WorldWideScience

Sample records for air filtration-based intervention

  1. Indoor particles affect vascular function in the aged - An air filtration-based intervention study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brauner, E.V.; Forchhammer, L.; Moller, P.;

    2008-01-01

    -filtered or nonfiltered air (2,533-4,058 and 7,718-12,988 particles/cm(3), respectively) in their homes. Measurements and Main Results: MVF was assessed noninvasively by measuring digital peripheral artery tone after arm ischemia. Secondary endpoints included hemoglobin, red blood cells, platelet count, coagulation...... of cardiovascular disease....

  2. InMAP: a new model for air pollution interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tessum, C. W.; Hill, J. D.; Marshall, J. D.

    2015-10-01

    Mechanistic air pollution models are essential tools in air quality management. Widespread use of such models is hindered, however, by the extensive expertise or computational resources needed to run most models. Here, we present InMAP (Intervention Model for Air Pollution), which offers an alternative to comprehensive air quality models for estimating the air pollution health impacts of emission reductions and other potential interventions. InMAP estimates annual-average changes in primary and secondary fine particle (PM2.5) concentrations - the air pollution outcome generally causing the largest monetized health damages - attributable to annual changes in precursor emissions. InMAP leverages pre-processed physical and chemical information from the output of a state-of-the-science chemical transport model (WRF-Chem) within an Eulerian modeling framework, to perform simulations that are several orders of magnitude less computationally intensive than comprehensive model simulations. InMAP uses a variable resolution grid that focuses on human exposures by employing higher spatial resolution in urban areas and lower spatial resolution in rural and remote locations and in the upper atmosphere; and by directly calculating steady-state, annual average concentrations. In comparisons run here, InMAP recreates WRF-Chem predictions of changes in total PM2.5 concentrations with population-weighted mean fractional error (MFE) and bias (MFB) planned for future model releases include a larger spatial domain, more temporal information, and the ability to predict ground-level ozone (O3) concentrations. The InMAP model source code and input data are freely available online.

  3. The APHEKOM Project: A literature review of air pollution interventions and their impact of public health

    OpenAIRE

    Henschel, S; Goodman, P; Atkinson, RW; Zeka, A; Analitis, A; Katsouyanni, K; Pascal, M.; Chanel, O; Medina, S; Forsberg, B

    2011-01-01

    Intervention studies play an important role in supporting and complementing scientific validation of results of epidemiological non-intervention studies linking air pollution and health. In this paper a collection of existing published intervention studies is reviewed with the aim to give a summarized overview spanning a variety of approaches regarding the type of the intervention and findings with the main focus on studies that assessed interventions that improved air quality and the associa...

  4. Trainer Interventions as Instructional Strategies in Air Traffic Control Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koskela, Inka; Palukka, Hannele

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to identify methods of guidance and supervision used in air traffic control training. It also aims to show how these methods facilitate trainee participation in core work activities. Design/methodology/approach: The paper applies the tools of conversation analysis and ethnomethodology to explore the ways in which trainers…

  5. Health benefits from improved outdoor air quality and intervention in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shanshan; Williams, Gail; Guo, Yuming

    2016-07-01

    China is at its most critical stage of outdoor air quality management. In order to prevent further deterioration of air quality and to protect human health, the Chinese government has made a series of attempts to reduce ambient air pollution. Unlike previous literature reviews on the widespread hazards of air pollution on health, this review article firstly summarized the existing evidence of human health benefits from intermittently improved outdoor air quality and intervention in China. Contents of this paper provide concrete and direct clue that improvement in outdoor air quality generates various health benefits in China, and confirm from a new perspective that it is worthwhile for China to shift its development strategy from economic growth to environmental economic sustainability. Greater emphasis on sustainable environment design, consistently strict regulatory enforcement, and specific monitoring actions should be regarded in China to decrease the health risks and to avoid long-term environmental threats.

  6. Fourier ptychographic microscopy for filtration-based circulating tumor cell enumeration and analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Anthony; Chung, Jaebum; Ou, Xiaoze; Zheng, Guoan; Rawal, Siddarth; Ao, Zheng; Datar, Ram; Yang, Changhuei; Cote, Richard

    2014-06-01

    Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) are recognized as a candidate biomarker with strong prognostic and predictive potential in metastatic disease. Filtration-based enrichment technologies have been used for CTC characterization, and our group has previously developed a membrane microfilter device that demonstrates efficacy in model systems and clinical blood samples. However, uneven filtration surfaces make the use of standard microscopic techniques a difficult task, limiting the performance of automated imaging using commercially available technologies. Here, we report the use of Fourier ptychographic microscopy (FPM) to tackle this challenge. Employing this method, we were able to obtain high-resolution color images, including amplitude and phase, of the microfilter samples over large areas. FPM's ability to perform digital refocusing on complex images is particularly useful in this setting as, in contrast to other imaging platforms, we can focus samples on multiple focal planes within the same frame despite surface unevenness. In model systems, FPM demonstrates high image quality, efficiency, and consistency in detection of tumor cells when comparing corresponding microfilter samples to standard microscopy with high correlation (R2=0.99932). Based on these results, we believe that FPM will have important implications for improved, high throughput, filtration-based CTC analysis, and, more generally, image analysis of uneven surfaces.

  7. Estimating the health benefit of reducing indoor air pollution in a randomized environmental intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Roger D.; Butz, Arlene M.; Hackstadt, Amber J.; Williams, D'Ann L.; Diette, Gregory B.; Breysse, Patrick N.; Matsui, Elizabeth C.

    2016-01-01

    Recent intervention studies targeted at reducing indoor air pollution have demonstrated both the ability to improve respiratory health outcomes and to reduce particulate matter (PM) levels in the home. However, these studies generally do not address whether it is the reduction of PM levels specifically that improves respiratory health. In this paper we apply the method of principal stratification to data from a randomized air cleaner intervention designed to reduce indoor PM in homes of children with asthma. We estimate the health benefit of the intervention amongst study subjects who would experience a substantial reduction in PM in response to the intervention. For those subjects we find an increase in symptom-free days that is almost three times as large as the overall intention-to-treat effect. We also explore the presence of treatment effects amongst those subjects whose PM levels would not respond to the air cleaner. This analysis demonstrates the usefulness of principal stratification for environmental intervention trials and its potential for much broader application in this area. PMID:27695203

  8. Household air pollution from coal and biomass fuels in China: Measurements, health impacts, and interventions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, J.J.; Smith, K.R. [University of Medicine & Dentistry New Jersey, Piscataway, NJ (United States). School of Public Health

    2007-06-15

    Nearly all China's rural residents and a shrinking fraction of urban residents use solid fuels (biomass and coal) for household cooking and/or heating. Consequently, global meta-analyses of epidemiologic studies indicate that indoor air pollution from solid fuel use in China is responsible for approximately 420,000 premature deaths annually, more than the approximately 300,000 attributed to urban outdoor air pollution in the country. Our objective in this review was to help elucidate the extent of this indoor air pollution health hazard. We reviewed approximately 200 publications in both Chinese- and English language journals that reported health effects, exposure characteristics, and fuel/stove intervention options. Observed health effects include respiratory illnesses, lung cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, weakening of the immune system, and reduction in lung function. Arsenic poisoning and fluorosis resulting from the use of 'Poisonous' coal have been observed in certain regions of China. Although attempts have been made in a few studies to identify specific coal smoke constituents responsible for specific adverse health effects, the majority of indoor air measurements include those of only particulate matter, carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, and/or nitrogen dioxide. These measurements indicate that pollution levels in households using solid fuel generally exceed China's indoor air quality standards. Intervention technologies ranging from simply adding a chimney to the more complex modernized bioenergy program are available, but they can be viable only with coordinated support from the government and the commercial sector.

  9. Framing air pollution epidemiology in terms of population interventions, with applications to multipollutant modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snowden, Jonathan M; Reid, Colleen E; Tager, Ira B

    2015-03-01

    Air pollution epidemiology continues moving toward the study of mixtures and multipollutant modeling. Simultaneously, there is a movement in epidemiology to estimate policy-relevant health effects that can be understood in reference to specific interventions. Scaling regression coefficients from a regression model by an interquartile range (IQR) is one common approach to presenting multipollutant health effect estimates. We are unaware of guidance on how to interpret these effect estimates as an intervention. To illustrate the issues of interpretability of IQR-scaled air pollution health effects, we analyzed how daily concentration changes in 2 air pollutants (nitrogen dioxide and particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter ≤ 2.5 μm) related to one another within 2 seasons (summer and winter), within 3 cities with distinct air pollution profiles (Burbank, California; Houston, Texas; and Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania). In each city season, we examined how realistically IQR scaling in multipollutant lag-1 time-series studies reflects a hypothetical intervention that is possible given the observed data. We proposed 2 causal conditions to explicitly link IQR-scaled effects to a clearly defined hypothetical intervention. Condition 1 specified that the index pollutant had to experience a daily concentration change of greater than 1 IQR, reflecting the notion that the IQR is an appropriate measure of variability between consecutive days. Condition 2 specified that the copollutant had to remain relatively constant. We found that in some city seasons, there were very few instances in which these conditions were satisfied (eg, 1 day in Pittsburgh during summer). We discuss the practical implications of IQR scaling and suggest alternative approaches to presenting multipollutant effects that are supported by empirical data.

  10. Chocolate, Air Pollution and Children's Neuroprotection: What Cognition Tools should be at Hand to Evaluate Interventions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderón-Garcidueñas, Lilian; San Juan Chávez, Vanessa; Vacaseydel-Aceves, Nora B; Calderón-Sánchez, Raymundo; Macías-Escobedo, Edgar; Frías, Carmen; Giacometto, Marcela; Velasquez, Luis; Félix-Villarreal, Renata; Martin, Jessie D; Draheim, Christopher; Engle, Randall W

    2016-01-01

    Millions of children across the world are exposed to multiple sources of indoor and outdoor air pollutants, including high concentrations of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and ozone (O3). The established link between exposure to PM2.5, brain structural, volumetric and metabolic changes, severe cognitive deficits (1.5-2 SD from average IQ) in APOE 4 heterozygous females with >75 - brain effects. Currently, however, it is not clear how early we should implement consumption of cocoa to optimize its neuroprotective effects. Moreover, we have yet to identify suitable instruments for evaluating cognitive responses to these interventions in clinically healthy children, teens, and young adults. An approach to guide the selection of cognitive tools should take into account neuropsychological markers of cognitive declines in patients with Alzheimer's neuropathology, the distinct patterns of memory impairment between early and late onset AD, and the key literature associating white matter integrity and poor memory binding performance in cases of asymptomatic familial AD. We highlight potential systemic and neural benefits of cocoa consumption. We also highlight Working Memory Capacity (WMC) and attention control tasks as opened avenues for exploration in the air pollution scenario. Exposures to air pollutants during brain development have serious brain consequences in the short and long term and reliable cognition tools should be at hand to evaluate interventions.

  11. Rapid and efficient filtration-based procedure for separation and safe analysis of CBRN mixed samples.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Bentahir

    Full Text Available Separating CBRN mixed samples that contain both chemical and biological warfare agents (CB mixed sample in liquid and solid matrices remains a very challenging issue. Parameters were set up to assess the performance of a simple filtration-based method first optimized on separate C- and B-agents, and then assessed on a model of CB mixed sample. In this model, MS2 bacteriophage, Autographa californica nuclear polyhedrosis baculovirus (AcNPV, Bacillus atrophaeus and Bacillus subtilis spores were used as biological agent simulants whereas ethyl methylphosphonic acid (EMPA and pinacolyl methylphophonic acid (PMPA were used as VX and soman (GD nerve agent surrogates, respectively. Nanoseparation centrifugal devices with various pore size cut-off (30 kD up to 0.45 µm and three RNA extraction methods (Invisorb, EZ1 and Nuclisens were compared. RNA (MS2 and DNA (AcNPV quantification was carried out by means of specific and sensitive quantitative real-time PCRs (qPCR. Liquid chromatography coupled to time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC/TOFMS methods was used for quantifying EMPA and PMPA. Culture methods and qPCR demonstrated that membranes with a 30 kD cut-off retain more than 99.99% of biological agents (MS2, AcNPV, Bacillus Atrophaeus and Bacillus subtilis spores tested separately. A rapid and reliable separation of CB mixed sample models (MS2/PEG-400 and MS2/EMPA/PMPA contained in simple liquid or complex matrices such as sand and soil was also successfully achieved on a 30 kD filter with more than 99.99% retention of MS2 on the filter membrane, and up to 99% of PEG-400, EMPA and PMPA recovery in the filtrate. The whole separation process turnaround-time (TAT was less than 10 minutes. The filtration method appears to be rapid, versatile and extremely efficient. The separation method developed in this work constitutes therefore a useful model for further evaluating and comparing additional separation alternative procedures for a safe handling and

  12. Improving tuberculosis infection control practice and micro-bial air quality in a general hospital after intervention

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pipat Luksamijarulkul; Jiraporn Khumsri; Pisit Vatthanasomboon; Pornapa Aiumlaor

    2009-01-01

    Objective:Hospital personnel,especially nurses are at risk for tuberculosis(TB)infection and the intervention for reducing the risk should be established.Methods:To compare the TB infection control practices and stand-ard precaution in 154 registered nurses and auxiliary nurses working in risk wards.Additionally,microbial air quality in the studied wards was investigated before and after implementation of an intervention including two-day training program on TB infection control and standard precaution practices and managing the ward environ-ments.Results:Post-intervention,the percentage of studied nurses who always practiced increased in every i-tem of TB infection control practice (6 items)and standard precaution (9 items)when compared with the pre-intervention period.Both mean scores were significantly higher than those before intervention (5.0 ±1.0 vs 4. 4 ±1.1,and 7.6 ±1.3 vs 6.7 ±1.5,P 500 cfu /m3 ).Conclusion:Two-day training program and management of the ward environment could improve the scores of TB infection control practices and the standard precaution among studied nurses and reduce the microbial counts in air samples col-lected from the studied wards.

  13. Chocolate, air pollution and children’s neuroprotection: What cognition tools should be at hand to evaluate interventions?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilian Calderon-Garciduenas

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Millions of children across the world are exposed to multiple sources of indoor and outdoor air pollutants, including high concentrations of fine particulate matter (PM2.5 and ozone (O3. The established link between exposure to PM2.5, brain structural, volumetric and metabolic changes, severe cognitive deficits (1.5-2SD from average IQ in APOE 4 heterozygous females with >75% to <94% BMI percentiles, and the presence of Alzheimer’s disease (AD hallmarks in urban children and young adults necessitates exploration of ways to protect these individuals from the deleterious neural effects of pollution exposure. Emerging research suggests that cocoa interventions may be a viable option for neuroprotection, with evidence suggesting that early cocoa interventions could limit the risk of cognitive and developmental concerns including: endothelial dysfunction, cerebral hypoperfusion, neuroinflammation, and metabolic detrimental brain effects. Currently, however, it is not clear how early we should implement consumption of cocoa to optimize its neuroprotective effects. Moreover, we have yet to identify suitable instruments for evaluating cognitive responses to these interventions in clinically healthy children, teens, and young adults. An approach to guide the selection of cognitive tools should take into account neuropsychological markers of cognitive declines in patients with Alzheimer’s neuropathology, the distinct patterns of memory impairment between early and late onset Alzheimer’s disease (AD, and the key literature associating white matter integrity and poor memory binding performance in cases of asymptomatic familial AD. We highlight potential systemic and neural benefits of cocoa consumption. We also highlight Working Memory Capacity (WMC and attention control tasks as opened avenues for exploration in the air pollution scenario. Exposures to air pollutants during brain development have serious brain consequences in the short and long term

  14. In-car particles and cardiovascular health: an air conditioning-based intervention study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Hsiao-Chi; Lin, Lian-Yu; Hsu, Ya-Wen; Ma, Chih-Ming; Chuang, Kai-Jen

    2013-05-01

    Exposure to traffic-related particulate matter (PM) is considered a potential risk for cardiovascular events. Little is known about whether improving air quality in car can modify cardiovascular effects among human subjects during commuting. We recruited a panel of 60 healthy subjects to commute for 2 h by a car equipped with an air conditioning (AC) system during the morning rush hour in Taipei. Operation modes of AC system using outside air (OA-mode), circulating inside air (IA-mode) and turning off (Off-mode) were examined. Repeated measurements of heart rate variability (HRV) indices, PM≤2.5 μm in aerodynamic diameter (PM2.5) and noise level were conducted for each participant in different modes during the commute. We used linear mixed-effects models to associate HRV indices with in-car PM2.5. We found that decreases in HRV indices were associated with increased levels of in-car PM2.5. For Off-mode, an interquartile range (IQR) increase in in-car PM2.5 with 15-min moving average was associated with 2.7% and 4.1% decreases in standard deviation of NN intervals (SDNN) and the square root of the mean of the sum of the squares of differences between adjacent NN intervals (r-MSSD), respectively. During OA and IA modes, participants showed slight decreases in SDNN (OA mode: 0.1%; IA mode: 1.3%) and r-MSSD (OA mode: 1.1%; IA mode: 1.8%) by an IQR increase in in-car PM2.5 with 15-min moving average. We concluded that in-car PM2.5 is associated with autonomic alteration. Utilization of the car's AC system can improve air quality and modify the effects of in-car PM2.5 on HRV indices among human subjects during the commute.

