WorldWideScience

Sample records for air risk information

  1. Air Risk Information Support Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shoaf, C.R.; Guth, D.J. [Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC (United States)

    1990-12-31

    The Air Risk Information Support Center (Air RISC) was initiated in early 1988 by the US Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA) Office of Health and Environmental Assessment (OHEA) and the Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards (OAQPS) as a technology transfer effort that would focus on providing information to state and local environmental agencies and to EPA Regional Offices in the areas of health, risk, and exposure assessment for toxic air pollutants. Technical information is fostered and disseminated by Air RISCs three primary activities: (1) a {open_quotes}hotline{close_quotes}, (2) quick turn-around technical assistance projects, and (3) general technical guidance projects. 1 ref., 2 figs.

  2. Air exchange rates and alternative vapor entry pathways to inform vapor intrusion exposure risk assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichman, Rivka; Roghani, Mohammadyousef; Willett, Evan J; Shirazi, Elham; Pennell, Kelly G

    2016-11-12

    Vapor intrusion (VI) is a term used to describe indoor air (IA) contamination that occurs due to the migration of chemical vapors in the soil and groundwater. The overall vapor transport process depends on several factors such as contaminant source characteristics, subsurface conditions, building characteristics, and general site conditions. However, the classic VI conceptual model does not adequately account for the physics of airflow around and inside a building and does not account for chemical emissions from alternative "preferential" pathways (e.g. sewers and other utility connections) into IA spaces. This mini-review provides information about recent research related to building air exchange rates (AERs) and alternative pathways to improve the accuracy of VI exposure risk assessment practices. First, results from a recently published AER study for residential homes across the United States (US) are presented and compared to AERs recommended by the US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA). The comparison shows considerable differences in AERs when season, location, building age, and other factors are considered. These differences could directly impact VI assessments by influencing IA concentration measurements. Second, a conceptual model for sewer gas entry into buildings is presented and a summary of published field studies is reported. The results of the field studies suggest that alternative pathways for vapors to enter indoor spaces warrant consideration. Ultimately, the information presented in this mini-review can be incorporated into a multiple-lines-of-evidence approach for assessing site-specific VI exposure risks.

  3. Air System Information Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filman, Robert E.

    2004-01-01

    I flew to Washington last week, a trip rich in distributed information management. Buying tickets, at the gate, in flight, landing and at the baggage claim, myriad messages about my reservation, the weather, our flight plans, gates, bags and so forth flew among a variety of travel agency, airline and Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) computers and personnel. By and large, each kind of information ran on a particular application, often specialized to own data formats and communications network. I went to Washington to attend an FAA meeting on System-Wide Information Management (SWIM) for the National Airspace System (NAS) (http://www.nasarchitecture.faa.gov/Tutorials/NAS101.cfm). NAS (and its information infrastructure, SWIM) is an attempt to bring greater regularity, efficiency and uniformity to the collection of stovepipe applications now used to manage air traffic. Current systems hold information about flight plans, flight trajectories, weather, air turbulence, current and forecast weather, radar summaries, hazardous condition warnings, airport and airspace capacity constraints, temporary flight restrictions, and so forth. Information moving among these stovepipe systems is usually mediated by people (for example, air traffic controllers) or single-purpose applications. People, whose intelligence is critical for difficult tasks and unusual circumstances, are not as efficient as computers for tasks that can be automated. Better information sharing can lead to higher system capacity, more efficient utilization and safer operations. Better information sharing through greater automation is possible though not necessarily easy.

  4. Improving Information Security Risk Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Anand

    2009-01-01

    manaOptimizing risk to information to protect the enterprise as well as to satisfy government and industry mandates is a core function of most information security departments. Risk management is the discipline that is focused on assessing, mitigating, monitoring and optimizing risks to information. Risk assessments and analyses are critical…

  5. Geospatial Informational Security Risks and Concerns of the U.S. Air Force GeoBase Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-03-01

    John McDermon, Mr. Ben McMillan, Maj John Thomas, Mr. Greg Turner, and Mr. Rich Updike . It was through their valuable insight, experience, and...Criminology, 2006. 15 Nov 06 <http://www.aic.gov.au/stats/crime/cybercrime.html>. Baker, John C., et al. Mapping the Risks: Assessing the Homeland...Internet Security Guidebook: Keeping Hackers and Crackers Out of Your Home. Academic Press, 2002. Stenbit, John P. Department of Defense Critical

  6. Can Air Pollution Heighten Alzheimer's Risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_163365.html Can Air Pollution Heighten Alzheimer's Risk? Fine particles from power plants ... 1, 2017 WEDNESDAY, Feb. 1, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Air pollution may cause more than just lung disease: New ...

  7. Information security risk analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Peltier, Thomas R

    2001-01-01

    Effective Risk AnalysisQualitative Risk AnalysisValue AnalysisOther Qualitative MethodsFacilitated Risk Analysis Process (FRAP)Other Uses of Qualitative Risk AnalysisCase StudyAppendix A: QuestionnaireAppendix B: Facilitated Risk Analysis Process FormsAppendix C: Business Impact Analysis FormsAppendix D: Sample of ReportAppendix E: Threat DefinitionsAppendix F: Other Risk Analysis OpinionsIndex

  8. Air Quality Monitoring: Risk-Based Choices

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, John T.

    2009-01-01

    Air monitoring is secondary to rigid control of risks to air quality. Air quality monitoring requires us to target the credible residual risks. Constraints on monitoring devices are severe. Must transition from archival to real-time, on-board monitoring. Must provide data to crew in a way that they can interpret findings. Dust management and monitoring may be a major concern for exploration class missions.

  9. Information Security Risk Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Peltier, Thomas R

    2010-01-01

    Offers readers with the knowledge and the skill-set needed to achieve a highly effective risk analysis assessment. This title demonstrates how to identify threats and then determine if those threats pose a real risk. It is suitable for industry and academia professionals.

  10. Commercial Air Carrier Vulnerabilities to Information Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    GMO /ENS/02E-11 DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE AIR UNIVERSITY AIR FORCE INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio...AFIT/ GMO /ENS/02E-11 COMMERCIAL AIR CARRIER VULNERABILITIES TO INFORMATION OPERATIONS...networks that without them, “there is no water coming out of your tap; there is no electricity lighting your room; there is no food being transported to

  11. Integrated risk information system (IRIS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuxen, L. [Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC (United States)

    1990-12-31

    The Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) is an electronic information system developed by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) containing information related to health risk assessment. IRIS is the Agency`s primary vehicle for communication of chronic health hazard information that represents Agency consensus following comprehensive review by intra-Agency work groups. The original purpose for developing IRIS was to provide guidance to EPA personnel in making risk management decisions. This original purpose for developing IRIS was to guidance to EPA personnel in making risk management decisions. This role has expanded and evolved with wider access and use of the system. IRIS contains chemical-specific information in summary format for approximately 500 chemicals. IRIS is available to the general public on the National Library of Medicine`s Toxicology Data Network (TOXNET) and on diskettes through the National Technical Information Service (NTIS).

  12. Communicating risk information and warnings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mileti, D. S.

    1990-01-01

    Major advances have occurred over the last 20 years about how to effectively communicate risk information and warnings to the public. These lessons have been hard won. Knowledge has mounted on the finding from social scientific studies of risk communication failures, successes and those which fell somewhere in between. Moreover, the last 2 decades have borne witness to the brith, cultivation, and blossoming of information sharing between those physical scientists who discover new information about risk and those communcation scientists who trace its diffusion and then measure pbulic reaction. 

  13. Information needs for risk assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeRosa, C.T.; Choudhury, H.; Schoeny, R.S.

    1990-12-31

    Risk assessment can be thought of as a conceptual approach to bridge the gap between the available data and the ultimate goal of characterizing the risk or hazard associated with a particular environmental problem. To lend consistency to and to promote quality in the process, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) published Guidelines for Risk Assessment of Carcinogenicity, Developmental Toxicity, Germ Cell Mutagenicity and Exposure Assessment, and Risk Assessment of Chemical Mixtures. The guidelines provide a framework for organizing the information, evaluating data, and for carrying out the risk assessment in a scientifically plausible manner. In the absence of sufficient scientific information or when abundant data are available, the guidelines provide alternative methodologies that can be employed in the risk assessment. 4 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. Progress toward risk informed regulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, K.C.

    1997-01-01

    For the last several years, the NRC, with encouragement from the industry, has been moving in the direction of risk informed regulation. This is consistent with the regulatory principle of efficiency, formally adopted by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission in 1991, which requires that regulatory activities be consistent with the degree of risk reduction they achieve. Probabilistic risk analysis has become the tool of choice for selecting the best of several alternatives. Closely related to risk informed regulation is the development of performance based rules. Such rules focus on the end result to be achieved. They do not specify the process, but instead establish the goals to be reached and how the achievement of those goals is to be judged. The inspection and enforcement activity is based on whether or not the goals have been met. The author goes on to offer comments on the history of the development of this process and its probable development in the future. He also addresses some issues which must be resolved or at least acknowledged. The success of risk informed regulation ultimately depends on having sufficiently reliable data to allow quantification of regulatory alternatives in terms of relative risk. Perhaps the area of human reliability and organizational performance has the greatest potential for improvement in reactor safety. The ability to model human performance is significantly less developed that the ability to model mechanical or electrical systems. The move toward risk informed, performance based regulation provides an unusual, perhaps unique, opportunity to establish a more rational, more effective basis for regulation.

  15. Cancer risk assessment of selected hazardous air pollutants in Seattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chang-Fu; Wu, Szu-Ying; Wu, Yi-Hua; Cullen, Alison C; Larson, Timothy V; Williamson, John; Liu, L-J Sally

    2009-04-01

    The risk estimates calculated from the conventional risk assessment method usually are compound specific and provide limited information for source-specific air quality control. We used a risk apportionment approach, which is a combination of receptor modeling and risk assessment, to estimate source-specific lifetime excess cancer risks of selected hazardous air pollutants. We analyzed the speciated PM(2.5) and VOCs data collected at the Beacon Hill in Seattle, WA between 2000 and 2004 with the Multilinear Engine to first quantify source contributions to the mixture of hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) in terms of mass concentrations. The cancer risk from exposure to each source was then calculated as the sum of all available species' cancer risks in the source feature. We also adopted the bootstrapping technique for the uncertainty analysis. The results showed that the overall cancer risk was 6.09 x 10(-5), with the background (1.61 x 10(-5)), diesel (9.82 x 10(-6)) and wood burning (9.45 x 10(-6)) sources being the primary risk sources. The PM(2.5) mass concentration contributed 20% of the total risk. The 5th percentile of the risk estimates of all sources other than marine and soil were higher than 110(-6). It was also found that the diesel and wood burning sources presented similar cancer risks although the diesel exhaust contributed less to the PM(2.5) mass concentration than the wood burning. This highlights the additional value from such a risk apportionment approach that could be utilized for prioritizing control strategies to reduce the highest population health risks from exposure to HAPs.

  16. Air Pollution May Raise Risk of Type 2 Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_163536.html Air Pollution May Raise Risk of Type 2 Diabetes Study ... Feb. 10, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- High levels of air pollution may increase some Hispanic children's risk of type ...

  17. Information Asymmetry as a Risk Factor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktor Ya. Tsvetkov

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores information asymmetry as the cause of risks in decision making. The author describes the types of information asymmetry as a risk factor; describes the types of risk arising under different information asymmetries; describes the methods for minimizing such risks; brings to light the principal-agent issue; analyzes the principles of minimizing risks in the event of this issue arising; illustrates the application of special information models for minimizing risks in this issue; describes the cascade method for minimizing risks in decision making under information asymmetry.

  18. RAINS: Regional Air Pollution Information and Simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-01

    Only one computer model has ever been at the center of major international environmental negotiations. That model is RAINS. Twice it has been central to renegotiation of the Convention of Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution, the umbrella convention regarding air pollution across all Europe. It also underpins the European Union policy and directives on air pollution. Countries in Southeast Asia are turning to the model for help with their growing air pollution problems. RAINS will be used to determine emission ceilings for emissions of four key pollutants in EU countries - sulphur, ammonia, nitrogen oxides and volatile organic compounds. The same four pollutants are also the subject of a parallel negotiation in Geneva under the convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution. The article and illustrations outline the model`s development and its structure in 1998, the historic role it has played in negotiations and some examples of its output. They highlight the central role of IIASA`s Transboundary Air Pollution project where a team of 12 works on the RAINS model and related issues. IIASA`s next goal is to develop a model of particulates pollution and incorporate it into RAINS. The information needed (such as particle sizes and chemical properties) and at what geographical scale must be identified to create an inventory of emissions suitable for RAINS modelling. 6 figs., 1 tab.

  19. Aerometric Information Retrieval System/AIRS Facility Subsystem (AIRS/AFS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Aerometric Information Retrieval System/AIRS Facility Subsystem (AIRS/AFS) is a database that provides information on air releases from various stationary...

  20. Controlled Exposures to Air Pollutants and Risk of Cardiac Arrhythmia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Simon J.; Hunter, Amanda J.; Shah, Anoop S.V.; Bosson, Jenny A.; Unosson, Jon; Barath, Stefan; Lundbäck, Magnus; Cassee, Flemming R.; Donaldson, Ken; Sandström, Thomas; Blomberg, Anders; Newby, David E.; Mills, Nicholas L.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Epidemiological studies have reported associations between air pollution exposure and increases in cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Exposure to air pollutants can influence cardiac autonomic tone and reduce heart rate variability, and may increase the risk of cardiac arrhythmias, particularly in susceptible patient groups. Objectives: We investigated the incidence of cardiac arrhythmias during and after controlled exposure to air pollutants in healthy volunteers and patients with coronary heart disease. Methods: We analyzed data from 13 double-blind randomized crossover studies including 282 participants (140 healthy volunteers and 142 patients with stable coronary heart disease) from whom continuous electrocardiograms were available. The incidence of cardiac arrhythmias was recorded for each exposure and study population. Results: There were no increases in any cardiac arrhythmia during or after exposure to dilute diesel exhaust, wood smoke, ozone, concentrated ambient particles, engineered carbon nanoparticles, or high ambient levels of air pollution in either healthy volunteers or patients with coronary heart disease. Conclusions: Acute controlled exposure to air pollutants did not increase the short-term risk of arrhythmia in participants. Research employing these techniques remains crucial in identifying the important pathophysiological pathways involved in the adverse effects of air pollution, and is vital to inform environmental and public health policy decisions. Citation: Langrish JP, Watts SJ, Hunter AJ, Shah AS, Bosson JA, Unosson J, Barath S, Lundbäck M, Cassee FR, Donaldson K, Sandström T, Blomberg A, Newby DE, Mills NL. 2014. Controlled exposures to air pollutants and risk of cardiac arrhythmia. Environ Health Perspect 122:747–753; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1307337 PMID:24667535

  1. Survey of Ambient Air Pollution Health Risk Assessment Tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anenberg, Susan C; Belova, Anna; Brandt, Jørgen; Fann, Neal; Greco, Sue; Guttikunda, Sarath; Heroux, Marie-Eve; Hurley, Fintan; Krzyzanowski, Michal; Medina, Sylvia; Miller, Brian; Pandey, Kiran; Roos, Joachim; Van Dingenen, Rita

    2016-09-01

    Designing air quality policies that improve public health can benefit from information about air pollution health risks and impacts, which include respiratory and cardiovascular diseases and premature death. Several computer-based tools help automate air pollution health impact assessments and are being used for a variety of contexts. Expanding information gathered for a May 2014 World Health Organization expert meeting, we survey 12 multinational air pollution health impact assessment tools, categorize them according to key technical and operational characteristics, and identify limitations and challenges. Key characteristics include spatial resolution, pollutants and health effect outcomes evaluated, and method for characterizing population exposure, as well as tool format, accessibility, complexity, and degree of peer review and application in policy contexts. While many of the tools use common data sources for concentration-response associations, population, and baseline mortality rates, they vary in the exposure information source, format, and degree of technical complexity. We find that there is an important tradeoff between technical refinement and accessibility for a broad range of applications. Analysts should apply tools that provide the appropriate geographic scope, resolution, and maximum degree of technical rigor for the intended assessment, within resources constraints. A systematic intercomparison of the tools' inputs, assumptions, calculations, and results would be helpful to determine the appropriateness of each for different types of assessment. Future work would benefit from accounting for multiple uncertainty sources and integrating ambient air pollution health impact assessment tools with those addressing other related health risks (e.g., smoking, indoor pollution, climate change, vehicle accidents, physical activity).

  2. Controlled exposures to air pollutants and risk of cardiac arrhythmia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langrish, Jeremy P; Watts, Simon J; Hunter, Amanda J; Shah, Anoop S V; Bosson, Jenny A; Unosson, Jon; Barath, Stefan; Lundbäck, Magnus; Cassee, Flemming R; Donaldson, Ken; Sandström, Thomas; Blomberg, Anders; Newby, David E; Mills, Nicholas L

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Epidemiological studies have reported associations between air pollution exposure and increases in cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Exposure to air pollutants can influence cardiac autonomic tone and reduce heart rate variability, and may increase the risk of cardiac arrhythmias,

  3. The Air Force Air Program and Information Management System (APIMS): A flexible tool for managing your Title V Operating Permits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weston, A.A.; Gordon, S.R.

    1999-07-01

    The Air Force Command Core System (CCS) is an integrated, activity-based risk management system designed to support the information needs of Environment, Safety, and Occupational Health (ESOH) professionals. These professionals are responsible for managing a complex and often dynamic set of requirements, and therefore, have a need for an information system that can readily be customized to meet their specific needs. This dynamic environment also drives the need for flexibility in the system. The Air Program Information Management System (APIMS) is a module within CCS designed to not only manage permit compliance and emission inventories, but also support the monitoring, recordkeeping, and reporting requirements related to air quality issues. This paper will describe the underlying foundation of CCS, the information linkages within the database, and then summarize the functionality available within the APIMS module to support the Air Quality Managers' information needs, placing emphasis on the flexibility the system provides to manage Title V Operating Permits.

  4. PERCEPTION OF MERCURY RISK INFORMATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Approximately 8% of American women have blood Mercury levels exceeding the EPA reference dose (a dose below which symptoms would be unlikely). The children of these women are at risk of neurological deficits (lower IQ scores) primarily because of the mother's consumption of conta...

  5. Invited commentary: Assessment of air pollution and suicide risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yuming; Barnett, Adrian G

    2015-03-01

    Suicide is a serious public health issue worldwide, with multiple risk factors, such as severe mental illness, alcohol abuse, a painful loss, exposure to violence, or social isolation. Environmental factors, particularly chemical and meteorological variables, have been examined as risk factors for suicide, but less evidence is available on whether air pollution is related to suicide. In this issue of the Journal, Bakian et al. ( publish findings from a study that found a short-term increased risk of suicide associated with increased air pollution. This study bolsters a small body of research linking air pollution exposure to suicide risk. If the association between air pollution and suicide is confirmed, it would broaden the scope of the already large disease burden associated with air pollution.

  6. Information needs for risk management/communication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennett, D.A. [Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC (United States)

    1990-12-31

    The hazardous waste cleanup program under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (Superfund) is delegated to the ten Regions of the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and has, to date, identified more than 33,000 sites for consideration. The size and complexity of the program places great demands on those who would provide information to achieve national consistency in application of risk assessment while meeting site-specific needs for risk management and risk communication.

  7. Air Pollution, A Scientists' Institute for Public Information Workbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadler, Allen A.; And Others

    Documentation is given on the known and potential effects of air pollution on human health, weather conditions, and biosphere. Practical applications of this information are discussed, with special reference to the Federal Air Quality Act and to the planning of urban expressways. Problems in defining standards of air quality are discussed.…

  8. Practical Methods for Information Security Risk Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian AMANCEI

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to present some directions to perform the risk man-agement for information security. The article follows to practical methods through question-naire that asses the internal control, and through evaluation based on existing controls as part of vulnerability assessment. The methods presented contains all the key elements that concurs in risk management, through the elements proposed for evaluation questionnaire, list of threats, resource classification and evaluation, correlation between risks and controls and residual risk computation.

  9. Information governance: beyond risk and compliance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. Beijer; M. Kooper

    2010-01-01

    Information Governance is a logical and necessary development in organizations to benefit from the information society. This subject is becoming increasingly topical, mainly from a risk and compliance perspective, so a critical inquiry is appropriate. In this article the authors consider a number of

  10. Is air pollution a risk factor for rheumatoid arthritis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essouma, Mickael; Noubiap, Jean Jacques N

    2015-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis is a chronic inflammatory debilitating disease triggered by a complex interaction involving genetic and environmental factors. Active smoking and occupational exposures such as silica increase its risk, suggesting that initial inflammation and generation of rheumatoid arthritis-related autoantibodies in the lungs may precede the clinical disease. This hypothesis paved the way to epidemiological studies investigating air pollution as a potential determinant of rheumatoid arthritis. Studies designed for epidemiology of rheumatoid arthritis found a link between traffic, a surrogate of air pollution, and this disease. Furthermore, a small case-control study recently found an association between wood smoke exposure and anticyclic citrullinated protein/peptide antibody in sera of patients presenting wood-smoke-related chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. However, reports addressing impact of specific pollutants on rheumatoid arthritis incidence and severity across populations are somewhat conflicting. In addition to the link reported between other systemic autoimmune rheumatic diseases and particulate matters/gaseous pollutants, experimental observation of exacerbated rheumatoid arthritis incidence and severity in mice models of collagen-induced arthritis after diesel exhaust particles exposure as well as hypovitaminosis D-related autoimmunity can help understand the role of air pollution in rheumatoid arthritis. All these considerations highlight the necessity to extend high quality epidemiological researches investigating different sources of atmospheric pollution across populations and particularly in low-and-middle countries, in order to further explore the biological plausibility of air pollution's effect in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis. This should be attempted to better inform policies aiming to reduce the burden of rheumatoid arthritis.

  11. Air Force JROTC: Introduction and Information Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-01

    Requirements • Leaders, Teachers, Mentors, & Guides who care about making a positive impact on our cadets • Instructor Training - Junior Instructor...Curriculum In Action (Field Trips) • Kitty Hawk Air Society • Orienteering • Model Rocketry & Radio Controlled Aircraft Clubs • Incentive flights in...Support unit’s AFJROTC Booster Club • Encourage parent support & involvement • Visit & partner with other AFJROTC units, ROTC units, Air Force

  12. A Tutorial on Probablilistic Risk Assessement and its Role in Risk-Informed Decision Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dezfuli, Homayoon

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews risk assessment and its role in risk-informed decision making. It includes information on probabilistic risk assessment, typical risk management process, origins of risk matrix, performance measures, performance objectives and Bayes theorem.

  13. Air pollution from traffic and risk for brain tumors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Aslak Harbo; Sørensen, Mette; Andersen, Zorana J

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: Air pollution is an established lung carcinogen, and there is increasing evidence that air pollution also negatively affects the brain. We have previously reported an association between air pollution and risk of brain tumors in a cohort study based on only 95 cases. We set out to replic......PURPOSE: Air pollution is an established lung carcinogen, and there is increasing evidence that air pollution also negatively affects the brain. We have previously reported an association between air pollution and risk of brain tumors in a cohort study based on only 95 cases. We set out...... to replicate that finding in a large nationwide case-control study. METHODS: We identified all 4,183 adult brain tumor cases in Denmark in the years 2000-2009 and 8,018 risk set sampled population controls matched on gender and year of birth. We extracted residential address histories and estimated mean...... and risk of brain tumors which was found in our previous study. The suggestion of an increased brain tumor risk at high exposures merits further attention as does the differing results according to tumor morphology....

  14. Risk management information for HIV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, A J

    1990-01-01

    This article discusses HIV infection in terms of the risk manager's information needs in the health care environment. The malpractice problem, increasing workman's compensation suits, the greater role of the ombudsman, implementation of the National Practitioner Data Bank, and the Joint Commission on Accreditation of Health Care Organizations' (JCAHO) emphasis on clinical excellence are conditions which have given greater importance to the risk manager's position. Included in this article are hedges to retrieve various components of risk management and a select bibliography from AIDSLINE.

  15. THE RISK PERCEPTION OF TRANSPORT–GENERATED AIR POLLUTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birgitta GATERSLEBEN

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a study that is part of a multidisciplinary project examining the relationship between transport, air pollution and health in Guildford, a medium sized town in the UK. Real-time air quality monitoring revealed low levels of air pollution through vehicle emissions. However, the residents of the town claim that there is an air pollution problem, perceptions reinforced by visual and sensory feedback, i.e., people see dust, feel irritations to their eyes, noses and throats and smell exhaust fumes. It is shown that the higher people believe air pollution levels to be the more responsible they feel and the less trust they have in local authorities and technological developments. Beliefs about the health consequences of air pollution are not related to responsibility and trust. The findings support other studies on risk perception that have shown that people find a risk less acceptable when they have a lower trust in risk managers. It is concluded that these findings are of importance for the environmental education of the public generally and risk communication by local authorities in particular.

  16. Mapping real-time air pollution health risk for environmental management: Combining mobile and stationary air pollution monitoring with neural network models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Matthew D; Kanaroglou, Pavlos S

    2016-03-01

    Air pollution poses health concerns at the global scale. The challenge of managing air pollution is significant because of the many air pollutants, insufficient funds for monitoring and abatement programs, and political and social challenges in defining policy to limit emissions. Some governments provide citizens with air pollution health risk information to allow them to limit their exposure. However, many regions still have insufficient air pollution monitoring networks to provide real-time mapping. Where available, these risk mapping systems either provide absolute concentration data or the concentrations are used to derive an Air Quality Index, which provides the air pollution risk for a mix of air pollutants with a single value. When risk information is presented as a single value for an entire region it does not inform on the spatial variation within the region. Without an understanding of the local variation residents can only make a partially informed decision when choosing daily activities. The single value is typically provided because of a limited number of active monitoring units in the area. In our work, we overcome this issue by leveraging mobile air pollution monitoring techniques, meteorological information and land use information to map real-time air pollution health risks. We propose an approach that can provide improved health risk information to the public by applying neural network models within a framework that is inspired by land use regression. Mobile air pollution monitoring campaigns were conducted across Hamilton from 2005 to 2013. These mobile air pollution data were modelled with a number of predictor variables that included information on the surrounding land use characteristics, the meteorological conditions, air pollution concentrations from fixed location monitors, and traffic information during the time of collection. Fine particulate matter and nitrogen dioxide were both modelled. During the model fitting process we reserved

  17. Setting risk-informed environmental standards for Bacillus anthracis spores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Tao; Gurian, Patrick L; Ward, Nicholas F Dudley

    2010-10-01

    In many cases, human health risk from biological agents is associated with aerosol exposures. Because air concentrations decline rapidly after a release, it may be necessary to use concentrations found in other environmental media to infer future or past aerosol exposures. This article presents an approach for linking environmental concentrations of Bacillus. anthracis (B. anthracis) spores on walls, floors, ventilation system filters, and in human nasal passages with human health risk from exposure to B. anthracis spores. This approach is then used to calculate example values of risk-informed concentration standards for both retrospective risk mitigation (e.g., prophylactic antibiotics) and prospective risk mitigation (e.g., environmental clean up and reoccupancy). A large number of assumptions are required to calculate these values, and the resulting values have large uncertainties associated with them. The values calculated here suggest that documenting compliance with risks in the range of 10(-4) to 10(-6) would be challenging for small diameter (respirable) spore particles. For less stringent risk targets and for releases of larger diameter particles (which are less respirable and hence less hazardous), environmental sampling would be more promising.

  18. Air pollution and health risks due to vehicle traffic

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Kai; Batterman, Stuart

    2013-01-01

    Traffic congestion increases vehicle emissions and degrades ambient air quality, and recent studies have shown excess morbidity and mortality for drivers, commuters and individuals living near major roadways. Presently, our understanding of the air pollution impacts from congestion on roads is very limited. This study demonstrates an approach to characterize risks of traffic for on- and near-road populations. Simulation modeling was used to estimate on- and near-road NO2 concentrations and he...

  19. Information technology project risk management in Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Del Carpio Gallegos, Javier; Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos

    2014-01-01

    This article shows how some principles, uses, and practices of risk management are applied in information technology projects in Peru; in the last four years, in representative sectors like manufacturing, banking, information and communications, academics institutions, construction, government, consulting, services, and others. El presente artículo muestra algunos principios, usos y prácticas de cómo la gestión de riesgos de proyectos de tecnología se ha llevado a cabo en los últimos cuatr...

  20. Can Systematic Reviews Inform GMO Risk Assessment and Risk Management?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohl, Christian; Frampton, Geoff; Sweet, Jeremy; Spök, Armin; Haddaway, Neal Robert; Wilhelm, Ralf; Unger, Stefan; Schiemann, Joachim

    2015-01-01

    Systematic reviews represent powerful tools to identify, collect, synthesize, and evaluate primary research data on specific research questions in a highly standardized and reproducible manner. They enable the defensible synthesis of outcomes by increasing precision and minimizing bias whilst ensuring transparency of the methods used. This makes them especially valuable to inform evidence-based risk analysis and decision making in various topics and research disciplines. Although seen as a “gold standard” for synthesizing primary research data, systematic reviews are not without limitations as they are often cost, labor and time intensive and the utility of synthesis outcomes depends upon the availability of sufficient and robust primary research data. In this paper, we (1) consider the added value systematic reviews could provide when synthesizing primary research data on genetically modified organisms (GMO) and (2) critically assess the adequacy and feasibility of systematic review for collating and analyzing data on potential impacts of GMOs in order to better inform specific steps within GMO risk assessment and risk management. The regulatory framework of the EU is used as an example, although the issues we discuss are likely to be more widely applicable. PMID:26322307

  1. Can Systematic Reviews Inform GMO Risk Assessment and Risk Management?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohl, Christian; Frampton, Geoff; Sweet, Jeremy; Spök, Armin; Haddaway, Neal Robert; Wilhelm, Ralf; Unger, Stefan; Schiemann, Joachim

    2015-01-01

    Systematic reviews represent powerful tools to identify, collect, synthesize, and evaluate primary research data on specific research questions in a highly standardized and reproducible manner. They enable the defensible synthesis of outcomes by increasing precision and minimizing bias whilst ensuring transparency of the methods used. This makes them especially valuable to inform evidence-based risk analysis and decision making in various topics and research disciplines. Although seen as a "gold standard" for synthesizing primary research data, systematic reviews are not without limitations as they are often cost, labor and time intensive and the utility of synthesis outcomes depends upon the availability of sufficient and robust primary research data. In this paper, we (1) consider the added value systematic reviews could provide when synthesizing primary research data on genetically modified organisms (GMO) and (2) critically assess the adequacy and feasibility of systematic review for collating and analyzing data on potential impacts of GMOs in order to better inform specific steps within GMO risk assessment and risk management. The regulatory framework of the EU is used as an example, although the issues we discuss are likely to be more widely applicable.

  2. Can systematic reviews inform GMO risk assessment and risk management?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian eKohl

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Systematic reviews represent powerful tools to identify, collect, synthesize and evaluate primary research data on specific research questions in a highly standardized and reproducible manner. They enable the defensible synthesis of outcomes by increasing precision and minimizing bias whilst ensuring transparency of the methods used. This makes them especially valuable to inform evidence-based risk analysis and decision making in various topics and research disciplines. Although seen as a gold standard for synthesizing primary research data, systematic reviews are not without limitations as they are often cost, labor and time intensive and the utility of synthesis outcomes depends upon the availability of sufficient and robust primary research data. In this paper we 1 consider the added value systematic reviews could provide when synthesizing primary research data on genetically modified organisms (GMO and 2 critically assess the adequacy and feasibility of systematic review for collating and analyzing data on potential impacts of GMOs in order to better inform specific steps within GMO risk assessment and risk management. The regulatory framework of the EU is used as an example, although the issues we discuss are likely to be more widely applicable.

  3. Web-based GIS: the vector-borne disease airline importation risk (VBD-AIR tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Zhuojie

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Over the past century, the size and complexity of the air travel network has increased dramatically. Nowadays, there are 29.6 million scheduled flights per year and around 2.7 billion passengers are transported annually. The rapid expansion of the network increasingly connects regions of endemic vector-borne disease with the rest of the world, resulting in challenges to health systems worldwide in terms of vector-borne pathogen importation and disease vector invasion events. Here we describe the development of a user-friendly Web-based GIS tool: the Vector-Borne Disease Airline Importation Risk Tool (VBD-AIR, to help better define the roles of airports and airlines in the transmission and spread of vector-borne diseases. Methods Spatial datasets on modeled global disease and vector distributions, as well as climatic and air network traffic data were assembled. These were combined to derive relative risk metrics via air travel for imported infections, imported vectors and onward transmission, and incorporated into a three-tier server architecture in a Model-View-Controller framework with distributed GIS components. A user-friendly web-portal was built that enables dynamic querying of the spatial databases to provide relevant information. Results The VBD-AIR tool constructed enables the user to explore the interrelationships among modeled global distributions of vector-borne infectious diseases (malaria. dengue, yellow fever and chikungunya and international air service routes to quantify seasonally changing risks of vector and vector-borne disease importation and spread by air travel, forming an evidence base to help plan mitigation strategies. The VBD-AIR tool is available at http://www.vbd-air.com. Conclusions VBD-AIR supports a data flow that generates analytical results from disparate but complementary datasets into an organized cartographical presentation on a web map for the assessment of vector-borne disease movements

  4. Advanced Methods for Air Distribution in Occupied Spaces for Reduced Risk from Air-Borne Diseases and Improved Air Quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bolashikov, Zhecho Dimitrov

    The current Ph.D. thesis deals with new advanced methods of air distribution in occupied places aimed to improve the inhaled air quality and to reduce the risk from airborne cross infection among the occupants. The existing ventilation strategies nowadays are not able to provide enough clean air...... pathogens. The threat from possible bio-terrorist attacks in the last decade makes the topic quite important. So far the existing methods of indoor air cleaning rely on several basic strategies: dilution, filtration and Ultra Violet Germicidal Irradiation (UVGI). Dilution utilizes ventilation at high flow...... rates to reduce the concentration of pollutants/pathogens to levels that would not deteriorate the air quality or be harmful for the occupants. It is also connected to certain energy limitation issues. Filtration and UVGI are efficient in protecting occupants provided the sources are located outdoors...

  5. INFORMATION SCENARIOS OVER THE RISK IN INSURANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Rodica Tirlea

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Risks management means identifying them, assessing, quantifying and strategy to counter them, and finding solutions to some levers to diminish or even eliminate the possibility of developing or their consequences. Hung everywhere, risk is associated with uncertain situations and opportunities. The consequences of risk can result in adverse or positive effects related to the activity of the insurance undertaking or of the reinsurance undertaking. The risk has a pronounced randomly character, and its presence in the field of insurance undertakings and reinsurance. This can be explained by the fact that the risks are taken by these companies and have direct effects on their financial results during the period of validity of the contractual relations. The results of risk effects have an impact on the results of activity of insurance companies. The financial impact of a negative event, exceed the sum of the individual loss, leading in some cases to bankruptcy. The financial impact is due to the positive opportunities, which have not made an appearance, and the first event to transform into income. An important role is the responsibility of the information system, providing solutions based on scenarios, by electronic data processing, consider all types of consequences of a hazard and allow insurance companies and reinsurance, on the other hand, to calculate all the possible consequences of a given event and the ultimate financial impact on them, and finally, to make decisions to base decisions for various insurance products and reinsurance. People insurance records for each situation. In practice the scenario method is only used to make specific estimates for different scenarios depending on the circumstances, which has a certain probability of realization, for the favorable; for the neutral and negative and gives solutions for each individual, taking into account certain criteria. For example, we will present a life insurance in several poses.

  6. Air pollution and health risks due to vehicle traffic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kai; Batterman, Stuart

    2014-01-01

    Traffic congestion increases vehicle emissions and degrades ambient air quality, and recent studies have shown excess morbidity and mortality for drivers, commuters and individuals living near major roadways. Presently, our understanding of the air pollution impacts from congestion on roads is very limited. This study demonstrates an approach to characterize risks of traffic for on- and near-road populations. Simulation modeling was used to estimate on- and near-road NO2 concentrations and health risks for freeway and arterial scenarios attributable to traffic for different traffic volumes during rush hour periods. The modeling used emission factors from two different models (Comprehensive Modal Emissions Model and Motor Vehicle Emissions Factor Model version 6.2), an empirical traffic speed–volume relationship, the California Line Source Dispersion Model, an empirical NO2–NOx relationship, estimated travel time changes during congestion, and concentration–response relationships from the literature, which give emergency doctor visits, hospital admissions and mortality attributed to NO2 exposure. An incremental analysis, which expresses the change in health risks for small increases in traffic volume, showed non-linear effects. For a freeway, “U” shaped trends of incremental risks were predicted for on-road populations, and incremental risks are flat at low traffic volumes for near-road populations. For an arterial road, incremental risks increased sharply for both on- and near-road populations as traffic increased. These patterns result from changes in emission factors, the NO2–NOx relationship, the travel delay for the on-road population, and the extended duration of rush hour for the near-road population. This study suggests that health risks from congestion are potentially significant, and that additional traffic can significantly increase risks, depending on the type of road and other factors. Further, evaluations of risk associated with congestion

  7. Air pollution and health risks due to vehicle traffic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kai; Batterman, Stuart

    2013-04-15

    Traffic congestion increases vehicle emissions and degrades ambient air quality, and recent studies have shown excess morbidity and mortality for drivers, commuters and individuals living near major roadways. Presently, our understanding of the air pollution impacts from congestion on roads is very limited. This study demonstrates an approach to characterize risks of traffic for on- and near-road populations. Simulation modeling was used to estimate on- and near-road NO2 concentrations and health risks for freeway and arterial scenarios attributable to traffic for different traffic volumes during rush hour periods. The modeling used emission factors from two different models (Comprehensive Modal Emissions Model and Motor Vehicle Emissions Factor Model version 6.2), an empirical traffic speed-volume relationship, the California Line Source Dispersion Model, an empirical NO2-NOx relationship, estimated travel time changes during congestion, and concentration-response relationships from the literature, which give emergency doctor visits, hospital admissions and mortality attributed to NO2 exposure. An incremental analysis, which expresses the change in health risks for small increases in traffic volume, showed non-linear effects. For a freeway, "U" shaped trends of incremental risks were predicted for on-road populations, and incremental risks are flat at low traffic volumes for near-road populations. For an arterial road, incremental risks increased sharply for both on- and near-road populations as traffic increased. These patterns result from changes in emission factors, the NO2-NOx relationship, the travel delay for the on-road population, and the extended duration of rush hour for the near-road population. This study suggests that health risks from congestion are potentially significant, and that additional traffic can significantly increase risks, depending on the type of road and other factors. Further, evaluations of risk associated with congestion must

  8. Resources for global risk assessment: the International Toxicity Estimates for Risk (ITER) and Risk Information Exchange (RiskIE) databases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wullenweber, Andrea; Kroner, Oliver; Kohrman, Melissa; Maier, Andrew; Dourson, Michael; Rak, Andrew; Wexler, Philip; Tomljanovic, Chuck

    2008-11-15

    The rate of chemical synthesis and use has outpaced the development of risk values and the resolution of risk assessment methodology questions. In addition, available risk values derived by different organizations may vary due to scientific judgments, mission of the organization, or use of more recently published data. Further, each organization derives values for a unique chemical list so it can be challenging to locate data on a given chemical. Two Internet resources are available to address these issues. First, the International Toxicity Estimates for Risk (ITER) database (www.tera.org/iter) provides chronic human health risk assessment data from a variety of organizations worldwide in a side-by-side format, explains differences in risk values derived by different organizations, and links directly to each organization's website for more detailed information. It is also the only database that includes risk information from independent parties whose risk values have undergone independent peer review. Second, the Risk Information Exchange (RiskIE) is a database of in progress chemical risk assessment work, and includes non-chemical information related to human health risk assessment, such as training modules, white papers and risk documents. RiskIE is available at http://www.allianceforrisk.org/RiskIE.htm, and will join ITER on National Library of Medicine's TOXNET (http://toxnet.nlm.nih.gov/). Together, ITER and RiskIE provide risk assessors essential tools for easily identifying and comparing available risk data, for sharing in progress assessments, and for enhancing interaction among risk assessment groups to decrease duplication of effort and to harmonize risk assessment procedures across organizations.

  9. Dimensions of Air Traffic Control Tower Information Needs: From Information Requests to Display Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durso, Francis T.; Johnson, Brian R.; Crutchfield, Jerry M.

    2010-01-01

    In an effort to determine the information needs of tower air traffic controllers, instructors from the Federal Aviation Administration's Academy in Oklahoma City were asked to control traffic in a high-fidelity tower cab simulator. Information requests were made apparent by eliminating access to standard tower information sources. Instead,…

  10. Bridging the air gap: an information assurance perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Richardson, Christopher

    2012-01-01

    The military has 5 domains of operations: Land, Sea, Air, Space and now Cyber. This 5th Domain is a heterogeneous network (of networks) of Communication and Information Systems (CIS) which were designed and accredited to meet Netcentric capability requirements; to be robust, secure and functional to the organisation’s needs. Those needs have changed. In the globalised economy and across the Battlespace, organisations now need to share information. Keeping our secrets, secret has been the watc...

  11. Assignment Procedures in the Air Force Procurement Management Information System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Joe H., Jr.; And Others

    An overview is presented of the procedure for offering jobs in the Air Force Procurement Management Information System (PROMIS), an assignment system which makes possible the use of human resources research findings to improve individual personnel assignments. A general framework for viewing personnel assignment systems is presented; then job…

  12. AQUIS: An air quality and permit information management system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, A.E.; Huber, C.C.; Tschanz, J. (Argonne National Lab., IL (USA)); Ryckman, S.J. Jr. (Air Force Logistics Command, Wright-Patterson AFB, OH (USA))

    1991-01-01

    The Air Quality Utility Information System (AQUIS) is a data base management system that operates on a dedicated, IBM-compatible personal computer using dBASE IV. AQUIS is in operation at six of the seven US Air Force Logistics Command (AFLC) bases to assist with the management of the source inventory, permit tracking, and the estimating and tracking of emissions. The system also provides environmental management personnel with information on regulatory requirements and other compliance information. An AFLC base can have over 500 regulated or unregulated emission sources, and the task of tracking and correlating emissions, sources, and permits is substantial. AQUIS is a comprehensive management tool that provides a single system for storing and accessing information previously available only in multiple, uncorrelated files. This paper discusses the development of the system and provides an overview of the system structure and the relationship of that structure to sources in the field. Certain features such as the linking capability and compound-specific emissions are highlighted. The experience of environmental managers, the ultimate system users, is discussed, including specific ways in which AQUIS has proven useful in responding to managers' needs for air quality information. 10 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  13. The informed society: an analysis of the public's information-seeking behavior regarding coastal flood risks

    OpenAIRE

    Kellens, W.; Zaalberg, R.; P. De Maeyer

    2012-01-01

    Recent flood risk management puts an increasing emphasis on the public's risk perception and its preferences. It is now widely recognized that a better knowledge of the public's awareness and concern about risks is of vital importance to outline effective risk communication strategies. Models such as Risk Information Seeking and Processing address this evolution by considering the public's needs and its information-seeking behavior with regard to risk information. This study builds upon earli...

  14. Informal Risk Perceptions and Formal Theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cayford, Jerry [Resources for the Future, Washington, DC (United States)

    2001-07-01

    Economists have argued persuasively that our goals are wider than just risk minimization, and that they include a prudent weighing of costs and benefits. This economic line of thought recognizes that our policy goals are complex. As we widen the range of goals we are willing to entertain, though, we need to check that the methods we customarily employ are appropriate for the tasks to which we customarily apply them. This paper examines some economic methods of risk assessment, in light of the question of what our policy goals are and should be. Once the question of goals is open, more complexities than just cost intrude: what the public wants and why begs to be addressed. This leads us to the controversial issue of public risk perceptions. We have now examined a number of procedures that experts use to make public policy decisions. Behind all these issues is always the question of social welfare: what actions can we take, what policies should we embrace, to make the world a better place? In many cases, the public and the experts disagree about what the right choice is. In the first section, we saw a possible defense of the experts based on democratic theory: the people's participation, and even their will, can be legitimately set aside in the pursuit of their true interests. If this defense is to work, a great deal of weight rests on the question of the people's interests and the competence and integrity of the experts' pursuit of it. But at the same time, social preferences are ill-defined, and so are not good candidates for rational actor theory. Both the prescriptive legitimacy claim and the very workings of formal theory we have seen to depend on informal, qualitative, political judgments. Unfortunately, we have also seen a steady pattern of expert reliance on technical procedures even when they were manifestly unsuited to the task. The experts seem so intent on excluding informal thought that they would prefer even a bad quantitative process to

  15. A Risk Profile for Information Fusion Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenric P. Nelson

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available E.T. Jaynes, originator of the maximum entropy interpretation of statistical mechanics, emphasized that there is an inevitable trade-off between the conflicting requirements of robustness and accuracy for any inferencing algorithm. This is because robustness requires discarding of information in order to reduce the sensitivity to outliers. The principal of nonlinear statistical coupling, which is an interpretation of the Tsallis entropy generalization, can be used to quantify this trade-off. The coupled-surprisal, -lnκ(p≡-(pκ-1/κ , is a generalization of Shannon surprisal or the logarithmic scoring rule, given a forecast p of a true event by an inferencing algorithm. The coupling parameter κ=1-q, where q is the Tsallis entropy index, is the degree of nonlinear coupling between statistical states. Positive (negative values of nonlinear coupling decrease (increase the surprisal information metric and thereby biases the risk in favor of decisive (robust algorithms relative to the Shannon surprisal (κ=0. We show that translating the average coupled-surprisal to an effective probability is equivalent to using the generalized mean of the true event probabilities as a scoring rule. The metric is used to assess the robustness, accuracy, and decisiveness of a fusion algorithm. We use a two-parameter fusion algorithm to combine input probabilities from N sources. The generalized mean parameter ‘alpha’ varies the degree of smoothing and raising to a power Νβ with β between 0 and 1 provides a model of correlation.

  16. A risk profile for information fusion algorithms

    CERN Document Server

    Nelson, Kenric P; Landau, Herbert

    2011-01-01

    E.T. Jaynes emphasized that there is an inevitable trade-off between the conflicting requirements of robustness and accuracy for any inferencing algorithm. This is because robustness requires discarding of information in order to reduce the sensitivity to outliers. The principal of nonlinear statistical coupling, which is an interpretation of the Tsallis entropy generalization, can be used to quantify this trade-off. The coupled-surprisal, -ln_k (p)=-(p^k-1)/k, is a generalization of Shannon surprisal or the logarithmic scoring rule, given a forecast p of a true event by an inferencing algorithm. The coupling parameter k=1-q, where q is the Tsallis entropy index, is the degree of nonlinear coupling between statistical states. Positive (negative) values of nonlinear coupling decrease (increase) the surprisal information metric and thereby biases the risk in favor of decisive (robust) algorithms relative to the Shannon surprisal (k=0). We show that translating the average coupled-surprisal to an effective proba...

  17. Air pollution from household solid fuel combustion in India: an overview of exposure and health related information to inform health research priorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balakrishnan, Kalpana; Ramaswamy, Padmavathi; Sambandam, Sankar; Thangavel, Gurusamy; Ghosh, Santu; Johnson, Priscilla; Mukhopadhyay, Krishnendu; Venugopal, Vidhya; Thanasekaraan, Vijayalakshmi

    2011-01-01

    Environmental and occupational risk factors contribute to nearly 40% of the national burden of disease in India, with air pollution in the indoor and outdoor environment ranking amongst leading risk factors. It is now recognized that the health burden from air pollution exposures that primarily occur in the rural indoors, from pollutants released during the incomplete combustion of solid fuels in households, may rival or even exceed the burden attributable to urban outdoor exposures. Few environmental epidemiological efforts have been devoted to this setting, however. We provide an overview of important available information on exposures and health effects related to household solid fuel use in India, with a view to inform health research priorities for household air pollution and facilitate being able to address air pollution within an integrated rural-urban framework in the future.

  18. Development of corrosion risk map for Peninsular Malaysia using climatic and air pollution data

    Science.gov (United States)

    U, Fathoni; M, Zakaria C.; O, Rohayu C.

    2013-06-01

    Malaysia has catapulted to an era of major transition. This rapid transition has also cause impact to the environment. The human activities contribute to pollutions. Buildings and it component's performances are affected directly or indirectly by air pollutions and climate factors. It has triggering and accelerating degradation processes. When deterioration start, service life of the buildings and its components will decrease. This paper presents initial development of corrosion risk map for Peninsular Malaysia using Geographical Information System (GIS). The air pollution and climate data obtained from Malaysia Meteorology Department (MMD). The air pollution data was the salt ion deposition of nitrate, chloride and sulphate in a form of wet fall out (WFO). The corrosion risk map generated using geographical information system (GIS) using inverse distance weighing (IDW) and weighted overlay method. It found that the corrosion risk map can be generated with further site verification and it can be used by engineers for further prediction of service life of building components in achieving sustainable construction design.

  19. IMPORTANCE OF FINANCIAL AUDIT IN LOWERING INFORMATIONAL RISK

    OpenAIRE

    Gabriela JINGA

    2009-01-01

    The financial audit enables the credibility of the financial statements to be improved, from both accountants and financial information users’ standpoints. This audit is required to provide information quality control. The article is intended to submit the causes involved in the occurrence of the informational risk as well as in the ways to lower risks.

  20. Can the Air Pollution Index be used to communicate the health risks of air pollution?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; Lin, Guo-Zhen; Liu, Hua-Zhang; Guo, Yuming; Ou, Chun-Quan; Chen, Ping-Yan

    2015-10-01

    The validity of using the Air Pollution Index (API) to assess health impacts of air pollution and potential modification by individual characteristics on air pollution effects remain uncertain. We applied distributed lag non-linear models (DLNMs) to assess associations of daily API, specific pollution indices for PM10, SO2, NO2 and the weighted combined API (APIw) with mortality during 2003-2011 in Guangzhou, China. An increase of 10 in API was associated with a 0.88% (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.50, 1.27%) increase of non-accidental mortality at lag 0-2 days. Harvesting effects appeared after 2 days' exposure. The effect estimate of API over lag 0-15 days was statistically significant and similar with those of pollutant-specific indices and APIw. Stronger associations between API and mortality were observed in the elderly, females and residents with low educational attainment. In conclusion, the API can be used to communicate health risks of air pollution.

  1. Risk Management of Large RC Structures within Spatial Information System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qin, Jianjun; Faber, Michael Havbro

    2012-01-01

    subject to corrosion and geographical information system based risk modeling concerning large‐scale risk management. The term “risk management” here refers in particular to the process of condition assessment and optimization of the inspection and repair activities. The SIS facilitates the storage......Abstract: The present article addresses the development of a spatial information system (SIS), which aims to facilitate risk management of large‐scale concrete structures. The formulation of the SIS is based on ideas developed in the context of indicator‐based risk modeling for concrete structures...... and handling of all relevant information to the risk management. The probabilistic modeling utilized in the condition assessment takes basis in a Bayesian hierarchical modeling philosophy. It facilitates the updating of risks as well as optimizing inspection plans whenever new information about the condition...

  2. Risk informed decision-making in nuclear power plants (1)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kil Yoo; Kang, Dae Il

    2000-11-01

    The risk insight resulted from Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) is used in risk-informed decision-making including in-service inspection, in-service testing, graded quality assurance, and technical specification. This report is introducing the state of the art of the risk-informed decision-making. The contents of 1998 final version of U.S. regulatory guide concerning the risk informed decision-making are described. This report is also introducing U.S. maintenance rule since it is closely related to the risk informed desision-making. Research results of risk-informed in-service testing and technical specification optimization applided to Korean nuclear power plants are described.

  3. Indoor air quality environmental information handbook: Combustion sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-06-01

    This environmental information handbook was prepared to assist both the non-technical reader (i.e., homeowner) and technical persons (such as researchers, policy analysts, and builders/designers) in understanding the current state of knowledge regarding combustion sources of indoor air pollution. Quantitative and descriptive data addressing the emissions, indoor concentrations, factors influencing indoor concentrations, and health effects of combustion-generated pollutants are provided. In addition, a review of the models, controls, and standards applicable to indoor air pollution from combustion sources is presented. The emphasis is on the residential environment. The data presented here have been compiled from government and privately-funded research results, conference proceedings, technical journals, and recent publications. It is intended to provide the technical reader with a comprehensive overview and reference source on the major indoor air quality aspects relating to indoor combustion activities, including tobacco smoking. In addition, techniques for determining potential concentrations of pollutants in residential settings are presented. This is an update of a 1985 study documenting the state of knowledge of combustion-generated pollutants in the indoor environment. 191 refs., 51 figs., 71 tabs.

  4. Managing information risk a director's guide

    CERN Document Server

    Mitchell, Stewart

    2009-01-01

    This pocket guide addresses the scope of risks involved in a modern IT system, and outlines strategies for working through the process of putting risk management at the heart of your corporate culture. Given that no two companies are the same, this pocket guide should not be taken as a step-by-step guide, but should provide decision makers with a solid overview of the factors they need to consider and a framework for implementing a regime that suits their needs.

  5. Information security risk management for ISO27001/ISO27002

    CERN Document Server

    Calder, A; Watkins, S

    2010-01-01

    Drawing on international best practice, including ISO/IEC 27005, NIST SP800-30 and BS7799-3, the book explains in practical detail how to carry out an information security risk assessment. It covers key topics, such as risk scales, threats and vulnerabilities, selection of controls, and roles and responsibilities, and includes advice on choosing risk assessment software.

  6. Risk Informed Design as Part of the Systems Engineering Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deckert, George

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the importance of Risk Informed Design (RID) as an important feature of the systems engineering process. RID is based on the principle that risk is a design commodity such as mass, volume, cost or power. It also reviews Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) as it is used in the product life cycle in the development of NASA's Constellation Program.

  7. Optimization Alternatives of Information Systems for Risk Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iulia APOSTOL-MAURER

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The focus of this article lies on synthesizing the requirements a risk management information system should meet in order to ensure an efficient risk management within a company, but also on presenting the architecture of the information system proposed by the author, from a structural point of view as well as from the background of the data integration alternatives.

  8. Information draft on the development of air standards for acrylonitrile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-01-01

    Acrylonitrile is a colourless liquid with a faintly sweet and pungent odour. It is widely used as a chemical intermediate in a variety of industrial and commercial products such as acrylic and modacrylic fibres, plastics, styrene-acrylonitrile, nitrile rubber resins, and acrylamide. Although not currently produced in Canada, acrylonitrile is used in the manufacture of industrial and commercial products. Acrylonitrile levels around end-use plants have been found to be significantly higher than at producing facilities. Almost all releases of acrylonitrile are to the atmosphere and one facility is responsible for all releases in Ontario. Human exposure is through air, water and food. Acrylonitrile is absorbed by inhalation, through the mouth and to some extent through the skin. Exposure at concentrations of 7 to 45 microgram/cubic meter for 20 to 45 minutes leads to irritation of the mucous membranes, nausea, headaches, and irritability. Low-grade anaemia, leukocytosis, kidney irritation and mild jaundice have also been observed. Children are more sensitive than adults. Acrylonitrile is classified as probable human carcinogen by the US Environmental Protection Agency. The current ambient air quality criterion (AAQC) in Ontario is 100 microgram/cubic metre and the half-hour interim point of impingement (POI) standard is 300 microgram/cubic meter. Review of world-wide literature showed the existence of standards in several American states. Cancer unit risks estimates have been made by the US Environmental Protection Agency as well as by the World Health Organization. 63 refs., 1 tab., appendix.

  9. Toward Obtaining Reliable Particulate Air Quality Information from Satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strawa, A. W.; Chatfield, R. B.; Legg, M.; Esswein, R.; Justice, E.

    2009-12-01

    Air quality agencies use ground sites to monitor air quality, providing accurate information at particular points. Using measurements from satellite imagery has the potential to provide air quality information in a timely manner with better spatial resolution and at a lower cost that can also useful for model validation. While previous studies show acceptable correlations between Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) derived from MODIS and surface Particulate Matter (PM) measurements on the eastern US, the data do not correlate well in the western US (Al-Saadi et al., 2005; Engle-Cox et al., 2004) . This paper seeks to improve the AOD-PM correlations by using advanced statistical analysis techniques. Our study area is the San Joaquin Valley in California because air quality in this region has failed to meet state and federal attainment standards for PM for the past several years. A previous investigation found good correlation of the AOD values between MODIS, MISR and AERONET, but poor correlations (R2 ~ 0.02) between satellite-based AOD and surface PM2.5 measurements. PM2.5 measurements correlated somewhat better (R2 ~ 0.18) with MODIS-derived AOD using the Deep Blue surface reflectance algorithm (Hsu et al., 2006) rather than the standard MODIS algorithm. This level of correlation is not adequate for reliable air quality measurements. Pelletier et al. (2007) used generalized additive models (GAMs) and meteorological data to improve the correlation between PM and AERONET AOD in western Europe. Additive models are more flexible than linear models and the functional relationships can be plotted to give a sense of the relationship between the predictor and the response. In this paper we use GAMs to improve surface PM2.5 to MODIS-AOD correlations. For example, we achieve an R2 ~ 0.44 using a GAM that includes the Deep Blue AOD, and day of year as parameters. Including NOx observations, improves the R2 ~ 0.64. Surprisingly Ångström exponent did not prove to be a significant

  10. MTHFR Gene Polymorphism-Mutations and Air Pollution as Risk Factors for Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales, Mildred C.; Yu, Pojui; Shiao, S. Pamela K.

    2017-01-01

    Background The methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene (MTHFR) is one of the most investigated genes associated with breast cancer for its role in epigenetic pathways. Objectives The objectives of this metaprediction study were to examine the polymorphism-mutation risk subtypes of MTHFR and air pollution as contributing factors for breast cancer. Methods For triangulation purposes in metapredictive analyses, we used a recursive partition tree, nonlinear association curve fit, and heat maps for data visualization, in addition to the conventional comparison procedure and pooled analyses. Results We included 36,683 breast cancer cases and 40,689 controls across 82 studies for MTHFR 677 and 23,252 cases and 27,094 controls across 50 studies for MTHFR 1298. MTHFR 677 TT was a risk genotype for breast cancer (p = .0004) and in the East Asian subgroup (p = .005). On global maps, the most polymorphism-mutations on MTHFR 677 TT were found in the Middle East, Europe, Asia, and the Americas, whereas the most mutations on MTHFR 1298 CC were located in Europe and the Middle East for the control group. The geographic information system maps further revealed that MTHFR 677 TT mutations yielded a higher risk of breast cancer for Australia, East Asia, the Middle East, South Europe, Morocco, and the Americas and that MTHFR 1298 CC mutations yielded a higher risk in Asia, the Middle East, South Europe, and South America. Metapredictive analysis revealed that air pollution level was significantly associated with MTHFR 677 TT polymorphism-mutation genotype. Discussion We present the most comprehensive analyses to date of MTHFR polymorphism-mutations and breast cancer risk. Future nursing studies are needed to investigate the health impact on breast cancer of epigenetics and air pollution across populations. PMID:28114181

  11. Development of an indoor air quality checklist for risk assessment of indoor air pollutants by semiquantitative score in nonindustrial workplaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syazwan AI

    2012-04-01

    employers, workers, and assessors in understanding a wide range of important elements in the indoor air environment to promote awareness in nonindustrial workplaces.Methods: The general structure of and specific items in the IAQ checklist were discussed in a focus group meeting with IAQ assessors based upon the result of a literature review, previous industrial code of practice, and previous interviews with company employers and workers.Results: For practicality and validity, several sessions were held to elicit the opinions of company members, and, as a result, modifications were made. The newly developed IAQ checklist was finally formulated, consisting of seven core areas, nine technical areas, and 71 essential items. Each item was linked to a suitable section in the Industry Code of Practice on Indoor Air Quality published by the Department of Occupational Safety and Health.Conclusion: Combined usage of an IAQ checklist with the information from the Industry Code of Practice on Indoor Air Quality would provide easily comprehensible information and practical support. Intervention and evaluation studies using this newly developed IAQ checklist will clarify the effectiveness of a new approach in evaluating the risk of indoor air pollutants in the workplace.Keywords: action checklist, aggregated risk index (ARI, qualitative, reliability, SME, enterprise, indoor environmental quality (IEQ, sick building syndrome, indoor air quality assessment

  12. Information draft on the development of air standards for methanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-01-01

    Methanol is a clear, colourless. very mobile liquid with a slightly alcoholic odour in pure form, but a repulsive pungent odour in crude form. Methanol is the raw material in the production of many gasoline additives, is used as a solvent or antifreeze in paint strippers, aerosol spray paints, wall paints, carburetor cleaners, and car windshield washer compounds. Methanol is one of the top pollutants by release quantities in Ontario, the highest release being generated by the pulp and paper industry. Other large emissions come from the plastics and synthetic resin industry. Total release to the air in Canada was 3,668 tonnes in 1996 and the top ten methanol emitting facilities were in Ontario. Methanol is readily absorbed through inhalation, ingestion and skin exposures. Once absorbed, it is oxidized to formaldehyde and then to formic acid. Common symptoms of exposure are visual disturbances, dizziness, nausea, vertigo, pain in the extremities, and headaches. No information was found as to the carcinogenicity of methanol to humans or animals. Current Ontario half-hour POI standard for methanol is 84,000 microgram/cubic meter and the 24-hour AAQC is 28,000 microgram/cubic meter. Both values were established more than 20 years ago. Review of relevant literature, summarized in this report, indicates that five US states have promulgated air quality guidelines or reference exposure levels for methanol, based on occupational exposure limits. The US Environmental Protection Agency is currently reviewing its reference concentration value for methanol. The World Health Organization and the Canadian federal government have not set air quality guidelines for methanol. 37 refs., 1 tab., appendix.

