WorldWideScience

Sample records for air freight forwarders

  1. IMPORT FREIGHT FORWARDER WORK DESCRIPTION

    OpenAIRE

    Mäkilä, Mauno

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis was to research and create a general work description for an import freight forwarder in company X. Description can be converted generally to any freight forwarding company, excluding functions that are characteristic to company X’s role also as a port operator. Thesis emphasizes a viewpoint of an import freight forwarder in international sea logistics since company X is a port operator and has business in stevedoring, freight forwarding, warehousing and ship ag...

  2. To Forward The Freight Forwarding Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    China's freight forwarding industry is suffering a lot as the country's foreign trade has slowed down. The dwindling overseas markets, the rising RMB exchange rates and the soaring prices of raw materials have been restraining the exports and the imports, and have thereby been depressing the freight volumes, Besides, the global leading freight forwarding companies have expanded their shares in the Chinese market. China'sfreight forwarders are losing the comparative advantages in local market and human resources,

  3. Management Accounting in freight-forwarding companies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jens Ocksen; Lynggaard, Peter

    2002-01-01

    The article describes the internal business management processes in a freight forwarding compagny on the operative/tactical level. This is done as an explorative study of how these processes are organized in two medium-sized Danish freight-forwarding compagnies.......The article describes the internal business management processes in a freight forwarding compagny on the operative/tactical level. This is done as an explorative study of how these processes are organized in two medium-sized Danish freight-forwarding compagnies....

  4. Air Freight and Logistics Services

    OpenAIRE

    Kiso, Fadila; Deljanin, Abidin

    2009-01-01

    Air transport industry has gradually increased its share of global passenger and freight traffic, and this trend has accelerated in the last 40 years. For the past decade, air-freight traffic growth has outpaced air passenger traffic growth by 1-2% each year. In the past, air-freight sector offered limited services, with heavy reliance on several intermediaries and a significant dependence on air passenger operations. The sector can now be characterized as a sophisticated, innovative one, rel...

  5. Principles of logistic management of freight forwarding service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitriev Alexander Viktorovich

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The general questions of logistic management of freight forwarding services are studied. The main logistic processes in transportation systems are revealed. The principal scheme of transport and logistic system of freight delivery is considered. The basics of building an effective system of transport and forwarding services of freight flows are formulated. The relation between the transport and forwarding services and the logistic process of freight delivery associated with a clear sequence of transport operations, which can effectively reduce the total transport cost, is fixed. There has been given a substantiation of organizational paradigm in the logistics of freight forwarding services, according to which, on the basis of the key principles of logistics, such as coordination, coherence, rationality, optimization and accurate calculation, the consistent, orderly and sustained system of delivery of goods to the consumer is created. It is also noted that the current functionality of freight forwarding companies reaches the 3d and 4th levels of logistic providing.

  6. Customs & freight forwarding guide: February 2013

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    The Sochi 2014 Customs and Freight Guide is intended for Olympic and Paralympic Families and other Games-related organizations. This guide provides practical insights about how to import and export various types of goods to and from Russia, for use in connection with the Sochi 2014 Olympic and Paralympic Games.

  7. 78 FR 54720 - Registration and Financial Security Requirements for Brokers of Property and Freight Forwarders

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-05

    ... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Registration and Financial Security Requirements for Brokers of Property and Freight Forwarders AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA), DOT... freight forwarder authority from FMCSA. Section 32918 amended the financial security...

  8. The crazy economics of air freight

    OpenAIRE

    Eaton, Jack

    1994-01-01

    Measured by value of goods transported, about one third of all international trade today is moved by air. Severe cyclical fluctuations around the generally strong growth trend of the last decade have meant considerable problems for air freight companies, however. How have they attempted to deal with these problems? How would they be advised to behave in future?

  9. Carbon dioxide emissions from international air freight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howitt, Oliver J. A.; Carruthers, Michael A.; Smith, Inga J.; Rodger, Craig J.

    2011-12-01

    Greenhouse gas emissions from international air transport were excluded from reduction targets under the Kyoto Protocol, partly because of difficulties with quantifying and apportioning such emissions. Although there has been a great deal of recent research into calculating emissions from aeroplane operations globally, publicly available emissions factors for air freight emissions are scarce. This paper presents a methodology to calculate the amount of fuel burnt and the resulting CO 2 emissions from New Zealand's internationally air freighted imports and exports in 2007. This methodology could be applied to other nations and/or regions. Using data on fuel uplift, air freight and air craft movements, and assumptions on mean passenger loadings and the mass of passengers and air freight, CO 2 emissions factors of 0.82 kg CO 2 per t-km and 0.69 kg CO 2 per t-km for short-haul and long-haul journeys, respectively, were calculated. The total amount of fuel consumed for the international air transport of New Zealand's imports and exports was calculated to be 0.21 Mt and 0.17 Mt respectively, with corresponding CO 2 emissions of 0.67 Mt and 0.53 Mt.

  10. Integrated Air Freight Cost Structure: The Case of Federal Express

    OpenAIRE

    Kiesling, Max K.; Hansen, Mark

    1993-01-01

    This paper analyzes the economic structure of the integrated air freight industry. We evaluate a total cost model for Federal Express, Inc. by analyzing quarterly time-series data from 1986-1992. We find that Federal Express, and arguably all dedicated air freight carriers, exhibit diseconomies of scale and significant economies of density. We show that these two economic concepts can be restrictive, however, and introduce a third aspect of the integrated air freight industry’s economic str...

  11. Integrated Air Freight Cost Structure: The Case of Federal Express

    OpenAIRE

    Kiesling, Max K.; Hansen, Mark

    1993-01-01

    This paper analyzes the economic structure of the integrated air freight industry. We evaluate a total cost model for Federal Express, Inc. by analyzing quarterly time-series data from 1986-1992. We find that Federal Express, and arguably all dedicated air freight carriers, exhibit diseconomies of scale and significant economies of density. We show that these two economic concepts can be restrictive, however, and introduce a third aspect of the integrated air freight industry’s economic struc...

  12. Strategic risks of the road freight forwarding companies working with international cargo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Plamena GAGOVA

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The article explores some of the strategic risks (SR for road freight forwarding companies Examination of some Bulgarian and European policies and guidelines will be performed to show the development of freight forwarding and the challenges presented by the new "White Paper 2020” EU transport to business.

  13. Research on Association with Freight Transit Period and Forwarding Time base on Logistics conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHANGFENG. ZHU

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The whole process of freight forwarding includes multiple links. The consumption time of every link and its operational efficiency may affect the entire freight forwarding time, which can influence the transit period of freight, as well as the formulation and achievement of the transportation organizations scheme and the transportation contract. In order to analyze the existed problems in present calculation method of railway transit period, and the effects of logistics on forwarding time, on the basis of investigating and literature, Railway freight forwarding process and factor of logistics on railway freight forwarding time were analyzed, and average speed of through train, ordinary through train and high-speed train, and daily average running tariff kilometer and time were analyzed, and statistical results were exained by adopting 2χtesting method, finally, daily average running tariff kilometer and time of logistics developed and under-developed area were comparative analyzed, from which daily average running tariff kilometer and time were obtained. The analytical results show that the average speed, daily average running tariff kilometer and time respectively obeys normal distribution, the maximum difference value between the transit period calculated by present method and the practical forwarding time of freight is four 4.5 days, which show that the method can not objectively responds the freight forwarding time of each kind of freight transport product under logistics condition.

  14. The Marketing of River Forwarding and Freight Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgeta Modiga

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available River forwarding and freight contain, on the one hand, the movement of goods on the river and on the other hand, services related to handling, storage, issuance of documents and payment of all rendered services. Currently, inland navigation in Europe and on other continents has an increasing share of the overall transport of goods. From the statistical published data it results, for example, that in Central Europe the inland waterway has nearly 1/3 of all traffic, with a constant growth tendency. The volume of goods handled on the river is directly related to the degree of development of material and technical base of the river transportation system, respectively, it depends on the number and capacity of the used vessel, size and level of equipment of ports, and the navigability of the waters.

  15. Operation and Optimization of Customer Relationship Management in Small and Medium-sized Air Freight Forwarding Companies%中小型航空货代公司客户关系管理(CRM)运营与优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    扈健丽; 高艳飞

    2015-01-01

    伴随着贸易全球化进程的不断推进和我国航空运输业的快速发展,民航运输产业正呈现出迅猛发展的蓬勃生机。在民航物流业快速发展的同时,客户对其要求也在不断的提高。本文通过相关数据分析中小型航空货代公司现状,以上海某国际物流公司(简称:XSJ)的客户关系管理为研究对象,通过业务流程分析,提出优化方案,为所在行业的企业客户关系管理提供借鉴。%With the rapid development of trade globalization and China's aviation industry, the civil aviation transportation industry is showing a vigorous development. With the rapid development of civil aviation logistics industry at the same time, requirements of customers for them are constantly improving. Through the status analysis of relevant data of small air freight forwarding companies, taking Shanghai International Logistics Company Limited (referred as: XSJ) customer relationship management as the research object. Through the business process analysis, optimization solutions are proposed to provide the references for the customer relationship management of enterprise in this industry.

  16. Customs & freight forwarding guide for NOCs and NPCs: October 2013

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    The Sochi 2014 Customs and Freight Guide is intended for Olympic and Paralympic Families and other Games-related organizations. This guide provides practical insights about how to import and export various types of goods to and from Russia, for use in connection with the Sochi 2014 Olympic and Paralympic Games.

  17. 21 CFR 1301.77 - Security controls for freight forwarding facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Security controls for freight forwarding facilities. 1301.77 Section 1301.77 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE REGISTRATION OF MANUFACTURERS, DISTRIBUTORS, AND DISPENSERS OF CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES Security...

  18. Improving marketing strategies of sea freight forwarding services - Thien Hong Joint Stock company

    OpenAIRE

    Pham, Thanh Huyen

    2015-01-01

    Analyzing and improving marketing strategies of Thien Hong Joint Stock company - a newborn company in the field of sea freight forwarding service in Vietnam. This thesis focused on the 4Ps (product, price, placement, promotion) in marketing strategy, how to apply the theory of services marketing in a business to business company and a special industry effectively.

  19. Customs and freight forwarding: official guide : Salt Lake 2002, XIX Olympic Winter Games

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    The Salt Lake Organizing Committee for the Olympic Winter Games of 2002 (SLOC) and its appointed customs broker and freight forwarder, Schenker, Inc., will help Olympic participants bring baggage, equipment and supplies to and from the United States, Salt Lake City and Olympic venues for the Salt Lake 2002 Games, Cultural Olympiad and related test events.

  20. Air Freight Service Development Plan : Case: CMA CGM Logistics Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Giang

    2014-01-01

    Being one of the fastest-growing nations in the world, Vietnam is trading across the border actively and at the same time attracting multiple foreign investments. Import and export activities are occurring vigorously which leads to a huge potential for international transportation sectors, particularly for aviation industry. Hence, the ultimate goal of this thesis is to establish a development plan of air freight service for the case company – CMA CGM Logistics Vietnam (CCLOG VN). The stu...

  1. Investigating the Possibility of Using BART for Air Freight Movement

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, Xiao-Yun; Hanson, Matt; Graham, Michael; Nishinaga, Eugene; Lu, Richard

    2008-01-01

    The San Francisco Bay Area has one of the most congested metropolitan corridors in both California and nationwide, with very high demand for both passenger and air-freight transport. It is also a main entrance to the United States for the huge Asia market, and thus critical for the United States to play a leading role in the global economy. On one hand, traffic congestion in the main corridors through the Bay Area is severe and is becoming worse with the rapid increase of population and the d...

  2. Assessing air quality and climate impacts of future ground freight choice in United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, L.; Bond, T. C.; Smith, S.; Lee, B.; Ouyang, Y.; Hwang, T.; Barkan, C.; Lee, S.; Daenzer, K.

    2013-12-01

    The demand for freight transportation has continued to increase due to the growth of domestic and international trade. Emissions from ground freight (truck and railways) account for around 7% of the greenhouse gas emissions, 4% of the primary particulate matter emission and 25% of the NOx emissions in the U.S. Freight railways are generally more fuel efficient than trucks and cause less congestion. Freight demand and emissions are affected by many factors, including economic activity, the spatial distribution of demand, freight modal choice and routing decision, and the technology used in each modal type. This work links these four critical aspects of freight emission system to project the spatial distribution of emissions and pollutant concentration from ground freight transport in the U.S. between 2010 and 2050. Macroeconomic scenarios are used to forecast economic activities. Future spatial structure of employment and commodity demand in major metropolitan areas are estimated using spatial models and a shift-share model, respectively. Freight flow concentration and congestion patterns in inter-regional transportation networks are predicted from a four-step freight demand forecasting model. An asymptotic vehicle routing model is also developed to estimate delivery ton-miles for intra-regional freight shipment in metropolitan areas. Projected freight activities are then converted into impacts on air quality and climate. CO2 emissions are determined using a simple model of freight activity and fuel efficiency, and compared with the projected CO2 emissions from the Second Generation Model. Emissions of air pollutants including PM, NOx and CO are calculated with a vehicle fleet model SPEW-Trend, which incorporates the dynamic change of technologies. Emissions are projected under three economic scenarios to represent different plausible futures. Pollutant concentrations are then estimated using tagged chemical tracers in an atmospheric model with the emissions serving

  3. 49 CFR 1319.1 - Exemption of freight forwarders in the noncontiguous domestic trade from tariff filing requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... noncontiguous domestic trade from tariff filing requirements. 1319.1 Section 1319.1 Transportation Other... noncontiguous domestic trade from tariff filing requirements. Freight forwarders subject to the Board's jurisdiction under 49 U.S.C. 13531 are exempted from the tariff filing requirements of 49 U.S.C. 13702....

  4. Dynamic Effects Of Economic Growth On U.s. Air Passenger And Freight Services

    OpenAIRE

    Junwook, Chi; Jungho, Baek

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the short- and long-run effects of economic growth and market shocks (e.g., 9/11 terrorist attacks, Iraq war, SARS epidemic, and 2008 financial crisis) on air passenger and freight services using an autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) approach to cointegration. Results show that, in the long-run, both air passenger and freight services tend to increase with economic growth. In the short-run, however, only air passenger service is responsive to economic growth. Finally, o...

  5. An approach to market analysis for lighter than air transportation of freight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, P. O.; Marcus, H. S.; Pollock, J. H.

    1975-01-01

    An approach is presented to marketing analysis for lighter than air vehicles in a commercial freight market. After a discussion of key characteristics of supply and demand factors, a three-phase approach to marketing analysis is described. The existing transportation systems are quantitatively defined and possible roles for lighter than air vehicles within this framework are postulated. The marketing analysis views the situation from the perspective of both the shipper and the carrier. A demand for freight service is assumed and the resulting supply characteristics are determined. Then, these supply characteristics are used to establish the demand for competing modes. The process is then iterated to arrive at the market solution.

  6. Shift designs for freight handling personnel at air cargo terminals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rong, Aiying; Grunow, Martin

    2009-01-01

    resources efficiently, we implement a new mechanism for demand leveling. In addition, we consider the qualification hierarchy between build-up and break-down workers. A case study based on the real-life data shows that the model is useful for manpower planning at air cargo terminals and the integrated...

  7. Air freight in the Stockholm region with focus on Eskilstuna Airport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kjell-Åke Allan Brorsson

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this article is to analyse the conditions for commencing air freight operations at the regional Eskilstuna Airport in Sweden, which require investments in airport infrastructure of at least SEK 140 –180 million. Design/ methodology: The qualitative data collection for the study was carried out through open-ended interviews with representatives of airport management, staff, representatives of residents, and actors and stakeholders in the field. In addition, much written material was collected from different authorities. Document analysis was used to systematically evaluate and review the collected documents. Content analysis was applied to organize collected data into categories. Based on the reports, decisions, environmental scanning and interviews, the data have been coded and categorized in tables via thematic analysis. Findings: The major findings of the study are that Eskilstuna Airport lacks cargo facilities and has limited apron space, and that there is strong competition from four other airports in the Stockholm region. The prospects for permanent air freight operations at Eskilstuna Airport are therefore not favourable in the current situation. However, if the development of Eskilstuna Logistics Park and the concept of inter modal highway-rail transportation are successful, they could serve as a major driving force for the development of air cargo. Furthermore, with sustainable development as a guiding principle, there is great potential to develop an airport with a high standard of environmental profile. Originality/ value: My findings are of great value to managers of airports and cargo airlines, as they highlight some of the competition aspects associated with engaging in air cargo at regional airports. The study fills a gap in existing research whose main focus is environmental issues concerning airports in general.

  8. 49 CFR 377.205 - Presentation of freight bills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Presentation of freight bills. 377.205 Section 377... Household Goods Freight Forwarders § 377.205 Presentation of freight bills. (a) “To be prepaid” shipments... freight bill or a group of freight bills presented at one time shall state that “failure timely to...

  9. 国际货运代理的责任和责任风险的防范探讨%The Study of International Freight Forwarders Liability and Responsibility of Risk Prevention

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵红梅; 刘芳

    2013-01-01

    随着世界经济一体化,国际多式联运业务的蓬勃兴起,为国际货运代理开拓业务、发挥所长、增长利润提供了机会。但是机遇与挑战并存,利润与风险同在,现在的货运代理人的工作内涵已经发生了显著变化,呈现出多元化和双重职能的特点,这使得货运代理的责任也在发生变化,经营过程中不可避免的遇到一系列竞争和风险。文中从国际货运代理的责任出发,联系我国货运代理企业的服务现状,对货运代理企业的责任风险防范做了简单的论述。%With the world economic integration, international multimodal transport business is surging forward, providing the opportunity to the international freight forwarder for developing business, playing strong points and increasing profits. But both opportunities and challenges coexist, profit and risk are side by side, now the job content of freight agents has changed markedly, and presented the characteristics of diversification and dual functions, which makes the responsibility of the freight forwarders change, and a series of competitions and risks are inevitably encountered in the process of management. This article embarks from the responsibilities of international freight forwarders, combines with the service status of freight forwarding enterprises in our country, and simply discusses the responsibility risk prevention of the freight forwarding enterprise.

  10. Setting margins for freight futures: the IMAREX case

    OpenAIRE

    Παριανού, Ειρήνη Α.

    2014-01-01

    The main characteristics of the shipping business are its highly volatile freight rates, seasonality, strong business cycles and capital intensiveness. Being such a high-risk business, it is evident that risk management and analysis of the market conditions are of outmost importance. Modern financial instruments like Forward Freight Agreements (FFAs), freight futures and freight options can be very useful to manage some of the risk in shipping (Rasmussen and Tversland, 2007). Freight derivati...

  11. A Research on Resignation of Employees in Small and Medium-sized Freight Forwarding Enterprises in Fujian Province%福建省中小货代企业人员离职意向研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄映琴; 冯葆勇

    2012-01-01

      In recent years, the competition in international freight forwarding has grown increasingly fierce, which gives rise to such phenomena as frequent resignation and job-hopping, having negative influence on the development of small and medium-sized enterprises. This article summarizes the 7 factors underlying this phenomenon. In addition, in combination with correlation analysis and multivariate regression analysis, it probes into the factors affecting the resignation of employees in freight forwarding industry in Fujian Province, which is expected to offer reference for human resources management in this field.%  近年来国际货运代理行业的竞争非常激烈,员工离职、跳槽现象很普遍,给企业带来严重的负面影响。文章将影响货代从业人员离职意向的因素归纳为7个具体因子,通过相关性分析与多元回归分析等方法,探讨影响福建省货代行业员工的离职意向的具体因素,为货代企业的人力资源管理找到切合实际的办法。

  12. Income and Exchange Rate Sensitivities of Cross-Border Freight Flows: Evidence from U.S.-Canada Exports and Imports by Truck, Rail, Air, and Pipeline

    OpenAIRE

    Chi, Junwook

    2014-01-01

    This paper aims to improve understanding of the long-run impacts of the gross domestic product (GDP), real exchange rate, and the producer price index (PPI) on U.S.-Canada bilateral freight flows in a dynamic framework. Special attention is given to cross-border exports and imports by truck, rail, pipeline, and air. Using the fully modified ordinary least squares (FM-OLS) approach, the paper finds that the GDP of the importing country is a pronounced factor influencing U.S.- Canada cross-bord...

  13. 14 CFR 135.76 - DOD Commercial Air Carrier Evaluator's Credentials: Admission to pilots compartment: Forward...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Credentials: Admission to pilots compartment: Forward observer's seat. 135.76 Section 135.76 Aeronautics and... Commercial Air Carrier Evaluator's Credentials: Admission to pilots compartment: Forward observer's seat. (a.... (b) A forward observer's seat on the flight deck or forward passenger seat with headset or...

  14. 义乌国际货运代理企业特殊“外贸”服务探究%Yiwu International Freight Forwarding Company Special "Foreign Trade" Service Inquiry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈罡

    2012-01-01

    In the current international trade mechanism,foreign individuals sometimes encounter site procurement funding bottlenecks,foreign exchange verification and other problems in Yiwu,need solutions provider.The international freight forwarding companies carry out business activities,subject to customer needs,while providing the necessary services.Thus,Yiwu some freight forwarding company in the industry highly competitive context,in order to better grasp the source of goods,providing funds support procurement,Foreign Exchange verification services and other special"foreign trade"services,to meet the special needs of foreign investors.Such services are the current stage of economic development,it is the product of a particular.Along with foreign trade of the gradual improvement of the operating mechanism,such services will gradually disappear.%在目前国际贸易机制下,外商个人来义乌现场采购有时会遇到资金瓶颈、外汇核销等难题,需要有解决方案的提供方。而国际货运代理企业在开展经营活动时,会应客户需求提供相应的服务。因此,义乌部分货代企业在行业竞争激烈的背景下,为了更好地掌握货源,迎合外商的特殊需求,提供采购资金支持、核销服务等特殊"外贸"服务。该类服务是现行对外经济发展特定阶段的产物,将随着国家外贸运行机制的逐步完善而逐渐消失。

  15. The Moderating Effects of Internal Orientation and Market Orientation on the Relationships between Commitment and Transportation Service: An Approach to International Freight Forwarders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hee-sung Bae

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this research are to develop the variables which moderate the relationship between commitment and transportation services and to analyze the moderating effects of the variables. The conceptual and operational definitions of the variables were ascertained from prior research. The reliability and validity of collected data were tested by various methods and hypotheses are tested by a moderated regression analysis. The results are as follows. First, the moderating variables on the relationship between commitment and transportation services are identified as internal orientation and market orientation. The former has three sub-dimensions such as collaboration between departments, work standardization and process improving and the latter has three sub-dimensions such as intelligence generation, intelligence dissemination, and responsiveness. Second, work standardization is ascertained to enhance the relationship between commitment and trust. Third, process improving is verified as enhancing the relationship between commitment and trust. Fourth, work standardization is ascertained to enhance the relationship between commitment and flexibility. Fifth, intelligence generation is identified as enhancing the relationship between commitment and trust. Sixth, intelligence generation is verified as enhancing the relationship between commitment and flexibility. Therefore, forwarders can supply superior transportation services for customers when they achieve commitment and orientation such as work standardization, improvement of their service processes, and activities concerned with intelligence generation.

  16. An Application of Freight systems

    OpenAIRE

    Camelia ŞCHIOPU

    2015-01-01

    There are important applications of the maximal dynamic flow problem and its variations in the areas of freight systems, material handling systems and building evacuation. The early freight system application of maximal dynamic network flow models arose in the railroad industry in the scheduling of freight cars. In this paper we present an application of his model.

  17. Numerical Study of Air Nozzles on Mild Combustion for Application to Forward Flow Furnace

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Bo; Wang Yuanhua; Xu Hong

    2016-01-01

    An attempt was made to extend mild combustion to forward lfow furnace, such as the reifnery and petrochemical tube furnace. Three dimensional numerical simulation was carried out to study the performance of this furnace. The Eddy Dissipation Concept (EDC) model coupled with the reaction mechanism DRM-19 was used. The prediction showed a good agreement with the measurement. The effect of air nozzle circle (D), air nozzle diameter (d), air nozzle number (N), and air preheating temperature (Tair) on the lfow, temperature and species ifelds, and the CO and NO emissions was investigated. The results indicate that there are four zones in the furnace, viz.:a central jet zone, an ignition zone, a combustion reaction zone, and a lfue gas zone, according to the distribution proifles of H2CO and OH. The central jet entrains more lfue gas in the furnace upstream with an increasing D while the effect of D is negligible in the downstream. The air jet momentum increases with a decreasing d or an increasing Tair, and entrains more lfue gas. The effect of N is mainly identiifed near the burner exit. More heat is absorbed in the radiant section and less heat is discharged to the atmosphere with a decreasing d and an increasing N as evidenced by the lfue gas temperature. The CO and NO emissions are less than 50μL/L and 10μL/L, respectively, in most of conditions.

  18. Transportation Energy Futures Series: Freight Transportation Demand: Energy-Efficient Scenarios for a Low-Carbon Future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grenzeback, L. R.; Brown, A.; Fischer, M. J.; Hutson, N.; Lamm, C. R.; Pei, Y. L.; Vimmerstedt, L.; Vyas, A. D.; Winebrake, J. J.

    2013-03-01

    Freight transportation demand is projected to grow to 27.5 billion tons in 2040, and to nearly 30.2 billion tons in 2050. This report describes the current and future demand for freight transportation in terms of tons and ton-miles of commodities moved by truck, rail, water, pipeline, and air freight carriers. It outlines the economic, logistics, transportation, and policy and regulatory factors that shape freight demand, the trends and 2050 outlook for these factors, and their anticipated effect on freight demand. After describing federal policy actions that could influence future freight demand, the report then summarizes the capabilities of available analytical models for forecasting freight demand. This is one in a series of reports produced as a result of the Transportation Energy Futures project, a Department of Energy-sponsored multi-agency effort to pinpoint underexplored strategies for reducing GHGs and petroleum dependence related to transportation.

  19. Innovative freight transportation framework for Flanders

    OpenAIRE

    MAES, Tabitha; Ramaekers, Katrien; CARIS, An; Bellemans, Tom; JANSSENS, Gerrit

    2010-01-01

    In a growing globalised context and consumption economy freight transport is of crucial importance. Being able to understand the drivers of freight flows makes it possible to forecast freight flows in the future and to calculate the impact of different policies on freight traffic. It will put policymakers in the position to get a better insight in the way the transport of goods comes about. Still, freight demand modeling is lacking behind on the efforts made in passenger transport models. The...

  20. Airborne forward pointing UV Rayleigh lidar for remote clear air turbulence (CAT) detection: system design and performance

    CERN Document Server

    Vrancken, Patrick; Ehret, Gerhard; Barny, Hervé; Rondeau, Philippe; Veerman, Henk

    2016-01-01

    A high-performance airborne UV Rayleigh lidar system was developed within the European project DELICAT. With its forward-pointing architecture it aims at demonstrating a novel detection scheme for clear air turbulence (CAT) for an aeronautics safety application. Due to its occurrence in clear and clean air at high altitudes (aviation cruise flight level), this type of turbulence evades microwave radar techniques and in most cases coherent Doppler lidar techniques. The present lidar detection technique relies on air density fluctuations measurement and is thus independent of backscatter from hydrometeors and aerosol particles. The subtle air density fluctuations caused by the turbulent air flow demand exceptionally high stability of the setup and in particular of the detection system. This paper describes an airborne test system for the purpose of demonstrating this technology and turbulence detection method: a high-power UV Rayleigh lidar system is installed on a research aircraft in a forward-looking configu...

  1. Study on the construction of identity presumption mode-- exploration on the identification of NVOCC and freight forwarder%“身份推定”模式建构初探——以无船承运人与货运代理人的辨识为研究对象

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    俞建林; 邱烨

    2012-01-01

    Identifing NVOCC and freight forwarder is a difficult problem in maritime judicial practice. Provisions of the Supreme People's Court on Certain Issues Involved in Hearing of Ocean Freight Forwarding Dispute Cases became effective on May 1,2012. Although the above difficult problem is addressed in the provisions,in the case of the absence of direct evidence, the provisions demands subjective assertion by the judges based on comprehensive evaluation of indirect evidence. This method is full of randomness because different judges may render different judgments. In order to sovle the problem, this thesis puts forward a new mode named "identity presumption".%无船承运人与货运代理入的身份辨识问题,一直是海事审判实践中的棘手问题。最高人民法院于2012年1月9日通过的《关于审理海上货运代理纠纷案件若干问题的规定》虽对如何认定货代企业的法律身份问题有所规定,但针对缺乏直接证据的情形,其倾向于在对收货单、发票等间接证据进行综合衡量的基础上,由法官进行主观认定。此种认定方法随意性较大,很可能会导致同类案件的处理结果迥然不同。为此,在综合运用相关学科知识的基础上提出了“身份推定”这一新模式,以期为解决上述认定难题提供一种思考径路。

  2. Airborne forward pointing UV Rayleigh lidar for remote clear air turbulence (CAT) detection: system design and performance

    OpenAIRE

    Vrancken, Patrick; Wirth, Martin; Ehret, Gerhard; Barny, Hervé; Rondeau, Philippe; Veerman, Henk

    2016-01-01

    A high-performance airborne UV Rayleigh lidar system was developed within the European project DELICAT. With its forward-pointing architecture it aims at demonstrating a novel detection scheme for clear air turbulence (CAT) for an aeronautics safety application. Due to its occurrence in clear and clean air at high altitudes (aviation cruise flight level), this type of turbulence evades microwave radar techniques and in most cases coherent Doppler lidar techniques. The present lidar detection ...

  3. The assessment of pollutants emissions within sustainable urban freight transport development: The case of Novi Sad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veličković Marko S.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Assessment of pollutant emissions is a prerequisite for planning and development of sustainable urban transport systems. Majority of extant studies on sustainable urban transport is focused on pollution caused by urban passenger transport, with marked paucity of literature on the impact of urban freight transport. To partly bridge this gap, the paper objective is the impact assessment of selected regulative measures, i.e. fleet renewal on freight transport emissions. We used the case of Novi Sad to estimate the potential impact of selected restrictive measures on the external freight transport air pollution. To the best of our knowledge, this is one of the first studies on impact of urban freight transport on the air pollution in the cities in the Balkan region. Several research findings are of interest. Firstly, the analysis of particular gas emissions reveals expected overall positive effects of the fleet renewal in most of cases. Still, the total amount of same emissions hardly increase, so this particular measure is not enough to reach the ambitious EU strategy goals concerned with sustainable urban freight transport. Further, some negative impacts of restrictive measures on gas emissions were also recorded and discussed. The observed complex impact of restrictive measures on urban freight air pollution indicates that urban freight transport planning and modeling requires a comprehensive database, clear goals and higher priority of environmental criterion in traffic planning. Our results and recommendations may be useful for scholars, urban transport planners, policy makers and practitioners.

  4. Why is energy use rising in the freight sector?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trends in transportation sector energy use and carbon dioxide emissions are analyzed with an emphasis on three freight modes -- rail, truck, and marine. A recent set of energy use projections is presented and freight mode energy characteristics are discussed. Transportation sector energy use, which nearly doubled between 1960 and 1985, is projected to grow more slowly during the period 1985 endash 2010. Most of the growth is projected to come from non-personal modes (freight and commercial air). Trends in freight mode energy intensities are discussed and a variety of factors behind these trends are analyzed. Rail and marine modes improved their energy intensities during sudden fuel price rises of the 1970s. Though there is room for further technological improvement, long power plant life cycles preclude rapid penetration of new technologies. Thus, energy intensities in these modes are more likely to improve through operational changes. Because of relatively stable fuel prices, the energy share of truck operating expenses is likely to remain low. Coupled with increasing labor costs, this portends only modest improvements in truck energy efficiency over the next two decades

  5. Study of Freight Transport Trip Chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Kaj

    1999-01-01

    Investigation of energy use and emissions (CO2, NOx, THC, CO, SO2, PM) of freight trains and lorries. The report documents the establishment of energy and emission factors, and in particularly the issue of energy use of freight train is treated in detail.......Investigation of energy use and emissions (CO2, NOx, THC, CO, SO2, PM) of freight trains and lorries. The report documents the establishment of energy and emission factors, and in particularly the issue of energy use of freight train is treated in detail....

  6. Freight modelling: an overview of international experiences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tavasszy, L.A.

    2008-01-01

    Compared to passenger transportation modelling, the field of freight modelling is relatively young and developing quickly into different directions all over the world. The objective of this paper is to summarize the international state of the art in freight modelling, with a focus on developments in

  7. Stability and control characteristics of an air-breathing missile configuration having a forward located inlet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawyer, W. C.; Hayes, C.

    1976-01-01

    An investigation was made to determine the aerodynamic characteristics of an airbreathing missile configuration having a forward located inlet. Control was provided by cruciform tail surfaces. Aerodynamic data were obtained for the body-tail configuration alone and with planar or cruciform wings. At Mach numbers from 2.86 to 4.63, the model had internal flow. At Mach numbers from 1.70 to 2.86, the internal duct was closed, and an inlet fairing was installed to simulate boost conditions.

  8. 49 CFR 215.119 - Defective freight car truck.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Defective freight car truck. 215.119 Section 215... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD FREIGHT CAR SAFETY STANDARDS Freight Car Components Suspension System § 215.119 Defective freight car truck. A railroad may not place or continue in service...

  9. The effects of the forward speed and air volume of an air-assisted sprayer on spray deposition in tendone trained vineyards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Pascuzzi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the results of spray application trials in a tendone trained vineyard in order to evaluate the influence of forward speed and air volume on the foliar deposition of plant protection products (PPPs, maintaining roughly constant the volume applied. The trials used an air-assisted sprayer with a centrifugal fan and 4+4 adjustable fan-shaped diffusers, each with a nozzle-holder group. A full factorial experimental design was implemented, with three forward speeds and two airflow rates, organised with a randomised complete block design including three replicates. In order to consider the influence of canopy development, the tests (one spray application for each replicate of a mixture containing a water-soluble food dye as a tracer were replicated during two phenological stages: i the end of flowering; and ii berry touch. Leaves were picked at random from the canopy after each spray treatment, and foliar PPP deposition was evaluated using a spectrophotometer. This analysis of foliar deposition showed that the airflow rates produced by the fan were unsuitable for the dense canopy typical of this type of vineyard. However, the special shape of the diffusers may make this sprayer effective if the main objective of pesticide applications in tendone trained table grape vineyards is to control bunch diseases.

  10. An Examination into the Structure of Freight Rates in the Shipping Freight Markets

    OpenAIRE

    van Dellen, S.

    2011-01-01

    This thesis investigates three salient areas of interest in the structure of freight rates in the shipping market, with a particular focus on the tanker and dry-bulk sectors, using recent econometric and time series techniques. The questions asked are: 1) do spot freight rate levels follow a fractionally integrated process, as opposed to being stationary or non-stationary, as had previously been proposed; 2) does spot freight rate volatility also follow a fractionally integrated process; and ...

  11. Forwarding Market Opened to Private Capital

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    On January 1, 2004, the Ministry of Com merce issued (for trial practice) the revised edition of “Measures on Implementation of 'the Administrative Regulations of the People's Republic of China on International Freight Forwarding'” with, among other things, readjusted condi-

  12. Traffic Information and Dynamic Vehicle Routing in Forwarding Agencies

    OpenAIRE

    Wohlgemuth, Sascha

    2009-01-01

    Freight transportation is essential for most economies. The main focus is on forwarding agencies handling less-than-truckload freight. In general, direct transportation from origin to destination would be too expensive. Therefore, the main idea is to consolidate enough small shipments to efficiently conduct transportation for the majority of the distance. In preparation of this transport it is necessary to pick up commodities from different customer locations in the origin region. At the tran...

  13. Sustainable freight transportation: a review of strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Ruamsook, Kusumal; Thomchick, Evelyn A.

    2012-01-01

    With a growing sense of urgency for sustainability actions among consumers and most governments around the world, businesses operating in today’s global supply chain are under pressure to operate in sustainable manners. Among a wide array of supply chains and logistics activities, the most visible and environmentally damaging element is extensive freight transportation. Two issues pertinent to freight transport activities that are at the center of attention in both public and private sectors ...

  14. Benefits of Sharing Information from Commercial Airborne Forward-Looking Sensors in the Next Generation Air Transportation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffner, Philip R.; Harrah, Steven; Neece, Robert T.

    2012-01-01

    The air transportation system of the future will need to support much greater traffic densities than are currently possible, while preserving or improving upon current levels of safety. Concepts are under development to support a Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) that by some estimates will need to support up to three times current capacity by the year 2025. Weather and other atmospheric phenomena, such as wake vortices and volcanic ash, constitute major constraints on airspace system capacity and can present hazards to aircraft if encountered. To support safe operations in the NextGen environment advanced systems for collection and dissemination of aviation weather and environmental information will be required. The envisioned NextGen Network Enabled Weather (NNEW) infrastructure will be a critical component of the aviation weather support services, providing access to a common weather picture for all system users. By taking advantage of Network Enabled Operations (NEO) capabilities, a virtual 4-D Weather Data Cube with aviation weather information from many sources will be developed. One new source of weather observations may be airborne forward-looking sensors, such as the X-band weather radar. Future sensor systems that are the subject of current research include advanced multi-frequency and polarimetric radar, a variety of Lidar technologies, and infrared imaging spectrometers.

  15. Experimental Validation of a Forward Looking Interferometer for Detection of Clear Air Turbulence due to Mountain Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffner, Philip R.; Daniels, Taumi S.; West, Leanne L.; Gimmestad, Gary G.; Lane, Sarah E.; Burdette, Edward M.; Smith, William L.; Kireev, Stanislav; Cornman, Larry; Sharman, Robert D.

    2012-01-01

    The Forward-Looking Interferometer (FLI) is an airborne sensor concept for detection and estimation of potential atmospheric hazards to aircraft. The FLI concept is based on high-resolution Infrared Fourier Transform Spectrometry technologies that have been developed for satellite remote sensing. The FLI is being evaluated for its potential to address multiple hazards, during all phases of flight, including clear air turbulence, volcanic ash, wake vortices, low slant range visibility, dry wind shear, and icing. In addition, the FLI is being evaluated for its potential to detect hazardous runway conditions during landing, such as wet or icy asphalt or concrete. The validation of model-based instrument and hazard simulation results is accomplished by comparing predicted performance against empirical data. In the mountain lee wave data collected in the previous FLI project, the data showed a damped, periodic mountain wave structure. The wave data itself will be of use in forecast and nowcast turbulence products such as the Graphical Turbulence Guidance and Graphical Turbulence Guidance Nowcast products. Determining how turbulence hazard estimates can be derived from FLI measurements will require further investigation.

  16. Wastewater treatment, energy recovery and desalination using a forward osmosis membrane in an air-cathode microbial osmotic fuel cell

    KAUST Repository

    Werner, Craig M.

    2013-02-01

    A microbial osmotic fuel cell (MOFC) has a forward osmosis (FO) membrane situated between the electrodes that enable desalinated water recovery along with power generation. Previous designs have required aerating the cathode chamber water, offsetting the benefits of power generation by power consumption for aeration. An air-cathode MOFC design was developed here to improve energy recovery, and the performance of this new design was compared to conventional microbial fuel cells containing a cation (CEM) or anion exchange membrane (AEM). Internal resistance of the MOFC was reduced with the FO membrane compared to the ion exchange membranes, resulting in a higher maximum power production (43W/m3) than that obtained with an AEM (40W/m3) or CEM (23W/m3). Acetate (carbon source) removal reached 90% in the MOFC; however, a small amount of acetate crossed the membrane to the catholyte. The initial water flux declined by 28% from cycle 1 to cycle 3 of operation but stabilized at 4.1L/m2/h over the final three batch cycles. This decline in water flux was due to membrane fouling. Overall desalination of the draw (synthetic seawater) solution was 35%. These results substantially improve the prospects for simultaneous wastewater treatment and seawater desalination in the same reactor. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

  17. On structural inelasticity of modal substitution in freight transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rich, Jeppe; Kveiborg, Ole; Overgård, Christian Hansen

    2011-01-01

    alternative available. The paper investigates the magnitude of this ‘‘structural inelasticity” of modal substitution in freight transport due to a sparser layout of rail and ship-based freight networks compared to road. In the analysis we use a recent Scandinavian freight demand model covering more than 800...

  18. Multimodal schedule design for synchromodal freight transport systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Behdani, Behzad; Fan, Yun; Wiegmans, Bart; Zuidwijk, Rob

    2016-01-01

    Intermodal freight transport has been discussed for decades as an alternative to unimodal road transport. However, it still does not represent a significant portion of the total freight market. A new and promising possibility to improve the performance of freight systems is the synchromodal desig

  19. 78 FR 8686 - Establishment of the National Freight Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-06

    ... Federal Highway Administration Establishment of the National Freight Network AGENCY: Federal Highway... of the national freight network as required by Section 1115 of the Moving Ahead for Progress in the... freight network, the designation of additional miles critical to future efficient movement of goods on...

  20. Modeling interregional freight flow by distribution systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Davydenko, I.; Tavasszy, L.A.; Blois, C.J. de

    2013-01-01

    Distribution Centers with a warehousing function have an important influence on the flow of goods from production to consumption, generating substantial goods flow and vehicle movements. This paper extends the classical 4-step freight modeling framework with a logistics chain model, explicitly model

  1. Freight railway operator timetabling and engine scheduling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bach, Lukas; Gendreau, M.; Wøhlk, Sanne

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we consider timetable design at a European freight railway operator. The timetable is designed by choosing the time of service for customer unit train demands among a set of discrete points. These discrete points are all found within the a time-window. The objective of the model is to...

  2. Press freight and shipping guide: Sochi 2014

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    This "Press freight and shipping guide" is intended for accredited members of the media. This guide provides a practical insight about how to import and export various types of goods to and from Russia, for use in connection with the Sochi 2014 Olympic and Paralympic Winter Games.

  3. Customs and freight guide: Vancouver 2010

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    This guide offers Official Sponsors, contractors and other client groups a reference tool for importing and exporting equipment and supplies to and from Vancouver and Whistler for use in connection with the Vancouver 2010 Olympic and Paralympic Winter Games. As such, this guide outlines the relevant customs regulations, freight policies and shipping procedures.

  4. Media customs and freight guide: Vancouver 2010

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    This guide offers members of the accredited media (rights-holding broadcasters and the written and photographic press) a reference tool for importing and exporting equipment and supplies to and from Vancouver and Whistler to support their coverage of the Vancouver 2010 Olympic and Paralympic Winter Games. As such, this guide outlines relevant customs regulations, freight policies and shipping procedures.

  5. Evaluation of urban freight transport management measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Kaszubowski

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Problems with urban freight traffic in downtown areas emerge in parallel with the growth of motorization and changes in consumption patterns. Supply chains become more and more dependent on small and frequent deliveries. It is a problem common for most modern cities and one that requires tailor-made solutions which meet local requirements and can be extended, if necessary. Methods: An extensive literature review was conducted to obtain a comprehensive overview of existing urban freight related problems and possible solutions. The specificity of the problem required a broad approach including an analysis of many case studies from European cities and gathering the theoretical background. On this basis a general set of freight related measures was selected for evaluation. Because of the complexity of both the problem and its solutions an adequate method of evaluation was needed. The method had to be flexible and offer an understandable and manageable structure. The analytic network process (ANP was selected for this task. It is a multi-criteria decision making method used in complex decisions, which can measure tangible and intangible factors. The author's aim was to build a sufficiently detailed model that ensures reliable results and accomplishes the goals of the main actors and of sustainable city transport policy. Results and Conclusions: The analysis showed that given the current state of development of urban freight traffic in Gdansk, the situation can be rationalised with regulatory measures. Only well balanced and carefully implemented measures have the potential to rationalize urban freight transport without disturbing the city's economic growth. They have to be prepared in advance on the basis of a continuous analysis of the urban transport system. It is important to involve all actors in the development of more advanced measures in a bottom-up planning process. Otherwise, the risk is that overly complicated solutions without

  6. Computer-aided strength analysis of the modernized freight wagon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Płaczek, M.; Wróbel, A.; Baier, A.

    2015-11-01

    In the paper results of computer-aided strength analysis of the modernized freight wagon based on Finite Element Method are presented. CAD model of the considered freight wagon was created and its strength was analysed in agreement with norms described the way of such kind of freight wagons testing. Then, the model of the analysed freight wagon was modernized by adding composite panels covering the inner surface of the vehicle body. Strength analysis was carried out once again and obtained results were juxtaposed. This work was carried out in order to verify the influence of composite panels on the strength of the freight car body and to estimate the possibility of reducing the steel shell thickness of the box in order to reduce weight of the freight wagon.

  7. Coopetition in Intermodal Freight Transport Services

    OpenAIRE

    Jian Liu; Yinzhen Li; Jun Li

    2015-01-01

    The paper studies the coopetition of the downstream different carriers by providing complementary transport services in intermodal freight transport chain. Considering different information structure, a two-stage dynamic game model with simultaneous actions on investment and price is first formulated. Equilibria show both parties have motivation to select coopetition even if the agreement for cooperation investment is reached in advance. When both firms agree on the specific allocation, the n...

  8. Phosphine fumigation of tobacco in freight containers

    OpenAIRE

    Harris, A. H.

    1984-01-01

    A series of trials was carried out in Malawi to assess the feasibility of fumigating tobacco, in freight containers, while in transit by rail to ports in neighbouring Mozambique. In containers that were soundly constructed and in an adequate state of repair, it was found that effective fumigations could be undertaken without hazard to operators or to the public at large. Lining the containers with polyethylene film improved gas retention in containers of average to good condition but not suff...

  9. Evaluation of urban freight transport management measures

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel Kaszubowski

    2012-01-01

    Background: Problems with urban freight traffic in downtown areas emerge in parallel with the growth of motorization and changes in consumption patterns. Supply chains become more and more dependent on small and frequent deliveries. It is a problem common for most modern cities and one that requires tailor-made solutions which meet local requirements and can be extended, if necessary. Methods: An extensive literature review was conducted to obtain a comprehensive overview of existing urb...

