sampel air yang diperoleh dari proses pengolahan air minum PDAM Tirtanadi Sunggal. Sampel air diambil dari empat titik yaitu: Air sungaiBelawan, air di clarifier, air di reservoar dan air limbah. Pemantauan dilakukan selama empat bulan mulai bulan Januari 2009 sampai April 2009. Kadar logam Aluminium dan Besi yang terdapat dalam sampel air tersebut dianalisis dengan menggunakan alat ...

  8. Benthic macroinvertebrate as biological indicator for water quality in Sungai Penchala

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahazar, Akmal; Shuhaimi-Othman, Mohammad; Kutty, Ahmad Abas

    2013-11-01

    Sungai Penchala is one of the main tributaries for Sungai Klang which flows through the urban area of Wilayah Persekutuan Kuala Lumpur before merging with Sungai Klang in the Petaling Jaya district. As urban river, Sungai Penchala is polluted because of anthropogenic activities and this include direct garbage load, untreated drainage system from nearby residential area and also runoff from frequent heavy rain as the country located in tropical area. Currently, there are efforts from government and educational sectors to monitor and rehabilitate the river with vision to return it into its former natural function and not as a sink for urban population. Unlike pristine or recreational river, the water quality of urban river changes drastically over day even hours. Thus there is need for a procedure that can be used for water quality inspection in time of sampling but also provides reliable information that can resemble past event. Therefore, to do that the river monitoring was carried out by employing the traditional physical-chemical parameter by using Hydrolab Quanta® multi parameter reader. The benthic macroinvertebrate was collected using Surber's sampler and preserved in 95% ethanol for identification purposes. The data collected was analyzed for Water Quality Index (WQI) and Biological Monitoring Working Party (BMWP) to determine the river condition. The system used has its own strength and weakness but when employed together, it is expected to give better knowledge in evaluating river condition. Thus, increase the accuracy of evaluation process. In this study, the biological monitoring shows that changes in water quality influence the diversity of benthic macroinvertebrate. This study prove that biological monitoring by utilizing benthic macroinvertebrate can also be used in determining water quality of urban type river. It is also produced result that more readily interprets as it reveal past event disturbance which sometimes missed by physical

  9. Water Quality and Heavy Metal Concentrations in Sediment of Sungai Kelantan, Kelantan, Malaysia: A Baseline Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study on water quality and heavy metal concentration in sediment at selected sites of Sungai Kelantan was carried out. Ten water samples were collected along the river for physical and chemical analysis and twenty-six water and sediment samples were collected for heavy metal analysis. Water was sampled at three different dates throughout the study period whereas sediments were collected once. In addition to heavy metal analysis, sediment samples were also analysed for texture, ph and organic content. The physical and chemical water quality analyses were carried out according to the ALPHA procedures. Result of water quality analysis (physico-chemical) indicated that Sungai Kelantan is characterised by excellent water quality and comparable to pristine ecosystems such as the National Park and Kenyir Lake. This river was classified into class I - class III based on Malaysian interim water quality standard criteria (INWQS). Heavy metals Pb, Zn, Cu and Cd was detected at low concentration in sediment samples, except for Fe and Mn. The presence of Fe and Mn in sediment samples was though to be of natural origin from the soil. Anthropogenic metal concentrations in sediment were low indicating that Sungai Kelantan has not experienced extreme pollution. (author)

  10. NATURE TOURISM PLANNING USING RIVER-BASED RESOURCES AND RECREATIONAL ASSESSMENT FOR SUNGAI DINDING, PERAK, MALAYSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Ainuddin Nuruddin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Rivers and stream corridors provide a variety of valuable resources including aquatic habitats for fish and other organism, riparian habitats for fish and other organism, riparian habitats for vegetation and terrestrial wildlife. They also provide potential recreational and nature tourism activities. In order to fully identify potential recreational and activities, assessment of recreation resource element should be carried out. The objective of this study was to plan for nature tourism activities using river-based resources and recreational assessment of Sungai Dinding, Manjung, Perak. Uniqueness ratio of each zone for was measured along a 7 km stretch of Sungai Dinding. The highest uniqueness ratio value was Zone 5 with the total value of 13.20. Zone 3 and 1 ranked the second and third respectively with the total value of 9.59 and 8.79. In the physical and chemical category, Zone 5 has the highest score with the value of 6.23. The highest uniqueness value scored in this area is the width of the river during low flow and bank height. Several recreational and nature tourism activities were suggested as a result of the assessment. Building of facilities such as jetties and fishing docks are proposed to enhance recreational experience to the people who want to enjoy the many activities in Sungai Dinding. This approach helps natural resource managers to plan for nature tourism activities.

  11. X-ray fluorescent analysis on Indo-Pacific glass beads from Sungai Mas archaeological sites, Kedah, Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sungai Mas was an ancient port-kingdom located on West Coast of Peninsula Malaysia in a district of Kota Kuala Muda, Kedah, Malaysia. The port-kingdom evolved as an entrepot since fifth century AD and continuously visited by international trader from India, China, Middle East and Europe until eighteenth century AD. Sungai Mas was also one of the Indo-Pacific beads making centers in Southeast Asia since sixth to thirteenth century AD and also produced pottery and brick. X-ray fluorescent analysis (XRF) on Sungai Mas Indo-Pacific beads is carried out to determine whether the glass beads originated from Arikamedu, India or locally made by community in Sungai Mas. Totally, twenty-two samples of beads and beads materials assayed by XRF were chosen. Contents of nine major elements and nine trace elements, which might be present of flux, stabilizer, colorants or opacifier were examined. The elements Si, Na, K, Ca, Fe, Al, Ti, Mn, Mg, Cu, Pb, Zr, Sr, Ba, La, U, Ni and Cr were detectable in all samples. The concentration of elements found are discussed in terms of flux, silica or lead base glass, color and/or opacity of the glass beads and glass samples. The result showed that Sungai Mas produced their own Indo-Pacific beads from sixth to thirteenth century AD. (author)

  12. Pengaruh Suhu Air Pendingin PLTU Terhadap Kandungan Klorofil Pada Air Sungai Sicanang Belawan

    OpenAIRE

    Hasibuan, Arini Sagita Dewi

    2011-01-01

    Has done research on the effects of power plant cooling water temperature on chlorophyll content in river water sicanang Belawan. Determination of chlorophyll content is done by filtering the sample water and then rinsing with acetone and then centrifuged disentrifuge and results are measured with visible light spectrophotometer at a wavelength of 630nm, 645nm and 665nm. The results of measurements of chlorophyll levels at the control point 100 meters before the disposal of cooling water is 4...

  13. FAUNA IKAN SILURIFORMES DARI SUNGAI SERAYU, BANJARAN, DAN TAJUM DI KABUPATEN BANYUMAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Bhagawati

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak __________________________________________________________________________________________ Sebagian besar Ordo Siluriformes hidup di perairan sungai, dan kelompok ikan ini memiliki morfologi yang sangat beragam.  Suatu kajian telah dilakukan untuk mengetahui variasi morfologi, kekayaan spesies serta kelimpahan Ordo Siluriformes pada Sungai Serayu, Banjaran, dan Tajum yang melintas di Kabupaten Banyumas. Metode yang digunakan adalah survei eksploratif dan pengambilan sampel dilakukan secara acak kelompok, kemudian data yang diperoleh dianalisis secara deskriptif. Fauna ikan Siluriformes yang berhasil dikoleksi dari ketiga sungai adalah sebanyak tujuh spesies dan yang termasuk ke dalam familia Bagridae lima spesies, Clariidae satu spesies, serta  Sisoridae sebanyak satu spesies. Karakter morfologi yang dapat digunakan sebagai pembeda spesies pada anggota Siluriformes adalah adanya sirip lemak, perbandingan panjang sirip lemak dan sirip dubur, bentuk dan ukuran panjang sungut serta bentuk ujung sirip ekor. Secara umum keberadaan ikan Mystus nigriceps lebih melimpah dibandingkan keenam spesies lainnya.   Abstract __________________________________________________________________________________________ Most of the order Siluriformes live in river, this the fish has various morphology diversities. This study was conducted to determine the morphology variations, species richness, and abundance of the order Siluriformes in Serayu, Banjaran, and Tajum River in Banyumas. The research method used explorative survey while the sample drawing used random sampling method, then the data were analyzed descriptively. The species of Siluriformes that were collected from three rivers belong to family Bagridae (seven species; Clariidae (one species, and Sisoridae (one species.  The morphology characters that can be used to differentiate the Siluriformes member are the presence of adipose fin; the ratio of the length of adipose and anal fin; the shape

  14. Remote Sensing for Mapping RAMSAR Heritage Site at Sungai Pulai Mangrove Forest Reserve, Johor, Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Sungai Pulai Mangrove Forest Reserve (SPMFR) is the largest reverin mangrove system in Johore. In 2003 about 9,126 ha of the Sungai Pulai mangrove was designated as a RAMSAR site. RAMSAR sites are wetland areas that are deemed to have international importance and are included in the List of Wetlands of International Importance. The SPMFR plays a significant socio-economic role to the adjacent 38 villages. Satellite remote sensing is a useful source of information where it provides timely and complete coverage for vegetation mapping especially in mangroves where the accessibility is difficult. This study was carried out to identify and map land cover types using SPOT-4 imagery at the Sungai Pulai-RAMSAR site and its surrounding areas. Through unsupervised classification technique a total of seven classes of land cover type were mapped, where about 90 % mapping accuracy was gained from the accuracy assessment. Later, vegetation densities were classified into five levels namely very high, high, medium, low and very low based on crown density scale using vegetation indices model such as NDVI, AVI and OSAVI. Results from NDVI and OSAVI model were almost similar but AVI model detected more on medium vegetation which did not show the real ground condition. The study concludes that SPOT-4 imagery was able to discriminate mangrove area clearly from other land covers type. Vegetation indices model can be used as a tool for mapping vegetation density level in the SPMFR and its surrounding area. Therefore VIs models from remote sensing are useful to monitor and manage the mangrove forest for sustainable management and preserve the SPMFR as a RAMSAR site in Peninsular Malaysia. (author)

  15. Study of radon concentration and toxic elements in drinking and irrigated water and its implications in Sungai Petani, Kedah, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nisar Ahmad

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The radon activity concentration and toxic elements have been assessed in drinking and irrigated water samples collected from different locations of Sungai Petani, Kedah, Malaysia. The water samples were collected from wells, streams and taps. A calibrated alpha spectrometer RAD-7 (Model 2890 and Atomic Absorption Spectrometers (Perkin–Elmer, Model AAnalyst 200, Shimadzu, Model AA-700 were used to estimate radon activity concentration and toxic elements, respectively. Maximum average value of radon concentration among the various types of water sources was found 14.7 ± 1.44 Bq/l in well water used for drinking and irrigation and minimum was found 5.37 ± 0.58 Bq/l in tap water used for drinking. Contribution of radon in drinking water to indoor air and age dependent associated annual effective doses were calculated from the measured radon concentration and were found less than lower limit of recommended action level. The activity concentrations of Ni > Pb > Cd > As > Cr were found higher for streams water as compared to wells and tap water. Values of radon concentration in well water were found higher than EPA recommended level and lower than WHO action level while the annual effective doses and level of toxic elements in water reported in this study were found lower than recommended level.

  16. SITUS “KOTO RAYO†DAN KEARIFAN TRADISIONAL DI TEPI SUNGAI TABIR JAMBI

    OpenAIRE

    Pahrudin -

    2013-01-01

    Dalam penelitian ini, penulis  membahas  ‘Koto Rayo’, sebuah pemukiman kuno di sisi Sungai Tabir, Jambi sebagai sebuah budaya dan kearifan lokal. Penelitian difokuskan pada nilai kearifan lokal yang dimiliki masyarakat dalam kaitan dengan situs ini. Hasil penelitian dan pembahasan memunculkan fakta-fakta sebagai berikut. Pulau Sumatera memiliki peradaban tinggi di masa lalu, khususnya melalui Kerajaan Sriwijaya yang mengontrol dan mendominasi seluruh pulau ini dan sebagian besar wilayah...

  17. Odonata of Sungai Bebar, Pahang, Malaysia, with four species recorded for the first time from mainland Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rory A Dow

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Records are presented of Odonata collected in September 2009 from the Sungai Bebar and the surrounding area, in Pekan Forest Reserve, southeastern Pahang, Peninsular Malaysia. A total of 50 species from nine families were collected. Two of the species listed, Amphicnemis bebar and A. hoisen, were first discovered during this survey. Another four previously known species were recorded in mainland Asia for the first time: Elattoneura coomansi, Elattoneura longispina, Brachygonia ophelia and Tyriobapta laidlawi.

  18. Spatial Analysis in Determination Of Flood Prone Areas Using Geographic Information System and Analytical Hierarchy Process at Sungai Sembrong's Catchment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukari, S. M.; Ahmad, M. A.; Wai, T. L.; Kaamin, M.; Alimin, N.

    2016-07-01

    Floods that struck Johor state in 2006 and 2007 and the East Coastal in 2014 have triggered a greatly impact to the flood management here in Malaysia. Accordingly, this study conducted to determine potential areas of flooding, especially in Batu Pahat district since it faces terrifying experienced with heavy flood. This objective is archived by using the application of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) on study area of flood risk location at the watershed area of Sungai Sembrong. GIS functions as spatial analysis is capable to produce new information based on analysis of data stored in the system. Meanwhile the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) was used as a method for setting up in decision making concerning the existing data. By using AHP method, preparation and position of the criteria and parameters required in GIS are neater and easier to analyze. Through this study, a flood prone area in the watershed of Sungai Sembrong was identified with the help of GIS and AHP. Analysis was conducted to test two different cell sizes, which are 30 and 5. The analysis of flood prone areas were tested on both cell sizes with two different water levels and the results of the analysis were displayed by GIS. Therefore, the use of AHP and GIS are effective and able to determine the potential flood plain areas in the watershed area of Sungai Sembrong.

  19. Penentuan Total Suspended Solid (TSS) Dalam Air Sungai Deli Dan Pengaruhnya Terhadap Waktu Penyimpanan

    OpenAIRE

    Thayyibah, Zurriyatin

    2010-01-01

    The main cause of river pollution was waste and waste water originating from industrial activities. Analysis of solids in the river water was very important for determining the components of the water completely. The parameters used to indicate the character of water include physical parameters such as solids. Analysis of levels of total suspended solid of Deli river water has been carried out. Spectrophotometric methods can be used determine the total suspended solid with homogenize the wate...

  20. MODEL PREDIKSI TIGGI MUKA AIR SUNGAI KALI GARANG SEMARANG DENGAN JARINGAN SYARAF TIRUAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joko Windarto

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available One of the big rivers flowing in center of Semarang city is Garang river with watershed area about 220km2 and having characteristic such as big flood discharge and flash flood. Where flash flood on January25th 1990, caused more than 45 people died and goods losses until 8.5 billion rupiahs. One of some modelsto pedict water level is used black box model. Artificial Neural Network one’s of the black bock model . Inthis research, Artificial Neural Network (ANN with back propagation method is used to predict waterlevel in Garang river where as input are rainfall in upstream of Garang river during two days, while asoutput is water level in downstream of Garang river for two hour later. Result of optimum predicting haveMSE 0.0037 and average of error 1.18 %.

  1. ANALISIS KADAR LOGAM BERAT AIR SUNGAI SEKONYER DI KABUPATEN KOTAWARINGIN BARAT KALIMANTAN TENGAH.

    OpenAIRE

    Maria T. Indarwati; M.S. Mahendra; I W. Arthana

    2012-01-01

    Sekonyer river as west border of Tanjung Puting National Park, is the main flora and fauna preservation areasespecially for orangutan conservation. Part of Sekonyer river upper course around year 1990 to 2002, there was anillegal gold mining (IGM) activity, and in 2002 this IGM was forbidden to be operated because of the use of mercuryfor extracting the gold. In former IGM location, up to this research has been done, the location is still used for silikapuya (sand) mining that is extracted fr...

  2. PENDUGAAN EROSI DAN PERENCANAAN KONSERVASI TANAH DAN AIR PADA DAERAH ALIRAN SUNGAI OTAN KABUPATEN TABANAN

    OpenAIRE

    TATIEK KUSMAWATI

    2012-01-01

    Erosion Prediction and Planning of Soil Water Conservation at Otan Watershed, Tabanan Regency The aims of this research was to predict the erosion and planning of soil and water conservation when the erosion is more than tolerable erosion. The USLE (Universal Soil Loss Equation) was used to predict erosion and planning of soil and water conservation. The result showed that the erosion level in this area was varied from very slight to very severe. The lowest erosion was on land unit 11 a...

  3. Analisis COD (Chemical Oxygen Demand) padakualitas air sungai Krueng Tamiang di Kabupaten Aceh Tamiang

    OpenAIRE

    Veronisa, Irene Deva

    2015-01-01

    Tamiang Krueng River is a large river that divides the two cities of Kuala Simpang, Aceh Tamiang. The flow of water entering the estuaries of Krueng Tamiang indicate contain contaminants. This happens because there is a river that runs along the factory or industrial activity in households, markets and hospitals that operate and dispose of waste into the river. This study aims to determine the water quality conditions and differences in levels of COD (Chemical Oxygen Demand) in Krueng Tamiang...

  4. PEMBANGUNAN HUKUM SUMBER DAYA AIR SUNGAI YANG BERBASIS KEARIFAN LOKAL: PELUANG DAN TANTANGANNYA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mr. Sulastriyono

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to discuss the opportunity and challenge in the development of river water resources law as a consequence of population growth, development, and technology advancement. Fast growth on water needs induces the growth of economic value of water, rather than its social values. This condition potentially causes of conflict interests among sectors, among regions and among various stakeholder related to water resources management. The management of river water resources can be perceived as an opportunity as well as a challenge. The quantity and the potential of water which is abundant in Indonesia to use water resources optimally. However, the development of river water resources law still faces some challenges, namely institutional obstacle, legal system and culture. Globalization in the free market economic order must be faced by Indonesia in its efforts to develop law on the management of river water resources. Privatization in the management of river water resources led to the increase of the role of private sector in pursuing economic benefits. It is feared that privatization will limit the community access to water resources and will make the price of water is more expensive. An integrated law development of river water resources based on local wisdom is an alternative guarantee the community access and the sustainability of the availability way to river water resources.

  5. PENDUGAAN EROSI DAN PERENCANAAN KONSERVASI TANAH DAN AIR PADA DAERAH ALIRAN SUNGAI OTAN KABUPATEN TABANAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TATIEK KUSMAWATI

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Erosion Prediction and Planning of Soil Water Conservation at Otan Watershed, Tabanan Regency The aims of this research was to predict the erosion and planning of soil and water conservation when the erosion is more than tolerable erosion. The USLE (Universal Soil Loss Equation was used to predict erosion and planning of soil and water conservation. The result showed that the erosion level in this area was varied from very slight to very severe. The lowest erosion was on land unit 11 and 12 which were on the forest land. Slight erosion occurred on land units 2, 3, 4, 5, 10, 13, 18, 20, 22, 23, 25, 26, 28, 31, 32, 33, 34, 36, 37, 40, 41, and 43 on the use of forest land, irrigated fields, and mix crop land. Moderate erosion can be found at cocoa plantations, coffee plantations, scrub and dry land (land unit 1, 8, 16, 30, 38, dan 45. Severe and very severe erosion occurs at mixed crop land, coffee plantations, mixed crop and dry land (land unit 35 and 6, 7, 9, 14, 15, 17, 19, 21, 24, 27, 29, 39, 42, and 44 . The planning of soil and water conservation was focused on the very severe erosion by doing for some plant growing storied canopies, very high density, and constructed terrace for land unit of 6, 7, 14, 15 ,19, 21, 27, and, 29. While at land unit, 9, 17, 24, and 35 was purposed mixed estate crop with high density, it was combinated with mulch of 1 ton/ha and in land unit 39 were for traditional terrace with gogo rice and corn plant in rotation plantation.

  6. ANALISIS KADAR LOGAM BERAT AIR SUNGAI SEKONYER DI KABUPATEN KOTAWARINGIN BARAT KALIMANTAN TENGAH.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria T. Indarwati

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Sekonyer river as west border of Tanjung Puting National Park, is the main flora and fauna preservation areasespecially for orangutan conservation. Part of Sekonyer river upper course around year 1990 to 2002, there was anillegal gold mining (IGM activity, and in 2002 this IGM was forbidden to be operated because of the use of mercuryfor extracting the gold. In former IGM location, up to this research has been done, the location is still used for silikapuya (sand mining that is extracted from the sands by using water from the river, as a result, the waste water wasinundated in the mining area and flows into Sekonyer river. The objectives of this research are first of all, to identifythe heavy metal degree of the water, such as mercury, copper, cadmium, zinc, lead, arsenic, and chrome. The secondone is to identify the source of pollution, and the last one is to identify the potential heavy metal that pollute the water.Composite method was used in collecting the water samples, i.e. in Sekonyer river and the mining location.Water and puya samples were analyzed in Analytical Laboratory of University of Udayana, and then its pollutionindexes were counted, and the quality of the water was fixed based on Third Degree of quality standardized criteria,Government Rule Number 82 Year 2001.The results of the research show that along the Sekonyer river, from upper to lower courses of the river sideswith the following conditions: from the lower course of mining area it was found light pollution with pollution index of 2,51, after puya mine it was found heavy pollution with pollution index of 17,84, up to mid of Rimba Orangutan Eco-Lodge with Sekonyer river estuary there were found light pollution with pollution indexes of 3,71; 4,59; and 2,88respectively, but in the junction of Sekonyer river and Ulin river it was found moderate pollution with pollution indexof 5,13, and in Sekonyer river estuary it was found heavy pollution with pollution index of 16,35.It was also found heavy pollution with pollution index of 16,26 in the inundated water in the puya mininglocation . It was also happened to puya in the mining location that was contaminated by heavy metal of mercury in0,1168 ppm and zinc in 0,195 ppm degrees, whilst in Kumai river, upper side of Kumai quay it was found heavypollution with pollution index of 17,42.From the results of the analysis, it can be concluded that the heavy metals was derived from mining area(Aspai, from the sea and also from upper course of Kumai river. The potential metals as the pollutant were cadmium,zinc, lead, and mercury.

  7. Analisa Kadar Fosfat Pada Limbah Cair Rumah Sakit Dan Air Sungai Disekitarnya Secara Spektrofotometri UV - VIS

    OpenAIRE

    Tambunan, Febri Yanthi

    2014-01-01

    Have been made analysis phosphate content about waste water hospital and river around hospital. Act of determining phosphat with applying for ascorbic acid as reducer by gething UV-VIS spectrophotometry method with a wave lenght of 880 nm. Where on acid ambience Ammonium molybdate and Pottasium antimonyltartrat reacting to Orthophosphoric acid forming Phosphomolybdent and than reduction by ascorbic acid become blue Molibdent complex. From analysis results content phosphate is 0,00016 mg/L- 0,...

  8. KAJIAN PEMBANGUNAN HUKUM SUMBER DAYA AIR SUNGAI DALAM PERSPEKTIF SOSIOLOGI HUKUM

    OpenAIRE

    Mr. Sulastriyono

    2008-01-01

    Water river resource laws have functioned as a tool of development but its unbalance to give interest and justice towards all the people in Indonesia. Water use rights in the Law number 7 of 2004 is debatable and can be interpreted as a political will of the government to lead water management privatization. In the sociology of law context, study on water river resource laws is not only focus on written law but also sociocultural values in the society. The development of holistic and integrat...

  9. Efisiensi Penyaluran Air Irigasi Di Kawasan Sungai Ular Daerah Ramonia Kabupaten Deli Serdang

    OpenAIRE

    Siallagan, Saut

    2010-01-01

    The efficiency of irrigation water distribution is the percentage of water that used by plant compared to those supplied. During distribution of water from intake to the rice field some water was lost especially in the primary, secondary and tertiary channels due to evaporation, seepage and percolation. To comply with irrigation water, enough water should be supplied and distributed to every channel in the rice field. Therefore the discharge should be measured to make water ...

  10. Efisiensi Penyaluran Air Irigasi Di Kawasan Sungai Ular Daerah Sumber Rejo Kabupaten Deli Serdang

    OpenAIRE

    Afandi, Imam

    2011-01-01

    The efficiency of water distribution irrigation is the percentage of water that used by plant compare water supplied. During distribution of water from intake to the rice field some water was lost especially in the primary, secondary and tertiary channels due to evaporation, seepage and percolation. To comply with irrigation water enough water should supplied and distributed to every channel in the rice field. Therefore the discharge should be measured to make water distribution is as efficie...

  11. Efisiensi Penyaluran Air Irigasi di Kawasan Sungai Ular Daerah Singosari Kabupaten Serdang Bedagai

    OpenAIRE

    Putra, Eko Wahyudi

    2011-01-01

    Efficiency of water distribution is percentage of water that flow into the rice field compared to the amount of water entering from river. The efficiency can be calculated by multiplying the efficiency of primary, secondary and tertiary channels. Efficiency of water distribution is affected by the seepage, percolation and evaporation. It was found from the research conducted in the irrigation area of Singosari districts Serdang Bedagai that the efficiency of water distribution ...

  12. Analisis Kualitas Air Sungai Dan Perilaku Pengguna Serta Kaitanya Dengan Keluhan Kesehatan Kulit Pada Masyarakat Sekitar Sungai Babura Kecamatan Medan Baru Tahun 2012

    OpenAIRE

    Lubis, Yunita Uli

    2012-01-01

    Water condition of the Babura River is physically muddy, oily, and contains human feces. People’s bad behavior in sanitation, especially in the lack of stockpiling clean water can decrease their health status so that it can cause skin disease. The aim of the research was to know the quality of water and the behavior of the people surrounding the Babura River, Medan Baru Subdistrict, who suffered from skin disease in 2012. The type of the research was a descriptive survey in order to ...

  13. DISTRIBUSI PARASIT USUS PROTOZOA DI KABUPATEN HULU SUNGAI UTARA KALIMANTAN SELATAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anorital Anorital

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The intestinal infection disease caused by protozoa: amoeba is one of the public health problem with high incidence in the community. From the research activity conducted in Hulu Sungai Utara Regency in the year 2002, to obtain of prevalence of protozoa infection from stool examination from resident in 6 villages at 3 subdistrict in Hulu Sungai Utara Regency. The research has conducted to be carry out survey parasite to the community. Sample size will be examination are 230 persons per village, so that to 6 villages will be examed as 1.600 persons. The examination directly by using lugol 2% and checked on the microscope with magnification 10x10 and 10x40. For resident which its sample stool is positive the protozoa to be given a treatment by metronidazol. From stool examination result obtained prevalence resident which are positive the amoeba intestine protozoa is Entamoeba coli 19,8%, Endolimax nana 15,8%, and Entamoeba histolityca 15,4%. While prevalence resident which are positive the intestine flagellata/B. hominis is Blastocystis hominis 25,5% and Giardia lamblia 11,6%. From 5 micro-organism on the intestine. Entamoeba histolityca, Blastocystis hominis and Giardia lamblia are cause diarrhoea because having the pathogenic. From survey ot socio-cultural, known also the resident percentage which drinking no safe water 43,3%, source of drinking water obtained from river or swamp is 67,7%, human waste disposal in river and swamp is 79,5%, and take a bath and brush the teeth with water of river and swamp is 78,6%; showing bad condition of environmental sanitation, personal hygiene, and life behavior. Good personal hygiene and environmental sanitation practices are the major factors of this disease prevention. The main principle to prevent the spreading of protozoa infection is to cut off the link of infection sources to human beings. Personal hygiene is focused on the management of individual behaviour, meanwhile environmental sanitation

  14. IMPLEMENTASI PENANGGULANGAN GIZI BURUK DI WILAYAH KERJA PUSKESMAS SUNGAI LIMAU KABUPATEN PADANG PARIAMAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriwasti Masro

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Kejadian  gizi buruk  akan  menyebabkan  balita  mengalami gangguan  perhrmbuhan  dan  perkembangan otak sehingga  akan rnenurunkan  intelektual  dan  produktifitas.  Penanggulangannya memerlukan  pendekatan  yang menyeluruh  yang  meliputi  penyembuhan  dan  pemulihan  rawat  inap  dan  rawat  jalan.  Kejadian  gizi buruk  di Puskesmas  Sungai  timau  tahun  2010  sebanyak  1 I  orang,  dua diantaranya  meninggal,  dan tahun  201  1 sebanyak  9 orang  dan  1 orang diantaranya  masih mengalami gizi buruk sampai  tahttn 2012.  Tujuan  penelitian  ini  adalah mengetahui  implementasi  penanggulangan  gizi  buruk di wilayah  kerja  Puskesmas  Sungai  Limau.  Metode penelitian  ini  menggpnakan  pendekatan  kualitatif.  Pengumpulan  datanya didapat  dengan  menggunakan  teknik indepth  interview terhadap  13  informan,  menggunakanteV,aikfocus  groupdiscusion2kelompokyaitu  8 informan kelompok kader dan  7 informan  kelompok wali  korong dan dilaksanakan  bulan  Juli-Novemb  er 2012.Hasil  dapat disimpulkan  bahwa  implementasi  penanggulangan  gizi buruk belum  maksimal.  Disarankan ke  pemerintahan kecam4tan  dan  puskesmas  perlunya  koordinasi  dan  kerja  sama  semua  lintas  sektor  dalam  melengkapi  tenaga, dana,  sarana  dan  prasarana  sertaketerlibatan  dalam  kegiatan  implementasi  penanggulangan  gizi  buruk.

  15. An integrated approach to coastal rehabilitation: Mangrove restoration in Sungai Haji Dorani, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashim, Roslan; Kamali, Babak; Tamin, Noraini Mohd; Zakaria, Rozainah

    2010-01-01

    To achieve an efficient method of coastal rehabilitation, a coastal structure was applied in combination with the mangrove restoration scheme in Sungai Haji Dorani where coastal forest over-cutting associated with erosion has resulted in severe coastline retreat. Such an attempt provides the opportunity to mitigate erosion as well as improve ecological and socio-economic aspects of coastal areas, both of which are of great importance to local communities and authorities. Beach morphological changes were monitored for an eight-month period of time. The results indicate that the attempt has been successful in retaining sediment on the beach and consequently raising the elevation of the site. While the monitoring schedule is required to continue for several years to evaluate long-term performance of the rehabilitation effort, approximately 30% of the transplanted mangrove saplings' survival after eight months shows that the project was moderately successful. Since the general conditions of the selected site represent the majority of the eroded shorelines on the west coast of Peninsular Malaysia, the method applied in this study can be replicated as an appropriate cost-effective alternative for the same cases.

  16. Speciation of heavy metals by modified BCR sequential extraction procedure in different depths of sediments from Sungai Buloh, Selangor, Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: → A BCR sequential extraction procedure was applied for measurement of heavy metals in Sungai Buloh sediments in different depths. → The amounts of CF and percentage of RAC was measured in this study too. → Highest CF was obtained for Cd, Co, Pb and Zn in these samples. → Zn at S3 and Cd at S3-S7 showed a high risk for the sediment samples. There were no elements of very high risk conditions in the selected samples. - Abstract: The sequential extraction procedure proposed by the European Standard, Measurements and Testing (SM and T) program, formerly the Community Bureau of Reference (BCR), was applied for partitioning of heavy metals (HMs) in river sediments collected along the course of Sungai Buloh and the Straits of Malacca in Selangor, Malaysia. Eight elements (V, Pb, Cd, Cr, Co, Ni, Cu and Zn) from seven stations (S1-S7) and at different depths were analyzed using the modified BCR Sequential Extraction Procedure (SEP) in combination with ICP-MS to obtain the metal distribution patterns in this region. The results showed that heavy metal contaminations at S2 and S3 was more severe than at other sampling sites, especially for Zn, Cu, Ni and Pb. Nevertheless, the element concentrations from top to bottom layers decreased predominantly. The samples from the Straits of Malacca (S4-S7) the highest contamination factors obtained were for Co, Zn and Pb while the lowest were found for V and Cr, similar to Sungai Buloh sediments. The sediments showed a low risk for V, Cr, Cu and Pb with RAC values of less than 10%, but medium risk for Co, Zn (except S3), Cd at S1 and S2 and Ni at S1, S3 and S5. Zn at S3 and Cd at S3-S7 showed high risk to our sediment samples. There is not any element of very high risk conditions in the selected samples.

  17. HOSPES PERANTARA DAN HOSPES RESERVOIR FASCIOLOPSIS BUSKI DI INDONESIA Studi Epidemiologi F. buski di Kabupaten Hulu Sungai Utara, Kalimantan Selatan Tahun 2002 dan 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anorital -

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Buski intestinal worm disease (fasciolopsiosis is an endemic disease in some villages in the Hulu Sungai Utara district. Since the discovery of the case in 1982 until recently, the fasciolopsiosis prevalence has not showed a declining trend. Even in some periods it seems to rise, despite mitigation efforts continue to be implemented through various surveys, which ended with the drugs administration.Unidentified intermediate hosts and reservoir hosts is one constraint in the disease control.To determine the epidemiological cycle of F. buski, two studies were conducted by two research institutions under the Research and Development Agency in 2002 by Anorital, etal. and 2010 by Annida.Results from both studies showed that there were 3 kinds of water plants (second intermediate host consumed by communities; the lily (Nymphea alba, bird lotus(Nymphea lotus and water spinach (Ipomea aquatica which was positive of Metasercariae and Cercariae. Two of four types of freshwater snails (the first intermediate host specimens examined were positive of redia and cercariae; kalambuai snail (Lymnea sp. and flat snails (Indoplanorbis sp.. One of four animal manure specimens examined was positive of F. buski egg (found in buffalo dung. It was also found two egg specimens from chicken and alabio duck manure whichis resembled to F. buski. But in terms ofsize, it was much smaller than the egg of F. buski. Despite these positive findings, the confirmation from experienced research institutions is needed. It is expected that the Buski intestinal worm disease (fasciolopsiosis control can be conducted effectively. An in-depth study is also needed. Key words: Fasciolopsis buski, fasciolopsiosis. ABSTRAK Penyakit kecacingan buski (fasciolopsiosis merupakan penyakit yang endemis di beberapa desa di kabupaten Hulu Sungai Utara. Sejak ditemukan kasus penyakit ini pada tahun 1982 dan sampai saat ini, prevalensi fasciolopsiosis tidak menunjukkan kecenderungan menurun

  18. A population based survey on knowledge and awareness of breast cancer in the suburban females of Sungai Petani, Kedah, Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Mirza Rafi Baig; Vikneswari Subramaniam; Annaliza Anusha Chandrasegar; Tahir Mehmood Khan

    2011-01-01

    Background: Globally breast cancer is one of the most common cancers and a major public health challenge to women health. Malaysia is also one of the Asian nations that is facing the dilemma breast cancer with an Age Standardised Rate (ASR) of female breast cancer among Malaysian women was 47.4 per 100,000 populations. Objectives: To evaluate the knowledge and awareness of Breast Cancer among the women of different age groups and various races in the sub-urban town of Sungai Petani, Malaysia...

  19. Analisa Persediaan Material Pada Proyek Pembangunan Jembatan Sungai Brantas Di Ruas Tol Kertosono-Mojokerto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Titis Wahyu Pratiwi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Proyek Pembangunan Jembatan Sungai Brantas merupakan tahap dari pelaksanaan proyek Jalan Tol Kertosono-Mojokerto dimana jalan tol ini akan terhubung dengan Jalan Tol Surabaya-Mojokerto. Dalam pelaksanaannya, proyek ini dibangun diatas lahan yang sempit dengan luas lahan sisi utara 5.219 m2 dan sisi selatan 5.105 m2 sehingga tidak terdapat ruang yang cukup untuk menyimpan material dalam jumlah yang besar, selain itu terdapat material yang mengalami keterlambatan kedatangan sehingga berpengaruh pada biaya persediaan proyek. Oleh karena itu diperlukan suatu analisa persediaan material dengan menggunakan teknik lot sizing (penentuan jumlah pemesanan pada metode Material Requirement Planning (MRP. Dengan metode ini dilakukan pengolahan data berupa biaya pesan, biaya simpan dan jumlah kebutuhan material guna memperoleh jumlah pesanan yang optimal dengan biaya persediaan minimum. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui teknik lot sizing dalam analisa persediaan material yang menghasilkan biaya persediaan material paling minimum pada Pembangunan Jalan Tol Kertosono – Mojokerto. Metode Material Requirement Planning (MRP yang digunakan terdiri dari beberapa tahapan mendasar yaitu perhitungan kebutuhan kotor (explosion, perhitungan kebutuhan bersih (netting serta perhitungan jumlah pemesanan (lotting. Pada tahapan lotting digunakan empat teknik lot sizing yaitu Lot for Lot, Economic Order Quantity (EOQ, Period Order Quantity (POQ dan Part Period Balancing (PPB. Dari hasil analisa MRP yang dilakukan, didapat bahwa teknik lot sizing yang membentuk biaya persediaan minimum untuk semua material pada pekerjaan Pile Cap P2, P2’, P1 dan P1’ yang meliputi Bekisting, Besi D 16, Besi D 19 dan Besi D 32 serta Beton K 350 adalah teknik Lot for Lot.

  20. Kajian Beberapa Karakteristik Kimia Air, Fisika Air Dan Debit Sungai Pada Aliran Limbah Pabrik Tapioka Kawasan Das Padang Dan Sekitarnya

    OpenAIRE

    Agustira, Riyanda

    2013-01-01

    RIYANDA AGUSTIRA: Study of Some Characteristics of Water Chemistry, Physics, Water and Waste Debit River Flows In Tapioca Factory Das Padang and surrounding areas, led by Sari Kemala Lubis, SP., MP. As chairman of the committee supervising and Jamilah, SP., MP. As members of the supervising committee. The source of liquid waste of tapioca industry from leaching and evaporation. Normally that liquid waste contents rough and soft of suspension solid and organic matter. Accumulation continuou...

  1. Glendo Reservoir 2003 Sedimenation Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Bureau of Reclamation, Department of the Interior — The Bureau of Reclamation (Reclamation) surveyed Glendo Reservoir in May and July of 2003 and January 2005 to develop a new topographic map and compute a present...