  13. Air pollution in perspective : Health risks of air pollution expressed in equivalent numbers of passively smoked cigarettes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Zee, Saskia C; Fischer, Paul H; Hoek, Gerard

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Although the health effects of long term exposure to air pollution are well established, it is difficult to effectively communicate the health risks of this (largely invisible) risk factor to the public and policy makers. The purpose of this study is to develop a method that expresses th

  14. Information resource use and need in risk assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turturro, A. [National Center for Toxicological Research, Jefferson, AR (United States)

    1990-12-31

    The manner in which the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) uses information resources comprises an interesting illustration of federal agency information use. A description of the context in which risk assessment occurs within the FDA is followed by a discussion of information access and use, as well as a practical example.

  15. 40 CFR 2.301 - Special rules governing certain information obtained under the Clean Air Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... information obtained under the Clean Air Act. 2.301 Section 2.301 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... governing certain information obtained under the Clean Air Act. (a) Definitions. For the purpose of this section: (1) Act means the Clean Air Act, as amended, 42 U.S.C. 7401 et seq. (2)(i) Emission data...

  16. Risk assessment activities at NIOSH: Information resources and needs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stayner, L.T.; Meinhardt, T.; Hardin, B. [National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    1990-12-31

    Under the Occupational Safety and Health, and Mine Safety and Health Acts, the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) is charged with development of recommended occupational safety and health standards, and with conducting research to support the development of these standards. Thus, NIOSH has been actively involved in the analysis of risk associated with occupational exposures, and in the development of research information that is critical for the risk assessment process. NIOSH research programs and other information resources relevant to the risk assessment process are described in this paper. Future needs for information resources are also discussed.

  17. Air pollution epidemiology. Assessment of health effects and risks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katsouyanni, K. [Athens Univ. (Greece). Dept. of Hygiene and Epidemiology

    1995-12-31

    Air pollution epidemiology is the study of the occurrence and distribution of health outcomes in association with community air pollution exposure. It is therefore specific in the exposure variable. Air pollution health effects became evident during high air pollution episodes which occurred in the first decades of our century. Since then, legal and other control measures have led to lower air pollution levels. However, recent results from several studies indicate that lower levels of air pollution than the previously considered safe have serious adverse health effects. Although, there is increasingly agreement that air pollution, at levels measured today, affects health, there is still a lot to be understood concerning specific causal pollutants, biologic mechanisms involved and sensitive groups of individuals. The extent of potential confounding, time-considerations in air pollution effects, individual variation in air pollution exposure and exposure misclassification are some factors which complicate the study of these issues. (author)

  18. Information security risk management for computerized health information systems in hospitals: a case study of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zarei J

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Javad Zarei,1 Farahnaz Sadoughi2 1Health Information Management, Health Management and Economics Research Center, School of Health Management and Information Science, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Islamic Republic of Iran, 2Health Information Management Department, School of Health Management and Information Science, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Islamic Republic of Iran Background: In recent years, hospitals in Iran – similar to those in other countries – have experienced growing use of computerized health information systems (CHISs, which play a significant role in the operations of hospitals. But, the major challenge of CHIS use is information security. This study attempts to evaluate CHIS information security risk management at hospitals of Iran.Materials and methods: This applied study is a descriptive and cross-sectional research that has been conducted in 2015. The data were collected from 551 hospitals of Iran. Based on literature review, experts’ opinion, and observations at five hospitals, our intensive questionnaire was designed to assess security risk management for CHISs at the concerned hospitals, which was then sent to all hospitals in Iran by the Ministry of Health.Results: Sixty-nine percent of the studied hospitals pursue information security policies and procedures in conformity with Iran Hospitals Accreditation Standards. At some hospitals, risk identification, risk evaluation, and risk estimation, as well as risk treatment, are unstructured without any specified approach or methodology. There is no significant structured approach to risk management at the studied hospitals.Conclusion: Information security risk management is not followed by Iran’s hospitals and their information security policies. This problem can cause a large number of challenges for their CHIS security in future. Therefore, Iran’s Ministry of Health should develop practical policies to improve information security

  19. Effects of alternative styles of risk information on EMF risk perception

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jesper Bo; Elstein, Arthur; Gyrd-Hansen, Dorte

    2010-01-01

    Risk scenarios characterized by exposures to new technologies with unknown health effects, together with limited appreciation of benefits pose a challenge to risk communication. The present report illustrates this situation through a study of the perceived risk from mobile phones and mobile masts...... is that lay people rate information about risks associated with a new and largely unknown technology more useful and trustworthy when provided with brief statements about how to handle the risk, rather than more lengthy technical information about why the technology may or may not entail health hazards...... in residential areas. Good information should objectively convey the current state of knowledge. The research question is then how to inform lay people so that they trust and understand the information. We used an Internet-based survey with 1687 Danish participants randomized to three types of information about...

  20. Using Financial Instruments to Transfer the Information Security Risks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pankaj Pandey

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available For many individuals and organizations, cyber-insurance is the most practical and only way of handling a major financial impact of an information security event. However, the cyber-insurance market suffers from the problem of information asymmetry, lack of product diversity, illiquidity, high transaction cost, and so on. On the other hand, in theory, capital market-based financial instruments can provide a risk transfer mechanism with the ability to absorb the adverse impact of an information security event. Thus, this article addresses the limitations in the cyber-(reinsurance markets with a set of capital market-based financial instruments. This article presents a set of information security derivatives, namely options, vanilla options, swap, and futures that can be traded at an information security prediction market. Furthermore, this article demonstrates the usefulness of information security derivatives in a given scenario and presents an evaluation of the same in comparison with cyber-insurance. In our analysis, we found that the information security derivatives can at least be a partial solution to the problems in the cyber-insurance markets. The information security derivatives can be used as an effective tool for information elicitation and aggregation, cyber risk pricing, risk hedging, and strategic decision making for information security risk management.

  1. 77 FR 58590 - Determining Technical Adequacy of Probabilistic Risk Assessment for Risk-Informed License...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-21

    ... COMMISSION Determining Technical Adequacy of Probabilistic Risk Assessment for Risk-Informed License... NUREG-0800, ``Standard Review Plan for the Review of Safety Analysis Reports for Nuclear Power Plants: LWR Edition,'' Section 19.1, ``Determining the Technical Adequacy of Probabilistic Risk Assessment...

  2. Extracting additional risk managers information from a risk assessment of Listeria monocytogenes in deli meats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pérez-Rodríguez, F.; Asselt, van E.D.; García-Gimeno, R.M.; Zurera, G.; Zwietering, M.H.

    2007-01-01

    The risk assessment study of Listeria monocytogenes in ready-to-eat foods conducted by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration is an example of an extensive quantitative microbiological risk assessment that could be used by risk analysts and other scientists to obtain information and by managers and s

  3. Mortality weighting-based method for aggregate urban air risk assessment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qing-yu ZHANG; Guo-jin SUN; Wei-li TIAN; Yu-mei WEI; Si-mai FANG; Jin-feng RUAN; Guo-rong SHAN; Yao SHI

    2011-01-01

    This paper deals with a mortality-weighted synthetic evaluation (MWSE) method for evaluating urban air risk.Sulphur dioxide (SO2),nitrogen oxide (NOx),and particulate matter (PM10) were used as pollution indices.The urban area of Hangzhou,China is divided into 756 grid cells,with a resolution of 1 km× 1 km,and is evaluated using the MWSE and the air quality index (AQI),a widely-used method to evaluate ambient air quality and air risk.In an evaluation of one day in April 2004,the surface areas categorized as levels Ⅰ and Ⅲ,as defined by the integrated air risk evaluation,were 27.3% and 3.3% lower,respectively,than grades Ⅰ and Ⅲ defined by the AQI evaluation.Meanwhile,the areas classified as level Ⅱ or above level Ⅲ by the integrated air risk evaluation were 55.1% and 101.1% higher,respectively,than grade Ⅱ or above grade Ⅲ when using the AQI evaluation.From this comparison,we find that the MWSE method is more sensitive than the AQI method.The AQI method uses a single index to assess integrated air quality and is therefore unable to evaluate integrated air risks due to multiple pollutants.The MWSE method overcomes this problem,providing improved accuracy in air risk assessment.

  4. The function of credibility in information processing for risk perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trumbo, Craig W; McComas, Katherine A

    2003-04-01

    This study examines how credibility affects the way people process information and how they subsequently perceive risk. Three conceptual areas are brought together in this analysis: the psychometric model of risk perception, Eagly and Chaiken's heuristic-systematic information processing model, and Meyer's credibility index. Data come from a study of risk communication in the circumstance of state health department investigations of suspected cancer clusters (five cases, N = 696). Credibility is assessed for three information sources: state health departments, citizen groups, and industries involved in each case. Higher credibility for industry and the state directly predicts lower risk perception, whereas high credibility for citizen groups predicts greater risk perception. A path model shows that perceiving high credibility for industry and state-and perceiving low credibility for citizen groups-promotes heuristic processing, which in turn is a strong predictor of lower risk perception. Alternately, perceiving industry and the state to have low credibility also promotes greater systematic processing, which consistently leads to perception of greater risk. Between a one-fifth and one-third of the effect of credibility on risk perception is shown to be indirectly transmitted through information processing.

  5. Toxicology and risk assessment information resources for librarians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stirling, D A

    2000-01-01

    Many librarians work with toxicologists and risk assessors seeking information about chemicals and hazardous substances of concern to human health and the environment. Therefore, this article reviews reliable, accurate, readily accessible, and user-friendly sources of toxicological and risk assessment information. A summary and description of pertinent toxicological data, literature, and profile sources is presented. The majority of the resources are available online; however, descriptions of several important print sources are included.

  6. What can individuals do to reduce personal health risks from air pollution?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laumbach, Robert; Meng, Qingyu; Kipen, Howard

    2015-01-01

    In many areas of the world, concentrations of ambient air pollutants exceed levels associated with increased risk of acute and chronic health problems. While effective policies to reduce emissions at their sources are clearly preferable, some evidence supports the effectiveness of individual actions to reduce exposure and health risks. Personal exposure to ambient air pollution can be reduced on high air pollution days by staying indoors, reducing outdoor air infiltration to indoors, cleaning indoor air with air filters, and limiting physical exertion, especially outdoors and near air pollution sources. Limited evidence suggests that the use of respirators may be effective in some circumstances. Awareness of air pollution levels is facilitated by a growing number of public air quality alert systems. Avoiding exposure to air pollutants is especially important for susceptible individuals with chronic cardiovascular or pulmonary disease, children, and the elderly. Research on mechanisms underlying the adverse health effects of air pollution have suggested potential pharmaceutical or chemopreventive interventions, such as antioxidant or antithrombotic agents, but in the absence of data on health outcomes, no sound recommendations can be made for primary prevention. Health care providers and their patients should carefully consider individual circumstances related to outdoor and indoor air pollutant exposure levels and susceptibility to those air pollutants when deciding on a course of action to reduce personal exposure and health risks from ambient air pollutants. Careful consideration is especially warranted when interventions may have unintended negative consequences, such as when efforts to avoid exposure to air pollutants lead to reduced physical activity or when there is evidence that dietary supplements, such as antioxidants, have potential adverse health effects. These potential complications of partially effective personal interventions to reduce exposure or

  7. Learning to communicate risk information in groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsuchi Ting

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite vigorous research on risk communication, little is known about the social forces that drive these choices. Erev, Wallsten, and Neal (1991 showed that forecasters learn to select verbal or numerical probability estimates as a function of which mode yields on average the larger group payoffs. We extend the result by investigating the effect of group size on the speed with which forecasters converge on the better communication mode. On the basis of social facilitation theory we hypothesized that small groups induce less arousal and anxiety among their members than do large groups when performing new tasks, and therefore that forecasters in small groups will learn the better communication mode more quickly. This result obtained in Experiment 1, which compared groups of size 3 to groups of size 5 or 6. To test whether social loafing rather than social facilitation was mediating the effects, Experiment 2 compared social to personal feedback holding group size constant at 3 members. Learning was faster in the personal feedback condition, suggesting that social facilitation rather than loafing underlay the results.

  8. Group Decision-Making Information Security Risk Assessment Based on AHP and Information Entropy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuowen Tan

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The phenomenon of over-reliance on subjective assignment is a challenging task in the information security risk assessment process. This study deals with this problem. We have presented a group decisionmaking information security risk assessment method by combining Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP with Information entropy. When AHP is used to assess the security risk of information systems, the elements of the Criteria level are the risk probability, impact and uncontrollability. The priorities of the Alternatives as risk factors with respect to the Criteria level are determined by applying the group decision-making approach. And the experts’ weights are obtained through information entropy. The experts’ judgments are aggregated into a consensus matrix. The consensus matrix reduces the subjectivity of judgments due to the experts’ preferences.

  9. An Information Diffusion Technique for Fire Risk Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘静; 黄崇福

    2004-01-01

    There are many kinds of fires occurring under different conditions. For a specific site, it is difficult to collect sufficient data for analyzing the fire risk. In this paper, we suggest an information diffusion technique to analyze fire risk with a small sample. The information distribution method is applied to change crisp observations into fuzzy sets, and then to effectively construct a fuzzy relationship between fire and surroundings. With the data of Shanghai in winter, we show how to use the technique to analyze the fire risk.

  10. A historical perspective of risk-informed regulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, P.L.

    1996-12-01

    In Federal studies, the process of using risk information is described as having two general components: (1) risk assessment - the application of credible scientific principles and statistical methods to develop estimates of the likely effects of natural phenomena and human factors and the characterization of these estimates in a form appropriate for the intended audience (e.g., agency decisionmakers, public); and (2) risk management - the process of weighing policy alternatives and selecting the most appropriate regulatory action, integrating the results of risk assessment with engineering data with social, economic, and political concerns to reach a decision. This paper discusses largely the second component.

  11. Risks, Information and Short-Run Timber Supply

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Rinaldi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Efforts to increase wood mobilization have highlighted the need to appraise drivers of short-run timber supply. The current study aims to shed further light on harvesting decisions of private forest owners, by investigating optimal harvesting under uncertainty, when timber revenues are invested on financial markets and uncertainty is mitigated by news releases. By distinguishing between aggregate economic risk and sector specific risks, the model studies in great detail optimal harvesting-investment decisions, with particular emphasis on the non-trivial transmission of risk on optimal harvesting, and on the way private forest owners react to news and information. The analysis of the role played by information in harvesting decisions is a novelty in forest economic theory. The presented model is highly relevant from a policy—information is a commonly used forest policy instrument—as well as a practical perspective, since the mechanism of risk transmission is at the basis of timber pricing.

  12. An Investigation Of Organizational Information Security Risk Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zack Jourdan

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite a growing number and variety of information security threats, many organizations continue to neglect implementing information security policies and procedures.  The likelihood that an organization’s information systems can fall victim to these threats is known as information systems risk (Straub & Welke, 1998.  To combat these threats, an organization must undergo a rigorous process of self-analysis. To better understand the current state of this information security risk analysis (ISRA process, this study deployed a questionnaire using both open-ended and closed ended questions administered to a group of information security professionals (N=32.  The qualitative and quantitative results of this study show that organizations are beginning to conduct regularly scheduled ISRA processes.  However, the results also show that organizations still have room for improvement to create idyllic ISRA processes. 

  13. Using Financial Instruments to Transfer the Information Security Risks

    OpenAIRE

    Pankaj Pandey; Einar Snekkenes

    2016-01-01

    For many individuals and organizations, cyber-insurance is the most practical and only way of handling a major financial impact of an information security event. However, the cyber-insurance market suffers from the problem of information asymmetry, lack of product diversity, illiquidity, high transaction cost, and so on. On the other hand, in theory, capital market-based financial instruments can provide a risk transfer mechanism with the ability to absorb the adverse impact of an information...

  14. Identification of risk factors of computer information technologies in education.

    OpenAIRE

    Hrebniak M.P.; Shchudro S.A.; Yakimova K.O.

    2014-01-01

    The basic direction of development of secondary school and vocational training is computer training of schoolchildren and students, including distance forms of education and widespread usage of world information systems. The purpose of the work is to determine risk factors for schoolchildren and students, when using modern information and computer technologies. Results of researches allowed to establish dynamics of formation of skills using computer information technologies in education and c...

  15. 76 FR 60020 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Ambient Air...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-28

    ... AGENCY Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Ambient Air... pollution control agencies, and tribal entities which collect and report ambient air quality data for the criteria pollutants to the EPA as well as other supporting measurements. Title: Ambient Air...

  16. Communicating genetic risk information within families: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiseman, Mel; Dancyger, Caroline; Michie, Susan

    2010-12-01

    This review of family communication of genetic risk information addresses questions of what the functions and influences on communication are; what, who and how family members are told about genetic risk information; what the impact for counsellee, relative and relationships are; whether there are differences by gender and condition; and what theories and methodologies are used. A systematic search strategy identified peer-reviewed journal articles published 1985-2009 using a mixture of methodologies. A Narrative Synthesis was used to extract and summarise data relevant to the research questions. This review identified 33 articles which found a consistent pattern of findings that communication about genetic risk within families is influenced by individual beliefs about the desirability of communicating genetic risk and by closeness of relationships within the family. None of the studies directly investigated the impact of communication on counsellees or their families, differences according to gender of counsellee or by condition nor alternative methods of communication with relatives. The findings mainly apply to late onset conditions such as Hereditary Breast and Ovarian Cancer. The most frequently used theory was Family Systems Theory and methods were generally qualitative. This review points to multifactorial influences on who is communicated with in families and what they are told about genetic risk information. Further research is required to investigate the impact of genetic risk information on family systems and differences between genders and conditions.

  17. Biological risk factors in informal recyclers of Medellin city, 2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviana L. Ballesteros

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The informal recyclers constitute a vulnerable population to problems of health by their constant exhibition to biological, chemical, physical and social risks, without protection. Objective: this work identify the biological risk facts to which the informal recyclers of the Bazaar of the Bridges of Medellin city. Methods: it was performed a Cross-sectional study. The sample was no probabilistic with 88 recyclers and the analysis unit was the informal recycler. It was applied a survey, a guide of observation of the activity of the recycler and were studied variables of person, place, time, type of biological risk facts, frequency of exhibition, felt morbidity and measures of protection. The analysis was statistical descriptive. Results: it was identified biological risk facts related to the contact with material in decomposition (96.6%, contaminated material (96.6%, animals (62.5% and arthropoda (79.5%. The se The se--curity measures to protect them from biological risk facts are used in less than 52% of recyclers; in addition, only 13.6% of the population were vaccinated, which increases the probability of becoming ill in this population. Conclusions: that the informal recyclers are exposed to different biological risk facts with little prevention, causing that population be vulnerable for the acquisition of infectious diseases.

  18. Information Uncertainty to Compare Qualitative Reasoning Security Risk Assessment Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chavez, Gregory M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Key, Brian P [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Zerkle, David K [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Shevitz, Daniel W [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    The security risk associated with malevolent acts such as those of terrorism are often void of the historical data required for a traditional PRA. Most information available to conduct security risk assessments for these malevolent acts is obtained from subject matter experts as subjective judgements. Qualitative reasoning approaches such as approximate reasoning and evidential reasoning are useful for modeling the predicted risk from information provided by subject matter experts. Absent from these approaches is a consistent means to compare the security risk assessment results. Associated with each predicted risk reasoning result is a quantifiable amount of information uncertainty which can be measured and used to compare the results. This paper explores using entropy measures to quantify the information uncertainty associated with conflict and non-specificity in the predicted reasoning results. The measured quantities of conflict and non-specificity can ultimately be used to compare qualitative reasoning results which are important in triage studies and ultimately resource allocation. Straight forward extensions of previous entropy measures are presented here to quantify the non-specificity and conflict associated with security risk assessment results obtained from qualitative reasoning models.

  19. Are passive smoking, air pollution and obesity a greater mortality risk than major radiation incidents?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith Jim T

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Following a nuclear incident, the communication and perception of radiation risk becomes a (perhaps the major public health issue. In response to such incidents it is therefore crucial to communicate radiation health risks in the context of other more common environmental and lifestyle risk factors. This study compares the risk of mortality from past radiation exposures (to people who survived the Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bombs and those exposed after the Chernobyl accident with risks arising from air pollution, obesity and passive and active smoking. Methods A comparative assessment of mortality risks from ionising radiation was carried out by estimating radiation risks for realistic exposure scenarios and assessing those risks in comparison with risks from air pollution, obesity and passive and active smoking. Results The mortality risk to populations exposed to radiation from the Chernobyl accident may be no higher than that for other more common risk factors such as air pollution or passive smoking. Radiation exposures experienced by the most exposed group of survivors of Hiroshima and Nagasaki led to an average loss of life expectancy significantly lower than that caused by severe obesity or active smoking. Conclusion Population-averaged risks from exposures following major radiation incidents are clearly significant, but may be no greater than those from other much more common environmental and lifestyle factors. This comparative analysis, whilst highlighting inevitable uncertainties in risk quantification and comparison, helps place the potential consequences of radiation exposures in the context of other public health risks.

  20. Hurricane risk management and climate information gatekeeping in southeast Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treuer, G.; Bolson, J.

    2013-12-01

    will not occur until a major hurricane hits the region, despite the cost effectiveness of preemptive interventions. It is assumed that after a hurricane the political risks will shift. New policies will be tried and new infrastructure will be built. Many municipalities and agencies are creating "shovel ready" plans in advance to take advantage of post-catastrophe funds. How do the design of these plans reflect perceptions of legal and political risk? Will they do a good job of reducing scientific risk by addressing long term physical threats? In this study we identify specific challenges to climate adaptation in Florida and explore how local and regional water management decision makers balance physical, legal, and political risks in their planning. A primary risk management tool is the strategic use of information. Through targeted interviews with stakeholders we identify key information gatekeepers and their strategies for reducing multiple types of risk.

  1. The impact of information on perceived air quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilkins, K.; Wolkoff, Peder; Knudsen, Henrik Nellemose

    2007-01-01

    As indoor air quality complaints cannot be explained satisfactorily and building materials can be a major source of indoor air pollution, we hypothesized that emissions from building materials perceived as unfamiliar or annoying odors may contribute to such complaints. To test this hypothesis...

  2. Health Risk Information Engagement and Amplification on Social Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strekalova, Yulia A

    2017-04-01

    Emerging pandemics call for unique health communication and education strategies in which public health agencies need to satisfy the public's information needs about possible risks while preventing risk exaggeration and dramatization. As a route to providing a framework for understanding public information behaviors in response to an emerging pandemic, this study examined the characteristics of communicative behaviors of social media audiences in response to Ebola outbreak news. Grounded in the social amplification of risks framework, this study adds to an understanding of information behaviors of online audiences by showing empirical differences in audience engagement with online health information. The data were collected from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Facebook channel. The final data set included 809 CDC posts and 35,916 audience comments. The analysis identified the differences in audience information behaviors in response to an emerging pandemic, Ebola, and health promotion posts. While the CDC had fewer posts on Ebola than health promotion topics, the former received more attention from active page users. Furthermore, audience members who actively engaged with Ebola news had a small overlap with those who engaged with non-Ebola information during the same period. Overall, this study demonstrated that information behavior and audience engagement is topic dependent. Furthermore, audiences who commented on news about an emerging pandemic were homogenous and varied in their degree of information amplification.

  3. The effect of quality of information on systematic risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Ghorbanpour

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available One of the primary concerns on stock market is the risk associated with securities. There are different attempts devoted to detect and reduce any existing risk and provide necessary action to reduce them as much as possible. In this paper, we study the relationship between quality of earnings and systematic risk as well as cost of capital. The proposed study of this paper uses the information of 150 firms listed on Tehran Stock Exchange and using multiple regression technique examines two hypotheses based on yearly information over the period 2006-2010. The results of our survey indicate that as the quality of earnings increase, the risk as well as the cost of capital decrease.

  4. OpenAIRE Guidelines for CRIS Managers: Supporting Interoperability of Open Research Information through Established Standards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Houssos, Nikos; Jörg, Brigitte; Dvořák, Jan;

    2014-01-01

    their information in a way that is compatible with OpenAIRE. This contribution focuses on a specific type of data source, CRIS systems, and the respective OpenAIRE guidelines, based on CERIF XML. A range of issues, spanning different aspects of information representation and exchange, needed to be addressed...... by the guidelines in order to define a complete solution for interoperability....

  5. Air pollution information needs and the knowledge, attitudes and behaviour of Canadians : final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-01-01

    In the fall of 2001, the Environics Research Group conducted a national survey of 1,213 Canadians in order to provide Health Canada with public opinion on clean air issues. The topic areas included: concerns regarding air pollution; level of concern regarding air pollution; willingness for personal action; roles and responsibilities of government, industry and individuals; determinants of health; perceived effects of air pollution on health; personal health conditions; receipt of advice on the relationship between air pollution and health; information needs and preferred channels of information; familiarity with the air quality index; and, perceived sources of air pollution. According to survey results, Canadians think air pollution, pollution in general, and water quality are the most important environmental problems. They are most concerned about the manufacture, use and disposal of toxic chemicals, water quality and air quality, and less concerned about the depletion of the ozone layer and the use of biotechnology in agriculture and food products. Results suggest that most Canadians believe that air pollution significantly affects the health of Canadians. Approximately 25 per cent of Canadians feel they suffer from respiratory problems resulting from air pollution. In general, they think indoor and outdoor air pollution have equal effect on their health. The survey also indicated that Canadians think government regulations and enforcement are more effective in combating air pollution than voluntary action by individuals or companies. tabs., figs.

  6. Exploration of health risks related to air pollution and temperature in three Latin American cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Lankao, Patricia; Qin, Hua; Borbor-Cordova, Mercy

    2013-04-01

    This paper explores whether the health risks related to air pollution and temperature extremes are spatially and socioeconomically differentiated within three Latin American cities: Bogota, Colombia, Mexico City, Mexico, and Santiago, Chile. Based on a theoretical review of three relevant approaches to risk analysis (risk society, environmental justice, and urban vulnerability as impact), we hypothesize that health risks from exposure to air pollution and temperature in these cities do not necessarily depend on socio-economic inequalities. To test this hypothesis, we gathered, validated, and analyzed temperature, air pollution, mortality and socioeconomic vulnerability data from the three study cities. Our results show the association between air pollution levels and socioeconomic vulnerabilities did not always correlate within the study cities. Furthermore, the spatial differences in socioeconomic vulnerabilities within cities do not necessarily correspond with the spatial distribution of health impacts. The present study improves our understanding of the multifaceted nature of health risks and vulnerabilities associated with global environmental change. The findings suggest that health risks from atmospheric conditions and pollutants exist without boundaries or social distinctions, even exhibiting characteristics of a boomerang effect (i.e., affecting rich and poor alike) on a smaller scale such as areas within urban regions. We used human mortality, a severe impact, to measure health risks from air pollution and extreme temperatures. Public health data of better quality (e.g., morbidity, hospital visits) are needed for future research to advance our understanding of the nature of health risks related to climate hazards.

  7. Exposure information in environmental health research: Current opportunities and future directions for particulate matter, ozone, and toxic air pollutants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKone, Thomas E.; Ryan, P. Barry; Ozkaynak, Haluk

    2007-02-01

    Understanding and quantifying outdoor and indoor sources of human exposure are essential but often not adequately addressed in health-effects studies for air pollution. Air pollution epidemiology, risk assessment, health tracking and accountability assessments are examples of health-effects studies that require but often lack adequate exposure information. Recent advances in exposure modeling along with better information on time-activity and exposure factors data provide us with unique opportunities to improve the assignment of exposures for both future and ongoing studies linking air pollution to health impacts. In September 2006, scientists from the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) along with scientists from the academic community and state health departments convened a symposium on air pollution exposure and health in order to identify, evaluate, and improve current approaches for linking air pollution exposures to disease. This manuscript presents the key issues, challenges and recommendations identified by the exposure working group, who used cases studies of particulate matter, ozone, and toxic air pollutant exposure to evaluate health-effects for air pollution. One of the over-arching lessons of this workshop is that obtaining better exposure information for these different health-effects studies requires both goal-setting for what is needed and mapping out the transition pathway from current capabilities to meeting these goals. Meeting our long-term goals requires definition of incremental steps that provide useful information for the interim and move us toward our long-term goals. Another over-arching theme among the three different pollutants and the different health study approaches is the need for integration among alternate exposure assessment approaches. For example, different groups may advocate exposure indicators, biomonitoring, mapping methods (GIS), modeling, environmental media

  8. Considerations on Risk in Supply Chain Management Information Systems Implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentin-Petru Măzăreanu

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Innovation in information and communication technologies resulted in the digital revolution. This kind of revolution is changing the way people work, learn, communicate and manage their businesses. Due to the need to achieve the competitive advantage and to meet the business requirements, we are witnessing an increasing shift from business to e-business and mobile business. In this kind of world solutions like Supply Chain Management (SCM are increasingly appearing. The business success depends on how effective the information system works. Any interruption of the information system will inevitably lead to business loss. To ensure the successful implementation of a SCM project it is necessary to study even from the early stages which are the possible actions / risks / obstacles which might damage in one way or another the execution of the project. The role of the literature and case studies review in the field of interest is undeniable because it provides us with access to the so-called lessons-learned. By using this approach, in this paper, we present the most common risks and risk sources encountered in the implementation projects of SCM type information systems. We also propose a risk identification framework that can be used in the early stages of the implementation project of a Supply Chain Management information system.

  9. Identification of risk factors of computer information technologies in education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hrebniak M.P.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The basic direction of development of secondary school and vocational training is computer training of schoolchildren and students, including distance forms of education and widespread usage of world information systems. The purpose of the work is to determine risk factors for schoolchildren and students, when using modern information and computer technologies. Results of researches allowed to establish dynamics of formation of skills using computer information technologies in education and characteristics of mental ability among schoolchildren and students during training in high school. Common risk factors, while operating CIT, are: intensification and formalization of intellectual activity, adverse ergonomic parameters, unfavorable working posture, excess of hygiene standards by chemical and physical characteristics. The priority preventive directions in applying computer information technology in education are: improvement of optimal visual parameters of activity, rationalization of ergonomic parameters, minimizing of adverse effects of chemical and physical conditions, rationalization of work and rest activity.

  10. Ergonomic, psychosocial factors and risks at work in informal mining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Nunes Alves de Sousa

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to identify ergonomic and psychosocial factors, and risks at informal work in the mining sector of the State of Paraíba, Brazil, from miners' perspective. A cross-sectional and descriptive study was conducted with 371 informal mining workers. They responded two questionnaires for assessing work performed in three dimensions: ergonomic factors; psychosocial factors; and occupational risks. The scores of the items of each dimension were added so that, the higher the score, the lower workers' satisfaction related to the area investigated. The results indicated that noise was common in the working environment (66%. Most workers (54.7% pointed out that the work was too hard and that it required attention and reasoning (85.7%. The workers emphasized the lack of training for working in mining (59.3% and few of them regarded the maintenance of the workplace as a component to prevent lumbago (32.3%. Risk of accidents was pointed out as the factor that needed increased attention in daily work (56.6%. All occupational risks were mentioned, including physical and chemical risks. There was significant correlation between age and occupational risks, indicating that the greater the age, the greater the perception of harmful agents (ρ = -0.23; p < 0.01. In the end, it was observed that, to a greater or lesser degree, all workers perceived ergonomic and psychosocial factors, and risks in informal mining. Length of service and age were the features that interfered significantly with the understanding of those factors and occupational risks.

  11. Risk-informed Maintenance for Non-coherent Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Ye

    Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) is a systematic and comprehensive methodology to evaluate risks associated with a complex engineered technological entity. The information provided by PSA has been increasingly implemented for regulatory purposes but rarely used in providing information for operation and maintenance activities. As one of the key parts in PSA, Fault Tree Analysis (FTA) attempts to model and analyze failure processes of engineering and biological systems. The fault trees are composed of logic diagrams that display the state of the system and are constructed using graphical design techniques. Risk Importance Measures (RIMs) are information that can be obtained from both qualitative and quantitative aspects of FTA. Components within a system can be ranked with respect to each specific criterion defined by each RIM. Through a RIM, a ranking of the components or basic events can be obtained and provide valuable information for risk-informed decision making. Various RIMs have been applied in various applications. In order to provide a thorough understanding of RIMs and interpret the results, they are categorized with respect to risk significance (RS) and safety significance (SS) in this thesis. This has also tied them into different maintenance activities. When RIMs are used for maintenance purposes, it is called risk-informed maintenance. On the other hand, the majority of work produced on the FTA method has been concentrated on failure logic diagrams restricted to the direct or implied use of AND and OR operators. Such systems are considered as coherent systems. However, the NOT logic can also contribute to the information produced by PSA. The importance analysis of non-coherent systems is rather limited, even though the field has received more and more attention over the years. The non-coherent systems introduce difficulties in both qualitative and quantitative assessment of the fault tree compared with the coherent systems. In this thesis, a set

  12. Trust and Risk in Games of Partial Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robin Clark

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Games of partial information have been used to explicate Gricean implicature; their solution concept has been murky, however. In this paper, I will develop a simple solution concept that can be used to solve games of partial information, depending on the players' mutual trust and tolerance for risk. In addition, I will develop an approach to non-conventional quantity implicatures that relies on "face" (Goffman (1967, Brown and Levinson (1987.

  13. Racial Differences in Perceptions of Air Pollution Health Risk: Does Environmental Exposure Matter?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayajit Chakraborty

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article extends environmental risk perception research by exploring how potential health risk from exposure to industrial and vehicular air pollutants, as well as other contextual and socio-demographic factors, influence racial/ethnic differences in air pollution health risk perception. Our study site is the Greater Houston metropolitan area, Texas, USA—a racially/ethnically diverse area facing high levels of exposure to pollutants from both industrial and transportation sources. We integrate primary household-level survey data with estimates of excess cancer risk from ambient exposure to industrial and on-road mobile source emissions of air toxics obtained from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Statistical analysis is based on multivariate generalized estimation equation models which account for geographic clustering of surveyed households. Our results reveal significantly higher risk perceptions for non-Hispanic Black residents and those exposed to greater cancer risk from industrial pollutants, and also indicate that gender influences the relationship between race/ethnicity and air pollution risk perception. These findings highlight the need to incorporate measures of environmental health risk exposure in future analysis of social disparities in risk perception.

  14. Do pregnant women have a higher risk for venous thromboembolism following air travel?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morteza Izadi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available International travel has become increasingly common and accessible, and it is part of everyday life in pregnant women. Venous thromboembolism (VTE is a serious public health disorder that occurs following long-haul travel, especially after air travel. The normal pregnancy is accompanied by a state of hypercoagulability and hypofibrinolysis. Thus, it seems that pregnant women are at a higher risk of VTE following air travel, and, if they have preexisting risk factors, this risk would increase. There is limited data about travel-related VTE in pregnant women; therefore, in the present study, we tried to evaluate the pathogenesis of thrombosis, association of thrombosis and air travel, risk factors and prevention of VTE in pregnant women based on available evidences. Pregnancy is associated with a five- to 10-fold increased risk of VTE compared with nonpregnant women; however, during the postpartum period, this risk would increase to 20-80-fold. Furthermore, the risk of thrombosis is higher in individuals with preexisting risk factors, and the most common risk factor for VTE during pregnancy is a previous history of VTE. Pregnant women are at a higher risk for thrombosis compared with other women. Thus, the prevention of VTE and additional risk factors should be considered for all pregnant women who travel by plane.

  15. Interpretation of Ambiguous Information in Girls at Risk for Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dearing, Karen F.; Gotlib, Ian H.

    2009-01-01

    Research has consistently documented that depressed individuals process information in a negatively biased manner. There is little evidence, however, concerning whether these biases represent risk factors for depression, as is hypothesized by cognitive models. In the present study we investigated whether a particular cognitive bias observed in…

  16. Young Women's Responses to Smoking and Breast Cancer Risk Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottorff, Joan L.; McKeown, Stephanie Barclay; Carey, Joanne; Haines, Rebecca; Okoli, Chizimuzo; Johnson, Kenneth C.; Easley, Julie; Ferrence, Roberta; Baillie, Lynne; Ptolemy, Erin

    2010-01-01

    Current evidence confirms that young women who smoke or who have regular long-term exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) have an increased risk of developing premenopausal breast cancer. The aim of this research was to examine the responses of young women to health information about the links between active smoking and SHS exposure and breast cancer…

  17. Using Climate Information for Disaster Risk Identification in Sri Lanka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubair, L.

    2004-12-01

    We have engaged in a concerted attempt to undertake research and apply earth science information for development in Sri Lanka, with a focus on climate sciences. Here, we provide details of an ongoing attempt to harness science for disaster identification as a prelude to informed disaster management. Natural disasters not only result in death and destruction but also undermine decades of development gains as highlighted by recent examples from Sri Lanka. First, in May 2003, flooding and landslides in the South-West led to 260 deaths, damage to 120,000 homes and destruction of schools, infrastructure and agricultural land. Second, on December 26, 2000, a cyclone in the North-Central region left 8 dead, 55,000 displaced, with severe damage to fishing, agriculture, infrastructure and cultural sites. Third, an extended island-wide drought in 2001 and 2002 resulted in a 2% drop in GDP. In the aftermath of these disasters, improved disaster management has been deemed to be urgent by the Government of Sri Lanka. In the past the primary policy response to disasters was to provide emergency relief. It is increasingly recognized that appropriate disaster risk management, including risk assessment, preventive measures to reduce losses and improved preparedness, can help reduce death, destruction and socio-economic disruption. The overwhelming majority of hazards in Sri Lanka - droughts, floods, cyclones and landslides -have hydro-meteorological antecedents. Little systematic advantage has, however, been taken of hydro-meteorological information and advances in climate prediction for disaster management. Disaster risks are created by the interaction between hazard events and vulnerabilities of communities, infrastructure and economically important activities. A comprehensive disaster risk management system encompasses risk identification, risk reduction and risk transfer. We undertook an identification of risks for Sri Lanka at fine scale with the support of the Global Disaster

  18. Willingness to pay for mortality risk reduction associated with air pollution in São Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramon Arigoni Ortiz

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological studies report significant association between air pollution and cardiovascular and respiratory mortality. Governmental intervention is required to implement policies aiming to increase air quality, and cost-benefit analysis can be useful to evaluate such policies. Reductions in risks of death are arguably the most important benefit underlying air-quality policies, and therefore need to be valued in money terms. This paper presents a contingent valuation study conducted in São Paulo to estimate the population's willingness to pay (WTP to reduce their risk of death and the correspondent value of a statistical life (VSL. Results ranged between US$ 0.77 - US$ 6.1 million.

  19. Distribution and Room Air Mixing Risks to Retrofitted Homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burdick, A. [IBACOS, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2014-12-01

    Energy efficiency upgrades reduce heating and cooling loads on a house. With enough load reduction and if the HVAC system warrants replacement, the HVAC system is often upgraded with a more efficient, lower capacity system that meets the loads of the upgraded house. For a single-story house with ceiling supply air diffusers, ducts are often removed and upgraded. For houses with ducts that are embedded in walls, the cost of demolition precludes the replacement of ducts. The challenge with the use of existing ducts is that the reduced airflow creates a decreased throw at the supply registers, and the supply air and room air do not mix well, leading to potential thermal comfort complaints. This project investigates this retrofit scenario. The issues and solutions discussed here are relevant to all climate zones, with emphasis on climates that require cooling.

  20. Health risks following ingestion of mercury and zinc air batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolan, M; Tucker, I

    1981-01-01

    This paper reports on a study set up to assess the corrosive behaviour of mercury and zinc air batteries in the gastric juice environment of the stomach. The results show a relatively rapid rate of corrosion for charged mercury batteries. In contrast, the zinc air battery showed no visible corrosion under the same conditions. In view of the toxic dangers from leakage of mercury batteries, it is recommended that steps be taken to ensure that such batteries do not remain in the acidic environment of the stomach, should ingestion occur.

  1. [Attaching importance to study on acute health risk assessment and adaptation of air pollution and climate change].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, X M

    2017-03-10

    Air pollution and climate change have become key environmental and public health problems around the world, which poses serious threat to human health. How to assess and mitigate the health risks and increase the adaptation of the public have become an urgent topic of research in this area. The six papers in this issue will provide important and rich information on design, analysis method, indicator selection and setting about acute health risk assessment and adaptation study of air pollution and climate change in China, reflecting the advanced conceptions of multi-center and area-specific study and multi-pollutant causing acute effect study. However, the number and type of the cities included in these studies were still limited. In future, researchers should further expand detailed multi-center and multi-area study coverage, conduct area specific predicting and early warning study and strengthen adaptation study.

  2. Distribution and Room Air Mixing Risks to Retrofitted Homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burdick, A. [IBACOS, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2014-12-01

    An energy efficiency upgrade reduces a home’s heating and cooling load. If the load reduction is great enough and the heating, ventilation, and air conditioning system warrants replacement, that system is often upgraded with a more efficient, lower capacity system that meets the load of the upgraded house. For a single-story house with floor supply air diffusers, the ducts often are removed and upgraded. For houses with ducts that are embedded in walls, the cost of demolition precludes the replacement of ducts. The challenge with the use of existing ducts is that the reduced airflow creates a decreased throw at the supply registers, and the supply air and room air do not mix well, leading to potential thermal comfort complaints. This project investigates this retrofit scenario. The issues and solutions discussed here are relevant to all climate zones, with emphasis on climates that require cooling. In this project, IBACOS performed load calculations for a two-story 1960s house and characterized duct sizes and layouts based on industry “rules of thumb” (Herk et al. 2014). The team performed duct-sizing calculations for unaltered ducts and post-retrofit airflows and examined airflow velocities and pressure changes with respect to various factors. The team then used a mocked-up duct and register setup to measure the characteristics of isothermal air—to reduce the effects of buoyancy from the observations—passing through the duct and leaving the register.

  3. Particulate matter air pollution components and risk for lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raaschou-Nielsen, O.; Beelen, Rob; Wang, M.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Particulate matter (PM) air pollution is a human lung carcinogen; however, the components responsible have not been identified. We assessed the associations between PM components and lung cancer incidence. METHODS: We used data from 14 cohort studies in eight European countries. We ge...

  4. Drug safety in pregnancy: utopia or achievable prospect? Risk information, risk research and advocacy in Teratology Information Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, Christof

    2011-03-01

    Even though from preclinical testing to drug risk labeling, the situation with drugs in pregnancy has improved substantially since the thalidomide scandal, there is still an increasing need to provide healthcare professionals and patients with updated individualized risk information for clinical decision making. For the majority of drugs, clinical experience is still insufficient with respect to their safety in pregnancy. There is often uncertainty in how to interpret the available scientific data. Based on 20 years of experience with Teratology Information Services (TIS) cooperating in the European Network of Teratology Information Services (ENTIS) methods of risk interpretation, follow-up of exposed pregnancies through the consultation process and their evaluation is discussed. Vitamin K antagonists, isotretinoin and angiotensin (AT) II-receptor-antagonists are presented as examples of misinterpretation of drug risks and subjects of research based on observational clinical data recorded in TIS. As many TIS are poorly funded, advocacy is necessary by establishing contacts with decision makers in health politics and administration, informing them of the high return in terms of health outcomes and cost savings provided by TIS as reference institutions in clinical teratology.

  5. [EVALUATION OF THE AIR POLLUTION HEALTH RISK FOR THE POPULATION OF THE CITY OF UFA].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuenkova, G A; Karelin, A O; Askarov, R A; Askarova, Z F

    2015-01-01

    There are presented results of the calculation of carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic risks due to the impact of chemical air pollutants for the human health of a large industrial city. Maximal levels of carcinogenic hazards under inhalation route of substances from the air were established to be noted on gasoline, manganese, sulfur dioxide, copper oxide, formaldehyde. In the formation of carcinogenic risk the greatest contribution is made by chromium, gasoline, formaldehyde, benzol. The risk of non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic effects for the population of the city continues to remain to be high, that requires the development and implementation of planned recreational measures.

  6. Rare disaster information can increase risk-taking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newell, Ben R.; Rakow, Tim; Yechiam, Eldad; Sambur, Michael

    2016-02-01

    The recent increase in the frequency and impact of natural disasters highlights the need to provide the public with accurate information concerning disaster prevalence. Most approaches to this problem assume that providing summaries of the nature and scale of disasters will lead people to reduce their exposure to risk. Here we present experimental evidence that such ex post `news reports’ of disaster occurrences can increase the tolerance for risk-taking (which implies that rare events are underweighted). This result is robust across several hundred rounds of choices in a simulated microworld, persists even when the long-run expected value of risky choices is substantially lower than safe choices, and is contingent on providing risk information about disasters that have been (personally) experienced and those that have been avoided (`forgone’ outcomes). The results suggest that augmenting personal experience with information summaries of the number of adverse events (for example, storms, floods) in different regions may, paradoxically, increase the appeal of a disaster-prone region. This finding implies a need to communicate long-term trends in severe climatic events, thereby reinforcing the accumulation of events, and the increase in their associated risks, across time.

  7. MATHEMATICAL MODEL FOR CALCULATION OF INFORMATION RISKS FOR INFORMATION AND LOGISTICS SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. G. Korobeynikov

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Subject of research. The paper deals with mathematical model for assessment calculation of information risks arising during transporting and distribution of material resources in the conditions of uncertainty. Meanwhile information risks imply the danger of origin of losses or damage as a result of application of information technologies by the company. Method. The solution is based on ideology of the transport task solution in stochastic statement with mobilization of mathematical modeling theory methods, the theory of graphs, probability theory, Markov chains. Creation of mathematical model is performed through the several stages. At the initial stage, capacity on different sites depending on time is calculated, on the basis of information received from information and logistic system, the weight matrix is formed and the digraph is under construction. Then there is a search of the minimum route which covers all specified vertexes by means of Dejkstra algorithm. At the second stage, systems of differential Kolmogorov equations are formed using information about the calculated route. The received decisions show probabilities of resources location in concrete vertex depending on time. At the third stage, general probability of the whole route passing depending on time is calculated on the basis of multiplication theorem of probabilities. Information risk, as time function, is defined by multiplication of the greatest possible damage by the general probability of the whole route passing. In this case information risk is measured in units of damage which corresponds to that monetary unit which the information and logistic system operates with. Main results. Operability of the presented mathematical model is shown on a concrete example of transportation of material resources where places of shipment and delivery, routes and their capacity, the greatest possible damage and admissible risk are specified. The calculations presented on a diagram showed

  8. Risk perception of nuclear energy and the effect of information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, Caroline

    2000-08-01

    Results from 4 studies are reported. A mixture of survey, experimental and quasi-experimental designs and a variety of samples (undergraduates, postgraduates and graduates of Nottingham University, visitors to Sellafield and a random national UK sample) were used to examine risk perceptions of nuclear energy. The roles of risk, benefit, preference, knowledge, control, trust, attitudes, intentions to act and personality, in relation to nuclear energy, were examined. A survey study examined and explored the above-mentioned variables. Then experimental and quasi-experimental studies were devised using a BNFL video advert, a BNFL written newspaper advert and BNFL's Sellafield Visitors' Centre (SVC), to test the effectiveness of information on these variables. Through pre-post experimental and quasi-experimental studies, it was shown that levels of knowledge could be increased through information. This increase was also seen to be sustained over time, especially when people engaged in their learning environment (reading a newspaper or going to Sellafield). Regarding levels of knowledge, passively watching a video had a significant but very small effect. Changes in attitudes were also recorded, although these were only sustained over time for the Visitors' Centre. Concerning the other variables in question, changes in perceived risk, perceived benefit and preference were also recorded for the samples, although these results either could not be attributed to the different types of information, were not sustained or were no different to observations in the control groups. Some changes were recorded for aspects of control in the advert study although none were seen in the SVC study. No changes were found in trust for any of the different types of information. The main, consistent finding, was that sustained changes were recorded for knowledge and attitudes. These were both found to be linked to many of the variables under investigation, including risk

  9. Combined effects of road traffic noise and ambient air pollution in relation to risk for stroke?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Mette; Lühdorf, Pernille; Ketzel, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to road traffic noise and air pollution have both been associated with risk for stroke. The few studies including both exposures show inconsistent results. We aimed to investigate potential mutual confounding and combined effects between road traffic noise and air pollution in association...... to 2009 were identified in national registers and road traffic noise and air pollution were modeled for all addresses. Analyses were done using Cox regression. A higher mean annual exposure at time of diagnosis of 10µg/m(3) nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and 10dB road traffic noise at the residential address...... was found for combination of high noise and high NO2 (IRR=1.28; 95% CI=1.09-1.52). Fatal stroke was positively associated with air pollution and not with traffic noise. In conclusion, in mutually adjusted models road traffic noise and not air pollution was associated ischemic stroke, while only air...

  10. Traffic, Air Pollution, Minority and Socio-Economic Status: Addressing Inequities in Exposure and Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory C. Pratt

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Higher levels of nearby traffic increase exposure to air pollution and adversely affect health outcomes. Populations with lower socio-economic status (SES are particularly vulnerable to stressors like air pollution. We investigated cumulative exposures and risks from traffic and from MNRiskS-modeled air pollution in multiple source categories across demographic groups. Exposures and risks, especially from on-road sources, were higher than the mean for minorities and low SES populations and lower than the mean for white and high SES populations. Owning multiple vehicles and driving alone were linked to lower household exposures and risks. Those not owning a vehicle and walking or using transit had higher household exposures and risks. These results confirm for our study location that populations on the lower end of the socio-economic spectrum and minorities are disproportionately exposed to traffic and air pollution and at higher risk for adverse health outcomes. A major source of disparities appears to be the transportation infrastructure. Those outside the urban core had lower risks but drove more, while those living nearer the urban core tended to drive less but had higher exposures and risks from on-road sources. We suggest policy considerations for addressing these inequities.

  11. Traffic, Air Pollution, Minority and Socio-Economic Status: Addressing Inequities in Exposure and Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, Gregory C.; Vadali, Monika L.; Kvale, Dorian L.; Ellickson, Kristie M.

    2015-01-01

    Higher levels of nearby traffic increase exposure to air pollution and adversely affect health outcomes. Populations with lower socio-economic status (SES) are particularly vulnerable to stressors like air pollution. We investigated cumulative exposures and risks from traffic and from MNRiskS-modeled air pollution in multiple source categories across demographic groups. Exposures and risks, especially from on-road sources, were higher than the mean for minorities and low SES populations and lower than the mean for white and high SES populations. Owning multiple vehicles and driving alone were linked to lower household exposures and risks. Those not owning a vehicle and walking or using transit had higher household exposures and risks. These results confirm for our study location that populations on the lower end of the socio-economic spectrum and minorities are disproportionately exposed to traffic and air pollution and at higher risk for adverse health outcomes. A major source of disparities appears to be the transportation infrastructure. Those outside the urban core had lower risks but drove more, while those living nearer the urban core tended to drive less but had higher exposures and risks from on-road sources. We suggest policy considerations for addressing these inequities. PMID:25996888

  12. Traffic, air pollution, minority and socio-economic status: addressing inequities in exposure and risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, Gregory C; Vadali, Monika L; Kvale, Dorian L; Ellickson, Kristie M

    2015-05-19

    Higher levels of nearby traffic increase exposure to air pollution and adversely affect health outcomes. Populations with lower socio-economic status (SES) are particularly vulnerable to stressors like air pollution. We investigated cumulative exposures and risks from traffic and from MNRiskS-modeled air pollution in multiple source categories across demographic groups. Exposures and risks, especially from on-road sources, were higher than the mean for minorities and low SES populations and lower than the mean for white and high SES populations. Owning multiple vehicles and driving alone were linked to lower household exposures and risks. Those not owning a vehicle and walking or using transit had higher household exposures and risks. These results confirm for our study location that populations on the lower end of the socio-economic spectrum and minorities are disproportionately exposed to traffic and air pollution and at higher risk for adverse health outcomes. A major source of disparities appears to be the transportation infrastructure. Those outside the urban core had lower risks but drove more, while those living nearer the urban core tended to drive less but had higher exposures and risks from on-road sources. We suggest policy considerations for addressing these inequities.

  13. Evaluation of Risk Perception and Risk-Comparison Information Regarding Dietary Radionuclides after the 2011 Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant Accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Michio; Nakatani, Jun; Oki, Taikan

    2016-01-01

    In the wake of the 2011 Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station accident, to facilitate evidence-based risk communication we need to understand radiation risk perception and the effectiveness of risk-comparison information. We measured and characterized perceptions of dread risks and unknown risks regarding dietary radionuclides in residents of Fukushima, Tokyo, and Osaka to identify the primary factors among location, evacuation experience, gender, age, employment status, absence/presence of spouse, children and grandchildren, educational background, humanities/science courses, smoking habits, and various types of trustworthy information sources. We then evaluated the effects of these factors and risk-comparison information on multiple outcomes, including subjective and objective understanding, perceived magnitude of risk, perceived accuracy of information, backlash against information, and risk acceptance. We also assessed how risk-comparison information affected these multiple outcomes for people with high risk perception. Online questionnaires were completed by people (n = 9249) aged from 20 to 69 years in the three prefectures approximately 5 years after the accident. We gave each participant one of 15 combinations of numerical risk data and risk-comparison information, including information on standards, smoking-associated risk, and cancer risk, in accordance with Covello's guidelines. Dread-risk perception among Fukushima residents with no experience of evacuation was much lower than that in Osaka residents, whereas evacuees had strikingly higher dread-risk perception, irrespective of whether their evacuation had been compulsory or voluntary. We identified location (distance from the nuclear power station), evacuation experience, and trust of central government as primary factors. Location (including evacuation experience) and trust of central government were significantly associated with the multiple outcomes above. Only information on "cancer risk from

  14. Eielson Air Force Base Operable Unit 2 baseline risk assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, R.E.; Jarvis, T.T.; Jarvis, M.R.; Whelan, G.

    1994-10-01

    Operable Unit 2 at Eielson Air Force Base (AFB) near Fairbanks, is one of several operable units characterized by petroleum, oil, and lubricant contamination, and by the presence of organic products floating at the water table, as a result of Air Force operations since the 1940s. The base is approximately 19,270 acres in size, and comprises the areas for military operations and a residential neighborhood for military dependents. Within Operable Unit 2, there are seven source areas. These source areas were grouped together primarily because of the contaminants released and hence are not necessarily in geographical proximity. Source area ST10 includes a surface water body (Hardfill Lake) next to a fuel spill area. The primary constituents of concern for human health include benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (BTEX). Monitored data showed these volatile constituents to be present in groundwater wells. The data also showed an elevated level of trace metals in groundwater.

  15. The Apheis project: Air Pollution and Health—A European Information System

    OpenAIRE

    Medina, Sylvia; Le Tertre, Alain; Saklad, Michael; ,

    2009-01-01

    At a time when the Health Effects Institute, Centers for Disease Control, and Environmental Protection Agency are creating an Environmental Public Health Tracking Program on Air Pollution Effects in the USA, it seemed useful to share the experience acquired since 1999 by the Apheis project (Air Pollution and Health—A European Information System), which has tracked the effects of air pollution on health in 26 European cities and continues to do so as the new Aphekom project. In particular, thi...

  16. Artificial Cold Air Increases the Cardiovascular Risks in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baojian Wang

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose was to investigate the effects of artificial cold air on cardiovascular risk in hypertensive subjects. An artificial cold air was simulated with hourly ambient temperature data of a real moderate cold air in China. Twenty-four male SHR rats were randomly divided into the minimum temperature (Tmin group, the rewarming temperature (Tr group and two concurrent control groups with six rats in each (Tmin and Tr represent two cold air time points, respectively. Tmin and Tr groups were exposed to the cold air that was stopped at Tmin and Tr, respectively. After cold air exposure, blood pressure, heart rate and body weight were monitored, blood was collected for the detection of some indexes like fibrinogen, total cholesterol and uric acid. Results demonstrated that blood pressure, whole blood viscosity, blood fibrinogen, total cholesterol and uric acid increased significantly both in the Tmin and Tr groups; low density lipoprotein/high density lipoprotein increased significantly only in Tr group; there was higher level of blood fibrinogen in the Tr group than the Tmin group; higher levels of creatine kinase-MB was found in both the Tmin and Tr groups. These results suggest that cold air may increase the cardiovascular risks in hypertensive subjects indirectly through its effects on the sympathetic nervous system and renin angiotensin system, blood pressure and atherosclerosis risk factors like blood viscosity and fibrinogen, lipids and uric acid in the blood.

  17. Characterization of biological aerosol exposure risks from automobile air conditioning system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Li, Mingzhen; Shen, Fangxia; Zou, Zhuanglei; Yao, Maosheng; Wu, Chang-yu

    2013-09-17

    Although use of automobile air conditioning (AC) was shown to reduce in-vehicle particle levels, the characterization of its microbial aerosol exposure risks is lacking. Here, both AC and engine filter dust samples were collected from 30 automobiles in four different geographical locations in China. Biological contents (bacteria, fungi, and endotoxin) were studied using culturing, high-throughput gene sequence, and Limulus amebocyte lysate (LAL) methods. In-vehicle viable bioaerosol concentrations were directly monitored using an ultraviolet aerodynamic particle sizer (UVAPS) before and after use of AC for 5, 10, and 15 min. Regardless of locations, the vehicle AC filter dusts were found to be laden with high levels of bacteria (up to 26,150 CFU/mg), fungi (up to 1287 CFU/mg), and endotoxin (up to 5527 EU/mg). More than 400 unique bacterial species, including human opportunistic pathogens, were detected in the filter dusts. In addition, allergenic fungal species were also found abundant. Surprisingly, unexpected fluorescent peaks around 2.5 μm were observed during the first 5 min use of AC, which was attributed to the reaerosolization of those filter-borne microbial agents. The information obtained here can assist in minimizing or preventing the respiratory allergy or infection risk from the use of automobile AC system.

  18. Prebiotic Competition between Information Variants, With Low Error Catastrophe Risks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radu Popa

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available During competition for resources in primitive networks increased fitness of an information variant does not necessarily equate with successful elimination of its competitors. If variability is added fast to a system, speedy replacement of pre-existing and less-efficient forms of order is required as novel information variants arrive. Otherwise, the information capacity of the system fills up with information variants (an effect referred as “error catastrophe”. As the cost for managing the system’s exceeding complexity increases, the correlation between performance capabilities of information variants and their competitive success decreases, and evolution of such systems toward increased efficiency slows down. This impasse impedes the understanding of evolution in prebiotic networks. We used the simulation platform Biotic Abstract Dual Automata (BiADA to analyze how information variants compete in a resource-limited space. We analyzed the effect of energy-related features (differences in autocatalytic efficiency, energy cost of order, energy availability, transformation rates and stability of order on this competition. We discuss circumstances and controllers allowing primitive networks acquire novel information with minimal “error catastrophe” risks. We present a primitive mechanism for maximization of energy flux in dynamic networks. This work helps evaluate controllers of evolution in prebiotic networks and other systems where information variants compete.

