WorldWideScience

Sample records for air quality control

  1. Determination and evaluation of air quality control. Manual of ambient air quality control in Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lahmann, E.

    1997-07-01

    Measurement of air pollution emissions and ambient air quality are essential instruments for air quality control. By undertaking such measurements, pollutants are registered both at their place of origin and at the place where they may have an effect on people or the environment. Both types of measurement complement each other and are essential for the implementation of air quality legislation, particularly, in compliance with emission and ambient air quality limit values. Presented here are similar accounts of measurement principles and also contains as an Appendix a list of suitability-tested measuring devices which is based on information provided by the manufacturers. In addition, the guide of ambient air quality control contains further information on discontinuous measurement methods, on measurement planning and on the assessment of ambient air quality data. (orig./SR)

  2. Indoor air quality control; Sisaeilman laadun hallinta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villberg, K.; Saarela, K.; Tirkkonen, T. [VTT Building and Transport, Espoo (FI)] [and others

    2004-06-01

    Indoor Air Quality Control-project (Dno 188/401/00, 40724/00), one part of the Finnish Research Programme on Environmental Health (SYTTY), was consisted of three parts. In part one the objective was to establish a causal connection between indoor air quality, perceived comfort and diagnosed health effects. The indoor air quality was measured with methods used today in the Finnish classification, but complementary new methods were applied and tested for their relevance in attaining a better coverage of different chemical substances in indoor air. The health and comprehensive indoor air data were collected from subjects, which were chosen among the patients treated in Helsinki University Central Hospital because of building related symptoms. Additionally control families were randomly selected from Helsinki area. All participants were interviewed for their residential conditions and any building related problems using modified Oerebro and Tuohilampi questionnaires. Clinical data was only collected from the patients in medical examination. All these data was used as additional information in drafting conclusions and recommendations for the improvement of characterising indoor air quality and the classification procedure. In the second part the aim was to develop procedures to evaluate the irritating and odorous chemical compounds of material emissions and the perceived air quality. The causative relationships between sensory assessment method used in the present Finnish Classification of Building Materials, olfactometry and emission measurements in chemical terms were determined. Another objective of this project was to investigate irritation properties of building material emissions and chemical mixtures by the mouse bioassay. In addition the indicator value of human evaluation was clarified for estimating irritancy of building material emission and for studying an impact of ageing of materials on odour and irritation responses. Finally a model was developed for

  3. Indoor air quality: sources and control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nature of the indoor air quality problem is described; methods of control or reduction of indoor radon and radon progeny concentrations have been reviewed. These techniques may be categorized as radon source reduction, radon removal, and radon progeny removal. There are a number of potential sources of radon in US housing, including soil, potable water, and building materials. In most cases, it appears that flow of radon-bearing soil gas into houses, driven by a slight negative pressure differential across the building shell, is a major source of indoor radon; this pressure-driven flow appears to be the most likely source of radon that can account for the elevated radon concentrations observed in some houses. There are a number of radon source control techniques; their effectiveness will depend upon characteristics of the house substructure and the details of the specific application. While the results of such remedial measures have varied and the data base from which to generalize is small, five-to-ten-fold reductions in radon concentration have been reported. 31 references, 4 figures

  4. Research review: Indoor air quality control techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Techniques for controlling the concentration of radon, formaldehyde, and combustion products in the indoor air are reviewed. The most effective techniques, which are generally based on limiting or reducing indoor pollutant source strengths, can decrease indoor pollutant concentrations by a factor of 3 to 10. Unless the initial ventilation rate is unusually low, it is difficult to reduce indoor pollutant concentrations more than approximately 50% by increasing the ventilation rate of an entire building. However, the efficiency of indoor pollutant control by ventilation can be enhanced through the use of local exhaust ventilation near concentrated sources of pollutants, by minimizing short circuiting of air from supply to exhaust when pollutant sources are dispersed and, in some situations, by promoting a displacement flow of air and pollutants toward the exhaust. Active air cleaning is also examined briefly. Filtration and electrostatic air cleaning for removal of particles from the indoor air are the most practical and effective currently available techniques of air cleaning. 49 refs., 7 figs

  5. 78 FR 12267 - Revision of Air Quality Implementation Plan; California; Placer County Air Pollution Control...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-22

    ... Pollution Control District and Feather River Air Quality Management District; Stationary Source Permits... County Air Pollution Control District (PCAPCD) and Feather River Air Quality Management District (FRAQMD... in a previous EPA rulemaking (76 FR 44809, July 27, 2011). DATES: Any comments must arrive by...

  6. Indoor air quality control techniques. Radon, formaldehyde, combustion products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book reviews and evaluates existing indoor air quality control techniques. The indoor air pollutants of most concern are radon, formaldehyde, and certain combustion products-nitrogen dioxide, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and various respirable particles. Many techniques exist to control the concentration of these pollutants and other indoor pollutants that are only now being recognized as significant. The purpose of the book is to provide a current review and evaluation of these control techniques

  7. 40 CFR 81.88 - Billings Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Billings Intrastate Air Quality... Quality Control Regions § 81.88 Billings Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Billings Intrastate Air Quality Control Region (Montana) has been renamed the Billings Intrastate Air Quality...

  8. Impact of individually controlled facially applied air movement on perceived air quality at high humidity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skwarczynski, M.A. [Faculty of Environmental Engineering, Institute of Environmental Protection Engineering, Department of Indoor Environment Engineering, Lublin University of Technology, Lublin (Poland); International Centre for Indoor Environment and Energy, Department of Civil Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Copenhagen (Denmark); Melikov, A.K.; Lyubenova, V. [International Centre for Indoor Environment and Energy, Department of Civil Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Copenhagen (Denmark); Kaczmarczyk, J. [Faculty of Energy and Environmental Engineering, Department of Heating, Ventilation and Dust Removal Technology, Silesian University of Technology, Gliwice (Poland)

    2010-10-15

    The effect of facially applied air movement on perceived air quality (PAQ) at high humidity was studied. Thirty subjects (21 males and 9 females) participated in three, 3-h experiments performed in a climate chamber. The experimental conditions covered three combinations of relative humidity and local air velocity under a constant air temperature of 26 C, namely: 70% relative humidity without air movement, 30% relative humidity without air movement and 70% relative humidity with air movement under isothermal conditions. Personalized ventilation was used to supply room air from the front toward the upper part of the body (upper chest, head). The subjects could control the flow rate (velocity) of the supplied air in the vicinity of their bodies. The results indicate an airflow with elevated velocity applied to the face significantly improves the acceptability of the air quality at the room air temperature of 26 C and relative humidity of 70%. (author)

  9. Controlled clinical studies of air pollutant exposure: evaluating scientific information in relation to air quality standards.

    OpenAIRE

    Hackney, J D; Linn, W S

    1983-01-01

    In controlled clinical studies, volunteers are deliberately exposed to specific air pollutants under conditions simulating ambient exposures, and health-related responses are documented. Studies of the health risks of air pollution need to be scientifically rigorous and clearly relevant to "real-world" pollution exposures. Their results should be confirmed by independent replication if they are to be used as a basis for air quality regulations. Well-designed controlled clinical studies readil...

  10. 40 CFR 81.274 - Mountain Counties Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mountain Counties Intrastate Air... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.274 Mountain Counties Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Mountain Counties Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the territorial area encompassed by...

  11. French permanent survey on indoor air quality - Part 1.: Measurement protocols and quality control

    OpenAIRE

    Ramalho, Olivier; Derbez, Mickael; Gregoire, Anthony; Garrigue, Julien; Kirchner, Séverine

    2006-01-01

    This paper focuses on a synthesis of the measurement and analytical protocols from the 2003-2005 campaign of the French permanent survey on indoor air quality and presents the associated quality control system including data traceability, quality code and interlaboratory tests. Preliminary exploitation of measurement and analysis errors are presented

  12. 40 CFR 81.26 - Hartford-New Haven-Springfield Interstate Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hartford-New Haven-Springfield... Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.26 Hartford-New Haven-Springfield Interstate Air Quality Control Region. The Hartford-New Haven-Springfield Interstate Air Quality Control Region...

  13. 40 CFR 81.120 - Middle Tennessee Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Middle Tennessee Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. 81.120 Section 81.120 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.120 Middle Tennessee Intrastate Air Quality Control Region....

  14. 78 FR 58460 - Revision of Air Quality Implementation Plan; California; Placer County Air Pollution Control...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-24

    ... Pollution Control District and Feather River Air Quality Management District; Stationary Source Permits... EPA rulemaking (76 FR 44809, July 27, 2011). EPA is also making a technical amendment to the Code of... February 22, 2013 (78 FR 12267), EPA proposed a limited approval and limited disapproval of the...

  15. 76 FR 27622 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Maryland; Adoption of Control...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Maryland; Adoption... Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Maryland; Adoption of Control Techniques Guidelines for...

  16. Use of sorbents in air quality control systems

    OpenAIRE

    Gallego Piñol, Eva; Roca Mussons, Francisco Javier; Perales Lorente, José Francisco; Guardino Solà, Xavier

    2009-01-01

    Sorbent based methods have been successfully used in the collection of air samples to determine air quality. The complexity of the occurrence in air samples of several compounds in terms of composition (polar to non-polar compounds, very volatile to semi-volatile compounds) and abundance (below detection limit to over detector saturation limit) are topics that have to be taken into account when analytical methods are developed, especially in terms of sorbent choosing. An important amount o...

  17. Predictive Techniques for Spacecraft Cabin Air Quality Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, J. L.; Cromes, Scott D. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    As assembly of the International Space Station (ISS) proceeds, predictive techniques are used to determine the best approach for handling a variety of cabin air quality challenges. These techniques use equipment offgassing data collected from each ISS module before flight to characterize the trace chemical contaminant load. Combined with crew metabolic loads, these data serve as input to a predictive model for assessing the capability of the onboard atmosphere revitalization systems to handle the overall trace contaminant load as station assembly progresses. The techniques for predicting in-flight air quality are summarized along with results from early ISS mission analyses. Results from groundbased analyses of in-flight air quality samples are compared to the predictions to demonstrate the technique's relative conservatism.

  18. 76 FR 52917 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Pennsylvania; Adoption of Control...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-24

    ...; Adoption of Control Techniques Guidelines for Large Appliance and Metal Furniture Coatings AGENCY... same title, ``Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Pennsylvania; Adoption...

  19. 75 FR 18142 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Texas; Control of Air Pollution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-09

    ... Air Pollution From Motor Vehicles AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Proposed rule... Title 30 of the Texas Administrative Code (TAC), Chapter 114, Control of Air Pollution from...

  20. Impact of individually controlled facially applied air movement on perceived air quality at high humidity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skwarczynski, Mariusz; Melikov, Arsen Krikor; Kaczmarczyk, J.;

    2010-01-01

    The effect of facially applied air movement on perceived air quality (PAQ) at high humidity was studied. Thirty subjects (21 males and 9 females) participated in three, 3-h experiments performed in a climate chamber. The experimental conditions covered three combinations of relative humidity and...... local air velocity under a constant air temperature of 26 degrees C, namely: 70% relative humidity without air movement, 30% relative humidity without air movement and 70% relative humidity with air movement under isothermal conditions. Personalized ventilation was used to supply room air from the front...... room air temperature of 26 degrees C and relative humidity of 70%....

  1. Energy efficient window opening for air quality control in classrooms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faria Da Silva, Nuno Alexandre

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present work was to study how to maximize indoor environmental quality and energy performance in classrooms, when having different ventilation alternatives combined with a visual CO2 feedback. In this effort, in heating and cooling seasons, field experiments were carried out in pairs...... effects on air quality when no CO2 feedback is installed, as less windows are opened then suggesting temperature as the main factor causing window opening. Children reported that they liked to use the CO2 feedback, with their perceptions and symptoms somewhat improved when feedback was installed but the...... results did not reach statistical significance. To improve indoor air quality in schools, CO2 feedback was shown to be an effective tool in naturally ventilated classrooms....

  2. 75 FR 59180 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Maryland; Control Technique...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-27

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Maryland; Control... and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Maryland; Control Technique Guidelines for Paper... adopting the requirements of EPA's Control Technique Guidelines (CTG) for paper, film, and foil...

  3. Air quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This chapter of the 'Assessment of the state of the environment in Lebanon' describes the air quality and identifies the most important air quality issues. Baseline information about the factors affecting dispersion and the climate of Lebanon presents as well and overall estimation of total emissions in Lebanon. Emissions from vehicles, electricity and power plants generation are described. Industrial emitters of air pollutants are described for each kind of industry i.e.cement plants, Selaata fertilizer factory, sugar-beet factory, refineries and for those derived from the use of leaded fuel . Impact of economic and human activities on air quality in Lebanon (especially in Beirut and Tripoli) are quantified by quantities of CO2, SO2, NOx, total suspended particulates(TSP), deposition and their environmental effects on health. In abscence of emissions monitoring, data available are expressed in terms of fuel use, output and appropriate empirical factors, national output and workfores sizes. Finally key issues and some potential mitigation /management approaches are presented

  4. Impact of California air quality control policies on the use and demand for natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper discusses the impact of California's air quality control policies on the use of natural gas. In this paper the author would like to briefly review the regulatory structure for air pollution control in California, summarize the requirement of the California Clean Air Act of 1988, and discuss the impacts of our regulatory programs on the use and demand for natural gas

  5. Adaptive Preheating Duration Control for Low-Power Ambient Air Quality Sensor Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Yoonchul Baek; Atiq, Mahin K.; Hyung Seok Kim

    2014-01-01

    Ceramic gas sensors used for measuring ambient air quality have features suitable for practical applications such as healthcare and air quality management, but have a major drawback—large power consumption to preheat the sensor for accurate measurements. In this paper; the adaptive preheating duration control (APC) method is proposed to reduce the power consumption of ambient air quality sensor networks. APC reduces the duration of unnecessary preheating, thereby alleviating power consumption...

  6. 77 FR 41337 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Delaware; Control Technique...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-13

    ... quality standard (NAAQS) for ozone. This action is being taken under the Clean Air Act (CAA). DATES... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Delaware; Control..., office, institutional, laboratory, hospital, public building, restaurant, barber and beauty shop,...

  7. 77 FR 45307 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans: Georgia; Control Techniques...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-31

    ... ambient air quality standards (NAAQS). See 69 FR 23858. The Atlanta Area includes the following 20... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans: Georgia; Control..., Paulding and Rockdale. See 56 FR 56694 (November 6, 1991). As such, major sources in the 13-county...

  8. 76 FR 10295 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Texas; Revisions To Control...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-24

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Texas; Revisions To Control Volatile Organic Compound Emissions From Consumer Related Sources AGENCY: Environmental Protection..., Control of Air Pollution from Volatile Organic Compounds. The State submitted these revisions on March...

  9. Factors controlling air quality in different European subway systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Vânia; Moreno, Teresa; Mendes, Luís; Eleftheriadis, Konstantinos; Diapouli, Evangelia; Alves, Célia A; Duarte, Márcio; de Miguel, Eladio; Capdevila, Marta; Querol, Xavier; Minguillón, María Cruz

    2016-04-01

    Sampling campaigns using the same equipment and methodology were conducted to assess and compare the air quality at three South European subway systems (Barcelona, Athens and Oporto), focusing on concentrations and chemical composition of PM2.5 on subway platforms, as well as PM2.5 concentrations inside trains. Experimental results showed that the mean PM2.5 concentrations widely varied among the European subway systems, and even among different platforms within the same underground system, which might be associated to distinct station and tunnel designs and ventilation systems. In all cases PM2.5 concentrations on the platforms were higher than those in the urban ambient air, evidencing that there is generation of PM2.5 associated with the subway systems operation. Subway PM2.5 consisted of elemental iron, total carbon, crustal matter, secondary inorganic compounds, insoluble sulphate, halite and trace elements. Of all metals, Fe was the most abundant, accounting for 29-43% of the total PM2.5 mass (41-61% if Fe2O3 is considered), indicating the existence of an Fe source in the subway system, which could have its origin in mechanical friction and wear processes between rails, wheels and brakes. The trace elements with the highest enrichment in the subway PM2.5 were Ba, Cu, Mn, Zn, Cr, Sb, Sr, Ni, Sn, Co, Zr and Mo. Similar PM2.5 diurnal trends were observed on platforms from different subway systems, with higher concentrations during subway operating hours than during the transport service interruption, and lower levels on weekends than on weekdays. PM2.5 concentrations depended largely on the operation and frequency of the trains and the ventilation system, and were lower inside the trains, when air conditioning system was operating properly, than on the platforms. However, the PM2.5 concentrations increased considerably when the train windows were open. The PM2.5 levels inside the trains decreased with the trains passage in aboveground sections. PMID:26717078

  10. Temperature and Humidity Control in Air-Conditioned Buildings with lower Energy Demand and increased Indoor Air Quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paul, Joachim; Martos, E. T.

    2003-01-01

    Air-conditioning is not only a matter of temperature control. Thermal comfort and good indoor air quality are mainly a matter of humidity. Human health and well being may suffer seriously from inadequate humidity and/or too low temperatures in a room. A case study involving supermarket air-conditioning....... Binary Ice as secondary refrigerant for air-conditioning purposes is an economical and technically feasible solution in any climate. Whatever chilled water can do in an air-conditioning installation ? Binary Ice can do it better....

  11. Fuzzy logic controller deployed for indoor air quality control in naturally ventilated environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper provides new indoor air quality control (IAQ) based on fuzzy logic control in natural ventilated indoor environments where no other ventilation approaches are installed or can be installed due to space limitation or economical reasons. For the presented fuzzy logic controller, four distributed sensors inside the indoor environment are used to provide the basic measurable inputs to the fuzzy system. These inputs are the carbon dioxide (CO2 ), carbon monoxide (CO), humidity (H2O) and odors concentrations inside the indoor environment. The fuzzy logic output will provide the required control command to the DC-motor connected to the fan by determining the necessary duty cycle to the PWM module. As a result, fresh air is allowed to replace the polluted air inside the indoor environments such as rooms and small workshops. The presented results for the conducted simulation scenario have confirmed the ability of the new system to handle the ventilation problem at critical situations compared to natural ventilated indoor environments. Also the presented controller is economically efficient by saving the electrical power and for implementation phase it is also inexpensive. (authors)

  12. Subtask 2.12 - Air Quality Assessment and Control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laura Raymond

    2007-07-30

    Past particulate matter (PM) research projects conducted at the Energy & Environmental Research Center included data on PM size, morphology, and chemistry. The objective of this project was to improve automated analysis capabilities of the scanning electron microscope (SEM) equipped with an energy-dispersive spectrometer. The SEM is now able to perform particle-by-particle analysis on the desired number of particles and provide size, morphology, and chemistry information for each particle. A new x-ray and image analysis system was purchased and implemented for improvements to data acquisition and analysis. This new analysis system is equipped with a digital-pulse processor, allowing for the determination of pixel-by-pixel chemistry, which significantly enhances our ability to characterize PM and other materials. In addition, this system is personal computer-based, which allows programming of the SEM to perform the automated image analysis along with detailed chemical information. This permits the incorporation of particle classification algorithms within the same computer system as the analysis is conducted. Additionally, the new Spirit software can now integrate full SEM control with imaging, elemental identification, and electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) operation. The EBSD system has also allowed for phase identification within the SEM. Reexamination of previous samples collected on a polycarbonate filter for ambient-air PM2.5 analysis has shown that crystalline identification of individual particles can be done without further sample preparation or modification of the sample and/or sampling substrate.

  13. 76 FR 10249 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Texas; Revisions To Control...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-24

    ... pollution regulations and control strategies to ensure that air quality meets the National Ambient Air... Container rule into the SIP on February 10, 2005 (70 FR 7041). On February 26, 2007, EPA adopted Federal... about which standards they are required to comply with. \\1\\ See 72 FR 8432. EPA is approving...

  14. 40 CFR Appendix A to Part 81 - Air Quality Control Regions (AQCR's)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Air Quality Control Regions (AQCR's) A Appendix A to Part 81 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS...-Southwestern Virginia (Va.) 207 Metropolitan Memphis (Ark., Miss.) 18 Middle Tennessee 208 Tennessee...

  15. Transportation and air quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the greater Vancouver regional district (GVRD), some 80% of the annual production of 600,000 tonnes of air pollutants come from motor vehicles. Three critical air quality issues in the GVRD are discussed: local air pollution, ozone layer depletion, and greenhouse gas emissions, all of which are fundamentally linked to transportation. Overall air quality in the GVRD has been judged acceptable by current federal standards, but ground-level ozone has exceeded maximum tolerable levels at some locations and concentrations of suspended particulates are above maximum acceptable levels. Serious deterioration in air quality has been predicted unless a concerted effort is made to manage air quality on an airshed-wide basis. The GVRD is developing Canada's first Air Management Plan with the goal of halving atmospheric emissions by 2000. GVRD transportation priorities stress public transit, walking, cycling, car pooling, and reducing of travel demand; however, the viability of such strategies depends on decisions made outside the transportation sector. Restricted authority and jurisdiction also hinder GVRD goals; the regional level of government has no authority over highways or transit and only has authority for pollution control in some parts of the Fraser Valley. Airshed quality management, using the Los Angeles example, is seen as a possible direction for future GVRD policymaking in the transportation sector. A single regional planning agency with responsibility for transportation, land use, and air quality management appears as the best option for an integrated approach to solve multiple problems. 19 refs

  16. 75 FR 6337 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Maryland; Control of Carbon...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Maryland; Control of... submitted by the State of Maryland for the purpose of replacing the existing requirements for the control...

  17. Quality control of AIRS total column ozone data within tropical cyclones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yin; Zou, Xiaolei

    2016-06-01

    The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) provides infrared radiance observations twice daily, which can be used to retrieve total column ozone with high spatial resolution. However, it was found that almost all of the ozone data within typhoons and hurricanes were flagged to be of bad quality by the AIRS original quality control (QC) scheme. This determination was based on the ratio of total precipitable water (TPW) error divided by TPW value, where TPW was an AIRS retrieval product. It was found that the difficulty in finding total column ozone data that could pass AIRS QC was related to the low TPWemployed in the AIRS QC algorithm. In this paper, a new two-step QC scheme for AIRS total column ozone is developed. A new ratio is defined which replaces the AIRS TPW with the zonal mean TPW retrieved from the Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit. The first QC step is to remove outliers when the new ratio exceeds 33%. Linear regression models between total column ozone and mean potential vorticity are subsequently developed with daily updates, which are required for future applications of the proposed total ozone QC algorithm to vortex initialization and assimilation of AIRS data. In the second QC step, observations that significantly deviate from the models are further removed using a biweighting algorithm. Numerical results for two typhoon cases and two hurricane cases show that a large amount of good quality AIRS total ozone data is kept within Tropical Cyclones after implementing the proposed QC algorithm.

  18. Improving Forecast Skill by Assimilation of Quality Controlled AIRS Version 5 Temperature Soundings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susskind, Joel; Reale, Oreste

    2009-01-01

    The AIRS Science Team Version 5 retrieval algorithm has been finalized and is now operational at the Goddard DAAC in the processing (and reprocessing) of all AIRS data. The AIRS Science Team Version 5 retrieval algorithm contains two significant improvements over Version 4: 1) Improved physics allows for use of AIRS observations in the entire 4.3 micron CO2 absorption band in the retrieval of temperature profile T(p) during both day and night. Tropospheric sounding 15 micron CO2 observations are now used primarily in the generation of cloud cleared radiances R(sub i). This approach allows for the generation of accurate values of R(sub i) and T(p) under most cloud conditions. 2) Another very significant improvement in Version 5 is the ability to generate accurate case-by-case, level-by-level error estimates for the atmospheric temperature profile, as well as for channel-by-channel error estimates for R(sub i). These error estimates are used for Quality Control of the retrieved products. We have conducted forecast impact experiments assimilating AIRS temperature profiles with different levels of Quality Control using the NASA GEOS-5 data assimilation system. Assimilation of Quality Controlled T(p) resulted in significantly improved forecast skill compared to that obtained from analyses obtained when all data used operationally by NCEP, except for AIRS data, is assimilated. We also conducted an experiment assimilating AIRS radiances uncontaminated by clouds, as done operationally by ECMWF and NCEP. Forecast resulting from assimilated AIRS radiances were of poorer quality than those obtained assimilating AIRS temperatures.

  19. Improved Temperature Sounding and Quality Control Methodology Using AIRS/AMSU Data: The AIRS Science Team Version 5 Retrieval Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susskind, Joel; Blaisdell, John M.; Iredell, Lena; Keita, Fricky

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the AIRS Science Team Version 5 retrieval algorithm in terms of its three most significant improvements over the methodology used in the AIRS Science Team Version 4 retrieval algorithm. Improved physics in Version 5 allows for use of AIRS clear column radiances in the entire 4.3 micron CO2 absorption band in the retrieval of temperature profiles T(p) during both day and night. Tropospheric sounding 15 micron CO2 observations are now used primarily in the generation of clear column radiances .R(sub i) for all channels. This new approach allows for the generation of more accurate values of .R(sub i) and T(p) under most cloud conditions. Secondly, Version 5 contains a new methodology to provide accurate case-by-case error estimates for retrieved geophysical parameters and for channel-by-channel clear column radiances. Thresholds of these error estimates are used in a new approach for Quality Control. Finally, Version 5 also contains for the first time an approach to provide AIRS soundings in partially cloudy conditions that does not require use of any microwave data. This new AIRS Only sounding methodology, referred to as AIRS Version 5 AO, was developed as a backup to AIRS Version 5 should the AMSU-A instrument fail. Results are shown comparing the relative performance of the AIRS Version 4, Version 5, and Version 5 AO for the single day, January 25, 2003. The Goddard DISC is now generating and distributing products derived using the AIRS Science Team Version 5 retrieval algorithm. This paper also described the Quality Control flags contained in the DISC AIRS/AMSU retrieval products and their intended use for scientific research purposes.

  20. Indoor Air Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... protect yourself and your family. Learn more Air Quality at Work Workers should breathe easy while on the job, but worksites with poor air quality put employees at risk. Healthy air is essential ...

  1. Indoor air quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rising energy prices, among other factors, have generated an incentive to reduce ventilation rates and thereby reduce the cost of heating and cooling buildings. Reduced ventilation in buildings may significantly increase exposure to indoor air pollution and perhaps have adverse effects on occupant health and comfort. Preliminary findings suggest that reduced ventilation may adversely affect indoor air quality unless appropriate control strategies are undertaken. The strategies used to control indoor air pollution depend on the specific pollutant or class of pollutants encountered, and differ somewhat depending on whether the application is to an existing building or a new building under design and construction. Whenever possible, the first course of action is prevention or reduction of pollutant emissions at the source. In most buildings, control measures involve a combination of prevention, removal, and suppression. Common sources of indoor air pollution in buildings, the specific pollutants emitted by each source, the potential health effects, and possible control techniques are discussed

  2. Assimilation of Quality Controlled AIRS Temperature Profiles using the NCEP GFS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susskind, Joel; Reale, Oreste; Iredell, Lena; Rosenberg, Robert

    2013-01-01

    We have previously conducted a number of data assimilation experiments using AIRS Version-5 quality controlled temperature profiles as a step toward finding an optimum balance of spatial coverage and sounding accuracy with regard to improving forecast skill. The data assimilation and forecast system we used was the Goddard Earth Observing System Model , Version-5 (GEOS-5) Data Assimilation System (DAS), which represents a combination of the NASA GEOS-5 forecast model with the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) operational Grid Point Statistical Interpolation (GSI) global analysis scheme. All analyses and forecasts were run at a 0.5deg x 0.625deg spatial resolution. Data assimilation experiments were conducted in four different seasons, each in a different year. Three different sets of data assimilation experiments were run during each time period: Control; AIRS T(p); and AIRS Radiance. In the "Control" analysis, all the data used operationally by NCEP was assimilated, but no AIRS data was assimilated. Radiances from the Aqua AMSU-A instrument were also assimilated operationally by NCEP and are included in the "Control". The AIRS Radiance assimilation adds AIRS observed radiance observations for a select set of channels to the data set being assimilated, as done operationally by NCEP. In the AIRS T(p) assimilation, all information used in the Control was assimilated as well as Quality Controlled AIRS Version-5 temperature profiles, i.e., AIRS T(p) information was substituted for AIRS radiance information. The AIRS Version-5 temperature profiles were presented to the GSI analysis as rawinsonde profiles, assimilated down to a case-by-case appropriate pressure level p(sub best) determined using the Quality Control procedure. Version-5 also determines case-by-case, level-by-level error estimates of the temperature profiles, which were used as the uncertainty of each temperature measurement. These experiments using GEOS-5 have shown that forecasts

  3. Roadside air quality and implications for control measures: A case study of Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ai, Z. T.; Mak, C. M.; Lee, H. C.

    2016-07-01

    Traffic related air pollution is one of major environmental issues in densely populated urban areas including Hong Kong. A series of control measures has been implemented by Hong Kong government to cut traffic related air pollutants, including retrofitting the Euro II and Euro III buses with selective catalytic reduction (SCR) devices to lower nitrogen dioxide (NO2) emissions. In order to reveal the real-life roadside air quality and evaluate the effectiveness of the control measures, this study first analyzed the recent six-year data regarding concentrations of pollutants typically associated with traffic recorded in two governmental roadside monitoring stations and second conducted on-site measurements of concentration of pollutants at pedestrian level near five selected roads. Given that there is a possibility of ammonia leakage as a secondary pollutant from SCR devices, a special attention was paid to the measurements of ammonia level in bus stations and along roadsides. Important influencing factors, such as traffic intensity, street configuration and season, were analyzed. Control measures implemented by the government are effective to decrease the traffic emissions. In 2014, only NO2 cannot achieve the annual air quality objective of Hong Kong. However, it is important to find that particulate matters, rather than NO2, post potentially a short-term exposure risk to passengers and pedestrians. Based on the findings of this study, specific control measures are suggested, which are intended to further improve the roadside air quality.

  4. 77 FR 22676 - Revisions to the Arizona State Implementation Plan, Pinal County Air Quality Control District

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-17

    ... finalizing a limited approval and limited disapproval of a revision to the Pinal County Air Quality Control.... Proposed Action On June 18, 2001 (66 FR 32783), EPA proposed a limited approval and limited disapproval of... Federalism (64 FR 43255, August 10, 1999) revokes and replaces Executive Orders 12612 (Federalism) and...

  5. 75 FR 59084 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Maryland; Control Technique...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-27

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Maryland; Control... reasonably available considering technological and economic feasibility'' (44 FR 53761, September 17, 1979... and Budget under Executive Order 12866 (58 FR 51735, October 4, 1993); Does not impose an...

  6. Adaptive Preheating Duration Control for Low-Power Ambient Air Quality Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoonchul Baek

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Ceramic gas sensors used for measuring ambient air quality have features suitable for practical applications such as healthcare and air quality management, but have a major drawback—large power consumption to preheat the sensor for accurate measurements. In this paper; the adaptive preheating duration control (APC method is proposed to reduce the power consumption of ambient air quality sensor networks. APC reduces the duration of unnecessary preheating, thereby alleviating power consumption. Furthermore, the APC can allow systems to meet user requirements such as accuracy and periodicity factor when detecting the concentration of a target gas. A performance evaluation of the power consumption of gas sensors is conducted with various user requirements and factors that affect the preheating duration of the gas sensor. This shows that the power consumption of the APC is lower than that of continuous power supply methods and constant power supply/cutoff methods.

  7. Indoor air quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Indoor Air Quality is rapidly becoming a major environmental concern because a significant amount of people spend a substantial amount of time in a variety of different indoor environments. Health effects from indoor pollutants fall into two categories: those that are experienced immediately after exposure and those that do not show up until years later. They are: radon, formaldehyde, asbestos, lead and household organic chemicals. The authors presented a source-by-source look at the most common indoor air pollutants, their potential health effects, and ways to reduce their levels in the home. There are three basic strategies to improve indoor air quality: one method is source control, another is through ventilation improvements, and the third is the utilization of some sort of mechanical device such as air cleaners

  8. Energy and air quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is one of a series of handbooks designed to provide nontechnical readers with a general understanding of the interaction between energy development and environmental media and to provide a rudimentary data base from which estimates of potential future impacts can be made. This handbook describes the air quality impacts of energy development and summarizes the major federal legislation which regulates the potential air quality impacts of energy facilities and can thus influence the locations and timing of energy development. In addition, this report describes and presents the data which can be used as the basis for measurement, and in some cases, prediction of the potential conflicts between energy development and achieving and maintaining clean air. Energy utilization is the largest emission source of man-made air pollutants. Choices in energy resource development and utilization generate varying emissions or discharges into the atmosphere, the emissions are affected by the assimilative character of the atmosphere, and the resultant air pollutant concentrations have biological and aesthetic effects. This handbook describes the interrelationships of energy-related air emissions under various methods of pollution control, the assimilative character of the air medium, and the effects of air pollution. The media book is divided into three major sections: topics of concern relating to the media and energy development, descriptions of how to use available data to quantify and examine energy/environmental impacts, and the data

  9. Improving Forecast Skill by Assimilation of Quality-controlled AIRS Temperature Retrievals under Partially Cloudy Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reale, O.; Susskind, J.; Rosenberg, R.; Brin, E.; Riishojgaard, L.; Liu, E.; Terry, J.; Jusem, J. C.

    2007-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) on board the Aqua satellite has been long recognized as an important contributor towards the improvement of weather forecasts. At this time only a small fraction of the total data produced by AIRS is being used by operational weather systems. In fact, in addition to effects of thinning and quality control, the only AIRS data assimilated are radiance observations of channels unaffected by clouds. Observations in mid-lower tropospheric sounding AIRS channels are assimilated primarily under completely clear-sky conditions, thus imposing a very severe limitation on the horizontal distribution of the AIRS-derived information. In this work it is shown that the ability to derive accurate temperature profiles from AIRS observations in partially cloud-contaminated areas can be utilized to further improve the impact of AIRS observations in a global model and forecasting system. The analyses produced by assimilating AIRS temperature profiles obtained under partial cloud cover result in a substantially colder representation of the northern hemisphere lower midtroposphere at higher latitudes. This temperature difference has a strong impact, through hydrostatic adjustment, in the midtropospheric geopotential heights, which causes a different representation of the polar vortex especially over northeastern Siberia and Alaska. The AIRS-induced anomaly propagates through the model's dynamics producing improved 5-day forecasts.

  10. Allegheny County Air Quality

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Air quality data from Allegheny County Health Department monitors throughout the county. Air quality monitored data must be verified by qualified individuals...

  11. Role of monitoring network in the control management of air quality. An industrial case history

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zerbo, G. [Catania Univ. (Italy). Inst. of Merceology; Fabiano, B.; Ferraiolo, A.; Solisio, C.; Ruaro, R.

    1995-12-31

    Air quality control by a system of monitoring station is indispensable for the environmental protection. Moreover, a monitoring network have not to be only a mere data collection a good air quality control is possible only if the network management allows to prevent unacceptable pollutants level. In other terms, elaboration and interpretation data are fundamental in order to make monitoring system really able for regulations of corrective measures as, for example, the reduction of local emissions. The case of monitoring network run from the Industrial Society CIPA of Siracusa (Italy) is discussed. The management of the data obtained from a continuous survey allows to keep pollutants level below the current limits set down by the Italian law. Furthermore, elaboration of the data allows useful evaluations about atmospheric dispersion phenomena. (author)

  12. Quality of Life, Sleep, and Health of Air Traffic Controllers With Rapid Counterclockwise Shift Rotation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonati, Jaqueline Girnos; De Martino, Milva Maria Figueiredo; Vilarta, Roberto; da Silva Maciel, Érika; Sonati, Renato José Ferreira; Paduan, Paulo Cézar

    2016-08-01

    Rotating shiftwork is common for air traffic controllers and usually causes sleep deprivation, biological adaptations, and life changes for these workers. This study assessed quality of life, the sleep, and the health of 30 air traffic controllers employed at an international airport in Brazil. The objective was to identify health and quality of life concerns of these professionals. The results identified physical inactivity, overweight, excess body fat, low scores for physical and social relationships, and sleep deprivation for workers in all four workshifts. In conclusion, these workers are at risk for chronic non-transmittable diseases and compromised work performance, suggesting the need for more rest time before working nightshifts and work environments that stimulate physical activity and healthy diets. PMID:27147608

  13. Indoor Air Quality

    OpenAIRE

    Korlakunta Divya #1, M.Anil Kumar

    2013-01-01

    The main aim of our project is to maintain the indoor air quality.The analysis is done on different parameters like temperature,relativehumidity,CO2,lights,sens ors and air conditioners to maintain the indoor environment.This report provides overview on importance of indoor air quality in an office or any other closed structure. It also discusses about the effects of poor indoor air quality, the various factors that affect the indoor air quality and various methods to assess indoor air qualit...

  14. [Impact of heavy-duty diesel vehicles on air quality and control of their emissions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Lei; Wang, Bo-Guang; Tang, Da-Gang

    2011-08-01

    Through an analysis of the characteristics of diesel vehicle emissions and motor vehicle emissions inventories, this paper examines the impact of heavy-duty diesel vehicles on air quality in China as well as issues related to the control of their emissions. Heavy-duty diesel vehicles emit large amounts of nitrogen oxides and particulate matter. Nitrogen oxides is one of the important precursors for the formation of secondary particles and ozone in the atmosphere, causing regional haze. Diesel particulate matter is a major toxic air pollutant with adverse effect on human health, and in particular, the ultrafine particles in 30-100 nm size range can pose great health risks because of its extremely small sizes. Motor vehicles have become a major source of air pollution in many metropolitan areas and city cluster in China, and among them the heavy-duty diesel vehicles are a dominant contributor of nitrogen oxides and particulate matter emissions. Hence, controlling heavy-duty diesel vehicle emissions should be a key component of an effective air quality management plan, and a number of issues related to heavy-duty diesel vehicle emissions need to be addressed. PMID:22619934

  15. Indoor Air Quality Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin Union Free School District, NY.

    This manual identifies ways to improve a school's indoor air quality (IAQ) and discusses practical actions that can be carried out by school staff in managing air quality. The manual includes discussions of the many sources contributing to school indoor air pollution and the preventive planning for each including renovation and repair work,…

  16. Air Quality System (AQS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Air Quality System (AQS) database contains measurements of air pollutant concentrations from throughout the United States and its territories. The measurements...

  17. Use of Quality Controlled AIRS Temperature Soundings to Improve Forecast Skill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susskind, Joel; Reale, Oreste; Iredell, Lena

    2010-01-01

    AIRS was launched on EOS Aqua on May 4, 2002, together with AMSU-A and HSB, to form a next generation polar orbiting infrared and microwave atmospheric sounding system. The primary products of AIRS/AMSU-A are twice daily global fields of atmospheric temperature-humidity profiles, ozone profiles, sea/land surface skin temperature, and cloud related parameters including OLR. Also included are the clear column radiances used to derive these products which are representative of the radiances AIRS would have seen if there were no clouds in the field of view. All products also have error estimates. The sounding goals of AIRS are to produce 1 km tropospheric layer mean temperatures with an rms error of 1K, and layer precipitable water with an rms error of 20 percent, in cases with up to 90 percent effective cloud cover. The products are designed for data assimilation purposes for the improvement of numerical weather prediction, as well as for the study of climate and meteorological processes. With regard to data assimilation, one can use either the products themselves or the clear column radiances from which the products were derived. The AIRS Version 5 retrieval algorithm is now being used operationally at the Goddard DISC in the routine generation of geophysical parameters derived from AIRS/AMSU data. A major innovation in Version 5 is the ability to generate case-by-case level-by-level error estimates for retrieved quantities and clear column radiances, and the use of these error estimates for Quality Control. The temperature profile error estimates are used to determine a case-by-case characteristic pressure pbest, down to which the profile is considered acceptable for data assimilation purposes. The characteristic pressure p(sub best) is determined by comparing the case dependent error estimate (delta)T(p) to the threshold values (Delta)T(p). The AIRS Version 5 data set provides error estimates of T(p) at all levels, and also profile dependent values of pbest based

  18. Spacecraft Cabin Air Quality Control and Its Application to Tight Buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, J. L.; Graf, J. C.

    1995-01-01

    Air quality is an important consideration not only for the external environment, but also for the indoor environment. Most people spend a majority of their lives indoors and the air that they breathe is important to their physical and emotional well being. Since most modern building designs have focused on energy efficiency, less fresh air is brought from the outside. As a result, pollutants from building materials, furniture, cleaning, and cooking have no place to go. To make matters worse, most ventilation systems do not include any means for removing pollutants from the recycled air. Unfortunately, pollution at even a small level can result in eye, throat, and lung irritation in addition to chronic headaches, nausea, and fatigue. A spacecraft cabin, which represents the worst case in tight building design, requires special consideration of air quality since any effects pollutants may have on a crewmember can potentially place a mission or other crewmembers at risk. A detailed approach has been developed by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) to minimize cabin atmosphere pollution and provide the crew with an environment which is as free of pollutants as possible. This approach is a combination of passive and active contamination control concepts involving the evaluation and selection of materials to be used onboard the spacecraft, the establishment of air quality standards to ensure crew health, and the use of active control means onboard the spacecraft to further ensure an acceptable atmosphere. This approach has allowed NASA to prevent illness by providing crewmembers with a cabin atmosphere which contains pollutant concentrations up to 100 times lower than those specified for terrestrial indoor environments. Standard building construction, however, does not take into account the potentially harmful effects of materials used in the construction process on the health of future occupants and relies primarily on remedial rather than

  19. Indoor air quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Trine Susanne; Recevska, Ieva

     The objective of the 35th specific agreement is to provide support to the EEA activities in Environment and Health (E&H) on the topic of indoor air quality. The specific objectives have been to provide an overview of indoor air related projects in EU and indoor air related policies as well...

  20. Study on the Environmental Quality Guarantee Ratio on the Basis of Total Air Pollutant Emission Amount Control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐芙蓉; 施介宽

    2004-01-01

    The hourly and daily air quality concentration in the total air pollutant emission amount control zone is not sure to be continuously up to national ambient air quality standard,even though the total annual air pollutant emission is permitted under the total air pollutant emission amount control (TAPEAC) on the basis of A-value method. So the concept of the environmental quality guarantee ratio (EQGR) for TAPEAC is advanced in this paper and its quantitative formula is figured out for both hourly and daily EQGR. It is concluded that the EQGR is related with the yearly arrangement of A-value besides the pollutant type.According to the meteorological data in a lower area along Yangtze River in 2000, the yearly A-value trend is analyzed. Based on the data, the hourly EQGR of SO2 and NO2 is respectively 97.4% and 90.2%, and daily EQGR respectively 90.2% and 79.5%.

  1. Modeling Study on Air Quality Improvement due to Mobile Source Emission control Plan in Seoul Metropolitan Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Y. J.; Sunwoo, Y.; Hwang, I.; Song, S.; Sin, J.; Kim, D.

    2015-12-01

    A very high population and corresponding high number of vehicles in the Seoul Metropolitan Area (SMA) are aggravating the air quality of this region. The Korean government continues to make concerted efforts to improve air quality. One of the major policies that the Ministry of Environment of Korea enforced is "The Special Act for Improvement of Air Quality in SMA" and "The 1st Air Quality Management Plan of SMA". Mobile Source emission controls are an important part of the policy. Thus, it is timely to evaluate the air quality improvement due to the controls. Therefore, we performed a quantitative analysis of the difference in air quality using the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model and December, 2011 was set as the target period to capture the impact of the above control plans. We considered four fuel-type vehicle emission scenarios and compared the air quality improvement differences between them. The scenarios are as follows: no-control, gasoline vehicle control only, diesel vehicle control only, and control of both; utilizing the revised mobile source emissions from the Clean Air Policy Support System (CAPSS), which is the national emission inventory reflecting current policy.In order to improve the accuracy of the modeling data, we developed new temporal allocation coefficients based on traffic volume observation data and spatially reallocated the mobile source emissions using vehicle flow survey data. Furthermore, we calculated the PM10 and PM2.5 emissions of gasoline vehicles which is omitted in CAPSS.The results of the air quality modeling shows that vehicle control plans for both gasoline and diesel lead to a decrease of 0.65ppb~8.75ppb and 0.02㎍/㎥~7.09㎍/㎥ in NO2 and PM10 monthly average concentrations, respectively. The large percentage decreases mainly appear near the center of the metropolis. However, the largest NO2 decrease percentages are found in the northeast region of Gyeonggi-do, which is the province that surrounds the

  2. Air Quality Monitoring Programme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kemp, K.; Palmgren, F.

    The air quality in Danish cities has been monitored continuously since 1982 within the Danish Air Quality (LMP) network. The aim has been to follow the concentration levels of toxic pollutants in the urban atmosphere and to provide the necessary knowledge to assess the trends, to perform source...... apportionment, and to evaluate the chemical reactions and the dispersion of the pollutants in the atmosphere. In 2002 the air quality was measured in four Danish cities and at two background sites. NO2 and PM10 were at several stations found in concentrations above the new EU limit values, which the Member...

  3. Transportation and Air Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... factors research. - Modeling & Inventories - Testing & Measuring Emissions - Clean Automotive Technologies - Emission Factors Research This page is maintained by EPA's Office of Transportation and Air Quality (OTAQ) . For more: About Us | Get E-mail ...

  4. Regional Air Quality Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This asset provides data on regional air quality, including trace level SO2, nitric acid, ozone, carbon monoxide, and NOy; and particulate sulfate, nitrate, and...

  5. Air Quality in Lithuania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pietilae, P. [Tampere University of Technology / ECAT-Lithuania (Lithuania); Kliucininkas, L. [Department for Environmental Engineering, Kaunas University of Technology (Lithuania)

    2000-07-01

    Sustainable monitoring of the ambient air is the major preventive measure of ensuring its proper quality. Only with a monitoring procedure going-on a continuous basis it is possible to make an objective evaluation of air pollution trends, of the efficiency of air protection measures and, partially, to a certain extent of the impact the pollution exerts on a human health. The information stemming from the monitoring procedure must be reliable, sustainable and efficient. (orig.)

  6. Introduction to Indoor Air Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... US Environmental Protection Agency Search Search Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) Share Facebook Twitter Google+ Pinterest Contact Us ... Indoor Air Quality An Introduction to Indoor Air Quality IAQ & Health Causes of IAQ Problems Identifying IAQ ...