  2. Insiden Malaria di Puskesmas Sungai Durian dan Puskesmas Talawi Kota Sawahlunto Bulan Oktober 2011 sampai Februari 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mareza Dwithania

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakMalaria masih merupakan masalah kesehatan dunia, termasuk Indonesia karena angka kesakitan dan kematian akibat penyakit ini cukup tinggi. Tingginya insiden malaria pada suatu daerah dapat dipengaruhi oleh parasit, hospes, dan vektor. Sawahlunto sebagai suatu daerah perbukitan memiliki risiko tinggi untuk penyebaran dan penularan penyakit malaria. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui insiden dan distribusi malaria menurut spesies parasit penyebab malaria, derajat infeksi berdasarkan hitung parasit, umur, dan jenis kelamin penderita. Penelitian ini dilakukan terhadap pasien dengan gejala klinis malaria yang berobat ke Puskesmas Sungai Durian dan Puskesmas Talawi dari Oktober 2011 sampai Februari 2012. Data diperoleh dengan pemeriksaan secara mikroskopik sediaan darah tebal dan sediaan darah tipis dari sampel darah tepi yang telah dipulas dengan pewarnaan Giemsa. Hasil penelitian dari 312 sampel terdapat 13 sediaan darah positif malaria. Parasit penyebab malaria yang ditemukan adalah Plasmodium vivax (76,92%, Plasmodium falciparum (15,38% dan Plasmodium malariae (7,69%. Berdasarkan distribusi derajat infeksi (hitung parasit, semua sampel merupakan infeksi ringan (100% dan frekuensi tertinggi ditemukan pada umur ≥15 tahun (61,54% dan jenis kelamin laki-laki (53,85%. Insiden malaria di Puskesmas Sungai Durian dan Puskesmas Talawi dominan disebabkan Plasmodium vivax, semua kasus tergolong infeksi ringan, sedangkan distribusi penderita terbanyak pada umur ≥15 tahun dan jenis kelamin laki-laki. Penelitian ini menunjukkan penurunan kasus dari tahun sebelumnya.Kata kunci: Plasmodium, Anopheles, malariaAbstractMalaria is still a global health problem, including in Indonesia due to its high morbidity and mortality. The high incidence of malaria in an area can be influenced by the parasites, hospes, and vectors. Sawahlunto as an area that is surrounded with many hills has a high risk for the spreading and transmission of malaria. The

  3. Air

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... house) Industrial emissions (like smoke and chemicals from factories) Household cleaners (spray cleaners, air fresheners) Car emissions (like carbon monoxide) *All of these things make up “particle pollution.” They mostly come from cars, trucks, buses, and ...

  4. SITUS “KOTO RAYO” DAN KEARIFAN TRADISIONAL DI TEPI SUNGAI TABIR JAMBI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pahrudin -

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Dalam penelitian ini, penulis  membahas  ‘Koto Rayo’, sebuah pemukiman kuno di sisi Sungai Tabir, Jambi sebagai sebuah budaya dan kearifan lokal. Penelitian difokuskan pada nilai kearifan lokal yang dimiliki masyarakat dalam kaitan dengan situs ini. Hasil penelitian dan pembahasan memunculkan fakta-fakta sebagai berikut. Pulau Sumatera memiliki peradaban tinggi di masa lalu, khususnya melalui Kerajaan Sriwijaya yang mengontrol dan mendominasi seluruh pulau ini dan sebagian besar wilayah Asia Tenggara. Salah satu wilayah Kerajaan Sriwijaya di Pulau Sumatera adalah Jambi, yang dahulu memiliki banyak Kerajaan Melayu. ‘Koto Rayo’ yang terletak di sisi Sungai Tabir ‘mungkin’ salah satu peradaban yang berhubungan dengan sejarah Kerajaan Melayu Jambi dan atau Kerajaan Sriwijaya di masa lalu. Situs ini mempengaruhi beberapa perilaku kearifan lokal pada masyarakat sekitar dalam wujud perilaku yang tegas dalam melestarikan lingkungan dan menjaga warisan budaya. Kearifan lokal ini penting untuk meminimalisir efek negatif globalisasi.The objective of this study is to discuss ’Koto Rayo’, an ancient settlement on the side of Tabir river, Jambi as a culture and local wisdom. The study focused on the value of local knowledge in the communities in connection with this site. Data was collected through observation, interviews and document analysis. The results and discussion led to the following facts. The island of Sumatra has a high civilization in the past, particularly through the kingdom of Srivijaya that controls and dominates the entire island and most of the Southeast Asia region. One of the kingdom of Srivijaya in Sumatra is Jambi, which once had many Malay kingdom. ’Rayo Koto’ located on the side of Tabir river is ’probably’ one of civilization associated with the history of the Malay kingdom of Srivijaya kingdom of Jambi in the past. This site affects some local

  5. Air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In recent years several regulations and standards for air quality and limits for air pollution were issued or are in preparation by the European Union, which have severe influence on the environmental monitoring and legislation in Austria. This chapter of the environmental control report of Austria gives an overview about the legal situation of air pollution control in the European Union and in specific the legal situation in Austria. It gives a comprehensive inventory of air pollution measurements for the whole area of Austria of total suspended particulates, ozone, volatile organic compounds, nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide, heavy metals, benzene, dioxin, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and eutrophication. For each of these pollutants the measured emission values throughout Austria are given in tables and geographical charts, the environmental impact is discussed, statistical data and time series of the emission sources are given and legal regulations and measures for an effective environmental pollution control are discussed. In particular the impact of fossil-fuel power plants on the air pollution is analyzed. (a.n.)

  6. Structural Component Defects of Low Cost Housing: A Case Study at Taman Bandar Perdana, Sungai Petani, Kedah, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sulieman M.Z.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Building defects are defined as building or house flaws, or design mistakes, that reduce value and cause dangerous conditions to their occupants. According to the National Building Agency, defect occurrences are caused by poor design, low quality workmanship, and quality of materials. The purpose of this paper is to identify the types of building defect that frequently occur in low cost housing. In order to do so, this paper looks into the major causes of these defects. The case study selected is at Taman Bandar Perdana, Sungai Petani, Kedah. The methodology used in this paper utilizes a literature review, interviews, and visual inspections involving both public and private sectors, in decreasing defects in buildings. The findings show that most low cost housing defects are caused by cracking, peeling paint, damp, leaking pipes, timber decay, sagging, fungi, termites, broken tiles, and electrical faults. It is widely accepted that the contributing causes of these defects include weak designs, poor workmanship, and quality of materials.

  7. Investigating the hydrologic response due to logging activity in Sungai Weng experimental catchment (catchment plot using IHACRES model)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study represents an attempt to understand the controls on catchment-scale hydrologic responses due to the designated logging activity (supervised logging) in the experimental catchment plot of Sungai Weng, Kedah. Established since 1996 is primarily to detect and quantify the impact of logging activity that may affect existing hydrologic regimes, water availability such surface flow and baseflow, and sedimentation. The six-parameter IHACRES model is selected to quantify the expected changes due to its capability to analyse the change of hydrologic responses adequately accurate; in which it could avoids the problems of over parameterization. Of the six model parameters, three relates to the non-linear module ( τw, f, and c), and other three relates to the linear module (τq, τs and vs). The model calibration were based on storm events data and continuous daily flow data which are primarily to examine runoff characteristics and water availability (quick flow and slow flow) respectively. Generally this paper encompassed the methodology, parameters calibration and optimization, data problem and the changes of hydrologic responses. (Author)

  8. Marine Environmental Risk Assessment of Sungai Kilim, Langkawi, Malaysia: Heavy Metal Enrichment Factors in Sediments as Assessment Indexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamil Tajam

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Concentrations of Cd, Co, Pb, and Zn in riverbed sediments from six sampling stations along the Sungai Kilim, Langkawi, Malaysia, were determined by using the Teflon Bomb Digestion. From this study, the concentrations of heavy metals in riverbed sediments were found ranging between 6.10 and 8.87 μg/g dry weight for Co, 0.03 and 0.45 μg/g dry weight for Cd, 59.8 and 74.9 μg/g dry weight for Zn, and 1.06 and 11.69 μg/g dry weight for Pb. From the observation, these areas were polluted by domestic waste, aquaculture, and tourism activities. For clarity, enrichment factor index was used to determine the level of sediment contamination in the study area. From this study, the average EF value is a bit high for Cd (2.15±1.17 followed by Zn (1.12±0.09, Pb (0.44±0.32, and lastly, Co (0.36±0.04. Based on the contamination categories, Cd was categorised as moderately enriched, while the rest of the metals studied were in deficient-to-minimally enriched by the anthropogenic sources.

  9. Keanekaragaman Plankton di Sungai Pelawi Desa Pelawi Utara Kabupaten Langkat Sumatera Utara

    OpenAIRE

    Tindaon, Ester Nelya

    2015-01-01

    Plankton adalah organisme air yang hidup melayang-layang dan pergerakannya sangat dipengaruhi oleh gerakan air. Seperti halnya dengan bentos, plankton juga dibagi menjadi fitoplankton (organisme plankton yang bersifat tumbuhan) dan zooplankton (plankton yang bersifat hewan). Keberadaan plankton di dalam perairan sangat ditentukan oleh kondisi fisik dan kimia perairan tersebut. Plankton mempunyai batas toleransi tertentu terhadap parameter lingkungan sehingga keanekaragamannya akan berbeda pad...

  10. Analisa Kadar Amoniak Dan Nitrogen Total Pada Air Sungai Buangan Limbah Pabrik Karet Secara Nessler Menggunakan Spektrofotometer

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Nuri, Malina

    2010-01-01

    The liquid waste of rubber is the waste from processing of rubber become rubber thread. In liquid waste of rubber contain dangerous ammonia and total nitrogen if the rates have exceeded the standard boundary which have been specified so that can contaminate the river water and environment. To determine ammonia and total nitrogen rates in liquid waste of rubber, Research and Standardisation Industry Medan use the spectrophotometer appliance. From this experiment we get height ammonia fro...

  11. Pengaruh waktu pengambilan sampel terhadap kadar bod, cod dan minyak/lemak dari air sungai silau kabupaten asahan

    OpenAIRE

    Manihuruk, Elperida

    2013-01-01

    It has done research on the effect of time sampling the rate of BOD, COD and oil/ fat in water content of Silau River Kabupaten Asahan. The sample was taken from the same sampling points N: 02o 58’ 15,2” E: 099o 38’ 54,2” by using time variation at 07.00 am, 10.00 am, 1 pm, 4 pm, 7 pm local time. There was done an examination about parameter of BOD, COD and oil/fat. The result of research showed that highest rate of BOD, COD and oil/ fat was at 7 am, and the lowest rate was noted at 4 pm loc...

  12. Analisa Kebutuhan Oksigen Biologi (KOB) Dan Oksigen Terlarut (OT) Pada Air Sungai Denai Buangan Limbah Pabrik Karet

    OpenAIRE

    Nasution, Masniari

    2010-01-01

    Various kinds of industrial activities and technologies that exits today if not accompanied by good waste water should be characterized before the design process begins.Waste water discharged into the standart BOD level and does not pollutethe enviromet. To analyze the organic content of waste is the most commnly used is aboud BOD (Biochemical Oxygen Demand). Examination of BOD in waste water handlers provide an early indication of the existence of toxic materials.

  13. Penetapan Kadar Pb Pada Air Sungai Yang Dialiri Limbah Pertambangan Bijih Emas Di Kabupaten Madina Secara Spektrofotometri Serapan Atom (SSA)

    OpenAIRE

    Sari, Putri Ledang

    2013-01-01

    Liquid waste is waste in liquid form generated by industrial activities and allegedly dumped into the environment can pollute the environment. The purpose of this study was to determine levels of Pb contained in gold ore mining waste water and Batang Gadis river in MADINA quality standard or not. Samples were taken from 4 locations namely inlet and outlet gold ore mining wastes, upstream and downstream Batang Gadis river. Determination of lead (Pb) atomic absorption spectrophotometry perfo...

  14. Penetapan Kadar Cu Pada Air Sungai Yang Dialiri Limbah Pertambangan Bijih Emas Di Kabupaten MADINA Secara Spektrofotometri Serapan Atom (SSA)

    OpenAIRE

    Lubis, Irma Yusnita

    2013-01-01

    Liquid waste is waste in liquid form generated by industrial activities and allegedly dumped into the environment can pollute the environment. The purpose of this study was to determine levels of Cu contained in gold ore mining waste water and Batang Gadis river in MADINA quality standard or not. Samples were taken from 4 locations namely inlet and outlet gold ore mining wastes, upstream and downstream Batang Gadis river. Determination of copper (Cu) atomic absorption spectrophotometry per...

  15. Pembuatan Dan Karakterisasi Karbon Aktif Kayu Bakau Dengan Aktivasi Fisika Sebagai Filter Penjernih Air Sungai Tamiang Melalui Proses Elektrokoagulasi

    OpenAIRE

    Putra, Zulkarnain

    2015-01-01

    The manufacture of Mangrove wood activated carbon with physical activation with temperature variation in 500 oC, 600 oC, 700 oC, 800 oC, and 900 oC for 1 hour detention time. This study aims to determine the best activation temperature of mangrove wood activated carbon used as a filter for the purification of river water. Based on SNI No. 06-3730-1995 thetesting results of mangrove wood activated carbon is best (optimum) with a water content of 4.25%, 9.88% volatile matter, ash content 2.44% ...

  16. Optimalisasi Gabungan Filter Arang Tempurung Kelapa, Zeolit, Dan Pasir Kuarsa Untuk Penjernihan Air Sungai Tamiang Dengan Elektrokoagulasi

    OpenAIRE

    Yuhanan, Witri Mirza

    2015-01-01

    Coconut shell charcoal, zeolite and quartz sand is a material that is often used as an adsorption media, especially in water purification. In general, coconut shell charcoal, zeolite and quartz sand still contain organic impurities and inorganic pore cover, so as to increase the absorption capacity must be done prior activation. This study aims to determine the effect of the activation temperature, the absorption, moisture content and porosity. Coconut shell charcoal, zeolite and quartz sand ...

  17. A baseline measure of tree and gastropod biodiversity in replanted and natural mangrove stands in malaysia: langkawi island and sungai merbok.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hookham, Brenda; Shau-Hwai, Aileen Tan; Dayrat, Benoit; Hintz, William

    2014-08-01

    THE DIVERSITIES OF MANGROVE TREES AND OF THEIR ASSOCIATED GASTROPODS WERE ASSESSED FOR TWO MANGROVE REGIONS ON THE WEST COAST OF PENINSULAR MALAYSIA: Langkawi Island and Sungai Merbok. The mangrove area sampled on Langkawi Island was recently logged and replanted, whereas the area sampled in Sungai Merbok was part of a protected nature reserve. Mangrove and gastropod diversity were assessed in four 50 m(2) (10 × 5 m) sites per region. The species richness (S), Shannon Index (H') and Evenness Index (J') were calculated for each site, and the mean S, H' and J' values were calculated for each region. We report low tree and gastropod S, H' and J' values in all sites from both regions. For Langkawi Island, the mean S, H' and J' values for mangrove trees were S = 2.00±0, H' = 0.44±0.17 and J' = 0.44±0.17; the mean S, H' and J' values for gastropods were S = 4.00±1.63, H' = 0.96±0.41 and J' = 0.49±0.06. In Sungai Merbok, the mean S, H' and J' values for mangrove trees were S = 1.33±0.58, H' = 0.22±0.39 and J' = 0.22 ±0.39; the mean S, H' and J' values for gastropods were S = 4.75±2.22, H' = 1.23±0.63 and J' = 0.55±0.12. This study emphasises the need for baseline biodiversity measures to be established in mangrove ecosystems to track the impacts of anthropogenic disturbances and to inform management and restoration efforts. PMID:25210584

  18. STUDI KUALITAS UDARA DI SEKITAR SUNGAI TELAGAWAJA, DESA MUNCAN, KABUPATEN KARANGASEM BALI

    OpenAIRE

    I WAYAN ARTHANA

    2012-01-01

    The research was done in surrounding Telagawaja River at Muncan Village, Karangasem Regency, Bali at October2008. The aim of the research was to know the air quality condition in that area. There were six air quality parametersmeasured at three different sites. The content of NO2 at the air varied 24,29-31,87 ?g/m3 was higher than that in GunaksaBeach where there are no activities at all but it was lower than that in Sawangan Nusa Dua where full of tourismactivities. The level of SO2 at the r...

  19. Studi Tentang Kualitas Air Hasil Olahan Dan Air Sungai Sipare-Pare Serta Persepsi Masyarakat Pada Instalasi Pengolahan Air Limbah Domestik Perumahan Tanjung Gading Kabupaten Batu Bara

    OpenAIRE

    Dewi, Eva Kusuma

    2011-01-01

    This thesis purposed is to determine the processed water quality of the WWTP (Wastewater Treatment Plant), Tanjung Gading based on Environment Ministerial Decree No. 112 Year 2003, and to compare the quality of Sipare-pare river water before and after the processed water outlet WWTP Tanjung Gading under PP. 82 Year 2001. It is also to know the perception of people living on the outskirts of River Sipare-pare the use of water on processed water quality of Tanjung Gading WWTP. In this research,...

  20. Study of Leachate Migration at Sungai Sedu, Telok Datuk Waste Disposal Site by Geophysical and Geochemical Methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monitoring of contaminated water and soil in waste disposal sites is normally carried out by chemical analysis of surface water, leachate and soils as well as by geophysical measurements. Leachate is defined as any contaminated liquid or wastewater generated from rain water percolating through solid waste materials, accumulating contaminants, and moving into subsurface and surrounding areas. A study was carried out to detect the leachate movement at Sungai Sedu landfill located on ten square acres near Banting town. Geologically, the study area is underlined by Holocene marine clay of Gula and Beruas formations sitting on top of meta sedimentary rocks of Kenny Hill Formation. Geophysical surveys using techniques 2D electrical resistivity imaging, vertical resistivity profiling (VRP) as well as geochemical analysis on soil and water samples were used in this study to investigate the level of leachate migration from the dumping spot into the surrounding areas. This was based on characterizing the measured electrical resistivities and analyzing the heavy metal concentrations. The 2D electrical imaging surveys were carried out on 8 profiles while the VRP surveys were conducted in 6 boreholes. Based on resistivity imaging sections, the leachate was detected to migrate at about 3-5 m depth. Basically the electrical resistivity of leachate was less than 1 ohm m. The concentration of heavy metals also showed that the leachate has migrated into the nearby river. The concentration of heavy metals in river bank soil, leachate and surface water samples were high and exceeded the background values especially Ni, Mn, Zn, Cr and As. The electrical conductivity of the river bank soil, leachate, surface water and the surrounding soil samples were approximately 6600 μS/cm and 20000-50000 μS/cm, respectively with pH values of 3-5. The high concentrations of heavy metals and soil conductivities indicated the possibility of leachate migration from the dumping site to contaminate the

  1. STUDI KUALITAS UDARA DI SEKITAR SUNGAI TELAGAWAJA, DESA MUNCAN, KABUPATEN KARANGASEM BALI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I WAYAN ARTHANA

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The research was done in surrounding Telagawaja River at Muncan Village, Karangasem Regency, Bali at October2008. The aim of the research was to know the air quality condition in that area. There were six air quality parametersmeasured at three different sites. The content of NO2 at the air varied 24,29-31,87 ?g/m3 was higher than that in GunaksaBeach where there are no activities at all but it was lower than that in Sawangan Nusa Dua where full of tourismactivities. The level of SO2 at the range of 34,44-44,97 ?g/m3 was lower than that in Padangbai Harbour where full ofhuman activities and transportations. The content of dust at the range of 105,82 ?g/m3, CO at the range of 497,78-568,89?g/m3, Pb at the range of 0,250-0,792 ?g/m3. The level of noise at the range of 40,33-53,79 dB(A was lower than that invillage community at Kubu, Karangasem Regency and also lower than that in Sawangan Beach of Nusa Dua. All the airquality parameters are not yet over than standard of safe air quality level.

  2. Determination of organic and inorganic mercury species in Sungai Kinta, Perak by reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) on-line coupled with ICP-MS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes a simple method for mercury speciation in river water samples of Sungai Kinta, Perak. Separation and measurement were done by high-performance liquid chromatography on-line with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (HPLC/ ICP-MS). Separation of mercury species was accomplished within 6 minutes on an AQ C18 4.6 mm i.d x 150 mm, 5 μm reversed phase column with 0.1 % (w/ v) L-cysteine as mobile phase. Under the optimum instrumental conditions, recoveries of 101-104 % for MeHg+ and 96 - 104 % for Hg2+ were obtained with experimental detection limits of 1ngL-1 for inorganic mercury and 1.5 μgL-1 for organic mercury. (author)

  3. STUDI PENGARUH AIR LIMBAH PEMOTONGAN HEWAN DAN UNGGAS TERHADAP KUALITAS AIR SUNGAI SUBAK PAKEL I DI DESA DARMASABA KECAMATAN ABIANSEMAL KABUPATEN BADUNG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Widya

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The research was to know the type of pollution which contaminates the waste water of Animals and birds slaughterand to know the level of contamination of river water of Subak Pakel I river from the waste water of animals and birdsslaughter at Darmasaba Village.The research was held in February-March 2008. The sample of waste water was taken at location of cow, pig andchicken slaughter house which was repeated three times. Meanwhile, the sample of river water was taken at the upper course,middle and at the end part of the river with six times repetition. The results of analysis on 12 parameter of the waste water isused to determine typical of pollution and 13 parameter of river water was used to determine pollution index of river waterreferred to Bali Governor Act no. 8 year 2007.The result of the research shows that the typical pollution of waste water from the pig slaughter house was characterizedby high content of ammonia (NH3, and typical pollution of the waste water of chicken slaughter was characterized by highcontent of hydrogen Sulfida (H2S. Intentional or unintentional disposal of the waste water from the animal and poultryslaughter house, had polluted the middle part and the end part of the water river. The level of water pollution in the middle part,was contegorized heavy for first class, second class and third class, but still in slight pollution for fourth class water. Meanwhile,the level of pollution at upper course of water river was still on good category for fourth class water, and still in slight pollutionfor first class and second class of water.

  4. Analisa Merkuri (Hg) pada Air Sumur Masyarakat dan Air Sungai Simalagi Akibat Penambangan Emas Tradisional di Desa Simalagi Kecamatan Huta Bargot Tahun 2012

    OpenAIRE

    Daulay, Muhammad Rudini

    2015-01-01

    There were many traditional gold mining in the Huta Bargot Sub Disrict Mandailing Natal Regency, one of it was in Desa Simalagi. This gold mining used mercury in its process. These mining were operations in residential areas and watersheds, so that would contaminate the public water source. This study aimed to determine mercury levels in community well water, Simalagi river water, and to learn about health complaints in Desa Simalagi who used well water and Simalagi river water for daily n...

  5. STUDI PENGARUH AIR LIMBAH PEMOTONGAN HEWAN DAN UNGGAS TERHADAP KUALITAS AIR SUNGAI SUBAK PAKEL I DI DESA DARMASABA KECAMATAN ABIANSEMAL KABUPATEN BADUNG

    OpenAIRE

    N Widya; W Budiarsa S; MS Mahendra

    2012-01-01

    The research was to know the type of pollution which contaminates the waste water of Animals and birds slaughterand to know the level of contamination of river water of Subak Pakel I river from the waste water of animals and birdsslaughter at Darmasaba Village.The research was held in February-March 2008. The sample of waste water was taken at location of cow, pig andchicken slaughter house which was repeated three times. Meanwhile, the sample of river water was taken at the upper course,midd...

  6. FAKTOR-FAKTOR YANG BERHUBUNGAN DENGAN PERILAKU IBU DALAM MEMILIH PENOLONG PERSALINAN DI NAGARI SUNGAI BULUH WILAYAH KERJA PUSKESMAS PASAR USANG KABUPATEN PADANG PARIAMAN TAHUN 2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatmi Arma

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Mortality and morbidity of woman in pregnancy and delivery time is still becoming a big problem in development country. Death due to delivery was a common factor of young woman death in her top reproduction cycle. 75,6% delivery process in Padang Pariaman 2006 was helped by midwife. This number is still lower than national target (85%. Pasar Usang Health Centre is a Health Center in Padang Pariaman which has the lowest number of birth aid by nonprofessional medicine officer (27,9%. There is 7 traditional practitioner in Pasar Usang Health Center Region who still active helping delivery process. 6 traditional practitioner live in Sungai Buluh. It is a descriptive analytic research with cross sectional design. Population included all mother who had delivery process from January till June 2007 (n=116. Data were collected from August 6th till 13'h using questionnaire. There were no significant relationship on educational grade with mother option of delivery assistant. But there were significant relationship on mother’s knowledge and medicine officer service with mother option of delivery assistant.

  7. Analisis Kandungan Aluminium (Al), Sulfida, Bod, Cod, Total Padatan Tersuspensi (TSS) Dan pH Dari Air Sungai Kapal Keruk Di Desa Karang Anyer Kec. Secanggang Kab. Langkat

    OpenAIRE

    Yeliza, Rahim

    2010-01-01

    Kapal Keruk,a river situated in Secanggang Distret, Langkat Regency, has been since long used as water source for the dayly consumption of the people living in surrounding areas. Recently, the people complained concerning the decrease of the river water quality due to its yellow or black colour and its unplecesant odor. They think that the decrease of the water quality is presumably caused by the sewage wasted out of a sugar mill there into the river, near the upstream area. This research ...

  8. Analisis Kandungan Merkuri Pada Air Sungai Dan Ikan Akibat Tambang Emas Tradisional Serta Tata Cara Penggunaan Merkuri oleh Penambang Emas Di Desa Hutapungkut Kecamatan Kotanopan Kabupaten Mandailing Natal

    OpenAIRE

    Anas

    2014-01-01

    Gold mining activities in Hutapungkut Village, Kotanopan Distrik Mandailing Natal are carried out in the traditional way without good planning techniques and sophisticated tools, namely the system of underground mining tunnels and by making a well in the direction predicted with high gold content. Processing system used a mixture of mercury with the potential to cause environmental pollution. The objective of this study was to know the levels of mercury in water an fishin Ae...

  9. Analisis Penggunaan Lahan Di Daerah Tangkapan Air Danau Toba Berdasarkan Model Answers Untuk Fungsi Daerah Aliran Sungai Yang Berkelanjutan (Study Kasus Sub DAS Aek Silang Hulu)

    OpenAIRE

    Sianturi, Hotmauli

    2011-01-01

    Lake Toba Catchment Area (LTCA) is the upstream of Asahan Toba Watershed that consist of 7 administration area which are namely Kabupaten Toba Samosir, Samosir, Humbang Hasundutan, Dairi, Karo, Simalungun and Tapanuli Utara. LTCA has several importan functions for farming and pasturing, water sources, fishering, tour destiny, water power generating of PT. INALUM etc. On the other hand LTCA has suffering severe degradation that indicated by drought in dry season, water flood during rainy seas...

  10. Analisis Pembuangan Limbah Cair Industri Tahu Terhadap Kualitas Air Sungai Melati Seberang di Kelurahan Ujung Padang Kecamatan Padangsidimpuan Selatan Tahun 2015

    OpenAIRE

    Pradiba, Hilda

    2016-01-01

    Melati Seberang River is a river that flows through the Padangsidimpuan City, in Ujung Padang village are people living on the river banks and Industri of Tofu. Industry of tofu is one of the industries that generate large amounts of liquid waste and liquid waste is generally disposed of the river. The aims of this study are to analyse the tofu liquid waste quality, to analyze the water quality of river which caused by industrial waste water, and to analyze the effect of liquid waste that ...

  11. CISADANE RIVER WATER POLLUTION

    OpenAIRE

    Kumoro Palupi

    2012-01-01

    Sungai Cisadane berfungsi sebagai sumber air baku untuk sistem penyediaan air bersih wilayah Serpong dan Tangerang, Kabupaten Tangerang. Meskipun demikian, sungai Cisadane berfungsi pula sebagai tempat pembuangan limbah bagi rumah tangga dan industri yang berlokasi di sepanjang sungai tersebut. Untuk memperoleh gambaran mengenai tingkat pencemaran airnya, pada bulan September 1992 telah dilakukan pengambilan sampel air sungai Cisadane. Sampel air diambil di sebelah hulu intake instalasi pengo...

  12. PENINGKATAN ASPEK PENGETAHUAN DAN PERILAKU ANAK SEKOLAH DASAR/MADRASAH IBTIDAIYAH MELALUI KOMIK BUSKI PADA TIGA DESA ENDEMIS FASCIOLOPSIS BUSKI DI KABUPATEN HULU SUNGAI UTARA, TAHUN 2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anorital Anorital

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Fasciolopsiosis is worm disease which is caused Fasciolopsis buski. The disease is an endemic at some villages in Hulu Sungai Utara Regency with prevalence 1.2-7.8%.The patients are children with age around 1-15 years old. In the year 2002-2003 have been carried out a research "Model of Control Fasciolopsis buski at South Kalimantan with Socio-Cultural Approach". In the first year (2002 of research, the data base of epidemiological and socio-cultural aspect, with cross sectional research design, have been collected. And in the second year (2003 has been done the intervention to the basic school students in three villages (Kalumpang Dalam, Putat Atas, and Talaga Mas, by doing a health campaign using comic books with Banjar language (local language. To find out the intervention has success, the researcher evaluated parasitological and socio cultural data collecting, especially knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP aspect. Data collecting about KAP aspect was executed to the basic school students (grade 3-5. Total samples are 160 basic school students in those three villages. The result of parasitological data collecting in 3 villages after inten>ention is found a prevalence rate 5.2% positive fasciolopsiosis. There is decreased about 6.5% from 11.7% on the first year (2002 into 5.2% at second year (2003. The result of socio-cultural data collecting for KAP aspect as quantitative is found increase. There is knowledge increasing about the worm disease, where before intervention only 86.8% students who know the buski disease, and after intervention become 96.8%. While on practice aspect also increase, before intervention 73.1% basic school students use drugs worm (albendazol and 84.3% after intervention, before intervention 48.7% students never eat raw water plants, after intervention become 19.9%, before intervention 57.5% students wash their hands with soap but after intervention raised up become 85.0% (p<0,05. The Conclusion is there is

  13. Bioaccumulation and Distribution of Heavy Metals (Cd, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb and Zn in the Different Tissues of Chicoreus capucinus Lamarck (Mollusca: Muricidae Collected from Sungai Janggut, Kuala Langat, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franklin Edward Berandah

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge on accumulation and distribution of metals in the soft tissues may help us to understand the processes involved in the uptake and excretion of metals in the different parts of molluscs such as Chicoreus capucinus. Chicoreus capucinus was collected from intertidal areas of Sungai Janggut mudflat, Kuala Langat, Selangor and analysed for heavy metals content in the tissues. The capability of the different parts to accumulate heavy metal from the environment was measured by calculating their Biota-Sediment Accumulation Factor (BSAF values. From this preliminary investigation, it was found that the highest concentrations of Cu were found in the caecum (194±24.4 µg/g dw, Cd in digestive gland (32.9±0.000 µg/g dw and Fe in operculum (971±2.50 µg/g dw. For Ni and Pb, high concentrations in shell were observed and Zinc high levels in most of the tissues studied except shell and operculum. On the other hand, highest BSAF values were obtained in caecum for Cu (101.2, Zn (27.4 and Cd (53.1, while highest BSAF values were obtained in shell for Pb (32.6 and Ni (8.88. However, in general, most of the different parts of the gastropod could be suggested as macro concentrator organs, since the BSAF values were greater than 2. More studies should be conducted in the future to determine the potential of C. capucinus as biomonitor.

  14. Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Air pollution is a mixture of solid particles and gases in the air. Car emissions, chemicals from factories, dust, ... a gas, is a major part of air pollution in cities. When ozone forms air pollution, it's ...

  15. Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Air pollution is a mixture of solid particles and gases in the air. Car emissions, chemicals from factories, dust, pollen and ... Ozone, a gas, is a major part of air pollution in cities. When ozone forms air pollution, ...

  16. Air Abrasion

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... delivered directly to your desktop! more... What Is Air Abrasion? Article Chapters What Is Air Abrasion? What Happens? The Pros and Cons Will I Feel Anything? Is Air Abrasion for Everyone? print full article print this ...

  17. ANALISA PERUBAHAN POLA HIDROLOGI DI DAERAH MUARA KALI PORONG PASCA PERISTIWA LAPINDO DENGAN CITRA SATELIT SPOT 4 DAN ALOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mochamad Machfud

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Pesisir merupakan salah satu tempat untuk muara sungai dimana hilir dari suatu sungai itu berakhir sebelum menuju lepas laut. Di kabupaten Sidoarjo tedapat kali yaitu Kali Porong yang merupakan ujung dari sungai Brantas yang semenjak tahun 2006 digunakan sebagai tempat untuk mengalirkan lumpur Lapindo ke laut. Hal ini menyebabkan perubahan dari ekologi dari Kali Porong. Salah satunya adalah mengganggu pola hidrologi yang ada di Kali Porong.  Oleh karena itu diperlukan analisa untuk penentuan pola hidrologi secara multitemporal setelah Kali Porong digunakan sebagai tempat mengalirkannya lumpur untuk menuju laut timur Jawa yang dimana akan mempercepat terbentuk sedimentasi yang dapat menggagu pola hidrologi Kali Porong. Pengamatan dilakukan dengan metode penginderaan jauh dengan menganalisa citra ALOS dan SPOT 4 dari tahun 2010 sampai 2011. Klasifikasi yang digunakan dalam analisa ini adalah klasifikasi Terselia atau klasifikasi beracuan yang menggunakan Maximum Likehood Standard dan menganalisa DEM SRTM dengan menggunakan menu spatial analyst tools untuk menentukan arah aliran sungai (flow direction dan akumulasi aliran sungai (flow accumulation.Hasil dari penelitian ini memperlihatkan bahwa dalam peta aliran sungai terlihat gradasi warna dari biru tua menuju ke biru muda menjelaskan bahwa arah aliran sungai yang menunjukan semakin besar akumulasi pencampuran antara air sungai dengan lumpur dititik tersebut. Daerah pesisir Sidoarjo lebih di dominasi oleh pola aliran sungai dendritik. Pola aliran sungai daerah muara Kali Porong relatif tetap.

  18. Air Pollution

    OpenAIRE

    Lawther, P. J.

    2014-01-01

    The human costs of air pollution are considerable in Jordan. According to a report published in 2000 by the World Bank under the Mediterranean Environmental Technical Assistance Program (METAP), approximately 600 people die prematurely each year in Jordan because of urban pollution. 50-90% of air pollution in Jordanian towns is caused by road traffic. Readings taken in 2007 by Jordanian researchers showed that levels of black carbon particles in the air were higher in urban areas (caused by v...

  19. Air Pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Air quality is affected by many types of pollutants that are emitted from various sources, including stationary and mobile. These sources release both criteria and hazardous air pollutants, which cause health effects, ecological harm, and material damage. They are generally categ...

  20. Rancangan Turbin Ossberger (cross flow). Daya Turbin = 2,6 kW. Head = 12 meter

    OpenAIRE

    Tan, Darwin

    2011-01-01

    Orang Cina dan Mesir kuno sudah mengunakan turbin air sebagai tenaga penggerak. Pada gambar 1.1 adalah contoh turbin air paling kuno, biasa dinamai roda air. Roda air dengan poros horizontal dipasang pada aliran sungai, sebagian dari roda air dimasukan ke aliran sungai sehingga bucket-bucket terisi air dan terdorong. Karena dorongan itulah roda air berputar. Karena teknologinya masih kuno, roda air hanya menghasilkan daya rendah dengan efisiensi rendah.

  1. Thin air

    OpenAIRE

    Jasanoff, Sheila

    2013-01-01

    Clearing the air How do we grasp the air? Without Michel Callon’s guidance, I might never have asked that question. Years ago, when I first entered environmental law practice, I took it for granted that problems such as air pollution exist “out there” in the real world for science to discover and law to fix. It is a measure of Callon’s influence that I understand the law today as a metaphysical instrument, no less powerful in its capacity to order nature than the tools of the ancient oracular...

  2. Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to a close in June 2013 when the company, Conscious Clothing, was awarded the My Air grand ... Page Options: Request Translation Services Facebook Twitter LinkedIn Google+ Reddit Email Evernote More Increase Font Size Decrease ...

  3. Rancang Bangun Pompa Air Semi Mekanis Bertenaga Semi Aliran

    OpenAIRE

    Syahputera, Firman

    2011-01-01

    Farmers who live in watershed still using electric or manual pump to get water. Therefore the authorty to make mechanical spring-powered water pump. This research was conducted in February-May 2010 at the Agricultural Engineering Laboratory, Faculty of Agriculture, University of North Sumatra, Medan, and the field research was conducted in Sungai Permai, Desa Namo Gajah, Kecamatan Tuntungan Medan, Medan, Sumatera Utara. by literature study, experiments and observations on the water pump. The ...

  4. Air surveillance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patton, G.W.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the air surveillance and monitoring programs currently in operation at that Hanford Site. Atmospheric releases of pollutants from Hanford to the surrounding region are a potential source of human exposure. For that reason, both radioactive and nonradioactive materials in air are monitored at a number of locations. The influence of Hanford emissions on local radionuclide concentrations was evaluated by comparing concentrations measured at distant locations within the region to concentrations measured at the Site perimeter. This section discusses sample collection, analytical methods, and the results of the Hanford air surveillance program. A complete listing of all analytical results summarized in this section is reported separately by Bisping (1995).

  5. Healthy Air Outdoors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... lung.org > Our Initiatives > Healthy Air > Outdoor Healthy Air Outdoors The quality of the air we breathe ... families and can even shorten their lives. Outdoor Air Pollution and Health Outdoor air pollution continues to ...

  6. Air quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This chapter of the 'Assessment of the state of the environment in Lebanon' describes the air quality and identifies the most important air quality issues. Baseline information about the factors affecting dispersion and the climate of Lebanon presents as well and overall estimation of total emissions in Lebanon. Emissions from vehicles, electricity and power plants generation are described. Industrial emitters of air pollutants are described for each kind of industry i.e.cement plants, Selaata fertilizer factory, sugar-beet factory, refineries and for those derived from the use of leaded fuel . Impact of economic and human activities on air quality in Lebanon (especially in Beirut and Tripoli) are quantified by quantities of CO2, SO2, NOx, total suspended particulates(TSP), deposition and their environmental effects on health. In abscence of emissions monitoring, data available are expressed in terms of fuel use, output and appropriate empirical factors, national output and workfores sizes. Finally key issues and some potential mitigation /management approaches are presented

  7. Royal Danish Air Force. Air Operations Doctrine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørby, Søren

    This brief examines the development of the first Danish Air Force Air Operations Doctrine, which was officially commissioned in October 1997 and remained in effect until 2010. The development of a Danish air power doctrine was heavily influenced by the work of Colonel John Warden (USAF), both...... through his book ”The Air Campaign” and his subsequent planning of the air campaign against Iraq in 1990-1991. Warden’s ideas came to Denmark and the Danish Air Force by way of Danish Air Force students attending the United States Air Force Air University in Alabama, USA. Back in Denmark, graduates from...... the Air University inspired a small number of passionate airmen, who then wrote the Danish Air Operations Doctrine. The process was supported by the Air Force Tactical Command, which found that the work dovetailed perfectly with the transformation process that the Danish Air Force was in the midst of...