  19. Do air quality targets really represent safe limits for lung cancer risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buonanno, G; Stabile, L; Morawska, L; Giovinco, G; Querol, X

    2017-02-15

    In order to estimate the lung cancer risk associated to airborne particles, exposure and risk-assessment studies ordinarily use particle mass concentration as dosimetry parameter. Consequently, the corresponding air quality targets are based on this metrics, neglecting the potential impact of ultrafine particles (UFPs) due to their negligible mass. The main purpose of this study was to evaluate the reliability of air quality targets in protecting Italian non-smoking people from lung cancer risk due to exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and some heavy metals associated with particle inhalation. A modified risk-assessment scheme was applied to estimate the cancer risk contribution from both sub-micron (mainly UFPs) and super-micron particles. We found a very high lung cancer risk related to the actual target levels due to the contribution of UFPs, in particular from indoor microenvironments. Therefore, as possible actions to reduce the lung cancer risk, we have hypothesized and tested three different scenarios: a) a reduction of the concentration of carcinogenic chemicals condensed onto particles in agreement with the current EU air pollution policy; b) the use of local ventilation systems to mitigate the exposure to cooking-generated particles; c) the improvement of the overall indoor air quality by considering a mechanical ventilation system instead of the widespread natural ventilation in order to increase the air exchange rates. Even with the simultaneous application of specific actions, performed with the best technologies available, the corresponding estimated lifetime lung cancer risk (ELCR) values for the Italian population for the entire life were equal to 1.25×10(-4) and 1.23×10(-4) for males and females, respectively, well higher with respect to the maximum tolerable lifetime cancer risk, 1×10(-5).

  20. 19 CFR 122.48a - Electronic information for air cargo required in advance of arrival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Electronic information for air cargo required in... OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Aircraft Entry and Entry Documents; Electronic Manifest Requirements for Passengers, Crew Members, and Non-Crew Members...

  1. Evaluation of Risk Perception and Risk-Comparison Information Regarding Dietary Radionuclides after the 2011 Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant Accident

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Michio; Nakatani, Jun; Oki, Taikan

    2016-01-01

    In the wake of the 2011 Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station accident, to facilitate evidence-based risk communication we need to understand radiation risk perception and the effectiveness of risk-comparison information. We measured and characterized perceptions of dread risks and unknown risks regarding dietary radionuclides in residents of Fukushima, Tokyo, and Osaka to identify the primary factors among location, evacuation experience, gender, age, employment status, absence/presence of spouse, children and grandchildren, educational background, humanities/science courses, smoking habits, and various types of trustworthy information sources. We then evaluated the effects of these factors and risk-comparison information on multiple outcomes, including subjective and objective understanding, perceived magnitude of risk, perceived accuracy of information, backlash against information, and risk acceptance. We also assessed how risk-comparison information affected these multiple outcomes for people with high risk perception. Online questionnaires were completed by people (n = 9249) aged from 20 to 69 years in the three prefectures approximately 5 years after the accident. We gave each participant one of 15 combinations of numerical risk data and risk-comparison information, including information on standards, smoking-associated risk, and cancer risk, in accordance with Covello’s guidelines. Dread-risk perception among Fukushima residents with no experience of evacuation was much lower than that in Osaka residents, whereas evacuees had strikingly higher dread-risk perception, irrespective of whether their evacuation had been compulsory or voluntary. We identified location (distance from the nuclear power station), evacuation experience, and trust of central government as primary factors. Location (including evacuation experience) and trust of central government were significantly associated with the multiple outcomes above. Only information on “cancer risk from

  2. Forecasting Value-at-Risk Using High-Frequency Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huiyu Huang

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available in the prediction of quantiles of daily Standard&Poor’s 500 (S&P 500 returns we consider how to use high-frequency 5-minute data. We examine methods that incorporate the high frequency information either indirectly, through combining forecasts (using forecasts generated from returns sampled at different intraday interval, or directly, through combining high frequency information into one model. We consider subsample averaging, bootstrap averaging, forecast averaging methods for the indirect case, and factor models with principal component approach, for both direct and indirect cases. We show that in forecasting the daily S&P 500 index return quantile (Value-at-Risk or VaR is simply the negative of it, using high-frequency information is beneficial, often substantially and particularly so, in forecasting downside risk. Our empirical results show that the averaging methods (subsample averaging, bootstrap averaging, forecast averaging, which serve as different ways of forming the ensemble average from using high-frequency intraday information, provide an excellent forecasting performance compared to using just low-frequency daily information.

  3. Experimental climate information services in support of risk management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, R. S.; Pulwarty, R. S.; Davidson, M. A.; Shea, E. E.; Nierenberg, C.; Dole, R. M.

    2009-12-01

    Climate variability and change impact national and local economies and environments. Developing and communicating climate and climate impacts information to inform decision making requires an understanding of context, societal objectives, and identification of factors important to the management of risk. Information sensitive to changing baselines or extremes is a critical emergent need. Meeting this need requires timely production and delivery of useful climate data, information and knowledge within familiar pathways. We identify key attributes for a climate service , and the network and infrastructure to develop and coordinate the resulting services based on lessons learned in experimental implementations of climate services. "Service-type" activities already exist in many settings within federal, state, academic, and private sectors. The challenge for a climate service is to find effective implementation strategies for improving decision quality (not just meeting user needs). These strategies include upfront infrastructure investments, learning from event to event, coordinated innovation and diffusion, and highlighting common adaptation interests. Common to these strategies is the production of reliable and accessible data, analyses of emergent conditions and needs, and deliberative processes to identify appropriate entry points and uses for improved knowledge. Experimental climate services show that the development of well-structured paths among observations, projections, risk assessments and usable information requires sustained participation in “knowledge management systems” for early warning across temporal and spatial scales. Central to these systems is a collaborative framework between research and management to ensure anticipatory coordination between decision makers and information providers, allowing for emerging research findings and their attendant uncertainties to be considered. Early warnings in this context are not simply forecasts or

  4. HIPAA and information security risk: implementing an enterprise-wide risk management strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberts, Christopher J.; Dorofee, Audrey

    2001-08-01

    The Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) of 1996 effectively establishes a standard of due care for healthcare information security. One of the challenges of implementing policies, procedures, and practices consistent with HIPAA requirements in the Department of Defense Military Health System is the need for a method that can tailor the requirements to a variety of organizational contexts. This paper will describe a self- directed information security risk evaluation that will enable military healthcare providers to assess their risks and to develop mitigation strategies consistent with HIPAA guidelines.

  5. Informational uncertainties of risk assessment about accidents of chemicals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    An analysis system of informational uncertainties for accidental risk assessment of chemicals is introduced. Statistical test methods and fuzzy sets method can do the quantitative analysis of the input parameters. The uncertainties of the model can be used by quantitative compared method for the leakage accidents of chemicals. The estimation of the leaking time is important for discussing accidental source term. The uncertain analyses of the release accident for pipeline gas (CO) liquid chlorine and liquid propane gas (LPG) have been discussed.

  6. Air pollution, health and social deprivation: A fine-scale risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morelli, Xavier; Rieux, Camille; Cyrys, Josef; Forsberg, Bertil; Slama, Rémy

    2016-05-01

    Risk assessment studies often ignore within-city variations of air pollutants. Our objective was to quantify the risk associated with fine particulate matter (PM2.5) exposure in 2 urban areas using fine-scale air pollution modeling and to characterize how this risk varied according to social deprivation. In Grenoble and Lyon areas (0.4 and 1.2 million inhabitants, respectively) in 2012, PM2.5 exposure was estimated on a 10×10m grid by coupling a dispersion model to population density. Outcomes were mortality, lung cancer and term low birth weight incidences. Cases attributable to air pollution were estimated overall and stratifying areas according to the European Deprivation Index (EDI), taking 10µg/m(3) yearly average as reference (counterfactual) level. Estimations were repeated assuming spatial homogeneity of air pollutants within urban area. Median PM2.5 levels were 18.1 and 19.6μg/m(3) in Grenoble and Lyon urban areas, respectively, corresponding to 114 (5.1% of total, 95% confidence interval, CI, 3.2-7.0%) and 491 non-accidental deaths (6.0% of total, 95% CI 3.7-8.3%) attributable to long-term exposure to PM2.5, respectively. Attributable term low birth weight cases represented 23.6% of total cases (9.0-37.1%) in Grenoble and 27.6% of cases (10.7-42.6%) in Lyon. In Grenoble, 6.8% of incident lung cancer cases were attributable to air pollution (95% CI 3.1-10.1%). Risk was lower by 8 to 20% when estimating exposure through background stations. Risk was highest in neighborhoods with intermediate to higher social deprivation. Risk assessment studies relying on background stations to estimate air pollution levels may underestimate the attributable risk.

  7. Assessing the value of risk: Perspectives on the role of risk information in decision making

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Egan, M.; Smith, Graham; Maul, P. [QuantiSci Limited, Henley-on-Thames (United Kingdom)

    1999-12-01

    The authors of this paper profess no formal ethical or philosophical training from which to develop their position on Values in Decisions on Risk. However, as scientists with practical experience in carrying out a range of quantitative studies, we consider that we have some understanding of the strengths and weaknesses inherent in environmental risk assessment. Moreover, in attempting to use the results of such assessments, we have observed some of the ways in which quantitative risk information is used and abused. In this paper, therefore, we offer a practitioner's perspective that underlines the essential role of risk as a tool to inform and guide decisions, while at the same time emphasising the need for its proportionate use in a complex arena. We draw on experience that includes assessments for radioactive waste management and disposal, but also incorporates a range of assignments where assessment of the scale of potential environmental liabilities was a critical factor in decision making. We do not pretend to offer a resolution to the challenges laid before this Symposium, but seek to explore common themes and lessons learned regarding the role of risk information in goal-setting, performance monitoring and the overall decision process. Policy makers and regulators must act responsibly to protect confidence, not just the health of people and the environment. In doing this, to ignore risk information as a key component of strategic thinking is equally as disproportionate as making it the sole basis for decision making. There is a clear need to explain better the basis of, and motives behind, decisions - not only in terms of transparency in risk assessment but also to distinguish between the scientific and the socio-political component of the argument.

  8. Defining resilience within a risk-informed assessment framework

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coles, Garill A.; Unwin, Stephen D.; Holter, Gregory M.; Bass, Robert B.; Dagle, Jeffery E.

    2011-08-01

    The concept of resilience is the subject of considerable discussion in academic, business, and governmental circles. The United States Department of Homeland Security for one has emphasised the need to consider resilience in safeguarding critical infrastructure and key resources. The concept of resilience is complex, multidimensional, and defined differently by different stakeholders. The authors contend that there is a benefit in moving from discussing resilience as an abstraction to defining resilience as a measurable characteristic of a system. This paper proposes defining resilience measures using elements of a traditional risk assessment framework to help clarify the concept of resilience and as a way to provide non-traditional risk information. The authors show various, diverse dimensions of resilience can be quantitatively defined in a common risk assessment framework based on the concept of loss of service. This allows the comparison of options for improving the resilience of infrastructure and presents a means to perform cost-benefit analysis. This paper discusses definitions and key aspects of resilience, presents equations for the risk of loss of infrastructure function that incorporate four key aspects of resilience that could prevent or mitigate that loss, describes proposed resilience factor definitions based on those risk impacts, and provides an example that illustrates how resilience factors would be calculated using a hypothetical scenario.

  9. Air pollution and public health: emerging hazards and improved understanding of risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Frank J; Fussell, Julia C

    2015-08-01

    Despite past improvements in air quality, very large parts of the population in urban areas breathe air that does not meet European standards let alone the health-based World Health Organisation Air Quality Guidelines. Over the last 10 years, there has been a substantial increase in findings that particulate matter (PM) air pollution is not only exerting a greater impact on established health endpoints, but is also associated with a broader number of disease outcomes. Data strongly suggest that effects have no threshold within the studied range of ambient concentrations, can occur at levels close to PM2.5 background concentrations and that they follow a mostly linear concentration-response function. Having firmly established this significant public health problem, there has been an enormous effort to identify what it is in ambient PM that affects health and to understand the underlying biological basis of toxicity by identifying mechanistic pathways-information that in turn will inform policy makers how best to legislate for cleaner air. Another intervention in moving towards a healthier environment depends upon the achieving the right public attitude and behaviour by the use of optimal air pollution monitoring, forecasting and reporting that exploits increasingly sophisticated information systems. Improving air quality is a considerable but not an intractable challenge. Translating the correct scientific evidence into bold, realistic and effective policies undisputedly has the potential to reduce air pollution so that it no longer poses a damaging and costly toll on public health.

  10. Non-chemical stressors and cumulative risk assessment: an overview of current initiatives and potential air pollutant interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Ari S; Sax, Sonja N; Wason, Susan C; Campleman, Sharan L

    2011-06-01

    Regulatory agencies are under increased pressure to consider broader public health concerns that extend to multiple pollutant exposures, multiple exposure pathways, and vulnerable populations. Specifically, cumulative risk assessment initiatives have stressed the importance of considering both chemical and non-chemical stressors, such as socioeconomic status (SES) and related psychosocial stress, in evaluating health risks. The integration of non-chemical stressors into a cumulative risk assessment framework has been largely driven by evidence of health disparities across different segments of society that may also bear a disproportionate risk from chemical exposures. This review will discuss current efforts to advance the field of cumulative risk assessment, highlighting some of the major challenges, discussed within the construct of the traditional risk assessment paradigm. Additionally, we present a summary of studies of potential interactions between social stressors and air pollutants on health as an example of current research that supports the incorporation of non-chemical stressors into risk assessment. The results from these studies, while suggestive of possible interactions, are mixed and hindered by inconsistent application of social stress indicators. Overall, while there have been significant advances, further developments across all of the risk assessment stages (i.e., hazard identification, exposure assessment, dose-response, and risk characterization) are necessary to provide a scientific basis for regulatory actions and effective community interventions, particularly when considering non-chemical stressors. A better understanding of the biological underpinnings of social stress on disease and implications for chemical-based dose-response relationships is needed. Furthermore, when considering non-chemical stressors, an appropriate metric, or series of metrics, for risk characterization is also needed. Cumulative risk assessment research will benefit

  11. Air pollution from traffic and risk for lung cancer in three Danish cohorts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Bak, Helle; Sørensen, Mette;

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Air pollution is suspected to cause lung cancer. The purpose was to investigate whether the concentration of nitrogen oxides (NOx) at the residence, used as an indicator of air pollution from traffic, is associated with risk for lung cancer. METHODS: We identified 679 lung cancer case...... and the risk for lung cancer. IMPACT: This study points at traffic as a source of carcinogenic air pollution and stresses the importance of strategies for reduction of population exposure to traffic-related air pollution.......BACKGROUND: Air pollution is suspected to cause lung cancer. The purpose was to investigate whether the concentration of nitrogen oxides (NOx) at the residence, used as an indicator of air pollution from traffic, is associated with risk for lung cancer. METHODS: We identified 679 lung cancer cases...... in the Danish Cancer Registry from the members of three prospective cohorts and selected a comparison group of 3,481 persons from the same cohorts in a case-cohort design. Residential addresses from January 1, 1971, were traced in the Central Population Registry. The NOx concentration at each address...

  12. Measurement and improvement of indoor air quality in an information technology classroom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomić Mladen A.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid development of information technology equipment and its use in the teaching and learning activities, the working environment (especially indoor air quality in which students and pupils spend a great deal of time in educational institutions has been changing. Therefore, special attention must be paid to indoor air quality and comfort. It is of great importance to maintain indoor air quality in an object, such as information technology classrooms, where a large number of students spend long periods of time. Poor indoor environment can negatively affect scholarly performances and cause discomfort and poor work performance. The problem of indoor air quality in educational institutions can be more serious than in other types of objects, because of the higher concentration of students and information technology equipment. This paper analyzes the changes in air quality in an information technology classrooms, when occupied with students, for the period from March to April. The changes of indoor air temperature, relative humidity, and carbon dioxide concentration are monitored in the classroom, as well as outdoor temperature and relative humidity. Several cases are studied: the classroom with closed windows and doors (closed classroom, the classroom with natural ventilation, the classroom cooled with a split system (cooled classroom. Responses of students are followed for each case. The analysis is performed based on the measurement results and numerical simulations using the computational fluid dynamics package, and measures are proposed to improve the indoor air quality in the considered classroom.

  13. Deterministic and risk-informed approaches for safety analysis of advanced reactors: Part II, Risk-informed approaches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Inn Seock, E-mail: innseockkim@gmail.co [ISSA Technology, 21318 Seneca Crossing Drive, Germantown, MD 20876 (United States); Ahn, Sang Kyu; Oh, Kyu Myung [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, 19 Kusong-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-338 (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-05-15

    Technical insights and findings from a critical review of deterministic approaches typically applied to ensure design safety of nuclear power plants were presented in the companion paper of Part I included in this issue. In this paper we discuss the risk-informed approaches that have been proposed to make a safety case for advanced reactors including Generation-IV reactors such as Modular High-Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor (MHTGR), Pebble Bed Modular Reactor (PBMR), or Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor (SFR). Also considered herein are a risk-informed safety analysis approach suggested by Westinghouse as a means to improve the conventional accident analysis, together with the Technology Neutral Framework recently developed by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission as a high-level regulatory infrastructure for safety evaluation of any type of reactor design. The insights from a comparative review of various deterministic and risk-informed approaches could be usefully used in developing a new licensing architecture for enhanced safety of evolutionary or advanced plants.

  14. Informational Asymmetry, Sustainable Growth, Exploitation and Obligation Risks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion Stancu

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Our paper starts from the relationship, apparently contradictory, between the better informed economic agents (managers, bankers and the agents less informed than the first to be mentioned (the investors: shareholders and creditors. The asymmetric information concerns the company’s performance (or of its investment projects and the company’s ability to put up with different manifestations of the risk associated with this kind of performance. Based on this asymmetric information, the better informed agents can profit, to their own advantage, from the others’ lack of information. Consequently, the signals should be sent so as to allow a clear distinction of profitable companies from unprofitable ones, signals which cannot be copied by the managers with an underperforming management: a. The sustainable growth based on retained earnings financing and also co-financed by managers; b. The degree of operational leverage to be proportional with the increase of modernizing managerial and technological expenses; c. The degree of financial leverage to be proportional with the volume of debts.

  15. Risk Assessment on the Transition Program for Air Traffic Control Automation System Upgrade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Dong Bin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We analyzed the safety risks of the transition program for Air Traffic Control (ATC automation system upgrade by using the event tree analysis method in this paper. We decomposed the occurrence progress of the three transition phase and built the event trees corresponding to the three stages, and then we determined the probability of success of each factor and calculated probability of success of the air traffic control automation system upgrade transition. In the conclusion, we illustrate the transition program safety risk according to the results.

  16. How information resources are used by state agencies in risk assessment applications - Illinois

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olson, C.S.

    1990-12-31

    The Environmental Protection Agency of the State of Illinois (Illinois EPA) has programs in water, air, and land pollution and water supplies paralleling those of the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The organization is part of a tripartite arrangement in which the Pollution Control Board is the judicial arm, the Department of Energy and Natural Resources is the research arm, and the Illinois EPA is the enforcement arm. Other state agencies are also concerned with various aspects of the environment and may do risk assessments for chemicals. Although there are various risk assessment activities, both formal and informal, in our agency and in others, this paper will discuss only recent initiatives in water quality criteria.

  17. Information security risk management and incompatible parts of organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elham Talabeigi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: we prepared a questionnaire to evaluate Incompatible parts and also risk management in University of Science and Technology E-Learning Center and studying the Incompatible parts impacts on utility of organization. Design/methodology/approach: By using coalitional game theory we present a new model to recognize the degrees of incompatibility among independent divisions of an organization with dependent security assets. Based on positive and negative interdependencies in the parts, the model provides how the organization can decrease the security risks through non-cooperation rather than cooperation. we implement the proposed model of this paper by analyzing the data which have been provided by questionnaires from different three managers' ideas of Iran University of Science and Technology E-Learning Center located in Iran University of Science and Technology, Tehran, Iran. Findings: In general, by collecting data and analyzing them, the survey showed that Incompatible parts of organizations have negative impacts on utility of organization risk management process. Furthermore, it adds values to other organizations and provides the best practices in planning, developing, implementing and monitoring risk management in organizations. Research limitations/implications: Since Information security and also Risk Management are still areas which need to improve in some Iranian universities, we couldn’t consider them in our analysis. On the other hand, due to questionnaire limitation, the study’s sample size is 1. This size may be considered large for our statistical analysis. Originality/value:  The main contribution of this paper is to propose a model for non-cooperation among a number of divisions in a organization and using risk management factors.

  18. Obtaining Traffic Information by Urban Air Quality Inspection

    CERN Document Server

    Ferrante, P; Nicolosi, S; Scaccianoce, G; Traverso, M; Rizzo, G

    2011-01-01

    The level of air quality in urban centres is affected by emission of several pollutants, mainly coming from the vehicles flowing in their road networks. This is a well known phenomenon that influences the quality of life of people. Despite the deep concern of researchers and technicians, we are far from a total understanding of this phenomenon. On the contrary, the availability of reliable forecasting models would constitute an important tool for administrators in order of assessing suitable actions concerning the transportation policies, public as well private. Referring to the situation of the running fleet and the measured pollutant concentrations concerning the Italian town of Palermo, a data-deduced traffic model is here derived, its truthfulness being justified by a fuzzyfication of the phenomenon. A first validation of the model is supplied by utilising the emissions characteristics and the pollutant concentrations referring to a two years period of time. This work could represent a first attempt in de...

  19. Information security governance: a risk assessment approach to health information systems protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Patricia A H

    2013-01-01

    It is no small task to manage the protection of healthcare data and healthcare information systems. In an environment that is demanding adaptation to change for all information collection, storage and retrieval systems, including those for of e-health and information systems, it is imperative that good information security governance is in place. This includes understanding and meeting legislative and regulatory requirements. This chapter provides three models to educate and guide organisations in this complex area, and to simplify the process of information security governance and ensure appropriate and effective measures are put in place. The approach is risk based, adapted and contextualized for healthcare. In addition, specific considerations of the impact of cloud services, secondary use of data, big data and mobile health are discussed.

  20. Outdoor air pollution and risk for kidney parenchyma cancer in 14 European cohorts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Pedersen, Marie; Stafoggia, Massimo

    2017-01-01

    Several studies have indicated weakly increased risk for kidney cancer among occupational groups exposed to gasoline vapors, engine exhaust, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and other air pollutants, although not consistently. It was the aim to investigate possible associations between outdoor ai...... associations, but none were statistically significant. Our study provides suggestive evidence that exposure to outdoor PM at the residence may be associated with higher risk for kidney parenchyma cancer; the results should be interpreted cautiously as associations may be due to chance....

  1. Identifying and Reducing Health Risks Associated with Open-Air Burn Pits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    results in the Periodic Occupational Exposure Monitoring Summary ( POEMS ). Based on his review of the POEMS data, CPT Pratt opined: “The long term...is inconclusive regarding whether exposure to burn pit emissions creates a long -term health risk for deployed personnel. Contrary to this position...Air Field was "unhealthy" and concluded that the primary contributor was the burn pit. He also listed potential long -term health risks associated

  2. Risk-Informed Safety Margin Characterization Methods Development Work

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Curtis L [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Ma, Zhegang [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Riley, Tom [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Mandelli, Diego [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Nielsen, Joseph W [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Alfonsi, Andrea [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Rabiti, Cristian [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2014-09-01

    This report summarizes the research activity developed during the Fiscal year 2014 within the Risk Informed Safety Margin and Characterization (RISMC) pathway within the Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) campaign. This research activity is complementary to the one presented in the INL/EXT-??? report which shows advances Probabilistic Risk Assessment Analysis using RAVEN and RELAP-7 in conjunction to novel flooding simulation tools. Here we present several analyses that prove the values of the RISMC approach in order to assess risk associated to nuclear power plants (NPPs). We focus on simulation based PRA which, in contrast to classical PRA, heavily employs system simulator codes. Firstly we compare, these two types of analyses, classical and RISMC, for a Boiling water reactor (BWR) station black out (SBO) initiating event. Secondly we present an extended BWR SBO analysis using RAVEN and RELAP-5 which address the comments and suggestions received about he original analysis presented in INL/EXT-???. This time we focus more on the stochastic analysis such probability of core damage and on the determination of the most risk-relevant factors. We also show some preliminary results regarding the comparison between RELAP5-3D and the new code RELAP-7 for a simplified Pressurized Water Reactors system. Lastly we present some conceptual ideas regarding the possibility to extended the RISMC capabilities from an off-line tool (i.e., as PRA analysis tool) to an online-tool. In this new configuration, RISMC capabilities can be used to assist and inform reactor operator during real accident scenarios.

  3. Risk-Hedged Approach for Re-Routing Air Traffic Under Weather Uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadovsky, Alexander V.; Bilimoria, Karl D.

    2016-01-01

    This presentation corresponds to: our paper explores a new risk-hedged approach for re-routing air traffic around forecast convective weather. In this work, flying through a more likely weather instantiation is considered to pose a higher level of risk. Current operational practice strategically plans re-routes to avoid only the most likely (highest risk) weather instantiation, and then tactically makes any necessary adjustments as the weather evolves. The risk-hedged approach strategically plans re-routes by minimizing the risk-adjusted path length, incorporating multiple possible weather instantiations with associated likelihoods (risks). The resulting model is transparent and is readily analyzed for realism and treated with well-understood shortest-path algorithms. Risk-hedged re-routes are computed for some example weather instantiations. The main result is that in some scenarios, relative to an operational-practice proxy solution, the risk-hedged solution provides the benefits of lower risk as well as shorter path length. In other scenarios, the benefits of the risk-hedged solution are ambiguous, because the solution is characterized by a tradeoff between risk and path length. The risk-hedged solution can be executed in those scenarios where it provides a clear benefit over current operational practice.

  4. [Air transport biomechanical risk: reduced mobility passengers' handling].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draicchio, F; Campoli, G; Silvetti, A; Badellino, E; Forzano, F; Ranavolo, A; Iavicoli, S; Campagna, G; Raffaele, G; Gismondi, M

    2012-01-01

    As the airport traffic increases there is a continuous increase of passengers with different motor disabilities. Disabled passenger's assistance causes a biomechanical overload in airport workers. Some disabled passengers are classified by IATA as WCHC (wheel chair in cabin or Charlie). Our study, was performed in one of the most important Italian airport on Charlie passengers (about 10% of all assistances). We identified four critical points: 1) wheelchair and baggage moving (unstable load), 2) inclined ramps with worker's backwards steps and braked wheelchair to prevent passenger tipping or falling, 3) transfer from standard wheelchair to bicycle wheelchair, specifically designed for the aisle; 4.) transfer from bicycle wheelchair to aircraft seat. The last two points required sometimes to lift passengers over the armrest and positioning them on a window side seat, causing a serious increase of biomechanical load. For each critical point we have proposed technical and organizational measures to reduce airport worker's biomechanical risk.

  5. Willingness to pay to avoid health risks from road-traffic-related air pollution and noise across five countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Istamto, Tifanny; Houthuijs, Danny; Lebret, Erik

    2014-11-01

    We conducted a multi-country study to estimate the perceived economic values of traffic-related air pollution and noise health risks within the framework of a large European project. We used contingent valuation as a method to assess the willingness-to-pay (WTP) for both types of pollutants simultaneously. We asked respondents how much they would be willing to pay annually to avoid certain health risks from specific pollutants. Three sets of vignettes with different levels of information were provided prior to the WTP questions. These vignettes described qualitative general health risks, a quantitative single health risk related to a pollutant, and a quantitative scenario of combined health risks related to a pollutant. The mean WTP estimates to avoid road-traffic air pollution effects for the three vignettes were: €130 per person per year (pp/y) for general health risks, €80 pp/y for a half year shorter in life expectancy, and €330 pp/y to a 50% decrease in road-traffic air pollution. Their medians were €40 pp/y, €10 pp/y and €50 pp/y, respectively. The mean WTP estimates to avoid road-traffic noise effects for the three vignettes were: €90 pp/y for general health risks, €100 pp/y for a 13% increase in severe annoyance, and €320 pp/y for a combined-risk scenario related to an increase of a noise level from 50 dB to 65 dB. Their medians were €20 pp/y, €20 pp/y and €50 pp/y, respectively. Risk perceptions and attitudes as well as environmental and pollutant concerns significantly affected WTP estimates. The observed differences in crude WTP estimates between countries changed considerably when perception-related variables were included in the WTP regression models. For this reason, great care should be taken when performing benefit transfer from studies in one country to another.

  6. Identification of Information-Seeking Behaviors from Air Traffic Controllers′Eye Movements

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Yanjun; LiuYinxin; Cong Wei; Xu Xinhua; HuMinghua

    2016-01-01

    Air traffic controllers are the important parts of air traffic management system who are responsible for the safety and efficiency of the system.They make traffic management decisions based on information acquired from various sources.The understanding of their information seeking behaviors is still limited.We aim to identify controllers′behavior through the examination of the correlations between controllers′eye movements and air traf-fic.Sixteen air traffic controllers were invited to participate real-time simulation experiments,during which the da-ta of their eye ball movements and air traffic were recorded.Tweny-three air traffic complexity metrics and six eye movements metrics were calculated to examine their relationships.Two correlational methods,Pearson′s correla-tion and Spearman′s correlation,were tested between every eye-traffic pair of metrics.The results indicate that controllers′two kinds of information-seeking behaviors can be identified from their eye movements:Targets track-ing,and confliction recognition.The study on controllers′eye movements may contribute to the understanding of information-seeking mechanisms leading to the development of more intelligent automations in the future.

  7. Major air pollutants and risk of COPD exacerbations: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li JH

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Jinhui Li,1,2 Shengzhi Sun,1,2 Robert Tang,1,2 Hong Qiu,2 Qingyuan Huang,3 Tonya G Mason,2 Linwei Tian1,2 1Shenzhen Institute of Research and Innovation, Nanshan, The University of Hong Kong, Shenzhen, People’s Republic of China; 2School of Public Health, The University of Hong Kong, Pok Fu Lam, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region; 3Department of Thoracic Surgery, Shanghai Chest Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Minhang, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China Background: Short-term exposure to major air pollutants (O3, CO, NO2, SO2, PM10, and PM2.5 has been associated with respiratory risk. However, evidence on the risk of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD exacerbations is still limited. The present study aimed at evaluating the associations between short-term exposure to major air pollutants and the risk of COPD exacerbations.Methods: After a systematic search up until March 30, 2016, in both English and Chinese electronic databases such as PubMed, EMBASE, and CNKI, the pooled relative risks and 95% confidence intervals were estimated by using the random-effects model. In addition, the population-attributable fractions (PAFs were also calculated, and a subgroup analysis was conducted. Heterogeneity was assessed by I2.Results: In total, 59 studies were included. In the single-pollutant model, the risks of COPD were calculated by each 10 µg/m3 increase in pollutant concentrations, with the exception of CO (100 µg/m3. There was a significant association between short-term exposure and COPD exacerbation risk for all the gaseous and particulate pollutants. The associations were strongest at lag0 and lag3 for gaseous and particulate air pollutants, respectively. The subgroup analysis not only further confirmed the overall adverse effects but also reduced the heterogeneities obviously. When 100% exposure was assumed, PAFs ranged from 0.60% to 4.31%, depending on the pollutants. The adverse health effects of SO2 and NO2

  8. Air pollution, blood pressure, and the risk of hypertensive complications during pregnancy: The generation r study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hooven, E.H. van den; Kluizenaar, Y. de; Pierik, F.H.; Hofman, A.; Ratingen, S.W. van; Zandveld, P.Y.J.; MacKenbach, J.P.; Steegers, E.A.P.; Miedema, H.M.E.; Jaddoe, V.W.V.

    2011-01-01

    Exposure to air pollution is associated with elevated blood pressure and cardiovascular disease. We assessed the associations of exposure to particulate matter (PM10) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) levels with blood pressure measured in each trimester of pregnancy and the risks of pregnancy-induced hype

  9. AIR POLLUTION AND RISK FOR PRETERM BIRTH IN PENNSYLVANIA, 1997-2001: A TIME SERIES APPROACH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preterm delivery can lead to serious infant health outcomes including death and life-long disability. Small increases in preterm delivery risk in relation to air pollution have been reported, but prior investigations may have inadequately controlled for individual factors, such a...

  10. Risk of Air Pollution in Relation to Cancer in the Nordic Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fauser, Patrik; Ketzel, Matthias; Becker, Thomas

    no exceedances of the EU air quality values. The only exceedance of US-EPA 1:100,000 cancer risk concentrations occurs for the PAH BaP in Denmark. However, the EU target value threshold for BaP is not exceeded. No emission data for BaP are available for the other countries and important uncertainties are still......Seventeen pollutants (particles, heavy metals, inorganic gases and organic compounds) are for the first time analyzed in a screening of the carcinogenic risk at very high resolution and large scale in ambient air in the Nordic countries. Modelled 2010 annual mean air concentrations show...... related to the Danish emissions. Long-range transport is significant except for BaP that originates mostly from residential wood combustion. It is recommended to monitor the influence from residential wood combustion more extensively, and to analyze longer time trends for long-term human exposure....

  11. EPA Region 2 AIRS Aerometric Information Retrieval System and the Air Quality System (AIRS/AQS) GIS Layer

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This ArcGIS 10.2 point feature class contains identification, location and status information for EPA Region 2 facilities (NYS, NJ, Puerto Rico and the US Virgin...

  12. Risk-informed inservice test activities at the NRC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, D.; Cheok, M.; Hsia, A.

    1996-12-01

    The operational readiness of certain safety-related components is vital to the safe operation of nuclear power plants. Inservice testing (IST) is one of the mechanisms used by licensees to ensure this readiness. In the past, the type and frequency of IST have been based on the collective best judgment of the NRC and industry in an ASME Code consensus process and NRC rulemaking process. Furthermore, IST requirements have not explicitly considered unique component and system designs and contribution to overall plant risk. Because of the general nature of ASME Code test requirements and non-reliance on risk estimates, current IST requirements may not adequately emphasize testing those components that are most important to safety and may overly emphasize testing of less safety significant components. Nuclear power plant licensees are currently interested in optimizing testing by applying resources in more safety significant areas and, where appropriate, reducing measures in less safety-significant areas. They are interested in maintaining system availability and reducing overall maintenance costs in ways that do not adversely affect safety. The NRC has been interested in using probabilistic, as an adjunct to deterministic, techniques to help define the scope, type and frequency of IST. The development of risk-informed IST programs has the potential to optimize the use of NRC and industry resources without adverse affect on safety.

  13. A RISK MEASUREMENT AND MANAGEMENT MODEL FOR PREVENTING UNMANNED AIR VEHICLE ACCIDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hüdayim BAŞAK

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, it is aimed to investigate operationally risky areas by analyzing dangers which can arise during the maintenance and flight activities of Unmanned Air Vehicles (UAVs. For this purpose, a risk analysis methodology was introduced and then within the framework of the application, a sample of risk management model was developed. During the development of the model, personal experiences in the area of UAVs were benefited and a risk management technique consisting of five steps used by pioneering international aviation companies in fliht safety was utilized.

  14. Preconception and early pregnancy air pollution exposures and risk of gestational diabetes mellitus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robledo, Candace A. [Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health, Division of Intramural Population Health Research, Epidemiology Branch, Rockville, MD 20892 (United States); Mendola, Pauline, E-mail: pauline.mendola@mail.nih.gov [Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health, Division of Intramural Population Health Research, Epidemiology Branch, Rockville, MD 20892 (United States); Yeung, Edwina; Männistö, Tuija [Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health, Division of Intramural Population Health Research, Epidemiology Branch, Rockville, MD 20892 (United States); Sundaram, Rajeshwari; Liu, Danping [Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health, Division of Intramural Population Health Research, Biostatistics and Bioinformatics Branch, Rockville, MD 20892 (United States); Ying, Qi [Texas A& M University, Zachary Department of Civil Engineering, College Station, TX 77845 (United States); Sherman, Seth [The EMMES Corporation, Rockville, MD 20852 (United States); Grantz, Katherine L. [Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health, Division of Intramural Population Health Research, Epidemiology Branch, Rockville, MD 20892 (United States)

    2015-02-15

    Background: Air pollution has been linked to gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) but no studies have evaluated impact of preconception and early pregnancy air pollution exposures on GDM risk. Methods: Electronic medical records provided data on 219,952 singleton deliveries to mothers with (n=11,334) and without GDM (n=208,618). Average maternal exposures to particulate matter (PM) ≤ 2.5 μm (PM{sub 2.5}) and PM{sub 2.5} constituents, PM ≤ 10 μm (PM{sub 10}), nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}), carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) and ozone (O{sub 3}) were estimated for the 3-month preconception window, first trimester, and gestational weeks 1–24 based on modified Community Multiscale Air Quality models for delivery hospital referral regions. Binary regression models with robust standard errors estimated relative risks (RR) for GDM per interquartile range (IQR) increase in pollutant concentrations adjusted for study site, maternal age and race/ethnicity. Results: Preconception maternal exposure to NO{sub X} (RR=1.09, 95% CI: 1.04, 1.13) and SO{sub 2} (RR=1.05, 1.01, 1.09) were associated with increased risk of subsequent GDM and risk estimates remained elevated for first trimester exposure. Preconception O{sub 3} was associated with lower risk of subsequent GDM (RR=0.93, 0.90, 0.96) but risks increased later in pregnancy. Conclusion: Maternal exposures to NO{sub x} and SO{sub 2} preconception and during the first few weeks of pregnancy were associated with increased GDM risk. O{sub 3} appeared to increase GDM risk in association with mid-pregnancy exposure but not in earlier time windows. These common exposures merit further investigation. - Highlights: • Air pollution may be related to gestational diabetes (GDM). • No prior studies have examined preconception exposure. • Maternal exposure to NO{sub x} and SO{sub 2} before conception increased subsequent GDM risk. • NO{sub x} and SO{sub 2} exposure in the first seven weeks of pregnancy also increased

  15. Urban Flood Risk Assessment Under Uncertain Conditions and Scarce Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Gaviria, E. M.; Botero-Fernandez, V.

    2015-12-01

    Flood risk management in small urban areas in Colombia has a great degree of uncertainty due to the low availability and quality of data, the non-existent personnel qualified in the collection and processing of data, and the insufficient information to evaluate the risk and vulnerability. It is because of this that two methods are developed: one for the generation of flood threat maps for different return periods combining historical, geomorphological, and hydrological hydraulic methods assisted by remote sensors and SIG through the use of data acquired through field campaigns, official hydrological networks, orthophotos, multitemporal topographic maps, and ASTER, STRM, and LiDAR images. And another method in which categorical variables are established, linking local physical, social, economical, environmental and political-institutional factors that are explored through different media such as reports, news, databases, transects, interviews, community workshops, and surveys conducted at homes. Such variables were included within an analysis of multiple correspondence to conduct a descriptive study of the exposure, susceptibility, and capacity conditions and to create a vulnerability index that was spatially plotted spatially on maps. The uncertainty is reduced in the measure in which local knowledge is used as a source of information acquisition, of validation of what already exists, and of calibration of the proposed methods. This research was applied to the urban centers of Caucasia (Antioquia) and Plato (Magdalena), which have been historically affected by slow flooding of the Magdalena and Cauca river, it being especially useful in the selection of best alternatives for risk management, planning for development, and land use management, with the possibility of replicating it to benefit other municipalities that experience the same reality.

  16. Respiratory risks from household air pollution in low and middle income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Stephen B; Bruce, Nigel G; Grigg, Jonathan; Hibberd, Patricia L; Kurmi, Om P; Lam, Kin-bong Hubert; Mortimer, Kevin; Asante, Kwaku Poku; Balakrishnan, Kalpana; Balmes, John; Bar-Zeev, Naor; Bates, Michael N; Breysse, Patrick N; Buist, Sonia; Chen, Zhengming; Havens, Deborah; Jack, Darby; Jindal, Surinder; Kan, Haidong; Mehta, Sumi; Moschovis, Peter; Naeher, Luke; Patel, Archana; Perez-Padilla, Rogelio; Pope, Daniel; Rylance, Jamie; Semple, Sean; Martin, William J

    2014-10-01

    A third of the world's population uses solid fuel derived from plant material (biomass) or coal for cooking, heating, or lighting. These fuels are smoky, often used in an open fire or simple stove with incomplete combustion, and result in a large amount of household air pollution when smoke is poorly vented. Air pollution is the biggest environmental cause of death worldwide, with household air pollution accounting for about 3·5-4 million deaths every year. Women and children living in severe poverty have the greatest exposures to household air pollution. In this Commission, we review evidence for the association between household air pollution and respiratory infections, respiratory tract cancers, and chronic lung diseases. Respiratory infections (comprising both upper and lower respiratory tract infections with viruses, bacteria, and mycobacteria) have all been associated with exposure to household air pollution. Respiratory tract cancers, including both nasopharyngeal cancer and lung cancer, are strongly associated with pollution from coal burning and further data are needed about other solid fuels. Chronic lung diseases, including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and bronchiectasis in women, are associated with solid fuel use for cooking, and the damaging effects of exposure to household air pollution in early life on lung development are yet to be fully described. We also review appropriate ways to measure exposure to household air pollution, as well as study design issues and potential effective interventions to prevent these disease burdens. Measurement of household air pollution needs individual, rather than fixed in place, monitoring because exposure varies by age, gender, location, and household role. Women and children are particularly susceptible to the toxic effects of pollution and are exposed to the highest concentrations. Interventions should target these high-risk groups and be of sufficient quality to make the air clean. To make clean energy

  17. Public's Health Risk Awareness on Urban Air Pollution in Chinese Megacities: The Cases of Shanghai, Wuhan and Nanchang.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaojun; Zhu, Hui; Hu, Yongxin; Feng, Sha; Chu, Yuanyuan; Wu, Yanyan; Wang, Chiyu; Zhang, Yuxuan; Yuan, Zhaokang; Lu, Yuanan

    2016-08-25

    This study assessed the public's health risk awareness of urban air pollution triggered by three megacities in China, and the data are the responses from a sample size of 3868 megacity inhabitants from Shanghai, Nanchang and Wuhan. Descriptive analyses were used to summarize the respondents' demographics, perceived health risks from air pollution and sources of health-related knowledge on urban air pollution. Chi-square tests were used to examine if participants' demographics were associated with participant's general attitudes towards current air quality and the three perceived highest health risks due to urban air pollution. We found low rate of satisfaction of current urban air quality as well as poor knowledge of air pollution related indicator. Participants' gender, age and travel experience were found to be associated with the satisfaction of current air quality. The knowledge of air pollution related indicator was significantly affected by respondents' education, monthly income, health status, and sites of study. As many as 46.23% of the participants expressed their feelings of anxiety when exposed to polluted air, especially females, older adults and those with poor health conditions. Most participants believed that coughs/colds, eye problems and skin allergies were the three highest health risks due to urban air pollution based on public education through television/radio, internet and newspaper/magazine. Further public health education is needed to improve public awareness of air pollution and its effects.

  18. Development of Risk Management Technology/Development of Risk-Informed Application Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Joon Eon; Kim, K. Y.; Ahn, K. I.; Lee, Y. H.; Lim, H. G.; Jung, W. S.; Choi, S. Y.; Han, S. J.; Ha, J. J.; Hwang, M. J.; Park, S. Y.; Yoon, C

    2007-06-15

    This project aims at developing risk-informed application technologies to enhance the safety and economy of nuclear power plant altogether. For this, the Integrated Level 1 and 2 PSA model is developed. In addition, the fire and internal flooding PSA models are improved according to the PSA standard of U.S.A. To solve the issues of domestic PSA model, the best-estimate thermal hydraulic analyses are preformed for the ATWS and LSSB. In order to reduce the uncertainty of PSA, several new PSA technologies are developed: (1) more exact quantification of large fault tree, (2) importance measure including the effects of external PSA. As feasibility studies of Option 2 and 3, the class of 6 systems' SSC are re-classified based on the risk information and the sensitivity analyses is performed for the EDG starting time, respectively. It is also improved that the methodology to identify the vital area of NPP. The research results of this project can be used in the regulatory body and the industry projects for risk-informed applications.

  19. The credibility of risk information about licit substances: An exploratory study of attitudes among Swedish adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekendahl Mats

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available AIMS – Providing risk information on licit substances is a central health promotion strategy. There is, however, very little knowledge about public attitudes on this information. In this exploratory study we analyse the extent to which Swedish adults: 1 trust risk information regarding alcohol, cigarettes and wet snuff (“snus” provided by public authorities, 2 perceive risk information regarding alcohol, cigarettes and snus as consistent, and 3 have received an adequate amount of risk information from public authorities regarding these substances. The aim is also to investigate if certain characteristics among participants are related to their perceptions of such risk information.

  20. Numerical Assessment of Indoor Air Exposure Risk from Subsurface NAPL Contamination under Hydrologic Uncertainties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unger, A.; Yu, S.

    2007-12-01

    Understanding the risk of indoor air exposure to residual contaminants in the subsurface following the redevelopment of contaminated land redevelopment project is a central issue at many brownfield sites. In this study, we examine various mechanisms controlling vapor phase intrusion into the indoor air of a typical residential dwelling from a NAPL source located below the water table, and consequently assess the indoor air exposure risk under multiple hydrologic uncertainties. For this purpose, a multi-phase multi-component numerical model, CompFlow Bio is used to simulate the evolution of a TCE source zone and dissolved plume in a variably saturated heterogeneous aquifer, along with the transport of dissolved TCE upwards through the capillary fringe with subsequent migration of TCE vapors in the vadose zone subject to barometric pressure fluctuations. The TCE vapors then enter the basement of the residential dwelling through a crack in the foundation slab, driven by a slight vacuum within the basement relative to the ambient atmosphere as well as the barometric pressure fluctuations. Hydrologic uncertainties affecting the indoor air concentration of TCE include the vacuum in the basement, the aperture of the crack in the foundation slab, the heterogeneous permeability field, the thickness of the capillary fringe, barometric fluctuations, recharge rates and the location of the TCE source zone. CompFlow Bio is then used to determine the future concentration of TCE into the basement as a consequence of imperfect knowledge in the various hydrologic parameters, and to evaluate the effectiveness of alternative remedial and foundation design options to minimize the exposure risk to the indoor air conditional upon the available data collected at the site. The outcome of this approach is two-fold. First, the owner of the site can reasonably evaluate the future indoor air exposure risk following the redevelopment of a formerly contaminated site following remediation

  1. Combined effects of road traffic noise and ambient air pollution in relation to risk for stroke?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sørensen, Mette; Lühdorf, Pernille; Ketzel, Matthias; Andersen, Zorana J; Tjønneland, Anne; Overvad, Kim; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole

    2014-08-01

    Exposure to road traffic noise and air pollution have both been associated with risk for stroke. The few studies including both exposures show inconsistent results. We aimed to investigate potential mutual confounding and combined effects between road traffic noise and air pollution in association with risk for stroke. In a population-based cohort of 57,053 people aged 50-64 years at enrollment, we identified 1999 incident stroke cases in national registries, followed by validation through medical records. Mean follow-up time was 11.2 years. Present and historical residential addresses from 1987 to 2009 were identified in national registers and road traffic noise and air pollution were modeled for all addresses. Analyses were done using Cox regression. A higher mean annual exposure at time of diagnosis of 10 µg/m(3) nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and 10 dB road traffic noise at the residential address was associated with ischemic stroke with incidence rate ratios (IRR) of 1.11 (95% CI: 1.03, 1.20) and 1.16 (95% CI: 1.07, 1.24), respectively, in single exposure models. In two-exposure models road traffic noise (IRR: 1.15) and not NO2 (IRR: 1.02) was associated with ischemic stroke. The strongest association was found for combination of high noise and high NO2 (IRR=1.28; 95% CI=1.09-1.52). Fatal stroke was positively associated with air pollution and not with traffic noise. In conclusion, in mutually adjusted models road traffic noise and not air pollution was associated ischemic stroke, while only air pollution affected risk for fatal strokes. There were indications of combined effects.

  2. Mixed uncertainty analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon inhalation and risk assessment in ambient air of Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Yajuan; GUO Huaicheng; LIU Yong; HUANG Kai; WANG Zhen; ZHAN Xinye

    2008-01-01

    This article presents the application of an integrated method that estimates the dispersion of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in air, and assesses the human health risk associated with PAHs inhalation. An uncertainty analysis method consisting of three components were applied in this study, where the three components include a bootstrapping method for analyzing the whole process associated uncertainty, an inhalation rate (IR) representation for evaluating the total PAH inhalation risk for human health, and a normally distributed absorption fraction (AF) ranging from 0% to 100% to represent the absorption capability of PAHs in human body. Using this method, an integrated process was employed to assess the health risk of the residents in Beijing, China, from inhaling PAHs in the air. The results indicate that the ambient air PAHs in Beijing is an important contributor to human health impairment, although over 68% of residents seem to be safe from daily PAH carcinogenic inhalation. In general, the accumulated daily inhalation amount is relatively higher for male and children at 10 years old of age than for female and children at 6 years old. In 1997, about 1.73% cancer sufferers in Beijing were more or less related to ambient air PAHs inhalation. At 95% confidence interval, approximately 272-309 individual cancer incidences can be attributed to PAHs pollution in the air. The probability of greater than 500 cancer occurrence is 15.3%. While the inhalation of ambient air PAHs was shown to be an important factor responsible for higher cancer occurrence in Beijing, while the contribution might not be the most significant one.

  3. The EUSTACE project: delivering global, daily information on surface air temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morice, C. P.; Rayner, N. A.; Auchmann, R.; Bessembinder, J.; Bronnimann, S.; Brugnara, Y.; Conway, E. A.; Ghent, D.; Good, E.; Herring, K.; Kennedy, J.; Lindgren, F.; Madsen, K. S.; Merchant, C. J.; van der Schrier, G.; Stephens, A.; Tonboe, R. T.; Waterfall, A. M.; Mitchelson, J.; Woolway, I.

    2015-12-01

    Day-to-day variations in surface air temperature affect society in many ways; however, daily surface air temperature measurements are not available everywhere. A global daily analysis cannot be achieved with measurements made in situ alone, so incorporation of satellite retrievals is needed. To achieve this, we must develop an understanding of the relationships between traditional (land and marine) surface air temperature measurements and retrievals of surface skin temperature from satellite measurements, i.e. Land Surface Temperature, Ice Surface Temperature, Sea Surface Temperature and Lake Surface Water Temperature. These relationships can be derived either empirically or with the help of a physical model.Here we discuss the science needed to produce a fully-global daily analysis (or ensemble of analyses) of surface air temperature on the centennial scale, integrating different ground-based and satellite-borne data types. Information contained in the satellite retrievals would be used to create globally-complete fields in the past, using statistical models of how surface air temperature varies in a connected way from place to place. As the data volumes involved are considerable, such work needs to include development of new "Big Data" analysis methods.We will present plans and progress along this road in the EUSTACE project (2015-June 2018), i.e.: • providing new, consistent, multi-component estimates of uncertainty in surface skin temperature retrievals from satellites; • identifying inhomogeneities in daily surface air temperature measurement series from weather stations and correcting for these over Europe; • estimating surface air temperature over all surfaces of Earth from surface skin temperature retrievals; • using new statistical techniques to provide information on higher spatial and temporal scales than currently available, making optimum use of information in data-rich eras.Information will also be given on how interested users can become

  4. Use of multi-objective air pollution monitoring sites and online air pollution monitoring system for total health risk assessment in Hyderabad, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anjaneyulu, Y; Jayakumar, I; Hima Bindu, V; Sagareswar, G; Mukunda Rao, P V; Rambabu, N; Ramani, K V

    2005-08-01

    A consensus has been emerging among public health experts in developing countries that air pollution, even at current ambient levels, aggravates respiratory and cardiovascular diseases and leads to premature mortality. Recent studies have also presented well-founded theories concerning the biological mechanisms involved and the groups of people that are probably more susceptible to health effects caused or exacerbated by inhalation of ambient particulate matter (PM.). On the basis of prognostic studies carried out in Center for Environment, JNT University, Hyderabad "it has been estimated that in Hyderabad some 1,700 to 3,000 people per year die prematurely as a result of inhaling PM". These figures reflect only the effects of acute exposure to air pollution. If the long-term effects of chronic exposure are taken into account, 10,000-15,000 people a year could die prematurely in Hyderabad. This estimate of the chronic effects is based on other studies, which are not completely comparable with the Hyderabad situation. While the study designs and analyses in these other studies may indeed be different or irrelevant to Hyderabad, the fact they were carried out in other countries is irrelevant. Taking into account these considerations, a model for total health risk assessment for the city of Hyderabad, and its state of Andhra Pradesh in India has been developed using a multi-objective air pollution monitoring network and online and real time air pollution monitoring stations. For the model studies a number of potential monitoring sites were screened for general and site-specific criteria in a geographic information system (GIS) environment that may, on a local basis, affect the representativeness of the data collected. Local features that may affect either the chemical or meteorological parameters are evaluated to assure a minimum of interference. Finally, for monitoring air pollution, an online and real-time monitoring system was designed using advanced

  5. Use of Multi-Objective Air Pollution Monitoring Sites and Online Air Pollution Monitoring System for Total Health Risk Assessment in Hyderabad, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. V. Ramani

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available A consensus has been emerging among public health experts in developing countries that air pollution, even at current ambient levels, aggravates respiratory and cardiovascular diseases and leads to premature mortality. Recent studies have also presented well-founded theories concerning the biological mechanisms involved and the groups of people that are probably more susceptible to health effects caused or exacerbated by inhalation of ambient particulate matter (PM.. On the basis of prognostic studies carried out in Center for Environment, JNT University, Hyderabad “it has been estimated that in Hyderabad some 1,700 to 3,000 people per year die prematurely as a result of inhaling PM”. These figures reflect only the effects of acute exposure to air pollution. If the long-term effects of chronic exposure are taken into account, 10,000–15,000 people a year could die prematurely in Hyderabad. This estimate of the chronic effects is based on other studies, which are not completely comparable with the Hyderabad situation. While the study designs and analyses in these other studies may indeed be different or irrelevant to Hyderabad, the fact they were carried out in other countries is irrelevant. Taking into account these considerations, a model for total health risk assessment for the city of Hyderabad, and its state of Andhra Pradesh in India has been developed using a multi-objective air pollution monitoring network and online and real time air pollution monitoring stations. For the model studies a number of potential monitoring sites were screened for general and site-specific criteria in a geographic information system (GIS environment that may, on a local basis, affect the representativeness of the data collected. Local features that may affect either the chemical or meteorological parameters are evaluated to assure a minimum of interference. Finally, for monitoring air pollution, an online and real

  6. Air pollution: a new respiratory risk for cities in low-income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nejjari, C; Filleul, L; Zidouni, N; Laid, Y; Atek, M; El Meziane, A; Tessier, J F

    2003-03-01

    Since the major accidents that occurred in the 1960s, air pollution has commonly been considered as a respiratory risk factor whose effects are most often studied in industrialised countries. Our aim is to show that it is now the turn of low- and middle-income countries to take this risk factor into account. After a discussion of the characteristics of air pollution, how it is diffused and the main known health effects (short- and long-term effects), we describe the specific differences between the cities in the North and the South. As a result of late industrialisation, cities in the South are now faced with pollution from industrial sources and urban traffic with polluting vehicles. The case of Algeria and Morocco illustrates this situation and its potential health risks. In order to prevent the health risks of air pollution in the cities of the South, systems for measuring pollution levels and epidemiological surveillance need to be put in place rapidly. This strategy can only work if it is supported by a strong partnership from industrialised countries.

  7. Future research needs associated with the assessment of potential human health risks from exposure to toxic ambient air pollutants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Möller, Lennart; Schuetzle, Dennis; Autrup, Herman

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents key conclusions and future research needs from a Workshop on the Risk Assessment of Urban Air, Emissions, Exposure, Risk Identification, and Quantification, which was held in Stockholm during June 1992 by 41 participants from 13 countries. Research is recommended in the areas...... of identification and quantification of toxics in source emissions and ambient air, atmospheric transport and chemistry, exposure level assessment, the development of improved in vitro bioassays, biomarker development, the development of more accurate epidemiological methodologies, and risk quantification...

  8. Information Risk Management: Qualitative or Quantitative? Cross industry lessons from medical and financial fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Upasna Saluja

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Enterprises across the world are taking a hard look at their risk management practices. A number of qualitative and quantitative models and approaches are employed by risk practitioners to keep risk under check. As a norm most organizations end up choosing the more flexible, easier to deploy and customize qualitative models of risk assessment. In practice one sees that such models often call upon the practitioners to make qualitative judgments on a relative rating scale which brings in considerable room for errors, biases and subjectivity. On the other hand under the quantitative risk analysis approach, estimation of risk is connected with application of numerical measures of some kind. Medical risk management models lend themselves as ideal candidates for deriving lessons for Information Security Risk Management. We can use this considerably developed understanding of risk management from the medical field especially Survival Analysis towards handling risks that information infrastructures face. Similarly, financial risk management discipline prides itself on perhaps the most quantifiable of models in risk management. Market Risk and Credit Risk Information Security Risk Management can make risk measurement more objective and quantitative by referring to the approach of Credit Risk. During the recent financial crisis many investors and financial institutions lost money or went bankrupt respectively, because they did not apply the basic principles of risk management. Learning from the financial crisis provides some valuable lessons for information risk management.

  9. The impact of communicating information about air pollution events on public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaren, J; Williams, I D

    2015-12-15

    Short-term exposure to air pollution has been associated with exacerbation of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). This study investigated the relationship between emergency hospital admissions for asthma, COPD and episodes of poor air quality in an English city (Southampton) from 2008-2013. The city's council provides a forecasting service for poor air quality to individuals with respiratory disease to reduce preventable admissions to hospital and this has been evaluated. Trends in nitrogen dioxide, ozone and particulate matter concentrations were related to hospital admissions data using regression analysis. The impacts of air quality on emergency admissions were quantified using the relative risks associated with each pollutant. Seasonal and weekly trends were apparent for both air pollution and hospital admissions, although there was a weak relationship between the two. The air quality forecasting service proved ineffective at reducing hospital admissions. Improvements to the health forecasting service are necessary to protect the health of susceptible individuals, as there is likely to be an increasing need for such services in the future.

  10. An Aspect Oriented Process Based Approach To Information Risk Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhanya Pramod

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In this era of fast paced technological advancements, security issues and risks related to it have become a key concern for all organizations. Enterprise Governance, Risk management and Compliance(GRC is the popular approach to handle enterprise risks and reduce its impact. This paper focuses on the risk management, especially the risk assessment approaches and proposes an aspect oriented approach to risk management. In this approach, the risk management processes are designed separately from the core business processes and are weaved to the flow of business process steps wherever necessary.This brings the advantage of separation of concerns of risk management from the business process. The design of business processes then need not look into the design of risk assessment related to it. This will enable handling of risk and its assessment by expert risk advisories, those who are specialized in it.

  11. Cyber-Informed Engineering: The Need for a New Risk Informed and Design Methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, Joseph Daniel [Idaho National Laboratory; Anderson, Robert Stephen [Idaho National Laboratory

    2015-06-01

    Current engineering and risk management methodologies do not contain the foundational assumptions required to address the intelligent adversary’s capabilities in malevolent cyber attacks. Current methodologies focus on equipment failures or human error as initiating events for a hazard, while cyber attacks use the functionality of a trusted system to perform operations outside of the intended design and without the operator’s knowledge. These threats can by-pass or manipulate traditionally engineered safety barriers and present false information, invalidating the fundamental basis of a safety analysis. Cyber threats must be fundamentally analyzed from a completely new perspective where neither equipment nor human operation can be fully trusted. A new risk analysis and design methodology needs to be developed to address this rapidly evolving threatscape.

  12. The Effects of Air Permeability, Background Ventilation and Lifestyle on Energy Performance, Indoor Air Quality and Risk of Condensation in Domestic Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arman Hashemi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Effective and efficient ventilation is essential when improving energy performance and Indoor Air Quality (IAQ of buildings. Reducing air permeability can considerably improve the energy performance of buildings; however, making the buildings more airtight may result in lower rates of natural ventilation which may in turn increase the risks of condensation and unacceptable IAQ. This study evaluates the effects of different air permeability rates, background ventilation and occupants’ lifestyles on the energy performance as well as the risk of condensation and CO2 concentration in domestic buildings. Dynamic computer simulations were conducted in EnergyPlus. Results indicated direct relations between the ventilation rates, energy performance and IAQ. Higher air permeability along with background ventilation resulted in considerably better IAQ while energy consumption increased by up to four times. Occupants’ lifestyles were identified as a major contributor to the risk of condensation.

  13. Physical Activity, Air Pollution and the Risk of Asthma and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fisher, Jack E; Loft, Steffen; Ulrik, Charlotte S

    2016-01-01

    RATIONALE: Physical activity enhances uptake of air pollutants in the lung, possibly augmenting their harmful effects on chronic lung disease during exercise. OBJECTIVES: To examine whether benefits of physical activity with respect to the risk of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease...... (COPD) are moderated by exposure to high air pollution levels in an urban setting. METHODS: A total of 53,113 subjects (50-65 yr) from the Danish Diet, Cancer, and Health cohort reported physical activity at recruitment (1993-1997) and were followed until 2013 in the National Patient Register.......03-1.27]) hospitalizations (comparing ≥21.0 μg/m(3) to air pollution during exercise does not outweigh beneficial effects of physical activity...