  7. 76 FR 34021 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Pennsylvania; Control of Nitrogen...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-10

    ...; Control of Nitrogen Oxides Emissions From Glass Melting Furnaces AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency... in 40 CFR Part 52 Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Nitrogen dioxide, Ozone... oxide (NO X ) emissions from glass melting furnaces. This action is being taken under the Clean Air...

  8. Steam-electric plant air and water quality control data. Summary report for the year ended December 31, 1975, based on FPC Form No. 67

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-01-01

    Data relating to nationwide impacts of steam-electric power plants on the environment are discussed with regard to growth of the industry; fuel quality; air pollution control; water pollution control; and cost of cooling facilities. Tables are presented to show the following: air quality data aggregated by state and geographic region and by air quality control region; water quality data aggregated by state and geographic region and by water resource region; and individual plant data. (HLW)

  9. Using a Ventilation Controller to Optimize Residential Passive Ventilation For Energy and Indoor Air Quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, William [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Walker, Iain [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2014-08-01

    One way to reduce the energy impact of providing residential ventilation is to use passive and hybrid systems. However, these passive and hybrid (sometimes called mixed-mode) systems must still meet chronic and acute health standards for ventilation. This study uses a computer simulation approach to examine the energy and indoor air quality (IAQ) implications of passive and hybrid ventilation systems, in 16 California climate zones. Both uncontrolled and flow controlled passive stacks are assessed. A new hybrid ventilation system is outlined that uses an intelligent ventilation controller to minimise energy use, while ensuring chronic and acute IAQ standards are met. ASHRAE Standard 62.2-2010 – the United States standard for residential ventilation - is used as the chronic standard, and exposure limits for PM2.5, formaldehyde and NO2 are used as the acute standards.The results show that controlled passive ventilation and hybrid ventilation can be used in homes to provide equivalent IAQ to continuous mechanical ventilation, for less use of energy.

  10. Workshop on indoor air quality research needs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-01

    Workshop participants report on indoor air quality research needs including the monitoring of indoor air quality, report of the instrumentation subgroup of indoor air quality, health effects, and the report of the control technology session. Risk analysis studies addressing indoor environments were also summarized. (DLS)

  11. Workshop on indoor air quality research needs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Workshop participants report on indoor air quality research needs including the monitoring of indoor air quality, report of the instrumentation subgroup of indoor air quality, health effects, and the report of the control technology session. Risk analysis studies addressing indoor environments were also summarized

  12. Manual on indoor air quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diamond, R.C.; Grimsrud, D.T.

    1983-12-01

    This reference manual was prepared to assist electric utilities in helping homeowners, builders, and new home buyers to understand a broad range of issues related to indoor air quality. The manual is directed to technically knowledgeable persons employed by utility companies - the customer service or marketing representative, applications engineer, or technician - who may not have specific expertise in indoor air quality issues. In addition to providing monitoring and control techniques, the manual summarizes the link between pollutant concentrations, air exchange, and energy conservation and describes the characteristics and health effects of selected pollutants. Where technical information is too lengthy or complex for inclusion in this volume, reference sources are given. Information for this manual was gathered from technical studies, manufacturers' information, and other materials from professional societies, institutes, and associations. The aim has been to provide objective technical and descriptive information that can be used by utility personnel to make informed decisions about indoor air quality issues.

  13. Manual on indoor air quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This reference manual was prepared to assist electric utilities in helping homeowners, builders, and new home buyers to understand a broad range of issues related to indoor air quality. The manual is directed to technically knowledgeable persons employed by utility companies - the customer service or marketing representative, applications engineer, or technician - who may not have specific expertise in indoor air quality issues. In addition to providing monitoring and control techniques, the manual summarizes the link between pollutant concentrations, air exchange, and energy conservation and describes the characteristics and health effects of selected pollutants. Where technical information is too lengthy or complex for inclusion in this volume, reference sources are given. Information for this manual was gathered from technical studies, manufacturers' information, and other materials from professional societies, institutes, and associations. The aim has been to provide objective technical and descriptive information that can be used by utility personnel to make informed decisions about indoor air quality issues

  14. The control network of air quality in the Lorraine steel industry country: an example of a specific steel industry network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This specific (for steel industry region) network for the air quality control mainly measures the concentrations in sulfur dioxide, airborne dust and fall out particles. The recent automation of this network implied a preliminary optimization study which consisted of a statistical analysis of the numerous data collected by many hand operated sensors. The implementation and working conditions of the new equipment have required the use of air-conditioned monoblock metallic cabins

  15. Air filtration and indoor air quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bekö, Gabriel

    2006-01-01

    Demands for better indoor air quality are increasing, since we spend most of our time indoors and we are more and more aware of indoor air pollution. Field studies in different parts of the world have documented that high percentage of occupants in many offices and buildings find the indoor air...... decent ventilation and air cleaning/air filtration, high indoor air quality cannot be accomplished. The need for effective air filtration has increased with increasing evidence on the hazardous effects of fine particles. Moreover, the air contains gaseous pollutants, removal of which requires various air...... cleaning techniques. Supply air filter is one of the key components in the ventilation system. Studies have shown that used ventilation filters themselves can be a significant source of indoor air pollution with consequent impact on perceived air quality, sick building syndrome symptoms and performance...

  16. Air Quality Guide for Ozone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Local Air Quality Conditions Zip Code: State : My Current Location Air Quality Guide for Ozone Ground-level ozone is one of our nation’s most common air pollutants. Use the chart below to help reduce ...

  17. Impact of various emission control schemes on air quality using WRF-Chem during APEC China 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jianping; He, Jing; Liu, Hongli; Miao, Yucong; Liu, Huan; Zhai, Panmao

    2016-09-01

    Emission control measures have been implemented to make air quality good enough for Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) China 2014, which provides us with an ideal test-bed to determine how these measures affect air quality in Beijing and surrounding areas. Based on hourly observations at eight monitoring sites of Beijing, the concentrations of other primary atmospheric pollutants during APEC were found to have significantly lower magnitudes than those before APEC, with the exception of a higher O3 concentration. Overall, WRF/Chem reproduced the observed time series of PM2.5, PM10, NO2, CO, and O3 notably well. To investigate the impact of emission control measures on air quality on both local and regional scales, four emission control schemes were developed according to the locations where emission reduction had taken place; the corresponding simulations were subsequently run separately. Scheme S2 (emission control implemented in Beijing) resulted in reductions of 22%, 24%, 10% and 22% for the concentrations of PM2.5, PM10, NO2 and CO, respectively, compared with 14%, 14%, 8%, and 13% for scheme S3 (emission controls implemented from outside of Beijing). This finding indicates that the local emission reduction in Beijing contributes more to the improved air quality in Beijing during APEC China 2014 than does the emission reduction from outside of Beijing. In terms of the impact on the regional scale, the real emission control scheme led to significant reduction of PM2.5 throughout the whole domain. Although the regional impact cannot be completely ignored, both emission reduction measures implemented in Beijing and those implemented outside of Beijing favor greater reduction in PM2.5 in the domains where measurements are presumably taken, as compared with other domains. Therefore, to improve the air quality in Beijing, more coordinated efforts should be made, particularly in the aspect of more stringent reduction and control strategies on pollutant emission

  18. 75 FR 59179 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Maryland; Adoption of Control...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-27

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Maryland; Adoption... in the public docket and made available on the Internet. If you submit an electronic comment, EPA... the Internet and will be publicly available only in hard copy form. Publicly available...

  19. 76 FR 4578 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Maryland; Adoption of Control...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-26

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Maryland; Adoption... is placed in the public docket and made available on the Internet. If you submit an electronic... placed on the Internet and will be publicly available only in hard copy form. Publicly available...

  20. 78 FR 34306 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans: North Carolina; Control Techniques...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-07

    ... national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS). See 69 FR 23858. The bi-state Charlotte Area includes six... Area on November 28, 2011, at 76 FR 72844. Section 182(b)(2) of the CAA requires states to adopt RACT... their SIPs, RACT rules for stationary sources of VOC that are covered by the CTG. See 78 FR 15895....

  1. Air Quality Monitoring Programme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kemp, K.; Palmgren, F.

    The Danish Air Quality Monitoring Programme (LMP IV) has been revised in accordance with the Framework Directive and the first three daughter directives of SO2, NOx/NO2, PM10, lead, benzene, CO and ozone. PM10 samplers are under installation and the installation will be completed during 2002...

  2. Indoor Air Quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selman, Ayser Dawod; Heiselberg, Per

    Overall purpose of the research is to provide an overview of the relevance and importance of various defined Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) parameters in a European perspective. Based on the report it should be possible to prioritize which countries to target for further activities as well as it should...

  3. Air quality indicators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report proposes and describes in detail several air quality indicators that may be used to describe population exposure. The suggested indicators account for temporal and spatial patterns of pollution and movements of individuals between different micro-environments. The Air Quality Indicator /AQI) should represent both the spatial and temporal aspects of pollution exposure that may have important effects on health. Two indicators are needed, the Population Air Quality Indicator and the Individual Air Quality Indicator. Mean concentrations, 98th percentile and maximum values are the traditional indicators for estimating exposure. the temporal variability of PM-10 and NO2, however, is here described by means of: 1) The rate of change of pollution as the difference between two consecutive hourly values and of 2) episodes, described in terms of number, duration and winter episode period, maximum concentration in the episode and integrated episode exposure (episode AOT50/100). The spatial variation of AQIs can be described in several ways, e.g.: 1) Concentrations in neighbouring grid squares can be compared as an indication of spatial variation and 2) point estimates can be compared to grid values for a description of variation within a grid. Both methods are presented here. A test of the representativity of static point estimates for pollution exposure is to compare them to an estimate of air pollution exposure accounting for movements between different locations, obtained using diaries. The ultimate aim of AQIs is to describe the population exposure to ambient pollution. This is done by estimating the number of people exposed using different characteristics of AQIs. The data used to describe these indicators originates from dispersion modelling of short-term air pollution concentrations in Oslo. Two series of data are used. One represents hour-for hour concentrations in the 1 km2 grid system covering the city of Oslo, winter 1994/95, calculated by the grid

  4. Studies on energy consumption patterns for improving air quality in the seoul metropolitan area. pt. 3 Status of photochemical air pollution and control technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Seong Soo; Son, Jae Ik; Park, Young Ok; Kim, Hong Yong; Cho, Sung Ho [Korea Inst. of Energy Research, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-12-01

    1. Status of photochemical air pollution in the capital area and control strategy. The results of this study show that the air quality in the capital area has an indication of regional photochemical air pollution. Primary pollutants can be controlled at the emission sources, but it is not easy to find the target of photochemical pollution control. For effective photochemical pollution control, basic studies on the fraction of VOCs in total hydrocarbon emissions, the composition of VOCs, and non-traditional emissions such as those from solvent use should be conducted. Comprehensive studies on photochemical pollution control strategies in this report would be useful for identifying essential factors on devising strategies. 2. Air quality modelling using STEM-II. Modelling domain in the last year was confined to the capital area that was too small for a regional-scale model. Modeling domain in this year covered the east of China to the East Sea. The results of modeling in this year were much better than those of the last year. However, the limitations associated with incomplete input data and modeling domain that was too large for the capital area would not be overcome without sufficient basic studies. (author). 29 refs., 34 figs., 21 tabs.

  5. Air quality management planning (AQMP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sivertsen Bjarne

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In most urban areas of the world, particulate matter (PM levels pose severe problems, addressed in several policy areas (air quality, climate change, and human health. PM presents multiple challenges due to the multitude of its sources, spanning many sectors of economic activity as well as nature, and due to the complexity of atmospheric processes involved in its transport and secondary formation. For the authorities, the goal is to assure minimal impacts of atmospheric PM levels, in practice represented by compliance with existing regulations and standards. This may be achieved through an air quality management plan (AQMP. In Northern America and in parts of Europe, comprehensive research programs have guided development of AQMP over the last forty years. This cumulated experience can be utilized by others who face the same problems, but have yet to develop their own substantial research base. The main purpose of the AQMP development process is to establish an effective and sound basis for planning and management of air quality in a selected area. This type of planning will ensure that significant sources of impacts are identified and controlled in a most cost-effective manner. The choice of tools, methods and input information is often dictated by their availability, and should be evaluated against current best practices. Important elements of the AQMP are the identification of sources and development of a complete emission inventory, the development and operation of an air quality monitoring programme, and the development and application of atmospheric dispersion models. Major task is to collect the necessary input data. The development of the AQMP will take into account: - Air Quality Management System (AQMS requirements; - Operational and functional structure requirements; - Source identification through emission inventories; - Source reduction alternatives, which may be implemented; - Mechanisms for facilitating interdepartmental

  6. Ozone - Current Air Quality Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... more announcements Air Quality Basics Air Quality Index | Ozone | Particle Pollution | Smoke from fires | What You Can ... Partners Kids Movies NAQ Conferences NOAA Older Adults Ozone Particle Pollution (PM2.5, PM10) Publications Publicaciones (En ...

  7. Ambient Air Quality Data Inventory

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Office of Air and Radiation??s (OAR) Ambient Air Quality Data (Current) contains ambient air pollution data collected by EPA, other federal agencies, as well as...

  8. Ambient Air Quality Data Inventory

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Office of Air and Radiation's (OAR) Ambient Air Quality Data (Current) contains ambient air pollution data collected by EPA, other federal agencies, as well as...

  9. Improved inhaled air quality at reduced ventilation rate by control of airflow interaction at the breathing zone with lobed jets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bolashikov, Zhecho Dimitrov; Melikov, Arsen Krikor; Spilak, Michal;

    2014-01-01

    Inhaled air quality at a reduced supply of clean air was studied by controlling the airflow interaction at the breathing zone of a person using lobed jets as part of personalized ventilation (PV). Experiments were performed in a full-scale test room at 23°C (73.4°F) with a breathing thermal manikin...... seated at a workstation, with realistic free-convection flow around the body and a normal breathing cycle. The air in the room was mixed with tracer gas R134a. Clean air was supplied isothermally from three nozzles with circular, four-leafed clover, and six-edged star openings of 0.025 m (0.08 ft...

  10. Methods for sulfate air quality management

    OpenAIRE

    Cass, Glen R.; McMurry, Pamela S.; Houseworth, James E

    1980-01-01

    Executive Summary Abstract: A study of methods for sulfate air quality control strategy design has been conducted. Analytical tools developed were tested within a case study of the nature and causes of the high sulfate concentrations observed in the Los Angeles area. A principal objective was to investigate the least costly means for sulfate air quality improvement in that locale. A long-run average emissions to air quality model was derived which computes pollutant concentrations fr...

  11. Contribution of emission control and atmospheric diffusion ability to the improved air quality in 2015 of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X.; Wang, K.

    2015-12-01

    China experiences extremely severe and frequent PM2.5 (fine particulate matters with diameters less than 2.5 µm) pollution in recent years, arousing unprecedented public concern. Tough targets have been set for three particularly smog-ridden regions: JingJinJi area, the Yangtze River Delta and Pearl River Delta, requiring these regions to reduce their atmospheric levels of PM2.5 by 25%, 20% and 15% respectively by the year 2017. A lot of mitigation actions have been taken to improve the air quality in China. In January 2013, China began to deploy instruments to measure PM2.5 nationally and released hourly observational data to the public. Observed PM2.5 concentrations showed a significant decrease in 2015 comparing to that of 2014 as shown in Fig.1. Many studies have attributed this kind of air quality improvement to the effect of emission control. However, air quality not only depends on the original emission, the atmospheric abilities of contaminant transfer, spread and wet deposition play a big role in reducing the ambient air pollutants and directly determined by the occurrence of pollution episodes. Here we used the first 2 years PM2.5 observation data in China to quantify the contribution of the effect of emission control and atmospheric ability of diffusing on reducing ambient PM2.5 concentrations. We found that PM2.5 decreased by 24% in 2015 winter (Dec. 2014-Feb. 2015) comparing to that in 2014; and 12% of decrease occurred for the spring time. The inconsistent seasonal improvement of air quality is mainly due to the favorable atmospheric background in 2015, with its frequent precipitation, infrequency of surface calm wind during the wintertime.

  12. Air filtration and indoor air quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bekö, Gabriel

    decent ventilation and air cleaning/air filtration, high indoor air quality cannot be accomplished. The need for effective air filtration has increased with increasing evidence on the hazardous effects of fine particles. Moreover, the air contains gaseous pollutants, removal of which requires various air...... contradictions should motivate manufacturers and researchers to develop new efficient filtration techniques and/or improve the existing ones. Development of low polluting filtration techniques, which are at the same time easy and inexpensive to maintain is the way forward in the future....

  13. New Directions: Questions surrounding suspended particle mass used as a surrogate for air quality and for regulatory control of ambient urban air pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoare, John L.

    2014-07-01

    The original choice of particulate matter mass (PM) as a realistic surrogate for gross air pollution has gradually evolved into routine use nowadays of epidemiologically-based estimates of the monetary and other benefits expected from regulating urban air quality. Unfortunately, the statistical associations facilitating such calculations usually are based on single indices of air pollution whereas the health effects themselves are more broadly based causally. For this and other reasons the economic benefits of control tend to be exaggerated. Primarily because of their assumed inherently inferior respirability, particles ≥10 μm are generally excluded from such considerations. Where the particles themselves are chemically heterogeneous, as in an urban context, this may be inappropriate. Clearly all air-borne particles, whether coarse or fine, are susceptible to inhalation. Hence, the possibility exists for any adhering potentially harmful semi-volatile substances to be subsequently de-sorbed in vivo thereby facilitating their transport deeper into the lungs. Consequently, this alone may be a sufficient reason for including rather than rejecting during air quality monitoring the relatively coarse 10-100 μm particle fraction, ideally in conjunction with routine estimation of the gaseous co-pollutants thereby facilitating a multi-pollutant approach apropos regulation.

  14. Air movement and perceived air quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melikov, Arsen Krikor; Kaczmarczyk, J.

    2012-01-01

    The impact of air movement on perceived air quality (PAQ) and sick building syndrome (SBS) symptoms was studied. In total, 124 human subjects participated in four series of experiments performed in climate chambers at different combinations of room air temperature (20, 23, 26 and 28 °C), relative...... humidity (30, 40 and 70%) and pollution level (low and high). Most of the experiments were performed with and without facially applied airflow at elevated velocity. The importance of the use of recirculated room air and clean, cool and dry outdoor air was studied. The exposures ranged from 60. min to 235....... min. Acceptability of PAQ and freshness of the air improved when air movement was applied. The elevated air movement diminished the negative impact of increased air temperature, relative humidity and pollution level on PAQ. The degree of improvement depended on the pollution level, the temperature and...

  15. Air quality assessment for Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    Monteiro, A; Miranda, A. I.; C. Borrego; R. Vautard

    2007-01-01

    According to the Air Quality Framework Directive, air pollutant concentration levels have to be assessed and reported annually by each European Union member state, taking into consideration European air quality standards. Plans and programmes should be implemented in zones and agglomerations where pollutant concentrations exceed the limit and target values. The main objective of this study is to perform a long-term air quality simulation for Portugal, using the CHIMERE chemistry-transport mod...

  16. Air Quality Assessment Using Interpolation Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Awkash Kumar

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Air pollution is increasing rapidly in almost all cities around the world due to increase in population. Mumbai city in India is one of the mega cities where air quality is deteriorating at a very rapid rate. Air quality monitoring stations have been installed in the city to regulate air pollution control strategies to reduce the air pollution level. In this paper, air quality assessment has been carried out over the sample region using interpolation techniques. The technique Inverse Distance Weighting (IDW of Geographical Information System (GIS has been used to perform interpolation with the help of concentration data on air quality at three locations of Mumbai for the year 2008. The classification was done for the spatial and temporal variation in air quality levels for Mumbai region. The seasonal and annual variations of air quality levels for SO2, NOx and SPM (Suspended Particulate Matter have been focused in this study. Results show that SPM concentration always exceeded the permissible limit of National Ambient Air Quality Standard. Also, seasonal trends of pollutant SPM was low in monsoon due rain fall. The finding of this study will help to formulate control strategies for rational management of air pollution and can be used for many other regions.

  17. Air pollution control. Apparatus for quality control of immission measurements (AQIM). Luftueberwachung. Anlage zur Qualitaetssicherung von Immissionsmessungen (AQIM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manns, H.; Gies, H.; Nitz, H.

    1982-12-01

    Interlaboratory tests and comparative measurements are well suited to improve the state of knowledge and skill in connection with the analytical-chemical measurement methods for the purpose of maintaining quality of ambient air measurements by improving dependability and comparability of measuring procedures. For the execution of interlaboratory tests and comparative measurements with ambient-air measuring procedures (immission measurements) a sample air manifold has been developed, which can furnish about 30 participants simultaneously with a measuring gas. This apparatus has served with good success for comparative measurements on a national as well as international scale with procedures for benzene, toluene, xylene, vinyl chloride, nitrogen monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, and sulfur dioxide. Sampling of aromatic hydrocarbons by sorption on Tenax GC with the temperature gradient tube method has been investigated and process conditions to avoid decay of Tenax GC were improved. Suggestions for a simplified modification of aromatics sampling on Tenax GC are presented.

  18. Sustainability of the Catalytic Activity of a Silica-Titania Composite (STC) for Long-Term Indoor Air Quality Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutts, Janelle L.; Levine, Lanfang H.; Richards, Jeffrey T.

    2011-01-01

    TiO2-assisted photocatalytic oxidation (PCO) is an emerging technology for indoor air quality control and is also being evaluated as an alternative trace contaminant control technology for crew habitats in space exploration. Though there exists a vast range of literature on the development of photocatalysts and associated reactor systems, including catalyst performance and performance-influencing factors, the critical question of whether photocatalysts can sustain their initial catalytic activity over an extended period of operation has not been adequately addressed. For a catalyst to effectively serve as an air quality control product, it must be rugged enough to withstand exposure to a multitude of low concentration volatile organic compounds (VOCs) over long periods of time with minimal loss of activity. The objective of this study was to determine the functional lifetime of a promising photocatalyst - the silica-titania composite (STC) from Sol Gel Solutions, LLC in a real-world scenario. A bench-scale STC-packed annular reactor under continuous irradiation by a UV-A fluorescent black-light blue lamp ((lambda)max = 365 nm) was exposed to laboratory air continuously at an apparent contact time of 0.27 sand challenged with a known concentration of ethanol periodically to assess any changes in catalytic activity. Laboratory air was also episodically spiked with halocarbons (e.g., octafluoropropane), organosulfur compounds (e.g., sulfur hexafluoride), and organosilicons (e.g., siloxanes) to simulate accidental releases or leaks of such VOCs. Total organic carbon (TOC) loading and contaminant profiles of the laboratory air were also monitored. Changes in STC photocatalytic performance were evaluated using the ethanol mineralization rate, mineralization efficiency, and oxidation intermediate (acetaldehyde) formation. Results provide insights to any potential catalyst poisoning by trace halocarbons and organosulfur compounds.

  19. Laser system for remote sensing monitoring of air pollution and quality control of the atmosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belić Ilija

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring of the atmosphere and determination of the types and amounts of pollutants is becoming more important issue in complex and global monitoring of the environment. On the geocomponent and geocomplex level problem of monitoring the environment is attracting the attention of the scientific experts of different profiles (chemists, physicists, geographers, biologists, meteorologists, both in the national and international projects. Because of the general characteristics of the Earth's atmosphere (Dynamically Ballanced Instability DBI and the potential contribution to climate change solutions air-pollution monitoring has become particularly important field of environmental research. Control of aerosol distribution over Europe is enabled by EARLINET systems (European Aerosol Lidar NETwork. Serbia’s inclusion into these European courses needs development of the device, the standardization of methods and direct activity in determining the type, quantity and location of aerosol. This paper is analyzing the first step in the study of air-pollution, which is consisted of the realization of a functional model of LIDAR remote sensing devices for the large particle pollutants.

  20. IAEA quality control study on determining trace elements in biological matrices for air pollution research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Analysis of lichens and mosses were routinely performed by 17 laboratories from 15 countries around the world, participating in a project coordinated by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). To improve and control the quality of such determinations, the IAEA organized a two-round interlaboratory exercise, which allowed the detection and removal of most of the pitfalls observed in the determination of 27 elements. The application of instrumental neutron activation analysis helped reveal poor recoveries in some laboratories due to incomplete digestion for a number of elements. The exercise emphasized the importance of achieving comparability of chemical measurements to a recognized reference. (author)

  1. Impact of emission controls on air quality in Beijing during APEC 2014: lidar ceilometer observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, G.; Zhu, X.; Hu, B.; Xin, J.; Wang, L.; Münkel, C.; Mao, G.; Wang, Y.

    2015-11-01

    , respectively. The most effective method of controlling air pollution in the Beijing area is to reduce regional emissions during the transition period and reduce local emissions during the polluted period.

  2. Air Quality and Climate Change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Climate change and air quality are closely related: through the policy measures implemented to mitigate these major environmental threats but also through the geophysical processes that drive them. We designed, developed and implemented a comprehensive regional air quality and climate modeling System to investigate future air quality in Europe taking into account the combined pressure of future climate change and long range transport. Using the prospective scenarios of the last generation of pathways for both climate change (emissions of well mixed greenhouse gases) and air pollutants, we can provide a quantitative view into the possible future air quality in Europe. We find that ozone pollution will decrease substantially under the most stringent scenario but the efforts of the air quality legislation will be adversely compensated by the penalty of global warming and long range transport for the business as usual scenario. For particulate matter, the projected reduction of emissions efficiently reduces exposure levels. (authors)

  3. Air Quality Facilities

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — Facilities with operating permits for Title V of the Federal Clean Air Act, as well as facilities required to submit an air emissions inventory, and other...

  4. Aerosol Properties under Air Quality Control Measures of APEC 2014 in Beijing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, X.; Xu, H.; Lv, Y.; Xie, Y.; Li, K.; Li, Z.; Li, D.; Ma, Y.; Mei, X.

    2015-12-01

    Because the economic and society were developing fast in the middle of last century, Los Angeles and London both were polluted by photochemical smog, which massacred thousands of people. Now, many regions are often covered by heavy haze in those large developing countries, especially in China and India. The Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) was held in Beijing during 5-11 November 2014. Beijing, Hebei, Tianjin, Shandong, Shanxi, Inner Mongolia reduced air pollution emissions for the APEC 2014 meeting held in Beijing. Only in Hebei province, there were 1028 factories stopped or restricted and 881 construction sites stopped. Half of the cars were prohibited driving even in the Zibo city which is 400 km far from Beijing. For scientific aims, these control measures were indeed a huge and uncommon atmospheric experiment led by the government. During the experiment, what did the "APEC Blue" mean? We analyzed aerosol properties with the data of an AERONET site in Beijing which is located 500m far from the main reception hall of APEC 2014. The Cimel solar photometers can give a series parameters of aerosol and water vapor. In this paper, we used CE318 solar photometer which is the main instrument of NASA AERONET. The CE318 of RADI belongs to the Chinese SONET (Sun-sky radiometer Observation NETwork) too. We analyzed the total, coarse and fine Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD), Fine-Mode Fraction (FMF) and Ångström exponent, Size Distribution and Real Refractive Index. In conclusion, the aerosol properties were analysed with the measurements of a sun photometer. During the APEC 2014, AOD decreased obviously with a 0.27 mean value compared with the annual mean 0.7. Around Beijing, the southern is polluted emission area including the cross part of Shandong, Shanxi, Hebei, Henan four provinces, and the northern is clean for less fine mode particles emission in the large Inner Mongolia province. In fact, during the APEC 2014, the weather condition was not good for the

  5. Investigating the air quality in aircraft cabins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In recent years, there has been increasing concern about the air quality in aircraft cabins and its effects on health and safety for crew and passengers. Some of the major worries are risk of communication of infectious diseases, high incidence of respiratory diseases caused by low air moisture, and increased concentration of carbon dioxide from exhaled air due to the cabin air being recirculated. It also happens that fumes and gases enter the cabin by way of the ventilation system. This article describes the EU-funded research programme called CabinAir. The project aims to: (1) establish the current level of air quality in aircraft cabins, (2) establish the relationship between cabin air quality and the performance of environmental control and filtration systems, the air distribution, the energy consumption and the environmental impact of fuel burn. (3) develop new designs and technical solutions to improve the environmental control system and cabin air distribution/control systems, (4) optimise air quality in the cabin and minimise fuel consumption and environmental impacts, (5) develop performance specifications for the components, (6) draft European Pre-Normative Standards

  6. Application of AERMOD on near future air quality simulation under the latest national emission control policy of China:A case study on an industrial city

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jieyun Ma; Honghong Yi; Xiaolong Tang; Yan Zhang; Ying Xiang; Li Pu

    2013-01-01

    Air quality model can be an adequate tool for future air quality prediction,also atmospheric observations supporting and emission control strategies responders.The influence of emission control policy (emission reduction targets in the national "China's 12th Five-Year Plan (2011-2015)") on the air quality in the near future over an important industrial city of China,Xuanwei in Yunnan Province,was studied by applying the AERMOD modeling system.First,our analysis demonstrated that the AERMOD modeling system could be used in the air quality simulation in the near future for SO2 and NOx under average meteorology but not for PM10.Second,after evaluating the simulation results in 2008 and 2015,ambient concentration of SO2,NOx and PM 10 (only 2008) were all centered in the middle of simulation area where the emission sources concentrated,and it is probably because the air pollutions were source oriented.Last but not least,a better air quality condition will happen under the hypothesis that the average meteorological data can be used in near future simulation.However,there are still heavy polluted areas where ambient concentrations will exceed the air quality standard in near future.In spatial allocation,reduction effect of SO2 is more significant than NOx in 2015 as the contribution of SO2 from industry is more than NOx.These results inspired the regulatory applications of AERMOD modeling system in evaluating environmental pollutant control policy

  7. Improving tuberculosis infection control practice and micro-bial air quality in a general hospital after intervention

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pipat Luksamijarulkul; Jiraporn Khumsri; Pisit Vatthanasomboon; Pornapa Aiumlaor

    2009-01-01

    Objective:Hospital personnel,especially nurses are at risk for tuberculosis(TB)infection and the intervention for reducing the risk should be established.Methods:To compare the TB infection control practices and stand-ard precaution in 154 registered nurses and auxiliary nurses working in risk wards.Additionally,microbial air quality in the studied wards was investigated before and after implementation of an intervention including two-day training program on TB infection control and standard precaution practices and managing the ward environ-ments.Results:Post-intervention,the percentage of studied nurses who always practiced increased in every i-tem of TB infection control practice (6 items)and standard precaution (9 items)when compared with the pre-intervention period.Both mean scores were significantly higher than those before intervention (5.0 ±1.0 vs 4. 4 ±1.1,and 7.6 ±1.3 vs 6.7 ±1.5,P 500 cfu /m3 ).Conclusion:Two-day training program and management of the ward environment could improve the scores of TB infection control practices and the standard precaution among studied nurses and reduce the microbial counts in air samples col-lected from the studied wards.

  8. Air Quality at Your Street

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Steen Solvang; Becker, Thomas; Ketzel, Matthias;

    concerned citizents, or in the context of localization of institutions, etc. The purpose of the project ‘Air Quality at Your Street’ is to create interactive air quality maps on the internet using webGIS to illustrate the geographical variation of air quality in Denmark for selected health related air...... is calculated with a model system consisting of a regional model (DEHM), an urban background model (UBM) and a street model (OSPM) with associated meteorology and emissions data etc. Recently updated input data has been used for the road network and traffic data based on the national traffic model...... (LTM) from DTU Transport as well as data on travel speeds based on GPS data from SpeedMap from the Danish Road Directorate. Modelled concentrations have been compared to fixed regional, urban background and street air quality monitoring stations to assess uncertainties, and to model results from about...

  9. Air quality indices : a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pollution Probe presents some background information that will help in the development of a national Air Quality Index (AQI) in Canada. This report examines the issues that should be addressed in revising the national Index of the Quality of Air (IQUA) or creating a new national Air Quality Index. The IQUA was devised in 1976 and provides Canadians with real-time information on the state of community air quality by including major pollutants and their synergies. It is currently being used for air quality management plans and air quality alert systems. At the same time that the IQUA was devised, the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) produced a parallel air quality index known as the Pollution Standard Index (PSI) which incorporated 5 criteria pollutants (particulate matter, sulphur dioxide, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxide and ground level ozone) for which national health-based standards were devised. In 1999, the US EPA renamed their index the Air Quality Index (AQI) and made revisions to the primary health-based national ambient air quality standards for ground-level ozone and particulate matter. Separate values for PM2.5 and PM10 were incorporated and mandatory reporting was required for metropolitan areas with populations of 350,000 or more. Similarly, the IQUA has undergone major developments that affect the validity of the index, including: rejection by the Working Group on Air Quality Objectives and Guidelines of the previous maximum desirable and maximum acceptable air quality criteria, recognition that standards for many of the contaminants are outdated, developing more sensitive instrumentation for real-time monitoring of contaminants. This report also describes the use of the national short term Air Quality Index by provincial, territorial and local authorities in Canada. Pollution Probe recommends setting up a mechanism to review and revise IQUA on a regular basis that would incorporate governments, the medical profession, special

  10. Seaport-Surface Transportation Access and Air Quality

    OpenAIRE

    Shaw, Peter L.

    1993-01-01

    Seaports are dependent upon the supporting surface transportation network. Where port cargo volume is growing in already air-polluted urban areas, increased highway and rail traffic is perceived as exacerbating air quality conditions. In some seaport locations, stringent air quality control measures may impact operations and access, thereby possibly causing serious negative impacts on the economy. In still other areas, inadequate air quality controls may inadvertently foster more air pollution.

  11. INDOOR AIR QUALITY ANALYSIS

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Xin

    2010-01-01

    With the development of modern architecture, one of the building's interior decoration, furnishings, appliances and equipment have become increasingly demanding, making construction of the indoor environment of increasing pollution, increasing pollution, indoor environmental pollution hazards to human is also a growing the greater. This thesis summarizes the major indoor air pollution sources and major pollutants. Indoor air pollutants are formaldehyde, radon, ammonia, total volatile org...

  12. Mind Your Indoor Air Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mak, Lily

    2012-01-01

    When it comes to excelling in the classroom, it turns out the air students are breathing is just as important as the lessons they are learning. Studies show poor indoor air quality (IAQ) can lessen the comfort of students as well as staff--affecting concentration, attendance and student performance. It can even lead to lower IQs. What's more, poor…

  13. Improving Indoor Air Quality for Poor Families : A Controlled Experiment in Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Dasgupta, S.; Wheeler, D.; Huq, M.; Khaliquzzaman, M.

    2009-01-01

    The World Health Organization's 2004 Global and Regional Burden of Disease Report estimates that acute respiratory infections from indoor air pollution (pollution from burning wood, animal dung, and other bio-fuels) kill a million children annually in developing countries, inflicting a particularly heavy toll on poor families in South Asia and Africa. This paper reports on an experiment that studied the use of different fuels in conjunction with different combinations of construction material...

  14. Impact of emission controls on air quality in Beijing during APEC 2014: lidar ceilometer observations

    OpenAIRE

    Tang, G; Zhu, X.; Hu, B.; Xin, J.; Wang, L.; Münkel, C.; G. Mao; Wang, Y.

    2015-01-01

    The implementation of emission reductions during the 2014 Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) summit provides a valuable opportunity to study air pollution in Beijing. From 15 October to 30 November 2014, the height of the atmospheric mixing layer and the vertical attenuated backscattering coefficient profiles were observed online using a~lidar ceilometer. Compared with fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and aeros...

  15. Indoor air quality research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The various types of pollutant found in indoor air are introduced and the effects on the health of the occupants of buildings summarized. The ''sick'' building syndrome is described in detail and the need for further investigation into its causes and remedies is stressed. 8 tabs

  16. 77 FR 2496 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Antelope Valley Air Quality Management...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-18

    ... Valley Air Quality Management District (AVAQMD) and Imperial County Air Pollution Control District... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Antelope Valley Air Quality Management District and Imperial Valley Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental...

  17. Aeromicrobiology/air quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Gary L.; Frisch, A.S.; Kellogg, Christina A.; Levetin, E.; Lighthart, Bruce; Paterno, D.

    2009-01-01

    The most prevalent microorganisms, viruses, bacteria, and fungi, are introduced into the atmosphere from many anthropogenic sources such as agricultural, industrial and urban activities, termed microbial air pollution (MAP), and natural sources. These include soil, vegetation, and ocean surfaces that have been disturbed by atmospheric turbulence. The airborne concentrations range from nil to great numbers and change as functions of time of day, season, location, and upwind sources. While airborne, they may settle out immediately or be transported great distances. Further, most viable airborne cells can be rendered nonviable due to temperature effects, dehydration or rehydration, UV radiation, and/or air pollution effects. Mathematical microbial survival models that simulate these effects have been developed.

  18. Urban air quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since 1950 the world population has more than doubled, and the global number of cars has increased by a factor of 10. In the same period the fraction of people living in urban areas has increased by a factor of 4. In year 2000 this will amount to nearly half of the world population. About 20 urban regions will each have populations above 10 million people. Seen over longer periods, pollution in major cities tends to increase during the built up phase, they pass through a maximum and are then again reduced, as abatement strategies are developed. In the industrialised western world urban air pollution is in some respects in the last stage with effectively reduced levels of sulphur dioxide and soot. In recent decades however, the increasing traffic has switched the attention to nitrogen oxides, organic compounds and small particles. In some cities photochemical air pollution is an important urban problem, but in the northern part of Europe it is a large-scale phenomenon, with ozone levels in urban streets being normally lower than in rural areas. Cities in Eastern Europe have been (and in many cases still are) heavily polluted. After the recent political upheaval, followed by a temporary recession and a subsequent introduction of new technologies, the situation appears to improve. However, the rising number of private cars is an emerging problem. In most developing countries the rapid urbanisation has so far resulted in uncontrolled growth and deteriorating environment. Air pollution levels are here still rising on many fronts. Apart from being sources of local air pollution, urban activities are significant contributors to transboundary pollution and to the rising global concentrations of greenhouse gasses. Attempts to solve urban problems by introducing cleaner, more energy-efficient technologies will generally have a beneficial impact on these large-scale problems. Attempts based on city planning with a spreading of the activities, on the other hand, may generate

  19. Urban air quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenger, Jes

    Since 1950 the world population has more than doubled, and the global number of cars has increased by a factor of 10. In the same period the fraction of people living in urban areas has increased by a factor of 4. In year 2000 this will amount to nearly half of the world population. About 20 urban regions will each have populations above 10 million people. Seen over longer periods, pollution in major cities tends to increase during the built up phase, they pass through a maximum and are then again reduced, as abatement strategies are developed. In the industrialised western world urban air pollution is in some respects in the last stage with effectively reduced levels of sulphur dioxide and soot. In recent decades however, the increasing traffic has switched the attention to nitrogen oxides, organic compounds and small particles. In some cities photochemical air pollution is an important urban problem, but in the northern part of Europe it is a large-scale phenomenon, with ozone levels in urban streets being normally lower than in rural areas. Cities in Eastern Europe have been (and in many cases still are) heavily polluted. After the recent political upheaval, followed by a temporary recession and a subsequent introduction of new technologies, the situation appears to improve. However, the rising number of private cars is an emerging problem. In most developing countries the rapid urbanisation has so far resulted in uncontrolled growth and deteriorating environment. Air pollution levels are here still rising on many fronts. Apart from being sources of local air pollution, urban activities are significant contributors to transboundary pollution and to the rising global concentrations of greenhouse gasses. Attempts to solve urban problems by introducing cleaner, more energy-efficient technologies will generally have a beneficial impact on these large-scale problems. Attempts based on city planning with a spreading of the activities, on the other hand, may generate

  20. Norma Primaria de calidad del aire AIR QUALITY STANDARD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PATRICIA MATUS C.

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Las normas primarias de calidad del aire tienen por finalidad proteger la salud de la población de la contaminación atmosférica. Ellas establecen un nivel de riesgo socialmente aceptado. Este artículo describe los antecedentes considerados durante el proceso de actualización de la regulación vigente en Chile. Detalla conceptos sobre la calidad del aire, describe los efectos en la salud de los contaminantes, y el procedimiento seguido para fijar los nuevos estándares Finaliza enumerando la norma primaria de calidad del aire, sus valores y los limites definidos para ser considerados en el ámbito de la gestión de los episodios críticos o de alta contaminaciónThe main purpose of air quality standards is to protect people health from air pollution. They establish a socially accepted level of risk. This article describes the background information considered during the process for updating the current Chilean regulation. Concepts about quality of air, and the effects of the pollutants on the health are described. The procedure followed to fix the new standards is detailed. Finally we state the primary air quality norm, its values as well as the critical limits in order to control critical events of high air pollution

  1. Fabrication and characterization of micro-porous cellulose filters for indoor air quality control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Younghan; Kim, Sungyoun; Ahn, Kwang Ho; Ko, Kwang Baik; Kim, Kwang-Soo

    2016-03-01

    Micro-porous cellulose filters were fabricated from paper mulberry pulp, which has been used for thousands of years with Korean history. 'Han-ji' is the name of a traditional paper used widely in Korea in construction, textile, craftworks and many household items but before now it has not been used for filtration purpose. Seeking for the utilization of this abundant natural material, this study aims to develop a fabrication process for the traditional paper to be used as a filter for dust filtration, and evaluate the performance by lab-scale experiments. To create pores in the paper, cellulose pulp was pretreated using several methods such as TEMPO oxidation and enzyme hydrolysis, or freeze dried with an alcoholic freezing medium, t-butyl alcohol, instead of water. The filters were characterized and their dust removal performance was tested at a lab scale while also monitoring pressure loss. Chemical oxidation and enzymatic pretreatment were helpful in fabricating a homogeneous filter but would not remove fine-dust particles because of its loose, enlarged pores. The best removal efficiency was observed with filters that were not pretreated but in which water had been exchanged with t-butyl alcohol before freeze-drying. The filter attained a dust removal efficiency higher than 99% over the entire experimental period, with a pressure loss of less than 230 Pa, at a 6.67 (cm(3)/s)/cm(2) air-to-cloth ratio. PMID:26370434

  2. 76 FR 48754 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Ohio; Reasonably Available Control...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-09

    ... employing the NOX emission control technologies specified below. \\1\\ low NOX burners (LNB) \\2\\ low NOX... Heights This facility has two mid-sized natural gas fired boilers, with low NO X burners, for which the presumptive limit is 0.10 lb of NO X /mmBTU. The use of ultra low NO X burners was considered but...

  3. Air quality and future energy system planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobral Mourao, Zenaida; Konadu, Dennis; Lupton, Rick

    2016-04-01

    energy system planning. Some example applications of this work are: (1) to discover conflicts and synergies between air quality regulations and future developments in the energy system and land use change; (2) to show the drivers of air quality in a given spatial context; (3) to explore effective ways to visualize impacts of different energy, land use and emissions control policies on air quality. An initial test case for the Bay Area in California will be presented, extending the scope of the existing California ForeseerTM tool to identify impacts of different policies within the water-energy-land nexus on local air quality.

  4. A model study of the impact of emission control strategies on Los Angeles air quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hameed, S.; Stewart, R. W.; Lebedeff, S. A.

    1976-01-01

    A generalized cell model is developed for the calculation of city-wide averages of photochemical smog components in Los Angeles. This model takes into account the effects of variations with time and within the city of the source strengths, the wind field, and the mixing depth. The effect of the influx of background pollution from outside the modeled volume is also included. Several control strategies for reducing automobile emissions are then introduced into the model, and their impact on predicted pollutant levels, particularly those of O3, are investigated.

  5. Historical Ambient Air Quality Data Inventory

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Historical Ambient Air Quality Data Inventory contains measured and estimated data on ambient air pollution for use in assessing air quality, assisting in...

  6. Uncertainty in Regional Air Quality Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Digar, Antara

    Effective pollution mitigation is the key to successful air quality management. Although states invest millions of dollars to predict future air quality, the regulatory modeling and analysis process to inform pollution control strategy remains uncertain. Traditionally deterministic ‘bright-line’ tests are applied to evaluate the sufficiency of a control strategy to attain an air quality standard. A critical part of regulatory attainment demonstration is the prediction of future pollutant levels using photochemical air quality models. However, because models are uncertain, they yield a false sense of precision that pollutant response to emission controls is perfectly known and may eventually mislead the selection of control policies. These uncertainties in turn affect the health impact assessment of air pollution control strategies. This thesis explores beyond the conventional practice of deterministic attainment demonstration and presents novel approaches to yield probabilistic representations of pollutant response to emission controls by accounting for uncertainties in regional air quality planning. Computationally-efficient methods are developed and validated to characterize uncertainty in the prediction of secondary pollutant (ozone and particulate matter) sensitivities to precursor emissions in the presence of uncertainties in model assumptions and input parameters. We also introduce impact factors that enable identification of model inputs and scenarios that strongly influence pollutant concentrations and sensitivity to precursor emissions. We demonstrate how these probabilistic approaches could be applied to determine the likelihood that any control measure will yield regulatory attainment, or could be extended to evaluate probabilistic health benefits of emission controls, considering uncertainties in both air quality models and epidemiological concentration-response relationships. Finally, ground-level observations for pollutant (ozone) and precursor

  7. 76 FR 61069 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-03

    ... Quality Management District, Ventura County Air Pollution Control District, and Placer County Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY... (SMAQMD), Ventura County Air Pollution Control District (VCAPCD), and Placer County Air Pollution...

  8. Control of the Free Convective Flow around the Human Body for Enhanced Inhaled Air Quality: Application to a Seat-Incorporated Personalized Ventilation Unit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bolashikov, Zhecho Dimitrov; Melikov, Arsen Krikor; Krenek, M.

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports on methods for control of the free convective flow around the human body, with the aim of improving inhaled air quality. The methods were studied with sea-incorporated personalized ventilation (PV)-two PV nozzles placed sideways at the head level of a seated occupant supplied...

  9. Control of the Free Convective Flow around the Human Body for Enhanced Inhaled Air Quality: Application to a Seat-Incorporated Personalized Ventilation Unit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bolashikov, Zhecho Dimitrov; Melikov, Arsen Krikor; Krenek, M.