  10. MODELLING PRODUCTIONS AND ATTRACTIONS OF FREIGHT TRANSPORT

    OpenAIRE

    Zibelnik, Klemen

    2011-01-01

    This diploma thesis addresses the theoretical bases of the regression analysis, identifies the data necessary for the performance of the analysis and modelling of productions and freight transport attractions and examines dependence of European states’ export and import respectively on socio-economic indicators of the states. The focus was limited to the EU Member States and candidate countries for the entry into the EU as well as the available railway and road transport data a...

  11. Emission Projections for Long-Haul Freight Trucks and Rail in the United States through 2050.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Liang; Hwang, Taesung; Lee, Sungwon; Ouyang, Yanfeng; Lee, Bumsoo; Smith, Steven J; Yan, Fang; Daenzer, Kathryn; Bond, Tami C

    2015-10-01

    This work develops an integrated model approach for estimating emissions from long-haul freight truck and rail transport in the United States between 2010 and 2050. We connect models of macroeconomic activity, freight demand by commodity, transportation networks, and emission technology to represent different pathways of future freight emissions. Emissions of particulate matter (PM), carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NOx), and total hydrocarbon (THC) decrease by 60%-70% from 2010 to 2030, as older vehicles built to less-stringent emission standards retire. Climate policy, in the form of carbon tax that increases apparent fuel prices, causes a shift from truck to rail, resulting in a 30% reduction in fuel consumption and a 10%-28% reduction in pollutant emissions by 2050, if rail capacity is sufficient. Eliminating high-emitting conditions in the truck fleet affects air pollutants by 20% to 65%; although these estimates are highly uncertain, they indicate the importance of durability in vehicle engines and emission control systems. Future infrastructure investment will be required both to meet transport demand and to enable actions that reduce emissions of air and climate pollutants. By driving the integrated model framework with two macroeconomic scenarios, we show that the effect of carbon tax on air pollution is robust regardless of growth levels. PMID:26368392

  12. Vibration from freight trains fragments sleep: A polysomnographic study

    OpenAIRE

    Michael G. Smith; Ilona Croy; Oscar Hammar; Kerstin Persson Waye

    2016-01-01

    As the number of freight trains on railway networks increases, so does the potential for vibration exposure in dwellings nearby to freight railway lines. Nocturnal trains in particular are of particular importance since night-time exposure may interfere with sleep. The present work investigates the impact of vibration and noise from night-time freight trains on human sleep. In an experimental polysomnographic laboratory study, 24 young healthy volunteers with normal hearing were exposed to si...

  13. Intermodal freight terminals : an analysis of the terminal market

    OpenAIRE

    Wiegmans, B.W.; Masurel, E.; Nijkamp, P.

    1998-01-01

    Intermodality has become a major goal in modem transport policy. The improvement of combined transport within the European Union includes the refinement of the freight terminal services. A freight terminal is a nodal place where goods are transhipped between any two or more transport modes. In this paper we describe and analyse the freight terminal market with the help of Porter’s model of five competitive forces. The central question is: who are the stakeholders in the terminal market? We wi...

  14. A dynamic model for railway freight overbooking

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯芬玲; 张佳琪; 郭晓峰

    2015-01-01

    In order to apply overbooking idea in Chinese railway freight industry to improve revenue, a Markov decision process (dynamic programming) model for railway freight reservation was formulated and the overbooking limit level was proposed as a control policy. However, computing the dynamic programming treatment needs six nested loops and this will be burdensome for real-world problems. To break through the calculation limit, the properties of value function were analyzed and the overbooking protection level was proposed to reduce the calculating quantity. The simulation experiments show that the overbooking protection level for the lower-fare class is higher than that for the higher-fare class, so the overbooking strategy is nested by fare class. Besides, by analyzing the influence on the overbooking strategy of freight arrival probability and cancellation probability, the proposed approach is efficient and also has a good application prospect in reality. Also, compared with the existing reservation (FCFS), the overbooking strategy performs better in the fields of vacancy reduction and revenue improvement.

  15. Air sea ratio reduction initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oberle, Jean

    2010-09-15

    Airfreight is the most expensive mode of transportation as well as the most impacting in terms of CO{sup 2} emissions. It is 7 times more expensive on average to ship by air than shipping by sea 1. Airfreight transportation mode emits 30 times more CO{sup 2} than sea freight mode 2. These elements provided a compelling platform to design a global logistics program to initiate a modal shift from air to sea freight without compromising service to customers.

  16. Energy Consumption and Freight Transport Demand in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salling, Kim Bang; Bonilla, David

    2008-01-01

    econometric models make use of a deterministic trend to explain fuel intensity and cannot accommodate long-run effects such as asymmetric diesel price effects and relationship between the variables in the freight demand. Our results do not confirm that decoupling truck freight has accelerated in recent years....... long run elasticity (price and income) are also estimated....

  17. 49 CFR 1248.1 - Freight commodity statistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Freight commodity statistics. 1248.1 Section 1248... STATISTICS § 1248.1 Freight commodity statistics. All class I railroads, as described in § 1240.1 of this... statistics on the basis of the commodity codes named in § 1248.101. Carriers shall report quarterly on...

  18. 78 FR 69520 - Designation of the Primary Freight Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-19

    ... 6, 2013 (78 FR 8686), introduced the process for designation of the highway PFN, NFN, and CRFCs... Federal Highway Administration Designation of the Primary Freight Network AGENCY: Federal Highway... initial designation of the highway Primary Freight Network (PFN), which is established by the Secretary...

  19. Improving the energy efficiency of freight in the United States through commodity-based analysis: justification and implementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Efforts to reduce energy use in freight transportation usually center around ''mode-based'' approaches, namely improving the energy efficiency of energy intensive modes, such as truck, and shifting more freight to energy efficient modes, such as rail. In the first part of this paper we review the recent trends and future prospects for these mode-based approaches, finding that despite substantial improvement in the technological efficiency of freight modes and robust growth in the use of intermodal rail since 1980, total freight energy use across all modes in the US has grown by approximately 33%, with proportional growth in carbon emissions. In the second part of the paper we propose use of a ''commodity-based'' approach, in which freight energy use is disaggregated by contribution of major commodity groups, in order to support efficiency improvement at the commodity level. Two potential applications of the commodity based approach, namely (1) life cycle analysis of energy use for major commodity groups and (2) spatial analysis of freight patterns, are demonstrated using the 1993 US Commodity Flow Survey data. Results of these preliminary findings suggest that commodity groups vary widely in the ratio of energy use in production to energy use in transport, and that for many commodity groups, there may be substantial opportunities for saving energy by redistributing flow patterns. Through development of the commodity-based approach, we also identify the collaborative involvement of shippers and carriers as a key point in improving energy efficiency, since it can be used to both make the mode-based approach more effective and address new issues such as the underlying growth in tonne-km. Benefits for air quality and other transportation issues are also discussed. (author)

  20. Estimation of the Domestic Transport Performance from the Consolidated European Road Freight Transport Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Karner

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Transport statistics provide information about transport volume and performance on defined territories (e.g. for the European Union as a whole or for the individual member states and are therefore necessary for political, economic and ecological decisions. Complying with the current European legal basis[1] the surveys for the modes of transport rail, aviation and inland waterways are performed according to the territoriality principle and hence the data on total transport volume is collected in each member state. Alone the road freight transport survey is based on the nationality principle, which means that only freight vehicles registered in the respective member state take part in the national surveys. Thus the single member states have no information about the total transport volume and performance on their own territory derived from road freight vehicles registered in other member states. In contrast the member states have information about the transport volume and performance provided by their freight vehicles in the other European countries. This situation implies a significant limitation of the usability of the results of the national road freight surveys as well as the usefulness of the modal split of the single modes of transport based solely on the national surveys.[1] Regulation (EC No 91/2003 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 16 December 2002 on rail statistics, OJ No L14, 21.2.2003 p 1 - 15; Regulation (EC No 437/2003 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 27 February 2003 on statistical returns in respect of the carriage of passengers, freight and mail by air; OJ No L 66, 11.3.2003 p 1 – 8; Regulation (EC No 1365/2006 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 6 September 2006 on statistics of goods transport by inland waterways and repealing Council Directive 80/1119/EEC, OJ L No 264; 25.9.2006 p 1 – 11; Regulation (EU No 70/2012 of the European Parliament and the Council of 18 January 2012 on

  1. SKF Freight Transports and CO{sub 2} emissions. A Study in Environmental Management Accounting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindblom, Helen; Stenqvist, Christian

    2007-11-15

    In this study of CO{sub 2} emissions accounting, freight transports of the SKF company are examined. The identification of emission sources, the handling of transport activity data, the application of proper calculation methodologies, organizational aspects and questions of liability are all integrated parts of the study. Emission calculations are carried out for two specific logistics systems managed by SKF Logistics Services; the Daily Transport System (DTS) and the Global Air Freight Program. The DTS, which is based on road freight transports, operates the European distribution of finished products. It is estimated to contribute with 9 700 tonnes CO{sub 2} during 2007. Since the system is optimized to a reasonable degree, the CO{sub 2} impact per tonne-km is relatively low. Over the same period the air freight's estimated emissions are 40 000 tonnes. Together these transport activities contributes to about ten percent of the SKF total CO{sub 2} equivalents based on the reporting of 2006. Adding the emissions from the remaining transport activities that SKF utilizes will make this share increase considerably, particularly if also inbound transports are accounted for. The potential for CO{sub 2} reductions is covered by two change-oriented case studies. It can be concluded that short-sea transportation seldom is an alternative to road transports. Intermodal transports combining road and rail can, depending on the circumstances, reduce the CO{sub 2} impact considerably compared to only using road transports. Reducing transportation work by optimizing a transport activity is seen as the best option for CO{sub 2} reductions. Efforts should be put into reducing the need for air freight transports, considering the high emission levels per tonne-km. Monitoring emissions for all transport activities that falls under SKF responsibility will reduce the risk of sub optimization. Introducing system changes in order to decrease CO{sub 2} emissions will have a range of

  2. Energy efficiency practices among road freight hauliers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The reduction of greenhouse gases (GHG) is a highly prevalent public policy goal among European Union member countries. In the new White Paper on transport, the role of road freight transports in this is strongly emphasized. This far, however, the efficiency practices utilised in logistics firms are less studied. Drawing from policy goals and new survey data on 295 road transport firms our results show that hauliers are aware of the possible energy efficiency actions but lack the knowledge and resources to fully utilize them. Energy efficiency seems also to be unimportant for many shippers, so there are no incentives for hauliers to improve it. Examples from various countries show that clear energy efficiency improvements can be achieved with active cooperation between hauliers, shippers and policy makers. Such cooperation can be developed in Finland through the sectoral energy efficiency agreements. The novelty and the utility of these results allow scholars to answer important open questions in the national-level determinants of enhancing energy efficiency practices among road freight hauliers, and contribute to our understanding of how these can be fostered in public policies. - Highlights: ► Hauliers still monitor their fuel consumption with unsophisticated methods. ► Larger hauliers are more active in energy efficiency related issues than smaller ones. ► Hauliers are aware of energy efficiency actions, but lack knowledge of implementation. ► Finnish energy efficiency agreement provides a good framework for public policies. ► Companies that monitor and improve energy efficiency may gain competitive advantage.

  3. 49 CFR 216.11 - Special notice for repairs-railroad freight car.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Special notice for repairs-railroad freight car...—railroad freight car. (a) When an FRA Motive Power and Equipment Inspector or a State Equipment Inspector determines that a railroad freight car is not in conformity with the requirements of the FRA Freight...

  4. Freight Wing Trailer Aerodynamics Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sean Graham

    2007-10-31

    Freight Wing Incorporated utilized the opportunity presented by a DOE category two Inventions and Innovations grant to commercialize and improve upon aerodynamic technology for semi-tuck trailers, capable of decreasing heavy vehicle fuel consumption, related environmental damage, and U.S. consumption of foreign oil. Major project goals included the demonstration of aerodynamic trailer technology in trucking fleet operations, and the development and testing of second generation products. A great deal of past scientific research has demonstrated that streamlining box shaped semi-trailers can significantly reduce a truck’s fuel consumption. However, significant design challenges have prevented past concepts from meeting industry needs. Freight Wing utilized a 2003 category one Inventions and Innovations grant to develop practical solutions to trailer aerodynamics. Fairings developed for the front, rear, and bottom of standard semi-trailers together demonstrated a 7% improvement to fuel economy in scientific tests conducted by the Transportation Research Center (TRC). Operational tests with major trucking fleets proved the functionality of the products, which were subsequently brought to market. This category two grant enabled Freight Wing to further develop, test and commercialize its products, resulting in greatly increased understanding and acceptance of aerodynamic trailer technology. Commercialization was stimulated by offering trucking fleets 50% cost sharing on trial implementations of Freight Wing products for testing and evaluation purposes. Over 230 fairings were implemented through the program with 35 trucking fleets including industry leaders such as Wal-Mart, Frito Lay and Whole Foods. The feedback from these testing partnerships was quite positive with product performance exceeding fleet expectations in many cases. Fleet feedback also was also valuable from a product development standpoint and assisted the design of several second generation products

  5. Measurements in the Forward Phase-Space with the CMS Experiment and their Impact on Physics of Extensive Air Showers

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2083313; Quast, Günter; Ulrich, Ralf

    2015-11-18

    The astrophysical interpretation of ultra-high energy cosmic rays is based on detection of extensive air showers in indirect measurements. Hadronic interaction models that are needed for such analyses require parameters to be adjusted to collider data since soft particle production cannot be calculated from first principles. Within this work, the program CRMC was developed that unifies all air shower hadronic interaction models and supports the output formats used by collider experiments. Almost all LHC experiments have adopted the use these hadronic interaction models thanks to CRMC. The program can even be used in detector simulations to make direct comparison to reconstructed quantities from which the cosmic ray and the particle physics communities benefit immensely. Furthermore, nuclear effects were studied with the CMS experiments at the LHC. The production cross section was derived in recent proton-lead collision data at sqrt(s(NN)) = 5.02 TeV in order to study nuclear effects. The measurement constrain...

  6. Transportation Energy Futures Series: Freight Transportation Modal Shares: Scenarios for a Low-Carbon Future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brogan, J. J.; Aeppli, A. E.; Beagan, D. F.; Brown, A.; Fischer, M. J.; Grenzeback, L. R.; McKenzie, E.; Vimmerstedt, L.; Vyas, A. D.; Witzke, E.

    2013-03-01

    Truck, rail, water, air, and pipeline modes each serve a distinct share of the freight transportation market. The current allocation of freight by mode is the product of technologic, economic, and regulatory frameworks, and a variety of factors -- price, speed, reliability, accessibility, visibility, security, and safety -- influence mode. Based on a comprehensive literature review, this report considers how analytical methods can be used to project future modal shares and offers insights on federal policy decisions with the potential to prompt shifts to energy-efficient, low-emission modes. There are substantial opportunities to reduce the energy used for freight transportation, but it will be difficult to shift large volumes from one mode to another without imposing considerable additional costs on businesses and consumers. This report explores federal government actions that could help trigger the shifts in modal shares needed to reduce energy consumption and emissions. This is one in a series of reports produced as a result of the Transportation Energy Futures project, a Department of Energy-sponsored multi-agency effort to pinpoint underexplored strategies for reducing GHGs and petroleum dependence related to transportation.

  7. A proposed regulatory framework for road and rail freight transport in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Wessel Pienaar

    2007-01-01

    The increase in the number of freight vehicles on South Africa’s rural road network has received substantial attention. Insinuations persist that long-distance road freight haulage is of a somewhat unsavoury economic nature, and that strict economic re-regulation of the land freight transport is necessary. During the 1970s road transport replaced rail carriage as the dominant form of long-distance freight transport (excluding minerals and ore) in South Africa. On long hauls road freight carri...

  8. Discussion on the Logistics Construction of Railway Container Freight Stations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    迟永林; 张锦

    2002-01-01

    From the perspective of logistics, the article discusses some essential functions and service functions of railway container freight stations. Then it plans the construction of the logistics operation system of container freight stations, and designs five main operating yards such as deconsolidation and groupage yard, storage and distribution yard, container receiving-departure yard, container stack yard, and special cargo yard. The management pattern is discussed under the direction of modern business management theory. The ideas presented in this article is significant to the construction of railway container freight stations.

  9. Coopetition in Intermodal Freight Transport Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper studies the coopetition of the downstream different carriers by providing complementary transport services in intermodal freight transport chain. Considering different information structure, a two-stage dynamic game model with simultaneous actions on investment and price is first formulated. Equilibria show both parties have motivation to select coopetition even if the agreement for cooperation investment is reached in advance. When both firms agree on the specific allocation, the new coopetition with higher efficiency would be emerged. Moreover, we analyze the complexity and evolution of coopetition by repeated pricing game with finitely and infinitely time horizon. In the finitely repeated pricing game, both firms have incentive to reach a tacit understanding to alternate choosing price cooperation and competition after setting suitable allocation scheme; the repeated periods t are then going to be an issue. In the infinitely repeated pricing game, the perfect cooperation is realized by designing the suitable trigger strategy.

  10. Sustainable freight transport in South Africa:Domestic intermodal solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan H. Havenga

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Due to the rapid deregulation of freight transport in South Africa two decades ago, and low historical investment in rail (with resultant poor service delivery, an integrated alternative to road and rail competition was never developed. High national freight logistics costs, significant road infrastructure challenges and environmental impact concerns of a road-dominated freight transport market have, however, fuelled renewed interest in intermodal transport solutions. In this article, a high-level business case for domestic intermodal solutions in South Africa is presented. The results demonstrate that building three intermodal terminals to connect the three major industrial hubs (i.e. Gauteng, Durban and Cape Town through an intermodal solution could reduce transport costs (including externalities for the identified 11.5 million tons of intermodalfriendly freight flows on the Cape and Natal corridors by 42% (including externalities.

  11. Freight Shuttle System: Cross-Border Movement of Goods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2011-05-31

    The Freight Shuttle System (FSS) is designed to provide freight transportation services between those short and intermediate distance locations (within 600 miles) that are currently handling large volumes of freight traffic. Much like trucks, the FSS's transporters are autonomous: each transporter has its own propulsion and travels independently of other transporters. Inspired by railroads, each FSS transporter has steel wheels operating on a steel running surface and can carry either a standardsize freight container or an over-the-road truck trailer. However, unlike either rail or trucks, the FSS runs on an elevated, dedicated guideway to avoid the interference of other transportation systems. The objective of this report is to examine the potential viability for an alternative transportation system for trailers and containers in a multi-national, cross-border setting. The El Paso-Ciudad Juarez region serves as the environment of this analysis.

  12. Harmonisation of Carbon Footprint Calculation for Freight Transport

    OpenAIRE

    Ehrler, Verena Charlotte

    2014-01-01

    A lot of efforts within the transport industry as well as by its stakeholders are working toward the further standardisation of the calculation of CO2emissions along freight transport chains. This presentations maps out the challenges related to the development of such a standard and gives a summary on the current achievements of developments so far. It closes with an outlook on next steps needed towards a global standisation of carbon footprint calculation of freight transport.

  13. Intermodal freight terminals : marketing channels and transport networks

    OpenAIRE

    Wiegmans, B.W.; Nijkamp, P.; Masurel, E.

    1999-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to combine the current theory about marketing channels with combined transport and logistics in order to develop a customer-based and broadly applicable approach to the study of combined freight transport in Europe. Furthermore, this paper seeks to provide an analytical framework as a starting point for the analysis of the performance -in terms of quality- of intermodal freight terminals. Much of the current research on transport is based on a comparison of features ...

  14. Intermodal freight terminals : marketing channels and transport networks

    OpenAIRE

    Nijkamp, Peter; Wiegmans, Bart

    1999-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to combine the current theory about marketing channels withcombined transport and logistics in order to develop a customer-based and broadly applicable approach to the study of combined freight transport inEurope. Furthermore, this paper seeks to provide an analytical framework as a starting point for the analysis of the performance -in terms of quality-of intermodal freight terminals. Much of the current research on transport is based on a comparison of features of ...

  15. Analysis of Impact of ICT Solutions in International Freight Management

    OpenAIRE

    Boschian, Valentina; Fanti, Maria Pia; Iacobellis, Giorgio; Ukovich, Walter

    2012-01-01

    The paper analyses a crucial problem in the international freight management and assesses the application of an innovative solution based on Information and Communication Technology (ICT) tools. In order to improve the customs clearance procedures, the paper analyses the main anomalies and bottlenecks related to international freight management of a case study by modelling the customs clearance activities in the Unified Modelling Language framework. Moreover, some novel ICT based solutions ar...

  16. ORGANIZATION OF FREIGHT TRANSPORTATION IN UKRAINE IN THE REFORMATION CONDTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. V. Martseniuk

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Each country of the former Soviet Union carries out railroad industry reformation according to different models depending on orienting points and the goals it establishes. All railway administrations have faced the problem of considerable reduction of freight and passenger transportation volumes, aging of main assets, lack of investments for their renovation. The purpose of the paper is the development of optimal management structure of freight cars in conditions of railway transport reformation. Methodology. The theoretical and methodological basis for research is a systematic analysis of problems of providing the competitiveness of the transport industry in the field of freight railway transportations, theoretical principles of economics in the production efficiency, market economics transformation and management of the national economy. Findings. The author has developed an improved mechanism for freight traffic management, which differs from the existing one by its adaptation to the conditions of industry being reformed and the organization of management companies. These companies together with the Ukrainian transport and logistics center centralize management of all freight cars of both domestic and foreign operating companies. Originality. Author presents the theoretical generalization and new solution of the scientific problem. It appears in the development of theoretical and methodological approaches to the management structure of the freight cars by operating companies in conditions of railway transport reforming through the management companies organization in Ukraine. The above mentioned companies will combine two types of activity – the commercial one and the cars repair of different property, it will reduce car turnover, stay time of rolling stock in the inoperative park and thereby improve the efficiency of freight transportations. Particularly, they will lease and have the right to dispose universal cars of domestic

  17. Decomposing road freight energy use in the UK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sorrell, S.R.; Champion, T.; Stapleton, L.M.; Lehtonen, M.; Pujol, J. (Sussex Energy Group SPRU, Univ. of Sussex (United Kingdom)). e-mail: s.r.sorrell@sussex.ac.uk

    2009-07-01

    UK GDP increased by 43.3% between 1989 and 2004, but energy consumption for road freight is estimated to have increased by only 6.3% Applying the techniques of decomposition analysis we estimate the relative contribution of ten variables (termed 'key ratios') plus GDP to the change in road freight energy use. The results are best interpreted as an estimate of the percentage growth in energy consumption that would have resulted from the change in the relevant key ratio (e.g. length of haul) had the other ratios remained unchanged. The results demonstrate that the main factor contributing to the decoupling of UK road freight energy consumption from GDP was the decline in the value of domestically manufactured goods relative to GDP. Over the period 1989-2004 this largely offset the effect of increases in GDP on road freight energy consumption. While the decline in domestic manufacturing was to some extent displaced by increases in imports, the net effect of these supply factors, together with shifts in the commodity mix, has been to reduce UK road freight energy consumption by 30.1% KOKO. The net effect on global carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions is likely to be somewhat less beneficial, since many freight movements associated with the manufacture of imported goods have simply been displaced to other countries.

  18. USAID Forward

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — USAID Forward is an effort to strengthen the Agency by embracing new partnerships, investing in the catalytic role of innovation and demanding a relentless focus on...

  19. First steps toward development of a stable isotope forward model for tropical ice cores: cold air incursions and snow days at Quelccaya Ice Cap, Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurley, J. V.; Vuille, M. F.; Hardy, D. R.; Burns, S. J.

    2014-12-01

    We are working towards a forward-model reconstruction of the South American Summer Monsoon (SASM) for the last millennium from the Quelccaya Ice Cap (QIC) d18O record. QIC receives precipitation almost exclusively during the SASM season. Initial efforts focus on dynamics that yield precipitation at this receding tropical ice cap, and how they relate to the hydrogen and oxygen stable isotopes. We present over a decade of daily snow-height change observations from the summit of QIC. Accumulation of snow (~2 m yr-1) at the summit occurs October through April, peaking in December. Net monthly snow-height change is negative May through September, though positive snow height change days do occur throughout the year. Snow height change time-series are used to develop d18O age-models for annual snow collected in vertical profiles near the summit of QIC since 2003. Snow d18O decreases during austral summer from about -17 to -24 per mil VSMOW. Post-depositional alteration of late summer snow during austral winter elevates d18O from about -24 to about -15 per mil VSMOW. Timing of 90thpercentile positive snow-height change events at QIC corresponds with regional precipitation and outgoing longwave radiation (OLR) anomalies that are dynamically triggered by cold air incursions propagating from the midlatitudes east of the Andes into the Amazon Basin. Precipitation and OLR anomalies migrate northwest in about 2-3 days from near Rio de la Plata to central Peru. The convective anomalies are the result of southerly horizontal wind anomalies in the lower troposphere that advect cold extratropical air equatorward. Composite analysis of satellite measurements shows that cold air incursions are associated with negative water vapor dD (~ -40 per mil) anomalies at QIC. We expect that snow stable isotope values from QIC are thus not only records of the deep overturning component of the monsoon circulation but also of synoptic scale monsoon disturbances. Cold air incursions into the South

  20. Decomposing road freight energy use in the United Kingdom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sorrell, Steve; Lehtonen, Markku; Stapleton, Lee; Pujol, Javier [Sussex Energy Group, SPRU, Science and Technology Policy Research, Freeman Centre, University of Sussex, Falmer, Brighton BN1 9QE (United Kingdom); Champion, Toby [Toby Champion Associates, Brighton, Sussex (United Kingdom)

    2009-08-15

    Applying the techniques of decomposition analysis we estimate the relative contribution of ten variables (termed 'key ratios') plus GDP to the change in UK road freight energy use over the period 1989-2004 inclusive. The results are best interpreted as an estimate of the percentage growth in energy consumption that would have resulted from the change in the relevant factor (e.g. length of haul) had the other factors remained unchanged. The results demonstrate that the main factor contributing to the decoupling of UK road freight energy consumption from GDP was the decline in the value of domestically manufactured goods relative to GDP. Over the period 1989-2004 this largely offset the effect of increases in GDP on road freight energy consumption. While the decline in domestic manufacturing was to some extent displaced by increases in imports, the net effect of these supply factors, together with shifts in the commodity mix, has been to reduce UK road freight energy consumption by 30.1%. The net effect on global carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions is likely to be somewhat less beneficial, since many freight movements associated with the manufacture of imported goods have simply been displaced to other countries. (author)

  1. 49 CFR 173.9 - Transport vehicles or freight containers containing lading which has been fumigated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... section, not including 49 CFR part 387, a rail car, freight container, truck body, or trailer in which the... freight container. For domestic transportation, a hazard warning label authorized by EPA under 40 CFR part... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Transport vehicles or freight...

  2. 49 CFR 174.61 - Transport vehicles and freight containers on flat cars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Transport vehicles and freight containers on flat... CARRIAGE BY RAIL General Handling and Loading Requirements § 174.61 Transport vehicles and freight containers on flat cars. (a) A transport vehicle, freight container, or package containing a...

  3. The measurement of some signals for control system of 60Co scan system for freight train

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 60Co Scan system for Freight Train has an automatic inspection flow, so it is very crucial that the measurement of the signals for the automatic control system. In this paper, we mainly introduce the identification of the intervals between two freight train carriage, the measurement of the train speed, and identification of freight train

  4. Equestrian freight manual: Equestrian events of the London 2012 Olympic Games and Paralympic Games : March 2012

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    This equestrian freight manual (EFM) is the guideline for shipping equestrian freight for the London 2012 Olympic and Paralympic equestrian events. It is recommend that all National Olympic Committees/National Paralympic Committees (NOCs / NPCs) wishing to ship equestrian freight for the London 2012 Olympic Games and Paralympic Games understand and follow the procedures described in this guide.

  5. The development of ISO freight containers as IP-2 packagings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Design specifications were developed for ISO freight containers to meet the requirements of the transport regulations in the 1985 Edition of IAEA SS6, and to maximize the technical and commercial benefits offered to consignors by this type of container for the transport and handling of bulk LSA/SCO materials. A range of IP-2 ISO freight containers have been designed and built to these specifications and are in use in the UK. This paper discusses the regulatory considerations which had to be reviewed and interpreted in developing freight containers as Industrial Package Type 2 (IP-2) packagings and the development of performance standards to meet the regulatory requirements. Outline details of the packages developed are indicated together with examples of handling equipment developed to facilitate loading and unloading. (J.P.N.)

  6. Import / Export Forwarding Processes in Russian Foreign Trade. Case: Vodoley Company.

    OpenAIRE

    Mikhailova, Maria

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis was to analyse import/export forwarding processes in the Russian foreign trade. Additionally, the structure and problems of Russian foreign trade were studied. The work is based on the practical experience of the Vodoley freight forwarding company. Data for this research were collected by participatory observation, interview, Internet sources and literature analysis. The information was gathered from Russian and English languages sources. The results of the...

  7. Operations Research Approaches to Asset Management in Freight Rail

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gorman, Michael F.; Harrod, Steven

    2011-01-01

    This article describes operations research methodologies as they apply to asset management in freight rail. We describe state-of-the-art methods for locomotive, crew, railcar, line and yard planning and management. We conclude with emerging areas of research in rail.......This article describes operations research methodologies as they apply to asset management in freight rail. We describe state-of-the-art methods for locomotive, crew, railcar, line and yard planning and management. We conclude with emerging areas of research in rail....

  8. 49 CFR Table 2 of Subpart B to... - Minimum Quantity Requirement for Retroreflective Sheeting on Freight Rolling Stock

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Sheeting on Freight Rolling Stock 2 Table 2 of Subpart B to Part 224 Transportation Other Regulations... REFLECTORIZATION OF RAIL FREIGHT ROLLING STOCK Pt. 224, Subpt. B, Table 2 Table 2 of Subpart B to Part 224—Minimum Quantity Requirement for Retroreflective Sheeting on Freight Rolling Stock Freight car or locomotive...

  9. Energy efficiency of road freight hauliers - A Nordic comparison

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liimatainen, Heikki; Nykanen, Lasse; Arvidsson, Niklas;

    2014-01-01

    In order to promote policy targets for decarbonising road freight, it is important to gain knowledge on the current energy efficiency practices of hauliers in various countries. This research aimed to provide such knowledge to enable international comparison of the energy efficiency practices of ...

  10. Vibration from freight trains fragments sleep: A polysomnographic study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Michael G.; Croy, Ilona; Hammar, Oscar; Persson Waye, Kerstin

    2016-01-01

    As the number of freight trains on railway networks increases, so does the potential for vibration exposure in dwellings nearby to freight railway lines. Nocturnal trains in particular are of particular importance since night-time exposure may interfere with sleep. The present work investigates the impact of vibration and noise from night-time freight trains on human sleep. In an experimental polysomnographic laboratory study, 24 young healthy volunteers with normal hearing were exposed to simulated freight pass-bys with vibration amplitudes of 0.7 and 1.4 mm/s either 20 or 36 times during the night. Stronger vibrations were associated with higher probabilities of event-related arousals and awakenings (p sleep stage changes (p Sleep macrostructure was most affected in high vibration nights with 36 events, with increased wakefulness (p sleep (p sleep stage changes (p sleep disturbance due to vibration (F(4,92) = 25.9, p sleep, but extrapolation of significance for health outcomes should be approached with caution. PMID:27090401

  11. Recent progress in 3-D imaging of sea freight containers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, Theobald; Schön, Tobias; Dittmann, Jonas; Sukowski, Frank; Hanke, Randolf

    2015-03-01

    The inspection of very large objects like sea freight containers with X-ray Computed Tomography (CT) is an emerging technology. A complete 3-D CT scan of a see-freight container takes several hours. Of course, this is too slow to apply it to a large number of containers. However, the benefits of a 3-D CT for sealed freight are obvious: detection of potential threats or illicit cargo without being confronted with legal complications or high time consumption and risks for the security personnel during a manual inspection. Recently distinct progress was made in the field of reconstruction of projections with only a relatively low number of angular positions. Instead of today's 500 to 1000 rotational steps, as needed for conventional CT reconstruction techniques, this new class of algorithms provides the potential to reduce the number of projection angles approximately by a factor of 10. The main drawback of these advanced iterative methods is the high consumption for numerical processing. But as computational power is getting steadily cheaper, there will be practical applications of these complex algorithms in a foreseeable future. In this paper, we discuss the properties of iterative image reconstruction algorithms and show results of their application to CT of extremely large objects scanning a sea-freight container. A specific test specimen is used to quantitatively evaluate the image quality in terms of spatial and contrast resolution and depending on different number of projections.

  12. Recent progress in 3-D imaging of sea freight containers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuchs, Theobald, E-mail: theobold.fuchs@iis.fraunhofer.de; Schön, Tobias, E-mail: theobold.fuchs@iis.fraunhofer.de; Sukowski, Frank [Fraunhofer Development Center X-ray Technology EZRT, Flugplatzstr. 75, 90768 Fürth (Germany); Dittmann, Jonas; Hanke, Randolf [Chair of X-ray Microscopy, Institute of Physics and Astronomy, Julius-Maximilian-University Würzburg, Josef-Martin-Weg 63, 97074 Würzburg (Germany)

    2015-03-31

    The inspection of very large objects like sea freight containers with X-ray Computed Tomography (CT) is an emerging technology. A complete 3-D CT scan of a see-freight container takes several hours. Of course, this is too slow to apply it to a large number of containers. However, the benefits of a 3-D CT for sealed freight are obvious: detection of potential threats or illicit cargo without being confronted with legal complications or high time consumption and risks for the security personnel during a manual inspection. Recently distinct progress was made in the field of reconstruction of projections with only a relatively low number of angular positions. Instead of today’s 500 to 1000 rotational steps, as needed for conventional CT reconstruction techniques, this new class of algorithms provides the potential to reduce the number of projection angles approximately by a factor of 10. The main drawback of these advanced iterative methods is the high consumption for numerical processing. But as computational power is getting steadily cheaper, there will be practical applications of these complex algorithms in a foreseeable future. In this paper, we discuss the properties of iterative image reconstruction algorithms and show results of their application to CT of extremely large objects scanning a sea-freight container. A specific test specimen is used to quantitatively evaluate the image quality in terms of spatial and contrast resolution and depending on different number of projections.

  13. 22 CFR 201.67 - Maximum freight charges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Maximum freight charges. 201.67 Section 201.67 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT RULES AND PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO COMMODITY... identity of the shipper or the circumstance that the shipment is or is not financed by the Government...

  14. Sustainable practices in urban freight distribution in Bilbao

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Alvarez

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The objective of the present study is to select some feasible and sustainable logistic practices in order to improve the urban freight distribution in Bilbao city. Design/methodology/approach: After a thorough literature review and a benchmarking, Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP techniques were used in order to support the decision making processes in order to select the most interesting practices. The criteria used for this selection were based on four factors: (1 improvement of the city freight distribution, (2 implementation possibility, (3 short and medium term applicability and (4 impact on the citizens of Bilbao. Findings: The paper identifies some specific problems that must be faced during the last stage of the logistics chain, where products are usually delivered to final customers in the urban environment. Research limitations/implications: Not all good urban freight distribution practices can be applied universally to all types of towns. Therefore, it is necessary to design some practices specifically to each particular city according to the physical characteristics of the city, the companies’ motivation and the citizens’ habits. Practical implications: All the agents involved in the city freight distribution should be aware of the benefits and problems that their actions cause. Originality/value: This study was carried out from a wide perspective that included researchers, logistics operators and local authorities.

  15. 78 FR 75442 - Designation of the Primary Freight Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-11

    ...) notice, which was published on November 19, 2013, at 78 FR 69520. The original comment period is set to..., except Federal holidays. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Background On November 19, 2013, at 78 FR 69520, the... TRANSPORTATION Federal Highway Administration Designation of the Primary Freight Network AGENCY: Federal...

  16. 78 FR 10249 - Establishment of the National Freight Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Highway Administration Establishment of the National Freight Network Correction In notice document 2013-02580 appearing on pages 8686-8689, in the issue of Wednesday, February 6, 2013, make...

  17. Price Analysis of Railway Freight Transport under Marketing Mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Ying; Fang, Xiaoping; Chen, Zhiya

    Regarding the problems in the reform of the railway tariff system and the pricing of the transport, by means of assaying the influence of the price elasticity on the artifice used for price, this article proposed multiple regressive model which analyzed price elasticity quantitatively. This model conclude multi-factors which influences on the price elasticity, such as the averagely railway freight charge, the averagely freight haulage of proximate supersede transportation mode, the GDP per capita in the point of origin, and a series of dummy variable which can reflect the features of some productive and consume demesne. It can calculate the price elasticity of different classes in different domains, and predict the freight traffic volume on different rate levels. It can calculate confidence-level, and evaluate the relevance of each parameter to get rid of irrelevant or little relevant variables. It supplied a good theoretical basis for directing the pricing of transport enterprises in market economic conditions, which is suitable for railway freight, passenger traffic and other transportation manner as well. SPSS (Statistical Package for the Social Science) software was used to calculate and analysis the example. This article realized the calculation by HYFX system(Ministry of Railways fund).

  18. Forward hadron production at the LHC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Itow Yoshitaka

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Observations of ultra high energy cosmic rays by extensive air showers rely on correct modeling of hadronic interaction in the forward region at very high energy. Recent new data from the LHC, especially for forward particle production, are important for a precise understanding of air shower development. In this article recent forward production data from p-p, p-Pb, and Pb-Pb collisions at LHC are reviewed.

  19. Improving logistics service quality in freight-forwarding in Hochiminh City, Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Truong, Ly

    2016-01-01

    Despite bringing enormous profit to the company as well as the development of the country, logistics is still considered a new and developing field in Vietnam. There are currently a large number of local logistics companies and most of them are working as second and third-party agents. However, they account for a very small market share and are losing to the foreign corporations. One of the main reasons is low-rated service quality. Service quality plays a vital role in gaining new custom...

  20. 78 FR 78474 - Knowledge Testing of New Entrant Motor Carriers, Freight Forwarders and Brokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-26

    ... published in the Federal Register on December 29, 2010 (75 FR 82132) . FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: For... System (URS) final rule (78 FR 52608); \\1\\ ] and test development and delivery. FMCSA asks listening... session will be held at the Music City Center, 201 Fifth Ave. South, Nashville, TN 37203 in Room 202 C....

  1. 78 FR 78470 - Registration and Financial Security Requirements for Freight Forwarders; International...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-26

    ... Register on January 17, 2008 (73 FR 3316). SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Legal Basis Section 13541 of title 49... FR 48987 (Aug. 15, 2003). The Secretary may ``specify the period of time during which an exemption... guidance (78 FR 54720) ``concerning the implementation of certain provisions of . . . (MAP-21)...

  2. 77 FR 20633 - OC International Freight, Inc., OMJ International Freight, Inc. and Omar Collado; Order for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-05

    ... forwarding, warehousing, trucking and loading services for each of these shipments. On the basis of those... license or evidence of financial responsibility; (4) Whether, in the event violations of sections 10 or...

  3. Characterization of road freight transportation and its impact on the national emission inventory in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. F. Yang

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Mobile source emission inventories serve as critical input for atmospheric chemical transport models, which are used to simulate air quality and understand the role of mobile source emissions. The significance of mobile sources is even more important in China because the country has the largest vehicle population in the world, and that population continues to grow rapidly. Estimating emissions from diesel trucks is a critical work in mobile source emission inventories due to the importance and difficulties associated with estimating emissions from diesel trucks. Although diesel trucks are major contributors of nitrogen oxide (NOx and primary particulate matter smaller than 2.5 μm (PM2.5, there are still more obstacles on the existing estimation of diesel truck emissions compared with that of cars; long-range freight transportation activities are complicated, and much of the basic data remain unclear. Most of existing inventories were based on local registration number. However, according to our research, a large number of trucks are conducting long-distance inter-city or inter province transportation. Instead of the local registration number based approach, a road emission intensity-based (REIB approach is introduced in this research. To provide efficient data for the REIB approach, 1060 questionnaire responses and approximately 1.7 million valid seconds of onboard GPS monitoring data were collected. Both the questionnaire answers and GPS monitoring results indicated that the driving conditions on different types of road have significant impacts on the emission levels of freight trucks. We present estimated emissions of NOx and primary PM2.5 from diesel freight trucks for China in 2011. Using the REIB approach, the activity level and distribution data are obtained from the questionnaire answers. Emission factors are calculated with the International Vehicle Emission (IVE model that interpolated local on-board measurement results in China

  4. Capacity Utilisation of Vehicles for Road Freight Transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kveiborg, Ole; Abate, Megersa Abera

    Purpose This chapter discusses a central aspect of freight transport – capacity utilisation with a link to empty running of commercial freight vehicles. Methodology/approach The paper provides an overview of the literature on these topics and groups the contributions into two segments according to...... their analytical approach and origin of research. Findings The first approach looks at utilisation based on economic theories such as the firms’ objective to maximise profitability and considers how various firm and haul (market) characteristics influence utilisation. The second approach stems from the...... transport modelling literature and its main aim is analysing vehicle movement and usage in transport demand modelling context. A strand of this second group of contributions is the modelling of trip-chain and its implication on the level of capacity utilisation. Research limitations The review is not a...

  5. Evaluating service quality in the Durban freight transportation industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeevarathnam P. Govender

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper evaluates service quality in the Durban freight transportation industry, in which a high degree of competition exists. Previous measurements of service quality in the industry have been casual gauges, rather than a formalised process. This paper makes a contribution by examining the level of service quality, specifically from a tangibles, reliability and responsiveness perspective, thereby identifying service quality gaps which need to be closed, with a view to raising service quality levels in the industry. The SERVQUAL instrument has been used to measure service quality levels administered to 500 of the industry’s active customers, i.e. organisations utilising the services of the freight transportation industry. The targeted respondents were managers responsible for logistics in their organisations. It was found that gaps existed between expectations and perceptions of service quality on 14 of the 15 measured items. Recommendations are made as to how the industry can improve its service quality levels.

  6. Sustainable practices in urban freight distribution in Bilbao

    OpenAIRE

    Esther Alvarez; Alberto de la Calle

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The objective of the present study is to select some feasible and sustainable logistic practices in order to improve the urban freight distribution in Bilbao city. Design/methodology/approach: After a thorough literature review and a benchmarking, Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) techniques were used in order to support the decision making processes in order to select the most interesting practices. The criteria used for this selection were based on four factors: (1) improvement of t...

  7. Designing Electronic Waybill Solutions for Road Freight Transport

    OpenAIRE

    Bakhtyar, Shoaib

    2016-01-01

    In freight transportation, a waybill is an important document that contains essential information about a consignment. The focus of this thesis is on a multi-purpose electronic waybill (e-Waybill) service, which can provide the functions of a paper waybill, and which is capable of storing, at least, the information present in a paper waybill. In addition, the service can be used to support other existing Intelligent Transportation System (ITS) services by utilizing on synergies with the exist...

  8. Key Emerging Trends in the Intermodal Freight Transportation Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Phillips, Dexter

    2000-01-01

    This thesis addresses the key emerging trends in the intermodal freight transportation industry. Interviews were conducted with a focus on perceptions that the various intermediaries have towards their working relationships with one another the impact of emerging technologies, and what government policies and regulations should be enacted or repealed in order to improve the industry. Eight individuals were interviewed representing the following seven intermediaries: 1) Shipper, 2) Ocean Carri...

  9. Freight Distribution Systems with Cross Docking: A Multidisciplinary Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Gonzalez-Feliu, Jesus

    2012-01-01

    Freight transport assures a vital link between suppliers and customers and it represents a major source of employment. Multi-echelon distribution is one of the most common strategies in this field. This paper presents the main concepts of multi-echelon distribution with cross-docking through a multidisciplinary analysis that includes an optimization study and an interview-based analysis. The optimization analysis uses both a geographic approach based on the concept of accessibility and a scen...

  10. Freight distribution systems with cross-docking: a multidisciplinary analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Gonzalez-Feliu, Jesus

    2012-01-01

    Freight transport constitutes one of the main activities that influences economy and society, as it assures a vital link between suppliers and customers and it represents a major source of employment. Multi-echelon distribution is one of the most common strategies adopted by the transport companies in an aim of cost reduction. This paper presents the main concepts of multi-echelon distribution with cross-docks through a multidisciplinary analysis that includes an optimisation study (using bot...

  11. The value of time and forecasting of flowsin freight transportation

    OpenAIRE

    Bergkvist, Erik

    2001-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of the current state of research and present own results in some areas regarding cost benefit analysis (CBA) for road infrastructure investments. It deals with the robustness of the estimated average value of time (VOT) currently used in Swedish infrastructure appraisals and also analyses the estimator in the case of different heteroskedastic errors and functional forms. It finallly consider forecasts of road freight flows in cases where information are scarce and...

  12. Train-Bridge Interaction on Freight Railway Lines

    OpenAIRE

    Martino, Davide

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates the dynamic response of a railway bridge under train passage. Three load models designed around the Swedish Steel Arrow freight train are tested and compared. A series of Concentrated Forces, a succession of single degree of freedom Sprung-Masses, and a sequence of complex multi-degree of freedom Train Wagons. The increase in accuracy of the representation corresponds to taking into account the inertial properties of the wagons. The track-bed layer is substitute by a s...

  13. Logistics chains in freight transport modelling

    OpenAIRE

    Davydenko, I.

    2015-01-01

    The research presented in this PhD thesis has been motivated by the fact that the Netherlands, and the Randstad region in particular, are affected by the large transport flows and extensive operations of the logistics sector. These operations create welfare for those people who work in the sector, who own the companies, and for the Dutch and European societies as the whole. The strong transport and logistics sector has also negative impact on the public infrastructure, air pollution, greenhou...