  14. Long-Term Exposure to Traffic-Related Air Pollution and Risk of Incident Atrial Fibrillation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Monrad, Maria; Sajadieh, Ahmad; Christensen, Jeppe Schultz

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Atrial fibrillation is the most common sustained arrhythmia and associated with cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. The few studies conducted on short-term effects of air pollution on episodes of atrial fibrillation indicates a positive association, though not consistently....... OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate the long-term impact of traffic-related air pollution on incidence of atrial fibrillation in the general population. METHODS: In the Danish Diet, Cancer, and Health cohort of 57,053 people aged 50-64 years at enrolment in 1993-1997, we identified 2,700 cases...... tendencies regarding effect modification of the association between NO2 and atrial fibrillation by sex, smoking, hypertension or myocardial infarction. CONCLUSION: We found long-term residential traffic-related air pollution to be associated with higher risk of atrial fibrillation. Accordingly, the present...

  15. Chemicals in the air of the work environment and health risks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin reinhold

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The study focuses on indoor air quality (microclimate andchemicals in industrial premises. The health risk is determined.The model is presented for taking into consideration theconcentration of chemicals in the air of the work environment andpossible negative health effects. Practical examples and the resultsof measurements of microclimate and chemicals concentration inthe workplace air in five industries (mechanical, printing, wood,plastic and clothing industries are presented. The microclimate isunder control except during very hot climate in summer. Thechemicals are under control in printing, mechanical (exceptwelding in closed workrooms, and clothing industry. Thechemicals are often over the limits in wood processing industryand in some of the premises of plastic (manufacturing of rubberdetails industry.

  16. Risk of leukemia in relation to exposure to ambient air toxics in pregnancy and early childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heck, Julia E; Park, Andrew S; Qiu, Jiaheng; Cockburn, Myles; Ritz, Beate

    2014-07-01

    There are few established causes of leukemia, the most common type of cancer in children. Studies in adults suggest a role for specific environmental agents, but little is known about any effect from exposures in pregnancy to toxics in ambient air. In our case-control study, we ascertained 69 cases of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and 46 cases of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) from California Cancer Registry records of children leukemia associated with one interquartile range increase in air toxic exposure. Risk of ALL was elevated with 3(rd) trimester exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (OR=1.16, 95% CI 1.04, 1.29), arsenic (OR=1.33, 95% CI 1.02, 1.73), benzene (OR=1.50, 95% CI 1.08, 2.09), and three other toxics related to fuel combustion. Risk of AML was increased with 3rd trimester exposure to chloroform (OR=1.30, 95% CI 1.00, 1.69), benzene (1.75, 95% CI 1.04, 2.93), and two other traffic-related toxics. During the child's first year, exposure to butadiene, ortho-xylene, and toluene increased risk for AML and exposure to selenium increased risk for ALL. Benzene is an established cause of leukemia in adults; this study supports that ambient exposures to this and other chemicals in pregnancy and early life may also increase leukemia risk in children.

  17. Helicopter vibration and risk of reversible myopia among military air crews

    OpenAIRE

    Bastaman Basuki; T. Soemardoko

    2002-01-01

    We assessed to what extend the risk of reversible myopia of the different degree of helicopter vibrations and other risk factors among military helicopter pilots and flight engineers. The study was a nested case-control design using medical record at the Institute of Aerospace Medicine of the Indonesian Air Force and Medical Directorate of the Indonesian Army (Flying Wing). Cases and controls were military helicopter pilots and flight engineers who had ametropic visual acuity at the time of e...

  18. 78 FR 12052 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Ambient Air...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-21

    ... AGENCY Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Ambient Air... were approved under separate rulemaking actions: ICR 2358 (OMB 2060-0638) Nitrogen Oxides Ambient Monitoring ] ICR 2370 (OMB 2060-0642) Sulfur Dioxides Ambient Monitoring ICR 0940 (OMB 2060-0084) PM...

  19. Placement and Format of Risk Information on Direct-to-Consumer Prescription Drug Websites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Helen W; O'Donoghue, Amie C; Rupert, Douglas J; Willoughby, Jessica Fitts; Aikin, Kathryn J

    2017-02-01

    We investigated whether the location and format of risk information on branded prescription drug websites influence consumers' knowledge and perceptions of the drug's risks. Participants (Internet panelists with high cholesterol [n = 2,609] or seasonal allergies [n = 2,637]) were randomly assigned to view a website promoting a fictitious prescription drug for their condition. The website presented risk information at the bottom of the homepage, or at the bottom of the homepage with a signal above indicating that the risk information was located below, or on a linked secondary page. We also varied the format of risk information (paragraph, checklist, bulleted list, highlighted box). Participants then answered questions on risk recall and perceptions. Participants recalled fewer drug risks when the risks were placed on a secondary page. The signal had little effect, and risk information format did not affect outcomes. The location of risk information on prescription drug websites can affect consumer knowledge of drug risks; however, signals and special formatting may not be necessary for websites to adequately inform consumers about drug risks. We recommend that prescription drug websites maintain risk information on their homepages to achieve "fair balance" as required by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration.

  20. Air pollution and anemia as risk factors for pneumonia in ecuadorian children: a retrospective cohort analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harris Aaron M

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ambient air pollution and malnutrition, particularly anemia, are risk factors for pneumonia, a leading cause of death in children under five. We simultaneously assessed these risk factors in Quito, Ecuador. Methods In 2005, we studied two socioeconomically similar neighborhoods in Quito: Lucha de los Pobres (LP and Jaime Roldos (JR. LP had relatively high levels of air pollution (annual median PM2.5 = 20.4 μg/m3; NO2 = 29.5 μg/m3 compared to JR (annual median PM2.5 = 15.3 μg/m3; NO2 = 16.6 μg/m3. We enrolled 408 children from LP (more polluted and 413 children from JR (less polluted. All subjects were aged 18-42 months. We obtained medical histories of prior physician visits and hospitalizations during the previous year, anthropometric nutrition data, hemoglobin levels, and hemoglobin oxygen saturation via oximetry. Results In anemic children, higher pollution exposure was significantly associated with pneumonia hospitalization (OR = 6.82, 95%CI = 1.45-32.00; P = 0.015. In non-anemic children, no difference in hospitalizations by pollution exposure status was detected (OR = 1.04, NS. Children exposed to higher levels of air pollution had more pneumonia hospitalizations (OR = 3.68, 1.09-12.44; P = 0.036, total respiratory illness (OR = 2.93, 95% CI 1.92-4.47; P Conclusions Ambient air pollution is associated with rates of hospitalization for pneumonia and with physician's consultations for acute respiratory infections. Anemia may interact with air pollution to increase pneumonia hospitalizations. If confirmed in larger studies, improving nutrition-related anemia, as well as decreasing the levels of air pollution in Quito, may reduce pneumonia incidence.

  1. Traffic-related air pollution and risk for leukaemia of an adult population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Ketzel, Matthias; Harbo Poulsen, Aslak; Sørensen, Mette

    2016-03-01

    Air pollution causes lung cancer, but associations with other cancers have not been established. We investigated whether long-term exposure to traffic-related air pollution is associated with the risk of the general population for leukaemia. We identified 1,967 people in whom leukaemia was diagnosed in 1992-2010 from a nation-wide cancer registry and selected 3,381 control people at random, matched on sex and year of birth, from the entire Danish population. Residential addresses since 1971 were traced in a population registry, and outdoor concentrations of NOx and NO2 , as indicators of traffic-related air pollution, were calculated at each address in a dispersion model. We used conditional logistic regression to estimate the risk for leukaemia after adjustment for income, educational level, cohabitation status and co-morbidity. In linear analyses, we found odds ratios for acute myeloid leukaemia of 1.20 (95% confidence interval: 1.04-1.38) per 20 µg/m(3) increase in NOx and 1.31 (1.02-1.68) per 10 µg/m(3) increase in NO2 , calculated as time-weighted average exposure at all addresses since 1971. We found no association with chronic myeloid or lymphocytic leukaemia. This study indicates an association between long-term exposure to traffic-related air pollution and acute myeloid leukaemia in the general population, but not for other subtypes of leukaemia.

  2. Comparative Risk Assessment to Inform Adaptation Priorities for the Natural Environment: Observations from the First UK Climate Change Risk Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Iain Brown

    2015-01-01

    Risk assessment can potentially provide an objective framework to synthesise and prioritise climate change risks to inform adaptation policy. However, there are significant challenges in the application of comparative risk assessment procedures to climate change, particularly for the natural environment. These challenges are evaluated with particular reference to the first statutory Climate Change Risk Assessment (CCRA) and evidence review procedures used to guide policy for the UK government...

  3. Air pollution from household solid fuel combustion in India: an overview of exposure and health related information to inform health research priorities

    OpenAIRE

    Balakrishnan, Kalpana; Ramaswamy, Padmavathi; Sambandam, Sankar; Thangavel, Gurusamy; Ghosh, Santu; Johnson, Priscilla; Mukhopadhyay, Krishnendu; Venugopal, Vidhya; Thanasekaraan, Vijayalakshmi

    2011-01-01

    Environmental and occupational risk factors contribute to nearly 40% of the national burden of disease in India, with air pollution in the indoor and outdoor environment ranking amongst leading risk factors. It is now recognized that the health burden from air pollution exposures that primarily occur in the rural indoors, from pollutants released during the incomplete combustion of solid fuels in households, may rival or even exceed the burden attributable to urban outdoor exposures. Few envi...

  4. Test results self-informativity properties annual dynamics of mean monthly air temperature anomalies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadezhda Aleksandrovna Vazhnova

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper it is discussed the issues of methodology and the results of testing the possibilities of using the self- informatively properties in the series of the mean monthly air temperature anomalies (MMATA for the purposes of long-term forecasting of the thermal regime conditions on the example of Kazan Station, university. It is found that the prognostic informatively of the MMATA (for thermal conditions of July of the separately considered months is not statistically significant (missing since the previous June and in the earlier history, excluding the last 2 weeks of June, where the prognostic informatively is confirmed with the probability of ≥ 95%. The prognostic informatively of the mean monthly air temperature anomalies in relation to the thermal conditions of July rapidly increases with an increase in the accounted length of history of changes (preceding to the predicant in the mean monthly air temperature anomalies. It is shown that the filling of useful prognostic information takes place from April to June in relation to the conditions of Kazan. The accounting of self-informativity properties of the series of mean monthly air temperature anomalies has showed that the overall accuracy of the forecasts amounts to = 90%, at the general accuracy of random forecasts 0 = 74%, and at the methodical win = 16%. All these data suggest that the forecasts are at random level. Whereof we can conclude that the nonparametric discriminant analysis method is not always gives the positive results. Therefore, it is advisable to use more precise methods for the long-term weather forecasts, which give more acceptable forecast results with more accuracy.

  5. You Have Been Framed! How Antecedents of Information Need Mediate the Effects of Risk Communication Messages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Terpstra, T.; Zaalberg, R.; Boer, de J.; Botzen, W.J.W.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the processes that mediate the effects of framing flood risks on people's information needs. Insight into the effects of risk frames is important for developing balanced risk communication that explains both risks and benefits of living near water. The research was inspired b

  6. Air pollution attributable postneonatal infant mortality in U.S. metropolitan areas: a risk assessment study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzyzanowski Michal

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The impact of outdoor air pollution on infant mortality has not been quantified. Methods Based on exposure-response functions from a U.S. cohort study, we assessed the attributable risk of postneonatal infant mortality in 23 U.S. metropolitan areas related to particulate matter 10 as a surrogate of total air pollution. Results The estimated proportion of all cause mortality, sudden infant death syndrome (normal birth weight infants only and respiratory disease mortality (normal birth weight attributable to PM10 above a chosen reference value of 12.0 μg/m3 PM10 was 6% (95% confidence interval 3–11%, 16% (95% confidence interval 9–23% and 24% (95% confidence interval 7–44%, respectively. The expected number of infant deaths per year in the selected areas was 106 (95% confidence interval 53–185, 79 (95% confidence interval 46–111 and 15 (95% confidence interval 5–27, respectively. Approximately 75% of cases were from areas where the current levels are at or below the new U.S. PM2.5 standard of 15 μg/m3 (equivalent to 25 μg/m3 PM10. In a country where infant mortality rates and air pollution levels are relatively low, ambient air pollution as measured by particulate matter contributes to a substantial fraction of infant death, especially for those due to sudden infant death syndrome and respiratory disease. Even if all counties would comply to the new PM2.5 standard, the majority of the estimated burden would remain. Conclusion Given the inherent limitations of risk assessments, further studies are needed to support and quantify the relationship between infant mortality and air pollution.

  7. Phytotoxic risk assessment of ambient air pollution on agricultural crops in Selangor State, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, S; Bell, J N B; Marshall, F M

    2007-11-01

    The phytotoxic risk of ambient air pollution to local vegetation was assessed in Selangor State, Malaysia. The AOT40 value was calculated by means of the continuously monitored daily maximum concentration and the local diurnal pattern of O3. Together with minor risks associated with the levels of NO2 and SO2, the study found that the monthly AOT40 values in these peri-urban sites were consistently over 1.0 ppm.h, which is well in exceedance of the given European critical level. Linking the O3 level to actual agricultural crop production in Selangor State also indicated that the extent of yield losses could have ranged from 1.6 to 5.0% (by weight) in 2000. Despite a number of uncertainties, the study showed a simple but useful methodological framework for phytotoxic risk assessment with a limited data set, which could contribute to appropriate policy discussion and countermeasures in countries under similar conditions.

  8. 77 FR 11145 - Intent to Request Renewal From OMB of One Current Public Collection of Information: Air Cargo...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-24

    ... Collection of Information: Air Cargo Security Requirements AGENCY: Transportation Security Administration...-cargo carriers. The collections of information that make up this ICR are security programs, security threat assessments (STA), known shipper data via the Known Shipper Management System (KSMS), Air...

  9. Aconitine Challenge Test Reveals a Single Exposure to Air Pollution Causes Increased Cardiac Arrhythmia Risk in Hypertensive Rats - Abstract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epidemiological studies demonstrate a significant association between arrhythmias and air pollution exposure. Sensitivity to aconitine-induced arrhythmia has been used repeatedly to examine the factors that increase the risk of such cardiac electrical dysfunction. In this study, ...

  10. Study on institutionalization of risk-informed performance-based regulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, M. G.; Hong, S. Y.; Seo, M. R. [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-02-15

    In this study, for the institutionalization of risk informed and performance based regulation in Korea, the latest technical movements of overseas countries are examined and reviewed. And the issues that was found when license change petition using risk information was submitted in Korean regulatory body are reviewed. Based on these review, the applicable areas to domestic situation will be found and proposed. This study can contribute to setting up the proper direction for the institutionalization of risk informed and performance based regulation.

  11. Geographical information systems and air pollution simulation for Megalopolis' electric power plant in Peloponnese, Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theophanides, Mike; Anastassopoulou, Jane; Theophanides, Theophile

    2014-01-01

    The growth and sophistication of geographic information systems (GIS) have propelled us into a new era of environmental analyses. Air pollution is a growing concern in populated areas as many recent studies have associated high levels of pollution with increased illnesses and mortality. The study will focus on the toxicity levels incurred by radioactive lignite-burning Power Generation facilities located in Megalopolis, Greece. An estimate of pollution emissions followed by dispersion simulations for various atmospheric conditions will be given. The exercise will be integrated with a Geographical Information System (GIS) for defining the emission sources and visualizing the dispersion of pollutants over the geographical terrain. Data samples were collected from vegetation in the surrounding areas and analyzed for radioactivity. High energy levels (up to 4-5 times higher than recommended standards, (UNCEAR, 1982) were found in several samples containing (226)Ra, (232)Th, (234)Th, (40)K and (238)U. The study concludes that air quality and vegetation of the neighbouring areas is adversely affected by industrial waste. Greater pollution controls and air quality monitoring should be applied for the benefit and health of its citizens. Radioactivity in food and water and inhaled air become very dangerous for public health thus, the levels of radioactivity should be kept within UNCEAR 1982 limits.

  12. Documentation of violence risk information in psychiatric hospital patient charts: an empirical examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbogen, Eric B; Tomkins, Alan J; Pothuloori, Antara P; Scalora, Mario J

    2003-01-01

    Studies have identified risk factors that show a strong association with violent behavior in psychiatric populations. Yet, little research has been conducted on the documentation of violence risk information in actual clinical practice, despite the relevance of such documentation to risk assessment liability and to conducting effective risk management. In this study, the documentation of cues of risk for violence were examined in psychiatric settings. Patient charts (n = 283) in four psychiatric settings were reviewed for documentation of violence risk information summarized in the MacArthur Violence Risk Assessment Study. The results revealed that particular patient and institutional variables influenced documentation practices. The presence of personality disorder, for example, predicted greater documentation of cues of violence risk, regardless of clinical setting. These findings have medicolegal implications for risk assessment liability and clinical implications for optimizing risk management in psychiatric practice.

  13. Comparison of immersed liquid and air cooling of NASA's Airborne Information Management System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoadley, A. W.; Porter, A. J.

    1992-01-01

    The Airborne Information Management System (AIMS) is currently under development at NASA Dryden Flight Research Facility. The AIMS is designed as a modular system utilizing surface mounted integrated circuits in a high-density configuration. To maintain the temperature of the integrated circuits within manufacturer's specifications, the modules are to be filled with Fluorinert FC-72. Unlike ground based liquid cooled computers, the extreme range of the ambient pressures experienced by the AIMS requires the FC-72 be contained in a closed system. This forces the latent heat absorbed during the boiling to be released during the condensation that must take within the closed module system. Natural convection and/or pumping carries the heat to the outer surface of the AIMS module where the heat transfers to the ambient air. This paper will present an evaluation of the relative effectiveness of immersed liquid cooling and air cooling of the Airborne Information Management System.

  14. A Framework of Environmental Modelling and Information Sharing for Urban Air Pollution Control and Management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Gang-jun; FU Er-jiang; WANG Yun-jia; ZHANG Ke-fei; HAN Bao-ping; ARROWSMITH Colin

    2007-01-01

    More effective environmental pollution control and management are needed due to the increasing environmental impacts from a range of human activities and the growing public demands for a better living environment. Urban air pollution is a serious environmental issue that poses adverse impacts on the health of people and the environment in most metropolitan areas. In this paper, we propose a geoinformatics augmented framework of environmental modelling and information sharing for supporting effective urban air pollution control and management. This framework is outlined in terms of its key components and processes including: 1) an integrated, adaptive network of sensors for environmental monitoring; 2) a set of distributed, interoperable databases for data management; 3) a set of intelligent, robust algorithms and models for environmental modelling; 4) a set of flexible, efficient user interfaces for data access and information sharing; and 5) a reliable, high capacity, high performance computing and communication infrastructure for integrating and supporting other framework components and processes.

  15. Risk-based assessment of the surety of information systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jansma, R.M.; Fletcher, S.K.; Murphy, M.D.; Lim, J.J.; Wyss, G.D.

    1996-07-01

    When software is used in safety-critical, security-critical, or mission-critical situations, it is imperative to understand and manage the risks involved. A risk assessment methodology and toolset have been developed which are specific to software systems and address a broad range of risks including security, safety, and correct operation. A unique aspect of this methodology is the use of a modeling technique that captures interactions and tradeoffs among risk mitigators. This paper describes the concepts and components of the methodology and presents its application to example systems.

  16. The Application of "Risk=Value*Threat*Vulnerability" in Management Information Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Yi

    2006-01-01

    With rapid development of the technology, many organizations depend more on the information than before and they will process mountains of information everyday. Hence, an information system is designed to facilitate managing information. Security is applied to insure data confidentiality, integrality and availability. In this process, risk can not be ignored. How can we analyze the degree of the risk we can accept to provide effective protection at reasonable costs with a great return on investment? Now many methodologies are proposed. In the paper, one method "Risk=Value*Threat*Vulnerability" is analyzed so that more people can have a basic understanding about the risk.

  17. Helicopter vibration and risk of reversible myopia among military air crews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bastaman Basuki

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available We assessed to what extend the risk of reversible myopia of the different degree of helicopter vibrations and other risk factors among military helicopter pilots and flight engineers. The study was a nested case-control design using medical record at the Institute of Aerospace Medicine of the Indonesian Air Force and Medical Directorate of the Indonesian Army (Flying Wing. Cases and controls were military helicopter pilots and flight engineers who had ametropic visual acuity at the time of entry into military service from 1972 until 1992. Reversible myopia means visual acuity corrected of - 0.50 dioptri or less. The final model indicates there was a relationship between vibration level, duration of work and risk of reversible myopia. Helicopter crews exposed to high vibration level had 4.5 times to develop reversible myopia [adjusted odds ratio (OR = 4.47; 95% confidence intervals (CI = 1.48 - 13.55] relative to those who exposed to weak vibration level. There was noted a healthy worker's survivor effect. Those who remain work for a longer peiod had less a chance to be myopia. Those who worked for 10 years or more had a lowered risk of 85% to be myopia compared with those who worked for 14 years (adjusted OR = 0.15; 95% CI = 0.03 - 0.87. Helicopter crews exposed to high helicopter vibration had 4.5 times to develop reversible myopia, and a higher risk occurred during the first four years of employment. (Med J Indones 2002; 11: 93-6Keywords: helicopter vibration, reversible myopia, air crews

  18. Personnel Information Requirements for the Support of Air Force Squadron Commanders’ Information Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-12-01

    With Graphic Format Generated By A Squadron Commander Emlis+ed Monning 20 110 1807 C-198 or-ly Ju e o Feb 0p u c e 512S 1988 Jon Mar May JuI S;p Nv...I I 1988 Jon Mar’ Ma’y Jul Sep Nov Feb Apr Jun Rug Oci Dec Mo n th 61 Bibliography 1. Barros, Oscar. "Information Requirements And Alternatives In...14. Gruber , W.H. and J.S. Niles. The New Management. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1976. 15. Hughes, David. "MAC Command and Control Center To Serve As

  19. Health Risk Assessment for Transport Corridors in Delhi through Vehicular Air Polluting Mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitin Kumar

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Vehicles are recognized as one of the major sources of air pollution. Delhi having  a very large number of vehicles produces a lot of air pollution. There is an utter need to ascertain the concentration of the pollutants and their impact on the health of the people of the concerned region. This paper makes an attempt towards such an examination. The method employed here is based on Epidemiology. The assessment of health risks due to increased levels of various pollutants on people represented in this paper is based on the spreadsheet model, Risk of Mortality/Morbidity due to Air Pollution (Ri–MAP. This paper presents the findings of the study that evaluates the Impact of increasing air pollution on human health, especially vehicular pollution, in the monitored region, i.e., National Capital Territory of Delhi (NCT Delhi during the year 2015 by choosing fifteen study sites from different parts of the capital city. The findings are in terms of  excess number of cases of cardiovascular and respiratory mortality, and cardiovascular and respiratory morbidity for all fifteen transport corridors. Among others, Noida link road recorded highest excess number of cases of cardiovascular mortality and morbidity and respiratory Morbidity. In case of respiratory mortality, Wazirabad road recorded maximum excess number of cases. With respect to least excess number of cases, it was Connaught Place (Outer circle. The excess number of cases are directly proportional to the population density of the respective region. Also, the regions showing smaller excess number of cases are the planned, less crowded and posh regions of the national capital territory of Delhi.

  20. A Framework for Integrating Knowledge Management with Risk Management for Information Technology Projects (RiskManiT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karadsheh, Louay A.

    2010-01-01

    This research focused on the challenges experienced when executing risk management activities for information technology projects. The lack of adequate knowledge management support of risk management activities has caused many project failures in the past. The research objective was to propose a conceptual framework of the Knowledge-Based Risk…

  1. Correlational Study of Risk Management and Information Technology Project Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillespie, Seth J.

    2014-01-01

    Many IT projects fail despite the best efforts to keep these projects within budget, schedule, and scope. Few studies have looked at the effect of project risk management tools and techniques on project success. The primary focus of this study was to examine the extent to which utilization of project risk management processes influence project…

  2. U.S. Air Force Scientific and Technical Information Program - The STINFO Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blados, Walter R.

    1991-01-01

    The U.S. Air Force STINFO (Scientific and Technical Information) program has as its main goal the proper use of all available scientific and technical information in the development of programs. The organization of STINFO databases, the use of STINFO in the development and advancement of aerospace science and technology and the acquisition of superior systems at lowest cost, and the application to public and private sectors of technologies developed for military uses are examined. STINFO user training is addressed. A project for aerospace knowledge diffusion is discussed.

  3. Toward an Effective Information Security Risk Management of Universities’ Information Systems Using Multi Agent Systems, Itil, Iso 27002,Iso 27005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. FARIS

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Universities in the public and private sectors depend on information technology and information systems to successfully carry out their missions and business functions. Information systems are subject to serious threats that can have adverse effects on organizational operations and assets, and individuals by exploiting both known and unknown vulnerabilities to compromise the confidentiality, integrity, or availability of the information being processes, stored or transmitted by those systems. Threats to information systems can include purposeful attacks, environmental disruptions, and human/machine errors, and can result in harm to the integrity of data. Therefore, it is imperative that all the actors at all levels in a university information system understand their responsibilities and are held accountable for managing information security risk-that is the risk associated with the operation and use of information systems that support the missions and business functions of their university. The purpose of this paper is to propose an information security toolkit namely URMIS (University Risk Management Information System based on multi agent systems and integrating with existing information security frameworks and standards, to enhance the security of universities information systems.

  4. Air blast circuit breaker noise and hearing loss: a multifactorial model for risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBride, D I; Williams, S

    2000-04-01

    The assessment of the risk to hearing from impulse noise exposure may be a problem for the occupational physician because existing legislative and international noise exposure standards deal primarily with continuous noise, and are not valid in excess of the peak exposure limit of 200 pa (140 dB). Noise exposure in excess of this level, for example that due to firearms, is frequently perceived as harmful, but this is not necessarily the case, as impulse noise standards do, in fact, allow exposure with a maximum in the order of 6.3 kPa (170 dB). To illustrate this, a cross-sectional group of electrical transmission workers have been studied who were exposed to significant levels of impulse noise from air blast circuit breakers and firearms. Important hearing loss factors have been identified by means of a specially designed questionnaire. Using the Health & Safety Executive definition, the risk of hearing loss was determined by calculating prevalence odds ratios (ORs) for exposure to these factors. The OR for those with fewer than eight unprotected air blast circuit breaker exposures was 2.27 (95% confidence interval (CI), 1.01-5.08), whilst for those with more than eight exposures the OR was 2.10 (95% CI, 0.97-4.54). For firearm exposure, ORs of 1.61 (95% CI, 0.95-2.74) were noted in the medium exposure group and 2.05 (95% CI, 1.08-3.86) in the high exposure group. When all the factors were included in the model, the most significant factor was age. The study gives support to the impulse noise exposure criteria, confirming the borderline risk from air blast circuit breaker noise exposure and the relative safety of moderate gunfire exposure.

  5. Preliminary characterization of risks in the nuclear waste management system based on information in the literature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daling, P.M.; Rhoads, R.E.; Van Luick, A.E.; Fecht, B.A.; Nilson, S.A.; Sevigny, N.L. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Armstrong, G.R. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); Hill, D.H.; Rowe, M.; Stern, E. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1992-01-01

    This document presents preliminary information on the radiological and nonradiological risks in the nuclear waste management system. The objective of the study was to (1) review the literature containing information on risks in the nuclear waste management system and (2) use this information to develop preliminary estimates of the potential magnitude of these risks. Information was collected on a broad range of risk categories to assist the US Department of Energy (DOE) in communicating information about the risks in the waste management systems. The study examined all of the portions of the nuclear waste management system currently expected to be developed by the DOE. The scope of this document includes the potential repository, the integral MRS facility, and the transportation system that supports the potential repository and the MRS facility. Relevant literature was reviewed for several potential repository sites and geologic media. A wide range of ``risk categories`` are addressed in this report: (1) public and occupational risks from accidents that could release radiological materials, (2) public and occupational radiation exposure resulting from routine operations, (3) public and occupational risks from accidents involving hazards other than radioactive materials, and (4) public and occupational risks from exposure to nonradioactive hazardous materials during routine operations. The report is intended to provide a broad spectrum of risk-related information about the waste management system. This information is intended to be helpful for planning future studies.

  6. Understanding and Supporting Web Developers: Design and Evaluation of a Web Accessibility Information Resource (WebAIR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swallow, David; Petrie, Helen; Power, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the design and evaluation of a Web Accessibility Information Resource (WebAIR) for supporting web developers to create and evaluate accessible websites. WebAIR was designed with web developers in mind, recognising their current working practices and acknowledging their existing understanding of web accessibility. We conducted an evaluation with 32 professional web developers in which they used either WebAIR or an existing accessibility information resource, the Web Content Accessibility Guidelines, to identify accessibility problems. The findings indicate that several design decisions made in relation to the language, organisation, and volume of WebAIR were effective in supporting web developers to undertake web accessibility evaluations.

  7. Research needs for risk-informed, performance-based regulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thadani, A.C.

    1997-01-01

    This article summarizes the activities of the Office of Research of the NRC, both from a historical aspect as well as it applies to the application of risk-based decision making. The office has been actively involved in problems related to understanding risks related to core accidents, to understanding the problem of aging of reactor components and materials from years of service, and toward the understanding and analysis of severe accidents. In addition new policy statements regarding the role of risk assessment in regulatory applications has given focus for the need of further work. The NRC has used risk assessment in regulatory questions in the past but in a fairly ad hoc sort of manner. The new policies will clearly require a better defined application of risk assessment, and help for people evaluating applications in judging the applicability of such applications when a component of them is based on risk-based decision making. To address this, standard review plans are being prepared to serve as guides for such questions. In addition, with regulatory decisions being allowed to be based upon risk-based decisions, it is necessary to have an adequate data base prepared, and made publically available, to support such a position.

  8. Comparative Risk Assessment to Inform Adaptation Priorities for the Natural Environment: Observations from the First UK Climate Change Risk Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iain Brown

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Risk assessment can potentially provide an objective framework to synthesise and prioritise climate change risks to inform adaptation policy. However, there are significant challenges in the application of comparative risk assessment procedures to climate change, particularly for the natural environment. These challenges are evaluated with particular reference to the first statutory Climate Change Risk Assessment (CCRA and evidence review procedures used to guide policy for the UK government. More progress was achieved on risk identification, screening and prioritisation compared to risk quantification. This was due to the inherent complexity and interdependence of ecological risks and their interaction with socio-economic drivers as well as a climate change. Robust strategies to manage risk were identified as those that coordinate organisational resources to enhance ecosystem resilience, and to accommodate inevitable change, rather than to meet specific species or habitats targets. The assessment also highlighted subjective and contextual components of risk appraisal including ethical issues regarding the level of human intervention in the natural environment and the proposed outcomes of any intervention. This suggests that goals for risk assessment need to be more clearly explicated and assumptions on tolerable risk declared as a primer for further dialogue on expectations for managed outcomes. Ecosystem-based adaptation may mean that traditional habitats and species conservation goals and existing regulatory frameworks no longer provide the best guide for long-term risk management thereby challenging the viability of some existing practices.

  9. Effect of central ventilation and air conditioner system on the concentration and health risk from airborne polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jinze LV; Lizhong Zhu

    2013-01-01

    Central ventilation and air conditioner systems are widely utilized nowadays in public places for air exchange and temperature control,which significantly influences the transfer of pollutants between indoors and outdoors.To study the effect of central ventilation and air conditioner systems on the concentration and health risk from airborne pollutants,a spatial and temporal survey was carried out using polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) as agent pollutants.During the period when the central ventilation system operated without air conditioning (AC-off period),concentrations of 2-4 ring PAHs in the model supermarket were dominated by outdoor levels,due to the good linearity between indoor air and outdoor air (rp > 0.769,p < 0.05),and the slopes (1.2-4.54) indicated that ventilating like the model supermarket increased the potential health risks from low molecular weight PAHs.During the period when the central ventilation and air conditioner systems were working simultaneously (AC-on period),although the total levels of PAHs were increased,the concentrations and percentage of the particulate PAHs indoors declined significantly.The BaP equivalency (BaPeq concentration indicated that utilization of air conditioning reduced the health risks from PAHs in the model supermarket.

  10. The effects of closure and workload privatization on health risks estimated for air toxic emissions from McClellan AFB

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vanderbilt, P.; Castleberry, J. [CH2M Hill, Sacramento, CA (United States); Carroz, J. [SM-ALC/EMPW, McClellan AFB, CA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    In July 1995, McClellan AFB, one of five Air Force Logistics Centers, was included on the Base Realignment and Closure Commission list approved by President Clinton. The base will close by August 2001. Significant manufacturing and repair facilities are scheduled for privatization and/or reuse. The State of California requires major industrial facilities to inventory their air toxic emissions and estimate health risks using California-approved methods. This paper explores and discusses the changes in estimated health risks if McClellan AFB was split up into several parts, reducing or eliminating buffer zones, and moving fence lines closer to major air toxic emissions sources. The health risks for the entire base estimated in prior study are compared to the individual risks associated with separate operation of emission sources in various buildings on the base. For several of the buildings and operations studied, predicted health risks at the sites of maximum exposure are greater than limits proposed by the local air district as acceptable levels. Mitigation measures may be required, such as public notification, risk reduction audits, and implementation and tracking of risk reduction measures. For other buildings and operations, results demonstrate that separate ownership would result in predicted health risks within acceptable levels.

  11. The MARINA Risk Assessment Strategy: A Flexible Strategy for Efficient Information Collection and Risk Assessment of Nanomaterials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter M. J. Bos

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available An engineered nanomaterial (ENM may actually consist of a population of primary particles, aggregates and agglomerates of various sizes. Furthermore, their physico-chemical characteristics may change during the various life-cycle stages. It will probably not be feasible to test all varieties of all ENMs for possible health and environmental risks. There is therefore a need to further develop the approaches for risk assessment of ENMs. Within the EU FP7 project Managing Risks of Nanoparticles (MARINA a two-phase risk assessment strategy has been developed. In Phase 1 (Problem framing a base set of information is considered, relevant exposure scenarios (RESs are identified and the scope for Phase 2 (Risk assessment is established. The relevance of an RES is indicated by information on exposure, fate/kinetics and/or hazard; these three domains are included as separate pillars that contain specific tools. Phase 2 consists of an iterative process of risk characterization, identification of data needs and integrated collection and evaluation of data on the three domains, until sufficient information is obtained to conclude on possible risks in a RES. Only data are generated that are considered to be needed for the purpose of risk assessment. A fourth pillar, risk characterization, is defined and it contains risk assessment tools. This strategy describes a flexible and efficient approach for data collection and risk assessment which is essential to ensure safety of ENMs. Further developments are needed to provide guidance and make the MARINA Risk Assessment Strategy operational. Case studies will be needed to refine the strategy.

  12. Fatalistic responses to different types of genetic risk information: exploring the role of self-malleability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claassen, Liesbeth; Henneman, Lidewij; De Vet, Riekie; Knol, Dirk; Marteau, Theresa; Timmermans, Danielle

    2010-02-01

    Providing people with genetic risk information may induce a sense of fatalism, the belief that little can be done to reduce the risk. We postulated that fatalism is a function of health risk information and individual differences in self-perception. DNA-based risk information was hypothesised to generate more fatalism than risk information based on family history or non-genetic risk information. Moreover, people who view themselves as more rather than less able to change self-attributes were hypothesised to respond least fatalistically. Factor analyses in separate samples were used to construct a five-item 'Malleability of self' measure. Predictive validity of the measure was tested using a within-subjects analogue design. Participants responded to three scenario vignettes in which they were informed of an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). In Scenario 1, risk was ascertained by DNA testing, family history and cholesterol testing; in Scenario 2, it was ascertained by family history and cholesterol testing; in Scenario 3, risk was ascertained by cholesterol testing alone. Scenario 1 was associated with least perceived control over cholesterol level and CVD risk. People who viewed themselves as more able to change self-attributes experienced more control in all three scenarios.

  13. Risk Informed Design Using Integrated Vehicle Rapid Assessment Tools Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A successful proof of concept was performed in FY 2012 integrating the Envision tool for parametric estimates of vehicle mass and the Rapid Response Risk Assessment...

  14. Associations between Sexually Experienced Adolescents' Sources of Information about Sex and Sexual Risk Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Secor-Turner, Molly; Sieving, Renee E.; Eisenberg, Marla E.; Skay, Carol

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to describe prevalent informal sources of information about sex and examine associations between informal sources of information about sex and sexual risk outcomes among sexually experienced adolescents. Work involved the secondary analysis of data from the Minnesota Student Survey, a statewide survey to monitor…

  15. Information Behavior and HIV Testing Intentions Among Young Men at Risk for HIV/AIDS

    OpenAIRE

    Meadowbrooke, Chrysta C.; Veinot, Tiffany C; Loveluck, Jimena; Hickok, Andrew; Bauermeister, José A.

    2014-01-01

    Health research shows that knowing about health risks may not translate into behavior change. However, such research typically operationalizes health information acquisition with knowledge tests. Information scientists who investigate socially embedded information behaviors could help improve understanding of potential associations between information behavior—as opposed to knowledge—and health behavior formation, thus providing new opportunities to investigate the effects of health informati...

  16. AirNow Information Management System - Global Earth Observation System of Systems Data Processor for Real-Time Air Quality Data Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haderman, M.; Dye, T. S.; White, J. E.; Dickerson, P.; Pasch, A. N.; Miller, D. S.; Chan, A. C.

    2012-12-01

    Built upon the success of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) AirNow program (www.AirNow.gov), the AirNow-International (AirNow-I) system contains an enhanced suite of software programs that process and quality control real-time air quality and environmental data and distribute customized maps, files, and data feeds. The goals of the AirNow-I program are similar to those of the successful U.S. program and include fostering the exchange of environmental data; making advances in air quality knowledge and applications; and building a community of people, organizations, and decision makers in environmental management. In 2010, Shanghai became the first city in China to run this state-of-the-art air quality data management and notification system. AirNow-I consists of a suite of modules (software programs and schedulers) centered on a database. One such module is the Information Management System (IMS), which can automatically produce maps and other data products through the use of GIS software to provide the most current air quality information to the public. Developed with Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS) interoperability in mind, IMS is based on non-proprietary standards, with preference to formal international standards. The system depends on data and information providers accepting and implementing a set of interoperability arrangements, including technical specifications for collecting, processing, storing, and disseminating shared data, metadata, and products. In particular, the specifications include standards for service-oriented architecture and web-based interfaces, such as a web mapping service (WMS), web coverage service (WCS), web feature service (WFS), sensor web services, and Really Simple Syndication (RSS) feeds. IMS is flexible, open, redundant, and modular. It also allows the merging of data grids to create complex grids that show comprehensive air quality conditions. For example, the AirNow Satellite Data Processor

  17. Risk Management and Intangibles: The Role of Information in Customer Acquisition and Evaluation of Intangibles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alirezazadeh, Pantea

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation consists of three separate essays shaping around decision making and risk management in the presence of intangibles. More specifically I study the risk management aspect of information acquisition and the role of information signaling in communicating the value of intangible assets. Intangible asset has proved to be a…

  18. Determinants of Seeking and Avoiding Risk-Related Information in Times of Crisis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gutteling, Jan M.; Vries, de Peter W.

    2016-01-01

    This research is designed to provide insight into the psychological (e.g., threat appraisal or coping appraisal) and other determinants (e.g., information quality judgments or demographics) of risk information seeking or avoidance in times of an acute risk, as part of the process of increasing publi

  19. Model based climate information on drought risk in Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calmanti, S.; Syroka, J.; Jones, C.; Carfagna, F.; Dell'Aquila, A.; Hoefsloot, P.; Kaffaf, S.; Nikulin, G.

    2012-04-01

    The United Nations World Food Programme (WFP) has embarked upon the endeavor of creating a sustainable Africa-wide natural disaster risk management system. A fundamental building block of this initiative is the setup of a drought impact modeling platform called Africa Risk-View that aims to quantify and monitor weather-related food security risk in Africa. The modeling approach is based the Water Requirement Satisfaction Index (WRSI), as the fundamental indicator of the performances of agriculture and uses historical records of food assistance operation to project future potential needs for livelihood protection. By using climate change scenarios as an input to Africa Risk-View it is possible, in principles, to evaluate the future impact of climate variability on critical issues such as food security and the overall performance of the envisaged risk management system. A necessary preliminary step to this challenging task is the exploration of the sources of uncertainties affecting the assessment based on modeled climate change scenarios. For this purpose, a limited set of climate models have been selected in order verify the relevance of using climate model output data with Africa Risk-View and to explore a minimal range of possible sources of uncertainty. This first evaluation exercise started before the setup of the CORDEX framework and has relied on model output available at the time. In particular only one regional downscaling was available for the entire African continent from the ENSEMBLES project. The analysis shows that current coarse resolution global climate models can not directly feed into the Africa RiskView risk-analysis tool. However, regional downscaling may help correcting the inherent biases observed in the datasets. Further analysis is performed by using the first data available under the CORDEX framework. In particular, we consider a set of simulation driven with boundary conditions from the reanalysis ERA-Interim to evaluate the skill drought

  20. Development of the air module for the work information management system. Environmental subsystem (WIMS-ES). Master's thesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cantwell, R.A.; Davis, J.S.

    1992-09-01

    The primary objective of this research was to develop the air module for the Work Information Management System Environmental Subsystem (WIMSES). The air module will provide Air Force environmental managers with a management information system (MIS) to control the growing amount of air pollution data required to stay in compliance with the newly amended Clean Air Act. To develop the air module, the Air Force's air pollution management requirements were researched first. These requirements were then compared to the capabilities of existing air pollution MISs used in the Department of Defense, the Environmental Protection Agency, and in commercial industry. The research led to a draft air nodule that tracks a base's source inventory and associated permit, control equipment, and emission information. Each base's data will be fully accessible to headquarters personnel through the fully networked WIMS-ES. The draft air nodule was validated through an Air Staff review, an Air Force review, and finally, a workshop with Air Force air pollution experts. The finalized air module has been forwarded to the WIMS-ES programmers and will become the Air Force-wide air pollution MIS in early 1993.... Air pollution, Environmental management, Data management, Data bases, Management information systems, Information systems.

  1. Ambient air pollution and risk of birth defects in Southern California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritz, Beate; Yu, Fei; Fruin, Scott; Chapa, Guadalupe; Shaw, Gary M; Harris, John A

    2002-01-01

    The authors evaluated the effect of air pollution on the occurrence of birth defects ascertained by the California Birth Defects Monitoring Program in neonates and fetuses delivered in southern California in 1987-1993. By using measurements from ambient monitoring stations of carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen dioxide, ozone, and particulate matter <10 microm in aerodynamic diameter, they calculated average monthly exposure estimates for each pregnancy. Conventional, polytomous, and hierarchical logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios for subgroups of cardiac and orofacial defects. Odds ratios for cardiac ventricular septal defects increased in a dose-response fashion with increasing second-month CO exposure (odds ratio (OR)(2nd quartile) CO = 1.62, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.05, 2.48; OR(3rd quartile) CO = 2.09, 95% CI: 1.19, 3.67; OR(4th quartile) CO = 2.95, 95% CI: 1.44, 6.05). Similarly, risks for aortic artery and valve defects, pulmonary artery and valve anomalies, and conotruncal defects increased with second-month ozone exposure. The study was inconclusive for other air pollutants. The authors' results are supported by the specificity of the timing of the effect and some evidence from animal data; however, this is the first known study to link ambient air pollution during a vulnerable window of development to human malformations. Confirmation by further studies is needed.

  2. Gender as a risk factor for pulmonary embolism after air travel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapostolle, Frédéric; Le Toumelin, Philippe; Chassery, Carine; Galinski, Michel; Ameur, Lydia; Jabre, Patricia; Lapandry, Claude; Adnet, Frédéric

    2009-12-01

    It was the objective of this study to confirm the hypothesis that women experience an increased risk of pulmonary embolism (PE) and/or thromboembolic events after long-distance air travel. We systematically reviewed the records of all patients with confirmed pulmonary embolism after arrival at Roissy-Charles-de-Gaulle (CDG) Airport (Paris, France) during a 13-year period. The incidence of PE was calculated as a function of distance travelled and gender using Bayesian conditional probabilities obtained in part from a control population of long-distance travellers arriving in French Polynesia (Tahiti). A total of 287.6 million passengers landed at CDG airport during the study period. The proportion of male to female long-distance travellers was estimated to be 50.5% to 49.5%. Overall, 116 patients experienced PE after landing [90 females (78%), 26 males (22%)]. The estimated incidence of PE was 0.61 (0.61-0.61) cases per million passengers in females and 0.2 (0.20-0.20) in males, and reached 7.24 (7.17-7.31) and 2.35 (2.33-2.38) cases, respectively, in passengers travelling over 10,000 km. Our study strongly suggests that there is a relationship between risk of PE after air travel and gender. This relationship needs to be confirmed in order to develop the best strategy for prophylaxis.

  3. Commentary: Air-conditioning as a risk for increased use of healthservices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendell, Mark J.

    2004-06-01

    In this issue of the journal, Preziosi et al. [2004] report the first study to assess differences in the utilization of health care related to the presence of air-conditioning in office workplaces. Although the study was simple and cross-sectional, the data variables from questionnaires, and the findings subject to a variety of questions, the findings are striking enough to deserve clarification. The study used a large random national sample of French women assembled for another purpose (to study antioxidant nutrients and prevention of cancer and cardiovascular disease). Participants reported health services and health events in monthly questionnaires over 1 year, and in one questionnaire in the middle of that period also reported whether air-conditioning was in use at their workplace. Fifteen percent of participants reported air-conditioning at work. Analyses adjusting for age and smoking status of participants found increases in most outcomes assessed: use of specific kinds of physicians, sickness absence, and hospital stays. While the increases in odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were statistically significant for only otorhinolaryngology [OR (95% CI) = 2.33 (1.35-4.04)] and sickness absence [1.70 (1.13-2.58)], other increases were notable--dermatology [1.6 (0.98-2.65)]; hospital stay [1.51 (0.92-2.45)], and pneumonology [2.10 (0.65-6.82)]. The least elevated outcomes were for general practice medicine [0.99 (0.65-1.48)] and global medical visits [1.18 (0.67-2.07)]. [Preziosi et al., 2004 ,(Table 2)] Odds ratios for relatively common health outcomes often lie farther from the null than the risk ratios most useful for quantifying the increase in risk. Risk ratios, or prevalence ratios (PRs, the equivalent measure of effect for cross-sectional data), have seldom been used because of the convenience and availability of logistic regression models that estimate odds ratios. With baseline prevalences ranging up to 85.7% in the data from Preziosi et

  4. A systematic review of air pollution as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease in South Asia: limited evidence from India and Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, S S; Phalkey, R; Malik, A A

    2014-03-01

    Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are major contributors to mortality and morbidity in South Asia. Chronic exposure to air pollution is an important risk factor for cardiovascular diseases, although the majority of studies to date have been conducted in developed countries. Both indoor and outdoor air pollution are growing problems in developing countries in South Asia yet the impact on rising rates of CVD in these regions has largely been ignored. We aimed to assess the evidence available regarding air pollution effects on CVD and CVD risk factors in lower income countries in South Asia. A literature search was conducted in PubMed and Web of Science. Our inclusion criteria included peer-reviewed, original, empirical articles published in English between the years 1990 and 2012, conducted in the World Bank South Asia region (Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Maldives, Nepal, Pakistan and Sri Lanka). This resulted in 30 articles. Nine articles met our inclusion criteria and were assessed for this systematic review. Most of the studies were cross-sectional and examined measured particulate matter effects on CVD outcomes and indicators. We observed a bias as nearly all of the studies were from India. Hypertension and CVD deaths were positively associated with higher particulate matter levels. Biomarkers of oxidative stress such as increased levels of P-selection expressing platelets, depleted superoxide dismutase and reactive oxygen species generation as well as elevated levels of inflammatory-related C-reactive protein, interleukin-6 and interleukin-8 were also positively associated with biomass use or elevated particulate matter levels. An important outcome of this investigation was the evidence suggesting important air pollution effects regarding CVD risk in South Asia. However, too few studies have been conducted. There is as an urgent need for longer term investigations using robust measures of air pollution with different population groups that include a wider

  5. Information risk in emerging utility markets: The role of commission- sponsored audits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wirick, D.W.; Lawton, R.W.; Burns, R.E.; Lee, S.

    1996-03-01

    As public utilities and regulators begin to define their new relationship under various forms of regulations, some have questioned the continuing need for commission-sponsored audits. This study evaluates the role of such audits by examining their core purpose: the reduction of information risk (risk that a commission might make a wrong decision because of reliance on faulty information). It identifies five generic types of information that will be needed by commissions in the future and describes a cost-benefit analysis for identifying the appropriate method for mitigating information risk for state regulatory commissions.

  6. Determinants of Seeking and Avoiding Risk-Related Information in Times of Crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutteling, Jan M; de Vries, Peter W

    2017-01-01

    This research is designed to provide insight into the psychological (e.g., threat appraisal or coping appraisal) and other determinants (e.g., information quality judgments or demographics) of risk information seeking or avoidance in times of an acute risk, as part of the process of increasing public resilience through adherence to risk mitigating advice. Data were collected via telephone interviews. A specialized agency interviewed 1,000 Dutch citizens, randomly confronted with one of eight fictitious, but realistic, acute risk and emergency situations. Results indicate that information seeking in an acute situation is anticipated by a less elaborate set of predictors (age and risk perception) than information seeking in a nonacute situation (age and risk perception, as well as educational level and social norm). Although risk perception is a predictor for risk information seeking, its predictive value for acute-risk-related behavior, as one might have assumed based on theories such as protection motivation theory (PMT) or the extended parallel process model (EPPM), appears to be limited. Implications for risk communication are discussed.

  7. Long-term ambient air pollution exposure and risk of high blood pressure among citizens in Nis, Serbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanković, Aleksandra; Nikolić, Maja

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiological studies suggest that long-term exposure to air pollution increases the risk for high blood pressure (BP). The aim of our study is to evaluate any effects in BP in citizens exposed to long-term ambient air pollution. The subjects are 1136 citizens, aged 18-70 years, living for more than 5 years in the same home in the areas with a different level of air pollution. The air concentrations of black smoke and sulfur dioxide were determined in the period from 2001 to 2011. We measured systolic and diastolic BP and heart rate. Multivariate methods were used in the analysis. Alcohol consumption had the greatest influence on the incidence of hypertension as a risk factor (RR: 3.461; 95% CI: 1.72-6.93) and age had the least (RR: 1.23; 95% CI: 1.183-1.92). Exposure to air pollution increases risk for developing hypertension 2.5 times (95% CI: 1.46-4.49). Physical activity has proved to be statistically significant protective factor for the development of hypertension. Long-term exposure to low levels of main air pollutants is significantly associated with elevated risk of hypertension.

  8. The threat nets approach to information system security risk analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mirembe, Drake

    2015-01-01

    The growing demand for healthcare services is motivating hospitals to strengthen outpatient case management using information systems in order to serve more patients using the available resources. Though the use of information systems in outpatient case management raises patient data security concer

  9. Managing climatic risks for enhanced food security: Key information capabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balaghi, R.; Badjeck, M.C.; Bakari, D.; Pauw, de E.D.; Wit, de A.J.W.; Defourny, P.; Donato, S.; Gommes, R.; Jlibene, M.; Ravelo, A.C.; Sivakumar, M.V.K.; Telahigue, N.; Tychon, B.

    2010-01-01

    Food security is expected to face increasing challenges from climatic risks that are more and more exacerbated by climate change, especially in the developing world. This document lists some of the main capabilities that have been recently developed, especially in the area of operational agroclimato

  10. Research needs for risk-informed, performance-based regulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cloninger, T.H. [Houston Lighting & Power Company, Wadsworth, TX (United States)

    1997-01-01

    This presentation was made by an executive in the utility which operates the South Texas Project reactors, and summarizes their perspective on probabilistic safety analysis, risk-based operation, and risk-based regulation. They view it as a tool to help them better apply their resources to maintain the level of safety necessary to protect the public health and safety. South Texas served as one of the pilot plants for the application of risk-based regulation to the maintenance rule. The author feels that the process presents opportunities as well as challenges. Among the opportunities is the involvement of more people in the process, and the sense of investment they take in the decisions, in addition to the insight they can offer. In the area of challenges there is the need for better understanding of how to apply what already is known on problems, rather than essentially reinventing the wheel to address problems. Research is needed to better understand when some events are not truly of a significant safety concern. The demarcation between deterministic decisions and the appropriate application of risk-based decisions must be better defined, for the sake of the operator as well as the public observing plant operation.

  11. Chemical Risk Evaluation: A Case Study in an Automotive Air Conditioner Production Facility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tengku Hanidza T.I.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available There has been limited knowledge on worker’s exposure to chemicals used in the automotive industries. The purpose of this study is to assess chemical risk and to determine the adequacy of the existing control measures to reduce chemical exposure. A cross sectional survey was conducted in a factory involving installation and servicing of automotive air conditioner units. Qualitative exposure assessment was carried out following the Malaysian Chemical Health Risk Assessment Manual (CHRA. There were 180 employees, 156 workers worked in the production line, which constitutes six work units Tube fin pressed, Brazing, Welding, Final assembly, Piping and Kit II. From the chemical risk evaluation for each work unit, 26 chemical compounds were used. Most of the chemicals were irritants (eye and skin and some were asphyxiants and sensitizers. Based on the work assignment, 93 out of 180 (51.67% of the workers were exposed to chemicals. The highest numbers of workers exposed to chemicals were from the Brazing section (22.22% while the Final Assembly section was the lowest (1.67%. Health survey among the workers showed occurrence of eye irritation, skin irritation, and respiratory irritation, symptoms usually associated with chemical exposure. Using a risk rating matrix, several work process were identified as having ‘significant risk’. For these areas, the workers are at risk of adverse health effects since chemical exposure is not adequately controlled. This study recommends corrective actions be taken in order to control the level of exposure and to provide a safe work environment for workers.

  12. 75 FR 63192 - Intent To Request Renewal From OMB of One Current Public Collection of Information: Air Cargo...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-14

    ... Collection of Information: Air Cargo Security Requirements AGENCY: Transportation Security Administration... under a security program, and all-cargo carriers: Security programs, security threat assessments (STA), known shipper data via the Known Shipper Management System (KSMS), cargo screening reporting,...

  13. Is there any interaction between domestic radon exposure and air pollution from traffic in relation to childhood leukemia risk?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bräuner, E.V.; Andersen, Claus Erik; Andersen, H.P.;

    2010-01-01

    Background: In a recent population-based case-control study using 2,400 cases of childhood cancer, we found a statistically significant association between residential radon and acute lymphoblastic leukemia risk. Hypothesis: Traffic exhaust in the air enhances the risk association between radon...... risk within different strata of air pollution and traffic density. Results: The relative risk for childhood leukemia in association with a 103 Bq/m3-years increase in radon was 1.77 (1.11, 2.82) among those exposed to high levels of NOx and 1.23 (0.79, 1.91) for those exposed to low levels of NOx...... pollution from traffic may enhance the effect of radon on the risk of childhood leukemia. The observed tendency may also be attributed to chance. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media B.V....

  14. Assessment of potential cancer risk in children exposed to urban air pollution in Bangkok, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruchirawat, Mathuros; Settachan, Daam; Navasumrit, Panida; Tuntawiroon, Jantamas; Autrup, Herman

    2007-02-05

    Urban air pollution resulting from traffic is a major problem in many cities in Asia, including Bangkok, Thailand. This pollution originates mainly from incomplete fossil fuel combustion, e.g. transportation, and the composition of which is very complex. Some of the compounds are carcinogenic in experimental animals and in man. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and benzene are among the major carcinogenic compounds found in urban air pollution from motor vehicle emissions. In major cities in Asia, the levels of PAHs and benzene are relatively high compared with those in Europe or in the United States and thus people are exposed to higher levels. Biomarkers of exposure and early biological effects have been used to study the potential health effects of exposure to PAHs and benzene in air pollution in school children attending schools in inner-city Bangkok compared to those attending schools in rural areas. Bangkok school children are exposed to total PAHs at levels 3.5-fold higher than those in the rural area. Urinary 1-hydroxypyrene, a metabolite of PAH, was also significantly higher, while PAH-DNA adducts in lymphocytes were five-fold higher in Bangkok school children than rural school children. Benzene exposure in Bangkok school children was approximately two-fold higher than in rural school children. This is in agreement with the levels of biomarkers of internal benzene dose, i.e. blood benzene and urinary t,t-muconic acid. The potential health risks from exposure to genotoxic substances were assessed through DNA-damage levels and DNA repair capacity. DNA strand breaks were significantly higher, whereas DNA repair capacity was significantly reduced in Bangkok children. Genetic polymorphisms have been detected in glutathione-S-transferases (GSTs) and cytochrome P450 (CYP450) enzymes involved in the metabolism of benzene and PAHs, but these polymorphisms had no significant effects on the biomarkers of PAH exposure. Our results indicate that children living

  15. Time will tell: changes in risk perception and the processing of risk information about the Y2K-risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuttschreuter, M.; Gutteling, J.M.

    2004-01-01

    A field study was performed on the perceived risks related to the Y2K-problem. Two cross-sectional surveys were executed to study whether risk perception regarding the Y2K-problem, the perceived societal and personal capabilities to mitigate the risks, the attitude toward computers and the attitude

  16. Risk informed decision-making and its ethical basis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ersdal, Gerhard [University of Stavanger (Norway)], E-mail: gerhard.ersdal@ptil.no; Aven, Terje [University of Stavanger (Norway)

    2008-02-15

    In decision-making under uncertainty there are two main questions that need to be evaluated: (i) What are the future consequences and associated uncertainties of an action, and (ii) what is a good (or right) decision or action. Philosophically these issues are categorized as epistemic questions (i.e. questions of knowledge) and ethical questions (i.e. questions of moral and norms). This paper discusses the second issue, and evaluates different risk management approaches for establishing good decisions, using different ethical theories as a basis. These theories include the utilitarian ethics of Bentley and Mills, and deontological ethics of Kant, Rawls and Habermas. The risk management approaches include cost-benefit analysis (CBA), minimum safety criterion, the ALARP principle and the precautionary principle.

  17. Management of information security risks in a federal public institution: a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jackson Gomes Soares Souza

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Public institutions bound to the Brazilian federal public sector must apply security measures, policies, procedures and guidelines as information assets protection measures. This case study sought to determine whether the management of information security risks is applied in a federal public institution according to Information Technology (I.T. managers perceptions and the results expose the importance of the roles played by people, responsibilities, policies, standards, procedures and their implementation aiming greater control of information security risks and opportunities related to information technology security.

  18. Balancing Value and Risk in Information Sharing Through Obfuscation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-20

    Locaccino [18] for sensor data, and others such as Virtual Individual Servers [20], Lockr [19], Persona [21] and Microsoft Health Vault [22] for more generic...tion during sharing,” ser . IEEE Statistical Signal Processing Workshop (Submitted), 2012. [3] A. Raij, A. Ghosh, S. Kumar, and M. Srivastava, “Privacy...risks emerging from the adoption of innocuous wearable sensors in the mobile environ- ment,” ser . CHI, 2011. [4] H. Ahmadi, N. Pham, R. Ganti, T

  19. Risk assessment for cardiovascular and respiratory mortality due to air pollution and synoptic meteorology in 10 Canadian cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanos, Jennifer K; Hebbern, Christopher; Cakmak, Sabit

    2014-02-01

    Synoptic weather and ambient air quality synergistically influence human health. We report the relative risk of mortality from all non-accidental, respiratory-, and cardiovascular-related causes, associated with exposure to four air pollutants, by weather type and season, in 10 major Canadian cities for 1981 through 1999. We conducted this multi-city time-series study using Poisson generalized linear models stratified by season and each of six distinctive synoptic weather types. Statistically significant relationships of mortality due to short-term exposure to carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, sulphur dioxide, and ozone were found, with significant modifications of risk by weather type, season, and mortality cause. In total, 61% of the respiratory-related mortality relative risk estimates were significantly higher than for cardiovascular-related mortality. The combined effect of weather and air pollution is greatest when tropical-type weather is present in the spring or summer.