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports on methods for control of the free convective flow around the human body, with the aim of improving inhaled air quality. The methods were studied with sea-incorporated personalized ventilation (PV)-two PV nozzles placed sideways at the head level of a seated occupant supplied t...

  10. Trading emissions improve air quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    While admitting sharply contrasting views exist, James M. Lents of the South Coast Air Quality Management District in southern California sees emissions trading open-quotes as a lifesaver for our troubled planet.close quotes He explains: open-quotes If political support for the environment is to be maintained, we must seek the most economical and flexible means of pursuing cleanup. At present, market incentives and emissions trading represent our best hope.close quotes Lents is putting his money where his pen is. The air quality management district he heads plans to use market incentives, including emissions trading, to reduce air pollution in the notoriously dirty southern California area. When the system goes into operation in 1994, he estimates it will save southern California businesses more than $400 million a year in compliance costs, while also making major improvements in the region's air quality. If the idea works there, why won't it work elsewhere, even on a global scale, Lents asks? He believes it will. But open-quotes the ultimate success of emissions-trading programs, whether regional, national, or international in scope, lies in the proof that they're actually achieving reductions in harmful emissions,close quotes he emphasizes. open-quotes These reductions must be real and verifiable to satisfy the Clean Air Act and a skeptical public.close quotes

  11. Urban air quality in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book provides an overview of air quality in urban environments in Europe, focusing on air pollutant emission sources and formation mechanisms, measurement and modeling strategies, and future perspectives. The emission sources described are biomass burning, vehicular traffic, industry and agriculture, but also African dust and long-range transport of pollutants across the European regions. The impact of these emission sources and processes on atmospheric particulate matter, ozone, nitrogen oxides and volatile and semi-volatile organic compounds is discussed and critical areas for particulate matter and nitrogen dioxide in Europe are identified. Finally, this volume presents future perspectives, mainly regarding upcoming air quality monitoring strategies, metrics of interest, such as submicron and nanoparticles, and indoor and outdoor exposure scenarios.

  12. Air quality management in Denver, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The state of Colorado is addressing a number of air quality problems. In addition to carbon monoxide, ozone, particulates, nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide, and lead, they are also designing programs to deal with visibility, acid deposition, ozone depletion, and global warming. Programs for controlling carbon monoxide, particulates, vehicle emissions, and programs for achieving lifestyle changes are discussed in particular

  13. Boundaries for Air Quality; Grenzen voor Luchtkwaliteit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heistek, J. [Stichting CropEye, Bleiswijk (Netherlands); Dueck, T. [Wageningen UR Glastuinbouw, Bleiswijk (Netherlands); Boerman, K.J. [EMS, Sint Annaland (Netherlands); Van der Sar, P. [Achmea Interpolis, Zoetermeer (Netherlands)

    2011-11-15

    Practical knowledge and tips are given to control air quality in greenhouses. A checklist has been set up to dose carbon dioxide into greenhouses in a safe way [Dutch] In het rapport vindt u praktijkkennis en tips om de luchtkwaliteit in kassen te beheersen. Er is een Checklist opgesteld voor veilig CO2 doseren.

  14. Wood energy and air quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This publication first recalls the main benefits of the use of wood, the first source of renewable energy in France: abundant and local resource, low CO2 emission, competitiveness, job creation. It comments the relationship between the use of this source of energy and the compliance with air quality standards as they are notably defined by European directives, as the use of wood as heating source is one of the recommended lever to improve air quality. The publication comments emissions generated by this type of heating (mainly in the housing sector, with some critical meteorological periods). Levers for actions are discussed: fleet renewal to promote the best performing equipment, practice improvements (fuel quality, apparatus maintenance). Actions undertaken by the ADEME are briefly reviewed: support to individual equipment fleet modernisation, support to R and D, support to the sector, and information and communication

  15. Biomonitoring of air quality using plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mulgrew, A.; Williams, P. [King' s Coll., London (United Kingdom). Monitoring and Assessment Research Centre - WHO Collaborating Centre for Monitoring and Assessment

    2000-02-01

    This report is an update of the MARC Report No. 32 'Biological Monitoring' and a first volume referring to a WHO project on biological monitoring. The monograph reviews comprehensively the existing literature on biological monitoring of air quality with plants. This review includes consideration of all plant species that are currently, or have a potential of, being used as bioindicators of air pollution. This review is intended to serve as a background paper for the derivation of guidelines for the use of biological monitors in air pollution control. (orig.)

  16. Megacities, air quality and climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baklanov, Alexander; Molina, Luisa T.; Gauss, Michael

    2016-02-01

    The rapid urbanization and growing number of megacities and urban complexes requires new types of research and services that make best use of science and available technology. With an increasing number of humans now living in urban sprawls, there are urgent needs of examining what the rising number of megacities means for air pollution, local climate and the effects these changes have on global climate. Such integrated studies and services should assist cities in facing hazards such as storm surge, flooding, heat waves, and air pollution episodes, especially in changing climates. While important advances have been made, new interdisciplinary research studies are needed to increase our understanding of the interactions between emissions, air quality, and regional and global climates. Studies need to address both basic and applied research and bridge the spatial and temporal scales connecting local emissions and air pollution and local weather, global atmospheric chemistry and climate. This paper reviews the current status of studies of the complex interactions between climate, air quality and megacities, and identifies the main gaps in our current knowledge as well as further research needs in this important field of research.

  17. 78 FR 63934 - Approval of Air Quality Implementation Plans; California; El Dorado County Air Quality Management...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-25

    ...'' subject to review by the Office of Management and Budget under Executive Order 12866 (58 FR 51735, October... Quality Management District; Reasonably Available Control Technology for Ozone AGENCY: Environmental... Plan (SIP) revision submitted by California for the El Dorado County Air Quality Management...

  18. 空调客车车内空气品质控制系统的设计%The Design of Air Quality Control System of Passenger Car Air-conditioning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    楼江燕; 孙四军; 楼华山

    2012-01-01

    客车空调注重满足人体热舒适的要求,对空气的清洁度重视不够,。车内空气的污染物严重地影响乘员的健康。开发传感器准确、快速地测定空气的污染物,通过电子控制系统改善车内空气品质势在必行。介绍传感器的结构、原理及应用,并设计空调客车车内空气品质电子控制系统。%Air-conditioning in the passenger car pays more attention to meet the requirements of human thermal comfort than the air quality, and the air pollutants inside the cars affect the healthy of passengers seriously. It is very imperative to develop the sensor, with which we could measure the pollutants in air rapidly and accurately to improve the air quality inside the vehicle through electronic control system. The structure, principle and application of the sensor are introduced, and the design of Air-conditioning passenger car air quality electronic control system.

  19. Equivalence in Ventilation and Indoor Air Quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sherman, Max; Walker, Iain; Logue, Jennifer

    2011-08-01

    We ventilate buildings to provide acceptable indoor air quality (IAQ). Ventilation standards (such as American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning Enginners [ASHRAE] Standard 62) specify minimum ventilation rates without taking into account the impact of those rates on IAQ. Innovative ventilation management is often a desirable element of reducing energy consumption or improving IAQ or comfort. Variable ventilation is one innovative strategy. To use variable ventilation in a way that meets standards, it is necessary to have a method for determining equivalence in terms of either ventilation or indoor air quality. This study develops methods to calculate either equivalent ventilation or equivalent IAQ. We demonstrate that equivalent ventilation can be used as the basis for dynamic ventilation control, reducing peak load and infiltration of outdoor contaminants. We also show that equivalent IAQ could allow some contaminants to exceed current standards if other contaminants are more stringently controlled.

  20. Indoor Air Quality in Schools: Clean Air Is Good Business.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarneiri, Michele A.

    2003-01-01

    Describes the effect of poor indoor air quality (IAQ) on student health, the cost of safeguarding good IAQ, the cause of poor IAQ in schools, how to tell whether a school has an IAQ problem, and how the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency can help schools improve indoor air quality though the use of their free "Indoor Air Quality Tools for…

  1. Control of air toxics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For more than 10 years, Argonne National Laboratory has supported the US DOE's Flue Gas Cleanup Program objective by developing new or improved environmental controls for industries that use fossil fuels. Argonne's pollutant emissions research has ranged from experiments in the basic chemistry of pollution-control systems, through laboratory-scale process development and testing, to pilot-scale field tests of several technologies. The work on air toxics is currently divided into two components: Investigating measures to improve the removal of mercury in existing pollution-control systems applied to coal combustion; and, Developing sensors and control techniques for emissions found in the textile industry

  2. Evaluation of emission control strategies to reduce ozone pollution in the Paso del Norte region using a photochemical air quality modeling system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenzuela, Victor Hugo

    Air pollution emissions control strategies to reduce ozone precursor pollutants are analyzed by applying a photochemical modeling system. Simulations of air quality conditions during an ozone episode which occurred in June, 2006 are undertaken by increasing or reducing area source emissions in Ciudad Juarez, Chihuahua, Mexico. Two air pollutants are primary drivers in the formation of tropospheric ozone. Oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and volatile organic compounds (VOC) undergo multiple chemical reactions under favorable meteorological conditions to form ozone, which is a secondary pollutant that irritates respiratory systems in sensitive individuals especially the elderly and young children. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency established National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) to limit ambient air pollutants such as ozone by establishing an 8-hour average concentration of 0.075 ppm as the threshold at which a violation of the standard occurs. Ozone forms primarily due reactions in the troposphere of NOx and VOC emissions generated primarily by anthropogenic sources in urban regions. Data from emissions inventories indicate area sources account for ˜15 of NOx and ˜45% of regional VOC emissions. Area sources include gasoline stations, automotive paint bodyshops and nonroad mobile sources. Multiplicity of air pollution emissions sources provides an opportunity to investigate and potentially implement air quality improvement strategies to reduce emissions which contribute to elevated ozone concentrations. A baseline modeling scenario was established using the CAMx photochemical air quality model from which a series of sensitivity analyses for evaluating air quality control strategies were conducted. Modifications to area source emissions were made by varying NOx and / or VOC emissions in the areas of particular interest. Model performance was assessed for each sensitivity analysis. Normalized bias (NB) and normalized error (NE) were used to identify

  3. Progress in the prevention and control of air pollution in 1988: Report to congress. Annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Contents of this study: air quality trends, monitoring, and modeling; air pollution research programs; development of national ambient air; quality standards; assessment and control of toxic air pollutants; status of air quality management programs; control of stationary source emissions; stationary source compliance; control of mobile source emissions; stratospheric ozone protection; indoor air quality; acid deposition; radon assessment and remediation; litigation

  4. Improved Methodology for Surface and Atmospheric Soundings, Error Estimates, and Quality Control Procedures: the AIRS Science Team Version-6 Retrieval Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susskind, Joel; Blaisdell, John; Iredell, Lena

    2014-01-01

    The AIRS Science Team Version-6 AIRS/AMSU retrieval algorithm is now operational at the Goddard DISC. AIRS Version-6 level-2 products are generated near real-time at the Goddard DISC and all level-2 and level-3 products are available starting from September 2002. This paper describes some of the significant improvements in retrieval methodology contained in the Version-6 retrieval algorithm compared to that previously used in Version-5. In particular, the AIRS Science Team made major improvements with regard to the algorithms used to 1) derive surface skin temperature and surface spectral emissivity; 2) generate the initial state used to start the cloud clearing and retrieval procedures; and 3) derive error estimates and use them for Quality Control. Significant improvements have also been made in the generation of cloud parameters. In addition to the basic AIRS/AMSU mode, Version-6 also operates in an AIRS Only (AO) mode which produces results almost as good as those of the full AIRS/AMSU mode. This paper also demonstrates the improvements of some AIRS Version-6 and Version-6 AO products compared to those obtained using Version-5.

  5. Air quality in Europe - 2012 report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-09-15

    This report presents an overview and analysis of the status and trends of air quality in Europe based on concentration measurements in ambient air and data on anthropogenic emissions and trends from 2001 - when mandatory monitoring of ambient air concentrations of selected pollutants first produced reliable air quality information - to 2010. (Author)

  6. Air quality in Europe - 2011 report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerreiro, C.; Larssen, S. (Norsk Inst. for Luftforskning (NILU), Lillestroem (Norway)); Leeuw, F. de (RIVM, Bilthoven (Netherlands)); Foltescu, V. (EEA, Copenhagen (Denmark))

    2011-11-15

    The annual report 'Air quality in Europe' summarises the most recent evaluation of Europe's air quality status. It is mainly based on air quality measurement data that have been made available officially by 32 EEA member countries as well as 6 EEA cooperating countries. The report includes maps and analyses of air quality status over the calendar year 2009. It also analyses air quality trends over the past years. The evaluation of the status and trends of air quality is based on ambient air measurements, in conjunction with reported anthropogenic emissions. The report summarizes the main effects of different air pollutants on human health, the environment and the climate. An overview of policies and measures at European level is also given for each pollutant. This report reviews progress towards meeting the requirements of the two air quality directives in force as well as the air quality guidelines set by the World Health Organization (WHO). The report is produced in support of European and national policy development and implementation in the field of air quality. It also supports air quality management and informs the general public on the current status and trends of air quality in Europe. (Author)

  7. Indoor Air Quality in Chemistry Laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hays, Steve M.

    This paper presents air quality and ventilation data from an existing chemical laboratory facility and discusses the work practice changes implemented in response to deficiencies in ventilation. General methods for improving air quality in existing laboratories are presented and investigation techniques for characterizing air quality are…

  8. Addition of PM2.5 into the National Ambient Air Quality Standards of China and the Contribution to Air Pollution Control: The Case Study of Wuhan, China

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    PM2.5 has gradually become a major environmental problem of China with its rapid economic development, urbanization, and increasing of motor vehicles. Findings and awareness of serious PM2.5 pollution make the PM2.5 a new criterion pollutant of the Chinese National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) revised in 2012. The 2012 NAAQS sets the PM2.5 concentrate limitation with the 24-hour average value and the annual mean value. Wuhan is quite typical among central and southern China in climate...

  9. HPCN and air quality modeling

    OpenAIRE

    Blom, Joke; Lioen, W.M.; Verwer, Jan

    1998-01-01

    We discuss the implementation of an off-line air quality model (AQM). More precisely, how to design a code for an AQM that runs efficiently on a variety of computer platforms. We implemented our ideas in an AQM benchmark and we show the performance of this benchmark on the different architectural paradigms. A second subject of the paper is the I/O performance of the Cray~T3E for an off-line model. We implemented the required I/O in different ways and show that none of these results in a truly...

  10. Indoor Air Quality and Academic Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Tess Stafford

    2013-01-01

    I examine the effect of school indoor air quality (IAQ) on academic outcomes. I utilize a quasi-natural experiment, in which IAQ-renovations were completed at virtually every school in a single Texas school district at different points in time, combined with a panel of student-level data to control for many confounding factors and thereby uncover the causal effect of IAQ-renovations on academic outcomes. Results indicate that performance on standardized tests significantly improves while atte...

  11. Association between air quality and quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darçın, Murat

    2014-02-01

    Air quality-or its converse, air pollution-is a significant risk factor for human health. Recent studies have reported association between air pollution and human health. There are numerous diseases that may be caused by air pollution such as respiratory infection, lung cancer, cardiovascular disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and asthma. In this study, the relationship between air quality and quality of life was examined by using canonical correlation analysis. Data of this study was collected from 27 countries. WHO statistics were used as the main source of quality of life data set (Y variables set). European Environment Agency statistics and (for outdoor air-PM10) WHO statistics were used as the main source of air quality data set (X variables set). It is found that there are significant positive correlation between air quality and quality of life. PMID:24014226

  12. Probe into Gaseous Pollution and Assessment of Air Quality Benefit under Sector Dependent Emission Control Strategies over Megacities in Yangtze River Delta, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, Xinyi; Gao, Yang; Fu, Joshua S.; Li, Juan; Huang, Kan; Zhuang, G.; Zhou, Ying

    2013-11-01

    On February 29th 2012, China published its new National Ambient Air Quality Standard (CH-NAAQS) aiming at revising the standards and measurements for both gaseous pollutants including ozone (O3), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and sulfur dioxide (SO2), and also particle pollutants including PM10 and PM2.5. In order to understand the air pollution status regarding this new standard, the integrated MM5/CMAQ modeling system was applied over Yangtze River Delta (YRD) within this study to examine the criteria gaseous pollutants listed in the new CH-NAAQS. Sensitivity simulations were also conducted to assess the responses of gaseous pollutants under 8 different sector-dependent emission reduction scenarios in order to evaluate the potential control strategies. 2006 was selected as the simulation year in order to review the air quality condition at the beginning of China’s 11th Five-Year-Plan (FYP, from 2006 to 2010), and also compared with air quality status in 2010 as the end of 11th FYP to probe into the effectiveness of the national emission control efforts. Base case simulation showed distinct seasonal variation for gaseous pollutants: SO2, and NO2 were found to have higher surface concentrations in winter while O3 was found to have higher concentrations in spring and summer than other seasons. According to the analyses focused on 3 megacities within YRD, Shanghai, Nanjing, and Hangzhou, we found different air quality conditions among the cities: NO2 was the primary pollutant that having the largest number of days exceeding the CH-NAAQS daily standard (80 μg/m3) in Shanghai (59 days) and Nanjing (27 days); SO2 was the primary pollutant with maximum number of days exceeding daily air quality standard (150 μg/m3) in Hangzhou (28 days), while O3 exceeding the daily maximum 8-hour standard (160 μg/m3) for relatively fewer days in all the three cities (9 days in Shanghai, 14 days in Nanjing, and 11 days in Hangzhou). Simulation results from predefined potential applicable

  13. Observing System Simulation Experiments for air quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmermans, R. M. A.; Lahoz, W. A.; Attié, J.-L.; Peuch, V.-H.; Curier, R. L.; Edwards, D. P.; Eskes, H. J.; Builtjes, P. J. H.

    2015-08-01

    This review paper provides a framework for the application of the Observing System Simulation Experiment (OSSE) methodology to satellite observations of atmospheric constituents relevant for air quality. The OSSEs are experiments used to determine the potential benefit of future observing systems using an existing monitoring or forecasting system and by this can help to define optimal characteristics of future instruments. To this end observations from future instruments are simulated from a model representing the realistic state of the atmosphere and an instrument simulator. The added value of the new observations is evaluated through assimilation into another model or model version and comparison with the simulated true state and a control run. This paper provides an overview of existing air quality OSSEs focusing on ozone, CO and aerosol. Using illustrative examples from these studies we present the main elements of an air quality OSSE and associated requirements based on evaluation of the existing studies and experience within the meteorological community. The air quality OSSEs performed hitherto provide evidence of their usefulness for evaluation of future observations although most studies published do not meet all the identified requirements. Especially the evaluation of the OSSE set-up requires more attention; the differences between the assimilation model and the simulated truth should approximate differences between models and real observations. Although this evaluation is missing in many studies, it is required to ensure realistic results. Properly executed air quality OSSEs are a valuable and cost effective tool to space agencies and instrument builders when applied at the start of the development stage to ensure future observations provide added value to users of Earth Observation data.

  14. Mexico City Air Quality Research Initiative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Mexico City Air Quality Research Initiative is one project that is examining the complex relationship between air pollution, economic growth, societal values, and air quality policies. This paper describes the programs that are being used to fulfill the three tasks of the project: air pollution modeling and simulation, air pollution monitoring, and strategic evaluation. The two lead institutions for this project are the Mexican Petroleum Institute and Los Alamos National Laboratory

  15. Meteorological determinants of air quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turoldo, F.; Del Frate, S.; Gallai, I.; Giaiotti, D. B.; Montanari, F.; Stel, F.; Goi, D.

    2010-09-01

    Air quality is the result of complex phenomena, among which the major role is played by human emissions of pollutants. Atmospheric processes act as determinants, e.g., modulating, dumping or amplifying the effects of emissions as an orchestra's director does with musical instruments. In this work, a series of small-scale and meso-scale meteorological determinants of air-quality are presented as they are observed in an area characterized by complex orography (Friuli Venezia Giulia, in the north-eastern side of Italy). In particular, attention is devoted to: i) meso-scale flows favouring the persistence of high concentrations of particulate matter; ii) meso-scale periodic flows (breezes) favouring high values of particulate matter; iii) local-scale thermodynamic behaviour favouring high atmospheric values of nitrogen oxides. The effects of these different classes of determinants are shown through comparisons between anthropic emissions (mainly traffic) and ground-based measurements. The relevance of complex orography (relatively steep relieves near to the sea) is shown for the meso-scale flows and, in particular, for local-scale periodic flows, which favour the increase of high pollutants concentrations mainly in summer, when the breezes regime is particularly relevant. Part of these results have been achieved through the ETS - Alpine Space EU project iMONITRAF!

  16. 78 FR 9593 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Maryland; Amendments to Maryland's...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-11

    ..., Air pollution control, Carbon monoxide, Incorporation by reference, Intergovernmental relations, Lead... to Maryland's Ambient Air Quality Standards AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION... reference of the national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS) by the State of Maryland. EPA is...

  17. Urban air quality in the Asian region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hopke, Philip K. [Center for Air Resources Engineering and Science, Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Clarkson University, Potsdam, NY 13699-5708 (United States)], E-mail: hopkepk@clarkson.edu; Cohen, David D. [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO), Physics Division, Private Mail Bag 1, Menai 2234, NSW (Australia); Begum, Bilkis A.; Biswas, Swapan K. [Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission (BAEC), Atomic Energy Centre, Dhaka (AECD), P.O. Box 164, Dhaka (Bangladesh); Ni Bangfa [China Institute of Atomic Energy (CIAE), China National Nuclear Corp. (CNNC), P.O. Box 275-50, Beijing 102413 (China); Pandit, Gauri Girish [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400085 (India); Santoso, Muhayatun [Center for Nuclear Technology of Material and Radiometry, National Nuclear Energy Agency (BATAN), Jl. Tamansari 71, Bandung 40132 (Indonesia); Chung, Yong-Sam [Hanaro Center, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI), 150 Dukjin-dong, Yusung-ku, P.O. Box 105, Daejon 305-600 (Korea, Republic of); Davy, Perry; Markwitz, Andreas [Institute of Geological and Nuclear Sciences (GNS), 30 Gracefield Road, P.O. Box 31-312, Lower Hutt (New Zealand); Waheed, Shahida; Siddique, Naila [Division of Nuclear Chemistry, PINSTECH, Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC), P.O. Box 1482, Nilore, Islamabad (Pakistan); Santos, Flora L.; Pabroa, Preciosa Corazon B. [Philippine Nuclear Research Institute (PNRI), Commonwealth Avenue, Diliman, P.O. Box 213, Quezon City 1101 (Philippines); Seneviratne, Manikkuwadura Consy Shirani [Atomic Energy Authority, 60/460, Baseline Road, Orugodawatta, Wellampitiya (Sri Lanka); Wimolwattanapun, Wanna; Bunprapob, Supamatthree [Thailand Institute of Nuclear Technology (TINT), 16 Vibhavadi Rangsit Road, Bangkok 10900 (Thailand); Thu Bac Vuong [Centre for Radiation Protection, Institute of Nuclear Sciences and Technology, P.O. Box 5T-160, Cau Giay (Viet Nam)] (and others)

    2008-10-01

    Over the past decade, member states of the Regional Co-operation Agreement (RCA), an intergovernmental agreement for the East Asia and Pacific region under the auspices of the IAEA with the assistance of international organizations and financial institutions such as the World Bank and the Asian Development Bank, have started to set in place policies and legislation for air pollution abatement. To support planning and evaluate the effectiveness of control programs, data are needed that characterizes urban air quality. The focus of this measurement program describe in this report is on size segregated particulate air pollution. Such airborne particulate matter can have a significant impact on human health and urban visibility. These data provide the input to receptor models that may permit the mitigation of these impacts by identification and quantitative apportionment of the particle sources. The aim of this report is to provide an overview of the measurements of concentrations and composition of particulate air pollution in two size fractions across the participating countries. For many of the large cities in this region, the measured particulate matter concentrations are greater than air quality standards or guidelines that have been adopted in developed countries.

  18. Urban air quality in the Asian region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Over the past decade, member states of the Regional Co-operation Agreement (RCA), an intergovernmental agreement for the East Asia and Pacific region under the auspices of the IAEA with the assistance of international organizations and financial institutions such as the World Bank and the Asian Development Bank, have started to set in place policies and legislation for air pollution abatement. To support planning and evaluate the effectiveness of control programs, data are needed that characterizes urban air quality. The focus of this measurement program describe in this report is on size segregated particulate air pollution. Such airborne particulate matter can have a significant impact on human health and urban visibility. These data provide the input to receptor models that may permit the mitigation of these impacts by identification and quantitative apportionment of the particle sources. The aim of this report is to provide an overview of the measurements of concentrations and composition of particulate air pollution in two size fractions across the participating countries. For many of the large cities in this region, the measured particulate matter concentrations are greater than air quality standards or guidelines that have been adopted in developed countries

  19. Frontiers in air quality modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Colette

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The first pan-European kilometre-scale atmospheric chemistry simulation is introduced. The continental-scale air pollution episode of January 2009 is modelled with the CHIMERE offline chemistry-transport model with a massive grid of 2 million horizontal points, performed on 2000 CPU of a high performance computing system hosted by the Research and Technology Computing Center at the French Alternative Energies and Atomic Energy Commission (CCRT/CEA. Besides the technical challenge, we find that model biases are significantly reduced, especially over urban areas. The high resolution grid also allows revisiting the contribution of individual city plumes to the European burden of pollution, providing new insights for designing air pollution control strategies.

  20. Air quality and communication. Special issue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In six articles Attention is paid to mainly the practical appliances of communication in relation to the aspects of air quality: the perceptions of air pollution of those people who are affected by it; the tuning of information on air quality to the wishes and needs of citizens; tools enabling visualisation of future situations in the living environment in various scenarios; results of a study of the need for information on air quality among citizens and general practitioners; experiences with websites on air quality obtained in two European projects. (mk)

  1. Steam--electric plant air and water quality control data. Summary report for the year ended December 31, 1974

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-09-01

    This is the sixth annual report in a series based on FPC (Federal Power Commission) Form 67 supplemented with plant-by-plant annual generation and plant heat rate data from FPC Form No. 1. Information is included on growth of the electric power generation industry; quantities of coal, gas, and oil consumed for power generation in U.S. regions; heat, ash, and sulfur content of these fuels; emission data for fossil-fuel power plants and types and cost of air pollution equipment installed; and water pollution control and water use for condenser cooling. (LCL)

  2. A retrospective look at air quality management in Los Angeles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The history of air quality management in Los Angeles is discussed. Successful as well as unsuccessful programs and control measures are described. Specific air pollutants discussed are sulfur dioxide, lead, carbon monoxide, particulate matter, nitrogen oxides, ozone, and toxic air contaminants

  3. 32 CFR 989.30 - Air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... been implemented by regulation, 40 CFR 93, Subpart B. All EIAP documents must address applicable... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Air quality. 989.30 Section 989.30 National... ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ANALYSIS PROCESS (EIAP) § 989.30 Air quality. Section 176(c) of the Clean Air...

  4. 30 CFR 75.321 - Air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Air quality. 75.321 Section 75.321 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Ventilation § 75.321 Air quality. (a)(1) The air in areas...

  5. Representativeness of air quality monitoring networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duyzer, J.; Hout, D. van den; Zandveld, P.; Ratingen, S. van

    2015-01-01

    The suitability of European networks to check compliance with air quality standards and to assess exposure of the population was investigated. An air quality model (URBIS) was applied to estimate and compare the spatial distribution of the concentration of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) in ambient air in fo

  6. Development of energy-efficient comfortable ventilation systems with air quality guided volume flow control and continuous monitoring of the window opening status. Part 1. Use of the LuQaS triple sensor for air quality guided volume flow control of mechanical ventilation systems in domestic buildings. Research project; Entwicklung energieeffizienter Komfortlueftungsanlagen mit luftqualitaetsgefuehrter Volumenstromregelung und kontinuierlicher Erfassung des Fensteroeffnungszustandes. Teilbericht 1. Einsatz des LuQaS-Triple-Sensors zur luftqualitaetsgefuehrten Volumenstromregelung von mechanischen Lueftungsanlagen in Wohngebaeuden. Forschungsprojekt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grossklos, Marc; Ebel, Witta; Knissel, Jens

    2011-05-15

    The report presents the preparatory work on the research project of the above title. The first chapter presents a status report on air quality monitoring inside rooms and evaluates the projects so far in which the LuQaS air quality sensor was used. The second chapter is a documentation of preliminary measurements using the LuQaS sensor in two passive residential buildings and several individual measurements for sensor calibration. It was found that in apartments with mechanical ventilation, the sensor reflects the user activities; further, the measured values indicate signal changes also in the off-air of the building, so that control via central sensors in the ventilation and off-air systems appears feasible. The third chapter discusses control strategies for air quality control. Apart from a discussion of control unit types, operating regimes, methods to determine rated values, and additional control functions, the effects of threshold value control with different threshold limit values and volume flow changes on the air quality of a model building was simulated. The results prove the expectation that the air quality inside a building will be influenced positively by air quality control. Theoretical investigations of the DrD method will be presented in another part-report of the project.

  7. Building ventilation and indoor air quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rising energy prices, among other factors, have generated an incentive to reduce ventilation rates and thereby reduce the cost of heating and cooling buildings. Reduced infiltration and ventilation in buildings may significantly increase exposure to indoor contaminations and perhaps have adverse effects on occupant health and comfort. Four indoor air contaminants - carbon monoxide and nitrogen dioxide from gas appliances; formaldehyde from particleboard, plywood, urea-formaldehyde foam insulation, and gas appliances; and radon from building materials, soil, and ground water - are currently receiving considerable attention in the context of potential health risks associated with reduced infiltration and ventilation rates. The authors have measured and analyzed these air contaminants in conventional and energy efficient buildings with a view to assessing their potential health risks and various control strategies capable of lowering pollutant concentrations. Preliminary findings suggest that further intensive studies are needed in order to develop criteria for maintaining acceptable indoor air quality without compromising energy efficiency. (Auth.)

  8. 77 FR 12524 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Indiana; Lead Ambient Air Quality...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Indiana; Lead Ambient Air Quality Standards AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Proposed rule...) under the Clean Air Act (CAA). This submittal incorporates the National Ambient Air Quality...

  9. Controlling Indoor Air Pollution from Moxibustion

    OpenAIRE

    Chung-Yen Lu; Sy-Yuan Kang; Shu-Hui Liu; Cheng-Wei Mai; Chao-Heng Tseng

    2016-01-01

    Indoor air quality (IAQ) control of hospitals plays a critical role in protecting both hospital staffs and patients, particularly those who are highly susceptible to the adverse effects of indoor noxious hazards. However, moxibustion in outpatient departments (OPDs) of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) may be a source of indoor air pollution in hospitals. Some studies have investigated indoor air pollution during moxibustion in Chinese medicine clinics (CMCs) and moxibustion rooms, demonstra...

  10. Mexico City Air quality: Progress of an international collaborative project to define air quality management options

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streit, Gerald E.; Guzmán, Francisco

    The Mexico City Air Quality Research Initiative was a 3-yr international collaborative project to develop or adapt a set of air quality management decision analysis tools for Mexico City and make them available to Mexican policy makers. The project comprised three tasks: modeling and simulation, characterization and measurement, and strategic evaluation. A prognostic, mesoscale meteorological model was adapted to the region of Mexico City and linked to a 3-D airshed model. These were extensively tested against data from the air quality monitoring network and from three intensive field campaigns. The interaction between policy and science was promoted through the development of a formal multiattribute decision analysis model to evaluate alternative control strategies. The project benefited by having researchers from both nations working side by side as peers, by having both nations investing resources and having an interest in the success of the project, and by having an objective, not of advocacy, but of the application of science to problem solving.

  11. Quality of air in Asuncion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The quality of the air in the city of Asuncion was evaluated, studying the distribution of the main chemical elements that are present in the sampling sites, using Bio monitors Tillandsia Meridionalis Baker and Tillandsia Recurvata L. and analyzed by of the ray-x florescence, technique the data were analyzed by means of the AXIL software and the results were a statistically analyzed by the SPSS Software for the creation of the maps of concentration distribution of the different elements from interest. The project was carried out multidisciplinary group integrated by the CNEA as Coordinator and executor; the Facultad de Ciencias Agrarias; the Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas; the Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales of the Universidad Nacional de Asuncion, as well as the Municipalidad de Asuncion.The material was done by specialists in the field and with the financial support of the IAEA

  12. Air quality management in China: Issues, challenges, and options

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shuxiao Wang; Jiming Hao

    2012-01-01

    This article analyzed the control progress and current status of air quality,identified the major air pollution issues and challenges in future,proposed the long-term air pollution control targets,and suggested the options for better air quality in China.With the continuing growth of economy in the next 10-15 years,China will face a more severe situation of energy consumption,electricity generation and vehicle population leading to increase in multiple pollutant emissions.Controlling regional air pollution especially fine particles and ozone,as well as lowering carbon emissions from fossil fuel consumption will be a big challenge for the country.To protect public health and the eco-system,the ambient air quality in all Chinese cities shall attain the national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS)and ambient air quality guideline values set by the World Health Organization (WHO).To achieve the air quality targets,the emissions of SO2,NOx,PM10,and volatile organic compounds (VOC) should decrease by 60%,40%,50%,and 40%,respectively,on the basis of that in 2005.A comprehensive control policy focusing on multiple pollutants and emission sources at both the local and regional levels was proposed to mitigate the regional air pollution issue in China.The options include development of clean energy resources,promotion of clean and efficient coal use,enhancement of vehicle pollution control,implementation of synchronous control of multiple pollutants including SO2,NOx,VOC,and PM emissions,joint prevention and control of regional air pollution,and application of climate friendly air pollution control measures.

  13. Good air quality in offices improves productivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fanger, Povl Ole

    2000-01-01

    quality. The impact on productivity justifies a much higher indoor air quality than the minimum levels prescribed in present standards and guidelines. One way of providing air of high quality for people to breathe, without involving excessive ventilation rates and energy use, is to provide "personalized...

  14. Air quality strategy for Hong Kong

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alex, N.K.Y. [Air Policy Group, Wanchai (Hong Kong). Environmental Protection Dept.

    1995-12-31

    Hong Kong has experienced unimpeded economic growth for four decades but at the same time has suffered from growing air pollution. A new look at the air quality strategy is therefore required to bring about sustainable development. (author)

  15. Urban air quality management. V. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is the first in a series of reports commissioned by the International Petroleum Industry Environmental Conservation Association (IPIECA) to represent members' views on the management of urban air quality in the growing cities in developing countries. In this report, a general, science based framework is provided as a basis for understanding the nature of the problem in any specific urban area, the range of solutions that might be available, and the potential impact of each solution and its least cost privatisation. The topics covered are: a process for urban air quality management; setting air quality targets; a structured approach to the assessment of current and future air quality modelling methodologies; identification and collation of air quality model input data; development of socio-economic scenarios -long-term trend forecasting; cost effectiveness studies; the IPIECA approach to urban air quality management - development of partnerships; encouraging commitment to implementation of programme recommendations. (7 figures; 2 tables; 18 references). (UK)

  16. Enabling Mobile Air Quality App Development with an AirNow API

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dye, T.; White, J. E.; Ludewig, S. A.; Dickerson, P.; Healy, A. N.; West, J. W.; Prince, L. A.

    2013-12-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) AirNow program works with over 130 participating state, local, and federal air quality agencies to obtain, quality control, and store real-time air quality observations and forecasts. From these data, the AirNow system generates thousands of maps and products each hour. Each day, information from AirNow is published online and in other media to assist the public in making health-based decisions related to air quality. However, an increasing number of people use mobile devices as their primary tool for obtaining information, and AirNow has responded to this trend by publishing an easy-to-use Web API that is useful for mobile app developers. This presentation will describe the various features of the AirNow application programming interface (API), including Representational State Transfer (REST)-type web services, file outputs, and RSS feeds. In addition, a web portal for the AirNow API will be shown, including documentation on use of the system, a query tool for configuring and running web services, and general information about the air quality data and forecasts available. Data published via the AirNow API includes corresponding Air Quality Index (AQI) levels for each pollutant. We will highlight examples of mobile apps that are using the AirNow API to provide location-based, real-time air quality information. Examples will include mobile apps developed for Minnesota ('Minnesota Air') and Washington, D.C. ('Clean Air Partners Air Quality'), and an app developed by EPA ('EPA AirNow').

  17. The Economic Value of Air Quality Forecasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson-Sumo, Tasha

    Both long-term and daily air quality forecasts provide an essential component to human health and impact costs. According the American Lung Association, the estimated current annual cost of air pollution related illness in the United States, adjusted for inflation (3% per year), is approximately $152 billion. Many of the risks such as hospital visits and morality are associated with poor air quality days (where the Air Quality Index is greater than 100). Groups such as sensitive groups become more susceptible to the resulting conditions and more accurate forecasts would help to take more appropriate precautions. This research focuses on evaluating the utility of air quality forecasting in terms of its potential impacts by building on air quality forecasting and economical metrics. Our analysis includes data collected during the summertime ozone seasons between 2010 and 2012 from air quality models for the Washington, DC/Baltimore, MD region. The metrics that are relevant to our analysis include: (1) The number of times that a high ozone or particulate matter (PM) episode is correctly forecasted, (2) the number of times that high ozone or PM episode is forecasted when it does not occur and (3) the number of times when the air quality forecast predicts a cleaner air episode when the air was observed to have high ozone or PM. Our collection of data included available air quality model forecasts of ozone and particulate matter data from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)'s AIRNOW as well as observational data of ozone and particulate matter from Clean Air Partners. We evaluated the performance of the air quality forecasts with that of the observational data and found that the forecast models perform well for the Baltimore/Washington region and the time interval observed. We estimate the potential amount for the Baltimore/Washington region accrues to a savings of up to 5,905 lives and 5.9 billion dollars per year. This total assumes perfect compliance with

  18. Quality Control Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Chorafas, Dimitris N

    2013-01-01

    Quality control is a constant priority in electrical, mechanical, aeronautical, and nuclear engineering – as well as in the vast domain of electronics, from home appliances to computers and telecommunications. Quality Control Applications provides guidance and valuable insight into quality control policies; their methods, their implementation, constant observation and associated technical audits. What has previously been a mostly mathematical topic is translated here for engineers concerned with the practical implementation of quality control. Once the fundamentals of quality control are established, Quality Control Applications goes on to develop this knowledge and explain how to apply it in the most effective way. Techniques are described and supported using relevant, real-life, case studies to provide detail and clarity for those without a mathematical background. Among the many practical examples, two case studies dramatize the importance of quality assurance: A shot-by-shot analysis of the errors made ...

  19. Future Air Quality in Danish Cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, S. S.; Berkowicz, R.; Winther, M.;

    The impact of new EU vehicle emission and fuel quality directives on the future air quality in Danish cities has been modelled for comparison with new limit values in the new EU directive on assessment and management of urban air quality. Nested modelling was applied using a set of air quality and...... emission models to predict concentration levels in the regional background, urban background and at street level. Air pollution levels were predicted to decrease for NO2, CO and benzene (ozone increased slightly) and the results show that the levels will not exceed the new EU limit values in 2010 despite...

  20. Good air quality in offices improves productivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fanger, Povl Ole

    2000-01-01

    quality. The impact on productivity justifies a much higher indoor air quality than the minimum levels prescribed in present standards and guidelines. One way of providing air of high quality for people to breathe, without involving excessive ventilation rates and energy use, is to provide "personalized......Three recent independent studies have documented that the quality of indoor air has a significant and positive influence on the productivity of office workers. A combined analysis of the results of the three studies shows a significant relationship between productivity and perceived indoor air...

  1. [Scientific and methodologic basis of a program for occupational control of ambient air quality within a totally sanitary protective zone at an industrial center borderline (Permsky area experience)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maĭ, I V; Balashov, S Iu

    2013-01-01

    The authors suggested and tested an algorithm to select optimal placement of stationary and mobile points for controlling ambient air quality on borderline of united sanitary protective zone of industrial center. The method involves claster analysis to outline sites even in levels and lists of parameters, on borderline of united sanitary protective zone of industrial center. Informative value of the occupational control parameters is evaluated through conjugated analysis of general level of surface concentration of admixtures and enterprise's contribution into pollution. For each enterprise, separate control program is provided. Tests of the method demonstrated that it is effective and conclusive in formation of minimally sufficient programs for occupational control in complicated conditions of industrial centers with single-field enterprises, when industrial releases are close in composition and in created pollution level. PMID:24640091

  2. To what extent can China’s near-term air pollution control policy protect air quality and human health? A case study of the Pearl River Delta region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Following a series of extreme air pollution events, the Chinese government released the Air Pollution Prevention and Control Action Plan in 2013 (China’s State Council 2013). The Action Plan sets clear goals for key regions (i.e. cities above the prefecture level, Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Province, the Yangtze River Delta and the Pearl River Delta) and establishes near-term control efforts for the next five years. However, the extent to which the Action Plan can direct local governments’ activities on air pollution control remains unknown. Here we seek to evaluate the air quality improvement and associated health benefits achievable under the Action Plan in the Pearl River Delta (PRD) area from 2012 to 2017. Measure-by-measure quantification results show that the Action Plan would promise effective emissions reductions of 34% of SO2, 28% of NOx, 26% of PM2.5 (particulate matter less than 2.5 μm in diameter), and 10% of VOCs (volatile organic compounds). These emissions abatements would lower the PM2.5 concentration by 17%, surpassing the 15% target established in the Action Plan, thereby avoiding more than 2900 deaths and 4300 hospital admissions annually. We expect the implementation of the Action Plan in the PRD would be productive; the anticipated impacts, however, fall short of the goal of protecting the health of local residents, as there are still more than 33 million people living in places where the annual mean ambient PM2.5 concentrations are greater than 35 μg m−3, the interim target-3 of the World Health Organization (WHO). We therefore propose the next steps for air pollution control that are important not only for the PRD but also for all other regions of China as they develop and implement effective air pollution control policies. (letter)

  3. To what extent can China’s near-term air pollution control policy protect air quality and human health? A case study of the Pearl River Delta region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xujia; Hong, Chaopeng; Zheng, Yixuan; Zheng, Bo; Guan, Dabo; Gouldson, Andy; Zhang, Qiang; He, Kebin

    2015-10-01

    Following a series of extreme air pollution events, the Chinese government released the Air Pollution Prevention and Control Action Plan in 2013 (China’s State Council 2013). The Action Plan sets clear goals for key regions (i.e. cities above the prefecture level, Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Province, the Yangtze River Delta and the Pearl River Delta) and establishes near-term control efforts for the next five years. However, the extent to which the Action Plan can direct local governments’ activities on air pollution control remains unknown. Here we seek to evaluate the air quality improvement and associated health benefits achievable under the Action Plan in the Pearl River Delta (PRD) area from 2012 to 2017. Measure-by-measure quantification results show that the Action Plan would promise effective emissions reductions of 34% of SO2, 28% of NOx, 26% of PM2.5 (particulate matter less than 2.5 μm in diameter), and 10% of VOCs (volatile organic compounds). These emissions abatements would lower the PM2.5 concentration by 17%, surpassing the 15% target established in the Action Plan, thereby avoiding more than 2900 deaths and 4300 hospital admissions annually. We expect the implementation of the Action Plan in the PRD would be productive; the anticipated impacts, however, fall short of the goal of protecting the health of local residents, as there are still more than 33 million people living in places where the annual mean ambient PM2.5 concentrations are greater than 35 μg m-3, the interim target-3 of the World Health Organization (WHO). We therefore propose the next steps for air pollution control that are important not only for the PRD but also for all other regions of China as they develop and implement effective air pollution control policies.

  4. Software product quality control

    CERN Document Server

    Wagner, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    Quality is not a fixed or universal property of software; it depends on the context and goals of its stakeholders. Hence, when you want to develop a high-quality software system, the first step must be a clear and precise specification of quality. Yet even if you get it right and complete, you can be sure that it will become invalid over time. So the only solution is continuous quality control: the steady and explicit evaluation of a product's properties with respect to its updated quality goals.This book guides you in setting up and running continuous quality control in your environment. Star

  5. Air Quality of Beijing and Impacts of the New Ambient Air Quality Standard

    OpenAIRE

    Wei Chen; Fusheng Wang; Guofeng Xiao; Kai Wu; Shixuan Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Beijing has been publishing daily reports on its air quality since 2000, and while the air pollution index (API) shows that the air quality has improved greatly since 2000, this is not the perception of Beijing’s residents. The new national ambient air quality standard (NAAQS-2012), which includes the monitoring of PM2.5, has posed stricter standards for evaluating air quality. With the new national standard, the air quality in Beijing is calculated using both NAAQS-2012 and the previous stan...

  6. Air pollution and its control in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAO Jiming; HE Kebin; DUAN Lei; LI Junhua; WANG Litao

    2007-01-01

    The rapid growth of China's economy has led to severe air pollution characterized by acid rain,severe pollution in cities,and regional air pollution.High concentrations are found for various pollutants such as sulfur dioxides(SO2),nitrogen oxides(NOx),and fine particulates.Great efforts have thus been undertaken for the control of air pollution in the country.This paper discusses the development and application of appropriate technologies for reducing the major pollutants produced by coal and vehicles,and investi gates air quality modeling as an important support for policy-making.

  7. 40 CFR 240.205 - Air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Air quality. 240.205 Section 240.205 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES GUIDELINES FOR THE THERMAL PROCESSING OF SOLID WASTES Requirements and Recommended Procedures § 240.205 Air quality....

  8. Air quality and industry [in the Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It sometimes happens that environmental permits for industry or businesses are reversed because assessment and motivation of the decision has been inaccurate. Therefore, the Interregional Consultation (IPO in Dutch) drafted an air quality examination as a tool to test the air quality aspect in licensing procedures of the Environmental Protection Law in the Netherlands

  9. REGIONAL AIR POLLUTION STUDY, QUALITY ASSURANCE AUDITS

    Science.gov (United States)

    RAPS Quality Assurance audits were conducted under this Task Order in continuation of the audit program previously conducted under Task Order No. 58. Quantitative field audits were conducted of the Regional Air Monitoring System (RAMS) Air Monitoring Stations, Local Air Monitorin...