  14. Green trucks: transitioning the freight truck industry to low and zero emission fuel systems

    OpenAIRE

    Kalthoff, Jarrett Reid

    2012-01-01

    The freight truck industry in Canada is the lifeblood of many communities throughout the country. These communities rely upon overland freight for everything from food to fuel. The continued operation of this industry is fundamentally dependent on the consumption of fossil fuels. This dependence leads to two challenges facing the freight industry: (1) fossil fuels are expensive, finite resources that are prone to dramatic surges in price; and, (2) the consumption and combustion of fossil fuel...

  15. Modelling carrier decisions in an activity-based freight transportation framework

    OpenAIRE

    MAES, Tabitha

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis was to develop a new freight transportation framework in which the focus lies on the logistic decisions taken by the involved actors. Two main topics can be recognized in this thesis. The first part of this thesis deals with understanding how current freight transportation models work and what their shortcomings are (chapter 2). Based on this analysis a new conceptual freight transportation framework is proposed to fill in the research gaps (chapters 3 and 4). Secon...

  16. Energy Intensity in Road Freight Transport of Heavy Goods Vehicles in Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Andrés, Lidia; Padilla, Emilio

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the factors that have influenced the energy intensity of the Spanish road freight transport of heavy goods vehicles over the period 1996–2012. This article aims to contribute to a better understanding of the factors behind the energy intensity change of road freight and also to inform the design of measures to improve energy efficiency in road freight transport. The paper uses both annual single-period and chained multi-period multiplicative LMDI-II decomposition analysis....

  17. Why does the energy intensity of freight transport rise?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheele, D. [Scientific Council for Government Policy (Netherlands)

    1996-12-01

    In advanced economies it is normal to observe declining energy intensities. Both improvements in conversion efficiency and in organisational efficiency of energy use cause energy demand to grow at a slower pace than the economy. In this context it is somewhat particular that in the vital sector of freight transport the energy intensity does not decline, but instead increases. The energy demand of this sector only takes a small share of the total energy demand. According to the World Energy Council the transport sector takes 30 percent of world energy demand and freight transport again takes 30 percent of the transport sector share, maritime transport excluded. Despite this small share some explanation is needed why the increase in energy demand form the volume growth of freight demand is not at least partly countered by a decline in the energy intensity. The purpose of this paper is to review some of the explanations that are given in the literature and to support these explanations with empirical evidence on the case of the Netherlands. (EG)

  18. Supplying Cities from Abroad: The Geography of Inter-Urban Freight Flows

    OpenAIRE

    Guerrero, David; Nierat, Patrick; Proulhac, Laurent

    2014-01-01

    This article aims to identify the role of urban areas in freight systems. To achieve this goal, the article examines the nature and intensity of inter-urban freight flows in France. It draws on the results of a French survey that describes shipments sent by firms. It paints a simplified picture of the geography of freight flows with regard to the light they shed on economic interactions between urban centers. It shows that the pattern of inter-urban freight flows in France is hierarchical: la...

  19. Research on Railway Freight Marketing in Guangshen-Railway%广深铁路货运市场营销策略研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩斯斯; 谢如鹤; 邹毅峰; 蒋雨含

    2014-01-01

    Under the background of the railway freight reform throughout the country ,this paper makes the SWOT analysis of Guangshen-Railway freight market for determining Guangshen -Railway freight's target market positioning in commodities , and long-haul transport market ,and actively exploring container ,short-distance transport market ,putting forward an inter -city railway freight on the product what should be adapted to the market and demand to develop new products and optimization of existing products .The price should be flexible pricing and strengthen the regulation of freight rates .On the distribution channels aspect ,Guangshen-Railway should add service outlets , implement the strategy of key account management , and carry out the network marketing .On thre client -communication aspect , it should strengthen the promotion and the marketing ., set up the marketing strategy of the enterprise image ,in order to complete the Guangshen -Railway freight reform,and improve the market share and increase the income of enterprises .%在全国推行铁路货运改革的背景下,对广深铁路货运市场进行SWOT分析,确定广深铁路货运目标市场定位在大宗货物、中长途运输子市场,并应该积极开拓集装箱、短途运输子市场,进而提出广深铁路货运在产品上应适应市场需求开发新产品和优化现有产品,在价格上应该采取灵活定价并加强运价监管,在分销渠道上应增设服务网点、实施大客户战略和网络营销,在促销上应加强客户交流、强化营销宣传、树立企业形象的营销策略,以完成广深铁路货运改革,提高市场占有率、增加企业收入。

  20. 空地导弹正前视双基地SAR制导应用研究%The Research on the Applications of Air-to-surface Missiles with Bistatic Forward-looking SAR Guidancee

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴平; 杨军

    2014-01-01

    装备正前视双基地SAR图像末制导的导弹除具有较强生存能力及超强侦察能力外,还能够实现全天候精确打击的需求。文章介绍了正前视双基地SAR基本原理,提出了正前视双基地SAR的关键技术,并构想了空地导弹正前视双基地SAR制导系统的应用模式。%The missile equipped with the bistatic forward-looking SAR for imaging terminal guidance is more survivable and has the enormous capability of reconnaissance. It also has the ability to perform precise attack during day and night. The basic principle of the bistatic forward-looking SAR is introduced and its key techniques are proposed. At last, the appli-cations of air-to-surface missiles are conceived equipped with the bistatic forward-looking SAR guidance system.

  1. Forced forward smoldering experiments in microgravity

    OpenAIRE

    Bar-Ilan, Amnon; Rein, Guillermo; Fernandez-Pello, A Carlos; Torero, J.l.; Urban, D L

    2004-01-01

    Results from two forward forced-flow smolder tests on polyurethane foam using air as oxidizer conducted aboard the NASA Space Shuttle (STS-105 and STS-108 missions) are presented in this work. The two tests provide the only presently available forward smolder data in microgravity. A complimentary series of ground-based tests were also conducted to determine, by comparison with the microgravity data, the effect of gravity on the forward smolder propagation. The objective of the study is to pro...

  2. 75 FR 1070 - Cargo Securing Methods for Packages in Transport Vehicles or Freight Containers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-08

    ... notice regarding our public dockets in the January 17, 2008, issue of the Federal Register (73 FR 3316... SECURITY Coast Guard Cargo Securing Methods for Packages in Transport Vehicles or Freight Containers AGENCY... the public on methods for securing cargo in transport vehicles and freight containers in order...

  3. 49 CFR 1242.23 - Shop buildings-freight cars (account XX-13-25).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Shop buildings-freight cars (account XX-13-25). 1242.23 Section 1242.23 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) SURFACE... Structures § 1242.23 Shop buildings—freight cars (account XX-13-25). These accounts pertain solely to...

  4. Motivational factors influencing behavioural responses to charging measures in freight operator sector

    OpenAIRE

    Rößger, Lars; Schade, Jens; Tretvik, Terje

    2009-01-01

    The present paper aims to provide insights into freight operators’ attitudes with differentiated charges and their opinions about charges’ effectiveness and future behavioural responses. Thereby, we investigate whether motivational factors, particularly acceptability towards road charges, play an important role on future behavioural adaptations according to charging schemes. Interview surveys have been conducted and have focused on freight operators and road hauliers’ perception a...

  5. A cointegration approach to forecasting freight rates in the dry bulk shipping sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ph.H.B.F. Franses (Philip Hans); A.W. Veenstra (Albert)

    1997-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper, a vector autoregressive model is developed for a sample of ocean dry bulk freight rates. Although the series of freight rates are themselves found to be non-stationary, thus precluding the use of many modelling methodologies, evidence provided by cointegration tests points

  6. Legal regulation of commercial rights in international air law

    OpenAIRE

    Жмур, Наталія

    2016-01-01

    In the article analyzes problem of legal regulation of commercial rights in international air law. Analyzed normatively-legal acts of rights, which have been given from one country to another, under which appointed carriers have rights to carry out transportation of passengers, luggage and freight by established international air routes according to reciprocal contract about air connection.

  7. Technique for reducing surface wave at an air/left-handed medium (LHM) interface or excitation of the forward wave in an LHM

    OpenAIRE

    Boutayeb, Halim; Wu, Ke; Mahdjoubi, Kouroch

    2009-01-01

    In this article, we analyze the illumination by an electromagnetic wave of an air/left-handed medium (LHM) interface. It is shown that by placing a periodic structure of resistors near the LHM it is possible to suppress or to reduce the surface wave that is present at the interface. For our demonstration, we consider a semi-infinite lossless left-handed medium having the same constitutive parameters as those of air but with opposite signs. Numerical results, obtained by using a full-wave time...

  8. Recovery Act--Class 8 Truck Freight Efficiency Improvement Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trucks, Daimler [Daimler Trucks North America Llc, Portland, OR (United States)

    2015-07-26

    Daimler Trucks North America completed a five year, $79.6M project to develop and demonstrate a concept vehicle with at least 50% freight efficiency improvement over a weighted average of several drive cycles relative to a 2009 best-in-class baseline vehicle. DTNA chose a very fuel efficient baseline vehicle, the 2009 Freightliner Cascadia with a DD15 engine, yet successfully demonstrated a 115% freight efficiency improvement. DTNA learned a great deal about the various technologies that were incorporated into Super Truck and those that, through down-selection, were discarded. Some of the technologies competed with each other for efficiency, and notably some of the technologies complemented each other. For example, we found that Super Truck’s improved aerodynamic drag resulted in improved fuel savings from eCoast, relative to a similar vehicle with worse aerodynamic drag. However, some technologies were in direct competition with each other, namely the predictive technologies which use GPS and 3D digital maps to efficiently manage the vehicles kinetic energy through controls and software, versus hybrid which is a much costlier technology that essentially targets the same inefficiency. Furthermore, the benefits of a comprehensive, integrated powertrain/vehicle approach was proven, in which vast improvements in vehicle efficiency (e.g. lower aero drag and driveline losses) enabled engine strategies such as downrating and downspeeding. The joint engine and vehicle developments proved to be a multiplier-effect which resulted in large freight efficiency improvements. Although a large number of technologies made the selection process and were used on the Super Truck demonstrator vehicle, some of the technologies proved not feasible for series production.

  9. Operations Research for Freight Train Routing and Scheduling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harrod, Steven; Gorman, Michael F.

    2011-01-01

    This article describes the service design activities that plan and implement the rail freight operating plan. Elements of strategic service design include the setting of train frequency, the routing of cars among trains, and the consolidation of cars, called blocking. At the operational level......, trains are dispatched either according to train paths configured in advance, called timetables, or according to priority rules. We describe the North American and European practice along with selected modeling and problem solving methodologies appropriate for each of the operating conditions described...

  10. Determinants of Capacity Utilization in Road Freight Transportation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abate, Megersa Abera

    2014-01-01

    Recent performance figures in the European road freight transport sector show that there is an excess capacity. To shed light on this phenomenon, this paper studies two aspects of capacity utilization in trucking: the extent of empty running and the load factor. The paper shows that they can be...... information about operations at a trip level. The results indicate that trip distance and being a for-hire carrier have a significant positive effect on capacity utilization, whereas the effect of truck size appears to be non-linear. To the extent that these variables improve the load factor and reduce empty...

  11. On the dynamics of the three-piece-freight truck

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xia, Fujie; True, Hans

    2003-01-01

    Although the three-piece-freight truck is a simple design its mathematical model is very complicated. The model is definitely a nonlinear dynamical system, where the nonlinearities arise from the nonlinear kinematic and dynamical contact relations between wheels and rails, the suspensions and the...... nonlinear dry friction damping with hysteresis and stick-slip action. The bolster moves both vertically and laterally relative to the truck frames, so the friction forces on the contact surfaces of the wedges must be treated as two-dimensional vectors, and the same holds for the dry friction on the surfaces...

  12. A proposed regulatory framework for road and rail freight transport in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wessel Pienaar

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The increase in the number of freight vehicles on South Africa’s rural road network has received substantial attention. Insinuations persist that long-distance road freight haulage is of a somewhat unsavoury economic nature, and that strict economic re-regulation of the land freight transport is necessary. During the 1970s road transport replaced rail carriage as the dominant form of long-distance freight transport (excluding minerals and ore in South Africa. On long hauls road freight carriers transport certain primary products of an organic nature (such as timber, fish and agricultural produce, some semi-finished goods, many finished goods and most consumer goods. Road freight carriers are continuously gaining market share on long-distance links where rail transport is the more cost efficient mode. The greater value added by road freight carriers in comparison with rail transport through service effectiveness is often more than the cost premium paid for utilising their service rather than making use of rail transport. Throughout history, governments have involved themselves in transport. A diverse range of arguments have been advanced for this involvement in transport, including the following:Control of excessive competition, co-ordination of transport, integration of transport with economic policy, maintenance of safety, security, and order, provision of costly infrastructure, provision of public goods, recovery of the true resource cost of transport inputs, regulation of harmful conduct and externalities, restraint of monopoly power, and social support. A set of nine instruments can be identified that governments apply to influence the performance of the freight transport industry: Legislation, direct supply, fiscal measures, monetary measures, moral appeal and persuasion, policies relating to strategic commodities, procurement policy, provision of information, and research and development. The best prospects for a sound development of

  13. Energy efficiency of road freight hauliers—A Nordic comparison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to promote policy targets for decarbonising road freight, it is important to gain knowledge on the current energy efficiency practices of hauliers in various countries. This research aimed to provide such knowledge to enable international comparison of the energy efficiency practices of road freight hauliers. This was achieved by replicating the Finnish haulier survey in Denmark, Norway and Sweden. Energy efficiency index was developed to provide a simple metric for international comparison. The EEI covers various aspects of energy efficiency to provide a comprehensive outlook into the issue. The monitoring practices are fairly similar in all four countries, with typical monitoring done manually when filling the tank and data kept on a computer. Tonne-kilometre data is rarely monitored, but some other performance measures may be used. Current level of implementation of various energy efficiency actions is rather similar between the four countries. The simple and inexpensive actions, like choosing the lorry according to the cargo and idling avoidance, are most widely implemented. The energy efficiency index developed in this research proved to be a very useful tool for comparing the hauliers in the four countries. - Highlights: • Energy efficiency index proved to be a very useful tool for comparing the hauliers. • Shipper's interest in hauliers’ performance improves the level of energy efficiency. • Fuel monitoring practices are fairly similar in the four countries. • Level of implementation of energy efficiency actions is similar in the four countries

  14. Air

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... house) Industrial emissions (like smoke and chemicals from factories) Household cleaners (spray cleaners, air fresheners) Car emissions (like carbon monoxide) *All of these things make up “particle pollution.” They mostly come from cars, trucks, buses, and ...

  15. Galloping-based piezo-aeroelastic energy harvester for wireless sensors to be installed on freight trains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomasini, Gisella; Giappino, Stefano; Costa, Andrea

    2016-04-01

    Energy harvesting from galloping oscillations of a bluff body can be used to supply power to a wireless sensor. In this paper we investigate the possibility to use a galloping-based piezo-aeroelastic energy harvester to supply power to a wireless sensors network installed on a freight train to measure the accelerations in correspondence of axle boxes. The monitoring system will be used to detect possible deteriorations of the running conditions that, in the worst cases, can lead to the vehicle derailment. Unlike other applications in this case the air speed relative to the body is due to the train motion and, for typical freight trains and standard running conditions, is equal to about 20 m/s. In the paper we discuss the design of the harvester on the basis of the constrains due to the application. Preliminary aerodynamic tests shows the limitation of the classical quasi-steady theory of galloping as a consequence of the interaction with the vortex shedding phenomenon.

  16. STREAM International Freight 2011. Comparison of various transport modes on a EU scale with the STREAM database

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Den Boer, E.; Otten, M.; Van Essen, H.

    2011-07-15

    This study is an update of the original STREAM study published in 2008. It provides a comprehensive review of vehicle-based freight transport emissions per tonne-kilometre for the various market segments of international freight carriage. The report also compares tonne-kilometre emissions based on average vehicle technology (average age) and average load factors in various scenarios, including substantial modal shifts in the coming decade. In the calculations due allowance has been made for upstream and downstream transport. The scale of transport is of crucial importance for emissions. In addition, load factors and other logistical issues also play a key role. Which mode of transport is 'greenest' differs from situation to situation, depending on the type of emissions considered. Electric rail transport remains a very clean and efficient form of transport. The main focus of the study was on emissions of the greenhouse gas carbon dioxide (CO2) and air pollutants like particulates (PM) and oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and sulphur (SOx)

  17. Intermodal Freight Transport on the Right Track? Environmental and economic performances and their trade-off

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This dissertation aims to evaluate environmental and economic performances of an intermodal freight transport system and to estimate the trade-off between CO2 emissions, which is presented as an indicator of environmental performance, and freight costs, which indicate the economic performance of the intermodal freight system. The truck-only system is always regarded as the counterpart of the intermodal freight system in this dissertation. To examine the environmental performance of the intermodal freight system, CO2 emissions generated from all the processes in the intermodal chain, such as pre-haulage and post-haulage, long distance haulage, and transshipment, are estimated considering different sources that generate electricity and transmission loss of electricity (Chapters 3 and 4). To examine the economic performance of the system, two approaches are considered: (1) finding the intermodal breakeven distance for which the intermodal system is more competitive than the truck-only system (Chapter 5); (2) examining the economies of scale in the intermodal network and finding the route/system choice that minimizes the total freight transportation costs (Chapter 6). Finally, this dissertation attempts to find the trade-off between CO2 emissions (representing the environmental performance) and freight transportation cost (representing the economic performance) (Chapter 7)

  18. Evaluation of emission cost of inefficiency in road freight transportation in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turkey as a European Union candidate state, signed Kyoto Protocol in 2009, which required reduction in the greenhouse gas emissions. Road freight transportation accounts for a quarter of the emissions from transportation sector, so it is one of the implementation areas for emission reductions. When disaggregate data exist, it is possible to detect inefficiency in freight movements and consequently to quantify emission cost of it in road freight sector. Using roadside axle surveys, this study first described the characteristics of road freight movements in Turkey for the period of 2000–2009. Emission estimations for the same period were presented to form a base for potential emission reduction analyses. The results showed that emission savings could be up to 11% by penalizing empty movements even only in the long haul. However, a policy regarding elimination of only inefficiently loaded movements without targeting reduction of empty runs did not provide significant emission reduction capacity. A scenario of replacing Conventional trucks with Euro IV ones showed significant emission reduction potential, especially for regulated emissions, and it may be the most promising option from application perspective. -- Highlights: •Road freight transportation emissions were presented and validated. •Emission cost of inefficiency in road freight transportation was determined. •Emission reduction potential from road freight transportation was discussed. •9.3% CO2 emissions could be reduced by penalizing empty trucks only in long haul. •Replacing old trucks with Euro IV trucks promises significant reduction potential

  19. Trends in road freight transportation carbon dioxide emissions and policies in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We adopted the simple average Divisia index approach to explore the impacts of factors on the carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from road freight transportation in China from 1985 to 2007. CO2 emissions were investigated using the following as influencing factors: the emission coefficient, vehicle fuel intensity, working vehicle stock per freight transport operator, market concentration level, freight transportation distance, market share of road freight transportation, ton-kilometer per value added of industry, industrialization level and economic growth. Building on the results, we suggest that economic growth is the most important factor in increasing CO2 emissions, whereas the ton-kilometer per value added of industry and the market concentration level contribute significantly to decreasing CO2 emissions. We also discussed some recent important policies concerning factors contained in the decomposition model. - Highlights: ► We estimated road freight fuel consumption and CO2 emissions in China. ► Factors implying features of road freight were considered in decomposition model. ► Some policies were discussed to affect CO2 emissions from road freight

  20. Air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In recent years several regulations and standards for air quality and limits for air pollution were issued or are in preparation by the European Union, which have severe influence on the environmental monitoring and legislation in Austria. This chapter of the environmental control report of Austria gives an overview about the legal situation of air pollution control in the European Union and in specific the legal situation in Austria. It gives a comprehensive inventory of air pollution measurements for the whole area of Austria of total suspended particulates, ozone, volatile organic compounds, nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide, heavy metals, benzene, dioxin, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and eutrophication. For each of these pollutants the measured emission values throughout Austria are given in tables and geographical charts, the environmental impact is discussed, statistical data and time series of the emission sources are given and legal regulations and measures for an effective environmental pollution control are discussed. In particular the impact of fossil-fuel power plants on the air pollution is analyzed. (a.n.)

  1. Barriers to and enablers for European rail freight transport for integrated door-to-door logistics service. Part 1: Barriers to multimodal rail freight transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewan Md Zahurul ISLAM

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to examine and identify barriers to and enablers for the European rail freight transport services as a transport chain partner along the supply chains in the changing market scenario. The changing market scenario includes, among others, requiring 'door-to-door' rather than 'terminal to terminal' and integrated service, competitive ability to attract non-rail cargo type, changes in the customer requirements (e.g. reliable service and changes in the operational requirements and practices. Using a literature review method, the paper is presented in two parts. The part 1 focuses on the identification of barriers to the European rail freight service by reviewing freight logistics services for global supply chains followed by the current performance of European rail freight transport followed by a discussion on the rail freight market liberalisation in Europe. Then rail freight transport in the Unites States (U.S. is discussed. The research notes that although the background, scope and necessity for reform measures in Europe differ from those of the U.S., some lessons can be learned and the main lesson is that an appropriate reform measure can enhance rail sector competitive ability in Europe. Examining and identifying the barriers in the part 1 (with the pan-Pacific examples of rail freight transports, the part 2 of the paper focuses on recommending clear actions and steps as enablers for the rail freight industry in general and operators in particular. The research in part 1 of the paper finds that: •\tIn many European countries, the rail freight market is not fully liberalised. In such market segment, infrastructure managers do act independently for incumbents and new entrant operators that hamper the progress of building a competitive market; •\tThe rail operators have not yet achieved the service quality (e.g. customer tailored service needed for the modern supply chains; •\tThey operate

  2. ALICE Forward Multiplicity Detector

    CERN Multimedia

    Christensen, C

    2013-01-01

    The Forward Multiplicity Detector (FMD) extends the coverage for multiplicity of charge particles into the forward regions - giving ALICE the widest coverage of the 4 LHC experiments for these measurements.

  3. Forward tracking detectors

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Klaus Mönig

    2007-11-01

    Forward tracking is an essential part of a detector at the international linear collider (ILC). The requirements for forward tracking are explained and the proposed solutions in the detector concepts are shown.

  4. Estimating freight demand for North South Railway [paper in Portuguese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Vicente Caixeta Filho

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of this paper was to propose a model to estimate the freight demand for Brazil’s North-South Railway. The evaluation of the amount of cargo that could be attracted by the railway was done through the use of a Multicommodity Minimum Cost Flow model. During 2005, the results showed a total of 1.2 million tons of inter-regional soybean flows that have potential to be moved through this rail line between Estreito (MA and São Luís (MA. This model has shown to be a practical tool for evaluating the potential flows trough a transportation infrastructure and for identifying the origins and products related to these flows.

  5. The maturity of rail freight logistics service providers in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adauto Farias Bueno

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study analyzes the maturity of three rail freight Logistics Service Providers (LSPs in Brazil in a population of seven operators. After an exploratory review of the existing literature and research documents, a structured questionnaire based on the Supply Chain Capability Maturity Model S(CM2 was applied. The study measured an overall average level, given in S(CM2, as Managed, meaning that the managerial development standard of the logistics agents was at an intermediate level. The results showed that maturity was related to the size of the LSP and the complexity of the organizational management. These findings can support the development of policies and strategies for the improvement and adoption of practices that best lead to gains in competitiveness for both LSPs and the Supply Chains (SCs that require their services.

  6. Air and pipeline transport; 1 : 1 500 000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On this map the air and pipeline transport on the territory of the Slovak Republic are shown. Passenger and freight air transport in 2000 are analysed. Routes of the transit and international gas pipelines as well as crude oil pipelines are marked

  7. The standardised freight container: vector of vectors and vector-borne diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiter, P

    2010-04-01

    The standardised freight container was one of the most important innovations of the 20th Century. Containerised cargoes travel from their point of origin to their destination by ship, road and rail as part of a single journey, without unpacking. This simple concept is the key element in cheap, rapid transport by land and sea, and has led to a phenomenal growth in global trade. Likewise, containerised air cargo has led to a remarkable increase in the inter-continental transportation of goods, particularly perishable items such as flowers, fresh vegetables and live animals. In both cases, containerisation offers great advantages in speed and security, but reduces the opportunity to inspect cargoes in transit. An inevitable consequence is the globalisation of undesirable species of animals, plants and pathogens. Moreover, cheap passenger flights offer worldwide travel for viral and parasitic pathogens in infected humans. The continued emergence of exotic pests, vectors and pathogens throughout the world is an unavoidable consequence of these advances in transportation technology. PMID:20617647

  8. 22 CFR 202.6 - Application for reimbursement of freight charges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... International Development, Attention: Banking and Finance Division, Office of Financial Management, Washington... SUPPLIES BY VOLUNTARY NON-PROFIT RELIEF AGENCIES § 202.6 Application for reimbursement of freight...

  9. 49 CFR Appendix A to Part 215 - Railroad Freight Car Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD FREIGHT CAR SAFETY STANDARDS Pt. 215, App. A Appendix A to... manufactured before May 7, 1958. 4. Griffin, three-riser cast steel wheel, ball rim design, 70-ton capacity....

  10. NEW SYSTEM OF PREPARING THE PERSONNEL OF THE RAIL-FREIGHT TRAFFIC IN MODERN CONDITION

    OpenAIRE

    Koroleva, N.

    2009-01-01

    The Considered problem of preparing the personnel in modern condition. The main requirements is Determined to new system of preparing the personnel in condition innovations developments of the rail-freight traffic.

  11. The Trade-Off between Road and Railroad Freight Transport – Cost Benefit Analysis for Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jure Erjavec

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The choice of transportation mode for freight transport has a profound effect on logistics companies, infrastructure providers and society as a whole. The efficiency of freight transport is important because it has a profound effect on several economic and environmental factors. The paper analyses the costs difference between railroad and road freight transport. The stakeholder analysis is used to enable the identification of the interests of various groups. The government is identified as the focal stakeholder. The governmental decision support model that focuses on the Slovenian case of road and railway freight transport is proposed. The proposed model can serve the government with its decision-making process when adopting policies that concern road and railroad transport such as subsidies or increased road tolls in order to promote railroad transport.

  12. Customs and freight guide: National Olympic Committee (NOC) : Vancouver 2010 Olympic Winter Games

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    This guide provides important information to assist National Olympic Committees (NOCs) in bringing equipment and supplies to and from Canada for the Vancouver 2010 Olympic Winter Games. This guide outlines relevant customs regulations, and freight policies and procedures.

  13. An Algorithm for the Optimal Matching Speeds of Passenger and Freight Trains in Mixed Operations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    This paper models the calculation of the optimal matching speeds of passenger and freight trains with various stage control methods for speed in mixed operations, presents a algorithm for the solution and justifies it with a practical example.

  14. Customs and freight guide: Nanjing 2014 Summer Youth Olympic Games : January 2014

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    The current "Customs and freight guide for Nanjing 2014 Summer Youth Olympic Games" is developed to provide concerned NOCs with necessary information on customs clearance formalities and procedures, goods delivery, special logistic services and the service contacts.

  15. ATLAS forward physics program

    CERN Document Server

    HELLER, M; The ATLAS collaboration

    2010-01-01

    The variety of forward detectors installed in the vicinity of the ATLAS experiment allows to look over a wide range of forward physics topics. They ensure a good information about rapidity gaps, and the installation of very forward detectors (ALFA and AFP) will allow to tag the leading proton(s) remaining from the different processes studied. Most of the studies have to be done at low luminosity to avoid pile-up, but the AFP project offers a really exiting future for the ATLAS forward physics program. We also present how these forward detectors can be used to measure the relative and absolute luminosity.

  16. The assessment of pollutants emissions within sustainable urban freight transport development: The case of Novi Sad

    OpenAIRE

    Veličković Marko S.; Stojanović Đurđica M.; Basarić Valentina B.

    2014-01-01

    Assessment of pollutant emissions is a prerequisite for planning and development of sustainable urban transport systems. Majority of extant studies on sustainable urban transport is focused on pollution caused by urban passenger transport, with marked paucity of literature on the impact of urban freight transport. To partly bridge this gap, the paper objective is the impact assessment of selected regulative measures, i.e. fleet renewal on freight transport ...

  17. Analyzing the Determinants of Freight Shippers’ Behavior: Own-Account versus Purchased Transport in Andalusia.

    OpenAIRE

    Cristina Borra Marcos; Luis Palma Martos

    2004-01-01

    Previous work in the demand for freight transportation has focused in the rail-truck substitution problem, leaving aside the prior own-account versus third-party tradeoff, often found in transportation decision-making. In Andalusia, domestic freight transport takes place mostly by road, an important part of which is own-account transport. The purpose of this paper is to analyze shippers’ behavior relative to this question, paying particular attention to whether the decision to use a private f...

  18. Design and scenario assessment for collaborative logistics and freight transport systems

    OpenAIRE

    Gonzalez-Feliu, Jesus; Morana, Joelle; Salanova Grau, Josep-Maria; Ma, Tai-Yu

    2013-01-01

    Collaboration between partners is a very popular subject in both logistics and decision support research. However, transport management is often taken into account only as an external cost, without integration in collaborative reasoning. This paper proposes a framework to assess collaborative solutions in the context of logistics and freight transport, as well as to describe the links between freight transport and supply chain managementin terms of collaboration techniques. First the main con...

  19. Comparative North American and European gateway logistics: the regionalism of freight distribution

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigue, J.-P.; Notteboom, T.

    2010-01-01

    The global freight distribution system has been impacted by convergence in terms of technology, infrastructure, modes and terminals. Still, in spite of strong converging forces, it can be argued that logistical practices are far from being uniform. This paper analyses the regionalism in freight transport systems by providing a comparative analysis of gateway logistics practices in North America and Europe. It is demonstrated that Europe and North America are not walking the same paths when it...

  20. Freight integration in liner shipping: a strategy serving global production networks

    OpenAIRE

    Notteboom, T.; Merckx, F.

    2006-01-01

    Container shipping lines are well aware of the growing importance of global production networks. While continuing to focus on improving the fundamentals, many shipping lines have developed a keen interest in other segments of the logistics and transportation market to offer integrated and worldwide services to global production networks. This paper aims to assess the overall level of freight integration in thirty-four shipping lines, and provides an insight into the extent to which freight in...

  1. Simulation-Based Approach to Operating Costs Analysis of Freight Trucking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozernova Natalja

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the problem of costs uncertainty in road freight transportation services. The article introduces the statistical approach, based on Monte Carlo simulation on spreadsheets, to the analysis of operating costs. The developed model gives an opportunity to estimate operating freight trucking costs under different configuration of cost factors. Important conclusions can be made after running simulations regarding sensitivity to different factors, optimal decisions and variability of operating costs.

  2. Economies of Density and Regulatory Change in the U.S. Railroad Freight Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Bitzan, John D; Keeler, Theodore E.

    2007-01-01

    Two reform acts, the Staggers Railroad Act of 1980 and the Railroad Revitalization and Regulatory Reform Act of 1976, represented big changes in U.S. policy toward railroads. An important welfare gain from these changes predicted by researchers was the efficiency gain from increased densities in rail freight traffic. However, few retrospective studies have analyzed the accuracy of these predictions. The present paper fills this gap by analyzing the effects of regulatory changes on freight tra...

  3. A Framework for Determining Highway Truck-Freight Benefits and Economic Impacts

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Zun; Sage, Jeremy; Goodchild, Anne; Jessup, Eric; Casavant, Kenneth; Knutson, Rachel L.

    2013-01-01

    This paper proposes a method for calculating both the direct freight benefits and the larger economic impacts of transportation projects. The identified direct freight benefits included in the methodology are travel time savings, operating cost savings, and environmental impacts. These are estimated using regional travel demand models (TDM) and additional factors. Economic impacts are estimated using a regional Computable General Equilibrium (CGE) model. The total project impacts are estimate...

  4. Light Weight Individually Powered Railway Freight Wagons Modified to Utilize Lost Energy during Braking

    OpenAIRE

    Gaurab Bhowmick; Gunjan

    2013-01-01

    EMU or the Electric Multiple Units are those type of trains consisting of self-propelled carriages using electricity as the motive power. An EMU requires no separate locomotives, as electric traction motors are incorporated within one or a number of carriages. Generally EMUs are used for passenger train but the same technology can be implemented in freight carriages also. These EMU based freight cars will reduce the line congestion mainly in India due to its rapid acceleration and high speeds...

  5. The geography of urban freight. In : The geography of urban transportation

    OpenAIRE

    Dablanc, Laetitia; RODRIGUE, Jean Paul

    2014-01-01

    This paper provides a review of the current trends in city logistics and underlines the diversity in which urban freight distribution takes place. Urban freight distribution is prone to a wide array of externalities, namely congestion, pollution and community disruptions, which city logistics tries to mitigate. Based upon the main challenges that have been identified, the paper looks at the city logistics strategies and policies that have been implemented with various degrees of success. Sinc...

  6. Determination of dynamic performance of freight cars taking into account technical condition of side bearers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.Myamlin

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The railway transport plays an important role in social and economic life of the country and carries out the large containment of transportation activities. The transport industry should migrate towards innovation changes and increase its significance as an important transit subsystem on the way of renovation of both the infrastructure and the strategy of all transportation process components including the interaction with other transport modes. At present the life sets strategic challenges for the railway branch, and the basic goals among them are as follows: high-speed train traffic development, increase of the weight of freight trains, new rolling stock development etc. Due to the urgency of this subject, the researchers should cope with the task devoted to one of aspects of improving the freight transportation efficiency, namely to the study of effects of various factors and characteristics of technical conditions of the freight cars running gears (which are unavoidable to arise during operation on their basic dynamic indices. The deviations of technical conditions of running gears from the normal state of the wedge system of bogie swing suspension also play an important role among them. The purpose of the paper is to investigate the influence of different factors of the technical conditions of freight car running gears (size deviation in both the bearers and the wedge system during operation on their basic indices – coefficients of horizontal and vertical dynamics, vehicle body acceleration, frame strength, and derailment stability coefficient. Methodology. The study was conducted by numerical integration and mathematical modeling of the freight car dynamic loading using the software package “Dynamics of Rail Vehicles” (“DYNRAIL”. Findings. As a result of the research for freight car dynamic coefficients determination taking into account technical conditions of the side bearers, the dependencies of the basic freight cars

  7. Long Maturity Forward Rates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Charlotte

    2001-01-01

    The paper aims to improve the knowledge of the empirical properties of the long maturity region of the forward rate curve. Firstly, the theoretical negative correlation between the slope at the long end of the forward rate curve and the term structure variance is recovered empirically and found to...... be statistically significant. Secondly, the expectations hypothesis is analyzed for the long maturity region of the forward rate curve using "forward rate" regressions. The expectations hypothesis is numerically close to being accepted but is statistically rejected. The findings provide mixed support...

  8. Moving Forward - Progress on Forward Detectors

    CERN Multimedia

    Grafstrom, P.

    2006-01-01

    You might have been sitting in some meeting hearing about the ATLAS forward detectors. Coming back to your office wanting to learn more you look in the ATLAS TDR’s and disappointingly you find nothing about forward detectors. The explanation is of course that the forward detectors are newcomers in the ATLAS detector arsenal. ATLAS is designed to measure high Pt particles with pseudo rapidities up to 5 which in terms of angles means angles bigger than one degree (0.8 degree to be more accurate). Particles produced with smaller angles close to the beam escape detection. The hole in the forward direction will now partly be filled. Several new detectors have recently been proposed. These detectors are designed for various luminosity measurements but they also have a physics potential in themselves. Closest to the IP there is LUCID (LUminosity measurement using Cerenkov Integrating Detector). LUCID comprises some 170 Cerenkov tubes sitting around the beam pipe at about 17 m away from the IP. The tubes are 1.5 ...

  9. On Development of Small and Micro Companies of Logistics and Freight in Wuhan%武汉市小微物流货运公司发展研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊文杰

    2015-01-01

    小微物流货运公司的经营业态以货代、省内专线零担运输或快递业务为主,占公路运输市场至少90%以上的份额,是一国和地区经济发展的最根本支撑。本文研究了国内学者关于小微物流公司的观点,客观分析了武汉市小微物流货运公司运行的现状,结合SWOT分析法分析了我市小微物流货运公司发展的环境对我市小微物流货运公司的发展提出了建设性建议。%Small and micro companies in Wuhan mainly operate such services as freight forwarding, special line retail solution to provincial freight and express delivery. They become the basic pillar of the regional economic devel-opment for their 90%of market share in highway transportation. After reviewing the study of small and micro compa-nies of logistics and freight, the paper analyzes the operating situation of these companies in Wuhan, and their devel-opment environment with SWOT method. At the end, it offers some recommendations for the development of these companies.

  10. Analysis of freight train accident statistics for 1972-1974

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Both train speed and dollar damage have been used in transportation studies as measures of accident severity. Analysis of freight train accident data for the three year period, 1972-74 showed that, in general, as speed increases dollar damage to railroad property also increases. A greater percentage of high speed than low speed accidents result in high dollar damage. Factors, in addition to speed, that can have an important effect on accident severity include the type of accident, the kinds of railcars and other equipment involved, and the geographical environmental of the accident. Threshold levels of accident stresses (e.g., impact and puncture forces and fire temperature and duration) are required to compromise the integrity of shipping containers used for the transport of radioactive materials. Analyses of accident severity using either speed or dollar damage as a basis can provide some insights into the possible risks involved in transport of radioactive materials. however, care must be taken in the strict use of results since there is no direct correlation between either speed or dollar damage and cask failure threshold levels

  11. High freight rates hinder oil markets' return to equilibrium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hurricane damage to refineries in the US has created shortages of refined products there, boosting imports and sending freight rates across the Atlantic to record levels. The situation was made worse for a time by a strike at France's main oil terminals in the Mediterranean, which prevented some oil tankers from being rapidly redeployed to routes across the Atlantic. Worldscale (WS) rates for routes from the UK and Europe to the US Atlantic and Gulf Coasts rose well above WS500 for clean tonnage during October. High rates were nevertheless not simply confined to product tankers crossing the Atlantic. Rates for crude tankers to the US have also risen, and tightness has begun to appear in some other markets as well. The net result has been to slow down the movement of oil from regions of surplus to those of scarcity, depressing prices in the former and keeping them at high levels in the latter. Atlantic tanker markets look like remaining tight for the rest of the year and perhaps beyond. (author)

  12. Forward Rate Curve Smoothing

    OpenAIRE

    Jarrow, Robert A

    2014-01-01

    This article reviews the forward rate curve smoothing literature. The key contribution of this review is to link the static curve fitting exercise to the dynamic and arbitrage-free models of the term structure of interest rates. As such, this review introduces more economics to an almost exclusively mathematical exercise, and it identifies new areas for research related to forward rate curve smoothing.

  13. The ATLAS Forward Calorimeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artamonov, A.; Bailey, D.; Belanger, G.; Cadabeschi, M.; Chen, T.-Y.; Epshteyn, V.; Gorbounov, P.; Joo, K. K.; Khakzad, M.; Khovanskiy, V.; Krieger, P.; Loch, P.; Mayer, J.; Neuheimer, E.; Oakham, F. G.; O'Neill, M.; Orr, R. S.; Qi, M.; Rutherfoord, J.; Savine, A.; Schram, M.; Shatalov, P.; Shaver, L.; Shupe, M.; Stairs, G.; Strickland, V.; Tompkins, D.; Tsukerman, I.; Vincent, K.

    2008-02-01

    Forward calorimeters, located near the incident beams, complete the nearly 4π coverage for high pT particles resulting from proton-proton collisions in the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN. Both the technology and the deployment of the forward calorimeters in ATLAS are novel. The liquid argon rod/tube electrode structure for the forward calorimeters was invented specifically for applications in high rate environments. The placement of the forward calorimeters adjacent to the other calorimeters relatively close to the interaction point provides several advantages including nearly seamless calorimetry and natural shielding for the muon system. The forward calorimeter performance requirements are driven by events with missing ET and tagging jets.

  14. Future of energy efficiency and carbon dioxide emissions of Finnish road freight transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liimatainen, H.

    2013-05-15

    The targets to reduce the carbon dioxide emissions to mitigate climate change are as much applicable to the road freight transport sector as they are to all other sectors of society. The aim of this research is to support the initiatives of the Finnish government for improving the energy efficiency and reducing the CO{sub 2} emissions of road freight transport. This is done by forecasting the future development and giving the policy makers guidance on effective measures for promoting road freight energy efficiency and CO{sub 2} reduction. In the study a new method was introduced for connecting the fuel consumption data and goods transport data gathered from the official Finnish road statistics. This method enabled a detailed analysis of the interrelations between the economy, road freight transport, energy consumption and emissions. This analysis was conducted for the years 1995-2010 and the results were used as background information in the Delphi panel of experts. The experts estimated the development of the Finnish road freight sector to the year 2030. Furthermore, a web-based survey was conducted among Finnish road freight hauliers and shippers in order to explore the attitudes and measures related to the energy efficiency. Expert panel workshops were also organised to identify obstacles for the development of the energy efficiency of road freight transport as well as a wide selection of measures to overcome them. The results indicate that the economic development of different branches has a great effect on the energy efficiency and carbon dioxide emissions of road freight transport. Reaching the carbon emission target for the year 2030 is possible in the light of the scenarios which were formed based on expert forecasts. However, the target can be achieved with very different development paths, e.g. the structure of the national economy and the volume of transport seem to vary widely in the different scenarios. In the proposed recommendations on the measures

  15. Extending freight flow modelling to sub-Saharan Africa to inform infrastructure investments - trade data issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Havenga

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper highlights the first attempt by researchers at Stellenbosch University to model freight flows between and for 17 countries in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA. The model will be informed by and linked to the South African surface Freight Demand Model (FDM given these dimensions. By analysing and collating available datasets and developing a freight flow model, a better understanding of freight movements between countries can be obtained and then used for long-term planning efforts. A simple methodology is envisaged that will entail a high-level corridor classification that links a major district in the country with a similar district in another country. Existing trade data will be used to corroborate new base-year economic demand and supply volumetric data that will be generated from social accounting matrices for each country. The trade data will also provide initial flow dynamics between countries that will be refined according to the new volumes. The model can then generate commodity-level corridor flows between SSA countries, and between SSA countries and the rest of the world, as well as intra-country rural and metropolitan flows, using a gravity-based modelling approach. This article outlines efforts to harmonise trade data between the 17 countries identified, as well as between these countries and the rest of the world as a first step towards developing a freight demand model for sub-Saharan Africa.

  16. Energy intensity in road freight transport of heavy goods vehicles in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper examines the factors that have influenced the energy intensity trend of the Spanish road freight transport of heavy goods vehicles over the period 1996–2012. This article aims to contribute to a better understanding of these factors and to inform the design of measures to improve energy efficiency in road freight transport. The paper uses both annual single-period and chained multi-period multiplicative LMDI-II decomposition analysis. The results suggest that the decrease in the energy intensity of Spanish road freight in the period is explained by the change in the real energy intensity index (lower energy consumption per tonne-kilometre transported), which is partially offset by the behaviour of the structural index (greater share in freight transport of those commodities the transportation of which is more energy intensive). The change in energy intensity is analysed in more depth by quantifying the contribution of each commodity through the attribution of changes in Divisia indices. -- Highlights: •We examine energy intensity of Spanish road freight transport over 1996–2012. •We employ single-period and chained multi-period multiplicative LMDI-II decomposition. •Energy intensity reduction is explained by the change in real energy intensity index. •This is partially offset by the behaviour of the structural index. •The attribution of Divisia indices changes gives the contribution of each commodity

  17. Shared Freight Transportation and Energy Commodities Phase One: Coal, Crude Petroleum, & Natural Gas Flows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chin, Shih-Miao [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Hwang, Ho-Ling [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Davidson, Diane [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-07-01

    The Freight Analysis Framework (FAF) integrates data from a variety of sources to create a comprehensive picture of nationwide freight movements among states and major metropolitan areas for all modes of transportation. It provides a national picture of current freight flows to, from, and within the United States, assigns selected flows to the transportation network, and projects freight flow patterns into the future. The latest release of FAF is known as FAF4 with a base year of 2012. The FAF4 origin-destination-commodity-mode (ODCM) matrix is provided at national, state, major metropolitan areas, and major gateways with significant freight activities (e.g., El Paso, Texas). The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is interested in using FAF4 database for its strategic planning and policy analysis, particularly in association with the transportation of energy commodities. However, the geographic specification that DOE requires is a county-level ODCM matrix. Unfortunately, the geographic regions in the FAF4 database were not available at the DOE desired detail. Due to this limitation, DOE tasked Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to assist in generating estimates of county-level flows for selected energy commodities by mode of transportation.

  18. THE COST OF FORWARD CONTRACTING

    OpenAIRE

    Shi, Wei; Irwin, Scott H.; Good, Darrel L.; Hagedorn, Lewis A.

    2004-01-01

    The cost of forward contracting corn is estimated with weekly pre-harvest forward bases for seven regions of Illinois from 1975 to 2002. Given the panel structure of the forward basis dataset, we extend Townsend and Brorsen's univariate unit root model for forward bases to a panel unit root model. With the time series of forward bases modeled as unit root processes, the cost of forward contracting is estimated. The empirical results from the estimation show that the cost of forward contractin...

  19. Economic Feasibility of an Air Cargo Handling Facility at Fargo, North Dakota

    OpenAIRE

    Golz, Theresa K.; Golz, Joel T.; Koo, Won W.

    1992-01-01

    Exports to Taiwan in 1990 via air freight were approximately $2.9 billion, and imports via air freight to the united States were $3.1 billion. Total U.S. exports/imports to/from Taiwan in 1990 were $11.5 billion and $22.7 billion, respectively. China Airlines operates three air cargo hubs in the united States: New York, Los Angeles, and Dallas. The real per capita Gross National Product (GNP) in Taiwan for 1989 was $7,512, up from $3,297 in 1985. This implies that the Taiwanese economy is one...