  20. The Effects of Urban Form on Ambient Air Pollution and Public Health Risk: A Case Study in Raleigh, North Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansfield, Theodore J; Rodriguez, Daniel A; Huegy, Joseph; Gibson, Jacqueline MacDonald

    2015-05-01

    Since motor vehicles are a major air pollution source, urban designs that decrease private automobile use could improve air quality and decrease air pollution health risks. Yet, the relationships among urban form, air quality, and health are complex and not fully understood. To explore these relationships, we model the effects of three alternative development scenarios on annual average fine particulate matter (PM2.5 ) concentrations in ambient air and associated health risks from PM2.5 exposure in North Carolina's Raleigh-Durham-Chapel Hill area. We integrate transportation demand, land-use regression, and health risk assessment models to predict air quality and health impacts for three development scenarios: current conditions, compact development, and sprawling development. Compact development slightly decreases (-0.2%) point estimates of regional annual average PM2.5 concentrations, while sprawling development slightly increases (+1%) concentrations. However, point estimates of health impacts are in opposite directions: compact development increases (+39%) and sprawling development decreases (-33%) PM2.5-attributable mortality. Furthermore, compactness increases local variation in PM2.5 concentrations and increases the severity of local air pollution hotspots. Hence, this research suggests that while compact development may improve air quality from a regional perspective, it may also increase the concentration of PM2.5 in local hotspots and increase population exposure to PM2.5 . Health effects may be magnified if compact neighborhoods and PM2.5 hotspots are spatially co-located. We conclude that compactness alone is an insufficient means of reducing the public health impacts of transportation emissions in automobile-dependent regions. Rather, additional measures are needed to decrease automobile dependence and the health risks of transportation emissions.

  1. A Framework for Context Sensitive Risk-Based Access Control in Medical Information Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Donghee; Kim, Dohoon; Park, Seog

    2015-01-01

    Since the access control environment has changed and the threat of insider information leakage has come to the fore, studies on risk-based access control models that decide access permissions dynamically have been conducted vigorously. Medical information systems should protect sensitive data such as medical information from insider threat and enable dynamic access control depending on the context such as life-threatening emergencies. In this paper, we suggest an approach and framework for context sensitive risk-based access control suitable for medical information systems. This approach categorizes context information, estimating and applying risk through context- and treatment-based permission profiling and specifications by expanding the eXtensible Access Control Markup Language (XACML) to apply risk. The proposed framework supports quick responses to medical situations and prevents unnecessary insider data access through dynamic access authorization decisions in accordance with the severity of the context and treatment.

  2. [Informed consent and risk management: medico-legal aspects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreschi, C; Leone, E; Sabot, A

    2010-01-01

    In every relief run, both to the goals of medical performance quality and in the optics of a therapeutic alliance, it is fundamental to create a relationship of trust among the physician and the patient, in which communication assumes a fundamental role. The informed consent is set as an integral part of the sanitary action as conclusive moment of that "therapeutic alliance" fundamental to face in a correct way every illness, and it legitimates the same sanitary action, as it is the demonstration of the constitutionally guaranteed right of patient's autodetermination. The A.O.U.D. of Udine has undertaken a run of accreditation to the Joint Commission International that it foresees a revision of the informative runs and an updating of the forms of informed consent, with the purpose to overcome the traditional physician-patient relationship, recognizing to all the patients an active role in the exercise of the medical action and in the care process. In fact the information must be lived as integral part of the sanitary action, with the awareness that this, private of such a part, would result incomplete and inaccurate, independently from the result. In such optics, the consent form, created absorbing legislative, ethical and deontological principles and jurisprudential orientations, will be illustrated and particular considerations about the type of information that must be given to the patient for treatments effected in day-surgery, will be formulated.

  3. [Use of hypertext as information and training tools in the prevention of occupational risk].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, G

    1998-01-01

    Modern medical education is based on a variety of teaching techniques, by means of which individuals learn most effectively. The availability of the new technologies together with the diffusion of personal computers is favouring the spreading of the use of hypertexts through the World Wide Web. This contribution describes 2 hypertexts ("Human Activities and Health Risk"; "Occupation, Risk and Disease. A Problem-Oriented Hypertext-Tool to Learn Occupational Medicine") and the prototype "Virtual Hospital". Assuming that prevention of health risks is based upon their knowledge, they have been created with the aim of providing users with problem-oriented tools, whose retorical aspects (content, information organization, user interface) are analysed. The "Human Activities and Health Risk" deals with the description of working activities and allows user to recognize health risks. The "Occupation, Risk and Disease. A Problem-Oriented Hypertext-Tool to Learn Occupational Medicine" embodies a case report containing the clustered information about the patient and the library including educational material (risk factors, symptoms and signs, organ system diseases, jobs, occupational risk factors, environment related diseases. The "Virtual Hospital" has been conceived assuming that an appropriate information can change workers' behaviour in hospital, where health risks can be often underevaluated. It consists of a variety of structured and unstructured information, which can be browsed by users, allowing the discovery of links and providing the awareness of the semantic relationship between related information elements (including environment, instruments, drugs, job analysis, situations at risk for health, preventive means). The "Virtual Hospital" aims making the understanding of the working situations at risk easier and more interesting, stimulating the awareness of the relationship between jobs and risks.

  4. Information specificity and hazard risk potential as moderators of trust asymmetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Mathew P; Richard Eiser, J

    2005-10-01

    Trust in risk managers appears to be an important antecedent of public acceptance for many hazards. However, such trust may be fragile since research suggests that negative performance information has a greater impact than positive performance information (Slovic, 1993). Closer examination of these findings suggests two potential moderators of this valence-related asymmetry-information specificity and hazard risk potential. First, we predicted that the asymmetry would be less evident for low versus high specificity information (risk management policies vs. concrete events). Second, we predicted that it would also be less evident for a low- versus high-risk hazard (pharmaceutical vs. nuclear industry). Study 1 reanalyzed Slovic's original trust asymmetry data for the nuclear industry. In line with Prediction 1, trust asymmetry was less evident for policy than event-related information. Using a new set of items with more clearly defined levels of specificity, Study 2 replicated and extended these findings for the high-risk hazard (nuclear power). In line with Prediction 2, trust asymmetry was even less evident for the low-risk hazard (pharmaceuticals). Positive policies in this industry actually had a greater impact on trust than negative ones, in contrast to previous findings. Results support an information diagnosticity account of earlier findings and suggest that trust in risk managers may be more robust than previously believed.

  5. Research needs for risk-informed, performance-based regulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailey, J.A. [Arizona Public Service Company, Phoenix, AZ (United States)

    1997-01-01

    Palo Verde Nuclear Generating Station has used PRA-derived risk insights for about 10 years now. The plant originally started applying PRA modeling to an auxiliary feedwater system during the initial licensing phases of the plant, and as a result of that, they were able to work with the NRC and apply some graded quality requirements to that particular system. There was a third redundant auxiliary feedwater pump, and they now can treat that system as partially safety related and partially non-safety related. So it was an advance for Palo Verde at that time to be able to make decisions with a PRA and they began learning how to use those techniques. After completing the IPE it became natural for the plant to make a transition into other areas at the plant to look for areas where the insights gained from PRA could be applied into their decision-making processes. Those that the plant embarked upon initially were areas where they could gain operational risk assessment insights. The author goes on to discuss experiences gained in using these techniques to better assess the safety of operations within the plant. In addition he offers comments on areas which need further development and research to make them more applicable to a plant by plant basis.

  6. [Assessment of children's health risk posed by traffic-related air pollution as exemplified by the city of Salekhard].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lezhnin, V L; Konshina, L G; Sergeyeva, M V

    2014-01-01

    With the aim of determination of the levels of children's health risk from chemical air pollution caused by vehicle emissions, on the territory of the municipal district of the city of Salekhard there was carried out the work on the study of the intensity and the chemical structure of traffic-related air pollution in the locations of 16 children's preschool institutions. There was used the technique of the counting campaign for the structure and intensity of road traffic flows, children's health detriment was calculated according to the method of risk assessment. The main danger in the emissions of vehicles is belonged to nitrogen dioxide (43.6%), benzo(a)pyrene (37.4%), carbon monoxide (6.57%), formaldehyde (4.43%). Being detected at the level of I0(-4)-10(-5) and corresponding to the maximum permissible risk estimated cancer risk is a subject for continuous monitoring.

  7. Smokers' sources of e-cigarette awareness and risk information

    OpenAIRE

    Wackowski, Olivia A.; Bover Manderski, Michelle T.; Delnevo, Cristine D.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Few studies have explored sources of e-cigarette awareness and peoples' e-cigarette information needs, interests, or behaviors. This study contributes to both domains of e-cigarette research. Methods: Results are based on a 2014 e-cigarette focused survey of 519 current smokers from a nationally representative research panel. Results: Smokers most frequently reported seeing e-cigarettes in stores (86.4%) and used in person (83%). Many (73%) had also heard about e-cigarette...

  8. Google as God? Opportunities and Risks of the Information Age

    CERN Document Server

    Helbing, Dirk

    2013-01-01

    If God did not exist - people would invent one. The development of human civilization requires mechanisms promoting cooperation and social order. One of these mechanisms is based on the idea that everything we do is seen and judged by God - bad deeds will be punished, while good ones will be rewarded. The Information Age has now fueled the dream that God-like omniscience and omnipotence can be created by man.

  9. Why consumers behave as they do with respect to food safety and risk information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verbeke, Wim; Frewer, Lynn J.; Scholderer, Joachim

    2007-01-01

    In recent years, it seems that consumers are generally uncertain about the safety and quality of their food and their risk perception differs substantially from that of experts. Hormone and veterinary drug residues in meat persist to occupy a high position in European consumers' food concern...... rankings. The aim of this contribution is to provide a better understanding to food risk analysts of why consumers behave as they do with respect to food safety and risk information. This paper presents some cases of seemingly irrational and inconsistent consumer behaviour with respect to food safety...... and risk information and provides explanations for these behaviours based on the nature of the risk and individual psychological processes. Potential solutions for rebuilding consumer confidence in food safety and bridging between lay and expert opinions towards food risks are reviewed. These include...

  10. Medical image information system 2001. Development of the medical image information system to risk management- Medical exposure management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuranishi, Makoto; Kumagai, Michitomo; Shintani, Mitsuo [Toyama Medical and Pharmaceutical Univ. (Japan). Hospital

    2000-12-01

    This paper discusses the methods and systems for optimizing the following supplements 10 and 17 for national health and medical care. The supplements 10 and 17 of DICOM (digital imaging and communications in medicine) system, which is now under progress for the purpose to keep compatibility within medical image information system as an international standard, are important for making the cooperation between HIS (hospital information system)/RIS (radiation information system) and modality (imaging instruments). Supplement 10 concerns the system to send the information of patients and their orders through HIS/RIS to modality and 17, the information of modality performed procedure step (MPPS) to HIS/RIS. The latter defines to document patients' exposure, a part of which has not been recognized in Japan. Thus the medical information system can be useful for risk-management of medical exposure in future. (K.H.)

  11. 76 FR 23860 - Financial Management Service Proposed Collection of Information: Schedule of Excess Risks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-28

    ... Fiscal Service Financial Management Service Proposed Collection of Information: Schedule of Excess Risks AGENCY: Financial Management Service, Fiscal Service, Treasury. ACTION: Notice and request for comments. SUMMARY: The Financial Management Service, as part of its continuing effort to reduce paperwork...

  12. An Analysis of Risk and Function Information in Early Stage Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrientos, Francesca; Tumer, Irem; Grantham, Katie; VanWie, Michael; Stone, Robert

    2005-01-01

    The concept of function offers a high potential for thinking and reasoning about designs as well as providing a common thread for relating together other design information. This paper focuses specifically on the relation between function and risk by examining how this information is addressed for a design team conducting early stage design for space missions. Risk information is decomposed into a set of key attributes which are then used to scrutinize the risk information using three approaches from the pragmatics sub-field of linguistics: i) Gricean, ii) Relevance Theory, and Functional Analysis. Results of this linguistics-based approach descriptively account for the context of designer communication with respect to function and risk, and offer prescriptive guidelines for improving designer communication.

  13. Accountability in an information age : opportunities and risks for records management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, A.J.

    2007-01-01

    Electronic records of government organizations are becoming increasingly important for accountability. Managing electronic records, however, proves to be difficult since information and communication technologies confront organizations with various opportunities and risks. In this paper the findings

  14. Anthropogenic noise disrupts use of vocal information about predation risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kern, Julie M; Radford, Andrew N

    2016-11-01

    Anthropogenic noise is rapidly becoming a universal environmental feature. While the impacts of such additional noise on avian sexual signals are well documented, our understanding of its effect in other terrestrial taxa, on other vocalisations, and on receivers is more limited. Little is known, for example, about the influence of anthropogenic noise on responses to vocalisations relating to predation risk, despite the potential fitness consequences. We use playback experiments to investigate the impact of traffic noise on the responses of foraging dwarf mongooses (Helogale parvula) to surveillance calls produced by sentinels, individuals scanning for danger from a raised position whose presence usually results in reduced vigilance by foragers. Foragers exhibited a lessened response to surveillance calls in traffic-noise compared to ambient-sound playback, increasing personal vigilance. A second playback experiment, using noise playbacks without surveillance calls, suggests that the increased vigilance could arise in part from the direct influence of additional noise as there was an increase in response to traffic-noise playback alone. Acoustic masking could also play a role. Foragers maintained the ability to distinguish between sentinels of different dominance class, increasing personal vigilance when presented with subordinate surveillance calls compared to calls of a dominant groupmate in both noise treatments, suggesting complete masking was not occurring. However, an acoustic-transmission experiment showed that while surveillance calls were potentially audible during approaching traffic noise, they were probably inaudible during peak traffic intensity noise. While recent work has demonstrated detrimental effects of anthropogenic noise on defensive responses to actual predatory attacks, which are relatively rare, our results provide evidence of a potentially more widespread influence since animals should constantly assess background risk to optimise the

  15. Indoor air quality risk assessment on the Canadian campus by a multilevel integrated weighted average method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIA Rui; ZHANG Yuan; ZHANG Meng-heng; LIU Ke-xin; WU Jie-yun; ZHENG Zhi-rong; GONG Yao

    2015-01-01

    Increasing incidents of indoor air quality (IAQ) related complaints lead us to the fact that IAQ has become a significant occupational health and environmental issue. However, how to effectively evaluate IAQ under different scale of multiple indicators is still a challenge. The traditional single-indicator method is subjected to uncertainties in assessing IAQ due to different subjectivity on good or bad quality and scalar differences of data set. In this study, a multilevel integrated weighted average IAQ method including initial walking through assessment (IWA) and two-layers weighted average method are developed and applied to evaluate IAQ of the laboratory building at the University of Regina in Canada. Some important chemical parameters related to IAQ in terms of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), methanol (HCHO), carbon dioxide (CO2), and carbon monoxide (CO) are evaluated based on 5 months continuous monitoring data. The new integrated assessment result can not only indicates the risk of an individual parameter, but also able to quantify the overall IAQ risk on the sampling site. Finally, some recommendations based on the result are proposed to address sustainable IAQ practices in the sampling area.

  16. High pressure air jet in the endoscopic preparation room: risk of noise exposure on occupational health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, King-Wah; Lu, Lung-Sheng; Wu, Cheng-Kun

    2015-01-01

    After high-level disinfection of gastrointestinal endoscopes, they are hung to dry in order to prevent residual water droplets impact on patient health. To allow for quick drying and clinical reuse, some endoscopic units use a high pressure air jet (HPAJ) to remove the water droplets on the endoscopes. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the excessive noise exposure with the use of HPAJ in endoscopic preparation room and to investigate the risk to occupational health. Noise assessment was taken during 7 automatic endoscopic reprocessors (AERs) and combined with/without HPAJ use over an 8-hour time-weighted average (TWA). Analytical procedures of the NIOSH and the ISO for noise-induced hearing loss were estimated to develop analytic models. The peak of the noise spectrum of combined HPAJ and 7 AERs was significantly higher than that of the 7 AERs alone (108.3 ± 1.36 versus 69.3 ± 3.93 dBA, P risk of hearing loss (HL > 2.5 dB) was 2.15% at 90 dBA, 11.6% at 95 dBA, and 51.3% at 100 dBA. The odds ratio was 49.1 (95% CI: 11.9 to 203.6). The noise generated by the HPAJ to work over TWA seriously affected the occupational health and safety of those working in an endoscopic preparation room.

  17. Risk Assessment Generated by Usage of ICT and Information Security Measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilie TAMAS

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Information societies involve the usage of information technology and communications (ITC on a large scale. The dependence on ITC is an unquestionable problem in the present, because we assist to a generality of computers usage in all economic and social life activities. That is why organization information systems became accessible at the global level and there are permanently open for a quick exchange of information between different categories of users located by different geographical nods. The ITC usage involves the existing of some risks that should be known, evaluation and based on these, we must have information systems security measure. We consider that the risk is an indicator very important that must be permanently assess in the usage process of the information system based on ITC. Risk management suppose a permanently evaluation of these problems and also restrain by some practical actions who goes to the decrease of its effects. From the expose point of view, in this paper work it is presented the results of research based on specialty literature and current cases from practical activities, regarding the risks of ITC usage and their diminishing measure. There are distinguished the main factors (threat, vulnerability and impact who affect the information risk and on the other way, diminishing measure of the action to these factors for optimum working of an economic and social organism who use ITC. We consider that through proposed measures we assume safety in design process, implement and usage of the informational systems based on ITC.

  18. An Investigation of Biases and Framing Effects for Risk Analysis: An Information Technology Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Stuart A.

    2012-01-01

    An elusive and problematic theme of risk management has been managers' ability to effectively measure information technology (IT) risk in terms of degree of impact and probability of occurrence. The background of this problem delves deep into the rational understanding of probability, expected value, economic behavior, and subjective judgment.…

  19. 13 CFR 120.1060 - Confidentiality of Reports, Risk Ratings and related Confidential Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Confidentiality of Reports, Risk Ratings and related Confidential Information. 120.1060 Section 120.1060 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION BUSINESS LOANS Risk-Based Lender Oversight Supervision §...

  20. Poverty persistence and informal risk management: Micro evidence from urban Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Azomahou, T.T.; Yitbarek, E.

    2015-01-01

    Two factors that have received limited attention in poverty dynamic studies are the role of risk in causing poverty mobility and attrition bias. Controlling for the attrition bias, we study poverty dynamics in urban Ethiopia with an emphasis on the effect of idiosyncratic shocks and informal risk ma

  1. Analyses to support development of risk-informed separation distances for hydrogen codes and standards.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaChance, Jeffrey L.; Houf, William G. (Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA); Fluer, Inc., Paso Robels, CA; Fluer, Larry (Fluer, Inc., Paso Robels, CA); Middleton, Bobby

    2009-03-01

    The development of a set of safety codes and standards for hydrogen facilities is necessary to ensure they are designed and operated safely. To help ensure that a hydrogen facility meets an acceptable level of risk, code and standard development organizations are tilizing risk-informed concepts in developing hydrogen codes and standards.

  2. 75 FR 69662 - Workshop: Cumulative Mixtures Risk of Six Selected Phthalates in Support of Summary Information...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-15

    ... AGENCY Workshop: Cumulative Mixtures Risk of Six Selected Phthalates in Support of Summary Information on...: Notice of Peer Consultation Workshop on the Cumulative Mixtures Risk of Six Selected Phthalates; Request... phthalates as set forth in the National Academies of Science (NAS) report ``Phthalates and Cumulative...

  3. Fault Management in an Objectives-Based/Risk-Informed View of Safety and Mission Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groen, Frank

    2012-01-01

    Theme of this talk: (1) Net-benefit of activities and decisions derives from objectives (and their priority) -- similarly: need for integration, value of technology/capability. (2) Risk is a lack of confidence that objectives will be met. (2a) Risk-informed decision making requires objectives. (3) Consideration of objectives is central to recent guidance.

  4. Air travel and radiation risks - review of current knowledge; Flugreisen und Strahlenrisiken - eine aktuelle Uebersicht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeeb, H. [Bielefeld Univ. (Germany). Fakultaet fuer Gesundheitswissenschaften; Blettner, M. [Mainz Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Medizinische Biometrie, Epidemiologie und Informatik

    2004-07-01

    Aircrew and passengers are exposed to cosmic radiation, in particular when travelling routes close to the poles and in high altitudes. The paper reviews current radiation measurement and estimation approaches as well as the actual level of cosmic radiation that personnel and travellers receive and summarizes the available epidemiological evidence on health effects of cosmic radiation. On average, German aircrew is exposed to les than 5 mSv per annum, and even frequent travellers only rarely reach values above 1 mSv/year. Cohort studies among aircrew have found very little evidence for an increased incidence or mortality of radiation-associated cancers. Only malignant melanoma rates have consistently found to be increased among male aircrew. Socioeconomic and reproductive aspects are likely to contribute to the slightly elevated breast cancer risk of female aircrew. Cytogenetic studies have not yielded consistent results. Based on these data overall risk increases for cancer among occupationally exposed aircrew appear unlikely. This also applies to air travellers who are usually exposed to much lower radiation levels. Occasional air travel during pregnancy does not pose a significant radiation risk, but further considerations apply in this situation. The currently available studies are limited with regard to methodological issues and case numbers so that a continuation of cohort studies in several European countries is being planned. (orig.) [German] Sowohl Flugpersonal wie Flugreisende sind kosmischer Strahlung ausgesetzt, insbesondere wenn sie auf polnahen Routen und in grossen Flughoehen reisen. Die vorliegende Arbeit gibt einen aktuellen Ueberblick ueber Mess- und Schaetzverfahren sowie das Ausmass der kosmischen Strahlenexposition und fasst die derzeit bekannte epidemiologische Evidenz zu gesundheitlichen Aspekten der kosmischen Strahlenexposition zusammen. Die durchschnittliche jaehrliche Strahlenexposition beruflich exponierten Flugpersonals liegt in

  5. Emergent health risks and audience information engagement on social media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strekalova, Yulia A

    2016-03-01

    Social media can effectively reach large audiences and serve as an indicator for the public's sentiment and engagement in situations of disease outbreaks. This study used Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Facebook posts between March 18 and October 31, 2014, surrounding the 2014 Ebola outbreak, to look at the audience engagement with online health information. The CDC submitted fewer posts about Ebola than about non-Ebola topics, but audience engagement with Ebola posts was significantly higher, and men were more interested in Ebola posts and submitted more comments per user.

  6. Municipal solid waste management health risk assessment from air emissions for China by applying life cycle analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hua; Nitivattananon, Vilas; Li, Peng

    2015-05-01

    This study is to quantify and objectively evaluate the extent of environmental health risks from three waste treatment options suggested by the national municipal solid waste management enhancing strategy (No [2011] 9 of the State Council, promulgated on 19 April 2011), which includes sanitary landfill, waste-to-energy incineration and compost, together with the material recovery facility through a case study in Zhangqiu City of China. It addresses potential chronic health risks from air emissions to residential receptors in the impacted area. It combines field survey, analogue survey, design documents and life cycle inventory methods in defining the source strength of chemicals of potential concern. The modelling of life cycle inventory and air dispersion is via integrated waste management(IWM)-2 and Screening Air Dispersion Model (Version 3.0) (SCREEN3). The health risk assessment is in accordance with United States Environmental Protection Agency guidance Risk Assessment Guidance for Superfund (RAGS), Volume I: Human Health Evaluation Manual (Part F, Supplemental Guidance for Inhalation Risk Assessment). The exposure concentration is based on long-term exposure to the maximum ground level contaminant in air under the 'reasonable worst situation' emissions and then directly compared with reference for concentration and unit risk factor/cancer slope factor derived from the national air quality standard (for a conventional pollutant) and toxicological studies (for a specific pollutant). Results from this study suggest that the option of compost with material recovery facility treatment may pose less negative health impacts than other options; the sensitivity analysis shows that the landfill integrated waste management collection rate has a great influence on the impact results. Further investigation is needed to validate or challenge the findings of this study.

  7. 19 CFR 103.31a - Advance electronic information for air, truck, and rail cargo; Importer Security Filing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Advance electronic information for air, truck, and rail cargo; Importer Security Filing information for vessel cargo. 103.31a Section 103.31a Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE...

  8. Meta-Prediction of the Effect of Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase Polymorphisms and Air Pollution on Alzheimer's Disease Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Suh-Mian; Chen, Zhao-Feng; Young, Lufei; Shiao, S Pamela K

    2017-01-11

    Background: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a significant public health issue. AD has been linked with methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T polymorphism, but the findings have been inconsistent. The purpose of this meta-predictive analysis is to examine the associations between MTHFR polymorphisms and epigenetic factors, including air pollution, with AD risk using big data analytics approaches. Methods and Results: Forty-three studies (44 groups) were identified by searching various databases. MTHFR C677T TT and CT genotypes had significant associations with AD risk in all racial populations (RR = 1.13, p = 0.0047; and RR = 1.12, p air pollution levels in both AD case group and control group (p = 0.0021-0.0457); with higher percentages of TT and CT genotypes in the AD case group than that in the control group with increased air pollution levels. Conclusions: The impact of MTHFR C677T polymorphism on susceptibility to AD was modified by level of air pollution. Future studies are needed to further examine the effects of gene-environment interactions including air pollution on AD risk for world populations.

  9. Pollution level, phase distribution and health risk of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in indoor air at public places of Hangzhou, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu Hao [Department of Environmental Science, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, 310028 (China)], E-mail: luhaozju@163.com; Zhu Lizhong [Department of Environmental Science, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, 310028 (China)], E-mail: zlz@zju.edu.cn; Chen Shuguang [Department of Environmental Science, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, 310028 (China)], E-mail: chenshuguang@zju.edu.cn

    2008-04-15

    PAHs pollution survey in air of public places was conducted in Hangzhou, China. The most serious PAHs pollution was observed in indoor air of shopping centers and the slightest was in train stations. The molecular weight of chrysene (MW 228) appeared to be the dividing line for the PAHs with a larger or smaller distribution in the vapor or particulate phase. Concentrations of 15 PAHs on PM{sub 2.5} accounted for 71.3% of total particulate PAHs, and followed by PM{sub 2.5-10} fraction (17.6%) and >PM{sub 10} fraction (11.1%). In shopping centers and supermarkets, emission of 2-4 rings PAHs occurred from indoor sources, whereas 5-6 rings PAHs predominantly originated from transport of outdoor air. In temples, PAHs in indoor air mainly originated from incense burning. Health risks associated with the inhalation of PAHs were assessed, and naphthalene made the greatest contribution (62.4%) to the total health risks. - Concentrations of PAHs in the air of selected public places in Hangzhou correspond to 10{sup -3} life-time lung cancer risk.

  10. New Directions: GEIA’s 2020 Vision for Better Air Emissions Information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frost, G. J.; Middleton, Paulette; Tarrason, Leonor; Granier, Claire; Guenther, Alex B.; Cardenas, B.; Denier van der Gon, Hugo; Janssens-Maenhout, Greet; Kaiser, Johannes W.; Keating, Terry; Klimont, Z.; Lamarque, Jean-Francois; Liousse, Catherine; Nickovic, S.; Ohara, Toshimasa; Schultz, Martin; Skiba, Ute; Wang, Y.

    2013-12-01

    We are witnessing a crucial change in how we quantify and understand emissions of greenhouse gases and air pollutants, with an increasing demand for science-based transparent emissions information produced by robust community efforts. Today’s scientific capabilities, with near-real-time in-situ and remote sensing observations combined with forward and inverse models and a better understanding of the controlling processes, are contributing to this transformation and providing new approaches to derive, verify, and forecast emissions (Tong et al., 2011; Frost et al., 2012) and to quantify their impacts on the environment (e.g., Bond et al., 2013). At the same time, the needs for emissions information and the demands for their accuracy and consistency have grown. Changing economies, demographics, agricultural practices, and energy sources, along with mandates to evaluate emissions mitigation efforts, demonstrate compliance with legislation, and verify treaties, are leading to new challenges in emissions understanding. To quote NOAA Senior Technical Scientist David Fahey, "We are in the Century of Accountability. Emissions information is critical not only for environmental science and decision-making, but also as an instrument of foreign policy and international diplomacy." Emissions quantification represents a key step in explaining observed variability and trends in atmospheric composition and in attributing these observed changes to their causes. Accurate emissions data are necessary to identify feasible controls that reduce adverse impacts associated with air quality and climate and to track the success of implemented policies. To progress further, the international community must improve the understanding of drivers and contributing factors to emissions, and it must strengthen connections among and within different scientific disciplines that characterize our environment and entities that protect the environment and influence further emissions. The Global

  11. Information Acquisition and Excessive Risk: Impact of Policy Rate and Market Volatility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volha Audzei

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Excessive risk-taking of financial agents drew a lot of attention in the aftermath of the financial crisis. Low interest rates and subdued market volatility during the Great Moderation are sometimes blamed for stimulating risk-taking and leading to the recent financial crisis. In recent years, with many central banks around the world conducting the policy of low interest rates and mitigating market risks, it has been debatable whether this policy contributes to the building up of another credit boom. This paper addresses this issue by focusing on information acquisition by the financial agents. We build a theoretical model which captures excessive risk taking in response to changes in policy rate and market volatility. This excessive risk takes the form of an increased risk appetite of the agents, but also of decreased incentives to acquire information about risky assets. As a result, with market risk being reduced, agents tend to acquire more risk in their portfolios then they would with the higher market risk. The same forces increase portfolio risk when the safe interest rate is falling. The robustness of the results is considered with different learning rules.

  12. A Bayesian kriging model for estimating residential exposure to air pollution of children living in a high-risk area in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicedo-Cabrera, Ana M; Biggeri, Annibale; Grisotto, Laura; Barbone, Fabio; Catelan, Dolores

    2013-11-01

    A core challenge in epidemiological analysis of the impact of exposure to air pollution on health is assessment of the individual exposure for subjects at risk. Geographical information systems (GIS)-based pollution mapping, such as kriging, has become one of the main tools for evaluating individual exposure to ambient pollutants. We applied universal Bayesian kriging to estimate the residential exposure to gaseous air pollutants for children living in a high-risk area (Milazzo- Valle del Mela in Sicily, Italy). Ad hoc air quality monitoring campaigns were carried out: 12 weekly measurements for sulphur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) were obtained from 21 passive dosimeters located at each school yard of the study area from November 2007 to April 2008. Universal Bayesian kriging was performed to predict individual exposure levels at each residential address for all 6- to 12-years-old children attending primary school at various locations in the study area. Land use, altitude, distance to main roads and population density were included as covariates in the models. A large geographical heterogeneity in air quality was recorded suggesting complex exposure patterns. We obtained a predicted mean level of 25.78 (± 10.61) µg/m(3) of NO2 and 4.10 (± 2.71) µg/m(3) of SO2 at 1,682 children's residential addresses, with a normalised root mean squared error of 28% and 25%, respectively. We conclude that universal Bayesian kriging approach is a useful tool for the assessment of realistic exposure estimates with regard to ambient pollutants at home addresses. Its prediction uncertainty is highly informative and can be used for both designing subsequent campaigns and for improved modelling of epidemiological associations.

  13. A Bayesian kriging model for estimating residential exposure to air pollution of children living in a high-risk area in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana M. Vicedo-Cabrera

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available A core challenge in epidemiological analysis of the impact of exposure to air pollution on health is assessment of the individual exposure for subjects at risk. Geographical information systems (GIS-based pollution mapping, such as kriging, has become one of the main tools for evaluating individual exposure to ambient pollutants. We applied universal Bayesian kriging to estimate the residential exposure to gaseous air pollutants for children living in a high-risk area (Milazzo- Valle del Mela in Sicily, Italy. Ad hoc air quality monitoring campaigns were carried out: 12 weekly measurements for sulphur dioxide (SO2 and nitrogen dioxide (NO2 were obtained from 21 passive dosimeters located at each school yard of the study area from November 2007 to April 2008. Universal Bayesian kriging was performed to predict individual exposure levels at each residential address for all 6- to 12-years-old children attending primary school at various locations in the study area. Land use, altitude, distance to main roads and population density were included as covariates in the models. A large geographical heterogeneity in air quality was recorded suggesting complex exposure patterns. We obtained a predicted mean level of 25.78 (±10.61 μg/m3 of NO2 and 4.10 (±2.71 μg/m3 of SO2 at 1,682 children’s residential addresses, with a normalised root mean squared error of 28% and 25%, respectively. We conclude that universal Bayesian kriging approach is a useful tool for the assessment of realistic exposure estimates with regard to ambient pollutants at home addresses. Its prediction uncertainty is highly informative and can be used for both designing subsequent campaigns and for improved modelling of epidemiological associations.

  14. Managing security risks for inter-organisational information systems: a multiagent collaborative model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Nan; Wu, Harris; Li, Minqiang; Wu, Desheng; Chen, Fuzan; Tian, Jin

    2016-09-01

    Information sharing across organisations is critical to effectively managing the security risks of inter-organisational information systems. Nevertheless, few previous studies on information systems security have focused on inter-organisational information sharing, and none have studied the sharing of inferred beliefs versus factual observations. In this article, a multiagent collaborative model (MACM) is proposed as a practical solution to assess the risk level of each allied organisation's information system and support proactive security treatment by sharing beliefs on event probabilities as well as factual observations. In MACM, for each allied organisation's information system, we design four types of agents: inspection agent, analysis agent, control agent, and communication agent. By sharing soft findings (beliefs) in addition to hard findings (factual observations) among the organisations, each organisation's analysis agent is capable of dynamically predicting its security risk level using a Bayesian network. A real-world implementation illustrates how our model can be used to manage security risks in distributed information systems and that sharing soft findings leads to lower expected loss from security risks.

  15. Willingness to pay to avoid health risks from road-traffic-related air pollution and noise across five countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Istamto, Tifanny; Houthuijs, Danny; Lebret, Erik

    2014-01-01

    We conducted a multi-country study to estimate the perceived economic values of traffic-related air pollution and noise health risks within the framework of a large European project. We used contingent valuation as a method to assess the willingness-to-pay (WTP) for both types of pollutants simultan

  16. DEVELOPMENT OF A MATERIALS RISK INFORMATION PLATFORM FOR A SAFE SOCIETY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    K.Yagi

    2004-01-01

    A Materials Risk Information Platform is being developed under the cooperation of companies and academic societies with NIMS as project core. To combine safety and economy, which are sometimes contrary to each other, it is important to find an optimal solution using a new concept: risk based engineering. A 5-year project, the Materials Risk Information Platform, was started in 2001 in NIMS on the boilers of thermal power plants and the objectives of this project, research areas and its present state were outlined.

  17. Differential neural network approach in information process for prediction of roadside air pollution by peat fire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozhkin, V.; Tarkhov, D.; Timofeev, V.; Lozhkina, O.; Vasilyev, A.

    2016-11-01

    The paper presents a novel differential neural network model estimating the dispersion of CO emissions from a peat fire near a highway. We have developed approaches for the optimization of the model on the base of simulated and experimental measurements of CO concentrations in the area of dispersion of the smoke cloud. The numerical solutions of the problem are presented in the form of neural network approximations by the Gaussian model and in the form of neural network approximate solutions of partial differential equations. The trained neural network model can be used for the prediction of emergency when wind speed and direction and other fire parameters are changing. The method is also recommended for the development of air quality monitoring and predicting information systems.

  18. Risk-based learning games improve long-term retention of information among school pupils.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian M Devonshire

    Full Text Available Risk heightens motivation and, if used appropriately, may have the potential to improve engagement in the classroom. We have developed a risk-based learning game for school pupils in order to test whether such learning games can improve later recall of information. The study was performed during a series of public engagement workshops delivered by undergraduate students. Undergraduate neuroscience students delivered 90-minute science workshops to 9-10 year old school pupils (n = 448 that were divided into 'Risk', 'No risk' and 'Control' classes. 'Risk' classes received periodic multiple-choice questions (MCQs during the workshops which required small teams of pupils to assign tokens to the answer(s they believed to be correct. Tokens assigned to the correct answer were returned to the group and an equal number given back as a prize; tokens assigned to incorrect answers were lost. Participation was incentivised by the promise of a brain-related prize to the team with the most tokens at the end of the workshop. 'No risk' classes received MCQs without the risk component whilst the 'Control' classes received no MCQs. When presented with a neuroscience quiz based on workshop content at the end of the workshop, pupils in the 'Risk' classes exhibited significantly greater recall of information one week later. Quiz scores were higher than scores from the day of the workshop which suggested pupils may have discussed the workshop content outside of the classroom, thereby increasing knowledge over and above what was learned during the workshop. This is supported by feedback from pupils in 'Risk' classes which indicated that 'Risk' workshops were more interesting than 'No risk' and 'Control' workshops. These data suggest that there is a role for risk in the classroom but further investigations are required to elucidate the causal mechanisms of improved retention of information.

  19. Risk-based learning games improve long-term retention of information among school pupils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devonshire, Ian M; Davis, Jenny; Fairweather, Sophie; Highfield, Lauren; Thaker, Chandni; Walsh, Ashleigh; Wilson, Rachel; Hathway, Gareth J

    2014-01-01

    Risk heightens motivation and, if used appropriately, may have the potential to improve engagement in the classroom. We have developed a risk-based learning game for school pupils in order to test whether such learning games can improve later recall of information. The study was performed during a series of public engagement workshops delivered by undergraduate students. Undergraduate neuroscience students delivered 90-minute science workshops to 9-10 year old school pupils (n = 448) that were divided into 'Risk', 'No risk' and 'Control' classes. 'Risk' classes received periodic multiple-choice questions (MCQs) during the workshops which required small teams of pupils to assign tokens to the answer(s) they believed to be correct. Tokens assigned to the correct answer were returned to the group and an equal number given back as a prize; tokens assigned to incorrect answers were lost. Participation was incentivised by the promise of a brain-related prize to the team with the most tokens at the end of the workshop. 'No risk' classes received MCQs without the risk component whilst the 'Control' classes received no MCQs. When presented with a neuroscience quiz based on workshop content at the end of the workshop, pupils in the 'Risk' classes exhibited significantly greater recall of information one week later. Quiz scores were higher than scores from the day of the workshop which suggested pupils may have discussed the workshop content outside of the classroom, thereby increasing knowledge over and above what was learned during the workshop. This is supported by feedback from pupils in 'Risk' classes which indicated that 'Risk' workshops were more interesting than 'No risk' and 'Control' workshops. These data suggest that there is a role for risk in the classroom but further investigations are required to elucidate the causal mechanisms of improved retention of information.

  20. Progress in Assessing Air Pollutant Risks from In Vitro Exposures: Matching Ozone Dose and Effect in Human Air Way Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    In vitro exposures to air pollutants could, in theory, facilitate a rapid and detailed assessment of molecular mechanisms of toxicity. However, it is difficult to ensure that the dose of a gaseous pollutant to cells in tissue culture is similar to that of the same cells during in...

  1. The Impact of Balanced Risk-Benefit Information and Initial Attitudes on Post-Information Attitudes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, van H.; Fischer, A.R.H.; Jonge, de J.; Rowe, G.; Frewer, L.J.

    2012-01-01

    In a realistic social context, people are confronted with both positive and negative information, yet research on this topic is relatively scarce. We present 2 studies examining the role of initial attitudes on the impact of one-sided vs. balanced positive and negative information on attitudes towar

  2. Improving pest risk assessment and management through the aid of geospatial information technology standards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trond Rafoss

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Delivery of geospatial information over the Internet for the management of risks from invasive alien species is an increasingly important service. The evolution of information technology standards for geospatial data is a key factor to simplify network publishing and exchange of maps and data. The World Wide Web Consortium (W3C-geolocation specification is a recent addition that may prove useful for pest risk management. In this article we implement the W3C-geolocation specification and Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC mapping standards in a Web browser application for smartphones and tablet computers to improve field surveys for alien invasive species. We report our first season field experiences using this tool for online mapping of plant disease outbreaks and host plant occurrence. It is expected that the improved field data collection tools will result in increased data availability and thereby new opportunities for risk assessment, because data-needs and availability are crucial for species distribution modelling and model-based forecasts of pest establishment potential. Finally, we close with a comment on the future potential of geospatial information standards to enhance the translation from data to decisions regarding pest risks, which should enable earlier detection of emerging risks as well as more robust projections of pest risks in novel areas. The forthcoming standard for processing of geospatial information, the Web Processing Standard (WPS, should open new technological capabilities both for automatic initiation and updating of risk assessment models based on new incoming data, and subsequent early warning.

  3. Risk-Informed Safety Assurance and Probabilistic Assessment of Mission-Critical Software-Intensive Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarro, Sergio B.

    2010-01-01

    This report validates and documents the detailed features and practical application of the framework for software intensive digital systems risk assessment and risk-informed safety assurance presented in the NASA PRA Procedures Guide for Managers and Practitioner. This framework, called herein the "Context-based Software Risk Model" (CSRM), enables the assessment of the contribution of software and software-intensive digital systems to overall system risk, in a manner which is entirely compatible and integrated with the format of a "standard" Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA), as currently documented and applied for NASA missions and applications. The CSRM also provides a risk-informed path and criteria for conducting organized and systematic digital system and software testing so that, within this risk-informed paradigm, the achievement of a quantitatively defined level of safety and mission success assurance may be targeted and demonstrated. The framework is based on the concept of context-dependent software risk scenarios and on the modeling of such scenarios via the use of traditional PRA techniques - i.e., event trees and fault trees - in combination with more advanced modeling devices such as the Dynamic Flowgraph Methodology (DFM) or other dynamic logic-modeling representations. The scenarios can be synthesized and quantified in a conditional logic and probabilistic formulation. The application of the CSRM method documented in this report refers to the MiniAERCam system designed and developed by the NASA Johnson Space Center.

  4. An Information Architect's View of Earth Observations for Disaster Risk Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moe, K.; Evans, J. D.; Cappelaere, P. G.; Frye, S. W.; Mandl, D.; Dobbs, K. E.

    2014-12-01

    Satellite observations play a significant role in supporting disaster response and risk management, however data complexity is a barrier to broader use especially by the public. In December 2013 the Committee on Earth Observation Satellites Working Group on Information Systems and Services documented a high-level reference model for the use of Earth observation satellites and associated products to support disaster risk management within the Global Earth Observation System of Systems context. The enterprise architecture identified the important role of user access to all key functions supporting situational awareness and decision-making. This paper focuses on the need to develop actionable information products from these Earth observations to simplify the discovery, access and use of tailored products. To this end, our team has developed an Open GeoSocial API proof-of-concept for GEOSS. We envision public access to mobile apps available on smart phones using common browsers where users can set up a profile and specify a region of interest for monitoring events such as floods and landslides. Information about susceptibility and weather forecasts about flood risks can be accessed. Users can generate geo-located information and photos of local events, and these can be shared on social media. The information architecture can address usability challenges to transform sensor data into actionable information, based on the terminology of the emergency management community responsible for informing the public. This paper describes the approach to collecting relevant material from the disasters and risk management community to address the end user needs for information. The resulting information architecture addresses the structural design of the shared information in the disasters and risk management enterprise. Key challenges are organizing and labeling information to support both online user communities and machine-to-machine processing for automated product generation.

  5. [Objective assessment of symptoms and informing patients of surgical risks].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Tayrac, Renaud; Letouzey, Vincent; Marès, Pierre

    2013-01-01

    Genital prolapse is a functional pathology presenting with numerous urinary, genito-sexual, and anorectal symptoms. These symptoms are responsible for an alteration of the quality of life, sometimes associated to a real anxiety-depressive syndrome. Because of these complex intricacies, the management of these disorders became multidisciplinary. Tools to measure the impact of prolapse symptoms on the quality of life became a necessity. Such instruments should allow a correlation of the functional symptomatology at the anatomic stage, raise a surgical indication based on the functional disturbance and evaluate the effectiveness and tolerance of the various therapeutic procedures. Two validated self-questionnaires in French (short versions of the Pelvic Floor Distress Inventory [PFDI-20] and the Pelvic Floor Impact Questionnaire [PFIQ-7]) are presently available. Moreover, the physician has the legal obligation to provide detailed presurgical information on frequent and severe hazards, expected benefits, functional consequences, therapeutic alternatives and the consequences of nonintervention. Before surgery takes place, the surgical approach, the benefit of using synthetic prostheses, the possibility of uterine and/or ovarian conservation, and some risky conditions such as smoking, obesity and estrogen deficiency should be discussed.

  6. 76 FR 13402 - Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS); Announcement of Availability of Literature Searches...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS); Announcement of Availability of Literature Searches for...'' system, which means EPA will not know your identity or contact information unless you provide it in...

  7. Social Information Processing in Preschool Children: Relations to Sociodemographic Risk and Problem Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziv, Yair; Sorongon, Alberto

    2011-01-01

    Using a multicomponent, process-oriented approach, the links between social information processing during the preschool years and (a) sociodemographic risk and (b) behavior problems in preschool were examined in a community sample of 196 children. Findings provided support for our initial hypotheses that aspects of social information processing in…

  8. Economic Technology of Enterprise Risk Management Based on Information Support for Their Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ELENA PETROVNA KISELITSA

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the main trends in the use of approaches to risk management of activities of Russian enterprises and organizations. The conclusion was made about the shift in focus in the field of risk management from the theory of calculations to minimization of uncertainty. The range of acceptability of the risk level in terms of economic instability is proved. The results of the study of the degree of readiness of entrepreneurs representing the industrial and commercial sectors of Tyumen economy to work in unstable economic conditions are mentioned. The extent of use of global management decision-making techniques in actual practice is estimated; the reasons for the low level of information support for the risk management process and the dependence of the business risk level on the diversification of activities are revealed. Five main groups of risk management techniques are proposed that predetermine the choice of options for possible actions depending on the likelihood and magnitude of potential damage represented as a "damage-probability" matrix. The impact of the level of information support on the level of uncertainty and risk in the implementation of 196 economic solutions in the field of managing the enterprise economy with a specialization in groups of risk situations was estimated: substantiation of the project of development of the existing production, management of the product life cycle, scheduled and urgent definition of the enterprise place in the competitive market. A risk management approach, which consists in ranking methods in descending order of their effectiveness depending on the action of risk-contributing factors, is proposed. A technology of managing the risks of the enterprise, which allows to achieve efficient allocation of resources to risk management and the best result – the lowest possible or acceptable residual risk level.

  9. Infectious Cognition: Risk Perception Affects Socially Shared Retrieval-Induced Forgetting of Medical Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coman, Alin; Berry, Jessica N

    2015-12-01

    When speakers selectively retrieve previously learned information, listeners often concurrently, and covertly, retrieve their memories of that information. This concurrent retrieval typically enhances memory for mentioned information (the rehearsal effect) and impairs memory for unmentioned but related information (socially shared retrieval-induced forgetting, SSRIF), relative to memory for unmentioned and unrelated information. Building on research showing that anxiety leads to increased attention to threat-relevant information, we explored whether concurrent retrieval is facilitated in high-anxiety real-world contexts. Participants first learned category-exemplar facts about meningococcal disease. Following a manipulation of perceived risk of infection (low vs. high risk), they listened to a mock radio show in which some of the facts were selectively practiced. Final recall tests showed that the rehearsal effect was equivalent between the two risk conditions, but SSRIF was significantly larger in the high-risk than in the low-risk condition. Thus, the tendency to exaggerate consequences of news events was found to have deleterious consequences.

  10. INFORMATION SECURITY RISKS OPTIMIZATION IN CLOUDY SERVICES ON THE BASIS OF LINEAR PROGRAMMING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Zikratov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses theoretical aspects of secure cloud services creation for information processing of various confidentiality degrees. A new approach to the reasoning of information security composition in distributed computing structures is suggested, presenting the problem of risk assessment as an extreme problem of decisionmaking. Linear programming method application is proved to minimize the risk of information security for given performance security in compliance with the economic balance for the maintenance of security facilities and cost of services. An example is given to illustrate the obtained theoretical results.

  11. Management of information security risks in a federal public institution: a case study

    OpenAIRE

    Jackson Gomes Soares Souza; Carlos Hideo Arima; Renata Maria Nogueira de Oliveira; Getulio Akabane; Napoleão Verardi Galegale

    2016-01-01

    Public institutions bound to the Brazilian federal public sector must apply security measures, policies, procedures and guidelines as information assets protection measures. This case study sought to determine whether the management of information security risks is applied in a federal public institution according to Information Technology (I.T.) managers perceptions and the results expose the importance of the roles played by people, responsibilities, policies, standards, procedures and thei...

  12. A global airport-based risk model for the spread of dengue infection via the air transport network.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren Gardner

    Full Text Available The number of travel-acquired dengue infections has seen a consistent global rise over the past decade. An increased volume of international passenger air traffic originating from regions with endemic dengue has contributed to a rise in the number of dengue cases in both areas of endemicity and elsewhere. This paper reports results from a network-based risk assessment model which uses international passenger travel volumes, travel routes, travel distances, regional populations, and predictive species distribution models (for the two vector species, Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus to quantify the relative risk posed by each airport in importing passengers with travel-acquired dengue infections. Two risk attributes are evaluated: (i the risk posed by through traffic at each stopover airport and (ii the risk posed by incoming travelers to each destination airport. The model results prioritize optimal locations (i.e., airports for targeted dengue surveillance. The model is easily extendible to other vector-borne diseases.

  13. Implantation of a safety management system information under the ISO 27001: risk analysis information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Gregorio Arévalo Ascanio

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In this article the structure of the business of the city of Ocaña is explored with the aim of expanding the information and knowledge of the main variables of the productive activity of the municipality, its entrepreneurial spirit, technological development and productive structure. For this, a descriptive research was performed to identify economic activity in its various forms and promote the implementation of administrative practices consistent with national and international references.The results allowed to establish business weaknesses, including information, which once identified are used to design spaces training, acquisition of abilities and employers management practices in consistent with the challenges of competitiveness and stay on the market.As of the results was collected information regarding technological component companies of the productive fabric of the city, for which the application of tools for the analysis of information systems is proposed using the ISO 27001: 2005, using most appropriate technologies to study organizations that protect their most important asset information: information.

  14. An approach for using risk assessment in risk-informed decisions on plant-specific changes to the licensing basis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caruso, Mark A.; Cheok, Michael C.; Cunningham, Mark A.; Holahan, Gary M.; King, Thomas L.; Parry, Gareth W.; Ramey-Smith, Ann M.; Rubin, Mark P.; Thadani, Ashok C

    1999-03-01

    This paper discusses an acceptable approach that the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission staff has proposed for using Probabilistic Risk Assessment in making decisions on changes to the licensing basis of a nuclear power plant. First, the overall philosophy of risk-informed decision-making, and the process framework are described. The philosophy is encapsulated in five principles, one of which states that, if the proposed change leads to an increase in core damage frequency or risk, the increases must be small and consistent with the intent of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's Safety Goal Policy Statement. The second part of the paper discusses the use of PRA to demonstrate that this principle has been met. The discussion focuses on the acceptance guidelines, and on comparison of the PRA results with those guidelines. The difficulties that arise because of limitations in scope and analytical uncertainties are discussed and approaches to accommodate these difficulties in the decision-making are described.

  15. Use of information resources by the state of Tennessee in risk assessment applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bashor, B.S. [Tennessee Department of Health and Environment, Nashville (United States)

    1990-12-31

    The major resources used by the Bureau of Environment, and Environmental Epidemiology (EEP) for risk assessment are: the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS), Health and Environmental Effects Summary Table (HEAST), Agency for Toxic Substances and disease Registry (ATSDR) Toxicological Profiles, databases at the National Library of Medicine (NLM), World Health Organization (WHO) ENvironmental Criteria, and documents that the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has published on Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) risk assessment activities. The Risk Assessment Review has been helpful in providing information about availability of new documents or information. No systematic method has been made available to us to locate information resources. IRIS User`s Support has been helpful in making appropriate and timely referrals. Most other EPA resources were located by serendipity and persistence. The CERCLA methodology for risk assessments is being used in environmental programs, and at present, one person is responsible for all risk assessment activities in the department, but plans are underway to train one or two people from each program area. 2 figs.

  16. Meta-Prediction of the Effect of Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase Polymorphisms and Air Pollution on Alzheimer’s Disease Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Suh-Mian; Chen, Zhao-Feng; Young, Lufei; Shiao, S. Pamela K.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a significant public health issue. AD has been linked with methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T polymorphism, but the findings have been inconsistent. The purpose of this meta-predictive analysis is to examine the associations between MTHFR polymorphisms and epigenetic factors, including air pollution, with AD risk using big data analytics approaches. Methods and Results: Forty-three studies (44 groups) were identified by searching various databases. MTHFR C677T TT and CT genotypes had significant associations with AD risk in all racial populations (RR = 1.13, p = 0.0047; and RR = 1.12, p pollution levels in both AD case group and control group (p = 0.0021–0.0457); with higher percentages of TT and CT genotypes in the AD case group than that in the control group with increased air pollution levels. Conclusions: The impact of MTHFR C677T polymorphism on susceptibility to AD was modified by level of air pollution. Future studies are needed to further examine the effects of gene-environment interactions including air pollution on AD risk for world populations.

  17. Air pollution, a rising environmental risk factor for cognition, neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration: The clinical impact on children and beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderón-Garcidueñas, L; Leray, E; Heydarpour, P; Torres-Jardón, R; Reis, J

    2016-01-01

    Air pollution (indoors and outdoors) is a major issue in public health as epidemiological studies have highlighted its numerous detrimental health consequences (notably, respiratory and cardiovascular pathological conditions). Over the past 15 years, air pollution has also been considered a potent environmental risk factor for neurological diseases and neuropathology. This review examines the impact of air pollution on children's brain development and the clinical, cognitive, brain structural and metabolic consequences. Long-term potential consequences for adults' brains and the effects on multiple sclerosis (MS) are also discussed. One challenge is to assess the effects of lifetime exposures to outdoor and indoor environmental pollutants, including occupational exposures: how much, for how long and what type. Diffuse neuroinflammation, damage to the neurovascular unit, and the production of autoantibodies to neural and tight-junction proteins are worrisome findings in children chronically exposed to concentrations above the current standards for ozone and fine particulate matter (PM2.5), and may constitute significant risk factors for the development of Alzheimer's disease later in life. Finally, data supporting the role of air pollution as a risk factor for MS are reviewed, focusing on the effects of PM10 and nitrogen oxides.

  18. Occurrence and quantitative microbial risk assessment of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in soil and air samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paola Balderrama-Carmona

    2014-09-01

    Conclusions: Soil and air inhalation and/or ingestion are important vehicles for these parasites. To our knowledge, the results obtained in the present study represent the first QMRAs for cryptosporidiosis and giardiasis due to soil and air inhalation/ingestion in Mexico. In addition, this is the first evidence of the microbial air quality around these parasites in rural zones.

  19. Citizen perceptions of information flow around a nuclear facility: A study in risk communication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, M.O. [Delgado Community Coll., New Orleans, LA (United States)

    1997-08-01

    Responses of focus group members from the region around a Nuclear Facility provide the data for this qualitative study concerning citizen perceptions of available site information. Analyses of three of the focus group discussion questions and the answers they elicited showed a dominant perception among participants of insufficient easily available information about the site. These respondents also indicated that most of them obtain site information through mass media and hearsay, that many lack trust in the information they have and would trust only an independent entity to provide accurate information. A new area in communication studies, variously called environmental risk communication, risk communication and health risk communication, continues to evolve among those working in various allied disciplines, some far removed from communication. As science attempts to solve environmental problems caused by technological advances, this field acquires numerous practitioners. Some of these risk communication experts may however, be overlooking basic and necessary components of effective communication, because their expertise is in another discipline. One result of this can be communication breakdown in which those involved, assume that meaning is shared, when in fact the opposite is true. This paper seeks to clarify a necessary ingredient of effective interpersonal risk communication, using data obtained from citizens living around one of the nation`s nuclear facilities as an example.

  20. Risk analysis of flood control operation mode with forecast information based on a combination of risk sources

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Risk analysis of reservoir flood control operation mode with forecast information (FCOMFI) is an important basis for the design and implementation of FCOMFI. Most of current researches on this issue are incomplete as they only consider flood forecast errors, but not many other uncertainties in reservoir routing. In order to obtain an integrated risk rate of FCOMFI, this paper analyzes four uncertainties, i.e. hydrological, hydraulic, stage-storage uncertainty and time-delay uncertainty, as well as their probability distributions. On the basis of this analysis, an integrated risk analysis model of FCOMFI for reservoirs and its lower reach is established involving the above-mentioned four uncertainties, and this model is solved by Monte Carlo simulation based on Latin hypercube sampling. The simulation results, with Baiguishan reservoir as the example, show that the integrated risk rates of FCOMFI are less than those of the flood control operation mode without forecast information. This article presents the highest limited water level that satisfies flood control safety requirements of the lower reach.

  1. Analysis of indoor air pollutants checklist using environmetric technique for health risk assessment of sick building complaint in nonindustrial workplace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syazwan, AI; Rafee, B Mohd; Juahir, Hafizan; Azman, AZF; Nizar, AM; Izwyn, Z; Syahidatussyakirah, K; Muhaimin, AA; Yunos, MA Syafiq; Anita, AR; Hanafiah, J Muhamad; Shaharuddin, MS; Ibthisham, A Mohd; Hasmadi, I Mohd; Azhar, MN Mohamad; Azizan, HS; Zulfadhli, I; Othman, J; Rozalini, M; Kamarul, FT

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To analyze and characterize a multidisciplinary, integrated indoor air quality checklist for evaluating the health risk of building occupants in a nonindustrial workplace setting. Design A cross-sectional study based on a participatory occupational health program conducted by the National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (Malaysia) and Universiti Putra Malaysia. Method A modified version of the indoor environmental checklist published by the Department of Occupational Health and Safety, based on the literature and discussion with occupational health and safety professionals, was used in the evaluation process. Summated scores were given according to the cluster analysis and principal component analysis in the characterization of risk. Environmetric techniques was used to classify the risk of variables in the checklist. Identification of the possible source of item pollutants was also evaluated from a semiquantitative approach. Result Hierarchical agglomerative cluster analysis resulted in the grouping of factorial components into three clusters (high complaint, moderate-high complaint, moderate complaint), which were further analyzed by discriminant analysis. From this, 15 major variables that influence indoor air quality were determined. Principal component analysis of each cluster revealed that the main factors influencing the high complaint group were fungal-related problems, chemical indoor dispersion, detergent, renovation, thermal comfort, and location of fresh air intake. The moderate-high complaint group showed significant high loading on ventilation, air filters, and smoking-related activities. The moderate complaint group showed high loading on dampness, odor, and thermal comfort. Conclusion This semiquantitative assessment, which graded risk from low to high based on the intensity of the problem, shows promising and reliable results. It should be used as an important tool in the preliminary assessment of indoor air quality and as a

  2. Risk-Informed Decision Making: Application to Technology Development Alternative Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dezfuli, Homayoon; Maggio, Gaspare; Everett, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    NASA NPR 8000.4A, Agency Risk Management Procedural Requirements, defines risk management in terms of two complementary processes: Risk-informed Decision Making (RIDM) and Continuous Risk Management (CRM). The RIDM process is used to inform decision making by emphasizing proper use of risk analysis to make decisions that impact all mission execution domains (e.g., safety, technical, cost, and schedule) for program/projects and mission support organizations. The RIDM process supports the selection of an alternative prior to program commitment. The CRM process is used to manage risk associated with the implementation of the selected alternative. The two processes work together to foster proactive risk management at NASA. The Office of Safety and Mission Assurance at NASA Headquarters has developed a technical handbook to provide guidance for implementing the RIDM process in the context of NASA risk management and systems engineering. This paper summarizes the key concepts and procedures of the RIDM process as presented in the handbook, and also illustrates how the RIDM process can be applied to the selection of technology investments as NASA's new technology development programs are initiated.

  3. The Global Framework for Providing Information about Volcanic-Ash Hazards to International Air Navigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, R. W.; Guffanti, M.

    2009-12-01

    The International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) created the International Airways Volcano Watch (IAVW) in 1987 to establish a requirement for international dissemination of information about airborne ash hazards to safe air navigation. The IAVW is a set of operational protocols and guidelines that member countries agree to follow in order to implement a global, multi-faceted program to support the strategy of ash-cloud avoidance. Under the IAVW, the elements of eruption reporting, ash-cloud detecting, and forecasting expected cloud dispersion are coordinated to culminate in warnings sent to air traffic controllers, dispatchers, and pilots about the whereabouts of ash clouds. Nine worldwide Volcanic Ash Advisory Centers (VAAC) established under the IAVW have the responsibility for detecting the presence of ash in the atmosphere, primarily by looking at imagery from civilian meteorological satellites, and providing advisories about the location and movement of ash clouds to aviation meteorological offices and other aviation users. Volcano Observatories also are a vital part of the IAVW, as evidenced by the recent introduction of a universal message format for reporting the status of volcanic activity, including precursory unrest, to aviation users. Since 2003, the IAVW has been overseen by a standing group of scientific, technical, and regulatory experts that assists ICAO in the development of standards and other regulatory material related to volcanic ash. Some specific problems related to the implementation of the IAVW include: the lack of implementation of SIGMET (warning to aircraft in flight) provisions and delayed notifications of volcanic eruptions. Expected future challenges and developments involve the improvement in early notifications of volcanic eruptions, the consolidation of the issuance of SIGMETs, and the possibility of determining a “safe” concentration of volcanic ash.