  15. A study of the relationship between peak skin dose and cumulative air kerma in interventional neuroradiology and cardiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neil, S; Padgham, C; Martin, C J [Health Physics, Gartnavel Royal Hospital, Glasgow G12 0XH (United Kingdom)

    2010-12-01

    A study of peak skin doses (PSDs) during neuroradiology and cardiology interventional procedures has been carried out using Gafchromic XR-RV2 film. Use of mosaics made from squares held in cling film has allowed doses to the head to be mapped successfully. The displayed cumulative air kerma (CAK) has been calibrated in terms of cumulative entrance surface dose (CESD) and results indicate that this can provide a reliable indicator of the PSD in neuroradiology. Results linking PSD to CESD for interventional cardiology were variable, but CAK is still considered to provide the best option for use as an indicator of potential radiation-induced effects. A CESD exceeding 3 Gy is considered a suitable action level for triggering follow-up of patients in neuroradiology and cardiology for possible skin effects. Application of dose action levels defined in this way would affect 8% of neurological embolisation procedures and 5% of cardiology ablation and multiple stent procedures at the hospitals where the investigations were carried out. A close relationship was observed between CESD and dose-area product (DAP) for particular types of procedure, and DAPs of 200-300 Gy cm{sup 2} could be used as trigger levels where CAK readings were not available. The DAP value would depend on the mean field size and would need to be determined for each application.

  16. Subclinical responses in healthy cyclists briefly exposed to traffic-related air pollution: an intervention study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernard Alfred

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Numerous epidemiological studies have demonstrated adverse health effects of a sedentary life style, on the one hand, and of acute and chronic exposure to traffic-related air pollution, on the other. Because physical exercise augments the amount of inhaled pollutants, it is not clear whether cycling to work in a polluted urban environment should be encouraged or not. To address this conundrum we investigated if a bicycle journey along a busy commuting road would induce changes in biomarkers of pulmonary and systematic inflammation in a group of healthy subjects. Methods 38 volunteers (mean age: 43 ± 8.6 years, 26% women cycled for about 20 minutes in real traffic near a major bypass road (road test; mean UFP exposure: 28,867 particles per cm3 in Antwerp and in a laboratory with filtered air (clean room; mean UFP exposure: 496 particles per cm3. The exercise intensity (heart rate and duration of cycling were similar for each volunteer in both experiments. Exhaled nitric oxide (NO, plasma interleukin-6 (IL-6, platelet function, Clara cell protein in serum and blood cell counts were measured before and 30 minutes after exercise. Results Percentage of blood neutrophils increased significantly more (p = 0.004 after exercise in the road test (3.9%; 95% CI: 1.5 to 6.2%; p = 0.003 than after exercise in the clean room (0.2%; 95% CI: -1.8 to 2.2%, p = 0.83. The pre/post-cycling changes in exhaled NO, plasma IL-6, platelet function, serum levels of Clara cell protein and number of total blood leukocytes did not differ significantly between the two scenarios. Conclusions Traffic-related exposure to particles during exercise caused a small increase in the distribution of inflammatory blood cells in healthy subjects. The health significance of this isolated change is unclear.

  17. Long-term (5 year safety of bronchial thermoplasty: Asthma Intervention Research (AIR trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavord Ian D

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bronchial thermoplasty (BT is a bronchoscopic procedure that improves asthma control by reducing excess airway smooth muscle. Treated patients have been followed out to 5 years to evaluate long-term safety of this procedure. Methods Patients enrolled in the Asthma Intervention Research Trial were on inhaled corticosteroids ≥200 μg beclomethasone or equivalent + long-acting-beta2-agonists and demonstrated worsening of asthma on long-acting-β2-agonist withdrawal. Following initial evaluation at 1 year, subjects were invited to participate in a 4 year safety study. Adverse events (AEs and spirometry data were used to assess long-term safety out to 5 years post-BT. Results 45 of 52 treated and 24 of 49 control group subjects participated in long-term follow-up of 5 years and 3 years respectively. The rate of respiratory adverse events (AEs/subject was stable in years 2 to 5 following BT (1.2, 1.3, 1.2, and 1.1, respectively,. There was no increase in hospitalizations or emergency room visits for respiratory symptoms in Years 2, 3, 4, and 5 compared to Year 1. The FVC and FEV1 values showed no deterioration over the 5 year period in the BT group. Similar results were obtained for the Control group. Conclusions The absence of clinical complications (based on AE reporting and the maintenance of stable lung function (no deterioration of FVC and FEV1 over a 5-year period post-BT in this group of patients with moderate to severe asthma support the long-term safety of the procedure out to 5 years.

  18. Kerma rate evaluation in the air in a room interventional cardiology; Avaliacao da taxa de Kerma no ar em uma sala de cardiologia intervencionista

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Real, Jessica V.; Luz, Renata M. da, E-mail: jessica.real@pucrs.br, E-mail: renata.luz@pucrs.br [Hospital Sao Lucas (HSL/PUCRS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Fröhlich, Bruna D.; Silva, Ana Maria Marques da, E-mail: bruna.frohlich@acad.pucrs.br, E-mail: ana.marques@pucrs.br [Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio Grande do Sul (PUCRS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

    2014-07-01

    In recent years, the number of interventional cardiology procedures is increasing. However, due to the long time of fluoroscopy in these procedures, care teams can receive high doses of radiation. The radiation scattered by the patient is not uniform, and their assessment is of utmost importance. This study aimed to estimate and map the kerma rate in the air at the time of the gonads, in an interventional cardiology room, seeking to optimize the dose absorbed by individuals occupationally exposed to ionizing radiation. For data collection, the room was divided into quadrants of 1m{sup 2}, totaling 40 collection points. The simulator was positioned so that its entry surface was located in the interventional reference point. Were chosen the conditions that simulate angiography and angioplasty procedures performed in the service. The data were obtained for height of 1 meter, gonad region. The results obtained for kerma rates in air, in quadrants, show that higher measured values was in the vicinity of the X-ray tube. Has been found that the medical staff are more exposed, because of its location during the procedure, around the table. The law of the inverse square distance of the farthest points of the X-ray tube were verified.

  19. Generalized cost-effectiveness analysis of a package of interventions to reduce cardiovascular disease in Buenos Aires, Argentina

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    Souto Alberto

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic diseases, represented mainly by cardiovascular disease (CVD and cancer, are increasing in developing countries and account for 53% of chronic diseases in Argentina. There is strong evidence that a reduction of 50% of the deaths due to CVD can be attributed to a reduction in smoking, hypertension and hypercholesterolemia. Generalized cost-effectiveness analysis (GCE is a methodology designed by WHO to inform decision makers about the extent to which current or new interventions represent an efficient use of resources. We aimed to use GCE analysis to identify the most efficient interventions to decrease CVD. Methods Six individual interventions (treatment of hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, smoking cessation and combined clinical strategies to reduce the 10 year CVD Risk and two population-based interventions (cooperation between government, consumer associations and bakery chambers to reduce salt in bread, and mass education strategies to reduce hypertension, hypercholesterolemia and obesity were selected for analysis. Estimates of effectiveness were entered into age and sex specific models to predict their impact in terms of age-weighted and discounted DALYs saved (disability-adjusted life years. To translate the age- and sex-adjusted incidence of CVD events into health changes, we used risk model software developed by WHO (PopMod. Costs of services were measured in Argentine pesos, and discounted at an annual rate of 3%. Different budgetary impact scenarios were explored. Results The average cost-effectiveness ratio in argentine pesos (ARS$ per DALY for the different interventions were: (i less salt in bread $151; (ii mass media campaign $547; (iii combination drug therapy provided to subjects with a 20%, 10% and 5% global CVD risk, $3,599, $4,113 and $4,533, respectively; (iv high blood pressure (HBP lowering therapy $7,716; (v tobacco cessation with bupropion $ 33,563; and (iv high-cholesterol lowering therapy

  20. Relation of ST-Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction to Daily Ambient Temperature and Air Pollutant Levels in a Japanese Nationwide Percutaneous Coronary Intervention Registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaji, Kyohei; Kohsaka, Shun; Morimoto, Takeshi; Fujii, Kenshi; Amano, Tetsuya; Uemura, Shiro; Akasaka, Takashi; Kadota, Kazushige; Nakamura, Masato; Kimura, Takeshi

    2017-03-15

    Effects of daily fluctuation of ambient temperature and concentrations of air pollutants on acute cardiovascular events have not been well studied. From January 2011 to December 2012, a total of 56,863 consecutive ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) patients who underwent primary percutaneous coronary intervention were registered from 929 institutes with median interinstitutional distance of 2.6 km. We constructed generalized linear mixed models in which the presence or absence of patients with STEMI per day per institute was included as a binomial response variable, with daily meteorologic and environmental data obtained from their respective observatories nearest to the institutes (median distance of 9.7 and 5.6 km) as the explanatory variables. Both lower mean temperature and increase in maximum temperature from the previous day were independently associated with the STEMI occurrence throughout the year (odds ratio [OR] 0.925, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.915 to 0.935, per 10°C, p variables. Both the absolute value and relative change in the ambient temperature were associated with the occurrence of STEMI; the associations with the air pollutant levels were less clear after adjustment for these meteorologic variables in Japan.

  1. A Randomized Cross-over Air Filtration Intervention Trial for Reducing Cardiovascular Health Risks in Residents of Public Housing near a Highway

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    Luz T. Padró-Martínez

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to traffic-generated ultrafine particles (UFP; particles <100 nm is likely a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. We conducted a trial of high-efficiency particulate arrestance (HEPA filtration in public housing near a highway. Twenty residents in 19 apartments living <200 m from the highway participated in a randomized, double-blind crossover trial. A HEPA filter unit and a particle counter (measuring particle number concentration (PNC, a proxy for UFP were installed in living rooms. Participants were exposed to filtered air for 21 days and unfiltered air for 21 days. Blood samples were collected and blood pressure measured at days 0, 21 and 42 after a 12-hour fasting period. Plasma was analyzed for high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP, interleukin-6 (IL-6, tumor necrosis factor alpha-receptor II (TNF-RII and fibrinogen. PNC reductions ranging from 21% to 68% were recorded in 15 of the apartments. We observed no significant differences in blood pressure or three of the four biomarkers (hsCRP, fibrinogen, and TNF-RII measured in participants after 21-day exposure to HEPA-filtered air compared to measurements after 21-day exposure to sham-filtered air. In contrast, IL-6 concentrations were significantly higher following HEPA filtration (0.668 pg/mL; CI = 0.465–0.959 compared to sham filtration. Likewise, PNC adjusted for time activity were associated with increasing IL-6 in 14- and 21-day moving averages, and PNC was associated with decreasing blood pressure in Lags 0, 1 and 2, and in a 3-day moving average. These negative associations were unexpected and could be due to a combination of factors including exposure misclassification, unsuccessful randomization (i.e., IL-6 and use of anti-inflammatory medicines, or uncontrolled confounding. Studies with greater reduction in UFP levels and larger sample sizes are needed. There also needs to be more complete assessment of resident time activity and of outdoor vs. indoor source

  2. Chimney stoves modestly improved indoor air quality measurements compared with traditional open fire stoves: results from a small-scale intervention study in rural Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartinger, S M; Commodore, A A; Hattendorf, J; Lanata, C F; Gil, A I; Verastegui, H; Aguilar-Villalobos, M; Mäusezahl, D; Naeher, L P

    2013-08-01

    Nearly half of the world's population depends on biomass fuels to meet domestic energy needs, producing high levels of pollutants responsible for substantial morbidity and mortality. We compare carbon monoxide (CO) and particulate matter (PM2.5) exposures and kitchen concentrations in households with study-promoted intervention (OPTIMA-improved stoves and control stoves) in San Marcos Province, Cajamarca Region, Peru. We determined 48-h indoor air concentration levels of CO and PM2.5 in 93 kitchen environments and personal exposure, after OPTIMA-improved stoves had been installed for an average of 7 months. PM2.5 and CO measurements did not differ significantly between OPTIMA-improved stoves and control stoves. Although not statistically significant, a post hoc stratification of OPTIMA-improved stoves by level of performance revealed mean PM2.5 and CO levels of fully functional OPTIMA-improved stoves were 28% lower (n = 20, PM2.5, 136 μg/m(3) 95% CI 54-217) and 45% lower (n = 25, CO, 3.2 ppm, 95% CI 1.5-4.9) in the kitchen environment compared with the control stoves (n = 34, PM2.5, 189 μg/m(3), 95% CI 116-261; n = 44, CO, 5.8 ppm, 95% CI 3.3-8.2). Likewise, although not statistically significant, personal exposures for OPTIMA-improved stoves were 43% and 17% lower for PM2.5 (n = 23) and CO (n = 25), respectively. Stove maintenance and functionality level are factors worthy of consideration for future evaluations of stove interventions.

  3. Cooking practices, air quality, and the acceptability of advanced cookstoves in Haryana, India: an exploratory study to inform large-scale interventions

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    Rupak Mukhopadhyay

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: In India, approximately 66% of households rely on dung or woody biomass as fuels for cooking. These fuels are burned under inefficient conditions, leading to household air pollution (HAP and exposure to smoke containing toxic substances. Large-scale intervention efforts need to be informed by careful piloting to address multiple methodological and sociocultural issues. This exploratory study provides preliminary data for such an exercise from Palwal District, Haryana, India. Methods: Traditional cooking practices were assessed through semi-structured interviews in participating households. Philips and Oorja, two brands of commercially available advanced cookstoves with small blowers to improve combustion, were deployed in these households. Concentrations of particulate matter (PM with a diameter <2.5 μm (PM2.5 and carbon monoxide (CO related to traditional stove use were measured using real-time and integrated personal, microenvironmental samplers for optimizing protocols to evaluate exposure reduction. Qualitative data on acceptability of advanced stoves and objective measures of stove usage were also collected. Results: Twenty-eight of the thirty-two participating households had outdoor primary cooking spaces. Twenty households had liquefied petroleum gas (LPG but preferred traditional stoves as the cost of LPG was higher and because meals cooked on traditional stoves were perceived to taste better. Kitchen area concentrations and kitchen personal concentrations assessed during cooking events were very high, with respective mean PM2.5 concentrations of 468 and 718 µg/m3. Twenty-four hour outdoor concentrations averaged 400 µg/m3. Twenty-four hour personal CO concentrations ranged between 0.82 and 5.27 ppm. The Philips stove was used more often and for more hours than the Oorja. Conclusions: The high PM and CO concentrations reinforce the need for interventions that reduce HAP exposure in the aforementioned community. Of the two

  4. Exploring Cultural Predictors of Military Intervention Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-01

    AU/ACSC/Wade, E/AY15 AIR COMMAND AND STAFF COLLEGE AIR UNIVERSITY EXPLORING CULTURAL PREDICTORS OF MILITARY INTERVENTION SUCCESS by Dr...post facto exploration of predictors of military intervention success . As such, the research examined pre- and post-intervention political conditions as...qualitative analysis to identify cultural factors that might predict intervention success . The study concluded that Central American former Spanish

  5. Mindfulness Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creswell, J David

    2017-01-03

    Mindfulness interventions aim to foster greater attention to and awareness of present moment experience. There has been a dramatic increase in randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of mindfulness interventions over the past two decades. This article evaluates the growing evidence of mindfulness intervention RCTs by reviewing and discussing (a) the effects of mindfulness interventions on health, cognitive, affective, and interpersonal outcomes; (b) evidence-based applications of mindfulness interventions to new settings and populations (e.g., the workplace, military, schools); (c) psychological and neurobiological mechanisms of mindfulness interventions; (d) mindfulness intervention dosing considerations; and (e) potential risks of mindfulness interventions. Methodologically rigorous RCTs have demonstrated that mindfulness interventions improve outcomes in multiple domains (e.g., chronic pain, depression relapse, addiction). Discussion focuses on opportunities and challenges for mindfulness intervention research and on community applications.