  10. 75 FR 65594 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Ohio; Ohio Ambient Air Quality...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-26

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Ohio; Ohio Ambient Air Quality Standards AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY... consolidation of Ohio's Ambient Air Quality Standards (AAQS) into Ohio's State Implementation Plan (SIP)...

  11. 78 FR 30829 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Illinois; Air Quality Standards...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-23

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Illinois; Air Quality Standards Revision AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY... current national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS) for ozone, lead, and particulate matter. EPA...

  12. ‘The air that we breathe’: assessment of laser and electrosurgical dissection devices on operating theater air quality

    OpenAIRE

    Brace, Matthew D; Stevens, Elizabeth; Taylor, S Mark; Butt, Sarah; Sun, Zhennan; Hu, Licai; Borden, Megan; Khanna, Neeraj; Kuchta, James; Trites, Jonathan; Hart, Robert; Gibson, Mark D

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To measure changes in air quality during surgery. Methods Operating room (OR) and hallway air quality was continuously monitored over a 3-month period. Rooftop monitoring was used to control for environmental changes and to account for the infiltration of outdoor air pollutants. Air quality measurements were correlated with operative times and electro-dissection equipment used. Results OR air is cooler and drier compared to the adjacent hallway. Volatile organic compounds and other...

  13. Air quality and urban management in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alberti, M. [Stanford Univ. (United States). Center for Conservation Biology; Joffre, S. [Finnish Meteorological Inst., Helsinki (Finland)

    1995-12-31

    Important changes in the quality of urban air have occurred in Europe during the last 20 years. Urban air quality trends are clearly correlated to changes in production and consumption processes which have occurred in European cities during the last decades. However, the way these trends are linked with the changes in the urban structure is not yet fully appreciated. A set of indicators is proposed to examine the relationships between air quality, energy consumption and transportation trends. On this basis is argued that the current decentralization of the urban structure and specialization of land use are major driving forces in current urban air pollution. The range of actions and tools to improve urban air quality should include: (1) land use planning, (2) efficient urban management, and (3) measures directed to protecting the quality of the urban environment. (author)

  14. Indoor Air Quality in Primary Schools

    OpenAIRE

    Freitas, Maria do Carmo; Canha, Nuno; Martinho, Maria; Almeida-Silva, Marina; Almeida, Susana Marta; Pegas, Priscilla; Alves, Célia; Pio, Casimiro; Trancoso, Maria; Sousa, Rita; Mouro, Filomena; Contreiras, Teresa

    2011-01-01

    Clean air is a basic requirement of life (World Health Organization, 2010). The Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) has been the object of several studies due to an increasing concern within the scientific community on the effects of indoor air quality upon health, especially as people tend to spend more time indoors than outdoors (Franck et al., 2011; Canha et al., 2010; WHO, 2010; Environmental Protection Agency, 2010; Saliba et al., 2009; Fraga et al., 2008; Fromme et al., 2007; Guo et al., 2004; ...

  15. Recommended concentration limits of indoor air pollution indicators for requirement of acceptable indoor air quality

    OpenAIRE

    Wang J., Zhang X.

    2010-01-01

    Object and goals of indoor air pollution control with ventilation may influence improvement of indoor air quality, building energy consumption and even carbon emissions. Indicators of indoor air pollution caused by occupants-related sources and building-related sources were chosen based on sources emitting characteristics, pollutants composition, indicator choosing principles and indoor air pollution situation in China. Then the recommended concentration limits of indicators were given for un...

  16. Checking quality control?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodersen, Lars

    2005-01-01

    How is quality control doing within the community of GIS, web-services based on geo-information, GI etc.?......How is quality control doing within the community of GIS, web-services based on geo-information, GI etc.?...

  17. Air quality status and trends over the Metropolitan Area of São Paulo, Brazil as a result of emission control policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Air pollutants concentrations shows benefits of Brazil's emission control policies. • Reduction in concentrations were due to vehicular emission control program. • SO2 concentration reduction was due to a decrease in sulphur content used in fuels. • Monthly, weekly and diurnal cycle averages indicate the effects of vehicle emissions. - Abstract: Fourteen years of regulated air pollutants concentrations were analyzed in order to characterize the benefits of Brazil's emission control policies on air quality conditions and to evaluate the temporal patterns between 1996 and 2009 over the Metropolitan Area of São Paulo (MASP). MASP includes one of the largest cities in the world (São Paulo) and its light-duty vehicular fleet has a very important characteristic in that it uses, on a large scale, fuels such as ethanol derived from sugar cane and compressed natural gas. Nowadays, ethanol makes up more than 50% of the fuel used in Brazil. The frequent episodes with high ozone and PM10 concentration values in the MASP are mostly associated with vehicular emissions – primary emission of particles and gases enrolled in ozone photochemical production and formation of secondary fine particles. Although the fleet has increased at a substantial rate, annual mean values show a diminishing tendency for all pollutants except for ozone, which presents no significant tendency. This diminishing tendency in the analyzed period is due to the vehicular emission control program established by the Brazilian Government in 1986, called PROCONVE (Program for the Control of Vehicular Emission). Monthly mean values, as expected, show higher concentrations of all pollutants except for ozone during wintertime. The diurnal cycle of the pollutants in most of the stations shows two peaks, associated with rush hours, except for ozone, whose peak follows the maximum radiation incidence. Secondary (nocturnal) ozone concentration maxima were sometimes verified around

  18. Enhancing indoor air quality –The air filter advantage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vannan Kandi Vijayan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Air pollution has become the world's single biggest environmental health risk, linked to around 7 million deaths in 2012 according to a recent World Health Organisation (WHO report. The new data further reveals a stronger link between, indoor and outdoor air pollution exposure and cardiovascular diseases, such as strokes and ischemic heart disease, as well as between air pollution and cancer. The role of air pollution in the development of respiratory diseases, including acute respiratory infections and chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases, is well known. While both indoor and outdoor pollution affect health, recent statistics on the impact of household indoor pollutants (HAP is alarming. The WHO factsheet on HAP and health states that 3.8 million premature deaths annually - including stroke, ischemic heart disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD and lung cancer are attributed to exposure to household air pollution. Use of air cleaners and filters are one of the suggested strategies to improve indoor air quality. This review discusses the impact of air pollutants with special focus on indoor air pollutants and the benefits of air filters in improving indoor air quality.

  19. Enhancing indoor air quality -The air filter advantage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayan, Vannan Kandi; Paramesh, Haralappa; Salvi, Sundeep Santosh; Dalal, Alpa Anil Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Air pollution has become the world's single biggest environmental health risk, linked to around 7 million deaths in 2012 according to a recent World Health Organisation (WHO) report. The new data further reveals a stronger link between, indoor and outdoor air pollution exposure and cardiovascular diseases, such as strokes and ischemic heart disease, as well as between air pollution and cancer. The role of air pollution in the development of respiratory diseases, including acute respiratory infections and chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases, is well known. While both indoor and outdoor pollution affect health, recent statistics on the impact of household indoor pollutants (HAP) is alarming. The WHO factsheet on HAP and health states that 3.8 million premature deaths annually - including stroke, ischemic heart disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and lung cancer are attributed to exposure to household air pollution. Use of air cleaners and filters are one of the suggested strategies to improve indoor air quality. This review discusses the impact of air pollutants with special focus on indoor air pollutants and the benefits of air filters in improving indoor air quality. PMID:26628762

  20. Standards for securing adequate indoor air quality across Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wargocki, Pawel; Carrer, P.; de Oliveira Fernandes, E.;

    2013-01-01

    human bioeffluents and is determined mainly considering the metabolic CO2 production. It is only applicable if all other pollutants meet WHO guidelines for ambient and indoor air quality. If they do not meet these guidelines after applying source control and when air used for ventilation is clean health...

  1. Report on the quality control study NAT-7 for the determination of trace and minor elements in dust artificially loaded on air filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A quality control study was organized on two air filters artificially loaded with urban dust. One dust material was collected from the air intake ducts of the Vienna General Hospital, the second material was collected from the main ventilation shaft of a road tunnel in Prague. 49 laboratories from 40 countries participated in the study, providing 53 sets of results. The following analytical methods were used: neutron activation analysis (NAA), inductive coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES), inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), particle induced X-ray emission spectrometry (PDCE), atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS), and X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (XRF). The results were evaluated following the standard LEA procedures for (1) an interlaboratory comparison exercise and (2) a proficiency test using established target values. For the air filter sample V, 754 laboratory mean values for 38 elements were reported. More than 4 mean values were obtained for 26 measurands and these were statistically evaluated. Only 10 % 71 values) of the results were detected as outliers by the statistical data evaluation. The results and statistical parameters are listed in the appendices I and II. The results were also evaluated as a proficiency test using established target values. Precision and accuracy criteria were applied to 15 elements. 534 laboratory mean values were reported for those elements, 114 values (20%) did not pass the set proficiency test criteria. The individual laboratory results are listed in appendix IV. For the air filter sample P, 694 laboratory mean values for 38 elements were reported. More than 4 mean values were obtained for 26 measurands and these were statistically evaluated. Only 9% (60 values) of the results were detected as outliers by the statistical data evaluation. The results and statistical parameters are listed in the appendices I and II. The results were also evaluated as a proficiency test using target values

  2. ATMOSPHERIC AIR QUALITY IN CALARASI TOWN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia NEAGU

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper seeks to highlight the appearance of air pollution in Calarasi region on the basis of the annual reports of the environment in recent years and of the integrated air quality management for Cǎlǎraşi (data are presented about current and future emissions and concentrations of pollutants I tried to mark out the impurity of the atmospheric air from this area.Emission data interpretation was made on the basis of the inventory of emissions of pollutants in the air made for fixed and mobile sources in Calarasi town in recent years using the program Corinvent and Corinair emission factors, and imissions data were used to monitor the air quality monitoring network air quality. The index of the quality of the air showed the highest values in winter.There have been occasional instances of the limit provided by law for particulate matter PM10, Calarasi, or being the intense traffic, the topoclimate in summer periods with high temperatures and deficient pluviometric regime, but also because housing fuel winter warming solid. There major problems of environmental pollution of air quality in Calarasi town that falls within the limits imposed by the legislation in force. This is due especially to the fact that many industrial centres have been closed.

  3. Better IVF outcomes following improvements in laboratory air quality

    OpenAIRE

    Khoudja, Rabea Youcef; Xu, Yanwen; Li, Tao; Zhou, Canquan

    2012-01-01

    Background It has been proved that air quality is crucial for the success of IVF because of the presence of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), microbes, and perfumes, all of which can be harmful to embryo development in vitro. Therefore IVF laboratories are equipped with high efficiency particulate air (HEPA), and activated carbon filters plus positive pressure for air particulate control, with or without CODA system. Here we introduce a new technology using specially treated Honeycomb matrix...

  4. Transportation and Air Quality in California: A Policy Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Deakin, Elizabeth

    1991-01-01

    Significant accomplishments in air pollution emissions control have occurred over the past twenty years. Emissions have been substantially reduced by both industrial and transportation sources; over the ten year period 1977-86, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) reports improvements in each of the six air pollutants for which health-based national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS) exist -- lead, sulfur dioxide, ozone, carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, and particulates. Yet ma...

  5. Indoor air quality environmental information handbook: Building system characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This manual, the third in a series, focuses on residential building system characteristics and their effects on indoor air quality. The manual addresses: residential indoor air pollutants by source, indoor concentrations, health effects, source control and mitigation techniques, standards and guidelines; building system characteristics of air exchange, pollutant source strength, residence volume, site characteristics, structural design, construction, and operation, infiltration and ventilation system, building occupancy; and monitoring methods

  6. A smart indoor air quality sensor network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Jin

    2006-03-01

    The indoor air quality (IAQ) has an important impact on public health. Currently, the indoor air pollution, caused by gas, particle, and bio-aerosol pollutants, is considered as the top five environmental risks to public health and has an estimated cost of $2 billion/year due to medical cost and lost productivity. Furthermore, current buildings are especially vulnerable for chemical and biological warfare (CBW) agent contamination because the central air conditioning and ventilation system serve as a nature carrier to spread the released agent from one location to the whole indoor environment within a short time period. To assure the IAQ and safety for either new or existing buildings, real time comprehensive IAQ and CBW measurements are needed. With the development of new sensing technologies, economic and reliable comprehensive IAQ and CBW sensors become promising. However, few studies exist that examine the design and evaluation issues related to IAQ and CBW sensor network. In this paper, relevant research areas including IAQ and CBW sensor development, demand control ventilation, indoor CBW sensor system design, and sensor system design for other areas such as water system protection, fault detection and diagnosis, are reviewed and summarized. Potential research opportunities for IAQ and CBW sensor system design and evaluation are discussed.

  7. Air quality management in Riga area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leitass, A. [Riga City Council (Latvia). Air Monitoring Dept.

    1995-12-31

    The present Air Quality Management System was started in 1992 as a result of co-operation between two cities - Riga and Norrkoping (Sweden) supported by BITS (The Swedish Agency for International Technical and Economic Co-operation). Lots of Swedish companies were involved in different parts of this project. The strategy is designed by INDIC company developing the AIRVIRO which is a computer based system for all aspects of air quality management. Air pollution in Riga is a serious problem affecting health and damaging valuable buildings of historic value. The majority of the city`s air pollution is the result of emission sources inside the city. The traffic is the predominant source of pollution now. The fossil fuel power stations in the country are not considered to affect the air quality situation in Riga. (author)

  8. Effect of Climate Change on Air Quality

    OpenAIRE

    Jacob, Daniel J.; Winner, Darrel A.

    2009-01-01

    Air quality is strongly dependent on weather and is therefore sensitive to climate change. Recent studies have provided estimates of this climate effect through correlations of air quality with meteorological variables, perturbation analyses in chemical transport models (CTMs), and CTM simulations driven by general circulation model (GCM) simulations of 21st-century climate change. We review these different approaches and their results. The future climate is expected to be more stagnant, due ...

  9. Cultural and Political Determinants of Air Quality

    OpenAIRE

    Francisca Guedes de Oliveira; Alexandra Leitão

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates empirically the determinants of air quality in a large cross-section of countries. We assess air quality by sulfur emissions and, following the literature, we consider three different groups of determinants: economic, political and cultural. We confirm the existence of an EKC for sulfur (inverted-U shaped relation between wealth and pollution). Political determinants are proxied by ethnic or religious fractionalization indexes and the country’s legal origin (we conside...

  10. Air Quality of Beijing and Impacts of the New Ambient Air Quality Standard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Chen

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Beijing has been publishing daily reports on its air quality since 2000, and while the air pollution index (API shows that the air quality has improved greatly since 2000, this is not the perception of Beijing’s residents. The new national ambient air quality standard (NAAQS-2012, which includes the monitoring of PM2.5, has posed stricter standards for evaluating air quality. With the new national standard, the air quality in Beijing is calculated using both NAAQS-2012 and the previous standard. The annual attainment rate has dropped from 75.5% to 50.7%. The spatial analysis of air quality shows that only a background station could attain the national standard, while urban and suburban stations exceed the national standard. Among the six pollutants included in the NAAQS-2012, PM2.5 is the major contributor to the air quality index (AQI comparing with the five other pollutants. The results indicate that under previous NAAQS without PM2.5 monitoring, the air quality has improved greatly in the past decade.  By considering PM2.5, the air quality attainment has dropped greatly. Furthermore, a great effort is needed for local government to bring down the PM2.5 concentration.

  11. Controlling Indoor Air Pollution from Moxibustion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung-Yen Lu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Indoor air quality (IAQ control of hospitals plays a critical role in protecting both hospital staffs and patients, particularly those who are highly susceptible to the adverse effects of indoor noxious hazards. However, moxibustion in outpatient departments (OPDs of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM may be a source of indoor air pollution in hospitals. Some studies have investigated indoor air pollution during moxibustion in Chinese medicine clinics (CMCs and moxibustion rooms, demonstrating elevated air pollutants that pose a threat to the health of medical staff and patients. Our study investigated the indoor air pollutants of indoor carbon dioxide (CO2, carbon monoxide (CO, formaldehyde (HCHO, total volatile organic compounds (TVOCs, airborne particulate matter with a diameter of ≤10 µm (PM10 and ≤2.5 µm (PM2.5 during moxibustion in an acupuncture and moxibustion room of the OPD in a hospital in Taipei. To evaluate the different control strategies for indoor air pollution from moxibution, a comparison of air pollutants during moxibution among the methods of using alternative old moxa wools, local exhaust ventilation and an air cleaner was conducted. In this study, burning alternative old moxa wools for moxibustion obviously reduced all gaseous pollutants except for aerosols comparing burning fresh moxa wools. Using local exhaust ventilation reduced most of the aerosols after burning moxa. We also found that using an air cleaner was inefficient for controlling indoor air pollutants, particularly gaseous pollutants. Therefore, combining replacing alternative old moxa wools and local exhaust ventilation could be a suitable design for controlling indoor air pollution during moxibustion therapy.

  12. Controlling Indoor Air Pollution from Moxibustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Chung-Yen; Kang, Sy-Yuan; Liu, Shu-Hui; Mai, Cheng-Wei; Tseng, Chao-Heng

    2016-01-01

    Indoor air quality (IAQ) control of hospitals plays a critical role in protecting both hospital staffs and patients, particularly those who are highly susceptible to the adverse effects of indoor noxious hazards. However, moxibustion in outpatient departments (OPDs) of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) may be a source of indoor air pollution in hospitals. Some studies have investigated indoor air pollution during moxibustion in Chinese medicine clinics (CMCs) and moxibustion rooms, demonstrating elevated air pollutants that pose a threat to the health of medical staff and patients. Our study investigated the indoor air pollutants of indoor carbon dioxide (CO2), carbon monoxide (CO), formaldehyde (HCHO), total volatile organic compounds (TVOCs), airborne particulate matter with a diameter of ≤10 µm (PM10) and ≤2.5 µm (PM2.5) during moxibustion in an acupuncture and moxibustion room of the OPD in a hospital in Taipei. To evaluate the different control strategies for indoor air pollution from moxibution, a comparison of air pollutants during moxibution among the methods of using alternative old moxa wools, local exhaust ventilation and an air cleaner was conducted. In this study, burning alternative old moxa wools for moxibustion obviously reduced all gaseous pollutants except for aerosols comparing burning fresh moxa wools. Using local exhaust ventilation reduced most of the aerosols after burning moxa. We also found that using an air cleaner was inefficient for controlling indoor air pollutants, particularly gaseous pollutants. Therefore, combining replacing alternative old moxa wools and local exhaust ventilation could be a suitable design for controlling indoor air pollution during moxibustion therapy. PMID:27331817

  13. Energy use, air infiltration, and indoor air quality in well-insulated residences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports two unoccupied bilevel houses of identical design and construction studied to determine the relationships among air exchange, energy consumption, and indoor air quality. The experimental house was retrofitted to increase building tightness and was equipped with an air-to-air heat exchanger; the control house was kept in its initial state of construction. Infiltration, energy, indoor air quality, and environmental parameters were monitored in both houses before and after the retrofit. It was found that the retrofit decreased air infiltration rates by nearly 25 percent, heating energy savings of 12 to 20 percent were achieved through the retrofit, and among the pollutants monitored, only radon and radon progeny increased in proportion to the reduced infiltration. Similarly, when the heat exchanger was operated, radon and radon progeny were the only pollutants reduced in proportion to the added air exchange

  14. Perceived air quality, thermal comfort, and SBS symptoms at low air temperature and increased radiant temperature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toftum, Jørn; Reimann, Gregers Peter; Foldbjerg, P.;

    2002-01-01

    This study investigated if low air temperature, which is known to improve the perception of air quality, also can reduce the intensity of some SBS symptoms. In a low-polluting office, human subjects were exposed to air at two temperatures 23 deg.C and 18 deg.C both with and without a pollution...... source present at the low temperature. To maintain overall thermal neutrality, the low air temperature was partly compensated for by individually controlled radiant heating, and partly by allowing subjects to modify clothing insulation. A reduction of the air temperature from 23 deg.C to 18 deg.......C suggested an improvement of the perceived air quality, while no systematic effect on symptom intensity was observed. The overall indoor environment was evaluated equally acceptable at both temperatures due to local thermal discomfort at the low air temperature....

  15. The impact of periodic air pollution peaks in Beijing on air quality governance in China

    OpenAIRE

    Schwabe, Julian; Hassler, Markus

    2016-01-01

    During the month of January 2013, Beijing suffered air pollution of unprecedented intensity. This event, which was named “airpocalypse” in international media, was followed by vibrant media reporting and public discussion on the topic and prompted the central government to issue unusually ambitious measures to contain air pollution more effectively. This paper explores the impact of the airpocalypse on China’s air quality governance by conducting a qualitative analysis of pollution control po...

  16. Indoor air quality: radon and formaldehyde

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The WHO Regional Office for Europe has taken a leading role at the international level in reviewing and stimulating research and action on the potential health hazards of indoor air pollutants. A subject is given on page vi. It is now much more generally recognized than even five years ago that the use of particular materials for construction of buildings or for furniture and fittings is accompanied by certain risks, especially in view of the ''tightening'' of buildings to reduce energy costs, and increased reliance on central heating and air conditioning. For the last three years, the Regional Office, with the support of the Government of the Netherlands, has been developing a set of air quality guidelines for Europe. In addition to major air pollutants such as sulfur dioxide and particulates, these guidelines cover some 25 other inorganic and organic substances, including radon and formaldehyde. In 1985, a working group reviewed the latter two substances in relation to the ongoing indoor air quality programme of the Regional Office and also as part of the air quality guidelines. In view of the importance of these substances, it was decided to issue a separate report in the Environmental Health Series. The complete air quality guidelines will be published in mid-1987. (author)

  17. Quality control of radiopharmaceuticals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quality assurance was introduced in the pharmaceutical field long before it was used in many other areas, and the term quality control has been used in a much broader sense than merely analytical quality control. The term Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP) has been used to describe the system used for producing safe and effective drugs of a uniform quality. GMP has also been used for the industrial production of radiopharmaceuticals. For the preparation and control of radiopharmaceuticals in hospitals a similar system has been named Good Radiopharmacy Practice (GRP). It contains the same elements as GMP but takes into account the special nature of this group of drugs. Data on the assessment of the quality of radiopharmaceuticals in relation to present standards are reviewed. The general conclusion is that the quality of radiopharmaceuticals appears comparable to that of other drugs. It seems possible to establish the production of radiopharmaceuticals, generators and preparation kits in such a way that analytical control of the final product at the hospital may be limited provided the final preparation work is carried out in accordance with GRP principles. The elements of GRP are reviewed. (author)

  18. Standards and laws for indoor air quality in Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The air quality of indoor air in Russia, including the special problems of air quality with regard to radioactive contamination, is determined by a number of statutes, standards and regulations. All these are based on the biological principles that the maximum allowable concentrations of pollutants (MAC) and the prescribed radioactive safety dose limits should not be exceeded. The standards cover the air in the working zones of all ministries and departments, and are for trade unions, public and cooperative organisations and foundations. The basic Russian law for air quality is 'The Law on Environmental Nature Protection' (19.2.1991) which assures the right to health protection from adverse environmental effects. In the field of radioactive safety 'The Federal Law on Radioactive Safety' (9.1.1996) is the primary law and in accordance with it, every citizen living in Russia has the right to protection for the present and future generations from health-related deleterious effects of atomic radiation. The laws on air quality are part of the Russian Federation legal system and are secured in the Constitution. The air quality must be controlled by the Goscomgidromet and the Sunepidnadzor of Russia. In compliance with these laws everybody has the right to a favourable environment and the duty to protect, preserve and maintain it. The air environment is unique and common to all, thus economic cooperation dictates that a dedicated approach to air quality and air quality regulations would be the most appropriate way to preserve it. It appears judicious to join forces in the name of European ecological safety. To do this, it is necessary to combine the national means and secure. (author) 4 figs

  19. Residential indoor air quality guideline : ozone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozone (O3) is a colourless gas that reacts rapidly on surfaces and with other constituents in the air. Sources of indoor O3 include devices sold as home air cleaners, and some types of office equipment. Outdoor O3 is also an important contributor to indoor levels of O3, depending on the air exchange rate with indoor environments. This residential indoor air quality guideline examined factors that affect the introduction, dispersion and removal of O3 indoors. The health effects of prolonged exposure to O3 were discussed, and studies conducted to evaluate the population health impacts of O3 were reviewed. The studies demonstrated that there is a significant association between ambient O3 and adverse health impacts. Exposure guidelines for residential indoor air quality were discussed. 14 refs.

  20. Indoor air quality: a UK perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Outdoor air quality has generally improved in the UK over the last 2 decades but during this period changing conditions within the home have tended to reduce ventilation and increase the opportunity for accumulation of undesirable levels of indoor air pollutants. Information obtained from laboratory and epidemiological studies suggest that indoor air pollutants are an important cause of avoidable morbidity and mortality in the UK. This paper reviews the major indoor air pollutants of concern in the UK and considers some of the special issues relevant to indoor environment. (author) 3 figs., 37 refs

  1. ATMOSPHERIC AIR QUALITY IN CALARASI TOWN

    OpenAIRE

    Cecilia NEAGU

    2013-01-01

    The present paper seeks to highlight the appearance of air pollution in Calarasi region on the basis of the annual reports of the environment in recent years and of the integrated air quality management for Cǎlǎraşi (data are presented about current and future emissions and concentrations of pollutants) I tried to mark out the impurity of the atmospheric air from this area.Emission data interpretation was made on the basis of the inventory of emissions of pollutants in the air made for fixed ...

  2. 公共厨房空气品质的控制%The Control of Air Quality in Public Kitchen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    端木琳; 崔巍; 于瑾

    2001-01-01

    通过试验得到一些中餐烹调过程中产生的蒸气和油烟气的流动分布规律,并且获得了一种新的通过空气幕来阻止烟气从厨房排气罩扩散出去的方法,与其它排气罩不同的是,这种装置可以节省冷(热)量,并且大大改善室内空气品质,本文运用流体力学理论对吹吸气流装置的性能做了分析.%This paper gets some flow distribution regularity of steam and smoke current in Chinese cooling by testing in laboratory and advances a new method to prevent the diffusion of smoke from current kitchen hood with forced air screen. By comparing with other removers, the equipment can save heat(and cold)load and improve indoor air condition greatly. The paper also analyzes bow and draw current of the equipment by fluid mechanics theories.

  3. 76 FR 59338 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Montana; Revisions to the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-26

    ... Part 52 Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Carbon monoxide, Intergovernmental relations... new rule will not interfere with compliance with the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) or... NAAQS, even within nonattainment areas. Since there are no ambient air quality standards for air...

  4. 78 FR 8485 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-06

    ... of Subjects in 40 CFR Part 52 Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Carbon monoxide... National Ambient Air Quality Standards. III. Statutory and Executive Order Reviews Under the Clean Air Act... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Michigan...

  5. Effects of political institutions on air quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We empirically test existing theories on the provision of public goods, in particular air quality, using data on sulfur dioxide (SO2) concentrations from the Global Environment Monitoring Projects for 107 cities in 42 countries from 1971 to 1996. The results are as follows: First, we provide additional support for the claim that the degree of democracy has an independent positive effect on air quality. Second, we find that among democracies, presidential systems are more conducive to air quality than parliamentary ones. Third, in testing competing claims about the effect of interest groups on public goods provision in democracies we establish that labor union strength contributes to lower environmental quality, whereas the strength of green parties has the opposite effect. (author)

  6. Quality Management, Quality Assurance and Quality Control in Blood Establishments

    OpenAIRE

    Bolbate, N

    2008-01-01

    Quality terms and the roots of the matter are analyzed according to European Committee’s recommendations. Essence of process and product quality control as well as essence of quality assurance is described. Quality system’s structure including quality control, quality assurance and management is justified in the article.

  7. 77 FR 21896 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; State of Nevada; Regional Haze...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-12

    ... Pollution Control Technology 4. Remaining Useful Life of the Source 5. Energy and Non-Air Quality Impacts VI...; (2) the energy and non-air quality environmental impacts of compliance; (3) any existing pollution... potential non-air quality impact. Nevada Energy cited these as negative impacts in its consideration of...

  8. Air pollution control policy in Switzerland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leutert, G. [Forests and Landscape, Berne (Switzerland). Federal Office of Environment

    1995-12-31

    The legal basis of the Swiss air pollution control policy is set by the Federal Law on the Protection of the Environment, which came into force in 1985. It aims to protect human beings, animals and plants, their biological communities and habitats against harmful effects or nuisances and to maintain the fertility of the soil. The law is source-oriented (by emission standards) as well as effect-oriented (by ambient air quality standards). To link both elements a two-stage approach is applied. In the first stage preventive measures are taken at the emitting sources, irrespective of existing air pollution levels. Emissions have to be limited by early preventive measures as much as technical and operational conditions allow and as far as economically acceptable (prevention principle). By this, air pollution shall be kept as low as possible as a matter of principle, without the environment having to be in danger first. In a second stage the measures are strengthened or backed up by additional measures if ambient air quality standards laid down in the Ordinance on Air Pollution Control are exceeded. At this second stage, protection of man and his environment has priority over economic considerations. (author)

  9. Biomass and air quality the UK experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Policies to encourage the use of biomass in the UK can perhaps be held up as an example of how not to develop integrated environmental policy. The UK has considered the air quality effects of biomass burning only after putting in place policies that will hugely increase the amount of biomass burning plant that will be installed. Whilst these issues are now being addressed, it will be some time before a satisfactory framework will be in place. The current situation is not a positive one for all involved - air quality practitioners, climate change policy makers and the wider biomass industry. For clean air organisations such as Environmental Protection UK and our European counterparts there are essentially two lessons to take away. The first is that we have to raise our sights to look for potential threats to air quality from wider policy measures, and flag up potential concerns at the earliest opportunity. It is easy to focus on the job in hand (for example emissions from vehicles) and miss developments further afield. Secondly, and most importantly, we have to offer our own solutions to wider environmental challenges. Climate change is likely to remain the dominant global environmental issue for decades to come; clean air agencies need to understand this and put forward low carbon solutions that offer strong synergies with air quality. The alternative is for policy makers to see air i quality standards and clean air agencies as a barrier t to progress towards a low carbon economy, rather than a positive source of solutions. (N.C.)

  10. French permanent survey on indoor air quality - Part 2.: Questionnaires and validation procedure of collected data

    OpenAIRE

    Derbez, Mickael; Gregoire, Anthony; Ramalho, Olivier; Garrigue, Julien; Kirchner, Séverine

    2006-01-01

    This paper focuses on a synthesis of the questionnaires from the 2003-2005 campaign of the French permanent survey on indoor air quality and presents the associated quality control system including quality code, missing data recovery and validation procedure.

  11. Study of Ambient and Indoor Air Quality in the Building Built on the Former Landfill

    OpenAIRE

    Anuar Ithnin; Nazipah Zakaria; Nor Azura Sulong; Shamrul Aizam Abd. Rahman; Normah Awang; Nurul Farahana Kamaludin

    2012-01-01

    Problem statement: The air quality study of PPR Taman Wahyu II, Selayang, Selangor was a residential project that was built on the former landfill site. The landfill site will produce landfill gases which can influence the air quality level in and outside the building. Approach: This air quality study also involving PPR Intan Baiduri, Batu Caves, Selangor as a control building. The air quality parameters chosen were physical, chemical and biological. Instruments used were HVS, Biogas Analyzer...

  12. Pilot study on indoor air quality: Managing indoor air-quality risks. Report on a meeting held in St. Michaels, Maryland on October 25-27, 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Included in this study are the following: quantifying future trends of indoor air quality as a basis for government policy plans; assessing indoor air quality risks of pesticides; formaldehyde emission standards in the Federal Republic of Germany; orientations and actions of the European Community in the assessment and prevention of indoor air pollution; EPA and indoor air quality; the non-regulatory approach to reducing risks from radon exposure; U.S. consumer product safety commission; a builders guide to healthy homes; WHO air quality guidelines for Europe; the approach to control indoor air quality in Italy; guidelines - ventilation classes; energy consequences of upgrading indoor air quality; Canada's guidelines for residential indoor air quality: rationale and scope; Canadian ventilation and venting standards; indoor air quality building surveys case studies; design of indoor air quality studies; summary findings of inter-ministerial committee on indoor air quality (Ontario); the Quebec approach; employee survey EPA headquarters; pollution in closed spaces and its consequences in conservation of works of art; and how Norwegian health authorities will handle indoor air quality problems

  13. Pesticides in Air: New Challenges in Agricultural Air Quality Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    As agricultural and urban communities have become more intertwined, and the average size of agricultural production operations have increased substantially, issues of air quality have emerged as an area of increasing regulatory pressure for farmers in many countries. The science of measuring emissi...

  14. 76 FR 60405 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Santa Barbara Air Pollution Control...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-29

    ... Control District, Sacramento Municipal Air Quality Management District and South Coast Air Quality... Municipal Air Quality Management District (SMAQMD) and South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD... ``anonymous access'' system, and EPA will not know your identity or contact information unless you provide...

  15. 78 FR 25011 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Antelope Valley Air Quality Management...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-29

    ... review by the Office of Management and Budget under Executive Order 12866 (58 FR 51735, October 4, 1993... Management District, Santa Barbara County Air Pollution Control District, South Coast Air Quality Management... Quality Management District (SCAQMD) and Ventura County Air Pollution Control District (VCAPCD)...

  16. 78 FR 58459 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Antelope Valley Air Quality Management...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-24

    ... action'' subject to review by the Office of Management and Budget under Executive Order 12866 (58 FR... Management District, Santa Barbara County Air Pollution Control District, South Coast Air Quality Management... Quality Management District (SCAQMD) and Ventura County Air Pollution Control District (VCAPCD)...

  17. 78 FR 49992 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Antelope Valley Air Quality Management...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-16

    ... Quality Management District (AVAQMD) and Ventura County Air Pollution Control District (VCAPCD) portions... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Antelope Valley Air Quality Management District and Ventura County Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental Protection...

  18. Global Air Quality and Health Co-benefits of Mitigating Near-term Climate Change Through Methane and Black Carbon Emission Controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anenberg, Susan C.; Schwartz, Joel; Shindell, Drew Todd; Amann, Markus; Faluvegi, Gregory S.; Klimont, Zbigniew; Janssens-Maenhout, Greet; Pozzoli, Luca; Dingenen, Rita Van; Vignati, Elisabetta; Emberson, Lisa; Muller, Nicholas Z.; West, J. Jason; Williams, Martin; Demkine, Volodymyr; Hicks, W. Kevin; Kuylenstierna, Johan; Raes, Frank; Ramanathan, Veerabhadran

    2012-01-01

    Tropospheric ozone and black carbon (BC), a component of fine particulate matter (PM emission control measures targeting BC and methane, an ozone precursor, that were selected because of their potential to reduce the rate of climate change over the next 20-40 years. Methods: We simulated the impacts of mitigation measures on outdoor concentrations of PM2.5 and ozone using two composition-climate models, and calculated associated changes in premature PM2.5- and ozone-related deaths using epidemiologically derived concentration-response functions. Results: We estimated that, for PM2.5 and ozone, respectively, fully implementing these measures could reduce global population-weighted average surface concentrations by 23-34% and 7-17% and avoid 0.6-4.4 and 0.04-0.52 million annual premature deaths globally in 2030. More than 80% of the health benefits are estimated to occur in Asia. We estimated that BC mitigation measures would achieve approximately 98% of the deaths that would be avoided if all BC and methane mitigation measures were implemented, due to reduced BC and associated reductions of nonmethane ozone precursor and organic carbon emissions as well as stronger mortality relationships for PM2.5 relative to ozone. Although subject to large uncertainty, these estimates and conclusions are not strongly dependent on assumptions for the concentration-response function. Conclusions: In addition to climate benefits, our findings indicate that the methane and BC emission control measures would have substantial co-benefits for air quality and public health worldwide, potentially reversing trends of increasing air pollution concentrations and mortality in Africa and South, West, and Central Asia. These projected benefits are independent of carbon dioxide mitigation measures. Benefits of BC measures are underestimated because we did not account for benefits from reduced indoor exposures and because outdoor exposure estimates were limited by model spatial resolution.

  19. 76 FR 76048 - Air Quality Designations for the 2008 Lead (Pb) National Ambient Air Quality Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 81 RIN 2060-AR17 Air Quality Designations for the 2008 Lead (Pb) National Ambient Air Quality Standards Correction In rule document 2011-29460 appearing on pages 72097-72120 in the issues...

  20. 30 CFR 250.302 - Definitions concerning air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Definitions concerning air quality. 250.302... Definitions concerning air quality. For purposes of §§ 250.303 and 250.304 of this part: Air pollutant means..., pursuant to section 109 of the Clean Air Act, national primary or secondary ambient air quality...

  1. The effect of air quality on sleep

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strøm-Tejsen, Peter; Wargocki, Pawel; Wyon, David Peter;

    2014-01-01

    The effect of air quality on sleep was examined for occupants of 14 identical single-occupancy dormitory rooms. The subjects, half women, were exposed to two conditions (open/closed window), each for one week, resulting in night-time average CO2 levels of 660 and 2585 ppm, and air temperatures of...... 24.7 and 23.9°C, respectively. Sleep was assessed from movement data recorded on wristwatch-type actigraphs and from online morning questionnaires, including the Groningen Sleep Quality scale, questions about the sleep environment, next-day well-being, SBS symptoms, and two tests of mental...... performance. Although no significant effects on the sleep quality scale or on next-day performance could be shown, there were significant and positive effects of a higher ventilation rate (open window) on the actigraph measured sleep latency and on the subjects’ assessment of the freshness of the air, their...

  2. Indoor Climate and Air Quality Problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valbjørn, O.; Hagen, H.; Kukkonen, E.; Sundell, J.

    This report presents a stepwise method for the investigation of and remedial actions for indoor climate and air quality problems. The report gives the basis for evaluation of the prevalence and causes of building related symptoms like mucosal irritation and headache. The report adresses members o...... occupational health and safety organisations, consulting engineers and architects, and also the people responsible for the operation of buildings and installations which is essential for the indoor climate and air quality.......This report presents a stepwise method for the investigation of and remedial actions for indoor climate and air quality problems. The report gives the basis for evaluation of the prevalence and causes of building related symptoms like mucosal irritation and headache. The report adresses members of...

  3. Surface Flux Modeling for Air Quality Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Limei Ran; Jonathan Pleim

    2011-01-01

    For many gasses and aerosols, dry deposition is an important sink of atmospheric mass. Dry deposition fluxes are also important sources of pollutants to terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. The surface fluxes of some gases, such as ammonia, mercury, and certain volatile organic compounds, can be upward into the air as well as downward to the surface and therefore should be modeled as bi-directional fluxes. Model parameterizations of dry deposition in air quality models have been represented by...

  4. Investigation of infiltration and indoor air quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A multitask study was performed in the State of New York to provide information for guiding home energy conservation programs while maintaining acceptable indoor air quality. During the study, the statistical distribution of radon concentrations inside 2,400 homes was determined. The relationships among radon levels, house characteristics, and sources were also investigated. The direct impact that two specific air infiltration reduction measures--caulking and weatherstripping of windows and doors, and installation of storm windows and storm doors--have on house air leakage was investigated in 60 homes. The effect of house age on the impact of weatherization was also evaluated. Indoor and outdoor measurements of NO2, CO, SO2, and respirable suspended particulates (RSP) were made for 400 homes to determine the effect of combustion sources on indoor air quality and to characterize the statistical distribution of the concentrations. Finally, the combustion source data were combined with the information on air infiltration reduction measures to estimate the potential impact of these measures on indoor air quality

  5. Air quality measurements in laying hens housing

    OpenAIRE

    Mirko Prodanov; Miroslav Radeski; Vlatko Ilieski

    2016-01-01

    Ensuring good environmental conditions of the poultry houses can be costly for the farmers, but without it losses due to poor bird health and performance due to poor air quality can be much more detrimental to net returns. The goal of this study was to investigate the variations in air quality in various areas inside the laying hen houses. Ten houses with laying hen conventional battery cages were measured for O2, H2S, CO, NH3, temperature, relative humidity, CO2, airflow and luminance. The r...

  6. Indoor Air Quality: Is Increased Ventilation the Answer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Shirley

    1989-01-01

    Explains how indoor air quality is affected by pollutants in the air and also by temperature, humidity, and ventilation. Increased ventilation alone seldom solves the "sick building syndrome." Lists ways to improve indoor air quality and optimize energy efficiency. (MLF)

  7. 76 FR 57845 - Approval of Air Quality Implementation Plans; California; San Joaquin Valley; Attainment Plan for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-16

    ... exposure. See ``Fact Sheet, Proposal to Revise the National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone... to measures and reductions by the SJV Air Pollution Control District and the California Air Resources... Valley Air Pollution Control District, 1990 E. Gettysburg, Fresno, California 93726. The SIP...

  8. VGI QUALITY CONTROL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. C. Fonte

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a framework for considering quality control of volunteered geographic information (VGI. Different issues need to be considered during the conception, acquisition and post-acquisition phases of VGI creation. This includes items such as collecting metadata on the volunteer, providing suitable training, giving corrective feedback during the mapping process and use of control data, among others. Two examples of VGI data collection are then considered with respect to this quality control framework, i.e. VGI data collection by National Mapping Agencies and by the most recent Geo-Wiki tool, a game called Cropland Capture. Although good practices are beginning to emerge, there is still the need for the development and sharing of best practice, especially if VGI is to be integrated with authoritative map products or used for calibration and/or validation of land cover in the future.

  9. Life satisfaction and air quality in London

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A growing body of research in economics concerns self-reported happiness, or life satisfaction (LS), and its relationship to a wide range of other variables. The findings of this research tend to highlight the importance of non-income aspects of individuals' life conditions. These findings are strongly complementary to themes within the sustainable development discourse. Firstly, they suggest ways in which we might consume less without compromising on our current levels of LS. And secondly, they help demonstrate the immediate LS benefits that could be gained from higher levels of environmental quality (EQ). However, the empirical evidence for the link between EQ and LS is, to date, somewhat weak, due in part to a lack of EQ data at a level of detail to match the individual-by-individual resolution of LS measures. This small, exploratory study therefore seeks to assess how the use of EQ data at very high spatial resolution could advance the empirical literature examining connections between LS and EQ levels, focusing on air quality in particular. It collects original survey data for approximately 400 Londoners, and uses geographical information system (GIS) software to calculate pollutant concentrations in the immediate vicinity of their homes. It uses this data to estimate maximum likelihood regression models explaining LS ratings in terms of a range of individual, household and local variables. Both perceived and measured air pollution levels are significantly negatively associated with the LS of the survey respondents, even when controlling for a wide range of other effects. An increase of 10 μg/m3 in annual mean nitrogen dioxide concentration appears to correspond on average to a drop of nearly half a point of LS on an 11-point rating scale. These findings cannot yet be generalised with confidence. However, if they were confirmed by larger future studies, they would appear to strengthen and extend existing arguments in favour of policies to reduce urban air

  10. Air quality and human welfare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sundseth K.

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Human welfare is generally referring to allocation of resources to fit the well being of humans. If high standard of well-being is to be maintained, the concerns for a healthy environment must be balanced against requirements of economic growth. In a natural capital system, human welfare is best served by improving the quality and flow of desired services delivered rather than merely increasing the total money flow. An ecosystem based management of living and natural resource use will steer this progress to the best of human welfare while the efficiency of ecosystem based management depends strongly on the availability of integrated assessment tools that will combine environmental models and monitoring data with ecological economic valuation methods. In applied welfare economics, the methodological approach to assess resource allocations towards societal optimality and thereby establish criteria for government intervention is often linked to tools as Cost-ffectiveness Analysis (CEA, Cost-Benefit Assessment (CBA or Multi-criteria Analysis (MCA. By illustrating an assessment on costs and benefits of the implementation of Hg emission reduction measures in the coal sector, it becomes obvious that for a full analysis of societal costs and benefits, several aspects of Hg pollution, sources, impacts and co-benefits need to be considered.

  11. Air quality and human welfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundseth, K.; Pacyna, J. M.; Pacyna, E. G.

    2009-02-01

    Human welfare is generally referring to allocation of resources to fit the well being of humans. If high standard of well-being is to be maintained, the concerns for a healthy environment must be balanced against requirements of economic growth. In a natural capital system, human welfare is best served by improving the quality and flow of desired services delivered rather than merely increasing the total money flow. An ecosystem based management of living and natural resource use will steer this progress to the best of human welfare while the efficiency of ecosystem based management depends strongly on the availability of integrated assessment tools that will combine environmental models and monitoring data with ecological economic valuation methods. In applied welfare economics, the methodological approach to assess resource allocations towards societal optimality and thereby establish criteria for government intervention is often linked to tools as Cost-ffectiveness Analysis (CEA), Cost-Benefit Assessment (CBA) or Multi-criteria Analysis (MCA). By illustrating an assessment on costs and benefits of the implementation of Hg emission reduction measures in the coal sector, it becomes obvious that for a full analysis of societal costs and benefits, several aspects of Hg pollution, sources, impacts and co-benefits need to be considered.