  4. Toward a risk-based approach to the assessment of the surety of information systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wyss, G.D.; Fletcher, S.K.; Halbgewachs, R.D.; Jansma, R.M.; Lim, J.J.; Murphy, M.; Sands, P.D.

    1995-03-01

    Traditional approaches to the assessment of information systems have treated system security, system reliability, data integrity, and application functionality as separate disciplines. However, each areas requirements and solutions have a profound impact on the successful implementation of the other areas. A better approach is to assess the ``surety`` of an information system, which is defined as ensuring the ``correct`` operation of an information system by incorporating appropriate levels of safety, functionality, confidentiality, availability, and integrity. Information surety examines the combined impact of design alternatives on all of these areas. We propose a modelling approach that combines aspects of fault trees and influence diagrams for assessing information surety requirements under a risk assessment framework. This approach allows tradeoffs to be based on quantitative importance measures such as risk reduction while maintaining the modelling flexibility of the influence diagram paradigm. This paper presents an overview of the modelling method and a sample application problem.

  5. Information on risk of constipation for Danish users of opioids, and their laxative use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pottegård, Anton; Knudsen, Thomas Bøllingtoft; van Heesch, Kim;

    2014-01-01

    Background While it is well known that use of opioids often cause constipation, little is known about the information given to patients regarding this potential side-effect and their use of laxatives to prevent it. Objective To assess the degree of information provided by the prescriber to users...... of opioids by the time of the first prescription regarding the risk of constipation. Method Interviews with patients filling an opioid at a community pharmacy were performed by the dispensing pharmacist or pharmaconomist at the pharmacy. Information collected concerned the patient, the opioid, information...... received regarding constipation, current constipation and current laxative treatment. Results A total of 286 interviews were completed. Overall, 28.3 % remembered having received information about the risk of constipation by the time of the first prescription. Excluding 49 first-time opioid users, we found...

  6. Information and communication technologies, a tool for risk prevention and accident management on sea ice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elise Lépy

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Marine ice melting topic is a repetitive phenomenon in alarmist speeches on climate change. The present positive evolution of air temperatures has in all probability many impacts on the environment and more or less directly on societies. Face to the temperature elevation, the ice pack is undergone to an important temporal variability of ice growth and melting. Human populations can be exposed to meteorological and ice hazards engendering a societal risk. The purpose of this paper is to better understand how ICT get integrated into the risk question through the example of the Bay of Bothnia in the northern extremity of the Baltic Sea. The study deals with the way that Finnish society, advanced in the ICT field, faces to new technology use in risk prevention and accident management on sea ice.

  7. A 3-Factor Model Relating Communication to Risk Mitigation of Extended Information System Failover

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athanasios Podaras

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to analyse the relation between timely and effective communication and risk mitigation of late recovery after an unexpected information system outage in enterprises. An unforeseen information system failure in modern enterprise units, may result to significant operational and financial damage. In such a critical incident, effective communication between the team leaders and the recovery team involved, can minimize or even eliminate this negative impact. An extended information system outage can be perceived as a time deviation from the Maximum Accepted Outage (ΜΑΟ timeframe, proposed by the business continuity management, according to the value of which dependent business functions may be interrupted without any serious effects to the company. The paper examines the relation between 3 basic factors and the efficient communication between team members. The factors are: timely information distribution, staff availability and network availability. Through the current paper, the author proposes a risk analysis model, based on the Composite Risk Index theory of Risk Management, which can significantly diminish the possibility of an extended information system outage, as well as calculate the extended time required to recover a system when the aforementioned factors emerge in their worst form. The precise calculation of recovery time can be achieved via the execution of business continuity tests which include scenarios, according to which an unexpected system outage coexists with delayed information distribution as well as low staff and network availability.

  8. A model to approximate lake temperature from gridded daily air temperature records and its application in risk assessment for the establishment of fish diseases in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thrush, M A; Peeler, E J

    2013-10-01

    Ambient water temperature is a key factor controlling the distribution and impact of disease in fish populations, and optimum temperature ranges have been characterised for the establishment of a number important aquatic diseases exotic to the UK. This study presents a simple regression method to approximate daily average surface water temperature in lakes of 0.5-15 ha in size across the UK using 5 km(2) gridded daily average air temperatures provided by the UK Meteorological Office. A Geographic information system (GIS) is used to present thematic maps of relative risk scores established for each grid cell based on the mean number of days per year that water temperature satisfied optimal criteria for the establishment of two economically important pathogens of cyprinid fish (koi herpesvirus (KHV) and spring viraemia of carp virus (SVCV)) and the distribution and density of fish populations susceptible to these viruses. High-density susceptible populations broadly overlap the areas where the temperature profiles are optimal for KHV (central and south-east England); however, few fish populations occur in areas where temperature profiles are most likely to result in the establishment of spring viremia of carp (SVC) (namely northern England and Scotland). The highest grid-cell risk scores for KHV and SVC were 7 and 6, respectively, out of a maximum score of 14. The proportion of grid cells containing susceptible populations with risk scores of 5 or more was 37% and 5% for KHV and SVC, respectively. This work demonstrates a risk-based approach to inform surveillance for exotic pathogens in aquatic animal health management, allowing efficient use of resources directed towards higher risk animals and geographic areas for early disease detection. The methodology could be used to examine the change in distribution of high-risk areas for both exotic and endemic fish diseases under different climate change scenarios.

  9. Variability and Risk Analysis of Hong Kong Air Quality Based on Monsoon and El Ni(n)o Conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jong-Suk KIM; ZHOU Wen; Ho Nam CHEUNG; Chak Hang CHOW

    2013-01-01

    This study presents an exploratory analysis aimed at improving understanding of the variability of Hong Kong air quality associated with different climate conditions.Significantly negative correlations were found when Nifio 3 led particulate matter ≤10 μm PM10) and NO2 by 2-3 months over the Hong Kong territory,while the other pollutants (e.g.,O3,SO2) showed modest correlations.A significant decreasing trend in visibility was observed during the autumn and winter,which has potential implications for the air-quality degradation and the endangerment of human health in Hong Kong.In an El Ni(n)o summer,the visibility was relatively better,while visibility in other seasons was diminished.On the other hand,in La Ni(n)a events,significant changes occurred in visibility in winter and autumn.Air pollution indices were less sensitive to the South China Summer Monsoon (SCSM),but a relatively high correlation existed between the East Asian Winter Monsoon (EAWM) and air pollutants.Rainfall was lower during most of the strong EAWM years compared to the weak years.This result suggests that the pollutants that accumulate in Hong Kong are not easy to wash out,so concentrations remain at a higher level.Finally,based on the conditional Air Pollution Index (API) risk assessment,site-specific vulnerabilities were analyzed to facilitate the development of the air-quality warning systems in Hong Kong.

  10. Risk Pooling, Commitment and Information: An experimental test of two fundamental assumptions

    OpenAIRE

    Abigail Barr

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents rigorous and direct tests of two assumptions relating to limited commitment and asymmetric information that current underpin current models of risk pooling. A specially designed economic experiment involving 678 subjects across 23 Zimbabwean villages is used to solve the problems of observability and quantification that have frustrated previous attempts to conduct such tests. I find that more extrinsic commitment is associated with more risk pooling, but that more informat...

  11. Information Technology Role in Reducing E-Banking Services Risk in Jordanian Banking Sector

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad Y. Areiqat; Aymen M. Abu-Errub; Badi S. AL-Rawashdeh; Mohammad Dbbaghieh

    2012-01-01

    Problem statement: This study aims to highlight the role of information technology in reducing risk of electronic banking services in the Jordanian banking sector. The study was conducted on three banks as a sample representative of the Jordanian banking sector. Approach: Data collection was through conducting personal interviews with the operations managers in the three banks (HBTF, JC Bank and Audi Bank). Results: The results showed that Jordanian banks showed highest attention toward risk ...

  12. Evolutionary systemic risk: Fisher information flow metric in financial network dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khashanah, Khaldoun; Yang, Hanchao

    2016-03-01

    Recently the topic of financial network dynamics has gained renewed interest from researchers in the field of empirical systemic risk measurements. We refer to this type of network analysis as information flow networks analysis (IFNA). This paper proposes a new method that applies Fisher information metric to the evolutionary dynamics of financial networks using IFNA. Our paper is the first to apply the Fisher information metric to a set of financial time series. We introduce Evolution Index (EI) as a measure of systemic risk in financial networks. It is shown, for concrete networks with actual data of several stock markets, that the EI can be implemented as a measure of fitness of the stock market and as a leading indicator of systemic risk.

  13. Deterministic and risk-informed approaches for safety analysis of advanced reactors: Part I, deterministic approaches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, Sang Kyu [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, 19 Kusong-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-338 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Inn Seock, E-mail: innseockkim@gmail.co [ISSA Technology, 21318 Seneca Crossing Drive, Germantown, MD 20876 (United States); Oh, Kyu Myung [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, 19 Kusong-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-338 (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-05-15

    The objective of this paper and a companion paper in this issue (part II, risk-informed approaches) is to derive technical insights from a critical review of deterministic and risk-informed safety analysis approaches that have been applied to develop licensing requirements for water-cooled reactors, or proposed for safety verification of the advanced reactor design. To this end, a review was made of a number of safety analysis approaches including those specified in regulatory guides and industry standards, as well as novel methodologies proposed for licensing of advanced reactors. This paper and the companion paper present the review insights on the deterministic and risk-informed safety analysis approaches, respectively. These insights could be used in making a safety case or developing a new licensing review infrastructure for advanced reactors including Generation IV reactors.

  14. The role of risk perception and technical information in scientific debates over nuclear waste storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jenkins-Smith, Hank C.; Silva, Carol L

    1998-01-01

    This article examines how members of the lay public factor risk perceptions, trust and technical information from differing scientific sources into policy judgements about potentially hazardous facilities. Focusing on radwaste storage repositories, we examine how members of the public filter new information about potential hazards through risk perceptions, and adjust their own beliefs about risks in light of that information. Scientists play a large (and increasing) role in public policy debates concerning nuclear waste issues, in which public perceptions of human health and environmental risks often differ substantially from scientific consensus about those risks. Public concerns and uncertainties are compounded when scientists from competing groups (government agencies, scientific institutions, industries, and interest groups) make different claims about the likely health and environmental consequences of different policy options. We show the processes by which the public receive and process scientific information about nuclear waste management risks using data taken from interviews with 1800 randomly selected individuals (1200 in New Mexico, and 600 nationwide). Among the more important findings are: (1) members of the public are able to make quite reasonable estimates about what kinds of positions on the risks of nuclear waste disposal will be taken by scientists from differing organizations (e.g. scientists from environmental groups, government agencies, or the nuclear industry); (2) in assessing the credibility of scientific claims, members of the public place great emphasis on the independence of the scientists from those who fund the research; and (3) prior expectations about the positions (or expected biases) of scientists from different organizations substantially affects the ways in which members of the public weigh (and utilize) information that comes from these scientists.

  15. Should the model for risk-informed regulation be game theory rather than decision theory?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bier, Vicki M; Lin, Shi-Woei

    2013-02-01

    Risk analysts frequently view the regulation of risks as being largely a matter of decision theory. According to this view, risk analysis methods provide information on the likelihood and severity of various possible outcomes; this information should then be assessed using a decision-theoretic approach (such as cost/benefit analysis) to determine whether the risks are acceptable, and whether additional regulation is warranted. However, this view ignores the fact that in many industries (particularly industries that are technologically sophisticated and employ specialized risk and safety experts), risk analyses may be done by regulated firms, not by the regulator. Moreover, those firms may have more knowledge about the levels of safety at their own facilities than the regulator does. This creates a situation in which the regulated firm has both the opportunity-and often also the motive-to provide inaccurate (in particular, favorably biased) risk information to the regulator, and hence the regulator has reason to doubt the accuracy of the risk information provided by regulated parties. Researchers have argued that decision theory is capable of dealing with many such strategic interactions as well as game theory can. This is especially true in two-player, two-stage games in which the follower has a unique best strategy in response to the leader's strategy, as appears to be the case in the situation analyzed in this article. However, even in such cases, we agree with Cox that game-theoretic methods and concepts can still be useful. In particular, the tools of mechanism design, and especially the revelation principle, can simplify the analysis of such games because the revelation principle provides rigorous assurance that it is sufficient to analyze only games in which licensees truthfully report their risk levels, making the problem more manageable. Without that, it would generally be necessary to consider much more complicated forms of strategic behavior (including

  16. The Risk Assessment Program and the Court of Penal Execution in the Province of Buenos Aires, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folino, Jorge O; Marengo, Claudio M; Marchiano, Susana E; Ascazibar, Mariel

    2004-02-01

    This study describes the working of a new system that supervises the execution of the punishment phase in the Province of Buenos Aires, Argentina; namely, the Court of Penal Execution, as well as the risk assessment program. It also reports the results of the violent recidivism baseline risk assessment carried out in candidates for conditional release. The cohort studied was recruited during 18 months in the Judicial Department of La Plata, taking into consideration psychopathological and criminological variables. The Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R), the Historical, Clinical, and Risk Management--20 (HCR-20), and the Violence Risk Appraisal Guide (VRAG), among others, were used as measures. During the study period, 65 candidates for conditional release were part of the baseline assessment, and they constitute the population of this study. The measures' mean scores were PCL-R, 20.57; HCR-20, 18.58; VRAG, 12.17.

  17. 78 FR 77203 - Agency Requests for Renewal of a Previously Approved Information Collection(s): War Risk...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-20

    ... Agency Requests for Renewal of a Previously Approved Information Collection(s): War Risk Insurance... participation in the war risk insurance program. We are required to publish this notice in the Federal Register... office. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: OMB Control Number: 2133-0011. Title: War Risk Insurance,...

  18. Research on the domestic application strategy of classification of SSCs with risk information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Seong Soo; Kim, Gi Yong; Seo, Jung Kwan [Atomic Creative Technology Co. Ltd., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-02-15

    In this study, US NRC's regulatory position for risk-informed SSC categorization was reviewed, and the methodology for risk-informed SSC categorization suggested by NEI was reviewed. The importance measure analysis for safety class pumps and valves in KSNP was performed and re-categorization of those pumps and valves was performed. The option 2 implementation experience of US utilities were collected and the cost-benefit analysis result was analyzed. Based on that, the cost-benefit analysis was tried for the case of option 2 implementation in Korea. Finally, the institutionalization method for Korea was suggested.

  19. Treatment of Passive Component Reliability in Risk-Informed Safety Margin Characterization FY 2010 Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert W Youngblood

    2010-09-01

    The Risk-Informed Safety Margin Characterization (RISMC) pathway is a set of activities defined under the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program. The overarching objective of RISMC is to support plant life-extension decision-making by providing a state-of-knowledge characterization of safety margins in key systems, structures, and components (SSCs). A technical challenge at the core of this effort is to establish the conceptual and technical feasibility of analyzing safety margin in a risk-informed way, which, unlike conventionally defined deterministic margin analysis, is founded on probabilistic characterizations of SSC performance.

  20. Reviews of Geospatial Information Technology and Collaborative Data Delivery for Disaster Risk Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroyuki Miyazaki

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Due to the fact that geospatial information technology is considered necessary for disaster risk management (DRM, the need for more effective collaborations between providers and end users in data delivery is increasing. This paper reviews the following: (i schemes of disaster risk management and collaborative data operation in DRM; (ii geospatial information technology in terms of applications to the schemes reviewed; and (iii ongoing practices of collaborative data delivery with the schemes reviewed. This paper concludes by discussing the future of collaborative data delivery and the progress of the technologies.

  1. Access and use of information resources in assessing health risks from chemical exposure: Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-12-31

    Health risk assessment is based on access to comprehensive information about potentially hazardous agents in question. Relevant information is scattered throughout the literature, and often is not readily accessible. To be useful in assessment efforts, emerging scientific findings, risk assess parameters, and associated data must be compiled and evaluated systemically. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) are among the federal agencies heavily involved in this effort. This symposium was a direct response by EPA and ORNL to the expressed needs of individuals involved in assessing risks from chemical exposure. In an effort to examine the state of the risk assessment process, the availability of toxicological information, and the future development and transfer of this information, the symposium provided an excellent cadre of speakers and participants from state and federal agencies, academia and research laboratories to address these topics. This stimulating and productive gathering discussed concerns associated with (1) environmental contamination by chemicals; (2) laws regulating chemicals; (3) information needs and resources; (4) applications; (5) challenges and priorities; and (6)future issues. Individual reports are processed separately for the data bases.

  2. Applications of the three-dimensional air quality system to western U.S. air quality: IDEA, smog blog, smog stories, airquest, and the remote sensing information gateway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoff, Raymond; Zhang, Hai; Jordan, Nikisa; Prados, Ana; Engel-Cox, Jill; Huff, Amy; Weber, Stephanie; Zell, Erica; Kondragunta, Shobha; Szykman, James; Johns, Brad; Dimmick, Fred; Wimmers, Anthony; Al-Saadi, Jay; Kittaka, Chieko

    2009-08-01

    A system has been developed to combine remote sensing and ground-based measurements of aerosol concentration and aerosol light scattering parameters into a three-dimensional view of the atmosphere over the United States. Utilizing passive and active remote sensors from space and the ground, the system provides tools to visualize particulate air pollution in near real time and archive the results for retrospective analyses. The main components of the system (Infusing satellite Data into Environmental Applications [IDEA], the U.S. Air Quality Weblog [Smog Blog], Smog Stories, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's AIRQuest decision support system, and the Remote Sensing Information Gateway [RSIG]) are described, and the relationship of how data move from one system to another is outlined. To provide examples of how the results can be used to analyze specific pollution episodes, three events (two fires and one wintertime low planetary boundary layer haze) are discussed. Not all tools are useful at all times, and the limitations, including the sparsity of some data, the interference caused by overlying clouds, etc., are shown. Nevertheless, multiple sources of data help a state, local, or regional air quality analyst construct a more thorough picture of a daily air pollution situation than what one would obtain with only surface-based sensors.

  3. What Health-Related Information Flows through You Every Day? A Content Analysis of Microblog Messages on Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qinghua; Yang, Fan; Zhou, Chun

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate how the information about haze, a term used in China to describe the air pollution problem, is portrayed on Chinese social media by different types of organizations using the theoretical framework of the health belief model (HBM). Design/methodology/approach: A content analysis was conducted…

  4. Risk perception and information processing: the development and validation of a questionnaire to assess self-reported information processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smerecnik, Chris M R; Mesters, Ilse; Candel, Math J J M; De Vries, Hein; De Vries, Nanne K

    2012-01-01

    The role of information processing in understanding people's responses to risk information has recently received substantial attention. One limitation of this research concerns the unavailability of a validated questionnaire of information processing. This article presents two studies in which we describe the development and validation of the Information-Processing Questionnaire to meet that need. Study 1 describes the development and initial validation of the questionnaire. Participants were randomized to either a systematic processing or a heuristic processing condition after which they completed a manipulation check and the initial 15-item questionnaire and again two weeks later. The questionnaire was subjected to factor reliability and validity analyses on both measurement times for purposes of cross-validation of the results. A two-factor solution was observed representing a systematic processing and a heuristic processing subscale. The resulting scale showed good reliability and validity, with the systematic condition scoring significantly higher on the systematic subscale and the heuristic processing condition significantly higher on the heuristic subscale. Study 2 sought to further validate the questionnaire in a field study. Results of the second study corresponded with those of Study 1 and provided further evidence of the validity of the Information-Processing Questionnaire. The availability of this information-processing scale will be a valuable asset for future research and may provide researchers with new research opportunities.

  5. Defensive Information Operations in Support of the Marine Air Ground Task Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    Report INFOSEC Information Security INFOSYS Information Systems IO Information Operations ISMO Information Systems Management Office...scanning software. “ Much of the success of the Information Systems Management Office ( ISMO ) team comes from educating the Marines on these dangers and

  6. Communications System Architecture Development for Air Traffic Management and Aviation Weather Information Dissemination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Seana; Olson, Matt; Blythe, Doug; Heletz, Jacob; Hamilton, Griff; Kolb, Bill; Homans, Al; Zemrowski, Ken; Decker, Steve; Tegge, Cindy

    2000-01-01

    This document is the NASA AATT Task Order 24 Final Report. NASA Research Task Order 24 calls for the development of eleven distinct task reports. Each task was a necessary exercise in the development of comprehensive communications systems architecture (CSA) for air traffic management and aviation weather information dissemination for 2015, the definition of the interim architecture for 2007, and the transition plan to achieve the desired End State. The eleven tasks are summarized along with the associated Task Order reference. The output of each task was an individual task report. The task reports that make up the main body of this document include Task 5, Task 6, Task 7, Task 8, Task 10, and Task 11. The other tasks provide the supporting detail used in the development of the architecture. These reports are included in the appendices. The detailed user needs, functional communications requirements and engineering requirements associated with Tasks 1, 2, and 3 have been put into a relational database and are provided electronically.

  7. Contamination of indoor dust and air by polychlorinated biphenyls and brominated flame retardants and relevance of non-dietary exposure in Vietnamese informal e-waste recycling sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tue, Nguyen Minh; Takahashi, Shin; Suzuki, Go; Isobe, Tomohiko; Viet, Pham Hung; Kobara, Yuso; Seike, Nobuyasu; Zhang, Gan; Sudaryanto, Agus; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the occurrence of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and several additive brominated flame retardants (BFRs) in indoor dust and air from two Vietnamese informal e-waste recycling sites (EWRSs) and an urban site in order to assess the relevance of these media for human exposure. The levels of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD), 1,2-bis-(2,4,6-tribromophenoxy)ethane (BTBPE) and decabromodiphenyl ethane (DBDPE) in settled house dust from the EWRSs (130-12,000, 5.4-400, 5.2-620 and 31-1400 ng g(-1), respectively) were significantly higher than in urban house dust but the levels of PCBs (4.8-320 ng g(-1)) were not higher. The levels of PCBs and PBDEs in air at e-waste recycling houses (1000-1800 and 620-720 pg m(-3), respectively), determined using passive sampling, were also higher compared with non-e-waste houses. The composition of BFRs in EWRS samples suggests the influence from high-temperature processes and occurrence of waste materials containing older BFR formulations. Results of daily intake estimation for e-waste recycling workers are in good agreement with the accumulation patterns previously observed in human milk and indicate that dust ingestion contributes a large portion of the PBDE intake (60%-88%), and air inhalation to the low-chlorinated PCB intake (>80% for triCBs) due to their high levels in dust and air, respectively. Further investigation of both indoor dust and air as the exposure media for other e-waste recycling-related contaminants and assessment of health risk associated with exposure to these contaminant mixtures is necessary.

  8. Adiponectin provides additional information to conventional cardiovascular risk factors for assessing the risk of atherosclerosis in both genders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Ha Yoon

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: This study evaluated the relation between adiponectin and atherosclerosis in both genders, and investigated whether adiponectin provides useful additional information for assessing the risk of atherosclerosis. METHODS: We measured serum adiponectin levels and other cardiovascular risk factors in 1033 subjects (454 men, 579 women from the Korean Genomic Rural Cohort study. Carotid intima-media-thickness (CIMT was used as measure of atherosclerosis. Odds ratios (ORs with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI were calculated using multiple logistic regression, and receiver operating characteristic curves (ROC, the category-free net reclassification improvement (NRI and integrated discrimination improvement (IDI were calculated. RESULTS: After adjustment for conventional cardiovascular risk factors, such as age, waist circumference, smoking history, low-density and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, systolic blood pressure and insulin resistance, the ORs (95%CI of the third tertile adiponectin group were 0.42 (0.25-0.72 in men and 0.47 (0.29-0.75 in women. The area under the curve (AUC on the ROC analysis increased significantly by 0.025 in men and 0.022 in women when adiponectin was added to the logistic model of conventional cardiovascular risk factors (AUC in men: 0.655 to 0.680, p = 0.038; AUC in women: 0.654 to 0.676, p = 0.041. The NRI was 0.32 (95%CI: 0.13-0.50, p<0.001, and the IDI was 0.03 (95%CI: 0.01-0.04, p<0.001 for men. For women, the category-free NRI was 0.18 (95%CI: 0.02-0.34, p = 0.031 and the IDI was 0.003 (95%CI: -0.002-0.008, p = 0.189. CONCLUSION: Adiponectin and atherosclerosis were significantly related in both genders, and these relationships were independent of conventional cardiovascular risk factors. Furthermore, adiponectin provided additional information to conventional cardiovascular risk factors regarding the risk of atherosclerosis.

  9. "The Dose Makes the Poison": Informing Consumers About the Scientific Risk Assessment of Food Additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bearth, Angela; Cousin, Marie-Eve; Siegrist, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Intensive risk assessment is required before the approval of food additives. During this process, based on the toxicological principle of "the dose makes the poison,ˮ maximum usage doses are assessed. However, most consumers are not aware of these efforts to ensure the safety of food additives and are therefore sceptical, even though food additives bring certain benefits to consumers. This study investigated the effect of a short video, which explains the scientific risk assessment and regulation of food additives, on consumers' perceptions and acceptance of food additives. The primary goal of this study was to inform consumers and enable them to construct their own risk-benefit assessment and make informed decisions about food additives. The secondary goal was to investigate whether people have different perceptions of food additives of artificial (i.e., aspartame) or natural origin (i.e., steviolglycoside). To attain these research goals, an online experiment was conducted on 185 Swiss consumers. Participants were randomly assigned to either the experimental group, which was shown a video about the scientific risk assessment of food additives, or the control group, which was shown a video about a topic irrelevant to the study. After watching the video, the respondents knew significantly more, expressed more positive thoughts and feelings, had less risk perception, and more acceptance than prior to watching the video. Thus, it appears that informing consumers about complex food safety topics, such as the scientific risk assessment of food additives, is possible, and using a carefully developed information video is a successful strategy for informing consumers.

  10. Tailored information increases patient/physician discussion of colon cancer risk and testing: The Cancer Risk Intake System trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, Celette Sugg; Gupta, Samir; Bishop, Wendy Pechero; Ahn, Chul; Tiro, Jasmin A; Halm, Ethan A; Farrell, David; Marks, Emily; Morrow, Jay; Julka, Manjula; McCallister, Katharine; Sanders, Joanne M; Rawl, Susan M

    2016-12-01

    Assess whether receipt of tailored printouts generated by the Cancer Risk Intake System (CRIS) - a touch-screen computer program that collects data from patients and generates printouts for patients and physicians - results in more reported patient-provider discussions about colorectal cancer (CRC) risk and screening than receipt of non-tailored information. Cluster-randomized trial, randomized by physician, with data collected via CRIS prior to visit and 2-week follow-up telephone survey among 623 patients. Patients aged 25-75 with upcoming primary-care visits and eligible for, but currently non-adherent to CRC screening guidelines. Patient-reported discussions with providers about CRC risk and testing. Tailored recipients were more likely to report patient-physician discussions about personal and familial risk, stool testing, and colonoscopy (all p < 0.05). Tailored recipients were more likely to report discussions of: chances of getting cancer (+ 10%); family history (+ 15%); stool testing (+ 9%); and colonoscopy (+ 8%) (all p < 0.05). CRIS is a promising strategy for facilitating discussions about testing in primary-care settings.

  11. Procedures for addressing uncertainty and variability in exposure to characterize potential health risk from trichloroethylene contaminated ground water at Beale Air Force Base in California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniels, J I; Bogen, K T; Hall, L C

    1999-10-05

    Conservative deterministic, screening-level calculations of exposure and risk commonly are used in quantitative assessments of potential human-health consequences from contaminants in environmental media. However, these calculations generally are based on multiple upper-bound point estimates of input parameters, particularly for exposure attributes, and can therefore produce results for decision makers that actually overstate the need for costly remediation. Alternatively, a more informative and quantitative characterization of health risk can be obtained by quantifying uncertainty and variability in exposure. This process is illustrated in this report for a hypothetical population at a specific site at Beale Air Force Base in California, where there is trichloroethylene (TCE) contaminated ground water and a potential for future residential use. When uncertainty and variability in exposure were addressed jointly for this case, the 95th-percentile upper-bound value of individual excess lifetime cancer risk was a factor approaching 10 lower than the most conservative deterministic estimate. Additionally, the probability of more than zero additional cases of cancer can be estimated, and in this case it is less than 0.5 for a hypothetical future residential population of up to 26,900 individuals present for any 7.6-y interval of a 70-y time period. Clearly, the results from application of this probabilistic approach can provide reasonable and equitable risk-acceptability criteria for a contaminated site.

  12. Is there any interaction between domestic radon exposure and air pollution from traffic in relation to childhood leukemia risk?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bräuner, Elvira Vaclavik; Andersen, Claus Erik; Andersen, Helle P.;

    2010-01-01

    for different morphological subtypes of leukemia and within different strata of traffic density showed a non-significant pattern of stronger associations between radon and childhood leukemia within strata of higher traffic density at the street address. Air pollution from traffic may enhance the effect of radon...... of air pollution and traffic density. The relative risk for childhood leukemia in association with a 10(3) Bq/m(3)-years increase in radon was 1.77 (1.11, 2.82) among those exposed to high levels of NOx and 1.23 (0.79, 1.91) for those exposed to low levels of NOx (p (interaction,) 0.17). Analyses......In a recent population-based case-control study using 2,400 cases of childhood cancer, we found a statistically significant association between residential radon and acute lymphoblastic leukemia risk. Traffic exhaust in the air enhances the risk association between radon and childhood leukemia. We...

  13. A database system for the management of severe accident risk information, SARD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, K. I.; Kim, D. H. [KAERI, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-10-01

    The purpose of this paper is to introduce main features and functions of a PC Windows-based database management system, SARD, which has been developed at Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute for automatic management and search of the severe accident risk information. Main functions of the present database system are implemented by three closely related, but distinctive modules: (1) fixing of an initial environment for data storage and retrieval, (2) automatic loading and management of accident information, and (3) automatic search and retrieval of accident information. For this, the present database system manipulates various form of the plant-specific severe accident risk information, such as dominant severe accident sequences identified from the plant-specific Level 2 Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) and accident sequence-specific information obtained from the representative severe accident codes (e.g., base case and sensitivity analysis results, and summary for key plant responses). The present database system makes it possible to implement fast prediction and intelligent retrieval of the required severe accident risk information for various accident sequences, and in turn it can be used for the support of the Level 2 PSA of similar plants and for the development of plant-specific severe accident management strategies.

  14. Evaluation of passenger health risk assessment of sustainable indoor air quality monitoring in metro systems based on a non-Gaussian dynamic sensor validation method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, MinJeong; Liu, Hongbin; Kim, Jeong Tai; Yoo, ChangKyoo

    2014-08-15

    Sensor faults in metro systems provide incorrect information to indoor air quality (IAQ) ventilation systems, resulting in the miss-operation of ventilation systems and adverse effects on passenger health. In this study, a new sensor validation method is proposed to (1) detect, identify and repair sensor faults and (2) evaluate the influence of sensor reliability on passenger health risk. To address the dynamic non-Gaussianity problem of IAQ data, dynamic independent component analysis (DICA) is used. To detect and identify sensor faults, the DICA-based squared prediction error and sensor validity index are used, respectively. To restore the faults to normal measurements, a DICA-based iterative reconstruction algorithm is proposed. The comprehensive indoor air-quality index (CIAI) that evaluates the influence of the current IAQ on passenger health is then compared using the faulty and reconstructed IAQ data sets. Experimental results from a metro station showed that the DICA-based method can produce an improved IAQ level in the metro station and reduce passenger health risk since it more accurately validates sensor faults than do conventional methods.

  15. Improved Methods for Fire Risk Assessment in Low-Income and Informal Settlements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Twigg

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Fires cause over 300,000 deaths annually worldwide and leave millions more with permanent injuries: some 95% of these deaths are in low- and middle-income countries. Burn injury risk is strongly associated with low-income and informal (or slum settlements, which are growing rapidly in an urbanising world. Fire policy and mitigation strategies in poorer countries are constrained by inadequate data on incidence, impacts, and causes, which is mainly due to a lack of capacity and resources for data collection, analysis, and modelling. As a first step towards overcoming such challenges, this project reviewed the literature on the subject to assess the potential of a range of methods and tools for identifying, assessing, and addressing fire risk in low-income and informal settlements; the process was supported by an expert workshop at University College London in May 2016. We suggest that community-based risk and vulnerability assessment methods, which are widely used in disaster risk reduction, could be adapted to urban fire risk assessment, and could be enhanced by advances in crowdsourcing and citizen science for geospatial data creation and collection. To assist urban planners, emergency managers, and community organisations who are working in resource-constrained settings to identify and assess relevant fire risk factors, we also suggest an improved analytical framework based on the Haddon Matrix.

  16. Improved Methods for Fire Risk Assessment in Low-Income and Informal Settlements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twigg, John; Christie, Nicola; Haworth, James; Osuteye, Emmanuel; Skarlatidou, Artemis

    2017-01-01

    Fires cause over 300,000 deaths annually worldwide and leave millions more with permanent injuries: some 95% of these deaths are in low- and middle-income countries. Burn injury risk is strongly associated with low-income and informal (or slum) settlements, which are growing rapidly in an urbanising world. Fire policy and mitigation strategies in poorer countries are constrained by inadequate data on incidence, impacts, and causes, which is mainly due to a lack of capacity and resources for data collection, analysis, and modelling. As a first step towards overcoming such challenges, this project reviewed the literature on the subject to assess the potential of a range of methods and tools for identifying, assessing, and addressing fire risk in low-income and informal settlements; the process was supported by an expert workshop at University College London in May 2016. We suggest that community-based risk and vulnerability assessment methods, which are widely used in disaster risk reduction, could be adapted to urban fire risk assessment, and could be enhanced by advances in crowdsourcing and citizen science for geospatial data creation and collection. To assist urban planners, emergency managers, and community organisations who are working in resource-constrained settings to identify and assess relevant fire risk factors, we also suggest an improved analytical framework based on the Haddon Matrix. PMID:28157149

  17. The value of integrating information from multiple hazards for flood risk management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. T. Castillo-Rodríguez

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a methodology for estimating flood risk in urban areas integrating pluvial flooding, river flooding and failure of both small and large dams. The first part includes a review of basic concepts and existing methods on flood risk analysis, evaluation and management. Traditionally, flood risk analyses have focused on specific site studies and qualitative or semi-quantitative approaches. However, in this context, a general methodology to perform a quantitative flood risk analysis including different flood hazards was still required. The second part describes the proposed methodology, which presents an integrated approach – combining pluvial, river flooding and dam failure, as applied to a case study: a urban area located downstream a dam under construction. Such methodology represents an upgrade of the methodological piece developed within the SUFRI project. This article shows how outcomes from flood risk analysis provide better and more complete information to inform authorities, local entities and the stakeholders involved on decision-making with regard to flood risk management.

  18. 75 FR 63827 - Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS); Request for Chemical Substance Nominations for 2011...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-18

    ... AGENCY Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS); Request for Chemical Substance Nominations for 2011.... The status and planned milestone dates can be found on the IRIS track system, accessible on the IRIS... http://www.regulations.gov Web site is an ``anonymous access'' system, which means EPA will not...

  19. 75 FR 76982 - Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS); Announcement of Availability of Literature Searches...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS); Announcement of Availability of Literature Searches for... Web site is an ``anonymous access'' system, which means EPA will not know your identity or...

  20. 77 FR 41784 - Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS); Announcement of Availability of Literature Searches...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS); Announcement of Availability of Literature Searches for... or email. The http://www.regulations.gov Web site is an ``anonymous access'' system, which means...

  1. 77 FR 20817 - Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS); Announcement of Availability of Literature Searches...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS); Announcement of Availability of Literature Searches for....regulations.gov or email. The http://www.regulations.gov Web site is an ``anonymous access'' system,...

  2. 77 FR 26751 - Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS); Announcement of 2012 Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-07

    ... AGENCY Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS); Announcement of 2012 Program AGENCY: Environmental... underway. The status and planned milestone dates for each assessment can be found on the IRIS Track system... until the end of 2012. EPA anticipates publication of a final Integrated Science Assessment (ISA)...

  3. 75 FR 25239 - Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS); Announcement of Availability of Literature Searches...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS); Announcement of Availability of Literature Searches for... Web site is an ``anonymous access'' system, which means EPA will not know your identity or...

  4. Framework to implement a risk-informed performance-based fire safety approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Straalen, IJ.J. van

    2014-01-01

    The demand of a risk-informed performance-based approach for fire safety in the Netherlands is growing. Various major incidents (pub fire within the city of Volendam with 14 casualties in 2001, fire in the detention centre of Schiphol-East (airport) with 11 casualties in 2005 and the fire in the men

  5. Personalised risk communication for informed decision making about taking screening tests (Review)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Edwards, A.G.; Evans, R.; Dundon, J.; Haigh, S.; Hood, K.; Elwyn, G.

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There is a trend towards greater patient involvement in healthcare decisions. Adequate discussion of the risks and benefits associated with different choices is often required if involvement is to be genuine and effective. Achieving both the adequate involvement of consumers and informed

  6. A Model for an Information Security Risk Management (ISRM) Framework for Saudi Arabian Organisations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alshareef, Naser

    2016-01-01

    Countries in the Gulf represent thriving, globally important commercial centres. They have embraced technology and modern management methods, often originating in the western countries. In adapting to quite different cultures these do not always operate as successfully. The adoption and practices of the Information Security Risk Management (ISRM)…

  7. 78 FR 25440 - Request for Information and Citations on Methods for Cumulative Risk Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    ... Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is requesting information and citations on approaches and methods for the... agents or stressors'' using scientifically defensible approaches and methods. The Guidelines will assist... approaches and methods that can be used to plan and conduct cumulative risk assessments (CRA)....

  8. Proceedings of the NKS/SOS-2 seminar on risk informed principles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pulkkinen, U.; Simola, K. [eds.] [VTT Automation (Finland)

    1999-09-01

    The aim of this NKS/SOS-2 seminar was to present the status and plans of applications of Risk Informed Principles both by nuclear authorities and industry in Finland and Sweden. Furthermore, views from the off-shore industry were presented. (EHS)

  9. Model of Information Security Risk Assessment based on Improved Wavelet Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang Chen

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper concentrates on the information security risk assessment model utilizing the improved wavelet neural network. The structure of wavelet neural network is similar to the multi-layer neural network, which is a feed-forward neural network with one or more inputs. Afterwards, we point out that the training process of wavelet neural networks is made up of four steps until the value of error function can satisfy a pre-defined error criteria. In order to enhance the quality of information security risk assessment, we proposed a modified version of wavelet neural network which can effectively combine all influencing factors in assessing information security risk by linear integrating several weights. Furthermore, the proposed wavelet neural network is trained by the BP algorithm with batch mode, and the weight coefficients of the wavelet are modified with the adopting mode. Finally, a series of experiments are conduct to make performance evaluation. From the experimental results, we can see that the proposed model can assess information security risk accurately and rapidly

  10. Development of the severe accident risk information database management system SARD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, Kwang Il; Kim, Dong Ha

    2003-01-01

    The main purpose of this report is to introduce essential features and functions of a severe accident risk information management system, SARD (Severe Accident Risk Database Management System) version 1.0, which has been developed in Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, and database management and data retrieval procedures through the system. The present database management system has powerful capabilities that can store automatically and manage systematically the plant-specific severe accident analysis results for core damage sequences leading to severe accidents, and search intelligently the related severe accident risk information. For that purpose, the present database system mainly takes into account the plant-specific severe accident sequences obtained from the Level 2 Probabilistic Safety Assessments (PSAs), base case analysis results for various severe accident sequences (such as code responses and summary for key-event timings), and related sensitivity analysis results for key input parameters/models employed in the severe accident codes. Accordingly, the present database system can be effectively applied in supporting the Level 2 PSA of similar plants, for fast prediction and intelligent retrieval of the required severe accident risk information for the specific plant whose information was previously stored in the database system, and development of plant-specific severe accident management strategies.

  11. DSSTox EPA Integrated Risk Information System Structure-Index Locator File: SDF File and Documentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA's Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) database was developed and is maintained by EPA's Office of Research and Developement, National Center for Environmental Assessment. IRIS is a database of human health effects that may result from exposure to various substances fou...

  12. How do individuals apply risk information when choosing among health care interventions?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gyrd-Hansen, Dorte; Kristiansen, Ivar Sønbø; Nexøe, Jørgen

    2003-01-01

    weighting of different types of risk information under various circumstances. The effect of presenting questions, and of explicitly formulating RRR, was analyzed. A preference for increases in RRR was demonstrated. There was a stronger inclination to choose the intervention that offered the highest RRR...

  13. Psychosis prediction : stratification of risk estimation with information-processing and premorbid functioning variables

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieman, Dorien H; Ruhrmann, Stephan; Dragt, Sara; Soen, Francesca; van Tricht, Mirjam J; Koelman, Johannes H T M; Bour, Lo J; Velthorst, Eva; Becker, Hiske E; Weiser, Mark; Linszen, Don H; de Haan, Lieuwe

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The period preceding the first psychotic episode is regarded as a promising period for intervention. We aimed to develop an optimized prediction model of a first psychosis, considering different sources of information. The outcome of this model may be used for individualized risk estimat

  14. Risk based decision support for new air traffic operations with reduced aircraft separation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Speijker, L.J.P.

    2007-01-01

    With the steady increase in air traffic, the aviation system is under continuous pressure to increase aircraft handling capacity. Various new Air Traffic Management systems and flight procedures are proposed to increase airport capacity while maintaining the required level of safety. Newly proposed

  15. Air Distribution Systems and Cross-Infection Risk in the Hospital Sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter V.

    2012-01-01

    We protect ourselves from airborne cross-infection in our indoor environment by supplying fresh air to the room by natural or mechanical ventilation. The air is distributed in the room according to different principles as e.g. mixing ventilation, downward ventilation, displacement ventilation, et...

  16. Risk evaluation and mitigation strategy programs in solid organ transplantation: the promises of information technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsapepas, Demetra S; McKeen, Jaclyn T; Martin, Spencer T; Walker-McDermott, Jennifer K; Yang, Alex; Hirsch, Jamie; Mohan, Sumit; Tiwari, Ruchi

    2014-10-01

    Risk evaluation and mitigation strategies (REMS) required by the Food and Drug Administration are implemented to manage known or potential risks associated with medications and to ensure ongoing safe use throughout the life of a pharmaceutical agent. Healthcare organizations have begun to adopt information technologies with clinical decision support (CDS) to ensure safe use of medications. Systems have been expanded and customized to also ensure compliance with regulatory standards. End users who are unfamiliar with particular medication use provisions are at risk of unknowingly inappropriately fulfilling specific components. Institution-specific customization of vendor-provided CDS is useful to enhance provider awareness and ensure compliance with standards. Integration of health information technology systems to fulfill REMS requirements is novel and important to ensure consistency as healthcare standards evolve.

  17. Risk and Ambiguity in Information Seeking: Eye Gaze Patterns Reveal Contextual Behaviour in Dealing with Uncertainty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Wittek

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Information foraging connects optimal foraging theory in ecology withhow humans search for information. The theory suggests that, followingan information scent, the information seeker must optimize the tradeoffbetween exploration by repeated steps in the search space vs.exploitation, using the resources encountered. We conjecture that thistradeoff characterizes how a user deals with uncertainty and its twoaspects, risk and ambiguity in economic theory. Risk is related to theperceived quality of the actually visited patch of information, and canbe reduced by exploiting and understanding the patch to a better extent.Ambiguity, on the other hand, is the opportunity cost of having higherquality patches elsewhere in the search space. The aforementionedtradeoff depends on many attributes, including traits of the user: atthe two extreme ends of the spectrum, analytic and wholistic searchersemploy entirely different strategies. The former type focuses onexploitation first, interspersed with bouts of exploration, whereas thelatter type prefers to explore the search space first and consume later.Our findings from an eye-tracking study of experts' interactions withnovel search interfaces in the biomedical domain suggest that usertraits of cognitive styles and perceived search task difficultyare significantly correlated with eye gaze and search behaviour. Wealso demonstrate that perceived risk shifts the balance betweenexploration and exploitation in either type of users, tilting it againstvs. in favour of ambiguity minimization. Since the pattern of behaviourin information foraging is quintessentially sequential, risk andambiguity minimization cannot happen simultaneously, leading to afundamental limit on how good such a tradeoff can be. This in turnconnects information seeking with the emergent field of quantum decisiontheory.

  18. Can data science inform environmental justice and community risk screening for type 2 diabetes?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Allen Davis

    Full Text Available Having the ability to scan the entire country for potential "hotspots" with increased risk of developing chronic diseases due to various environmental, demographic, and genetic susceptibility factors may inform risk management decisions and enable better environmental public health policies.Develop an approach for community-level risk screening focused on identifying potential genetic susceptibility hotpots.Our approach combines analyses of phenotype-genotype data, genetic prevalence of single nucleotide polymorphisms, and census/geographic information to estimate census tract-level population attributable risks among various ethnicities and total population for the state of California.We estimate that the rs13266634 single nucleotide polymorphism, a type 2 diabetes susceptibility genotype, has a genetic prevalence of 56.3%, 47.4% and 37.0% in Mexican Mestizo, Caucasian, and Asian populations. Looking at the top quintile for total population attributable risk, 16 California counties have greater than 25% of their population living in hotspots of genetic susceptibility for developing type 2 diabetes due to this single genotypic susceptibility factor.This study identified counties in California where large portions of the population may bear additional type 2 diabetes risk due to increased genetic prevalence of a susceptibility genotype. This type of screening can easily be extended to include information on environmental contaminants of interest and other related diseases, and potentially enables the rapid identification of potential environmental justice communities. Other potential uses of this approach include problem formulation in support of risk assessments, land use planning, and prioritization of site cleanup and remediation actions.

  19. Analyses in support of risk-informed natural gas vehicle maintenance facility codes and standards :

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ekoto, Isaac W.; Blaylock, Myra L.; LaFleur, Angela Christine; LaChance, Jeffrey L.; Horne, Douglas B.

    2014-03-01

    Safety standards development for maintenance facilities of liquid and compressed gas fueled large-scale vehicles is required to ensure proper facility design and operation envelopes. Standard development organizations are utilizing risk-informed concepts to develop natural gas vehicle (NGV) codes and standards so that maintenance facilities meet acceptable risk levels. The present report summarizes Phase I work for existing NGV repair facility code requirements and highlights inconsistencies that need quantitative analysis into their effectiveness. A Hazardous and Operability study was performed to identify key scenarios of interest. Finally, scenario analyses were performed using detailed simulations and modeling to estimate the overpressure hazards from HAZOP defined scenarios. The results from Phase I will be used to identify significant risk contributors at NGV maintenance facilities, and are expected to form the basis for follow-on quantitative risk analysis work to address specific code requirements and identify effective accident prevention and mitigation strategies.

  20. RISK-INFORMED BALANCING OF SAFETY, NONPROLIFERATION, AND ECONOMICS FOR THE SFR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apostolakis, George; Driscoll, Michael; Golay, Michael; Kadak, Andrew; Todreas, Neil; Aldmir, Tunc; Denning, Richard; Lineberry, Michael

    2011-10-20

    A substantial barrier to the implementation of Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor (SFR) technology in the short term is the perception that they would not be economically competitive with advanced light water reactors. With increased acceptance of risk-informed regulation, the opportunity exists to reduce the costs of a nuclear power plant at the design stage without applying excessive conservatism that is not needed in treating low risk events. In the report, NUREG-1860, the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission describes developmental activities associated with a risk-informed, scenario-based technology neutral framework (TNF) for regulation. It provides quantitative yardsticks against which the adequacy of safety risks can be judged. We extend these concepts to treatment of proliferation risks. The objective of our project is to develop a risk-informed design process for minimizing the cost of electricity generation within constraints of adequate safety and proliferation risks. This report describes the design and use of this design optimization process within the context of reducing the capital cost and levelized cost of electricity production for a small (possibly modular) SFR. Our project provides not only an evaluation of the feasibility of a risk-informed design process but also a practical test of the applicability of the TNF to an actual advanced, non-LWR design. The report provides results of five safety related and one proliferation related case studies of innovative design alternatives. Applied to previously proposed SFR nuclear energy system concepts We find that the TNF provides a feasible initial basis for licensing new reactors. However, it is incomplete. We recommend improvements in terms of requiring acceptance standards for total safety risks, and we propose a framework for regulation of proliferation risks. We also demonstrate methods for evaluation of proliferation risks. We also suggest revisions to scenario-specific safety risk acceptance standards

  1. COG risk informed in-service inspection (RI-ISI) pilot study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rezaie-Manesh, M. [Ontario Power Generation, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); O' Regan, P. [Electric Power Research Inst. (EPRI), Palo Alto, California (United States); Chesworth, S. [Structural Integrity Associates, Inc., San Francisco, California (United States)

    2011-07-01

    In 2009, CNSC prepared 'Guidelines for Risk-Informed In-service Inspection for Piping,' that provided guidance for licensees to develop a RI-ISI program as an alternate to the current CSA N285.4 and augmented programs for piping inspection. In response, a COG project was initiated to develop a best-fit methodology for the CANDU design and evaluate plant risk levels between current and RI-ISI inspection programs. EPRI RI-ISI was used as a starting point for methodology development. The effectiveness of current piping inspection programs in managing risk-significant locations was evaluated, and potential risk reductions associated with relocating or adding inspections were investigated.

  2. Analyzing semi-competing risks data with missing cause of informative terminal event.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Renke; Zhu, Hong; Bondy, Melissa; Ning, Jing

    2017-02-28

    Cancer studies frequently yield multiple event times that correspond to landmarks in disease progression, including non-terminal events (i.e., cancer recurrence) and an informative terminal event (i.e., cancer-related death). Hence, we often observe semi-competing risks data. Work on such data has focused on scenarios in which the cause of the terminal event is known. However, in some circumstances, the information on cause for patients who experience the terminal event is missing; consequently, we are not able to differentiate an informative terminal event from a non-informative terminal event. In this article, we propose a method to handle missing data regarding the cause of an informative terminal event when analyzing the semi-competing risks data. We first consider the nonparametric estimation of the survival function for the terminal event time given missing cause-of-failure data via the expectation-maximization algorithm. We then develop an estimation method for semi-competing risks data with missing cause of the terminal event, under a pre-specified semiparametric copula model. We conduct simulation studies to investigate the performance of the proposed method. We illustrate our methodology using data from a study of early-stage breast cancer. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Source Credibility and the Biasing Effect of Narrative Information on the Perception of Vaccination Risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haase, Niels; Betsch, Cornelia; Renkewitz, Frank

    2015-08-01

    Immunization rates are below the Global Immunization Vision and Strategy established by the World Health Organization. One reason for this are anti-vaccination activists, who use the Internet to disseminate their agenda, frequently by publishing narrative reports about alleged vaccine adverse events. In health communication, the use of narrative information has been shown to be effectively persuasive. Furthermore, persuasion research indicates that the credibility of an information source may serve as a cue to discount or augment the communicated message. Thus, the present study investigated the effect of source credibility on the biasing effect of narrative information regarding the perception of vaccination risks. 265 participants were provided with statistical information (20%) regarding the occurrence of vaccine adverse events after vaccination against a fictitious disease. This was followed by 20 personalized narratives from an online forum on vaccination experiences. The authors varied the relative frequency of narratives reporting vaccine adverse events (35% vs. 85%), narrative source credibility (anti-vaccination website vs. neutral health forum), and the credibility of the statistical information (reliable data vs. unreliable data vs. control) in a between-subjects design. Results showed a stable narrative bias on risk perception that was not affected by credibility cues. However, narratives from an anti-vaccination website generally led to lower perceptions of vaccination risks.

  4. Information Behavior and HIV Testing Intentions Among Young Men at Risk for HIV/AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meadowbrooke, Chrysta C; Veinot, Tiffany C; Loveluck, Jimena; Hickok, Andrew; Bauermeister, José A

    2014-03-01

    Health research shows that knowing about health risks may not translate into behavior change. However, such research typically operationalizes health information acquisition with knowledge tests. Information scientists who investigate socially embedded information behaviors could help improve understanding of potential associations between information behavior-as opposed to knowledge-and health behavior formation, thus providing new opportunities to investigate the effects of health information. We examine the associations between information behavior and HIV testing intentions among young men who have sex with men (YMSM), a group with high rates of unrecognized HIV infection. We used the theory of planned behavior (TPB) to predict intentions to seek HIV testing in an online sample of 163 YMSM. Multiple regression and recursive path analysis were used to test two models: (a) the basic TPB model and (b) an adapted model that added the direct effects of three information behaviors (information exposure, use of information to make HIV-testing decisions, prior experience obtaining an HIV test) plus self-rated HIV knowledge. As hypothesized, our adapted model improved predictions, explaining more than twice as much variance as the original TPB model. The results suggest that information behaviors may be more important predictors of health behavior intentions than previously acknowledged.

  5. US EPA Office of Research and Development Community-Focused Exposure and Risk Screening Tool (C-FERST) Air Pollutants 2011 web mapping service

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This map service displays all air-related layers used in the USEPA Community/Tribal-Focused Exposure and Risk Screening Tool (C/T-FERST) mapping application...

  6. US EPA Office of Research and Development Community-Focused Exposure and Risk Screening Tool (C-FERST) Air web mapping service

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This map service displays all air-related layers used in the USEPA Community/Tribal-Focused Exposure and Risk Screening Tool (C/T-FERST) mapping application...

  7. Ambient air pollution as a risk factor for lung cancer La contaminación del aire como factor de riesgo de cáncer pulmonar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AARON J COHEN

    1997-07-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiologic studies over the last 40 years have observed that general ambient air pollution, chiefly due to the by- products of the incomplete combustion of fossil fuels, is associated with small relative increases in lung cancer. The evidence derives from studies of lung cancer trends, studies of occupational groups, comparisons of urban and rural populations, and case-control and cohort studies using diverse exposure metrics. Recent prospective cohort studies observed 30-50% increases in the risk of lung cancer in relation to approximately a doubling of respirable particle exposure. While these data reflect the effects of exposures in past decades, and despite some progress in reducing air pollution, large numbers of people in the US continue to be exposed to pollutant mixtures containing known or suspected carcinogens. These observations suggest that the most widely cited estimates of the proportional contribution of air pollution to lung cancer occurrence in the US, based largely on the results of animal experimentation, may be too low. It is important that better epidemiologic research be conducted to allow improved estimates of lung cancer risk from air pollution in the general population. The development and application of new epidemiologic methods, particularly the improved characterization of population-wide exposure to mixtures of air pollutants and the improved design of ecologic studies, could improve our ability to measure accurately the magnitude of excess cancer related to air pollution.En los estudios epidemiológicos llevados a cabo durante los últimos 40 años se ha observado que la contaminación del aire en general, debida sobre todo a los residuos de la combustión incompleta de combustibles fósiles, se ha asociado a pequeños incrementos relativos de cáncer pulmonar. La evidencia procede de estudios sobre tendencias de cáncer del pulmón, de aquellos sobre grupos ocupacionales, de comparaciones entre poblaciones

  8. Integrated Approach Model of Risk, Control and Auditing of Accounting Information Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudiu BRANDAS

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of IT in the financial and accounting processes is growing fast and this leads to an increase in the research and professional concerns about the risks, control and audit of Ac-counting Information Systems (AIS. In this context, the risk and control of AIS approach is a central component of processes for IT audit, financial audit and IT Governance. Recent studies in the literature on the concepts of risk, control and auditing of AIS outline two approaches: (1 a professional approach in which we can fit ISA, COBIT, IT Risk, COSO and SOX, and (2 a research oriented approach in which we emphasize research on continuous auditing and fraud using information technology. Starting from the limits of existing approaches, our study is aimed to developing and testing an Integrated Approach Model of Risk, Control and Auditing of AIS on three cycles of business processes: purchases cycle, sales cycle and cash cycle in order to improve the efficiency of IT Governance, as well as ensuring integrity, reality, accuracy and availability of financial statements.

  9. Building a Values-Informed Mental Model for New Orleans Climate Risk Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bessette, Douglas L; Mayer, Lauren A; Cwik, Bryan; Vezér, Martin; Keller, Klaus; Lempert, Robert J; Tuana, Nancy

    2017-01-13

    Individuals use values to frame their beliefs and simplify their understanding when confronted with complex and uncertain situations. The high complexity and deep uncertainty involved in climate risk management (CRM) lead to individuals' values likely being coupled to and contributing to their understanding of specific climate risk factors and management strategies. Most mental model approaches, however, which are commonly used to inform our understanding of people's beliefs, ignore values. In response, we developed a "Values-informed Mental Model" research approach, or ViMM, to elicit individuals' values alongside their beliefs and determine which values people use to understand and assess specific climate risk factors and CRM strategies. Our results show that participants consistently used one of three values to frame their understanding of risk factors and CRM strategies in New Orleans: (1) fostering a healthy economy, wealth, and job creation, (2) protecting and promoting healthy ecosystems and biodiversity, and (3) preserving New Orleans' unique culture, traditions, and historically significant neighborhoods. While the first value frame is common in analyses of CRM strategies, the latter two are often ignored, despite their mirroring commonly accepted pillars of sustainability. Other values like distributive justice and fairness were prioritized differently depending on the risk factor or strategy being discussed. These results suggest that the ViMM method could be a critical first step in CRM decision-support processes and may encourage adoption of CRM strategies more in line with stakeholders' values.

  10. Information Assurance for Enterprise Resource Planning Systems: Risk Considerations in Public Sector Organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SHAHZAD NAEEM

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available ERP (Enterprise Resource Planning systems reveal and pose non-typical risks due to its dependencies of interlinked business operations and process reengineering. Understanding of such type of risks is significant conducting and planning assurance involvement of the reliability of these complicated computer systems. Specially, in case of distributed environment where data reside at multiple sites and risks are of unique nature. Until now, there are brief pragmatic grounds on this public sector ERP issue. To analyze this subject, a partially organized consultation study was carried out with 15 skilled information systems auditors who are specialists in evaluating ERP systems risks. This methodology permitted to get more elaborated information about stakeholder?s opinions and customer experiences. In addition, interviewees mentioned a numerous basic execution troubles (e.g. inadequately skilled human resource and insufficient process reengineering attempts that lead into enhanced hazards. It was also reported by the interviewees that currently risks vary across vendors and across applications. Eventually, in offering assurance with ERP systems participants irresistibly stresses examining the process instead of system end product.

  11. Risk and information evaluation of prioritized genes for complex traits: application to bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Chung-Feng; Chuang, Li-Chung; Kuo, Po-Hsiu

    2014-10-01

    Many susceptibility genes for complex traits were identified without conclusive findings. There is a strong need to integrate rapidly accumulated genomic data from multi-dimensional platforms, and to conduct risk evaluation for potential therapeutic and diagnostic usages. We set up an algorithm to computationally search for optimal weight-vector for various data sources, while minimized potential noises. Through gene-prioritization framework, combined scores for the resulting prioritized gene-set were calculated using a genome-wide association (GWA) dataset, following with evaluation using weighted genetic risk score and risk-attributed information using an independent GWA dataset. The significance of association of GWA data was corrected for gene length. Enriched functional pathways were identified for the prioritized gene-set using the Gene Ontology analysis. We illustrated our framework with bipolar disorder. 233 prioritized genes were identified from 10,830 candidates that curated from six platforms. The prioritized genes were significantly enriched (P(adjusted) evaluation demonstrated higher weighted genetic risk score in bipolar patients than controls (P-values ranged from 0.002 to 3.8 × 10(-6)). Substantial risk-information (71%) was extracted from prioritized genes for bipolar illness than other candidate-gene sets. Our evidence-based prioritized gene-set provides opportunity to explore the complex network and to conduct follow-up basic and clinical studies for complex traits.