  6. Reducing childhood illness - fostering growth : an integrated home-based intervention package (IHIP) to improve indoor-air pollution, drinking water quality and child nutrition

    OpenAIRE

    Hartinger Peña, Stella M.

    2014-01-01

    Child mortality attributable to pneumonia, diarrhoea and malnutrition accounts globally for the majority of 8.8 million annual deaths. More than half of these deaths are preventable. Available and effective interventions include safe water supply, household water treatment, improved chimney stoves and personal- and home-hygiene and -health messages. In Peru, the current health services reform is focused on shifting responsibilities to peripheral levels; thus, empowering community organisation...

  7. Household Air Pollution Intervention Implications: Findings from Qualitative Studies and a Field Trial of Clean Cookstoves in Two Rural Villages in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Ashraful; Tawale, Nanda; Patel, Archana; Dibley, Michael J.; Jadhao, Sunil; Raynes-Greenow, Camille

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to household air pollution is estimated to be the 3rd largest contributor to the global burden of disease and the largest contributor in South Asia. Unacceptability of improved cook stoves by the intended user has been identified as a crucial factor hindering uptake and sustained use. We conducted a qualitative study to understand the socio-cultural factors that influence acceptance of improved cookstoves and conducted a systematic field trial in two rural villages in Maharashtra, India. The qualitative study used semi-structured in-depth interviews and focus group discussions. We included women primarily responsible for household cooking, their husbands, senior women in their households, and community health workers. We also conducted kitchen observations. The results indicated low awareness and knowledge of the health risks associated with traditional cookstove use although high prevalence of household air pollution (HAP) exposure symptoms among all groups. Women were resigned to using traditional cookstoves although they did not like them. The field trial findings were dominated by responses concerned with convenience and health advantages. We identify important issues to be considered when introducing an improved cookstove programme that will increase acceptability and potentially sustained used of improved cookstoves. PMID:27618083

  8. Household Air Pollution Intervention Implications: Findings from Qualitative Studies and a Field Trial of Clean Cookstoves in Two Rural Villages in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraful Alam

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to household air pollution is estimated to be the 3rd largest contributor to the global burden of disease and the largest contributor in South Asia. Unacceptability of improved cook stoves by the intended user has been identified as a crucial factor hindering uptake and sustained use. We conducted a qualitative study to understand the socio-cultural factors that influence acceptance of improved cookstoves and conducted a systematic field trial in two rural villages in Maharashtra, India. The qualitative study used semi-structured in-depth interviews and focus group discussions. We included women primarily responsible for household cooking, their husbands, senior women in their households, and community health workers. We also conducted kitchen observations. The results indicated low awareness and knowledge of the health risks associated with traditional cookstove use although high prevalence of household air pollution (HAP exposure symptoms among all groups. Women were resigned to using traditional cookstoves although they did not like them. The field trial findings were dominated by responses concerned with convenience and health advantages. We identify important issues to be considered when introducing an improved cookstove programme that will increase acceptability and potentially sustained used of improved cookstoves.

  9. Household Air Pollution Intervention Implications: Findings from Qualitative Studies and a Field Trial of Clean Cookstoves in Two Rural Villages in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Ashraful; Tawale, Nanda; Patel, Archana; Dibley, Michael J; Jadhao, Sunil; Raynes-Greenow, Camille

    2016-09-09

    Exposure to household air pollution is estimated to be the 3rd largest contributor to the global burden of disease and the largest contributor in South Asia. Unacceptability of improved cook stoves by the intended user has been identified as a crucial factor hindering uptake and sustained use. We conducted a qualitative study to understand the socio-cultural factors that influence acceptance of improved cookstoves and conducted a systematic field trial in two rural villages in Maharashtra, India. The qualitative study used semi-structured in-depth interviews and focus group discussions. We included women primarily responsible for household cooking, their husbands, senior women in their households, and community health workers. We also conducted kitchen observations. The results indicated low awareness and knowledge of the health risks associated with traditional cookstove use although high prevalence of household air pollution (HAP) exposure symptoms among all groups. Women were resigned to using traditional cookstoves although they did not like them. The field trial findings were dominated by responses concerned with convenience and health advantages. We identify important issues to be considered when introducing an improved cookstove programme that will increase acceptability and potentially sustained used of improved cookstoves.

  10. Interventional radiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinbrich, W. (ed.) (Basel Univ. (Switzerland). Inst. fuer Medizinische Radiologie); Gross-Fengels, W. (ed.) (Allgemeines Krankenhaus Harburg, Hamburg (Germany). Abt. fuer Klinische Radiologie)

    1993-01-01

    In interventional radiology adjunctive medical therapy can increase patient's comfort, and should further reduce the risks of the procedures. In order to fulfill the responsibility of the interventionist to the patients and to increase the success rate of the interventions, a profound knowledge of certain drugs is indispensable. This includes, for example, sedatives, analgesics, cardiovascular drugs and agents to prevent infections, thromboembolic complications or restenoses. Moreover, a good monitoring system during complex procedures will increase the safety of radiological interventions. These topics and several more are presented in this book. (orig.). 32 figs.

  11. Effect evaluation of psychological intervention in relieving anxiety and depression of patients with ocular injuries caused by automotive air bag%心理干预对减轻汽车安全气囊致眼外伤患者焦虑抑郁的效果评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李文辉

    2011-01-01

    Objective To discuss the effect of psychological intervention in relieving anxiety and depression of patients with ocular injuries caused by automotive air bag.Methods.34 patients with ocular injuries caused by automotive air bag were selected and divided into the intervention group and the control group with 17 patients in each group.The control group adopted routine intervention,while the intervention group was given psychological intervention,including music therapy,Beck's cognitive therapy and before-discharge education.Self-rating anxiety and self-rating depression scale were used to evaluated the psychological status of patients at admission and one day before discharge.Results Incidence of anxiety and depression significantly decreased in the intervention group after intervention.Score of anxiety and depression reduced after intervention in the intervention group,also evidently lower than that of the control group.Conclusions Psychological intervention can relieve anxiety and depression of patients with ocular injuries caused by automotive air bag.%目的 探讨心理干预对汽车安全气囊致眼外伤患者焦虑抑郁的作用.方法 选择34例汽车安全气囊所致眼外伤患者,随机分为干预组和对照组各17例.对照组采用常规干预,干预组采用心理干预,包括音乐疗法、贝克认知疗法和出院前教育.在人院当天和出院前1 d进行心理状态调查,应用抑郁自评量表与焦虑自评量表综合评分.结果 干预组心理干预后患者焦虑与抑郁发生率明显下降.心理干预后,干预组患者的焦虑和抑郁总评分比干预前总评分减少显著,心理干预后干预组的焦虑抑郁评分显著低于对照组.结论 心理干预可明显减轻汽车安全气囊致眼外伤患者的焦虑抑郁状态.

  12. Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Air pollution is a mixture of solid particles and gases in the air. Car emissions, chemicals from factories, dust, ... a gas, is a major part of air pollution in cities. When ozone forms air pollution, it's ...

  13. Empiricist Interventions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk, Anders Kristian; Abrahamsson, Sebastian

    2012-01-01

    Recent papers by prominent scholars in science and technology studies (notably JohnLaw and Bruno Latour) have crystallized a fundamental disagreement about the scope and purpose of intervention in actor-network theory or what we here choose to bracket as empirical philosophy. While the precept...... crafting of an adequate account). A key point here is to challenge the impermeability of such a division and show how the strategic dispute, if to be taken seriously, invariably spills over to swamp the level of tactics. To illustrate this point, we draw upon materials from our recent doctoral research...... projects and to facilitate the discussion we make two deliberate caricatures: Firstly, we operate with a simplifi ed history of actor-network theory in which a strategy of epistemological critique has been replaced by two contending agendas for ontological intervention. Secondly, we address these two...

  14. Interventional MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukatsu, Hiroshi [Nagoya Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine

    2002-01-01

    MR guided interventional procedures have become useful clinical tools recently. In this article the authors discuss the usefulness and problems of MR-guided needle biopsy and MR-guided laser induced thermotherapy (LITT) for clinical cases. MR enabled optimal plane monitoring with desired image contrast during the procedure without X-ray irradiation for puncture and tissue sampling. Also only MR could non-invasively provide interstitial temperature information during laser ablation. Bone and soft tissue lesions are likely to be candidates for MR interventions because they are free from any physiological motions, and radiologists should compare MR-guidance with CT- or US guidance for individual cases in order to achieve a less invasive diagnosis or treatment. (author)

  15. [Interventional angioscopy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foucart, H; Baudrillard, J C; Carlier, C; Cécile, J P

    1993-01-01

    Since 1987, routine angioscopic examination has been performed in 191 patients undergoing angioplasty, with interventions (196) after a 2 year surveillance period (55). Angioscopy allowed follow up "de visu" of the performance of angioplasty, details of its mechanism to be precise and under dilatation to be carried out. For femoral artery occlusions it allowed treatment "à la carte": conventional dilatation of vegetating atheroma, specific treatment of established thrombi (5) and abstention from therapy of atheroma covered by endothelium (3). It also enabled fresh thrombi complicating a stenosis or at the origin of a thrombus to be detected. The extraction technique employed (15) is described. It facilitated catheterization by directing the probe, enabled avoidance of bypassing of stenosis and flaps and of dissection or false introduction into collaterals (10). Directed biopsy could be carried out in inflammatory arteritis (7). Vegetating atheromatous lesions could be opened and extracted, facilitating subsequent dilatation and allowing an approach to removal of iliac artery obstructions without major risks of complications (13). Finally, after an ineffective dilatation or the presence of a dissection, it assisted making the decision to introduce a stent (9), the tolerance and outcome of these stents are described. Or the 196 patients considered suitable for angioplasty, our therapeutic conduct was modified by angioscopy in 58 cases (29%). Not simply a new diagnostic tool, it plays a role in interventional vascular techniques.

  16. Air medical transportation in India: Our experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Himanshu Khurana

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: Cardiac and central nervous system ailments are the most common indication for air medical transportation. These patients may need attention and interventions as any critical patient in the hospital but in a difficult environment lacking space and help. Air medical transport carries no more risk than ground transportation.

  17. Airing 'clean air' in Clean India Mission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, T; Kumar, M; Mall, R K; Singh, R S

    2016-12-30

    The submission explores the possibility of a policy revision for considering clean air quality in recently launched nationwide campaign, Clean India Mission (CIM). Despite of several efforts for improving availability of clean household energy and sanitation facilities, situation remain still depressing as almost half of global population lacks access to clean energy and proper sanitation. Globally, at least 2.5 billion people do not have access to basic sanitation facilities. There are also evidences of 7 million premature deaths by air pollution in year 2012. The situation is even more disastrous for India especially in rural areas. Although, India has reasonably progressed in developing sanitary facilities and disseminating clean fuel to its urban households, the situation in rural areas is still miserable and needs to be reviewed. Several policy interventions and campaigns were made to improve the scenario but outcomes were remarkably poor. Indian census revealed a mere 31% sanitation coverage (in 2011) compared to 22% in 2001 while 60% of population (700 million) still use solid biofuels and traditional cook stoves for household cooking. Further, last decade (2001-2011) witnessed the progress decelerating down with rural households without sanitation facilities increased by 8.3 million while minimum progress has been made in conversion of conventional to modern fuels. To revamp the sanitation coverage, an overambitious nationwide campaign CIM was initiated in 2014 and present submission explores the possibility of including 'clean air' considerations within it. The article draws evidence from literatures on scenarios of rural sanitation, energy practises, pollution induced mortality and climatic impacts of air pollution. This subsequently hypothesised with possible modification in available technologies, dissemination modes, financing and implementation for integration of CIM with 'clean air' so that access to both sanitation and clean household energy may be

  18. Hepatobiliary Intervention in Children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franchi-Abella, Stéphanie [Le Centre Hospitalier Universitaire du Kremlin-Bicêtre (France); Cahill, Anne Marie; Barnacle, Alex M. [Great Ormond Street Hospital, Department of Radiology (United Kingdom); Pariente, Danièle [Le Centre Hospitalier Universitaire du Kremlin-Bicêtre (France); Roebuck, Derek J., E-mail: derek.roebuck@gosh.nhs.uk [Great Ormond Street Hospital, Department of Radiology (United Kingdom)

    2013-08-02

    Various vascular and nonvascular hepatobiliary interventional radiology techniques are now commonly performed in children’s hospitals. Although the procedures are broadly similar to interventional practice in adults, there are important differences in indications and technical aspects. This review describes the indications, techniques, and results of liver biopsy, hepatic and portal venous interventions and biliary interventions in children.

  19. Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to view this content or go to source URL . What NIEHS is Doing on Air Pollution Who ... Junction Last Reviewed: February 06, 2017 This page URL: NIEHS website: https://www.niehs.nih.gov/ Email ...

  20. Designing nursing interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aranda, Sanchia

    2008-01-01

    The development of nursing interventions that demonstrate the link between nursing actions and patient outcomes is a high priority for nursing research. The development of intervention research frequently focuses on the methods used to test the intervention while less attention is placed on rigor in intervention development and design. The purpose of this paper is to provide thinking points for researchers considering the development of nursing interventions. The thinking points were developed from the limited literature on this topic in synthesis with the authors own experiences of designing nursing interventions. Adoption of a systematic approach to intervention testing is advocated along with a step-wise intervention development process. This process calls for attention to problem definition, conceptual underpinnings, desired outcomes and measures and evidence-based content along with careful consideration of delivery methods, dose and attention to protecting the integrity of the intervention during testing. The approach advocated will help to ensure that nursing intervention research makes a useful contribution to the development of nursing practice.

  1. Pneumothorax Causing Pneumoperitoneum: Role of Surgical Intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Duarte

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The most common cause of a pneumoperitoneum is a perforation of a hollow viscus and the treatment is an exploratory laparotomy; nevertheless, not all pneumoperitoneums are due to a perforation and not all of them need surgical intervention. We hereby present a case of pneumoperitoneum due to a diaphragmatic defect, which allowed air from a pneumothorax to escape through the diaphragmatic hernia into the abdominal cavity.

  2. Pneumothorax Causing Pneumoperitoneum: Role of Surgical Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wentling, Jessica; Anjum, Humayun

    2016-01-01

    The most common cause of a pneumoperitoneum is a perforation of a hollow viscus and the treatment is an exploratory laparotomy; nevertheless, not all pneumoperitoneums are due to a perforation and not all of them need surgical intervention. We hereby present a case of pneumoperitoneum due to a diaphragmatic defect, which allowed air from a pneumothorax to escape through the diaphragmatic hernia into the abdominal cavity. PMID:27656300

  3. Air surveillance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patton, G.W.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the air surveillance and monitoring programs currently in operation at that Hanford Site. Atmospheric releases of pollutants from Hanford to the surrounding region are a potential source of human exposure. For that reason, both radioactive and nonradioactive materials in air are monitored at a number of locations. The influence of Hanford emissions on local radionuclide concentrations was evaluated by comparing concentrations measured at distant locations within the region to concentrations measured at the Site perimeter. This section discusses sample collection, analytical methods, and the results of the Hanford air surveillance program. A complete listing of all analytical results summarized in this section is reported separately by Bisping (1995).

  4. Almanac 2012: Interventional cardiology

    OpenAIRE

    Pascal Meier; Adam Timmis

    2013-01-01

    The field of interventional cardiology continues to progress quickly. The efficacy of percutaneous interventions with newer generation drug-eluting stents has advanced a lot over the last decade. This improvement in stent performance has broadened the level of indication towards more complex interventions such as left main and multi-vessel PCI. Major improvements continue in the field of medical co-therapy such as antiplatelet therapies (bivalirudin, prasugrel, and ticagrelor) and this will f...