  20. Streamlining Transportation Corridor Planning Processess: Freight and Traffic Information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franzese, Oscar [ORNL

    2010-08-01

    The traffic investigation is one of the most important parts of an Environmental Impact Statement of projects involving the construction of new roadway facilities and/or the improvement of existing ones. The focus of the traffic analysis is on the determination of anticipated traffic flow characteristics of the proposed project, by the application of analytical methods that can be grouped under the umbrella of capacity analysis methodologies. In general, the main traffic parameter used in EISs to describe the quality of traffic flow is the Level of Service (LOS). The current state of the practice in terms of the traffic investigations for EISs has two main shortcomings. The first one is related to the information that is necessary to conduct the traffic analysis, and specifically to the lack of integration among the different transportation models and the sources of information that, in general, reside in GIS databases. A discussion of the benefits of integrating CRS&SI technologies and the transportation models used in the EIS traffic investigation is included. The second shortcoming is in the presentation of the results, both in terms of the appearance and formatting, as well as content. The presentation of traffic results (current and proposed) is discussed. This chapter also addresses the need of additional data, in terms of content and coverage. Regarding the former, other traffic parameters (e.g., delays) that are more meaningful to non-transportation experts than LOS, as well as additional information (e.g., freight flows) that can impact traffic conditions and safety are discussed. Spatial information technologies can decrease the negative effects of, and even eliminate, these shortcomings by making the relevant information that is input to the models more complete and readily available, and by providing the means to communicate the results in a more clear and efficient manner. The benefits that the application and use of CRS&SI technologies can provide to

  1. Measurement of CO2 emissions from road freight transport: A review of UK experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is possible to estimate CO2 emissions from road freight transport in different ways, depending on the definition of trucking activity, the degree of reliance on survey, vehicle test-cycle and traffic count data and the geographical scope of the calculation. The emergence of differing road freight-related CO2 estimates from official sources and revisions to statistical series can frustrate the policy-making process and erode the confidence of industry stakeholders in the validity of the figures. Using UK data, this paper examines the various methods of carbon auditing road freight transport at the national level and compares the results both for a single year (2006) and over a time period. It highlights a series of statistical anomalies and approximations and tries to explain discrepancies that have arisen in the UK data sets. A concluding section considers the general lessons that can be learned from the recent UK experience in this field.

  2. Rail freight in the EU: A problem-oriented survey (Part I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marin MARINOV

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper consists of a survey on rail freight in the EU, where the prime objective is to reveal the current situation of the rail freight in the EU and raises looming questions for discussion. The paper is organized in three chapters, as follows: 1.Overview reveals the current situation with the European railways and raises questions about the future of these systems; 2.Levels of Operation discusses how the European railways are viewed at both International and National level and suggests some steps for action; and 3.Synthesis. It should be noted that this paper is the Part I of III Problem-Oriented Surveys dedicated to rail freight issues of today.

  3. Forward central jets correlations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The azimuthal correlation between forward and central jets has been measured in pp collisions with the CMS detector at the LHC at the centre-of-mass energy of 7 TeV. The forward jet is required to be reconstructed in the hadronic forward calorimeter, within the pseudo-rapidity 3.2t>35 GeV. The measurement of the azimuthal angle between the jets is performed for different separations in pseudo-rapidity between the jets, with the largest separation being 7.5 units. The measurement is repeated for two subsamples of events, one in which an additional jet is required between the forward and the central jet, and one where the additional jet is vetoed. The measurement is compared to several different Monte Carlo models and tunes.

  4. Climate change, productivity shocks and demand for freight ground transportation in Atlantic Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study was conducted to determine the impacts of climate change on the transportation sector in a regional context. The purpose was to analyze potential climate change impacts on demand for freight transportation in Atlantic Canada through its association with other sectors of the regional economy. Freight transportation is designed to meet transportation demands of commodity producers who must deliver their goods to final users. Since it is a by-product of profit maximization and cost minimization by producers of all types of commodities in various sectors of the economy, this study modelled climate change impacts as productivity shocks in relevant sectors of the economy. A computerized simulation was then used to determine how the consequences of these shocks influence the demand for freight transportation. This was accomplished by collecting climate related data in Atlantic Canada as well as aggregate economic data that reflects the economic performance of the regional economy. A growth model that links regional economy to freight transportation was then developed and different scenarios for future developments associated with climate change impacts were evaluated. Computer simulation with Mathcad-8 showed that the conditions specified in the best-case scenario, expected-case scenario and worst-case scenario resulted in a cumulative loss in demand for ground freight transportation of 7.213, 582.127 and 610.92 billion tonne-kilometers respectively, over the 2001-2100 period. In general, the results of the computer simulation demonstrated a considerable decrease in the demand for ground freight transportation in Atlantic Canada resulting from climate change impacts. The loss in demand was found to occur mostly in the first half of this century, with some recovery in the second half because the economic system would adapt to new climate conditions. It was recommended that policy instruments such as regulations or taxes, should be put in place to reduce the impacts

  5. Climate change, productivity shocks and demand for freight ground transportation in Atlantic Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yevdokimov, Y. [New Brunswick Univ., Fredericton, NB (Canada). Dept. of Economics]|[New Brunswick Univ., Fredericton, NB (Canada). Dept. of Civil Engineering; Byelyayev, O. [New Brunswick Univ., Fredericton, NB (Canada). Dept. of Civil Engineering

    2005-07-01

    A study was conducted to determine the impacts of climate change on the transportation sector in a regional context. The purpose was to analyze potential climate change impacts on demand for freight transportation in Atlantic Canada through its association with other sectors of the regional economy. Freight transportation is designed to meet transportation demands of commodity producers who must deliver their goods to final users. Since it is a by-product of profit maximization and cost minimization by producers of all types of commodities in various sectors of the economy, this study modelled climate change impacts as productivity shocks in relevant sectors of the economy. A computerized simulation was then used to determine how the consequences of these shocks influence the demand for freight transportation. This was accomplished by collecting climate related data in Atlantic Canada as well as aggregate economic data that reflects the economic performance of the regional economy. A growth model that links regional economy to freight transportation was then developed and different scenarios for future developments associated with climate change impacts were evaluated. Computer simulation with Mathcad-8 showed that the conditions specified in the best-case scenario, expected-case scenario and worst-case scenario resulted in a cumulative loss in demand for ground freight transportation of 7.213, 582.127 and 610.92 billion tonne-kilometers respectively, over the 2001-2100 period. In general, the results of the computer simulation demonstrated a considerable decrease in the demand for ground freight transportation in Atlantic Canada resulting from climate change impacts. The loss in demand was found to occur mostly in the first half of this century, with some recovery in the second half because the economic system would adapt to new climate conditions. It was recommended that policy instruments such as regulations or taxes, should be put in place to reduce the impacts

  6. Involving Freight Transport Actors in Production of Knowledge - Experience with Future Workshop Methodology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, Per Homann; Drewes, Lise

    2005-01-01

    experience and knowledge of actors in the freight transport sector are included directly in a scientific process in order to develop future and strategic studies. Future research is often produced as desktop research and presented as the results of scientists’ forecasting and scenario building. The...... format of a future workshop included freight transport stakeholders in the research process in order to produce knowledge meeting scientific quality criteria and at the same time in a form suitable for improving the problem solving capabilities of the participants....

  7. Optimizing Model and Algorithms of Loading and Packing Multi-piece Freights into One Car%一车多件货物装载布局优化模型与算法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷定猷; 汤波; 张英贵; 王新宇

    2011-01-01

    以三维多层货物装载布局问题为研究对象,结合货物运输安全特征,综合考虑装载货物合重心、总重量、总体积、车辆边界及货物之间不干涉等约束因子,以最大化承载车辆标记载重量和有效容积综合利用率为优化目标,建立一车多件货物装载布局优化模型.为保证货物布局的平整性和平衡性,提出基于人工装载经验的s中心骨架、带已布物群约束的布局、形状相似的概念,采用空间合并、融合、小块预留技术,在构造待布空间的匹配货物集、中心骨架及其移动策略的基础上设计一车多件货物装载布局优化算法.实例表明:所提出的模型和算法能快速制定合理的三维多层货物装载布局方案,有效运用承载车辆,满足货物运输安全的要求.%Taking loading and packing of 3-dimensional multi-story freights into one car as the research object, combining with features of freight transportation safety and comprehensive constraint factors such as the freight centre of gravity, total weight, total volume, cars' border & no cross among freights and taking maximizing the nominal load capacity and the comprehensive utilization rate of the available capacity of the car as the objective functions, the optimizing model of loading and packing multi-piece freights into one car was put forward. In consideration of smoothness and balance of the freight layout, the s central framework based on human thinking, layout with restriction of goods laid out and shape similarities were introduced. Through using techniques of space combination, amalgamation and small room reserve and constructing the matched freights set and mobile of the central framework, the algorithms for the model was designed. The instance demonstrates that the model and algorithms can help to make the reasonable plan of loading and packing 3-dimensional multi-story freights into one car quickly, in which the load-carryoing car is utilized

  8. Panama Canal Expansion Illustrates Need for Multimodal Near-Source Air Quality Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    The compelling issue raised is potential major changes in goods movement due to the Panama Canal expansion and considerations for near-source air quality. Near-source air quality may be affected both at near-port areas as well as along the freight transportation corridor.

  9. Transport of solid commodities via freight pipeline: freight pipeline technology. Volume II. First year final report. [Slurry, pneumatic, pneumo-capsule, and hydro-capsule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zandi, I.; Gimm, K.K.

    1976-07-01

    In order to determine the feasibility of pipeline as an intercity freight transportation mode, it was necessary to examine its technological feasibility and reliability. This report describes the technology of the major generic freight pipelines in terms of both historical and current trends and operations. Additionally, it presents a state-of-the-art review of calculating energy requirements of various generic freight pipelines. It was concluded that slurry and pneumatic pipelines are technologically feasible and reliable. There are many commercial installations of both types operating around the world. Based on European experience with pneumo-capsule pipelines for mail delivery and Russian gravel- and sand-transport installations, it appears that a pneumo-capsule pipeline is a technologically feasible and operationally reliable mode for transport of solids. Since no commercial pneumo-capsule pipeline installations yet exist in the U.S., it seems desirable that a service demonstration of the advantages and feasibility of this mode of transport be undertaken to attract the shippers' confidence. Hydro-capsule pipelines are technologically feasible, but its reliability within a commercial environment remains to be tested.

  10. Trends of energy efficiency in Finnish road freight transport 1995-2009 and forecast to 2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liimatainen, Heikki; Poellaenen, Markus [Department of Business Information Management and Logistics, Tampere University of Technology, P.O. Box 541, 33101 Tampere (Finland)

    2010-12-15

    A framework for modeling and analyzing the energy efficiency of road freight transport is presented in this paper. This framework is tested by using the data from the Finnish Goods Transport by Road statistics. The data was enhanced by calculating the fuel consumption for each trip in the data. To calculate this, weight-fuel consumption functions were estimated for each Euro-class vehicles and road type. This is a new method for analyzing the energy efficiency of road freight transport and it could be applied also in other countries gathering freight transport data with continuous company surveys. The analysis show that the energy efficiency of road freight transport in Finland improved during 1995-2002, but has declined since. The major drivers in the development have been the changes in the level of empty running and vehicle fuel efficiency. Extrapolating current statistical trends of factors that influence the energy efficiency show that the target set by the Finnish government for improving energy efficiency by 9% until 2016 will not be achieved. However, the target is possible to be achieved by a combination of small changes to some determinants. (author)

  11. The economic performance of supply chain(s) served by the mega freight transport vehicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janic, M.

    2014-01-01

    This paper deals with the economic performances of supply chain(s) served by different including the mega freight transport vehicles. These performances are considered as a dimension of the supply chain’s sustainability together with the infrastructural, technical/technological, operational, environ

  12. Estimation of warehouse throughput in freight transport demand model for the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Davydenko, I.; Tavasszy, L.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents an extension of the classical four-step freight modeling framework with a logistics chain model. Modeling logistics at the regional level establishes a link between trade flow and transport flow, allows the warehouse and distribution center locations and throughput volumes to be

  13. COMPARATIVE CRITERION OF ALTERNATIVE VARIANTS OF THE FREIGHT CAR PARK MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. V. Marcenjuk

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the optimal criterion for different variants of management of freight car stocks. The authors came to the conclusion that in order to achieve the biggest profit the variant of reformation with getting the greatest net discount income is most effective.

  14. 49 CFR 176.170 - Transport of Class 1 (explosive) materials in freight containers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Transport of Class 1 (explosive) materials in... REGULATIONS CARRIAGE BY VESSEL Detailed Requirements for Class 1 (Explosive) Materials Cargo Transport Units and Shipborne Barges § 176.170 Transport of Class 1 (explosive) materials in freight containers....

  15. 49 CFR 176.76 - Transport vehicles, freight containers, and portable tanks containing hazardous materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... § 176.76, see the List of CFR Sections Affected which appears in the Finding Aids section of the printed... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Transport vehicles, freight containers, and... TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS REGULATIONS CARRIAGE BY VESSEL General Handling and Stowage § 176.76...

  16. An empirical study of direct rebound effect for road freight transport in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Provides a critical review of direct rebound effect literature. • In long term, the road freight transport energy consumption exists a partial RE. • Long term RE in China is larger than that in develop countries. • RE declines with decreasing of urbanization’s growth rate in China. - Abstract: Improving energy efficiency has been considered as a major approach to reduce transportation fuel consumption, whereas its effectiveness that reduced transportation cost may lead to incremental energy use-i.e., a “direct rebound effect”. This paper provides a critical review of direct rebound effect literature, adopts a double logarithmic regression equation and a error correction model respectively to measure the magnitude of long-term and short-term direct rebound effects by 31 provincial panel data of China from 1999 to 2011. The empirical study shows that: in aspect of long term, a partial rebound effect exist in Chinese road freight transportation department, and its magnitude of entire nation, eastern, central and western regions are 84%, 52%, 80% and 78%. A majority of the expected energy reduction from efficiency improvement could be offset due to the existence of rebound effect; independent policy of improving energy efficiency is not as effective as people expected. In aspect of short term, a tiny super conservation effect exists in Chinese road freight transportation department. Further investigation indicated that direct rebound effect for road freight transportation tends to decline as growth rate of urbanization decrease

  17. A Review of some Critical Assumptions in the Relationship between Economic Activity and Freight Transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fosgerau, Mogens; Kveiborg, Ole

    2004-01-01

    Danish national accounts. With these data we are able to check some of the assumptions that have commonly been made. Our findings thus have implications for future freight modelling exercises, in particular for what data it is necessary to collect and what relationships it is necessary to seek to model...

  18. Dynamics of two-axle railway freight wagons with UIC standard suspension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Mark; True, Hans

    2006-01-01

    The dynamics of two different two-axle railway freight wagons is investigated theoretically and compared. Fully nonlinear models are considered. The hysteresis from dry friction and the effect of impacts between elements of the suspension are included. Bifurcation diagrams are shown in order to...

  19. Demonstrating the Use of Spatial Optimising Techniques by Means of a Freight Distribution Game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinnon, Alan C.

    1984-01-01

    College seniors in a geography of marketing and distribution course learn about spatial optimizing techniques by participating in a freight distribution game. Students plan the distribution of confectionery from two factories in England to 20 wholesale and retail customers in Scotland. The team that designs the lowest cost system wins. (RM)

  20. THE PREDICTION OF THE TWO-AXLES DEVELOPMENT OF FREIGHT CAR TRUCK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Myamlin

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The mathematical methods of calculation and analysis of patent fund enable estimation of progress of technical object trends. Using these methods, certain directions of development of biaxial bogie of freight carriage, in particular promising ones and directions, which exhausted the potential, are determined.

  1. Forming the intermodal system of freight transportation on the east of Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksander GOLUBENKO

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work the method of volumetric-calendar planning and production schedule drafting- the network planning - have been considered for the case, which is related to serial or serial-parallel execution of certain works and operations in order to shorten the total delivery cycle of intermodal freight in containers.

  2. 48 CFR 47.303-3 - F.o.b. origin, freight allowed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Administration prescribes commercial zones at Subpart B of 49 CFR part 372); and (2) An allowance for freight... stated in the solicitation, to any Government-designated point located within the same city or commercial... the Government delivered— (i) On board the indicated type or conveyance of the carrier (or of...

  3. Model of informational system for freight insurance automation based on digital signature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxim E. SLOBODYANYUK

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In the article considered a model of informational system for freight insurance automation based on digital signature, showed architecture, macro flowchart of information flow in model, components (modules and their functions. Described calculation method of costs on interactive cargo insurance via proposed system, represented main characteristics and options of existing transport management systems, conceptual cost models.

  4. Resisting momentum in the abutment to rotating of freight car bogie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavels GAVRILOVS

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available On the Latvian railway, derailments of freight cars take place in the course of shunting work on marshalling yards. A number of factors during shunting work on marshalling yards may contribute to the derailments of rolling stock: longitudinal dynamics during braking of cars with the turned off brakes by locomotive, hauling down cars from a marshalling hill with braking position controlled by an operator, dry internal rails in curves, absence of greasing in the pivot unit of freight bogies. At present, measures allowing elimination of the car derailments during shunting work are developed.During the period between repairs, the abutment unit of freight car often works in conditions of dry friction. Our observations suggest that at the time of taking a car into repair, there is often an absence of greasing between trail bearing and center plate of the abutment, and a presence of sandy dust. It increases a friction and, together with high contact pressures and dynamic influence, hinders the turn of bogie at motion of car.In this paper, the results of studying the resisting moment in the abutment to turning of bogie is reported. The study was conducted on the basis of freight bogie of type 18-100; the body was leant on the center plate unit of the abutment, on the center plate unit, and on the sliders. Experiments were conducted, with the use of greasing and at the dry friction of center plate unit.

  5. Energy consumption and GHG emissions from China's freight transport sector: Scenarios through 2050

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    China's freight transport volume experienced rapid growth over recent years, causing great concerns over its energy and environmental impacts. In this study, by establishing a bottom-up accounting framework, a set of scenarios reflecting the possible future trajectories of energy consumption and Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions from China's freight transport sector are developed. According to our estimation, GHG emissions from China's freight transport sector were 788 mt CO2e in 2013, roughly accounting for 8% of nationwide GHG emissions. Under Business-As-Usual (BAU) scenario, energy consumption and GHG emissions in 2050 will be 2.5 and 2.4 times the current levels. GHG emissions will peak by 2045 at the level of 1918 mt CO2e. With all major mitigation measures implemented, energy consumption and GHG emissions in 2050 can be reduced by 30% and 32%, respectively. Besides, GHG emissions will peak earlier by around 2035 at a much lower level than under BAU scenario. Our study suggests that in order to keep in pace with China's overall mitigation agenda, aggressive efforts should be made to reduce GHG emissions from freight transport sector. -- Highlights: •A bottom-up model was established to predict energy consumption and GHG emissions from China's freight transport sector. •Energy consumption and GHG emissions may experience 3.3 and 2.8 times increases under BAU scenario. •GHG emissions may reach the peak as early as around 2030 under aggressive scenario

  6. Trends of energy efficiency in Finnish road freight transport 1995-2009 and forecast to 2016

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A framework for modeling and analyzing the energy efficiency of road freight transport is presented in this paper. This framework is tested by using the data from the Finnish Goods Transport by Road statistics. The data was enhanced by calculating the fuel consumption for each trip in the data. To calculate this, weight-fuel consumption functions were estimated for each Euro-class vehicles and road type. This is a new method for analyzing the energy efficiency of road freight transport and it could be applied also in other countries gathering freight transport data with continuous company surveys. The analysis show that the energy efficiency of road freight transport in Finland improved during 1995-2002, but has declined since. The major drivers in the development have been the changes in the level of empty running and vehicle fuel efficiency. Extrapolating current statistical trends of factors that influence the energy efficiency show that the target set by the Finnish government for improving energy efficiency by 9% until 2016 will not be achieved. However, the target is possible to be achieved by a combination of small changes to some determinants. - Research highlights: →A new method for analyzing energy efficiency by adding fuel data to national freight statistics. →Energy efficiency improved in Finland from 1995 to 2002 but has declined since. →Energy efficiency in Finland is still on a good level internationally. →Target of the Finnish energy efficiency agreement was quantified for the first time in this study. →The target will not be achieved if the past trends continue.

  7. Forwards and futures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Vellekoop

    2010-01-01

    We discuss the existing pricing methodology for futures and forward contracts. Both the discrete-time and the continuous-time cases are treated, and we focus on complete and arbitrage-free markets. Possible extensions and suggestions for further reading are provided at the end of the article.

  8. a Decade of Improvement in Whole-Body Vibration and Low Back Pain for Freight Container Tractor Drivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishiyama, K.; Taoda, K.; Kitahara, T.

    1998-08-01

    The authors' study in 1983 revealed that the whole-body vibration of the tractor units of freight containers was most hazardous in the back-to-chest directions (x-axis). The allowable exposure time was considerably shorter than that for heavy duty trucks. The low back pain (LBP) among the drivers seemed to be due to the long working hours and the ergonomically unsound tractor design, as well as the vibration. A preventative measure was the introduction of a tractor cab suspended by an air spring instead of a steel spring. In 1992, a follow-up field study was conducted. A personal vibration exposure meter developed by us measured the whole-body vibration on eight tractors. Eighty-nine triplets matched with the age and the years of driving tractors answered a questionnaire evaluation of the ergonomics of their tractor units.The comparison of the newest steel suspension vehicles to the old ones produced by the same motor company revealed that in thex-axis the vibration level had decreased by as much as 4 to 9 dB. Some tractors showed an increase in vibration in the buttocks-to-head direction (z-axis). However, such adverse changes seemed not to affect evaluations according to the fatigue-decreased proficiency boundary (FDP) and the exposure limit (EL) recommended in ISO 2631-1978. The present models, regardless of the type of suspension, changed the direction of the most hazardous vibration from thex-axis to thez-axis. However, the effect of the air-suspension was not so remarkable as expected. Among 40% of drivers seemed to exceed the FDP boundary during a day.The questionnaire study showed an improvement in the ergonomic evaluation of the tractors. The air suspension models seemed to induce less LBP than the steel suspension models.

  9. Shipping trials carried out on mangoes, seafoods, onions and garlic irradiated in Thailand and freighted to Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quality assessment of irradiated foods, after transport between countries, is an essential step in validating the efficacy of the irradiation process for Australian export foods. Shipping trials were therefore included in the programme of the Asian Regional Co-operative Project on Food Irradiation, Phase II, which has technology transfer to industry as a prime objective. Between 1985 and 1987, regulatory authorities in Thailand and Australia collaborated in seven trials involving 150 kg of mangoes, 34 kg of frozen seafoods, 500 kg of onions and 120 kg of garlic. Most of the material was irradiated in Thailand and shipped, along with unirradiated material, as commercial air or sea freight to Australia. On arrival, all the foods were assessed for product quality and process efficiency. Onions and garlic were stored for some months, for periodic evaluation. The irradiated mangoes and frozen seafoods reached Australia in good condition and complied with Australian quarantine and microbiological regulations. Eight months after irradiation, 53% of the irradiated garlic stored at 4-6 deg. C was acceptable, compared with 14% of the unirradiated garlic. The shipping trial on irradiated onions was not successful under the particular transport conditions; both the irradiated and non-irradiated onions arrived in poor condition. None of the foods were market tested because both food irradiation and sale of irradiated foods are currently prohibited in Australia. (author). 3 refs, 7 tabs

  10. Forward Osmosis Process

    KAUST Repository

    Duan, Jintang

    2013-12-05

    A process that can alleviate the internal concentration polarization and can enhance membrane performance of a forward osmosis system includes the steps of passing a fluid in a forward osmosis system from a feed solution with a first osmotic pressure, through a membrane into a draw solution comprising a draw solute with a second osmotic pressure, where the first osmotic pressure is lower than the second osmotic pressure, the membrane includes an active layer and a support layer, and the membrane is oriented such that the active layer of the membrane faces a draw side, and the support layer faces a feed side; and applying an external force to the fluid on the feed side of the membrane.

  11. LHC forward physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cartiglia, N. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory (SLAC), Menlo Park, CA (United States); Royon, C. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory (SLAC), Menlo Park, CA (United States). et al.

    2015-10-02

    The goal of this report is to give a comprehensive overview of the rich field of forward physics, with a special attention to the topics that can be studied at the LHC. The report starts presenting a selection of the Monte Carlo simulation tools currently available, chapter 2, then enters the rich phenomenology of QCD at low, chapter 3, and high, chapter 4, momentum transfer, while the unique scattering conditions of central exclusive production are analyzed in chapter 5. The last two experimental topics, Cosmic Ray and Heavy Ion physics are presented in the chapter 6 and 7 respectively. Chapter 8 is dedicated to the BFKL dynamics, multiparton interactions, and saturation. The report ends with an overview of the forward detectors at LHC. Each chapter is correlated with a comprehensive bibliography, attempting to provide to the interested reader with a wide opportunity for further studies.

  12. Higgsstrahlung at forward rapidities

    CERN Document Server

    Pasechnik, Roman; Potashnikova, Irina

    2014-01-01

    We discuss the inclusive and single diffractive heavy flavor (top and bottom) production in association with the Higgs boson at forward rapidities in proton-proton collisions at the LHC. The calculations are performed in the framework of the phenomenological dipole approach, which automatically accounts for the absorptive corrections induced by soft interactions, i.e. for the gap survival effects at the amplitude level. Major differential observables including the realistic ATLAS detector constraints are considered. The forward inclusive and diffractive Higgsstrahlung processes are generated essentially by excitation of the valence or sea quarks in the proton. The single diffractive Higgsstrahlung off top quarks is found to dominate compared to the loop-induced mechanism at sufficiently large Higgs boson transverse momenta. The Higgsstrahlung processes offer a direct and precise measurement of Higgs-top and, possibly, Higgs-bottom Yukawa couplings at the LHC, as well as the studies of the intrinsic heavy flav...

  13. LHC forward physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The goal of this report is to give a comprehensive overview of the rich field of forward physics, with a special attention to the topics that can be studied at the LHC. The report starts presenting a selection of the Monte Carlo simulation tools currently available, chapter 2, then enters the rich phenomenology of QCD at low, chapter 3, and high, chapter 4, momentum transfer, while the unique scattering conditions of central exclusive production are analyzed in chapter 5. The last two experimental topics, Cosmic Ray and Heavy Ion physics are presented in the chapter 6 and 7 respectively. Chapter 8 is dedicated to the BFKL dynamics, multiparton interactions, and saturation. The report ends with an overview of the forward detectors at LHC. Each chapter is correlated with a comprehensive bibliography, attempting to provide to the interested reader with a wide opportunity for further studies.

  14. FERMILAB: Prompt forward muons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There have been theoretical conjectures that the large diffractive charm cross-sections seen at the CERN Intersecting Storage Rings result from an intrinsic charm quark component at the one per cent level in the hadron. The semileptonic decays of such charm states would result in high energy prompt muons in the forward direction. A recent prompt muon experiment by a Caltech/Chicago/Fermilab/Rochester/Stanford collaboration indicates a very low rate for such prompt muons

  15. The future of energy efficiency and carbon dioxide emissions of road freight transport; Tiekuljetusalan energiatehokkuuden ja hiilidioksidipaeaestoejen tulevaisuus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liimatainen, H.; Poellaenen, M.; Kallionpaeae, E.; Nykaenen, L. [Tampere University of Technology (Finland); Stenholm, P.; Tapio, P. [Univ. of Turku (Finland); McKinnon, A. [Heriot-Watt Univ, Edinburgh (United Kingdom)

    2012-01-15

    The targets to reduce the carbon dioxide emissions to mitigate the climate change are directed to the road freight transport sector similarly to all other sectors of the society. The objectives of the Future of energy efficiency and carbon dioxide emissions of road freight transport -project were (1) to estimate whether the energy efficiency and carbon dioxide emission targets set for the sector can be reached and (2) to give recommendations on the measures which can be used to promote reaching of the targets. In the study a new method was introduced for connecting the data comprising fuel consumption and Goods transport data gathered by the official road statistics. This method enabled a detailed analysis of the interrelations between the economy, road freight transport, energy consumption and emissions. This analysis was conducted for the years 1995-2010 and the results were used as background information in the experts' panel. The experts estimated the development of the Finnish road freight sector to the year 2030. Furthermore, a web-based survey was conducted among Finnish road freight companies in order to explore the attitudes and measures related to the energy efficiency. The results indicate that the economic development of different branches has a great effect on the energy efficiency and carbon dioxide emissions of road freight transport. Reaching the carbon emission target for the year 2030 is possible in the light of the scenarios which were given by the experts. However, the target can be achieved with very different development paths, e.g. the structure of the national economy and the volume of transport seem to vary widely in the different scenarios. In the workshops organised in the study the participant identified various obstacles for the development of the energy efficiency of road freight transport as well as a wide selection of measures to overcome them. In the proposed implications the cooperation and division of responsibilities between

  16. Prediction Research on Freight Demand of Heilongjiang Grain%基于指数平滑法的黑龙江粮食货运量需求预测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾丽

    2015-01-01

    文章根据黑龙江省2004~2012年统计年鉴的数据,运用指数平滑法分别对铁路运输和公路运输的粮食货运量进行短期需求预测。通过预测发现,黑龙江在2014年和2015年的粮食货运总量及各类交通运输方式的粮食货运量分别处于上升趋势,黑龙江粮食物流需求将逐渐扩大。针对研究结果,文章总结了黑龙江粮食物流当前存在的诸多问题,并为提高该省粮食物流管理水平提出了相应的政策建议,在一定程度上为黑龙江近期粮食物流基础设施建设提供了决策依据。%According to the data of the year 2004~2014 Statistical Yearbook in Heilongjiang, this article used exponential smoothing method to make short-term demand forecasts of grain freight on rail and road transport. By predicting, it is found that the total grain freight and all transportations of food freight are on a rise in 2014 and 2015. Grain logistics demand will gradually expand in this province. Based on the results, the thesis summarized many problems in Heilongjiang grain logistics. Besides, it put forward corresponding policy recommendations for improving grain logistics management level. To some extent, this provided a basis for deci-sion on Heilongjiang grain logistic infrastructure.

  17. Identification of key target markets for intermodal freight transport solutions in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joubert van Eeden

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The Accelerated and Shared Growth Initiative for South Africa (AsgiSA identified South Africa's freight logistics challenges as among the key binding constraints on the country's growth aspirations. The research presented here points to the structural imbalance between road and rail freight transport as one of the key contributors to this state of affairs. Most long-distance corridor transport has been captured by road. However, long-distance transport is a market segment that is very suitable for intermodal transportation : rail is utilised for the high-density, long-distance component and road for the feeder and distribution services at the corridor end points. A market segmentation approach is developed to identify the corridors and industries that are natural candidates for such solutions, thereby paving the way for role-players and stakeholders to initiate a dialogue on the development of appropriate solutions.

  18. Vibration analysis of medium and small span bridges subjected to mixed marshalling freight trains

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    It has been reported several times that train derailment occurs when mixed marshalling freight trains traverse bridges at high speeds in China.This study aims to explain this phenomenon numerically based on the train-bridge coupling vibration theory and its associated computer program.The train-bridge vibration characteristic is analyzed by a computer program when mixed marshalling freight trains traverse 32-meter-span prestressed concrete simple beam bridges.The mechanism that dynamic responses of the bridges are prominent and that empty trains are inclined to derail are derived from the dynamic responses analysis.The analysis indicates that the significant differences of axle loads between heavy vehicles and empty vehicles produce periodic forced loadings of large amplitudes.These periodic loadings cause severe vibration of bridges.In turn,severe vibration of the bridges produces intensive counteraction to empty vehicles.

  19. Road freight energy efficiency and CO2 emissions in the Nordic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liimatainen, Heikki; Arvidsson, Niklas; Hovi, Inger Beate;

    2014-01-01

    haulier surveys, national account data and fuel consumption data. The CO2 emissions of road freight transport in the Nordic countries vary from 1.14 Mt in Denmark to 2.27 Mt in Sweden. While the size of the economy, measured in gross value added (GVA), is a major determinant for the emissions, the......Nordic countries have committed to improve the energy efficiency and decrease the CO2 emissions of freight transport. The aim of this paper is to compare the energy efficiency and CO2 emissions in the road industry for the Nordic countries in 2010, in order to identify the key factors and their...... impact on energy efficiency and CO2 emissions. A joint analysis method was developed to compare data. Quantitative data was used to conduct a decomposition analysis for several sectors, taking several indicators into account. Statistics from Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden include continuous road...

  20. Rail and multimodal freight: a problem-oriented survey (part II-2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marin MARINOV

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper includes the Part II-2 of the series of problem-oriented surveys on rail and multimodal freight transportation services, which aim is to reveal the current situation in this sector and raises looming questions for discussion. The particular objective of Part II-2 is to discuss recently published works and documents dedicated to Multi-actor chain management and control, Mode choice and pricing strategies, Intermodal transportation policy and planning as well as Miscellaneous. It should be noted that this paper is a problem oriented survey and does not explicitly focus on the available scientific instrumental that has been applied in dealing with rail and multimodal freight. However, throughout the description methods and concepts are addressed, where it is of interest.

  1. Pricing for freight carriers in a competitive environment: A game theory approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzieh Mozafari

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, development of freight transport industry has led to fierce competition among transportation companies and therefore carrier-pricing issue has received more attention by researchers. This paper studies pricing and fleet management decisions for full-truckload freight carriers' competition on a road network. We propose a game theoretic approach under two scenarios. In the first, we model the non-cooperative game wherein the carriers announce their prices simultaneously in competition; in the second, we allow the carriers to share their information and announce their prices while participating in cooperation. We show that carriers can reach the highest profit level in the latter scenario; subsequently, a bargaining game is discussed as a scheme to share the extra joint profit.

  2. Public policy intervention in freight transport costs: effects on printed media logistics in the Netherlands

    OpenAIRE

    Runhaar, H.A.C.; Van der Heijden, R.

    2005-01-01

    Trends in contemporary logistics management have led to an increased transport-intensity of production and distribution activities. Transport costs are increasingly traded off against other logistical costs and seem to have lost importance in strategic decision-making. At the same time, in Europe, transport policy aims at regulating freight transport demand by manipulating its costs, for instance, via taxation. In addition, investment in infrastructure lags behind growth in transport, potenti...

  3. 49 CFR Appendix C to Part 215 - FRA Freight Car Standards Defect Code

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD FREIGHT CAR SAFETY STANDARDS Pt. 215, App. C Appendix C to... 13/4″. (C)(1) Rim thickness is 11/16″ or less; (2) Rim thickness is 5/8″ or less; (3) Rim thickness is 9/16″ or less; (D) Wheel cracked or broken in: (1) rim, (2) flange, (3) plate or (4) hub area....

  4. EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH OF DYNAMIC QUALITIES OF FREIGHT CARS WITH BOGIES OF DIFFERENT DESIGNS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Myamlin

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. With the advent of new designs of freright cars the task of designing the more modern bogies, assessment of their dynamic properties depending on the type and structure of pecularities, accounting the axle loadings, providing the dynamic and running characteristics, meeting the conditions of impact on the track, stability, and frame forces intensity etc. becomes especially important. In order to launch the new production into manufacture and to assess the dynamic properties using different designs of bogies the running testes were conducted. They allowed one to compare the dynamic performance of the new bogie with the existing models. Methodology. The study was conducted using the method of numerical integration and mathematical modeling of dynamic loading of freight cars using the software package «Dynamics of Rail Vehicles» («DYNRAIL». Findings. The results of studies of dynamic characteristics of open cars with new and worn wheels of bogie models 18-9771, 18-9770 and 18-578 in graphical and tabular form are presented. All figures are within the normative values and do not exceed the maximum admissible ones. Originality. When designing the bogie for loading 23.5 t/axle almost all available technical solutions to improve the characteristics of the freight car bogies (elastic bearers, cassette bearing in axle boxes, axle boxe adapter of original design, bilinear central spring suspension, etc. were used. Practical value. As a result of the engineering works on projecting and manufacturing of the improved designs of freight car bogies a new design was received. It is highly competitive with the dynamic qualities of the best ones. Made choice of rational values of elastic-dissipative parameters of the bogie allows one to create standard series of running gears for freight cars for promising operating conditions.The results are of practical importance. They have found reflection in the number of author’spublications in special and

  5. Observations on Responsibility : with Special reference to Intermodal Freight Transport Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Nikkanen, Markku

    2012-01-01

    The question of responsibility has been the subject of lot of interest and debate. This work will shed light on responsibility – and sustainability – in the context of transportation with a special emphasis on intermodal freight. This publication provides a subjective - and an impressionistic - interpretation of the concept of responsibility. It is a prelude with the target of encapsulating certain attributes that affect and explain the decisions and policies of responsibility. At the outset ...

  6. Strategic choice of freight mode and investments in transport infrastructure within production networks

    OpenAIRE

    Tsai, Ying Yi

    2009-01-01

    In the context of production linkages in which downstream producers require freight services provided by transport operators, I show that the strategic choice of using an alternative transport mode does not necessarily induce lower access charges, relative to the standard transport mode. Additionally, I show that the nature of infrastructure investment determines the share of final goods delivery by the alternative transport mode. An immediate implication is that interactions among infrastruc...

  7. Dynamic performance of freight cars on bogies model 18-1711

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.B. Mankevych

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To analyze the results of study of dynamic parameters of the tank-car model 15-1900 and gondola car model 12-1905, equipped with the bogies model 18-1711 with axle loading of 25 ton and unified according to major parts and joints with the cars of previous generation. According to results of the study to conclude about the possibility of using bogies model 18-1711 as the running parts of the freight rolling stock of the new generation of 1520 mm track with increased axle loading. Methodology. The dynamic performance of the rolling stock running parts directly affects the safety of railway traffic. Experimental studies of the car dynamic qualities are an important step in the modernization of existing bogie constructions and in the creation of the new ones. These tests allow one to confirm the results of theoretical studies and to check the correctness of the constructive solutions. Findings. Basic results of dynamic studies are presented as the graphs of dynamic performance dependencies on the motion speed of the experimental train. Results show that the freight cars on the bogies model 18-1711 have satisfactory dynamic properties meeting current regulatory requirements. Originality. The dynamic characteristics of freight cars on bogies model 18-1711, which give a complete view of the car loading allow us to estimate the dependency of the car dynamic performance on the bogie design parameters. Practical value. The bogie model 18-1711 with axle loading 25 ton can be used as a freight car undercarriages of the new generation of 1520 mm track.

  8. Sustainability SI: multimode multicommodity network design model for intermodal freight transportation with transfer and emission costs

    OpenAIRE

    Qu, Yi; Bektas, Tolga; Bennell, Julia May

    2014-01-01

    Intermodal freight transportation is concerned with the shipment of commodities from their origin to destination using combinations of transport modes. Traditional logistics models have concentrated on minimizing transportation costs by appropriately determining the service network and the transportation routing. This paper considers an intermodal transportation problem with an explicit consideration of greenhouse gas emissions and intermodal transfers. A model is described which is in the fo...

  9. Benefits of travel time savings for freight transportation : beyond the costs

    OpenAIRE

    Massiani, Jérôme

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this presentation is to investigate whether current practices in Cost Benefit Analysis do not underestimate the actual benefits accruing to the economy when transport investment reduces transport time. In a first section we define the different time related attributes of transport. We differentiate the various time dimensions of freight transportation services (time, reliability, frequency, responsiveness, etc). We decide to focus our analysis on Travel Time savings. We also in...

  10. INTERNATIONAL FREIGHT TRANSPORTATION:A STUDY ON MNC-BASED CHINA-SWEDEN TRADE FLOWS

    OpenAIRE

    Jiao, Wenwen

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to offer a general picture of MNCs` freight transportation activities in China-Sweden trade, and to explore the reasons by comparison with related theories. The study has been based on interviews with eleven Swedish companies and two Chinese companies, who have transported their commodities between China and Sweden. Interviews have been used to collect the data that later on has been compared to the information collected by a literature study. The main conclusion...

  11. Cost Optimisation in Freight Distribution with Cross-Docking: N-Echelon Location Routing Problem

    OpenAIRE

    Gonzalez-Feliu, Jesus

    2012-01-01

    Freight transportation constitutes one of the main activities that influences economy and society, as it assures a vital link between suppliers and customers and it represents a major source of employment. Multi-echelon distribution is one of the most common strategies adopted by the transportation companies in an aim of cost reduction. Although vehicle routing problems are very common in operational research, they are essentially related to single-echelon cases. This paper presents the main ...

  12. Research on Price of Railway Freight Based on Low-Carbon Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Fenling Feng; Chengguang Liu; Haihong Liu; Zhizhou Ji

    2016-01-01

    Transportation is one of the major energy consumption and carbon emission industries. Railway transport is a typical low-carbon transport. To accelerate the green low-carbon transportation development and improve the railway market share, this paper defines the concept of carbon saving profit to study the price of railway freight after the government functions were separated from railway enterprise management. First, taking full account of market factors and on the principle of utility maximi...

  13. Capital Structure Decision : A case study of SMEs in the road freight industry

    OpenAIRE

    Ritterfeldt, Andreas; Jidéus, Malin; Franck, Pernilla

    2007-01-01

    Companies need capital in order to run their business, do necessary investments and grow larger. These actions are combined with high costs where both internal and external financing might be appropriate. Capital structure is the relation between debt and equity. In this thesis we have focused on the decision behind the capital structure. We have focused on the road freight industry and we have tried to find out how management reason about their decision. The purpose of this thesis is therefo...

  14. Portfolio Theory Forward Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Davidsson

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Portfolio Theory has during many decades been considered as the holy grail of investment despite the fact that very few empirical studies in the public domain have shown that portfolio theory outperforms a random equal weighted portfolio. We will in this paper empirically investigate how successful portfolio theory is when it comes to generating large positive returns with low return volatility. The dataset that is used consists of approximately 4000 US stocks. We find weak support that portfolio theory by itself would have generated any returns different than a random portfolio allocation. In general optimized historical cumulative returns are not the same as forward cumulative returns.

  15. The way forward

    CERN Document Server

    Fridlund, Malcolm; Liseau, René

    2016-01-01

    For the last few decades the study of disks around stars young and old and of different types have progressed significantly. During the same time a completely new discipline, the study of exoplanets, planets orbiting stars other than our Sun, have emerged. Both these fields, which are interconnected, have benefited from the development of new instrumentation, and especially by telescopes and detectors deployed in space. In this chapter we are describing the state of the art of such instruments and make an inventory of what is being currently developed. We also state some of the requirements of the next steps and what type of instruments will lead the way forward.

  16. The Way Forward

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fridlund, Malcolm; Hatzes, Artie; Liseau, René

    2016-05-01

    For the last few decades the study of disks around stars young and old and of different types have progressed significantly. During the same time a completely new discipline—the study of exoplanets, planets orbiting stars other than our Sun—have emerged. Both these fields, which are interconnected, have benefited from the development of new instrumentation, and especially by telescopes and detectors deployed in space. In this chapter we are describing the state of the art of such instruments and make an inventory of what is being currently developed. We also state some of the requirements of the next steps and what type of instruments will lead the way forward.

  17. Forward Wall Detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Forward Wall Detector is designed to identify projectile like fragments from heavy ion reactions at CELSIUS storage ring in Uppsala, Sweden. The FWD consist of 96 detection modules covering azimuthal angle from 3.9o to 11.7o with efficiency of 81%. The detection module can be either of phoswitch type (10 mm fast plastic + 80 mm CsI(Tl)) or standard ΔE-E telescope (750 μm Si + 88 mm CsI(Tl)). It is expected to have charge identification up to Z=18, mass resolution for H and He isotopes and energy resolution ∼ 8%. (author)

  18. SUSTAINABLE INTERMODAL FREIGHT BY ROUTE CHOICE WITH PRACTICALITY CONSTRAINTS

    OpenAIRE

    Sawadogo, Marie; Anciaux, Didier; Roy, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    The transfer of goods and raw materials from one point to another in a supply chain is by various transportation modes namely road, air, sea or inland water, railway... These transportation modes generate a variety of potentially harmful environmental impacts. Indeed, the growth of multimodal infrastructures and intermodal services contributes to intensify the environmental impacts. The levels and types of pollution due to transport mainly depend on the combination of two factors: the type of...

  19. Research on Linear Wireless Sensor Networks Used for Online Monitoring of Rolling Bearing in Freight Train

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents a Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) technique for the purpose of on-line monitoring of rolling bearing in freight train. A new technical scheme including the arrangements of sensors, the design of sensor nodes and base station, routing protocols, signal acquirement, processing and transmission is described, and an on-line monitoring system is established. Considering the approximately linear arrangements of cars and the running state of freight train, a linear topology structure of WSNs is adopted and five linear routing protocols are discussed in detail as to obtain the desired minimum energy consumption of WSNs. By analysing the simulation results, an optimal multi-hop routing protocol named sub-section routing protocol according to equal distance is adopted, in which all sensor nodes are divided into different groups according to the equal transmission distance, the optimal transmission distance and number of hops of routing protocol are also studied. We know that the communication consumes significant power in WSNs, so, in order to save the limit power supply of WSNs, the data compression and coding scheme based on lifting integer wavelet and embedded zerotree wavelet (EZW) algorithms is studied to reduce the amounts of data transmitted. The experimental results of rolling bearing have been given at last to verify the effectiveness of data compression algorithm. The on-line monitoring system of rolling bearing in freight train will be applied to actual application in the near future.