  12. AIR POLLUTION AND CLIMATE CHANGE IN LAGOS, NIGERIA: NEEDS FOR PROACTIVE APPROACHES TO RISK MANAGEMENT AND ADAPTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akinola A. Komolafe

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The significance of air pollution as one of the contemporary issues and accelerating factors that propel climate change in both developed and developing countries cannot be overemphasized. The problem of air pollution has seemingly become intractable with the incessant failure of both global and local environmental policies purportedly emplaced to address its devastating trend, particularly in growing megacities of the world. The devastating effects of the phenomenon are more pronounced in megacities of developing countries than in developed ones. Lagos, as an industrialized, commercialized and an emerging megacity in Nigeria, has been subjected to several predictions of the negative impacts of changing climatic conditions partly caused by ubiquitous air pollution. Efforts at stemming the tide of the increasing challenges of air pollution worldwide has significantly been thwarted by inadequate funding, hence the need to review the literature on the environmental implications of growing air pollution, its contributions to climate change and its negative impacts on the lives and properties of teeming inhabitants of Lagos. A review like this will provide a synthesis of knowledge and information on mitigative and adaptive measures that can be adopted to minimize the impacts of air pollution on the mega city.This study utilizes consciously selected and current literatures on the subject matter and found that Lagos inhabitants have been vulnerable to virtually all forms of damaging effects of climate change majorly propelled by seemingly uncontrollable air pollution. This implies that the situation requires proactive measures, otherwise, avoidable loss of lives and large scale destruction of properties may be inevitable. The paper therefore advocates involvement of all stakeholders in both mitigation and adaptation measures to climate change through enhancement of indigenous knowledge and creation of awareness among citizens about the need to be

  13. Global ozone and air quality: a multi-model assessment of risks to human health and crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Ellingsen

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Within ACCENT, a European Network of Excellence, eighteen atmospheric models from the U.S., Europe, and Japan calculated present (2000 and future (2030 concentrations of ozone at the Earth's surface with hourly temporal resolution. Comparison of model results with surface ozone measurements in 14 world regions indicates that levels and seasonality of surface ozone in North America and Europe are characterized well by global models, with annual average biases typically within 5–10 nmol/mol. However, comparison with rather sparse observations over some regions suggest that most models overestimate annual ozone by 15–20 nmol/mol in some locations. Two scenarios from the International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA and one from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Special Report on Emissions Scenarios (IPCC SRES have been implemented in the models. This study focuses on changes in near-surface ozone and their effects on human health and vegetation. Different indices and air quality standards are used to characterise air quality. We show that often the calculated changes in the different indices are closely inter-related. Indices using lower thresholds are more consistent between the models, and are recommended for global model analysis. Our analysis indicates that currently about two-thirds of the regions considered do not meet health air quality standards, whereas only 2–4 regions remain below the threshold. Calculated air quality exceedances show moderate deterioration by 2030 if current emissions legislation is followed and slight improvements if current emissions reduction technology is used optimally. For the "business as usual" scenario severe air quality problems are predicted. We show that model simulations of air quality indices are particularly sensitive to how well ozone is represented, and improved accuracy is needed for future projections. Additional measurements are needed to allow a more quantitative

  14. Global ozone and air quality: a multi-model assessment of risks to human health and crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellingsen, K.; Gauss, M.; van Dingenen, R.; Dentener, F. J.; Emberson, L.; Fiore, A. M.; Schultz, M. G.; Stevenson, D. S.; Ashmore, M. R.; Atherton, C. S.; Bergmann, D. J.; Bey, I.; Butler, T.; Drevet, J.; Eskes, H.; Hauglustaine, D. A.; Isaksen, I. S. A.; Horowitz, L. W.; Krol, M.; Lamarque, J. F.; Lawrence, M. G.; van Noije, T.; Pyle, J.; Rast, S.; Rodriguez, J.; Savage, N.; Strahan, S.; Sudo, K.; Szopa, S.; Wild, O.

    2008-02-01

    Within ACCENT, a European Network of Excellence, eighteen atmospheric models from the U.S., Europe, and Japan calculated present (2000) and future (2030) concentrations of ozone at the Earth's surface with hourly temporal resolution. Comparison of model results with surface ozone measurements in 14 world regions indicates that levels and seasonality of surface ozone in North America and Europe are characterized well by global models, with annual average biases typically within 5-10 nmol/mol. However, comparison with rather sparse observations over some regions suggest that most models overestimate annual ozone by 15-20 nmol/mol in some locations. Two scenarios from the International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA) and one from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Special Report on Emissions Scenarios (IPCC SRES) have been implemented in the models. This study focuses on changes in near-surface ozone and their effects on human health and vegetation. Different indices and air quality standards are used to characterise air quality. We show that often the calculated changes in the different indices are closely inter-related. Indices using lower thresholds are more consistent between the models, and are recommended for global model analysis. Our analysis indicates that currently about two-thirds of the regions considered do not meet health air quality standards, whereas only 2-4 regions remain below the threshold. Calculated air quality exceedances show moderate deterioration by 2030 if current emissions legislation is followed and slight improvements if current emissions reduction technology is used optimally. For the "business as usual" scenario severe air quality problems are predicted. We show that model simulations of air quality indices are particularly sensitive to how well ozone is represented, and improved accuracy is needed for future projections. Additional measurements are needed to allow a more quantitative assessment of the risks to

  15. Accuracy and reliability of Chile's National Air Quality Information System for measuring particulate matter: Beta attenuation monitoring issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toro A, Richard; Campos, Claudia; Molina, Carolina; Morales S, Raul G E; Leiva-Guzmán, Manuel A

    2015-09-01

    A critical analysis of Chile's National Air Quality Information System (NAQIS) is presented, focusing on particulate matter (PM) measurement. This paper examines the complexity, availability and reliability of monitoring station information, the implementation of control systems, the quality assurance protocols of the monitoring station data and the reliability of the measurement systems in areas highly polluted by particulate matter. From information available on the NAQIS website, it is possible to confirm that the PM2.5 (PM10) data available on the site correspond to 30.8% (69.2%) of the total information available from the monitoring stations. There is a lack of information regarding the measurement systems used to quantify air pollutants, most of the available data registers contain gaps, almost all of the information is categorized as "preliminary information" and neither standard operating procedures (operational and validation) nor assurance audits or quality control of the measurements are reported. In contrast, events that cause saturation of the monitoring detectors located in northern and southern Chile have been observed using beta attenuation monitoring. In these cases, it can only be concluded that the PM content is equal to or greater than the saturation concentration registered by the monitors and that the air quality indexes obtained from these measurements are underestimated. This occurrence has been observed in 12 (20) public and private stations where PM2.5 (PM10) is measured. The shortcomings of the NAQIS data have important repercussions for the conclusions obtained from the data and for how the data are used. However, these issues represent opportunities for improving the system to widen its use, incorporate comparison protocols between equipment, install new stations and standardize the control system and quality assurance.

  16. The Credit-Risk Decision Mechanism on Fixed Loan Interest Rate with Imperfect Information

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, decision mechanism of credit-risk for banks is studied when the loan interest rate is fixed with asymmetry information in credit market. We give out the designs of rationing and non-rationing on credit risky decision mechanism when collateral value provided by an entrepreneur is not less than the minimum demands of the bank. It shows that under the action of the mechanism, banks could efficiently identify the risk size of the project. Finally, the condition of the project investigation of bank is given over again.

  17. Neural Responses to Truth Telling and Risk Propensity under Asymmetric Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Hideo; Misaki, Masaya; Krueger, Frank; Bodurka, Jerzy

    2015-01-01

    Trust is multi-dimensional because it can be characterized by subjective trust, trust antecedent, and behavioral trust. Previous research has investigated functional brain responses to subjective trust (e.g., a judgment of trustworthiness) or behavioral trust (e.g., decisions to trust) in perfect information, where all relevant information is available to all participants. In contrast, we conducted a novel examination of the patterns of functional brain activity to a trust antecedent, specifically truth telling, in asymmetric information, where one individual has more information than others, with the effect of varying risk propensity. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and recruited 13 adults, who played the Communication Game, where they served as the "Sender" and chose either truth telling (true advice) or lie telling (false advice) regarding the best payment allocation for their partner. Our behavioral results revealed that subjects with recreational high risk tended to choose true advice. Moreover, fMRI results yielded that the choices of true advice were associated with increased cortical activation in the anterior rostral medial and frontopolar prefrontal cortices, middle frontal cortex, temporoparietal junction, and precuneus. Furthermore, when we specifically evaluated a role of the bilateral amygdala as the region of interest (ROI), decreased amygdala response was associated with high risk propensity, regardless of truth telling or lying. In conclusion, our results have implications for how differential functions of the cortical areas may contribute to the neural processing of truth telling.

  18. MAVEN Information Security Governance, Risk Management, and Compliance (GRC): Lessons Learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takamura, Eduardo; Gomez-Rosa, Carlos A.; Mangum, Kevin; Wasiak, Fran

    2014-01-01

    As the first interplanetary mission managed by the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, the Mars Atmosphere and Volatile EvolutioN (MAVEN) had three IT security goals for its ground system: COMPLIANCE, (IT) RISK REDUCTION, and COST REDUCTION. In a multiorganizational environment in which government, industry and academia work together in support of the ground system and mission operations, information security governance, risk management, and compliance (GRC) becomes a challenge as each component of the ground system has and follows its own set of IT security requirements. These requirements are not necessarily the same or even similar to each other's, making the auditing of the ground system security a challenging feat. A combination of standards-based information security management based on the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Risk Management Framework (RMF), due diligence by the Mission's leadership, and effective collaboration among all elements of the ground system enabled MAVEN to successfully meet NASA's requirements for IT security, and therefore meet Federal Information Security Management Act (FISMA) mandate on the Agency. Throughout the implementation of GRC on MAVEN during the early stages of the mission development, the Project faced many challenges some of which have been identified in this paper. The purpose of this paper is to document these challenges, and provide a brief analysis of the lessons MAVEN learned. The historical information documented herein, derived from an internal pre-launch lessons learned analysis, can be used by current and future missions and organizations implementing and auditing GRC.

  19. Air pollution and survival within the Washington University-EPRI veterans cohort: risks based on modeled estimates of ambient levels of hazardous and criteria air pollutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipfert, Frederick W; Wyzga, Ronald E; Baty, Jack D; Miller, J Philip

    2009-04-01

    For this paper, we considered relationships between mortality, vehicular traffic density, and ambient levels of 12 hazardous air pollutants, elemental carbon (EC), oxides of nitrogen (NOx), sulfur dioxide (SO2), and sulfate (SO4(2-)). These pollutant species were selected as markers for specific types of emission sources, including vehicular traffic, coal combustion, smelters, and metal-working industries. Pollutant exposures were estimated using emissions inventories and atmospheric dispersion models. We analyzed associations between county ambient levels of these pollutants and survival patterns among approximately 70,000 U.S. male veterans by mortality period (1976-2001 and subsets), type of exposure model, and traffic density level. We found significant associations between all-cause mortality and traffic-related air quality indicators and with traffic density per se, with stronger associations for benzene, formaldehyde, diesel particulate, NOx, and EC. The maximum effect on mortality for all cohort subjects during the 26-yr follow-up period is approximately 10%, but most of the pollution-related deaths in this cohort occurred in the higher-traffic counties, where excess risks approach 20%. However, mortality associations with diesel particulates are similar in high- and low-traffic counties. Sensitivity analyses show risks decreasing slightly over time and minor differences between linear and logarithmic exposure models. Two-pollutant models show stronger risks associated with specific traffic-related pollutants than with traffic density per se, although traffic density retains statistical significance in most cases. We conclude that tailpipe emissions of both gases and particles are among the most significant and robust predictors of mortality in this cohort and that most of those associations have weakened over time. However, we have not evaluated possible contributions from road dust or traffic noise. Stratification by traffic density level suggests the

  20. Risk of Incident Mental Health Conditions Among Critical Care Air Transport (CCATT) Team Members

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-27

    disorder , 300.0 for anxiety, 300.2 for phobias, 300.3 for obsessive compulsive disorder , 300.4 for neurotic depression, 308 for acute reaction to stress...Andrews B, Valentine JD. Meta-analysis of risk factors for posttraumatic stress disorder in trauma-exposed adults. J Consult Clin Psychol 2000;68:748-66...PTSD, and depressive disorder not elsewhere classified. Females were at marginally increased risk and nurses and technicians were at twice the risk of

  1. Development and deployment of AQUIS: A PC-based emission inventory calculator and air information management system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, A.E.; Tschanz, J.; Monarch, M.; Narducci, P.; Bormet, S.

    1995-06-01

    The Air Quality Utility Information System (AQUIS) is a database management system. AQUIS assists users in calculation emissions, both traditional and toxic, and tracking and reporting emissions and source information. With some facilities having over 1200 sources and AQUIS calculating as many as 125 pollutants for a single source, tracking and correlating this information involve considerable effort. Originally designed for use at seven facilities of the Air Force Material Command, the user community has expanded to over 50 facilities since last reported at the 1993 Air and Waste Management Association (AWMA) annual meeting. This expansion in the user community has provided an opportunity to test the system under expanded operating conditions and in applications not anticipated during original system design. User feedback is used to determine needed enhancements and features and to prioritize the content of new releases. In responding to evolving user needs and new emission calculation procedures, it has been necessary to reconfigure AQUIS several times. Reconfigurations have ranged from simple to complex. These changes have necessitated augmenting quality assurance (QA) and validation procedures.

  2. Concentrations and potential health risks of methyl tertiary-butyl ether (MTBE) in air and drinking water from Nanning, South China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li'e; Qin, Jian; Zhang, Zhiyong; Li, Qin; Huang, Jiongli; Peng, Xiaowu; Qing, Li; Liang, Guiqiang; Liang, Linhan; Huang, Yuman; Yang, Xiaobo; Zou, Yunfeng

    2016-01-15

    Levels of methyl tertiary-butyl ether (MTBE) in occupational air, ambient air, and drinking water in Nanning, South China, were investigated, and then their potential health risks to occupational workers and the general public were evaluated. Results show that the MTBE concentration in occupational air from 13 service stations was significantly higher than that in ambient air from residential areas (pwater samples from household taps yielded detectable MTBE in the range of 0.04-0.33 μg/L, which is below the US drinking water standard of 20-40 μg/L. The non-carcinogenic risk of MTBE from air inhalation may be negligible because the calculated hazard quotient was less than 1. The mean MTBE lifetime cancer risk was within the acceptable limit of 1 × 10(-6) to 1 × 10(-4), but the lifetime cancer risk of refueling workers in the urban service station at the 95th percentile slightly exceeded the maximum acceptable carcinogen risk (1 × 10(-4)), indicating the potential carcinogenic health effects on the population highly exposed to MTBE in this region. The hazard index and carcinogenic risk of MTBE in drinking water were significantly lower than the safe limit of US Environmental Protection Agency, suggesting that drinking water unlikely poses significant health risks to the residents in Nanning.

  3. The discursive construction of risk and trust in patient information leaflets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fage-Butler, Antoinette Mary

    2011-01-01

    There is wide recognition that the communication of risk in Patient Information Leaflets (PILs) - the instructions that accompany medications in Europe - problematises the reception of these texts. There is at the same time growing understanding of the mediating role of trust in risk communication....... This paper aims to analyse how risk is discursively constructed in PILs, and to identify and analyse discourses that are associated with trust-generation. The corpus (nine PILs chosen from the British online PIL bank, www.medicines.org.uk) is analysed using Foucauldian (1972) discourse analysis: specifically......), and a third discourse, corporate accountability, which functions to construct an ethical (trustworthy) identity for the company. The paper contributes to PIL literature in the following ways: it introduces a methodology that has not been used before in relation to these texts, namely, Foucauldian discourse...

  4. Nutritional Solutions to Reduce Risks of Negative Health Impacts of Air Pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Péter, Szabolcs; Holguin, Fernando; Wood, Lisa G; Clougherty, Jane E; Raederstorff, Daniel; Antal, Magda; Weber, Peter; Eggersdorfer, Manfred

    2015-12-10

    Air pollution worldwide has been associated with cardiovascular and respiratory morbidity and mortality, particularly in urban settings with elevated concentrations of primary pollutants. Air pollution is a very complex mixture of primary and secondary gases and particles, and its potential to cause harm can depend on multiple factors-including physical and chemical characteristics of pollutants, which varies with fine-scale location (e.g., by proximity to local emission sources)-as well as local meteorology, topography, and population susceptibility. It has been hypothesized that the intake of anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory nutrients may ameliorate various respiratory and cardiovascular effects of air pollution through reductions in oxidative stress and inflammation. To date, several studies have suggested that some harmful effects of air pollution may be modified by intake of essential micronutrients (such as B vitamins, and vitamins C, D, and E) and long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids. Here, we review the existing literature related to the potential for nutrition to modify the health impacts of air pollution, and offer a framework for examining these interactions.

  5. Nutritional Solutions to Reduce Risks of Negative Health Impacts of Air Pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szabolcs Péter

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Air pollution worldwide has been associated with cardiovascular and respiratory morbidity and mortality, particularly in urban settings with elevated concentrations of primary pollutants. Air pollution is a very complex mixture of primary and secondary gases and particles, and its potential to cause harm can depend on multiple factors—including physical and chemical characteristics of pollutants, which varies with fine-scale location (e.g., by proximity to local emission sources—as well as local meteorology, topography, and population susceptibility. It has been hypothesized that the intake of anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory nutrients may ameliorate various respiratory and cardiovascular effects of air pollution through reductions in oxidative stress and inflammation. To date, several studies have suggested that some harmful effects of air pollution may be modified by intake of essential micronutrients (such as B vitamins, and vitamins C, D, and E and long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids. Here, we review the existing literature related to the potential for nutrition to modify the health impacts of air pollution, and offer a framework for examining these interactions.

  6. A robust impact assessment that informs actionable climate change adaptation: future sunburn browning risk in apple

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Leanne; Darbyshire, Rebecca; Erwin, Tim; Goodwin, Ian

    2016-11-01

    Climate change impact assessments are predominantly undertaken for the purpose of informing future adaptation decisions. Often, the complexity of the methodology hinders the actionable outcomes. The approach used here illustrates the importance of considering uncertainty in future climate projections, at the same time providing robust and simple to interpret information for decision-makers. By quantifying current and future exposure of Royal Gala apple to damaging temperature extremes across ten important pome fruit-growing locations in Australia, differences in impact to ripening fruit are highlighted, with, by the end of the twenty-first century, some locations maintaining no sunburn browning risk, while others potentially experiencing the risk for the majority of the January ripening period. Installation of over-tree netting can reduce the impact of sunburn browning. The benefits from employing this management option varied across the ten study locations. The two approaches explored to assist decision-makers assess this information (a) using sunburn browning risk analogues and (b) through identifying hypothetical sunburn browning risk thresholds, resulted in varying recommendations for introducing over-tree netting. These recommendations were location and future time period dependent with some sites showing no benefit for sunburn protection from nets even by the end of the twenty-first century and others already deriving benefits from employing this adaptation option. Potential best and worst cases of sunburn browning risk and its potential reduction through introduction of over-tree nets were explored. The range of results presented highlights the importance of addressing uncertainty in climate projections that result from different global climate models and possible future emission pathways.

  7. Risk information in support of cost estimates for the Baseline Environmental Management Report (BEMR). Section 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gelston, G.M.; Jarvis, M.F.; Warren, B.R. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Von Berg, R. [ICF Kaiser Engineers, Inc., Oakland, CA (United States)

    1995-06-01

    The Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL)(1) effort on the overall Baseline Environmental Management Report (BEMR) project consists of four installation-specific work components performed in succession. These components include (1) development of source terms, 92) collection of data and preparation of environmental settings reports, (3) calculation of unit risk factors, and (4) utilization of the unit risk factors in Automated Remedial Action Methodology (ARAM) for computation of target concentrations and cost estimates. This report documents work completed for the Nevada Test Site, Nevada, for components 2 and 3. The product of this phase of the BEMR project is the development of unit factors (i.e., unit transport factors, unit exposure factors, and unit risk factors). Thousands of these unit factors are gene rated and fill approximately one megabyte of computer information per installation. The final unit risk factors (URF) are transmitted electronically to BEMR-Cost task personnel as input to a computer program (ARAM). Abstracted files and exhibits of the URF information are included in this report. These visual formats are intended to provide a sample of the final task deliverable (the URF files) which can be easily read without a computer.

  8. Occupational Risks Associated with Solid Waste Management in the Informal Sector of Gweru, Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerie, Steven

    2016-01-01

    This study identifies and analyses the occupational risks associated with solid waste management practices in the informal enterprises of Gweru. Many concerns have been raised about the potential harm from waste to the environment and the general public, but the risks and consequent costs of occupational hazards in waste management have received little attention in the rush to adopt or adapt technologies such as composting. A multimethods research design that triangulates qualitative and quantitative research paradigms is employed in this study. The quantitative design involves physical characterisation of solid waste through material component separation and measurements as well as a questionnaire survey that investigates the risks associated with waste management. The qualitative component includes interviews, open-ended questionnaires, and field observations. Occupational risks occur at every stage in the waste management process, from the point where workers handle waste in the enterprises for collection or recycling to the point of ultimate disposal. Key findings from the study revealed that solid waste management practices are dominated by manual handling tasks hence the higher incidents of muscular-skeletal disorders. Other safety and health hazards associated with waste management in the informal enterprises of Gweru include incidents of diarrhoea, viral hepatitis, and higher incidents of obstructive and restrictive disorders.

  9. How information resources are used by federal agencies in risk assessment application: Rapporteur summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fenner-Crisp, P. [Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC (United States)

    1990-12-31

    The application of information available for risk assessment from the federal perspective is described. Different federal agencies conduct varying degrees of hazard evaluation, and some also generate empirical data. The role of the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry in hazard assessments of potential public health impacts of Superfund sites includes identification of the 275 most significant substances. ATSDR is responsible for preparing toxicological profiles. ATSDR also identifies data gaps and needs critical to adequately assessing human health impacts.

  10. New information on decabromodiphenyl ether and how it changes our interpretations of risk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hays, S.; Pleus, R. [Intertox, Seattle, WA (United States); Belzer, R. [Regulatory Checkbook, Mt. Vernon, OH (United States)

    2004-09-15

    Decabromodiphenyl ether (DBDPE), the most highly brominated of the polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDPEs), is the most widely used brominated flame retardant in the United States. It is used predominantly in hard plastic electronic consumer products and in flame-retarded backing on textiles for furniture. Several U.S. and international organizations have formally evaluated the human health and environmental risks associated with the use of the major BFRs for consumer applications and for DBDPE specifically. These risk assessments have found DBDPE to be safe in its' current use. Most recently, DBDPE underwent an evaluation under the Voluntary Children's Chemical Evaluation Program (VCCEP) and was found to pose negligible health risks for children and is currently undergoing a formal risk assessment within the European Union. Most of these risk assessments have had to rely on extrapolations to estimate exposures among the general population. Most uncertain has been the indirect methods that have had to be used to estimate infants' exposures via potential presence in breast milk. However, newly published data on levels of DBDPE in human milk volunteers in the U.S. provide a better means for calculating infants' exposures. This new data is used to put the previously conducted DBDPE VCCEP risk assessment in perspective and to help assess whether a different conclusion about risks is warranted, what new data gaps and data needs warrant further attention, and some conclusions about risks and benefits of DBDPE and how these new findings change the balance between risks and benefits of the use of DBDPE to protect consumer products. In the VCCEP risk assessment, children's potential exposures to DBDPE from all sources (including electronics, upholstery, breast milk, and the general environment) were characterized using data from published literature, agency reports, and information from manufacturers. An extensive literature search had indicated

  11. Information systems in a changing climate: Early warnings and drought risk management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger S. Pulwarty

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Drought is among the most damaging, and least understood, of all “natural” hazards. Although some droughts last a single season and affect only small areas, the instrumental and paleoclimate records show that droughts have sometimes continued for decades and have impacted millions of square kilometers in North America, West Africa, and East Asia. To cross the spectrum of potential drivers and impacts, drought information systems have multiple sub-systems which include an integrated risk assessment, communication and decision support system of which early warning is a central component and output. An early warning system is much more than a forecast – it is a linked risk information (including people׳s perception of risk and communication system that actively engages communities involved in preparedness. There are numerous drought systems warning systems being implemented at different scales of governance. We draw on the lessons of over 21 drought early warning systems around the world, in both developing and developed countries and at regional, national and community levels. The successes illustrate that effective early warning depends upon a multi-sectoral and interdisciplinary collaboration among all concerned actors at each stage in the warning process from monitoring to response and evaluation. However, the links between the community-based approach and the national and global EWSs are relatively weak. Using the rich experience of information systems across the globe, this paper identifies pathways for knowledge management and action at the relevant scales for decision-making in response to a changing climate.

  12. Informal Control by Family and Risk Markers for Alcohol Abuse/Dependence in Seoul.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emery, Clifton R; Wu, Shali; Yang, Hyerin; Lee, Hotaek; Kim, Junpyo; Chan, Ko Ling

    2016-05-08

    Although previous research documents a reliable relationship between physical intimate partner violence (IPV) victimization and alcoholism, relatively little research has examined new theoretical constructs in IPV research that may increase risk for or help buffer women from alcohol abuse/dependence. The purpose of the present study was to examine informal social control of IPV by family members as a protective factor against and coercive control as a risk factor for alcohol abuse/dependence in a small population sample of married women in Seoul, South Korea. We hypothesized that (a) informal social control by family members would be negatively associated with victim alcohol abuse/dependence and (b) husband's coercive control would be positively associated with victim alcohol abuse/dependence. We measured alcohol abuse/dependence (CAGE scale), IPV and coercive control by husbands, and informal social control of IPV (ISC_IPV) by extended family members in a three-stage random cluster sample of 462 married women in Seoul, South Korea. Both random effects regression and zero-inflated Poisson regression models found that ISC_IPV by extended family members was associated with a significantly lower CAGE scores, and coercive control was associated with significantly higher CAGE scores. Interventions to boost ISC_IPV by extended family members may mitigate some of the risk of alcohol abuse/dependence by victims.

  13. [Representations of informal jobs and health risks among housemaids and construction workers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iriart, Jorge Alberto Bernstein; de Oliveira, Roberval Passos; Xavier, Shirlei da Silva; Costa, Alane Mendara da Silva; de Araújo, Gustavo Ribeiro; Santana, Vilma Sousa

    2008-01-01

    During the past few decades, the Brazilian labor market has been characterized by an increase of unregistered workers, earning lower wages, not covered by social insurance or occupational risk prevention programs. This study describes the representations and perceptions about informal work contracts and job-related health risks, analyzed in a group of injured unregistered workers. This was a qualitative study based on in-depth interviews carried out with seventeen laborers, nine housemaids and eight construction workers. The findings indicate that workers recognize the importance of formal jobs, mainly because of legal guarantees of labor rights, mentioning the symbolic downgrading of informal jobs that undermines their self-esteem. Both work groups tended to minimize occupational health risks in the work environment, and did not recognize associations between informal job contracts and occupational accidents or diseases. It was clear that workers want to have job contracts. The findings of the study demonstrate the need for broader dissemination and discussion about labor rights and the construction of public policies that encompass health and safety programs for these workers.

  14. Dusty Air Pollution is Associated with an Increased Risk of Allergic Diseases in Southwestern Part of Iran.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Kazzem Gheybi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Concerns have been raised about the adverse impact of dusty air pollution (DAP on human health. The aim of this study was to find the association between dusty air pollution based on air quality index (AQI and the risk of allergic diseases in southwestern provinces of Iran, with assessing cytokine profiles and lymphocyte immunophenotypes.In this case control study 148 individuals participated. The sampling was done in hazardous condition (AQI>300 as the case and clean air (AQI<50 as the control. We measured cytokine production by using ELISA method and phenotypes of T-lymphocytes (CD4+ and CD8+, CD19+ B-lymphocytes, CD25+, CD4+ CD25+ cells by FACSort flow cytometer.The mean serum level of IL-4 (33.4 ± 2.9 vs 0.85 ± 0.65 pg/dl and IL-13 (15.1 ± 4.4 vs. 0.12 ± 0.7 pg/dl in the subjects exposed to ambient DAP was increased significantly compared to the individuals in the clean air condition. Also, CD19+ B-lymphocytes (12.6 ± 4.9 vs 8.9 ± 3.2% and CD4+ CD25+ cell count (13.6 ± 4.6 vs 7.7 ± 3.8% in peripheral blood were increased significantly in subjects exposed to ambient DAP compared with the controls.The result of our study suggested that ambient DAP affected immune system in a way that might lead to allergic diseases in the population.

  15. Impact analysis of traffic-related air pollution based on real-time traffic and basic meteorological information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Long; Yao, Enjian; Yang, Yang

    2016-12-01

    With the rapid development of urbanization and motorization in China, traffic-related air pollution has become a major component of air pollution which constantly jeopardizes public health. This study proposes an integrated framework for estimating the concentration of traffic-related air pollution with real-time traffic and basic meteorological information and also for further evaluating the impact of traffic-related air pollution. First, based on the vehicle emission factor models sensitive to traffic status, traffic emissions are calculated according to the real-time link-based average traffic speed, traffic volume, and vehicular fleet composition. Then, based on differences in meteorological conditions, traffic pollution sources are divided into line sources and point sources, and the corresponding methods to determine the dynamic affecting areas are also proposed. Subsequently, with basic meteorological data, Gaussian dispersion model and puff integration model are applied respectively to estimate the concentration of traffic-related air pollution. Finally, the proposed estimating framework is applied to calculate the distribution of CO concentration in the main area of Beijing, and the population exposure is also calculated to evaluate the impact of traffic-related air pollution on public health. Results show that there is a certain correlation between traffic indicators (i.e., traffic speed and traffic intensity) of the affecting area and traffic-related CO concentration of the target grid, which indicates the methods to determine the affecting areas are reliable. Furthermore, the reliability of the proposed estimating framework is verified by comparing the predicted and the observed ambient CO concentration. In addition, results also show that the traffic-related CO concentration is higher in morning and evening peak hours, and has a heavier impact on public health within the Fourth Ring Road of Beijing due to higher population density and higher CO

  16. Information about radiation dose and risks in connection with radiological examinations: what patients would like to know

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ukkola, Leila; Oikarinen, Heljae; Haapea, Marianne; Tervonen, Osmo [Oulu University Hospital, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, POB 50, Oulu (Finland); Henner, Anja; Honkanen, Hilkka [Oulu University of Applied Sciences, Oulu (Finland)

    2016-02-15

    To find out patients' wishes for the content and sources of the information concerning radiological procedures. A questionnaire providing quantitative and qualitative data was prepared. It comprised general information, dose and risks of radiation, and source of information. Two tables demonstrating different options to indicate the dose or risks were also provided. Patients could give one or many votes. Altogether, 147 patients (18-85 years) were interviewed after different radiological examinations using these devices. 95 % (139/147) of the patients wished for dose and risk information. Symbols (78/182 votes) and verbal scale (56/182) were preferred to reveal the dose, while verbal (83/164) and numerical scale (55/164) on the risk of fatal cancer were preferred to indicate the risks. Wishes concerning the course, options and purpose of the examination were also expressed. Prescriber (3.9 on a scale 1-5), information letter (3.8) and radiographer (3.3) were the preferred sources. Patients aged 66-85 years were reluctant to choose electronic channels. Apart from general information, patients wish for dose and risk information in connection with radiological examinations. The majority preferred symbols to indicate dose and verbal scales to indicate risks, and the preferred source of information was the prescriber or information letter. (orig.)

  17. Towards a framework for teaching about information technology risk in health care: Simulating threats to health data and patient safety

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    In this paper the author describes work towards developing an integrative framework for educating health information technology professionals about technology risk. The framework considers multiple sources of risk to health data quality and integrity that can result from the use of health information technology (HIT) and can be used to teach health professional students about these risks when using health technologies. This framework encompasses issues and problems that may arise from varied ...

  18. Analysis of indoor air pollutants checklist using environmetric technique for health risk assessment of sick building complaint in nonindustrial workplace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syazwan AI

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available AI Syazwan,1 B Mohd Rafee,1 Hafizan Juahir,2 AZF Azman,1 AM Nizar,3 Z Izwyn,4 K Syahidatussyakirah,1 AA Muhaimin,5 MA Syafiq Yunos,6 AR Anita,1 J Muhamad Hanafiah,1 MS Shaharuddin,7 A Mohd Ibthisham,8 I Mohd Hasmadi,9 MN Mohamad Azhar,1 HS Azizan,1 I Zulfadhli,10 J Othman,11 M Rozalini,12 FT Kamarul131Department of Community Health, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Selangor, 2Department of Environmental Science/ Environmental Forensics Research Center (ENFORCE, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Selangor, 3Pharmacology Unit, Department of Human Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor, 4Department of Therapy and Rehabilitation, Faculty of Health Science and Biomedical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Johor, 5Department of Environmental Management, Faculty of Environmental Studies, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Selangor, 6Plant Assessment Technology (PAT, Industrial Technology Division, Malaysian Nuclear Agency, Bangi, 7Department of Environmental and Occupational Health Science, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Selangor, 8Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Johor, 9Department of Forest Production, Faculty of Forestry, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Selangor, 10Faculty of Built Environment and Architect, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Johor, 11Department of Counselor Education and Psychology Counseling, Faculty of Educational Studies, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Selangor, 12Occupational Safety, Health and Environment Unit, Multimedia University, Jalan Multimedia 63100 Cyberjaya, Selangor, 13ERALAB SDN. BHD. (Environmental Research and Analytical Laboratory Sdn. Bhd., Selangor, MALAYSIAPurpose: To analyze and characterize a multidisciplinary, integrated indoor air quality checklist for evaluating the health risk of building occupants in a nonindustrial

  19. Harnessing the Risk-Related Data Supply Chain: An Information Architecture Approach to Enriching Human System Research and Operations Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buquo, Lynn; Johnson-Throop, Kathy

    2010-01-01

    NASA's Human Research Program (HRP) and Space Life Sciences Directorate (SLSD), not unlike many NASA organizations today, struggle with the inherent inefficiencies caused by dependencies on heterogeneous data systems and silos of data and information spread across decentralized discipline domains. The capture of operational and research-based data/information (both in-flight and ground-based) in disparate IT systems impedes the extent to which that data/information can be efficiently and securely shared, analyzed, and enriched into knowledge that directly and more rapidly supports HRP's research-focused human system risk mitigation efforts and SLSD s operationally oriented risk management efforts. As a result, an integrated effort is underway to more fully understand and document how specific sets of risk-related data/information are generated and used and in what IT systems that data/information currently resides. By mapping the risk-related data flow from raw data to useable information and knowledge (think of it as the data supply chain), HRP and SLSD are building an information architecture plan to leverage their existing, shared IT infrastructure. In addition, it is important to create a centralized structured tool to represent risks including attributes such as likelihood, consequence, contributing factors, and the evidence supporting the information in all these fields. Representing the risks in this way enables reasoning about the risks, e.g. revisiting a risk assessment when a mitigation strategy is unavailable, updating a risk assessment when new information becomes available, etc. Such a system also provides a concise way to communicate the risks both within the organization as well as with collaborators. Understanding and, hence, harnessing the human system risk-related data supply chain enhances both organizations' abilities to securely collect, integrate, and share data assets that improve human system research and operations.

  20. Landslide hazard and risk assessment for Ambon city using landslide inventory and geographic information system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souisa, Matheus; Hendrajaya, Lilik; Handayani, Gunawan

    2016-08-01

    Ambon Island is a volcanic islands arc and included in the territory of the archipelago of small islands are associated with subduction zones that have a degree of high vulnerability to natural disasters, such as erosion and landslides on the slopes of certain conditions. Landslides that occur various in the city of Ambon, usually occurs during the rainy season so that the impacts that occur not only occurs on site but also off site with amount of large sedimentation. This paper presents the application of digital image analysis techniques and tools Geographic Information Systems to describe the degree of landslide hazard and risk areas in locations Ambon City, Moluccas. The cause of the landslide is analyzed through various thematic layers attribute data for the study area. Landslide hazard zonation assessment is done by using historical data, while the landslide risk analysis is done by using the results of landslide hazard assessment and socioeconomic factors by using geospatial models. The risk assessment of landslides can be used to estimate the risk to the population, property and infrastructure. The study results in the form of a map of landslide hazard and the risk of landslides that act to support urban spatial planning based on disaster mitigation.

  1. Information Technology Role in Reducing E-Banking Services Risk in Jordanian Banking Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Y. Areiqat

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: This study aims to highlight the role of information technology in reducing risk of electronic banking services in the Jordanian banking sector. The study was conducted on three banks as a sample representative of the Jordanian banking sector. Approach: Data collection was through conducting personal interviews with the operations managers in the three banks (HBTF, JC Bank and Audi Bank. Results: The results showed that Jordanian banks showed highest attention toward risk management of e-banking, through their commitment to Basel Standards on risk management. Conclusion: Through the study, it will be clear that Jordanian banks committed to the standards of the Basel committee on safety and security of electronic banking services. These banks take into account all the potential risks before applying any system of electronic services. It is irrefutable evidence on the banks of Jordan keenness on protecting themselves and their customers from risk of theft through electronic means, the banks included their websites with detailed instructions to ensure that no customer fall prey to hackers.

  2. A genetic signature of spina bifida risk from pathway-informed comprehensive gene-variant analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas J Marini

    Full Text Available Despite compelling epidemiological evidence that folic acid supplements reduce the frequency of neural tube defects (NTDs in newborns, common variant association studies with folate metabolism genes have failed to explain the majority of NTD risk. The contribution of rare alleles as well as genetic interactions within the folate pathway have not been extensively studied in the context of NTDs. Thus, we sequenced the exons in 31 folate-related genes in a 480-member NTD case-control population to identify the full spectrum of allelic variation and determine whether rare alleles or obvious genetic interactions within this pathway affect NTD risk. We constructed a pathway model, predetermined independent of the data, which grouped genes into coherent sets reflecting the distinct metabolic compartments in the folate/one-carbon pathway (purine synthesis, pyrimidine synthesis, and homocysteine recycling to methionine. By integrating multiple variants based on these groupings, we uncovered two provocative, complex genetic risk signatures. Interestingly, these signatures differed by race/ethnicity: a Hispanic risk profile pointed to alterations in purine biosynthesis, whereas that in non-Hispanic whites implicated homocysteine metabolism. In contrast, parallel analyses that focused on individual alleles, or individual genes, as the units by which to assign risk revealed no compelling associations. These results suggest that the ability to layer pathway relationships onto clinical variant data can be uniquely informative for identifying genetic risk as well as for generating mechanistic hypotheses. Furthermore, the identification of ethnic-specific risk signatures for spina bifida resonated with epidemiological data suggesting that the underlying pathogenesis may differ between Hispanic and non-Hispanic groups.

  3. Particulate air pollution, coronary heart disease and individual risk assessment: a general overview

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Hassing; M. Twickler; B. Brunekreef; F. Cassee; P. Doevendans; J. Kastelein; M.J. Cramer

    2009-01-01

    Both long-term and short-term exposure to air pollution is associated with a marked increase in cardiovascular morbidity and mortality because of the coronary syndrome and its complications. The exact molecular mechanism that is responsible for these acute and chronic effects is not elucidated yet.

  4. Central Heat and Power Plant Coal Dust and Silica Risk Management, Eielson Air Force Base, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-11

    autoimmune diseases and in death from other nonmalignant respiratory diseases , including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease . There are some... Occupational Safety and Health Administration Occupational Exposure to Respirable Crystalline Silica; Proposed Rule. This consultative letter is in...strategies, occupational and environmental exposure limits, and air sampling methods as they apply to CHPP operations. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Silica

  5. Air travel as a risk factor for introduction of measles in a highly vaccinated population.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Binnendijk, R.S. van; Hahne, S.; Timen, A.; Kempen, G. van; Kohl, R.H.; Boot, H.J.; Wolthers, K.C.; Wetsteijn, J.C.F.M.; Vries, A. de; Westert, K.; Brown, K.E.; Swart, R.L. de

    2008-01-01

    Epidemiological and molecular investigation of two small measles clusters in The Netherlands in July/August 2007 revealed an association with travel by air of the index cases and nosocomial spread in the first cluster. Although these importations did not result in an outbreak among unvaccinated subj

  6. Cross-Cultural Perspectives of Service Quality and Risk in Air Transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Lawrence F.; Young, Clifford E.; Lee, Moonkyu

    2002-01-01

    This study compares US and Korean customers in terms of their perceptions of airline service quality based on SERVPERF and industry-based measures, as well as their perceptions of risks involved in the airline choice. SERVPERF is a set of multi-dimensional measures of customer evaluations of service quality. The results indicate that: (1) US passengers are generally more satisfied with their airline service than Korean customers on most of the SERVPERF dimensions; (2) Koreans are generally more satisfied with the bumping procedures whereas US participants feel more satisfied with the airline's baggage handling, operations/safety, and connections; and (3) US participants perceive higher levels of performance and financial risks whereas Koreans feel greater social risk in choosing an airline. This study also examines the SERVPERF, industry-based measure, and perceived risk in predicting customer satisfaction with, and intention to repatronize the airline. The results suggest that US customers consider service reliability, in-flight comfort, and connections as the key factors determining satisfaction with airline service whereas Korean passengers generally regard reliability, assurance, and risk factors as predictors of satisfaction. The determining factors of customer intention to repatronize the airline are reliability and empathy for US, and reliability and overall risk for Korean customers. The study demonstrates the applicability of SERVPERF as a cross-cultural tool and indicates the importance of perceived risk in cross-cultural studies.

  7. What physicians think about the need for informed consent for communicating the risk of cancer from low-dose radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karsli, Tijen [Children' s Healthcare of Atlanta, Atlanta, GA (United States); University of Tennessee, Pediatric Intensive Care, Memphis, TN (United States); Kalra, Mannudeep K. [Children' s Healthcare of Atlanta, Department of Radiology, Atlanta, GA (United States); Massachusetts General Hospital, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); Self, Julie L.; Rosenfeld, Jason Anders; Butler, Susan [Emory University, Department of Behavioral Sciences and Health Education, Atlanta, GA (United States); Simoneaux, Stephen [Children' s Healthcare of Atlanta, Department of Radiology, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    2009-09-15

    The National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, a subsidiary of the Food and Drug Administration, has declared that X-ray radiation at low doses is a human carcinogen. The purpose of our study was to determine if informed consent should be obtained for communicating the risk of radiation-induced cancer from radiation-based imaging. Institutional review board approval was obtained for the prospective survey of 456 physicians affiliated with three tertiary hospitals by means of a written questionnaire. Physicians were asked to state their subspecialty, number of years in practice, frequency of referral for CT scanning, level of awareness about the risk of radiation-induced cancer associated with CT, knowledge of whether such information is provided to patients undergoing CT, and opinions about the need for obtaining informed consent as well as who should provide information about the radiation-induced cancer risk to patients. Physicians were also asked to specify their preference among different formats of informed consent for communicating the potential risk of radiation-induced cancer. Statistical analyses were performed using the chi-squared test. Most physicians stated that informed consent should be obtained from patients undergoing radiation-based imaging (71.3%, 325/456) and the radiology department should provide information about the risk of radiation-induced cancer to these patients (54.6%, 249/456). The informed consent format that most physicians agreed with included modifications to the National Institute of Environmental Health Services report on cancer risk from low-dose radiation (20.2%, 92/456) or included information on the risk of cancer from background radiation compared to that from low-dose radiation (39.5%, 180/456). Most physicians do not know if patients are informed about cancer risk from radiation-based imaging in their institutions. However, they believe that informed consent for communicating the risk of radiation-induced cancer

  8. 30 CFR 250.249 - What air emissions information must accompany the DPP or DOCD?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... when applicable, nitrogen oxides (NOX), carbon monoxide (CO), and volatile organic compounds (VOC) that....303(d). When MMS requires air quality modeling, you must use the guidelines in Appendix W of 40 CFR... data consistent with the model(s) used. (f) Modeling report. A modeling report or the modeling...

  9. Advanced Crash Survivable Flight Data Recorder And Accident Information Retrieval System (AIRS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-08-01

    95 31 NARROW-BAND CONDUCTED EMISSIONS ON THE AIRS 24 VDC POWER RETURN (CE04 TESI ) ......................... 96 32 BROAD-BAND...three layers of vulcanized synthetic rubber containing an intumescent ceramic material and includes a wire mesh reinforcement between the outermost

  10. Chronic exposure to air pollution particles increases the risk of obesity and metabolic syndrome: findings from a natural experiment in Beijing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yongjie; Zhang, Junfeng Jim; Li, Zhigang; Gow, Andrew; Chung, Kian Fan; Hu, Min; Sun, Zhongsheng; Zeng, Limin; Zhu, Tong; Jia, Guang; Li, Xiaoqian; Duarte, Marlyn; Tang, Xiaoyan

    2016-06-01

    Epidemiologic evidence suggests that air pollution is a risk factor for childhood obesity. Limited experimental data have shown that early-life exposure to ambient particles either increases susceptibility to diet-induced weight gain in adulthood or increases insulin resistance, adiposity, and inflammation. However, no data have directly supported a link between air pollution and non-diet-induced weight increases. In a rodent model, we found that breathing Beijing's highly polluted air resulted in weight gain and cardiorespiratory and metabolic dysfunction. Compared to those exposed to filtered air, pregnant rats exposed to unfiltered Beijing air were significantly heavier at the end of pregnancy. At 8 wk old, the offspring prenatally and postnatally exposed to unfiltered air were significantly heavier than those exposed to filtered air. In both rat dams and their offspring, after continuous exposure to unfiltered air we observed pronounced histologic evidence for both perivascular and peribronchial inflammation in the lungs, increased tissue and systemic oxidative stress, dyslipidemia, and an enhanced proinflammatory status of epididymal fat. Results suggest that TLR2/4-dependent inflammatory activation and lipid oxidation in the lung can spill over systemically, leading to metabolic dysfunction and weight gain.-Wei, Y., Zhang, J., Li, Z., Gow, A., Chung, K. F., Hu, M., Sun, Z., Zeng, L., Zhu, T., Jia, G., Li, X., Duarte, M., Tang, X. Chronic exposure to air pollution particles increases the risk of obesity and metabolic syndrome: findings from a natural experiment in Beijing.

  11. Clean Air Act: Confidential business information security manual (revised). Procedures manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toomer, M.W.

    1998-08-01

    The procedures in this manual provide Federal, contractor, and subcontractor employees with the information necessary to utilize Confidential Business Information to perform their assigned duties without violating applicable Federal regulations protecting the rights of its owners.

  12. Risk-informed assessment of regulatory and design requirements for future nuclear power plants. Annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-08-01

    OAK B188 Risk-informed assessment of regulatory and design requirements for future nuclear power plants. Annual report. The overall goal of this research project is to support innovation in new nuclear power plant designs. This project is examining the implications, for future reactors and future safety regulation, of utilizing a new risk-informed regulatory system as a replacement for the current system. This innovation will be made possible through development of a scientific, highly risk-formed approach for the design and regulation of nuclear power plants. This approach will include the development and/or confirmation of corresponding regulatory requirements and industry standards. The major impediment to long term competitiveness of new nuclear plants in the U.S. is the capital cost component--which may need to be reduced on the order of 35% to 40% for Advanced Light Water Reactors (ALWRS) such as System 80+ and Advanced Boiling Water Reactor (ABWR). The required cost reduction for an ALWR such as AP600 or AP1000 would be expected to be less. Such reductions in capital cost will require a fundamental reevaluation of the industry standards and regulatory bases under which nuclear plants are designed and licensed. Fortunately, there is now an increasing awareness that many of the existing regulatory requirements and industry standards are not significantly contributing to safety and reliability and, therefore, are unnecessarily adding to nuclear plant costs. Not only does this degrade the economic competitiveness of nuclear energy, it results in unnecessary costs to the American electricity consumer. While addressing these concerns, this research project will be coordinated with current efforts of industry and NRC to develop risk-informed, performance-based regulations that affect the operation of the existing nuclear plants; however, this project will go further by focusing on the design of new plants.

  13. Flood Risk Assessment Using Historical Information For The City of Turrialba, Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Westen, C. J.; Badilla Coto, E.

    The city of Turrialba is located in the lower part of the Turrialba Basin, at the foot of the steep slopes of the Turrialba Volcano. This situation, combined with the heavy rainfalls common in the Caribbean zone of Costa Rica, makes this city to be frequently affected by flooding of the Colorado River, the Gamboa Stream and some other small watercourses. Also, an intense erosion of the riverbanks occurs along the margins of the Turrialba River. The uncontrolled urban expansion along these river courses has narrowed their channels and their discharge capacity has been drastically reduced. In consequence, the amount of rainfall that is necessary to cause a flood has been decreas- ing during the last decades and several serious floods have occurred, causing a lot of damage. To assess the flood hazard and risk in the study area, a different degree of haz- ard was assigned to each geomorphological unit, based on its slope, drainage pattern, grain size and permeability, and considering the information gathered in the field in relation to the distribution and characteristics of bottlenecks and critical points. From that we obtained that Turrialba City is located on areas with high or medium flood hazard. Through a detailed field survey, a floodwater depth map of the 1996 flood event and an attribute map of the elements at risk (concentrating on buildings) of the study area were made. From this 1996 scenario, other hypothetic events were mod- eled. Vulnerability functions, which relate floodwater depth and damage percentage for all types of elements at risk, were developed. Vulnerability maps for the different events were obtained applying these functions to the different floodwater depth maps. Through the combination of this vulnerability maps with information on hypothetic costs of the elements at risk, damage and posterior risk zonation maps were obtained.

  14. What does my patient's coronary artery calcium score mean? Combining information from the coronary artery calcium score with information from conventional risk factors to estimate coronary heart disease risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pletcher Mark J

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The coronary artery calcium (CAC score is an independent predictor of coronary heart disease. We sought to combine information from the CAC score with information from conventional cardiac risk factors to produce post-test risk estimates, and to determine whether the score may add clinically useful information. Methods We measured the independent cross-sectional associations between conventional cardiac risk factors and the CAC score among asymptomatic persons referred for non-contrast electron beam computed tomography. Using the resulting multivariable models and published CAC score-specific relative risk estimates, we estimated post-test coronary heart disease risk in a number of different scenarios. Results Among 9341 asymptomatic study participants (age 35–88 years, 40% female, we found that conventional coronary heart disease risk factors including age, male sex, self-reported hypertension, diabetes and high cholesterol were independent predictors of the CAC score, and we used the resulting multivariable models for predicting post-test risk in a variety of scenarios. Our models predicted, for example, that a 60-year-old non-smoking non-diabetic women with hypertension and high cholesterol would have a 47% chance of having a CAC score of zero, reducing her 10-year risk estimate from 15% (per Framingham to 6–9%; if her score were over 100, however (a 17% chance, her risk estimate would be markedly higher (25–51% in 10 years. In low risk scenarios, the CAC score is very likely to be zero or low, and unlikely to change management. Conclusion Combining information from the CAC score with information from conventional risk factors can change assessment of coronary heart disease risk to an extent that may be clinically important, especially when the pre-test 10-year risk estimate is intermediate. The attached spreadsheet makes these calculations easy.

  15. Risk Assessment of Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning Strategies in Low-Load Homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poerschke, Andrew [IBACOS, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2016-02-01

    These simulations enabled IBACOS to identify which strategies work best for particular climate zones or house geometries and to propose solutions that homebuilders can implement to reduce the risk of occupant discomfort in individual rooms.

  16. Environmental Air Pollutants as Risk Factors for Asthma Among Children Seen in Pediatric Clinics in UKMMC, Kuala Lumpur.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idris, Idayu Badilla; Ghazi, Hasanain Faisal; Zhie, Khor Hui; Khairuman, Khairul Aliff; Yahya, Siti Kasuma; Abd Zaim, Farah Azureen; Nam, Chok Wai; Abdul Rasid, Hazwan Zuhairi; Isa, Zaleha Md

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of asthma is increasing, especially among children in Malaysia, with environmental factors as one of the main preventable contributors. The aim of this study was to determine the association between environmental air pollutants and the occurrence of asthma among children seen in pediatric clinics in Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Center (UKMMC), Kuala Lumpur. An unmatched case control study among children who attended the pediatric clinic was carried out from May to August 2015. A total of 223 children who were diagnosed with asthma (105 cases) and who did not have asthma (118 controls) were included in this study. Their parents or caregivers were interviewed using questionnaires modified from the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood. Data obtained were analyzed using SPSS software version 20. There was a higher risk of asthma in those who had carpet at home (OR = 2.15 CI [1.25-3.68]), those who lived within 200 m of heavy traffic (OR = 1.72 CI [1.01-2.93]), and those who were exposed to lorry fumes (OR = 2.61. CI [1.38-4.93]). Environmental air pollutants increased the risk of asthma among children in Malaysia. Exposure to congested roads, lorry fumes, and indoor carpet were associated with asthma among children in this study. Parents or caretakers of children with asthma should be given adequate education on the prevention of asthmatic attack among these children.

  17. Assessment of crop damage and hail risk based on radar hail signature information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tani, Satyanarayana; Paulitsch, Helmut; Teschl, Reinhard; Süsser-Rechberger, Barbara

    2016-04-01

    Hail storm damage is a major concern to the farmers in the province of Styria, Austria. Each year severe hail storms are causing damages to crops, resulting in losses of millions of euros. High spatiotemporal resolution data are essential to properly assess crop damage information for the insurance sector and also for the better risk assessment. Radar data offer high spatial and temporal resolutions, resulting in very promising option for crop damage assessment and hail risk analysis. This study focuses on the combined analysis of hail signature information from radar and ground measurements for crop hail damage assessment. The days with the high crop hail damage claims were selected for the investigation. Total 16 hail days were assigned to examine the relation between radar-derived products and damages produced by hail in Styria during 2015. 3D single polarization C-band weather radar data and radiosonde freezing level data were used to derive hail kinetic energy flux as well as flux integrated over the whole event. Hail events from ESWD (European Severe Weather Database) and crop damage reports from the Austrian Hail Insurance System were allotted for validation. The spatial distribution maps of total hail kinetic energy were developed to capture the swath and intensity of the hail storms to identify potential hail damage areas. The results show that in most cases radar-based hail signature information well corresponds to the areas where hail events and damage footprints were reported. The radar-based hail signature information is a useful detection option for the assessment of crop damage and hail risk.

  18. Work stress and subsequent risk of internet addiction among information technology engineers in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Sung-Wei; Gau, Susan Shur-Fen; Pikhart, Hynek; Peasey, Anne; Chen, Shih-Tse; Tsai, Ming-Chen

    2014-08-01

    Work stress, as defined by the Demand-Control-Support (DCS) model and the Effort-Reward Imbalance (ERI) model, has been found to predict risks for depression, anxiety, and substance addictions, but little research is available on work stress and Internet addiction. The aims of this study are to assess whether the DCS and ERI models predict subsequent risks of Internet addiction, and to examine whether these associations might be mediated by depression and anxiety. A longitudinal study was conducted in a sample (N=2,550) of 21-55 year old information technology engineers without Internet addiction. Data collection included questionnaires covering work stress, demographic factors, psychosocial factors, substance addictions, Internet-related factors, depression and anxiety at wave 1, and the Internet Addiction Test (IAT) at wave 2. Ordinal logistic regression was used to assess the associations between work stress and IAT; path analysis was adopted to evaluate potentially mediating roles of depression and anxiety. After 6.2 months of follow-up, 14.0% of subjects became problematic Internet users (IAT 40-69) and 4.1% pathological Internet users (IAT 70-100). Job strain was associated with an increased risk of Internet addiction (odds ratio [OR] of having a higher IAT outcome vs. a lower outcome was 1.53); high work social support reduced the risk of Internet addiction (OR=0.62). High ER ratio (OR=1.61) and high overcommitment (OR=1.68) were associated with increased risks of Internet addiction. Work stress defined by the DCS and ERI models predicted subsequent risks of Internet addiction.

  19. Enhancing understanding and recall of quantitative information about medical risks: a cross-cultural comparison between Germany and Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Retamero, Rocio; Galesic, Mirta; Gigerenzer, Gerd

    2011-05-01

    In two experiments, we analyzed cross-cultural differences in understanding and recalling information about medical risks in two countries--Germany and Spain--whose students differ substantially in their quantitative literacy according to the 2003 Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA; OECD, 2003, 2010). We further investigated whether risk understanding can be enhanced by using visual aids (Experiment 1), and whether different ways of describing risks affect recall (Experiment 2). Results showed that Spanish students are more vulnerable to misunderstanding and forgetting the risk information than their German counterparts. Spanish students, however, benefit more than German students from representing the risk information using ecologically rational formats--which exploit the way information is represented in the human mind. We concluded that our results can have important implications for clinical practice.

  20. Modeling Protected Species Habitat and Assigning Risk to Inform Regulatory Decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Robert A.; Rubeck-Schurtz, C. Nichole; Millenbah, Kelly F.; Roloff, Gary J.; Whalon, Mark E.; Olsen, Larry G.

    2009-07-01

    In the United States, environmental regulatory agencies are required to use “best available” scientific information when making decisions on a variety of issues. However, agencies are often hindered by coarse or incomplete data, particularly as it pertains to threatened and endangered species protection. Stakeholders often agree that more resolute and integrated processes for decision-making are desirable. We demonstrate a process that uses species occurrence data for a federally endangered insect (Karner blue butterfly), a readily available habitat modeling tool, and spatially explicit information about an important Michigan commodity (tart cherries). This case study has characteristics of many protected species regulatory decisions in that species occurrence data were sparse and unequally distributed; regulatory decisions (on pesticide use) were required with potentially significant impacts on a viable agricultural industry; and stakeholder relations were diverse, misinformed, and, in some situations, unjustly contentious. Results from our process include a large-scale, empirically derived habitat suitability map for the focal species and a risk ranking of tart cherry orchards with risk based on the likelihood that pesticide applications will influence the focal protected species. Although the majority (77%) of pesticide-influence zones overlapped Karner blue butterfly habitat, risk scores associated with each orchard were low. Through our process we demonstrated that spatially explicit models can help stakeholders visualize and quantify potential protected species effects. In addition, model outputs can serve to guide field activities (e.g., species surveys and implementation of pesticide buffer zones) that help minimize future effects.

  1. Tiered guidance for risk-informed environmental health and safety testing of nanotechnologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collier, Zachary A.; Kennedy, Alan J., E-mail: alan.j.kennedy@usace.army.mil; Poda, Aimee R.; Cuddy, Michael F.; Moser, Robert D. [US Army Engineer Research and Development Center (United States); MacCuspie, Robert I. [Florida Polytechnic University (United States); Harmon, Ashley; Plourde, Kenton [US Army Engineer Research and Development Center (United States); Haines, Christopher D. [US Army Armament Research Development and Engineering Center (United States); Steevens, Jeffery A. [US Army Engineer Research and Development Center (United States)

    2015-03-15

    Provided the rapid emergence of novel technologies containing engineered nanomaterials, there is a need to better understand the potential environmental, health, and safety effects of nanotechnologies before wide-scale deployment. However, the unique properties of nanomaterials and uncertainty regarding applicable test methods have led to a lack of consensus regarding the collection and evaluation of data related to hazard and exposure potentials. Often, overly conservative approaches to characterization and data collection result in prolonged, unfocused, or irrelevant testing, which increases costs and delays deployment. In this paper, we provide a novel testing guidance framework for determining whether a nanotechnology has the potential to release material with nano-specific parameters that pose a risk to humans or the environment. The framework considers methods to categorize nanotechnologies by their structure and within their relevant-use scenarios to inform testing in a time- and resource-limited reality. Based on the precedent of dredged sediment testing, a five-tiered approach is proposed in which opportunities are presented to conclude testing once sufficient risk-related information has been collected, or that the technology in question does not require nano-specific scrutiny. A series of screening stages are suggested, covering relevant aspects including size, surface area, distribution, unique behaviors, and release potential. The tiered, adaptive guidance approach allows users to concentrate on collecting the most relevant data, thus accelerating technology deployment while minimizing risk.

  2. A probability risk assessment for MACSTOR/KN-400 during the air inlet blockage accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryu, Jung Hyun; Jae, Moo Sung [Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, Chan Woo [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-07-01

    Spent fuels extracted from a reactor can be reused or be deposited to all eternity. Before they are chosen between these two ways, spent fuels are stored in the intermediate storage. The spent fuel dry storage facility is an intermediate storage using air-cooling method. In Korea, because of the current situation, spent fuels derived from continuous operation of PHWRs cannot be stored in a pool, spent fuel dry storage facility is scheduled to be built by year 2016. Therefore, the use of PSA technology for designing spent fuel intermediate storage facility needs to be developed. In this study, the safety analysis for the sequence of air inlet blockage accident in spent fuel dry storage facility is analyzed.

  3. Environmental and socio-economic change in Thailand: quantifying spatio-temporal risk factors of dengue to inform decision making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodo, X.; Lowe, R.; Karczewska-Gibert, A.; Cazelles, B.