  5. Royal Danish Air Force. Air Operations Doctrine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørby, Søren

    This brief examines the development of the first Danish Air Force Air Operations Doctrine, which was officially commissioned in October 1997 and remained in effect until 2010. The development of a Danish air power doctrine was heavily influenced by the work of Colonel John Warden (USAF), both...... through his book ”The Air Campaign” and his subsequent planning of the air campaign against Iraq in 1990-1991. Warden’s ideas came to Denmark and the Danish Air Force by way of Danish Air Force students attending the United States Air Force Air University in Alabama, USA. Back in Denmark, graduates from...... the Air University inspired a small number of passionate airmen, who then wrote the Danish Air Operations Doctrine. The process was supported by the Air Force Tactical Command, which found that the work dovetailed perfectly with the transformation process that the Danish Air Force was in the midst...

  6. Who needs intervention?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Line Dahl

    2015-01-01

    Who needs intervention? A phonological screening tool for children with cleft palate Children with cleft palate +/- cleft lip (CP) are at risk of speech and language delay. It is important to identify children with difficulties as early as possible in order to offer appropriate intervention...... to determine which children need early intervention. Naturalistic listening is used for evaluating consonant inventory, and children are assigned to +/- need for intervention based on their use of specific phonological categories known as early predictors of later speech and language difficulties in children...... with CP. To determine the external validity of this procedure, it is compared to experienced speech and language pathologists’(SLPs) clinical judgment of whether or not a child with CP needs early intervention. A group of 20 children with CP between 17 and 24 months of age will be video recorded for 45...

  7. Psychoanalytic interventive psychodiagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rute Grossi Milani

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Interventive psychodiagnosis introduced changes in the clinical evaluation process mainly with regard to the stance and the interventions of the professional during procedures. Current paper registers the results obtained in research work with patients undergoing interventive psychodiagnosis, from a theoretical psychoanalytic investigation, so that the practical and theoretical specificities for the application of this method could be known. Studies were retrieved from electronic databases such as LILACS, Scielo, BVS-PSI and university libraries. The articles showed that patients attended to were benefitted by interventive psychodiagnosis, making it possible to construct their trajectory as agents of their own history. Psychoanalytic interventive psychodiagnosis is a method that allows the intuitive understanding of the unconscious through which the patients have the possibility of decreasing their mental suffering by a well-established holding within an adequate environment.

  8. GSPEL - Air Filtration Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Evaluation capabilities for air filtration devices The Air Filtration Lab provides testing of air filtration devices to demonstrate and validate new or legacy system...

  9. Air-to-Air Missile Vector Scoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-22

    64 4.6. Unscented Kalman Filter Performance in Air-to-Air Missile Scor - ing Application with Continuous Velocity Dynamics Model (Tar- get...Filter Performance in Air-to-Air Missile Scor - ing Application with Continuous Velocity Dynamics Model (Tar- get Aircraft Executing a Vertical Climb...Kalman Filter Performance in Air-to-Air Missile Scor - ing Application with Continuous Velocity Dynamics Model (Tar- get Aircraft Non-maneuvering

  10. Introduction to Interventional MRI

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jarmo Ruohonen; William G.Bradley; Jr.MD

    2002-01-01

    An increasing number of interventional procedures are done under imaging guidance. These include biopsies, drainages and injections. Likewise, imaging guidance and monitoring have enabled the use of sophisticated techniques for minimally invasive therapy of tumors. Since MRI provides the best tissue contrast and lesion sensitivity,the use of MR-guided procedures (MRGP) is quickly gaining momentum. Special hardware and software solutions have been developed that allow more efficient interventional use of the MR scanner.This introduction summarizes the basic concepts of interventional MRI and outlines some of the applications of today and tomorrow.

  11. R9 Air Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Region 9 Air Districts layer is a compilation of polygons representing the California Air Pollution Control and Air Quality Management Districts, Arizona Air...

  12. AirData

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The AirData site provides access to yearly summaries of United States air pollution data, taken from EPA's air pollution databases. AirData has information about...

  13. California Air Basins

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Air ResourcesCalifornia Air Resources BoardThe following datasets are from the California Air Resources Board: * arb_california_airbasins - California Air BasinsThe...

  14. Interventions for Learning Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Español Text Size Email Print Share Interventions for Learning Disorders Page Content Article Body After you and your ... not the fault of the child, parent, or teacher. Learning disabilities affect families, and families affect learning disabilities. ...

  15. Society of Interventional Radiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search Patient information Membership Directory (SIR login) Interventional Radiology General News Multiple procedure payment reduction (MPPR) rate ... contact Eleanore Moye . Learn more . American Board of Radiology Announces Maintenance of Certification Part 3: ABR diplomates ...

  16. Is Early Intervention Effective?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronfenbrenner, Urie

    1974-01-01

    Synthesizes the results of current follow-up studies on the efficacy of preschool programs, and lays down the basis for a major reorientation in the design of intervention programs and in the training of personnel. (CS)

  17. Air Warfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-03-01

    undoubtedly begat the shield; poisonous gases were countered by the mask. Surely men on the surface of the earth will not have to submit to violent air attack...properties, production methods and cost of helium are given in “Balloon and Airship Gases ,” a volume of the Ronald Aeronautic Library. 5 More complete...becomes and more inse - cure. We shall see later that even some of the men who were advancing in the path prescribed by the principle of mass

  18. Paediatric musculoskeletal interventional radiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paolantonio, Guglielmo; Fruhwirth, Rodolfo; Alvaro, Giuseppe; Parapatt, George K; Toma', Paolo; Rollo, Massimo

    2016-01-01

    Interventional radiology technique is now well established and widely used in the adult population. Through minimally invasive procedures, it increasingly replaces surgical interventions that involve higher percentages of invasiveness and, consequently, of morbidity and mortality. For these advantageous reasons, interventional radiology in recent years has spread to the paediatric age as well. The aim of this study was to review the literature on the development, use and perspectives of these procedures in the paediatric musculoskeletal field. Several topics are covered: osteomuscle neoplastic malignant and benign pathologies treated with invasive diagnostic and/or therapeutic procedures such as radiofrequency ablation in the osteoid osteoma; invasive and non-invasive procedures in vascular malformations; treatment of aneurysmal bone cysts; and role of interventional radiology in paediatric inflammatory and rheumatic inflammations. The positive results that have been generated with interventional radiology procedures in the paediatric field highly encourage both the development of new ad hoc materials, obviously adapted to young patients, as well as the improvement of such techniques, in consideration of the fact that childrens' pathologies do not always correspond to those of adults. In conclusion, as these interventional procedures have proven to be less invasive, with lower morbidity and mortality rates as well, they are becoming a viable and valid alternative to surgery in the paediatric population. PMID:26235144

  19. A new dimension to conservative dentistry: Air abrasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegde, Vivek S; Khatavkar, Roheet A

    2010-01-01

    Air abrasion dentistry has evolved over a period of time from a new concept of an alternative means of cavity preparation to an essential means of providing a truly conservative preparation for preservation of a maximal sound tooth structure. The development of bonded restorations in combination with air abrasion dentistry provides a truly minimal intervention dentistry. This article reviews the development of air abrasion, its clinical uses, and the essential accessories required for its use.

  20. A new dimension to conservative dentistry: Air abrasion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hegde Vivek

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Air abrasion dentistry has evolved over a period of time from a new concept of an alternative means of cavity preparation to an essential means of providing a truly conservative preparation for preservation of a maximal sound tooth structure. The development of bonded restorations in combination with air abrasion dentistry provides a truly minimal intervention dentistry. This article reviews the development of air abrasion, its clinical uses, and the essential accessories required for its use.

  1. Long-memory property in air pollutant concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chelani, Asha

    2016-05-01

    In the present paper, long-memory in air pollutant concentrations is reviewed and outcome of the past studies is analyzed to provide the possible mechanism behind temporal evolution of air pollutant concentrations. It is observed that almost all the studies show air pollutant concentrations over time possess persistence up to a certain limit. Self-organized criticality of air pollution, multiplicative process of pollutant concentrations, and uniformity in emission sources leading to self-organized criticality are few of the phenomena behind the persistent property of air pollutant concentrations. The self-organized criticality of air pollution is linked to atmosphere's self-cleansing mechanism. This demonstrates that inspite of increasing anthropogenic emissions, self-organized criticality of air pollution is sustained and has low influence of human interventions. In the future, this property may, however, be perturbed due to continuous air pollution emissions, which may influence the accuracy in predictions.

  2. Nutrition intervention in scholars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Anzolin

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To verify the effectiveness of nutrition intervention in changing dietary intake among school children aged 6 to 10 years old in private school, in the city of Itajaí - SC, Brazil. Methods: A non-randomized and uncontrolled intervention study, carried through four educational activities in the period from August to November, 2008 and food intake reassessed at the end. We evaluated the nutritional status by means of body mass index for age and sex, and waist circumference. The frequency of consumption before and after intervention was compared using the paired Student t test. Results: Joined in the survey 93 students (69.92% of whom 48 children (54.5% were normal weight, while 36 (40.9% were overweight or presented obesity. The most consumed food groups, before and after intervention were: crackers and pasta; rice and fruit juice. The average frequency of sweets intake decreased after the intervention (0.54 to 0.24 times per day, p <0.001, however increased the intake of fried potatoes (0.25 to 0.65, p <0.001, pizza and hamburger (0.30 to 0.46, p = 0.028. Among girls, the intake of sweets decreased after the educational activities (0.58 to 0.12, p <0.001. Conclusions: Nutritional interventions, despite the short period of time, were effective in changing the consumption of certain foods / food groups. The results reinforce the need to carry out interventions more often and for longer periods, to promote effective changes in food consumption.

  3. Increasing ventilation as an intervention in homes of asthmatic children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hogaard, Nina Viskum; Rubak, Sune Leisgaard Mørck; Halken, Susanne

    2016-01-01

    in children. We conducted a double-blind, placebo-controlled intervention study with 46 asthmatic, house dust mite allergic children. The aim was to investigate the association between indoor air quality in homes and severity of asthma, in particular the effect of increased ventilation rate and expected lower...

  4. Environmental Health Promotion Interventions: Considerations for Preparation and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kegler, Michelle Crozier; Miner, Kathleen

    2004-01-01

    Interventions to address current, future, and potential public health dilemmas, such as air pollution, urban sprawl, brown field reclamation, and threats of intentional toxic exposures would benefit from a synergy between the disciplines of environmental health and health education. A comparison between the Protocol for Assessing Community…

  5. Evaluation of medical radiation exposure in pediatric interventional radiology procedures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Navarro, Valeria Coelho Costa; Navarro, Marcus Vinicius Teixeira; Oliveira, Aline da Silva Pacheco, E-mail: vccnavarro@gmail.com [Instituto Federal de Educacao, Ciencia e Tecnologia da Bahia (IFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil); Maia, Ana Figueiredo [Universidade Federal de Sergipe (UFS), Aracaju, SE (Brazil); Oliveira, Adriano Dias Dourado [Sociedade Brasileira de Hemodinamica e Cardiologia Intervencionista, Salvador, BA (Brazil)

    2012-07-15

    Objective: To evaluate pediatric radiation exposure in procedures of interventional radiology in two hospitals in the Bahia state, aiming at contributing to delineate the scenario at the state and national levels. The knowledge of exposure levels will allow an evaluation of the necessity of doses optimization, considering that peculiarities of radiology and pediatrics become even more significant in interventional radiology procedures which involve exposure to higher radiation doses. Materials and Methods: A total of 32 procedures were evaluated in four rooms of the two main hospitals performing pediatric interventional radiology procedures in the Bahia state. Air kerma rate and kerma-area product were evaluated in 27 interventional cardiac and 5 interventional brain procedures. Results: Maximum values for air kerma rate and kerma-area product and air kerma obtained in cardiac procedures were, respectively, 129.9 Gy.cm{sup 2} and 947.0 mGy; and, for brain procedures were 83.3 Gy.cm{sup 2} and 961.0 mGy. Conclusion: The present study results showed exposure values up to 14 times higher than those found in other foreign studies, and approximating those found for procedures in adults. Such results demonstrate excessive exposure to radiation, indicating the need for constant procedures optimization and evaluation of exposure rates. (author)

  6. Psychological intervention of murophobia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asrie Yihun

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Although phobia is more commonly observed during adolescence as compared to adulthood, its specific type of murophobia is uncommon. Especially in a country like Ethiopia, where awareness, orientation to mental health and its psychological treatment is undergoing its infancy on account of several reasons, the neurotic disorders are rarely reported to mental health clinicians. The present study is a case report of a 16-year old adolescent female with murophobia. The case was not registered in any general medical clinic and was sent to our department for further psychological assessment and intervention. The client was comprehensively examined through clinical interview, behavioural analysis and treated by cognitive-behaviour technique of psychological intervention and without the inclusion of psychiatric treatment. Details of the psychological assessment and intervention have been presented in this case report.

  7. [Interventional neuroradiology: current options].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szikora, István; Marosfői, Miklós; Berentei, Zsolt; Gubucz, István

    2015-04-26

    Modern interventional neuroradiology has a leading role in the treatment of ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke, and it provides more and more important treatment options for degenerative diseases of the vertebral column and the management of correlated pain. During the last decades interventional neuroradiology has played a primary role in the treatment of intracranial berry aneurysms due to the continuous technical improvements. Ongoing studies proved superiority of mechanical stent-thrombectomy in acute proximal occlusion of cerebral arteries. Less invasive neurointerventional methods, such as vertebroplasty, are widely used in osteoporotic and neoplastic pathologic fractures of the vertebral bodies. These treatments should be performed in a specialized center by well trained physicians.

  8. Towards Sutatinable Energy Interventions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejstrup, Henriette

    2016-01-01

    Material and energy overuse of the past centuries has created a need for energy sufficiency and a sustainable building culture both in new constructions and in existing buildings. But conventional interventions like energy renovation neglect the embedded energy and the tectonics of the existing......, Denmark, this paper investigates if the historic seaweed material and building technique has informed new constructions. Furthermore, it discusses how new interventions can be integrated into the tectonics of an existing building and if the historic knowledge can contribute to the modern concept of energy...

  9. Air filtration and indoor air quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bekö, Gabriel

    2006-01-01

    decent ventilation and air cleaning/air filtration, high indoor air quality cannot be accomplished. The need for effective air filtration has increased with increasing evidence on the hazardous effects of fine particles. Moreover, the air contains gaseous pollutants, removal of which requires various air....... These contradictions should motivate manufacturers and researchers to develop new efficient filtration techniques and/or improve the existing ones. Development of low polluting filtration techniques, which are at the same time easy and inexpensive to maintain is the way forward in the future....

  10. Air Embolism: Diagnosis, Clinical Management and Outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin J. McCarthy

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Air embolism is a rare but potentially fatal complication of surgical procedures. Rapid recognition and intervention is critical for reducing morbidity and mortality. We retrospectively characterized our experience with air embolism during medical procedures at a tertiary medical center. Electronic medical records were searched for all cases of air embolism over a 25-year period; relevant medical and imaging records were reviewed. Sixty-seven air embolism cases were identified; the mean age was 59 years (range, 3–89 years. Ninety-four percent occurred in-hospital, of which 77.8% were during an operation/invasive procedure. Vascular access-related procedures (33% were the most commonly associated with air embolism. Clinical signs and symptoms were related to the location the air embolus; 36 cases to the right heart/pulmonary artery, 21 to the cerebrum, and 10 were attributed to patent foramen ovale (PFO. Twenty-one percent of patients underwent hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT, 7.5% aspiration of the air, and 63% had no sequelae. Mortality rate was 21%; 69% died within 48 hours. Thirteen patients had immediate cardiac arrest where mortality rate was 53.8%, compared to 13.5% (p = 0.0035 in those without. Air emboli were mainly iatrogenic, primarily associated with endovascular procedures. High clinical suspicion and early treatment are critical for survival.

  11. Air pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1974-12-01

    Air pollution conditions in Iwakuni city were monitored at 9 monitoring stations, and 21 locations where sulfur oxides were measured by the lead peroxide candle method, and 13 locations where particulates concentrations were determined by the deposit cage method. The average SO/sub x/ concentrations in 1973 measured by the lead peroxide candle method ranged from 0.17 mg sulfur trioxide/day/100 sq cm at the Miso Office to 0.58 mg SO/sub 3//day/100 sq cm at Mitsui Sekiyu Shataku. The average SO/sub x/ concentrations measured by the conductivity method ranged from 0.021 ppM at Kazuki Kominkan to 0.037 ppM at the Higashi Fire Department. Only 58% of a total of 264 measurement days gave hourly average concentrations below the environmental standard of 0.04 ppM at the Higashi Fire Deparment. The average airborne particulate concentrations ranged from 0.050 mg/cu m at Totsu Kominkan to 0.056 mg/cu at the Higashi Fire Department. The average nitrogen oxides concentrations measured by the Saltzman method ranged from 0.007 ppM to 0.061 ppM. The average oxidant concentrations at the Iwakuni Municipal Office and Kazuki Kominkan were 0.028 ppM and 0.037 ppM, respectively.