  12. The AirQuality SenseBox

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demuth, Dustin; Nuest, Daniel; Bröring, Arne; Pebesma, Edzer

    2013-04-01

    In the past year, a group of open hardware enthusiasts and citizen scientists had large success in the crowd-funding of an open hardware-based sensor platform for air quality monitoring, called the Air Quality Egg. Via the kickstarter platform, the group was able to collect triple the amount of money than needed to fulfill their goals. Data generated by the Air Quality Egg is pushed to the data logging platform cosm.com, which makes the devices a part of the Internet of Things. The project aims at increasing the participation of citizens in the collection of data, the development of sensors, the operation of sensor stations, and, as data on cosm is publicly available, the sharing, visualization and analysis of data. Air Quality Eggs can measure NO2 and CO concentrations, as well as relative humidity and temperature. The chosen sensors are low-cost and have limited precision and accurracy. The Air Quality Egg consists of a stationary outdoor and a stationary indoor unit. Each outdoor unit will wirelessly transmit air quality measurements to the indoor unit, which forwards the data to cosm. Most recent versions of the Air Quality Egg allow a rough calibration of the gas sensors and on-the-fly conversion from raw sensor readings (impedance) to meaningful air quality data expressed in units of parts per billion. Data generated by these low-cost platforms are not intended to replace well-calibrated official monitoring stations, but rather augment the density of the total monitoring network with citizen sensors. To improve the usability of the Air Quality Egg, we present a new and more advanced concept, called the AirQuality SenseBox. We made the outdoor platform more autonomous and location-aware by adding solarpanels and rechargeable batteries as a power source. The AirQuality SenseBox knows its own position from a GPS device attached to the platform. As a mobile sensor platform, it can for instance be attached to vehicles. A low-cost and low-power wireless chipset

  13. Pilot Implementation of a Field Study Design to Evaluate the Impact of Source Control Measures on Indoor Air Quality in High Performance Homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Widder, Sarah H.; Chamness, Michele A.; Petersen, Joseph M.; Singer, Brett C.; Maddalena, Randy L.; Destaillats, Hugo

    2014-10-20

    To improve the indoor air quality in new, high performance homes, a variety of standards and rating programs have been introduced to identify building materials that are designed to have lower emission rates of key contaminants of concern and a number of building materials are being introduced that are certified to these standards. For example, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Zero Energy Ready Home program requires certification under the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Indoor airPLUS (IaP) label, which requires the use of PS1 or PS2 certified plywood and OSB; low-formaldehyde emitting wood products; low- or no-VOC paints and coatings as certified by Green Seal Standard GS-11, GreenGuard, SCS Indoor Advantage Gold Standard, MPI Green Performance Standard, or another third party rating program; and Green Label-certified carpet and carpet cushions. However, little is known regarding the efficacy of the IAP requirements in measurably reducing contaminant exposures in homes. The goal of this project is to develop a robust experimental approach and collect preliminary data to support the evaluation of indoor air quality (IAQ) measures linked to IAP-approved low-emitting materials and finishes in new residential homes. To this end, the research team of Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) developed a detailed experimental plan to measure IAQ constituents and other parameters, over time, in new homes constructed with materials compliant with IAP’s low-emitting material and ventilation requirements (i.e., section 6.1, 6.2, 6.3, and 7.2) and similar homes constructed to the state building code with conventional materials. The IAQ in IAP and conventional homes of similar age, location, and construction style is quantified as the differences in the speciated VOC and aldehyde concentrations, normalized to dilution rates. The experimental plan consists of methods to evaluate the difference between low

  14. FAIRMODE: A FORUM FOR AIR QUALITY MODELLING IN EUROPE

    OpenAIRE

    N. Moussiopoulos; Dilara, P.; Lükewille, A.; B. Denby; Douros, J.; Fragkou, E.; Larssen, S.; Cuvelier, K.

    2008-01-01

    Abstract: FAIRMODE (Forum for AIR quality MODelling in Europe) is an air quality modelling network that was established as a joint initiative of the European Environment Agency (EEA) and European Commission’s Joint Research Centre (JRC). In a common effort EEA and JRC aim at responding to the requirements of the new Air Quality Directive, with particular focus on the introduction of modelling as a necessary tool for air quality assessment and air quality management. The main aim of t...

  15. Distributed Air Traffic Control Simulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Radovanović

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available During initial training air traffic control students acquire theoretical knowledge in various fields including air traffic management, aircraft performance, air traffic control equipment and systems, navigation and others. This paper proposes a simulator and explains its use and features that allows students to gain a practical insight into their coursework in order to complement their training. The goal of the simulator is to realistically implement all the key functionalities needed to cover the topics that were presented in class. The simulator offers a user friendly, distributed, and multi-role environment that can be deployed on regular PCs. Moreover, this paper discusses and resolves some of the main conceptual and implementational issues that were faced during simulator development.

  16. Quality control review: implementing a scientifically based quality control system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westgard, James O; Westgard, Sten A

    2016-01-01

    This review focuses on statistical quality control in the context of a quality management system. It describes the use of a 'Sigma-metric' for validating the performance of a new examination procedure, developing a total quality control strategy, selecting a statistical quality control procedure and monitoring ongoing quality on the sigma scale. Acceptable method performance is a prerequisite to the design and implementation of statistical quality control procedures. Statistical quality control can only monitor performance, and when properly designed, alert analysts to the presence of additional errors that occur because of unstable performance. A new statistical quality control planning tool, called 'Westgard Sigma Rules,' provides a simple and quick way for selecting control rules and the number of control measurements needed to detect medically important errors. The concept of a quality control plan is described, along with alternative adaptations of a total quality control plan and a risk-based individualized quality control plan. Finally, the ongoing monitoring of analytic performance and test quality are discussed, including determination of measurement uncertainty from statistical quality control data collected under intermediate precision conditions and bias determined from proficiency testing/external quality assessment surveys. A new graphical tool, called the Sigma Quality Assessment Chart, is recommended for demonstrating the quality of current examination procedures on the sigma scale. PMID:26150675

  17. Standards for securing adequate indoor air quality across Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wargocki, Pawel; Carrer, P.; de Oliveira Fernandes, E.; Hanninen, O.; Popov, T.

    Background: Inadequate IAQ causes a loss of 2 million healthy life years annually in the EU. Europeans spend typically over 85–90% of their time indoors and the main factors that affect negatively the characteristics of the air they breathe are outdoor air used to ventilate indoor spaces and indoor...... studies improperly characterised exposures and because of their inhomogenity. Risk modelling simulations of different strategies resulting in reduction of DALYs suggested that healthbased ventilation requirements should be combined with source control strategies and if necessary cleaning of outdoor air in...... human bioeffluents and is determined mainly considering the metabolic CO2 production. It is only applicable if all other pollutants meet WHO guidelines for ambient and indoor air quality. If they do not meet these guidelines after applying source control and when air used for ventilation is clean health...

  18. A review of scientifc linkages and interactions between climate change and air quality, with implications for air quality management in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tirusha Thambiran

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available In recent years there has been considerable advancement in our scientifc understanding of the linkages and interactions between climate change and air quality. A warmer, evolving climate is likely to have severe consequences for air quality due to impacts on pollution sources and meteorology. Climate-induced changes to sources of tropospheric ozone precursor gases and to atmospheric circulation are likely to lead to changes in both the concentration and dispersion of near-surface ozone that could act to offset improvements in air quality. The control of air pollutants through air quality management is also likely to impact on climate change, with reductions in ozone, particulate matter and sulphur dioxide being of particular interest. The improved understanding of the relationship between air quality and climate change provides a scientific basis for policy interventions. After a review of the scientific linkages, the potential to include climate change considerations in air quality management planning processes in South Africa was examined.

  19. Coordination of energy and air quality management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-12-01

    The project had two goals: first, to demonstrate industrial firms can improve plant energy efficiency as air pollution emissions are reduced; second, to demonstrate that both Seattle City Light and PSAPCA could more effectively accomplish their individual objectives through mutual cooperation, even though the two agencies have very different missions. The cooperative efforts promised benefits for all the parties involved. Seattle City Light hoped that PSAPCA`s knowledge of the likely developments in air pollution controls would help the utility better target energy conservation opportunities among its industrial customers. PSAPCA hoped that the financial assistance offer by Seattle City Light through its conservation programs would make industry less resistant to PSAPCA enforcement of new air pollution control regulations. Finally, individual industrial firms could mitigate some of the cost of meeting the new air pollution control standards. The results of the project were mixed. CEAM did demonstrate that industrial plants can improve energy efficiency as they reduce air pollution emissions, but the relationship between air pollution reduction and energy consumption is complicated; and the project was less successful in meeting its second goal. The project design did not include a measure by which results could be compared against what the two agencies would have accomplished had they not collaborated. Moreover, the project could have benefited substantially from a more complete implementation plan and the production of data quantifying the energy conservation potential resulting from the development of more stringent air pollution control regulations for each of Seattle`s major industries.

  20. Indoor Air Quality Guidelines for Pennsylvania Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Robert S., Jr.

    This report provides information and practical guidance on how to prevent indoor air quality (IAQ) problems in schools, and it describes how to implement a practical plan of action using a minimal amount of resources. It includes general guidelines to prevent or help resolve IAQ problems, guidelines on specific indoor contaminants, recommendations…

  1. Managing Indoor Air Quality in Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolums, Jennifer

    This publication examines the causes and effects of poor indoor air quality and provides information for reducing exposure to indoor contaminants in schools. It discusses the various indoor pollutants found in schools, including dust, chemical agents, gases, and volatile organic compounds; where they are found in schools; and their health effects…

  2. Alternative transportation fuels and air quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper discusses the air quality impact of the following alternative fuels: reformulated gasoline, methanol, ethanol, diesel, compressed natural gas, liquid petroleum gases, hydrogen, and electric power. Emissions of NOx, CO, and toxic compounds, as well as global climatic change impacts are described

  3. Ensemble Filtering in Air Quality Models

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Eben, Kryštof; Juruš, Pavel; Resler, Jaroslav; Belda, M.; Pelikán, Emil

    Brno : Masaryk University, 2007 - (Horová, I.; Hřebíček, J.) ISBN 978-80-210-4333-6. [ TIES 2007. Annual Meeting of the International Environmental Society /18./. 16.08.2007-20.08.2007, Mikulov] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : air quality models * data assimilation * ensemble filtering

  4. The Bottom Line For Air Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Tom

    2000-01-01

    Discusses how the right type of flooring can help schools reduce indoor-air-quality problems. Using vinyl composition flooring to handle moisture and reduce fungi growth is examined as are the benefits of vinyl cushion tufted textile flooring for cost effectiveness, learning environment improvement, installation, and effectiveness in emergencies.…

  5. Air quality measurements in laying hens housing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirko Prodanov

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Ensuring good environmental conditions of the poultry houses can be costly for the farmers, but without it losses due to poor bird health and performance due to poor air quality can be much more detrimental to net returns. The goal of this study was to investigate the variations in air quality in various areas inside the laying hen houses. Ten houses with laying hen conventional battery cages were measured for O2, H2S, CO, NH3, temperature, relative humidity, CO2, airflow and luminance. The results of the physical measures showed that temperatures in the houses were between 15.31–25.6°C, the relative humidity 48.03-81.12%, while the luminance rarely exceeded 8 lux. As for the gasses, the values for NH3 rarely exceeded 8 ppm, although at some measuring points it reached 26 ppm. O2 was generally at 20.9 %, and the levels of CO2 were very low. No presence of H2S and CO was detected. In this study it was concluded that the measurement of the air quality in a house can vary depending of the places this measures are taken. Multiple measurement points are important because they may make the staff aware of the problems connected to low ventilation and culmination of harmful gases. The air quality in different positions in the houses is of great importance not only for the animal welfare, but also for the safety of the staff.

  6. Assessing future trends in indoor air quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several national and international health organizations have derived concentration levels below which adverse effects on men are not expected or levels below which the excess risk for individuals is less than a specified value. For every priority pollutant indoor concentrations below this limit are considered healthy. The percentage of Dutch homes exceeding such a limit is taken as a measure of indoor air quality for that component. The present and future indoor air quality of the Dutch housing stock is described for fourteen air pollutants. The highest percentages are scored by radon, environmental tobacco smoke, nitrogen dioxide from unvented combustion, and the potential presence of housedust mite and mould allergen in damp houses. Although the trend for all priority pollutants is downward the most serious ones remain high in the coming decades if no additional measures will be instituted

  7. 75 FR 59090 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans and Designation of Areas for Air Quality...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-27

    ... the Las Vegas Valley nonattainment area for the carbon monoxide national ambient air quality standard... protection, Air pollution control, Carbon monoxide, Incorporation by reference, Intergovernmental relations... for the Carbon Monoxide Standard AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Final...

  8. 76 FR 1525 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Texas; Revisions to Rules and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-11

    ... CFR Part 52 Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Carbon monoxide, Incorporation by... ensure attainment and continued maintenance of the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for... but for a severable portion that allows collateral emissions increases of carbon monoxide (CO)...

  9. Modeling air quality over China: Results from the Panda project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katinka Petersen, Anna; Bouarar, Idir; Brasseur, Guy; Granier, Claire; Xie, Ying; Wang, Lili; Wang, Xuemei

    2015-04-01

    China faces strong air pollution problems related to rapid economic development in the past decade and increasing demand for energy. Air quality monitoring stations often report high levels of particle matter and ozone all over the country. Knowing its long-term health impacts, air pollution became then a pressing problem not only in China but also in other Asian countries. The PANDA project is a result of cooperation between scientists from Europe and China who joined their efforts for a better understanding of the processes controlling air pollution in China, improve methods for monitoring air quality and elaborate indicators in support of European and Chinese policies. A modeling system of air pollution is being setup within the PANDA project and include advanced global (MACC, EMEP) and regional (WRF-Chem, EMEP) meteorological and chemical models to analyze and monitor air quality in China. The poster describes the accomplishments obtained within the first year of the project. Model simulations for January and July 2010 are evaluated with satellite measurements (SCIAMACHY NO2 and MOPITT CO) and in-situ data (O3, CO, NOx, PM10 and PM2.5) observed at several surface stations in China. Using the WRF-Chem model, we investigate the sensitivity of the model performance to emissions (MACCity, HTAPv2), horizontal resolution (60km, 20km) and choice of initial and boundary conditions.

  10. Ambient air quality in Lower Town Quebec

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A municipal waste incinerator near Lower Town Quebec has been identified as a major source of air pollution, notably emissions of dioxins, furans, nitrogen oxides (NOx), volatile organic matter (VOC) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). Combustion fumes contain gases such as carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2) and sulphur dioxide (SO2), as well as dusts, fly ash and particulate matter that is easily airborne. The risks associated with poor air quality have been evaluated along with the effects of pollutants on young children, pregnant women, senior citizens and those with cardiac problems. Some studies have reported that exposure to NOx may cause lung cancer and certain VOCs can irritate the respiratory tract system. Air quality tests have also revealed the presence of mercury. In combination, all these pollutants create smog. The concrete actions that have been taken to address smog issues were discussed. The distance between the incinerator and different residential areas within Lower Town Quebec have been measured along with air quality. Health risks were found to be higher in areas closer to the incinerator. Major modifications have been recommended in order to reduce pollution emissions from the incinerator. These include modernizing the equipment, installing proper scrubbers, and to ultimately the close the incinerator if it continues to underperform. refs., tabs., figs

  11. HVAC design guidelines for effective indoor air quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Building owners, designers and occupants need to consider all the design measures that contribute to high indoor air quality. Building occupants, furnishings, equipment, and ambient air pollution all contribute to surmounting indoor air quality concerns. However, these can be minimized by following HVAC design guidelines which promote high indoor air quality while maintaining reasonable energy-efficiency. The possible liabilities and loss of business productivity due to air quality problems are too great to ignore

  12. 78 FR 44884 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; West Virginia; Update to Materials...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-25

    ... * * * * * * * Series 8 Ambient Air Quality Standards Section 45-8-1 General 6/1/12 10/29/12, 77 FR 65493 Filing and... CFR Part 52 Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Carbon monoxide, Incorporation by... 8 (Ambient Air Quality Standards), sections 45-8-1 through 45-8-4. 2. 45 CSR 14 (Permits...

  13. 76 FR 49391 - Approval, Disapproval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Colorado; Smoke...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-10

    ... of Subjects in 40 CFR Part 52 Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Carbon monoxide... of Significant Deterioration and the initials NAAQS mean or refer to National Ambient Air Quality... Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) or the SO 2 increments. The State responded to EPA's concern...

  14. 76 FR 71881 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Virginia; Update to Materials...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-21

    ..., Air pollution control, Carbon monoxide, Incorporation by reference, Intergovernmental relations, Lead... Regulations 1. 9VAC5 Chapter 30 (Ambient Air Quality Standards), Sections 5-30-15, 5-30-56, and 5-30-66. 2... 10 (General Definitions), Section 5-10-20. 2. 9VAC5 Chapter 30 (Ambient Air Quality...

  15. 77 FR 65493 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; West Virginia; Amendments to West...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-29

    ... Subjects in 40 CFR Part 52 Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Carbon monoxide, Incorporation...; Amendments to West Virginia's Ambient Air Quality Standards AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA... Legislative Rule, 45 CSR 8- Ambient Air Quality Standards. The amendments change the effective date of...

  16. 76 FR 47094 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan; South Coast Air Quality Management District

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-04

    ... proposing to approve a revision to the South Coast Air Quality Management District portion of the California... following local rule: South Coast Air Quality Management District Rule 1175, Control of Emissions from the... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan; South Coast Air...

  17. Surface Flux Modeling for Air Quality Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Limei Ran

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available For many gasses and aerosols, dry deposition is an important sink of atmospheric mass. Dry deposition fluxes are also important sources of pollutants to terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. The surface fluxes of some gases, such as ammonia, mercury, and certain volatile organic compounds, can be upward into the air as well as downward to the surface and therefore should be modeled as bi-directional fluxes. Model parameterizations of dry deposition in air quality models have been represented by simple electrical resistance analogs for almost 30 years. Uncertainties in surface flux modeling in global to mesoscale models are being slowly reduced as more field measurements provide constraints on parameterizations. However, at the same time, more chemical species are being added to surface flux models as air quality models are expanded to include more complex chemistry and are being applied to a wider array of environmental issues. Since surface flux measurements of many of these chemicals are still lacking, resistances are usually parameterized using simple scaling by water or lipid solubility and reactivity. Advances in recent years have included bi-directional flux algorithms that require a shift from pre-computation of deposition velocities to fully integrated surface flux calculations within air quality models. Improved modeling of the stomatal component of chemical surface fluxes has resulted from improved evapotranspiration modeling in land surface models and closer integration between meteorology and air quality models. Satellite-derived land use characterization and vegetation products and indices are improving model representation of spatial and temporal variations in surface flux processes. This review describes the current state of chemical dry deposition modeling, recent progress in bi-directional flux modeling, synergistic model development research with field measurements, and coupling with meteorological land surface models.

  18. 76 FR 44535 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Northern Sierra Air Quality Management...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-26

    ... Management District, Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality Management District, and South Coast Air Quality... proposing to approve revisions to the Northern Sierra Air Quality Management District (NSAQMD), Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality Management District (SMAQMD), and South Coast Air Quality Management District......

  19. Environmental Monitoring, Air Quality - MO 2011 Air Quality Standards Nonattainment Areas (SHP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — The St. Louis air quality nonattainment areas geospatial data layer contains regions representing the geographic extent of areas that are estimated to be out of...

  20. Air quality and air quality related values in Chassahowitzka National Wildlife Refuge and Wilderness Area

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Chassahowitzka Wilderness Area is a Class I air quality area administered by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. Despite the special protection mandated for...

  1. Optimizing control of quality management

    OpenAIRE

    Fliginskih Tatyana Nikolayevna; Fedoretc Ksenia Sergeevna

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes the technology that permits controlling of business processes in industry. An example of the use of control charts as one of the most effective methods of statistical quality control of products. The author provides a definition that best reveals the understanding of quality and quality control.

  2. Optimizing control of quality management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fliginskih Tatyana Nikolayevna

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the technology that permits controlling of business processes in industry. An example of the use of control charts as one of the most effective methods of statistical quality control of products. The author provides a definition that best reveals the understanding of quality and quality control.

  3. Indoor Air Quality in Brazilian Universities

    OpenAIRE

    Jurado, Sonia R.; Bankoff, Antônia D. P.; Andrea Sanchez

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated the indoor air quality in Brazilian universities by comparing thirty air-conditioned (AC) (n = 15) and naturally ventilated (NV) (n = 15) classrooms. The parameters of interest were indoor carbon dioxide (CO2), temperature, relative humidity (RH), wind speed, viable mold, and airborne dust levels. The NV rooms had larger concentration of mold than the AC rooms (1001.30 ± 125.16 and 367.00 ± 88.13 cfu/m3, respectively). The average indoor airborne dust concentration exceed...

  4. Air quality concerns of unconventional oil and natural gas production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, R A; Soltis, J; Murphy, S

    2014-05-01

    Increased use of hydraulic fracturing ("fracking") in unconventional oil and natural gas (O & NG) development from coal, sandstone, and shale deposits in the United States (US) has created environmental concerns over water and air quality impacts. In this perspective we focus on how the production of unconventional O & NG affects air quality. We pay particular attention to shale gas as this type of development has transformed natural gas production in the US and is set to become important in the rest of the world. A variety of potential emission sources can be spread over tens of thousands of acres of a production area and this complicates assessment of local and regional air quality impacts. We outline upstream activities including drilling, completion and production. After contrasting the context for development activities in the US and Europe we explore the use of inventories for determining air emissions. Location and scale of analysis is important, as O & NG production emissions in some US basins account for nearly 100% of the pollution burden, whereas in other basins these activities make up less than 10% of total air emissions. While emission inventories are beneficial to quantifying air emissions from a particular source category, they do have limitations when determining air quality impacts from a large area. Air monitoring is essential, not only to validate inventories, but also to measure impacts. We describe the use of measurements, including ground-based mobile monitoring, network stations, airborne, and satellite platforms for measuring air quality impacts. We identify nitrogen oxides, volatile organic compounds (VOC), ozone, hazardous air pollutants (HAP), and methane as pollutants of concern related to O & NG activities. These pollutants can contribute to air quality concerns and they may be regulated in ambient air, due to human health or climate forcing concerns. Close to well pads, emissions are concentrated and exposure to a wide range of

  5. To what extent can China’s near-term air pollution control policy protect air quality and human health? A case study of the Pearl River Delta region

    OpenAIRE

    X. Jiang; Hong, C; Zheng, Y.; Zheng, B.; Guan, D; Gouldson, AP; Zhang, Q.; K. He

    2015-01-01

    Following a series of extreme air pollution events, the Chinese government released the Air Pollution Prevention and Control Action Plan in 2013 (China's State Council 2013). The Action Plan sets clear goals for key regions (i.e. cities above the prefecture level, Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Province, the Yangtze River Delta and the Pearl River Delta) and establishes near-term control efforts for the next five years. However, the extent to which the Action Plan can direct local governments' activit...

  6. Building air quality: A guide for building owners and facility managers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The guide was intended to help those individuals responsible for air quality control in buildings to prevent indoor air quality problems from developing and resolving such problems quickly should they develop. Background information and guidance on dealing with indoor air quality problems were provided. Specific topics included: factors which affect indoor air quality; sources of indoor air contaminants; heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) systems; the role of building occupants; effective communication between managers and others involved; developing an indoor air quality (IAQ) profile; managing a building for good IAQ; diagnosing IAQ problems; mitigating IAQ problems, hiring professional assistance to solve an IAQ problem; common IAQ measurements; HVAC systems and IAQ; moisture with resultant mold and mildew conditions; asbestos (1332214); radon (10043922); and resources through which additional information can be obtained. Indoor air quality forms were included which can be modified to meet individual needs

  7. Quality control in audit firm

    OpenAIRE

    Dostálová, Milena

    2008-01-01

    Thesis deals with the quality control of audit firms in accordance with international regulations. Defining the requirements for quality based on the Code of Ethics and the International quality standard ISQC1. Part of this work is the practical demonstration of ISQC1 in the smaller audit firm. For comparison, there is a description of quality control in the U.S.

  8. Air Quality – monitoring and modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius DEACONU

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Air pollution is a major concern for all nations, regardless of their development. The rapid growth of the industrial sector and urban development have lead to significant quantities of substances and toxic materials, mostly discharged into the atmosphere and having adverse effects both on human health and environment in general. Human society has to recognize that environment has only a limited capacity to process all of its waste without major changes. Each of us is a pollutant but also a victim of pollution. If monitoring of air pollutants is particularly important for assessing the air quality at any moment, by modelling the monitoring data spectacular results are obtained both through the factor analysis and identification of potential pollution mitigation measures. Latest equipment and techniques come and support these problems giving medium and long term solutions.

  9. Air quality forecasting system for Southeastern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Andrade, Maria de Fatima; Ynoue, Rita Y.; Freitas, Edmilson Dias; Todesco, Enzo; Vara Vela, Angel; Ibarra, Sergio; Martins, Leila Droprinchinski; Martins, Jorge Alberto; Carvalho, Vanessa Silveira Barreto

    2015-01-01

    Southeastern Brazil, the most populous and developed region of the country, faces various environmental problems associated with the growth of its population in urban areas. It is the most industrialized area in the country, comprising the metropolitan areas of São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, Belo Horizonte, and other major cities. Air quality is a major concern, because the reported concentrations of certain regulated pollutants, typically ozone and fine particulate, have exceeded national standa...

  10. Air quality estimation by computational intelligence methodologies

    OpenAIRE

    Ćirić Ivan T.; Ćojbašić Žarko M.; Nikolić Vlastimir D.; Živković Predrag M.; Tomić Mladen A.

    2012-01-01

    The subject of this study is to compare different computational intelligence methodologies based on artificial neural networks used for forecasting an air quality parameter - the emission of CO2, in the city of Niš. Firstly, inputs of the CO2 emission estimator are analyzed and their measurement is explained. It is known that the traffic is the single largest emitter of CO2 in Europe. Therefore, a proper treatment of this component of pollution is very important for precise estimation o...

  11. Air Quality Monitoring Using CCD/ CMOS Devices

    OpenAIRE

    Low, Khee Lam; Joanna, Tan Choay Ee; Sim, Keat; Jafri, Mohd Zubir Mat; and, Khiruddin Abdullah

    2010-01-01

    In this chapter, we showed a method for measuring of the air quality index by using the CCD/CMOS sensor. We showed two examples to obtain index values by using webcam and CCTV. Both devices provided a high correlation between the measured and estimated PM10. So, the imaging method is capable to measure PM10 values in the environment. Futher application can be conducted using different devices.

  12. Indoor Air Quality in Brazilian Universities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia R. Jurado

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the indoor air quality in Brazilian universities by comparing thirty air-conditioned (AC (n = 15 and naturally ventilated (NV (n = 15 classrooms. The parameters of interest were indoor carbon dioxide (CO2, temperature, relative humidity (RH, wind speed, viable mold, and airborne dust levels. The NV rooms had larger concentration of mold than the AC rooms (1001.30 ± 125.16 and 367.00 ± 88.13 cfu/m3, respectively. The average indoor airborne dust concentration exceeded the Brazilian standards (<80 µg/m3 in both NV and AC classrooms. The levels of CO2 in the AC rooms were significantly different from the NV rooms (1433.62 ± 252.80 and 520.12 ± 37.25 ppm, respectively. The indoor air quality in Brazilian university classrooms affects the health of students. Therefore, indoor air pollution needs to be considered as an important public health problem.

  13. Statistical elements in calculations procedures for air quality control; Elementi di statistica nelle procedure di calcolo per il controllo della qualita' dell'aria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mura, M.C. [Istituto Superiore di Sanita' , Laboratorio di Igiene Ambientale, Rome (Italy)

    2001-07-01

    The statistical processing of data resulting from the monitoring of chemical atmospheric pollution aimed at air quality control is presented. The form of procedural models may offer a practical instrument to the operators in the sector. The procedural models are modular and can be easily integrated with other models. They include elementary calculation procedures and mathematical methods for statistical analysis. The calculation elements have been developed by probabilistic induction so as to relate them to the statistical analysis. The calculation elements have been developed by probabilistic induction so as to relate them to the statistical models, which are the basis of the methods used for the study and the forecast of atmospheric pollution. This report is part of the updating and training activity that the Istituto Superiore di Sanita' has been carrying on for over twenty years, addressed to operators of the environmental field. [Italian] Il processo di elaborazione statistica dei dati provenienti dal monitoraggio dell'inquinamento chimico dell'atmosfera, finalizzato al controllo della qualita' dell'aria, e' presentato in modelli di procedure al fine di fornire un sintetico strumento di lavoro agli operatori del settore. I modelli di procedure sono modulari ed integrabili. Includono gli elementi di calcolo elementare ed i metodi statistici d'analisi. Gli elementi di calcolo sono sviluppati con metodo d'induzione probabilistica per collegarli ai modelli statistici, che sono alla base dei metodi d'analisi nello studio del fenomeno dell'inquinamento atmosferico anche a fini previsionali. Il rapporto si inserisce nell'attivita' di aggiornamento e di formazione che fin dagli anni ottanta l'Istituto Superiore di Sanita' indirizza agli operatori del settore ambientale.

  14. Hospital-acquired infections associated with poor air quality in air-conditioned environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Pinheiro da Silva

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Backgound and Objectives: Individuals living in cities increasingly spend more time indoors in air-conditioned environments. Air conditioner contamination can be caused by the presence of aerosols from the external or internal environment, which may be associated with disease manifestations in patients present in this type of environment. Therefore, the aim of this review was to assess the air quality in air-conditioned hospital environments as a risk factor for hospital-acquired infections – HAI – as the air can be a potential source of infection, as well as assess the exposure of professionals and patients to different pollutants. Material and Methods: A literature review was performed in the LILACS, MEDLINE, SCIELO, SCIENCE DIRECT databases, CAPES thesis database and Ministry of Health – Brazil, including studies published between 1982 and 2008. The literature search was grouped according to the thematic focus, as follows: ventilation, maintenance and cleaning of systems that comprehend the environmental quality standard. Discussion and Conclusion: Outbreaks of hospital-acquired infections associated with Aspergillus, Acinetobacter, Legionella, and other genera such as Clostridium and Nocardia, which were found in air conditioners, were observed, thus indicating the need for air-conditioning quality control in these environments.

  15. Reconciling Indoor Air Quality and Energy Efficiency in Air-Conditioned Classrooms: Case Studies for Portugal and Macao

    OpenAIRE

    Rogério Duarte; Ingride Beltrão-Coelho

    2013-01-01

    Growing awareness on the subject of classroom’s indoor air quality and concerns regarding the probable link between indoor air quality, student’s attendance and academic performance, support recent legislation limiting classroom’s indoor pollutant concentrations. A consequence of this legislation is the generalized shift towards air-conditioned classrooms and increased budgets for schools energy running costs. According to the scientific literature, demand control ventilation systems are suit...

  16. 40 CFR 81.64 - Huntington (West Virginia)-Ashland (Kentucky)-Portsmouth-Ironton (Ohio) Interstate Air Quality...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Huntington (West Virginia)-Ashland... AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.64 Huntington... Huntington (West Virginia)-Ashland (Kentucky)-Portsmouth-Ironton (Ohio) Interstate Air Quality Control...

  17. Air Quality System (AQS) Monitoring Network, EPA OAR OAQPS

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This GIS dataset contains points which depict air quality monitors within EPA's Air Quality System (AQS) monitoring network. This dataset is updated weekly to...

  18. Urban growth and air quality in Kuala Lumpur city, Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    O. H. L. Ling

    2010-01-01

    Urban developments, land use patterns and activities not only influence the volume of emissions into the ambient air environment but also affect the ability of the urban ecosystem to purify the air. Therefore, urbanisation affects the quality of air in urban areas. However, urban air quality is also affected by global, regional or trans-boundary pollutants. The objectives of this paper are to understand the trend of air quality level and urban growth in Kuala Lumpur city (KL), and examine the...

  19. Tools for Schools: Filtration for Improved Air Quality. Technical Services Bulletin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001

    This product bulletin addresses air pollution control in educational facilities to enhance educational performance, provides air quality recommendations for schools, and examines the filtration needs of various school areas. The types of air particles typically present are highlighted, and the use of proper filtration to control gases and vapors…

  20. Measurements and prediction of inhaled air quality with personalized ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cermak, Radim; Majer, M.; Melikov, Arsen Krikor

    2002-01-01

    This paper examines the performance of five different air terminal devices for personalized ventilation in relation to the quality of air inhaled by a breathing thermal manikin in a climate chamber. The personalized air was supplied either isothermally or non-isothermally (6 deg.C cooler than...... the room air) at flow rates ranging from less than 5 L/s up to 23 L/s. The air quality assessment was based on temperature measurements of the inhaled air and on the portion of the personalized air inhaled. The percentage of dissatisfied with the air quality was predicted. The results suggest...

  1. An Air Quality Management System for Policy Support in Cyprus

    OpenAIRE

    Nicolas Moussiopoulos; Ioannis Douros; George Tsegas; Savvas Kleanthous; Eleftherios Chourdakis

    2012-01-01

    The recent air quality directive (2008/50/EC) encourages the introduction of modelling as a necessary tool for air quality assessment and management. Towards this aim, an air quality management system (AQMS) has been developed and installed in the Department of Labour Inspection (DLI) of the Republic of Cyprus. The AQMS comprises of two operational modules, providing hourly nowcasting and daily forecasting of the air quality status, implemented as an integrated model system that performs nest...

  2. Air pollution control escalate equipment costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During fiscal year 1994, this author used the Bernard J. Steigerwald Opportunity for Independent Study, sponsored by US Environmental Protection Agency's Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards (Research Triangle Park, N.C.), to develop a group of quarterly indexes for adjusting or escalating air pollution control costs from one period to another. In all, nine indexes were developed, one equipment cost index (ECI) for each of nine control device categories. For convenience to the reader, additional indexes for two other equipment categories--available as part of the Producer Price Indexes compiled by the US Bureau of Labor Statistics--are also presented here. These 11 indexes--collectively known as the Vatavuk Air Pollution Control Cost Indexes (VAPCCI)--can be used to escalate costs from the initial (base) period (first quarter 1994) forward to any quarter in the future. To date, final indexes have been calculated (and are presented at the end of this article) for the second, third, and fourth quarters of 1994, and first quarter 1995; preliminary indexes are provided for second quarter 1995. Quarterly updates of these cost indexes will be computed as soon as the required input data become available. To date, no other set of cost indexes has been developed for such a wide array of pollution-control devices

  3. Parent's Guide to School Indoor Air Quality. Revised

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healthy Schools Network, Inc., 2012

    2012-01-01

    Air pollution is air pollution, indoors or out. Good indoor air quality (IAQ) contributes to a favorable learning environment for students, protects health, and supports the productivity of school personnel. In schools in poor repair, leaky roofs and crumbling walls have caused additional indoor air quality problems, including contamination with…

  4. Air Quality and Indoor Environmental Exposures: Clinical Impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indoor air quality (IAQ) is a term which refers to the air quality within and around buildings and homes as it relates to the health and comfort of the occupants. Many ambient (outdoor) air pollutants readily permeate indoor spaces. Because indoor air can be considerably more pol...

  5. 76 FR 44493 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Northern Sierra Air Quality Management...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-26

    ... Management District, Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality Management District, and South Coast Air Quality... taking direct final action to approve revisions to the Northern Sierra Air Quality Management District (NSAQMD), Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality Management District (SMAQMD), and South Coast Air...

  6. Effect of road blockages on local air pollution during the Hong Kong protests and its implications for air quality management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brimblecombe, Peter; Ning, Zhi

    2015-12-01

    Roadside air quality in urban areas is largely affected by the traffic emissions. Changes in emissions and transport control policy are often assumed to yield benefits in air quality, but have often not always been effective in producing perceptible improvements due to the complexity of meteorological conditions. This study evaluates the air quality before, during and after a temporary roadway blockage event in Hong Kong that took place during Hong Kong protests from late September to mid-December, 2014. The local regulatory air quality monitoring data from both roadside and general ambient stations were used to assess the impact of roadway blockages on the air quality. There was a public perception of improved air quality, but analysis of the data shows the changes can be difficult to discern. This study showed some benefits deriving from road blockages on the local air quality, but the impact was not always apparent because of seasonal variation in meteorological conditions and synoptic transport of pollutants. The finding suggests care is required before making policy changes based on claimed benefits of shifting transport routes. The study highlights the needs to remove seasonal and meteorological change when examining air pollution data to develop strategies to improve air quality. PMID:26245533

  7. Foliage Plants for Improving Indoor Air Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolverton, B. C.

    1988-01-01

    NASA's research with foliage houseplants during the past 10 years has produced a new concept in indoor air quality improvement. This new and exciting technology is quite simple. Both plant leaves and roots are utilized in removing trace levels of toxic vapors from inside tightly sealed buildings. Low levels of chemicals such as carbon monoxide and formaldehyde can be removed from indoor environments by plant leaves alone, while higher concentrations of numerous toxic chemicals can be removed by filtering indoor air through the plant roots surrounded by activated carbon. The activated carbon absorbs large quantities of the toxic chemicals and retains them until the plant roots and associated microorganisms degrade and assimilate these chemicals.

  8. Air quality criteria for carbon monoxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The revised air quality criteria document for CO reviews and evaluates available scientific information on the health effects associated with exposure to the concentrations of CO found in ambient air. Although the document is not intended to be an exhaustive literature review, it is intended to cover all the pertinent literature through early 1991. The references cited in the document are, therefore, reflective of the present state of knowledge on those issues relevant to the subsequent review of the NAAQS for CO, currently set at 9 ppm (10 mg/cu m) for 8 h and 35 ppm (40 mg/cu m) for 1 h. Major gaps in knowledge also are identified. Although emphasis is placed on the presentation of health effects data, other scientific data are presented and evaluated in order to provide a better understanding of the nature, sources, distribution, measurement, and concentration of CO in the environment, as well as the measurement of population exposure to CO

  9. Residential indoor air quality guideline : carbon monoxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbon monoxide (CO) is a tasteless, odourless, and colourless gas that can be produced by both natural and anthropogenic processes, but is most often formed during the incomplete combustion of organic materials. In the indoor environment, CO occurs directly as a result of emissions from indoor sources or as a result of infiltration from outdoor air containing CO. Studies have shown that the use of specific sources can lead to increased concentrations of CO indoors. This residential indoor air quality guideline examined the factors influencing the introduction, dispersion and removal of CO indoors. The health effects of exposure to low and higher concentrations of CO were discussed. Residential maximum exposure limits for CO were presented. Sources and concentrations in indoor environments were also examined. 17 refs., 2 tabs.

  10. Ambient air quality trends in Alberta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document provided an overview of ambient air pollutant trends in Alberta. The report discussed the following pollutants having effect on human and environmental health: carbon monoxide (CO), hydrogen sulphide (H2S), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), sulphur dioxide (SO2), ozone (O3), fine particulate matter (PM2.5), benzene, and benzopyrene. Each of these pollutants was described. The report provided data on annual average concentration trends and annual 99th percentile concentration as an indicator of peak concentrations. A map illustrating air quality monitoring stations in 2006 was also provided. The findings revealed that mean annual CO levels were the lowest they have been since 1990; hydrogen sulphide concentrations have fluctuated in time since 1990; most Edmonton and Calgary area stations showed significant decreasing trends in annual average NO2 levels since 1990; and higher SO2 concentrations have been found in the industrial areas of Alberta, such as the Redwater and Scotford oil sands locations. tabs., figs

  11. The Gulf of Mexico air quality study: An industry perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Section 328 of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 required the EPA to promulgate a rule establishing air pollution control requirements for Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) sources. Congress exempted Gulf of Mexico OCS sources west of 87.5 degrees longitude (near the border of Alabama and Florida) pending the results of a ''three year'' study conducted by the Department of Interior (DOI) - Minerals Management Service (MMS). The study required an examination of the impacts of emissions from OCS activities in such areas that fail to meet the National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) for either ozone or nitrogen dioxide. This paper reviews the MMS Gulf of Mexico Air Quality Study's (GMAQS) emission inventory development, historical ozone episode modeling, field sampling, and preliminary photochemical modeling results. Industry has developed a standardized spreadsheet to calculate emissions and a software package to allow operators to figure out the cost to control OCS sources for NOx and VOCs under the EPA's OCS Air Regulations (40 CFR Part 55). Cost estimates are provided for various regulatory scenarios currently being reviewed by the EPA and MMS

  12. Proceedings of the upwind downwind air quality conference 2004 : a practical conference on improving air quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This conference provided a forum for policy makers, environmental managers, urban designers and citizens to discuss current air quality issues. It provided information on urban sprawl and the resulting human health impacts. Many presentations described efforts that are currently underway to improve local air quality through smart growth initiatives, new urban design approaches, successful airshed management and planning legislation. The roles that industry, community groups and governments play in achieving air quality improvements were also highlighted. The mitigation efforts relate to both natural areas and industrial corridors and involve reducing waste, consuming less energy, changing our modes of transportation, and wise land use in urban areas. Sixteen presentations were indexed separately for inclusion in this database. refs., tabs., figs

  13. Co-benefits of air quality and climate change policies on air quality of the Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozzoli, Luca; Mert Gokturk, Ozan; Unal, Alper; Kindap, Tayfun; Janssens-Maenhout, Greet

    2015-04-01

    The Mediterranean basin is one of the regions of the world where significant impacts due to climate changes are predicted to occur in the future. Observations and model simulations are used to provide to the policy makers scientifically based estimates of the necessity to adjust national emission reductions needed to achieve air quality objectives in the context of a changing climate, which is not only driven by GHGs, but also by short lived climate pollutants, such as tropospheric ozone and aerosols. There is an increasing interest and need to design cost-benefit emission reduction strategies, which could improve both regional air quality and global climate change. In this study we used the WRF-CMAQ air quality modelling system to quantify the contribution of anthropogenic emissions to ozone and particulate matter concentrations in Europe and the Eastern Mediterranean and to understand how this contribution could change in different future scenarios. We have investigated four different future scenarios for year 2050 defined during the European Project CIRCE: a "business as usual" scenario (BAU) where no or just actual measures are taken into account; an "air quality" scenario (BAP) which implements the National Emission Ceiling directive 2001/81/EC member states of the European Union (EU-27); a "climate change" scenario (CC) which implements global climate policies decoupled from air pollution policies; and an "integrated air quality and climate policy" scenario (CAP) which explores the co-benefit of global climate and EU-27 air pollution policies. The BAP scenario largely decreases summer ozone concentrations over almost the entire continent, while the CC and CAP scenarios similarly determine lower decreases in summer ozone but extending all over the Mediterranean, the Middle East countries and Russia. Similar patterns are found for winter PM concentrations; BAP scenario improves pollution levels only in the Western EU countries, and the CAP scenario determines

  14. COMPARISON OF INDOOR AIR QUALITY IN RESTAURANT KITCHENS IN TEHRAN WITH AMBIENT AIR QUALITY

    OpenAIRE

    M. Ghasemkhani, F. Naseri

    2008-01-01

    The indoor air quality of 131 restaurant kitchens in Tehran was investigated from May to September 2006. Gas stoves use in restaurant kitchens is a major source of indoor combustion, product carbon monoxide and nitrogen dioxide. The study focused on one of the busy zones located in the southwest and central part of the city. Measurements were done for indoor and outdoor air pollutants, carbon monoxide and nitrogen dioxide; ambient temperature and relative humidity were also measured. Result i...

  15. SAMIRA - SAtellite based Monitoring Initiative for Regional Air quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Philipp; Stebel, Kerstin; Ajtai, Nicolae; Diamandi, Andrei; Horalek, Jan; Nicolae, Doina; Stachlewska, Iwona; Zehner, Claus

    2016-04-01

    Here, we present a new ESA-funded project entitled Satellite based Monitoring Initiative for Regional Air quality (SAMIRA), which aims at improving regional and local air quality monitoring through synergetic use of data from present and upcoming satellites, traditionally used in situ air quality monitoring networks and output from chemical transport models. Through collaborative efforts in four countries, namely Romania, Poland, the Czech Republic and Norway, all with existing air quality problems, SAMIRA intends to support the involved institutions and associated users in their national monitoring and reporting mandates as well as to generate novel research in this area. Despite considerable improvements in the past decades, Europe is still far from achieving levels of air quality that do not pose unacceptable hazards to humans and the environment. Main concerns in Europe are exceedances of particulate matter (PM), ground-level ozone, benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2). While overall sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions have decreased in recent years, regional concentrations can still be high in some areas. The objectives of SAMIRA are to improve algorithms for the retrieval of hourly aerosol optical depth (AOD) maps from SEVIRI, and to develop robust methods for deriving column- and near-surface PM maps for the study area by combining satellite AOD with information from regional models. The benefit to existing monitoring networks (in situ, models, satellite) by combining these datasets using data fusion methods will be tested for satellite-based NO2, SO2, and PM/AOD. Furthermore, SAMIRA will test and apply techniques for downscaling air quality-related EO products to a spatial resolution that is more in line with what is generally required for studying urban and regional scale air quality. This will be demonstrated for a set of study sites that include the capitals of the four countries and the highly polluted areas along the border of Poland and the

  16. Richton Dome air quality analysis: Revision 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Detailed supporting calculations, methodology and results of the air quality analysis performed for the Richton Dome Environmental Assessment are presented in this report. Maximum emission rates during site characterization and repository construction and operation are analyzed and reported. The major source of emissions is fugitive dust from construction activities. Modeling was performed primarily with the US Environmental Protection Agency Industrial Source Complex (ISC) Model and meteorological data from Jackson, Mississippi. Predicted maximum ground level concentrations off site are presented. Supporting calculations and computer model runs are presented in appendixes. Salt deposition around the site was predicted and results and supporting analyses are presented. 4 refs., 1 fig., 21 tabs

  17. An air quality model for Central Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A computational air quality model for Central Mexico that includes the Basin of the Valley of Mexico, the Valleys of Toluca, Puebla and Cuernavaca already in experimental operation, is presented. The meteorology of the region is obtained combining two non-hydrostatic models: a model designed for synoptic scales called MM5 provides initial and boundary data to a model specially designed for urban environments and scales called MEMO. The transport model used numerical techniques developed by the authors that eliminate numerical diffusion and dispersion. For the photochemical model several ODE's integrators were tested. The emissions model developed uses the latest inventory data gathered in the region. (Author)

  18. Recognition, evaluation, and control of indoor air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Indoor air pollution is typically associated with terms sick building syndrome, tight building syndrome, building related illness, and problem building. Indoor air pollution is a relatively new public health concern (approximately 15 years old) although this issue is an age-old problem dating back to prehistoric times when humans came to live indoors. This presentation summarizes indoor air quality issues in order to provide you with usable information concerning the recognition and evaluation of indoor air quality (IAQ) problems and the subsequent control measures which can be used for maintaining or improving the indoor air environment for better occupant health and comfort control. Why has the subject become so vocalized in the last fifteen years? Why the sudden interest and awareness concerning indoor air quality issues? During the last half of the 1970's and all of the 1980's, buildings were built or remodeled to minimize air handling, heating, and cooling costs, often limiting the amount of outside air brought into the buildings to near minimums. Paralleling these developments, complaints related to modern buildings increased. The new terms tight building syndrome, sick building syndrome, and indoor air quality became widely used by health and safety professionals and subsequently by newspaper columnist and the general public

  19. SIMBAD quality-control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesteven, Soizick

    1992-01-01

    The astronomical database SIMBAD developed at the Centre de donnees astronomiques de Strasbourg presently contains 760,000 objects (stellar and non-stellar). It has the unique characteristic of being structured specifically for astronomical objects. All types of heterogeneous data (bibliographic references, measurements, and sets of identification) are connected with each object. The attributes that define quality of the database include the following. Reliability: cross-identification should not rely upon just exact values object coordinates. It also means that information attached to one simple object should be consistent. The existing data must be controlled in order to start with a reliable base and to cross-identify new data assuring the quality as data grows. Exhaustivity: delays between publication of new informations and their inclusion in the database should be as short as possible. The integrity of the database has to be maintained as data accumulates. Taking the amount of data into consideration and the rate of new data production, it is necessary to use automatic methods. One of the possibilities is to use multivariate data analysis. The factor-space is a n-dimensional relevancy space which is described by the n-axes representing a set of n subject matter headings; the words and phrases can be used to scale the axes and the documents are then a vector average of the terms within them. The application reported herein is based on the NASA-STI bibliographical database. The selected data concern astronomy, astrophysics, and space radiation (102,963 references from 1975 to 1991 included 8070 keywords). The F-space is built from this bibliographical data. By comparing the F-space position obtained from the NASA-STI keywords with the F-space position obtained from the SIMBAD references, the authors will be able to show whether it is possible to retrieve information with a restricted set of words only. If the comparison is valid, this will be a way to enter

  20. Impact of temperature and humidity on perceived indoor air quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, Lei

    1997-11-01

    This thesis deals with the impact of temperature and humidity on the emission of pollutants from five building materials and on the perception of air polluted by the material emissions. The impact was studied in the temperature range 18-28 deg. C and the humidity range 30-70%RH, corresponding to conditions often pertaining in normal non-industrial indoor environments. The five building materials used in the study were: PVC flooring, waterborne acrylic floor varnish, loomed polyamide carpet with latex backing, waterborn acrylic wall paint and acrylic sealant; all these materials are commonly use din buildings. The effect of temperature and humidity on emission and perception of air pollutant emitted from the five building materials is described, using a specially developed exposure system. A computer-controlled exposure system was developed. The design of the system allowed the impact of temperature and humidity on the emission of pollutants from the materials to be judged separately from the impact on perception. The effect of temperature and humidity on emission and on perception was investigated at nine different combinations of three temperature levels 18 deg. C, 23 deg. C, 28 deg. C and three relative humidity levels 30%, 50%, 70%. A sensory panel assessed the acceptability of the air after facial exposure. Chemical measurements of the pollutants emitted were also made. The impact of temperature and humidity on perception of air quality during whole-body exposure is discussed. The influence of the pre-exposure temperature/humidity on perception of air quality and the time course of adaptation of air quality perception with different combinations of temperature and humidity were also investigated. It is recommended that future ventilation standards should include the effect of indoor air temperature and humidity in ventilation requirements. (EG) 86 refs.