  20. Research on Linear Wireless Sensor Networks Used for Online Monitoring of Rolling Bearing in Freight Train

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nan, Wang; Qingfeng, Meng; Bin, Zheng; Tong, Li; Qinghai, Ma

    2011-07-01

    This paper presents a Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) technique for the purpose of on-line monitoring of rolling bearing in freight train. A new technical scheme including the arrangements of sensors, the design of sensor nodes and base station, routing protocols, signal acquirement, processing and transmission is described, and an on-line monitoring system is established. Considering the approximately linear arrangements of cars and the running state of freight train, a linear topology structure of WSNs is adopted and five linear routing protocols are discussed in detail as to obtain the desired minimum energy consumption of WSNs. By analysing the simulation results, an optimal multi-hop routing protocol named sub-section routing protocol according to equal distance is adopted, in which all sensor nodes are divided into different groups according to the equal transmission distance, the optimal transmission distance and number of hops of routing protocol are also studied. We know that the communication consumes significant power in WSNs, so, in order to save the limit power supply of WSNs, the data compression and coding scheme based on lifting integer wavelet and embedded zerotree wavelet (EZW) algorithms is studied to reduce the amounts of data transmitted. The experimental results of rolling bearing have been given at last to verify the effectiveness of data compression algorithm. The on-line monitoring system of rolling bearing in freight train will be applied to actual application in the near future.

  1. The importance of disaggregated freight flow forecasts to inform transport infrastructure investments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan H. Havenga

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the results of a comprehensive disaggregated commodity flow model for South Africa. The wealth of data available enables a segmented analysis of future freight transportation demand in order to assist with the prioritisation of transportation investments, the development of transport policy and the growth of the logistics service provider industry. In 2011, economic demand for commodities in South Africa’s competitive surface-freight transport market amounted to 622 million tons and is predicted to increase to 1834m tons by 2041, which is a compound annual growth rate of 3.67%. Fifty percent of corridor freight constitutes break bulk; intermodal solutions are therefore critical in South Africa. Scenario analysis indicates that 80%of corridor break-bulk tons can by serviced by four intermodal facilities – in Gauteng, Durban, Cape Town and Port Elizabeth. This would allow for the development of an investment planning hierarchy, enable industry targeting (through commodity visibility, ensure capacity development ahead of demand and lower the cost of logistics in South Africa.

  2. Research on Price of Railway Freight Based on Low-Carbon Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fenling Feng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Transportation is one of the major energy consumption and carbon emission industries. Railway transport is a typical low-carbon transport. To accelerate the green low-carbon transportation development and improve the railway market share, this paper defines the concept of carbon saving profit to study the price of railway freight after the government functions were separated from railway enterprise management. First, taking full account of market factors and on the principle of utility maximization and maximum likelihood method, the sharing ratio model of transportation modes is established. Then consideration is given to both the profit of railway enterprises and social benefits, and income maximization model of railway freight based on low-carbon economy is established. The model can scientifically guide the transportation users who prefer to use resource-saving and environmental-friendly transportation modes, optimize transportation structure, and comprehensively improve the efficiency of transportation system. Finally, case analysis is conducted to verify the rationality and validity of the model, and reference for the rail freight pricing is provided.

  3. Maritime oil freight flows to 2050: Delphi perceptions of maritime specialists

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper aims to synthesise maritime specialists' perceptions of changing patterns of maritime oil freight flows to 2050. Debate spans published maritime oil flows globally, diverse drivers of future flows including economic growth, shipping market changes and haul lengths. A classic Delphi study to explore the perceptions of likely trends and flows to 2050 recruited a panel of early career and established maritime specialists, many with long term career commitments to this industry. Underpinned by market volatility and legislative uncertainty, the perceptions of both groups coincided and were conservative. Local sourcing, new Arctic seaways and fossil fuel intolerance will tend to reduce oil freight work but perceptions of ship re-routing to avoid for example Emission Control Areas and piracy would tend to lengthen hauls. In advanced industrial nations, reducing energy intensities and diminishing social tolerance of fossil fuels imply gradually reducing maritime oil shipments. However, to achieve radical national commitments to carbon emissions reductions will necessitate specialist education for naturally conservative maritime professionals and vigorous oil import reduction policies to curtail domestic demand for oil shipments. - Highlights: • Local sourcing, Arctic seaways and fossil fuel intolerance lessen oil freight work. • Oil hauls lengthen if ships re-route to avoid Emission Control Areas and piracy. • Conservative perceptions of established specialists match early career views. • Carbon emission reduction policies imply significantly reduced oil shipments. • Attitude change in maritime professionals will require education and marketing

  4. Store and forward teledermatology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanthraj Garehatty

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Store and forward and real time or videoconferences are the two types of teledermatology services practiced. Dermatology and radio-diagnosis are visual specialties suited for store-and-forward teledermatology (SAFT. Advances in information technology, electronic instruments and biotechnology have revolutionized and brought changes in SAFT. Cellular phone, digital camera, personal digital assistants, Wi-Fi, Wi-Max and computer- aided-design software are incorporated to deliver the quality health care to remote geographic regions. Complete SAFT care equivalent to face-to-face consultation (Gold standard is essential. Health care providers in rural areas are the ′eyes′ for the consultants. Consultants to guide them should have a rapid periodic audit of visual parameters and dimensions of lesions. Given this background, this article reviews advances in 1 capture, store and transfer of images. 2 Computer Aided measurements of generalized and localized lesions and 3 the integration model to meet all the above two requirements in a centralized location. This process enables diagnosis, management, periodic assessment and complete follow-up care to achieve patient and physician satisfaction. Preservation of privacy and confidentiality of digital images is important. Uniform rules and regulations are required. Indian space research organization (ISRO, Government of India has demonstrated telemedicine pilot projects utilizing the satellite communication and mobile telemedicine units to be useful in meeting the health care needs of remote and rural India. we have to join hands with them to meet dermatology problems in rural areas.

  5. Air filtration and indoor air quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bekö, Gabriel

    decent ventilation and air cleaning/air filtration, high indoor air quality cannot be accomplished. The need for effective air filtration has increased with increasing evidence on the hazardous effects of fine particles. Moreover, the air contains gaseous pollutants, removal of which requires various air...... contradictions should motivate manufacturers and researchers to develop new efficient filtration techniques and/or improve the existing ones. Development of low polluting filtration techniques, which are at the same time easy and inexpensive to maintain is the way forward in the future....

  6. Analysis on the Design of Personalized Railway Freight Products and Implementation Scheme%铁路个性化货运产品的设计分析与实现方案研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王宏亮

    2014-01-01

    With the rapid development of market economy and railway transportation, the demands personalized transportation and railway development are promoting the transformation of the product strategy. This paper starts from the rail freight product features, discusses the basic principles of personalized product design, bring forward a structural system, and gives out a freight product scheme combined with the railway production practice.%随着市场经济和铁路运输业的快速发展,个性化运输需求和铁路自身的发展要求推动着产品战略的转型。本文从铁路货运产品的特征入手,讨论了个性化产品设计的基本原则,提出了一种结构体系,并结合铁路生产实践给出了实现方案。

  7. DETERMINATION OF FRICTION PERFORMANCE INFLUENCE IN THE SYSTEM "BODY–BOGIE" ON THE FREIGHT CAR DYNAMICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Myamlin

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The main requirements for the design of a new generation of cars, according to the Program of rolling stock renovation, are the requirements reducing the operating costs and increasing the cost-effectiveness of their use, taking into account the achievements of scientific and technical thought. Due to the urgency of this subject the paper is devoted to the study of the friction coefficient influence in the bearing connection «center plate – center bowl – bearers»of freight cars on their main dynamic parameters – coefficients of horizontal and vertical dynamics, body acceleration, frame strength, derailment stability factor. Methodology. The study was conducted by numerical integration and mathematical modeling of the freight car dynamic loading using the software package «Dynamics of Rail Vehicles» («DYNRAIL». Findings. Investigations have shown that the safety movement parameters are influenced by both the friction parameters in bearing connection «center plate – center bowl – bearers» of freight cars in empty and loaded state with bogies TSNII-X3 (model 18-100. Effect have other components of freight car dynamics, namely: radii of curved track sections, height of outer rail, etc. Originality. The author investigated the friction influence on the car dynamic loading using new approaches to solving the problem of predicting the rolling stock dynamics. Prediction was carried out on the basis of significantly updated theoretical material that covers all history of the friction theory and includes the results of recent experimental studies because of the speed on the straights and curves of small-and medium-range sections of the road.Practical value. The obtained results have practical orientation. During the research and after modeling with the improved method of accounting of friction processes dependencies of main dynamic parameters of a four-freight gondola on the value of the friction coefficient in the "body

  8. A model for development of freight transport; En model for godstransportens udvikling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kveiborg, O. [National Environmental Res., Systems Analysis Dept. Roskilde (Denmark)

    2001-01-01

    This report describes the results of a large project conducted in a corporation between Statistics Denmark and the Danish National Environmental Research Institute. The main objective of the project has been to analyse the possibilities of prescribing the development in the Danish freight transport in a more appropriate and precise way than it is done by existing models. A secondary objective of the project was to develop a model based on the findings of the analysis. The intention was to be able to describe all areas of freight transport. The analysis has proven it impossible to improve the existing calculations in some areas of transport. Hence, the project has been narrowed down to focus exclusively on road freight transport. The developed model distinguishes itself from existing models by a much higher level of detail in the calculations. This enables the model to describe the structural relations between transport and economic activity, which has previously been subsumed in the aggregate calculations of existing models. The work carried out in the process of developing a model for the freight transport has encountered many difficulties. The findings described in this report are merely one step towards a better understanding of the relation between economic development and transport. The descriptions on the following pages will describe some of the difficulties we have had in achieving an appropriate statistical description of the different linkages. Furthermore, the calculations carried out with the model point at other unsolved problems. There is an indication that the model tends to overestimate the developments in freight transport. In this respect, the very disaggregate calculations of the model can be seen as both an advantage and as a disadvantage because each extra calculation gives rise to further uncertainties in the overall result. Even though we have had great difficulties finding adequate descriptions of the development in the factors in the model

  9. `People on the move and goods on the go` behavioral factors driving carbon-dioxide emissions for travel and freight in OECD countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schipper, L. [Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (United States)

    1996-12-01

    Concern has been expressed in many government and private studies over the cost of externalitites from transportation, which include safety, air pollution, noise, competition for urban space, balance of payments associated with oil imports, and risks from importing oil. If the individual (s) benefiting at the time faced those costs, the travel (or shipment) behind the externality might not take place, or technology would be applied to reduce the extent of the problem. For large trucks and busses, the costs (per vehicle-km) are considerably higher. Expressed as per unit of travel (passenger kilometers) or per unit of freight, i.e., taking into account the utilization of the vehicle, the specific cost change because of economics of scale. Transportation is a valuable part of our economy, but it is no free lunch. Emissions of CO{sub 2} or carbon from road transport are also on government agendas is industrialized countries. Not surprisingly, CO{sub 2} emissions from travel and freight have increased in most industrialized countries faster than population, albeit less rapidly than GDP. This paper reviews some of the factors driving that increase. Whatever the `real` external costs of each mode, all studies suggest two important findings: First, these costs are sometimes comparable to, or higher than, direct fuel costs per kilometer at the margin; Second, the value attached to the externality for carbon emissions tends to be low compared to those associated with other problems. Hence this suggests that CO{sub 2} by itself may not `felt` as a strong stimulus for change, but that changes to deal with the other problems may affect traffic, and therefore CO{sub 2} emissions, profoundly. (EG) 51 refs.

  10. New packaging and transport regulations for IP-2/IP-3 ISO freight containers are in force in Canada since June 1, 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since June 1, 2000 the new Packaging and Transport of Nuclear Substances Regulations are in force in Canada. The Canadian Regulations adopt already elements which are in the new IAEA Safety Standards Series ST-1 (1996 Edition) regarding the qualification of ISO freight containers as industrial packages Type 2 and Type 3 (IP-2,3). The new Canadian transport regulation require the consideration of dynamic loads for routine respectively normal transport conditions in the package design for IP-2,3 ISO freight container. Safety Technology Management (STM) has met this challenge to fulfill the dynamic impact requirements in performing full scale drop tests with 20 ft and 40 ft ISO freight containers. STM, now also present on the Canadian market with its own subsidiary, has recently successfully performed the world's first free fall drop test with a 40 foot ISO freight container. The drop test took place in Bremen (Germany) at the dry dock of the former Vulkan ship yard on September 25, 1998. This drop test had to be performed to qualify the ISO Boxcontainer as a Type IP-2,3 package in accordance with the new IAEA Safety Standards Series No. ST-1 (1996 Edition) paragraph 627 'Alternative Requirements for IP-2,3 Packages'. This IAEA paragraph has been included in the new Canadian Packaging and Transport Regulations under chapter Interpretation and Application, section application in subsection 3 (replaces paragraph 523 of the IAEA Safety Series No.6 Regulations, 1985 Edition, as amended 1990). This paragraph requires dynamic impact testing for freight containers to be qualified as Type IP-2,3 packages. STM has gone the way of fulfilling the dynamic impact requirements in performing a full scale free fall drop test. Ontario Power Generation Inc. triggered the early development of the 40 ft LONGFORCE freight container through an order to STM in February 1998 (Figure 1). The 40 ft ISO freight container prototype (L x W x H = 12192 mm x 2438 mm x 2491 mm) was fully loaded with

  11. Trends in truck freight energy use and carbon emissions in selected OECD countries from 1973 to 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trends in truck freight energy use and carbon emissions: In the age of global supply chains and 'just in time' logistics, fast and efficient goods movement is often seen as an economic imperative. Growth in global goods movement not only translates into growth in commercial trucking activity but also into growth in the share of trucking compared to other modes of in-country freight transportation. These trends have a significant impact on the energy intensity of freight transport. Using a bottom-up approach relying on national data, this study compares the energy intensity of truck freight in Australia, France, Japan, the United Kingdom and the United States from 1973 to the present. The analysis builds on previous work by and decomposing energy use for freight. Intensity is expressed in terms of vehicle intensity (megajoules/vehicle-kilometer), modal energy intensity (megajoules/tonne-kilometer), and carbon intensity (grams/tonne-km). The cross-country comparison highlights in part the influence of geography, transportation infrastructure, and truck utilization patterns on energy and carbon intensity from this sector. While improving fuel economy of individual vehicles is very important, large reductions in trucking energy use and emissions will also come from better logistics and driving, higher load factors, and better matching of truck capacity to load.

  12. Hybrid Forwarding in Cooperative Communications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PENG Cong; ZHAO Ming; YAO Yan

    2008-01-01

    A cooperative communication scheme was developed in which the relay node performs hybrid forwarding, where the relay node will not forward data for a transmission pair unless the corresponding direct transmission fails, and the relay node will not forward data for a transmission pair unless the quality of the channel between the corresponding source and the relay is good. A performance analysis of the outage probability and the diversity-multiplexing tradeoff for the scheme shows that the forwarding mechanism efficiently reduces fading in wireless channels by achieving full diversity order of magnitude improvement. A considerable signal-to-noise ratio gain is provided by this scheme compared with existing cooperation schemes with fixed forwarding. This flexible forwarding mechanism enables the scheme to provide the optimal diversity-multiplexing tradeoff performance.

  13. 49 CFR 1242.73 - Cleaning car interiors and freight lost and damaged-all other (accounts XX-53-70 and 51-53-00).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cleaning car interiors and freight lost and damaged-all other (accounts XX-53-70 and 51-53-00). 1242.73 Section 1242.73 Transportation Other... freight lost and damaged—all other (accounts XX-53-70 and 51-53-00). Separate common expenses on basis...

  14. A Fixed-point Model and Solution Algorithms for Simulating Urban Freight Distribution in a Multimodal Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca D`Acierno

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Urban road networks are generally shared by cars, buses and freight vehicles whose travel times are reciprocally affected (the crossed congestion phenomenon. Hence, simulating performances of urban road networks requires the development of a multimodal assignment model that takes into account the effects of reciprocal influences among vehicles on user travel choices. The proposed model is tested on a real dimension network, adopting three algorithmic approaches (external, internal and hyper-network for its solution and comparing their performances in terms of computing times and result reliability. Finally, we discuss the effects of crossed congestion on freight path choices and the influences of freight vehicle presence on (road and transit user choices.

  15. Analyzing the determinants of freight shipper's behavior: own account versus purchased transport

    OpenAIRE

    Borra, Cristina; Palma, Luis

    2004-01-01

    Previous work in the demand for freight transportation has focused in the rail-truck substitution problem, leaving aside the prior own-account versus third-party trade-off, often found in transportation decision-making. The purpose of this paper is to analyze shippers’ behavior relative to this question, paying particular attention to whether the decision to use a private form of transport is taken on a short term or on a medium term horizon. In order to provide a quantitative evaluation, as ...

  16. Measures to reduce CO2 emissions in the German freight sector

    OpenAIRE

    Knitschky, Gunnar; Mehlin, Markus; Lenz, Barbara

    2008-01-01

    There is a large bundle of measures having influence on CO2 emissions.Explicit political measures to address the reduction of CO2-emissions do not exist for the German freight sector.A majority of measures leads to a CO2 reduction only indirectly as other targets are primarily addressed.The most effective CO2 reductions occur by increases in efficiency, in particular by the reduction of fuel consumption.Figures about the effects of CO2 emission reduction by the measures listed above do not ex...

  17. CargoVibes: human response to vibration due to freight rail traffic

    OpenAIRE

    Waddington, D.; Woodcock, J.; Smith, M.G.; Janssen, S.A.; Persson Waye, K.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to present an overview of the research concerning human response to vibration conducted in the EU FP7 CargoVibes project. The European Union-funded project CargoVibes involved 10 partners from 8 nations and ran from April 2011 to April 2014. The project was concerned with railway-induced ground-borne vibration affecting residents close to freight lines, with one work package that investigated human response to vibration, including sleep disturbance, community annoyanc...

  18. Evaluering af FoodForward

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Ulla

    Videncenter for fødevarer og sundhed, FoodForward, var et projekt under Den Europæiske Socialfond i perioden 01.09.06 – 01.05.08. FoodForward forankredes i samarbejde mellem UC Syddanmarks Videncenter for Sundhedsfremme, Syddansk Erhvervsakademi, Vejle Tekniske Akademi og Foodture. Projektet...

  19. The ATLAS Forward Physics Program

    OpenAIRE

    Royon, Christophe

    2010-01-01

    We describe the ATLAS Forward Physics Program at low luminosity using the rapidity gap method and a dedicated detector called ALFA to tag the protons. We also describe the physics topics of the ATLAS Forward Physics Project at high instantaneous luminosity.

  20. The ALICE Forward Multiplicity Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Christensen, Christian Holm; Gulbrandsen, Kristjan; Nielsen, Borge Svane; Sogaard, Carsten

    2007-01-01

    The ALICE Forward Multiplicity Detector (FMD) is a silicon strip detector with 51,200 strips arranged in 5 rings, covering the range $-3.4 < \\eta < 5.1$. It is placed around the beam pipe at small angles to extend the charged particle acceptance of ALICE into the forward regions, not covered by the central barrel detectors.

  1. The ALICE forward multiplicity detector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm Christensen, Christian; Gulbrandsen, Kristjan; Sogaard, Carsten;

    2007-01-01

    The ALICE Forward Multiplicity Detector (FMD) is a silicon strip detector with 51,200 strips arranged in 5 rings, covering the range $-3.4......The ALICE Forward Multiplicity Detector (FMD) is a silicon strip detector with 51,200 strips arranged in 5 rings, covering the range $-3.4...

  2. The CDF forward muon system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The general properties of the toroids, drift chambers and trigger counters in the CDF forward muon (FMU) system are discussed. The operation of the PSL time-to-digital converter and the UW HOPU (Half Octant Pattern Unit) module is also described. The forward muon level 1 trigger is presented. (orig.)

  3. RESEARCH OF IMPACT OF THE LOADING ON ENDURANCE OF THE FREIGHT LOCOMOTIVE ENGINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergejus LEBEDEVAS

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The publication reflects the research results of the rationalization of the rolling stock use of JSC LG Lithuanian railways to increase the reliability indicators of the freight diesel locomotive exploitation reliability. The comparative evaluation of the exploited freight diesel locomotive work duration, according to the technical documentation, by using comparative test results and indirect diesel reliability criteria approved in practice. An algorithm of work duration forecasting methodology has been created, as well as a programme complex of mathematic modelling. The differences of the results indicated in the experiment and modelled by computer do not exceed 5 ÷ 7%. The proposed and described methodology of the diesel locomotive exploitation load cycle dynamic indicator reduction, by the use of which the following is achieved: increase of the diesel work duration by 7÷10%, reduction of fuel consumption up to 10%, reduction of the load cycle dynamic indicators (increasing the fatigue stress of parts and units of the diesel by 15÷20%.

  4. A real-time visual inspection method of fastening bolts in freight car operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nan, Guo; Yao, JunEn

    2015-10-01

    A real-time inspection of the key components is necessary for ensuring safe operation of freight car. While traditional inspection depends on the trained human inspectors, which is time-consuming and lower efficient. With the development of machine vision, vision-based inspection methods get more railway on-spot applications. The cross rod end fastening bolts are important components on both sides of the train body that fixing locking plates together with the freight car main structure. In our experiment, we get the images containing fastening bolt components, and accurately locate the locking plate position using a linear Support Vector Machine (SVM) locating model trained with Histograms of Oriented Gradients (HOG) features. Then we extract the straight line segment using the Line Segment Detector (LSD) and encoding them in a range, which constitute a straight line segment dataset. Lastly we determine the locking plate's working state by the linear pattern. The experiment result shows that the localization accurate rate is over 99%, the fault detection rate is over 95%, and the module implementation time is 2f/s. The overall performance can completely meet the practical railway safety assurance application.

  5. Formulation of Equations of Motion for a Simply Supported Bridge under a Moving Railway Freight Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Lou

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on energy approach, the equations of motion in matrix form for the railway freight vehicle-bridge interaction system are derived, in which the dynamic contact forces between vehicle and bridge are considered as internal forces. The freight vehicle is modelled as a multi-rigid-body system, which comprises one car body, two bogie frames and four wheelsets. The bogie frame is linked with the car body through spring-dashpot suspension systems, and the bogie frame is rigidly linked with wheelsets. The bridge deck, together with railway track resting on bridge, is modelled as a simply supported Bernoulli-Euler beam and its deflection is described by superimposing modes. The direct time integration method is applied to obtain the dynamic response of the vehicle-bridge interaction system at each time step. A computer program has been developed for analyzing this system. The correctness of the proposed procedure is confirmed by one numerical example. The effect of different beam mode numbers and various surface irregularities of beam on the dynamic responses of the vehicle-bridge interaction system are investigated.

  6. A methodology for evaluating environmental impacts of railway freight transportation policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Railway freight transportation presents a degree of complexity which frequently makes impossible to model it with sufficient precision. Currently, energetic and environmental impacts of freight transportation are usually modelled following average data, which do not reflect the characteristics of specific lines. These models allow qualitative approximations which may be used as criteria for designing high-level transportation policies: road-train modal shift, regional energetic planning or environmental policies. This paper proposes a methodology for estimating railway consumption associated to a specific railway line which yields a new degree of precision. It is based on estimating different contributions to railway consumption by a collection of factors, mobility, operation, or infrastructure-related. This procedure also allows applying the methodology for designing transportation policies in detail: evaluating impact of modal shift, consumption and pollutant emissions on a specific line, as well as the effect of building tunnels, reducing slopes, improving traffic control, etc. A comparison of the estimations given by the conventional approach and the proposed methodology is offered, as well as further comments on the results.

  7. International Road Freight Transport in France: Experiences from Germany, the Netherlands and Driver Costs Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurent Guihery

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available These last few years, French international road freight transport has been undergoing a loss of influence within Europe while traffic has increased and great manoeuvres are taking place since the opening of the European Union towards East. Some of the French transporters are then focusing back on the French market showing a worrying loss in competitiveness. On the contrary, German and Dutch companies are increasing their shares in the French market and have reorganized themselves within Europe to face Eastern Europe competition: follow-up on customers delocalizing in the East, networking, hyperproductivity, markets segmentation between high quality transport in the West, specific markets and low cost segment in Eastern Germany and East Europe (Poland, Romania, ..., intensive geographical closeness to a great harbour (Rotterdam... What should France learn from German and Dutch experiences? On the basis of a comparison of our neighbours' driving costs and road freight transport structure, our contribution - a synthesis of two recent studies ordered by the Comite National Routier (CNR, studies free to be downloaded by www.cnr.fr - will first propose a cooperation with German or Dutch companies in order to propose a winner-winner model based on exchange of competencies: North Africa (Morocco for instance and Southern Europe for French partners (specialization Storage - Logistics and transport business model and opening towards the East for the German and Dutch partners.

  8. Real-time monitoring of brake shoe keys in freight cars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rong ZOU; Zhen-ying XU; Jin-yang LI; Fu-qiang ZHOU

    2015-01-01

    Condition monitoring ensures the safety of freight railroad operations. With the development of machine vision technology, visual inspection has become a principal means of condition monitoring. The brake shoe key (BSK) is an important component in the brake system, and its absence will lead to serious accidents. This paper presents a novel method for automated visual inspection of the BSK condition in freight cars. BSK images are first acquired by hardware devices. The subsequent in-spection process is divided into three stages:first, the region-of-interest (ROI) is segmented from the source image by an im-proved spatial pyramid matching scheme based on multi-scale census transform (MSCT). To localize the BSK in the ROI, cen-sus transform (CT) on gradient images is developed in the second stage. Then gradient encoding histogram (GEH) features and linear support vector machines (SVMs) are used to generate a BSK localization classifier. In the last stage, a condition classifier is trained by SVM, but the features are extracted from gray images. Finally, the ROI, BSK localization, and condition classifiers are cascaded to realize a completely automated inspection system. Experimental results show that the system achieves a correct inspection rate of 99.2%and a speed of 5 frames/s, which represents a good real-time performance and high recognition accuracy.

  9. Freight on a Low-Carbon Diet: Accessibility, Freightsheds, and Commodities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taptich, Michael N; Horvath, Arpad

    2015-10-01

    The freight infrastructure network (e.g., roads, railways, waterways, etc.) is the backbone of nearly all trade partnerships in the United States and abroad. The manner in which the individual portions of its constituent parts are interrelated or arranged plays an important role for determining the environmental footprint of goods moved within the network. Herein, we compare the spatial distribution of potential consumer-producer exchanges (i.e., accessibility) under varying greenhouse gas (GHG) budgets or preferences for minimal transportation-related GHG emissions. We conduct case studies using two freight modes (truck and intermodal rail) for two representative commodities: meat/seafood and paper articles. Results across all counties in the United States indicate that the geographic area in which trade is possible, given a GHG budget, varies by transportation mode, location, and commodity. Our results suggest that intermodal terminal availability is an important determinant of low-GHG accessibility. Since only a fraction of road-to-rail terminals accommodate meat/seafood (4.9%) and paper (0.7%), the United States could increase its expected GHG savings associated with truck-to-rail mode-switching policies by 70% (+20 kg CO2,e/ton for meat/seafood) and 310% (+30 kg CO2,e/ton for paper) by upgrading current terminals to allow the exchange of all types of goods. PMID:26339921

  10. ATLAS Forward Detectors and Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Soni, N

    2010-01-01

    In this communication I describe the ATLAS forward physics program and the detectors, LUCID, ZDC and ALFA that have been designed to meet this experimental challenge. In addition to their primary role in the determination of ATLAS luminosity these detectors - in conjunction with the main ATLAS detector - will be used to study soft QCD and diffractive physics in the initial low luminosity phase of ATLAS running. Finally, I will briefly describe the ATLAS Forward Proton (AFP) project that currently represents the future of the ATLAS forward physics program.

  11. Technical and economic evaluation of advanced air cargo system concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehead, A. H., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    The paper reviews NASA air cargo market studies, reports on NASA and NASA-sponsored studies of advanced freighter concepts, and identifies the opportunities for the application of advanced technology. The air cargo market is studied to evaluate the timing for, and the potential market response to, advanced technology aircraft. The degree of elasticity in future air freight markets is also being investigated, since the demand for a new aircraft is most favorable in a price-sensitive environment. Aircraft design studies are considered with attention to mission and design requirements, incorporation of advanced technologies in transport aircraft, new cargo aircraft concepts, advanced freighter evaluation, and civil-military design commonality.

  12. Untrained Forward Observer (UFO) Translator

    OpenAIRE

    King, Regan

    2012-01-01

    MOVES Research & Education Systems Seminar: Presentation; Session 3c: Human Systems and Training (Operational Systems); Moderator: Mike McCauley; Untrained Forward Observer (UFO) Translator; speaker: Capt. Regan R. King

  13. Rehabilitation Counselor Certification: Moving Forward

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, Jodi L.; Barros-Bailey, Mary; Chapman, Cindy; Nunez, Patricia

    2009-01-01

    This article provides a brief history of the Commission on Rehabilitation Counselor Certification and presents recent changes and strategic goals for moving forward. Challenges and opportunities for the profession in relation to certification are also discussed. (Contains 3 tables.)

  14. Towards zero emission urban logistics: Challenges and issues for implementation of electric freight vehicles in city logistics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quak, H.; Nesterova, N.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Electric freight vehicles (EFVs) are one of the solutions to improve city logistics’ sustainability. EFVs, that are electric powered light and heavy vehicles with a number plate, have the potential to make zero emission city logistics possible within the urban area. However, although trials

  15. China’s Factor in Recent Global Commodity Price and Shipping Freight Volatilities

    OpenAIRE

    Feng Lu; Yuanfang Li

    2009-01-01

    This paper attempts an investigation on the impact of Chinas factor on the global commodity and ocean shipping freight volatilities in recent years. It measures Chinas contribution to the incremental demand growth for selected bulk commodities and ocean shipping in the world. Chinas impact on the price volatilities is statistically analyzed through a conventional econometric framework.

  16. 75 FR 38128 - Ceva Freight, LLC, Dell Logistics Division, Including On-Site Leased Workers From Prologistix and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., LLC, Dell Logistics Division, including on-site leased workers from Prologistix, Winston-Salem, North Carolina. The notice was published in the Federal Register on April 23, 2010 (75 FR 21357). At the request... Employment and Training Administration Ceva Freight, LLC, Dell Logistics Division, Including On-Site...

  17. 76 FR 27366 - CEVA Freight, LLC, Dell Logistics Division, Including On-Site Leased Workers From Prologistix...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-11

    ... Carolina. The notice was published in the Federal Register on April 23, 2010 (75 FR 21357). The notice was... notice was published in the Federal Register on July 1, 2010 (75 FR 38128-38129). At the request of the... Employment and Training Administration CEVA Freight, LLC, Dell Logistics Division, Including On-Site...

  18. Decisive Conditions for an Effective and Efficient Multi-modal Freight Transport Network in Europe: A Meta-Analytic Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Bithas, Kostas; Nijkamp, Peter

    1997-01-01

    The paper addresses the issue of intermodality in European transport policy. Its aim is to derive critical factors for an effective and efficient multimodal freight transport network in Europe. The results of a survey among European transport experts are presented, while a new meta-analytic technique - roughset analysis - is deployed to infer testable conclusions.

  19. Resonant Demagnetization PWM Forward Converter

    OpenAIRE

    BİLGİN, Bülent

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, a new approach to demagnetization process of a PWM forward converter (FC) is proposed. According to this approach, the demagnetization winding and diode of a conventional FC are removed, and an external capacitor is added in parallel with the secondary diode. This replacement changes the linear demagnetization process of a conventional FC into a resonant demagnetization process. The theoretical performance results of the proposed resonant demagnetization forward conve...

  20. SOME ASPECTS OF THE DEFINITION OF EMPTY CARS STABILITY FROM SQUEEZING THEIR LONGITUDINAL FORCES IN THE FREIGHT TRAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. O. Shvets

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Despite of the implementation various programs to improve the safety of train traffic problem of reducing gatherings rolling stock off the rails is still relevant. The study aims to clarify the existing method of determining the factor of stability from the tire longitudinal forces to ensure the sustainability of cars with increasing speeds of the rolling stock. Methodology. Research was conducted by the method of mathematical modeling of loading freight car when driving at different speeds on straight and curved track sections. Findings. Analysis of the results shows that, for all selected freight cars for the calculation, the value of the safety factor by squeezing is smaller than the formulas of Standards. Corrections made to the formula for determining the safety factor by squeezing longitudinal forces, would achieve: 1 a higher safety factor of lightweight cars, excluding them squeezing longitudinal forces in the entire range of speeds of freight trains; 2 to develop and implement measures to prevent squeezing of cars in the entire range of motion; 3 to determine the degree of stability of the empty car in the head, middle and tail laden trains; 4 to offer optimal scheme of mixed trains formation. Originality. The analysis of existing methods for determining stability coefficient cars in freight trains from squeezing their longitudinal forces is presented in studies. Proposals are developed for the refinement of the design phase, construction and operation. Practical value. This study clarifies the existing method of determining the safety factor of stability from the squeezing longitudinal forces, as well as the influence on the magnitude of the coefficient of speed of movement of the rolling stock. Developed proposals for the refinement of existing methods for determining stability coefficient of longitudinal forces squeezing cars in a train, can reduce the number of retirements cars derailed by taking into account in the

  1. Improvement of actions on emergency situations at transportation of dangerous freights by rail transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye. Ya. Kosenko

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Improvement of actions of emergency-and-rescue services during elimination of emergency aftermaths on railway. The extraordinary situations of anthropogenic character on railway are determined by the features of striking factors and are divided into accidents (catastrophes, accompanied by exhausts (blow-outs, spills of hazardous substances, fires, explosions, failures on engineering networks and systems of life-support, by destruction of buildings and structures, by accidents of transport vehicles, etc. At present, there is a problem of co-operation planning of troops and facilities, ministries and departments, which are ordered for eliminating the aftermaths of extraordinary situations, particularly at transporting dangerous freights by rail. Methodology. During the research the method of search optimization of existing systems improvement of analysis and forecast of extraordinary situations as well as the supervision and hour-by-hour registration of rescue services actions during trainings and in the real conditions of aftermaths eliminating of extraordinary situations were used. Findings. The problems to solve are notifying the population on the threat of extraordinary situations arising, informing in time about a current situation, maintaining emergency-and-rescue services in readiness to functioning in extraordinary situations, organizing the life-support of population in conditions of accidents, catastrophes, or a natural calamity. Originality. The features of civil defense organization at dangerous freights transportation are explored; the order of co-operation of emergency-and-rescue services during the elimination of emergency aftermaths of anthropogenic origin on railway is developed. It is resulted in creating the conditions of relative diminishment of losses and expenditures because of transport accidents, catastrophes, explosions, conflagrations and natural calamities. Practical value. It is necessary to plan emergency

  2. Forward physics at the ATLAS experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Ruzicka, Pavel; The ATLAS collaboration

    2010-01-01

    This contribution describes forward physics measurements possible to make with current ATLAS forward detectors including the upgrade project AFP. The aim of AFP is to tag very forward going protons at high luminosities.

  3. Sub-Saharan Africa’s rail freight transport system: Potential impact of densification on cost

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anneke de Bod

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The main response to sub-Saharan Africa’s (SSA challenges has been foreign aid. Yet, despite the large amounts received, the challenges remain. There is an opportunity to consider a different model with less focus on aid and more on investment. In the transport sector specifically, investment decisions should be informed by a longterm optimal balance between different transport modes. The research presented in this paper highlights the significant cost reduction opportunities possible through the densification of rail freight, especially over longer distances, with concomitant implications for increased profitability for rail operators. The densification opportunity should also place a core focus on transport corridors being developed throughout the region. SSA countries themselves can play a critical role in unlocking this potential through, inter alia, simplifying regional economic communities and taking the lead in structuring agreements with the international community.

  4. Analysis of the nonlinear dynamics of a 2-axle freight wagon in curves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Gialleonardo, Egidio; Bruni, Stefano; True, Hans

    2014-01-01

    This paper deals with the study of the nonlinear dynamic behaviour of 2-axle freight wagons in curves, considering the case of one single wagon (neglecting inter-car coupling forces) and of multiple wagons interacting through the buffers and the couplers. A multi-body model of a single wagon and of...... a three-car assembly is introduced, paying particular attention to the nonlinear and nonsmooth modelling of the suspensions and of the inter-car coupling elements. Using this model, a numerical analysis of the steady-state solution reached after the negotiation of curve transition is presented and...... is shown that the coupling forces exchanged by the wagons significantly affect their dynamics in a curve, reducing the amplitude of vibration....

  5. 21st century trucking: A trajectory for ergonomics and road freight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedinger, M; Walker, G H; Piecyk, M; Greening, P

    2016-03-01

    Over the past decade there has been significant pressure to minimise emissions and safety risks related to commercial driving. This pressure to meet the triple bottom line of cost, environment, and society has often resulted in the rapid application of vehicle technologies designed to mitigate undesired effects. Often the cognitive and behavioural effects of technologies on the commercial driver have not received in-depth analysis to determine comprehensive viability. As such, this paper aims to identify a timescale for implementation for future technologies for UK road freight, and likely associated human factors issues, improving upon the currently employed 'trial-and-error' approach to implementation which may carry high economic, environmental, safety-related risk. Thought experiments are carried out to broadly explore these future systems. Furthermore, this work aims to examine whether technology alone will be enough to meet future CO2 reduction targets, and assess the role of behavioural and systems interventions for future research. PMID:26130420

  6. The ATLAS Forward Physics Program

    CERN Document Server

    Pinfold, J L

    2009-01-01

    The ATLAS forward physics program is discussed in the light of the future detector upgrades under study. These developments will enhance the overall physics potential of the experiment. The physics topics presented include: luminosity determination using the LUCID and ALFA detectors; diffractive measurements that should be possible with early data; and, the AFP project which plans to deploy proton taggers at 220 and 420 m from the ATLAS IP. The AFP program includes such physics topics as hard diffraction; diffractive Higgs production,two photon physics; and, new physics in the forward region.

  7. On railway freight transportation regulations information construction%浅谈铁路货运规章信息化建设

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘琪

    2012-01-01

    铁路货运规章是铁路货物运输的基本"法",但现行的铁路规章数量众多、修改频繁、不便于现场使用。文章对目前铁路货运规章管理存在问题进行分析,提出采用信息化手段管理规章,并对货运规章管理系统建设提出建议。%Railway freight transportation regulations are railway freight transport basic "method",but the current railway rules and numerous,frequently modified,do not facilitate the field use.This paper discusses the present railway freight transportation rules and management problems for the analysis,the paper proposes the informationization means management rules and regulations to the freight transportation management system construction are proposed.

  8. Forward Detectors and Physics at ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Soni, N; The ATLAS collaboration

    2010-01-01

    This talk will cover the current Atlas forward detectors LUCID, ZDC, ALFA and the upgrade project AFP. The current forward detectors are dedicated for the luminosity measurements and the forward physics measurements at first low luminosity LHC phase. The AFP project will significantly extend the ATLAS physics program at high luminosities by tagging the very forward tagging protons.

  9. Generalized Forward-Backward Splitting

    CERN Document Server

    Raguet, Hugo; Peyré, Gabriel

    2011-01-01

    This paper introduces the generalized forward-backward splitting algorithm for minimizing convex functions of the form $F + \\sum_{i=1}^n G_i$, where $F$ has a Lipschitz-continuous gradient and the $G_i$'s are simple in the sense that their Moreau proximity operators are easy to compute. While the forward-backward algorithm cannot deal with more than $n = 1$ non-smooth function, our method generalizes it to the case of arbitrary $n$. Our method makes an explicit use of the regularity of $F$ in the forward step, and the proximity operators of the $G_i$'s are applied in parallel in the backward step. This allows the generalized forward backward to efficiently address an important class of convex problems. We prove its convergence in infinite dimension, and its robustness to errors on the computation of the proximity operators and of the gradient of $F$. Examples on inverse problems in imaging demonstrate the advantage of the proposed methods in comparison to other splitting algorithms.

  10. Systematic policy and forward guidance

    OpenAIRE

    Plosser, Charles I.

    2014-01-01

    Money Marketeers of New York University, Inc., Down Town Association, March 25, 2014, New York, NY President Charles Plosser discusses the relationship between systematic policy and forward guidance. He explains how understanding both practices can provide insights into effective monetary policy in normal and unusual times, or in extreme conditions when policy is constrained by the zero lower bound on nominal interest rates.

  11. Dynamic measurement of forward scattering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Appel-Hansen, Jørgen; Rusch, W.

    1975-01-01

    A dynamic method for the measurement of forward scattering in a radio anechoic chamber is described. The quantity determined is the induced-field-ratio (IFR) of conducting cylinders. The determination of the IFR is highly sensitive to 1) multiple scattering between the cylinder and the obpring...

  12. Scanner for the detection of contraband in air cargo containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: There is a growing worldwide need to rapidly scan bulk air cargo for contraband such as illicit drugs and explosives. CSIRO has been working with Australian Customs Service to develop an innovative and cost-effective solution capable of directly scanning air freight containers in 1-2 minutes without unpacking. A new scanner has been developed that combines fast neutron and gamma-ray radiography to provide high-resolution images that include information on material composition. A full-scale prototype scanner has been successfully tested in the laboratory and a commercial-scale scanner will be installed at Brisbane airport in 2005. Copyright (2005) Australian Institute of Physics

  13. WHAT WAY DETERMINE THE CORRECT ALLOCATION AND LAYOUT FOR THE NEEDS OF PARKING FREIGHT DESIGN IN CONCRETE REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Straka

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In terms of building a network parking strategies for freight transport may be considered two variants: a building (completing car parks on abandoned of border crossings, respectively building a whole new network of parks. Creating a network of parks for freight is in the interest of the Slovak Republic as well as the European Union. The subsequent optimization is dependent on the quality of road infrastructure and the traffic intensity in the monitored sections. It is therefore important selection of suitable candidates, administrators and their subsequent assessment of the appropriateness and services provided in selected locations. Identification of parking in the SR enables to choose the effective solution for intelligent networking and secure parking.

  14. Computer technology and the redefinition of supervision: a study of the effects of computerisation on railway freight supervisors

    OpenAIRE

    Dawson, Patrick Mark Bryant

    1985-01-01

    The relationship between computer technology and supervision is examined with reference to new empirical evidence drawn from a study of the computerisation of freight operations in British Rail. Attention is focused on the extent to which computerisation allows for a more integrated system of management control, and the possibility of devolving additional elements of control from middle management to the local supervisory level. Contemporary research often claims that the first-line super...

  15. A Fixed-point Model and Solution Algorithms for Simulating Urban Freight Distribution in a Multimodal Context

    OpenAIRE

    Luca D`Acierno; Mariano Gallo; Bruno Montella

    2011-01-01

    Urban road networks are generally shared by cars, buses and freight vehicles whose travel times are reciprocally affected (the crossed congestion phenomenon). Hence, simulating performances of urban road networks requires the development of a multimodal assignment model that takes into account the effects of reciprocal influences among vehicles on user travel choices. The proposed model is tested on a real dimension network, adopting three algorithmic approaches (external, internal and hyper-...

  16. The Effect of Pallets and Unitization on the Efficiency of Intercontinental Product Movement Using Ocean Freight Containers

    OpenAIRE

    Hagedorn, Alexander Job

    2009-01-01

    Global industrialization was developed in response to both consumers and manufacturers demand for lower product prices and availability of goods and services. As a result, products are transported greater distances. Shipping constitutes the majority of costs in the export/import supply chain. Shippers and buyers commonly attempt to offset these costs by maximizing the capacity of ocean freight containers (cube or weight). Boxes (usually constructed of corrugated fiberboard) containing con...

  17. Influence of the freight transnational rail liner service on the train scheduling in case of major corridors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela POPA

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we discuss several consequences of the freight transnational rail liner service on the rail corridor capacity. The Northern part of the IVth TEN-T corridor on Romanian territory has specific feature related to the passenger flows connecting important Romanian demographic and economic clusters, on one side, and on the other side, to its diagonal crossing aspect, from the Western border to the Constanta port, connecting the Central Europe countries to the Black Sea regions, which means that there are a lot of expectation in terms of this corridor rail capacity: this corridor will, be for a long time further, the single and first completed continuous upgraded and modernised rail corridor. Its utilization will necessarily be heterogeneously planned (meaning for passengers rapid trains and freight rapid trains, from domestic/internal market, but especially for external market of Romania. In this paper, we consider a simple mathematical model for the calculus of capacity in two different cases: for a homogeneous utilization, meaning that all trains have the same running speeds and for heterogeneous utilization, when the passenger trains have the higher speed and hence, the higher priority over the freight trains, even if some of them are freight transnational liner service. Special feature of liner rail service has to be considered (fixed schedule, no stops for passenger train advance. We draw several useful possible solutions to be considered in order to preserve the active corridor capacity, and to assure a smooth flow for the transnational liner services, which ultimately will enhance the rail attractiveness.

  18. Fairness and Freight-Handlers : Local Labor-Market Conditions and Wage-Fairness Perceptions in a Trucking Firm

    OpenAIRE

    Verhoogen, Eric A; Burks, Stephen V.; Carpenter, Jeffrey P.

    2004-01-01

    This paper draws on evidence from an internal attitude survey in the freight-handling terminals of a unionized trucking firm to investigate the effect of local labor market conditions on employee wage-fairness perceptions. The key element of our research design is that local managers have no discretion to vary wage rates in response to local labor market conditions; local economic shocks thus generate exogenous variation in the attractiveness of the wage paid by the firm relative to employees...

  19. ACL command with forward converter

    OpenAIRE

    Morard, Julien; Biner, Hans-Peter

    2009-01-01

    Objectif: Les ACL sont des lampes 28V/250W utilisées dans le domaine de l’éclairage scénique. Jusqu’à présent 8 lampes sont branchées en série sur le réseau ce qui interdit toute commande individuelle. L’appareil conçu dans ce projet contient un « Power Factor Corrector PFC » pour pouvoir créer un bus de tension à 400V et un convertisseur de type « Forward » pour chaque lampe qui réduit la tension à 28 Volts efficace. Le convertisseur Forward a été conçu lors du travail de semestre. L’objecti...