  12. Anesthesia for fetoscopic intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamil S Anwari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This is the first case report on anesthesia for fetoscopy performed in Saudi Arabia. Epidural anesthesia was given to the mother in her late second trimester for the fetoscopic intervention. The anesthesia related issues such as physiological and anatomical changes in pregnancy, tocolytic medications and their interactions with anesthesia, anesthetizing/sedating the primary patient are discussed.

  13. Selecting Family Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Richard E.

    Just as counseling approaches designed for individuals have their theory-specific techniques, family counseling approaches also have theory-specific interventions and strategies. Whatever presenting problem the family brings to counseling, one or more of four essential components (communication, problem solving, roles and boundaries) is typically…

  14. Diagnostic and interventional radiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogl, Thomas J. [Klinikum der Johann Wolfgang Goethe-Universitaet, Frankfurt am Main (Germany). Inst. fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie; Reith, Wolfgang [Universitaetsklinikum des Saarlandes, Homburg/Saar (Germany). Klinik fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Neuroradiologie; Rummeny, Ernst J. (ed.) [Technische Univ. Muenchen Klinikum rechts der Isar, Muenchen (Germany). Inst. fuer Radiologie

    2016-08-01

    This exceptional book covers all aspects of diagnostic and interventional radiology within one volume, at a level appropriate for the specialist. From the basics through diagnosis to intervention: the reader will find a complete overview of all areas of radiology. The clear, uniform structure, with chapters organized according to organ system, facilitates the rapid retrieval of information. Features include: Presentation of the normal radiological anatomy Classification of the different imaging procedures according to their diagnostic relevance Imaging diagnosis with many reference images Precise description of the interventional options The inclusion of many instructive aids will be of particular value to novices in decision making: Important take home messages and summaries of key radiological findings smooth the path through the jungle of facts Numerous tables on differential diagnosis and typical findings in the most common diseases offer a rapid overview and orientation Diagnostic flow charts outline the sequence of diagnostic evaluation All standard procedures within the field of interventional radiology are presented in a clinically relevant and readily understandable way, with an abundance of illustrations. This is a textbook, atlas, and reference in one: with more than 2500 images for comparison with the reader's own findings. This comprehensive and totally up-to-date book provides a superb overview of everything that the radiology specialist of today needs to know.

  15. Air Sensor Toolbox

    Science.gov (United States)

    Air Sensor Toolbox provides information to citizen scientists, researchers and developers interested in learning more about new lower-cost compact air sensor technologies and tools for measuring air quality.

  16. HEPA air filter (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... pet dander and other irritating allergens from the air. Along with other methods to reduce allergens, such ... controlling the amount of allergens circulating in the air. HEPA filters can be found in most air ...

  17. GSPEL - Air Filtration Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Evaluation capabilities for air filtration devicesThe Air Filtration Lab provides testing of air filtration devices to demonstrate and validate new or legacy system...

  18. Lead (Pb) Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... States Environmental Protection Agency Search Search Lead (Pb) Air Pollution Share Facebook Twitter Google+ Pinterest Contact Us As ... and protect aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. Lead (Pb) Air Pollution Lead Air Pollution Basics How does lead get ...

  19. AirPEx: Air Pollution Exposure Model

    OpenAIRE

    Freijer JI; Bloemen HJTh; de Loos S; Marra M; Rombout PJA; Steentjes GM; Veen MP van; LBO

    1997-01-01

    Analysis of inhalatory exposure to air pollution is an important area of investigation when assessing the risks of air pollution for human health. Inhalatory exposure research focuses on the exposure of humans to air pollutants and the entry of these pollutants into the human respiratory tract. The principal grounds for studying the inhalatory exposure of humans to air pollutants are formed by the need for realistic exposure/dose estimates to evaluate the health effects of these pollutants. T...

  20. AirPEx: Air Pollution Exposure Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Freijer JI; Bloemen HJTh; Loos S de; Marra M; Rombout PJA; Steentjes GM; Veen MP van; LBO

    1997-01-01

    Analysis of inhalatory exposure to air pollution is an important area of investigation when assessing the risks of air pollution for human health. Inhalatory exposure research focuses on the exposure of humans to air pollutants and the entry of these pollutants into the human respiratory tract. The

  1. Air Pollution Monitoring | Air Quality Planning & Standards ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-08

    The basic mission of the Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards is to preserve and improve the quality of our nation's air. To accomplish this, OAQPS must be able to evaluate the status of the atmosphere as compared to clean air standards and historical information.

  2. Safety Intervention Effectiveness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ZIMMERMAN, R.O.

    2001-10-16

    Judging safety intervention effectiveness is often left up to the eye of the beholder. Safety and Health Professionals must increase skills and increase their body of knowledge, based on scientific evidence, that can be applied confidently in the workplace. Evidence must be collected and analyzed to separate the interventions of the month with those that stand the test of time. The book Guide to Evaluating the Effectiveness of Strategies for Preventing Work injuries DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 2001-119, April 2001, serves as a primary reference. An example study related to biorhythms, popular in the late 1970s, is used to illustrate the separating of scientific evidence and pseudo-science hype. The cited biorhythm study focuses on the relationship of the accident dates and the three biorhythmic cycles (physical, emotional, and intelligence).

  3. Interventions in everyday lives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dreier, Ole

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of psychotherapy is to help clients address and overcome problems troubling them in their everyday lives. Therapy can therefore only work if clients include it in their ongoing lives to deal with their problems. Detailed, systematic research is needed on how clients do so in their eve......The purpose of psychotherapy is to help clients address and overcome problems troubling them in their everyday lives. Therapy can therefore only work if clients include it in their ongoing lives to deal with their problems. Detailed, systematic research is needed on how clients do so...... clients change their everyday lives to overcome their troubles. They also highlight what it involves for clients to accomplish this. It is concluded that we need more research on how to understand intervention; on the interaction between interventions and clients’ conduct of their everyday life...

  4. Interventions for preoperative smoking cessation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, A; Villebro, N

    2005-01-01

    Smokers have a substantially increased risk of intra- and postoperative complications. Preoperative smoking intervention may be effective in decreasing this incidence. The preoperative period may be a well chosen time to offer smoking cessation interventions due to increased patient motivation....

  5. TANGO ARRAY I: An Air Shower Experiment in Buenos Aires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauleo, P.; Bonifazi, C.; Filevich, A.; Reguera, A.

    The TANGO Array is an air shower experiment which has been recently constructed in Buenos Aires, Argentina. It became fully operational in September, 2000. The array consists of 4 water ˇCerenkov detector stations enclosing a geometrical area of ˜ 30.000 m2 and its design has been optimized for the observation of EAS produced by cosmic rays near the "knee" energy region. Three of the detectors have been constructed using 12000-liter stainless steel tanks, and the fourth has been mounted in a smaller, 400liter plastic container. The detectors are connected by cables to the data acquisition room, where a fully automatic system, which takes advantage of the features of a 4-channel digital oscilloscope, was set for data collection without the need of operator intervention. This automatic experiment control includes monitoring, data logging, and daily calibration of all stations. This paper describes the detectors and their associated electronics, and details are given on the data acquisition system, the triggering and calibration procedures, and the operation of the array. Examples of air shower traces, recorded by the array, are presented.

  6. Developing Interventions for Frailty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian D. Cameron

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Frailty is a well-recognised, complex syndrome, predominantly affecting older people. Currently, there are two main conceptualizations of frailty: the phenotypic and the accumulated deficit models, with the phenotypic model being more widely applied in clinical research. Based on these models, we contend that a number of the phenotypic frailty components (weakness, slowness, and low energy expenditure are potentially reversible. This paper outlines the results of a frailty research program. It summarizes the initial frailty treatment model and reports its effectiveness. Briefly, the effect of a twelve-month individually tailored multifactorial, interdisciplinary intervention targeting frailty was compared with usual care. The intervention reduced phenotypically defined frailty and improved mobility. Further, it is contended that there is evidence of substantial unmet need due to treatment fragmentation and the absence of a comprehensive approach for this population. Our paper then outlines the current stage of our research in which the model is now being extended to prefrailty. Interventions aimed at reversing the frailty syndrome or its consequences are only in their early stages. There is significant scope for future research to identify optimal management programs for frail older people.

  7. The Danish Alzheimer intervention study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waldemar, G; Waldorff, F B; Buss, D V

    2011-01-01

    Background: There is a lack of appropriately designed trials investigating the efficacy of psychosocial interventions for patients with mild dementia and their family caregivers. This paper reports the rationale and design of the Danish Alzheimer Disease Intervention Study and baseline characteri......Background: There is a lack of appropriately designed trials investigating the efficacy of psychosocial interventions for patients with mild dementia and their family caregivers. This paper reports the rationale and design of the Danish Alzheimer Disease Intervention Study and baseline...

  8. Learning About Intervention Target Zones

    OpenAIRE

    Klein, Michael W; Karen K. Lewis

    1991-01-01

    This paper provides a framework for evaluating how market participants' beliefs about foreign exchange target zones change as they learn about central bank intervention policy. In order to examine this behavior, we first generalize the standard target zone model to allow for intra-marginal intervention. Intra-marginal intervention implies that the position of market participants' beliefs about the target zone can be determined from their beliefs about the likelihood of intervention. As an app...

  9. Group Intervention in Pediatric Rehabilitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaForme Fiss, Alyssa

    2012-01-01

    Group intervention in pediatric physical and occupational therapy is an alternative to individual intervention allowing the therapist to meet the needs of multiple children at one time. Survey research indicates that approximately 40% to 60% of pediatric physical and occupational therapists use group intervention at least occasionally in practice,…

  10. REACH. Air Conditioning Units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrison, Joe; And Others

    As a part of the REACH (Refrigeration, Electro-Mechanical, Air-Conditioning, Heating) electromechanical cluster, this student manual contains individualized instructional units in the area of air conditioning. The instructional units focus on air conditioning fundamentals, window air conditioning, system and installation, troubleshooting and…

  11. Statistical air quality mapping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kassteele, van de J.

    2006-01-01

    This thesis handles statistical mapping of air quality data. Policy makers require more and more detailed air quality information to take measures to improve air quality. Besides, researchers need detailed air quality information to assess health effects. Accurate and spatially highly resolved maps

  12. Occupational hazards of interventional cardiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smilowitz, Nathaniel R.; Balter, Stephen; Weisz, Giora, E-mail: gw2128@columbia.edu

    2013-07-15

    Complex catheter-based interventions and rising case volumes confer occupational risks to interventional cardiologists. Despite advances in technology, modern interventional procedures are performed in a manner remarkably similar to the techniques pioneered decades ago. Percutaneous interventions are associated with operator orthopedic injuries, exposures to blood borne pathogens, and the effects of chronic radiation exposure from fluoroscopy. This review highlights the occupational hazards of interventional procedures and provides a glimpse at the technologies and techniques that may reduce risks to operators in the catheterization laboratory.

  13. Air movement and perceived air quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melikov, Arsen Krikor; Kaczmarczyk, J.

    2012-01-01

    The impact of air movement on perceived air quality (PAQ) and sick building syndrome (SBS) symptoms was studied. In total, 124 human subjects participated in four series of experiments performed in climate chambers at different combinations of room air temperature (20, 23, 26 and 28 °C), relative...... and the humidity of the room air. At a low humidity level of 30% an increased velocity could compensate for the decrease in perceived air quality due to an elevated temperature ranging from 20 °C to 26 °C. In a room with 26 °C, increased air movement was also able to compensate for an increase in humidity from 30...

  14. Interventional radiology neck procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabala Landa, R M; Korta Gómez, I; Del Cura Rodríguez, J L

    2016-05-01

    Ultrasonography has become extremely useful in the evaluation of masses in the head and neck. It enables us to determine the anatomic location of the masses as well as the characteristics of the tissues that compose them, thus making it possible to orient the differential diagnosis toward inflammatory, neoplastic, congenital, traumatic, or vascular lesions, although it is necessary to use computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging to determine the complete extension of certain lesions. The growing range of interventional procedures, mostly guided by ultrasonography, now includes biopsies, drainages, infiltrations, sclerosing treatments, and tumor ablation.

  15. Psychosocial Intervention Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singla, Rashmi

    2007-01-01

    The article is based on a research project drawing upon survey data (N=628) and qualitative interviews (N=60) of youth and their parents belonging to the five largest ethnic minority groups in Denmark i.e. Turkey, former Yugoslavia, Pakistan, Lebanon and Somalia, along with the experiences of psy.......K. as well as Nordic countries. Finally a model for psychosocial intervention is presented which directs attention to the issues of ageism, sexism as well as racism at personal, interpersonal and structural levels....

  16. Personal computers pollute indoor air: effects on perceived air quality, SBS symptoms and productivity in offices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bako-Biro, Zsolt; Wargocki, Pawel; Weschler, Charles J.

    2002-01-01

    Perceived air quality and Sick Building Syndrome (SBS) symptoms were studied in a low-polluting office space ventilated at an air change rate of 2 h-1 (10 L/s per person with 6 people present) with and without personal computers (PCs). Other environmental parameters were kept constant. Thirty...... female subjects were exposed for 4.8 h to each of the two conditions in the office and performed simulated office work. They remained thermally neutral by adjusting their clothing and were blind to the interventions. In the absence of PCs in the office the perceived air quality improved, odour intensity...... was reduced and air freshness increased; all effects were significant. In the presence of PCs the performance of text typing significantly decreased. The sensory pollution load of the PCs was found to be 3 olf per PC, i.e. three times the load of the occupants. Present results indicate negative effects of PCs...

  17. Impact of air pollution on the burden of chronic respiratory diseases in China: time for urgent action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Wei-Jie; Zheng, Xue-Yan; Chung, Kian Fan; Zhong, Nan-Shan

    2016-10-15

    In China, where air pollution has become a major threat to public health, public awareness of the detrimental effects of air pollution on respiratory health is increasing-particularly in relation to haze days. Air pollutant emission levels in China remain substantially higher than are those in developed countries. Moreover, industry, traffic, and household biomass combustion have become major sources of air pollutant emissions, with substantial spatial and temporal variations. In this Review, we focus on the major constituents of air pollutants and their impacts on chronic respiratory diseases. We highlight targets for interventions and recommendations for pollution reduction through industrial upgrading, vehicle and fuel renovation, improvements in public transportation, lowering of personal exposure, mitigation of the direct effects of air pollution through healthy city development, intervention at population-based level (systematic health education, intensive and individualised intervention, pre-emptive measures, and rehabilitation), and improvement in air quality. The implementation of a national environmental protection policy has become urgent.

  18. Shopper marketing nutrition interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Collin R; Niculescu, Mihai; Just, David R; Kelly, Michael P

    2014-09-01

    Grocery stores represent a context in which a majority of people's food purchases occur. Considering the nutrition quality of the population's food intake has dramatically decreased, understanding how to improve food choice in the grocery store is paramount to healthier living. In this work, we detail the type of financial resources from which shoppers could draw (i.e., personal income and benefits from government food assistance programs to low income populations) and explain how these financial resources are allocated in the grocery store (i.e., planned, unplanned, error). Subsequently, we identify a conceptual framework for shopper marketing nutrition interventions that targets unplanned fruit and vegetable purchases (i.e., slack, or willingness to spend minus list items). Targeting slack for fresh fruit and vegetable purchases allows retailers to benefit economically (i.e., fruit and vegetables are higher margin) and allows shoppers to improve their nutrition without increasing their budgets (i.e., budget neutrality). We also provide preliminary evidence of what in-store marketing of fresh fruits and vegetables could entail by modifying grocery carts and grocery floors to provide information of what is common, normal, or appropriate fruit and vegetable purchases. In each example, fresh fruit and vegetable purchases increased and evidence suggested shopper budget neutrality. To provide context for these results, we detail measurement tools that can be used to measure shopper behaviors, purchases, and consumption patterns. Finally, we address theoretical, practical, and policy implications of shopper marketing nutrition interventions.