  1. Microbiological assessment of indoor air quality at different hospital sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabo Verde, Sandra; Almeida, Susana Marta; Matos, João; Guerreiro, Duarte; Meneses, Marcia; Faria, Tiago; Botelho, Daniel; Santos, Mateus; Viegas, Carla

    2015-09-01

    Poor hospital indoor air quality (IAQ) may lead to hospital-acquired infections, sick hospital syndrome and various occupational hazards. Air-control measures are crucial for reducing dissemination of airborne biological particles in hospitals. The objective of this study was to perform a survey of bioaerosol quality in different sites in a Portuguese Hospital, namely the operating theater (OT), the emergency service (ES) and the surgical ward (SW). Aerobic mesophilic bacterial counts (BCs) and fungal load (FL) were assessed by impaction directly onto tryptic soy agar and malt extract agar supplemented with antibiotic chloramphenicol (0.05%) plates, respectively using a MAS-100 air sampler. The ES revealed the highest airborne microbial concentrations (BC range 240-736 CFU/m(3) CFU/m(3); FL range 27-933 CFU/m(3)), exceeding, at several sampling sites, conformity criteria defined in national legislation [6]. Bacterial concentrations in the SW (BC range 99-495 CFU/m(3)) and the OT (BC range 12-170 CFU/m(3)) were under recommended criteria. While fungal levels were below 1 CFU/m(3) in the OT, in the SW (range 1-32 CFU/m(3)), there existed a site with fungal indoor concentrations higher than those detected outdoors. Airborne Gram-positive cocci were the most frequent phenotype (88%) detected from the measured bacterial population in all indoor environments. Staphylococcus (51%) and Micrococcus (37%) were dominant among the bacterial genera identified in the present study. Concerning indoor fungal characterization, the prevalent genera were Penicillium (41%) and Aspergillus (24%). Regular monitoring is essential for assessing air control efficiency and for detecting irregular introduction of airborne particles via clothing of visitors and medical staff or carriage by personal and medical materials. Furthermore, microbiological survey data should be used to clearly define specific air quality guidelines for controlled environments in hospital settings. PMID

  2. Quality control of radioisotopic products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiopharmaceutical quality control is a very comprehensive and responsible activity since it concerns products being used for the health care of patients. Quality control is practised by an analytical specialist in close cooperation with pharmacists who are responsible for routine quality assurance. There is also a good understanding with the production group to ensure high-quality products. Quality control also relies on the research and development group to investigate problems. Finally there is feedback from the user since he is also responsible for quality control in a limited way. The scope of quality control is comprehensive, e.g. physical inspection and chemical control of all inactive starting material including supervision of the various stages of production. The quality control of radioactive material includes nuclidic analysis, verification of radiochemical purity as well as regular stability checks. Biological controls comprise sterility tests both on final products and production environment; testing for toxicity, pyrogens and LD50 values. To test product efficacy it is imperative to rely on biodistribution. Rabbits are used for quality control screening in a qualitative static mode and the dissection of mice organs is carried out for time-consuming quantitative analyses. Since radiopharmaceuticals are being used in a dynamic mode by nuclear medicine, their quality control tests on animals should, for proper evaluation, be carried out by means of comparative studies with imported products and by using a high-resolution camera with computer facilities. The Group for Quality Control and Assurance is responsible for an extensive documentation system which ensures both good manufacturing practice and effective analytical tests. Through quality control the specialist is constantly striving for improvement to ensure a good product for the benefit of the patient

  3. AGRICULTURAL PRICE, QUANTITY, AND WELFARE EFFECTS OF AIR QUALITY IMPROVEMENTS

    OpenAIRE

    Ribaudo, Marc; Shortle, James S.

    1986-01-01

    The failure to allow for significant crop quality effects in a partial-equilibrium model can lead to misleading inferences about the price, output and welfare implications of air quality improvements. It has been observed that air pollutants such as ozone, sulphur dioxide, and nitrogen dioxide affect the yield and quality of many crops. The economic benefit from improving air quality in crop producing regions has been measured using a partial-equilibrium approach which accounts only for suppl...

  4. Predicting indoor pollutant concentrations, and applications to air quality management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lorenzetti, David M.

    2002-10-01

    Because most people spend more than 90% of their time indoors, predicting exposure to airborne pollutants requires models that incorporate the effect of buildings. Buildings affect the exposure of their occupants in a number of ways, both by design (for example, filters in ventilation systems remove particles) and incidentally (for example, sorption on walls can reduce peak concentrations, but prolong exposure to semivolatile organic compounds). Furthermore, building materials and occupant activities can generate pollutants. Indoor air quality depends not only on outdoor air quality, but also on the design, maintenance, and use of the building. For example, ''sick building'' symptoms such as respiratory problems and headaches have been related to the presence of air-conditioning systems, to carpeting, to low ventilation rates, and to high occupant density (1). The physical processes of interest apply even in simple structures such as homes. Indoor air quality models simulate the processes, such as ventilation and filtration, that control pollutant concentrations in a building. Section 2 describes the modeling approach, and the important transport processes in buildings. Because advection usually dominates among the transport processes, Sections 3 and 4 describe methods for predicting airflows. The concluding section summarizes the application of these models.

  5. STATUS OF AMBIENT AIR QUALITY IN BELLARY CITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.A. ZAREENA BANU

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A detailed survey of air quality was carried out at important junctions in Bellary city to study the ambient air quality using high volume sampler at respirable heights of the variety of known air pollutants, suspended particulate matter(SPM, respirable particulate matter(RPM, sulphur dioxide(SO2, oxides of nitrogen(NOx, were given much importance during the study. Sampling stations were established at 8 different places in the city. It was found that the level of suspended particulate matter(SPM & respirable particulate matter(RPM, exceeds the ambient air quality standard of central pollution control board and that of sulphur dioxide(SO2 and oxides of nitrogen(NOx were well within the limits. The factors which were considered responsible for such high levels of certain pollutants in the city includes traffic congestion, increased human activities, mining activities and high rise buildings existing parallel to each other. The remedial measure suggested including banning old technology vehicles, upgrading two stroke engines to four stroke engines, using catalytic, planting more trees along the roadsides and proper traffic regulation.

  6. Indoor Air Quality Tools for Schools Program: Benefits of Improving Air Quality in the School Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. Office of Radiation and Indoor Air.

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) developed the Indoor Air Quality Tools for Schools (IAQ TfS) Program to help schools prevent, identify, and resolve their IAQ problems. This publication describes the program and its advantages, explaining that through simple, low-cost measures, schools can: reduce IAQ-related health risks and…

  7. 78 FR 19990 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Ohio; Ohio Ambient Air Quality...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-03

    ... the relocated air quality standard rules. This action was published at 75 FR 65572 as a direct final... previously approved, most notably including revisions that EPA had proposed to disapprove (see 70 FR 36901... Register on October 26, 2010 (75 FR 65572), on page 65574 in the second column, the paragraph numbered...

  8. 77 FR 30087 - Air Quality Designations for the 2008 Ozone National Ambient Air Quality Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-21

    ... Columbia EPA Environmental Protection Agency FR Federal Register NAAQS National Ambient Air Quality... ppm NAAQS set in 1997, but is set at a more protective level. \\2\\ See 73 FR 16436; March 27, 2008. For... 6, 2010. (See 75 FR 2938; January 19, 2010.) Because of the significant uncertainty the ozone...

  9. 77 FR 52277 - Approval of Air Quality Implementation Plans; California; South Coast Air Quality Management...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-29

    ... Management and Budget under Executive Order 12866 (58 FR 51735, October 4, 1993); Does not impose an... submitted for the South Coast Air Quality Management District (District) portion of the California State...); Does not have Federalism implications as specified in Executive Order 13132 (64 FR 43255, August...

  10. COMPARISON OF INDOOR AIR QUALITY IN RESTAURANT KITCHENS IN TEHRAN WITH AMBIENT AIR QUALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ghasemkhani, F. Naseri

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The indoor air quality of 131 restaurant kitchens in Tehran was investigated from May to September 2006. Gas stoves use in restaurant kitchens is a major source of indoor combustion, product carbon monoxide and nitrogen dioxide. The study focused on one of the busy zones located in the southwest and central part of the city. Measurements were done for indoor and outdoor air pollutants, carbon monoxide and nitrogen dioxide; ambient temperature and relative humidity were also measured. Result indicated that the mean levels of CO and NO2 in restaurant kitchens were below the recommended limit of 25 and 3ppm, respectively. Correlations between indoor and outdoor air quality were performed consequently. Results of the mean ambient temperature and relative humidity were above the guideline. In this study the mean levels of CO and NO2 gas cooking in restaurant kitchens were found to be lower compared with the similar studies.

  11. Diurnal, weekly and monthly spatial variations of air pollutants and air quality of Beijing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei; Tang, Hongzhao; Zhao, Haimeng

    2015-10-01

    Under the National Ambient Air Quality Standard released in 2012 (NAAQS-2012), Beijing began to publicize hourly Air Quality Index as well as real time concentrations of 6 pollutants in its web platform to provide detailed information for air quality assessment from 2013. In this study, hourly air quality monitoring data from May 2014 to April 2015 were collected for all 35 monitoring stations in Beijing to analyze the temporal and spatial variations of air pollutants and air quality. It is found that in spatial pattern, the air qualities in southern and northern Beijing are totally different. The association between heavy pollution concentrations and wind situations suggested that neighboring area's air quality has an important role in the air quality of Beijing combining with air quality attainment rates in all 35 monitoring stations and northern China. For temporal variations, late night and early morning are the most polluted time while afternoon is the least polluted time for all pollutants except O3 with most polluted time in afternoon. Summer time in Beijing has the best air quality while winter time has the worst air quality coinciding with the heating season in the winter.

  12. Radon concentration as indicator for indoor air quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Energy conservation actions could cause a reduction of the air exchange rate and a degradation of the indoor air quality too. Present methods for the estimation of the indoor air quality can only be affected with limitations. In the following a method is presented, that allows an estimation of the indoor air quality under daily routine by using natural Radon as an indicator. For this via mathematical models the progression of the air exchange rate is estimated by using the Radon concentration and later the progression of several air pollutants is estimated. Via measurements in a measurement chamber the modelling could be verified. (orig.)

  13. Fire in the forest: The air quality dilemma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fire has long been an important tool of forest land managers. Air regulators responsible for assuring that the provisions of the Clean Air Act are met, see smoke from forest land burning as just another source of air pollution. From an air quality standpoint, pollutants released by forestry burning practices are no different than those emitted from other sources since smoke is smoke, regardless of whether it comes from a woodstove, a wood products industry stack, agricultural burning, or forestry land management. This paper discusses the dilemma that air quality and forest land managers face when balancing air quality protection with the role of fire in the forest

  14. 78 FR 45114 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Antelope Valley Air Quality Management...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-26

    ... regulations that control the primary and secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS), which... 2 NAAQS, and California points out that for the 2010 SO 2 primary standard, ambient air quality... respiratory effects and can contribute to fine particle pollution. Carbon Monoxide (CO) contributes to...

  15. 75 FR 54773 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Minnesota; Carbon Monoxide (CO...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-09

    ...) for carbon monoxide (CO) under the Clean Air Act (CAA). The State has submitted a limited maintenance plan for CO showing continued attainment of the CO National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) in the... Part 52 Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Carbon monoxide, Incorporation by...

  16. 77 FR 38183 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans and Designations of Areas for Air Quality...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-27

    ... Part 52 Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Carbon monoxide, Incorporation by reference... national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS) by its applicable attainment date of April 5, 2010. This... certified ambient air monitoring data for the 2007-2009 monitoring period and thereby suspended...

  17. 75 FR 64235 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Texas; Revisions to Rules and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-19

    ... Subjects in 40 CFR Part 52 Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Carbon monoxide... ensure attainment and continued maintenance of the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for... TCEQ may require air dispersion modeling or ambient monitoring. The Texas PCP SP is not part of...

  18. 77 FR 65630 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; District of Columbia; The 2002...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-30

    ... Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Carbon monoxide, Incorporation by reference, Nitrogen dioxide... Fine Particulate Matter National Ambient Air Quality Standard AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency... nonattainment area (hereafter referred to as DC Area or Area) for the 1997 PM 2.5 National Ambient Air...

  19. Air quality in Swedish cities; Luftkvalitet i taetorter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sjoeberg, Karin; Persson, Karin; Lagerstroem, Malin [Swedish Environmental Research Inst., Goeteborg (Sweden); Brodin, Yngve [Swedish Environmental Protection Agency, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2004-02-01

    Air quality in Swedish cities has improved considerably over the last decades as a result of reduced emissions from traffic, industrial activity and households. The situation is however far from acceptable, and no further improvement is seen during recent years. Urban air pollution is considered to contribute to the death of more than a thousand people in Sweden each year. Measurements of air quality in Swedish cities are carried out since many years. The measurements have shown that concentrations of all serious air pollutants but ozone have decreased strongly since the 1980s. The improvement is attributed to reduced emissions from motor traffic by means of catalytic converters and cleaner fuels as well as decreased emissions from industrial activity and energy production in Sweden and neighbouring countries. The present report does however show no further downward trend for concentrations of air pollutants in Swedish cities since the late 1990s, and the concentrations of the winter 2002/2003 were higher than several previous winters. This information is gained from measurements done by around forty municipalities and gathered within the so called URBAN-measurement-net managed by the IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, and additional information from around ten municipalities which perform own measurements. Climatic variability may play an important role for the increase seen in the winter of 2002/2003, but it is also probable that continuously increasing traffic have counteracted some of the ameliorative environmental effects of improved exhaust emission control and cleaner petrol and diesel fuels. Measurements of the winter 2002/2003 show that air quality conditions are unacceptable in perhaps half of the Swedish cities, and that they run the risk of not being able to attain environmental quality standards for one or more substances. The standards for particulate matter and nitrogen dioxide are those most difficult to manage within the time limits set

  20. Air Pollution and Control Legislation in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    P Bhave, Prashant; Kulkarni, Nikhil

    2015-09-01

    Air pollution in urban areas arises from multiple sources, which may vary with location and developmental activities. Anthropogenic activities as rampant industrialization, exploitation and over consumption of natural resources, ever growing population size are major contributors of air pollution. The presented review is an effort to discuss various aspects of air pollution and control legislation in India emphasizing on the history, present scenario, international treaties, gaps and drawbacks. The review also presents legislative controls with judicial response to certain landmark judgments related to air pollution. The down sides related to enforcement mechanism for the effective implementation of environmental laws for air pollution control have been highlighted.

  1. 78 FR 21582 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Butte County Air Quality Management...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-11

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Butte County Air Quality Management District and Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality Management District AGENCY: Environmental... County Air Quality Management District (BCAQMD) and Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality...

  2. Quality assurance and statistical control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heydorn, K.

    In scientific research laboratories it is rarely possible to use quality assurance schemes, developed for large-scale analysis. Instead methods have been developed to control the quality of modest numbers of analytical results by relying on statistical control: Analysis of precision serves to...

  3. The air quality in Danish urban areas.

    OpenAIRE

    Jensen, F P; Fenger, J.

    1994-01-01

    The Danish air pollution abatement is based by and large on emission control. Since the ratification of the international sulfur protocol of 1985, there has been a continuous tightening of the permissible sulfur content in fuels and of the maximum emissions from power plants. As a consequence, the total annual emission of sulfur dioxide (SO2) has been reduced from 450,000 tons in the seventies to 180,000 tons in 1990. This has had a pronounced effect on the SO2 levels in Danish urban areas. T...

  4. Process control of product quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatesan, G

    2003-10-01

    This paper describes a method to control output product quality (product variability) by applying engineering or automatic process control (APC) and statistical process control (SPC) techniques. APC techniques have been used to control process variables such as feed rate, temperature, pressure, viscosity, and to product quality variables as well. SPC techniques have also been applied to control product quality. APC and SPC techniques overlap at the interface of the two process control methodologies. It is possible to produce material of desired quality by having an acceptable level of variation in the measured output characteristics. APC aims to maintain certain key process variables as near their set points for as much of the time as possible. There are situations in process control where some form of feedback control is necessary and yet where stability cannot be easily attained in the feedback control loop. Disturbance (noise) afflicts a process, which together with issues of dynamics and dead time (time delay) compounds the process control problem. The process control practitioner faces a challenge while tackling issues of process delay (dead time) and dynamics (inertia). Process control of product variability (control error standard deviation) is possible by developing and simulating a feedback control algorithm for dead-time processes. It is quite common to encounter problems connected with feedback (closed-loop) control stability, controller limitations, and dead-time compensation to obtain minimum variance (mean square error) control at the output. Details of a method to control the quality of a product at output by applying statistical process monitoring and feedback control adjustment are presented in this paper. The focus of this paper is on the issues of process delay ("dead time") and dynamics ("inertia") at the interface between SPC and APC to control output product quality. PMID:14582886

  5. Hold Your Breath: A New Index of Air Quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bühn, A.; Farzanega, M.R.

    2011-01-01

    Environmental quality and climate change have long attracted attention in policy debates. Recently, air quality has emerged on the policy agenda. We calculate a new index of air quality using CO2and SO2 emissions per capita as indicators and provide a ranking for 122 countries from 1985 to 2005.The

  6. 40 CFR 52.14 - State ambient air quality standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality standards. Any ambient air quality standard submitted with a plan which is less stringent than a national standard is not considered part of the plan. ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false State ambient air quality standards....

  7. Provide good air quality for people and improve their productivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fanger, Povl Ole

    2000-01-01

    quality. The impact on productivity justifies a much higher indoor air quality than the minimum levels prescribed in present standards and guidelines. One way of providing air of high quality for people to breathe, without involving excessive ventilation rates and energy use, is to provide "personalized...

  8. Human perception of visual air quality (uniform haze)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malm, William; Kelley, Karen; Molenar, John; Daniel, Terry

    The National Park Service and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency are cooperatively conducting ongoing studies of human perception of visual air quality. Major objectives of this program include: (1) determination of the relationship between judgments of visual air quality of actual three dimensional scenes and a surrogate slide representation of that scene, (2) examination of the effect of sun angle and meteorological conditions on perceived visual air quality, (3) examination of the effect of demographic background on observer's judgments of visual air quality, (4) establishment of a functional relationship between human perception of visual air quality and various electro-optical parameters for several different scenic vistas and (5) development of a model capable of predicting the sensitivity of a park to visual air pollution impact. Preliminary results of a previous study involving one vista revealed a linear relationship between human perception and apparent vista contrast for constant vista illumination and ground cover. A more general formalism for averaging vista color contrast appeared to account for effects that snow cover and varying illumination have on the sensitivity of perceived visual air quality to air pollution. These functional relationships are re-examined using a number of southwestern vistas. A first order model capable of predicting perceived visual air quality as a function of change in air pollution is developed. In addition, the relationship between perceived visual air quality of actual three dimensional scenes and pictoral surrogates is examined.

  9. Mexico City air quality: Progress of an international collaborative project to define air quality management options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mexico City, faces a severe air pollution problem due to a combination of circumstances. The city is in a high mountain basin at a subtropical latitude. The basin setting inhibits dispersion of pollution and contributes to frequent wintertime thermal inversions which further trap pollutants near the surface. The elevation and latitude combine to provide plentiful sunshine which, in comparison to more northern latitudes, is enhanced in the UV radiation which drives atmospheric photochemistry to produce secondary pollutants such as ozone. The Area Metropolitana de la Ciudad de Mexico AMCW is defined to include the 16 delegations of the Federal District (D.F.) and 17 highly urbanized municipalities in the State of Mexico which border the D.F. The 1990 census (XI Censo General de Poblacion y Vivienda de 1990) records that slightly over 15 million people live in the AMCM. There are numerous other nearby communities which are in the airshed region of Mexico City, but which are not included in the definition and population of the AMCM. The Mexico City Air Quality Research Initiative is one project that is examining the complex relationship between air pollution, economic growth, societal values, and air quality management policies. The project utilizes a systems approach including computer modeling, comprehensive measurement studies of Mexico City's air pollutants, environmental chemical reaction studies and socioeconomic analysis. Los Alamos National Laboratory (USA) and the Mexican Petroleum Institute are the designated lead institutions

  10. Indoor air quality analysis based on Hadoop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The air of the office environment is our research object. The data of temperature, humidity, concentrations of carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide and ammonia are collected peer one to eight seconds by the sensor monitoring system. And all the data are stored in the Hbase database of Hadoop platform. With the help of HBase feature of column-oriented store and versioned (automatically add the time column), the time-series data sets are bulit based on the primary key Row-key and timestamp. The parallel computing programming model MapReduce is used to process millions of data collected by sensors. By analysing the changing trend of parameters' value at different time of the same day and at the same time of various dates, the impact of human factor and other factors on the room microenvironment is achieved according to the liquidity of the office staff. Moreover, the effective way to improve indoor air quality is proposed in the end of this paper

  11. Indoor air quality analysis based on Hadoop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuo, Wang; Yunhua, Sun; Song, Tian; Liang, Yu; Weihong, Cui

    2014-03-01

    The air of the office environment is our research object. The data of temperature, humidity, concentrations of carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide and ammonia are collected peer one to eight seconds by the sensor monitoring system. And all the data are stored in the Hbase database of Hadoop platform. With the help of HBase feature of column-oriented store and versioned (automatically add the time column), the time-series data sets are bulit based on the primary key Row-key and timestamp. The parallel computing programming model MapReduce is used to process millions of data collected by sensors. By analysing the changing trend of parameters' value at different time of the same day and at the same time of various dates, the impact of human factor and other factors on the room microenvironment is achieved according to the liquidity of the office staff. Moreover, the effective way to improve indoor air quality is proposed in the end of this paper.

  12. Enhancing indoor air quality –The air filter advantage

    OpenAIRE

    Vannan Kandi Vijayan; Haralappa Paramesh; Sundeep Santosh Salvi; Alpa Anil Kumar Dalal

    2015-01-01

    Air pollution has become the world's single biggest environmental health risk, linked to around 7 million deaths in 2012 according to a recent World Health Organisation (WHO) report. The new data further reveals a stronger link between, indoor and outdoor air pollution exposure and cardiovascular diseases, such as strokes and ischemic heart disease, as well as between air pollution and cancer. The role of air pollution in the development of respiratory diseases, including acute respiratory in...

  13. Frontiers in statistical quality control

    CERN Document Server

    Wilrich, Peter-Theodor

    2004-01-01

    This volume treats the four main categories of Statistical Quality Control: General SQC Methodology, On-line Control including Sampling Inspection and Statistical Process Control, Off-line Control with Data Analysis and Experimental Design, and, fields related to Reliability. Experts with international reputation present their newest contributions.

  14. A Breath of Fresh Air: Addressing Indoor Air Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palliser, Janna

    2011-01-01

    Indoor air pollution refers to "chemical, biological, and physical contamination of indoor air," which may result in adverse health effects (OECD 2003). The causes, sources, and types of indoor air pollutants will be addressed in this article, as well as health effects and how to reduce exposure. Learning more about potential pollutants in home…

  15. Air pollution control in practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The book offers a comprehensive treatment of the subject, from air pollution monitoring and effects on human and animal health, on plants and materials, to pollution reduction measures, practical applications, and legal regulations. It intends to give the air pollution expert a basis for developing practicable solutions. Apart from the 'classic' pollutants, also radioactive air pollution is gone into. (DG) With 366 figs., 190 tabs

  16. Evaluating NOx emission inventories for regulatory air quality modeling using satellite and air quality model data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemball-Cook, Susan; Yarwood, Greg; Johnson, Jeremiah; Dornblaser, Bright; Estes, Mark

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the accuracy of NOx emissions in the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality's (TCEQ) State Implementation Plan (SIP) modeling inventories of the southeastern U.S. We used retrieved satellite tropospheric NO2 columns from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) together with NO2 columns from the Comprehensive Air Quality Model with Extensions (CAMx) to make top-down NOx emissions estimates using the mass balance method. Two different top-down NOx emissions estimates were developed using the KNMI DOMINO v2.0 and NASA SP2 retrievals of OMI NO2 columns. Differences in the top-down NOx emissions estimates made with these two operational products derived from the same OMI radiance data were sufficiently large that they could not be used to constrain the TCEQ NOx emissions in the southeast. The fact that the two available operational NO2 column retrievals give such different top-down NOx emissions results is important because these retrievals are increasingly being used to diagnose air quality problems and to inform efforts to solve them. These results reflect the fact that NO2 column retrievals are a blend of measurements and modeled data and should be used with caution in analyses that will inform policy development. This study illustrates both benefits and challenges of using satellite NO2 data for air quality management applications. Comparison with OMI NO2 columns pointed the way toward improvements in the CAMx simulation of the upper troposphere, but further refinement of both regional air quality models and the NO2 column retrievals is needed before the mass balance and other emission inversion methods can be used to successfully constrain NOx emission inventories used in U.S. regulatory modeling.

  17. Generating scenarios to predict air quality impact in public health

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, J.M.; Coelho, L.M.R.; Gouveia, C.; Cerdeira, R. [Escola Superior de Tecnologia de Setubal (EST-IPS), Setubal (Portugal); Ferreira, T.; Baptista, M.N. [Hospital Na. Sa. do Rosario, Servico de Pediatria, Barreiro (Portugal)

    2004-07-01

    This study intends to associate air quality with public health by generating air quality scenarios, under different future perspectives in Barreiro. This city is located in middle south of Portugal nearby Lisbon and it has a large resident population, an important industrial area and intense traffic. In this study ADMS-urban was used to simulate the possible scenarios of future air quality in this city, taking into consideration the probable city development and future activities. Special attention was given to the future evolutions of traffic, industrial activities, demographical and geographical expansion. The new EU directives about air quality and the CAFE program were also considered. To correlate the impact of the future air quality of the city and public health, a children population sample was used. This study team is also composed by paediatric doctors from Hospital N{sup a}. S{sup a}. do Rosario that contribute with public health information and helped to identify air quality related diseases. (orig.)

  18. Air quality estimation by computational intelligence methodologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ćirić Ivan T.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The subject of this study is to compare different computational intelligence methodologies based on artificial neural networks used for forecasting an air quality parameter - the emission of CO2, in the city of Niš. Firstly, inputs of the CO2 emission estimator are analyzed and their measurement is explained. It is known that the traffic is the single largest emitter of CO2 in Europe. Therefore, a proper treatment of this component of pollution is very important for precise estimation of emission levels. With this in mind, measurements of traffic frequency and CO2 concentration were carried out at critical intersections in the city, as well as the monitoring of a vehicle direction at the crossroad. Finally, based on experimental data, different soft computing estimators were developed, such as feed forward neural network, recurrent neural network, and hybrid neuro-fuzzy estimator of CO2 emission levels. Test data for some characteristic cases presented at the end of the paper shows good agreement of developed estimator outputs with experimental data. Presented results are a true indicator of the implemented method usability. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III42008-2/2011: Evaluation of Energy Performances and br. TR35016/2011: Indoor Environment Quality of Educational Buildings in Serbia with Impact to Health and Research of MHD Flows around the Bodies, in the Tip Clearances and Channels and Application in the MHD Pumps Development

  19. Quality control of a teleradiology system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyche, David K.; Willis, Charles E.; Williamson, Morgan P.; Suitor, Charles T.; Romlein, John R.

    1996-04-01

    Teleradiology is being implemented in the U.S. military. Soft-copy reading of computed radiology (CR) images and film-digitizer (FD) images are becoming a common practice. The Medical Diagnostic Imaging Support (MDIS) Office at the Medical Advanced Technology Management Office (MATMO), Fort Detrick, Maryland, installed an 'off-the-shelf' DICOM teleradiology system by which CR images and FD images acquired at Hickam Air Force Base (AFB), Hawaii, are transmitted electronically over a T-1 telecommunications line to Tripler Army Medical Center (TAMC), Hawaii. The goal was to provide a diagnostic quality teleradiology system to the military services to extend the expertise and training of physicians to remote sites. In order to guarantee a diagnostic quality image throughout the system, a rigid set of quality control standards had to be designed and implemented. This poster presents the results of a successful teleradiology implementation where quality control is maintained throughout the imaging chain.

  20. User-Centric Indoor Air Quality Monitoring on Mobile Devices

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang, Yifei; University of Colorado, Boulder; Li, Kun; University of Colorado, Boulder; Piedrahita, Ricardo; University of Colorado, Boulder; Yun, Xiang; University of Michigan; Tian, Lei; University of Colorado, Boulder; Mansata, Omkar M.; University of Michigan; Lv, Qin; University of Colorado, Boulder; Dick, Robert P.; University of Michigan; Hannigan, Michael; University of Colorado, Boulder; Shang, Li; University of Colorado, Boulder

    2013-01-01

    Since people spend a majority of their time indoors, indoor air quality (IAQ) can have a significant impact on human health, safety, productivity, and comfort. Due to the diversity and dynamics of people's indoor activities, it is important to monitor IAQ for each individual. Most existing air quality sensing systems are stationary or focus on outdoor air quality. In contrast, we propose MAQS, a user-centric mobile sensing system for IAQ monitoring. MAQS users carry portable, indoor location ...

  1. Air pollution control policy in Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are a lot of reasons why emissions of air pollutants have to be reduced. Acid deposition and its consequences are among them, but they are not the only ones. This paper presents the comprehensive legal basis of air pollution control policy in Switzerland as well as the overall air pollution control strategy. The present situation with respect to air pollution is discussed. A list of implemented and planned measures is given as well as emission trends of major air pollutants from 1950 to 2010. 6 refs., 1 fig

  2. The economics of air quality regulation: the true costs of increased PM2.5 regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potential best available control technologies (BACT) are being considered for promulgation by the San Joaquin Valley Air Pollution Control District and other jurisdictions in response to determinations of national ambient air quality standards non-attainment for ozone and PM2.5 by writing dairy-spec...

  3. Impacts of a clay plaster on indoor air quality assessed using chemical and sensory measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Darling, Erin K.; Cros, Clement J.; Wargocki, Pawel; Kolarik, Jakub; Morrison, Glenn C.; Corsi, Richard L.

    2012-01-01

    plaster as a PRM for improving air quality by controlling ozone, perceived air quality (PAQ) was determined in the presence of eight combinations of an emitting and reactive pollutant source (new carpet), clay plaster applied to gypsum wallboard, and chamber air with and without ozone. A panel of 24 human....... Perceived air quality was most acceptable and concentrations of aldehydes were lowest when only clay plaster or both clay plaster and carpet were present in the chambers without ozone. The least acceptable PAQ and the highest concentrations of aldehydes were observed when carpet and ozone were present...... together; addition of clay plaster for this condition improved PAQ and considerably decreased aldehyde concentrations....

  4. Quality assurance programme and quality control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper analyses the requirements for the quality assurance and control in nuclear power plant projects which are needed to achieve safe, reliable and economic plants. The author describes the structure for the establishment of a nuclear programme at the national level and the participation of the different bodies involved in a nuclear power plant project. The paper ends with the study of a specific case in Spain. (NEA)

  5. Update and revision of WHO air quality guidelines for Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Younes, M. [WHO European Centre for Environment and Health, Bilthoven (Netherlands). Bilthoven Div.

    1995-12-31

    The WHO Air Quality Guidelines for Europe (AQG), published in 1987, have provided a uniform basis for the development of strategies for the control of air pollution, and have contributed to the maintenance and improvement of public health in several countries. The aim of the guidelines is to provide a basis for protecting public health from adverse effects of air pollutants, and for eliminating or reducing to a minimum, those contaminants that are known or likely to be hazardous to human health and wellbeing. Since the publication of the first edition of the AQG, new scientific data in the fields of air pollution toxicology and epidemiology have accumulated and new developments in risk assessment methodologies have taken place, requiring updating and/or revision of the existing guidelines. This fact was recognized during the preparation of the initial work plan of the European Centre for Environment and Health, and it was recommended that the Centre undertake any necessary amendments and extensions to the Air Quality Guidelines. The updating procedure is being carried out in cooperation with the International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS) and the Commission of the European Communities (CEC) and will be implemented through working group meetings which require the preparation of working documents on specific air pollutants or mixtures and a final consultation to discuss the updated document.It was initiated by a Planning Meeting which was organized in January 1993. The purpose of the planning meeting was to set the framework for the updating and revision process, in particular to discuss the scope and purpose, the contents and the format of the revised AQG publication, to define the details of and the time schedule for the updating process and to identify the working groups needed and their way of operation. (author)

  6. A new method for calculation of an air quality index

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ilvessalo, P. [Finnish Meteorological Inst., Helsinki (Finland). Air Quality Dept.

    1995-12-31

    Air quality measurement programs in Finnish towns have expanded during the last few years. As a result of this it is more and more difficult to make use of all the measured concentration data. Citizens of Finnish towns are nowadays taking more of an interest in the air quality of their surroundings. The need to describe air quality in a simplified form has increased. Air quality indices permit the presentation of air quality data in such a way that prevailing conditions are more easily understandable than when using concentration data as such. Using an air quality index always means that some of the information about concentrations of contaminants in the air will be lost. How much information is possible to extract from a single index number depends on the calculation method. A new method for the calculation of an air quality index has been developed. This index always indicates the overstepping of an air quality guideline level. The calculation of this air quality index is performed using the concentrations of all the contaminants measured. The index gives information both about the prevailing air quality and also the short-term trend. It can also warn about the expected exceeding of guidelines due to one or several contaminants. The new index is especially suitable for the real-time monitoring and notification of air quality values. The behaviour of the index was studied using material from a measurement period in the spring of 1994 in Kaepylae, Helsinki. Material from a pre-operational period in the town of Oulu was also available. (author)

  7. Connecting Water Quality With Air Quality Through Microbial Aerosols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dueker, M. Elias

    air by increasing microbial aerosol settling rates and enhancing viability of aerosolized marine microbes. Using methods developed for the non-urban site, the role of local environment and winds in mediating water-air connections was further investigated in the urban environment. The local environment, including water surfaces, was an important source of microbial aerosols at urban sites. Large portions of the urban waterfront microbial aerosol communities were aquatic and, at a highly polluted Superfund waterfront, were closely related to bacteria previously described in environments contaminated with hydrocarbons, heavy metals, sewage and other industrial waste. Culturable urban aerosols and surface waters contained bacterial genera known to include human pathogens and asthma agents. High onshore winds strengthened this water-air connection by playing both a transport and production role. The microbial connection between water and air quality outlined by this dissertation highlights the need for information on the mechanisms that deliver surface water materials to terrestrial systems on a much larger scale. Moving from point measurements to landscape-level analyses will allow for the quantitative assessment of implications for this microbial water-air-land transfer in both urban and non-urban arenas.

  8. Microbiological Quality of Indoor Air in University Libraries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Samuel Fekadu Hayleeyesus; Abayneh Melaku Manaye

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the concentration of bacteria and fungi in the indoor environment of Jimma University libraries, so as to estimate the health hazard and to create standards for indoor air quality control.Methods:determined. The settle plate method using open Petri-dishes containing different culture media was employed to collect sample twice daily. Isolates were identified according to standard methods.Results:The concentrations of bacteria and fungi aerosols in the indoor environment of the The microbial quality of indoor air of eight libraries of Jimma University was university libraries ranged between 367-2595 CFU/m3. According to the sanitary standards classification of European Commission, almost all the libraries indoor air of Jimma University was heavily contaminated with bacteria and fungi. In spite of their major source difference, the average fungi density found in the indoor air of libraries did appear to follow the same trend with bacterial density (P=0.001). The bacteria isolates included Micrococcus sp., Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, Bacillus sp. and Neisseria sp. while Cladosporium sp., Alternaria sp.,Penicillium sp. and Aspergillus sp. were the most isolated fungi. Conclusions: The indoor air of all libraries were in the range above highly contaminated according to European Commission classification and the most isolates are considered as potential candidates involved in the establishment of sick building syndromes and often associated with clinical manifestations like allergy, rhinitis, asthma and conjunctivitis. Thus, attention must be given to control those environmental factors which favor the growth and multiplication of microbes in indoor environment of libraries to safeguard the health of users and workers.

  9. Assessment of the Air Quality of Isfahan City, Iran, Using Selected Air Quality Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borhan Mansouri

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Today, air pollution is one of the major problems in large cities including Isfahan. Methods: The objective of this study was to investigate the variations of ozone (O3, carbon monoxide (CO, nitric oxide (NO, nitrogen dioxide (NO2, nitrogen oxides (NOx, sulphur dioxide (SO2, and particulate matter (PM10 concentrations in different months at three stations and also to explore the correlations between pollutants. Monthly averages of air pollutant concentrations recorded in three pollution monitoring stations (Bozorgmehr, Azadi, and Laleh were obtained in 2008 and 2009. Results: There were significant monthly variations in the concentrations of air quality parameters. Results showed that there was a correlation between ozone and particle matter (p<0.05, and between nitric oxide and nitrogen oxides (p<0.01. The statistical analysis indicated that there were significant differences in the O3, NO, NOx and PM10 concentrations. Conclusion: The air quality monitoring data collected in city center of Isfahan showed seasonal variations for O3, CO, NO, NO2, NOx, SO2, and PM10.

  10. Controlling air toxics through advanced coal preparation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Straszheim, W.E.; Buttermore, W.H.; Pollard, J.L. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    1995-11-01

    This project involves the assessment of advanced coal preparation methods for removing trace elements from coal to reduce the potential for air toxic emissions upon combustion. Scanning electron microscopy-based automated image analysis (SEM-AIA) and advanced washability analyses are being applied with state-of-the-art analytical procedures to predict the removal of elements of concern by advanced column flotation and to confirm the effectiveness of preparation on the quality of quantity of clean coal produced. Specific objectives are to maintain an acceptable recovery of combustible product, while improving the rejection of mineral-associated trace elements. Current work has focused on determining conditions for controlling column flotation system across its operating range and on selection and analysis of samples for determining trace element cleanability.

  11. Biofuels, vehicle emissions, and urban air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallington, Timothy J; Anderson, James E; Kurtz, Eric M; Tennison, Paul J

    2016-07-18

    Increased biofuel content in automotive fuels impacts vehicle tailpipe emissions via two mechanisms: fuel chemistry and engine calibration. Fuel chemistry effects are generally well recognized, while engine calibration effects are not. It is important that investigations of the impact of biofuels on vehicle emissions consider the impact of engine calibration effects and are conducted using vehicles designed to operate using such fuels. We report the results of emission measurements from a Ford F-350 fueled with either fossil diesel or a biodiesel surrogate (butyl nonanoate) and demonstrate the critical influence of engine calibration on NOx emissions. Using the production calibration the emissions of NOx were higher with the biodiesel fuel. Using an adjusted calibration (maintaining equivalent exhaust oxygen concentration to that of the fossil diesel at the same conditions by adjusting injected fuel quantities) the emissions of NOx were unchanged, or lower, with biodiesel fuel. For ethanol, a review of the literature data addressing the impact of ethanol blend levels (E0-E85) on emissions from gasoline light-duty vehicles in the U.S. is presented. The available data suggest that emissions of NOx, non-methane hydrocarbons, particulate matter (PM), and mobile source air toxics (compounds known, or suspected, to cause serious health impacts) from modern gasoline and diesel vehicles are not adversely affected by increased biofuel content over the range for which the vehicles are designed to operate. Future increases in biofuel content when accomplished in concert with changes in engine design and calibration for new vehicles should not result in problematic increases in emissions impacting urban air quality and may in fact facilitate future required emissions reductions. A systems perspective (fuel and vehicle) is needed to fully understand, and optimize, the benefits of biofuels when blended into gasoline and diesel. PMID:27112132

  12. Indoor air quality handbook: for designers, builders, and users of energy efficient residences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this handbook is to assist designers, builders, and users of energy efficient residences to achieve the goals of energy efficiency and maintenance of high indoor air quality simultaneously. The handbook helps in identifying and controlling potential problems of indoor air quality. It identifies sources and discusses effective ways to decrease concentrations of air contaminants. It focuses on indoor air quality in both single and multifamily energy-efficient residences. Information about commercial structures such as hospitals and office buildings is presented when it also applies to residences. Basic concepts of contaminants and their concentrations, sources and removal mechanisms, contaminant distribution, heat transfer, and air exchange are discussed. The effects of the building system on indoor air quality are examined. The effects of the external environment, building envelope, environmental control systems, interior design, furnishings, and inhabitants on the emission, dispersion, and removal of indoor air contaminants as well as direct and indirect effects of energy-efficient features are discussed. The health effects of specific air contaminants and the health standards developed for them are examined. Available methods for predicting and measuring contaminants and for evaluating human responses are discussed. Methods and equipment available for the control of indoor air pollution once the contaminants have been identified are also evaluated. The potential legal aspects, including regulatory intervention and civil lawsuits, of failure to evaluate and control indoor air pollution are discussed. A list of references, a glossary, and an index are also included

  13. Columbia River final environmental impact statement. Appendix B: Air quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The System Operation Review (SOR) is a study and environmental compliance process being used by the three Federal agencies to analyze future operations of the system and river use issues. The goal of the SOR is to achieve a coordinated system operation strategy for the river that better meets the needs of all river users. This technical appendix addresses only the effects of alternative system operating strategies for managing the Columbia River system. This appendix consists of eight chapters. Chapter 1 describes the air quality issues that were raised in the SOR scoping process and provides an overview of the study process used to evaluate air quality effects from various system operation alternatives. Chapter 2 describes the Federal, state, and local programs that regulate air quality and discusses the air quality standards that are relevant to the analysis. It also gives an overview of the limatology of the region and the existing air quality in the Columbia River Basin, including areas of non-attainment for relevant air quality standards. Chapter 3 presents the methods this study uses for the analysis of air quality and for the evaluation of human health effects from air pollutants. Chapter 4 provides the study results for the System Operating Strategy (SOS) alternatives and potential mitigation measures. Chapter 5 compares impacts on air quality and human health across alternatives, and discusses mitigation measures and cumulative effects. Chapters 6, 7, and 8 contain the list of preparers, glossary, and references, respectively. Technical exhibits supporting the analysis are also included

  14. Air quality effects of South Carolina electric and gas company's proposed Cope power plant

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A review of preliminary determination prepared by the South Carolina bureau of air quality control for the South Carolina electric and gas company's proposed cope...

  15. Air pollution assessment in the Slovak Republic in 2005. Measurement stations of air quality monitoring network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this Appendix to the report 'Air pollution assessment in the Slovak Republic in 2005' the main characteristics of measurement stations of air quality monitoring network of the Slovak Republic are presented

  16. Air-Microfluidics: Creating Small, Low-cost, Portable Air Quality Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Air-microfluidics shows great promise in dramatically reducing the size, cost, and power requirements of future air quality sensors without compromising their accuracy. Microfabrication provides a suite of relatively new tools for the development of micro electro mechanical syste...

  17. CA Water Quality Control Board

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Regional Water Quality Control Boards(9) in California. These district boundaries coincide with the boundaries of some of the hydrologic study areas delineated by...