  20. The ALICE forward multiplicity detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ALICE experiment is designed to study the properties of hadron and nucleus collisions in a new energy regime at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN. A fundamental observable in such collisions is the multiplicity distribution of charged particles. A forward multiplicity detector has been designed to extend the charged particle multiplicity coverage of the ALICE experiment to pseudorapidities of -3.4<η<-1.7 and 1.7<η<5.0. This detector consists of five rings, each containing 10240 Si strips, divided into sectors comprised of Si sensors bonded and glued to hybrid PC boards equipped with radiation hard preamplifiers. The output of these preamplifiers is multiplexed into custom-made fast ADC chips located directly behind the Si sensors on the detector frame. These ADCs are read out, via optical fibers, to a data acquisition farm of commodity PCs. The design and characteristics of the ALICE Forward Multiplicity Detector will be discussed

  1. Looking Backward and Looking Forward

    OpenAIRE

    Gao, Zhengyuan; Hafner, Christian M.

    2016-01-01

    Filtering has had a profound impact as a device of perceiving information and deriving agent expectations in dynamic economic models. For an abstract economic system, this paper shows that the foundation of applying the filtering method corresponds to the existence of a conditional expectation as an equilibrium process. Agent-based rational behavior of looking backward and looking forward is generalized to a conditional expectation process where the economic system is approximated by a class ...

  2. The STAR Forward GEM Tracker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balewski, Jan

    2008-10-01

    The STAR collaboration is preparing a tracking detector upgrade, the Heavy Flavor Tracker (HFT) [1] and the Forward GEM Tracker (FGT) to further investigate fundamental properties of the new state of strongly interacting matter produced in relativistic-heavy ion collisions at RHIC and to provide fundamental studies of the proton spin structure and dynamics in high-energy polarized proton-proton collisions at RHIC. The FGT will focus on novel spin physics measurements in high-energy polarized proton-proton collisions, determining the flavor dependence (δu versus δd) of the polarized sea. STAR plans to probe these PDFs using parity violating W production and decay. W^-(+) bosons are produced in u+d,d+u) collisions and can be detected through their leptonic decays, e^-+νe,e^++νe), where only the respective charged lepton is measured. The sensitivity of those measurements is enhanced in the forward direction. The discrimination of u+d (d+u) quark combinations requires distinguishing between high pT e^-(+) through their opposite charge sign. An upgrade of the STAR forward tracking system is needed to provide the required tracking precision for charge sign discrimination. This upgrade will consist of six triple-GEM detectors with two dimensional readout arranged in disks along the beam axis. The FGT design and installation schedule will be presented. [1] The STAR Heavy-Flavor Tracker, DNP Fall 2008 Meeting.

  3. Power forward curves: a managerial perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This chapter concentrates on managerial application of power forward curves, and examines the determinants of electricity prices such as transmission constraints, its inability to be stored in a conventional way, its seasonality and weather dependence, the generation stack, and the swing risk. The electricity forward curve, classical arbitrage, constructing a forward curve, volatilities, and electricity forward curve models such as the jump-diffusion model, the mean-reverting heteroscedastic volatility model, and an econometric model of forward prices are examined. A managerial perspective of the applications of the forward curve is presented covering plant valuation, capital budgeting, performance measurement, product pricing and structuring, asset optimisation, valuation of transmission options, and risk management

  4. Impact of NOx vehicle emission standards failure on Air Quality in Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Borken-Kleefeld, J.; Kiesewetter, G.; Papageorgiou, T.; Ntziachristos, L.

    2012-01-01

    Vehicle exhaust emission standards have been tightened in the EU for several decades now, in order to protect health and the environment. This has led to a substantial decrease in total pollutant emissions, despite the growing volumes of passenger and freight transport. However, national emissions, particularly of NOx, exceed the ceilings accorded under the Gothenburg Protocol of the UNECE's Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution (LRTAP) (EEA 2012) in twelve EU Member States. T...

  5. THE POTENTIAL OF ALTERNATIVE RAIL FREIGHT TRANSPORT CORRIDORS BETWEEN CENTRAL EUROPE AND CHINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewan Md Zahurul ISLAM

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines the potential of three rail corridors: Trans-Sib, Central and TRACECA for freight transport between Central Europe and China. The paper applies a qualitative research method including a review of current literature and interviews. The research examines the technical, operational and bureaucratic conditions of the corridors. The research finds that the unreliable transit time, higher cost and damage and theft of cargo are the most pressing barriers to towards offering an efficient and integrated logistics and supply chain service along the corridors. This is due to, amongst others, problematic, multiple border-crossings and the lack of visible cooperation among the countries. The technical and operational barriers include a change of gauge, differing power supply and signalling systems and non-automated and fragmented information systems. The research also finds that the Trans-Sib is the most attractive corridor currently running and shows promise with the active contribution from the Russian government and relevant direct stakeholders such as Russian Railway (RZD. The TRACECA route is the most problematic option due to, among others, numerous border-crossings, infrastructure and rolling stock constraints and other associated problems.

  6. Longitudinal review of state-level accident statistics for carriers of interstate freight

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    State-level accident rates by mode of freight transport have been developed and refined for application to the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) environmental mitigation program, which may involve large-quantity shipments of hazardous and mixed wastes from DOE facilities. These rates reflect multi-year data for interstate-registered highway earners, American Association of Railroads member carriers, and coastal and internal waterway barge traffic. Adjustments have been made to account for the share of highway combination-truck traffic actually attributable to interstate-registered carriers and for duplicate or otherwise inaccurate entries in the public-use accident data files used. State-to-state variation in rates is discussed, as is the stability of rates over time. Computed highway rates have been verified with actual carriers of high- and low-level nuclear materials, and the most recent truck accident data have been used, to ensure that the results are of the correct order of magnitude. Study conclusions suggest that DOE use the computed rates for the three modes until (1) improved estimation techniques for highway combination-truck miles by state become available; (2) continued evolution of the railroad industry significantly increases the consolidation of interstate rail traffic onto fewer high-capacity trunk lines; or (3) a large-scale off-site waste shipment campaign is imminent

  7. Improvement of Structure and Properties of Cast Ferrite-Pearlite Steels for Freight Railway Cars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Rabinovich

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available As it i s known For increasing of propcnics (YTS 2 380 MPa of cast stcds i t is c f k ~ i v tco incrcasc conlcnt o f alhsti~uiionaal lloyingclcrncnts, (Si, Mn, Cr, Ni. 1 lowevcr it lcads to rising in pricc olstccl ton. lncrcasing of Si and Mn conrcnl only is limitcd hy decreasing o lductility and weld nhility. As a rule silicon contcnt at ~hcsca ccls is not highcr than 0.4-0.67'0 and Si:Mn ratio is not highcr khan 1:2. Nowfor grain rcfincmcnt ~wc sin oculation of stcct by nitrogcn and clcincnrs with high chcmical affinity to nltmgcn. Mostly vanadium i s usd.howcvcr niobium sornctime is uscd. Dissldvantagcs of this arc high cost of alloying clcmcnrs and low thcrrnodynamic stability OFvanadium and niobium nitridcs. Parlicles of V(C,N and Nh(C.N dissolvc during hcating fnr licnt trcatmcnt or during wclding. It [cads lodccrcasing of grain refinement elfcc!.Adaptat ion or this microalloying stratcgy Tor casts producing For rrcight mil way cars let cstirnatc possibility of application thcsc casts in ancw gcnerazion freight railway cars.

  8. Market Barriers to Increased Efficiency in the European On-road Freight Sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aarnink, S.; Faber, J.; Den Boer, E.

    2012-10-15

    There are numerous technical and operational measures available to improve the fuel efficiency of truck fleets, but many of these measures are currently not universally implemented. Even cost-effective measures (i.e., measures which can be implemented with net fuel savings that outweigh the initial technology costs and potentially at a net profit) are often not adopted. The main barrier is the lack of information on the fuel savings of individual technical measures for trucks and especially trailers. While many transport companies and all original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) are aware that certain technologies exist, few respondents believe that these technologies are cost-effective. As a result of this belief, the supply of fuel-saving technologies from OEMs is limited. This report aims to better understand the reasons for the limited adoption of cost-effective fuel-saving technologies and to inform the policy-making process in the European Union and abroad, and specifically to provide input to the European Commission's strategy for reducing greenhouse gas emissions from HDVs. The primary goal of the study is to identify the barriers to the implementation of technologies that improve fuel efficiency in the European road freight transport sector. For this report, the existence and importance of barriers were analyzed through surveys of and interviews with transport companies, OEMs, shippers and logistics service providers.

  9. Forwardly movable assembly for a firearm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crandall, David L.; Watson, Richard W.

    2007-06-05

    A forwardly movable assembly for a firearm, the forwardly movable assembly adapted to be disposed in operative relationship relative to the other operative parts of a firearm, the firearm having in operative relationship each with one or more of the others: a barrel, a receiver, and at least one firing mechanism; the forwardly movable assembly comprising: the barrel and the receiver operatively connected with each other; a movable hand support structure to which at least one of the barrel and the receiver is connected, the barrel being movable therewith, the movable hand support structure being adapted to be gripped by an operator of the firearm; the forwardly movable assembly being adapted to be moved forward by an operator upon gripping the movable hand support structure and manually maneuvering the hand support structure forwardly; and, as the forwardly movable assembly is moved forwardly, the firing mechanism is completely disengaged therefrom and held substantially stationary relative thereto.

  10. Forward Physics at the ATLAS experiment

    CERN Document Server

    The ATLAS collaboration

    2009-01-01

    Poster summarize forward physics at the ATLAS experiment. It aims to AFP project which is the project to install forward detectors at 220m (AFP220) and 420m (AFP420) around ATLAS for measurements at high luminosity.

  11. Senior Living: Staying Positive and Moving Forward

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Issues Feature: Senior Living Staying Positive and Moving Forward Past Issues / Summer 2009 Table of Contents For ... Living / Long Distance Caregiving / Staying Positive and Moving Forward / Former WWII Fighter Pilot Finds New Home Near ...

  12. Forward EW Physics at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Farry, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    Measurements of electroweak production in the forward region at the LHC provide unique and complementary information to those performed in the central region. Studies have been performed not just by LHCb, a dedicated forward detector, but also by ATLAS and CMS, which are primarily situated in the central region but can exploit forward calorimetry coverage to contribute to the understanding of SM processes in the forward region.

  13. Forward physics Monte Carlo (FPMC)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Boonekamp, M.; Juránek, Vojtěch; Kepka, Oldřich; Royon, C.

    Hamburg : Verlag Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron, 2009 - (Jung, H.; De Roeck, A.), s. 758-762 ISBN N. [HERA and the LHC workshop series on the implications of HERA for LHC physics. Geneve (CH), 26.05.2008-30.05.2008] R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC527; GA MŠk LA08032 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100502 Keywords : forward physics * diffraction * two-photon * Monte Carlo Subject RIV: BF - Elementary Particles and High Energy Physics http://arxiv.org/PS_cache/arxiv/pdf/0903/0903.3861v2.pdf

  14. Forward Osmosis System And Process

    KAUST Repository

    Duan, Jintang

    2013-08-22

    A forward osmosis fluid purification system includes a cross-flow membrane module with a membrane, a channel on each side of the membrane which allows a feed solution and a draw solution to flow through separately, a feed side, a draw side including a draw solute, where the draw solute includes an aryl sulfonate salt. The system can be used in a process to extract water from impure water, such as wastewater or seawater. The purified water can be applied to arid land.

  15. Constructing forward price curves in electricity markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fleten, S.-E.; Lemming, Jørgen Kjærgaard

    2003-01-01

    We present and analyze a method for constructing approximated high-resolution forward price curves in electricity markets. Because a limited number of forward or futures contracts are traded in the market, only a limited picture of the theoretical continuous forward price curve is available...

  16. The maximal forward peak in elastic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The maximal sharpness of the forward peak in elastic scattering is constrained by unitarity. This is done by minimizing the average of (t). The data are within 15% o/ the maximal sharpness. Our bound and an earlier lower bound on the forward slope constitute a severe restriction on the shape of forward peak. (author)

  17. A survey of the transport of radioactive materials by air to, from and within the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioactive materials are frequently transported overseas by air for medical and industrial purposes. Among the advantages of this mode of transport is that urgent delivery is often required because some radionuclides are short lived. There are also a limited number of shipments by air within the UK. Scheduled passenger services or freight only aircraft may be used. Packages of radioactive materials are transported in aircraft holds at recommended segregation distances from areas occupied by passengers and crew. Many workers are involved in air transport and it is necessary to have procedures in place to minimise their exposure to ionising radiation

  18. Air cargo: An Integrated Systems View. 1978 Summer Faculty Fellowship Program in Engineering Systems Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keaton, A. (Editor); Eastman, R. (Editor); Hargrove, A. (Editor); Rabiega, W. (Editor); Olsen, R. (Editor); Soberick, M. (Editor)

    1978-01-01

    The national air cargo system is analyzed and how it should be in 1990 is prescribed in order to operate successfully through 2015; that is through one equipment cycle. Elements of the system which are largely under control of the airlines and the aircraft manufacturers are discussed. The discussion deals with aircraft, networks, facilities, and procedures. The regulations which govern the movement of air freight are considered. The larger public policy interests which must be served by the kind of system proposed, the air cargo integrated system (ACIS), are addressed. The possible social, economical, political, and environment impacts of the system are considered. Recommendations are also given.

  19. Simulation Results of Double Forward Converter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Vijaya KUMAR

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This work aims to find a better forward converter for DC to DC conversion.Simulation of double forward converter in SMPS system is discussed in this paper. Aforward converter with RCD snubber to synchronous rectifier and/or to current doubleris also discussed. The evolution of the forward converter is first reviewed in a tutorialfashion. Performance parameters are discussed including operating principle, voltageconversion ratio, efficiency, device stress, small-signal dynamics, noise and EMI. Itscircuit operation and its performance characteristics of the forward converter with RCDsnubber and double forward converter are described and the simulation results arepresented.

  20. The development of special ISO freight containers for the transport of low level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the operation and maintenance of nuclear power stations, and other nuclear facilities, solid waste materials such as paper, plastics, filters, clothing, wood and metallic items are produced which are lightly or potentially radioactively contaminated. These items of trash are generally classified as low level waste (LLW) which, in the UK, is defined as having a radioactivity content of not more than 12 GBq/ton beta/gamma (about 300 mCi/t) and 4 GBq/ton alpha (about 100 mCi/t). LLW does not normally require to be shielded during normal handling and transport. LLW in the UK is routinely disposed at a special site at Drigg in Cumbria and until recently the disposal method used has been simple tumble-tipping into shallow trenches excavated in clay. Large re-usable tipping containers were used to transport the waste by road to the disposal site. Although various studies had confirmed the continued technical, safety and environmental acceptability of the simple disposal practices at Drigg, it was recognized that improvements would have to be made, mainly for presentational purposes. The new disposal concept adopted at Drigg was to construct concrete lined engineered vaults in which the containerized waste would be stacked uniformly. It was therefore necessary to develop a new method of waste packaging that was compatible with the new disposal concept. A number of proposals were considered. The authors proposed a system that would use ISO freight containers as both transport and disposal packages. This system was adopted and has been in service since mid 1988

  1. Leaping Forward in Green Transport

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Changgi; Vandycke, Nancy L.; Sung, Nak Moon; Choi, Sang Dae; Yi, Eun Joo Allison; Lee, Sangjoo

    2015-01-01

    What do Bangkok, Cairo, Lagos, Mumbai, and Nairobi have in common? These megacities, like others in burgeoning emerging market economies, are magnets for people seeking better opportunities. They also suffer from serious traffic congestion, high levels of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and heavy air pollution. These urban areas face a stark dilemma: economic expansion attracts more people and ...

  2. 50 years forward: beta cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halban, Philippe A

    2015-08-01

    Our understanding of beta cell development and function has increased substantially these past 50 years but much remains to be learned before this knowledge can be put to clinical use. A comprehensive business plan will be necessary to develop a detailed molecular and functional blueprint of the beta cell in health and disease based on an integrated approach involving all necessary research disciplines. This blueprint will provide a platform for the development of novel therapeutic strategies for the treatment of both major forms of diabetes, foremost among them beta cell replacement therapy. This is one of a series of commentaries under the banner '50 years forward', giving personal opinions on future perspectives in diabetes, to celebrate the 50th anniversary of Diabetologia (1965-2015). PMID:25957776

  3. Forward Instrumentation for ILC Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Abramowicz, Halina; Afanaciev, Konstantin; Aguilar, Jonathan; Ambalathankandy, Prasoon; Bambade, Philip; Bergholz, Matthias; Bozovic-Jelisavcic, Ivanka; Castro, Elena; Chelkov, Georgy; Coca, Cornelia; Daniluk, Witold; Dragone, Angelo; Dumitru, Laurentiu; Elsener, Konrad; Emeliantchik, Igor; Fiutowski, Tomasz; Gostkin, Mikhail; Grah, Christian; Grzelak, Grzegorz; Haller, Gunter; Henschel, Hans; Ignatenko, Alexandr; Idzik, Marek; Ito, Kazutoshi; Jovin, Tatjana; Kielar, Eryk; Kotula, Jerzy; Krumstein, Zinovi; Kulis, Szymon; Lange, Wolfgang; Lohmann, Wolfgang; Levy, Aharon; Moszczynski, Arkadiusz; Nauenberg, Uriel; Novgorodova, Olga; Ohlerich, Marin; Orlandea, Marius; Oleinik, Gleb; Oliwa, Krzysztof; Olshevski, Alexander; Pandurovic, Mila; Pawlik, Bogdan; Przyborowski, Dominik; Sato, Yutaro; Sadeh, Iftach; Sailer, Andre; Schmidt, Ringo; Schumm, Bruce; Schuwalow, Sergey; Smiljanic, Ivan; Swientek, Krzysztof; Takubo, Yosuke; Teodorescu, Eliza; Wierba, Wojciech; Yamamoto, Hitoshi; Zawiejski, Leszek; Zhang, Jinlong

    2010-01-01

    Two special calorimeters are foreseen for the instrumentation of the very forward region of the ILC detector, a luminometer designed to measure the rate of low angle Bhabha scattering events with a precision better than 10-3 and a low polar angle calorimeter, adjacent to the beam-pipe. The latter will be hit by a large amount of beamstrahlung remnants. The amount and shape of these depositions will allow a fast luminosity estimate and the determination of beam parameters. The sensors of this calorimeter must be radiation hard. Both devices will improve the hermeticity of the detector in the search for new particles. Finely segmented and very compact calorimeters will match the requirements. Due to the high occupancy fast front-end electronics is needed. The design of the calorimeters developed and optimised with Monte Carlo simulations is presented. Sensors and readout electronics ASICs have been designed and prototypes are available. Results on the performance of these major components are summarised.

  4. Application performance of railway freight car tracking based on in-memory database%基于内存数据库提升铁路货车追踪应用性能的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    颜昌盛; 范娟娟; 海洋; 高明星

    2015-01-01

    介绍铁路货车追踪应用的背景及当前存在的性能问题,针对实际情况提出利用内存数据库解决性能问题的思路,并进行了POC测试。测试结果证明,采用内存数据库解决当前货车追踪应用面临的性能问题,无论是从前期投入还是从后期维护角度看,都具有可行性。%This paper introduced the background of the railway freight car tracking application and its current performance problem. Based on a comprehensive analysis, a totally new method of using the in-memory database was put forward to solved the problem, the POC test was done afterwards. The test result proved that it was practicable to use the in-memory database to improve performance and reduce cost, from the point of new, whether the early stage investment or the later stage of maintenance, the method was feasible.

  5. Reporting of energy efficiency in freight transport and evaluating the effects of efficiency measures; Kuljetusalan energiatehokkuuden raportointi ja tehostamistoimenpiteiden vaikutusten arviointi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liimatainen, H.

    2010-07-01

    The pressure towards freight transport sector to improve energy efficiency and reduce carbon dioxide emissions is growing continuously. In Finland, a target for improving the energy efficiency by 9 % during 2008-2016, in accordance to the European energy services directive, was set in the energy efficiency agreement for freight transport and logistics. However, the targets and the reality faced by freight transport companies do not seem to meet. Small companies, such as the majority of Finnish freight transport companies are, do not have enough information, know-how or resources to improve their energy efficiency. The situation is also made worse by lack of standards on reporting energy efficiency, unclear target-setting and inadequate follow-up of achievements. The aim of this study was to clarify the targets of energy efficiency, related reporting and evaluation of efficiency measures, as well as the expectations of transport customer towards environmental reporting. Literature review and surveys were used as research methods. As a result of this study, the target of the energy efficiency agreement for freight transport and logistics was expressed as a single figure for the first time. Top-down and bottom-up methods and related sources of information for evaluating energy efficiency are also presented in this report. Company-level issues in reporting energy efficiency and evaluating efficiency measures are illustrated with a calculation example. The improvement of energy efficiency will directly reduce the costs and improve the profits of a freight transport company. A company which handles the reporting of energy efficiency and emissions well can also gain competitive advantage in the eyes of transport customers. Reporting and monitoring the achievement of energy efficiency targets does, however, require further clarification of common principles, which requires collaboration between all stakeholders. (orig.)

  6. Optimization of the imported air express cargo distribution problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hwang, T.L.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the delivering network of imported air express cargo as an integrated multi-depot vehicle routing problem. Integrated multi-depot vehicle routing problem attempts to decide which service centers should be used and how much freight should be unloaded in each service center. The role of an exchange point which is allowing the delivery vans and shuttles to exchange imported and exported goods is also addressed. Test results demonstrate the feasibility of the four models so these are highly promising for use in a diverse array of applications, such as in home delivery and reverse logistics.

  7. Colombia’s Forward Energy Market

    OpenAIRE

    Peter Cramton

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a market design for Colombia’s forward energy market, which is scheduled to began in 2008. The forward energy market is an organized market to procure energy for electricity customers on a forward basis. It includes both the regulated market (residential and other small customers) and the nonregulated market (large customers). Currently, regulated customers represent 68% of the total electricity demand and nonregulated customers represent the remaining 32%. The proposed de...

  8. Analysis of Off-Forward Parton Distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Xiangdong; Melnitchouk, Wally; Song, Xiaotong

    1997-04-01

    Off-forward parton distributions, which are generalizations of the forward parton distributions of deep-inelastic scattering, can provide information on the spin and orbital angular momentum carried by quarks and gluons in the nucleon. We use a simple bag model to estimate the off-forward distributions, as well as the form factors of the energy-momentum tensor, which can be measured in future deeply-virtual Compton scattering experiments.

  9. Storage and the Electricity Forward Premium

    OpenAIRE

    Julia Popova; Stratford Douglas

    2006-01-01

    We develop and test a model describing the influence of natural gas storage on the electricity forward premium. The model is constructed by linking the effect of gas storage on the higher moments of the distribution of electricity prices to an established model of the effect of those moments on the forward premium. The model predicts a (weakly) positive effect of gas storage on the electricity forward premium when loads are light, but a sharply negative effect when demand for electricity is h...

  10. Forward model nonlinearity versus inverse model nonlinearity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehl, S.

    2007-01-01

    The issue of concern is the impact of forward model nonlinearity on the nonlinearity of the inverse model. The question posed is, "Does increased nonlinearity in the head solution (forward model) always result in increased nonlinearity in the inverse solution (estimation of hydraulic conductivity)?" It is shown that the two nonlinearities are separate, and it is not universally true that increased forward model nonlinearity increases inverse model nonlinearity. ?? 2007 National Ground Water Association.

  11. Simulation Results of Double Forward Converter

    OpenAIRE

    P. Vijaya Kumar; S. Rama Reddy

    2009-01-01

    This work aims to find a better forward converter for DC to DC conversion.Simulation of double forward converter in SMPS system is discussed in this paper. Aforward converter with RCD snubber to synchronous rectifier and/or to current doubleris also discussed. The evolution of the forward converter is first reviewed in a tutorialfashion. Performance parameters are discussed including operating principle, voltageconversion ratio, efficiency, device stress, small-signal dynamics, noise and EMI....

  12. Bistatic Forward Scattering Radar Detection and Imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Hu Cheng; Liu Changjiang; Zeng Tao

    2016-01-01

    Forward Scattering Radar (FSR) is a special type of bistatic radar that can implement image detection, imaging, and identification using the forward scattering signals provided by the moving targets that cross the baseline between the transmitter and receiver. Because the forward scattering effect has a vital significance in increasing the targets’ Radar Cross Section (RCS), FSR is quite advantageous for use in counter stealth detection. This paper first introduces the front line technology u...

  13. 78 FR 14594 - Forward Funds, et al.; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION Forward Funds, et al.; Notice of Application February 28, 2013. AGENCY: Securities and Exchange.... Applicants: Forward Funds (the ``Trust''), Forward Management, LLC (the ``Adviser''), and Forward...

  14. Experimental Determination of Pass-By Noise Contributions from the Bogies and Superstructure of a Freight Wagon

    Science.gov (United States)

    DE BEER, F. G.; VERHEIJ, J. W.

    2000-03-01

    Pass-by noise from freight trains on straight tracks is dominated by rolling noise. The main contributions are generally accepted to originate from vibrations of the track and the wheels. However, there is uncertainty about the contributions from the bogie and the wagon superstructure. This article describes experimental methods to determine these. The methods combine vibration measurements on a rolling wagon and measurements of structural and of vibro-acoustical transfer functions under static conditions. Firstly, an inverse method is used to determine the equivalent structural excitation of a wagon. Secondly, two reciprocity methods are described for detailed vibro-acoustic transmission path analysis, with the wagon parts excited by the equivalent forces. As an example, some data will be shown from experiments on a widely used freight wagon. It appears that the contributions from two bogies and from the wagon superstructure are respectively 20 and 30dB(A) lower than the measured pass-by noise levels. Detailed information is obtained about the ranking of sub-areas which contribute to the sound radiation. The results illustrate the practical value of the methods even in the case of weak partial sources.

  15. DETERMINATION ALGORITHM OF OPTIMAL GEOMETRICAL PARAMETERS FOR COMPONENTS OF FREIGHT CARS ON THE BASIS OF GENERALIZED MATHEMATICAL MODELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Fomin

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Presentation of features and example of the use of the offered determination algorithm of optimum geometrical parameters for the components of freight cars on the basis of the generalized mathematical models, which is realized using computer. Methodology. The developed approach to search for optimal geometrical parameters can be described as the determination of optimal decision of the selected set of possible variants. Findings. The presented application example of the offered algorithm proved its operation capacity and efficiency of use. Originality. The determination procedure of optimal geometrical parameters for freight car components on the basis of the generalized mathematical models was formalized in the paper. Practical value. Practical introduction of the research results for universal open cars allows one to reduce container of their design and accordingly to increase the carrying capacity almost by100 kg with the improvement of strength characteristics. Taking into account the mass of their park this will provide a considerable economic effect when producing and operating. The offered approach is oriented to the distribution of the software packages (for example Microsoft Excel, which are used by technical services of the most enterprises, and does not require additional capital investments (acquisitions of the specialized programs and proper technical staff training. This proves the correctness of the research direction. The offered algorithm can be used for the solution of other optimization tasks on the basis of the generalized mathematical models.

  16. Computational modeling of a forward lunge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Tine Alkjær; Wieland, Maja Rose; Andersen, Michael Skipper;

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the function of the cruciate ligaments during a forward lunge movement. The mechanical roles of the anterior and posterior cruciate ligament (ACL, PCL) during sagittal plane movements, such as forward lunging, are unclear. A forward lunge movement contains a knee joint....... This approach allowed a full understanding of the mechanical equilibrium of the knee joint, which revealed that the PCL had an important stabilizing role in the forward lunge movement. In contrast, the ACL did not have any significant mechanical function during the lunge movement. Furthermore, the...

  17. Forward Scattering of Loaded and Unloaded Antennas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gustafsson, Mats; Andersen, Jørgen Bach; Kristensson, Gerhard;

    2012-01-01

    Forward scattering of antennas is related to antenna performance via the forward-scattering sum rule. The forward-scattering sum rule is an integral identity that shows that a weighted integral of the extinction cross section over all spectrum is proportional to the static polarizability of the...... antenna structure. Here, the forward-scattering sum rule is experimentally verified for loaded, short-circuit, and open-circuit cylindrical dipole antennas. It is also shown that the absorption efficiency cannot be greater than 1/2 for reciprocal linearly polarized lossless matched antennas with a...

  18. Responses to The Way Forward

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In November 1987 United Kingdom Nirex Limited launched a discussion document entitled The Way Forward. The stated aims of the document were to promote discussion and to seek constructive contributions to the task of ensuring that radioactive waste is managed safely. It further aimed to promote public understanding of the issues involved and to stimulate comment which would assist Nirex in developing acceptable proposals for the disposal of radioactive waste. From the 2,526 replies received the main findings are: there is a clear welcome for the consultation exercise among local authorities and the majority of responding organisations; there is no overall unanimity of view; there appears to be little support for the under sea-bed accessed off-shore repository; safety is judged to be the paramount factor for all consultees, though clearly views differ as to how best to achieve this. The safe transport of wastes is the next major area of concern; views differ as to whether areas of high amenity value should be excluded from consideration at the outset, though the majority view is probably that they should be; the monitoring and recoverability of wastes is generally deemed to be important; potential detrimental local economic impact and blight through social stigma associated with the public perception of radioactive waste disposal is also a key concern and there is opposition from local authorities and environmental groups to the use of the Special Development Order procedure for obtaining planning permission for either investigative drilling or subsequent development. (author)

  19. Forward instrumentation for ILC detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two special calorimeters are foreseen for the instrumentation of the very forward region of the ILC detector, a luminometer designed to measure the rate of low angle Bhabha scattering events with a precision better than 10-3 and a low polar angle calorimeter, adjacent to the beam-pipe. The latter will be hit by a large amount of beamstrahlung remnants. The amount and shape of these depositions will allow a fast luminosity estimate and the determination of beam parameters. The sensors of this calorimeter must be radiation hard. Both devices will improve the hermeticity of the detector in the search for new particles. Finely segmented and very compact calorimeters will match the requirements. Due to the high occupancy fast front-end electronics is needed. The design of the calorimeters developed and optimised with Monte Carlo simulations is presented. Sensors and readout electronics ASICs have been designed and prototypes are available. Results on the performance of these major components are summarised. (orig.)

  20. The ATLAS Forward Proton Programme

    CERN Document Server

    Trzebinski, M; The ATLAS collaboration

    2012-01-01

    The ATLAS Forward Proton Programme - talk for the Low-x 2012 Meeting Quartic anomalous couplings measurement at μ = 46 and a total luminosity of 300 fb−1 is possible. The full AFP simulation in presence of pile-up confirms the gain in sensitivity between one and two orders of magnitude with respect to the standard (non-AFP) ATLAS methods. The use of the AFP allows reaching the values expected in Higgs-less or extra-dimension models. The production of exclusive dijet for μ = 23 and a total luminosity of 40 fb−1 the measurement is possible and interesting due to the huge model uncertainties at present level of the theory understanding. The measurement of the W asymmetry in a specific configuration at low μ allows to get a decisive understanding on the diffractive exchange. For all physics cases, AFP capabilities in terms of proton tagging and timing resolution are key and unique features unprecedented sensitivity to quartic anomalous coupling or novel QCD measurements.

  1. Forward instrumentation for ILC detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abramowicz, Halina [Tel Aviv Univ. (Israel); Abusleme, Angel [Stanford Univ., CA (United States); Afanaciev, Konstantin [NCPHEP, Minsk (BY)] (and others)

    2010-09-15

    Two special calorimeters are foreseen for the instrumentation of the very forward region of the ILC detector, a luminometer designed to measure the rate of low angle Bhabha scattering events with a precision better than 10{sup -3} and a low polar angle calorimeter, adjacent to the beam-pipe. The latter will be hit by a large amount of beamstrahlung remnants. The amount and shape of these depositions will allow a fast luminosity estimate and the determination of beam parameters. The sensors of this calorimeter must be radiation hard. Both devices will improve the hermeticity of the detector in the search for new particles. Finely segmented and very compact calorimeters will match the requirements. Due to the high occupancy fast front-end electronics is needed. The design of the calorimeters developed and optimised with Monte Carlo simulations is presented. Sensors and readout electronics ASICs have been designed and prototypes are available. Results on the performance of these major components are summarised. (orig.)

  2. DETERMINATION THE PERMISSIBLE FORCES IN ASSESSING THE LIFT RESISTANT FACTOR OF FREIGHT CARS IN TRAINS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. O. Shvets

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. In the analytical research are considered: 1 relationships between the longitudinal force acting on the car in the train; 2 lateral and vertical forces of interaction in the contact zone «wheel – rail»; 3 dynamic indicators of cars with the magnitude of the car lift resistance factor; 4 obtaining of the dependencies between them. Methodology. The study was conducted by an analytical method assessing the sustainability of the freight car when driving at different speeds on the straight and curved track sections. Findings. In the process of studying the motion of the train, in the investigation of transport events, as well as during the training on the simulator operator, to assess the actions of the driver, the values of the longitudinal forces in the inter car connections are used. To calculate the longitudinal compressive forces, acting on the car, in which car lift resistance factor will be equal to the allowable value (critical force. To assess the impact on the value of the longitudinal force speed, coefficients of the vertical and horizontal dynamics, as well as the wind load on the side surface of the car body are the results of calculations of motion of the empty gondola car, model № 12-532 curve radius of 250 m with a rise of 150 mm and a transverse run of body of car frame relative to the track axis of the guide section 50 mm. Originality. In this study, the technique of determining the longitudinal compressive force was shown, that is somewhat different from the standard. So, as well as assessing the impact on it the speed of rolling coefficients of vertical and horizontal dynamics and wind load on the side surface of the car body. Practical value. The authors developed proposals on the enhancement of existing methods for determining the value of the longitudinal compressive forces acting on the car in which the safety value of the car lift resistance factor will be equal to the allowable value. It will evaluate the

  3. The First 40 FT Freight Container in Europe Qualified as an IP-2/IP-3 and Type A Package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The first successful free fall drop test with a 40 ft ISO freight container in Europe (as far as we know also in the world) took place in Bremen (Germany) at the dry dock of the former Vulkan ship yard on 25 September 1998. This drop test was performed to qualify the ISO Boxcontainer as an IP-2/IP-3 and Type A package in accordance with IAEA Regulations Safety Series No 6 (1985 edition, as amended in 1990) and the new IAEA Safety Standards Series No ST-1 (1996 Edition). The freight container has successfully passed the whole sequence of required tests to demonstrate compliance with Type A requirements (free drop test, stacking test, penetration test and, instead of the water spray test, the more stringent pressure and bubble test was performed) of the IAEA Regulations. This paper concentrates on the free fall drop test because this is the most difficult of the required Type A tests which needs to be passed. Further, the free fall drop test is required to qualify a freight container in accordance with the alternative requirements for industrial packages IP-2,3 (new ST-1, 627), the requirements for industrial packages (new and old IAEA Regulations) and Type A requirements. Therefore, the freight container was qualified as IP-2,3 and Type A package performing a free fall drop test. The overall dimensions of the so called LONGFORCEγ container are: length 12192 mm (40 ft); width 2438 mm (8 ft); height 2491 mm (8 ft 6 in). The 40 ft ISO freight container prototype was fully loaded with 28 t of steel plates together with shock absorbing material to simulate the load and load securing system. The total drop test weight was 35.6 t. In accordance with IAEA Regulations Safety Series No 6 and ST-1, the LONGFORCEγ container was dropped onto an unyielding foundation in a position which suffered the maximum damage in respect of the package safety features. The package was dropped on its corner, door side down on the roof, with the centre of gravity over the impact area (slap

  4. Amplify-and-forward relaying in wireless communications

    CERN Document Server

    Rodriguez, Leonardo Jimenez; Le-Ngoc, Tho

    2015-01-01

    This SpringerBrief explores the advantage of relaying techniques in addressing the increasing demand for high data rates and reliable services over the air. It demonstrates how to design cost-effective relay systems that provide high spectral efficiency and fully exploit the diversity of the relay channel. The brief covers advances in achievable rates, power allocation schemes, and error performance for half-duplex (HD) and full-duplex (FD) amplify-and-forward (AF) single-relay systems. The authors discuss the capacity and respective optimal power allocation for a wide range of HD protocols ov

  5. Computational simulation for analysis of the freight in the sugar cane transportation – a case study in the Rio de Janeiro state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João José de Assis Rangel

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This work presents an analysis of the freight distribution in the sugar cane supply system in a mill made by computational simulation. The mill supply system is compound basically by the cut, loading and transportation operations (known as CLT. The costs of these operations represent 27% on an average of the direct costs of the production per hectare. Only transportation represents, approximately 55% of the CLT total costs per hectare. In Campos dos Goytacazes, north of Rio de Janeiro state, the sugar cane activity is traditional and of great value, demanding continuous improvement of these operations. The aim of this work was to develop a simulation model to evaluate the relation of the CLT freight cost with the distance of the sugar cane supplier to the mill. Simulations of various ypothetical sceneries built to allow connecting the various suppliers concerning the paid freight were done. Results were validated with data from literature and with information furnish by local mills, allowing, and this way, to determine the impact of the freight over the direct operations costs of the CLT.

  6. RESULTS OF RESEARCH OF INFLUENCING OF OPERATING FACTORS ON THE TECHNICAL AND ECONOMIC INDICATORS OF THE USE OF DIESEL ENGINE TRACTION IN FREIGHT MOTION

    OpenAIRE

    Kalabuhin, Y.

    2011-01-01

    In the article the results of computation research of influencing of operating factors are resulted on the technical and economic indicators of the use of main diesel engine 2TE116 at moving of freight train on the area of appeal. Such approach can be taken for technical and economic research of innovative decisions.

  7. How Effective Is Central Bank Forward Guidance?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kool, C.J.M.; Thornton, D.L.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we use survey forecasts to investigate the impact of forward guidance on the predictability of future short- and long-term interest rates in four countries: New Zealand, Norway, Sweden, and the United States. New Zealand began providing forward guidance in 1997, Norway in 2005, and Sw

  8. FORWARD MARKETING BEHAVIOR OF SOYBEAN PRODUCERS

    OpenAIRE

    Davis, Todd D.; Patrick, George F.

    2000-01-01

    Indiana, Mississippi, and Nebraska producers' forward pricing behavior was analyzed with Tobit models. Percent debt, percent soybean acres, risk aversion, market consultants, comfort level with futures and options, lenders' opinions, written marketing plans, crop insurance, and geographic location were significant in explaining the percentage of expected soybean production forward priced.

  9. Asymptotic analysis of the Forward Search

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Søren; Nielsen, Bent

    The Forward Search is an iterative algorithm concerned with detection of outliers and other unsuspected structures in data. This approach has been suggested, analysed and applied for regression models in the monograph Atkinson and Riani (2000). An asymptotic analysis of the Forward Search is made...

  10. The Conference Proceedings of the 2003 Air Transport Research Society (ATRS) World Conference, Volume 5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Brent (Editor); Gudmundsson, Sveinn (Editor); Oum, Tae (Editor)

    2003-01-01

    The UNO Aviation Institute Monograph Series began in 1994 as a key component of the education outreach and information transfer missions of the Aviation Institute and the NASA Nebraska Space Grant & EPSCoR Programs. The series is an outlet for aviation materials to be indexed and disseminated through an efficient medium. Publications are welcome in all aspects of aviation. Publication formats may include, but are not limited to, conference proceedings, bibliographies, research reports, manuals, technical reports, and other documents that should be archived and indexed for future reference by the aviation and world wide communities. The Conference proceedings of the 2003 Air Transport Research Society (ATRS) world conference, volume 5 is presented. The topics include: 1) The Temporal Configuration of Airline Networks in Europe; 2) Determination and Applications of Environmental Costs at Different Sized Airports-Aircraft Noise and Engine Emissions; 3) Cost Effective Measures to Reduce CO2 Emissions in the Air Freight Sector; 4) An Assessment of the Sustainability of Air Transport System: Quantification of Indicators; 5) Regulation, Competition and Network Evolution in Aviation; 6) Regulation in the Air: Price and Frequency Cap; 7) Industry Consolidation and Future Airline Network Structures in Europe; 8) Application of Core Theory to the U.S. Airline Industry; 9) Air Freight Transshipment Route Choice Analysis; 10) A Fuzzy Approach of the Competition on Air Transport Market; and 11) Developing Passenger Demand Models for International Aviation from/to Egypt: A Case Study of Cairo Airport and Egyptair.

  11. Intensification of Development of Mixed Transportation of Freight in Ukraine through Formation of the Network of Transportation and Logistic Centres and Transportation and Logistic Clusters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karpenko Oksana O.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Development of mixed transportation is a prospective direction of development of the transportation system of Ukraine. The article analyses the modern state of development of mixed transportation of freight in Ukraine. The most popular types of combined transportation (refers to multi-modal are container and contrailer trains, which are formed both in Ukraine (Viking and Yaroslav and in other countries, first of all, Belarus (Zubr. One of the reasons of underdevelopment of mixed transportation of freight in Ukraine is absence of a developed network of transportation and logistic centres. The article offers to form a network of transportation and logistic centres in Ukraine as a way of intensification of development of mixed transportations of freight, since they facilitate co-ordination of use of various types of transport and support integrated management of material flows. Transportation and logistic centres should become a start-up complex, around which transportation and logistic clusters would be gradually formed. Transportation and logistic clusters is a new efficient form of network organisation and management of transportation and logistic services and they also ensure growth of efficiency of use of the regional transportation and logistic potential of Ukraine. The article shows prospective supporting transportation and logistic centres and centres of formation of transportation and logistic clusters in the territory of Ukraine. Formation of efficient transportation and logistic system of Ukraine on the basis of a network of transportation and logistic clusters would facilitate entering of Ukraine into the world transportation environment and would allow acceleration of introduction of efficient logistic schemes of freight delivery, in particular, mixed transportation of freight.

  12. Market Assessment of Forward-Looking Turbulence Sensing Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauffmann, Paul; Sousa-Poza, Andres

    2001-01-01

    In recognition of the importance of turbulence mitigation as a tool to improve aviation safety, NASA's Aviation Safety Program developed a Turbulence Detection and Mitigation Sub-element. The objective of this effort is to develop highly reliable turbulence detection technologies for commercial transport aircraft to sense dangerous turbulence with sufficient time warning so that defensive measures can be implemented and prevent passenger and crew injuries. Current research involves three forward sensing products to improve the cockpit awareness of possible turbulence hazards. X-band radar enhancements will improve the capabilities of current weather radar to detect turbulence associated with convective activity. LIDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) is a laser-based technology that is capable of detecting turbulence in clear air. Finally, a possible Radar-LIDAR hybrid sensor is envisioned to detect the full range of convective and clear air turbulence. To support decisions relating to the development of these three forward-looking turbulence sensor technologies, the objective of this study was defined as examination of cost and implementation metrics. Tasks performed included the identification of cost factors and certification issues, the development and application of an implementation model, and the development of cost budget/targets for installing the turbulence sensor and associated software devices into the commercial transport fleet.

  13. Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Air pollution is a mixture of solid particles and gases in the air. Car emissions, chemicals from factories, dust, ... a gas, is a major part of air pollution in cities. When ozone forms air pollution, it's ...

  14. Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Air pollution is a mixture of solid particles and gases in the air. Car emissions, chemicals from factories, dust, pollen and ... Ozone, a gas, is a major part of air pollution in cities. When ozone forms air pollution, ...

  15. Extended forward sensitivity analysis for uncertainty quantification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents the extended forward sensitivity analysis as a method to help uncertainty qualification. By including time step and potentially spatial step as special sensitivity parameters, the forward sensitivity method is extended as one method to quantify numerical errors. Note that by integrating local truncation errors over the whole system through the forward sensitivity analysis process, the generated time step and spatial step sensitivity information reflect global numerical errors. The discretization errors can be systematically compared against uncertainties due to other physical parameters. Two well-defined benchmark problems with manufactured solutions are utilized to demonstrate the method. (author)

  16. A DESIGN METHOD FOR TRACKS AND ROADBEDS OF RAILROAD-CROSSING UNDER FREIGHT TRAIN LOADS AND FORKLIFT LOADS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itou, Kazuki; Momoya, Yoshitsugu; Sekine, Etsuo

    In the current design method of asphalt pavement in freight container yard, a theoretical design method based on multilayered elastic analysis is applied. However, in a design of railroad-crossing existing in the yard, heavy wheel loads of forklift and viscosity of asphalt pavement is not considered. In this study, the method of identifying the stiffness coefficient of asphalt pavement with consideration on its viscoelasticity under the heavy loading, and the design of the railroad crossing corresponding to the heavy loading of the forklift are shown. The method of the new design of railroad-crossing by FEM using the stiffness coefficient set in consideration of viscoelasticity of the asphalt pavement and track structure corres ponding to traffic volume are shown.

  17. DYNAMICS OF FREIGHT CARS ON BOGIES MODEL 18-1711 WITH DIFFERENT WEDGE DE-SIGNS OF SPRING SUSPENSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. B. Mankevych

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To analyze the results of the study of dynamic parameters of a gondola car, model 12-1704-04 with axle load 23.5 ton in bogies, models 18-1750 and two gondola cars, model 12-1905 with axial load of 25 ton, one of which is equipped with bogies, model 18-1711 with friction wedges of spring suspension with spatial form with increased angle to the horizontal line of intersection of the contact surfaces between the wedge and bolster, the other gondola car, model 12-1905 is equipped with bogies of the same model on which the friction wedges fitted with a flat form of contact surface. It has an angle of inclination like a wedge of bogie, model 18-100. On the basis of the obtained results to draw conclusions about the feasibility of unification design bogie bolster, model 18-1711 with bogie, model 18-100 by contact surfaces with elements of spring suspension. Methodology. Research on dynamic performance of cars was performed during running dynamic tests of specimens of freight cars in experimental train consisting of two locomotives, a laboratory, and three gondola cars of the above mentioned models. Findings. Main results of dynamic studies are presented as graphs of indicators on the speed of the train and the experimental evidence that the freight gondola cars on bogies, model 18-1711 with flat-shaped wedges, in most cases are better than the others. Originality. Research results of cars on bogies, model 18-1711 were obtained. They let assess the dependence of the dynamic performance of the car from the design of the friction wedges of spring suspension. Practical value. Cast parts of bogie, model 18-1711 with 25 ton axle load can be used as a replacement of defective parts of bogie, model 18-100 and its analogs.