  8. Air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Australian cites experience a number of current and emerging air pollution problems. Concentrations of traditional primary pollutants such as CO, lead and dust have fallen in recent years as a consequence of air pollutant control measures, and the widespread introduction of lead-free petrol. However, recommended guidelines for ozone, the principal component of photochemical smog, are regularly exceeded in major capital cities in the summer months. In addition, it is predicted that extensive urban expansion will lead to much greater dependence on the motor vehicle as the primary means of transportation. Effects of air pollution are felt at a variety of scales. Traditionally, concerns about gaseous and particulate emissions from industrial and vehicular sources were focused on local impacts due to exposure to toxic species such as CO and lead. As noted above, concentrations of these pollutants have been reduced by a variety of control measures. Pollutants which have effects at a regional scale, such as photochemically-produced ozone, and acidic gases and particles have proved more difficult to reduce. In general, these pollutants arc not the result of direct emissions to atmosphere, but result from complex secondary processes driven by photochemical reactions of species such as NO2 and aldehydes. In addition, global effects of gaseous and particulate emissions to the atmosphere have received significant recent attention, concentrations of atmospheric CO2 with predicted impacts on global climate, and ozone depletion due to anthropogenic emissions of chlorine-containing chemicals are the two major examples. Combustion processes from petrol- and diesel-fuelled vehicles, make major contributions to air pollution, and the magnitude of this contribution is discussed in this article

  9. Ciri Hidrologi Dan Hakisan Tebing Sungai Di Sungai Lendu, Alor Gajah Melaka

    OpenAIRE

    Mohd Ekhwan Toriman; Haryati Che Lah

    2007-01-01

    Hydrological status and river bank erosion were studied in Lendu River catchment, Melaka. Data obtained from Batu Berendam climatological station was used to analysed hydrological status at the study area. Bank erosion measurement was also carried out using erosion pin technique. Data then were analysed using Smith’s simple statistics. Results from hydrological analyses reveal that Lendu River is classified as L3W1 hydrological region with Precipitation (P) – Potential Evapotranspiration (PE)...

  10. Air filtration and indoor air quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bekö, Gabriel

    2006-01-01

    Demands for better indoor air quality are increasing, since we spend most of our time indoors and we are more and more aware of indoor air pollution. Field studies in different parts of the world have documented that high percentage of occupants in many offices and buildings find the indoor air...... decent ventilation and air cleaning/air filtration, high indoor air quality cannot be accomplished. The need for effective air filtration has increased with increasing evidence on the hazardous effects of fine particles. Moreover, the air contains gaseous pollutants, removal of which requires various air...... cleaning techniques. Supply air filter is one of the key components in the ventilation system. Studies have shown that used ventilation filters themselves can be a significant source of indoor air pollution with consequent impact on perceived air quality, sick building syndrome symptoms and performance...

  11. R9 Air Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Region 9 Air Districts layer is a compilation of polygons representing the California Air Pollution Control and Air Quality Management Districts, Arizona Air...

  12. AirData

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The AirData site provides access to yearly summaries of United States air pollution data, taken from EPA's air pollution databases. AirData has information about...

  13. California Air Basins

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Air ResourcesCalifornia Air Resources BoardThe following datasets are from the California Air Resources Board: * arb_california_airbasins - California Air BasinsThe...

  14. Hazardous Air Pollutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Facebook Twitter Google+ Pinterest Contact Us Hazardous Air Pollutants Hazardous air pollutants are those known to cause ... protect against adverse environmental effects. About Hazardous Air Pollutants What are hazardous air pollutants? Health and Environmental ...

  15. Pressurized air supply device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ventilation air-conditioning facilities in a nuclear reactor building are adapted to suck clean external air not containing radioactivity through air supply filters disposed at an air intake port of the nuclear reactor building by means of an air supply blower and then supply the sucked air through an air supply duct and an air supply port to the inside of the power plant. Futher, pipeways for supplying sucked air to a compressor is branched from the air supply duct, through which air is supplied to an air compressor for instrumentation and an air compressor used in the power plant. The air sucked and compressed in the air compressor for instrumentation is further supplied by way of pipeways for supplying air for instrumentation to air-actuated valves, instruments, etc. Further, air sucked and compressed in the air compressor used in the power plant is further supplied by way of air supply pipeways for the power plant to a reservoir, air mask, etc. By supplying clean compressed air in this way, operators exposure dose can be reduced. (T.M.)

  16. Air movement and perceived air quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melikov, Arsen Krikor; Kaczmarczyk, J.

    2012-01-01

    The impact of air movement on perceived air quality (PAQ) and sick building syndrome (SBS) symptoms was studied. In total, 124 human subjects participated in four series of experiments performed in climate chambers at different combinations of room air temperature (20, 23, 26 and 28 °C), relative...... humidity (30, 40 and 70%) and pollution level (low and high). Most of the experiments were performed with and without facially applied airflow at elevated velocity. The importance of the use of recirculated room air and clean, cool and dry outdoor air was studied. The exposures ranged from 60. min to 235....... min. Acceptability of PAQ and freshness of the air improved when air movement was applied. The elevated air movement diminished the negative impact of increased air temperature, relative humidity and pollution level on PAQ. The degree of improvement depended on the pollution level, the temperature and...

  17. Air filtration and indoor air quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bekö, Gabriel

    decent ventilation and air cleaning/air filtration, high indoor air quality cannot be accomplished. The need for effective air filtration has increased with increasing evidence on the hazardous effects of fine particles. Moreover, the air contains gaseous pollutants, removal of which requires various air...... contradictions should motivate manufacturers and researchers to develop new efficient filtration techniques and/or improve the existing ones. Development of low polluting filtration techniques, which are at the same time easy and inexpensive to maintain is the way forward in the future....

  18. Air protection. Ochrana ovzdusia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siska, F.

    1980-01-01

    This paper discusses problems of air pollution control, air pollution abatement and effects of air pollution. Air pollution caused by black and brown coal combustion, by fossil-fuel power plants and by coking plants is evaluated. Air pollution by dusts, sulfur oxides, nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, ammonia as well arsenic, barium, beryllium, boron, chromium, gallium, cobalt, manganese, copper, nickel, lead, plutonium, titanium and vanadium, which sometimes accompany ashes in coal, is analyzed. Methods of air pollution abatement such as fluidized bed combustion, coal preparation, desulfurization or dry coke quenching are described. Systems for air pollution control are presented: air filtration, cyclones, electrostatic precipitators. Systems of air pollution measurement and recording are evaluated. Propagation of air pollutants in the atmosphere as well as the factors which influence pollutant propagation are characterized. Problems associated with site selection for fossil-fuel power plants are also discussed. An analysis of economic aspects of air pollution abatement and air pollution control is made. (55 refs.)

  19. Indoor Air Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... protect yourself and your family. Learn more Air Quality at Work Workers should breathe easy while on the job, but worksites with poor air quality put employees at risk. Healthy air is essential ...

  20. HEPA air filter (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... pet dander and other irritating allergens from the air. Along with other methods to reduce allergens, such ... controlling the amount of allergens circulating in the air. HEPA filters can be found in most air ...

  1. Bad Air Day

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... link, please review our exit disclaimer . Subscribe Bad Air Day Air Quality and Your Health In many parts of the country, summer has the worst air quality of any season. When the forecast says ...

  2. PERBANDINGAN EFEKTIFITAS HASIL PENGGELONTORAN SEDIMEN DI WADUK CARA FLUSHING DAN SLUICING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pranoto S. Atmodjo

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This study compares the effectiveness of the flushing of sediment in the reservoir by means of flushing andSluicing way, based on Physical Hydraulic Test (Model Test in the laboratory. Flushing is removingaccumulated deposited sediment. While slucing is releasing of sediment through the reservoir beforesettled or keep sediment remain in suspension and its occur during flood period. Sediments FlushEffectiveness represented by the percentage of released sediment by sediment deposited or the amount ofsediment entering the reservoir during the flushing period.The model based on the prototipe from DetailDesign of Structural Countermeasures for Sedimentation on Wonogiri Reservoir by Nippon Koei 2009.Running model duration is one hour, used free flow and submergence condition, with discharge variationQ=100, 200 and 400 m3/s. Sluicing experiments conducted with some 60 liters of sediment sprinkle evenlywide flow, and Flushing implemented by 2,00 m thickness of deposited sediment that spreaded over thereservoir bottom before running. From this research showed that Sluicing way more efficient than theflushing way, where the number of efficiency of sediment Sluicing way bigger than the efficiency offlusing way, in the running an hour in the laboratory test

  3. SPESIASI DAN BIOAVAILABILITAS LOGAM Pb DALAM SEDIMEN DI KAWASAN PESISIR SANUR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Dian Meita Sari

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Total content of Pb metal in sediments has been reported or published frequently, but it could not provide information about various forms of metals contained in sediments and did not show the true metal concentrations involved in the process of bioaccumulation by organisms. Therefore, this study was aimed to determine the bioavailability of Pb metal and speciation the metal in various forms or compounds existing in the sediments. A quantitative analysis of total metal content, Pb in the sediments was initiated performing the digestion method using the mixture of HNO3 and HCl (3:1 in ultrasonic bath at 60 0C for 45 minutes, and continued heating on a hotplate for another 45 minutes at 140 0C. Moreover, analysis of Pb metals as bioavailability fraction was perfomed by single extraction method of EDTA and HCl, while for metal speciation fractions on each phase using Sequential Extraction Technique. Consequently, the metal concentrations of digestion and extraction solutions were measured by using an atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS technique with the aplication of calibration method. The total concentrations of Pb in sediments collected from Sanur Beach ranged from 139,9945 to 260,1521 mg/kg. The highest bioavailability of Pb obtained in sediments at site II (Sindhu Beach, in which the Pb extracted from sediments was 21.44%. Generally, the Pb metal associated in the sediments at Sanur Beach was bounded in oxidisable organic fraction (2.08 – 3.50%.

  4. Karakteristik Batubara dan Batuan Sedimen Pembawanya, Formasi Talangakar, di daerah Lampung Tengah

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kusnama Kusnama

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.17014/ijog.vol4no2.20095The rock succession of coal bearing formation, situated in Lampung Tengah, occupies the basinal margin or the western part of South Sumatra Basin. Physiographically, the rock succession lies in the Palembang Zone which directly contacts with the southernmost Barisan Mountain Zone. The rock facies consists of conglomerate, and conglomeratic and quartz sandstones in the lower part, whilst the upper part comprises shale, claystone, mudstone, siltstone, and coal with coally shale and shaly coal intercalations. The rock facies of coal bearing unit is strongly believed to be part of the Oligo - Miocene Talangakar Formation deposited in a fluvial – paralic environment which further up section, it turns to be a sub-littoral deposit. The depositional environment strongly affected the coal characteristics and type. Stratigraphically, the rock unit is conformably overlain by the Early - Middle Miocene limestone unit and is intruded by the Middle – Late Miocene granodiorite. The basement of the Tertiary rock succession is metamorphics of the Gunungkasih Complex and the Cretaceous granitic rock. The normal fault controlling the area studied has a northwest - southeast direction and it caused the dip of coal trending north - east direction of 15º - 23º. The coal of the research area was deposited in wet forest swamp environment within a high to medium subsidence level. The coal is grouped to a high to low volatile bituminuous rank, included to a mature category.    

  5. PEMANFAATAN SEDIMEN PERAIRAN TERCEMAR SEBAGAI BAHAN LUMPUR AKTIF DALAM PENGOLAHAN LIMBAH CAIR INDUSTRI TAHU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Luh Gede Sudaryati

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Tofu industries are food industries which use a lot of water, both for operational system and as a basic material for production.Tofu industries produce liquid sewage which contains high organic subtances. Liquid sewage of tofu industries is one of the sources ofcontaminants, so that it is needed to have an appropriate waste processing. In order to overcome liquid sewage problem, a wasteprocessing is to reduce and eliminate dangerous materials and pathogenic microorganisms. Biological treatment is the commonest way inhandling the liquid waste from food industries. One of the biological processing that can reduce the contaminants content in liquidindustrial sewage is activated sludge. This activated sludge can also metabolize and break up the contaminants in the sewage and thisprocessing uses sludge.This research was carried out in order to know the growth rate of microbe biomass in activated sludge from 3 types of sludgetaken from the ditches of the tofu industries, the sludge taken from Pesanggaran Slaughterhouse and the sludge taken from Badung Riverwhich were composed into 4 compositions and then were seeded, than tested to get 4 sludge composition in order to reduce COD in tofuindustrial sewage. The parameters used were physical and chemical views. This research was done by measuring the changes in VSSvalue of the four sludge compositions which were seeded and the COD of the four tested sludge compositions.This research used factorial Randomized Completed sampling that consisting of 2 factors and three repetitions, that is the firstfactor was composition sludge and the second one ws incubation period and then were analyzed by using descriptive comprative analysisand uni –variant analysis.The result of this research shown that the best sludge composition used as activated sludge was the sludge composition takenfrom the ditches of tofu industries was 50 %, the sludge taken from Pesanggaran Slaughterhouse was 25% and the sludge taken fromBadung River was 25 % with had VSS of micobe biomass growth of 2265 mg/L and was able to reduce COD of tofu industrial liquidsewage up to 46.645 mg/L.

  6. REACH. Air Conditioning Units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrison, Joe; And Others

    As a part of the REACH (Refrigeration, Electro-Mechanical, Air-Conditioning, Heating) electromechanical cluster, this student manual contains individualized instructional units in the area of air conditioning. The instructional units focus on air conditioning fundamentals, window air conditioning, system and installation, troubleshooting and…

  7. Studi Keanekaragaman Mangrove Berdasarkan Tingkat Salinitas Air Laut di Desa Selotong Kecamatan Sicanggang Kabupaten Langkat.

    OpenAIRE

    Gultom, Sujadi

    2011-01-01

    Mangrove merupakan karakteristik dari bentuk tanaman pantai, estuari atau muara sungai, dan delta di tempat yang terlindung di daerah tropis dan sub tropis. Dengan demikian maka mangrove merupakan ekosistem yang terdapat di antara daratan dan lautan dan pada kondisi yang sesuai mangrove akan membentuk hutan yang ekstensif dan produktif. Karena hidupnya di dekat pantai, mangrove sering juga dinamakan hutan pasang surut, hutan payau, atau hutan bakau. Istilah bakau itu sendiri dalam bahasa Indo...

  8. Indoor Air Pollution (Environmental Health Student Portal)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Students to Environmental Health Information Menu Home Air Pollution Air Pollution Home Indoor Air Pollution Outdoor Air Pollution ... Pollution Indoor Air Pollution Print this Page Air Pollution Air Pollution Home Indoor Air Pollution Outdoor Air Pollution ...

  9. CISADANE RIVER WATER POLLUTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumoro Palupi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Sungai Cisadane berfungsi sebagai sumber air baku untuk sistem penyediaan air bersih wilayah Serpong dan Tangerang, Kabupaten Tangerang. Meskipun demikian, sungai Cisadane berfungsi pula sebagai tempat pembuangan limbah bagi rumah tangga dan industri yang berlokasi di sepanjang sungai tersebut. Untuk memperoleh gambaran mengenai tingkat pencemaran airnya, pada bulan September 1992 telah dilakukan pengambilan sampel air sungai Cisadane. Sampel air diambil di sebelah hulu intake instalasi pengolahan air di Cikokol (Tangerang dan Serpong, masing-masing sebanyak lima dan tiga lokasi. Sebanyak 21 parameter dianalisis, kemudian dihitung Individual Index (II dan Pollution Index (PI - nya. Hasil yang diperoleh, yang menggambarkan kualitas pencemaran air sungai Cisadane pada saat itu, adalah sebagai berikut : Tangerang PI=1891. Pencemar utama adalah fenol, dengan II- 110 dan lemak & minyak, dengan II = 2670.Serpong, PI=574. Pencemar utama adalah fenol, dengan 11 = 810 Parameter lain yang mempunyai II > 1 adalah oksigen terlarut, fosfat, zat besi, fecal coli, nitrat, COD dan zat padat tersuspensi. Hasil tersebut menggambarkan baliwa sungai Cisadane telah tercemar oleh limbah industri dan rumah tangga, serta mungkin pula telah tercemar oleh limbah pertanian, peternakan dan perbengkelan.

  10. Indoor Air Quality

    OpenAIRE

    Korlakunta Divya #1, M.Anil Kumar

    2013-01-01

    The main aim of our project is to maintain the indoor air quality.The analysis is done on different parameters like temperature,relativehumidity,CO2,lights,sens ors and air conditioners to maintain the indoor environment.This report provides overview on importance of indoor air quality in an office or any other closed structure. It also discusses about the effects of poor indoor air quality, the various factors that affect the indoor air quality and various methods to assess indoor air qualit...

  11. Air Quality Facilities

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — Facilities with operating permits for Title V of the Federal Clean Air Act, as well as facilities required to submit an air emissions inventory, and other...

  12. Indoor Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    We usually think of air pollution as being outdoors, but the air in your house or office could also be polluted. Sources of indoor pollution include Mold and pollen Tobacco smoke Household products ...

  13. Allegheny County Air Quality

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Air quality data from Allegheny County Health Department monitors throughout the county. Air quality monitored data must be verified by qualified individuals...

  14. Nuclear air cleaning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report briefly describes the history of the use of high- efficiency particulate air filters for air cleaning at nuclear installations in the United States and discusses future uses of such filters

  15. Air Quality System (AQS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Air Quality System (AQS) database contains measurements of air pollutant concentrations from throughout the United States and its territories. The measurements...

  16. Indoor air: Reference bibliography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The U. S. Environmental Protection Agency initially established the indoor air Reference Bibliography in 1987 as an appendix to the Indoor Air Quality Implementation Plan. The document was submitted to Congress as required under Title IV--Radon Gas and Indoor Air Quality Research of the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986. The Reference Bibliography is an extensive bibliography of reference materials on indoor air pollution. The Bibliography contains over 4500 citations and continues to increase as new articles appear

  17. Indoor Air Quality Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin Union Free School District, NY.

    This manual identifies ways to improve a school's indoor air quality (IAQ) and discusses practical actions that can be carried out by school staff in managing air quality. The manual includes discussions of the many sources contributing to school indoor air pollution and the preventive planning for each including renovation and repair work,…

  18. Air Pollution Training Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Public Health Service (DHEW), Rockville, MD.

    This catalog lists the universities, both supported and not supported by the Division of Air Pollution, which offer graduate programs in the field of air pollution. The catalog briefly describes the programs and their entrance requirements, the requirements, qualifications and terms of special fellowships offered by the Division of Air Pollution.…

  19. Indoor air quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Trine Susanne; Recevska, Ieva

     The objective of the 35th specific agreement is to provide support to the EEA activities in Environment and Health (E&H) on the topic of indoor air quality. The specific objectives have been to provide an overview of indoor air related projects in EU and indoor air related policies as well...

  20. Indoor Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    We usually think of air pollution as being outdoors, but the air in your house or office could also be polluted. Sources of indoor pollution ... is known as sick building syndrome. Usually indoor air quality problems only cause discomfort. Most people feel ...

  1. Air Travel Health Tips

    Science.gov (United States)

    MENU Return to Web version Air Travel Health Tips Air Travel Health Tips How can I improve plane travel? Most people don't have any problems when ... and dosages of all of your medicines. The air in airplanes is dry, so drink nonalcoholic, decaffeinated ...

  2. We Pollute the Air

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    1.Clean air is important to good health.If the aircontains impurities,they may be absorbed by ourbodies and make us ill.We need clean air,butunfortunately,air pollution is generally present,especially in cities. 2.Our cities have many factories,which we need tomake food products,clothing and many other things.

  3. Air Conditioning Does Reduce Air Pollution Indoors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healy, Bud

    1970-01-01

    Report of the winter meeting of the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers. Subjects covered are--(1) title subject, (2) predictions for the human habitat in 1994, (3) fans, and (4) fire safety in buildings. (JW)

  4. Advanced air distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melikov, Arsen Krikor

    2011-01-01

    The aim of total volume air distribution (TVAD) involves achieving uniform temperature and velocity in the occupied zone and environment designed for an average occupant. The supply of large amounts of clean and cool air are needed to maintain temperature and pollution concentration at acceptable....... Ventilation in hospitals is essential to decrease the risk of airborne cross-infection. At present, mixing air distribution at a minimum of 12 ach is used in infection wards. Advanced air distribution has the potential to aid in achieving healthy, comfortable and productive indoor environments at levels...... higher than what can be achieved today with the commonly used total volume air distribution principles....

  5. Released air during vapor and air cavitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jablonská, Jana; Kozubková, Milada

    2016-06-01

    Cavitation today is a very important problem that is solved by means of experimental and mathematical methods. The article deals with the generation of cavitation in convergent divergent nozzle of rectangular cross section. Measurement of pressure, flow rate, temperature, amount of dissolved air in the liquid and visualization of cavitation area using high-speed camera was performed for different flow rates. The measurement results were generalized by dimensionless analysis, which allows easy detection of cavitation in the nozzle. For numerical simulation the multiphase mathematical model of cavitation consisting of water and vapor was created. During verification the disagreement with the measurements for higher flow rates was proved, therefore the model was extended to multiphase mathematical model (water, vapor and air), due to release of dissolved air. For the mathematical modeling the multiphase turbulence RNG k-ɛ model for low Reynolds number flow with vapor and air cavitation was used. Subsequently the sizes of the cavitation area were verified. In article the inlet pressure and loss coefficient depending on the amount of air added to the mathematical model are evaluated. On the basis of the approach it may be create a methodology to estimate the amount of released air added at the inlet to the modeled area.

  6. Manual for THOR-AirPAS - air pollution assessment system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Steen Solvang; Ketzel, Matthias; Brandt, Jørgen;

    The report provides an outline of the THOR-AirPAS - air pollution assessment system and a brief manual for getting started with the air quality models and input data included in THOR-AirPAS.......The report provides an outline of the THOR-AirPAS - air pollution assessment system and a brief manual for getting started with the air quality models and input data included in THOR-AirPAS....

  7. Health Effects of Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... air pollution How to protect yourself from air pollution Chemicals Noise Quizzes Links to more information girlshealth glossary girlshealth.gov home http://www.girlshealth.gov/ Home The environment and your health Air Health effects of air pollution ... Health effects of air pollution Breathing air that ...

  8. Air filtration in HVAC systems

    CERN Document Server

    Ginestet, Alain; Tronville, Paolo; Hyttinen, Marko

    2010-01-01

    Air filtration Guidebook will help the designer and user to understand the background and criteria for air filtration, how to select air filters and avoid problems associated with hygienic and other conditions at operation of air filters. The selection of air filters is based on external conditions such as levels of existing pollutants, indoor air quality and energy efficiency requirements.

  9. Air Quality in Lithuania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pietilae, P. [Tampere University of Technology / ECAT-Lithuania (Lithuania); Kliucininkas, L. [Department for Environmental Engineering, Kaunas University of Technology (Lithuania)

    2000-07-01

    Sustainable monitoring of the ambient air is the major preventive measure of ensuring its proper quality. Only with a monitoring procedure going-on a continuous basis it is possible to make an objective evaluation of air pollution trends, of the efficiency of air protection measures and, partially, to a certain extent of the impact the pollution exerts on a human health. The information stemming from the monitoring procedure must be reliable, sustainable and efficient. (orig.)

  10. Indonesia's Clean Air Program

    OpenAIRE

    Budy P. Resosudarmo

    2002-01-01

    Unprecedented industrial development in Indonesia during the last two decades, accompanied by a growing population, has increased the amount of environmental damage. One of the most important environmental problems is that the level of air pollution in several large cities has become alarming, particularly in the last few years. This high pollution level has stimulated the government to develop a national clean air program designed to control the quantity of pollutants in the air. However, th...

  11. Bad traffic, bad air

    OpenAIRE

    Duca, Edward

    2012-01-01

    Air pollution is one of Malta’s greatest concerns. Transportation is the principal source with over 300,000 vehicles belching out smoke, which damages our environment and health. Emissions from vehicles need to be monitored and controlled, and the information used to improve the current system and ensure an acceptable air quality. By using the pollution data set, Nicolette Formosa (supervised by Dr Kenneth Scerri) mapped the air pollution levels and major sources around Malta. http://www....

  12. Emergency air supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An air supply safety device is described which can operate in an hostile environment. The system ensures that should the ring mains supply or the operator's individual hose fail an emergency air supply is obtained from a compressed air bottle fed to the operator's face mask via a valve. The valve switches from mains/mask to emergency supply/mask when the mains pressure falls below the emergency supply pressure. (U.K.)

  13. Radioactive material air transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As function of the high aggregated value, safety regulations and the useful life time, the air transportation has been used more regularly because is fast, reliable, and by giving great security to the cargo. Based on the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), the IATA (International Air Transportation Association) has reproduced in his dangerous goods manual (Dangerous Goods Regulations - DGR IATA), the regulation for the radioactive material air transportation. Those documents support this presentation

  14. Electric air filtration movie

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of electrostatics to improve the performance of conventional air filters has gained considerable attention in recent years. This interest is due to the higher efficiency and reduced pressure drop of electrically enhanced filters compared to conventional fibrous filters. This 30-minute movie presents a state of the art review of electric air filters in the United States with major illustrations provided by the research and development program at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory sponsored by the Department of Energy. The electric air filters described in this movie are mechanical air filters to which electrical forces have been added

  15. Applications Using AIRS Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, S. E.; Pagano, T. S.; Fetzer, E. J.; Lambrigtsen, B.; Olsen, E. T.; Teixeira, J.; Licata, S. J.; Hall, J. R.; Thompson, C. K.

    2015-12-01

    The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) on NASA's Aqua spacecraft has been returning daily global observations of Earth's atmospheric constituents and properties since 2002. With a 12-year data record and daily, global observations in near real-time, AIRS data can play a role in applications that fall under many of the NASA Applied Sciences focus areas. For vector-borne disease, research is underway using AIRS near surface retrievals to assess outbreak risk, mosquito incubation periods and epidemic potential for dengue fever, malaria, and West Nile virus. For drought applications, AIRS temperature and humidity data are being used in the development of new drought indicators and improvement in the understanding of drought development. For volcanic hazards, new algorithms using AIRS data are in development to improve the reporting of sulfur dioxide concentration, the burden and height of volcanic ash and dust, all of which pose a safety threat to aircraft. In addition, anomaly maps of many of AIRS standard products are being produced to help highlight "hot spots" and illustrate trends. To distribute it's applications imagery, AIRS is leveraging existing NASA data frameworks and organizations to facilitate archiving, distribution and participation in the BEDI. This poster will communicate the status of the applications effort for the AIRS Project and provide examples of new maps designed to best communicate the AIRS data.

  16. Air pollution meteorology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is intended as a training cum reference document for scientists posted at the Environmental Laboratories at the Nuclear Power Station Sites and other sites of the Department of Atomic Energy with installations emitting air pollutants, radioactive or otherwise. Since a manual already exists for the computation of doses from radioactive air pollutants, a general approach is take here i.e. air pollutants in general are considered. The first chapter presents a brief introduction to the need and scope of air pollution dispersion modelling. The second chapter is a very important chapter discussing the aspects of meteorology relevant to air pollution and dispersion modelling. This chapter is important because without this information one really does not understand the phenomena affecting dispersion, the scope and applicability of various models or their limitations under various weather and site conditions. The third chapter discusses the air pollution models in detail. These models are applicable to distances of a few tens of kilometres. The fourth chapter discusses the various aspects of meteorological measurements relevant to air pollution. The chapters are followed by two appendices. Apendix A discusses the reliability of air pollution estimates. Apendix B gives some practical examples relevant to general air pollution. It is hoped that the document will prove very useful to the users. (author)

  17. Produktivitas Primer Perifiton di Sungai Naborsahan Sumatera Utara

    OpenAIRE

    Telaumbanua, Betzy Victor

    2016-01-01

    The aimed of this research is to know diversity and abundance of periphyton, to know the primary productivity of periphyton and to know the relationship of the physics, chemistry and biology aquatic parameters of the primary productivity periphyton in the River Naborsahan. Water quality parameters measured were temperature, current, brightness, potential of Hydrogen (pH), dissolved oxygen (DO), nitrite, nitrate, ammonia, orthophosphate and abundance of periphyton. The observations were made f...

  18. PERENCANAAN KAPASITAS PEMBANGKIT PLTM SUNGAI LOGUNG KARANGTALUN KABUPATEN TEMANGGUNG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agung Nugroho

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Central Java Province intends to improve the use of renewable energy (EBT such as water resources. Logung river at Ngaliyan subdistrict, Temanggung district has potential energy for micro power plan. The first step to use the water resource is determining the capacity of a mini hydro power plan in accordance with the conditions of the river Logung. Based on the the technical study, the elvation height between the prospective weir with potential power house is 110 m and the effetive height at 105 m. Logung maximum river flow is 11.06 m3/dt, with average flow is 4,77 m3/dt., The minimum flow is 0,75 m3/dt. This electricity power is 10253.12 KW with maximum flow, it will be produced 4848.44 KW at maximum flow 60 %. The minimum flow can deliver 695,28 KW. The suitable capacity for the generator of micro power plants of Logung is 3220 KVA when it is according to manufacture. Key words : power, flow, power

  19. Studi Keanekaragaman Makrozoobentos Di Aliran Sungai Padang Kota Tebing Tinggi

    OpenAIRE

    Dahlia Rosmelina Simamora

    2009-01-01

    Dari hasil penelitian didapatkan sebanyak 3 kelas yaitu Insecta, Chaetopoda, dan Gastropoda yang terdiri dari 17 genera makrozoobentos seperti Prgomphus sp, Allpcapnia sp, Belostoma sp, Hyrophillus sp, Macrovelia sp, Ranatra sp, Tubifex sp, Goniobasis sp, Pleurocora sp, Apella sp, Macrobrachium sp, Viviparus sp, Thiara sp, Lydores sp, Paludestrina sp, Pomatiopsis sp, Sphaerium sp. Nilai kepadatan tertinggi didapatkan dari genera Tubifex sp sebesar 30,86 ind/ m2 yang ditemukan pada stasiun IV ...

  20. Restoran Buenos Aires = Restaurant Buenos Aires

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    Restorani Buenos Aires (Narva mnt. 5, Tallinn) sisekujundusest. Sisearhitektid: Janno Roos ja Andres Labi (Ruumilabor OÜ). Laudu eraldavad 400 vardasse aetud puukuuli. Sisearhitektidest, nende tähtsamad tööd. I-III korruse plaan, 12 värv. vaadet, fotod sisearhitektidest

  1. Air pollution and society

    OpenAIRE

    Brimblecombe P.

    2010-01-01

    Air pollution is as much a product of our society as it is one of chemistry and meteorology. Social variables such as gender, age, health status and poverty are often linked with our exposure to air pollutants. Pollution can also affect our behaviour, while regulations to improve the environment can often challenge of freedom.

  2. AIR RADIOACTIVITY MONITOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradshaw, R.L.; Thomas, J.W.

    1961-04-11

    The monitor is designed to minimize undesirable background buildup. It consists of an elongated column containing peripheral electrodes in a central portion of the column, and conduits directing an axial flow of radioactively contaminated air through the center of the column and pure air through the annular portion of the column about the electrodes. (AEC)

  3. Air Pollution, Teachers' Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavaroni, Charles W.; O'Donnell, Patrick A.

    One of three in a series about pollution, this teacher's guide for a unit on air pollution is designed for use in junior high school grades. It offers suggestions for extending the information and activities contained in the textual material for students. Chapter 1 discusses the problem of air pollution and involves students in processes of…

  4. Air Pollution and Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, R. D., Ed.

    This book is an authoritative reference and practical guide designed to help the plant engineer identify and solve industrial air pollution problems in order to be able to meet current air pollution regulations. Prepared under the editorial supervision of an experienced chemical engineer, with each chapter contributed by an expert in his field,…

  5. Transportation and air quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the greater Vancouver regional district (GVRD), some 80% of the annual production of 600,000 tonnes of air pollutants come from motor vehicles. Three critical air quality issues in the GVRD are discussed: local air pollution, ozone layer depletion, and greenhouse gas emissions, all of which are fundamentally linked to transportation. Overall air quality in the GVRD has been judged acceptable by current federal standards, but ground-level ozone has exceeded maximum tolerable levels at some locations and concentrations of suspended particulates are above maximum acceptable levels. Serious deterioration in air quality has been predicted unless a concerted effort is made to manage air quality on an airshed-wide basis. The GVRD is developing Canada's first Air Management Plan with the goal of halving atmospheric emissions by 2000. GVRD transportation priorities stress public transit, walking, cycling, car pooling, and reducing of travel demand; however, the viability of such strategies depends on decisions made outside the transportation sector. Restricted authority and jurisdiction also hinder GVRD goals; the regional level of government has no authority over highways or transit and only has authority for pollution control in some parts of the Fraser Valley. Airshed quality management, using the Los Angeles example, is seen as a possible direction for future GVRD policymaking in the transportation sector. A single regional planning agency with responsibility for transportation, land use, and air quality management appears as the best option for an integrated approach to solve multiple problems. 19 refs

  6. International Air Services

    OpenAIRE

    Productivity Commission

    2001-01-01

    On 12 December 1997 the Treasurer referred international air services arrangements to the Industry Commission for inquiry and report within nine months. The Commission was asked to report on the arrangements for negotiating entitlements under air services agreements and the process of allocating capacity entitlements to Australian carriers.

  7. Energy and air quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is one of a series of handbooks designed to provide nontechnical readers with a general understanding of the interaction between energy development and environmental media and to provide a rudimentary data base from which estimates of potential future impacts can be made. This handbook describes the air quality impacts of energy development and summarizes the major federal legislation which regulates the potential air quality impacts of energy facilities and can thus influence the locations and timing of energy development. In addition, this report describes and presents the data which can be used as the basis for measurement, and in some cases, prediction of the potential conflicts between energy development and achieving and maintaining clean air. Energy utilization is the largest emission source of man-made air pollutants. Choices in energy resource development and utilization generate varying emissions or discharges into the atmosphere, the emissions are affected by the assimilative character of the atmosphere, and the resultant air pollutant concentrations have biological and aesthetic effects. This handbook describes the interrelationships of energy-related air emissions under various methods of pollution control, the assimilative character of the air medium, and the effects of air pollution. The media book is divided into three major sections: topics of concern relating to the media and energy development, descriptions of how to use available data to quantify and examine energy/environmental impacts, and the data

  8. Air Pollution Primer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Tuberculosis and Respiratory Disease Association, New York, NY.

    As the dangers of polluted air to the health and welfare of all individuals became increasingly evident and as the complexity of the causes made responsibility for solutions even more difficult to fix, the National Tuberculosis and Respiratory Disease Association felt obligated to give greater emphasis to its clean air program. To this end they…

  9. Over the air test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    [1] This invention relates to over-the-air testing of a device in an anechoic chamber. In particular, the invention is suitable for simulating both uplink and downlink over-the-air communication with a device under test even when the anechoic chamber has different numbers of uplink and downlink...

  10. Air pollution and air cleaning equipment in buildings

    OpenAIRE

    Evdokimova, Ekaterina

    2011-01-01

    The subject of this thesis work is air pollution and air cleaners in building. Clean air has big significance for human health because different pollutions can cause allergy and disease. The quality of indoor air affects health and effective working. The aim of this thesis is to present methods and devices for cleaning the air.

  11. AIRE-Linux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jianfeng; Xu, Benda; Peng, Chuan; Yang, Yang; Huo, Zhuoxi

    2015-08-01

    AIRE-Linux is a dedicated Linux system for astronomers. Modern astronomy faces two big challenges: massive observed raw data which covers the whole electromagnetic spectrum, and overmuch professional data processing skill which exceeds personal or even a small team's abilities. AIRE-Linux, which is a specially designed Linux and will be distributed to users by Virtual Machine (VM) images in Open Virtualization Format (OVF), is to help astronomers confront the challenges. Most astronomical software packages, such as IRAF, MIDAS, CASA, Heasoft etc., will be integrated into AIRE-Linux. It is easy for astronomers to configure and customize the system and use what they just need. When incorporated into cloud computing platforms, AIRE-Linux will be able to handle data intensive and computing consuming tasks for astronomers. Currently, a Beta version of AIRE-Linux is ready for download and testing.

  12. Perilaku Ibu Hamil Terhadap Anemia Gizi Di Kelurahan Pasar Sungai Penuh, Kecamatan Sungai Penuh Kabupaten Dati II Kerinci Tahun 2000

    OpenAIRE

    Panjaitan, Taufik

    2012-01-01

    Pemerintah telah melaksanakan penanggulangan anemia gizi dari tahun 1980 dan diharapkan penurunan angka prevalensi anemia gizi pada ibu hamil berkisar antara 50 - 70 %, tahun 1987 terjadi penurunan prevalensi anemia gizi pada ibu hamil dari 70% menjadi 55%. Berdasarkan data SKRT 1992, terjadi peningkatan prevalensi anemia gizi pada ibu hamil dari 55% menjadi 61%. Akhir Repelita VI angka prevalensi anemia gizi pada ibu hamil menurun menjadi 40%. Berdasarkan Profit Kesehatan Propinsi Jambi t...

  13. Air Baltic: Estonian Air on nurka surutud / Teele Tammeorg

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tammeorg, Teele

    2010-01-01

    Air Balticu asepresidendi Janis Vanagsi hinnangul on Estonian Air aastaid jätnud tähelepanuta oma peamised turismiturud ning on praegu halvas seisus. Air Baltic on endiselt huvitatud Estonian Airi ostust. Majandus- ja kommunikatsiooniminister Juhan Partsi seisukoht

  14. Air Cleaning Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    Executive Summary Objective This health technology policy assessment will answer the following questions: When should in-room air cleaners be used? How effective are in-room air cleaners? Are in-room air cleaners that use combined HEPA and UVGI air cleaning technology more effective than those that use HEPA filtration alone? What is the Plasmacluster ion air purifier in the pandemic influenza preparation plan? The experience of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) locally, nationally, and internationally underscored the importance of administrative, environmental, and personal protective infection control measures in health care facilities. In the aftermath of the SARS crisis, there was a need for a clearer understanding of Ontario’s capacity to manage suspected or confirmed cases of airborne infectious diseases. In so doing, the Walker Commission thought that more attention should be paid to the potential use of new technologies such as in-room air cleaning units. It recommended that the Medical Advisory Secretariat of the Ontario Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care evaluate the appropriate use and effectiveness of such new technologies. Accordingly, the Ontario Health Technology Advisory Committee asked the Medical Advisory Secretariat to review the literature on the effectiveness and utility of in-room air cleaners that use high-efficiency particle air (HEPA) filters and ultraviolet germicidal irradiation (UVGI) air cleaning technology. Additionally, the Ontario Health Technology Advisory Committee prioritized a request from the ministry’s Emergency Management Unit to investigate the possible role of the Plasmacluster ion air purifier manufactured by Sharp Electronics Corporation, in the pandemic influenza preparation plan. Clinical Need Airborne transmission of infectious diseases depends in part on the concentration of breathable infectious pathogens (germs) in room air. Infection control is achieved by a combination of administrative, engineering

  15. Clean Air and Water

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2007-04-10

    The air we breathe and the water we drink are both vital components of our health. Nevertheless, bacteria, pollutants, and other contaminates can alter life-giving air and water into health-threatening hazards. Learn about how scientists at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention work to protect the public from air and water-related health risks.  Created: 4/10/2007 by CDC National Center for Environmental Health.   Date Released: 4/13/2007.