  18. Quality control of labelled compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some advantages and disadvantages of methods used for quality control of organic labelled compounds (131I, 14C) are shortly discussed. The methods used are electrophoresis, ultraviolet and infrared spectrometry, radiogas and thin-layer chromatography. (author)

  19. Air quality standards must protect public health

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norman Edelman [American Lung Association (ALA) (United States)

    2006-06-15

    Leading medical and public health organizations are deeply concerned about the proposed revisions to the National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) that the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) announced in December 2005. Led by the American Lung Association (ALA), these groups are fighting to force EPA to finalize stricter standards for fine and coarse particles when the final decision is announced in September 2006. The ALA disagrees strongly with the proposal to exempt coarse particles from agriculture and mining sources, and to exclude communities with populations fewer than 100,000 from protection and monitoring requirements. ALA urges EPA to set the following health-based NAAQS for PM: Annual average PM2.5 standard of 12 {mu}mg/m{sup 3}; 24 hour average PM2.5 standard of 25 {mu}mg.m{sup 3} (99th percentile); 24-hour average PM10-2.5 standard of 25-30 {mu}g/m{sup 3} (99th percentile), applied equally to all areas of the country and to all types of particles. 72 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Empowering smartphone users with sensor node for air quality measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present an architecture of a sensor node developed for use with smartphones for participatory sensing of air quality in urban environments. Our solution features inexpensive metal-oxide semiconductor gas sensors (MOX) for measurement of CO, O3, NO2 and VOC, along with sensors for ambient temperature and humidity. We focus on our design of sensor interface consisting of power-regulated heater temperature control, and the design of resistance sensing circuit. Accuracy of the sensor interface is characterized. Power consumption of the sensor node is analysed. Preliminary data obtained from the CO gas sensors in laboratory conditions and during the outdoor field-test is shown.

  1. Clearing the air : report 2 : air quality trends in Sudbury 1998 to 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report highlighted key trends in air pollutant concentrations in the Greater Sudbury region between 1998 and 2007. Air pollutant concentrations were compared with ambient air quality criteria for Ontario as well as federal standards. The study measured levels of sulfur dioxide (SO2); ground-level ozone (O3); particulate matter (PM); and metals. An air quality index was used to rate overall air quality based on hourly measurements of up to 6 air pollutants. Air quality monitoring stations were placed throughout the Greater Sudbury region to record the amounts of pollutants in the air. The study showed that average SO2 concentrations continued to decrease across the monitoring network. O3 concentrations met the provincial 1-hour criterion except when long-range O3 was transported into the region from the United States under specific meteorological conditions. Coarse fractions of particulates were less than the annual criterion at stations. Average PM concentrations met the Canada Wide Standard, while the 24-hour criteria for metals were met for most of the year. Sudbury's air quality was then compared to air quality data obtained from other Ontario cities. It was concluded that Sudbury's air quality will continue to improve in the future. 9 figs.

  2. SAQC: SNP Array Quality Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Ling-Hui

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genome-wide single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP arrays containing hundreds of thousands of SNPs from the human genome have proven useful for studying important human genome questions. Data quality of SNP arrays plays a key role in the accuracy and precision of downstream data analyses. However, good indices for assessing data quality of SNP arrays have not yet been developed. Results We developed new quality indices to measure the quality of SNP arrays and/or DNA samples and investigated their statistical properties. The indices quantify a departure of estimated individual-level allele frequencies (AFs from expected frequencies via standardized distances. The proposed quality indices followed lognormal distributions in several large genomic studies that we empirically evaluated. AF reference data and quality index reference data for different SNP array platforms were established based on samples from various reference populations. Furthermore, a confidence interval method based on the underlying empirical distributions of quality indices was developed to identify poor-quality SNP arrays and/or DNA samples. Analyses of authentic biological data and simulated data show that this new method is sensitive and specific for the detection of poor-quality SNP arrays and/or DNA samples. Conclusions This study introduces new quality indices, establishes references for AFs and quality indices, and develops a detection method for poor-quality SNP arrays and/or DNA samples. We have developed a new computer program that utilizes these methods called SNP Array Quality Control (SAQC. SAQC software is written in R and R-GUI and was developed as a user-friendly tool for the visualization and evaluation of data quality of genome-wide SNP arrays. The program is available online (http://www.stat.sinica.edu.tw/hsinchou/genetics/quality/SAQC.htm.

  3. Air quality impacts of power plant emissions in Beijing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The CALMET/CALPUFF modeling system was applied to estimate the air quality impacts of power plants in 2000 and 2008 in Beijing, and the intake fractions (IF) were calculated to see the public health risks posed. Results show that in 2000 the high emission contribution induced a relatively small contribution to average ambient concentration and a significant impact on the urban area (9.52 μg/m3 of SO2 and 5.29 μg/m3 of NOx). The IF of SO2, NOx and PM10 are 7.4 x 10-6, 7.4 x 10-6 and 8.7 x 10-5, respectively. Control measures such as fuel substitution, flue gas desulfurization, dust control improvement and flue gas denitration planned before 2008 will greatly mitigate the SO2 and PM10 pollution, especially alleviating the pressure on the urban area to reach the National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS). NOx pollution will be mitigated with 34% decrease in concentration but further controls are still needed. - CALMET/CALPUFF modeling estimates sizeable reductions in SO2, PM10 and NOx pollution from power plants by 2008 for Beijing

  4. Auditing and assessing nutrient management for air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The potential adverse effects of concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFO) on the environment are a growing concern. Until recently, the effects of CAFO on air quality have received little attention. The air quality concerns of CAFO vary with the location, type of operation, and other factors....

  5. INDOOR AIR QUALITY AND INHALATION EXPOSURE - SIMULATION TOOL KIT

    Science.gov (United States)

    A Microsoft Windows-based indoor air quality (IAQ) simulation software package is presented. Named Simulation Tool Kit for Indoor Air Quality and Inhalation Exposure, or IAQX for short, this package complements and supplements existing IAQ simulation programs and is desi...

  6. Improving Indoor Air Quality in St. Cloud Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forer, Mike; Haus, El

    2000-01-01

    Describes how the St. Cloud Area School District (Minnesota), using Tools for Schools provided by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, managed the improvement of their school building indoor air quality (IAQ). The district goals of the IAQ Management Committee and the policy elements used to maintain high classroom air quality are…

  7. Reference Guide. Indoor Air Quality Tools for Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    US Environmental Protection Agency, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Understanding the importance of good indoor air quality (IAQ) in schools is the backbone of developing an effective Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) program. Poor IAQ can lead to a large variety of health problems and potentially affect comfort, concentration, and staff/student performance. In recognition of tight school budgets, this guidance is designed…

  8. School Policies and Practices that Improve Indoor Air Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Sherry Everett; Smith, Alisa M.; Wheeler, Lani S.; McManus, Tim

    2010-01-01

    Background: To determine whether schools with a formal indoor air quality management program were more likely than schools without a formal program to have policies and practices that promote superior indoor air quality. Methods: This study analyzed school-level data from the 2006 School Health Policies and Programs Study, a national study of…

  9. UNDERSTANDING THE RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN AIR QUALITY AND HUMAN HEALTH

    Science.gov (United States)

    This issue of EM presents a series of articles that focus on air quality and human health--what we know so far and the challenges that remain. The first article provides an overview of the problem at hand and approaches to properly address air quality and human health issues. Fo...

  10. AIR QUALITY CRITERIA FOR CARBON MONOXIDE (2000) Final Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) promulgates national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS) on the basis of scientific information contained in integrated science assessments (ISAs), formerly known as air quality criteria documents (AQCDs). The ISA is a concise rev...

  11. Air Quality Criteria for Carbon Monoxide 1991 (Final Report)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) promulgates national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS) on the basis of scientific information contained in integrated science assessments (ISAs), formerly known as air quality criteria documents (AQCDs). The ISA is a concise rev...

  12. How to adjust traffic management to air quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matrix boards are used to manage traffic speed on roads. The Dutch InnovatieProgramma Luchtkwaliteit IPL (Air Quality Innovation Programme ) has looked at the option of using matrix boards to improve the air quality along the highways. The IPL has also examined other temporary measures that can be deployed at times of peak concentrations of PM10 and/or NO2.

  13. Impact of inherent meteorology uncertainty on air quality model predictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    It is well established that there are a number of different classifications and sources of uncertainties in environmental modeling systems. Air quality models rely on two key inputs, namely, meteorology and emissions. When using air quality models for decision making, it is impor...

  14. Outdoor Air Quality Level Inference via Surveillance Cameras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Air pollution is a universal problem confronted by many developing countries. Because there are very few air quality monitoring stations in cities, it is difficult for people to know the exact air quality level anytime and anywhere. Fortunately, large amount of surveillance cameras have been deployed in the cities and can capture image densely and conveniently in the cities. In this case, this provides the possibility to utilize surveillance cameras as sensors to obtain data and predict the air quality level. To this end, we present a novel air quality level inference approach based on outdoor images. Firstly, we explore several features extracted from images as the robust representation for air quality prediction. Then, to effectively fuse these heterogeneous and complementary features, we adopt multikernel learning to learn an adaptive classifier for air quality level inference. In addition, to facilitate the research, we construct an Outdoor Air Quality Image Set (OAQIS dataset, which contains high quality registered and calibrated images with rich labels, that is, concentration of particles mass (PM, weather, temperature, humidity, and wind. Extensive experiments on the OAQIS dataset demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  15. Air Quality Modelling and the National Emission Database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, S. S.

    The project focuses on development of institutional strengthening to be able to carry out national air emission inventories based on the CORINAIR methodology. The present report describes the link between emission inventories and air quality modelling to ensure that the new national air emission...

  16. Problems and perspectives of border-zone air quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tolivia, E.

    1982-10-01

    The Saneamiento Atmosferico of Mexico with the United States Environmental Protection Agency has formulated an agreement elaborating programs to address the problems of border-zone air quality according to the specific problems of particular trans-national areas. Industries and power plants affect air quality on both sides of the border. In areas especially suffering from vehicle emissions, the agreement provides for the monitoring of air quality through an air-meter system. Vehicle maintenance and inspection programs are now being put into effect.

  17. Report. no. 20. Sensory evaluation of indoor air quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berglund, Birgitta; Bluyssen, Philomena; Clausen, Geo;

    way. Therefore, sensory methods many times are the only or the preferred tool for evaluation of perceived indoor air quality. This report presents background to and advice on methodologies for sensory evaluation of perceived indoor air quality. It proposes methods which apply to source assessments as......Human subjects are indispensable in the measurement of perceived indoor air quality. Chemical and physical methods of characterisation often are insensitive to odorous and sensory irritating air pollutants, or do not take account of combinations of singular pollutants in a biologically meaningful...

  18. 10 CFR 26.137 - Quality assurance and quality control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Quality assurance and quality control. 26.137 Section 26....137 Quality assurance and quality control. (a) Quality assurance program. Each licensee testing facility shall have a quality assurance program that encompasses all aspects of the testing...

  19. 10 CFR 26.167 - Quality assurance and quality control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Quality assurance and quality control. 26.167 Section 26... Department of Health and Human Services § 26.167 Quality assurance and quality control. (a) Quality assurance program. Each HHS-certified laboratory shall have a quality assurance program that encompasses all...

  20. Effect of regional precursor emission controls on long-range ozone transport – Part 1: Short-term changes in ozone air quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. J. West

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Observations and models demonstrate that ozone and its precursors can be transported between continents and across oceans. We model the influences of 10% reductions in anthropogenic nitrogen oxide (NOx emissions from each of nine world regions on surface ozone air quality in that region and all other regions. In doing so, we quantify the relative importance of long-range transport between all source-receptor pairs, for direct short-term ozone changes. We find that for population-weighted concentrations during the three-month "ozone-season", the strongest inter-regional influences are from Europe to the Former Soviet Union, East Asia to Southeast Asia, and Europe to Africa. The largest influences per unit of NOx reduced, however, are seen for source regions in the tropics and Southern Hemisphere, which we attribute mainly to greater sensitivity to changes in NOx in the lower troposphere, and secondarily to increased vertical convection to the free troposphere in tropical regions, allowing pollutants to be transported further. Results show, for example, that NOx reductions in North America are ~20% as effective per unit NOx in reducing ozone in Europe during summer, as NOx reductions from Europe itself. Reducing anthropogenic emissions of non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs and carbon monoxide (CO by 10% in selected regions, can have as large an impact on long-range ozone transport as NOx reductions, depending on the source region. We find that for many source-receptor pairs, the season of greatest long-range influence does not coincide with the season when ozone is highest in the receptor region. Reducing NOx emissions in most source regions causes a larger decrease in export of ozone from the source region than in ozone production outside of the source region.

  1. Effect of regional precursor emission controls on long-range ozone transport – Part 1: short-term changes in ozone air quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. J. West

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Observations and models demonstrate that ozone and its precursors can be transported between continents and across oceans. We model the influences of 10% reductions in anthropogenic nitrogen oxide (NOx emissions from each of nine world regions on surface ozone air quality in that region and all other regions. In doing so, we quantify the relative importance of long-range transport between all source-receptor pairs, for direct short-term ozone changes. We find that for population-weighted concentrations during the three-month "ozone-season", the strongest inter-regional influences are from Europe to the Former Soviet Union, East Asia to Southeast Asia, and Europe to Africa. The largest influences per unit of NOx reduced, however, are seen for source regions in the tropics and Southern Hemisphere, which we attribute mainly to greater sensitivity to changes in NOx in the lower troposphere, and secondarily to increased vertical convection to the free troposphere in tropical regions, allowing pollutants to be transported further. Results show, for example, that NOx reductions in North America are ~20% as effective per unit NOx in reducing ozone in Europe during summer, as NOx reductions from Europe itself. Reducing anthropogenic emissions of non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs and carbon monoxide (CO by 10% in selected regions, can have as large an impact on long-range ozone transport as NOx reductions, depending on the source region. We find that for many source-receptor pairs, the season of greatest long-range influence does not coincide with the season when ozone is highest in the receptor region. Reducing NOx emissions in most source regions causes a larger decrease in export of ozone from the source region than in ozone production outside of the source region.

  2. 77 FR 73544 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; West Virginia; The 2002 Base Year...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-11

    ...).) List of Subjects in 40 CFR Part 52 Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Carbon monoxide... Fine Particulate Matter National Ambient Air Quality Standard AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency..., WV-KY-OH nonattainment area for the 1997 PM 2.5 National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS). EPA...

  3. Essential elements of quality control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boylan, J C

    1983-11-01

    The components of quality control in the pharmaceutical industry are discussed as they apply to hospital pharmacy admixture services. The pharmaceutical industry complies with the FDA's Current Good Manufacturing Practices, which require manufacturers to have written procedures for ensuring sterility and nonpyrogenicity of injectable products. Because FDA specifies only what outcome measures must be assessed (rather than specific means of assessment), pharmaceutical companies have developed a multiplicity of quality-control systems. However, each system consists of a master formula (quantitative listing of all ingredients), master manufacturing instructions (the recipe for each product), master packaging instructions, and batch records. Documents used by quality control personnel include the specifications (identification, tests, and limits for products), test methods, and sampling procedures. Hospitals should have similar quality-control programs. These programs should systematically prevent or identify and correct deficiencies, measure overall quality, and provide information for managers. Hospital pharmacists whose departments do not have comprehensive programs should consult colleagues who have developed such procedures. Techniques used in industry should be applied when possible. To protect the integrity of manufacturers' drug products during compounding in hospitals, every hospital admixture service must have its own quality-control system. PMID:6650523

  4. Outdoor Air Quality Level Inference via Surveillance Cameras

    OpenAIRE

    Zheng Zhang; Huadong Ma; Huiyuan Fu; Liang Liu; Cheng Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Air pollution is a universal problem confronted by many developing countries. Because there are very few air quality monitoring stations in cities, it is difficult for people to know the exact air quality level anytime and anywhere. Fortunately, large amount of surveillance cameras have been deployed in the cities and can capture image densely and conveniently in the cities. In this case, this provides the possibility to utilize surveillance cameras as sensors to obtain data and predict the a...

  5. Chemistry and the linkages between air quality and climate change

    OpenAIRE

    von Schneidemesser, Erika; Monks, Paul S.; Allan, James D.; Bruhwiler, Lori; Forster, Piers; Fowler, David; Lauer, Axel; Morgan, William T.; Paasonen, Pauli; Righi, Mattia; Sindelarova, Katerina; Sutton, Mark A.

    2015-01-01

    Climate change and air pollution are critical environmental issues both in the here and now and for the coming decades. Many mitigation options offer the possibility to both improve air quality and mitigate climate change, such as improvements in energy efficiency, or a switch to wind or solar power, all of which reduce emissions across the board. The atmospheric chemistry of ozone is an important context to understand the linkages between air quality and climate change, because many indirect...

  6. Cabin environment and air quality in civil transport aircraft

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Weiguo

    2012-01-01

    The cabin environment of a commercial aircraft, including cabin layout and the quality of air supply, is crucial to the airline operators. These aspects directly affect the passengers’ experience and willing to travel. This aim of this thesis is to design the cabin layout for flying wing aircraft as part of cabin environment work, followed by the air quality work, which is to understand what effect the ECS can have in terms of cabin air contamination. The project, initially, focuses on the...

  7. Studies of urban air quality using electrochemical based sensor instruments

    OpenAIRE

    Popoola, Olalekan Abdul Muiz

    2012-01-01

    Poor air quality has been projected to be the world?s top cause of environmental premature mortality by 2050 surpassing poor sanitation and dirty water (IGBP / IGAC press release, 2012 ). One of the major challenges of air quality management is how to adequately quantify both the spatial and temporal variations of pollutants for the purpose of implementing necessary mitigation measures. The work described in this thesis aims to address this problem using novel electrochemical based air qualit...

  8. Assessment of Air Quality Status in Wuhan, China

    OpenAIRE

    Jiabei Song; Wu Guang; Linjun Li; Rongbiao Xiang

    2016-01-01

    In this study, air quality characteristics in Wuhan were assessed through descriptive statistics and Hierarchical Cluster Analysis (HCA). Results show that air quality has slightly improved over the recent years. While the NO2 concentration is still increasing, the PM10 concentration shows a clearly downward trend with some small fluctuations. In addition, the SO2 concentration has steadily decreased since 2008. Nevertheless, the current level of air pollutants is still quite high, with the P...

  9. Ambient air quality and the effects of air pollutants on otolaryngology in Beijing

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Fengying; Xu, Jin; Zhang, Ziying; Meng, Haiying; Wang, Li; Lu, Jinmei; Wang, Wuyi; Kraft, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Abstract To investigate temporal patterns, pollution concentrations and the health effects of air pollutants in Beijing we carried out time-series analyses on daily concentrations of ambient air pollutants and daily numbers of outpatient visits for otolaryngology over 2 years (2011– 2012) to identify possible health effects of air pollutants. The results showed that PM10 was the major air pollutant in Beijing and that air quality was slightly better in 2012 than in 201...

  10. Assessing the impact of water filters and improved cook stoves on drinking water quality and household air pollution: a randomised controlled trial in Rwanda.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghislaine Rosa

    Full Text Available Diarrhoea and respiratory infections remain the biggest killers of children under 5 years in developing countries. We conducted a 5-month household randomised controlled trial among 566 households in rural Rwanda to assess uptake, compliance and impact on environmental exposures of a combined intervention delivering high-performance water filters and improved stoves for free. Compliance was measured monthly by self-report and spot-check observations. Semi-continuous 24-h PM2.5 monitoring of the cooking area was conducted in a random subsample of 121 households to assess household air pollution, while samples of drinking water from all households were collected monthly to assess the levels of thermotolerant coliforms. Adoption was generally high, with most householders reporting the filters as their primary source of drinking water and the intervention stoves as their primary cooking stove. However, some householders continued to drink untreated water and most continued to cook on traditional stoves. The intervention was associated with a 97.5% reduction in mean faecal indicator bacteria (Williams means 0.5 vs. 20.2 TTC/100 mL, p<0.001 and a median reduction of 48% of 24-h PM2.5 concentrations in the cooking area (p = 0.005. Further studies to increase compliance should be undertaken to better inform large-scale interventions.Clinicaltrials.gov; NCT01882777; http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/results?term=NCT01882777&Search=Search.

  11. Frontiers in statistical quality control

    CERN Document Server

    Wilrich, Peter-Theodor

    2001-01-01

    The book is a collection of papers presented at the 5th International Workshop on Intelligent Statistical Quality Control in Würzburg, Germany. Contributions deal with methodology and successful industrial applications. They can be grouped in four catagories: Sampling Inspection, Statistical Process Control, Data Analysis and Process Capability Studies and Experimental Design.

  12. Quality assurance and statistical control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heydorn, K.

    1991-01-01

    In scientific research laboratories it is rarely possible to use quality assurance schemes, developed for large-scale analysis. Instead methods have been developed to control the quality of modest numbers of analytical results by relying on statistical control: Analysis of precision serves to...... through the origo. Calibration control is an essential link in the traceability of results. Only one or two samples of pure solid or aqueous standards with accurately known content need to be analyzed. Verification is carried out by analyzing certified reference materials from BCR, NIST, or others; their...

  13. Dynamic evaluation of air quality models over European regions

    OpenAIRE

    Thunis, P.; Pisoni, E.; Degraeuwe, B.; Kranenburg, R.; Schaap, M.; Clappier, A.

    2014-01-01

    Chemistry-transport models are increasingly used in Europe for estimating air quality or forecasting changes in pollution levels. But with this increased use of modeling arises the need of harmonizing the methodologies to determine the quality of air quality model applications. This is complex for planning applications, i.e. when models are used to assess the impact of realistic or virtual emission scenarios. In this work, the methodology based on the calculation of potencies proposed by Thun...

  14. Hold Your Breath: A New Index of Air Quality

    OpenAIRE

    Buehn, Andreas; Farzanegan, Mohammad Reza

    2011-01-01

    Environmental quality and climate change have long attracted attention in policy debates. Recently, air quality has emerged on the policy agenda. We calculate a new index of air quality using CO2 and SO2 emissions per capita as indicators and provide a ranking for 122 countries from 1985 to 2005. The empirical analysis supports the EKC hypothesis and shows a significant influence of determinants such as energy efficiency, industrial production, electricity produced from coal sources, and urba...

  15. Improving the indoor air quality using water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The article briefly describes the principle of a Danish air cleaning device called the Aqua-Wall. This is a clear acrylic wall with filters and pump and liquid that ripples down the vertical wall. The liquid is cleaned water to which is added harmless chemicals that prevent bacteria and algal growth. By means of this falling water and a patent that makes the water bind microorganisms and dust particles the system cleans the air and creates a natural air humidity

  16. Quality assurance, quality control and quality audit in diagnostic radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text:The lecture aims to present contemporary view of quality assurance in X-Ray diagnosis and its practical realization in Bulgaria. In the lecture the concepts of quality assurance, quality control and clinical audit will be defined and their scope will be considered. An answer of the following questions will be given: why is it necessary to determine the dose of patient in X-ray studies, what is the reference dose level and how it is used for dosimetric quantity which characterized the patient's exposure in X-ray, mammography and CT scans and how they are measured, who conducted the measurement and how to keep the records, what are the variations of doses in identical tests and what defines them? The findings from a national survey of doses in diagnostic radiology, conducted in 2008-2009 and the developed new national reference levels will be presented. The main findings of the first tests of radiological equipment and the future role of quality control as well as the concept of conducting clinical audit and its role in quality assurance are also presented. Quality assurance of the diagnostic process with minimal exposure of patients is a strategic goal whose realization requires understanding, organization and practical action, both nationally and in every hospital. To achieve this the important role of education and training of physicians, radiological technicians and medical physicists is enhanced

  17. Effect of regional precursor emission controls on long-range ozone transport – Part 2: Steady-state changes in ozone air quality and impacts on human mortality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. J. West

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Large-scale changes in ozone precursor emissions affect ozone directly in the short term, and also affect methane, which in turn causes long-term changes in ozone that affect surface ozone air quality. Here we assess the effects of changes in ozone precursor emissions on the long-term change in surface ozone via methane, as a function of the emission region, by modeling 10% reductions in anthropogenic nitrogen oxide (NOx emissions from each of nine world regions. Reductions in NOx emissions from all world regions increase methane and long-term surface ozone. While this long-term increase is small compared to the intra-regional short-term ozone decrease, it is comparable to or larger than the short-term inter-continental ozone decrease for some source-receptor pairs. The increase in methane and long-term surface ozone per ton of NOx reduced is greatest in tropical and Southern Hemisphere regions, exceeding that from temperate Northern Hemisphere regions by roughly a factor of ten. We also assess changes in premature ozone-related human mortality associated with regional precursor reductions and long-range transport, showing that for 10% regional NOx reductions, the strongest inter-regional influence is for emissions from Europe affecting mortalities in Africa. Reductions of NOx in North America, Europe, the Former Soviet Union, and Australia are shown to reduce more mortalities outside of the source regions than within. Among world regions, NOx reductions in India cause the greatest number of avoided mortalities per ton, mainly in India itself. Finally, by increasing global methane, NOx reductions in one hemisphere tend to cause long-term increases in ozone concentration and mortalities in the opposite hemisphere. Reducing emissions of methane, and to a lesser extent carbon monoxide and non-methane volatile organic compounds, alongside NOx reductions would

  18. Effect of regional precursor emission controls on long-range ozone transport – Part 2: steady-state changes in ozone air quality and impacts on human mortality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. J. West

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Large-scale changes in ozone precursor emissions affect ozone directly in the short term, and also affect methane, which in turn causes long-term changes in ozone that affect surface ozone air quality. Here we assess the effects of changes in ozone precursor emissions on the long-term change in surface ozone via methane, as a function of the emission region, by modeling 10% reductions in anthropogenic nitrogen oxide (NOx emissions from each of nine world regions. Reductions in NOx emissions from all world regions increase methane and long-term surface ozone. While this long-term increase is small compared to the intra-regional short-term ozone decrease, it is comparable to or larger than the short-term inter-continental ozone decrease for some source-receptor pairs. The increase in methane and long-term surface ozone per ton of NOx reduced is greatest in tropical and Southern Hemisphere regions, exceeding that from temperate Northern Hemisphere regions by roughly a factor of ten. We also assess changes in premature ozone-related human mortality associated with regional precursor reductions and long-range transport, showing that for 10% regional NOx reductions, the strongest inter-regional influence is for emissions from Europe affecting mortalities in Africa. Reductions of NOx in North America, Europe, the Former Soviet Union, and Australia are shown to reduce more mortalities outside of the source regions than within. Among world regions, NOx reductions in India cause the greatest number of avoided mortalities per ton, mainly in India itself. Finally, by increasing global methane, NOx reductions in one hemisphere tend to cause long-term increases in ozone concentration and mortalities in the opposite hemisphere. Reducing emissions of methane, and to a lesser extent carbon monoxide and non-methane volatile organic compounds, alongside NOx reductions would

  19. Quality control without a budget

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper has been prepared to provide assistance to those radiographers wishing to undertake equipment quality control in the Radiology Department where funding for this function is minimal or non-existent. Successful quality assurance means the ability to maximize the use of the radiation dose to patients and simultaneously reduce staff dose; plus maximize cost savings through improved patient throughput, reduced wastage of resources such as film, chemistry and staff time. 10 refs., 6 figs

  20. Urban growth and air quality in Kuala Lumpur city, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. H. L. Ling

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Urban developments, land use patterns and activities not only influence the volume of emissions into the ambient air environment but also affect the ability of the urban ecosystem to purify the air. Therefore, urbanisation affects the quality of air in urban areas. However, urban air quality is also affected by global, regional or trans-boundary pollutants. The objectives of this paper are to understand the trend of air quality level and urban growth in Kuala Lumpur city (KL, and examine the relationship between these variables. Results of analysis show a significant and strong relationship between the number of unhealthy/hazardous days and urban land uses. The finding is contrary to the argument that the high concentration of air pollutants (unhealthy level in the Malaysian city is contributed by the forest fire in a neighbouring country (haze.

  1. Perception of Cabin Air Quality among Drivers and Passengers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doru Constantin

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Air analysis inside vehicles is a problem that can be interpreted from several perspectives. This research is oriented towards the perception of air quality within a car, regarding a situation of cars in stationary traffic. Carbon dioxide measurements were made using a Trotec Data Logger Air Quality CO2 BZ30 machine inside different standing vehicles with up to five occupants, with and without circulating air. The perception of the air quality was measured on a Likert-type scale with seven levels on a sample group of 60 students. The results highlight, on the one hand, the conditions under which the CO2 in the cabin air can reach concentrations which are, according to new data, considered to influence the cognitive capacity of occupants in the car, and on the other hand, they present a global assessment of the air quality in the vehicle when critical values of CO2 have been reached. If the air exchange rates inside a car are low, this degrades the air quality in such a way that it affects the concentration and reactions necessary for safe driving without perceiving any discomfort that would put the drivers or the passengers on alert.

  2. Are Ventilation Filters Degrading Indoor Air Quality in California Classrooms?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisk, William J.; Destaillats, H.; Apte, M.G.; Destaillats,, Hugo; Fisk, Michael G. Apte and William J.

    2008-10-01

    Heating, ventilating, and cooling classrooms in California consume substantial electrical energy. Indoor air quality (IAQ) in classrooms affects studenthealth and performance. In addition to airborne pollutants that are emitted directly by indoor sources and those generated outdoors, secondary pollutants can be formed indoors by chemical reaction of ozone with other chemicals and materials. Filters are used in nearly all classroom heating, ventilation and air?conditioning (HVAC) systems to maintain energy-efficient HVAC performance and improve indoor air quality; however, recent evidence indicates that ozone reactions with filters may, in fact, be a source of secondary pollutants. This project quantitatively evaluated ozone deposition in HVAC filters and byproduct formation, and provided a preliminary assessment of the extent towhich filter systems are degrading indoor air quality. The preliminary information obtained will contribute to the design of subsequent research efforts and the identification of energy efficient solutions that improve indoor air quality in classrooms and the health and performance of students.

  3. Updated ozone absorption cross section will reduce air quality compliance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sofen, E. D.; Evans, M. J.; Lewis, A. C.

    2015-12-01

    Photometric ozone measurements rely upon an accurate value of the ozone absorption cross section at 253.65 nm. This has recently been re-evaluated by Viallon et al. (2015) as 1.8 % smaller than the accepted value (Hearn, 1961) used for the preceding 50 years. Thus, ozone measurements that applied the older cross section systematically underestimate the amount of ozone in air. We correct the reported historical surface data from North America and Europe and find that this modest change in cross section has a significant impact on the number of locations that are out of compliance with air quality regulations if the air quality standards remain the same. We find 18, 23, and 20 % increases in the number of sites that are out of compliance with current US, Canadian, and European ozone air quality health standards for the year 2012. Should the new cross-section value be applied, it would impact attainment of air quality standards and compliance with relevant clean air acts, unless the air quality target values themselves were also changed proportionately. We draw attention to how a small change in gas metrology has a global impact on attainment and compliance with legal air quality standards. We suggest that further laboratory work to evaluate the new cross section is needed and suggest three possible technical and policy responses should the new cross section be adopted.

  4. Quality control of imaging devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quality assurance in nuclear medicine refers collectively to all aspects of a nuclear medicine service. It would include patient scheduling, radiopharmaceutical preparation and dispensing, radiation protection of patients, staff and general public, preventive maintenance and the care of instruments, methodology, data interpretation and records keeping, and many other small things which contribute directly or indirectly to the overall quality of a nuclear medicine service in a hospital. Quality Control, on the other hand, refers to a signal component of the system and is usually applied in relation to a specific instrument and its performance

  5. A new air quality perception scale for global assessment of air pollution health effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deguen, Séverine; Ségala, Claire; Pédrono, Gaëlle; Mesbah, Mounir

    2012-12-01

    Despite improvements in air quality in developed countries, air pollution remains a major public health issue. To fully assess the health impact, we must consider that air pollution exposure has both physical and psychological effects; this latter dimension, less documented, is more difficult to measure and subjective indicators constitute an appropriate alternative. In this context, this work presents the methodological development of a new scale to measure the perception of air quality, useful as an exposure or risk appraisal metric in public health contexts. On the basis of the responses from 2,522 subjects in eight French cities, psychometric methods are used to construct the scale from 22 items that assess risk perception (anxiety about health and quality of life) and the extent to which air pollution is a nuisance (sensorial perception and symptoms). The scale is robust, reproducible, and discriminates between subpopulations more susceptible to poor air pollution perception. The individual risk factors of poor air pollution perception are coherent with those findings in the risk perception literature. Perception of air pollution by the general public is a key issue in the development of comprehensive risk assessment studies as well as in air pollution risk management and policy. This study offers a useful new tool to measure such efforts and to help set priorities for air quality improvements in combination with air quality measurements. PMID:22852801

  6. 76 FR 51903 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Colorado; Revised Definitions...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-19

    ... CFR Part 52 Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Carbon monoxide, Incorporation by... progress toward attainment of the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) or any other applicable..., effective October 2006: (i) Those pollutants for which the U.S. EPA has established national ambient...

  7. The effect of a personalized ventilation system on perceived air quality and SBS symptoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaczmarczyk, Jan; Zeng, Q.; Melikov, Arsen Krikor;

    2002-01-01

    Perceived air quality, SBS symptoms and performance were studied with 30 human subjects. Experiments were performed in an office set-up with six workplaces, each equipped with a Personalized Ventilation System (PVS). Each PVS allowed the amount of supply air and its direction to be controlled...

  8. Quality control for dose calibrators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear medicine laboratories are required to assay samples of radioactivity to be administered to patients. Almost universally, these assays are accomplished by use of a well ionization chamber isotope calibrator. The Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (Institute for Radiological Protection and Dosimetry) of the Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (National Commission for Nuclear Energy) is carrying out a National Quality Control Programme in Nuclear Medicine, supported by the International Atomic Energy Agency. The assessment of the current needs and practices of quality control in the entire country of Brazil includes Dose Calibrators and Scintillation Cameras, but this manual is restricted to the former. Quality Control Procedures for these Instruments are described in this document together with specific recommendations and assessment of its accuracy. (author)

  9. Radiation measurements and quality control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The association between radiation measurements and quality control is established for radiation sterilization of medical products and food irradiation. Good quality control implies accurate radiation dosimetry and a discussion of the factors which can affect the accuracy of in-plant dosimetry is presented. It is argued that if systematic errors are to be avoided in in-plant dosimetry the plant operators will have to spend more time and effort in developing the skills associated with the accurate use of radiation dosemeter systems. The aims and merits of an international intercomparison programme recently set up by the IAEA are discussed. The benefits of accurate in-plant dosimetry for the operator, approving authority and purchaser are balanced against the extra dosimetric efforts required for good quality control. (author)

  10. Ambient air quality observations in the Athabasca oil sands region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Both Syncrude and Suncor have plans to develop new oil sands leases and to increase crude oil and bitumen recovery in the Athabasca oil sands region. In recognition of the effects that this will have on the environment, Suncor has proposed modifications to reduce SO2 emissions to the atmosphere, while Syncrude plans to develop additional ambient air quality, sulphur deposition and biomonitoring programs. This report discussed the ambient air quality monitoring that was undertaken in the Fort McMurray-Fort McKay airshed. Twelve continuous ambient air quality stations and 76 passive monitoring stations are maintained in the region. Environment Canada maintains eight precipitation monitoring stations in northern Alberta and Saskatchewan. Source characterization, ambient air quality and meteorology observations, air quality monitoring, and air quality data from continuous sulphur dioxide, hydrogen sulphide, nitrogen oxides, ozone, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbon, acid rain and particulates analyzers were reviewed. The documentation of all computer files used for the analysis of the air quality data is discussed in the Appendix. 47 refs., 39 tabs., 53 figs

  11. Smart Sensors Enable Smart Air Conditioning Control

    OpenAIRE

    Chin-Chi Cheng; Dasheng Lee

    2014-01-01

    In this study, mobile phones, wearable devices, temperature and human motion detectors are integrated as smart sensors for enabling smart air conditioning control. Smart sensors obtain feedback, especially occupants’ information, from mobile phones and wearable devices placed on human body. The information can be used to adjust air conditioners in advance according to humans’ intentions, in so-called intention causing control. Experimental results show that the indoor temperature can be contr...

  12. Summary findings from the border air quality study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-03-15

    The Border Air Quality Study (BAQS) is an ongoing study which supports the development of an international strategy for the Georgia Basin-Puget Sound airshed. The study investigates the association of health risks with the exposure to a range of air pollutants. It identified links between air pollutants and several health impacts ranging from asthma to birthweight. The tools developed for studying air quality provide greater spatial resolution, thus enabling the identification of pollution hot spots that require monitoring and intervention. The tools also provide spatially accurate exposure data for future research and enable land-use decisions that reduce risk to the most vulnerable populations, including children and the elderly. The study found that traffic-related air pollution is an additional risk factor for disease, such as bronchiolitis, asthma and middle ear infections in children. Although air pollution is a known risk factor for cardiovascular disease, relatively few studies have evaluated the effects of chronic exposures. Therefore, the BAQS is currently assessing the relationship between air quality and cardiovascular diseases in the Metro Vancouver area, with particular attention to the combined effects of traffic-related air pollution and noise pollution. Wood smoke was also found to be an important source of air pollution, even in urban centres. The study showed that building design and ventilation can help reduce infiltration of air pollutants into buildings. It was concluded that despite some concerns, the air quality in the Georgia-Basin-Puget Sound region is good compared to other major metropolitan areas. Air quality managers can use the study to evaluate different policy scenarios and the associated economic costs of air pollution. 5 figs.

  13. Megacity ozone air quality under four alternative future scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. M. Butler

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The impact of the megacities of the world on global tropospheric ozone, and conversely, the extent to which megacities are influenced by emissions of ozone precursors from outside of the megacities is examined under the four alternative RCP ("Representative Concentration Pathway" emissions scenarios. Despite accounting for about 6% of present-day anthropogenic emissions of ozone precursor species, the contribution of emissions from megacities to global tropospheric ozone is calculated to be 0.84%. By 2100 this contribution falls to between 0.18% and 0.62% depending on the scenario, with the lower value being for the most-polluting of the four future emissions scenarios due to stringent controls on ozone precursor emissions from highly populated areas combined with a stronger tropospheric background ozone field. The higher end of this range is from the least-polluting of the four emissions scenarios, due to lower background tropospheric ozone combined with the use of a simpler downscaling methodology in the construction of the scenario, which results in higher emissions from megacities. Although the absolute impact of megacities on global ozone is small, an important result of this study is that under all future scenarios, future air quality in megacities is expected to be less influenced by local emissions within the cities, but instead more influenced by emission sources outside of the cities, with mixing ratios of background ozone projected to play an increasing role in megacity air quality throughout the 21st century. Assumptions made when downscaling the emissions scenarios onto the grids used in such modelling studies can have a large influence on these results; future generations of emissions scenarios should include spatially explicit representations or urban development suitable for air quality studies using global chemical transport models.

  14. Hold Your Breath. A New Index of Air Quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buehn, A. [Utrecht School of Economics, Utrecht University, Utrecht (Netherlands); Reza Farzanega, M. [Dresden University of Technology and ZEW Mannheim, Mannheim (Germany)

    2011-12-15

    Environmental quality and climate change have long attracted attention in policy debates. Recently, air quality has emerged on the policy agenda. We calculate a new index of air quality using CO2 and SO2 emissions per capita as indicators and provide a ranking for 122 countries from 1985 to 2005.The empirical analysis supports the EKC hypothesis (Environmental Kuznets Curve) and shows a significant influence of determinants such as energy efficiency, industrial production, electricity produced from coal sources, and urbanization on air quality. According to our index, Luxemburg, Norway, Iceland, Switzerland, and Japan are among the top 5 countries in terms of air quality performance. The Democratic Republic of Congo, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Togo, and Nepal performed worst in 2005.

  15. Market Report : The air pollution control market in Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents some facts about how Canadian companies can work within the many innovative programs designed by the Canadian federal government to facilitate the export of Canadian products and services into the Argentine air pollution control market. As the economy stabilizes in Argentina, more effort is being given to issues of environmental protection and the Argentine government is increasing funding on environmental programs. The country is also strengthening its environmental legislation and increasing enforcement. The Kyoto and Montreal Protocols have brought attention to air quality issues such as climate change, emissions trading, and ozone depleting substances. Several initiatives currently focus on air quality monitoring and data collection since much information has to be gathered on air pollution levels. Emission control equipment for chemical, petrochemical, mining and power sectors are the best prospects for air pollution control, along with monitoring equipment, consulting services and fuel conversion equipment for vehicles and industrial plants. It was noted that there are legal and practical difficulties regarding new contract negotiations in Argentina, particularly with the decline in credit availability. This paper outlined the key factors shaping market growth. Most opportunities lies with projects funded by international financial institutions. The report includes a section on international competition, and the Canadian position for both private- and public-sector companies. A section on market logistics focused on issues such as direct sales, import regulations, and export credit risks. It is recommended that companies interested in the Argentine market contact the Embassy in Buenos Aires for information. refs., tabs

  16. Precision temperature controlled filtered laminar air enclosure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We demonstrate a novel temperature controlled filtered laminar air enclosure composed of primarily off-the-shelf components that can be applied to a broad class of systems to significantly enhance their performance. An air mixing method is employed to provide variable cooling of the incoming filtered air, providing a temperature stability of ± 0.02 °C within the enclosure. The method is inexpensive to implement, and is suitable for a wide range of temperature controlled enclosures, with dimensions in the approximate range from 1 m to 5 m, making it ideal for many scientific applications. (technical design note)

  17. Assessment of Effects of Air Pollution on Daily Outpatient Visits using the Air Quality Index

    OpenAIRE

    Mu, Haosheng; Otani, Shinji; Okamoto,Mikizo; Yokoyama, Yae; Tokushima, Yasuko; Onishi, Kazunari; Hosoda, Takenobu; KUROZAWA, Youichi

    2014-01-01

    Background The air quality index (AQI) is widely used to characterize the quality of ambient air. Chinese cities officially report the AQI on a daily basis. To assess the possible effects of air pollution on daily outpatient visits, we examined the association between AQI and the daily outpatient count. Methods Daily data on outpatient visits to each clinical department were collected from the Z county hospital of Datong City, China. The collection period was between 5 April and 30 June, 2012...

  18. Tobacco smoking policy and indoor air quality: a case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jadud, M.A. (Kansas Univ., Lawrence, KS (United States). Architectural Engineering Dept.); Rock, B.A. (Kansas Univ., Lawrence, KS (United States). Architectural Engineering Dept.)

    1993-01-01

    Policy on environmental tobacco smoke and its effect on indoor air quality are discussed in this paper. Passive (secondhand) smoke is examined in aspects ranging from health effects to laws surrounding smoking within public buildings in the United States. Engineering and administrative solutions to these indoor air quality problems are considered. A case study of a smoking area within an institutional building is presented and potential improvements and administrative actions are discussed. The results of this study should be helpful to those faced with or anticipating technical and legal indoor air quality problems and policy decisions. (orig.)

  19. Business approach to mine air quality and ventilation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A business approach to air quality and ventilation in mines was discussed in this presentation. Issues that were addressed included leadership approaches in bridging the gap between the visible culture of policies and procedures with invisible cultures such as norms, assumptions and beliefs. An overview of occupational safety was also presented in terms of measuring diesel particulate matter (DPM) and key DPM activities such as ventilation modeling; remote control of ventilation circuits; real-time diagnostics of engine performance through electronic control modules; personnel and equipment tracking systems; remote carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide monitoring; and semi-quantitative real-time DPM monitoring. Resources such as ventilation engineers and other professionals also contribute to key DPM activities as do experience and good practice sharing between sites. The purpose of the presentation was to determine if 160 μg/m3 is an achievable number for exposure to DPM and the standard by which mines should operate globally. figs.

  20. THE QUALITY OF AIR IN HOSPITAL ENVIRONMENTS CLIMATIZED AND ITS INFLUENCE IN THE OCCURRENCE OF INFECTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Staciarini Anders

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Climatized environment is defined as the environment where temperature and humidity are controlled.We have made a review of literature, from 1990 to 2001, through data base MEDLINE, LILACS and Ministry ofHealth – Brazil. The aim of this study was to analyze the air quality in climatized environment and the last as a riskfactor for hospital infection – HI. Twenty-three articles where analyzed and gathered by the focused theme;patterns and principles for maintaining the air quality; air quality and isolation of microorganism; air quality andoccurrence of infection. The standard of quality quotes: ventilation, maintenance and cleanness of climatizationsystems. Aspergillus, Legionella, Acinetobacter, Clostridium, Nocardia, among others where found in airconditioned devices and the first three ones being responsable for booms of HI.

  1. 40 CFR 51.359 - Quality control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Quality control. 51.359 Section 51.359....359 Quality control. Quality control measures shall insure that emission testing equipment is... quality control frequencies by using statistical process control to monitor equipment performance on...

  2. Human Response to Ductless Personalized Ventilation with Local Air Cleaning: Air Quality and Prevalence of SBS Symptoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalewski, Mariusz; Bivolarova, Maria; Fillon, Maelys;

    2013-01-01

    The impact of local air cleaning and cooling of the head region by ductless personalized ventilation (DPV) on perceived air quality (PAQ) and Sick Building Syndrome (SBS) symptoms was studied. Thirty subjects participated in experiments performed in a test room with displacement ventilation (DV......) and six workstations, three of which had DPV. The DV kept air temperature in the occupied zone (1.1 m above the floor). Pollution load was simulated by PVC floor covering and the bioeffluents generated by the subjects (60% recirculated room air). DPV sucked the air distributed over the floor by the DV...... and supplied it to the breathing zone of the subjects. The subjects were allowed to control the position of the DPV supply diffuser and the personalized flow rate. Each subject participated in five 4-hour experiments: 23 °C with DV only, 23 °C with DPV with air filter, 29 °C with DV only, 29 °C with...