  19. Cold air challenge and specific airway resistance in preschool children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kim Gjerum; Bisgaard, Hans

    2005-01-01

    prognosis in preschool children. Cold air challenge and plethysmographic measurement of specific airway resistance (sRaw) are feasible candidate methods for diagnosis, clinical monitoring and research during this critical period of lung growth and development. Methodology and practical aspects of cold air......Important asthma outcomes such as lung function and bronchial hyperresponsiveness are probably determined in early childhood. Early and longitudinal objective assessment of lung function and bronchial hyperresponsiveness is necessary to enable early diagnosis, monitor intervention and improve...

  20. Connectable solar air collectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oestergaard Jensen, S.; Bosanac, M.

    2002-02-01

    The project has proved that it is possible to manufacture solar air collector panels, which in an easy way can be connected into large collector arrays with integrated ducting without loss of efficiency. The developed connectable solar air collectors are based on the use of matrix absorbers in the form of perforated metal sheets. Three interconnected solar air collectors of the above type - each with an transparent area of approx. 3 m{sup 2} - was tested and compared with parallel tests on two single solar air collectors also with a transparent area of approx. 3 m{sup 2} One of the single solar air collectors has an identical absorber as the connectable solar air collectors while the absorber of the other single solar air collector was a fibre cloth. The efficiency of the three solar air collectors proved to be almost identical in the investigated range of mass flow rates and temperature differences. The solar air collectors further proved to be very efficient - as efficient as the second most efficient solar air collectors tested in the IEA task 19 project Solar Air Systems. Some problems remain although to be solved: the pressure drop across especially the connectable solar air collectors is too high - mainly across the inlets of the solar air collectors. It should, however, be possible to considerably reduce the pressure losses with a more aerodynamic design of the inlet and outlet of the solar air collectors; The connectable solar air collectors are easy connectable but the air tightness of the connections in the present form is not good enough. As leakage leads to lower efficiencies focus should be put on making the connections more air tight without loosing the easiness in connecting the solar air collectors. As a spin off of the project a simple and easy way to determine the efficiency of solar, air collectors for pre-heating of fresh air has been validated. The simple method of determining the efficiency has with success been compared with an advance method

  1. Health effects of air quality regulations in Delhi, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Andrew; Kumar, Naresh

    2011-03-01

    This, the first systematic study, quantifies the health effects of air quality regulations in Delhi, which adopted radical measures to improve air quality, including, for example, the conversion of all commercial vehicles to compressed natural gas (CNG), and the closure of polluting industries in residential areas from 2000 to 2002. Air pollution data, collected at 113 sites (spread across Delhi and its neighboring areas) from July-December 2003, were used to compute exposure at the place of residence of 3989 subjects. A socio-economic and respiratory health survey was administered in 1576 households. This survey collected time-use, residence histories, demographic information, and direct measurements of lung function with subjects. The optimal interpolation methods were used to link air pollution and respiratory health data at the place of their residence. Resident histories, in combination with secondary data, were used to impute cumulative exposure prior to the air-quality interventions, and the effects of recent air quality measures on lung function were then evaluated. Three important findings emerge from the analysis. First, the interventions were associated with a significant improvement in respiratory health. Second, the effect of these interventions varied significantly by gender and income. Third, consistent with a causal interpretation of these results, effects were the strongest among those individuals who spend a disproportionate share of their time out-of-doors.

  2. Air Quality Strategies on Public Health and Health Equity in Europe—A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Wang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Air pollution is an important public health problem in Europe and there is evidence that it exacerbates health inequities. This calls for effective strategies and targeted interventions. In this study, we conducted a systematic review to evaluate the effectiveness of strategies relating to air pollution control on public health and health equity in Europe. Three databases, Web of Science, PubMed, and Trials Register of Promoting Health Interventions (TRoPHI, were searched for scientific publications investigating the effectiveness of strategies on outdoor air pollution control, public health and health equity in Europe from 1995 to 2015. A total of 15 scientific papers were included in the review after screening 1626 articles. Four groups of strategy types, namely, general regulations on air quality control, road traffic related emission control interventions, energy generation related emission control interventions and greenhouse gas emission control interventions for climate change mitigation were identified. All of the strategies reviewed reported some improvement in air quality and subsequently in public health. The reduction of the air pollutant concentrations and the reported subsequent health benefits were more significant within the geographic areas affected by traffic related interventions. Among the various traffic related interventions, low emission zones appeared to be more effective in reducing ambient nitrogen dioxide (NO2 and particulate matter levels. Only few studies considered implications for health equity, three out of 15, and no consistent results were found indicating that these strategies could reduce health inequity associated with air pollution. Particulate matter (particularly fine particulate matter and NO2 were the dominant outdoor air pollutants examined in the studies in Europe in recent years. Health benefits were gained either as a direct, intended objective or as a co-benefit from all of the strategies examined

  3. Air Quality Strategies on Public Health and Health Equity in Europe—A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li; Zhong, Buqing; Vardoulakis, Sotiris; Zhang, Fengying; Pilot, Eva; Li, Yonghua; Yang, Linsheng; Wang, Wuyi; Krafft, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Air pollution is an important public health problem in Europe and there is evidence that it exacerbates health inequities. This calls for effective strategies and targeted interventions. In this study, we conducted a systematic review to evaluate the effectiveness of strategies relating to air pollution control on public health and health equity in Europe. Three databases, Web of Science, PubMed, and Trials Register of Promoting Health Interventions (TRoPHI), were searched for scientific publications investigating the effectiveness of strategies on outdoor air pollution control, public health and health equity in Europe from 1995 to 2015. A total of 15 scientific papers were included in the review after screening 1626 articles. Four groups of strategy types, namely, general regulations on air quality control, road traffic related emission control interventions, energy generation related emission control interventions and greenhouse gas emission control interventions for climate change mitigation were identified. All of the strategies reviewed reported some improvement in air quality and subsequently in public health. The reduction of the air pollutant concentrations and the reported subsequent health benefits were more significant within the geographic areas affected by traffic related interventions. Among the various traffic related interventions, low emission zones appeared to be more effective in reducing ambient nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and particulate matter levels. Only few studies considered implications for health equity, three out of 15, and no consistent results were found indicating that these strategies could reduce health inequity associated with air pollution. Particulate matter (particularly fine particulate matter) and NO2 were the dominant outdoor air pollutants examined in the studies in Europe in recent years. Health benefits were gained either as a direct, intended objective or as a co-benefit from all of the strategies examined, but no consistent

  4. Mechanisms of mucus hypersecretion in airway of rats induced by synergies between cold air and cigarette smoke inhalation and intervention effects of drugs%冷空气联合香烟烟雾吸入诱导大鼠气道黏液高分泌的机制及药物的干预作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李敏超; 尤列·皮尔曼; 维克多·科罗索夫; 周向东

    2012-01-01

    Objective To explore the mechanisms of mucus hypersecretion in airway of rats induced by the synergies between cold air and cigarette smoke inhalation and understand the intervention effects of saussurea and budesonide in this process. Methods A total of 70 SD rats were randomly divided into 7 groups.Group A:control; Group B:cold stimulation group receiving cold air inhalation for 3 h daily for 40 d; Group C:cigarette smoke inhalation group receiving cigarette smoke inhalation for 0.5h daily for 40 d;Group D:cigarette smoke inhalation + cold stimulation group; Group E:cigarette smoke inhalation + cold stimulation + saussurea (0.8 mg/kg saussurea intraperitoneally injected once daily for 40 d) ; Group F:cigarette smoke inhalation + cold stimulation + inhaled budesonide (0.5 mg/kg inhaled once daily for 40 d) ; Group G:cigarette smoke inhalation + cold stimulation + saussurea + inhaled budesonide.The relative quantities of TRPM8 mRNA within bronchial epithelium of each group were detected by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and TRPM8 protein was detected by immunohistochemical assay and Western blot.The levels of mucin (MUC) 5AC,interleukin 8 (IL-8) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.Results TRPM8 mRNA of groups A-G were 1.00 ±0.00,0.98 ±0.07,2.27 ±0.29,2.31 ±0.30,1.55 ±0.38,1.66 ± 0.40 and 1.31 ± 0.23 ; TRPM8 protein 0.16 ± 0.05,0.16 ± 0.04,0.22 ± 0.06,0.25 ±0.05,0.17 ±0.04,0.18 ±0.03,0.15 ±0.05,0.25 ±0.04,0.24 ±0.03,0.58 ±0.06,0.56 ±0.09,0.41 ±0.09,0.39 ±0.07 and 0.20 ±0.06 respectively.TRPM8 mRNA and protein of groups C and D were significantly higher than those of group A.And groups E,F and G were significantly lower than those of group D (allP<0.05).In BALF of groups A-G,MUC5AC were (57±6),(69±5),(66±4),(185 ±43),(142 ±30),(147 ±36) and (60 ±11) μg/mg,IL-8 (58 ±14),(146 ±38),(134 ±29),(379 ±101),(262 ±67),(294 ±70) and (81

  5. What can individuals do to reduce personal health risks from air pollution?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laumbach, Robert; Meng, Qingyu; Kipen, Howard

    2015-01-01

    In many areas of the world, concentrations of ambient air pollutants exceed levels associated with increased risk of acute and chronic health problems. While effective policies to reduce emissions at their sources are clearly preferable, some evidence supports the effectiveness of individual actions to reduce exposure and health risks. Personal exposure to ambient air pollution can be reduced on high air pollution days by staying indoors, reducing outdoor air infiltration to indoors, cleaning indoor air with air filters, and limiting physical exertion, especially outdoors and near air pollution sources. Limited evidence suggests that the use of respirators may be effective in some circumstances. Awareness of air pollution levels is facilitated by a growing number of public air quality alert systems. Avoiding exposure to air pollutants is especially important for susceptible individuals with chronic cardiovascular or pulmonary disease, children, and the elderly. Research on mechanisms underlying the adverse health effects of air pollution have suggested potential pharmaceutical or chemopreventive interventions, such as antioxidant or antithrombotic agents, but in the absence of data on health outcomes, no sound recommendations can be made for primary prevention. Health care providers and their patients should carefully consider individual circumstances related to outdoor and indoor air pollutant exposure levels and susceptibility to those air pollutants when deciding on a course of action to reduce personal exposure and health risks from ambient air pollutants. Careful consideration is especially warranted when interventions may have unintended negative consequences, such as when efforts to avoid exposure to air pollutants lead to reduced physical activity or when there is evidence that dietary supplements, such as antioxidants, have potential adverse health effects. These potential complications of partially effective personal interventions to reduce exposure or

  6. AirCompare

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — AirCompare contains air quality information that allows a user to compare conditions in different localities over time and compare conditions in the same location...

  7. Allegheny County Air Quality

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Air quality data from Allegheny County Health Department monitors throughout the county. Air quality monitored data must be verified by qualified individuals before...

  8. Air Quality Facilities

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — Facilities with operating permits for Title V of the Federal Clean Air Act, as well as facilities required to submit an air emissions inventory, and other facilities...

  9. Indoor Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    We usually think of air pollution as being outdoors, but the air in your house or office could also be polluted. Sources of indoor pollution include Mold and pollen Tobacco smoke Household products ...

  10. Air Quality System (AQS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Air Quality System (AQS) database contains measurements of air pollutant concentrations from throughout the United States and its territories. The measurements...

  11. [Psychotherapeutic interventions in stereotypies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaloudi, E; Christodoulou, C; Kontaxakis, V; Lykouras, L; Livaditis, M

    2011-01-01

    Stereotypies belong to the psychomotor disorders and they are found in many different disorders. This article refers to the international literature about the psychotherapeutic interventions in stereotypies and reviews the psychotherapeutic techniques that are already being used for these disorders. This study refers to four kinds of psychotherapeutic treatment: (a) Behavioral therapy, (b) Milieu therapy which can be combined successfully with an occupational therapy, (c) Family therapy and (d) Supportive or cognitive or dynamic psychotherapy. The method used for finding the articles for this review was the web research. The articles found were 44 in total, but only 25 were studied extensively since they were absolutely relative to the subject of this review. 12 of these articles were case studies, 7 theoretical papers and 5 of them were reviews. The last one was a research epidemiological study. According to most of the articles, behavioral therapy is considered to be the most effective psychotherapeutic treatment for attenuating stereotypies and relies on techniques like systematic desensitization, environmental enrichment, positive reinforcement of alternative behaviors and negative reinforcement of the "problematic" behaviors. The milieu therapy, combined with occupational therapy, endeavours to shape an appropriate environment where the patient can recover. Family therapy focuses on fully informing the relatives about the nature of stereotypies. Supportive psychotherapy focuses on the current problems in the patient's life. The cognitive psychotherapy tries to fix the dysfunctional thoughts of the patients. Finally, the dynamic psychotherapy is focused on the restoration or reinforcement of the patient's defensive mechanisms. It should be noted that there is a lack of systematic research in the field of stereotypies in general and, especially, regarding psychotherapeutic interventions.

  12. Interventional MR: interstitial therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogl, T.J.; Mack, M.G.; Straub, R.; Engelmann, K.; Eichler, K. [Dept. of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Johann Wolfgang Goethe University, Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Mueller, P.K. [Department of Radiology, Virchow, Humboldt Univ. of Berlin (Germany)

    1999-10-01

    The rationale and results for interstitial therapies via interventional MRI in the treatment of tumors in various regions are presented. Different interstitial treatment techniques are presented based on varying technologies both for tumor ablation and treatment monitoring. Data are presented based on 335 patients, 29-84 years of age (mean age 59 years, 196 men and 139 women) with a total of 932 liver tumors, 16 head and neck tumors and 14 abdominal recurrent pelvic and lymphatic tumors. All lesions had been treated with MR-guided laser-induced interstitial thermotherapy (LITT) via 2516 laser applications and 1856 cannulations. Data in the literature are extremely varying depending on author experience, treatment technique, and the included patient material. In our patient material we were able to achieve a local tumor control of 96.7 % depending on the size of the tumorous lesion, the topographical relationship, and the applied laser parameters. The overall cumulative survival rate of patients with liver metastases was 45.74 months (median 40.97 months, 95 % confidence interval 31.42-50.52). The cumulative survival rate of the patient group with hepatic metastases of colorectal carcinoma was 42.71 months (median 39.33 months, 95 % confidence interval 33.26-45.37). In patients with head and neck tumors a relevant reduction in clinically relevant symptoms such as pain, swallowing disorders, or nervous compression was achieved in 11 of 15 patients treated with LITT. In 14 soft tissue tumors, such as pelvic tumor recurrence and lymph node metastases, a local tumor control was obtained in 68 % of lesions. Interstitial therapies under interventional MRI guidance, such as LITT, results in a high local tumor control with an improved survival rate. (orig.) With 7 figs., 28 refs.

  13. Interventional chest procedures in pregnancy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Morgan, Ross K

    2012-02-01

    Interventional pulmonology encompasses diagnostic and therapeutic bronchoscopic procedures, and pleural interventions. In the last 10 years older techniques have been refined and exciting new technologies have extended the reach and application of the instruments used. The main areas within pulmonary medicine for which these interventions have a role are malignant and nonmalignant airway disease, pleural effusion, pneumothorax, and artificial airways. There are no data from well-designed prospective trials to guide recommendations for interventional pulmonary procedures in pregnancy. The recommendations provided in this article are based on critical review of reported case series, opinion from recognized experts, and personal observations.

  14. Interventional chest procedures in pregnancy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Morgan, Ross K

    2011-03-01

    Interventional pulmonology encompasses diagnostic and therapeutic bronchoscopic procedures, and pleural interventions. In the last 10 years older techniques have been refined and exciting new technologies have extended the reach and application of the instruments used. The main areas within pulmonary medicine for which these interventions have a role are malignant and nonmalignant airway disease, pleural effusion, pneumothorax, and artificial airways. There are no data from well-designed prospective trials to guide recommendations for interventional pulmonary procedures in pregnancy. The recommendations provided in this article are based on critical review of reported case series, opinion from recognized experts, and personal observations.

  15. Percutaneous interventions in Fontan circulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Franco

    2015-09-01

    Conclusions: Interventional catheterization procedures are often necessary to reach and maintain the fragile Fontan circulation, mainly in patients with right morphology systemic ventricles and fenestrated Fontan conduits.