  16. AIR / SEA RESCUE LAUNCHES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.H. Rice

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The Motor Boat Wing of the South African Air Force was inaugurated some thirty eight years ago.With its main base at Gordon's Bay, the wing was formed to operate the various marine craft used to provide a service to the flying component of the South African Air Force. Its main function was to be air/sea rescue, but it also had to man and maintain armoured target boats, seaplane tenders, marine tenders and the 'bomb scows', used for recovering practise bombs and missiles and for laying and lifting moorings.

  17. Mid-air Acrobatics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LlU FENG'AN

    2011-01-01

    On September 1 two new aerobatic demonstration teams,theSky Wing and the Red Falcon,debuted at an air show held in Changchun,capital of northeast China's Jilin Province.The show was staged at a ceremony held by the Aviation University of the People's Liberation Army (PLA) Air Force.Also performing at the show was the 50-year-old Bayi aerobatic demonstration team.The teams demonstrated their superlative flying skills,which showcase the quality of the air force's rigorous pilot training.

  18. Air/liquid collectors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Søren Østergaard; Olesen, Ole; Kristiansen, Finn Harken

    1997-01-01

    This report determine efficiency equations for combined air/liquid solar collectors by measurements on to different air/liquid collectors. Equations which contain all relevant informations on the solar collectors. A simulation program (Kviksol) has been modified in order to be able to handle this...... kind of collectors. The modified simulation program has been used for the determination of the surplus in performance which solar heating systems with this type of solar collectors for combined preheating of ventilation air and domestic hot water will have. The simulation program and the efficiency...

  19. Air Quality Monitoring Programme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kemp, K.; Palmgren, F.

    The air quality in Danish cities has been monitored continuously since 1982 within the Danish Air Quality (LMP) network. The aim has been to follow the concentration levels of toxic pollutants in the urban atmosphere and to provide the necessary knowledge to assess the trends, to perform source...... apportionment, and to evaluate the chemical reactions and the dispersion of the pollutants in the atmosphere. In 2002 the air quality was measured in four Danish cities and at two background sites. NO2 and PM10 were at several stations found in concentrations above the new EU limit values, which the Member...

  20. Air/Water Purification

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    After 18 years of research into air/water pollution at Stennis Space Center, Dr. B. C. Wolverton formed his own company, Wolverton Environmental Services, Inc., to provide technology and consultation in air and water treatment. Common houseplants are used to absorb potentially harmful materials from bathrooms and kitchens. The plants are fertilized, air is purified, and wastewater is converted to clean water. More than 100 U.S. communities have adopted Wolverton's earlier water hyacinth and artificial marsh applications. Catfish farmers are currently evaluating the artificial marsh technology as a purification system.

  1. Olefin metathesis in air

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo Piola

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Since the discovery and now widespread use of olefin metathesis, the evolution of metathesis catalysts towards air stability has become an area of significant interest. In this fascinating area of study, beginning with early systems making use of high oxidation state early transition metal centers that required strict exclusion of water and air, advances have been made to render catalysts more stable and yet more functional group tolerant. This review summarizes the major developments concerning catalytic systems directed towards water and air tolerance.

  2. Air issues update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    A government sponsored poll revealed that the primary environmental concern for Ontarians in 2000 was air pollution. While scientists tend to focus on smog episodes, greenhouse gas emissions, acid rain or emissions of toxic pollutants, the public shows concern in more practical terms such as the overall impact of poor air quality on people and the ecosystem, and how this will affect future life on earth. It was emphasized that policy makers should try to apply this holistic approach to the complex issues associated with air quality. Climate change, acid rain and ultraviolet radiation are some examples of how air emissions impact on ecosystems. Other examples include elevated levels of mercury in otters in Ontario. Climate change has also been linked with the re-acidification of lakes, as droughts typically occur in years following an El Nino cycle which has been pronounced as a possible consequence of greenhouse gas emissions. The Environmental Commissioner of Ontario (ECO) has reviewed the efforts of the Ontario Ministry of the Environment (MOE) regarding the regulation of air quality. The MOE has proposed several initiatives, including newer air dispersion models into legislation, establishing a new consultation process for applying new air quality standards to emission sources, an expansion of the Drive Clean Program, and a discussion paper on a proposed emission cap and trade system. This paper presents ECO's review of these initiatives and provides updates on other air quality issues such as control of emissions from Ontario's transportation, industrial and electricity sectors. It also described policy proposals related to standard-setting for air pollutants, as well as the newly adopted Canada-wide Standards for Particulate Matter and Ozone. A progress report on Ontario's Anti-Smog Action Plan (ASAP) confirms that major reductions in NO{sub x} expected from Ontario's coal-fired power plants never materialized. Emissions of nitrogen oxide

  3. Emission Facilities - Air Emission Plants

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — Represents the Primary Facility type Air Emission Plant (AEP) point features. Air Emissions Plant is a DEP primary facility type related to the Air Quality Program....

  4. Introduction to Indoor Air Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... US Environmental Protection Agency Search Search Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) Share Facebook Twitter Google+ Pinterest Contact Us ... Indoor Air Quality An Introduction to Indoor Air Quality IAQ & Health Causes of IAQ Problems Identifying IAQ ...

  5. Ambient Air Quality Data Inventory

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Office of Air and Radiation??s (OAR) Ambient Air Quality Data (Current) contains ambient air pollution data collected by EPA, other federal agencies, as well as...

  6. Ambient Air Quality Data Inventory

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Office of Air and Radiation's (OAR) Ambient Air Quality Data (Current) contains ambient air pollution data collected by EPA, other federal agencies, as well as...

  7. Air Quality Guide for Ozone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Local Air Quality Conditions Zip Code: State : My Current Location Air Quality Guide for Ozone Ground-level ozone is one of our nation’s most common air pollutants. Use the chart below to help reduce ...

  8. Air transportation energy efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, L. J.

    1977-01-01

    The energy efficiency of air transportation, results of the recently completed RECAT studies on improvement alternatives, and the NASA Aircraft Energy Efficiency Research Program to develop the technology for significant improvements in future aircraft were reviewed.

  9. Criteria Air Emissions Trends

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Air Emissions Trends site provides national trends of criteria pollutant and precursor emissions data based on the the National Emissions Inventory (NEI) from...

  10. Indoor air quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Indoor Air Quality is rapidly becoming a major environmental concern because a significant amount of people spend a substantial amount of time in a variety of different indoor environments. Health effects from indoor pollutants fall into two categories: those that are experienced immediately after exposure and those that do not show up until years later. They are: radon, formaldehyde, asbestos, lead and household organic chemicals. The authors presented a source-by-source look at the most common indoor air pollutants, their potential health effects, and ways to reduce their levels in the home. There are three basic strategies to improve indoor air quality: one method is source control, another is through ventilation improvements, and the third is the utilization of some sort of mechanical device such as air cleaners

  11. Transportation and Air Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... factors research. - Modeling & Inventories - Testing & Measuring Emissions - Clean Automotive Technologies - Emission Factors Research This page is maintained by EPA's Office of Transportation and Air Quality (OTAQ) . For more: About Us | Get E-mail ...

  12. Air conditioning system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowenstein, Andrew; Miller, Jeffrey; Gruendeman, Peter; DaSilva, Michael

    2005-02-01

    An air conditioner comprises a plurality of plates arranged in a successively stacked configuration with portions thereof having a spaced apart arrangement, and defining between successive adjacent pairs of plates at the spaced apart portions a first and second series of discrete alternating passages wherein a first air stream is passed through the first series of passages and a second air stream is passed through the second series of passages; and said stacked configuration of plates forming integrally therewith a liquid delivery means for delivering from a source a sufficient quantity of a liquid to the inside surfaces of the first series of fluid passages in a manner which provides a continuous flow of the liquid from a first end to a second end of the plurality of plates while in contact with the first air stream.

  13. Indoor air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although official efforts to control air pollution have traditionally focused on outdoor air, it is now apparent that elevated contaminant concentrations are common inside some private and public buildings. Concerns about potential public health problems due to indoor air pollution are based on evidence that urban residents typically spend more than 90 percent of their time indoors, concentrations of some contaminants are higher indoors than outdoors, and for some pollutants personal exposures are not characterized adequately by outdoor measurements. Among the more important indoor contaminants associated with health or irritation effects are passive tobacco smoke, radon decay products, carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, formaldehyde, asbestos fibers, microorganisms and aeroallergens. Efforts to assess health risks associated with indoor air pollution are limited by insufficient information about the number of people exposed, the pattern and severity of exposures, and the health consequences of exposures. An overall strategy should be developed to investigate indoor exposures, health effects, control options, and public policy alternatives

  14. Indoor air quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rising energy prices, among other factors, have generated an incentive to reduce ventilation rates and thereby reduce the cost of heating and cooling buildings. Reduced ventilation in buildings may significantly increase exposure to indoor air pollution and perhaps have adverse effects on occupant health and comfort. Preliminary findings suggest that reduced ventilation may adversely affect indoor air quality unless appropriate control strategies are undertaken. The strategies used to control indoor air pollution depend on the specific pollutant or class of pollutants encountered, and differ somewhat depending on whether the application is to an existing building or a new building under design and construction. Whenever possible, the first course of action is prevention or reduction of pollutant emissions at the source. In most buildings, control measures involve a combination of prevention, removal, and suppression. Common sources of indoor air pollution in buildings, the specific pollutants emitted by each source, the potential health effects, and possible control techniques are discussed

  15. Radioactive air sampling methods

    CERN Document Server

    Maiello, Mark L

    2010-01-01

    Although the field of radioactive air sampling has matured and evolved over decades, it has lacked a single resource that assimilates technical and background information on its many facets. Edited by experts and with contributions from top practitioners and researchers, Radioactive Air Sampling Methods provides authoritative guidance on measuring airborne radioactivity from industrial, research, and nuclear power operations, as well as naturally occuring radioactivity in the environment. Designed for industrial hygienists, air quality experts, and heath physicists, the book delves into the applied research advancing and transforming practice with improvements to measurement equipment, human dose modeling of inhaled radioactivity, and radiation safety regulations. To present a wide picture of the field, it covers the international and national standards that guide the quality of air sampling measurements and equipment. It discusses emergency response issues, including radioactive fallout and the assets used ...

  16. Regional Air Quality Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This asset provides data on regional air quality, including trace level SO2, nitric acid, ozone, carbon monoxide, and NOy; and particulate sulfate, nitrate, and...

  17. Air Data Calibration Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This facility is for low altitude subsonic altimeter system calibrations of air vehicles. Mission is a direct support of the AFFTC mission. Postflight data merge is...

  18. INDOOR AIR QUALITY ANALYSIS

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Xin

    2010-01-01

    With the development of modern architecture, one of the building's interior decoration, furnishings, appliances and equipment have become increasingly demanding, making construction of the indoor environment of increasing pollution, increasing pollution, indoor environmental pollution hazards to human is also a growing the greater. This thesis summarizes the major indoor air pollution sources and major pollutants. Indoor air pollutants are formaldehyde, radon, ammonia, total volatile org...

  19. Indoor Air Pollution

    OpenAIRE

    Kirk R Smith

    2003-01-01

    Outdoor air pollution in developing-country cities is difficult to overlook. Indoor air pollution caused by burning such traditional fuels as wood, crop residues, and dung is less evident, yet it is responsible for a significant part of country and global disease burdens. The main groups affected are poor women and children in rural areas and urban slums as they go about their daily activi...

  20. INDOOR AIR POLLUTION

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmet Soysal; Yucel Demiral

    2007-01-01

    The existance of hazardious materials including biological, chemical, and physical agents such as carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, sulphur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, radon, volotile organic compounds, microorganisms in houses and the other non-industrilized buildings have been defined as “indoor air pollution”. Indoor air pollutants could possible arised from inside or outside environment and categorized into six subgroups. Almost 80% Turkish population have living in the urban areas...

  1. Air Distribution in Rooms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter V.

    The research on air distribution in rooms is often done as full-size investigations, scale-model investigations or by Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). New activities have taken place within all three areas and this paper draws comparisons between the different methods. The outcome of the l......EA sponsored research "Air Flow Pattern within Buildings" is used for comparisons in some parts of the paper because various types of experiments and many countries are involved....

  2. Hot Air Engines

    OpenAIRE

    P. Stouffs

    2011-01-01

    Invented in 1816, the hot-air engines have known significant commercial success in the nineteenth century, before falling into disuse. Nowadays they enjoy a renewed interest for some specific applications. The "hot-air engines" family is made up of two groups: Stirling engines and Ericsson engines. The operating principle of Stirling and Ericsson engines, their troubled history, their advantages and their niche applications are briefly presented, especially in the field of...

  3. Air gun test facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes a facility that is potentially useful in providing data for models to predict the effects of nuclear explosions on cities. IIT Research Institute has a large air gun facility capable of launching heavy items of a wide variety of geometries to velocities ranging from about 80 fps to 1100 fps. The facility and its capabilities are described, and city model problem areas capable of investigation using the air gun are presented

  4. Canada's Clean Air Act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper provided an outline of Canada's Clean Air Act and examined some of the regulatory changes that will occur as a result of its implementation. The Act is being introduced to strengthen the legislative basis for taking action on reducing air pollution and GHGs, and will allow the government to regulate both indoor and outdoor air pollutants and GHGs. The Act will require the Ministers of the Environment and Health to establish national air quality objectives, as well as to monitor and report on their attainment. The Canadian Environmental Protection Act will be amended to enable the government to regulate the blending of fuels and their components. The Motor Vehicle Fuel Consumption Standards Act will also be amended to enhance the government's authority to regulate vehicle fuel efficiency. The Energy Efficiency Act will also be expanded to allow the government to set energy efficiency standards and labelling requirements for a wider range of consumer and commercial products. The Act will commit to short, medium and long-term industrial air pollution targets. Regulations will be proposed for emissions from industry; on-road and off-road vehicles and engines; and consumer and commercial products. It was concluded that the Government of Canada will continue to consult with provinces, territories, industries and Canadians to set and reach targets for the reduction of both indoor and outdoor air pollutants and GHG emissions. 6 figs

  5. Clean air Hamilton

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCarry, B.E. [McMaster Univ., Hamilton, ON (Canada)

    2002-07-01

    The industrial City of Hamilton is located on Lake Ontario, downwind from the Ohio Valley. The Hamilton Air Quality Initiative (HAQI) was divided in several phases, one of which is Clean Air Hamilton. This most recent phase was described in this presentation. Two major goals of this phase were: to ensure that the City of Hamilton has the best air quality of any major urban area in Ontario, and to reduce the emissions of greenhouse gases by 20 per cent compared to the levels in 1990. There were five main objectives to this initiative, namely: (1) the identification of priority air quality issues, (2) achieving an understanding of air quality issues, (3) the identification of sources, the evaluation of impacts and the recommendation of solutions, (4) the assessment of human health, and (5) the identification of further research. The reduction of air quality impacts is progressing through the support provided to the Drive Clean Program, the discouragement of vehicle idling, the support to car pooling initiatives, and the promotion of green vehicles. The implementation of pollution control technologies is taking place on the industrial side, as well as the development of plans to reduce steel industry emissions, the development of energy conservation measures and the promotion of green building practices. Efforts are being deployed over fleet greening partnerships, community tree planting program, an international air conference, an electronic information network linking the United States and the communities of Southern Ontario, a road dust study, a truck emissions research project, the assessment of human health impacts, and finally methods for the monitoring of local improvements. figs.

  6. Computers in Air Defence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. V.S. Rao

    1987-10-01

    Full Text Available With man's mastery over the third dimension - the near atmosphere and space- it has become increasingly necessary to protect oneself not merely from attacks from land and the sea but, more importantly, from attacks from the air. This was recognised even during the World War II and a rudimentary air defence capability was sought to be established; by the manul (visual surveillance and the anti-aircraft guns. The advent of radar signified a major advance in air defence technology and techniques. Rather than depend on visual observation and the hazards and limitations thereof, it became possible with radar to detect the presence of flying objects at much great distances. The PPI display of a conventional air-surveillance radar permits an operator to scan the sky for several hundreds of kilometers all around. Early radar-based air defence systems were dependent on human observation and decision making for detecting targets, identifying them, deciding on interception strategy and for recovering the interceptor after completion of his mission. This was feasible because, with a radar of between 200 to 400 kilometers and aircraft speeds in the range of 500 kilometers per hour, upto 30 minutes warning was available before the target was overhead.

  7. Indoor air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Indoor air pollution after being a neglected subject for a number of years, is attracting attention recently because it is a side effect of energy crisis. About 50% of world's 6 billion population, mostly in developing countries, depend on biomass and coal in the form of wood, dung and crop residues for domestic energy because of poverty. These materials are burnt in simple stoves with incomplete combustion and infants, children and women are exposed to high levels of indoor air pollution for a considerable period, approximately between 2-4 hours daily. Current worldwide trade in wood fuel is over US $7 billion and about 2 million people are employed full time in production and marketing it. One of the most annoying and common indoor pollutant in both, developing and developed countries, is cigarette smoke. Children in gas-equipped homes had higher incidences of respiratory disease. Babies' DNA can be damaged even before they are born if their mothers breathe polluted air. Exposure to indoor air pollution may be responsible for nearly 2 million excess deaths in developing countries and for 4% of the global burden of the disease. Only a few indoor pollutants have been studied in detail. Indoor air pollution is a major health threat on which further research is needed to define the extent of the problem more precisely and to determine solutions by the policy-makers instead of neglecting it because sufferers mostly belong to Third World countries. (author)

  8. Infants Can Study Air Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Alan

    1983-01-01

    Provided are activities and demonstrations which can be used to teach infants about the nature of air, uses of air, and objects that fly in the air. The latter include airships, hot-air balloons, kites, parachutes, airplanes, and Hovercraft. (JN)

  9. Selection of Air Terminal Device

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter V.

    This paper discusses the selection of the air terminal device for the experiments and numerical prediction in the International Energy Agency Annex 20 work: Air Flow Pattern within Buildings,......This paper discusses the selection of the air terminal device for the experiments and numerical prediction in the International Energy Agency Annex 20 work: Air Flow Pattern within Buildings,...

  10. The Clean Air Act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Clean Air Act amendments alter the complex laws affecting atmospheric pollution and at the same time have broad implications for energy. Specifically, the Clean Air Act amendments for the first time deal with the environmental problem of acid deposition in a way that minimizes energy and economic impacts. By relying upon a market-based system of emission trading, a least cost solution will be used to reduce sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions by almost 40 percent. The emission trading system is the centerpiece of the Clean Air Act (CAA) amendments effort to resolve energy and environmental interactions in a manner that will maximize environmental solutions while minimizing energy impacts. This paper will explore how the present CAA amendments deal with the emission trading system and the likely impact of the emission trading system and the CAA amendments upon the electric power industry

  11. Liquid air cycle engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosevear, Jerry

    1992-01-01

    Given here is a definition of Liquid Air Cycle Engines (LACE) and existing relevant technologies. Heat exchanger design and fabrication techniques, the handling of liquid hydrogen to achieve the greatest heat sink capabilities, and air decontamination to prevent heat exchanger fouling are discussed. It was concluded that technology needs to be extended in the areas of design and fabrication of heat exchangers to improve reliability along with weight and volume reductions. Catalysts need to be improved so that conversion can be achieved with lower quantities and lower volumes. Packaging studies need to be investigated both analytically and experimentally. Recycling with slush hydrogen needs further evaluation with experimental testing.

  12. Unit for air decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To fulfill the applicable requirements of safety to the ventilation systems in nuclear facilities, it is necessary to make a cleaning of the air that hurtles to the atmosphere. For that which was designed and it manufactured an unit for decontamination of the air for the Pilot plant of production of Nuclear Fuel that this built one with national parts, uses Hepa national filters and the design can adapt for different dimensions of filters, also can be added a lodging for a prefilter or to adopt two Hepa filters. (Author)

  13. Air the excellent canopy

    CERN Document Server

    Fahy, F

    2013-01-01

    We take it for granted, but without it we perish and if we continue to abuse it, it may kill us in the end. This fascinating text provides an understanding and appreciation of the role that air plays in our environment and its importance in relation to human life and technology. Aimed at those who are scientifically curious but who have no specialist training, it contains no mathematical equations and relies upon the qualitative descriptions and analogies to explain the more technical parts of the text together with simple home experiments to illustrate a range of air-based phenomena. Liberall

  14. Air Freight and Logistics Services

    OpenAIRE

    Kiso, Fadila; Deljanin, Abidin

    2009-01-01

    Air transport industry has gradually increased its share of global passenger and freight traffic, and this trend has accelerated in the last 40 years. For the past decade, air-freight traffic growth has outpaced air passenger traffic growth by 1-2% each year. In the past, air-freight sector offered limited services, with heavy reliance on several intermediaries and a significant dependence on air passenger operations. The sector can now be characterized as a sophisticated, innovative one, rel...

  15. 33 CFR 334.1280 - Bristol Bay, Alaska; air-to-air weapon range, Alaskan Air Command, U.S. Air Force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bristol Bay, Alaska; air-to-air weapon range, Alaskan Air Command, U.S. Air Force. 334.1280 Section 334.1280 Navigation and Navigable... REGULATIONS § 334.1280 Bristol Bay, Alaska; air-to-air weapon range, Alaskan Air Command, U.S. Air Force....

  16. Indoor air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Indoor air pollution is a potential risk to human health. Prolonged exposure to indoor pollutants may cause various infectious, allergic and other diseases. Indoor pollutants can emanate from a broad array of internal and external sources. Internal sources include building and furnishing materials, consumer and commercial products, office equipment, micro-organisms, pesticides and human occupants activities. External sources include soil, water supplies and outside makeup air. The main indoor air pollutants of concern are inorganic gases, formaldehyde and other volatile organic compounds, pesticides, radon and its daughters, particulates and microbes. The magnitude of human exposure to indoor pollutants can be estimated or predicted with the help of mathematical models which have been developed using the data from source emission testing and field monitoring of pollutants. In order to minimize human exposure to indoor pollutants, many countries have formulated guidelines / standards for the maximum permissible levels of main pollutants. Acceptable indoor air quality can be achieved by controlling indoor pollution sources and by effective ventilation system for removal of indoor pollutants. (author)

  17. Indoor air quality research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The various types of pollutant found in indoor air are introduced and the effects on the health of the occupants of buildings summarized. The ''sick'' building syndrome is described in detail and the need for further investigation into its causes and remedies is stressed. 8 tabs

  18. Mid-air Acrobatics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Two new aerobatic demonstration teams take to the skies On September 1,two new aerobatic demonstration teams,the Sky Wing and the Red Falcon,debuted at an air show held in Changchun,capital of northeast China’s Jilin Province.

  19. Russia air management program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pace, T.G. [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, NC (United States); Markin, S. [Ministry of Environmental Protection and Natural Resources, Moscow (Sweden); Kosenkova, S.V. [Volgograd Environmental Services Administration, Volgograd (Russian Federation)

    1995-12-31

    The Russia Air Management Program is in the second year of a four-year cooperative program between the Russian Ministry of Environmental Protection and Natural Resources (MEPNR) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to improve national institutions, policies, and practices for air quality management in Russia. This program is part of the Environmental Policy and Technology project being conducted by the U.S. Agency for International Development. The Russia Air Management Program will pilot the application of potential air program improvements in the important industrial City of Volgograd which will enable the development, practical demonstration and evaluation of alternative approaches for improving AQM policies and practices in Russia. Volgograd has a progressive and environmentally enlightened local government, a diverse industrial base and a relatively healthy economy. It is located south of Moscow on the Volga River and was proposed by the Ministry of Environmental Protection and Natural Resources. It was selected after a site visit and a series of discussions with the Ministry, Volgograd officials, the World Bank and the EPA. Following the pilot, RAMP will work to facilitate implementation of selected parts of the pilot in other areas of Russia using training, technology transfer, and public awareness. (author)

  20. Air Quality Monitoring Programme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kemp, K.; Palmgren, F.

    The Danish Air Quality Monitoring Programme (LMP IV) has been revised in accordance with the Framework Directive and the first three daughter directives of SO2, NOx/NO2, PM10, lead, benzene, CO and ozone. PM10 samplers are under installation and the installation will be completed during 2002...

  1. Indoor Air Quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selman, Ayser Dawod; Heiselberg, Per

    Overall purpose of the research is to provide an overview of the relevance and importance of various defined Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) parameters in a European perspective. Based on the report it should be possible to prioritize which countries to target for further activities as well as it should...

  2. Hexane Air Combustion

    CERN Document Server

    Boettcher, Philipp A; Shepherd, Joseph E

    2010-01-01

    Hot surface ignition and subsequent flame propagation of premixed n-hexane air mixtures are shown in this fluid dynamics video. High speed schlieren photography revealed 3 distinct behaviors of ignition and propagation as a function of mixture composition and initial pressure.

  3. Images in the Air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riveros, H. G.; Rosenberger, Franz

    2012-01-01

    This article discusses two "magic tricks" in terms of underlying optical principles. The first trick is new and produces a "ghost" in the air, and the second is the classical real image produced with two parabolic mirrors. (Contains 2 figure and 6 photos.)

  4. Ames Air Revitalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Roger Z.

    2015-01-01

    This is an informal presentation presented to the University of Colorado, Boulder Bioastronautics group seminar. It highlights the key focal areas of the Air Revitalization Group research over the past year, including progress on the CO2 Removal and Compression System, testing of CDRA drying bed configurations, and adsorption research.

  5. Hydrogen-air detonations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    General gaseous detonation propagation phenomena are briefly discussed. The importance of cellular structure and cell size to detonation initiation, transmission and failure is emphasized. Experimental measurements of cell size lambda for hydrogen-air-carbon dioxide mixtures are presented; the hydrogen/air volume ratios range between 0.16 and 1.5 and the carbon dioxide mole fractions are 0, 0.05, 0.10 and 0.15. Cell sizes are a minimum for both diluted and undiluted hydrogen-air mixtures near stoichiometric (i.e., hydrogen/air = 0.4). Minimum cell sizes for carbon dioxide mole fractions of 0, 0.05, 0.10 and 0.15 are 1.51, 2.05, 4.2 and 15.0 cm, respectively. Results of large- and small-scale critical tube diameter (d/sub c/) measurements are presented and show good agreement with the empirical scaling law, d/sub c/ = 13 lambda. Mean detonation velocities and pressures have been measured and compared to the theoretical Chapman-Jouguet values

  6. Air-cleaning apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An air-cleaning, heat-exchange apparatus includes a main housing portion connected by means of an air inlet fan to the kitchen exhaust stack of a restaurant. The apparatus includes a plurality of heat exchangers through which a heat-absorptive fluid is circulated, simultaneously, by means of a suitable fluid pump. These heat exchangers absorb heat from the hot exhaust gas, out of the exhaust stack of the restaurant, which flows over and through these heat exchangers and transfers this heat to the circulating fluid which communicates with remote heat exchangers. These remote heat exchangers further transfer this heat to a stream of air, such as that from a cold-air return duct for supplementing the conventional heating system of the restaurant. Due to the fact that such hot exhaust gas is heavily grease laden , grease will be deposited on virtually all internal surfaces of the apparatus which this exhaust gas contacts. Consequently, means are provided for spraying these contacted internal surfaces , as well as the hot exhaust gas itself, with a detergent solution in which the grease is soluble, thereby removing grease buildup from these internal surfaces

  7. Learning AirWatch

    CERN Document Server

    Dunkerley, Mark

    2015-01-01

    If you are a technical professional who wants to dive deeper into the functionality offered by AirWatch or manage the solution, then this book will help you choose the best set of configuration, device management, and monitoring options that you can use to effectively manage your EMM implementation.

  8. Air quality indicators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report proposes and describes in detail several air quality indicators that may be used to describe population exposure. The suggested indicators account for temporal and spatial patterns of pollution and movements of individuals between different micro-environments. The Air Quality Indicator /AQI) should represent both the spatial and temporal aspects of pollution exposure that may have important effects on health. Two indicators are needed, the Population Air Quality Indicator and the Individual Air Quality Indicator. Mean concentrations, 98th percentile and maximum values are the traditional indicators for estimating exposure. the temporal variability of PM-10 and NO2, however, is here described by means of: 1) The rate of change of pollution as the difference between two consecutive hourly values and of 2) episodes, described in terms of number, duration and winter episode period, maximum concentration in the episode and integrated episode exposure (episode AOT50/100). The spatial variation of AQIs can be described in several ways, e.g.: 1) Concentrations in neighbouring grid squares can be compared as an indication of spatial variation and 2) point estimates can be compared to grid values for a description of variation within a grid. Both methods are presented here. A test of the representativity of static point estimates for pollution exposure is to compare them to an estimate of air pollution exposure accounting for movements between different locations, obtained using diaries. The ultimate aim of AQIs is to describe the population exposure to ambient pollution. This is done by estimating the number of people exposed using different characteristics of AQIs. The data used to describe these indicators originates from dispersion modelling of short-term air pollution concentrations in Oslo. Two series of data are used. One represents hour-for hour concentrations in the 1 km2 grid system covering the city of Oslo, winter 1994/95, calculated by the grid

  9. Air movement - good or bad?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toftum, Jørn

    2004-01-01

    Air movement - good or bad? The question can only be answered by those who are exposed when they are exposed. Human perception of air movement depends on environmental factors including air velocity, air velocity fluctuations, air temperature, and personal factors such as overall thermal sensation...... and activity level. Even for the same individual, sensitivity to air movement may change from day to day as a result of e.g. different levels of fatigue. Based on existing literature, the current paper summarizes factors influencing the human perception of air movement and attempts to specify in...... general terms when air movement is desirable and when it is not. At temperatures up to 22-23oC, at sedentary activity and with occupants feeling neutral or cooler there is a risk of air movement being perceived as unacceptable, even at low velocities. In particular, a cool overall thermal sensation...

  10. EN EL AIRE / In the air

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés López Fernández

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN En el aire es un viaje a la primera mitad del siglo XX que nos tratará de acercar la frescura y oportunidad de las calles corredor y los jardines en la ciudad vertical. Se inicia en 1909 en Nueva York, con la publicación por la revista Life de La Torre del Globo, se acerca al Inmueble-Villas y al Plan Obus para Argel de Le Corbusier, y finaliza en 1952 con el proyecto para el conjunto residencial de Golden Lane en Londres de A. y P. Smithson. Fragmentos para la ciudad vertical que se construía sobre papel, tras el espejo, paralela en el tiempo, pero muy distinta a la ciudad real, con el objetivo entre otros de integrar arquitectura y naturaleza. Esas propuestas siguen teniendo hoy un gran valor, en un panorama en que el espacio público ligado a la vivienda colectiva, prácticamente ha desaparecido, y el esfuerzo que se demanda al arquitecto se centra, en tejer a modo de encaje de bolillos, una fachada que envuelva un programa de vivienda, funcional y espacialmente obsoleto.SUMMARY In the air, is a journey to the first half of the twentieth century that will try to bring us to the freshness and opportunity of the corridor streets and gardens in the vertical city. It begins in 1909 in New York, with the publication in Life magazine of the Globe Tower, it approaches the Immeubles-Villas and Plan Obus for Algiers by Le Corbusier, and ends in 1952 with the project for the Golden Lane Estate residential complex in London, by A. and P. Smithson. Fragments for the vertical city that was constructed on paper, behind the mirror, parallel in time, but was very different from the real city, with the aim, inter alia, of integrating architecture and nature. These proposals continue to have great value today, in a scenario where the public space linked to the collective home has virtually disappeared, and the effort that is demanded of the architect focuses on weaving a facade like bobbin lace around a functionally and spatially obsolete housing

  11. Distribusi lapisan batuan sedimen yang diduga mengandung gas biogenik dengan metode tahanan jenis di Pantai Saronggi, Sumenep, Madura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukman Arifin

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available DOI: 10.17014/ijog.v5i2.97A research on sediments estimated to contain biogenic gas at Saronggi coast Sumenep in Madura, East Java, has been done by using the resistivity method and produced 2-D (two dimensional cross-sectional along four paths. The results of previous measurements indicate that biogenic gas is present within layers of black shale. It is known that the resistivity values of the black shale bearing biogenic gas is between 0.9-1.3 Ohm m. These resistivity values are used as references to determine the black shale layer bearing gas in four resistivity profiles. The depth of the black shale layers are varies: in profile 1 the depth is between 26.3 and 44.6 m, in profile 2 is between 30 and 45 m, in profile 3 is between 44.6 and 64.8 m, and in profile 4 is between 8,75 and 44,6 m.

  12. Molecular Air Data Clear Air Turbulence Sensor: MADCAT Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Clear air turbulence (CAT), often referred to as "air pockets," is attributed to Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities at altitudes usually above 18,000ft, often without...

  13. Molecular Air Data Clear Air Turbulence Sensor: MADCAT Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Clear air turbulence (CAT), often referred to as "air pockets," is attributed to Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities at altitudes generally above 18,000ft, often in the...

  14. Enhancing indoor air quality –The air filter advantage

    OpenAIRE

    Vannan Kandi Vijayan; Haralappa Paramesh; Sundeep Santosh Salvi; Alpa Anil Kumar Dalal

    2015-01-01

    Air pollution has become the world's single biggest environmental health risk, linked to around 7 million deaths in 2012 according to a recent World Health Organisation (WHO) report. The new data further reveals a stronger link between, indoor and outdoor air pollution exposure and cardiovascular diseases, such as strokes and ischemic heart disease, as well as between air pollution and cancer. The role of air pollution in the development of respiratory diseases, including acute respiratory in...

  15. Air sampling in the workplace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report provides technical information on air sampling that will be useful for facilities following the recommendations in the NRC's Regulatory Guide 8.25, Revision 1, ''Air sampling in the Workplace.'' That guide addresses air sampling to meet the requirements in NRC's regulations on radiation protection, 10 CFR Part 20. This report describes how to determine the need for air sampling based on the amount of material in process modified by the type of material, release potential, and confinement of the material. The purposes of air sampling and how the purposes affect the types of air sampling provided are discussed. The report discusses how to locate air samplers to accurately determine the concentrations of airborne radioactive materials that workers will be exposed to. The need for and the methods of performing airflow pattern studies to improve the accuracy of air sampling results are included. The report presents and gives examples of several techniques that can be used to evaluate whether the airborne concentrations of material are representative of the air inhaled by workers. Methods to adjust derived air concentrations for particle size are described. Methods to calibrate for volume of air sampled and estimate the uncertainty in the volume of air sampled are described. Statistical tests for determining minimum detectable concentrations are presented. How to perform an annual evaluation of the adequacy of the air sampling is also discussed

  16. A Breath of Fresh Air: Addressing Indoor Air Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palliser, Janna

    2011-01-01

    Indoor air pollution refers to "chemical, biological, and physical contamination of indoor air," which may result in adverse health effects (OECD 2003). The causes, sources, and types of indoor air pollutants will be addressed in this article, as well as health effects and how to reduce exposure. Learning more about potential pollutants in home…

  17. Indoor Air Quality in Schools: Clean Air Is Good Business.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarneiri, Michele A.

    2003-01-01

    Describes the effect of poor indoor air quality (IAQ) on student health, the cost of safeguarding good IAQ, the cause of poor IAQ in schools, how to tell whether a school has an IAQ problem, and how the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency can help schools improve indoor air quality though the use of their free "Indoor Air Quality Tools for…

  18. Properties of air and combustion products of fuel with air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poferl, D. J.; Svehla, R. A.

    1975-01-01

    Thermodynamic and transport properties have been calculated for air, the combustion products of natural gas and air, and combustion products of ASTM-A-1 jet fuel and air. Properties calculated include: ratio of specific heats, molecular weight, viscosity, specific heat, thermal conductivity, Prandtl number, and enthalpy.

  19. Aeromicrobiology/air quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Gary L.; Frisch, A.S.; Kellogg, Christina A.; Levetin, E.; Lighthart, Bruce; Paterno, D.

    2009-01-01

    The most prevalent microorganisms, viruses, bacteria, and fungi, are introduced into the atmosphere from many anthropogenic sources such as agricultural, industrial and urban activities, termed microbial air pollution (MAP), and natural sources. These include soil, vegetation, and ocean surfaces that have been disturbed by atmospheric turbulence. The airborne concentrations range from nil to great numbers and change as functions of time of day, season, location, and upwind sources. While airborne, they may settle out immediately or be transported great distances. Further, most viable airborne cells can be rendered nonviable due to temperature effects, dehydration or rehydration, UV radiation, and/or air pollution effects. Mathematical microbial survival models that simulate these effects have been developed.

  20. Air Pollution in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In spite of improvements relative to air pollution, there is still much to do. more than thirty millions of European people are exposed to sulfur dioxide concentrations superior to guide values for health fixed by European Union, 20% of ecosystems in Europe are above the critical charges in the area of acidification and 33% concern eutrophication. Relative to the carbon dioxide, it is not sure that European Union realize the objective to stabilize the emissions for the year 2000 at the level of the year 1990, because of the increasing of automobile traffic and the energy consumption. Four subjects are presented: the climatic change, acidification and eutrophication, tropospheric ozone and air quality. (N.C.)

  1. Hot Air Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Stouffs

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Invented in 1816, the hot-air engines have known significant commercial success in the nineteenth century, before falling into disuse. Nowadays they enjoy a renewed interest for some specific applications. The "hot-air engines" family is made up of two groups: Stirling engines and Ericsson engines. The operating principle of Stirling and Ericsson engines, their troubled history, their advantages and their niche applications are briefly presented, especially in the field of micro-combined heat and power, solar energy conversion and biomass energy conversion. The design of an open cycle Ericsson engine for solar application is proposed. A first prototype of the hot part of the engine has been built and tested. Experimental results are presented.