  18. High Performance Forward Osmosis Membrane Element Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Forward Osmosis (FO) is a promising technology for wastewater treatment applications. FO-based treatment does not require external pressure, can use lightweight...

  19. Very forward calorimeters readout and machine interface

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Wojciech Wierba; on behalf of the FCAL Collaboration

    2007-12-01

    The paper describes the requirements for the readout electronics and DAQ for the instrumentation of the forward region of the future detector at the international linear collider. The preliminary design is discussed.

  20. Portable UDP port forwarding in user space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vancea Florin

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Port forwarding is frequently used to selectively expose services available on remote machines to clients running on the local machine or on machines connected to the local network. Services running over TCP are easy to forward using SSH, at least as long as the details of the transported protocol are transparent. Tools are available for other classes of tunneling, including UDP tunneling. However, thesetools are not very portable and may be limited to root/admin usage or may simply not be available. We are presenting a Java client/server pair that may be successfully used in almost any environment to forward a UDP dialog over an existing forwarded TCPconnection. The tool is tested for traffic like SNMP with multiple clients and multiple targets.

  1. Scintillation forward spectrometer of the SPHERE setup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The construction of the forward spectrometer for the 4π SPHERE setup to study multiple production of particles in nucleus-nucleus interactions is described. The measured parameters of the spectrometer detectors are presented. 7 refs.; 14 figs.; 1 tab

  2. 77 FR 16871 - Forward Funds, et al.; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-22

    ... COMMISSION Forward Funds, et al.; Notice of Application March 15, 2012. AGENCY: Securities and Exchange... the Act to invest in certain financial instruments. Applicants: Forward Funds (the ``Trust''), Forward Management, LLC (the ``Adviser''), and Forward Securities, LLC (``Forward Securities''). DATES: Filing...

  3. Backward Induction versus Forward Induction Reasoning

    OpenAIRE

    Andres Perea

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we want to shed some light on what we mean by backward induction and forward induction reasoning in dynamic games. To that purpose, we take the concepts of common belief in future rationality (Perea [1]) and extensive form rationalizability (Pearce [2], Battigalli [3], Battigalli and Siniscalchi [4]) as possible representatives for backward induction and forward induction reasoning. We compare both concepts on a conceptual, epistemic and an algorithm level, thereby highlighting ...

  4. Contention-based forwarding for street scenarios

    OpenAIRE

    Füßler, Holger; Hartenstein, Hannes; Mauve, Martin; Effelsberg, Wolfgang; Widmer, Jörg

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, we propose to apply Contention-Based Forwarding (CBF) to Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks (VANETs). CBF is a greedy position-based forwarding algorithm that does not require proactive transmission of beacon messages. CBF performance is analyzed using realistic movement patterns of vehicles on a highway. We show by means of simulation that CBF as well as traditional position-based routing (PBR) achieve a delivery rate of almost 100 given that connectivity ...

  5. Reclaiming Water from Wastewater using Forward Osmosis

    OpenAIRE

    Lutchmiah, K.

    2014-01-01

    Water scarcity is a global issue and waste accumulation is a steadily growing one. The innovative Sewer Mining concept, described in this thesis, is an example of an integrated forward osmosis application which incorporates different technologies to attain one goal: water recovery from wastewater, and subsequent energy production. Forward osmosis membrane technology shows great potential as a sustainable treatment of wastewater. The high quality reclaimed water is a suitable and low cost alte...

  6. Portfolio Theory and Electricity Forward Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Michalovský, Michal; Paholok, Igor

    2011-01-01

    In the discussion on the relationship between spot and forward prices in electricity markets, the equilibrium approach has an unambiguous prevalence. It is the relative recency of this market that gives rise to the question of how precisely forward prices converge to the spot prices. We decide to measure this convergence, with its eventual imbalance called risk premium, on several European energy exchanges trading electricity futures. The concept of risk premium, as it is worked out by Bessem...

  7. Portable UDP port forwarding in user space

    OpenAIRE

    Vancea Florin; Vancea Codruţa

    2009-01-01

    Port forwarding is frequently used to selectively expose services available on remote machines to clients running on the local machine or on machines connected to the local network. Services running over TCP are easy to forward using SSH, at least as long as the details of the transported protocol are transparent. Tools are available for other classes of tunneling, including UDP tunneling. However, thesetools are not very portable and may be limited to root/admin usage or may simply not be av...

  8. Forward-peaked scattering of polarized light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Julia P; Kim, Arnold D

    2014-11-15

    Polarized light propagation in a multiple scattering medium is governed by the vector radiative transfer equation. We analyze the vector radiative transfer equation in asymptotic limit of forward-peaked scattering and derive an approximate system of equations for the Stokes parameters, which we call the vector Fokker-Planck approximation. The vector Fokker-Planck approximation provides valuable insight into several outstanding issues regarding the forward-peaked scattering of polarized light such as the polarization memory phenomenon. PMID:25490484

  9. Spin structure in non-forward partons

    CERN Document Server

    Bass, S D

    2002-01-01

    Renormalisation induces anomalous contributions in light-cone correlation functions. We discuss the role of the axial anomaly and gluon topology in non-forward parton distributions noting that non-forward matrix elements of the gluonic Chern-Simons current K_{\\mu} are not gauge-invariant even in perturbation theory. The axial anomaly means that one has to be careful how to interpret information from hard exclusive reactions about the orbital angular-momentum carried by the proton's internal constituents.

  10. On Bistatic Forward-looking SAR Imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Vu, Viet Thuy; Pettersson, Mats

    2014-01-01

    Left/right ambiguity and low angular (azimuth) resolution are severe problems for monostatic forward-looking SAR imaging. It is strongly believed that these technical issues can definitely be solved with bistatic forward-looking SAR. The analysis presented in this paper points out that the left/right ambiguity problem still exits. However, an appropriate selection of the position of bistatic base line and antenna beamwidth allows us to conceal it. The paper also gives some recommendations whi...

  11. Bistatic Forward Scattering Radar Detection and Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hu Cheng

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Forward Scattering Radar (FSR is a special type of bistatic radar that can implement image detection, imaging, and identification using the forward scattering signals provided by the moving targets that cross the baseline between the transmitter and receiver. Because the forward scattering effect has a vital significance in increasing the targets’ Radar Cross Section (RCS, FSR is quite advantageous for use in counter stealth detection. This paper first introduces the front line technology used in forward scattering RCS, FSR detection, and Shadow Inverse Synthetic Aperture Radar (SISAR imaging and key problems such as the statistical characteristics of forward scattering clutter, accurate parameter estimation, and multitarget discrimination are then analyzed. Subsequently, the current research progress in FSR detection and SISAR imaging are described in detail, including the theories and experiments. In addition, with reference to the BeiDou navigation satellite, the results of forward scattering experiments in civil aircraft detection are shown. Finally, this paper considers future developments in FSR target detection and imaging and presents a new, promising technique for stealth target detection.

  12. Forward charge flow in hadronic J/psi production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The properties of the forward charge of J/psi production are examined. The rapidity distribution of the forward charge, the dependence of the forward charge as a function of J/psi Xf and as a function of the effective energy of the forward hadron system are presented. The forward charge of J/psi production is compared with those of omega production and in the inclusive interactions. The forward charge is consistent with the prediction from simple parton fusion model

  13. FORWARD CONTRACTING VERSUS HEDGING UNDER PRICE AND YIELD UNCERTAINTY

    OpenAIRE

    Stephen E Miller

    1986-01-01

    Although apparently preferred by farmers to direct hedging as a forward pricing mechanism, forward contracting has received little attention in the literature dealing with optimal forward pricing levels. An often-cited reason for producer preference for forward contracting is the absence of basis risks under that forward pricing alternative. This paper presents models of optimal forward contracting and hedging under price and yield uncertainty within a mean-variance framework. The results ind...

  14. Study on Forecasting of Highway Freight Transportation Volume of Hohhot%呼和浩特市公路货运量预测研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑春伟; 林丽华; 田瑞

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, using the regression analysis and grey forecasting, we built the highway freight transportation volume forecasting model of Hohhot, used the Matlab software to calculate the forecasting result, which was then compared to historical data, and at the end, using the two processes, forecast the highway freight transportation volume of Hohhot for the next three characteristic years.%采用回归分析法和灰色预测法建立呼和浩特市公路货运量预测模型,再利用Matlab软件编程计算出预测结果,并与历年真实数据对比.最后采用两模型的组合,预测了未来3个特征年呼和浩特市公路货运量.

  15. Forward and backward inference in spatial cognition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Will D Penny

    Full Text Available This paper shows that the various computations underlying spatial cognition can be implemented using statistical inference in a single probabilistic model. Inference is implemented using a common set of 'lower-level' computations involving forward and backward inference over time. For example, to estimate where you are in a known environment, forward inference is used to optimally combine location estimates from path integration with those from sensory input. To decide which way to turn to reach a goal, forward inference is used to compute the likelihood of reaching that goal under each option. To work out which environment you are in, forward inference is used to compute the likelihood of sensory observations under the different hypotheses. For reaching sensory goals that require a chaining together of decisions, forward inference can be used to compute a state trajectory that will lead to that goal, and backward inference to refine the route and estimate control signals that produce the required trajectory. We propose that these computations are reflected in recent findings of pattern replay in the mammalian brain. Specifically, that theta sequences reflect decision making, theta flickering reflects model selection, and remote replay reflects route and motor planning. We also propose a mapping of the above computational processes onto lateral and medial entorhinal cortex and hippocampus.

  16. On the Influence of Freight Trains on Humans: A Laboratory Investigation of the Impact of Nocturnal Low Frequency Vibration and Noise on Sleep and Heart Rate

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Michael G.; Croy, Ilona; Ögren, Mikael; Persson Waye, Kerstin

    2013-01-01

    Background A substantial increase in transportation of goods on railway may be hindered by public fear of increased vibration and noise leading to annoyance and sleep disturbance. As the majority of freight trains run during night time, the impact upon sleep is expected to be the most serious adverse effect. The impact of nocturnal vibration on sleep is an area currently lacking in knowledge. We experimentally investigated sleep disturbance with the aim to ascertain the impact of increasing v...

  17. Intensification of Development of Mixed Transportation of Freight in Ukraine through Formation of the Network of Transportation and Logistic Centres and Transportation and Logistic Clusters

    OpenAIRE

    Karpenko Oksana O.; Babyna Olena Ye.

    2013-01-01

    Development of mixed transportation is a prospective direction of development of the transportation system of Ukraine. The article analyses the modern state of development of mixed transportation of freight in Ukraine. The most popular types of combined transportation (refers to multi-modal) are container and contrailer trains, which are formed both in Ukraine (Viking and Yaroslav) and in other countries, first of all, Belarus (Zubr). One of the reasons of underdevelopment of mixed transporta...

  18. Small-sized linear accelerator of 2.5 MeV electrons with a local radiation shield for custom examination of freight transported by motor transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new development of a small-sized linear accelerator of 2.5 MeV electrons with a local radiation protection is described. The accelerator is intended for movable facilities of radiation custom of the freight transported by motor transport. Main constructive solutions, mass and dimension characteristics and results of preliminary tests of the accelerator parameters and characteristics of radiation protection are presented

  19. Environmental Impacts of a Major Freight Corridor: A study of the I-710 in California

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Gunwoo; You, Soyoung Iris; Ritchie, Stephen G.; Saphores, Jean-Daniel M; Sangkapichai, Mana; Jayakrishnan, R.

    2008-01-01

    The San Pedro Bay Ports (SPBP) of Los Angeles and Long Beach in Southern California comprise one of the largest container port complexes in the world. The SPBP contribute significantly to both regional and national economies in California, and the US, respectively. However, the ongoing growth and economic benefits of the SPBP are threatened by negative externalities associated with port operations, particularly increasing congestion and air pollution. The objective of this paper is to explore...

  20. Air Abrasion

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... delivered directly to your desktop! more... What Is Air Abrasion? Article Chapters What Is Air Abrasion? What Happens? The Pros and Cons Will I Feel Anything? Is Air Abrasion for Everyone? print full article print this ...

  1. Forward GEM Tracker (FGT) at STAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surrow, Bernd

    2012-10-01

    As part of our program to understand the internal structure of the proton, we have and will continue mid-rapidity (-1anti-d quarks to the proton spin. The gluon spin contribution can be probed through di-jet measurements. The Forward GEM Tracker (FGT) at STAR will enhance the charged sign separation for high pT tracks in the pseudo-rapidity range of 1.0<η<2.0, and therefore allows an extension of W and di-jet measurements at forward pseudo-rapidity. We will present the status of the FGT assembly and completion along with projections for future W and di-jet measurements. We will discuss studies that explore the possibilities of using the FGT to reconstruct jets in the forward direction.

  2. Forward modeling. Route to electromagnetic inversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groom, R.; Walker, P. [PetRos EiKon Incorporated, Ontario (Canada)

    1996-05-01

    Inversion of electromagnetic data is a topical subject in the literature, and much time has been devoted to understanding the convergence properties of various inverse methods. The relative lack of success of electromagnetic inversion techniques is partly attributable to the difficulties in the kernel forward modeling software. These difficulties come in two broad classes: (1) Completeness and robustness, and (2) convergence, execution time and model simplicity. If such problems exist in the forward modeling kernel, it was demonstrated that inversion can fail to generate reasonable results. It was suggested that classical inversion techniques, which are based on minimizing a norm of the error between data and the simulated data, will only be successful when these difficulties in forward modeling kernels are properly dealt with. 4 refs., 5 figs.

  3. Noise and dynamics in forward Brillouin interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Kharel, Prashanta; Renninger, William; Rakich, Peter

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we explore the spatio-temporal dynamics of spontaneous and stimulated forward Brillouin scattering. This general treatment incorporates the optomechanical coupling produced by boundary-induced radiation pressures (boundary motion) and material-induced electrostrictive forces (photo-elastic effects), permitting straightforward application to a range of emerging micro- and nano-scale optomechanical systems. Through a self-consistent fully coupled nonlinear treatment, developed within a general Hamiltonian framework, we establish the connection between the power spectral density of spontaneously scattered light in forward Brillouin interactions and the nonlinear coupling strength. We show that, in sharp contrast to backward Brillouin scattering, noise-initiated stimulated forward Brillouin scattering is forbidden in the majority of experimental systems. In fact, the single-pass gain, which characterizes the threshold for energy transfer in back-scattering processes, is negative for a large class o...

  4. Research of indoor smoke warning and air purification equipment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wangronglong; Zhaoyexing; Fuyunhua

    2015-01-01

    In order to reduce indoor smoke concentration and improve indoor air quality,we put forward the intelligent indoor smoke warning and air purification device. This device can quickly reduce the concentration of indoor smoke by the air purification and fire alarm function. It provides a suitable living environment for people.

  5. CMS Forward Calorimeters Phase II Upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Phase II Upgrade of the CMS forward calorimeters (electromagnetic and hadronic) originates from the fact that these calorimeters will not be sufficiently performant with the expected HL-LHC (High Luminosity LHC) conditions. The major challenge is to preserve/improve the high performance of the current forward detectors with new devices that can withstand the unprecedented radiation levels and disentangle the very large event pileup. Here, we present an overview of the various upgrade options being considered by CMS, explaining the detector concepts and current/future beam test activities

  6. Feldenkrais sensory imagery and forward reach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, P A; Rogers, D K

    2000-12-01

    To investigate the effect of sensory imagery on subsequent movement, a unilateral Fleldenkrais lesson of imaging a soft bristle brush passing over one half of the body and in which no movement occurred, was given to 12 naive subjects. Forward flexion for each side of the body was measured at a sit-and-reach box. For 8 and 10 subjects who reported the perception of a side as being longer and lighter following the sensory imagery, there was also a significant increase in the forward flexion range on that side. PMID:11153843

  7. Prospects for forward photon measurements at LHC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Leeuwen Marco

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We present the opportunities to experimentally probe the gluon density at small x in nuclei to explore non-linear gluon evolution, saturation and the physics of the Color Glass Condensate by measuring photon production at forward rapidity in proton-nucleus collisions at the LHC. Performance studies for π0 and direct photon measurements based on simulations of a Forward Calorimeter (FoCal, which is under consideration as an upgrade for the ALICE detector, are presented. Other aspects of the FoCal physics program for pp, p+Pb and Pb+Pb collisions are briefly discussed as well.

  8. Forward Field Computation with OpenMEEG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Gramfort

    2011-01-01

    must be computed. We present OpenMEEG, which solves the electromagnetic forward problem in the quasistatic regime, for head models with piecewise constant conductivity. The core of OpenMEEG consists of the symmetric Boundary Element Method, which is based on an extended Green Representation theorem. OpenMEEG is able to provide lead fields for four different electromagnetic forward problems: Electroencephalography (EEG, Magnetoencephalography (MEG, Electrical Impedance Tomography (EIT, and intracranial electric potentials (IPs. OpenMEEG is open source and multiplatform. It can be used from Python and Matlab in conjunction with toolboxes that solve the inverse problem; its integration within FieldTrip is operational since release 2.0.

  9. Forward-looking activities: incorporating citizens’ visions

    OpenAIRE

    Gudowsky, Niklas; Peissl, Walter; Sotoudeh, Mahshid; Bechtold, Ulrike

    2012-01-01

    Looking back on the many prophets who tried to predict the future as if it were predetermined, at first sight any forward-looking activity is reminiscent of making predictions with a crystal ball. In contrast to fortune tellers, today’s exercises do not predict, but try to show different paths that an open future could take. A key motivation to undertake forward-looking activities is broadening the information basis for decision-makers to help them actively shape the future in a desired way. ...

  10. Prospects for forward photon measurements at LHC

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Leeuwen, Marco

    2016-03-01

    We present the opportunities to experimentally probe the gluon density at small x in nuclei to explore non-linear gluon evolution, saturation and the physics of the Color Glass Condensate by measuring photon production at forward rapidity in proton-nucleus collisions at the LHC. Performance studies for π0 and direct photon measurements based on simulations of a Forward Calorimeter (FoCal), which is under consideration as an upgrade for the ALICE detector, are presented. Other aspects of the FoCal physics program for pp, p+Pb and Pb+Pb collisions are briefly discussed as well.

  11. Top quark forward-backward asymmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The recent forward-backward asymmetry recorded by the CDF Collaboration for the top and anti-top quark pair production indicates more than 2σ deviation from the Standard Model prediction, while its total production cross section remains consistent. We propose a W' boson that couples to down and top quarks. We identify the parameter space that can give rise a large enough forward-backward asymmetry without producing too many top and anti-top quark pairs. Other models presented previously in the literature that can produce such effects are also briefly discussed.

  12. Top quark forward-backward asymmetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheung Kingman [Division of Quantum Phases and Devices, School of Physics, Konkuk University, Seoul 143-701 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Physics, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 300, Taiwan (China); Physics Division, National Center for Theoretical Sciences, Hsinchu 300, Taiwan (China); Keung, W.-Y. [Department of Physics, University of Illinois, Chicago, IL 60607-7059 (United States); Yuan, T.-C., E-mail: tcyuan@phys.sinica.edu.t [Institute of Physics, Academia Sinica, Nankang, Taipei 11529, Taiwan (China)

    2009-12-07

    The recent forward-backward asymmetry recorded by the CDF Collaboration for the top and anti-top quark pair production indicates more than 2sigma deviation from the Standard Model prediction, while its total production cross section remains consistent. We propose a W{sup '} boson that couples to down and top quarks. We identify the parameter space that can give rise a large enough forward-backward asymmetry without producing too many top and anti-top quark pairs. Other models presented previously in the literature that can produce such effects are also briefly discussed.

  13. Top Quark Forward-Backward Asymmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Cheung, Kingman; Yuan, Tzu-Chiang

    2009-01-01

    The recent forward-backward asymmetry recorded by the CDF Collaboration for the top and anti-top quark pair production indicates more than $2\\sigma$ deviation from the Standard Model prediction, while its total production cross section remains consistent. We propose a $W'$ boson that couples to down and top quarks. We identify the parameter space that can give rise a large enough forward-backward asymmetry without producing too many top and anti-top quark pairs. Other models presented erstwhile in the literature that can produce such effects are also discussed.

  14. Aquaporin, forward osmosis and biomimetic membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocherginsky, Nikolai

    2013-12-01

    Aquaporin attracted attention not only of physiologists and biophysicists, but also of chemical engineers. Here we critically analyze a paper describing aquaporin-based artificial membranes, suggested for forward osmosis-based water purification (Wang et al. 2012, Small 8, pp. 1185-1190). Related papers published later by the same group are also discussed. We indicate recently developed general approach to describe membrane transport, membrane permeability and selectivity, which is applicable for forward osmosis. In addition, we also mention our papers describing simple nitrocellulose-based membranes, which have selective aqueous channels without proteins, but successfully imitate many properties of biomembranes. PMID:24434310

  15. Three-Component Forward Modeling for Transient Electromagnetic Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Xiong

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In general, the time derivative of vertical magnetic field is considered only in the data interpretation of transient electromagnetic (TEM method. However, to survey in the complex geology structures, this conventional technique has begun gradually to be unsatisfied with the demand of field exploration. To improve the integrated interpretation precision of TEM, it is necessary to study the three-component forward modeling and inversion. In this paper, a three-component forward algorithm for 2.5D TEM based on the independent electric and magnetic field has been developed. The main advantage of the new scheme is that it can reduce the size of the global system matrix to the utmost extent, that is to say, the present is only one fourth of the conventional algorithm. In order to illustrate the feasibility and usefulness of the present algorithm, several typical geoelectric models of the TEM responses produced by loop sources at air-earth interface are presented. The results of the numerical experiments show that the computation speed of the present scheme is increased obviously and three-component interpretation can get the most out of the collected data, from which we can easily analyze or interpret the space characteristic of the abnormity object more comprehensively.

  16. A review of lighter-than-air progress in the United States and its technological significance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, N. J.; Krida, R. H.

    1977-01-01

    Lighter-than-air craft for transportation and communications systems are discussed, with attention given to tethered balloons used to provide stable platforms for airborne surveillance equipment, freight-carrying balloons, manned scientific research balloons such as Atmosat, high-altitude superpressure aerostats employed in satellite communications systems, airport feeder airships, and naval surveillance airships. In addition, technical problems associated with the development of advanced aerostats, including the aerodynamics of hybrid combinations of large rotor systems and aerostat hulls, the application of composites to balloon shells, computer analyses of the complex geometrical structures of aerostats and propulsion systems for airships, are considered.

  17. Caracterização do mercado de fretes rodoviários para produtos agrícolas Characterization of the highway freight market for agricultural products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Gimenes Soares

    1997-08-01

    Full Text Available O mercado de frete rodoviário no Brasil não sofre nenhum tipo de controle governamental, significando que os preços são formados a partir da negociação direta entre a oferta e a procura pelo serviço. Os transportadores não estão, necessariamente, atualizados sobre todas as variáveis de seu custo para estarem aptos a negociar com os demandantes. Tais demandantes, por outro lado, podem desempenhar maior poder de negociação para obter descontos no valor do frete. Tendo em vista o aprimoramento da qualidade das informações sobre fretes, tanto para ofertantes quanto demandantes pelo serviço de transporte, foi realizado levantamento de valores para produtos agrícolas selecionados, assim como identificadas as principais características do escoamento rodoviário de cargas agrícolas. Dessa forma, ficou evidenciada a diferenciação do valor do frete de acordo com o tipo de produto e verificou-se que a estrutura do mercado de frete para granéis sólidos (açúcar, milho, soja e farelo de soja é bastante distinta, mais pulverizada e talvez menos profissional que a estrutura observada para os granéis líquidos estudados (suco de laranja e óleo de soja.The Brazilian highway freight market is subject to no sort of government control, meaning that the prices are formed through free negotiation between supply and demand of the transport service. Carriers have to be updated on every variable incorporated in costs to be fit for negotiating with demanders. These demanders, except under certain very specific circumstances, have performed higher negotiation power and exerted quite strong pressure to obtain freight discounts. Taking into consideration the accomplishment of the quality of freight information, for both supply and demand sides of the transportation service, data for selected agricultural commodities were collected, as well as the identification of the main characteristics of the road haulage. The difference in the freight values

  18. 基于系统云灰色SCGM(1,1)c模型的铁路货运量预测%Prediction of Railway Freight Volume Based on System Cloud Grey SCGM ( 1,1 ) c Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李博

    2011-01-01

    从铁路货运量的预测问题出发,试图找到稳定有效的方法对铁路货运量进行预测.通过对历年铁路货运量的定性分析,合理地选择预测数据数列,以充分体现铁路货运量的变化趋势.尝试采用单因子系统云灰色SCGM(1,1)c模型对铁路货运量进行了动态预测.结果表明:单因子系统云灰色SCGM(1,1)c模型在对铁路货运量的拟合和预测均有较好的效果.拟合精度和预测精度分别达到了98.83%和98.04%,可以有效地进行铁路货运量的短期预测.%The prediction of railway freight volume is focused on and tried to find an effective method to forecast the railway freight volume.Data series of railway freight volume over the years was analyzed quantitatively and a modeling time series was determined which revealed the trend of railway freight volumes.Then a single-factor system cloud grey SCGM ( 1,1 ) c model was presented to forecast railway freight volume.The results conform that SCGM( 1,1 )c model performs well in both fitting and prediction for railway freight volume, the fitting and prediction accuracy are 98.83% and 98.04% respectively.It is feasible for short-term forecast of railway freight volume.

  19. Forward sweep, low noise rotor blade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Thomas F. (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    A forward-swept, low-noise rotor blade includes an inboard section, an aft-swept section and a forward-swept outboard section. The rotor blade reduces the noise of rotorcraft, including both standard helicopters and advanced systems such as tiltrotors. The primary noise reduction feature is the forward sweep of the planform over a large portion of the outer blade radius. The rotor blade also includes an aft-swept section. The purpose of the aft-swept region is to provide a partial balance to pitching moments produced by the outboard forward-swept portion of the blade. The rotor blade has a constant chord width; or has a chord width which decreases linearly along the entire blade span; or combines constant and decreasing chord widths, wherein the blade is of constant chord width from the blade root to a certain location on the rotor blade, then decreases linearly to the blade tip thereafter. The noise source showing maximum noise reduction is blade-vortex interaction (BVI) noise. Also reduced are thickness, noise, high speed impulsive noise, cabin vibration and loading noise.

  20. Parallel Computation Of Forward Dynamics Of Manipulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fijany, Amir; Bejczy, Antal K.

    1993-01-01

    Report presents parallel algorithms and special parallel architecture for computation of forward dynamics of robotics manipulators. Products of effort to find best method of parallel computation to achieve required computational efficiency. Significant speedup of computation anticipated as well as cost reduction.

  1. Modelling electricity forward markets by ambit fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barndorff-Nielsen, Ole; Fred Espen Benth, Fred Espen; Veraart, Almut

    This paper proposes a new modelling framework for electricity forward markets, which is based on ambit fields. The new model can capture many of the stylised facts observed in energy markets. One of the main differences to the traditional models lies in the fact that we do not model the dynamics...

  2. Additive Feed Forward Control with Neural Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, O.

    1999-01-01

    suitable 'shaped' (low-pass filtered) reference is used to overcome problems with excessive control action when using a controller acting as the inverse process model. The control concept is Additive Feed Forward Control, where the trained neural network controller, acting as the inverse process model, is...

  3. Pushing Forward Industrialization of Thermal Power Desulfuration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    This paper introduces present state of industrialization development in flue gas desulfuration, including technological selection, state of design and contracting capability, localization of equipment, etc. in China. It points out main problems currently existed and presents proposals on promotion of desulfuration technology with selfowned intellectual property right, perfection of demonstrative projects and pushing forward localization of desulfuration equipment.

  4. Reclaiming Water from Wastewater using Forward Osmosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lutchmiah, K.

    2014-01-01

    Water scarcity is a global issue and waste accumulation is a steadily growing one. The innovative Sewer Mining concept, described in this thesis, is an example of an integrated forward osmosis application which incorporates different technologies to attain one goal: water recovery from wastewater, a

  5. Noise and dynamics in forward Brillouin interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharel, P.; Behunin, R. O.; Renninger, W. H.; Rakich, P. T.

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, we explore the spatiotemporal dynamics of spontaneous and stimulated forward Brillouin scattering. This general treatment incorporates the optomechanical coupling produced by boundary-induced radiation pressures (boundary motion) and material-induced electrostrictive forces (photoelastic effects), permitting straightforward application to a range of emerging micro- and nanoscale optomechanical systems. Through a self-consistent fully coupled nonlinear treatment, developed within a general Hamiltonian framework, we establish the connection between the power spectral density of spontaneously scattered light in forward Brillouin interactions and the nonlinear coupling strength. We show that, in sharp contrast to backward Brillouin scattering, noise-initiated stimulated forward Brillouin scattering is forbidden in the majority of experimental systems. In fact, the single-pass gain, which characterizes the threshold for energy transfer in back-scattering processes, is negative for a large class of forward Brillouin devices. Beyond this frequent experimental case, we explore mechanisms for dispersive symmetry breaking that lead to amplification and dynamics reminiscent of backward Brillouin scattering.

  6. 深圳市货运节点功能重组与空间重构%Redesigning Shenzhen Urban Freight Terminal for Its Functionality and Spatial Distribution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张伟; 周军; 肖作鹏; 林焘宇

    2015-01-01

    当前在产业转移升级趋势明显、土地资源加剧紧张的状况下,如何将经济部门的物流产业及园区规划、运输部门的行业发展规划、城市规划部门的综合交通体系规划三者协调统一,是各大城市亟须解决的重点和难点问题。对此,《深圳市综合交通体系规划(2013—2030)》开展了以重新组织城市货运空间为重点的货运规划实践。首先对深圳市货运系统发展现状进行分析,阐述货运系统在用地、运输方式、场站布局、货运通道等方面存在的问题。其次,梳理深圳市货运交通规划面临的行政管理、规划编制和落实、规划方法适应性、物流用地空间等方面的挑战。最后,以物流功能集聚为出发点,拓展货运枢纽的功能和属性,提出枢纽分级、立体化布局、公共空间共享专营等规划方法与实施机制。%Steadily industries’ upgrading and the severe shortage of available land have it urgent for large cities to redesign the urban freight terminals in order to integrate three different development plans, from the logistics industry, transportation expansion strategy and urban comprehensive transportation planning, into one plan that aims to solve critical urban problems coordinately. Under such direction, “Shenzhen Comprehensive Transportation System Planning (2013-2030)” focuses on the freight planning practice which emphasizes the spatial distribution of freight transportation. The paper first reviews the current freight transportation system pointing out the freight transportation problems in land use, transportation modes, spatial layout of terminals, transportation corridors, and etc. Then, the paper outlines the challenges facing Shenzhen freight transportation planning in administrative management, planning procedures and implementation, applicability of planning methodology, and land use. Finally, for enhancing logistic func-tionalities and the

  7. SOFOMORE: Combined EEG source and forward model reconstruction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stahlhut, Carsten; Mørup, Morten; Winther, Ole;

    2009-01-01

    We propose a new EEG source localization method that simultaneously performs source and forward model reconstruction (SOFOMORE) in a hierarchical Bayesian framework. Reconstruction of the forward model is motivated by the many uncertainties involved in the forward model, including the representat......We propose a new EEG source localization method that simultaneously performs source and forward model reconstruction (SOFOMORE) in a hierarchical Bayesian framework. Reconstruction of the forward model is motivated by the many uncertainties involved in the forward model, including...... the representation of the cortical surface, conductivity distribution, and electrode positions. We demonstrate in both simulated and real EEG data that reconstruction of the forward model improves localization of the underlying sources....

  8. DESIGN AND EVALUATION OF A PIPELINED FORWARDING ENGINE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Yufeng; Chen Yue; Lan Julong

    2007-01-01

    Recent advances in broadband technology have caused forwarding engines to handle packets with over 10 gigabit per second. In this paper, we present a high-speed forwarding pipeline which can finish all of the routing and forwarding tasks in the way of pipelining. We also establish the analysis model of the pipeline with which one can evaluate some key performance parameters of the forwarding engine such as forwarding rate and forwarding delay. We find that the pipeline is of good scalability and can forward unicast packets up to the speed of 40Gbit/s.

  9. Optimization of Hybrid Hub-and-Spoke Network Operation for Less-Than-Truckload Freight Transportation considering Incremental Quantity Discount

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiya Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a mixed integer linear programming model (MILP for optimizing the hybrid hub-and-spoke network operation for a less-than-truckload transportation service. The model aims to minimize the total operation costs (transportation cost and transfer cost, given the determined demand matrix, truck load capacity, and uncapacitated road transportation. The model also incorporates an incremental quantity discount function to solve the reversal of the total cost and the total demand. The model is applied to a real case of a Chinese transportation company engaged in nationwide freight transportation. The numerical example shows that, with uncapacitated road transportation, the total costs and the total vehicle trips of the hybrid hub-and-spoke network operation are, respectively, 8.0% and 15.3% less than those of the pure hub-and-spoke network operation, and the assumed capacity constraints in an extension model result in more target costs on the hybrid hub-and-spoke network. The two models can be used to support the decision making in network operations by transportation and logistics companies.

  10. On the rail-based freight corridor between CE and SEE regions and the main obstacles on Romanian territory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela POPA

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The project “Freight and Logistics Advancement in Central/South-EastEurope - Validation of trade and transport processes, Implementation of improvementactions, Application of co-coordinated structures” (in short - FLAVIA is carried outunder the Central Europe – Cooperation for Success Programme, cofunded by theEuropean Regional Development Fund. One of the main objectives of FLAVIA project isto consolidate a logistic corridor from Central Europe (CE to the South-East Europe(SEE and the Black Sea Region, based on rail and inland waterways intermodaltransport. In this paper we discuss the partial outputs of FLAVIA project, mainly relatedto the identified actual status of rail-based intermodal transport and trade obstacles of thefreight flows on the Romanian territory and the used methodology. Several operationaland long-term measures to improve the trade and intermodal transport are listed,considering the advantages of the geo-strategic potential of Romania location, connectedwith the several improvement directions already considered into the new releasedintermodal strategy.

  11. Transient nature of cooperation by pay-it-forward reciprocity

    OpenAIRE

    Yutaka Horita; Masanori Takezawa; Takuji Kinjo; Yo Nakawake; Naoki Masuda

    2016-01-01

    Humans often forward kindness received from others to strangers, a phenomenon called the upstream or pay-it-forward indirect reciprocity. Some field observations and laboratory experiments found evidence of pay-it-forward reciprocity in which chains of cooperative acts persist in social dilemma situations. Theoretically, however, cooperation based on pay-it-forward reciprocity is not sustainable. We carried out laboratory experiments of a pay-it-forward indirect reciprocity game (i.e., chaine...

  12. Extended Forward Sensitivity Analysis for Uncertainty Quantification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haihua Zhao; Vincent A. Mousseau

    2008-09-01

    This report presents the forward sensitivity analysis method as a means for quantification of uncertainty in system analysis. The traditional approach to uncertainty quantification is based on a “black box” approach. The simulation tool is treated as an unknown signal generator, a distribution of inputs according to assumed probability density functions is sent in and the distribution of the outputs is measured and correlated back to the original input distribution. This approach requires large number of simulation runs and therefore has high computational cost. Contrary to the “black box” method, a more efficient sensitivity approach can take advantage of intimate knowledge of the simulation code. In this approach equations for the propagation of uncertainty are constructed and the sensitivity is solved for as variables in the same simulation. This “glass box” method can generate similar sensitivity information as the above “black box” approach with couples of runs to cover a large uncertainty region. Because only small numbers of runs are required, those runs can be done with a high accuracy in space and time ensuring that the uncertainty of the physical model is being measured and not simply the numerical error caused by the coarse discretization. In the forward sensitivity method, the model is differentiated with respect to each parameter to yield an additional system of the same size as the original one, the result of which is the solution sensitivity. The sensitivity of any output variable can then be directly obtained from these sensitivities by applying the chain rule of differentiation. We extend the forward sensitivity method to include time and spatial steps as special parameters so that the numerical errors can be quantified against other physical parameters. This extension makes the forward sensitivity method a much more powerful tool to help uncertainty analysis. By knowing the relative sensitivity of time and space steps with other

  13. Structure analysis and calculation method of freight turnover for regional highway%区域公路货物周转量结构分析与推算方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨铭; 秦华容; 陈荫三

    2011-01-01

    为解决公路货物周转量结构性数据缺失的问题,将公路货物周转量分为车辆货物周转量和路网货物周转量。依托车辆年检平台,进行抽样调查获得车辆货物周转量,根据车辆行驶里程比例将车辆货物周转量分配到不同路网。以高速公路收费系统和普通公路交通量观测站为平台,获取交通量数据。结合24 h现场抽样调查数据,推算区域路网货物周转量,并按车籍比例进行分割。将车辆和路网货物周转量的细分结果对接分析,得到总的货物周转量的结构和分布,并以江苏省推广结果作为分析实例。分析结果表明:从车辆货物周转量角度计算,江苏货车的本地和外地比例分别为65.39%和34.61%;从路网货物周转量角度计算,高速公路占43.00%,普通收费公路占31.61%,其他公路占25.39%;从车籍角度计算,江苏货车占40.80%,外省货车占59.20%,外省货车在高速公路上的货物周转量是江苏货车的4倍。%In order to solve the problem of the structural data loss of highway freight turnover,highway freight turnover was divided into vehicle freight turnover and highway network freight turnover.Relying on vehicle annual inspection platform,sampling survey was carried out,and vehicle freight turnover was obtained.According to the proportion of vehicle travelling mileage,vehicle freight turnover was assigned to different highway networks.Based on expressway toll systems and general highway traffic observation stations,traffic data were obtained.Combined with field sampling investigation data in 24 h,regional highway network freight turnover was estimated,and highway network freight turnover was breakdown according to the proportion of vehicle registered place.Linking vehicle freight turnover to highway network freight turnover,the structure and distribution of total freight turnover were obtained,and the generalization result in Jiangsu Province was analyzed.Analysis result shows

  14. W87 JTA4 Forward Support Assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LePlant, Steve

    2011-06-08

    The purpose of this project was to establish the capability to manufacture the forward supports to the original specifications with one of the original cable grooves widened for JTA4 use. The resin system used in the original version of the part was Keramid 601, which was no longer available since it was shown to be a carcinogen. Much of the existing processing knowledge had been lost, and several changes had been made to the requirements since the last production run. The main processing steps include molding, machining, and assembly. All three steps were addressed in this project. Operations that required development are detailed in the text of the paper. This report summarizes the major steps taken to re-establish the manufacturing capability for the forward supports as well as issues seen during the development of these processes.

  15. CMS Forward Calorimeters Phase II Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Bilki, Burak

    2014-01-01

    The Phase II Upgrade of the CMS forward calorimeters (electromagnetic and hadronic) originates from the fact that these calorimeters will not be sufficiently performant with the expected High Luminosity LHC conditions, planned to be started in 2025. The major challenge is to preserve/improve the high performance of the current forward detectors with new devices that can withstand the unprecedented radiation levels and disentangle the very large event pileup. CMS elected two design concepts to be presented in the Phase II Upgrade Technical Proposal Shashlik electromagnetic calorimeter + Hadronic Endcap Rebuild, and High Granularity Calorimeter. The former concept is based on reconstructing the endcap electromagnetic calorimeter with a shashlik design and replacing the active media of the endcap hadron calorimeter with radiation tolerant active media with a possibility to extend the coverage. The latter concept is concentrating on constructing a high granularity (both longitudinally and laterally) calorimeter ...

  16. Multichannel forward scattering meter for oceanography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mccluney, W. R.

    1974-01-01

    An instrument was designed and built that measures the light scattered at several angles in the forward direction simultaneously. The instrument relies on an optical multiplexing technique for frequency encoding of the different channels suitable for detection by a single photodetector. A Mie theory computer program was used to calculate the theoretical volume scattering function for a suspension of polystyrene latex spheres. The agreement between the theoretical and experimental volume scattering functions is taken as a verification of the calibration technique used.

  17. Forward-Looking Planning of Technology Development

    OpenAIRE

    Katarzyna Halicka

    2015-01-01

    The main aim of this article is to adapt the Future-Oriented Technology Analysis (FTA) to prospective planning of technology development. Firstly, the article presents the assumptions, methods and idea, as well as the concept of the FTA method. Moreover, selected publications on the use of this method were analysed. Then, an original, base model of forward-looking planning of technology development was constructed and presented. The end result of this process will be the development of the lo...

  18. GRB 060117: Reverse + forward shock solution

    CERN Document Server

    Jel'inek, M; Kubánek, P; Hudec, R; Nekola, M F; Rídky, J; Grygar, J; Jel\\'inek, Martin; Prouza, Michael; Kub\\'anek, Petr; Hudec, Ren\\'e; Nekola, Martin F.; Ridky, Jan; Grygar, Jiri

    2007-01-01

    We present a discovery and observation of an extraordinarily bright prompt optical emission of the GRB 060117 obtained by a wide-field camera atop the robotic telescope FRAM of the Pierre Auger Observatory from 2 to 10 minutes after the GRB. We found rapid average temporal flux decay of alpha = -1.7 +/- 0.1 and a peak brightness R = 10.1 mag. We interpret the shape of the lightcurve as a transition between reverse and forward shock emission.

  19. Neutron forward diffraction by single crystal prisms

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sohrab Abbas; Apoorva G Wagh; Markus Strobl; Wolfgang Treimer

    2008-11-01

    We have derived analytic expressions for the deflection as well as transmitted fraction of monochromatic neutrons forward diffracted by a single crystal prism. In the vicinity of a Bragg reflection, the neutron deflection deviates sharply from that for an amorphous prism, exhibiting three orders of magnitude greater sensitivity to the incidence angle. We have measured the variation of neutron deflection and transmission across a Bragg reflection, for several single crystal prisms. The results agree well with theory.

  20. Sustainable Higher Education. Understanding and Moving Forward

    OpenAIRE

    Waas, T.; Huge, J.; K. Ceulemans; Lambrechts, W.; Vandenabeele, J.; Lozano, R, R.; Wright, T.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to stimulate the debate about higher education as a (potential) major catalyst towards sustainable development. Reviewing the contemporary literature related to sustainable development and higher education we want to understand better this role as (potential) catalyst and move Flemish higher education forward in its sustainability transition. It should be noted that while this paper will provide a broad understanding of the literature, it is beyond its scope to deal w...

  1. Fast forward for food’s future

    OpenAIRE

    Schroen, C.G.P.H.

    2013-01-01

    'Foods and food ingredients are produced at very large scale on a daily basis; however, insight in the underlying mechanisms that take place at micrometre scale is lacking. This is because of the small scale and the high speed at which things occur. Food microtechnology combines investigation in small channels for example in microfluidic devices with high speed imaging and modelling, and uses this to push the food process technology of the future in fast forward mode.'

  2. Malaysian Economic Development: Looking Backwards and Forward

    OpenAIRE

    Hal Hill

    2010-01-01

    This paper provides an analytical and forward-looking overview of Malaysian economic development. Looking back over its 53 years of Independence, we identify the key stylized facts to include the country's generally rapid economic growth and structural change; its consistent openness, especially for merchandize trade and foreign direct investment; its creditable record of macroeconomic management; its consistently high inequality, in spite of the developing world's most consistently implement...

  3. Non-forward scattering of twisted particles

    CERN Document Server

    Ivanov, I P

    2011-01-01

    Twisted photons (i.e. photons carrying non-zero orbital angular momentum) are well-known in optics. Recently, it was suggested to use Compton backscattering off an ultra-relativistic electron beam to boost optical twisted photons into the high energy range. However, only the case of strictly forward/backward scattering has been studied so far. Here, we consider generic kinematic features of processes in which a twisted particle scatters with non-zero transverse momentum transfer.

  4. FOMC Forward Guidance and Investor Beliefs

    OpenAIRE

    Arunima Sinha

    2015-01-01

    This paper considers the effect of different dimensions of the FOMC's forward guidance on ex ante investor expectations about future changes in US Treasury yields. Options and Futures data for 2- and 10-year Treasuries is used to extract State-Price Densities of investor beliefs, and the corresponding standard deviation, skewness, and excess kurtosis of these densities are computed. Announcements about extension of the zero-lower bound in 2012-13 are found to reduce the expectations about cra...

  5. New Forward and Diffractive Physics at CMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forward and Diffractive Physics (FWP) in LHC is a new open window to understand this type of strong interactions. We will present a didactic description of the topics being developed at CMS. As we know there still is no new results to present for FWP. We are accumulating data to have soon new results. We will show a number of topics and the detectors properties to do the observation of several topologies. We expect to give an optimistic view of the area.

  6. New Forward and Diffractive Physics at CMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoro, Alberto

    2011-04-01

    Forward and Diffractive Physics (FWP) in LHC is a new open window to understand this type of strong interactions. We will present a didactic description of the topics being developed at CMS. As we know there still is no new results to present for FWP. We are accumulating data to have soon new results. We will show a number of topics and the detectors properties to do the observation of several topologies. We expect to give an optimistic view of the area.

  7. Sustainable Higher Education. Understanding and Moving Forward

    OpenAIRE

    Waas, Tom; Hugé, Jean; Ceulemans, Kim; Lambrechts, Wim; Vandenabeele, Joke; Lozano, Rodrigo; Wright, Tarah

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to stimulate the debate about higher education as a (potential) major catalyst towards sustainable development. Reviewing the contemporary literature related to sustainable development and higher education we want to understand better this role as (potential) catalyst and move Flemish higher education forward in its sustainability transition. It should be noted that while this paper will provide a broad understanding of the literature, it is beyond its scope to deal w...