  16. Air Power and Warfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-09-01

    Memorial, 1963. (T) 767.8 A3 ser .3, V.4) Air war against Germany and Italy, 1939-1943. Canberra: Australian War Memorial, 1954. (D 767.8 A3 Ser .3, V.3...et al. Air poder indivisible Air University Ouarterly Review 2:5-18, Fall 1950. Spaatz, Crrl. Air-power odds against us. Readers Digest 58:11-14, June

  17. Indoor air quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Trine Susanne; Recevska, Ieva

     The objective of the 35th specific agreement is to provide support to the EEA activities in Environment and Health (E&H) on the topic of indoor air quality. The specific objectives have been to provide an overview of indoor air related projects in EU and indoor air related policies as well...... as idenfiying "good practices" to reduce health impact of indoor air exposure and suggest areas for future improvements....

  18. We Pollute the Air

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    1.Clean air is important to good health.If the aircontains impurities,they may be absorbed by ourbodies and make us ill.We need clean air,butunfortunately,air pollution is generally present,especially in cities. 2.Our cities have many factories,which we need tomake food products,clothing and many other things.

  19. Air Pollution Training Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Public Health Service (DHEW), Rockville, MD.

    This catalog lists the universities, both supported and not supported by the Division of Air Pollution, which offer graduate programs in the field of air pollution. The catalog briefly describes the programs and their entrance requirements, the requirements, qualifications and terms of special fellowships offered by the Division of Air Pollution.…

  20. Manual for THOR-AirPAS - air pollution assessment system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Steen Solvang; Ketzel, Matthias; Brandt, Jørgen

    The report provides an outline of the THOR-AirPAS - air pollution assessment system and a brief manual for getting started with the air quality models and input data included in THOR-AirPAS.......The report provides an outline of the THOR-AirPAS - air pollution assessment system and a brief manual for getting started with the air quality models and input data included in THOR-AirPAS....

  1. The Taxonomy of Intervention Intensity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, Lynn S.; Fuchs, Douglas; Malone, Amelia S.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe the Taxonomy of Intervention Intensity, which articulates 7 dimensions for evaluating and building intervention intensity. We explain the Taxonomy's dimensions of intensity. In explaining the Taxonomy, we rely on a case study to illustrate how the Taxonomy can systematize the process by which special…

  2. Systematic Interventions for Teaching Ratios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Amy E.; Bush, Sarah B.; Karp, Karen

    2014-01-01

    Mathematics interventions for struggling students supplement regular instruction and are frequently implemented through computer programs and activity sheet practice (Swanson et al. 2012). However, students with foundational misunderstandings do not benefit from additional drill and practice alone. Instead, interventions that balance concepts with…

  3. AAC Modeling Intervention Research Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sennott, Samuel C.; Light, Janice C.; McNaughton, David

    2016-01-01

    A systematic review of research on the effects of interventions that include communication partner modeling of aided augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) on the language acquisition of individuals with complex communication needs was conducted. Included studies incorporated AAC modeling as a primary component of the intervention,…

  4. Air Conditioning Does Reduce Air Pollution Indoors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healy, Bud

    1970-01-01

    Report of the winter meeting of the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers. Subjects covered are--(1) title subject, (2) predictions for the human habitat in 1994, (3) fans, and (4) fire safety in buildings. (JW)

  5. Implications for Therapeutic Intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. L. Hof

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Patients with an upper motor neurone syndrome (CP suffer from many disabling primary symptoms: spasms, weakness, and loss of dexterity. These primary ‘neurogenic’ symptoms often lead to secondary disabilities, muscle contractures, and tertiary effects, bone deformations. A common symptom of CP is hypertonia, with. the consequence that the involved muscles remain in an excessively shortened length for most of the time. As a normal reaction of the muscle tissue, the number of sarcomeres is reduced and the muscle fibers shorten permanently: a contracture develops. A possible second type of contracture is that normal muscle lengthening along with bone growth is affected. Current treatments for the secondary effects include (1 reduction of muscle force, (2lengthening of the muscle fibers by serial plaster casts, and (3surgical lengthening of tendons or aponeurosis. The choice of treatment depends on the cause of the functional deficit. Bone tissue also adapts itself to abnormal forces, especially in the growth period. The hypertonias or contractures of CP so may give rise to bone malformations that interfere with function (e.g. femur endorotation or may reduce the action of muscles by changing the lever arm (e.g. ankle varus. Although prevention should always be preferred, a timely surgical intervention cannot always be avoided. The differences in treatment for the various groups require and justify an extensive laboratory investigation, including EMG recordings in gait, measurement of passive elastic properties, and long-term observation of the hypertonia.

  6. Interventional video tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truppe, Michael J.; Pongracz, Ferenc; Ploder, Oliver; Wagner, Arne; Ewers, Rolf

    1995-05-01

    Interventional Video Tomography (IVT) is a new imaging modality for Image Directed Surgery to visualize in real-time intraoperatively the spatial position of surgical instruments relative to the patient's anatomy. The video imaging detector is based on a special camera equipped with an optical viewing and lighting system and electronic 3D sensors. When combined with an endoscope it is used for examining the inside of cavities or hollow organs of the body from many different angles. The surface topography of objects is reconstructed from a sequence of monocular video or endoscopic images. To increase accuracy and speed of the reconstruction the relative movement between objects and endoscope is continuously tracked by electronic sensors. The IVT image sequence represents a 4D data set in stereotactic space and contains image, surface topography and motion data. In ENT surgery an IVT image sequence of the planned and so far accessible surgical path is acquired prior to surgery. To simulate the surgical procedure the cross sectional imaging data is superimposed with the digitally stored IVT image sequence. During surgery the video sequence component of the IVT simulation is substituted by the live video source. The IVT technology makes obsolete the use of 3D digitizing probes for the patient image coordinate transformation. The image fusion of medical imaging data with live video sources is the first practical use of augmented reality in medicine. During surgery a head-up display is used to overlay real-time reformatted cross sectional imaging data with the live video image.

  7. A Manikin Model for Study of Wound Packing Interventions to Control Out-of-hospital Hemorrhage

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    SEP 2014 2. REPORT TYPE N/A 3. DATES COVERED - 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE A manikin model for study of wound packing interventions to control...AirWrap. A manikin model for study of wound- packing interventions to control out-of-hospital hemorrhage☆,☆☆,★ To the Editor, With hemorrhage being the...primary cause of mortality on the battlefield [1 3], wound packing practice by US military medics in the wars since September 11, 2001, has changed from

  8. Air filtration in HVAC systems

    CERN Document Server

    Ginestet, Alain; Tronville, Paolo; Hyttinen, Marko

    2010-01-01

    Air filtration Guidebook will help the designer and user to understand the background and criteria for air filtration, how to select air filters and avoid problems associated with hygienic and other conditions at operation of air filters. The selection of air filters is based on external conditions such as levels of existing pollutants, indoor air quality and energy efficiency requirements.

  9. Summary findings from the border air quality study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-03-15

    The Border Air Quality Study (BAQS) is an ongoing study which supports the development of an international strategy for the Georgia Basin-Puget Sound airshed. The study investigates the association of health risks with the exposure to a range of air pollutants. It identified links between air pollutants and several health impacts ranging from asthma to birthweight. The tools developed for studying air quality provide greater spatial resolution, thus enabling the identification of pollution hot spots that require monitoring and intervention. The tools also provide spatially accurate exposure data for future research and enable land-use decisions that reduce risk to the most vulnerable populations, including children and the elderly. The study found that traffic-related air pollution is an additional risk factor for disease, such as bronchiolitis, asthma and middle ear infections in children. Although air pollution is a known risk factor for cardiovascular disease, relatively few studies have evaluated the effects of chronic exposures. Therefore, the BAQS is currently assessing the relationship between air quality and cardiovascular diseases in the Metro Vancouver area, with particular attention to the combined effects of traffic-related air pollution and noise pollution. Wood smoke was also found to be an important source of air pollution, even in urban centres. The study showed that building design and ventilation can help reduce infiltration of air pollutants into buildings. It was concluded that despite some concerns, the air quality in the Georgia-Basin-Puget Sound region is good compared to other major metropolitan areas. Air quality managers can use the study to evaluate different policy scenarios and the associated economic costs of air pollution. 5 figs.

  10. Navigational Tools for Interventional Radiology and Interventional Oncology Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chehab, Monzer A.; Brinjikji, Waleed; Copelan, Alexander; Venkatesan, Aradhana M.

    2015-01-01

    The interventional radiologist is increasingly called upon to successfully access challenging biopsy and ablation targets, which may be difficult based on poor visualization, small size, or the proximity of vulnerable regional anatomy. Complex therapeutic procedures, including tumor ablation and transarterial oncologic therapies, can be associated with procedural risk, significant procedure time, and measurable radiation time. Navigation tools, including electromagnetic, optical, laser, and robotic guidance systems, as well as image fusion platforms, have the potential to facilitate these complex interventions with the potential to improve lesion targeting, reduce procedure time, and radiation dose, and thus potentially improve patient outcomes. This review will provide an overview of currently available navigational tools and their application to interventional radiology and oncology. A summary of the pertinent literature on the use of these tools to improve safety and efficacy of interventional procedures compared with conventional techniques will be presented. PMID:26622105

  11. International Humanitarian intervention in Kosovo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valmir Hylenaj

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Humanitarian intervention in Kosovo did not happen by any geopolitical interest, but simply by an entirely humanitarian character which is closely connected with democratic principles, human rights, and the lack of moral order. Except for damages, massacres and destruction by fire of very sophisticated military artillery, Serbian army and police have forced with violence more than thousands of Kosovo Albanians to leave their home (Pllana, 2010, 241. With humanitarian intervention, NATO had shown it was ready to defend universal human values as the fundamental principle of humanity (free life. Main purpose of this article is an analysis of the international human intervention in Kosovo

  12. Economic Evaluation of Environmental Health Interventions to Support Decision Making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guy Hutton

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Environmental burden of disease represents one quarter of overall disease burden, hence necessitating greater attention from decision makers both inside and outside the health sector. Economic evaluation techniques such as cost- effectiveness analysis and cost-benefit analysis provide key information to health decision makers on the efficiency of environmental health interventions, assisting them in choosing interventions which give the greatest social return on limited public budgets and private resources. The aim of this article is to review economic evaluation studies in three environmental health areas—water, sanitation, hygiene (WSH, vector control, and air pollution—and to critically examine the policy relevance and scientific quality of the studies for selecting and funding public programmers. A keyword search of Medline from 1990–2008 revealed 32 studies, and gathering of articles from other sources revealed a further 18 studies, giving a total of 50 economic evaluation studies (13 WSH interventions, 16 vector control and 21 air pollution. Overall, the economic evidence base on environmental health interventions remains relatively weak—too few studies per intervention, of variable scientific quality and from diverse locations which limits generalisability of findings. Importantly, there still exists a disconnect between economic research, decision making and programmer implementation. This can be explained by the lack of translation of research findings into accessible documentation for policy makers and limited relevance of research findings, and the often low importance of economic evidence in budgeting decisions. These findings underline the importance of involving policy makers in the defining of research agendas and commissioning of research, and improving the awareness of researchers of the policy environment into which their research feeds.

  13. Skin dose mapping for fluoroscopically guided interventions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Perry B.; Borrego, David; Balter, Stephen; Johnson, Kevin; Siragusa, Daniel; Bolch, Wesley E. [Biomedical Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611 (United States); Radiology, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, New York 10032 (United States); Radiology, University of Florida, Jacksonville, Florida 32209 (United States); Radiology, Division of Vascular Interventional Radiology, University of Florida, Jacksonville, Florida 32209 (United States); Biomedical Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611 (United States)

    2011-10-15

    Purpose: To introduce a new skin dose mapping software system for interventional fluoroscopy dose assessment and to analyze the benefits and limitations of patient-phantom matching. Methods: In this study, a new software system was developed for visualizing patient skin dose during interventional fluoroscopy procedures. The system works by translating the reference point air kerma to the location of the patient's skin, which is represented by a computational model. In order to orient the model with the x-ray source, geometric parameters found within the radiation dose structured report (RDSR) are used along with a limited number of in-clinic measurements. The output of the system is a visual indication of skin dose mapped onto an anthropomorphic model at a resolution of 5 mm. In order to determine if patient-dependent and patient-sculpted models increase accuracy, peak skin dose was calculated for each of 26 patient-specific models and compared with doses calculated using an elliptical stylized model, a reference hybrid model, a matched patient-dependent model and one patient-sculpted model. Results were analyzed in terms of a percent difference using the doses calculated using the patient-specific model as the true standard. Results: Anthropometric matching, including the use of both patient-dependent and patient-sculpted phantoms, was shown most beneficial for left lateral and anterior-posterior projections. In these cases, the percent difference using a reference model was between 8 and 20%, using a patient-dependent model between 7 and 15%, and using a patient-sculpted model between 3 and 7%. Under the table tube configurations produced errors less than 5% in most situations due to the flattening affects of the table and pad, and the fact that table height is the main determination of source-to-skin distance for these configurations. In addition to these results, several skin dose maps were produced and a prototype display system was placed on the in

  14. 走近Air

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马华

    2007-01-01

    @@ 大家对air这个单词并不陌生,它通常用作名词,表示"空气".例如: 1.Better let in fresh air. 最好让新鲜空气进来. 2.The air smells of paint. 空气里散发着油漆味. 3.The air was heavy with perfume of the flowers. 空气里弥漫着花朵的芳香.

  15. Contact air abrasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porth, R

    1999-05-01

    The advantages of contact air abrasion techniques are readily apparent. The first, of course, is the greatly increased ease of use. Working with contact also tends to speed the learning curve by giving the process a more natural dental feel. In addition, as one becomes familiar with working with a dust stream, the potential for misdirecting the air flow is decreased. The future use of air abrasion for deep decay removal will make this the treatment of choice for the next millennium.

  16. Olefin metathesis in air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piola, Lorenzo; Nahra, Fady; Nolan, Steven P

    2015-01-01

    Since the discovery and now widespread use of olefin metathesis, the evolution of metathesis catalysts towards air stability has become an area of significant interest. In this fascinating area of study, beginning with early systems making use of high oxidation state early transition metal centers that required strict exclusion of water and air, advances have been made to render catalysts more stable and yet more functional group tolerant. This review summarizes the major developments concerning catalytic systems directed towards water and air tolerance.

  17. [Emphysematous gastritis with concomitant portal venous air].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Min Yeong; Kim, Jin Il; Kim, Jae Young; Kim, Hyun Ho; Jo, Ik Hyun; Seo, Jae Hyun; Kim, Il Kyu; Cheung, Dae Young

    2015-02-01

    Emphysematous gastritis is a rare form of gastritis caused by infection of the stomach wall by gas forming bacteria. It is a very rare condition that carries a high mortality rate. Portal venous gas shadow represents elevation of intestinal luminal pressure which manifests as emphysematous gastritis or gastric emphysema. Literature reviews show that the mortality rate is especially high when portal venous gas shadow is present on CT scan. Until recently, the treatment of emphysematous gastritis has been immediate surgical intervention. However, there is a recent trend of avoiding surgery because of the frequent occurrence of post-operative complications such as anastomosis leakage. In addition, aggressive surgical treatment has failed to show significant improvement in prognosis. Recently, the authors experienced a case of emphysematous gastritis accompanied by portal venous gas which was treated successfully by conservative treatment without immediate surgical intervention. Herein, we present a case of emphysematous gastritis with concomitant portal venous air along with literature review.

  18. A review of scientifc linkages and interactions between climate change and air quality, with implications for air quality management in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tirusha Thambiran

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available In recent years there has been considerable advancement in our scientifc understanding of the linkages and interactions between climate change and air quality. A warmer, evolving climate is likely to have severe consequences for air quality due to impacts on pollution sources and meteorology. Climate-induced changes to sources of tropospheric ozone precursor gases and to atmospheric circulation are likely to lead to changes in both the concentration and dispersion of near-surface ozone that could act to offset improvements in air quality. The control of air pollutants through air quality management is also likely to impact on climate change, with reductions in ozone, particulate matter and sulphur dioxide being of particular interest. The improved understanding of the relationship between air quality and climate change provides a scientific basis for policy interventions. After a review of the scientific linkages, the potential to include climate change considerations in air quality management planning processes in South Africa was examined.