  2. Air transport system

    CERN Document Server

    Schmitt, Dieter

    2016-01-01

    The book addresses all major aspects to be considered for the design and operation of aircrafts within the entire transportation chain. It provides the basic information about the legal environment, which defines the basic requirements for aircraft design and aircraft operation. The interactions between  airport, air traffic management and the airlines are described. The market forecast methods and the aircraft development process are explained to understand the very complex and risky business of an aircraft manufacturer. The principles of flight physics as basis for aircraft design are presented and linked to the operational and legal aspects of air transport including all environmental impacts. The book is written for graduate students as well as for engineers and experts, who are working in aerospace industry, at airports or in the domain of transport and logistics.

  3. Fast Air Temperature Sensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendricks, Elbert

    1998-01-01

    The note documents briefly work done on a newly developed sensor for making fast temperature measurements on the air flow in the intake ports of an SI engine and in the EGR input line. The work reviewed has been carried out in close cooperation with Civ. Ing. Michael Føns, the author (IAU......) and Spencer C. Sorenson (ET). The theory which decribes in detail the overall dynamic chracteristics of the sensor was developed at IAU, DTU....

  4. Urban air quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since 1950 the world population has more than doubled, and the global number of cars has increased by a factor of 10. In the same period the fraction of people living in urban areas has increased by a factor of 4. In year 2000 this will amount to nearly half of the world population. About 20 urban regions will each have populations above 10 million people. Seen over longer periods, pollution in major cities tends to increase during the built up phase, they pass through a maximum and are then again reduced, as abatement strategies are developed. In the industrialised western world urban air pollution is in some respects in the last stage with effectively reduced levels of sulphur dioxide and soot. In recent decades however, the increasing traffic has switched the attention to nitrogen oxides, organic compounds and small particles. In some cities photochemical air pollution is an important urban problem, but in the northern part of Europe it is a large-scale phenomenon, with ozone levels in urban streets being normally lower than in rural areas. Cities in Eastern Europe have been (and in many cases still are) heavily polluted. After the recent political upheaval, followed by a temporary recession and a subsequent introduction of new technologies, the situation appears to improve. However, the rising number of private cars is an emerging problem. In most developing countries the rapid urbanisation has so far resulted in uncontrolled growth and deteriorating environment. Air pollution levels are here still rising on many fronts. Apart from being sources of local air pollution, urban activities are significant contributors to transboundary pollution and to the rising global concentrations of greenhouse gasses. Attempts to solve urban problems by introducing cleaner, more energy-efficient technologies will generally have a beneficial impact on these large-scale problems. Attempts based on city planning with a spreading of the activities, on the other hand, may generate

  5. Urban air quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenger, Jes

    Since 1950 the world population has more than doubled, and the global number of cars has increased by a factor of 10. In the same period the fraction of people living in urban areas has increased by a factor of 4. In year 2000 this will amount to nearly half of the world population. About 20 urban regions will each have populations above 10 million people. Seen over longer periods, pollution in major cities tends to increase during the built up phase, they pass through a maximum and are then again reduced, as abatement strategies are developed. In the industrialised western world urban air pollution is in some respects in the last stage with effectively reduced levels of sulphur dioxide and soot. In recent decades however, the increasing traffic has switched the attention to nitrogen oxides, organic compounds and small particles. In some cities photochemical air pollution is an important urban problem, but in the northern part of Europe it is a large-scale phenomenon, with ozone levels in urban streets being normally lower than in rural areas. Cities in Eastern Europe have been (and in many cases still are) heavily polluted. After the recent political upheaval, followed by a temporary recession and a subsequent introduction of new technologies, the situation appears to improve. However, the rising number of private cars is an emerging problem. In most developing countries the rapid urbanisation has so far resulted in uncontrolled growth and deteriorating environment. Air pollution levels are here still rising on many fronts. Apart from being sources of local air pollution, urban activities are significant contributors to transboundary pollution and to the rising global concentrations of greenhouse gasses. Attempts to solve urban problems by introducing cleaner, more energy-efficient technologies will generally have a beneficial impact on these large-scale problems. Attempts based on city planning with a spreading of the activities, on the other hand, may generate

  6. Air Facility System (AFS) Widget

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Air Facility System (AFS) widget allows users to enter a specific location and retrieve facilities in the area of interest for stationary sources of air...

  7. Ozone - Current Air Quality Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... more announcements Air Quality Basics Air Quality Index | Ozone | Particle Pollution | Smoke from fires | What You Can ... Partners Kids Movies NAQ Conferences NOAA Older Adults Ozone Particle Pollution (PM2.5, PM10) Publications Publicaciones (En ...

  8. State of the Air 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Banners Social Media What's the State of Your Air ? Home > 2015 > States States State List FAQ Understanding ... Environment: Act Locally What You Can Do Healthy Air News Facebook Twitter Google Plus Instagram © American Lung ...

  9. Air Compliance Complaint Database (ACCD)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — THIS DATA ASSET NO LONGER ACTIVE: This is metadata documentation for the Region 7 Air Compliance Complaint Database (ACCD) which logs all air pollution complaints...

  10. Air Markets Program Data (AMPD)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Air Markets Program Data tool allows users to search EPA data to answer scientific, general, policy, and regulatory questions about industry emissions. Air...

  11. Air System Information Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filman, Robert E.

    2004-01-01

    I flew to Washington last week, a trip rich in distributed information management. Buying tickets, at the gate, in flight, landing and at the baggage claim, myriad messages about my reservation, the weather, our flight plans, gates, bags and so forth flew among a variety of travel agency, airline and Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) computers and personnel. By and large, each kind of information ran on a particular application, often specialized to own data formats and communications network. I went to Washington to attend an FAA meeting on System-Wide Information Management (SWIM) for the National Airspace System (NAS) (http://www.nasarchitecture.faa.gov/Tutorials/NAS101.cfm). NAS (and its information infrastructure, SWIM) is an attempt to bring greater regularity, efficiency and uniformity to the collection of stovepipe applications now used to manage air traffic. Current systems hold information about flight plans, flight trajectories, weather, air turbulence, current and forecast weather, radar summaries, hazardous condition warnings, airport and airspace capacity constraints, temporary flight restrictions, and so forth. Information moving among these stovepipe systems is usually mediated by people (for example, air traffic controllers) or single-purpose applications. People, whose intelligence is critical for difficult tasks and unusual circumstances, are not as efficient as computers for tasks that can be automated. Better information sharing can lead to higher system capacity, more efficient utilization and safer operations. Better information sharing through greater automation is possible though not necessarily easy.

  12. Air transparent soundproof window

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A soundproof window or wall which is transparent to airflow is presented. The design is based on two wave theories: the theory of diffraction and the theory of acoustic metamaterials. It consists of a three-dimensional array of strong diffraction-type resonators with many holes centered on each individual resonator. The negative effective bulk modulus of the resonators produces evanescent wave, and at the same time the air holes with subwavelength diameter existed on the surfaces of the window for macroscopic air ventilation. The acoustic performance levels of two soundproof windows with air holes of 20mm and 50mm diameters were measured. The sound level was reduced by about 30 - 35dB in the frequency range of 400 - 5,000Hz with the 20mm window, and by about 20 - 35dB in the frequency range of 700 - 2,200Hz with the 50mm window. Multi stop-band was created by the multi-layers of the window. The attenuation length or the thickness of the window was limited by background noise. The effectiveness of the soundproof window with airflow was demonstrated by a real installation

  13. Air transparent soundproof window

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang-Hoon Kim

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available A soundproof window or wall which is transparent to airflow is presented. The design is based on two wave theories: the theory of diffraction and the theory of acoustic metamaterials. It consists of a three-dimensional array of strong diffraction-type resonators with many holes centered on each individual resonator. The negative effective bulk modulus of the resonators produces evanescent wave, and at the same time the air holes with subwavelength diameter existed on the surfaces of the window for macroscopic air ventilation. The acoustic performance levels of two soundproof windows with air holes of 20mm and 50mm diameters were measured. The sound level was reduced by about 30 - 35dB in the frequency range of 400 - 5,000Hz with the 20mm window, and by about 20 - 35dB in the frequency range of 700 - 2,200Hz with the 50mm window. Multi stop-band was created by the multi-layers of the window. The attenuation length or the thickness of the window was limited by background noise. The effectiveness of the soundproof window with airflow was demonstrated by a real installation.

  14. Air transparent soundproof window

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sang-Hoon, E-mail: shkim@mmu.ac.kr [Division of Marine Engineering, Mokpo National Maritime University, Mokpo 530-729, R. O. Korea (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Seong-Hyun [Korea Institute of Machinery and Materials, Yuseong-Gu, Daejeon 305-343, R. O. Korea (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-11-15

    A soundproof window or wall which is transparent to airflow is presented. The design is based on two wave theories: the theory of diffraction and the theory of acoustic metamaterials. It consists of a three-dimensional array of strong diffraction-type resonators with many holes centered on each individual resonator. The negative effective bulk modulus of the resonators produces evanescent wave, and at the same time the air holes with subwavelength diameter existed on the surfaces of the window for macroscopic air ventilation. The acoustic performance levels of two soundproof windows with air holes of 20mm and 50mm diameters were measured. The sound level was reduced by about 30 - 35dB in the frequency range of 400 - 5,000Hz with the 20mm window, and by about 20 - 35dB in the frequency range of 700 - 2,200Hz with the 50mm window. Multi stop-band was created by the multi-layers of the window. The attenuation length or the thickness of the window was limited by background noise. The effectiveness of the soundproof window with airflow was demonstrated by a real installation.

  15. Human preference for air movement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toftum, Jørn; Melikov, Arsen Krikor; Tynel, A.;

    2002-01-01

    Human preference for air movement was studied at slightly cool, neutral, and slightly warm overall thermal sensations and at temperatures ranging from 18 deg.C to 28 deg.C. Air movement preference depended on both thermal sensation and temperature, but large inter-individual differences existed...... between subjects. Preference for less air movement was linearly correlated with draught discomfort, but the percentage of subjects who felt draught was lower than the percentage who preferred less air movement....

  16. Air quality assessment for Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    Monteiro, A; Miranda, A. I.; C. Borrego; R. Vautard

    2007-01-01

    According to the Air Quality Framework Directive, air pollutant concentration levels have to be assessed and reported annually by each European Union member state, taking into consideration European air quality standards. Plans and programmes should be implemented in zones and agglomerations where pollutant concentrations exceed the limit and target values. The main objective of this study is to perform a long-term air quality simulation for Portugal, using the CHIMERE chemistry-transport mod...

  17. Iron-Air Rechargeable Battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayan, Sri R. (Inventor); Prakash, G.K. Surya (Inventor); Kindler, Andrew (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    Embodiments include an iron-air rechargeable battery having a composite electrode including an iron electrode and a hydrogen electrode integrated therewith. An air electrode is spaced from the iron electrode and an electrolyte is provided in contact with the air electrode and the iron electrodes. Various additives and catalysts are disclosed with respect to the iron electrode, air electrode, and electrolyte for increasing battery efficiency and cycle life.

  18. Shock-swallowing air sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nugent, J.; Sakamoto, G. M.; Webb, L. D.; Couch, L. M.

    1979-01-01

    An air-data probe allows air to flow through it so that supersonic and hypersonic shock waves form behind pressure measuring orifices and tube instead of directly on them. Measured pressures are close to those in free-flowing air and are used to determine mach numbers of flying aircraft.

  19. Overview of Emerging Air Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    These slides will be presented at the 2014 National Ambient Air Monitoring Conference in Atlanta, GA during August 11-15, 2014. The goal is to provide an overview of air sensor technology and the audience will be primarily state air monitoring agencies and EPA Regions.

  20. Pupils' Understanding of Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitriou, Anastasia; Christidou, Vasilia

    2007-01-01

    This paper reports on a study of pupils' knowledge and understanding of atmospheric pollution. Specifically, the study is aimed at identifying: 1) the extent to which pupils conceptualise the term "air pollution" in a scientifically appropriate way; 2) pupils' knowledge of air pollution sources and air pollutants; and 3) pupils' knowledge of air…

  1. Air Consumption Analysis of Air-Jet Weaving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RAJ KUMAR KHIANI

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In Textile industry, production is mostly key concern for Industry owner. This always has attracted researchers and machines manufacturers to make new developments in process and machines. Air-jet is one of the leading and successful highest productive weaving machines. However, it is now well established that due to add of charges of compressed air, manufacturing cost of air-jet weaving machine is higher as compared with rapier and projectile weaving machines. This is why countries having energy issues do not prefer air-jet weaving machines comparing projectile weaving machines. In this regard, several researchers and machine manufacturers have continuously been working to improve the efficiency of air-jet weft insertion. However, industry practice is as important as design made by researchers. The aim of this research is to investigate the air consumption of air-jet weaving on industrial scale practice. In this study, five weaving machine of same manufacturer and model were selected. It was observed that despite of manufacturing same quality of fabric, air consumption was varying almost in all weaving machines. Conventionally, mill workers adopt hit and trial practice in weaving industry including airpressure setting which leads to variation of nozzle pressure. Main reason of disparity of air consumption in air-jet weaving machines may be variation of distance from compressor to weaving machines, number of joints, un-necessary valve opening and pipes leakages cause an increase of compressed air consumption.

  2. Enhancing indoor air quality –The air filter advantage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vannan Kandi Vijayan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Air pollution has become the world's single biggest environmental health risk, linked to around 7 million deaths in 2012 according to a recent World Health Organisation (WHO report. The new data further reveals a stronger link between, indoor and outdoor air pollution exposure and cardiovascular diseases, such as strokes and ischemic heart disease, as well as between air pollution and cancer. The role of air pollution in the development of respiratory diseases, including acute respiratory infections and chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases, is well known. While both indoor and outdoor pollution affect health, recent statistics on the impact of household indoor pollutants (HAP is alarming. The WHO factsheet on HAP and health states that 3.8 million premature deaths annually - including stroke, ischemic heart disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD and lung cancer are attributed to exposure to household air pollution. Use of air cleaners and filters are one of the suggested strategies to improve indoor air quality. This review discusses the impact of air pollutants with special focus on indoor air pollutants and the benefits of air filters in improving indoor air quality.

  3. Enhancing indoor air quality -The air filter advantage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayan, Vannan Kandi; Paramesh, Haralappa; Salvi, Sundeep Santosh; Dalal, Alpa Anil Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Air pollution has become the world's single biggest environmental health risk, linked to around 7 million deaths in 2012 according to a recent World Health Organisation (WHO) report. The new data further reveals a stronger link between, indoor and outdoor air pollution exposure and cardiovascular diseases, such as strokes and ischemic heart disease, as well as between air pollution and cancer. The role of air pollution in the development of respiratory diseases, including acute respiratory infections and chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases, is well known. While both indoor and outdoor pollution affect health, recent statistics on the impact of household indoor pollutants (HAP) is alarming. The WHO factsheet on HAP and health states that 3.8 million premature deaths annually - including stroke, ischemic heart disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and lung cancer are attributed to exposure to household air pollution. Use of air cleaners and filters are one of the suggested strategies to improve indoor air quality. This review discusses the impact of air pollutants with special focus on indoor air pollutants and the benefits of air filters in improving indoor air quality. PMID:26628762

  4. Laboratory study of air sparging: Air flow visualization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laboratory flow visualization experiments, using glass beads as the porous medium, were conducted to study air sparging, an innovative technology for subsurface contaminant remediation. The purpose of these experiments was to observe how air flows through saturated porous media and to obtain a basic understanding of air plume formation and medium heterogeneity effects. The experiments indicate that air flow occurring in discrete, stable channels is the most probable flow behavior in medium to fine grained water saturated porous media and that medium heterogeneity plays an important role in the development of air channels. Several simulated scales of heterogeneities, from pore to field, have been studied. The results suggest that air channel formation is sensitive to the various scales of heterogeneities. Site-specific hydrogeologic settings have to be carefully reviewed before air sparging is applied to remediate sites contaminated by volatile organic compounds

  5. Adobe AIR for Android -sovelluskehitys

    OpenAIRE

    Palovuori, Jani

    2011-01-01

    Tässä opinnäytetyössä käsitellään sovelluskehitystä Android-laitteille Adoben AIR for Android -tekniikkaa hyväksi käyttäen. Tavoitteena on esitellä sovelluskehityksen periaatteita Adoben Flash-tekniikkaan pohjautuvan AIR for Android -teknologian kannalta. Työ on tehty Yleisradio Oy:n toimeksiantona ja toimii johdatuksena AIR-sovelluksen kehittämiseen AIR for Android -teknologialla. Työssä esitellään yleisesti rikkaat internet-sovellukset ja käydään tarkemmin läpi Adoben AIR-teknologia sek...

  6. Air Risk Information Support Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shoaf, C.R.; Guth, D.J. [Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC (United States)

    1990-12-31

    The Air Risk Information Support Center (Air RISC) was initiated in early 1988 by the US Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA) Office of Health and Environmental Assessment (OHEA) and the Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards (OAQPS) as a technology transfer effort that would focus on providing information to state and local environmental agencies and to EPA Regional Offices in the areas of health, risk, and exposure assessment for toxic air pollutants. Technical information is fostered and disseminated by Air RISCs three primary activities: (1) a {open_quotes}hotline{close_quotes}, (2) quick turn-around technical assistance projects, and (3) general technical guidance projects. 1 ref., 2 figs.

  7. Control of air toxics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For more than 10 years, Argonne National Laboratory has supported the US DOE's Flue Gas Cleanup Program objective by developing new or improved environmental controls for industries that use fossil fuels. Argonne's pollutant emissions research has ranged from experiments in the basic chemistry of pollution-control systems, through laboratory-scale process development and testing, to pilot-scale field tests of several technologies. The work on air toxics is currently divided into two components: Investigating measures to improve the removal of mercury in existing pollution-control systems applied to coal combustion; and, Developing sensors and control techniques for emissions found in the textile industry

  8. In the air

    OpenAIRE

    Andrés López Fernández

    2011-01-01

    RESUMEN En el aire es un viaje a la primera mitad del siglo XX que nos tratará de acercar la frescura y oportunidad de las calles corredor y los jardines en la ciudad vertical. Se inicia en 1909 en Nueva York, con la publicación por la revista Life de La Torre del Globo, se acerca al Inmueble-Villas y al Plan Obus para Argel de Le Corbusier, y finaliza en 1952 con el proyecto para el conjunto residencial de Golden Lane en Londres de A. y P. Smithson. Fragmentos para la ciudad vertical que se ...

  9. Building air exhaustion device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An opening is formed on the side wall of a building such as of a nuclear power plant, and a blow out panel is held (supported) by a clip for closing the opening. A large-diameter pipeline is connected at one end to the opening so as to cover the blow out panel, and immersed at the other end in a pool water. When a pipeline such as of main steam pipelines is ruptured in the building, high temperature and high pressure coolants are flown out from the ruptured port, and the pressure in the building is elevated. The blow out panel falls off from the side of the building by the elevation of the pressure in the building. Steams or compressed air discharged from the opening is introduced to the pool through the large diameter pipeline, then the steams are condensed by the pool water and radioactive materials contained in the condensed steams are kept in the pool water. Radioactive materials contained in the released compression air are also removed into the pool water. (I.N.)

  10. Baltimore Air Toxics Study (BATS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, D.A. [Sullivan Environmental Consulting, Inc., Alexandria, VA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    The Baltimore Air Toxics Study is one of the three urban air toxics initiatives funded by EPA to support the development of the national air toxics strategy. As part of this project, the Air Quality Integrated Management System (AIMS) is under development. AIMS is designed to bring together the key components of urban air quality management into an integrated system, including emissions assessment, air quality modeling, and air quality monitoring. Urban area source emissions are computed for a wide range of pollutants and source categories, and are joined with existing point source emissions data. Measured air quality data are used to evaluate the adequacy of the emissions data and model treatments as a function of season, meteorological parameters, and daytime/nighttime conditions. Based on tested model performance, AIMS provides the potential to improve the ability to predict air quality benefits of alternative control options for criteria and toxic air pollutants. This paper describes the methods used to develop AIMS, and provides examples from its application in the Baltimore metropolitan area. The use of AIMS in the future to enhance environmental management of major industrial facilities also will be addressed in the paper.

  11. Comparison of indoor air and outdoor air contaminant concentrations

    OpenAIRE

    Pykhova, Ekaterina

    2014-01-01

    Since most people spend their time indoors, there has been increased interest in air pollution concen-trations. Number of very small liquid and solid particles suspended in the air is depending on different factors. But how should be decreased particle number? The field of this work is particulate matter concentration in the indoor and outdoor air. Measurements were carried out in number concentration. The Indoor-Outdoor correlation was de-termined in order to investigate normative parti...

  12. Nitrogen fluorescence in air for observing extensive air showers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsunesada Y.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Extensive air showers initiate the fluorescence emissions from nitrogen molecules in air. The UV-light is emitted isotropically and can be used for observing the longitudinal development of extensive air showers in the atmosphere over tenth of kilometers. This measurement technique is well-established since it is exploited for many decades by several cosmic ray experiments. However, a fundamental aspect of the air shower analyses is the description of the fluorescence emission in dependence on varying atmospheric conditions. Different fluorescence yields affect directly the energy scaling of air shower reconstruction. In order to explore the various details of the nitrogen fluorescence emission in air, a few experimental groups have been performing dedicated measurements over the last decade. Most of the measurements are now finished. These experimental groups have been discussing their techniques and results in a series of Air Fluorescence Workshops commenced in 2002. At the 8th Air Fluorescence Workshop 2011, it was suggested to develop a common way of describing the nitrogen fluorescence for application to air shower observations. Here, first analyses for a common treatment of the major dependences of the emission procedure are presented. Aspects like the contributions at different wavelengths, the dependence on pressure as it is decreasing with increasing altitude in the atmosphere, the temperature dependence, in particular that of the collisional cross sections between molecules involved, and the collisional de-excitation by water vapor are discussed.

  13. Sights from the air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tartara, P.

    2009-04-01

    The first aerial shots were taken by aerostat balloon during the second half of the nineteen century for military purpose and subsequently utilized for civilian, archaeological and town planning uses (Roman Forum 1900, Pompei 1910, Venezia 1913, etc.). Sights from the air have given the most objective representation of the landscape and traces progressively left by human activities. After the First World War the use of airplanes for photogrammetric shots suitable to create cartography (territorial map making) has permitted to realize a good basic documentation; successively it has been increased by aerial reconnaissance during the Second World War. Aerial shots by RAF, USAF and Luftwaffe brought to the establishment of rich aerial photograph Archives, particularly in Europe, which have had a very low utilization for the historical restoration of landscape. From the fifties, aerial documentation becomes systematic for different scale analysis and territorial planning. The use of satellite imagery and multispectral bands integrates the historical and recent aerial photographs; the former is particularly helpful for cartography updating, for large scale environmental analysis, for study and research of territories with not available air photographs or lacking in aerial shots. The amount and density of archaeological buried evidences, unknown at the most, is very substantial in Italy and in the whole Mediterranean area; here air-photo interpretation is being applied at advanced levels, but not systematically, since several decades. Some archaeological research teams, working for the knowledge of territorial cultural heritage, utilize historical and recent aerial photographs intensively (aerial photographs previous the II WW, just before the intensive and extensive use of mechanical means to till the land, preserve a large amount of traces or cropmarks of buried evidences; recent shots taken on different conditions of climate and crops, allow to see and read important

  14. Air climate health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    'France Nature Environnement Ile de France' publishes, on occasion of the COP 21, a special paper about the air pollution in the Paris region, greenhouse gases and their influence on the environment. This document has been written in close cooperation with professionals and civil associations. Elected representatives from local and regional authorities also speak about their experiences. The first part emphasizes the urgency to accelerate preventive and corrective measures since the air pollution, after slightly decreasing in the 2000's, remains stable. Our work is a science based analysis of essential parameters and details the impact of local pollution and greenhouse gases on the climate. It is based on the GIEC 2013 and 2015 reports, as well as the work of National meteorology in association with the Climate agency of Paris. The threshold of not exceeding an average temperature of +2 deg. C in 2100 is almost reached. If consumption of fossil energies does not heavily decline in the next 10 years, the earth's thermal machine will enter, for several centuries, into an uncontrollable cycle which could endanger life on earth with average temperatures exceeding 4 to 6 deg. C above the current level. The second part reveals the impact of air pollution on the health of the Paris region's population, especially on women who are the most affected by respiratory diseases: obstructive pulmonary bronchitis and asthma. Four departments are particularly affected: Paris, Seine-et-Marne, Seine-Saint-Denis and Val-d'Oise. Even though we do not have the formal causal proof between gas concentration and disease, analysis of similar situations worldwide eliminate any doubts about the reality of the relationship. The third part proposes solutions which can be implemented by local government, companies, but also civil associations and citizens in order to quickly decrease greenhouse gas production. Solutions range from energy sobriety to change in travel

  15. Air Quality and Climate Change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Climate change and air quality are closely related: through the policy measures implemented to mitigate these major environmental threats but also through the geophysical processes that drive them. We designed, developed and implemented a comprehensive regional air quality and climate modeling System to investigate future air quality in Europe taking into account the combined pressure of future climate change and long range transport. Using the prospective scenarios of the last generation of pathways for both climate change (emissions of well mixed greenhouse gases) and air pollutants, we can provide a quantitative view into the possible future air quality in Europe. We find that ozone pollution will decrease substantially under the most stringent scenario but the efforts of the air quality legislation will be adversely compensated by the penalty of global warming and long range transport for the business as usual scenario. For particulate matter, the projected reduction of emissions efficiently reduces exposure levels. (authors)

  16. Air ions and aerosol science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tammet, Hannes

    1996-03-01

    Collaboration between Gas Discharge and Plasma Physics, Atmospheric Electricity, and Aerosol Science is a factor of success in the research of air ions. The concept of air ion as of any carrier of electrical current through the air is inherent to Atmospheric Electricity under which a considerable statistical information about the air ion mobility spectrum is collected. A new model of air ion size-mobility correlation has been developed proceeding from Aerosol Science and joining the methods of neighboring research fields. The predicted temperature variation of the mobility disagrees with the commonly used Langevin rule for the reduction of air ion mobilities to the standard conditions. Concurrent errors are too big to be neglected in applications. The critical diameter distinguishing cluster ions and charged aerosol particles has been estimated to be 1.4-1.8 nm.

  17. Air ions and aerosol science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tammet, H. [Department of Environmental Physics, Tartu University, Tartu, Estonia (Estonia) 2400

    1996-03-01

    Collaboration between Gas Discharge and Plasma Physics, Atmospheric Electricity, and Aerosol Science is a factor of success in the research of air ions. The concept of air ion as of any carrier of electrical current through the air is inherent to Atmospheric Electricity under which a considerable statistical information about the air ion mobility spectrum is collected. A new model of air ion size-mobility correlation has been developed proceeding from Aerosol Science and joining the methods of neighboring research fields. The predicted temperature variation of the mobility disagrees with the commonly used Langevin rule for the reduction of air ion mobilities to the standard conditions. Concurrent errors are too big to be neglected in applications. The critical diameter distinguishing cluster ions and charged aerosol particles has been estimated to be 1.4{endash}1.8 nm. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  18. The weight of air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Once a controversial idea, the fact that gases like air have weight can easily be demonstrated using reasonably precise scales in the modern teaching laboratory. But unlike a liquid, where a mechanical model suggests a pile of hard spheres resting on each other, gas molecules are in continual motion and can have minimal interaction. How should we think about the effect these molecules have on the scale? And more importantly, how should we explain it to students? Several models of gas behavior are employed to answer these questions and it is shown how the weight of a gas is, like electric current, an emergent phenomena in contrast to the weight of a liquid which is direct or causal. (paper)

  19. Photochemical air pollution syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamming, W.J.; MacBeth, W.C.; Chass, R.L.

    1967-01-01

    There are two distinct pollution problems in the Los Angeles Basin - one in winter, the other most frequently in summer and fall. In winter the concentrations of carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide and black filterable aerosols are higher than in summer, but the secondary pollutants such as ozone and photochemical oxidants are not as high. The photochemical air pollution syndrome is due to a pattern set by previous smog attacks. This pattern is due to low wind speeds, low inversion heights, a trajectory to carry the pollution and sufficient sunlight to photodissociate the nitrogen dioxide formed and to form nitric oxide and atomic oxygen. The results are high levels of oxidant or ozone and large quantities of particles. 5 references, 9 figures, 7 tables.

  20. Change in the air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aviation has a key part to play in the future protection of the environment. Such issues as climate change raise serious questions for all of us, but particularly for energy-intensive industries such as aviation, which makes a small but identifiable contribution to man's impact on the global climate. Airlines, such as British Airways, must strive to meet ever-higher standards of environmental performance. Environmental challenges facing the aviation industry are categorized as: noise, emissions and fuel efficiency, waste of energy, water and material, congestion in the air and on the ground, tourism and conservation. These headings have proved to be robust and our environmental programmes have, accordingly, been deployed under them

  1. metropolitana en Buenos Aires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Pírez

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present a description of some concrete processes that made up the transformations in the metropolitan configuration and functioning in Buenos Aires in the 1990s during the 20th Century. We are referring to components related to the impact of processes at the macro level (national and international pertaining to restructuring and globalisation. We aim to understand the “forces” that mediate between the global and the local arenas, identifying the actors and the relationships behind metropolitan changes as well as searching for the meaning that the city acquires and which is understood as “privatisation”. In the first section of the paper, this concept is made explicit.

  2. de Buenos Aires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquín Linne

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Esta investigación explora la situación de los cibercafés en la Ciudad de Buenos Aires y de su principalpoblación, los adolescentes de sectores populares. Aunque en los últimos años millones de adolescentes abandonaronestos espacios como consecuencia de la ampliación de la Internet hogareña, en sectores popularesmuchos adolescentes aún continúan asistiendo en busca de recreación lúdico-comunicativa, información eintegración social. La metodología utilizada consiste en 40 entrevistas en profundidad, observaciones participantesy análisis de contenido de perfiles de Facebook (n: 200. Entre los resultados, se destaca que lasprincipales prácticas de estos adolescentes son comunicativas y que estos espacios funcionan para ellos comoherramientas de alfabetización digital, sociabilidad entre pares e inclusión ciudadana.

  3. Metal hydride air conditioner

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG; Ke; DU; Ping; LU; Man-qi

    2005-01-01

    The relationship among the hydrogen storage properties, cycling characteristics and thermal parameters of the metal hydride air conditioning systems was investigated. Based on a new alloy selection model, three pairs of hydrogen storage alloys, LaNi4.4 Mn0.26 Al0.34 / La0.6 Nd0.4 Ni4.8 Mn0.2 Cu0. 1, LaNi4.61Mn0. 26 Al0.13/La0.6 Nd0.4 Ni4.8 Mn0.2 Cu0. 1 and LaNi4.61 Mn0.26 Al0.13/La0.6 Y0.4 Ni4.8 Mn0. 2, were selected as the working materials for the metal hydride air conditioning system. Studies on the factors affecting the COP of the system showed that higher COP and available hydrogen content need the proper operating temperature and cycling time,large hydrogen storage capacity, flat plateau and small hysterisis of hydrogen alloys, proper original input hydrogen content and mass ratio of the pair of alloys. It also needs small conditioning system was established by using LaNi4.61 Mn0.26 Al0. 13/La0.6 Y0.4 Ni4.8 Mn0.2 alloys as the working materials, which showed that under the operating temperature of 180℃/40℃, a low temperature of 13℃ was reached, with COP =0.38 and Wnet =0.09 kW/kg.

  4. Atmospheric Chemistry and Air Pollution

    OpenAIRE

    Gaffney, Jeffrey S.; Marley, Nancy A.

    2003-01-01

    Atmospheric chemistry is an important discipline for understanding air pollution and its impacts. This mini-review gives a brief history of air pollution and presents an overview of some of the basic photochemistry involved in the production of ozone and other oxidants in the atmosphere. Urban air quality issues are reviewed with a specific focus on ozone and other oxidants, primary and secondary aerosols, alternative fuels, and the potential for chlorine releases to amplify oxidant chemistry...

  5. Air and metal hydride battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lampinen, M.; Noponen, T. [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Otaniemi (Finland). Lab. of Applied Thermodynamics

    1998-12-31

    The main goal of the air and metal hydride battery project was to enhance the performance and manufacturing technology of both electrodes to such a degree that an air-metal hydride battery could become a commercially and technically competitive power source for electric vehicles. By the end of the project it was possible to demonstrate the very first prototype of the air-metal hydride battery at EV scale, achieving all the required design parameters. (orig.)

  6. Air pollution control in practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The book offers a comprehensive treatment of the subject, from air pollution monitoring and effects on human and animal health, on plants and materials, to pollution reduction measures, practical applications, and legal regulations. It intends to give the air pollution expert a basis for developing practicable solutions. Apart from the 'classic' pollutants, also radioactive air pollution is gone into. (DG) With 366 figs., 190 tabs

  7. Managing Air in Olympic Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing W. Tian

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The 21st century Olympic Agenda aims to align itself with the concept of sustainable development and has driven improved environmental quality in host cities, such as the Green Games in Sydney 2000 and the planned Beijing 2008 Games and in London 2012 as the Low Carbon Games. Air quality has long been a concern of Olympic mega-cities, although the air quality plans and strategies have often seemed short-lived and unsustainable in the long term. We have explored air quality data and air pollution control from seven Olympic cities: Mexico City, Los Angeles, Atlanta, Sydney and Athens and also Beijing and London which will host Olympic Games in near future. The study shows that despite a high altitude and air pollution problems, Mexico City had no clear environmental policy in place for the 1968 games. The characteristic smog of Los Angeles raised concerns about athletic performance at the Olympic Games of 1984, but there were limited efforts to tackle the ozone concentration during these games. The 1996 Atlanta Games represents a case where temporary public transport changes were used as a tactic to reduce air pollution. In Sydney a well planned sustainable strategy reduced air pollutants and CO2 emissions in 2000, but Athens' long efforts to improve air quality for the 2004 games were not wholly effective. Even where strategies proved successful the improvements in air quality seem short-lived. Current host cities Beijing and London are developing emission reduction plans. These have clear air quality objectives and are well intentioned. However, the improvements may be too narrow and may not be sustainable in the long term. Our analysis looks at the origins of success and failure and how more coherent improvements might be achieved and what would promote sustainable plans for air quality management at future games. The study illustrates the feedback between air pollution science and policy awareness.

  8. Air pollution: Impact and prevention

    OpenAIRE

    SIERRA-VARGAS, MARTHA PATRICIA; Teran, Luis M.

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT Air pollution is becoming a major health problem that affects millions of people worldwide. In support of this observation, the World Health Organization estimates that every year, 2.4 million people die because of the effects of air pollution on health. Mitigation strategies such as changes in diesel engine technology could result in fewer premature mortalities, as suggested by the US Environmental Protection Agency. This review: (i) discusses the impact of air pollution on respirat...

  9. "Air embolism during fontan operation"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madan Mohan Maddali

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In patients with a right to left intracardiac shunt, air embolism results in an obligatory systemic embolization. Nonembolization of entrained air is described in a child with a single ventricle physiology who had earlier undergone bidirectional Glenn shunt construction and Damus-Kaye-Stansel anastomosis. The air entrainment was detected by intra-operative transesophageal echocardiography. The combined effect of a "diving bell" phenomenon and mild aortic valve regurgitation are suggested as the reasons for the confinement of air into the ventricle preventing catastrophic systemic embolization.

  10. Managing Air in Olympic Cities

    OpenAIRE

    Qing W. Tian; Peter Brimblecombe

    2008-01-01

    The 21st century Olympic Agenda aims to align itself with the concept of sustainable development and has driven improved environmental quality in host cities, such as the Green Games in Sydney 2000 and the planned Beijing 2008 Games and in London 2012 as the Low Carbon Games. Air quality has long been a concern of Olympic mega-cities, although the air quality plans and strategies have often seemed short-lived and unsustainable in the long term. We have explored air quality data and air pollut...

  11. Effect of Air Outlet Angle on Air Distribution Performance Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isbeyeh W. Maid

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available       In this paper a numerical study of velocity and temperature distribution in air conditioned space have been made. The computational model consists of the non-isothermal 3-D turbulent with (k-ε model. The numerical study is made to conduct air distribution in a room air-conditioned space with real interior dimensions (6×4×3m and to analyze the effect of changing angle of grille vanes on the flow pattern, velocity, and temperature distribution in the room under a set of different condition, and under a supply air temperature of 16˚C to examine the final result on air distribution performance index (ADPI.The results show a significant effect within the change of supply air angle, the maximum air distribution performance index (ADPI is 52% when air change per hour (ACH is equal to 10 at 16˚C inlet temperature with angle ( 15˚ down, and the minimum value of (ADPI is 20% when ACH is equal to 15 at 16˚C inlet temperature and angle ( degree. 

  12. Norma Primaria de calidad del aire AIR QUALITY STANDARD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PATRICIA MATUS C.

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Las normas primarias de calidad del aire tienen por finalidad proteger la salud de la población de la contaminación atmosférica. Ellas establecen un nivel de riesgo socialmente aceptado. Este artículo describe los antecedentes considerados durante el proceso de actualización de la regulación vigente en Chile. Detalla conceptos sobre la calidad del aire, describe los efectos en la salud de los contaminantes, y el procedimiento seguido para fijar los nuevos estándares Finaliza enumerando la norma primaria de calidad del aire, sus valores y los limites definidos para ser considerados en el ámbito de la gestión de los episodios críticos o de alta contaminaciónThe main purpose of air quality standards is to protect people health from air pollution. They establish a socially accepted level of risk. This article describes the background information considered during the process for updating the current Chilean regulation. Concepts about quality of air, and the effects of the pollutants on the health are described. The procedure followed to fix the new standards is detailed. Finally we state the primary air quality norm, its values as well as the critical limits in order to control critical events of high air pollution

  13. Fundamentals of air pollution. Third edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boubel, R.W.; Fox, D.L.; Turner, D.B.; Stern, A.C.

    1994-12-31

    This book presents an overview of air pollution. In Part I, the history of air pollution and the basic concepts involved with air pollution such as sources, scales, definitions are covered. Part II describes how airborne pollutants damage materials, vegetation, animals, and humans. Six fundamental aspects of air pollution are included in the text: The Elements of Air Pollution; The Effects of Air Pollution; Measurement and Monitoring of Air Pollution; Meterology of Air Pollution; regulatory Control of Air Pollution; and Engineering Control of Air Pollution.

  14. Reduced bleed air extraction for DC-10 cabin air conditioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, W. H.; Viele, M. R.; Hrach, F. J.

    1980-01-01

    It is noted that a significant fuel savings can be achieved by reducing bleed air used for cabin air conditioning. Air in the cabin can be recirculated to maintain comfortable ventilation rates but the quality of the air tends to decrease due to entrainment of smoke and odors. Attention is given to a development system designed and fabricated under the NASA Engine Component Improvement Program to define the recirculation limit for the DC-10. It is shown that with the system, a wide range of bleed air reductions and recirculation rates is possible. A goal of 0.8% fuel savings has been achieved which results from a 50% reduction in bleed extraction from the engine.