  3. Air Pollution and Quality of Sperm: A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fathi Najafi, Tahereh; Latifnejad Roudsari, Robab; Namvar, Farideh; Ghavami Ghanbarabadi, Vahid; Hadizadeh Talasaz, Zahra; Esmaeli, Mahin

    2015-01-01

    Context: Air pollution is common in all countries and affects reproductive functions in men and women. It particularly impacts sperm parameters in men. This meta-analysis aimed to examine the impact of air pollution on the quality of sperm. Evidence Acquisition: The scientific databases of Medline, PubMed, Scopus, Google scholar, Cochrane Library, and Elsevier were searched to identify relevant articles published between 1978 to 2013. In the first step, 76 articles were selected. These studies were ecological correlation, cohort, retrospective, cross-sectional, and case control ones that were found through electronic and hand search of references about air pollution and male infertility. The outcome measurement was the change in sperm parameters. A total of 11 articles were ultimately included in a meta-analysis to examine the impact of air pollution on sperm parameters. The authors applied meta-analysis sheets from Cochrane library, then data extraction, including mean and standard deviation of sperm parameters were calculated and finally their confidence interval (CI) were compared to CI of standard parameters. Results: The CI for pooled means were as follows: 2.68 ± 0.32 for ejaculation volume (mL), 62.1 ± 15.88 for sperm concentration (million per milliliter), 39.4 ± 5.52 for sperm motility (%), 23.91 ± 13.43 for sperm morphology (%) and 49.53 ± 11.08 for sperm count. Conclusions: The results of this meta-analysis showed that air pollution reduces sperm motility, but has no impact on the other sperm parameters of spermogram. PMID:26023349

  4. Assessment of Ambient Air Quality in Riyadh City, Saudi Arabia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. H. Alharbi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Concentrations of airborne particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter less than 10 µm (PM10 and five gaseous air pollutants (O3, CO, NO2, SO2 and H2S were measured over a period of approximately six years (October 1999-June 2004 at five air quality monitoring network stations of King Abulaziz City for Science and Technology (KACST in Riyadh city, Saudi Arabia. The main objective of this study is to evaluate the quality of ambient air in relation to its possible effects on human health in the urban area of Riyadh city using the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA Air Quality Index (AQI and break down analysis of five criteria pollutants (O3, CO, NO2 and SO2 and PM10 and Hydrogen Sulphide (H2S. The concentrations of selected pollutants in ambient air has shown upward trends except for sulfur dioxide (SO2 and hydrogen sulfide (H2S, which exhibited decreasing trends over the time. Using the AQI based on a health perspective, a breakdown analysis was conducted. The results confirmed that 71% of the time Riyadh city air is of “Good” quality using the AQI and causes almost no health impacts on city inhabitants. The remaining 29% of more problematic air quality is caused by PM10 (74% and SO2 (~24%. The study has revealed that both ozone (O3 and carbon monoxide (CO have little contribution to Riyadh air pollution at 2% and 0.52%, respectively.

  5. Ozone, Air Quality, and Asthma (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with chemicals produced by cars, power plants, and factories. That's why ground-level ozone, a main component ... Lung Association included not only ozone but particle pollution levels in its annual "State of the Air" ...

  6. Improving Air Quality with Solar Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2008-04-01

    This fact sheet series highlights how renewable energy and energy efficiency technologies can and are being used to reduce air emissions and meet environmental goals, showcasing case studies and technology-specific topics.

  7. Improving Air Quality with Solar Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-04-01

    This fact sheet series highlights how renewable energy and energy efficiency technologies can and are being used to reduce air emissions and meet environmental goals, showcasing case studies and technology-specific topics. This one focus on solar energy technologies.

  8. Long-term Changes in Extreme Air Pollution Meteorology and the Implications for Air Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Pei; Wu, Shiliang

    2016-03-01

    Extreme air pollution meteorological events, such as heat waves, temperature inversions and atmospheric stagnation episodes, can significantly affect air quality. Based on observational data, we have analyzed the long-term evolution of extreme air pollution meteorology on the global scale and their potential impacts on air quality, especially the high pollution episodes. We have identified significant increasing trends for the occurrences of extreme air pollution meteorological events in the past six decades, especially over the continental regions. Statistical analysis combining air quality data and meteorological data further indicates strong sensitivities of air quality (including both average air pollutant concentrations and high pollution episodes) to extreme meteorological events. For example, we find that in the United States the probability of severe ozone pollution when there are heat waves could be up to seven times of the average probability during summertime, while temperature inversions in wintertime could enhance the probability of severe particulate matter pollution by more than a factor of two. We have also identified significant seasonal and spatial variations in the sensitivity of air quality to extreme air pollution meteorology.

  9. Fungal Air Quality in Medical Protected Environments

    OpenAIRE

    Araujo, Ricardo; Cabral, João P.

    2010-01-01

    It is probably true to say that moulds cannot be completely eliminated from indoor environments. Normal buildings contain a diversity of materials and substrates that allow growth and sporulation of many species of fungi. Some strategies can be used to reduce indoor fungal load in wards receiving high-risk patients, namely by adding air filters and a positive air flow rate, by the presence of an anteroom, the use of protective clothes and of hair and shoe covers, the implementation of regular...

  10. Air quality and Atmospheric resources: Phase 1: Background document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Environment and Sustainable Development Indicators (ESDI) initiative, under the umbrella of the National Round Table on the Environment and the Economy (NRTEE), commissioned a study for the evaluation and the development of sustainable development indicators (SDIs) in the field of air quality and atmospheric resources. The report contained key information with regard to each indicator or indicator set, and no comprehensive comparative analysis was performed. The report was designed to be used as a technical reference. Where appropriate, SDIs developed by foreign organizations were included. The emphasis of the report was: (1) ambient air quality and human health effects, (2) air emissions having transboundary or global implications for ecosystem health and human health, and (3) demand on the atmosphere for environmental services. The bulk of the research was conducted on the Internet. The report was divided into three sections. A review of the availability of SDIs based on ambient air quality measures was discussed in the first section, while the second section was devoted to the availability of SDIs based on pollutant emission levels. The last section contained a systematic review of those SDIs used or being proposed along with the supporting data available to calculate SDI values. Some observations were also made touching on topics such as the abundance of ambient air quality information, the abundance of pollutant emissions information, the linkages between emissions and ambient air quality, the absence of forecasting, the indoor air quality gap, and the connections to human health. refs., 1 fig

  11. Health and air quality 2005 : phase 2 : valuation of health impacts from air quality in the Lower Fraser Valley airshed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furberg, M.; Preston, K. [RWDI West Inc., Vancouver, BC (Canada); Sawyer, D. [Marbek Resource Consultants Ltd., Ottawa, ON (Canada); Brauer, M. [British Columbia Univ., Vancouver, BC (Canada). School of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene; Hanvelt, R. [British Columbia Univ., Vancouver, BC (Canada). Dept. of Health Care and Epidemiology

    2005-07-15

    This study provided estimates the health benefits and costs associated with specified changes in ambient air concentrations of particulate matter (PM) and ozone in the Lower Fraser Valley (LFV). Estimates were developed on a regional level. The study focused on PM and ozone, as current air quality monitoring data and scientific findings have indicated that these are the air contaminants of greatest concern in the region. Known air quality health outcome relationships were applied in a spreadsheet model to predict changes in health outcomes associated with 6 ambient air quality scenarios for 3 sub-regions within the LFV airshed. Concentration response functions based on epidemiological studies were used to estimate the number of health events associated with changes in air quality. For each scenario, the model calculated the expected number of the following health outcomes: mortality; chronic bronchitis; respiratory hospital admissions; cardiac hospital admissions; emergency room visits; child acute bronchitis; restricted activity days; asthma symptom days; minor restricted activity days and acute respiratory symptom days. The model also produced the dollar value of the health outcomes. A dollar metric was used so that the health outcomes could be aggregated and compared with other air quality management actions such the costs of improving ambient air quality. Results indicated that improving ambient air quality in the LFV will produce valued and socially desirable benefits, including reduced mortality and morbidity. The measures contemplated by decision-makers to maintain and improve air quality in the LFV will trigger benefits that are likely to be significant. 101 refs., 7 tabs., 7 figs.

  12. THE ASSESSMENT OF MICROBIOLOGICAL INDOOR AIR QUALITY IN BAKERIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elżbieta Wołejko

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess microbiological indoor air quality of selected bakeries located in the region of Podlasie. The microbiological studies were conducted in autumn in 2014 in three selected bakeries. Microbiological air counts were measured by impaction using an air sampler MAS-100 NT. The microbiological air studies, comprised the determination of the total number of psychrophilic and mesophilic bacteria, namely indicator bacteria such as: bacteria of the species Pseudomonas fluorescens, mannitol-positive and mannitol-negative Staphylococc, the total number of bacteria from the Enterobacteriaceae family and fungi found in atmospheric air. The results of the study of indoor air polluted with the analyzed groups of microorganisms differed depending on the type of test air and the location of the manufacturing plant. In the plants, the concentration of mesophilic bacteria and mannitol–positive and mannitol-negative Staphylococcus exceeded the limit values of unpolluted air, according to the Polish Standard recommendations.

  13. RESEARCH AREA -- ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE CONTROL (AIR POLLUTION TECHNOLOGY BRANCH, AIR POLLUTION PREVENTION AND CONTROL DIVISION, NRMRL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Air Pollution Technology Branch (APTB) of NRMRL's Air Pollution Prevention and Control Division in Research Triangle Park, NC, has conducted several research projects for evaluating the use of artificial intelligence (AI) to improve the control of pollution control systems an...

  14. Indoor air quality environmental information handbook: Combustion sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-06-01

    This environmental information handbook was prepared to assist both the non-technical reader (i.e., homeowner) and technical persons (such as researchers, policy analysts, and builders/designers) in understanding the current state of knowledge regarding combustion sources of indoor air pollution. Quantitative and descriptive data addressing the emissions, indoor concentrations, factors influencing indoor concentrations, and health effects of combustion-generated pollutants are provided. In addition, a review of the models, controls, and standards applicable to indoor air pollution from combustion sources is presented. The emphasis is on the residential environment. The data presented here have been compiled from government and privately-funded research results, conference proceedings, technical journals, and recent publications. It is intended to provide the technical reader with a comprehensive overview and reference source on the major indoor air quality aspects relating to indoor combustion activities, including tobacco smoking. In addition, techniques for determining potential concentrations of pollutants in residential settings are presented. This is an update of a 1985 study documenting the state of knowledge of combustion-generated pollutants in the indoor environment. 191 refs., 51 figs., 71 tabs.

  15. Doing Your Homework on Indoor Air Quality Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell, Rick

    2000-01-01

    Explains how administrators at the Georgia Institute of Technology were able to build a new residence hall that included a cost-effective ventilation system providing high quality indoor air. Project considerations, design solutions, and project economies are discussed. (GR)

  16. Monitoring of Indoor Air Quality in Libraries and Archives

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kouřil, M.; Ďurovič, M.; Straka, R.; Smolík, Jiří; Mašková, Ludmila

    Prague: -, 2014, s. 32. ISBN N. [International Conference Indoor Air Quality in Heritage and Historic Environments /11./. Prague (CZ), 13.04.2014-16.04.2014] Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : corrosion * classification * monitoring Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry

  17. Optimization model for air quality analysis in energy facility siting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emanuel, W. R.; Murphy, B. D.; Huff, D. D.; Begovich, C. L.; Hurt, J. F.

    1977-09-01

    The siting of energy facilities on a regional scale is discussed with particular attention to environmental planning criteria. A multiple objective optimization model is proposed as a framework for the analysis of siting problems. Each planning criterion (e.g., air quality, water quality, or power demand) is treated as an objective function to be minimized or maximized subject to constraints in this optimization procedure. The formulation of the objective functions is illustrated by the development of a siting model for the minimization of human exposure to air pollutants. This air quality siting model takes the form of a linear programming problem. A graphical analysis of this type of problem, which provides insight into the nature of the siting model, is given. The air quality siting model is applied to an illustrative siting example for the Tennessee Valley area.

  18. Cabin Air Quality Dynamics On Board the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, J. L.; Peterson, B. V.

    2003-01-01

    Spacecraft cabin air quality is influenced by a variety of factors. Beyond normal equipment offgassing and crew metabolic loads, the vehicle s operational configuration contributes significantly to overall air quality. Leaks from system equipment and payload facilities, operational status of the atmospheric scrubbing systems, and the introduction of new equipment and modules to the vehicle all influence air quality. The dynamics associated with changes in the International Space Station's (ISS) configuration since the launch of the U.S. Segment s laboratory module, Destiny, is summarized. Key classes of trace chemical contaminants that are important to crew health and equipment performance are emphasized. The temporary effects associated with attaching each multi-purpose logistics module (MPLM) to the ISS and influence of in-flight air quality on the post-flight ground processing of the MPLM are explored.

  19. An Innovative Reactor Technology to Improve Indoor Air Quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rempel, Jane [TIAX LLC., Lexington, MA (United States)

    2013-03-30

    As residential buildings achieve tighter envelopes in order to minimize energy used for space heating and cooling, accumulation of indoor air pollutants such as volatile organic compounds (VOCs), becomes a major concern causing poor air quality and increased health risks. Current VOC removal methods include sorbents, ultraviolet photocatalytic oxidation (UVPCO), and increased ventilation, but these methods do not capture or destroy all VOCs or are prohibitively expensive to implement. TIAX's objective in this program was to develop a new VOC removal technology for residential buildings. This novel air purification technology is based on an innovative reactor and light source design along with UVPCO properties of the chosen catalyst to purify indoor air and enhance indoor air quality (IAQ). During the program we designed, fabricated and tested a prototype air purifier to demonstrate its feasibility and effectiveness. We also measured kinetics of VOC destruction on photocatalysts, providing deep insight into reactor design.

  20. Impact of air quality guidelines on COPD sufferers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Youcheng; Yan, Shuang; Poh, Karen; Liu, Suyang; Iyioriobhe, Emanehi; Sterling, David A

    2016-01-01

    Background COPD is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in both high- and low-income countries and a major public health burden worldwide. While cigarette smoking remains the main cause of COPD, outdoor and indoor air pollution are important risk factors to its etiology. Although studies over the last 30 years helped reduce the values, it is not very clear if the current air quality guidelines are adequately protective for COPD sufferers. Objective This systematic review was to summarize the up-to-date literature on the impact of air pollution on the COPD sufferers. Methods PubMed and Google Scholar were utilized to search for articles related to our study’s focus. Search terms included “COPD exacerbation”, “air pollution”, “air quality guidelines”, “air quality standards”, “COPD morbidity and mortality”, “chronic bronchitis”, and “air pollution control” separately and in combination. We focused on articles from 1990 to 2015. We also used articles prior to 1990 if they contained relevant information. We focused on articles written in English or with an English abstract. We also used the articles in the reference lists of the identified articles. Results Both short-term and long-term exposures to outdoor air pollution around the world are associated with the mortality and morbidity of COPD sufferers even at levels below the current air quality guidelines. Biomass cooking in low-income countries was clearly associated with COPD morbidity in adult nonsmoking females. Conclusion There is a need to continue to improve the air quality guidelines. A range of intervention measures could be selected at different levels based on countries’ socioeconomic conditions to reduce the air pollution exposure and COPD burden. PMID:27143874

  1. Smart sensors enable smart air conditioning control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Chin-Chi; Lee, Dasheng

    2014-01-01

    In this study, mobile phones, wearable devices, temperature and human motion detectors are integrated as smart sensors for enabling smart air conditioning control. Smart sensors obtain feedback, especially occupants' information, from mobile phones and wearable devices placed on human body. The information can be used to adjust air conditioners in advance according to humans' intentions, in so-called intention causing control. Experimental results show that the indoor temperature can be controlled accurately with errors of less than ±0.1 °C. Rapid cool down can be achieved within 2 min to the optimized indoor capacity after occupants enter a room. It's also noted that within two-hour operation the total compressor output of the smart air conditioner is 48.4% less than that of the one using On-Off control. The smart air conditioner with wearable devices could detect the human temperature and activity during sleep to determine the sleeping state and adjusting the sleeping function flexibly. The sleeping function optimized by the smart air conditioner with wearable devices could reduce the energy consumption up to 46.9% and keep the human health. The presented smart air conditioner could provide a comfortable environment and achieve the goals of energy conservation and environmental protection. PMID:24961213

  2. Smart Sensors Enable Smart Air Conditioning Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chin-Chi Cheng

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, mobile phones, wearable devices, temperature and human motion detectors are integrated as smart sensors for enabling smart air conditioning control. Smart sensors obtain feedback, especially occupants’ information, from mobile phones and wearable devices placed on human body. The information can be used to adjust air conditioners in advance according to humans’ intentions, in so-called intention causing control. Experimental results show that the indoor temperature can be controlled accurately with errors of less than ±0.1 °C. Rapid cool down can be achieved within 2 min to the optimized indoor capacity after occupants enter a room. It’s also noted that within two-hour operation the total compressor output of the smart air conditioner is 48.4% less than that of the one using On-Off control. The smart air conditioner with wearable devices could detect the human temperature and activity during sleep to determine the sleeping state and adjusting the sleeping function flexibly. The sleeping function optimized by the smart air conditioner with wearable devices could reduce the energy consumption up to 46.9% and keep the human health. The presented smart air conditioner could provide a comfortable environment and achieve the goals of energy conservation and environmental protection.

  3. Sandia National Laboratories, California Air Quality Program : annual report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shih, Richard (ERM, Walnut Creek, CA); Gardizi, Leslee P.

    2007-05-01

    The annual program report provides detailed information about all aspects of the SNL/CA Air Quality Program. It functions as supporting documentation to the SNL/CA Environmental Management System Program Manual. The program report describes the activities undertaken during the past year, and activities planned in future years to implement the Air Quality Program, one of six programs that supports environmental management at SNL/CA.

  4. Sandia National Laboratories, California Air Quality Program annual report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gardizi, Leslee P.; Smith, Richard (ERM, Walnut Creek, CA)

    2009-06-01

    The annual program report provides detailed information about all aspects of the SNL/CA Air Quality Program. It functions as supporting documentation to the SNL/CA Environmental Management System Program Manual. The program report describes the activities undertaken during the past year, and activities planned in future years to implement the Air Quality Program, one of six programs that supports environmental management at SNL/CA.

  5. Caenorhabditis elegans: a model to monitor bacterial air quality.

    OpenAIRE

    Duclairoir Poc Cécile; Groboillot Anne; Lesouhaitier Olivier; Morin Jean-Paul; Orange Nicole; Feuilloley Marc JG

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Low environmental air quality is a significant cause of mortality and morbidity and this question is now emerging as a main concern of governmental authorities. Airborne pollution results from the combination of chemicals, fine particles, and micro-organisms quantitatively or qualitatively dangerous for health or for the environment. Increasing regulations and limitations for outdoor air quality have been decreed in regards to chemicals and particles contrary to micro-orga...

  6. Control of asthma triggers in indoor air with air cleaners: a modeling analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allen Joseph G

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reducing exposure to environmental agents indoors shown to increase asthma symptoms or lead to asthma exacerbations is an important component of a strategy to manage asthma for individuals. Numerous investigations have demonstrated that portable air cleaning devices can reduce concentrations of asthma triggers in indoor air; however, their benefits for breathing problems have not always been reproducible. The potential exposure benefits of whole house high efficiency in-duct air cleaners for sensitive subpopulations have yet to be evaluated. Methods We used an indoor air quality modeling system (CONTAM developed by NIST to examine peak and time-integrated concentrations of common asthma triggers present in indoor air over a year as a function of natural ventilation, portable air cleaners, and forced air ventilation equipped with conventional and high efficiency filtration systems. Emission rates for asthma triggers were based on experimental studies published in the scientific literature. Results Forced air systems with high efficiency filtration were found to provide the best control of asthma triggers: 30–55% lower cat allergen levels, 90–99% lower risk of respiratory infection through the inhalation route of exposure, 90–98% lower environmental tobacco smoke (ETS levels, and 50–75% lower fungal spore levels than the other ventilation/filtration systems considered. These results indicate that the use of high efficiency in-duct air cleaners provide an effective means of controlling allergen levels not only in a single room, like a portable air cleaner, but the whole house. Conclusion These findings are useful for evaluating potential benefits of high efficiency in-duct filtration systems for controlling exposure to asthma triggers indoors and for the design of trials of environmental interventions intended to evaluate their utility in practice.

  7. Computer Prediction of Air Quality in Livestock Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svidt, Kjeld; Bjerg, Bjarne

    In modem livestock buildings the design of ventilation systems is important in order to obtain good air quality. The use of Computational Fluid Dynamics for predicting the air distribution makes it possible to include the effect of room geometry and heat sources in the design process. This paper...... presents numerical prediction of air flow in a livestock building compared with laboratory measurements. An example of the calculation of contaminant distribution is given, and the future possibilities of the method are discussed....

  8. Aircraft Recirculation Filter for Air-Quality and Incident Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Eckels, Steven J.; Jones, Byron; Mann, Garrett; Mohan, Krishnan R.; Weisel, Clifford P.

    2014-01-01

    The current research examines the possibility of using recirculation filters from aircraft to document the nature of air-quality incidents on aircraft. These filters are highly effective at collecting solid and liquid particulates. Identification of engine oil contaminants arriving through the bleed air system on the filter was chosen as the initial focus. A two-step study was undertaken. First, a compressor/bleed air simulator was developed to simulate an engine oil leak, and samples were an...

  9. Indoor Air Quality and Student Performance [and Case Studies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. Office of Radiation and Indoor Air.

    This report examines how indoor air quality (IAQ) affects a child's ability to learn and provides several case studies of schools that have successfully addressed their indoor air problems, the lessons learned from that experience, and what long-term practices and policies emerged from the effort. The report covers the effects from…

  10. IMPROVING NATIONAL AIR QUALITY FORECASTS WITH SATELLITE AEROSOL OBSERVATIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Air quality forecasts for major US metropolitan areas have been provided to the public through a partnership between the US Environmental Protection Agency and state and local air agencies since 1997. Recent years have witnessed improvement in forecast skill and expansion of fore...

  11. DANIDA; Air Quality Monitoring Programme. Mission 3 Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sivertsen, B.; Marsteen, L.

    1996-12-31

    In the development of the Environmental Information and Monitoring Programme for the Arab Republic of Egypt (EIMP), NILU is responsible for the establishment of an air pollution monitoring system. This report summarizes the third mission to Egypt and includes meetings and site visit reports. Air quality sites in Alexandria are described and comments are given to earlier selected sites in Cairo

  12. 40 CFR 52.1234 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Significant deterioration of air quality. 52.1234 Section 52.1234 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Minnesota §...

  13. Indoor Air Quality in Schools: Understanding the Problem and Finding the Solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacci, Geoff

    2002-01-01

    Describes issues and solutions involving indoor air quality in school. Includes indoor air quality action plans, the role of the environmental consultant, and resources available to help school districts develop an indoor air quality action plan. (PKP)

  14. Radiographic quality: Control and evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The control and evaluation of radiographic quality vary considerably from institution to institution, and this has resulted in increased government legislation in most jurisdictions, which attempts to provide some measure of uniformity in standards of equipment installation, maintenance, and use. Where legislation is not yet in place, it is pending, so that all facilities using x-radiation are, or soon will be, legally bound to operate within accepted guidelines. These guidelines are established to provide the radiologist with radiographs of optimum diagnostic quality while keeping the radiation dose to the patient and radiology personnel as low as possible. There are many excellent publications that provide detailed step-by-step instructions on each facet of radiographic quality control; these procedures will, therefore, not be covered in detail here. The following information may, however, be of interest as it relates primarily to pediatric radiography and will prove useful to those initiating quality control and evaluation programs; it is important that priorities be established - the necessary steps are listed below

  15. Thermal oxidation for air toxics control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Administration projects annual expenditures of $1.1 billion by 1995, increasing to $6.7 billion by 2005, in order to comply with the new Clean Air Act Title III hazardous air pollutant requirements. The Title III requirements include 189 hazardous air pollutants which must be reduced or eliminated by 2003. Twenty of the 189 listed pollutants account for approximately 75 percent of all hazardous air pollutant emissions. Ninety percent of these 20 pollutants can be effectively controlled through one or mote of the thermal oxidation technologies. This paper reports that the advantages and disadvantages of each thermal oxidation technology vary substantially and must be reviewed for each application in order to establish the most effective thermal oxidation solution. Effective thermal oxidation will meet MACT (maximum achievable control technology) emission standards

  16. Quality control of EUVE databases

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, L. M.; Drake, J.

    1992-01-01

    The publicly accessible databases for the Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer include: the EUVE Archive mailserver; the CEA ftp site; the EUVE Guest Observer Mailserver; and the Astronomical Data System node. The EUVE Performance Assurance team is responsible for verifying that these public EUVE databases are working properly, and that the public availability of EUVE data contained therein does not infringe any data rights which may have been assigned. In this poster, we describe the Quality Assurance (QA) procedures we have developed from the approach of QA as a service organization, thus reflecting the overall EUVE philosophy of Quality Assurance integrated into normal operating procedures, rather than imposed as an external, post facto, control mechanism.

  17. 78 FR 16630 - Clean Air Act Grant: South Coast Air Quality Management District; Opportunity for Pubic Hearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-18

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 35 Clean Air Act Grant: South Coast Air Quality Management District; Opportunity for... Quality Management District (SCAQMD) in support of its continuing air program under section 105 of the... expenditures in the programs of the South Coast Air Quality Management District. The shortfall stems from...

  18. Ambient air quality trends and driving factor analysis in Beijing, 1983-2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ju; Ouyang, Zhiyun; Miao, Hong; Wang, Xiaoke

    2011-01-01

    The rapid development in Beijing, the capital of China, has resulted in serious air pollution problems. Meanwhile great efforts have been made to improve the air quality, especially since 1998. The variation in air quality under the interaction of pollution and control in this mega city has attracted much attention. We analyzed the changes in ambient air quality in Beijing since the 1980's using the Daniel trend test based on data from long-term monitoring stations. The results showed that different pollutants displayed three trends: a decreasing trend, an increasing trend and a flat trend. SO2, dustfall, B[a]P, NO2 and PM10 fit decreasing trend pattern, while NOx showed an increasing trend, and CO, ozone pollution, total suspended particulate (TSP), as well as Pb fit the flat trend. The cause of the general air pollution in Beijing has changed from being predominantly related to coal burning to mixed traffic exhaust and coal burning related pollution. Seasonally, the pollution level is typically higher during the heating season from November to the following March. The interaction between pollution sources change and implementation of air pollution control measures was the main driving factor that caused the variation in air quality. Changes of industrial structure and improved energy efficiency, the use of clean energy and preferred use of clean coal, reduction in pollution sources, and implementation of advanced environmental standards have all contributed to the reduction in air pollution, particularly since 1998. PMID:22432333

  19. Quality Assurance/Quality Control Jobs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanslau, Melody; Young, Janelle

    The production of a quality and safe food product is essential to the success of any food manufacturing facility. Because of this great importance, a career in quality can be extremely rewarding. Without happy customers willing to buy a product, a company would not be able to survive. Quality issues such as foreign objects, spoiled or mislabeled product, failure to meet net weight requirements, or a recall can all turn customers away from buying a product. The food industry is a customer-driven market in which some consumers are brand loyal based on a history of high quality or in which a single bad experience with a product will turn them away for a lifetime. With this said, the main role of a quality department is to help ensure that quality issues such as these are eliminated or kept to a minimum to maintain or increase the number of customers purchasing their product.

  20. Air quality effects of alternative fuels. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guthrie, P.; Ligocki, M.; Looker, R.; Cohen, J.

    1997-11-01

    To support the Alternative Fuels Utilization Program, a comparison of potential air quality effects of alternative transportation fuels is being performed. This report presents the results of Phase 1 of this program, focusing on reformulated gasoline (RFG), methanol blended with 15 percent gasoline (M85), and compressed natural gas (CNG). The fuels are compared in terms of effects on simulated future concentrations of ozone and mobile source air toxics in a photochemical grid model. The fuel comparisons were carried out for the future year 2020 and assumed complete replacement of gasoline in the projected light-duty gasoline fleet by each of the candidate fuels. The model simulations were carried out for the areas surrounding Los Angeles and Baltimore/DC, and other (non-mobile) sources of atmospheric emissions were projected according to published estimates of economic and population growth, and planned emission control measures specific to each modeling domain. The future-year results are compared to a future-year run with all gasoline vehicle emissions removed. The results of the comparison indicate that the use of M85 is likely to produce similar ozone and air toxics levels as those projected from the use of RFG. Substitution of CNG is projected to produce significantly lower levels of ozone and the mobile source air toxics than those projected for RFG or M85. The relative benefits of CNG substitution are consistent in both modeling domains. The projection methodologies used for the comparison are subject to a large uncertainty, and modeled concentration distributions depend on meteorological conditions. The quantitative comparison of fuel effects is thus likely to be sensitive to alternative assumptions. The consistency of the results for two very different modeling domains, using very different base assumptions, lends credibility to the qualitative differentiation among these fuels. 32 refs., 42 figs., 47 tabs.

  1. Assessment of Ambient Air Quality in Riyadh City, Saudi Arabia.

    OpenAIRE

    B. H. Alharbi; M. J. Pasha; N. Tapper

    2014-01-01

    Concentrations of airborne particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter less than 10 µm (PM10) and five gaseous air pollutants (O3, CO, NO2, SO2 and H2S) were measured over a period of approximately six years (October 1999-June 2004) at five air quality monitoring network stations of King Abulaziz City for Science and Technology (KACST) in Riyadh city, Saudi Arabia. The main objective of this study is to evaluate the quality of ambient air in relation to its possible effects on human healt...

  2. Air quality monitoring at toxic waste sites: A Hanford perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Air quality monitoring is being conducted as part of remedial investigation activities at waste sites in the 1100-EM-1 Operating Unit at the US Department of Energy's Hanford Site. Sampling is being conducted for volatile organic compounds (VOCs), semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs) (including pesticides and PCBs), metals, and asbestos. The monitoring program is being conducted in three phases: before, during, and after intrusive remedial investigation activities. At each waste site, battery-powered monitoring equipment is positioned at one location upwind of the site (to measure background concentrations of pollutants) and typically at two locations downwind of the site. Control samples are used to identify sample contamination that may occur during handling or analysis. All samples are analyzed using methods approved by the US Environmental Protection Agency. The results from the first phase of sampling have been assessed and are being used to upgrade sampling and laboratory analysis procedures. 5 refs

  3. Air quality management and planning system for Guangzhou. Report from workshop 1, 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report is proceedings from Workshop no. 1, 1998 of the Sino-Norwegian co-operation project ''Guangzhou Air Quality Management and Planning System''. The project studies pollution emissions generally and from coal, vehicle and energy activities, dispersion modelling, monitoring, exposure, health damage assessment, material damage assessment, vegetation, control options, baseline scenario development, cost benefit analysis, pollution control management and policy instruments and air pollution forecasting. A forth workshop is planned. There are several reports from the various project activities

  4. On-Road Air Quality and the Effect of Partial Recirculation on In-Cabin Air Quality for Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Grady, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The California Air Resource Board (CARB) recently reported that due to exposure to particle emissions, 9,000 people die annually in California alone [11]. A method for quantifying the exposure during a daily commute as well as reducing the exposure for the passengers has been developed. A fractional recirculation of cabin air was proposed and studied to improve cabin air quality by reducing cabin particle concentrations. Vehicle tests were run with differing number of passengers (1, 2, 3,...

  5. The usefulness of air quality monitoring and air quality impact studies before the introduction of reformulated gasolines in developing countries. Mexico City, a real case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bravo, H.A.; Torres, R.J. [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (Mexico). Section de Contaminacion Ambiental

    2000-07-01

    Urban air pollution is a major environmental problem in several developing countries in the world. This phenomenon seems to be related to the growth of both the urban population in large cities and the number of old and poorly maintained car fleets. The expected rise of population in the next century in countries which suffer from lack of capital for air pollution control, means that there is a great potential for the worsening of the air quality. The worldwide promote policy to phase out lead in gasolines has not proved to be an adequate option in improving the environmental quality. Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) represents a case in which the introduction of reformulated gasolines in an old car fleet has resulted in the reduction of the airborne lead levels but has worsened the ozone concentration of its urban atmosphere. This paper critically analyzes the chronological evolution of the ozone air pollution problem in MCMA after the successive occurrence of several changes in the formulation of low leaded and unleaded gasolines. It also presents evidences of the usefulness potential of air quality monitoring activities and air quality impact studies on the definition of realistic fuel reformulation policies of developing countries. (author)

  6. Control of quality in mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present protocol of quality control/quality assurance in mammography is the result of the work of two regional projects realised in Latin America within the frame of ARCAL with the support of the IAEA. The first is ARCAL LV (RLA/6/043) project on quality assurance/quality control in mammography studies which analysed the present situation of the mammography in the member countries of the project which include: Bolivia, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, El Salvador, Guatemala, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Dominican Republic and Republic of Venezuela and the second is ARCAL XLIX (RLA/9/035) project, whose members were Brazil, Colombia, Cuba, Chile, Mexico, and Peru, worked the application of Basic Safety Standards for the protection against ionising radiation with the aim to improve radiation protection in X-ray diagnosis medical practices through the implementation of the Basic Safety Standards (BSS) related to x-ray diagnosis in selected hospitals located in each country involved in the project. The work of both projects had been consolidated and harmonized in the present publication

  7. The use of air quality index (AQI) in environmental management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The air quality index (AQI) is considered a global air quality index in a particular moment or day and in a specific monitoring station. The AQI is to be interpreted as a guiding air quality index for the general public. Specialists should take into account other factors when studying the pollution levels. The behaviour of air pollution is studied by using the AQI in two monitoring points in Regla, where the main pollutants are measured: SO2, NO2 and total suspended particulates. It was founded that particulates and NO2 are the pollutants that contribute most to the air quality deterioration, which occurs with greater frequency-days in the categories Poor and Bad, and show an increase in the categories Terrible and Critical. The necessary recommendations for the reduction of air pollution are given. The use of this AQI for assessing air pollution in settlements is recommended as a good tool for environmental information and management. A visual scale is proposed to improve and facilitate the public's understanding

  8. Evaluation of ambient air quality in Guangzhou, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Kai; YE You-hua; LIU Qiang; LIU Ai-jun; PENG Shao-lin

    2007-01-01

    On the basis of the reported air quality index (API) and air pollutant monitoring data provided by the Guangzhou Environment Monitoring Stations over the last twenty-five years, the characteristics of air quality, prominent pollutants, and variation of the average annual concentrations of SO2, NO2, total suspended particulate(TSP), fine particulates (PM10), CO and dustfall in Guangzhou City were analyzed. Results showed that TSP was the prominent pollutant in the ambient air environment of Guangzhou City. Of the prominent pollutants, TSP accounted for nearly 62%, SO2 12.3%, and NOx 6.4%, respectively. The average API of Guangzhou over 6 years was higher than that of Beijing, Tianjin, Nanjing, Hangzhou, Suzhou and Shanghai, and lower than that of Shenzhen, Zhuhai and Shantou. Concentrations of air pollutants have shown an downward trend in recent years, but they are generally worse than ambient air quality standards for USA, Hong Kong and EU. SO2 and NOx pollution were still serious, impling that waste gas pollution from all kinds of vehicles had become a significant problem for environmental protection in Guangzhou. The possible causes of worsening air quality were also discussed in this paper.

  9. Air quality of Pasir Gudang industrial estate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The composition and distribution of anthropogenic aerosols are of interest mainly because of the health effects from atmospheric pollution to man. The department of environment and the local authority have been monitoring the levels of TSP and PM 10 respectively at two different sites in Pasir Gudang for a number of years. This study was conducted to determine concentrations of TSP and respirable air particulate matter at another station situated in the middle of the industrial zone. The particulate matter samples were collected by using high volume samplers for 24 hours periods during February to March and September to October 1993. Data included in this paper also provide information on concentrations of water soluble anions and cations and toxic metals in the air particulate

  10. Air Quality – monitoring and modelling

    OpenAIRE

    Marius DEACONU; Cretu, Mihaiella

    2012-01-01

    Air pollution is a major concern for all nations, regardless of their development. The rapid growth of the industrial sector and urban development have lead to significant quantities of substances and toxic materials, mostly discharged into the atmosphere and having adverse effects both on human health and environment in general. Human society has to recognize that environment has only a limited capacity to process all of its waste without major changes. Each of us is a pollutant but also a v...

  11. Air quality health index variation across British Columbia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasselback, P. [Interior Health Authority, Kelowna, BC (Canada); Taylor, E. [British Columbia Ministry of Health Living and Sport, Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    2010-09-15

    The new Air Quality Health Index (AQHI) is a tool aiming to present the health risks related to air pollution in Canada. This index can be used by individuals to help them reduce their health risk resulting from poor air quality. An assessment of the short term health risk induced by poor air quality is provided to Canadians through the AQHI. The AQHI is based on three factors: ambient concentrations of nitrogen dioxide, fine particulate matter and ozone, the local air quality information being presented on an hourly and daily basis and being calculated each hour for several locations across Canada. Pulmonary disorders and impacts on cardiac function are the more significant short term health risks. Longer term exposure to poor air quality is associated with increased rates of allergies and asthma, low birth weight, atherosclerosis, poorer lung development in children, lung cancer and ear infections. Information on the AQHI and on the variation across British Columbia of the health risk associated with this index are presented in this document. 19 refs., 5 tabs., 5 figs.

  12. The air quality in Norwegian cities. Development - reasons - measures - future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is an increasing focus on the air quality in Norwegian cities and townships. The air quality depends on several factors and the connections are complex. The aim of this report is to present a short and simple survey of this complex field. The report consists of three parts: Part 1 is a survey of the development until today. Measurements of SO2 and soot were started in the 1950's. Systematic determinations of NOx and NO2, CO and particles, ozone and benzene was started during the last three decades. The population exposure to air pollutants and their main sources are described as well as the air quality in Norwegian cities compared to other cities in Europe. In part 2 developments within transport, a sector necessary for understanding the development, are described. Part 3 is a survey of forecasting the air quality in Norway, pollution warnings and surveillance. The forecasts are based on assumed developments in important sectors such as transport, energy consumption for heating and industrial purposes and the effects of demands for fuel and vehicles. Effect analyses of further measures which may be useful for reaching the national goals for the air quality are carried out. A survey of the most important limiting values and criteria as well as technical terms is presented in the report and in the appendix. The report is commissioned by the Norwegian Petroleum Institute (Norsk Petroleumsinstitutt) and the Norwegian Road Federation (Opplysningsraadet for Veitrafikken)

  13. Metro Vancouver air quality management plan : progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Greater Vancouver Regional District (GVRD) developed an air quality management plan (AQMP) in 2005 as a means of addressing air quality issues in the region. The plan required progress reports every 2 years as well as a comprehensive review every 5 years. The AQMP established goals to minimize risk to public health from air pollution, improve visibility, and minimize the region's contributions to global climatic change by reducing emissions; implementing local air quality management programs; and enhancing air quality information and public awareness. The AQMP also included a sustainability framework for GVRD's policies and regulations related to regional growth, service delivery and political leadership. Regional strategies for solid waste and liquid waste management were developed in 2008. The sustainability framework has developed 3 priority goals: (1) to reduce diesel particulates by 75 per cent from Metro Vancouver corporate sources by 2012, (2) to be carbon neutral by 2012 excluding solid waste operations, and (3) to reduce regional GHGs by 15 per cent by 2015, and 33 per cent by 2020. Progress updates on regional planning efforts for the AQMP were presented. The report also outlined trends and performance measures used by the GVRD, and discussed changes in air quality issues and priorities that have occurred since the AQMP was adopted in 2005. 1 tab., 8 figs

  14. The Aeroflex: A Bicycle for Mobile Air Quality Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bart Elen

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Fixed air quality stations have limitations when used to assess people's real life exposure to air pollutants. Their spatial coverage is too limited to capture the spatial variability in, e.g., an urban or industrial environment. Complementary mobile air quality measurements can be used as an additional tool to fill this void. In this publication we present the Aeroflex, a bicycle for mobile air quality monitoring. The Aeroflex is equipped with compact air quality measurement devices to monitor ultrafine particle number counts, particulate mass and black carbon concentrations at a high resolution (up to 1 second. Each measurement is automatically linked to its geographical location and time of acquisition using GPS and Internet time. Furthermore, the Aeroflex is equipped with automated data transmission, data pre-processing and data visualization. The Aeroflex is designed with adaptability, reliability and user friendliness in mind. Over the past years, the Aeroflex has been successfully used for high resolution air quality mapping, exposure assessment and hot spot identification. 

  15. The Aeroflex: A Bicycle for Mobile Air Quality Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elen, Bart; Peters, Jan; Van Poppel, Martine; Bleux, Nico; Theunis, Jan; Reggente, Matteo; Standaert, Arnout

    2013-01-01

    Fixed air quality stations have limitations when used to assess people's real life exposure to air pollutants. Their spatial coverage is too limited to capture the spatial variability in, e.g., an urban or industrial environment. Complementary mobile air quality measurements can be used as an additional tool to fill this void. In this publication we present the Aeroflex, a bicycle for mobile air quality monitoring. The Aeroflex is equipped with compact air quality measurement devices to monitor ultrafine particle number counts, particulate mass and black carbon concentrations at a high resolution (up to 1 second). Each measurement is automatically linked to its geographical location and time of acquisition using GPS and Internet time. Furthermore, the Aeroflex is equipped with automated data transmission, data pre-processing and data visualization. The Aeroflex is designed with adaptability, reliability and user friendliness in mind. Over the past years, the Aeroflex has been successfully used for high resolution air quality mapping, exposure assessment and hot spot identification. PMID:23262484

  16. CRANE WHEELS PRODUCTION QUALITY CONTROL

    OpenAIRE

    OTTO GRIGOROV; SERHY GUBSKIY; ANTON OKUN

    2014-01-01

    Quality control of crane wheels is an important part for support of crane mechanisms permanent operation. Normal functioning of logistics systems requires preventing of crane downtimes and delays. The research results of the impact of the crane wheels (710 mm diameter, 65 steel) surface hardness on coercivity indicators are presented in this paper. Obtained research results of dependence between the coercivity indicators and the crane wheels rolling surface hardness for their use in practice ...

  17. Air quality modeling for emergency response applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The three-dimensional diagnostic wind field model (MATHEW) and the particle-in-cell transport and diffusion model (ADPIC) are used by the Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability (ARAC) for real-time assessments of the consequences from accidental releases of radioactivity into the atmosphere. For the dispersion of hazardous heavier-than-air gases, a time-dependent, three-dimensional finite element model (FEM3) is used. These models have been evaluated extensively against a wide spectrum of field experiments involving the release of chemically inert tracers or heavier-than-air gases. The results reveal that the MATHEW/ADPIC models are capable of simulating the spatial and temporal distributions of tracer concentration to within a factor of 2 for 50% of the measured tracer concentrations for near surface releases in relatively flat terrain and within a factor of 2 for 20% of the comparisons for elevated releases in complex terrain. The FEM3 model produces quite satisfactory simulations of the spatial and temporal distributions of heavier-than-air gases, typically within a kilometer of the release point. The ARAC consists of a centralized computerized emergency response system that is capable of supporting up to 100 sites and providing real-time predictions of the consequence of transportation accidents that may occur anywhere. It utilizes pertinent accident information, local and regional meteorology, and terrain as input to the MATHEW/ADPIC models for the consequence analysis. It has responded to over 150 incidents and exercises over the past decade

  18. The implementation challenge of urban air quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lint, R.J.T. van; Buitenkamp, S.; Zebregs, M. [Ministry of Housing, The Hague (Netherlands). Air Quality and Acidification Abatement Div.

    1995-12-31

    In recent years, the policy followed has booked some significant successes in the structural reduction of the emissions by a number of air polluting substances (e.g. sulphur dioxide and lead). However, the Third Environmental Outlook 1993-2015 has determined that the policy goals for a number of other air polluting substances will not be achieved, particularly in urban areas. This concerns fine dust (PM-10) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), nitrogen dioxide, benzene and black smoke. The policy goals for the above priority substances have been set so as to protect the population against the negative effects on health from too high concentrations of these substances. Forty-six per cent of the Dutch population live in cities of more than 100,000 inhabitants, and, hence, many people are exposed to (too) high concentrations. For this reason, the Netherlands` Second National Environmental Policy Plan lays down that government, provinces and municipalities will together develop a plan of action to reduce urban air pollution to acceptable levels. The formulated strategy is presented in the document here. To that end, the problem analysis and current policy related to the issue are considered in more detail below. On the basis of this, the additional policy strategy is formulated. (author)

  19. Pollution. Warning on the future of air quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article comments the results published by INERIS (the French national institute of the industrial environment and risks) and based on the use of its model Chimere which aims at measuring and foreseeing the evolution of air quality. This model simulates the concentrations of pollutants in the air. It is integrated into the national tool of prediction of air quality, PREV'AIR, which studies prospective scenarios of reduction of emissions, and is also part of the SALUT'AIR project which assesses the evolution of atmospheric concentrations of pollutants by 2050 while taking climate change into account. These models notably show the importance of atmospheric circulation over continents. The author also recalls and comments the objectives of the UN Goteborg protocol for 2020

  20. Quality Control of Meteorological Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, William; Dee, Dick; Rukhovets, Leonid

    1999-01-01

    For the first time, a problem of the meteorological observation quality control (QC) was formulated by L.S. Gandin at the Main Geophysical Observatory in the 70's. Later in 1988 L.S. Gandin began adapting his ideas in complex quality control (CQC) to the operational environment at the National Centers for Environmental Prediction. The CQC was first applied by L.S.Gandin and his colleagues to detection and correction of errors in rawinsonde heights and temperatures using a complex of hydrostatic residuals.Later, a full complex of residuals, vertical and horizontal optimal interpolations and baseline checks were added for the checking and correction of a wide range of meteorological variables. some other of Gandin's ideas were applied and substantially developed at other meteorological centers. A new statistical QC was recently implemented in the Goddard Data Assimilation System. The central component of any quality control is a buddy check which is a test of individual suspect observations against available nearby non-suspect observations. A novel feature of this test is that the error variances which are used for QC decision are re-estimated on-line. As a result, the allowed tolerances for suspect observations can depend on local atmospheric conditions. The system is then better able to accept extreme values observed in deep cyclones, jet streams and so on. The basic statements of this adaptive buddy check are described. Some results of the on-line QC including moisture QC are presented.