  8. Analytic amplitude models for forward scattering

    OpenAIRE

    Kang, K.; Cudell, Jean-René; Ezhela, V. V.; Gauron, P.; Kuyanov, Yu. V.; Lugovsky, S. V.; Nicolescu, B.; Tkachenko, N. P.

    2001-01-01

    We report on fits of a large class of analytic amplitude models for forward scattering against the comprehensive data for all available reactions. To differentiate the goodness of the fits of many possible parametrizations to a large sample of data, we developed and used a set of quantitative indicators measuring statistical quality of the fits over and beyond the typical criterion of the $\\Chi^2 /dof$. These indicators favor models with a universal $ log^2 s$ Pomeron term, which enables one ...

  9. A Blast of Cool Air

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    Unable to solve their engineering problem with a rotor in their Orbital Vane product, DynEco Corporation turned to Kennedy Space Center for help. KSC engineers determined that the compressor rotor was causing a large concentration of stress, which led to cracking and instant rotor failure. NASA redesigned the lubrication system, which allowed the company to move forward with its compressor that has no rubbing parts. The Orbital Vane is a refrigerant compressor suitable for mobile air conditioning and refrigeration.

  10. Propagating Synchrony in Feed-Forward Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sven eJahnke

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Coordinated patterns of precisely timed action potentials (spikes emerge in a variety of neural circuits but their dynamical originis still not well understood. One hypothesis states that synchronous activity propagating through feed-forward chains of groups of neurons (synfire chains may dynamically generate such spike patterns. Additionally, synfire chains offer the possibility to enable reliable signal transmission. So far, mostly densely connected chains, often with all-to-all connectivity between groups, have been theoretically and computationally studied. Yet, such prominent feed-forward structures have not been observed experimentally. Here we analytically and numerically investigate under which conditions diluted feed-forward chains may exhibit synchrony propagation. In addition to conventional linear input summation, we study the impact of nonlinear, non-additive summation accounting for the effect of fast dendritic spikes. The non-linearities promote synchronous inputs to generate precisely timed spikes. We identify how non-additive coupling relaxes the conditions on connectivity such that it enables synchrony propagation at connectivities substantially lower than required for linearly coupled chains. Although the analytical treatment is based on a simple leaky integrate-and-fire neuron model, we show how to generalize our methods to biologically more detailed neuron models and verify our results by numerical simulations with, e.g., Hodgkin Huxley type neurons.

  11. Research of railway freight volume prediction based on NLA-PSO-RBF%基于NLAPSO-RBF的铁路货运量预测研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邱建东; 蒋兆远

    2013-01-01

    Railway freight volume demand prediction plays a significant role in national and regional economic development planning and transportation management decision making. In order to improve the prediction accuracy and convergence rate, a kind of prediction model which is based on RBF neural network is established. This kind of model has optimum approximation of function performance and global optimal characteristics, which is suitable for forecasting computation, meanwhile has prob-lems about determination and optimization of parameters. A type of particle swarm optimization based on nonlinear learning fac-tors adjusting(NLA-PSO)is introduced and applied to the parameters optimization of RBF neural network, which improves ac-curacy and efficiency of railway freight volume prediction. Comparison between simulation result and other algorithms is made by using examples of railway freight volume prediction during 1992 to 2011, which proves that the applied method has better prediction accuracy and convergence rate than other algorithms and has effective and feasible function on railway freight vol-ume forecasting computation.%铁路货运量需求预测在国家和区域经济发展规划、运输经营决策中具有重要作用。针对提高预测准确性与收敛速度问题,建立了基于RBF神经网络的预测模型。该模型具有最佳函数逼近性能和全局最优特性,适于预测计算,但有参数确定与优化的难题。提出一种基于非线性学习因子调节的粒子群优化(NLA-PSO)算法应用于RBF神经网络的参数优化,进而提高铁路货运量预测的精度与效率。通过1992-2011年铁路货运量预测的实例验证,将仿真结果与其他算法进行了比对,证明了方法的预测精度与收敛速度均优于其他算法,在铁路货运量预测计算上有效可行。

  12. 1990 Amendments: The federal partner steps forward

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In October of 1990, Congress enacted a new set of amendments to the Clean Air Act. These amendments are longer and more complex than any previous environmental legislation. In enacting the 1990 Amendments, Congress did not evaluate the results of earlier efforts at air quality regulation. Rather, Congress accepted what it had created in 1970 and reinforced in 1977, and proceeded to build on that foundation. As a result, the 1990 Amendments create substantial new regulatory responsibilities, while leaving in place most of the pre-existing system of air quality control. The chapter highlights the key provisions of the 1990 Amendments, and discusses their relationship to the 1970 and 1977 Amendments to the Act. Included are changes in the requirements for the control of carbon monoxide, ozone, nitrogen oxides, particulates, mobile sources, air toxics and acid rain

  13. Inverse vs. forward breast IMRT planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breast intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) improves dose distribution homogeneity within the whole breast. Previous publications report the use of inverse or forward dose optimization algorithms. Because the inverse technique is not widely available in commercial treatment planning systems, it is important to compare the 2 algorithms. The goal of this work is to compare them on a prospective cohort of 30 patients. Dose distributions were evaluated on differential dose-volume histograms using the volumes receiving more than 105% (V105) and 110% (V110) of the prescribed dose, and on the maximum dose (Dmax) or hot spot and the sagittal dose gradient (SDG) being the gradient between the dose on inframammary crease and the dose prescribed. The data were analyzed using Wilcoxon signed rank test. The inverse planning significantly improves the V105 (mean value 9.7% vs. 14.5%, p = 0.002), and the V110 (mean value 1.4% vs. 3.2%, p = 0.006). However, the SDG is not statistically significantly different for either algorithm. Looking at the potential impact on skin acute reaction, although there is a significant reduction of V110 using an inverse algorithm, it is unlikely this 1.6% volume reduction will present a significant clinical advantage over a forward algorithm. Both algorithms are equivalent in removing the hot spots on the inframammary fold, where acute skin reactions occur more frequently using a conventional wedge technique. Based on these results, we recommend that both forward and inverse algorithms should be considered for breast IMRT planning

  14. Application of the biological forced air soil treatment (BIOFAST trademark) technology to diesel contaminated soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A subsurface Biological Forced Air Soil Treatment (BIOFAST trademark) system was constructed at the Yellow Freight System, Inc. (Yellow Freight) New Haven facility in Connecticut as a means of expediting the remediation of soils impacted by a diesel fuel release. Prior to beginning construction activities the soils were evaluated for the feasibility of bioremediation based on soil characteristics including contaminant degrading bacteria, moisture content, and pH. Based on results of stimulant tests with oxygen and nutrients, the addition of fertilizer during the construction of the cell was recommended. Following the removal of underground storage tanks, the bioremediation cell was constructed by lining the enlarged excavation with high density polyethylene (HDPE) and backfilling alternating layers of nutrient-laden soil and pea gravel. Passive and active soil vapor extraction (SVE) piping was included in the gravel layers and connected to a blower and vapor treatment unit, operated intermittently to supply oxygen to the subsurface cell. Operating data have indicated that the bacteria are generating elevated levels of CO2, and the SVE unit is evacuating the accumulated CO2 from the soils and replacing it with fresh air. These data suggest that the bioremediation process is active in the soils. Soil samples collected from within the soil pit subsequent to installation and again after 10 months of operation indicate that TPH concentrations have decreased by as much as 50%

  15. Silicon pad detectors for ALICE forward calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A newly designed Electromagnetic Calorimeter (EMC) is being proposed as a possible upgrade in the Forward rapidity region, to enhance the physics capabilities of the ALICE experiment at CERN. Each LHC experiment uses a unique approach, in which preference of the designers and the physics requirements has played a decisive role. The requirement of the design of the calorimeter is to have highly granular layers of detectors consisting of 1 mm2 as well as 1 cm2 silicon pad detectors. The high granular layers (1 mm2) yield good position resolution and tracking of incoming particles. Other active layers, composed of pads of 1 cm2 are used for energy measurement

  16. The Forward Muon Detector of L3

    CERN Document Server

    Adam, A; Alarcon, J; Alberdi, J; Alexandrov, V S; Aloisio, A; Alviggi, M G; Anderhub, H; Ariza, M; Azemoon, T; Aziz, T; Bakker, F; Banerjee, S; Banicz, K; Barcala, J M; Becker, U; Berdugo, J; Berges, P; Betev, B L; Biland, A; Bobbink, Gerjan J; Böck, R K; Böhm, A; Borisov, V S; Bosseler, K; Bouvier, P; Brambilla, Elena; Burger, J D; Burgos, C; Buskens, J; Carlier, J C; Carlino, G; Causaus, J; Cavallo, N; Cerjak, I; Cerrada-Canales, M; Chang, Y H; Chen, H S; Chendvankar, S R; Chvatchkine, V B; Daniel, M; De Asmundis, R; Decreuse, G; Deiters, K; Djambazov, L; Duraffourg, P; Erné, F C; Esser, H; Ezekiev, S; Faber, G; Fabre, M; Fernández, G; Freudenreich, Klaus; Fritschi, M; García-Abia, P; González, A; Gurtu, A; Gutay, L J; Haller, C; Herold, W D; Herrmann, J M; Hervé, A; Hofer, H; Höfer, M; Hofer, T; Homma, J; Horisberger, Urs; Horváth, I L; Ingenito, P; Innocente, Vincenzo; Ioudine, I; Jaspers, M; de Jong, P; Kästli, W; Kaspar, H; Kitov, V; König, A C; Koutsenko, V F; Lanzano, S; Lapoint, C; Lebedev, A; Lecomte, P; Lista, L; Lübelsmeyer, K; Lustermann, W; Ma, J M; Milesi, M; Molinero, A; Montero, A; Moore, R; Nahn, S; Navarrete, J J; Okle, M; Orlinov, I; Ostojic, R; Pandoulas, D; Paolucci, P; Parascandolo, P; Passeggio, G; Patricelli, S; Peach, D; Piccolo, D; Pigni, L; Postema, H; Puras, C; Ren, D; Rewiersma, P A M; Rietmeyer, A; Riles, K; Risco, J; Robohm, A; Rodin, J; Röser, U; Romero, L; Van Rossum, W; Rykaczewski, H; Sarakinos, M E; Sassowsky, M; Shchegelskii, V; Scholz, N; Schultze, K; Schuylenburg, H; Sciacca, C; Seiler, P G; Siedenburg, T; Siedling, R; Smith, B; Soulimov, V; Sadhakar, K; Syben, O; Tonutti, M; Udovcic, A; Ulbricht, J; Veillet, L; Vergain, M; Viertel, Gert M; Von Gunten, H P; Vorobyov, A A; Vrankovic, V; De Waard, A; Waldmeier-Wicki, S; Wallraff, W; Walter, H C; Wang, J C; Wei, Z L; Wetter, R; Willmott, C; Wittgenstein, F; Wu, R J; Yang, K S; Zhou, L; Zhou, Y; Zuang, H L

    1996-01-01

    The Forward-Backward muon detector of the L3 experiment is presented. Intended to be used for LEP 200 physics, it consists of 96 self-calibrating drift chambers of a new design enclosing the magnet pole pieces of the L3 solenoid. The pole pieces are toroidally magnetized to form two independent analyzing spectrometers. A novel trigger is provided by resistive plate counters attached to the drift chambers. Details about the design, construction and performance of the whole system are given together with results obtained during the 1995 running at LEP.

  17. The forward muon detector of L3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, A.; Aguilar-Benitez, M.; Alarcon, J.; Alberdi, J.; Alexandrov, V.; Aloisio, A.; Alviggi, M. G.; Anderhub, H.; Ariza, M.; Azemoon, T.; Aziz, T.; Bakker, F.; Banerjee, S.; Banicz, K.; Barcala, J.; Becker, U.; Berdugo, J.; Berges, P.; Betev, B. L.; Biland, A.; Bobbink, G. J.; Bock, R.; Böhm, A.; Borissov, V.; Bosseler, K.; Bouvier, Ph.; Brambilla, E.; Burger, J. D.; Burgos, C.; Buskens, J.; Carlier, J. C.; Carlino, G.; Casaus, J.; Cavallo, N.; Cerjak, I.; Cerrada, M.; Chang, Y. H.; Chen, H. S.; Chendvankar, S. R.; Chvatchkine, V.; Daniel, M.; de Asmundis, R.; Decreuse, G.; Deiters, K.; Djambazov, L.; Duraffourg, P.; Erné, F. C.; Esser, H.; Ezekiev, S.; Faber, G.; Fabre, M.; Fernandez, G.; Freudenreich, K.; Fritschi, M.; Garcia-Abia, P.; Gonzalez, A.; Gurtu, A.; Gutay, L. J.; Haller, Ch.; Herold, W. D.; Herrmann, J.; Hervé, A.; Hofer, H.; Hofer, H.; Hofer, M.; Hofer, T.; Homma, J.; Horisberger, U.; Horvath, I.; Ingenito, P.; Innocente, V.; Ioudine, I.; Jaspers, M.; de Jong, P.; Kaestli, W.; Kaspar, H.; Kitov, V.; König, A. C.; Koutsenko, V.; Lanzano, S.; Lapoint, C.; Lebedev, A.; Lecomte, P.; Lista, L.; Lübelsmeyer, K.; Lustermann, W.; Ma, J. M.; Milesi, M.; Molinero, A.; Montero, A.; Moore, R.; Nahn, S.; Navarrete, J.; Okle, M.; Orlinov, I.; Ostojic, D.; Pandoulas, D.; Paolucci, P.; Parascandolo, P.; Passeggio, G.; Patricelli, S.; Peach, D.; Piccolo, D.; Pigni, L.; Postema, H.; Puras, C.; Ren, D.; Rewiersma, P.; Rietmeyer, A.; Riles, K.; Risco, J.; Robohm, A.; Rodin, J.; Roeser, U.; Romero, L.; van Rossum, W.; Rykaczewski, H.; Sarakinos, M. E.; Sassowsky, M.; Schegelsky, V.; Scholz, N.; Schultze, K.; Schuylenburg, H.; Sciacca, C.; Seiler, P. G.; Siedenburg, T.; Siedling, R.; Smith, B.; Soulimov, V.; Sudhakar, K.; Syben, O.; Tonutti, M.; Udovcic, A.; Ulbricht, J.; Veillet, L.; Vergain, M.; Viertel, G.; von Gunten, H. P.; Vorobyov, An. A.; Vrankovic, V.; de Waard, A.; Waldmeier-Wicki, S.; Wallraff, W.; Walter, H. C.; Wang, J. C.; Wei, Z. L.; Wetter, R.; Weverling, I.; Willmott, C.; Wittgenstein, F.; Wu, R. J.; Yang, K. S.; Zhou, L.; Zhou, Y.; Zuang, H. L.

    1996-02-01

    The forward-backward muon detector of the L3 experiment is presented. Intended to be used for LEP 200 physics, it consists of 96 self-calibrating drift chambers of a new design enclosing the magnet pole pieces of the L3 solenoid. The pole pieces are toroidally magnetized to form two independent analyzing spectrometers. A novel trigger is provided by resistive plate counters attached to the drift chambers. Details about the design, construction and performance of the whole system are given together with results obtained during the 1995 running at LEP.

  18. KEK: Looking forward after ten years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although KEK was formally established on 1 April 1971, the Japanese National Laboratory for High Energy Physics chose to celebrate its tenth anniversary on 20 November last year, seven years to the day that first beam was injected into the main ring of its 12 GeV proton synchrotron. As well as looking back over ten years of fine achievement, KEK is also able to look forward to a new era of physics with the 3 km circumference TRISTAN electron-positron collider ring

  19. Looking Forwards and Looking Back (Editorial)

    OpenAIRE

    Alison Brettle

    2012-01-01

    Welcome to the seventh volume of Evidence Based Library and Information Practice. This is my first issue in my new role of Editor-in-Chief, and I’m honoured and delighted to take over the position. As many of you may know, I’ve been involved with the journal almost since its inception, primarily as Associate Editor (Articles). During that time, I’ve sincerely enjoyed working with the supportive EBLIP team, as well as many authors throughout the world, and I’m looking forward to continuing tha...

  20. Forward error correction in optical ethernet communications

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveras Boada, Jordi

    2014-01-01

    [ANGLÈS] A way of incrementing the amount of information sent through an optical fibre is ud-WDM (ultra dense – Wavelength Division Multiplexing). The problem is that the sensitivity of the receiver requires certain SNR (Signal Noise Ratio) that are only achieved in low distances, so to increase them a codification called FEC (Forward Error Correction) can be used. This should reduce the BER (Bit Error Rate) at the receiver letting the signal to be transmitted to longer distances. Another pro...

  1. The Fast Forward MBA in Project Management

    CERN Document Server

    Verzuh, Eric

    2011-01-01

    An updated and revised edition of the bestselling guide to managing projects For any professional responsible for coordinating projects among different departments, across executive levels, or with technical complexity, The Fast Forward MBA in Project Management offers comprehensive instruction on how to deliver on time and on budget. Get the step-by-step advice you need to find the right sponsor, clarify objectives, and set realistic schedules and budget projections. This Fourth Edition of the 200,000-copy bestseller now covers critical new topics including: software and IT projects, agile te

  2. Non-forward colour octet BFKL kernel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The contribution to the kernel of the non-forward BFKL equation from the two-gluon production is calculated for the case of the antisymmetric colour octet state of the Reggeized gluon in the t-channel. The one-gluon contribution to the kernel in the one-loop approximation is also obtained using the one-loop expression for the effective vertex of the one-gluon production in the Reggeon-Reggeon collisions. The explicit form of the BFKL equation total kernel is presented

  3. Test of the ZEUS forward calorimeter prototype

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Four prototype modules following the same design as the ZEUS forward calorimeter (FCAL) modules have been constructed and tested with electrons, hadrons and muons in the momentum range of 1 to 100 GeV/c. The main topics under investigation were: calibration, uniformity of response, noise, light yield, energy resolution and the electron to hadron response (e/h ratio). The result of the measurements is presented and the expected performance of the FCAL is discussed in the light of these results. (orig.)

  4. Deuteron forward photodisintegration: meson currents and relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The few-nucleon problem in nuclear physics and the few-electron problem in atomic physics are shown to possess similarities. Relativistic aspects of the latter are reviewed. The radiative decay of the 3P1 excited state of helium-like ions to the 1S0 ground state is shown to be a theoretical analogue of low-energy deuteron forward photodisintegration. Both have large relativistic components. The extended Siegert's theorem, which permits application of Siegert's technique to arbitrary photon wave lengths, is applied to both transitions. Physical arguments for the two processes are stressed, and the relevance of interaction currents is discussed. 28 references

  5. Forward-looking automotive radar sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganci, Paul; Potts, Steven; Okurowski, Frank

    1995-12-01

    For intelligent cruise control (ICC) and forward looking collision warning systems to be successful products they must provide robust performance in a complex roadway environment. Inconveniences caused by dropped tracks and nuisance alarms will not be tolerated by consumers, and would likely result in rejection of these new technologies in the marketplace. The authors report on a low-cost automotive millimeter wave (MMW) radar design which addresses shortcomings associated with previously reported ICC system implementations. The importance of the sensor's ability to identify and separately track all obstacles in the field of view is discussed. The applicability of the MMW's FM-CW sensor implementation to collision warning systems is also discussed.

  6. A Great Leap Forward: EFL curriculum

    OpenAIRE

    Xiohong, Zhang

    2009-01-01

    I have used the name, The Great Leap Forward in relation to my study of English as a Foreign Language (EFL) curriculum reform as I have linked economic, political and social developments of the late 20th and early 21st centuries in China with education developments that have occurred at the same time as the reform has been implemented. The EFL curriculum reform that I have researched is based on a program of considerable investigation and preparation designed on the basis of a balance betw...

  7. Investigation of forward flow distributed combustion for gas turbine application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    New innovative advanced combustion design methodology for gas turbine applications is presented that is focused on the quest towards zero emissions. The new design methodology is called colorless distributed combustion (CDC) and is significantly different from the currently used methodology. In this paper forward flow modes of CDC have been investigated for application to gas turbine combustors. The CDC provides significant improvement in pattern factor, reduced NOx emission and uniform thermal field in the entire combustion zone for it to be called as an isothermal reactor. Basic requirement for CDC is carefully tailored mixture preparation through good mixing between the combustion air and product gases prior to rapid mixing with fuel so that the reactants are at much higher temperature to result in hot and diluted oxidant stream at temperatures that are high enough to autoignite the fuel and oxidant mixture. With desirable conditions one can achieve spontaneous ignition of the fuel with distributed combustion reactions. Distributed reactions can also be achieved in premixed mode of operation with sufficient entrainment of burned gases and faster turbulent mixing between the reactants. In the present investigation forward flow modes consisting of two non-premixed combustion modes and one premixed combustion mode have been examined that provide potential for CDC. In all the configurations the air injection port is positioned at the opposite side of the combustor exit, whereas the location of fuel injection ports is changed to give different configurations. Two combustion geometries resulting in thermal intensity of 5 MW/m3-atm and 28 MW/m3-atm are investigated. Increase in thermal intensity (lower combustion volume) presents many challenges, such as, lower residence time, lower recirculation of gases and effect of confinement on jet characteristics. The results are presented on the global flame signatures, exhaust emissions, and radical emissions using experiments

  8. 47 CFR 51.505 - Forward-looking economic cost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Forward-looking economic cost. 51.505 Section... (CONTINUED) INTERCONNECTION Pricing of Elements § 51.505 Forward-looking economic cost. (a) In general. The forward-looking economic cost of an element equals the sum of: (1) The total element long-run...

  9. Forward physics hard processes and saturation: theory and phenomenology review

    OpenAIRE

    Kutak, Krzysztof

    2011-01-01

    Selected aspects of the theory and phenomenology of production of forward jets at the LHC and RHIC are overviewed. In the theory part we discuss basics of frameworks originating from the BFKL dynamics while in the phenomenology part we present results for forward-central jet correlations at the LHC and forward di-jet production at RHIC.

  10. 48 CFR 15.407-3 - Forward pricing rate agreements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Forward pricing rate... CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES CONTRACTING BY NEGOTIATION Contract Pricing 15.407-3 Forward pricing... describe any forward pricing rate agreements (FPRAs) in each specific pricing proposal to which the...

  11. 48 CFR 215.407-3 - Forward pricing rate agreements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Forward pricing rate agreements. 215.407-3 Section 215.407-3 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION... Contract Pricing 215.407-3 Forward pricing rate agreements. (b)(i) Use forward pricing rate agreement...

  12. Forward masking in distinguishing inner and outer hair cell damage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DUAN Mao-li

    2009-01-01

    @@ Forward Masking Temporal audiotory resolution is the ability of the auditory system to resolve auditory signals in the time domain. Forward masking is a means of studying tem-poral resolution where one tone, the probe, is masked by a preceding tone, the masker. Forward masking is believed to relate to the adaptation of the aucliotory system[1-4].

  13. Cost of Forward Contracting Hard Red Winter Wheat

    OpenAIRE

    Townsend, John P.; Brorsen, B. Wade

    1997-01-01

    Two methods were used to estimate the cost of forward contracting hard red winter wheat. One hundred days before delivery, the estimated cost of forward contracting ranged from six cents/bu. To eight cents/bu. Thus, further evidence is provided that the cost of forward contracting grain is not zero.

  14. Perceptions of transport corridors and intermodal transport - as ways to control the space of freight transport flows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Leif Gjesing

    2009-01-01

    . In this study stakeholders from Danish and Norwegian ports, ferry operators, train operators, forwarding and road haulage firms has been interviewed in order to analyse how logistical decision-making affect the organisational and physical configuration of intermodal transport solutions in the transport corridor...

  15. Moving Forward: Enhancing Progression through Partnership

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karla H. Benske

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available This practice report presents a university-wide strategic approach to enhancing the first-year student experience and to improving transition, progression and retention, called Moving Forward. Glasgow Caledonian University is a so-called post-1992 university with a high percentage of students from non-traditional, low-participation backgrounds, often coming into university as direct entrants onto levels two and three (of a four-level Scottish undergraduate degree. Its aim is to support a transformational approach to widening participation and the development of a transition pedagogy. Partnership working stands at its centre and underpins all activities from developing a Transition and Progression Framework, establishing a large Community of Practice and six Mini Communities of Practice, to negotiating formal partnership agreements with academic schools, Learner Support and the Students’ Association. The report charts the reasons for introducing Moving Forward, its development, activities, interim evaluation outcomes, achievements, as well as the challenges of sustaining such an initiative long term.

  16. Air Pollution

    OpenAIRE

    Lawther, P. J.

    2014-01-01

    The human costs of air pollution are considerable in Jordan. According to a report published in 2000 by the World Bank under the Mediterranean Environmental Technical Assistance Program (METAP), approximately 600 people die prematurely each year in Jordan because of urban pollution. 50-90% of air pollution in Jordanian towns is caused by road traffic. Readings taken in 2007 by Jordanian researchers showed that levels of black carbon particles in the air were higher in urban areas (caused by v...

  17. Efficacy of pH elevation as a bactericidal strategy for treating ballast water of freight carriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clifford E. Starliper

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Treatment of ship ballast water with sodium hydroxide (NaOH is one method currently being developed to minimize the risk to introduce aquatic invasive species. The bactericidal capability of sodium hydroxide was determined for 148 bacterial strains from ballast water collected in 2009 and 2010 from the M/V Indiana Harbor, a bulk-freight carrier plying the Laurentian Great Lakes, USA. Primary culture of bacteria was done using brain heart infusion agar and a developmental medium. Strains were characterized based on PCR amplification and sequencing of a portion of the 16S rRNA gene. Sequence similarities (99+ % were determined by comparison with the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI GenBank catalog. Flavobacterium spp. were the most prevalent bacteria characterized in 2009, comprising 51.1% (24/47 of the total, and Pseudomonas spp. (62/101; 61.4% and Brevundimonas spp. (22/101; 21.8% were the predominate bacteria recovered in 2010; together, comprising 83.2% (84/101 of the total. Testing was done in tryptic soy broth (TSB medium adjusted with 5 N NaOH. Growth of each strain was evaluated at pH 10.0, pH 11.0 and pH 12.0, and 4 h up to 72 h. The median cell count at 0 h for 148 cultures was 5.20 × 106 cfu/mL with a range 1.02 × 105–1.60 × 108 cfu/mL. The TSB adjusted to pH 10.0 and incubation for less than 24 h was bactericidal to 52 (35.1% strains. Growth in pH 11.0 TSB for less than 4 h was bactericidal to 131 (88.5% strains and pH 11.0 within 12 h was bactericidal to 141 (95.3%. One strain, Bacillus horikoshii, survived the harshest treatment, pH 12.0 for 72 h.

  18. Risk premium in the UK natural gas forward market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report investigates the UK natural gas market, and tests whether it is a fair-game efficient forward market, using forward contracts ranging from one to five months time to delivery. The forward and spot price series are separately non-stationary, but cointegrated. Furthermore, the forward prices are biased predictors of both the future spot and the 1-month-ahead forward price. The risk premium on the forward prices is positive, as opposed to the US gas market, where the risk premium was found to be negative in similar work. Moreover, the analysis reveals that the storage model is an incomplete model for the relationship between the spot and forward prices. However, storage has a clear effect on this relationship, an effect that appears to be non-linear. (author)

  19. Kolakoski sequence as an element to radiate giant forward and backward second harmonic signals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parvini, T. S. [Physics Department, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Tehranchi, M. M., E-mail: m-hamidi@sbu.ac.ir, E-mail: teranchi@sbu.ac.ir [Physics Department, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Laser and Plasma Research Institute, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Hamidi, S. M., E-mail: m-hamidi@sbu.ac.ir, E-mail: teranchi@sbu.ac.ir; Sarkarati, S. [Laser and Plasma Research Institute, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-11-14

    We propose a novel type of aperiodic one-dimensional photonic crystal structures which can be used for generating giant forward and backward second harmonic signals. The studied structure is formed by stacking together the air and nonlinear layers according to the Kolakoski self-generation scheme in which each nonlinear layer contains a pair of antiparallel 180° poled LiNbO{sub 3} crystal layers. For different generation stages of the structure, conversion efficiencies of forward and backward second harmonic waves have been calculated by nonlinear transfer matrix method. Numerical simulations show that conversion efficiencies in the Kolakoski-based multilayer are larger than the perfect ones for at least one order of magnitude. Especially for 33rd and 39th generation stages, forward second harmonic wave are 42 and 19 times larger, respectively. In this paper, we validate the strong fundamental field enhancement and localization within Kolakoski-based multilayer due to periodicity breaking which consequently leads to very strong radiation of backward and forward second harmonic signals. Following the applications of analogous aperiodic structures, we expect that Kolakosi-based multilayer can play a role in optical parametric devices such as multicolor second harmonic generators with high efficiency.

  20. Kolakoski sequence as an element to radiate giant forward and backward second harmonic signals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We propose a novel type of aperiodic one-dimensional photonic crystal structures which can be used for generating giant forward and backward second harmonic signals. The studied structure is formed by stacking together the air and nonlinear layers according to the Kolakoski self-generation scheme in which each nonlinear layer contains a pair of antiparallel 180° poled LiNbO3 crystal layers. For different generation stages of the structure, conversion efficiencies of forward and backward second harmonic waves have been calculated by nonlinear transfer matrix method. Numerical simulations show that conversion efficiencies in the Kolakoski-based multilayer are larger than the perfect ones for at least one order of magnitude. Especially for 33rd and 39th generation stages, forward second harmonic wave are 42 and 19 times larger, respectively. In this paper, we validate the strong fundamental field enhancement and localization within Kolakoski-based multilayer due to periodicity breaking which consequently leads to very strong radiation of backward and forward second harmonic signals. Following the applications of analogous aperiodic structures, we expect that Kolakosi-based multilayer can play a role in optical parametric devices such as multicolor second harmonic generators with high efficiency

  1. Hazard Detection Analysis for a Forward-Looking Interferometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Leanne; Gimmestad, Gary; Herkert, Ralph; Smith, William L.; Kireev, Stanislav; Schaffner, Philip R.; Daniels, Taumi S.; Cornman, Larry B.; Sharman, Robert; Weekley, Andrew; Perram, Glen; Gross, Kevin; Smith, Greg; Feltz, Wayne; Taylor, Joe; Olson, Erik

    2010-01-01

    The Forward-Looking Interferometer (FLI) is a new instrument concept for obtaining the measurements required to alert flight crews to potential weather hazards to safe flight. To meet the needs of the commercial fleet, such a sensor should address multiple hazards to warrant the costs of development, certification, installation, training, and maintenance. The FLI concept is based on high-resolution Infrared Fourier Transform Spectrometry (FTS) technologies that have been developed for satellite remote sensing. These technologies have also been applied to the detection of aerosols and gases for other purposes. The FLI concept is being evaluated for its potential to address multiple hazards including clear air turbulence (CAT), volcanic ash, wake vortices, low slant range visibility, dry wind shear, and icing during all phases of flight (takeoff, cruise, and landing). The research accomplished in this second phase of the FLI project was in three major areas: further sensitivity studies to better understand the potential capabilities and requirements for an airborne FLI instrument, field measurements that were conducted in an effort to provide empirical demonstrations of radiometric hazard detection, and theoretical work to support the development of algorithms to determine the severity of detected hazards

  2. SWITCHABLE POLARITY SOLVENTS AS DRAW SOLUTES FOR FORWARD OSMOSIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frederick F. Stewart; Mark L. Stone; Aaron D. Wilson; Cathy Rae

    2013-03-01

    Switchable polarity solvents (SPS), mixtures of carbon dioxide, water, and tertiary amines, are presented as viable forward osmosis (FO) draw solutes allowing a novel SPS FO process. In this study substantial osmotic strengths of SPS are measured with freezing point osmometry and were demonstrated to induce competitive ?uxes at high salt concentrations on a laboratory-scale FO unit utilizing a ?at sheet cellulose triacetate (CTA) membrane. Under the experimental conditions the SPS degrades the CTA membrane; however experiments with polyamide reverse osmosis (RO) membranes display stability towards SPS. Once the draw is diluted the major fraction of the switchable polarity solvent can be mechanically separated from the puri?ed water after polar to nonpolar phase shift induced by introduction of 1 atm carbon dioxide to 1 atm of air or nitrogen with mild heating. Trace amounts of SPS can be removed from the separated water with RO in a process that avoids solution concentration polarization. The separated nonpolar phase can be regenerated to a full strength draw and recycled with the re-addition of 1 atm of carbon dioxide.

  3. Modelling electroweak physics for the forward region

    CERN Document Server

    Sirendi, Marek

    2016-01-01

    This note presents a study of matching and merging schemes and weak showering at the LHC as applied to the production of electroweak bosons in association with jets. These advanced theoretical tools are seen to provide a good description of event shapes in the central region when compared to measurements performed by the ATLAS and CMS collaborations at a centre-of-mass energy of 7 TeV. Matching and merging schemes also provide a superior description of forward $Z+$jets production. The study constitutes a test of matching and merging schemes in a novel region of phase space and can be considered as a validation of the universality of these techniques. Finally, it was determined that current measurements of electroweak physics at LHCb do not yet fully probe the effect of weak showers.

  4. 3D Morphology Design for Forward Osmosis

    KAUST Repository

    Shi, Meixia

    2016-06-06

    We propose a multi-scale simulation approach to model forward osmosis (FO) processes using substrates with layered homogeneous morphology. This approach accounts not only for FO setup but also for detailed microstructure of the substrate using the digitally reconstructed morphology. We fabricate a highly porous block copolymer membrane, which has not been explored for FO heretofore, and use it as the substrate for interfacial polymerization. The substrate has three sub-layers, namely a top layer, a sponge-like middle layer, and a nonwoven fabric layer. We generate a digital microstructure for each layer, and verify them with experimental measurements. The permeability and effective diffusivity of each layer are computed based on their virtual microstructures and used for FO operation in cross-flow setups at the macro scale. The proposed simulation approach predicts accurately the FO experimental data.

  5. Message Scheduling and Forwarding in Congested DTNs

    KAUST Repository

    Elwhishi, Ahmed

    2012-08-19

    Multi-copy utility-based routing has been considered as one of the most applicable approaches to effective message delivery in Delay Tolerant Networks (DTNs). By allowing multiple message replicas launched, the ratio of message delivery or delay can be significantly reduced compared with other counterparts. Such an advantage, nonetheless, is at the expense of taking more buffer space at each node and higher complexity in message forwarding decisions. This paper investigates an efficient message scheduling and dropping policy via analytical modeling approach, aiming to achieve optimal performance in terms of message delivery delay. Extensive simulation results, based on a synthetic mobility model and real mobility traces, show that the proposed scheduling framework can achieve superb performance against its counterparts in terms of delivery delay.

  6. Autonomous forward inference via DNA computing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fu Yan; Li Gen; Li Yin; Meng Dazhi

    2007-01-01

    Recent studies direct the researchers into building DNA computing machines with intelligence, which is measured by three main points: autonomous, programmable and able to learn and adapt. Logical inference plays an important role in programmable information processing or computing. Here we present a new method to perform autonomous molecular forward inference for expert system.A novel repetitive recognition site (RRS) technique is invented to design rule-molecules in knowledge base. The inference engine runs autonomously by digesting the rule-molecule, using a Class ⅡB restriction enzyme PpiⅠ. Concentration model has been built to show the feasibility of the inference process under ideal chemical reaction conditions. Moreover, we extend to implement a triggering communication between molecular automata, as a further application of the RRS technique in our model.

  7. Forward electron study with the HGTD

    CERN Document Server

    Mauritzsson, Nicholai

    2016-01-01

    A study of the forward region of the ATLAS detector, using $Z\\rightarrow ee$, $\\mu=200$ data, was performed with the goal of decreasing the pile-up effect and improving the reconstruction resolution for electrons using a timing detector (HGTD) in front of the end-cap calorimeters under consideration for the ATLAS upgrade at the high luminosity LHC. The report focuses on the $2.5<|\\eta|<3.5$ region with the \\emph{timing} and \\emph{pre-shower} configuration of the HGTD as well as different $p_T$-cuts. Using the HGTD data the resolution was generally improved for all configuration by 12-15\\% except with the \\emph{timing} configuration at $2.5<|\\eta|<3.0$ which remained unchanged within the statistical errors.

  8. Seismic refraction analysis: the path forward

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haines, Seth S.; Zelt, Colin; Doll, William

    2012-01-01

    Seismic Refraction Methods: Unleashing the Potential and Understanding the Limitations; Tucson, Arizona, 29 March 2012 A workshop focused on seismic refraction methods took place on 29 May 2012, associated with the 2012 Symposium on the Application of Geophysics to Engineering and Environmental Problems. This workshop was convened to assess the current state of the science and discuss paths forward, with a primary focus on near-surface problems but with an eye on all applications. The agenda included talks on these topics from a number of experts interspersed with discussion and a dedicated discussion period to finish the day. Discussion proved lively at times, and workshop participants delved into many topics central to seismic refraction work.

  9. Shell tension forces propel Dictyostelium slugs forward

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Dictyostelium slug is an excellent model system for studying collective movements, as it is comprised of about 105 cells all moving together in the same direction. It still remains unclear how this movement occurs and what the physical mechanisms behind it are. By applying our recently developed 3D traction force microscopy, we propose a simple explanation for slug propulsion. Most of the forces are exerted by the sheath surrounding the slug. This secreted shell is under a rather uniform tension (around 50 mN m−1) and will give rise to a tissue under pressure. Finally, we propose that this pressure will naturally push the slug tip forwards if a gradient of shell mechanical properties takes place in the very anterior part of the raised tip. (paper)

  10. Power distribution studies for CMS forward tracker

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Electronic Systems Engineering Department of the Computing Division at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory is carrying out R and D investigations for the upgrade of the power distribution system of the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) Pixel Tracker at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). Among the goals of this effort is that of analyzing the feasibility of alternative powering schemes for the forward tracker, including DC to DC voltage conversion techniques using commercially available and custom switching regulator circuits. Tests of these approaches are performed using the PSI46 pixel readout chip currently in use at the CMS Tracker. Performance measures of the detector electronics will include pixel noise and threshold dispersion results. Issues related to susceptibility to switching noise will be studied and presented. In this paper, we describe the current power distribution network of the CMS Tracker, study the implications of the proposed upgrade with DC-DC converters powering scheme and perform noise susceptibility analysis.

  11. Feed forward control: An implementation at CIRFEL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krishnaswamy, J.; Lehrman, I.S.; Hartley, R. [Northrop Grumman Advanced Technology and Development Center, Princeton, NJ (United States)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    An integral part of the Compact InfraRed Free Electron LASER (CIRFEL) is control of the phase and amplitude stability in the RF power system. We have implemented such a Feed Forward system using the LabView software package, by National Instruments. We will discuss implementation and performance data of the Feed Forward control of the RF power system at CIRFEL. We will also briefly discuss some conditions under which the problem is ill-conditioned, and what idealizations can be made to remedy these ill-conditioned systems. Using an arbitrary function generator, we generate a driving signal for a voltage-controlled attenuator at the input side of the RF system, and we monitor the RF voltage in cell I of the photocathode gun using a digital storage oscilliscope in averaging mode. The system is stable enough to use data from one shot to modify the inputs for future shots. After downloading the averaged data to a personal computer via a GPIB (IEEE 488) bus, we use a simple linear transformation on the difference waveform between the current shot and the target to produce a correction signal. This signal is added to the driving signal in the arbitrary function generator, and the process is repeated until we get the flatness we need in the output signals from cell 1. The system for phase control is similar, with a voltage-controlled phase shifter replacing the attenuator, and monitoring of the RF phase in cell I replacing the monitoring of RF voltage. By repeatedly alternating between correcting the RF voltage (equivalent to correcting the RF power) and RF phase in cell 1, we are able to achieve simultaneous phase variations of <{+-}1{degrees} and amplitude variations of <{+-}0.1% over a 3{mu}sec pulse.

  12. Air Pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Air quality is affected by many types of pollutants that are emitted from various sources, including stationary and mobile. These sources release both criteria and hazardous air pollutants, which cause health effects, ecological harm, and material damage. They are generally categ...

  13. Guided-wave Brillouin scattering in air

    CERN Document Server

    Renninger, William H; Rakich, Peter T

    2016-01-01

    Here we identify a new form of optomechanical coupling in gas-filled hollow-core fibers. Stimulated forward Brillouin scattering is observed in air in the core of a photonic bandgap fiber. A single resonance is observed at 35 MHz, which corresponds to the first excited axial-radial acoustic mode in the air-filled core. The linewidth and coupling strengths are determined by the acoustic loss and electrostrictive coupling in air, respectively. A simple analytical model, refined by numerical simulations, is developed that accurately predicts the Brillouin coupling strength and frequency from the gas and fiber parameters. Since this form of Brillouin coupling depends strongly on both the acoustic and dispersive optical properties of the gas within the fiber, this new type of optomechanical interaction is highly tailorable. These results allow for forward Brillouin spectroscopy in dilute gases, could be useful for sensing and will present a power and noise limitation for certain applications.

  14. Transport and Environment Database System (TRENDS): Maritime Air Pollutant Emission Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Georgakaki, Aliki; Coffey, Robert; Lock, Grahm;

    2005-01-01

    This paper reports the development of the maritime module within the framework of the Transport and Environment Database System (TRENDS) project. A detailed database has been constructed for the calculation of energy consumption and air pollutant emissions. Based on an in-house database of...... commercial vessels kept at the Technical University of Denmark, relationships between the fuel consumption and size of different vessels have been developed, taking into account the fleet's age and service speed. The technical assumptions and factors incorporated in the database are presented, including...... changes from findings reported in Methodologies for Estimating air pollutant Emissions from Transport (MEET). The database operates on statistical data provided by Eurostat, which describe vessel and freight movements from and towards EU 15 major ports. Data are at port to Maritime Coastal Area (MCA...

  15. Re-fueling road transport for better air quality in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Road transport in India plays a vital role in our growing economy. Given an aggressive vehicle sales outlook through 2030, in order to maintain a balance between the energy demand, growing on-road emissions, and overall air quality in the cities, there is a need to implement and enforce Bharat-5 standards (equivalent of Euro-V) nationwide by 2015. Any delay in its implementation or even staggered implementation of the standards will result in a delayed response for improving air quality in the Indian cities. - Highlights: • Analysis of on-road transport emissions from 2010 to 2030. • Shares of transport emissions by passenger and freight vehicle type. • Scenario analysis of an early introduction of Bharat-5 vehicle and fuel standards

  16. Thin air

    OpenAIRE

    Jasanoff, Sheila

    2013-01-01

    Clearing the air How do we grasp the air? Without Michel Callon’s guidance, I might never have asked that question. Years ago, when I first entered environmental law practice, I took it for granted that problems such as air pollution exist “out there” in the real world for science to discover and law to fix. It is a measure of Callon’s influence that I understand the law today as a metaphysical instrument, no less powerful in its capacity to order nature than the tools of the ancient oracular...

  17. Energy Efficiency Analysis in Amplify-and-Forward and Decode-and-Forward Cooperative Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Qing

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we have studied the energy efficiency of cooperative networks operating in either the fixed Amplifyand- Forward (AF) or the selective Decode-and-Forward (DF) mode. We consider the optimization of the M-ary quadrature amplitude modulation (MQAM) constellation size to minimize the bit energy consumption under given bit error rate (BER) constraints. In the computation of the energy expenditure, the circuit, transmission, and retransmission energies are taken into account. The link reliabilities and retransmission probabilities are determined through the outage probabilities under the Rayleigh fading assumption. Several interesting observations with practical implications are made. It is seen that while large constellations are preferred at small transmission distances, constellation size should be decreased as the distance increases; the cooperative gain is computed to compare direct transmission and cooperative transmission.

  18. Multiple Openings and Competitiveness of Forward Markets: Experimental Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, José Luis; Kujal, Praveen; Rassenti, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    We test the competition enhancing effect of selling forward in experimental Cournot duopoly and quadropoly with multiple forward markets. We find that two forward periods yields competitive outcomes and that the results are very close to the predicted theoretical results for quantity setting duopolies and quadropolies. Our experiments lend strong support to the hypothesis that forward markets are competition enhancing. We then test a new market that allows for endogenously determined indefinitely many forward periods that only close when sellers coordinate on selling a zero amount in a forward market. We find that the outcomes under an endogenous close rule are also very competitive. These results hold for both duopolies and quadropolies. PMID:27442516

  19. Using forward markets to improve electricity market design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forward markets, both medium term and long term, complement the spot market for wholesale electricity. The forward markets reduce risk, mitigate market power, and coordinate new investment. In the medium term, a forward energy market lets suppliers and demanders lock in energy prices and quantities for one to three years. In the long term, a forward reliability market assures adequate resources are available when they are needed most. The forward markets reduce risk for both sides of the market, since they reduce the quantity of energy that trades at the more volatile spot price. Spot market power is mitigated by putting suppliers and demanders in a more balanced position at the time of the spot market. The markets also reduce transaction costs and improve liquidity and transparency. Recent innovations to the Colombia market illustrate the basic elements of the forward markets and their beneficial role. (author)

  20. Going Forward with Genetics: Recent Technological Advances and Forward Genetics in Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Moresco, Eva Marie Y.; Li, Xiaohong; Beutler, Bruce

    2013-01-01

    Forward genetic analysis is an unbiased approach for identifying genes essential to defined biological phenomena. When applied to mice, it is one of the most powerful methods to facilitate understanding of the genetic basis of human biology and disease. The speed at which disease-causing mutations can be identified in mutagenized mice has been markedly increased by recent advances in DNA sequencing technology. Creating and analyzing mutant phenotypes may therefore become rate-limiting in forw...