  15. 14 CFR 298.52 - Air taxi operations by commuter air carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Air taxi operations by commuter air... (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS EXEMPTIONS FOR AIR TAXI AND COMMUTER AIR CARRIER OPERATIONS Commuter Air Carrier Authorizations § 298.52 Air taxi operations by commuter air carriers. (a) A...

  16. Mind Your Indoor Air Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mak, Lily

    2012-01-01

    When it comes to excelling in the classroom, it turns out the air students are breathing is just as important as the lessons they are learning. Studies show poor indoor air quality (IAQ) can lessen the comfort of students as well as staff--affecting concentration, attendance and student performance. It can even lead to lower IQs. What's more, poor…

  17. The Federal Air Pollution Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Air Pollution Control Administration (DHEW), Washington, DC.

    Described is the Federal air pollution program as it was in 1967. The booklet is divided into these major topics: History of the Federal Program; Research; Assistance to State and Local Governments; Abatement and Prevention of Air Pollution; Control of Motor Vehicle Pollution; Information and Education; and Conclusion. Federal legislation has…

  18. Improved Air-Treatment Canister

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehm, A. M.

    1982-01-01

    Proposed air-treatment canister integrates a heater-in-tube water evaporator into canister header. Improved design prevents water from condensing and contaminating chemicals that regenerate the air. Heater is evenly spiraled about the inlet header on the canister. Evaporator is brazed to the header.

  19. Complexity in Air Traffic Management

    OpenAIRE

    Delahaye, Daniel; Puechmorel, Stéphane; Dougui, Nour Elhouda

    2009-01-01

    Air traffic Management Requirements : -Insure separation between aircraft. -Avoid costly manoeuvres and optionally optimize trajectories. -Insure trafic organization. Trends : -Separation delegated to aircraft. -Trajectory based air traffic management. -Introduction of decision support tools / automated conflict solvers. Workload : -Related to cognitive processes of human controllers. -Easy/Hard forecasting of conflict occurrence. -Monitoring is a non negligible part of the workload. -Relevan...

  20. A Breath of Fresh Air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belew, Rachel

    2011-01-01

    One of the most important aspects of a healthy school--and one that, unfortunately, often falls by the wayside--is indoor air quality. The U.S. Government Accountability Office estimates that more than 15,000 schools nationwide report suffering from poor indoor air quality. According to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, schools with poor…

  1. Air movement - good or bad?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toftum, Jørn

    general terms when air movement is desirable and when it is not. At temperatures up to 22-23oC, at sedentary activity and with occupants feeling neutral or cooler there is a risk of air movement being perceived as unacceptable, even at low velocities. In particular, a cool overall thermal sensation...

  2. Ozone as an air pollutant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Rolf W.

    1996-01-01

    A Danish new book on ozone as an air pollutant has been reviewed. The Book is "Ozon som luftforurening" by Jes Fenger, Published by "Danmarks Miljøundersøgelser, 1995.......A Danish new book on ozone as an air pollutant has been reviewed. The Book is "Ozon som luftforurening" by Jes Fenger, Published by "Danmarks Miljøundersøgelser, 1995....

  3. Airborne rotary air separator study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acharya, A.; Gottzmann, C. F.; Nowobilski, J. J.

    1990-01-01

    Several air breathing propulsion concepts for future earth-to-orbit transport vehicles utilize air collection and enrichment, and subsequent storage of liquid oxygen for later use in the vehicle emission. Work performed during the 1960's established the feasibility of substantially reducing weight and volume of a distillation type air separator system by operating the distillation elements in high 'g' fields obtained by rotating the separator assembly. This contract studied the capability test and hydraulic behavior of a novel structured or ordered distillation packing in a rotating device using air and water. Pressure drop and flood points were measured for different air and water flow rates in gravitational fields of up to 700 g. Behavior of the packing follows the correlations previously derived from tests at normal gravity. The novel ordered packing can take the place of trays in a rotating air separation column with the promise of substantial reduction in pressure drop, volume, and system weight. The results obtained in the program are used to predict design and performance of rotary separators for air collection and enrichment systems of interest for past and present concepts of air breathing propulsion (single or two-stage to orbit) systems.

  4. Vehicles and Particulate Air Pollution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The current scene relating to particles and vehicular emissions in UK is reviewed. The active research topics are health effects of particles, particle size and composition, modeling the fate of particles and assessing individual exposure. There is a National Air Quality Strategy combined with local air quality management which includes monitoring and assessment, dispersion modeling and development of management plans.

  5. Anisotropy of successive air showers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochi, N.; Wada, T.; Yamashita, Y.; Ohashi, A.; Yamamoto, I.; Nakatsuka, T.; Large Area Air Shower (LAAS) Group

    2001-04-01

    We have investigated the anisotropy of successive air shower (SAS) events, which we define as the detection of many air showers within a short time window, using data from six stations of the Large Area Air Shower (LAAS) group. On the criterion of 22 air showers within 20 minutes, five SAS events are found against 1.4 expected from the Poisson distribution in Okayama University station's data. From six stations' data, we find 24 SAS events in total. By plotting them in equatorial coordinates, it is revealed that SAS events are observed more frequently when the Galactic plane is around the zenith. This can be attributed to a hypothetical small flux of ultra-high-energy γ-rays from the direction of the Galactic plane superposed on conventional cosmic rays. If this hypothesis is true, the analytical procedure used here has potential to measure ultra-high-energy γ-ray sources by even small air shower arrays like ours.

  6. Anisotropy of successive air showers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have investigated the anisotropy of successive air shower (SAS) events, which we define as the detection of many air showers within a short time window, using data from six stations of the Large Area Air Shower (LAAS) group. On the criterion of 22 air showers within 20 minutes, five SAS events are found against 1.4 expected from the Poisson distribution in Okayama University station's data. From six stations' data, we find 24 SAS events in total. By plotting them in equatorial coordinates, it is revealed that SAS events are observed more frequently when the Galactic plane is around the zenith. This can be attributed to a hypothetical small flux of ultra-high-energy γ-rays from the direction of the Galactic plane superposed on conventional cosmic rays. If this hypothesis is true, the analytical procedure used here has potential to measure ultra-high-energy γ-ray sources by even small air shower arrays like ours

  7. Air Quality at Your Street

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Steen Solvang; Becker, Thomas; Ketzel, Matthias;

    concerned citizents, or in the context of localization of institutions, etc. The purpose of the project ‘Air Quality at Your Street’ is to create interactive air quality maps on the internet using webGIS to illustrate the geographical variation of air quality in Denmark for selected health related air...... is calculated with a model system consisting of a regional model (DEHM), an urban background model (UBM) and a street model (OSPM) with associated meteorology and emissions data etc. Recently updated input data has been used for the road network and traffic data based on the national traffic model...... (LTM) from DTU Transport as well as data on travel speeds based on GPS data from SpeedMap from the Danish Road Directorate. Modelled concentrations have been compared to fixed regional, urban background and street air quality monitoring stations to assess uncertainties, and to model results from about...

  8. Tritium-in-air monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A system for continuously monitoring air for the presence of tritiated water vapor is described comprising contacting a predetermined mass flow of an air sample with a predetermined flow of a liquid miscible with tritiated water to transfer any tritiated water vapor in the air sample to the liquid; stripping radioactive noble gases from the liquid with a stream of gas; and analyzing the liquid for beta radiation to determine the presence of tritium. In the preferred embodiment of the apparatus an air-liquid contactor, a gas-liquid separator and a stripper are combined into a single unit with a common outlet for the contacted air and stripping gas. 6 claims, 2 figures

  9. Lithium-Air Cell Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Concha M.; Dobley, Arthur; Seymour, Frasier W.

    2014-01-01

    Lithium-air (Li-air) primary batteries have a theoretical specific capacity of 11,400 Wh/kg, the highest of any common metal-air system. NASA is developing Li-air technology for a Mobile Oxygen Concentrator for Spacecraft Emergencies, an application which requires an extremely lightweight primary battery that can discharge over 24 hours continuously. Several vendors were funded through the NASA SBIR program to develop Li-air technology to fulfill the requirements of this application. New catalysts and carbon cathode structures were developed to enhance the oxygen reduction reaction and increase surface area to improve cell performance. Techniques to stabilize the lithium metal anode surface were explored. Experimental results for prototype laboratory cells are given. Projections are made for the performance of hypothetical cells constructed from the materials that were developed.

  10. Atmospheric Chemistry and Air Pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey S. Gaffney

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric chemistry is an important discipline for understanding air pollution and its impacts. This mini-review gives a brief history of air pollution and presents an overview of some of the basic photochemistry involved in the production of ozone and other oxidants in the atmosphere. Urban air quality issues are reviewed with a specific focus on ozone and other oxidants, primary and secondary aerosols, alternative fuels, and the potential for chlorine releases to amplify oxidant chemistry in industrial areas. Regional air pollution issues such as acid rain, long-range transport of aerosols and visibility loss, and the connections of aerosols to ozone and peroxyacetyl nitrate chemistry are examined. Finally, the potential impacts of air pollutants on the global-scale radiative balances of gases and aerosols are discussed briefly.

  11. Population Dynamics and Air Pollution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flachs, Esben Meulengracht; Sørensen, Jan; Bønløkke, Jacob;

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To explore how three different assumptions on demographics affect the health impact of Danish emitted air pollution in Denmark from 2005 to 2030, with health impact modeled from 2005 to 2050. Methods. Modeled air pollution from Danish sources was used as exposure in a newly developed......) a static year 2005 population, (2) morbidity and mortality fixed at the year 2005 level, or (3) an expected development. Results. The health impact of air pollution was estimated at 672,000, 290,000, and 280,000 lost life years depending on demographic assumptions and the corresponding social costs at 430.......4 M€, 317.5 M€, and 261.6 M€ through the modeled years 2005–2050. Conclusion. The modeled health impact of air pollution differed widely with the demographic assumptions, and thus demographics and assumptions on demographics played a key role in making health impact assessments on air pollution....

  12. Airing Out Anthrax

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    The AiroCide TiO2 is an air-purifier that kills 93.3 percent of airborne pathogens that pass through it, including Bacillus anthraci, more commonly known as anthrax. It is essentially a spinoff of KES Science & Technology, Inc.'s Bio-KES system, a highly effective device used by the produce industry for ethylene gas removal to aid in preserving the freshness of fruits, vegetables, and flowers. The TiO2-based ethylene removal technology that is incorporated into the company's AiroCide TiO2 and Bio-KES products was first integrated into a pair of plant-growth chambers known as ASTROCULTURE(TM) and ADVANCED ASTROCULTURE(TM). Both chambers have housed commercial plant growth experiments in space on either the Space Shuttle or the International Space Station. The AiroCide TiO2 also has a proven record of destroying 98 percent of other airborne pathogens, such as microscopic dust mites, molds, and fungi. Moreover, the device is a verified killer of Influenza A (flu), E. coli, Staphylococcus aureas, Streptococcus pyogenes, and Mycoplasma pneumoniae, among many other harmful viruses.

  13. Air coolant system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main patent relates to a process of cooling the steam from the turbine working with a nuclear power reactor, in said process a two-phase fluid mixture is circulated inside a closed circuit between the turbine condenser and a cooling tower. The present addition to the main patent relates to a cooling system comprising instead of the vertical tower, a nearly horizontal structure open to wind, in which the air is circulated by natural convection. The lower part of said structure, according to the invention, comprises two parallel rows of nearly rectangular cooling fins and the upper part consists of two walls made antiparallel with respect to the longitudinal symmetry plane of said structure and thus forming an upwards widening, the resulting vertical planar section of the long-shaped cooling structure according to the invention assuming a venturi shape. Said type of structure a few hundred meters long but only fifty meters high is less visible in the landscape than the vertical tower, and condensation clouds are formed onside a larger surface, that is another ecological advantage

  14. Breathe the air!

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    Feeling a bit cooped up in your office? Want to share your interest in science and technology with others but your computer's heard it all before and your colleagues won't even listen anymore? Then here's the answer - come and get some fresh air with the Education and Communication Group. The Visits Service and the Press Office offer you the opportunity to come into contact with CERN visitors. - Be a guide! In becoming a guide you get the opportunity to introduce the Laboratory to vast array of visitors of all nationalities and ages and communicate to them your passion for science and technology. You can get involved as a CERN guide on various levels - giving presentations and tours of the Laboratory, but also leading a «Drôle de Physique» workshop and giving tours of Microcosm. Guides receive training. If you're interested, take a look at the Guides Homepage where all the relevant information and formalities are explained: http://www.cern.ch/guides See also the article in the Bulletin n°25/2002. - Fa...

  15. Radioxenon spiked air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watrous, Matthew G; Delmore, James E; Hague, Robert K; Houghton, Tracy P; Jenson, Douglas D; Mann, Nick R

    2015-12-01

    Four of the radioactive xenon isotopes ((131m)Xe, (133m)Xe, (133)Xe and (135)Xe) with half-lives ranging from 9 h to 12 days are produced from nuclear fission and can be detected from days to weeks following their production and release. Being inert gases, they are readily transported through the atmosphere. Sources for release of radioactive xenon isotopes include operating nuclear reactors via leaks in fuel rods, medical isotope production facilities, and nuclear weapons' detonations. They are not normally released from fuel reprocessing due to the short half-lives. The Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty has led to creation of the International Monitoring System. The International Monitoring System, when fully implemented, will consist of one component with 40 stations monitoring radioactive xenon around the globe. Monitoring these radioactive xenon isotopes is important to the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty in determining whether a seismically detected event is or is not a nuclear detonation. A variety of radioactive xenon quality control check standards, quantitatively spiked into various gas matrices, could be used to demonstrate that these stations are operating on the same basis in order to bolster defensibility of data across the International Monitoring System. This paper focuses on Idaho National Laboratory's capability to produce three of the xenon isotopes in pure form and the use of the four xenon isotopes in various combinations to produce radioactive xenon spiked air samples that could be subsequently distributed to participating facilities. PMID:26318775

  16. Air pollution in Copenhagen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aerosols were monitored in Greater Copenhagen in the period June 1973 to July 1974. Size-fractionated cascade impactor samples and unfractionated filter samples were regularly collected and analyzed be neutron activation analysis, spark emission spectroscopy or proton-induced X-ray emission spectroscopy. Concentrations were determined of the following elements: Al, Si, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Br, Mo, Cd, Sn, Sb, and Pb. All elements showed orders-of-magnitude fluctuationsthe mean concentrations were roughly the same as in other large cities. In relation to proposed air quality standards, Pb was the most critical component. Statistical analysis of variation patterns, size distributions and interelement correlations indicate that automotive exhaust is the source of Br and Pbfuel-oil combustion is the main source of V and Ni (and partly of S)soil dust raised by wind or by human activity (e.g. traffic) is the main source of Al, Si, Ca, Ti, and Fe. (author)

  17. Air contaminants in a submarine equipped with air independent propulsion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persson, Ola; Ostberg, Christina; Pagels, Joakim; Sebastian, Aleksandra

    2006-11-01

    The Swedish Navy has operated submarines equipped with air independent propulsion for two decades. This type of submarine can stay submerged for periods far longer than other non-nuclear submarines are capable of. The air quality during longer periods of submersion has so far not been thoroughly investigated. This study presents results for a number of air quality parameters obtained during more than one week of continuous submerged operation. The measured parameters are pressure, temperature, relative humidity, oxygen, carbon dioxide, hydrogen, formaldehyde and other volatile organic compounds, ozone, nitrogen dioxide, particulate matter and microbiological contaminants. The measurements of airborne particles demonstrate that air pollutants typically occur at a low baseline level due to high air exchange rates and efficient air-cleaning devices. However, short-lived peaks with comparatively high concentrations occur, several of the sources for these have been identified. The concentrations of the pollutants measured in this study do not indicate a build-up of hazardous compounds during eight days of submersion. It is reasonable to assume that a substantial build-up of the investigated contaminants is not likely if the submersion period is prolonged several times, which is the case for modern submarines equipped with air independent propulsion. PMID:17075617

  18. Air Leakage and Air Transfer Between Garage and Living Space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudd, A.

    2014-09-01

    This research project focused on evaluation of air transfer between the garage and living space in a single-family detached home constructed by a production homebuilder in compliance with the 2009 International Residential Code and the 2009 International Energy Conservation Code. The project gathered important information about the performance of whole-building ventilation systems and garage ventilation systems as they relate to minimizing flow of contaminated air from garage to living space. A series of 25 multi-point fan pressurization tests and additional zone pressure diagnostic testing characterized the garage and house air leakage, the garage-to-house air leakage, and garage and house pressure relationships to each other and to outdoors using automated fan pressurization and pressure monitoring techniques. While the relative characteristics of this house may not represent the entire population of new construction configurations and air tightness levels (house and garage) throughout the country, the technical approach was conservative and should reasonably extend the usefulness of the results to a large spectrum of house configurations from this set of parametric tests in this one house. Based on the results of this testing, the two-step garage-to-house air leakage test protocol described above is recommended where whole-house exhaust ventilation is employed. For houses employing whole-house supply ventilation (positive pressure) or balanced ventilation (same pressure effect as the Baseline condition), adherence to the EPA Indoor airPLUS house-to-garage air sealing requirements should be sufficient to expect little to no garage-to-house air transfer.

  19. Large scale air monitoring: Biological indicators versus air particulate matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biological indicator organisms are widely used for monitoring and banking purposes since many years. Although the complexity of the interactions between bioorganisms and their environment is generally not easily comprehensible, environmental quality assessment using the bioindicator approach offers some convincing advantages compared to direct analysis of soil, water, or air. Direct measurement of air particulates is restricted to experienced laboratories with access to expensive sampling equipment. Additionally, the amount of material collected generally is just enough for one determination per sampling and no multidimensional characterization might be possible. Further, fluctuations in air masses have a pronounced effect on the results from air filter sampling. Combining the integrating property of bioindicators with the world wide availability and uniform matrix characteristics of air particulates as a prerequisite for global monitoring of air pollution will be discussed. A new approach for sampling urban dust using large volume filtering devices installed in air conditioners of large hotel buildings is assessed. A first experiment was initiated to collect air particulates (300 to 500 g each) from a number of hotels during a period of three to four months by successive vacuum cleaning of used inlet filters from high volume air conditioning installations reflecting average concentrations per three months in different large cities. This approach is expected to be upgraded and applied for global monitoring. Highly positive correlated elements were found in lichen such as K/S, Zn/P, the rare earth elements (REE) and a significant negative correlation between Fig and Cu was observed in these samples. The ratio of concentrations of elements in dust and Usnea spp. is highest for Cr, Zn, and Fe (400-200) and lowest for elements such as Ca, Rb, and Sr (20-10). (author)

  20. Large scale air monitoring: lichen vs. air particulate matter analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossbach, M; Jayasekera, R; Kniewald, G; Thang, N H

    1999-07-15

    Biological indicator organisms have been widely used for monitoring and banking purposes for many years. Although the complexity of the interactions between organisms and their environment is generally not easily comprehensible, environmental quality assessment using the bioindicator approach offers some convincing advantages compared to direct analysis of soil, water, or air. Measurement of air particulates is restricted to experienced laboratories with access to expensive sampling equipment. Additionally, the amount of material collected generally is just enough for one determination per sampling and no multidimensional characterization might be possible. Further, fluctuations in air masses have a pronounced effect on the results from air filter sampling. Combining the integrating property of bioindicators with the world wide availability and particular matrix characteristics of air particulate matter as a prerequisite for global monitoring of air pollution is discussed. A new approach for sampling urban dust using large volume filtering devices installed in air conditioners of large hotel buildings is assessed. A first experiment was initiated to collect air particulates (300-500 g each) from a number of hotels during a period of 3-4 months by successive vacuum cleaning of used inlet filters from high volume air conditioning installations reflecting average concentrations per 3 months in different large cities. This approach is expected to be upgraded and applied for global monitoring. Highly positive correlated elements were found in lichens such as K/S, Zn/P, the rare earth elements (REE) and a significant negative correlation between Hg and Cu was observed in these samples. The ratio of concentrations of elements in dust and Usnea spp. is highest for Cz, Zn and Fe (400-200) and lowest for elements such as Ca, Rb, and Sr (20-10). PMID:10474261

  1. Air Pollution in the World's Megacities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richman, Barbara T., Ed.

    1994-01-01

    Reports findings of the Global Environment Monitoring System study concerning air pollution in the world's megacities. Discusses sources of air pollution, air pollution impacts, air quality monitoring, air quality trends, and control strategies. Provides profiles of the problem in Beijing, Los Angeles, Mexico City, India, Cairo, Sao Paulo, and…

  2. Egypt air radioactive sources warehouse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    I would like to give me this chance, of being here among famous scientists. I wish to thank the general director of cargo division, and the general manager of import for providing all facilities for me to be present at this scientific meeting. At this conference, I wish to explain the role played by egypt air (as public sector company) in the officiant of radiation physics. The atomic energy authority, ministry of health, and ministry of civil aviation; have provided instructions that were essentially required to complete the work of the national radioactive warehouse located in egypt air terminal in Cairo. Now the license for operating the store has been granted. Prior to constructing the warehouse, the radioactive sources were distributed among the foreign cargo terminals at Cairo airport, such as swiss air, air france, saudi arabia, the Ice stores, as well egypt Air. Cargo terminals. The control of radiation hazard was therefore difficult. The ministry of Civil aviation then issued a decree dictating the storage of all radioactive sources exclusively at the national store of egypt air. All foreign cargo terminals should transfer all imported radioactive sources to the national warehouse at Cairo air port. According to that decree. 6 figs, 2 tabs

  3. Air Force neutron dosimetry program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Approximately 1000 Air Force personnel are monitored for neutron radiation resulting from various sources at more than thirty worldwide locations. Neutron radiation spanning several orders of magnitude in energy is encountered. The Air Force currently uses albedo thermoluminescent neutron dosimeters for personnel monitoring. The energy dependence of the albedo neutron dosimeter is a current problem and the development of site specific correction factors is ongoing. A summary of data on the energy dependence is presented as well as efforts to develop algorithms for the dosimeter. An overview of current Air Force neutron dosimetry users and needs is also presented

  4. Korean Air Excellence in Flight

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ Korean Air with a fleet of 119 aircraft, is one of the world's top 20 airlines, and oper-ates almost 400 flights everyday to 90 cities in 33 countries. The airline has about 50 flights per week between the US and Asia from nine US gateways: New York, Los Angeles, Washington,Chicago, Dallas, San Francisco, Atlanta, Anchorage and Honolulu.The carrier is a founding member of SkyTeam, the global airline alliance partnering AeroMexico, Air France, Alitalia, CSA Czech Airlines, Continental Airlines, Delta Air Lines, KLM and Northwest Airlines to provide customers with extensive worldwide destina-tions, flights and services.

  5. Local air entrainment and detrainment

    OpenAIRE

    Kobus, Helmut

    1984-01-01

    Air and water are usually well separated by gravity due to their extreme difference in specific weight. Whenever they are mixed, however, they give rise to a very complex two-phase flow situation. The hydraulic engineer is often faced with the problem of estimating the effects of entrained air upon the flow, because this may be essential for the safe operation of a hydraulic structure.The predominant mechanism in generating airwater mixtures is the inclusion of air at the surface of flowing w...

  6. Air quality indices : a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pollution Probe presents some background information that will help in the development of a national Air Quality Index (AQI) in Canada. This report examines the issues that should be addressed in revising the national Index of the Quality of Air (IQUA) or creating a new national Air Quality Index. The IQUA was devised in 1976 and provides Canadians with real-time information on the state of community air quality by including major pollutants and their synergies. It is currently being used for air quality management plans and air quality alert systems. At the same time that the IQUA was devised, the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) produced a parallel air quality index known as the Pollution Standard Index (PSI) which incorporated 5 criteria pollutants (particulate matter, sulphur dioxide, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxide and ground level ozone) for which national health-based standards were devised. In 1999, the US EPA renamed their index the Air Quality Index (AQI) and made revisions to the primary health-based national ambient air quality standards for ground-level ozone and particulate matter. Separate values for PM2.5 and PM10 were incorporated and mandatory reporting was required for metropolitan areas with populations of 350,000 or more. Similarly, the IQUA has undergone major developments that affect the validity of the index, including: rejection by the Working Group on Air Quality Objectives and Guidelines of the previous maximum desirable and maximum acceptable air quality criteria, recognition that standards for many of the contaminants are outdated, developing more sensitive instrumentation for real-time monitoring of contaminants. This report also describes the use of the national short term Air Quality Index by provincial, territorial and local authorities in Canada. Pollution Probe recommends setting up a mechanism to review and revise IQUA on a regular basis that would incorporate governments, the medical profession, special

  7. Air Leakage and Air Transfer Between Garage and Living Space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudd, Armin [Building Science Corporation, Westford, MA (United States)

    2014-09-01

    This research project focused on evaluation of air transfer between the garage and living space in a single-family detached home constructed by a production homebuilder in compliance with the 2009 International Residential Code and the 2009 International Energy Conservation Code. The project gathered important information about the performance of whole-building ventilation systems and garage ventilation systems as they relate to minimizing flow of contaminated air from garage to living space. A series of 25 multi-point fan pressurization tests and additional zone pressure diagnostic testing characterized the garage and house air leakage, the garage-to-house air leakage, and garage and house pressure relationships to each other and to outdoors using automated fan pressurization and pressure monitoring techniques. While the relative characteristics of this house may not represent the entire population of new construction configurations and air tightness levels (house and garage) throughout the country, the technical approach was conservative and should reasonably extend the usefulness of the results to a large spectrum of house configurations from this set of parametric tests in this one house. Based on the results of this testing, the two-step garage-to-house air leakage test protocol described above is recommended where whole-house exhaust ventilation is employed.

  8. Rooftop Unitary Air Conditioner with Integral Dedicated Outdoor Air System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiax Llc

    2006-02-28

    Energy use of rooftop and other unitary air-conditioners in commercial applications accounts for about 1 quad (10{sup 15} Btu) of primary energy use annually in the U.S. [Reference 7]. The realization that this cooling equipment accounts for the majority of commercial building cooled floorspace and the majority also of commercial building energy use has spurred development of improved-efficiency equipment as well as development of stricter standards addressing efficiency levels. Another key market driver affecting design of rooftop air-conditioning equipment has been concern regarding comfort and the control of humidity. Trends for increases in outdoor air ventilation rates in certain applications, and the increasing concern about indoor air quality problems associated with humidity levels and moisture in buildings points to a need for improved dehumidification capability in air-conditioning equipment of all types. In many cases addressing this issue exacerbates energy efficiency, and vice versa. The integrated dedicated outdoor air system configuration developed in this project addresses both energy and comfort/humidity issues.

  9. Air Conditioning Compressor Air Leak Detection by Image Processing Techniques for Industrial Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Pookongchai Kritsada; Nakornrat Prasit; Sookananta Bongkoj; Buasri Panhathai

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents method to detect air leakage of an air conditioning compressor using image processing techniques. Quality of air conditioning compressor should not have air leakage. To test an air conditioning compressor leak, air is pumped into a compressor and then submerged into the water tank. If air bubble occurs at surface of the air conditioning compressor, that leakage compressor must be returned for maintenance. In this work a new method to detect leakage and search leakage point...

  10. Historical Ambient Air Quality Data Inventory

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Historical Ambient Air Quality Data Inventory contains measured and estimated data on ambient air pollution for use in assessing air quality, assisting in...

  11. High Altitude Clear Air Turbulence Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Air Force Flight Dynamics Laboratory conducted the High Altitude Clear Air Turbulence Project in the mid 1960s with the intention of better understanding air...

  12. National Air Toxic Assessments (NATA) Results

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The National Air Toxics Assessment was conducted by EPA in 2002 to assess air toxics emissions in order to identify and prioritize air toxics, emission source types...

  13. Clean Air Status and Trends Network (CASTNET)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Clean Air Status and Trends Network (CASTNET) is a national air quality monitoring network designed to provide data to assess trends in air quality, atmospheric...

  14. Profit goal set for airBaltic

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2011-01-01

    Latvijas Krajbanka president arvab, et airBalticu olukorra stabiliseerimiseks läheb vähemalt aasta. AirBalticu senine juht Bertolt Flick võib hakata uue Vilniuse lennukompanii investoriks. AirBalticu uuest juhatusest

  15. Manual on indoor air quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diamond, R.C.; Grimsrud, D.T.

    1983-12-01

    This reference manual was prepared to assist electric utilities in helping homeowners, builders, and new home buyers to understand a broad range of issues related to indoor air quality. The manual is directed to technically knowledgeable persons employed by utility companies - the customer service or marketing representative, applications engineer, or technician - who may not have specific expertise in indoor air quality issues. In addition to providing monitoring and control techniques, the manual summarizes the link between pollutant concentrations, air exchange, and energy conservation and describes the characteristics and health effects of selected pollutants. Where technical information is too lengthy or complex for inclusion in this volume, reference sources are given. Information for this manual was gathered from technical studies, manufacturers' information, and other materials from professional societies, institutes, and associations. The aim has been to provide objective technical and descriptive information that can be used by utility personnel to make informed decisions about indoor air quality issues.

  16. 2011 NATA - Air Toxics Monitors

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset includes annual (2005 - 2013) statistics of measured ambient air toxics concentrations (in micrograms per cubic meter) and associated risk estimates...

  17. Reverse Ballistic Air Gun Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This custom-designed facility houses a suite of three air guns capable of generating accelerations up to 100,000 Gs and velocities up to 2,000 ft/s. In addition to...

  18. A Martian Air Battery Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This project will investigate an entirely new battery chemistry by developing A Martian Air Battery. Specifically the project will explore the concept of a Martian...

  19. Personal Air Vehicle Research Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The innovation is a low aspect ratio all-lifting configuration for personal air vehicles. This configuration uses an architecture fundamentally different from...

  20. US Air Force Balloon Observations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Worksheets containing pilot balloon data computed from releases at Air Force stations in the western United States. Elevation and azimuth angles are used to compute...

  1. Kongres IFLA v Buenos Aires

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Burgetová, Jarmila

    -, č. 4 (2004), s. 4-7. ISSN 1210-8502 Keywords : IFLA * International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions * Congress 2004 * Buenos Aires Subject RIV: AF - Documentation, Librarianship, Information Studies

  2. Indoor plants as air cleaners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dela Cruz, Majbrit; Christensen, Jan H.; Müller, Renate

    2015-01-01

    experiments is not directly transferrable to real life settings. The largest problem is the use of closed chambers where there is no air exchange. This also results in a declining VOC concentration over time. Due to this limitation, we constructed a new experimental system which among others can allow for air......Plants have been used decoratively indoors for centuries. For the last 25-30 years, their beneficial abilities to reduce the levels of harmful volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from the indoor air have also been investigated. Previous studies have shown that VOCs are removed by the plant itself...... exchange and a constant VOC concentration. With the new system it was found that removal rates obtained in chambers with air exchange and constant VOC concentration were significantly higher than removal rates obtained in closed chambers. This means that removal rates obtained in closed chambers may be an...

  3. In Brief: Air pollution app

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showstack, Randy

    2010-10-01

    A new smartphone application takes advantage of various technological capabilities and sensors to help users monitor air quality. Tapping into smartphone cameras, Global Positioning System (GPS) sensors, compasses, and accelerometers, computer scientists with the University of Southern California's (USC) Viterbi School of Engineering have developed a new application, provisionally entitled “Visibility.” Currently available for the Android telephone operating system, the application is available for free download at http://robotics.usc.edu/˜mobilesensing/Projects/AirVisibilityMonitoring. An iPhone application may be introduced soon. Smartphone users can take a picture of the sky and then compare it with models of sky luminance to estimate visibility. While conventional air pollution monitors are costly and thinly deployed in some areas, the smartphone application potentially could help fill in some blanks in existing air pollution maps, according to USC computer science professor Gaurav Sukhatme.

  4. Manual on indoor air quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This reference manual was prepared to assist electric utilities in helping homeowners, builders, and new home buyers to understand a broad range of issues related to indoor air quality. The manual is directed to technically knowledgeable persons employed by utility companies - the customer service or marketing representative, applications engineer, or technician - who may not have specific expertise in indoor air quality issues. In addition to providing monitoring and control techniques, the manual summarizes the link between pollutant concentrations, air exchange, and energy conservation and describes the characteristics and health effects of selected pollutants. Where technical information is too lengthy or complex for inclusion in this volume, reference sources are given. Information for this manual was gathered from technical studies, manufacturers' information, and other materials from professional societies, institutes, and associations. The aim has been to provide objective technical and descriptive information that can be used by utility personnel to make informed decisions about indoor air quality issues

  5. US Air Force Base Observations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Hourly observations taken by U.S. Air Force personnel at bases in the United States and around the world. Foreign observations concentrated in the Middle East and...

  6. Air pollution in the Slovak Republic, 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A report on air quality and contribution of individual sources on its pollution in the Slovak Republic in 2001 is presented. This report consists of two parts: (1) Ambient air and (2) Emission. Ambient air part is divided into the following chapters: Regional air pollution and quality of precipitation; Local air pollution; Atmospheric ozone. Emission part is divided into the following chapters: Emission and air pollution source inventory, Greenhouse gas emissions

  7. Senyawa Organik Dalam Air Minum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Soewasti Soesanto

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Kadar zat   organik   yang berlebihan dalam  air  minum  tidak diperbolehkan karena selain menimbulkan warna, bau dan  rasa yang tidak  diinginkan, juga mungkin bersifat toksik baik secara langsung maupun setelah bersenyawa dengan zat lain yang ada.Zat organik yang ada dalam air minum dapat berasal dari alam atau sebagai dampak dari kegiatan manusia.

  8. Molecular Epidemiology and Air Pollution

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rössner ml., Pavel; Binková, B.; Rössnerová, Andrea; Šrám, Radim

    Rieka: InTech, 2015 - (Nejadkoorki, F.), s. 609-643 ISBN 978-953-51-2180-0 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-13458S Institutional support: RVO:68378041 Keywords : molecular epidemiology * biomarkers * human populations * in vitro studies Subject RIV: DN - Health Impact of the Environment Quality http://www.intechopen.com/books/current-air-quality-issues/molecular-epidemiology-and-air- pollution

  9. The lithium air battery fundamentals

    CERN Document Server

    Imanishi, Nobuyuki; Bruce, Peter G

    2014-01-01

    Lithium air rechargeable batteries are the best candidate for a power source for electric vehicles, because of their high specific energy density. In this book, the history, scientific background, status and prospects of the lithium air system are introduced by specialists in the field. This book will contain the basics, current statuses, and prospects for new technologies. This book is ideal for those interested in electrochemistry, energy storage, and materials science.

  10. Air sea ratio reduction initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oberle, Jean

    2010-09-15

    Airfreight is the most expensive mode of transportation as well as the most impacting in terms of CO{sup 2} emissions. It is 7 times more expensive on average to ship by air than shipping by sea 1. Airfreight transportation mode emits 30 times more CO{sup 2} than sea freight mode 2. These elements provided a compelling platform to design a global logistics program to initiate a modal shift from air to sea freight without compromising service to customers.

  11. Small Break Air Ingress Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang Oh; Eung Soo Kim

    2011-09-01

    The small break air-ingress experiment, described in this report, is designed to investigate air-ingress phenomena postulated to occur in pipes in a very high temperature gas-cooled reactor (VHTRs). During this experiment, air-ingress rates were measured for various flow and break conditions through small holes drilled into a pipe of the experimental apparatus. The holes were drilled at right angles to the pipe wall such that a direction vector drawn from the pipe centerline to the center of each hole was at right angles with respect to the pipe centerline. Thus the orientation of each hole was obtained by measuring the included angle between the direction vector of each hole with respect to a reference line anchored on the pipe centerline and pointing in the direction of the gravitational force. Using this reference system, the influence of several important parameters on the air ingress flow rate were measured including break orientation, break size, and flow velocity . The approach used to study the influence of these parameters on air ingress is based on measuring the changes in oxygen concentrations at various locations in the helium flow circulation system as a function of time using oxygen sensors (or detectors) to estimate the air-ingress rates through the holes. The test-section is constructed of a stainless steel pipe which had small holes drilled at the desired locations.

  12. 75 FR 34673 - Approval of the Clean Air Act, Section 112(l), Authority for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Air...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-18

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 63 Approval of the Clean Air Act, Section 112(l), Authority for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Air Emission Standards for Halogenated Solvent Cleaning Machines: State of Rhode Island... Emissions from Organic Solvent Cleaning (``RI Regulation No. 36'') and Rhode Island Air Pollution...

  13. Unit for air decontamination; Unidad para descontaminacion de aire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mariano H, E

    1991-02-15

    To fulfill the applicable requirements of safety to the ventilation systems in nuclear facilities, it is necessary to make a cleaning of the air that hurtles to the atmosphere. For that which was designed and it manufactured an unit for decontamination of the air for the Pilot plant of production of Nuclear Fuel that this built one with national parts, uses Hepa national filters and the design can adapt for different dimensions of filters, also can be added a lodging for a prefilter or to adopt two Hepa filters. (Author)

  14. Megacities, air quality and climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baklanov, Alexander; Molina, Luisa T.; Gauss, Michael

    2016-02-01

    The rapid urbanization and growing number of megacities and urban complexes requires new types of research and services that make best use of science and available technology. With an increasing number of humans now living in urban sprawls, there are urgent needs of examining what the rising number of megacities means for air pollution, local climate and the effects these changes have on global climate. Such integrated studies and services should assist cities in facing hazards such as storm surge, flooding, heat waves, and air pollution episodes, especially in changing climates. While important advances have been made, new interdisciplinary research studies are needed to increase our understanding of the interactions between emissions, air quality, and regional and global climates. Studies need to address both basic and applied research and bridge the spatial and temporal scales connecting local emissions and air pollution and local weather, global atmospheric chemistry and climate. This paper reviews the current status of studies of the complex interactions between climate, air quality and megacities, and identifies the main gaps in our current knowledge as well as further research needs in this important field of research.

  15. Air Pollution and the skin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleni eDrakaki

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The increase of air pollution over the years has major effects on the human skin. The skin is exposed to ultraviolet radiation (UVR and environmental air pollutants such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs, volatile organic compounds (VOCs, oxides, particulate matter (PM, ozone (O3 and cigarette smoke. Although human skin acts as a biological shield against pro-oxidative chemical and physical air pollutants, the prolonged or repetitive exposure to high levels of these pollutants may have profound negative effects on the skin. Exposure of the skin to air pollutants has been associated with skin aging and inflammatory or allergic skin conditions such as atopic dermatitis, eczema, psoriasis or acne, while skin cancer is among the most serious effects. On the other hand, some air pollutants (ie, ozone, nitrogen dioxide, and sulfur dioxide and scattering particulates (clouds and soot in the troposphere reduce the effects of shorter wavelength UVR and significant reductions in UV irradiance have been observed in polluted urban areas.