    2013-12-01

    Dengue is a peri-urban mosquito-transmitted disease, ubiquitous in the tropics and the subtropics. The geographic distribution of dengue and its more severe form, dengue haemorrhagic fever (DHF), have expanded dramatically in the last decades and dengue is now considered to be the world's most important arboviral disease. Recent demographic changes have greatly contributed to the acceleration and spread of the disease along with uncontrolled urbanization, population growth and increased air travel, which acts as a mechanism for transporting and exchanging dengue viruses between endemic and epidemic populations. The dengue vector and virus are extremely sensitive to environmental conditions such as temperature, humidity and precipitation that influence mosquito biology, abundance and habitat and the virus replication speed. In order to control the spread of dengue and impede epidemics, decision support systems are required that take into account the multi-faceted array of factors that contribute to increased dengue risk. Due to availability of seasonal climate forecasts, that predict the average climate conditions for forthcoming months/seasons in both time and space, there is an opportunity to incorporate precursory climate information in a dengue decision support system to aid epidemic planning months in advance. Furthermore, oceanic indicators from teleconnected areas in the Pacific and Indian Ocean, that can provide some indication of the likely prevailing climate conditions in certain regions, could potentially extend predictive lead time in a dengue early warning system. In this paper we adopt a spatio-temporal Bayesian modelling framework for dengue in Thailand to support public health decision making. Monthly cases of dengue in the 76 provinces of Thailand for the period 1982-2012 are modelled using a multi-layered approach. Explanatory variables at various spatial and temporal resolutions are incorporated into a hierarchical model in order to make spatio

  4. The effect of air temperature on forest fire risk in the municipality of Negotin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Živanović Stanimir

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Fires in nature are caused by moisture content in the burning material, which is dependent on the values of the climatic elements. The occurrence of these fires in Serbia is becoming more common, depending on the intensity and duration have a major impact on the state of vegetation. The aim of this study was to determine the association between changes in air temperature and the dynamics of the appearance of forest fires. To study the association of these properties were used Pearson correlation coefficients. The analysis is based on meteorological data obtained from meteorological station in Negotin for the period 1991-2010. Research has found that the annual number of fires, correlating with an average annual air temperature (p = 0.317, ñ = 0.21. Also, it was found that the annual number of fires positive, medium intensity, correlate with the absolute maximum air temperature (p = 0.578, ñ = 0.26, but not statistically significant (p> 0.05.

  5. Household air pollution and personal exposure risk of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons among rural residents in Shanxi, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Y; Shen, G; Huang, Y; Zhang, Y; Han, Y; Wang, R; Shen, H; Su, S; Lin, N; Zhu, D; Pei, L; Zheng, X; Wu, J; Wang, X; Liu, W; Wong, M; Tao, S

    2016-04-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a group of pollutants of widespread concerns. Gaseous and size-segregated particulate-phase PAHs were collected in indoor and outdoor air in rural households. Personal exposure was measured and compared to the ingestion exposure. The average concentrations of 28 parent PAHs and benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) were 9000 ± 8390 and 131 ± 236 ng/m(3) for kitchen, 2590 ± 2270 and 43 ± 95 ng/m(3) for living room, and 2800 ± 3890 and 1.6 ± 0.7 ng/m(3) for outdoor air, respectively. The mass percent of high molecular weight (HMW) compounds with 5-6 rings contributed 1.3% to total 28 parent PAHs. Relatively higher fractions of HMW PAHs were found in indoor air compared to outdoor air. Majorities of particle-bound PAHs were found in the finest PM0.25 , and the highest levels of fine PM0.25 -bound PAHs were in the kitchen using peat and wood as energy sources. The 24-h personal PAH exposure concentration was 2100 ± 1300 ng/m(3) . Considering energies, exposures to those using wood were the highest. The PAH inhalation exposure comprised up to about 30% in total PAH exposure through food ingestion and inhalation, and the population attributable fraction (PAF) for lung cancer in the region was 0.85%. The risks for inhaled and ingested intakes of PAHs were 1.0 × 10(-5) and 1.1 × 10(-5) , respectively.

  6. An Examination of Farmworker Pesticide Educators in a Southeastern State: Informal Science Educators and Risk Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    LePrevost, Catherine E.

    2011-12-01

    Because pesticide exposure is a significant hazard to farmworkers in their working and living environments, basic pesticide toxicology is a topic for farmworker science education that has implications beyond scientific literacy to encompass farmworkers' safety and health. Migrant and seasonal farmworkers have been identified as an at-risk population because of the cultural and linguistic barriers they face, their temporary employment and tenuous documentation status, and their low literacy levels and limited formal education. Despite the key role of pesticide educators in promoting farmworker scientific literacy, safety, and health, data regarding pesticide educators are absent in the literature. This dissertation investigated the nature of pesticide educators in a southeastern state. Drawing on quantitative and qualitative methods, the three studies contained within this body of work characterize the personal beliefs---including pesticide risk, self-efficacy, and teaching beliefs---of pesticide educators, as well as educators' personal goals and their beliefs about the environments in which they pursue those goals. The research allowed for the creation of a profile of the organizations that and individuals who provide pesticide education to farmworkers in a highly agricultural state. The first study details the development and field testing of the Pesticide Risk Beliefs Inventory, a quantitative inventory to gauge pesticide risk beliefs, with a sample of pesticide educators (n=43) in a southeastern state. The 19-item, Likert-type inventory was found to be psychometrically sound with a Cronbach's alpha of 0.780 and a valuable tool in capturing pesticide educators' beliefs about pesticide risk, assessing beliefs in four key categories. The Pesticide Risk Beliefs Inventory could be useful in exploring beliefs about pesticide risks and guiding efforts to address misconceptions held by a variety of formal and informal science learners, educators, practitioners, the

  7. Information draft on the development of air standards for n-heptane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-01-01

    Heptane is a colourless, volatile, flammable liquid with nine isomers, the most common being n-heptane, which has a paraffinic odour. It is an ingredient in gasoline, rubber solvents, naphtha and other petroleum solvents. It occurs almost entirely in the vapour phase, where it is degraded primarily by reaction with photochemically-produced hydroxyl radicals. Short-term exposure to n-heptane at relatively low concentration resulted in vertigo and loss of coordination. Exposure to high concentration for less than 40 minutes induced prostration and loss of reflexes prior to convulsion and death. Average ambient air concentration for n-heptane in Ontario between 1988 and 1995 was 0.81 microgram/cubic meter, as measured by Environment Canada. Currently, Ontario does not have air quality criterion for n-heptane. A review of pertinent literature from world-wide sources revealed that only the states of Michigan and New York have developed air quality guidelines specifically for n-heptane, based on occupational exposure. No human or animal data was found to be available to assess the carcinogenicity of this compound. 33 refs., 1 tab., appendix.

  8. Flooding, flood risks and coping strategies in urban informal residential areas: The case of Keko Machungwa, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tumpale Sakijege

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This article presents findings from a study carried out in Keko Machungwa informal settlement in Dar es Salaam under the auspices of the Disaster Management Training Centre of Ardhi University, Tanzania. The settlement has experienced frequent flooding in the past five years, and this study explores the causes, risks, extent of flooding and coping strategies of residents as well as municipality and city officials. Key methods employed in capturing empirical evidence included mapping of zones by severity of flooding, interviews with households, sub-ward leaders, and municipal and city officials. Non-participant observation, primarily taking photographs, complemented these methods. Laboratory tests of water samples taken from shallow wells in the settlement were performed to establish the level of pollution. In addition, records of prevalence of water-borne diseases were gathered from a dispensary within the settlement to corroborate flooding events, water pollution and occurrence of such diseases. Findings show that flooding is contributed to by the lack of a coordinated stormwater drainage system; haphazard housing development within the valley; and blocking of the water stream by haphazard dumping of solid waste and construction. Risks associated with flooding include water and air pollution, diseases, waterlogging and blocked accessibility. The most common coping strategies at household level are use of sandbags and tree logs; raised pit latrines and doorsteps; provision of water outlet pipes above plinth level; construction of embankments, protection walls and elevation of house foundations; seasonal displacement; and boiling and chemical treatment of water. Recommendations for future action at household, community and city level are made.

  9. Patient-Focused Benefit-Risk Analysis to Inform Regulatory Decisions: The European Union Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mühlbacher, Axel C; Juhnke, Christin; Beyer, Andrea R; Garner, Sarah

    Regulatory decisions are often based on multiple clinical end points, but the perspectives used to judge the relative importance of those end points are predominantly those of expert decision makers rather than of the patient. However, there is a growing awareness that active patient and public participation can improve decision making, increase acceptance of decisions, and improve adherence to treatments. The assessment of risk versus benefit requires not only information on clinical outcomes but also value judgments about which outcomes are important and whether the potential benefits outweigh the harms. There are a number of mechanisms for capturing the input of patients, and regulatory bodies within the European Union are participating in several initiatives. These can include patients directly participating in the regulatory decision-making process or using information derived from patients in empirical studies as part of the evidence considered. One promising method that is being explored is the elicitation of "patient preferences." Preferences, in this context, refer to the individual's evaluation of health outcomes and can be understood as statements regarding the relative desirability of a range of treatment options, treatment characteristics, and health states. Several methods for preference measurement have been proposed, and pilot studies have been undertaken to use patient preference information in regulatory decision making. This article describes how preferences are currently being considered in the benefit-risk assessment context, and shows how different methods of preference elicitation are used to support decision making within the European context.

  10. Exposures to road traffic, noise, and air pollution as risk factors for type 2 diabetes: A feasibility study in Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angel M Dzhambov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM is a growing public health problem in Bulgaria. While individual and lifestyle determinants have been researched; till date there has been no study on environmental risks such as road traffic, noise, and air pollution. As a first step toward designing a large-scale population-based survey, we aimed at exploring the overall associations of prevalent T2DM with exposures to road traffic, noise, and air pollution. A total of 513 residents of Plovdiv city, Bulgaria were recruited. Individual data on self-reported doctor-diagnosed T2DM and confounding factors were linked to objective and self-rated exposure indicators. Logistic and log-link Poisson regressions were conducted. In the fully adjusted logistic models, T2DM was positively associated with exposures to L den 71-80 dB (odds ratio (OR = 4.49, 95% confidence interval (CI: 1.38, 14.68, fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 25.0-66.8 μg/m 3 (OR = 1.32, 95% CI: 0.28, 6.24, benzo alpha pyrene 6.0-14.02 ng/m 3 (OR = 1.76, 95% CI: 0.52, 5.98 and high road traffic (OR = 1.40, 95% CI: 0.48, 4.07. L den remained a significant risk factor in the: Poisson regression model. Other covariates with consistently high multivariate effects were age, gender, body mass index, family history of T2DM, subjective sleep disturbance, and especially bedroom location. We concluded that residential noise exposure might be associated with elevated risk of prevalent T2DM. The inferences made by this research and the lessons learned from its limitations could guide the designing of a longitudinal epidemiological survey in Bulgaria.

  11. Exposures to road traffic, noise, and air pollution as risk factors for type 2 diabetes: A feasibility study in Bulgaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzhambov, Angel M; Dimitrova, Donka D

    2016-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a growing public health problem in Bulgaria. While individual and lifestyle determinants have been researched; till date there has been no study on environmental risks such as road traffic, noise, and air pollution. As a first step toward designing a large-scale population-based survey, we aimed at exploring the overall associations of prevalent T2DM with exposures to road traffic, noise, and air pollution. A total of 513 residents of Plovdiv city, Bulgaria were recruited. Individual data on self-reported doctor-diagnosed T2DM and confounding factors were linked to objective and self-rated exposure indicators. Logistic and log-link Poisson regressions were conducted. In the fully adjusted logistic models, T2DM was positively associated with exposures to L(den) 71-80 dB (odds ratio (OR) = 4.49, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.38, 14.68), fine particulate matter (PM) 2.5 25.0-66.8 μg/m 3 (OR = 1.32, 95% CI: 0.28, 6.24), benzo alpha pyrene 6.0-14.02 ng/m 3 (OR = 1.76, 95% CI: 0.52, 5.98) and high road traffic (OR = 1.40, 95% CI: 0.48, 4.07). L(den) remained a significant risk factor in the: Poisson regression model. Other covariates with consistently high multivariate effects were age, gender, body mass index, family history of T2DM, subjective sleep disturbance, and especially bedroom location. We concluded that residential noise exposure might be associated with elevated risk of prevalent T2DM. The inferences made by this research and the lessons learned from its limitations could guide the designing of a longitudinal epidemiological survey in Bulgaria.

  12. Geographical information system and environmental epidemiology: a cross-sectional spatial analysis of the effects of traffic-related air pollution on population respiratory health

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Traffic-related air pollution is a potential risk factor for human respiratory health. A Geographical Information System (GIS) approach was used to examine whether distance from a main road (the Tosco-Romagnola road) affected respiratory health status. Methods We used data collected during an epidemiological survey performed in the Pisa-Cascina area (central Italy) in the period 1991-93. A total of 2841 subjects participated in the survey and filled out a standardized questionnaire on health status, socio-demographic information, and personal habits. A variable proportion of subjects performed lung function and allergy tests. Highly exposed subjects were defined as those living within 100 m of the main road, moderately exposed as those living between 100 and 250 m from the road, and unexposed as those living between 250 and 800 m from the road. Statistical analyses were conducted to compare the risks for respiratory symptoms and diseases between exposed and unexposed. All analyses were stratified by gender. Results The study comprised 2062 subjects: mean age was 45.9 years for men and 48.9 years for women. Compared to subjects living between 250 m and 800 m from the main road, subjects living within 100 m of the main road had increased adjusted risks for persistent wheeze (OR = 1.76, 95% CI = 1.08-2.87), COPD diagnosis (OR = 1.80, 95% CI = 1.03-3.08), and reduced FEV1/FVC ratio (OR = 2.07, 95% CI = 1.11-3.87) among males, and for dyspnea (OR = 1.61, 95% CI = 1.13-2.27), positivity to skin prick test (OR = 1.83, 95% CI = 1.11-3.00), asthma diagnosis (OR = 1.68, 95% CI = 0.97-2.88) and attacks of shortness of breath with wheeze (OR = 1.67, 95% CI = 0.98-2.84) among females. Conclusion This study points out the potential effects of traffic-related air pollution on respiratory health status, including lung function impairment. It also highlights the added value of GIS in environmental health research. PMID:21362158

  13. Investigation of levels in ambient air near sources of Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) in Kanpur, India, and risk assessment due to inhalation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goel, Anubha; Upadhyay, Kritika; Chakraborty, Mrinmoy

    2016-05-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are a class of organic compounds listed as persistent organic pollutant and have been banned for use under Stockholm Convention (1972). They were used primarily in transformers and capacitors, paint, flame retardants, plasticizers, and lubricants. PCBs can be emitted through the primary and secondary sources into the atmosphere, undergo long-range atmospheric transport, and hence have been detected worldwide. Reported levels in ambient air are generally higher in urban areas. Active sampling of ambient air was conducted in Kanpur, a densely populated and industrialized city in the Indo-Gangetic Plain, for detection of 32 priority PCBs, with the aim to determine the concentration in gas/particle phase and assess exposure risk. More than 50 % of PCBs were detected in air. Occurrence in particles was dominated by heavier congeners, and levels in gas phase were below detection. Levels determined in this study are lower than the levels in Coastal areas of India but are at par with other Asian countries where majority of sites chosen for sampling were urban industrial areas. Human health risk estimates through air inhalation pathway were made in terms of lifetime average daily dose (LADD) and incremental lifetime cancer risks (ILCR). The study found lower concentrations of PCBs than guideline values and low health risk estimates through inhalation within acceptable levels, indicating a minimum risk to the adults due to exposure to PCBs present in ambient air in Kanpur.

  14. Probabilistic Causal Analysis for System Safety Risk Assessments in Commercial Air Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luxhoj, James T.

    2003-01-01

    Aviation is one of the critical modes of our national transportation system. As such, it is essential that new technologies be continually developed to ensure that a safe mode of transportation becomes even safer in the future. The NASA Aviation Safety Program (AvSP) is managing the development of new technologies and interventions aimed at reducing the fatal aviation accident rate by a factor of 5 by year 2007 and by a factor of 10 by year 2022. A portfolio assessment is currently being conducted to determine the projected impact that the new technologies and/or interventions may have on reducing aviation safety system risk. This paper reports on advanced risk analytics that combine the use of a human error taxonomy, probabilistic Bayesian Belief Networks, and case-based scenarios to assess a relative risk intensity metric. A sample case is used for illustrative purposes.

  15. Development of the Informing Relatives Inventory (IRI) : Assessing Index Patients' Knowledge, Motivation and Self-Efficacy Regarding the Disclosure of Hereditary Cancer Risk Information to Relatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Geus, Eveline; Aalfs, Cora M.; Menko, Fred H.; Sijmons, Rolf H.; Verdam, Mathilde G. E.; de Haes, Hanneke C. J. M.; Smets, Ellen M. A.

    2015-01-01

    Despite the use of genetic services, counselees do not always share hereditary cancer information with at-risk relatives. Reasons for not informing relatives may be categorized as a lack of: knowledge, motivation, and/or self-efficacy. This study aims to develop and test the psychometric properties

  16. Development of the Informing Relatives Inventory (IRI): Assessing index patients' knowledge, motivation and self-efficacy regarding the disclosure of hereditary cancer risk information to relatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Geus, E.; Aalfs, C.M.; Menko, F.H.; Sijmons, R.H.; Verdam, M.G.E.; de Haes, H.C.J.M.; Smets, E.M.A.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Despite the use of genetic services, counselees do not always share hereditary cancer information with at-risk relatives. Reasons for not informing relatives may be categorized as a lack of: knowledge, motivation, and/or self-efficacy. Purpose: This study aims to develop and test the psy

  17. Airborne Use of Traffic Intent Information in a Distributed Air-Ground Traffic Management Concept: Experiment Design and Preliminary Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wing, David J.; Adams, Richard J.; Barmore, Bryan E.; Moses, Donald

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents initial findings of a research study designed to provide insight into the issue of intent information exchange in constrained en-route air-traffic operations and its effect on pilot decision making and flight performance. The piloted simulation was conducted in the Air Traffic Operations Laboratory at the NASA Langley Research Center. Two operational modes for autonomous operations were compared under conditions of low and high operational complexity. The tactical mode was characterized primarily by the use of state information for conflict detection and resolution and an open-loop means for the pilot to meet operational constraints. The strategic mode involved the combined use of state and intent information, provided the pilot an additional level of alerting, and allowed a closed-loop approach to meeting operational constraints. Operational constraints included separation assurance, schedule adherence, airspace hazard avoidance, flight efficiency, and passenger comfort. Potential operational benefits of both modes are illustrated through several scenario case studies. Subjective pilot ratings and comments comparing the tactical and strategic modes are presented.

  18. Mitigating Reputational Risks - A Proposal With A Knowledge-Based Stakeholder Information Leitstand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Stöβlein

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The Internet plays a crucial role in the communication strategy of organizations. However, information is often distributed at the "wrong" time and does not always satisfy the particular requirements of key customers, suppliers, governments, shareholders or financial analysts. Serious mistakes might not only create negative sequela, for example, stakeholders remain unsatisfied, downgrade their opinions about products and companies, and subsequently make 'wrong' decisions. Such mistakes could also have tremendous effects on the primary objectives of an enterprise, e.g., the reputation suffers and subsequently the share price plunges. In this paper, we present how companies can take advantage of actively providing targeted information with a knowledge-based Stakeholder Information Leitstand (information planning and control center. It helps executives stabilize relationships with key customers, journalists, politicians, investors, and assists in promoting trust and enhancing reputation, especially in times of risk situations. We focus on the design phase of the system, and propose that current decision support systems could be enriched with "business content", i.e. predefined situation-oriented and individualized information categories and messages.

  19. Cumulative health risk assessment of halogenated and parent polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons associated with particulate matters in urban air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jian-Lin; Jing, Xin; Chang, Wen-Jing; Chen, Zheng-Xia; Zeng, Hui

    2015-03-01

    Halogenated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (HPAHs) have been reported to occur widely in urban air. Nevertheless, knowledge about the human health risk associated with inhalation exposure to HPAHs is scarce so far. In the present study, nine HPAHs and 16 PAHs were determined in atmospheric particulate matter (PM) collected from Shenzhen, China to address this issue. Concentrations of Σ9HPAHs varied from 0.1 to 1.5 ng/m(3) and from 0.09 to 0.4 ng/m(3) in PM10 and PM2.5 samples, respectively. As for individuals, 9-bromoanthracene, 7-bromobenz(a)anthracene, and 9,10-dibromoanthracene were the dominant congeners. Levels of Σ16PAHs in PM10 and PM2.5 samples ranged from 3.2 to 81 ng/m(3) and from 2.8 to 85 ng/m(3), respectively. Among individual PAHs, chrysene, benzo[b]fluoranthene, and indeno[1,2,3-c,d]pyrene were the main congeners. According to the season, concentrations of HPAHs and PAHs in atmospheric PM10/PM2.5 samples show a similar decreasing trend with an order: winter>autumn>spring>summer. The daily intake (DI) of PM10/PM2.5-bound HPAHs and PAHs were estimated. Our results indicated that children have the highest DI levels via inhalation exposure. The incremental lifetime cancer risk (ILCR) induced by PM10/PM2.5-bound HPAHs and PAHs were calculated. The ILCR values showed a similar decreasing trend with an order: adults>children>seniors>adolescent. Overall, the ILCR values induced by HPAHs and PAHs were far below the priority risk level (10(-4)), indicating no obvious cancer risk. To our knowledge, this is the first study to investigate the human health risk associated with inhalation exposure to PM10/PM2.5-bound HPAHs.

  20. AirData

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The AirData site provides access to yearly summaries of United States air pollution data, taken from EPA's air pollution databases. AirData has information about...

  1. The Many Faces of Information Management. AIR 1998 Annual Forum Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krotseng, Marsha V.; McLaughlin, Gerald W.

    This paper examines the many facets of administrative information management on the college or university campus. It is argued that, depending on the situation, an effective information manager can adopt the outlook of an architect/designer, data administrator, editor, analyst, reporter, planner, broker, collaborator, interpreter, or marketer.…

  2. How strategic environmental assessment can inform lenders about potential environmental risks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Banhalmi-Zakar, Zsuzsa; Larsen, Sanne Vammen

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we explore the potential for strategic environmental assessment (SEA) to be a useful tool for banks to manage environmental risks and inform lending decisions. SEA is an environmental assessment tool that was developed to assist strategic-level decision-makers, such as policy...... at a time when it can be used as an input to bank lending decisions, which can assist banks in making lending decisions with better environmental outcomes. For these reasons, we argue that in some circumstances, and particularly for project finance transactions, SEA may be a more useful environmental...

  3. Information Presentation in Decision and Risk Analysis: Answered, Partly Answered, and Unanswered Questions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, L Robin; Wang, Yitong

    2016-09-21

    For the last 30 years, researchers in risk analysis, decision analysis, and economics have consistently proven that decisionmakers employ different processes for evaluating and combining anticipated and actual losses, gains, delays, and surprises. Although rational models generally prescribe a consistent response, people's heuristic processes will sometimes lead them to be inconsistent in the way they respond to information presented in theoretically equivalent ways. We point out several promising future research directions by listing and detailing a series of answered, partly answered, and unanswered questions.

  4. Risk, Information, and Trust in the Food Chain: Factors Explaining Consumer Willingness to Pay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terhi Latvala

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper analysed factors contributing to consumers’ willingness to pay (WTP for increased quality information. The empirical scope of the study was restricted to beef, because the beef labelling system enables reliable tracing of quality attributes. The results showed that consumer perceptions of specific risks in food partly explain their WTP. Also negative experiences heard from other people increased the probability of WTP. Trust seems to be extremely significant factor in WTP models. This study implies that the majority of the respondents trust the food safety authorities and the co-operation of all stakeholders in the food chain.

  5. A study on the side effects of adoption of risk informed regulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sung Pyeong; Lee, Kyeong Jin; Cheong, Wun Gwan; Song, Jong Sun; Na, Man Gyun; Paek, Won Phil; Yeom, Yu Seon; Hwang, Jeong Rae; Oh, Su Jin [Chosun Univ., Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-03-15

    The objective of this project is to analyze the side effects of adoption of Risk Informed Regulation. To do so, critical issues of RIR are derived, and develop reasonable strategy to adopt RIR system. The final research goal of this project is to develop a reasonable strategy to adopt RIR system. The scope of this project is to survey the trends of RIR system of advanced nations, and study the side effects, i.e, safety aspects, economical aspects, safety regulation system aspects, and public acceptance aspects of adopting the RIR system. Also, several possible problems which can be made by adopting RIR system are analyzed.

  6. Overweight, air and noise pollution: Universal risk factors for pediatric pre-hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roya Kelishadi

    2011-01-01

    Prevention and control of the modifiable risk factors of pre-HTN from prenatal period can have long-term health impact on primordial and primary prevention of chronic non-communicable diseases. This review presents a general view on the diagnosis, prevalence and etiology of pre-HTN along with practical measures for its prevention and control.

  7. Risk Management Analysis of Air Ambulance Blood Product Administration in Combat Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-01

    Combat Operations 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Nicole Powell-Dunford, Jose F. Quesada , Robert F...Analysis of Air Ambulance Blood Product Administration in Combat Operations Nicole Powell-Dunford , Jose F. Quesada , Robert F. Malsby , Victoria...Schofi eld Barracks, Wahiawa, HI; Jose F. Quesada , M.S., M.D., 440th Blood Support Detachment, and Robert Gerhardt, M.D., M.P.H., FACEP, U.S. Army

  8. Informal urban settlements and cholera risk in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine Penrose

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: As a result of poor economic opportunities and an increasing shortage of affordable housing, much of the spatial growth in many of the world's fastest-growing cities is a result of the expansion of informal settlements where residents live without security of tenure and with limited access to basic infrastructure. Although inadequate water and sanitation facilities, crowding and other poor living conditions can have a significant impact on the spread of infectious diseases, analyses relating these diseases to ongoing global urbanization, especially at the neighborhood and household level in informal settlements, have been infrequent. To begin to address this deficiency, we analyzed urban environmental data and the burden of cholera in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Cholera incidence was examined in relation to the percentage of a ward's residents who were informal, the percentage of a ward's informal residents without an improved water source, the percentage of a ward's informal residents without improved sanitation, distance to the nearest cholera treatment facility, population density, median asset index score in informal areas, and presence or absence of major roads. We found that cholera incidence was most closely associated with informal housing, population density, and the income level of informal residents. Using data available in this study, our model would suggest nearly a one percent increase in cholera incidence for every percentage point increase in informal residents, approximately a two percent increase in cholera incidence for every increase in population density of 1000 people per km(2 in Dar es Salaam in 2006, and close to a fifty percent decrease in cholera incidence in wards where informal residents had minimally improved income levels, as measured by ownership of a radio or CD player on average, in comparison to wards where informal residents did not own any items about which they were

  9. The E-net model for the Risk Analysis and Assessment System for the Information Security of Communication and Information Systems ("Defining" Subsystem)

    CERN Document Server

    Stoianov, Nikolai

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents one suggestion that comprises the authors' experience in development and implementation of systems for information security in the Automated Information Systems of the Bulgarian Armed Forces. The architecture of risk analysis and assessment system for the communication and information system's information security (CIS IS) has been presented. E-net model of "Defining" Subsystem as a tool that allows to examine the subsystems is proposed as well. Such approach can be applied successfully for communication and information systems in the business field.

  10. Passing crisis and emergency risk communications: the effects of communication channel, information type, and repetition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edworthy, Judy; Hellier, Elizabeth; Newbold, Lex; Titchener, Kirsteen

    2015-05-01

    Three experiments explore several factors which influence information transmission when warning messages are passed from person to person. In Experiment 1, messages were passed down chains of participants using five different modes of communication. Written communication channels resulted in more accurate message transmission than verbal. In addition, some elements of the message endured further down the chain than others. Experiment 2 largely replicated these effects and also demonstrated that simple repetition of a message eliminated differences between written and spoken communication. In a final field experiment, chains of participants passed information however they wanted to, with the proviso that half of the chains could not use telephones. Here, the lack of ability to use a telephone did not affect accuracy, but did slow down the speed of transmission from the recipient of the message to the last person in the chain. Implications of the findings for crisis and emergency risk communication are discussed.

  11. A probability risk assessment for MACSTOR/KN-400 during an air inlet blockage accident sequence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryu, J.H.; Jae, M. [Hanyang Univ., Dept. of Nuclear Engineering, Sungdong-Gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, C. [Korea Inst. of Nuclear Safety, Yusong-Gu, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-07-01

    The safety assessment framework for evaluating the spent fuel dry storage facility during the air inlet blockage accident composing of three phases has been established and applied to an interim storage system. They include the analysis of the failure probability of a basket and a cylinder, the accident modeling of spent fuel dry storage facility and the accident consequence assessments. The first phase of the analysis calculated the module failure probability by modeling of the basket and the cylinder, which is major element for containing radioactive substances. The second phase includes a modeling of spent fuel dry storage facility. At this phase, the probability that radioactive substances are released to outside when the initial event happens has been calculated by the construction of the event tree methods against a various elements which affects the air inlet blockage accident. At the third phase of releasing radioactive substances, the radiation damage to affect neighborhood and storage facility worker using MACCS2 code has been evaluated quantitatively. (author)

  12. Inter-basin water transfer-supply model and risk analysis with consideration of rainfall forecast information

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    This paper develops a new inter-basin water transfer-supply and risk assessment model with consideration of rainfall forecast information. Firstly, based on the current state of reservoir and rainfall forecast information from the global forecast system (GFS), the actual diversion amount can be determined according to the inter-basin water transfer rules with the decision tree method; secondly, the reservoir supply operation system is used to distribute water resource of the inter-basin water transfer reservoir; finally, the integrated risk assessment model is built by selecting the reliability of water transfer, the reliability (water shortage risk), the resiliency and the vulnerability of water supply as risk analysis indexes. The case study shows that the inter-basin water transfer-supply model with rainfall forecast information considered can reduce the comprehensive risk and improve the utilization efficiency of water resource, as compared with conventional and optimal water distribution models.

  13. Examining trust factors in online food risk information: The case of unpasteurized or 'raw' milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sillence, Elizabeth; Hardy, Claire; Medeiros, Lydia C; LeJeune, Jeffrey T

    2016-04-01

    The internet has become an increasingly important way of communicating with consumers about food risk information. However, relatively little is known about how consumers evaluate and come to trust the information they encounter online. Using the example of unpasteurized or raw milk this paper presents two studies exploring the trust factors associated with online information about the risks and benefits of raw milk consumption. In the first study, eye-tracking data was collected from 33 pasteurised milk consumers whilst they viewed six different milk related websites. A descriptive analysis of the eye-tracking data was conducted to explore viewing patterns. Reports revealed the importance of images as a way of capturing initial attention and foregrounding other features and highlighted the significance of introductory text within a homepage. In the second, qualitative study, 41 consumers, some of whom drank raw milk, viewed a selection of milk related websites before participating in either a group discussion or interview. Seventeen of the participants also took part in a follow up telephone interview 2 weeks later. The qualitative data supports the importance of good design whilst noting that balance, authorship agenda, the nature of evidence and personal relevance were also key factors affecting consumers trust judgements. The results of both studies provide support for a staged approach to online trust in which consumers engage in a more rapid, heuristic assessment of a site before moving on to a more in-depth evaluation of the information available. Findings are discussed in relation to the development of trustworthy online food safety resources.

  14. 78 FR 25352 - Agency Information Collection; Activity Under OMB Review; Preservation of Air carrier Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-30

    ... commissions received by, paid to, or deducted by travel agents, and all statements, invoices, bills and... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Research & Innovative Technology Administration Agency Information Collection; Activity Under OMB...

  15. Informed consent in implantable BCI research: identification of research risks and recommendations for development of best practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Eran; Ojemann, Jeffrey

    2016-08-01

    Objective. Implantable brain-computer interface (BCI) research promises improvements in human health and enhancements in quality of life. Informed consent of subjects is a central tenet of this research. Rapid advances in neuroscience, and the intimate connection between functioning of the brain and conceptions of the self, make informed consent particularly challenging in BCI research. Identification of safety and research-related risks associated with BCI devices is an important step in ensuring meaningful informed consent. Approach. This paper highlights a number of BCI research risks, including safety concerns, cognitive and communicative impairments, inappropriate subject expectations, group vulnerabilities, privacy and security, and disruptions of identity. Main results. Based on identified BCI research risks, best practices are needed for understanding and incorporating BCI-related risks into informed consent protocols. Significance. Development of best practices should be guided by processes that are: multidisciplinary, systematic and transparent, iterative, relational and exploratory.

  16. Information and education as a basis of risk mitigation for the citizens of Catalonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guamis, J.; Burckhart, K.; Grau, A.

    2009-09-01

    The General Directorate for Civil Protection of the Catalan Government is in charge of the drawing up and validation of plans that identify risk and establish a joint system of response actions to minimize the consequences of damages caused by emergencies. The risks covered are natural (fire, snow, flooding, heat,...) and human (chemical industry, transport of dangerous goods,...) ones. In the special case of flooding, an Emergency Flood Plan for Catalonia (INUNCAT) exists. Its aim is to minimize the effects and damages to people, property or the environment due to floods within the region of Catalonia. In the following, the actions on active prevention currently realized by Civil Protection in this Mediterranean region regarding risk mitigation of flooding are described. Special emphasis is laid on the prevention of risk situations through advanced information and education which aim at diminishing the vulnerability of the population. The preparedness of the population to face a serious flooding depends highly on the level of the citizens’ self-protection. Therefore the collection and dissemination of recommendations on adequate behaviour is crucial. The Catalan Government realizes different activities to foster the understanding and the correct behaviour of the citizens in case of flooding. Informative sessions to target groups, opinion studies, mass media communication and itinerant exhibitions are some of the elements applied to increase social consciousness and mitigate the vulnerability of the population. Among these, sensitization campaigns play a crucial role. A coherent system of information and education is adhered to these campaigns. Informative material (posters, leaflets, web sites) and sessions are part of the activities which are addressed to different social group and aim at rising the population’s awareness on the risk of flooding. Multidisciplinary presentations and expert speeches on adequate behaviour are given to stakeholders in those areas

  17. Weighing the Risks of Nuclear Energy and Climate Change: Trust in Different Information Sources, Perceived Risks, and Willingness to Pay for Alternatives to Nuclear Power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vainio, Annukka; Paloniemi, Riikka; Varho, Vilja

    2016-06-28

    We examined how individuals perceive nuclear energy in the context of climate change mitigation and how their perceptions are associated with trust in different risk information sources. We analyzed the interrelationships between trust, perceived risk of nuclear power, climate change concern, perception of nuclear energy as an acceptable way to mitigate climate change, and willingness to pay (WTP) for alternatives to nuclear power. A nationwide survey (N = 967) collected in Finland was analyzed with structural equation modeling. The associations between trust and perceived risk of nuclear power, climate change concern, and perception of nuclear power as a way to mitigate climate change varied by the type of information source. Political party support and other background variables were associated with trust in different information sources. The effect of trust in information sources on WTP was mediated by perceived risks and benefits. The results will increase our understanding of how individuals perceive nuclear energy as a way to cut CO2 emissions and the role of trust in different information sources in shaping nuclear risk perceptions and energy choices.

  18. Environmental Assessment: Bird Strike Risk Reduction at Laughlin Air Force Base, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    precautionary landing after the pilot reported engine vibration. Several fan blades on the engine were damaged and feathers were found in the engine...interference of signals from navigational aids, and providing an attractant such as small mammals for raptors or predatory animals. 1.3.1.1 Need for Bird...considered further as a treatment insecticide at LAFB to reduce bird strike risks. • Insect Growth Regulators - Growth -regulating insecticides generally

  19. Smartphone applications for communicating avalanche risk information - a review of existing practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charrière, M. K. M.; Bogaard, T. A.

    2015-11-01

    Every year, in all mountainous regions, people are victims of avalanches. One way to decrease those losses is believed to be informing about danger levels. The paper presents a study on current practices in the development of smartphones applications that are dedicated to avalanche risk communication. The analysis based on semi-structured interviews with developers of smartphone apps highlights the context of their development, how choices of content and visualization were made as well as how their effectiveness is evaluated. It appears that although the communicators agree on the message to disseminate, its representation triggers debate. Moreover, only simple evaluation processes are conducted but there is a clear awareness that further scientific efforts are needed to analyze the effectiveness of the smartphone apps. Finally, the current or planned possibility for non-experts users to report feedback on the snow and avalanches conditions open the doors to a transition of these apps from one-way communication tools to two-ways communication platforms. This paper also indicates the remaining challenges that avalanche risk communication is facing, although it is disputably the most advanced and standardized practice compared to other natural hazards. Therefore, this research is of interest for the entire field of natural hazards related risk communication.

  20. A Novel Risk Metric for Staff Turnover in a Software Project Based on Information Entropy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong Jiang

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Staff turnover in a software project is a significant risk that can result in project failure. Despite the urgency of this issue, however, relevant studies are limited and are mostly qualitative; quantitative studies are extremely rare. This paper proposes a novel risk metric for staff turnover in a software project based on the information entropy theory. To address the gaps of existing studies, five aspects are considered, namely, staff turnover probability, turnover type, staff level, software project complexity, and staff order degree. This paper develops a method of calculating staff turnover risk probability in a software project based on the field, equity, and goal congruence theories. The proposed method prevents the probability of subjective estimation. It is more objective and comprehensive and superior than existing research. This paper not only presents a detailed operable model, but also theoretically demonstrates the scientificity and rationality of the research. The case study performed in this study indicates that the approach is reasonable, effective, and feasible.

  1. A method for risk informing procedures at operating nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, P. F.; Martin del Campo, C., E-mail: pnelson_007@yahoo.com [UNAM, Facultad de Ingenieria, Departamento de Sistemas Energeticos, Paseo Cuauhnahuac No. 8532, Col. Progreso, 62550 Jiutepec, Morelos (Mexico)

    2012-10-15

    The technical approach presented establishes a framework intended to provide the necessary elements for a deployable human performance monitoring program that incorporates insights from plant specific probabilistic risk assessments, human reliability analysis, as well as the development of plant specific human failure data. A human performance monitoring program of this structure would be used to provide the ability to risk inform procedures (e.g., operations or maintenance) to determine the operational risk significance of procedural performance (i.e., precautions, prerequisites, procedure steps), the likelihood of consequential human error dur the performance of the procedure, and the identification of procedure specific barriers to reduce or eliminate consequential human errors. The program would provide the means to assess procedures prior to execution and the means to record and trend human failure events leading to a plant specific human failure database for human activities characterized as pre-initiator. The technical methods and data processing for each of these areas are developed and presented, as well as an example application of an operational procedure error leading to a plant level event (i.e, plant trip). (Author)

  2. Climate Risk Informed Decision Analysis: A Hypothetical Application to the Waas Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilroy, Kristin; Mens, Marjolein; Haasnoot, Marjolijn; Jeuken, Ad

    2016-04-01

    More frequent and intense hydrologic events under climate change are expected to enhance water security and flood risk management challenges worldwide. Traditional planning approaches must be adapted to address climate change and develop solutions with an appropriate level of robustness and flexibility. The Climate Risk Informed Decision Analysis (CRIDA) method is a novel planning approach embodying a suite of complementary methods, including decision scaling and adaptation pathways. Decision scaling offers a bottom-up approach to assess risk and tailors the complexity of the analysis to the problem at hand and the available capacity. Through adaptation pathway,s an array of future strategies towards climate robustness are developed, ranging in flexibility and immediacy of investments. Flexible pathways include transfer points to other strategies to ensure that the system can be adapted if future conditions vary from those expected. CRIDA combines these two approaches in a stakeholder driven process which guides decision makers through the planning and decision process, taking into account how the confidence in the available science, the consequences in the system, and the capacity of institutions should influence strategy selection. In this presentation, we will explain the CRIDA method and compare it to existing planning processes, such as the US Army Corps of Engineers Principles and Guidelines as well as Integrated Water Resources Management Planning. Then, we will apply the approach to a hypothetical case study for the Waas Region, a large downstream river basin facing rapid development threatened by increased flood risks. Through the case study, we will demonstrate how a stakeholder driven process can be used to evaluate system robustness to climate change; develop adaptation pathways for multiple objectives and criteria; and illustrate how varying levels of confidence, consequences, and capacity would play a role in the decision making process, specifically

  3. Intervention Research with Youths at Elevated Risk for Suicide: Meeting the Ethical and Regulatory Challenges of Informed Consent and Assent

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Cheryl A.; Kramer, Anne C.

    2008-01-01

    Intervention research with youths at elevated risk for suicidal behavior and suicide--a vulnerable and high risk population--presents investigators with numerous ethical challenges. This report specifically addresses those challenges involving the informed consent and assent process with parents/guardians and youths. The challenges are delineated…

  4. Retention in a Breast Cancer Risk Information Trial: Motivations of a Population-Based Sample of Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariail, Kiley; Watts, Carolyn; Bowen, Deborah J.

    2006-01-01

    A better understanding of factors influencing retention in breast cancer risk education and prevention programs can improve the design and effectiveness of such programs. Such information may also be useful to researchers seeking to maximize full retention in research trials involving low risk and low perceived benefit by the participants. These…

  5. Component modeling in ecological risk assessment: Disturbance in interspecific interactions caused by air toxics introduced into terrestrial ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swider, Jan Zenon

    The human health risk assessment (HRA), initiated by the onset of nuclear industry, has been a well established methodology for assessing the impacts of human created contamination on an individual human being and entire population. The wide spread of applications and tools grown upon this methodology allows one not only to identify the hazards, but also to manage the risks. Recently, there has existed an increased awareness of the need to conduct ecological risk assessments (ERA) in addition to HRAs. The ERAs are, by and large, more complex than typical HRAs and involve not only different species but whole ecological systems. Such complex analyses require a thorough understanding of the processes underway in the ecosystem, including the contaminant transport through the food web, population dynamics as well as intra- and inter-specific relationships. The exposure pathways change radically depending on the consumer tier. Plants produce their nutriment from the sunlight and raw inorganic compounds. Animals and other living forms obtain energy by eating plants, other animals and detritus. Their double role as food consumers and food producers causes a trophic structure of the ecological system, where nutrients and energy are transferred from one trophic level to another. This is a dynamic process of energy flow, mostly in the form of food, varying with time and space. In order to conduct an efficient ERA, a multidisciplinary framework is needed. This framework can be enhanced by analyzing predator-prey interactions during the environmental disturbances caused by a pollutant emission, and by assessing the consequences of such disturbances. It is necessary to develop a way to describe how human industrial activity affects the ecosystems. Existing ecological studies have mostly been focused either on pure ecological interdependencies or on limited perspectives of human activities. In this study, we discuss the issues of air pollution and its ecological impacts from the

  6. Particulate matter in ambient air - Assessment of health risks. Partiklar i omgivningsluften - en bedoemning av haelsorisker

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camner, P.

    1986-07-01

    An investigation, based on literature data and research at SML, was made on deposition of particulate matter in lungs. The importance of mouth and nose breathing respectively is illustrated. By nose breathing only substances <10 micrometers reach the lung as compared to mouth breathing where substances >10 micrometers may deposit in the lung. Swedish limit values of total suspended particulate matter (TSP) of 50 micrograms/cubic meter are recommended as a 6 month mean value and 150 micrograms/cubic meter as a day mean value. For the PM/sub 10/ fraction, which is a measure of the mass fraction of particulate matter in the air that is deposited in the lung by mouth breathing, it is not possible to give a corresponding recommendation. Epidemiological data are lacking and the proposed method of measuring the PM/sub 10/ fraction would underestimate the importance of particles larger than 10 micrometers. (O.S.).

  7. The health risks of incense use in the home: an underestimated source of indoor air pollution?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Debbie; Pontin, David

    2016-03-01

    The health impact of indoor air pollution is a growing area of interest for public health professionals. People typically spend up to 90 per cent of their time indoors, particularly women, young children and elders. Although the adverse health effects of second-hand tobacco smoke are well recognised, the impact of burning incense in the home has received little attention in Western literature. Incense burning in the home is common in a number of cultures (particularly Asian, North African or Arabic). Many health visitors (HVs) work with communities who use incense regularly for religious/cultural reasons and it is a neglected area of study and research.The literature suggests that home incense use can have significant adverse health effects, particularly on cardiopulmonary morbidity and mortality. Further research is needed to identify which individuals are most susceptible, which types of incense are most harmful, and whether any actions can be taken to minimise exposure.

  8. Effects of Air Pollution on the Risk of Congenital Anomalies: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Kai-Chieh Chen

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Congenital anomalies are the main causes of preterm and neonatal mortality and morbidity. We investigated the association between congenital anomalies and mothers’ exposure to air pollution during pregnancy by combining risk estimates for a variety of air pollutants (SO2, NO2, PM10, PM2.5, CO and O3 and anomaly defect outcomes. Seventeen articles were included in the systematic review and thirteen studies were taken into account in the meta-analysis. Combined estimated were calculated separately according to whether the exposure metric was continuous or categorical. Only one significant combination was; NO2 concentrations were significantly associated with coarctation of the aorta (OR = 1.20 per 10 ppb, 95% CI, (1.02, 1.41. This finding could stem from strong heterogeneity in study designs. Improved exposure assessment methods, in particular more accurate spatial measurements or modeling, standardized definition of cases and of better control of confounders are highly recommended for future congenital anomalies research in this area.

  9. Information Seeking about Global Climate Change among Adolescents: The Role of Risk Perceptions, Efficacy Beliefs and Parental Influences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mead, Erin; Roser-Renouf, Connie; Rimal, Rajiv N; Flora, June A; Maibach, Edward W; Leiserowitz, Anthony

    2012-01-01

    Global climate change is likely to have significant impacts on public health. Effective communication is critical to informing public decision making and behavior to mitigate climate change. An effective method of audience segmentation, the risk perception attitude (RPA) framework has been previously tested with other health behaviors and classifies people into 4 groups on the basis of their perceptions of risk and beliefs about personal efficacy. The 4 groups - indifference (low risk, weak efficacy), proactive (low risk, strong efficacy), avoidance (high risk, weak efficacy), and responsive (high risk, strong efficacy) - are hypothesized to differ in their self-protective behaviors and in their motivations to seek information. In this paper, we extend the RPA framework in two ways. First, we use it at the household level to determine whether parental classifications into the 4 groups are associated with their teenage children's classification into the same 4 groups. Second, we predict adolescent information-seeking behaviors on the basis of their and their parents' membership in the 4 RPA groups. Results (N = 523 parent-adolescent pairs) indicated that parental membership in the 4 RPA groups was significantly associated with children's membership in the same 4 groups. Furthermore, the RPA framework was a significant predictor of adolescent information-seeking: those in the responsive and avoidance groups sought more information on climate change than the indifference group. Family communication on global warming was positively associated with adolescents' information-seeking. Implications for interventions are discussed.

  10. Using a Geographic Information System to Assess the Risk of Hurricane Hazards on the Maya Civilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weigel, A. M.; Griffin, R.; Sever, T.

    2014-12-01

    The extent of the Maya civilization spanned across portions of modern day Mexico, Belize, Guatemala, El Salvador and Honduras. Paleoclimatic studies suggest this region has been affected by strong hurricanes for the past six thousand years, reinforced by archeological evidence from Mayan records indicating they experienced strong storms. It is theorized hurricanes aided in the collapse of the Maya, damaging building structures, agriculture, and ceasing industry activities. Today, this region is known for its active tropical climatology, being hit by numerous strong storms including Hurricane Dean, Iris, Keith, and Mitch. This research uses a geographic information system (GIS) to model hurricane hazards, and assess the risk posed on the Maya civilization. GIS has the ability to handle various layer components making it optimal for combining parameters necessary for assessing the risk of experiencing hurricane related hazards. For this analysis, high winds, storm surge flooding, non-storm surge related flooding, and rainfall triggered landslides were selected as the primary hurricane hazards. Data sets used in this analysis include the National Climatic Data Center International Best Track Archive for Climate Stewardships (IBTrACS) hurricane tracks, Shuttle Radar Topography Mission Digital Elevation Model, WorldClim monthly accumulated precipitation, USGS HydroSHEDS river locations, Harmonized World Soil Database soil types, and known Maya site locations from the Electronic Atlas of Ancient Maya Sites. ArcGIS and ENVI software were utilized to process data and model hurricane hazards. To assess locations at risk of experiencing high winds, a model was created using ArcGIS Model Builder to map each storm's temporal wind profile, and adapted to simulate forward storm velocity, and storm frequency. Modeled results were then combined with physical land characteristics, meteorological, and hydrologic data to identify areas likely affected. Certain areas along the eastern

  11. Geographic risk modeling of childhood cancer relative to county-level crops, hazardous air pollutants and population density characteristics in Texas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu Li

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Childhood cancer has been linked to a variety of environmental factors, including agricultural activities, industrial pollutants and population mixing, but etiologic studies have often been inconclusive or inconsistent when considering specific cancer types. More specific exposure assessments are needed. It would be helpful to optimize future studies to incorporate knowledge of high-risk locations or geographic risk patterns. The objective of this study was to evaluate potential geographic risk patterns in Texas accounting for the possibility that multiple cancers may have similar geographic risks patterns. Methods A spatio-temporal risk modeling approach was used, whereby 19 childhood cancer types were modeled as potentially correlated within county-years. The standard morbidity ratios were modeled as functions of intensive crop production, intensive release of hazardous air pollutants, population density, and rapid population growth. Results There was supportive evidence for elevated risks for germ cell tumors and "other" gliomas in areas of intense cropping and for hepatic tumors in areas of intense release of hazardous air pollutants. The risk for Hodgkin lymphoma appeared to be reduced in areas of rapidly growing population. Elevated spatial risks included four cancer histotypes, "other" leukemias, Central Nervous System (CNS embryonal tumors, CNS other gliomas and hepatic tumors with greater than 95% likelihood of elevated risks in at least one county. Conclusion The Bayesian implementation of the Multivariate Conditional Autoregressive model provided a flexible approach to the spatial modeling of multiple childhood cancer histotypes. The current study identified geographic factors supporting more focused studies of germ cell tumors and "other" gliomas in areas of intense cropping, hepatic cancer near Hazardous Air Pollutant (HAP release facilities and specific locations with increased risks for CNS embryonal tumors and

  12. Risk-Informed Monitoring, Verification and Accounting (RI-MVA). An NRAP White Paper Documenting Methods and a Demonstration Model for Risk-Informed MVA System Design and Operations in Geologic Carbon Sequestration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unwin, Stephen D.; Sadovsky, Artyom; Sullivan, E. C.; Anderson, Richard M.

    2011-09-30

    This white paper accompanies a demonstration model that implements methods for the risk-informed design of monitoring, verification and accounting (RI-MVA) systems in geologic carbon sequestration projects. The intent is that this model will ultimately be integrated with, or interfaced with, the National Risk Assessment Partnership (NRAP) integrated assessment model (IAM). The RI-MVA methods described here apply optimization techniques in the analytical environment of NRAP risk profiles to allow systematic identification and comparison of the risk and cost attributes of MVA design options.

  13. The potential risk of communication media in conveying critical information in the aircraft maintenance organisation: a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukri, S. Ahmad; Millar, R. M.; Gratton, G.; Garner, M.

    2016-10-01

    In the world of aircraft maintenance organisation, verbal and written communication plays a pivotal role in transferring critical information in relation to aircraft safety and efficiency. The communication media used to convey the critical information between departments at an aircraft maintenance organisation have potential risk in misunderstanding of the information. In this study, technical and non-technical personnel from five different departments at an aircraft maintenance organisation were interviewed on the communication media they normally utilised to communicate six different work procedures that are closely related to aircraft safety and efficiency. This is to discover which communication media pose higher risk in misunderstanding critical information. The findings reveal that written communication pose higher risk of misinterpretation compared with verbal communication when conveying critical information between departments.

  14. The MARINA Risk Assessment Strategy: A Flexible Strategy for Efficient Information Collection and Risk Assessment of Nanomaterials

    OpenAIRE

    Bos, Peter M.J.; Stefania Gottardo; Scott-Fordsmand, Janeck J.; Martie van Tongeren; Elena Semenzin; Teresa F. Fernandes; Danail Hristozov; Kerstin Hund-Rinke; Neil Hunt; Muhammad-Adeel Irfan; Robert Landsiedel; Peijnenburg, Willie J. G. M.; Araceli Sánchez Jiménez; van Kesteren, Petra C. E.; Oomen, Agnes G.

    2015-01-01

    An engineered nanomaterial (ENM) may actually consist of a population of primary particles, aggregates and agglomerates of various sizes. Furthermore, their physico-chemical characteristics may change during the various life-cycle stages. It will probably not be feasible to test all varieties of all ENMs for possible health and environmental risks. There is therefore a need to further develop the approaches for risk assessment of ENMs. Within the EU FP7 project Managing Risks of Nanoparticles...

  15. Reactions to children's transgressions in at-risk caregivers: does mitigating information, type of transgression, or caregiver directive matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwin, Lauren M; Skowronski, John J; Crouch, Julie L; Milner, Joel S; Zengel, Bettina

    2014-05-01

    This study examined whether caregivers who exhibit high risk for child physical abuse differ from low-risk caregivers in reactions to transgressing children. Caregivers read vignettes describing child transgressions. These vignettes varied in: (a) the type of transgression described (moral, conventional, personal), (b) presentation of transgression-mitigating information (present, absent), and (c) whether a directive to avoid the transgression was in the vignette (yes, no). After reading each vignette, caregivers provided ratings reflecting their: (a) perceptions of transgression wrongness, (b) internal attributions about the transgressing child, (c) perceptions of the transgressing child's hostile intent, (d) own expected negative post-transgression affect, and (e) perceived likelihood of responding to the transgression with discipline that displayed power assertion and/or induction. For moral transgressions (cruelty, dishonesty, hostility, or greed), mitigating information reduced caregiver expectations that they would feel negative affect and, subsequent to the transgression, use disciplinary strategies that display power assertion. These mitigating effects were smaller among at-risk caregivers than among low-risk caregivers. Moreover, when transgressions disobeyed a directive, among low-risk caregivers, mitigating information reduced the expectation that responses to transgressions would include inductive disciplinary strategies, but it did not do so among at-risk caregivers. In certain circumstances, compared to low-risk caregivers, at-risk caregivers expect to be relatively unaffected by transgression-mitigating information. These results suggest that interventions that increase an at-risk caregiver's ability to properly assess and integrate mitigating information may play a role in reducing the caregiver's risk of child physical abuse.

  16. The Impact of New Electronic Imaging Systems on U.S. Air Force Visual Information Professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-06-01

    Tekcvvxunikatn Tcmo= Max 85287-1305 (602) %55011 FROM: Maj Lee E. Thomas 20 Jan 1993 2336 W. Nopal Ave. Mesa, AZ 85202 (602) 820-5213 SUBJECT: Request for...Visual Information (VI) Personnel Requestor Information: Major Lee E. Thomas 2336 W. Nopal Ave. Mesa, AZ 85202 Ph: (602) 820-5213 Statement of Survey...1993 2336 W. Nopal Ave. Mesa, AZ 85202 (602) 820-5213 SUBJECT: Request for Assistance and Survey Sponsorship TO: HQ USAF/SCMV Lt Col Cultice 1. My

  17. Using stochastic risk assessment in setting information priorities for managing dioxin impact from a municipal waste incinerator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Hwong-wen

    2002-09-01

    The objectives of this study were to assess site-specific carcinogenic risk of incinerator-emitted dioxins in a manner reflecting pollutant transfer across multimedia and multi-pathways. The study used site-specific environmental and exposure information and combined the Monte Carlo method with multimedia modeling to produce probability distributions of risk estimates. The risk estimates were further categorized by contaminated environmental media and exposure pathways that are experienced by human receptors in order to pinpoint significant sources of risk. Rank correlation coefficients were also calculated along with the Monte Carlo sampling to identify key factors that influenced estimation of risk. The results showed that ingestion accounted for more than 90% of the total risk and that risk control on ingestion of eggs, aboveground vegetables, and poultry should receive priority. It was also found that variation of parameters with variability accounted for around 35% of the total risk variance, while uncertainty contributed to the remaining 65%. Intake rates of aboveground vegetables, eggs, and poultry were the key parameters with the largest contribution to variance. In addition, sufficient sampling and analysis of dioxin contents in eggs, aboveground vegetables, poultry, soil, and fruit should be performed to improve risk estimation because the variation in concentrations in these media accounted for the largest overall risk variance. Finally, focus should be placed on reduction of uncertainty associated with the risk estimation through ingestion of aboveground vegetables, eggs, poultry, fruit, and soil because the risk estimates associated with these exposure pathways had the largest variance.

  18. Subsurface information for risk-sensitive urban spatial planning in Dhaka Metropolitan City, Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Günther, Andreas; Aziz Patwary, Mohammad Abdul; Bahls, Rebecca; Asaduzzaman, Atm; Ludwig, Rüdiger; Ashraful Kamal, Mohammad; Nahar Faruqa, Nurun; Jabeen, Sarwat

    2016-04-01

    Dhaka Metropolitan City (including Dhaka and five adjacent municipal areas) is one of the fastest developing urban regions in the world. Densely build-up areas in the developed metropolitan area of Dhaka City are subject to extensive restructuring as common six- or lower storied buildings are replaced by higher and heavier constructions. Additional stories are built on existing houses, frequently exceeding the allowable bearing pressure on the subsoil as supported by the foundations. In turn, newly developing city areas are projected in marshy terrains modified by extensive, largely unengineered landfills. In most areas, these terrains bear unfavorable building ground conditions within 30 meters. Within a collaborative technical cooperation project between Bangladesh and Germany, BGR supports GSB in the provision of geo-information for the Capital Development Authority (RAJUK). For general urban planning, RAJUK successively develops a detailed area plan (DAP) at scale 1 : 50000 for the whole Dhaka Metropolitan City area (approx. 1700 km2). Geo-information have not been considered in the present DAP. Within the project, geospatial information in form of a geomorphic map, a digital terrain model and a 3-D subsurface model covering the whole city area have been generated at a scale of 1 : 50000. An extensive engineering geological data base consisting of more than 2200 borehole data with associated Standard Penetration Testing (SPT) and lab data has been compiled. With the field testing (SPT) and engineering geological lab data, the 3-D subsurface model can be parameterized to derive important spatial subsurface information for urban planning like bearing capacity evaluations for different foundation designs or soil liquefaction potential assessments for specific earthquake scenarios. In conjunction with inundation potential evaluations for different flooding scenarios, comprehensive building ground suitability information can be derived to support risk

  19. Levels, sources and health risks of carbonyls and BTEX in the ambient air of Beijing, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yujie Zhang; Yujing Mu; Junfeng Liu; Abdelwahid Mellouki

    2012-01-01

    The atmospheric concentrations of carbonyls and BTEX (benzene,toluene,ethylbenzene,m,p-xylene and o-xylene) were measured simultaneously at a same sampling site in Beijing from September 2008 to August 2010.The average concentrations of the total measured carbonyls during autumn,winter,spring,and summer were 37.7,31.3,39.7,50.5 μg/m3,respectively,and maximal values for their diurnal variations usually happened at noontime.In contrast to carbonyls,the average concentrations of the total measured BTEX during the four seasons were 27.2,31.9,23.2,19.1 μg/m3,respectively,and minimal values for their diurnal variations always occurred in the early afternoon.The average concentration for carbonyls increased about 24% from September 2008-August 2009 to September 2009-August 2010,for BTEX,increased about 15%.Integrated life time cancer risks for three carcinogens (benzene,formaldehyde and acetaldehyde) in Beijing exceeded the value of 1E-06,and the hazard quotient (HQ) of non-cancer risk of exposure to formaldehyde exceeded unity.

  20. Monitoring Of Air Quality Parameters For Construction Of Fire Risk Detection Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romancov, I. I.; Dashkovky, A. G.; Panin, V. F.; Melkov, D. N.

    2017-01-01

    The analysis of fire developmental process is given, which showed that there are seven stages of fire development, a set of phenomena (factors, signs) of fire risk condition, characterized by a set of defined parameters, corresponds to each stage. Observed that the registration of high staging factors (high ambient temperature, content of CO2, etc.) means the registration of actual low staging fire (thermal destruction of materials gases, fumes, etc.) - fire risk situation. It is shown that the decrease of registered factor staging leads to construction of fire preventive and diagnostic systems as the lower is registered stage, the more uncertain is connection between the fact of its detection and a fire. It is indicated that with development of electronic equipment the staging of fire situations factors used for detection is reducing in whole, and also it is noted that for each control object it is necessary to choose (identify) the optimal factor, in particular, in many ways the optimal factor for aircrafts are smokes and their TV image.