  16. Air protection strategy in Poland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blaszczyk, B.

    1995-12-31

    Air quality is one of the basic factors determining the environmental quality and influencing the life conditions of people. There is a shortage of proper quality air in many regions of Poland. In consequence, and due to unhindered transport, air pollution is the direct cause of losses in the national economy (reduction of crops, losses in forestry, corrosion of buildings and constructions, worsening of people`s health). Poland is believed to be one of the most contaminated European countries. The reason for this, primarily, is the pollution concomitant with energy-generating fuel combustion; in our case it means the use of solid fuels: hard coal and lignite. This monocultural economy of energy generation is accompanied by low efficiency of energy use (high rates of energy loss from buildings, heat transmission pipelines, energy-consuming industrial processes). This inefficiency results in the unnecessary production of energy and pollution. Among other reasons, this results from the fact that in the past Poland did not sign any international agreements concerning the reduction of the emission of pollution. The activities aimes at air protection in Poland are conducted based on the Environmental Formation and Protection Act in effect since 1980 (with many further amendments) and the The Ecological Policy of the state (1991). The goals of the Polish air pollution reduction program for the period 1994-2000 are presented.

  17. Trading emissions improve air quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    While admitting sharply contrasting views exist, James M. Lents of the South Coast Air Quality Management District in southern California sees emissions trading open-quotes as a lifesaver for our troubled planet.close quotes He explains: open-quotes If political support for the environment is to be maintained, we must seek the most economical and flexible means of pursuing cleanup. At present, market incentives and emissions trading represent our best hope.close quotes Lents is putting his money where his pen is. The air quality management district he heads plans to use market incentives, including emissions trading, to reduce air pollution in the notoriously dirty southern California area. When the system goes into operation in 1994, he estimates it will save southern California businesses more than $400 million a year in compliance costs, while also making major improvements in the region's air quality. If the idea works there, why won't it work elsewhere, even on a global scale, Lents asks? He believes it will. But open-quotes the ultimate success of emissions-trading programs, whether regional, national, or international in scope, lies in the proof that they're actually achieving reductions in harmful emissions,close quotes he emphasizes. open-quotes These reductions must be real and verifiable to satisfy the Clean Air Act and a skeptical public.close quotes

  18. Air quality in Europe - 2012 report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-09-15

    This report presents an overview and analysis of the status and trends of air quality in Europe based on concentration measurements in ambient air and data on anthropogenic emissions and trends from 2001 - when mandatory monitoring of ambient air concentrations of selected pollutants first produced reliable air quality information - to 2010. (Author)

  19. 29 CFR 1926.803 - Compressed air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Compressed air. 1926.803 Section 1926.803 Labor Regulations... Compressed Air § 1926.803 Compressed air. (a) General provisions. (1) There shall be present, at all times... medical aspects of compressed air work and the treatment of decompression illness. He shall be...

  20. 14 CFR 25.1091 - Air induction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Air induction. 25.1091 Section 25.1091... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Induction System § 25.1091 Air induction. (a) The air induction system for each engine and auxiliary power unit must supply— (1) The air required by that...

  1. 14 CFR 27.1091 - Air induction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Air induction. 27.1091 Section 27.1091... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Induction System § 27.1091 Air induction. (a) The air induction system for each engine must supply the air required by that engine under the operating...

  2. 14 CFR 29.1091 - Air induction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Air induction. 29.1091 Section 29.1091... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Induction System § 29.1091 Air induction. (a) The air induction system for each engine and auxiliary power unit must supply the air required by that engine...

  3. 22 CFR 228.22 - Air transportation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... criteria for determining when U.S. flag air carriers are unavailable. See 48 CFR 47.403-1, or USAID... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Air transportation. 228.22 Section 228.22... for USAID Financing § 228.22 Air transportation. (a) The eligibility of air transportation...

  4. A method and device for cleaning air

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2009-01-01

    The present invention relates to a method and device for cleaning pollution from air wherin the air to be cleaned is subjected to a sequence of physical and chemical treatments.......The present invention relates to a method and device for cleaning pollution from air wherin the air to be cleaned is subjected to a sequence of physical and chemical treatments....

  5. 29 CFR 1917.154 - Compressed air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Compressed air. 1917.154 Section 1917.154 Labor Regulations...) MARINE TERMINALS Related Terminal Operations and Equipment § 1917.154 Compressed air. Employees shall be... this part during cleaning with compressed air. Compressed air used for cleaning shall not exceed...

  6. 19 CFR 122.165 - Air cabotage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Penalties § 122.165 Air cabotage. (a) The air cabotage law (49 U.S.C. 41703... provided for in 14 CFR 121.153, and those aircraft used exclusively in the service of any government. (b... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Air cabotage. 122.165 Section 122.165...

  7. Analisa Sistem Maintenance River Side Pump Di Pabrik Gula Kwala Madu

    OpenAIRE

    Keliat, Ebeneser

    2010-01-01

    Suatu pabrik Gula membutuhkan pompa yang banyak sekali untuk keperluan proses pengolahan. Kebutuhan pompa sangatlah penting dan mutlak mengingat pemindahan jenis fluida dan kondisi kerja yang sangat beragam. Dalam penulisan Karya Akhir ini penulis mengambil topik maintenance dari salah satu pompa sentrifugal yang ada di pabrik gula yaitu maintenance pompa air pinggir sungai (River Side water Pump).

  8. Sumatera Air Asia Training Center (Arsitektur Metafora)

    OpenAIRE

    Susanto, William

    2015-01-01

    Sumatera Air Asia Training Center as Air Asia training facility’s construction have a propose to train the Air Asia air craft crew who will be the employee of the Air Asia Airlines.Beside the main function;training facility for the Air Asia Crew; the other airline’s crew can be train by a cooperation with Air Asia.The aircraft crew that can be train in this facility is pilot initial, pilot type-rating, pilot recurrent, ATPL, Flight attendant initial and recurrent..This facility ha...

  9. Picosecond laser filamentation in air

    CERN Document Server

    Schmitt-Sody, Andreas; Bergé, L; Skupin, S; Polynkin, Pavel

    2016-01-01

    The propagation of intense picosecond laser pulses in air in the presence of strong nonlinear self-action effects and air ionization is investigated experimentally and numerically. The model used for numerical analysis is based on the nonlinear propagator for the optical field coupled with the rate equations for the production of various ionic species and plasma temperature. Our results show that the phenomenon of plasma-driven intensity clamping, which is paramount in femtosecond laser filamentation, holds for picosecond pulses. Furthermore, the temporal pulse distortions are limited and the pulse fluence is also clamped. The resulting unique feature of the picosecond filamentation regime is the production of a broad, fully ionized air channel, continuous both longitudinally and transversely, which may be instrumental for numerous applications.

  10. Metal-air electrochemical cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarbacher, R. I.; Fechter, H. R.

    1985-01-01

    An electrochemical cell for which fuel is prepared and introduced under artificial gravity forces. The active metal is deposited through the action of the field on an anode current collecting member, effecting good compaction and reduced cell internal impedance. A microprocessor provides control of the induced gravity, flow rates, temperature, and other variables-enabling the active metal to be controlled in its thickness as well as providing a predetermined separation from the cathode. Abrasion of the cathode and the possibility of shorting are avoided by the presence of outwardly directed radial forces. These forces are induced by rotation of the electrolyte, air cathode, anode collector and the active metal. The forces promote also the passage of moisture laden air through the air cathode elements. Reaction products produced within the cell volume are circulated to an outside container for separation and possible reuse.

  11. Air showers and geomagnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The influence of the geomagnetic field on the development of air showers is studied. The well known International Geomagnetic Reference Field was included in the AIRES air shower simulation program as an auxiliary tool to allow the calculation of very accurate estimations of the geomagnetic field given the geographic coordinates, altitude above sea level and date of a given event. Our simulations indicate that the geomagnetic deflections significantly alter some shower observables such as, for example, the lateral distribution of muons in the case of events with large zenith angles (larger than 75 deg.). On the other hand, such alterations seem to be unimportant for smaller zenith angles. Global observables such as the total number of particles or longitudinal development parameters do not present appreciable dependences on the geomagnetic deflections for all the cases that were studied. (author)

  12. Air pollution and allergic diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ring, J.

    1987-03-13

    In the discussion on possible adverse effects of air pollution upon human health one has to distinguish between out-door and in-door environment. The most frequent pollutants in out-door air over industrialized areas are particulate substances, sulfur dioxide, nitrous oxide, carbonmonoxide, ozone and lead. Most of these substances have direct irritating effects on mucous surfaces. Hypersensitivity reactions have been described against sulfur dioxide and sulfites occurring as asthma, urticaria or anaphylactoid reactions. In-door air pollution is of much greater practical importance for a variety of diseases. Apart from physio-chemical irritants and microbial organisms leading to infections, organic allergens (e.g. house dust mites, moulds, animal epithelia) can induce a variety of allergic diseases via different pathomechanisms.

  13. Distributed Air Traffic Control Simulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Radovanović

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available During initial training air traffic control students acquire theoretical knowledge in various fields including air traffic management, aircraft performance, air traffic control equipment and systems, navigation and others. This paper proposes a simulator and explains its use and features that allows students to gain a practical insight into their coursework in order to complement their training. The goal of the simulator is to realistically implement all the key functionalities needed to cover the topics that were presented in class. The simulator offers a user friendly, distributed, and multi-role environment that can be deployed on regular PCs. Moreover, this paper discusses and resolves some of the main conceptual and implementational issues that were faced during simulator development.

  14. Urban air quality in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book provides an overview of air quality in urban environments in Europe, focusing on air pollutant emission sources and formation mechanisms, measurement and modeling strategies, and future perspectives. The emission sources described are biomass burning, vehicular traffic, industry and agriculture, but also African dust and long-range transport of pollutants across the European regions. The impact of these emission sources and processes on atmospheric particulate matter, ozone, nitrogen oxides and volatile and semi-volatile organic compounds is discussed and critical areas for particulate matter and nitrogen dioxide in Europe are identified. Finally, this volume presents future perspectives, mainly regarding upcoming air quality monitoring strategies, metrics of interest, such as submicron and nanoparticles, and indoor and outdoor exposure scenarios.

  15. Chapter 22: Compressed Air Evaluation Protocol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benton, N.

    2014-11-01

    Compressed-air systems are used widely throughout industry for many operations, including pneumatic tools, packaging and automation equipment, conveyors, and other industrial process operations. Compressed-air systems are defined as a group of subsystems composed of air compressors, air treatment equipment, controls, piping, pneumatic tools, pneumatically powered machinery, and process applications using compressed air. A compressed-air system has three primary functional subsystems: supply, distribution, and demand. Air compressors are the primary energy consumers in a compressed-air system and are the primary focus of this protocol. The two compressed-air energy efficiency measures specifically addressed in this protocol are: high-efficiency/variable speed drive (VSD) compressor replacing modulating compressor; compressed-air leak survey and repairs. This protocol provides direction on how to reliably verify savings from these two measures using a consistent approach for each.

  16. Thermodynamic properties of sea air

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Feistel

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Very accurate thermodynamic potential functions are available for fluid water, ice, seawater and humid air covering wide ranges of temperature and pressure conditions. They permit the consistent computation of all equilibrium properties as, for example, required for coupled atmosphere-ocean models or the analysis of observational or experimental data. With the exception of humid air, these potential functions are already formulated as international standards released by the International Association for the Properties of Water and Steam (IAPWS, and have been adopted in 2009 for oceanography by IOC/UNESCO.

    In this paper, we derive a collection of formulas for important quantities expressed in terms of the thermodynamic potentials, valid for typical phase transitions and composite systems of humid air and water/ice/seawater. Particular attention is given to equilibria between seawater and humid air, referred to as "sea air" here. In a related initiative, these formulas will soon be implemented in a source-code library for easy practical use. The library is primarily aimed at oceanographic applications but will be relevant to air-sea interaction and meteorology as well.

    The formulas provided are valid for any consistent set of suitable thermodynamic potential functions. Here we adopt potential functions from previous publications in which they are constructed from theoretical laws and empirical data; they are briefly summarized in the appendix. The formulas make use of the full accuracy of these thermodynamic potentials, without additional approximations or empirical coefficients. They are expressed in the temperature scale ITS-90 and the 2008 Reference-Composition Salinity Scale.

  17. Air quality management planning (AQMP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sivertsen Bjarne

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In most urban areas of the world, particulate matter (PM levels pose severe problems, addressed in several policy areas (air quality, climate change, and human health. PM presents multiple challenges due to the multitude of its sources, spanning many sectors of economic activity as well as nature, and due to the complexity of atmospheric processes involved in its transport and secondary formation. For the authorities, the goal is to assure minimal impacts of atmospheric PM levels, in practice represented by compliance with existing regulations and standards. This may be achieved through an air quality management plan (AQMP. In Northern America and in parts of Europe, comprehensive research programs have guided development of AQMP over the last forty years. This cumulated experience can be utilized by others who face the same problems, but have yet to develop their own substantial research base. The main purpose of the AQMP development process is to establish an effective and sound basis for planning and management of air quality in a selected area. This type of planning will ensure that significant sources of impacts are identified and controlled in a most cost-effective manner. The choice of tools, methods and input information is often dictated by their availability, and should be evaluated against current best practices. Important elements of the AQMP are the identification of sources and development of a complete emission inventory, the development and operation of an air quality monitoring programme, and the development and application of atmospheric dispersion models. Major task is to collect the necessary input data. The development of the AQMP will take into account: - Air Quality Management System (AQMS requirements; - Operational and functional structure requirements; - Source identification through emission inventories; - Source reduction alternatives, which may be implemented; - Mechanisms for facilitating interdepartmental

  18. Hot air in Kyoto, cold air in The Hague

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Urs Steiner; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    2002-01-01

    , the EU must reconsider and acknowledge US claims for cheaper reduction options and the right to trade 'hot air.' This point is important. If the US does not participate, the increase in emissions will be much higher than the emission reduction following the EU supplementarity proposal. Udgivelsesdato...

  19. Hot air in Kyoto, cold air in The Hague

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steiner, Urs; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    2001-01-01

    -trading scheme, the EU must reconsider and acknowledge US claims for cheaper reduction options and the right to trade 'hot air.' This point is important. If the US does not participate, the increase in emissions will be much higher than the emission reduction following the EU supplementarity proposal....

  20. Pesticides in Air: New Challenges in Agricultural Air Quality Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    As agricultural and urban communities have become more intertwined, and the average size of agricultural production operations have increased substantially, issues of air quality have emerged as an area of increasing regulatory pressure for farmers in many countries. The science of measuring emissi...

  1. Geostatistical models for air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this paper is to present geostatistical models applied to the spatial characterisation of air pollution phenomena. A concise presentation of the geostatistical methodologies is illustrated with practical examples. The case study was conducted in an underground copper-mine located on the southern of Portugal, where a biomonitoring program using lichens has been implemented. Given the characteristics of lichens as indicators of air pollution it was possible to gather a great amount of data in space, which enabled the development and application of geostatistical methodologies. The advantages of using geostatistical models compared with deterministic models, as environmental control tools, are highlighted. (author)

  2. When water molecules meet air

    OpenAIRE

    Hsie, Cho-Shuen; Campen, R. Kramer; Verde, Ana Vila; Bolhuis, Peter; Nienhuys, Han-Kwang; Bonn, Mischa

    2012-01-01

    About 70% of our planet is covered in water. Most of that water exists as water in the bulk – the neighbors of water molecules are other water molecules – and only a small fraction of molecules are at the air-water interface. Despite the small relative abundance of interfacial water, it is of the utmost importance: it governs the chemistry involving the surface of oceans and seawater aerosols, or the small water droplets forming clouds. Reactions at the air-water interface are directly releva...

  3. Flow in air conditioned rooms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter V.

    1974-01-01

    Flow in air conditioned r ooms is examined by means of model experiments . The different gearnetries giving unsteady, steady three- dimensional and steady twodimensional flow are determined . Velacity profiles and temperature profiles are measured in some of the geometries. A numerical solution...... of the flow equations is demonstrated and the flow in air conditioned rooms in case of steady two dimensional flow is predi cted. Compari son with measured results is shown i n the case of small Archimedes numbers, and predictions are shown at high Archimedes numbers. A numerical prediction of f low and heat...

  4. Pigeons home faster through polluted air

    OpenAIRE

    Zhongqiu Li; Franck Courchamp; Blumstein, Daniel T.

    2016-01-01

    Air pollution, especially haze pollution, is creating health issues for both humans and other animals. However, remarkably little is known about how animals behaviourally respond to air pollution. We used multiple linear regression to analyse 415 pigeon races in the North China Plain, an area with considerable air pollution, and found that while the proportion of pigeons successfully homed was not influenced by air pollution, pigeons homed faster when the air was especially polluted. Our resu...

  5. Mexico City Air Quality Research Initiative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Mexico City Air Quality Research Initiative is one project that is examining the complex relationship between air pollution, economic growth, societal values, and air quality policies. This paper describes the programs that are being used to fulfill the three tasks of the project: air pollution modeling and simulation, air pollution monitoring, and strategic evaluation. The two lead institutions for this project are the Mexican Petroleum Institute and Los Alamos National Laboratory

  6. Considering Air Density in Wind Power Production

    OpenAIRE

    Farkas, Zénó

    2011-01-01

    In the wind power production calculations the air density is usually considered as constant in time. Using the CIPM-2007 equation for the density of moist air as a function of air temperature, air pressure and relative humidity, we show that it is worth taking the variation of the air density into account, because higher accuracy can be obtained in the calculation of the power production for little effort.

  7. Air permeability of polyester nonwoven fabrics

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu Guocheng; Kremenakova Dana; Wang Yan; Militky Jiri

    2015-01-01

    Air permeability is one of the most important properties of non-woven fabrics in many applications. This paper aims to investigate the effects of thickness, porosity and density on the air permeability of needle-punched non-woven fabrics and compare the experimental values with two models which are based on hydraulic radius theory and drag theory, respectively. The air permeability of the samples was measured by an air permeability tester FX3300. The results showed that the air permeability o...

  8. Impact of individually controlled facially applied air movement on perceived air quality at high humidity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skwarczynski, Mariusz; Melikov, Arsen Krikor; Kaczmarczyk, J.;

    2010-01-01

    The effect of facially applied air movement on perceived air quality (PAQ) at high humidity was studied. Thirty subjects (21 males and 9 females) participated in three, 3-h experiments performed in a climate chamber. The experimental conditions covered three combinations of relative humidity and...... local air velocity under a constant air temperature of 26 degrees C, namely: 70% relative humidity without air movement, 30% relative humidity without air movement and 70% relative humidity with air movement under isothermal conditions. Personalized ventilation was used to supply room air from the front...... room air temperature of 26 degrees C and relative humidity of 70%....

  9. PERANCANGAN pH METER PADA BOILER HRSG BERBASIS ARDUINO

    OpenAIRE

    Yuliza .; Gatot Susanto

    2015-01-01

    Air merupakan zat yang sangat dibutuhkan pada setiap sektor industri, termasuk pemanfaatan untuk kebutuhan energi dan pemanasan. Kebutuhan energi dan pemanasan di industri umumnya dipenuhi dengan cara memanfaatkan steam yang dibangkitkan dalam suatu ketel (boiler). Air yang digunakan sebagai umpan boiler dapat diperoleh dari berbagai sumber yaitu danau, sungai, laut, maupun sumur. Kandungan  air ini sangat mempengaruhi Harga pH pada air umpan boiler, penting untuk diperhatikan untuk mencegah ...

  10. Review of Air Exchange Rate Models for Air Pollution Exposure Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    A critical aspect of air pollution exposure assessments is estimation of the air exchange rate (AER) for various buildings, where people spend their time. The AER, which is rate the exchange of indoor air with outdoor air, is an important determinant for entry of outdoor air pol...

  11. 49 CFR 570.57 - Air brake system and air-over-hydraulic brake subsystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Air brake system and air-over-hydraulic brake... STANDARDS Vehicles With GVWR of More Than 10,000 Pounds § 570.57 Air brake system and air-over-hydraulic brake subsystem. The following requirements apply to vehicles with air brake and...

  12. 21 CFR 211.46 - Ventilation, air filtration, air heating and cooling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ventilation, air filtration, air heating and... Buildings and Facilities § 211.46 Ventilation, air filtration, air heating and cooling. (a) Adequate... holding of a drug product. (c) Air filtration systems, including prefilters and particulate matter...

  13. Heat Recovery Ventilation for Housing: Air-to-Air Heat Exchangers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbett, Robert J.; Miller, Barbara

    The air-to-air heat exchanger (a fan powered ventilation device that recovers heat from stale outgoing air) is explained in this six-part publication. Topic areas addressed are: (1) the nature of air-to-air heat exchangers and how they work; (2) choosing and sizing the system; (3) installation, control, and maintenance of the system; (4) heat…

  14. Isothermal air ingress validation experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Idaho National Laboratory carried out air ingress experiments as part of validating computational fluid dynamics (CFD) calculations. An isothermal test loop was designed and set to understand the stratified-flow phenomenon, which is important as the initial air flow into the lower plenum of the very high temperature gas cooled reactor (VHTR) when a large break loss-of-coolant accident occurs. The unique flow characteristics were focused on the VHTR air-ingress accident, in particular, the flow visualization of the stratified flow in the inlet pipe to the vessel lower plenum of the General Atomic's Gas Turbine-Modular Helium Reactor (GT-MHR). Brine and sucrose were used as heavy fluids, and water was used to represent a light fluid, which mimics a counter current flow due to the density difference between the stimulant fluids. The density ratios were changed between 0.87 and 0.98. This experiment clearly showed that a stratified flow between simulant fluids was established even for very small density differences. The CFD calculations were compared with experimental data. A grid sensitivity study on CFD models was also performed using the Richardson extrapolation and the grid convergence index method for the numerical accuracy of CFD calculations . As a result, the calculated current speed showed very good agreement with the experimental data, indicating that the current CFD methods are suitable for predicting density gradient stratified flow phenomena in the air-ingress accident. (author)

  15. Pariisi-kiri / Aire Allikmets

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Allikmets, Aire

    1997-01-01

    Fanny de Siversile pühendatud vastuvõtust College de France'i Sinises Salongis 27. märtsil 1997 ja temale pühendatud koguteosest 'Contacts de langues et de cultures dans l'aire Baltique' (koost. M. M. Jocelyne Fernendez ja Raimo Raag)

  16. Providing cleaner air to Canadians

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This booklet is designed to explain salient aspects of the Ozone Annex, negotiated and signed recently by Canada and the United States, in a joint effort to improve air quality in North America. By significantly reducing the transboundary flows of air pollutants that cause smog, the Ozone Annex will benefit some 16 million people in central and eastern Canada and provide an example for a future round of negotiations to address concerns of the millions of Canadians and Americans who live in the border area between British Columbia and Washington State. The brochure provide summaries of the Canadian and American commitments, focusing on transportation, monitoring and reporting. The Ozone Annex complements other air quality initiatives by the Government of Canada enacted under the Environmental Protection Act, 1999. These measures include regulations to reduce sulphur content to 30 parts per million by Jan 1, 2005; proposing to restrict toxic particulate matter (PM) to less than 10 microns; establishing daily smog forecasts in the Maritimes and committing to a national program built upon existing smog advisories and forecasts in Quebec, Ontario and British Columbia; and investing in more clean air research through the newly created Canadian Foundation for Climate and Atmospheric Sciences

  17. Air Transport : Challenges to Growth

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2009-01-01

    The air transport market in Sub-Saharan Africa presents a strong dichotomy. In Southern and East Africa the market is growing: three strong hubs and three major African carriers dominate international and domestic markets, which are becoming increasingly concentrated. In contrast, in Central and West Africa the sector is stagnating, with the vacuum created by the collapse of Cote d'Ivoire ...

  18. Air ionization wire plane chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation Measurement for protection level instrumentation requires large number of detectors. Since the number is large, the detector should be cost effective and yet should have good sensitivity. Gas detectors with presently available microelectronics and signal processing capabilities opened a new era in radiation monitoring. Present paper describes the use of air filled multi anode grid planes as detector for alpha detection. Due to multiple anode wire planes, the charge collection efficiency of the air ionization chamber is higher as compared to conventional ionization chamber. The signal from this Wire Plane Chamber (WPC) has a faster and narrower pulse shape as compared to conventional two-electrode chamber of similar dimensions. The reduction in capacitance also improves the signal to noise ratio so that air can be used as the ionization medium without any special cleaning procedure etc and it may be possible to use even engineering plastic as the structural material for the chamber. The paper gives the results obtained so far with this air ionization chamber. (author)

  19. The Buenos Aires water concession

    OpenAIRE

    Alcázar, Lorena; Manuel A. Abdala; Shirley, Mary M.

    2000-01-01

    The signing of a concession contract for the Buenos Aires water and sanitation system in December 1992, attracted worldwide attention, and caused considerable controversy in Argentina. It was one of the worlds largest concessions, but the case was also interesting for other reasons. The concession was implemented rapidly, in contrast with slow implementation of privatization in Santiago, for ...

  20. Air-Breathing Rocket Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    This photograph depicts an air-breathing rocket engine prototype in the test bay at the General Applied Science Lab facility in Ronkonkoma, New York. Air-breathing engines, known as rocket based, combined-cycle engines, get their initial take-off power from specially designed rockets, called air-augmented rockets, that boost performance about 15 percent over conventional rockets. When the vehicle's velocity reaches twice the speed of sound, the rockets are turned off and the engine relies totally on oxygen in the atmosphere to burn hydrogen fuel, as opposed to a rocket that must carry its own oxygen, thus reducing weight and flight costs. Once the vehicle has accelerated to about 10 times the speed of sound, the engine converts to a conventional rocket-powered system to propel the craft into orbit or sustain it to suborbital flight speed. NASA's Advanced Space Transportation Program at Marshall Space Flight Center, along with several industry partners and collegiate forces, is developing this technology to make space transportation affordable for everyone from business travelers to tourists. The goal is to reduce launch costs from today's price tag of $10,000 per pound to only hundreds of dollars per pound. NASA's series of hypersonic flight demonstrators currently include three air-breathing vehicles: the X-43A, X-43B and X-43C.

  1. Air corona discharge chemical kinetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have theoretically studied the initial chemical processing steps which occur in pulseless, negative, dc corona discharges in flowing air. A rate equation model is used because these discharges consist of a very small ionization zone near the pin with most of the pin-plane gap filled by a drift zone where both the electric field and the electron density are relatively uniform. The primary activated species are N2(A),O and O2(a1Δ). The predicted activated species density due to one discharge is 100 ppm per ms . mA cm2 assuming E/n=60 Td. In pure, dry air the final product due to these activated species is primarily O3. The NO /sub x/ production is about 0.5 ppm per mA. In moist air there is an additional production of about 1.5 ppm per mA of HO /sub x/ species. The predicted ozone formation reactions will be ''intercepted'' when impurities are present in the air. Impurities present at densities below about 0.1% will react primarily with the activated species rather than with electrons. Hence the predicted activated species density provides an estimate of the potential chemical processing performance of the discharge

  2. A Breath of Fresh Air

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Have you ever driven by a sewage-treatment plant and noticed a rotten-eggstink? Air-quality requirements force these plants touse devices called chemical scrubbers to eliminate malodorous hydrogen sulfide from the gases createdby bacteria in sewageslurry. The process works,but it's expensive and depends on filtering gasthrough toxic chemicalssuch as lye and bleach.

  3. ISOTHERMAL AIR INGRESS VALIDATION EXPERIMENTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang H Oh; Eung S Kim

    2011-09-01

    Idaho National Laboratory carried out air ingress experiments as part of validating computational fluid dynamics (CFD) calculations. An isothermal test loop was designed and set to understand the stratified-flow phenomenon, which is important as the initial air flow into the lower plenum of the very high temperature gas cooled reactor (VHTR) when a large break loss-of-coolant accident occurs. The unique flow characteristics were focused on the VHTR air-ingress accident, in particular, the flow visualization of the stratified flow in the inlet pipe to the vessel lower plenum of the General Atomic’s Gas Turbine-Modular Helium Reactor (GT-MHR). Brine and sucrose were used as heavy fluids, and water was used to represent a light fluid, which mimics a counter current flow due to the density difference between the stimulant fluids. The density ratios were changed between 0.87 and 0.98. This experiment clearly showed that a stratified flow between simulant fluids was established even for very small density differences. The CFD calculations were compared with experimental data. A grid sensitivity study on CFD models was also performed using the Richardson extrapolation and the grid convergence index method for the numerical accuracy of CFD calculations . As a result, the calculated current speed showed very good agreement with the experimental data, indicating that the current CFD methods are suitable for predicting density gradient stratified flow phenomena in the air-ingress accident.

  4. Ballistics examination of air rifle

    OpenAIRE

    Grzegorz Bogiel

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to determine the velocity, energy, maximum range and distance at which pellets fired from an air rifle of kinetic energy below 17 J can pose a threat to unprotected human skin. Doppler radar equipment and exterior ballistics software were used in this examination.

  5. Air lifted and propelled vehicle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, T.E.; Johnson, R.A.

    1987-02-17

    This patent describes a vehicle which rides on air cushion and which is propelled by air, comprising: upper deck means, having a bottom edge which defines the periphery of an area; a thin, flexible sheet located below the upper deck means, extending beneath the bottom edge and secured beneath the bottom edge for defining a plenum that is defined by and closed off by the upper deck means and the sheet. The deck means is shaped within the area defined by its bottom edge for causing the plenum to always be an open space and the upper deck means is rigid enough to maintain that open condition of the plenum; the sheet being secured in a manner permitting the sheet to pillow when air is pressurized in the plenum; and the sheet being perforated below the upper deck means for permitting exit of air from the plenum at a controllable rate through the perforations; the sheet having a large plurality of the perforations dispersed over most of its area below the upper deck means; each of the perforations being a hole.

  6. Electricity competition and clean air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The government of Ontario plans to establish a competitive market for the generation and sale of electricity by the year 2000, at which time Ontario Hydro will lose its monopoly. The government's rationale for moving to a competitive electricity market and the details of why this move could lead to a significant increase in air pollution was discussed. An overview of the health and environmental effects of electricity related air pollution was presented and the current national and provincial air quality objectives were outlined. The government of Ontario has promised that in implementing a competitive electricity market it will ensure that the province's environmental protection record is maintained and improved. It was suggested that in order to fulfill this commitment, new environmental regulations should be established to ensure that Ontario's total electricity-related emissions will decline when competition begins. Currently, air pollution from coal-fired power generating stations causes some of Ontario's most challenging health and environmental problems. Coal-fired generation stations are also major contributors to the build-up of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. 74 refs., 2 tabs., 2 figs

  7. INDOOR AIR CONCENTRATION UNIT CONVERSIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migration of volatile chemicals from the subsurface into overlying buildings is called vapor intrusion (VI). Volatile organic chemicals in contaminated soils or groundwater can emit vapors, which can migrate through subsurface soils and may enter the indoor air of overlying buil...

  8. Cean air and clear responsibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper is the text of the address given by Commissioner Kenneth C. rogers, USNRC, at the 23rd DOE/NRC Nuclear Air Cleaning Conference. Mr. Rogers reviews the regulatory approach to the subject, discussing the requirements of 10CFR20 and ALARA principles. A discussion of the talk follows the text

  9. SOURCE CHARACTERIZATION OF AIR FRESHENERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The paper discusses research in which five air fresheners of two styles were analyzed for their constituent volatile organic compounds. Both styles were refills to be inserted into heated electric plug-in units; one refill released the fragrance from a gel pack insert and the oth...

  10. Ballistics examination of air rifle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzegorz Bogiel

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to determine the velocity, energy, maximum range and distance at which pellets fired from an air rifle of kinetic energy below 17 J can pose a threat to unprotected human skin. Doppler radar equipment and exterior ballistics software were used in this examination.

  11. Performance evaluation of an air-to-air heat pump coupled with temperate air-sources integrated into a dwelling

    OpenAIRE

    Filliard, Bruno; Guiavarch, Alain; Peuportier, Bruno

    2009-01-01

    An inverter-driven air-to-air heat pump model has been developped and implemented in the thermal simulation tool COMFIE, in order to compare the seasonal performance of a variable capacity air-to-air heat pump coupled with temperate air sources (crawlspace, attic, sunspace, heat recovery ventilation, earth-to-air heat exchanger) with the performance of a conventionally installed heat pump. The empirical model of the heat pump is presented in this paper, including full-load and part-load model...

  12. Indoor air problems in Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Respiratory disease and mortality due to indoor air pollution are amongst the greatest environmental threats to health in the developing countries of Asia. World-wide, acute respiratory infection is the cause of death of at least 5 million children under the age of 5 every year. The World Bank has claimed that smoke from biomass fuels resulted in an estimated 4 million deaths annually amongst infants and children. Most of these deaths occur in developing countries. Combustion in its various forms must head the list of pollution sources in Asia. Combustion of various fuels for domestic heating, lighting and cooking comprises the major source of internally generated pollutants and combustion in industrial plants, power generation and transportation is the major cause of externally generated pollutants. The products of pyrolysis and combustion include many compounds with well-known adverse health effects. These include gases such as CO, CO2, NOx and SO2, volatile organic compounds such as polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons and nitroamines as well as respirable particulates of variable composition. The nature and magnitude of the health risks posed by these materials vary with season, climate, location housing, method of ventilation, culture and socio-economic status. The most important cause of lung cancer in non-smokers in Northern Asia is the domestic combustion of smoky coal. Acute carbon monoxide poisoning is common in many Asian countries. Roads traffic exhaust pollution is worse in the major cities of South East Asia than almost anywhere else in the world and this externally generated air pollution forms the indoor air for the urban poor. Despite all these major problems there has been a tendency for international agencies to focus attention and resources on the more trivial problems of indoor air encountered in the affluent countries of the West. Regulatory agencies in Asia have been too frequently persuaded that their problems of indoor air pollution are

  13. Comparison between Different Air Distribution Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter V.

    The aim of an air conditioning system is to remove excess heat in a room and replace room air with fresh air to obtain a high air quality. It is not sufficient to remove heat and contaminated air, it is also necessary to distribute and control the air movement in the room to create thermal comfort...... in the occupied zone. Most air distribution systems are based on mixing ventilation with ceiling or wall-mounted diffusers or on displacement ventilation with wall-mounted low velocity diffusers. New principles for room air distribution were introduced during the last decades, as the textile...... terminals mounted in the ceiling and radial diffusers with swirling flow also mounted in the ceiling. This paper addresses five air distribution systems in all, namely mixing ventilation from a wallmounted terminal, mixing ventilation from a ceiling-mounted diffuser, mixing ventilation from a ceiling...

  14. Air void structure and frost resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasholt, Marianne Tange

    2014-01-01

    This article compiles results from 4 independent laboratory studies. In each study, the same type of concrete is tested at least 10 times, the air void structure being the only variable. For each concrete mix both air void analysis of the hardened concrete and a salt frost scaling test are...... conducted. Results were not originally presented in a way, which made comparison possible. Here the amount of scaled material is depicted as function of air voids parameters: total air content, specific surface, spacing factor, and total surface area of air voids. The total surface area of air voids is...... proportional to the product of total air content and specific surface. In all 4 cases, the conclusion is concurrent that the parameter of total surface area of air voids performs equally well or better than the spacing factor when linking air void characteristics to frost resistance (salt frost scaling). This...

  15. Antibubbles and fine cylindrical sheets of air

    KAUST Repository

    Beilharz, D.

    2015-08-14

    Drops impacting at low velocities onto a pool surface can stretch out thin hemispherical sheets of air between the drop and the pool. These air sheets can remain intact until they reach submicron thicknesses, at which point they rupture to form a myriad of microbubbles. By impacting a higher-viscosity drop onto a lower-viscosity pool, we have explored new geometries of such air films. In this way we are able to maintain stable air layers which can wrap around the entire drop to form repeatable antibubbles, i.e. spherical air layers bounded by inner and outer liquid masses. Furthermore, for the most viscous drops they enter the pool trailing a viscous thread reaching all the way to the pinch-off nozzle. The air sheet can also wrap around this thread and remain stable over an extended period of time to form a cylindrical air sheet. We study the parameter regime where these structures appear and their subsequent breakup. The stability of these thin cylindrical air sheets is inconsistent with inviscid stability theory, suggesting stabilization by lubrication forces within the submicron air layer. We use interferometry to measure the air-layer thickness versus depth along the cylindrical air sheet and around the drop. The air film is thickest above the equator of the drop, but thinner below the drop and up along the air cylinder. Based on microbubble volumes, the thickness of the cylindrical air layer becomes less than 100 nm before it ruptures.

  16. Aerometric Information Retrieval System/AIRS Facility Subsystem (AIRS/AFS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Aerometric Information Retrieval System/AIRS Facility Subsystem (AIRS/AFS) is a database that provides information on air releases from various stationary...

  17. Experimental Analysis on Solar Desiccant Air Conditioner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. U. V. Kongre, C. M. Singh, A. B. Biswas

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The experiment investigated and evaluated the feasibility of an solar desiccant air conditioner. Its effectiveness as a possible air conditioner option used in household air conditioner or as an energy efficient and environmentally friendly alternative to conventional air conditioning units used in houses are evaluated. A solar water heater was used as heat gain. The model utilizes the technology of solar air conditioner system. The purpose in the long term would be reduced the consumption of electricity used for air conditioning, reduce harmful emission and hence saving money.

  18. Study of low density air transportation concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, H. M.

    1972-01-01

    Low density air transport refers to air service to sparsely populated regions. There are two major objectives. The first is to examine those characteristics of sparsely populated areas which pertain to air transportation. This involves determination of geographical, commercial and population trends, as well as those traveler characteristics which affect the viability of air transport in the region. The second objective is to analyze the technical, economic and operational characteristics of low density air service. Two representative, but diverse arenas, West Virginia and Arizona, were selected for analysis: The results indicate that Arizona can support air service under certain assumptions whereas West Virginia cannot.

  19. AIR for Javascript Developers Pocket Guide

    CERN Document Server

    Chambers, Mike; Hoyt, Kevin; Georgita, Dragos

    2009-01-01

    This book is the official guide to Adobe ® AIR[TM], written by members of the AIR team. With Adobe AIR, web developers can use technologies like HTML and JavaScript to build and deploy web applications to the desktop. Packed with examples, this book explains how AIR works and features recipes for performing common runtime tasks. Part of the Adobe Developer Library, this concise pocket guide explains: What Adobe AIR is, and the problems this runtime aims to solveHow to set up your development environmentThe HTML and JavaScript environments within AIRHow to create your first AIR application

  20. Ventilation influence upon indoor air radon level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levels of indoor radon in air are studied by a continuous electrostatic radon monitor under normal living conditions to evaluate the influence of air conditioned ventilation on indoor air radon level. Results show that the indoor air radon concentrations are not much more than those without household conditioner living condition, although using household conditioner requires a sealed room which should lead to a higher radon level. Turning on air conditioner helps lower indoor radon level. Therefore, the total indoor air Rn levels are normal > ventilation > exhaust or in-draft > exhaust plus in-draft

  1. VENTILATION INFLUENCE UPON INDOOR AIR RADON LEVEL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田德源

    1995-01-01

    Levels of indoor radon in air are studied by a continuous electrostatic radon monitor under normal living conditions to evaluate the influence of air conditioned ventilation on indoor air radon level.Results show that the indoor air radon concentrations are not much more than those without household conditioner living condition.although using household conditioner requires a sealed room which should lead to a higher radon level.Turning on air conditioner helps lower indoor radon level.Therefore.the total indoor air Rn levels are normal>ventilation>exhaust or indraft> exhaust plus indraft.

  2. Air-Shower Spectroscopy at horizons

    OpenAIRE

    Fargion, D.

    2005-01-01

    Horizontal and Upward air-showers are suppressed by deep atmosphere opacity and by the Earth shadows. In such noise-free horizontal and upward directions rare Ultra High Cosmic rays and rarer neutrino induced air-showers may shine, mostly mediated by resonant PeVs interactions in air or by higher energy Tau Air-showers originated by neutrino tau skimming the Earth. At high altitude (mountains, planes, balloons) the air density is so rarefied that nearly all common air-showers might be observe...

  3. Analisa Kadar Klorida Pada Air Minum Dan Air Sumur Dengan Metode Argentometri

    OpenAIRE

    Sianturi, Novita Sani

    2015-01-01

    Air merupakan zat yang paling penting dalam kehidupan setelah udara. Sekitar tiga perempat bagian dari tubuh kita terdiri dari air dan tidak seseorang pun yang dapat bertahan hidup lebih dari 4-5 hari tanpa minum air. Air Sumur merupakan sumber utama persedian air bersih bagi penduduk yang tinggal didaerah perdesaan maupun diperkotaan Indonesia. Kadar klorida yang tinggi, misalnya pada air laut, yang diikuti oleh kadar kalsium dan magnesium yang juga kadarnya tinggi dapat meningkatkan sifat...

  4. Significance of air humidity and air velocity for fungal spore release into the air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasanen, A.-L.; Pasanen, P.; Jantunen, M. J.; Kalliokoski, P.

    Our previous field studies have shown that the presence of molds in buildings does not necessarily mean elevated airborne spore counts. Therefore, we investigated the release of fungal spores from cultures of Aspergillus fumigatus, Penicillium sp. and Cladosporium sp. at different air velocities and air humidities. Spores of A. fumigatus and Penicillium sp. were released from conidiophores already at air velocity of 0.5 ms -1, whereas Cladosporium spores required at least a velocity of 1.0 ms -1. Airborne spore counts of A. fumigatus and Penicillium sp. were usually higher in dry than moist air, being minimal at relative humidities (r.h.) above 70%, while the effect of r.h. on the release of Cladosporium sp. was ambivalent. The geometric mean diameter of released spores increased when the r.h. exceeded a certain level which depends on fungal genus. Thus, spores of all three fungi were hygroscopic but the hygroscopicity of various spores appeared at different r.h.-ranges. This study indicates that spore release is controlled by external factors and depends on fungal genus which can be one reason for considerable variation of airborne spore counts in buildings with mold problems.

  5. AIR POLLUTION OF URBAN AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MAKAROVA V. N.

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Raising of problem. Any manufacturing processes related to the generation of waste. Year after year, a growing mass of waste is one of the main factors reducing the quality of the environment and destruction of natural landscapes. Industrial development inevitably enhances human impacts on the environment and disrupts the ecological balance [3]. Atmospher air is a vital element of the environment. The development of industry, the growth of cities, increasing the number of transport, active exploration of near-Earth space lead to a change in the gas composition of the atmosphere and disruption of its natural balance. Air quality affects the health of the population [5]. Without water or food a person can do for a while, but without air he can not live a few minutes, therefore saving air breathable is an urgent problem. Purpose. The results of geological studies clearly indicate that the contamination of the surface layer of the atmosphere is the most powerful permanent factor of influence on the human food chain and the environment. This problem was reflected in the scientific literature [2; 3; 6], and the second significant indicator of ecological well-being of the region is the number of generation and accumulation of waste. According to this indicator, Dnipropetrovsk region is in the lead, as relates to the industrialized regions. The idea of the article is to consider the air pollution of the urban environment in terms of the accumulation of waste in the territory of enterprises, in particular slag dumps metallurgical production. Conclusion. Slag dumps located on the premises are a significant source of air pollution urbanized areas due to the permanent nature of the spread of contamination. Slag dump of PAT "Nikopol Ferroalloy Plant" is a source of manganese, zinc, nickel emissions. As a conclusion about the magnitude of pollution of the atmospheric boundary layer can say the following: on the border of the sanitary protection zone (SPZ, in

  6. 75 FR 18142 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Texas; Control of Air Pollution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-09

    ... Air Pollution From Motor Vehicles AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Proposed rule... Title 30 of the Texas Administrative Code (TAC), Chapter 114, Control of Air Pollution from...

  7. Air sampling in the workplace. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hickey, E.E.; Stoetzel, G.A.; Strom, D.J.; Cicotte, G.R. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Wiblin, C.M. [Advanced Systems Technology, Inc., Atlanta, GA (United States); McGuire, S.A. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States). Div. of Regulatory Applications

    1993-09-01

    This report provides technical information on air sampling that will be useful for facilities following the recommendations in the NRC`s Regulatory Guide 8.25, Revision 1, ``Air sampling in the Workplace.`` That guide addresses air sampling to meet the requirements in NRC`s regulations on radiation protection, 10 CFR Part 20. This report describes how to determine the need for air sampling based on the amount of material in process modified by the type of material, release potential, and confinement of the material. The purposes of air sampling and how the purposes affect the types of air sampling provided are discussed. The report discusses how to locate air samplers to accurately determine the concentrations of airborne radioactive materials that workers will be exposed to. The need for and the methods of performing airflow pattern studies to improve the accuracy of air sampling results are included. The report presents and gives examples of several techniques that can be used to evaluate whether the airborne concentrations of material are representative of the air inhaled by workers. Methods to adjust derived air concentrations for particle size are described. Methods to calibrate for volume of air sampled and estimate the uncertainty in the volume of air sampled are described. Statistical tests for determining minimum detectable concentrations are presented. How to perform an annual evaluation of the adequacy of the air sampling is also discussed.

  8. Air quality in Europe - 2011 report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerreiro, C.; Larssen, S. (Norsk Inst. for Luftforskning (NILU), Lillestroem (Norway)); Leeuw, F. de (RIVM, Bilthoven (Netherlands)); Foltescu, V. (EEA, Copenhagen (Denmark))

    2011-11-15

    The annual report 'Air quality in Europe' summarises the most recent evaluation of Europe's air quality status. It is mainly based on air quality measurement data that have been made available officially by 32 EEA member countries as well as 6 EEA cooperating countries. The report includes maps and analyses of air quality status over the calendar year 2009. It also analyses air quality trends over the past years. The evaluation of the status and trends of air quality is based on ambient air measurements, in conjunction with reported anthropogenic emissions. The report summarizes the main effects of different air pollutants on human health, the environment and the climate. An overview of policies and measures at European level is also given for each pollutant. This report reviews progress towards meeting the requirements of the two air quality directives in force as well as the air quality guidelines set by the World Health Organization (WHO). The report is produced in support of European and national policy development and implementation in the field of air quality. It also supports air quality management and informs the general public on the current status and trends of air quality in Europe. (Author)

  9. Wood energy and air quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This publication first recalls the main benefits of the use of wood, the first source of renewable energy in France: abundant and local resource, low CO2 emission, competitiveness, job creation. It comments the relationship between the use of this source of energy and the compliance with air quality standards as they are notably defined by European directives, as the use of wood as heating source is one of the recommended lever to improve air quality. The publication comments emissions generated by this type of heating (mainly in the housing sector, with some critical meteorological periods). Levers for actions are discussed: fleet renewal to promote the best performing equipment, practice improvements (fuel quality, apparatus maintenance). Actions undertaken by the ADEME are briefly reviewed: support to individual equipment fleet modernisation, support to R and D, support to the sector, and information and communication

  10. Solar air-conditioning. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-07-01

    Within the 3rd International Conference on solar air-conditioning in Palermo (Italy) at 30th September to 2nd October, 2009 the following lectures were held: (1) Removal of non-technological barriers to solar cooling technology across Southern European islands (Stefano Rugginenti); (2) The added economic and environmental value of solar thermal systems in microgrids with combined heat and power (Chris Marney); (3) Australian solar cooling interest group (Paul Kohlenbach); (4) Designing of a technology roadmap for solar assisted air conditioning in Austria (Hilbert Focke); (5) Solar cooling in the new context of renewable policies at European level (Raffaele Piria); (6) Prototype of a solar driven steam jet ejector chiller (Clemens Pollerberg); (7) New integrated solar air conditioning system (Joan Carlos Bruno); (8) Primary energy optimised operation of solar driven desiccant evaporative cooling systems through innovative control strategies; (9) Green chiller association (Uli Jakob); (10) Climate Well {sup registered} (Olof Hallstrom); (11) Low capacity absorption chillers for solar cooling applications (Gregor Weidner); (12) Solar cooling in residential, small scale commercial and industrial applications with adsorption technology (Walter Mittelbach); (13) French solar heating and cooling development programme based on energy performance (Daniel Mugnier); (14) Mirrox fresnel process heat collectors for industrial applications and solar cooling (Christian Zahler); (15) Modelling and analyzing solar cooling systems in polysun (Seyen Hossein Rezaei); (16) Solar cooling application in Valle Susa Italy (Sufia Jung); (17) Virtual case study on small solar cooling systems within the SolarCombi+Project (Bjoern Nienborg); (18) Design of solar cooling plants under uncertainty (Fernando Dominguez-Munoz); (19) Fast pre-design of systems using solar thermally driven chillers (Hans-Martin Henning); (20) Design of a high fraction solar heating and cooling plant in southern

  11. Senate passes clean air bill

    Science.gov (United States)

    In an 89 to 11 vote the Senate passed a clean air bill aimed at reducing pollution by the turn of the century by imposing tougher controls on American industry. The bill is the first revision of the Clean Air Act of 1970 in 13 years and calls for new limits on auto pollution to clean up smog in most U.S. cities, decreasing by half emissions by power plants that cause acid rain to protect the ecology, and increasing technological controls on factories to protect against cancer-causing and toxic substances. The bill will add about $20 billion per year to the estimated $33 billion cost of complying with current pollution laws.

  12. Determination of radionuclides in air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The air in certain work areas at the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant is monitored for selected radionuclides to assure safety FR-om toxic effects to personnel in the area. Some of the radionuclides that are determined are shown with their Radiation Protection Standard (RPS) values by means of a table. The RPS is the maximum average airborne contamination to which personnel may be exposed for one week without respiratory protection and is expressed as disintegrations per minute (dpm) per cubic meter (m/sup 3/) of air. It is desirable to make reliable measurements at a level which is 10% of the RPS to ensure that the detection limits are well below the RPS. Thorium, neptunium, plutonium, and uranium all have alpha emitting isotopes and it is their alpha activity which is measured. Results are tabulated

  13. Frontiers in air quality modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Colette

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The first pan-European kilometre-scale atmospheric chemistry simulation is introduced. The continental-scale air pollution episode of January 2009 is modelled with the CHIMERE offline chemistry-transport model with a massive grid of 2 million horizontal points, performed on 2000 CPU of a high performance computing system hosted by the Research and Technology Computing Center at the French Alternative Energies and Atomic Energy Commission (CCRT/CEA. Besides the technical challenge, we find that model biases are significantly reduced, especially over urban areas. The high resolution grid also allows revisiting the contribution of individual city plumes to the European burden of pollution, providing new insights for designing air pollution control strategies.

  14. Standards for air monitoring calibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The US Department of Energy and the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission initiated a joint program to test the applicability of a performance-type testing standard. Draft American National Standards Institute (ANSI) Standard N42.17a was, because of difficulty in application, divided into three parts: (a) portable instruments, (b) air monitors, and (c) extended range. This new testing program used the criteria listed in parts a, b, and c to determine whether they could be used as the basis of an instrument qualification testing program. The results of the test were then provided to the standards committee, and appropriate changes were made in the standard. The detailed results of this testing program will be documented in the future. The purpose of this presentation is to discuss the current draft of the air monitoring standard, general test procedures, results of some of the tests, and the means by which the testing program could be implemented in the United States

  15. Air-water centrifugal convection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrada, Miguel; Shtern, Vladimir

    2014-07-01

    A sealed cylindrical container is filled with air and water. The container rotation and the axial gradient of temperature induce the steady axisymmetric meridional circulation of both fluids due to the thermal buoyancy and surface-tension (Marangoni) effects. If the temperature gradient is small, the water circulation is one-cellular while the air circulation can be one- or two-cellular depending on water fraction Wf. The numerical simulations are performed for the cylinder length-to-radius ratio l = 1 and l = 4. The l = 4 results and the analytical solution for l → ∞ agree in the cylinder's middle part. As the temperature gradient increases, the water circulation becomes one-, two-, or three-cellular depending on Wf. The results are of fundamental interest and can be applied for bioreactors.

  16. Climate change and air pollution

    OpenAIRE

    D’Amato, Gennaro; Bergmann, Karl Christian; Cecchi, Lorenzo; Annesi-Maesano, Isabella; Sanduzzi, Alessandro; Liccardi, Gennaro; Vitale, Carolina; Stanziola, Anna; D’Amato, Maria

    2014-01-01

    Summary The observational evidence indicates that recent regional changes in climate, particularly temperature increases, have already affected a diverse set of physical and biological systems in many parts of the world. Allergens patterns are also changing in response to climate change and air pollution can modify the allergenic potential of pollen grains especially in the presence of specific weather conditions. Although genetic factors are important in the development of asthma and allergi...

  17. Air Radioactivity Monitoring in Serbia

    OpenAIRE

    Popovic, Dragana; Todorovic, Dragana; Jokic, Vesna Spasic; Djuric, Gordana

    2008-01-01

    It can be concluded that monitoring natural and anthropogenic radionuclides in ground level air provide important information on the content of radionuclides due to their origin, weather and climate conditions (rate of precipitation, washout effects, temperature differences and inverstion, wind direction and intensity, troposphere-to-stratosphere transport and exchange, etc). The local topology, as well as anthropogenic factors such as the effects of traffic and heating plants are highly impo...

  18. Air Pollution and Procyclical Mortality

    OpenAIRE

    Garth Heutel; Ruhm, Christopher J.

    2013-01-01

    Prior research demonstrates that mortality rates increase during economic booms and decrease during economic busts, but little analysis has been conducted investigating the role of environmental risks as potential mechanisms for this relationship. We investigate the contribution of air pollution to the procyclicality of deaths by combining state-level data on overall, cause-specific, and age-specific mortality rates with state-level measures of ambient concentrations of three types of polluta...

  19. A Blast of Cool Air

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    Unable to solve their engineering problem with a rotor in their Orbital Vane product, DynEco Corporation turned to Kennedy Space Center for help. KSC engineers determined that the compressor rotor was causing a large concentration of stress, which led to cracking and instant rotor failure. NASA redesigned the lubrication system, which allowed the company to move forward with its compressor that has no rubbing parts. The Orbital Vane is a refrigerant compressor suitable for mobile air conditioning and refrigeration.

  20. Fundamentals of air pollution engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Flagan, Richard C.; Seinfeld, John H.

    1988-01-01

    Analysis and abatement of air pollution involve a variety of technical disciplines. Formation of the most prevalent pollutants occurs during the combustion process, a tightly coupled system involving fluid flow, mass and energy transport, and chemical kinetics. Its complexity is exemplified by the fact that, in many respects, the simplest hydrocarbon combustion, the methane-oxygen flame, has been quantitatively modeled only within the last several years. Nonetheless, the development of combus...

  1. Nordic agriculture air and climate

    OpenAIRE

    Antman, Anne; Brubæk, Stein; Andersen, Bente Hessellund; Lindqvist, Kajsa; Markus-Johansson, Miriam; Sørensen, Jacob; Teerikangas, Jenny

    2015-01-01

    This report constitutes the main outputs of the project “Pathways to a Nordic food system that contributes to reduced emissions of greenhouse gases and air pollutants”. The overall goals are to present the baseline data regarding the Nordic agricultural sector, its greenhouse gas and ammonia emissions, the regulatory framework and support systems, and conflicts of interest. The report aims to describe pathways to a Nordic food system that contributes to achieving the climate target of below 2...

  2. Proton microbeam analysis in air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A technique has been developed to permit proton induced X-ray analysis (PIXA) to be carried out on biological materials in air, rather than in vacuum. Air convection can then dissipate some of the heat generated in the specimen by the proton beam. A microbeam system of magnetic quadrupoles developed for a 3MeV accelerator was used in the production of a proton beam focused to a spot of diameter less than 4μm. The beam then emerged into air through a 7.5μm kapton foil (a DuPont polyamide film, highly resistant to radiation damage) and in order to preserve positional resolution the specimens were mounted directly on the outside of the beam exit foil. The test specimen consisted of Chinese hamster lung cells washed in isotonic sucrose and plated onto the kapton. The beam was scanned in a line at comparatively high frequency (500 Hz) across the target and the X-rays emitted from the specimen detected in a 10 mm2 Si-Li detector with a resolution of 158 eV at 5.89 keV. P, S, Cl, K and Ca were found with differing positional distributions, together with Ar from the air and Si of unknown origin, by a scan across a single cell. Although the method has important intrinsic advantages, further investigations are required to show that the technique gives reasonable estimates of elemental distributions without too much perturbation of the concentration by the analytical procedure. (U.K.)

  3. Indoor air pollution and health

    OpenAIRE

    World Heath Organization (WHO)

    2005-01-01

    Metadata only record This is a fact sheet summarizing the indoor air pollution problem. The risk factors include health impacts such as respiratory infections and lung cancer. The fact sheet explains that women and children in developing nations are most vulnerable to the pollutants. It links Millennium Development Goals 1, 3, 4 and 7 (eradicate extreme poverty, empowering women, reducing child mortality, and ensure environmental sustainability) with the need for action. The fact sheet end...

  4. Clean Air Act. Revision 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-02-15

    This Reference Book contains a current copy of the Clean Air Act, as amended, and those regulations that implement the statute and appear to be most relevant to DOE activities. The document is provided to DOE and contractor staff for informational purposes only and should not be interpreted as legal guidance. This Reference Book has been completely revised and is current through February 15, 1994.

  5. Air leaks and vasopressin release.

    OpenAIRE

    McIntosh, N.; Prakash, P.; Smith, A.

    1990-01-01

    Eleven very low birthweight babies being ventilated for respiratory problems during the first week of life developed air leaks on 22 occasions. On 16 out of 19 occasions the infants showed increases in urinary excretion of vasopressin after these events and on 10 occasions out of 13 there was a rise in the plasma arginine vasopressin concentration. The peripheral signs of the syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone release were seen on only one occasion in response to the sometimes hig...

  6. Air pollution of urban areas

    OpenAIRE

    Makarova, V. N.

    2016-01-01

    Raising of problem. Any manufacturing processes related to the generation of waste. Year after year, a growing mass of waste is one of the main factors reducing the quality of the environment and destruction of natural landscapes. Industrial development inevitably enhances human impacts on the environment and disrupts the ecological balance [3]. Atmospher air is a vital element of the environment. The development of industry, the growth of cities, increasing the number of transport, active ex...

  7. Air travel and venous thromboembolism.

    OpenAIRE

    2002-01-01

    There has recently been increased publicity on the risk of venous thrombosis after long-haul flights. This paper reviews the evidence base related to the association between air travel and venous thromboembolism. The evidence consists only of case reports, clinical case-control studies and observational studies involving the use of intermediate end-points, or expert opinion. Some studies have suggested that there is no clear association, whereas others have indicated a strong relationship. On...

  8. Lung cancer and air pollution.

    OpenAIRE

    Cohen, A J; Pope, C A

    1995-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies over the last 40 years suggest rather consistently that general ambient air pollution, chiefly due to the incomplete combustion of fossil fuels, may be responsible for increased rates of lung cancer. This evidence derives from studies of lung cancer trends, studies of occupational groups, comparisons of urban and rural populations, and case-control and cohort studies using diverse exposure metrics. Recent prospective cohort studies observed 30 to 50% increases in lung ca...

  9. Technology Candidates for Air-to-Air and Air-to-Ground Data Exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haynes, Brian D.

    2015-01-01

    Technology Candidates for Air-to-Air and Air-to-Ground Data Exchange is a two-year research effort to visualize the U. S. aviation industry at a point 50 years in the future, and to define potential communication solutions to meet those future data exchange needs. The research team, led by XCELAR, was tasked with identifying future National Airspace System (NAS) scenarios, determining requirements and functions (including gaps), investigating technical and business issues for air, ground, & air-to-ground interactions, and reporting on the results. The project was conducted under technical direction from NASA and in collaboration with XCELAR's partner, National Institute of Aerospace, and NASA technical representatives. Parallel efforts were initiated to define the information exchange functional needs of the future NAS, and specific communication link technologies to potentially serve those needs. Those efforts converged with the mapping of each identified future NAS function to potential enabling communication solutions; those solutions were then compared with, and ranked relative to, each other on a technical basis in a structured analysis process. The technical solutions emerging from that process were then assessed from a business case perspective to determine their viability from a real-world adoption and deployment standpoint. The results of that analysis produced a proposed set of future solutions and most promising candidate technologies. Gap analyses were conducted at two points in the process, the first examining technical factors, and the second as part of the business case analysis. In each case, no gaps or unmet needs were identified in applying the solutions evaluated to the requirements identified. The future communication solutions identified in the research comprise both specific link technologies and two enabling technologies that apply to most or all specific links. As a result, the research resulted in a new analysis approach, viewing the

  10. The air permeability of gypsum insulating structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krikunenko, V.K.; Denisova, G.F.; Omelchenko, A.S.

    1980-01-01

    The air permeability of materials made from gypsum binders used to build insulation and blast-resistant crosspieces is studied, and it is established that the materials tested provided reliable insulation due to the low air permeability factor.

  11. Seneca Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES) Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2012-11-30

    This document provides specifications for the process air compressor for a compressed air storage project, requests a budgetary quote, and provides supporting information, including compressor data, site specific data, water analysis, and Seneca CAES value drivers.

  12. Ductless personalized ventilation with local air cleaning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalewski, Mariusz; Vesely, Michal; Melikov, Arsen Krikor

    2012-01-01

    An experiment with 28 human subjects was performed to examine effects of using a local air cleaning device combined with ductless personalized ventilation (DPV) on perceived air quality. Experiments were performed in a test room with displacement ventilation. The DPV at one of two desks was...... equipped with an activated carbon filter installed at the air intake, while the DPV at the second desk was without such a filter. The air temperature in the occupied zone (1.1 m above the floor) was 29 °C. The pollution load in the room was simulated by PVC floor covering. The subjects assessed...... acceptability of air quality, odour intensity and air freshness at both desks in random order. Lower odour intensity and higher air freshness was reported at the desk with DPV with the activated carbon filter. The results suggest that using local air cleaning devices integrated with DPV may improve perceived...

  13. Air quality strategy for Hong Kong

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alex, N.K.Y. [Air Policy Group, Wanchai (Hong Kong). Environmental Protection Dept.

    1995-12-31

    Hong Kong has experienced unimpeded economic growth for four decades but at the same time has suffered from growing air pollution. A new look at the air quality strategy is therefore required to bring about sustainable development. (author)

  14. Estonian Air sai lennukilisa / Gert D. Hankewitz

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hankewitz, Gert D.

    2007-01-01

    Lennukompanii Estonian Air liisib kolm uut lennukit. Kommenteerib Rein Loik. Vt. samas intervjuud SAS-i asepresidendi Per Jensen Mölleriga, kes eitab spekulatsioone, et SAS võiks airBalticu ja Estonian Airi liita

  15. CHATTANOOGA AIR TOXICS (CATS) MONITORING RISK ASSESSMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Chattanooga-Hamilton County Air Pollution Control Bureau (CHCAPCB), the United States Environmental Protection Agency Region 4 (Region 4), and other stakeholders, in a cooperative effort, conducted an air toxics study in the Chattanooga area (city population approximately 285...

  16. Clean Air Slots Amid Atmospheric Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobbs, Peter V.

    2002-01-01

    This article investigates the mechanism for those layers in the atmosphere that are free of air borne pollution even though the air above and below them carry pollutants. Atmospheric subsidence is posed as a mechanism for this phenomenon.

  17. Solid State Air Purification System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The purpose of this proposed research is to develop a new air purification system based on a liquid membrane, capable of purifying carbon dioxide from air in a far...

  18. Guide to Air Cleaners in the Home

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... precipitators use a process called electrostatic attraction to trap charged particles. They draw air through an ionization ... a fan. Top of Page Conclusion Indoor air pollution is among the top five environmental health risks. ...

  19. Model test of air-exchange efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klobut, K.

    1987-01-01

    The mixing-air flow pattern was studied. Three air flows were tested using the tracer gas technique and decay method. The indices of air exchange efficiency were calculated, namely: overall air-exchange efficiency and room-air mean age for the whole room; local ventilation indices and local mean ages of air at 10 points distributed throughout the room. Experiments were carried out in both isothermal and nonisothermal conditions. Based on the theory of similarity requirements, a reduced-scale model, geometrically similar to the laboratory test room, was built. Air flows and temperature differences were calculated for the model tests in order to make them comparable with the full scale, and the tests were repeated. The objective of the study was to determine the relation between the air-exchange efficiency indices obtained in the model and on the full scale.

  20. Mild Air Pollution of Concern in Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_158558.html Mild Air Pollution of Concern in Pregnancy Study found risk for ... Being exposed to just a small amount of air pollution during pregnancy ups the risk of a pregnancy ...

  1. Acute pulmonary embolism following air travel

    OpenAIRE

    Ledermann, J. A.; Keshavarzian, Ali

    1983-01-01

    Three cases of pulmonary embolism following long air flight are described. There was no previous history of venous disease. The symptoms were transient in one and severe in two. The occurrence of pulmonary embolism immediately after air travel is emphasized.

  2. Air Pollution and Heart Disease, Stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... High Blood Pressure Tools & Resources Stroke More Air Pollution and Heart Disease, Stroke Updated:Aug 30,2016 ... routine or in a less populated place, tiny pollution particles in the air can lead to big ...

  3. Long-range air transmission of bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovallius, A; Bucht, B; Roffey, R; Anäs, P

    1978-06-01

    Bacterial spores from a sandstorm area north of the Black Sea were transmitted to Sweden by air, giving increased concentrations of viable bacterial spores at two air sampling stations in Sweden. PMID:677884

  4. Impact of individually controlled facially applied air movement on perceived air quality at high humidity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skwarczynski, M.A. [Faculty of Environmental Engineering, Institute of Environmental Protection Engineering, Department of Indoor Environment Engineering, Lublin University of Technology, Lublin (Poland); International Centre for Indoor Environment and Energy, Department of Civil Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Copenhagen (Denmark); Melikov, A.K.; Lyubenova, V. [International Centre for Indoor Environment and Energy, Department of Civil Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Copenhagen (Denmark); Kaczmarczyk, J. [Faculty of Energy and Environmental Engineering, Department of Heating, Ventilation and Dust Removal Technology, Silesian University of Technology, Gliwice (Poland)

    2010-10-15

    The effect of facially applied air movement on perceived air quality (PAQ) at high humidity was studied. Thirty subjects (21 males and 9 females) participated in three, 3-h experiments performed in a climate chamber. The experimental conditions covered three combinations of relative humidity and local air velocity under a constant air temperature of 26 C, namely: 70% relative humidity without air movement, 30% relative humidity without air movement and 70% relative humidity with air movement under isothermal conditions. Personalized ventilation was used to supply room air from the front toward the upper part of the body (upper chest, head). The subjects could control the flow rate (velocity) of the supplied air in the vicinity of their bodies. The results indicate an airflow with elevated velocity applied to the face significantly improves the acceptability of the air quality at the room air temperature of 26 C and relative humidity of 70%. (author)

  5. Infectious Risks of Air Travel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangili, Alexandra; Vindenes, Tine; Gendreau, Mark

    2015-10-01

    Infectious diseases are still among the leading causes of death worldwide due to their persistence, emergence, and reemergence. As the recent Ebola virus disease and MERS-CoV outbreaks demonstrate, the modern epidemics and large-scale infectious outbreaks emerge and spread quickly. Air transportation is a major vehicle for the rapid spread and dissemination of communicable diseases, and there have been a number of reported outbreaks of serious airborne diseases aboard commercial flights including tuberculosis, severe acute respiratory syndrome, influenza, smallpox, and measles, to name a few. In 2014 alone, over 3.3 billion passengers (a number equivalent to 42% of the world population) and 50 million metric tons of cargo traveled by air from 41,000 airports and 50,000 routes worldwide, and significant growth is anticipated, with passenger numbers expected to reach 5.9 billion by 2030. Given the increasing numbers of travelers, the risk of infectious disease transmission during air travel is a significant concern, and this chapter focuses on the current knowledge about transmission of infectious diseases in the context of both transmissions within the aircraft passenger cabin and commercial aircraft serving as vehicles of worldwide infection spread. PMID:26542037

  6. Air crew monitoring in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cosmic radiation at high altitudes, especially high energetic neutrons, significantly increases exposure to man. Pilots and flight attendants may receive annual effective doses comparable to doses received in occupations, in which ionising radiation is used or radioactive sources are handled. For this reason, the European Council Directive 96/29 EURATOM requires that air-crew members also be monitored for radiation protection. Flight personnel, receiving an effective dose from cosmic radiation of more than 1 mSv per year are subject to monitoring i.e. radiation exposure has to be assessed, limited and minimized. As the physical conditions causing cosmic radiation doses are well established, it is possible to calculate the expected radiation dose with sufficient accuracy. Several codes for this purpose are available. Since August 2003, the operators of airlines in Germany are obliged to assess the doses of their air crew personnel from cosmic radiation exposure and to minimise radiation exposure by means of appropriate work schedules, flight routes and flight profiles. Approx. 31 000 persons of 45 airlines are monitored by the German Radiation Protection Register. Gender, age and 3 different occupational categories are used to characterise different groups and their doses. The presentation will give an overview about the legislation and organisation of air crew monitoring in Germany and will show detailed statistical results from the first year of monitoring. (authors)

  7. Ventilation-air conditioning system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heretofore, in ventilation-air conditioning systems in a nuclear power plant, exhaust gases from each of the ventilation-air conditioning systems of a reactor building, a turbine building, a waste processing building are joined and they are released into atmosphere from the top of a high main exhaustion stack. In order to build such a high main exhaustion stack, a considerable construction cost is required and, in addition, there is a worry of lacking balance with surrounding scenery. Then, in the present invention, exhaust gases are heated by waste heat in a turbine during their introduction from the ventilation-air conditioning facility in the building of a power plant to the main exhaust stack. With such a constitution, since the exhaust gases are heated and their temperature is elevated, they uprise by natural convection when they are released from the top of the main exhaustion stack to the atmosphere. Accordingly, they are released to a level higher than the conventional case in view of the volume of the blower which sends the exhaust gases under pressure, to diffuse them to the atmosphere more sufficiently compared with a conventional case. Further, the height of the main exhaustion stack can be reduced, enabling to minimize the cost for moving the blower. (T.M.)

  8. Air pollution and COPD in China

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Guoping; Zhong, Nanshan; Ran, Pixin

    2015-01-01

    Recently, many researchers paid more attentions to the association between air pollution and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Haze, a severe form of outdoor air pollution, affected most parts of northern and eastern China in the past winter. In China, studies have been performed to evaluate the impact of outdoor air pollution and biomass smoke exposure on COPD; and most studies have focused on the role of air pollution in acutely triggering symptoms and exacerbations. Few studies...

  9. Intraoperative air testing of colorectal anastomoses

    OpenAIRE

    Ivanov Dejan; Cvijanović Radovan; Gvozdenović Ljiljana

    2011-01-01

    Introduction. Intraoperative anastomotic air testing of stapled colorectal anastomosis is performed by filling the pelvis with saline solution and insufflating the rectum with air through a sigmoidoscope. The presence of air bubbles indicates anastomotic leaks which are resolved during surgery. Objective. The aim of this prospective, randomized study was to perform a comparative analysis regarding the number of anastomotic dehiscences in patients checked by air leak testing and in the c...

  10. Monitoring Air Moisture with Laser Absorption Spectroscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Khélifa, N. -E.; Pinot, P.

    2007-01-01

    Determination of air density and the quantitative estimates of water vapour adsorbed or desorbed by the surface of mass standard, remain the principals sources of uncertainties when weighing mass standard made from stainless steel or super alloy. The classical method, for air density determination, use the so called CIPM-1981/91 formula and the measured air parameters. An other approach is based only on the results of comparisons, realized successively in air and in vacuum, between special ar...

  11. Sensitivity to draught in turbulent air flows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Todde, V.

    1998-09-01

    Even though the ventilation system is designed to supply air flows at constant low velocity and controlled temperature, the resulting air movement in rooms is strongly characterised by random fluctuations. When an air flow is supplied from an inlet, a shear layer forms between the incoming and the standstill air in the room, and large scale vortices develops by coalescence of the vorticity shed at the inlet of the air supply. After a characteristically downstream distance, large scale vortices loose their identity because of the development of cascading eddies and transition to turbulence. The interaction of these vortical structures will rise a complicated three dimensional air movement affected by fluctuations whose frequencies could vary from fractions of Hz to several KHz. The perception and sensitivity to the cooling effect enhanced by these air movements depend on a number of factors interacting with each other: physical properties of the air flow, part and extension of the skin surface exposed to the air flow, exposure duration, global thermal condition, gender and posture of the person. Earlier studies were concerned with the percentage of dissatisfied subjects as a function of air velocity and temperature. Recently, experimental observations have shown that also the fluctuations, the turbulence intensity and the direction of air velocity have an important impact on draught discomfort. Two experimental investigations have been developed to observe the human reaction to horizontal air movements on bared skin surfaces, hands and neck. Attention was concentrated on the effects of relative turbulence intensity of air velocity and exposure duration on perception and sensitivity to the air movement. The air jet flows, adopted for the draught experiment in the neck, were also the object of an experimental study. This experiment was designed to observe the centre-line velocity of an isothermal circular air jet, as a function of the velocity properties at the outlet

  12. Strategy Guideline: Compact Air Distribution Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burdick, A.

    2013-06-01

    This Strategy Guideline discusses the benefits and challenges of using a compact air distribution system to handle the reduced loads and reduced air volume needed to condition the space within an energy efficient home. Traditional systems sized by 'rule of thumb' (i.e., 1 ton of cooling per 400 ft2 of floor space) that 'wash' the exterior walls with conditioned air from floor registers cannot provide appropriate air mixing and moisture removal in low-load homes. A compact air distribution system locates the HVAC equipment centrally with shorter ducts run to interior walls, and ceiling supply outlets throw the air toward the exterior walls along the ceiling plane; alternatively, high sidewall supply outlets throw the air toward the exterior walls. Potential drawbacks include resistance from installing contractors or code officials who are unfamiliar with compact air distribution systems, as well as a lack of availability of low-cost high sidewall or ceiling supply outlets to meet the low air volumes with good throw characteristics. The decision criteria for a compact air distribution system must be determined early in the whole-house design process, considering both supply and return air design. However, careful installation of a compact air distribution system can result in lower material costs from smaller equipment, shorter duct runs, and fewer outlets; increased installation efficiencies, including ease of fitting the system into conditioned space; lower loads on a better balanced HVAC system, and overall improved energy efficiency of the home.

  13. Indoor Air Quality in Chemistry Laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hays, Steve M.

    This paper presents air quality and ventilation data from an existing chemical laboratory facility and discusses the work practice changes implemented in response to deficiencies in ventilation. General methods for improving air quality in existing laboratories are presented and investigation techniques for characterizing air quality are…

  14. 46 CFR 154.1415 - Air compressor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Air compressor. 154.1415 Section 154.1415 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SAFETY STANDARDS FOR... Equipment § 154.1415 Air compressor. Each vessel must have an air compressor to recharge the bottles for...

  15. 32 CFR 989.30 - Air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... been implemented by regulation, 40 CFR 93, Subpart B. All EIAP documents must address applicable... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Air quality. 989.30 Section 989.30 National... ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ANALYSIS PROCESS (EIAP) § 989.30 Air quality. Section 176(c) of the Clean Air...

  16. 30 CFR 75.321 - Air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Air quality. 75.321 Section 75.321 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Ventilation § 75.321 Air quality. (a)(1) The air in areas...

  17. REGIONAL AIR POLLUTION STUDY, QUALITY ASSURANCE AUDITS

    Science.gov (United States)

    RAPS Quality Assurance audits were conducted under this Task Order in continuation of the audit program previously conducted under Task Order No. 58. Quantitative field audits were conducted of the Regional Air Monitoring System (RAMS) Air Monitoring Stations, Local Air Monitorin...

  18. Air Pollution. Environmental Ecological Education Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkway School District, Chesterfield, MO.

    This unit, designed for senior high school students, focuses on air pollution by examining its effect on man, plants and animals, the causes of air pollution, and possible solutions to the air pollution problems. It approaches each of these topics through both natural science and social science perspectives. The unit is divided into seven separate…

  19. RESEARCH REGARDING AIR PERMEABILITY OF KNITTED FABRIC

    OpenAIRE

    Alina Coldea; Dorin Vlad

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a study on the air permeability of knitted fabric manufactured using the yarns of different raw materials. The air permeability of plain pure knits wool, cotton and wool was investigated. The variation in air permeability depending on the area density, linear density, loop length and thickness of yarns.

  20. Iron Air collision with high density QCD

    OpenAIRE

    Drescher, Hans-Joachim

    2006-01-01

    The color glass condensate approach describes successfully heavy ion collisions at RHIC. We investigate Iron-air collisions within this approach and compare results to event generators commonly used in air shower simulations. We estimate uncertainties in the extrapolation to GZK energies and discuss implications for air shower simulations.