  19. Early intervention for childhood overweight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lone Marie; Hertel, Niels Thomas; Mølgaard, Christian;

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of two intervention modalities concerning overweight and obesity among children in general practice. DESIGN: Prospective randomized controlled trial. SETTING: A total of 60 general practices in the former County of Funen, Denmark. SUBJECTS: Overweight children...

  20. Interventions for preoperative smoking cessation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Thordis; Villebro, Nete; Møller, Ann Merete

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Smokers have a substantially increased risk of postoperative complications. Preoperative smoking intervention may be effective in decreasing this incidence, and surgery may constitute a unique opportunity for smoking cessation interventions. OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this review...... are to assess the effect of preoperative smoking intervention on smoking cessation at the time of surgery and 12 months postoperatively, and on the incidence of postoperative complications. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Tobacco Addiction Group Specialized Register in January 2014. SELECTION CRITERIA......: Randomized controlled trials that recruited people who smoked prior to surgery, offered a smoking cessation intervention, and measured preoperative and long-term abstinence from smoking or the incidence of postoperative complications or both outcomes. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: The review authors...

  1. Cognitive Interventions for Older Diabetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Sheila; Scogin, Forrest

    1998-01-01

    Older diabetic adults should receive memory training to improve their compliance with medication taking. The intervention should include comprehensible medical instructions, assistance with remembering the nutritional values of food, and higher order skills for disease management. (SK)

  2. Personal Change and Intervention Style

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, John D. W.

    1977-01-01

    Presents a theory of personal change and analyzes growth-producing interventions using examples from the film, "Three Approaches to Psychotherapy". Compares the styles of Carl Rogers, Frttz Perls, and Albert Ellis to illustrate the theory. (Editor/RK)

  3. Categorization of cerebrovascular intervention methods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wenxin Zhao; Gelin Xu; Xinfeng Liu

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cerebrovascular intervention is a medical strategy to diagnose and treat cerebrovascular disease by intravascular intervention techniques. With the continual developments of computer technology, imageology, and angiography, cerebrovascular intervention techniques have developed rapidly.OBJECTIVE: To summarize and to evaluate vascular imaging diagnostic techniques, vascular intra-arterial thrombolysis, vascular intra-arterial angioplasty, and vascular embolization in clinical applications.RETRIEVAL STRATEGY: An online search was conducted in PubMed for English language reports, published from January 2002 to January 2008, containing the key words: intervention therapy, cerebral vascular disease, endovascular intervention and angioplasty. A total of 57 publications were identified. Inclusion criteria: articles about cerebrovascular intervention for cerebrovascular disease; articles published either in high impact factor journals or in recent years. Exclusion criteria: duplicated articles.LITERATURE EVALUATION: 30 articles were identified concerning intravascular intervention techniques and arterial angioplasty. Of those, 7 articles were reviews and 23 were clinical or basic studies.DATA SYNTHESIS: Carotid artery and basilar artery stenosis were important etiological factors for ischemic cerebrovascular disease. The mechanism of stenosis induction included atherosclerotic plaque exfoliation and stenosis could cause hemodynamic changes to induce cerebral infarction. Therefore, the treatment of carotid artery and basilar artery stenosis played a key role in preventing ischemic cerebral infarction. The international organization for subarachnoid hemorrhage aneurysm has conclusively shown that both relative and absolute risk factors of intravascular embolotherapy were reduced compared to those of surgical occlusion, demonstrating the important role of vascular embolization for the treatment of intracranial aneurysm. Endovascular stents were placed into the

  4. The Ethics of Workplace Interventions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasle, Peter; Limborg, Hans Jørgen

    2004-01-01

    A discussion of the ethical dilemmas confronting occupational health and safety professionals when they are involved in workplace interventions. Case stories from the Danish occupational health service are used as the emperical point of departure for paper.......A discussion of the ethical dilemmas confronting occupational health and safety professionals when they are involved in workplace interventions. Case stories from the Danish occupational health service are used as the emperical point of departure for paper....

  5. Interventions for paracetamol (acetaminophen) overdoses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brok, J; Buckley, N; Gluud, C

    2002-01-01

    Self-poisoning with paracetamol (acetaminophen) is a common cause of hepatotoxicity in the Western World. Interventions for paracetamol poisoning encompass inhibition of absorption, removal from the vascular system, antidotes, and liver transplantation.......Self-poisoning with paracetamol (acetaminophen) is a common cause of hepatotoxicity in the Western World. Interventions for paracetamol poisoning encompass inhibition of absorption, removal from the vascular system, antidotes, and liver transplantation....

  6. Early intervention for childhood overweight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lone Marie; Hertel, Niels Thomas; Mølgaard, Christian;

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of two intervention modalities concerning overweight and obesity among children in general practice. DESIGN: Prospective randomized controlled trial. SETTING: A total of 60 general practices in the former County of Funen, Denmark. SUBJECTS: Overweight children...... models, with a mean of 12 consultations in general practice. CONCLUSION: In this particular setting the two intervention strategies against overweight and obesity did not differ significantly with regard to change in BMI z-scores....

  7. Reporting Guidelines for Music-based Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robb, Sheri L; Burns, Debra S; Carpenter, Janet S

    2011-10-01

    Music-based interventions are used to address a variety of problems experienced by individuals across the developmental lifespan (infants to elderly adults). In order to improve the transparency and specificity of reporting music-based interventions, a set of specific reporting guidelines is recommended. Recommendations pertain to reporting seven different components of music-based interventions including intervention theory, intervention content, intervention delivery schedule, interventionist, treatment fidelity, setting, and unit of delivery. Recommendations are intended to support CONSORT and TREND statements for transparent reporting of interventions while taking into account the variety, complexity, and uniqueness of music-based interventions.

  8. Association between changes in exposure to air pollution and biomarkers of oxidative stress in children before and during the Beijing Olympics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lin, Weiwei; Zhu, Tong; Xue, Tao; Peng, Wei; Brunekreef, Bert; Gehring, Ulrike; Huang, Wei; Hu, Min; Zhang, Yuanhang; Tang, Xiaoyan

    2015-01-01

    It is not known whether exposure to air pollutants causes systemic oxidative stress in children. We investigated the association between exposure to air pollution and biomarkers of oxidative stress in relation to a governmental air quality intervention implemented during the 2008 Beijing Olympic Gam

  9. AIR RADIOACTIVITY MONITOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradshaw, R.L.; Thomas, J.W.

    1961-04-11

    The monitor is designed to minimize undesirable background buildup. It consists of an elongated column containing peripheral electrodes in a central portion of the column, and conduits directing an axial flow of radioactively contaminated air through the center of the column and pure air through the annular portion of the column about the electrodes. (AEC)

  10. Air-Conditioning Mechanic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marine Corps Inst., Washington, DC.

    This student guide, one of a series of correspondence training courses designed to improve the job performance of members of the Marine Corps, deals with the skills needed by air conditioning mechanics. Addressed in the four chapters, or lessons, of the manual are the following topics: principles of air conditioning, refrigeration components as…

  11. The Air We Breathe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davila, Dina

    2010-01-01

    Topics discussed include NASA mission to pioneer the future in space exploration, scientific discovery and aeronautics research; the role of Earth's atmosphere, atmospheric gases, layers of the Earth's atmosphere, ozone layer, air pollution, effects of air pollution on people, the Greenhouse Effect, and breathing on the International Space Station.

  12. Air/liquid collectors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Søren Østergaard; Olesen, Ole; Kristiansen, Finn Harken

    1997-01-01

    This report determine efficiency equations for combined air/liquid solar collectors by measurements on to different air/liquid collectors. Equations which contain all relevant informations on the solar collectors. A simulation program (Kviksol) has been modified in order to be able to handle...

  13. Bad Air For Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Dorothy Noyes

    1976-01-01

    Children are especially sensitive to air pollution and consequences to them maybe of longer duration than to adults. The effects of low-level pollution on children are the concern of this article. The need for research on the threat of air pollution to childrens' health is emphasized. (BT)

  14. Air pollution and society

    OpenAIRE

    Brimblecombe P.

    2010-01-01

    Air pollution is as much a product of our society as it is one of chemistry and meteorology. Social variables such as gender, age, health status and poverty are often linked with our exposure to air pollutants. Pollution can also affect our behaviour, while regulations to improve the environment can often challenge of freedom.

  15. Over the air test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    [1] This invention relates to over-the-air testing of a device in an anechoic chamber. In particular, the invention is suitable for simulating both uplink and downlink over-the-air communication with a device under test even when the anechoic chamber has different numbers of uplink and downlink...

  16. Air Pollution, Teachers' Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavaroni, Charles W.; O'Donnell, Patrick A.

    One of three in a series about pollution, this teacher's guide for a unit on air pollution is designed for use in junior high school grades. It offers suggestions for extending the information and activities contained in the textual material for students. Chapter 1 discusses the problem of air pollution and involves students in processes of…

  17. Air Pollution and Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, R. D., Ed.

    This book is an authoritative reference and practical guide designed to help the plant engineer identify and solve industrial air pollution problems in order to be able to meet current air pollution regulations. Prepared under the editorial supervision of an experienced chemical engineer, with each chapter contributed by an expert in his field,…

  18. Bearings Only Air-to-Air Ranging

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-07-25

    sensor, observer and target parameters still remain. In order to reduce the number of cases to a manageable one, while preserving the geometric...perforance of variotu. ulro-air passive ranging tecnique has been examined as a fimn- tiam of uarget location andi motiom, observer motion. and length

  19. Restoran Buenos Aires = Restaurant Buenos Aires

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    Restorani Buenos Aires (Narva mnt. 5, Tallinn) sisekujundusest. Sisearhitektid: Janno Roos ja Andres Labi (Ruumilabor OÜ). Laudu eraldavad 400 vardasse aetud puukuuli. Sisearhitektidest, nende tähtsamad tööd. I-III korruse plaan, 12 värv. vaadet, fotod sisearhitektidest

  20. AIRE-Linux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jianfeng; Xu, Benda; Peng, Chuan; Yang, Yang; Huo, Zhuoxi

    2015-08-01

    AIRE-Linux is a dedicated Linux system for astronomers. Modern astronomy faces two big challenges: massive observed raw data which covers the whole electromagnetic spectrum, and overmuch professional data processing skill which exceeds personal or even a small team's abilities. AIRE-Linux, which is a specially designed Linux and will be distributed to users by Virtual Machine (VM) images in Open Virtualization Format (OVF), is to help astronomers confront the challenges. Most astronomical software packages, such as IRAF, MIDAS, CASA, Heasoft etc., will be integrated into AIRE-Linux. It is easy for astronomers to configure and customize the system and use what they just need. When incorporated into cloud computing platforms, AIRE-Linux will be able to handle data intensive and computing consuming tasks for astronomers. Currently, a Beta version of AIRE-Linux is ready for download and testing.

  1. Initial exploration of and corresponding nursing interventions for correlations between air - conditioned environment and lumbar intervertebral disc protrusion%空调环境与腰椎间盘突出症的关系初探与护理干预对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程小芸; 温秀梅; 陈尚杰; 方梅; 王海霞; 余碧

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To discuss correlations between air - conditioned environment and lumbar intervertebral disc protrusion as well as corresponding nurs-ing methods based on them. Methods:Selected 100 patients with lumbar intervertebral disc protrusion(observation group)and 100 healthy volunteers from February 2013 to July 2014 as study objects,and conducted statistical analysis on probabilities of all study objects to live in air - conditioned environment. Results:Probability of observation group to live or work in air - conditioned environment was higher than that of control group. Conclusion:Air - conditioned environment is closely correlated with lumbar intervertebral disc protrusion. Therefore,it is advisable to properly reduce the opportunity for patients to live or work in air - conditioned environment,so as to improve living quality of patients with lumbar intervertebral disc protrusion.%目的:探讨空调环境与腰椎间盘突出症之间的关系以及与其相对应护理措施。方法:选择我院2013年2月~2014年7月100例腰间盘突出症确诊患者(观察组)以及100例健康志愿者(对照组)为研究对象,对所有研究对象的空调环境下生活概率进行统计学分析。结果:观察组在空调环境下生活、工作的概率明显高于对照组。结论:空调环境与腰间盘突出症密切相关,应适当减少患者在空调环境工作、生活的概率,以提高腰椎间盘突出症患者的生活质量。

  2. Challenges of evaluating multilevel interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nastasi, Bonnie K; Hitchcock, John

    2009-06-01

    This article uses the Comprehensive Mixed-Methods Participatory Evaluation (CMMPE; Nastasi and Hitchcock Transforming school mental health services: Population-based approaches to promoting the competency and wellness of children, Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press with National Association of School Psychologists 2008; Nastasi et al. School-based mental health services: creating comprehensive and culturally specific programs. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association 2004) model as a framework for addressing the multiplicity of evaluation decisions and complex nature of questions related to program success in multilevel interventions. CMMPE defines program success in terms of acceptability, integrity, social or cultural validity, outcomes (impact), sustainability and institutionalization, thus broadening the traditional notions of program outcomes. The authors use CMMPE and an example of a community-based multilevel sexual risk prevention program with multiple outcomes to discuss challenges of evaluating multilevel interventions. The sexual risk program exemplifies what Schensul and Trickett (this issue) characterize as multilevel intervention-multilevel evaluation (M-M), with both intervention and evaluation at community, health practitioner, and patient levels. The illustration provides the context for considering several challenges related to M-M designs: feasibility of randomized controlled trials within community-based multilevel intervention; acceptability and social or cultural validity of evaluation procedures; implementer, recipient, and contextual variations in program success; interactions among levels of the intervention; unanticipated changes or conditions; multiple indicators of program success; engaging multiple stakeholders in a participatory process; and evaluating sustainability and institutionalization. The complexity of multilevel intervention and evaluation designs challenges traditional notions of evaluation research and experimental

  3. Location Problem of Air Materials Supply Center for Air Force

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王涛; 何亚群; 陶学禹

    2002-01-01

    Based on the analysis of three influencing factors on the air material supply center location, the location model of air material supply center was established. By solving the model, the rational supply center of air materials was also determined.

  4. Air Baltic: Estonian Air on nurka surutud / Teele Tammeorg

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tammeorg, Teele

    2010-01-01

    Air Balticu asepresidendi Janis Vanagsi hinnangul on Estonian Air aastaid jätnud tähelepanuta oma peamised turismiturud ning on praegu halvas seisus. Air Baltic on endiselt huvitatud Estonian Airi ostust. Majandus- ja kommunikatsiooniminister Juhan Partsi seisukoht

  5. Effectiveness of Interventions to Reduce Tobacco Smoke Pollution in Homes: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura J. Rosen

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Smoke-free homes can help protect children from tobacco smoke exposure (TSE. The objective of this study was to conduct a meta-analysis to quantify effects of interventions on changes in tobacco smoke pollution in the home, as measured by air nicotine and particulate matter (PM. Methods: We searched MEDLINE, PubMed, Web of Science, PsycINFO, and Embase. We included controlled trials of interventions which aimed to help parents protect children from tobacco smoke exposure. Two reviewers identified relevant studies, and three reviewers extracted data. Results: Seven studies were identified. Interventions improved tobacco smoke air pollution in homes as assessed by nicotine or PM. (6 studies, N = 681, p = 0.02. Analyses of air nicotine and PM separately also showed some benefit (Air nicotine: 4 studies, N = 421, p = 0.08; PM: 3 studies, N = 340, p = 0.02. Despite improvements, tobacco smoke pollution was present in homes in all studies at follow-up. Conclusions: Interventions designed to protect children from tobacco smoke are effective in reducing tobacco smoke pollution (as assessed by air nicotine or PM in homes, but contamination remains. The persistence of significant pollution levels in homes after individual level intervention may signal the need for other population and regulatory measures to help reduce and eliminate childhood tobacco smoke exposure.

  6. Analysis of crisis intervention processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tschacher, Wolfgang; Jacobshagen, Nina

    2002-01-01

    The remediation processes in psychosocial crisis intervention were modeled focusing on cognitive orientation. Frequent observations and subsequent process modeling constitute a novel approach to process research and reveal process-outcome associations. A sample of 40 inpatients who were assigned to treatment in a crisis intervention unit was monitored in order to study the process of crisis intervention. The process data consisted of patients' self-ratings of the variables mood, tension, and cognitive orientation, which were assessed three times a day throughout hospitalization (M = 22.6 days). Linear time series models (vector autoregression) of the process data were computed to describe the prototypical dynamic patterns of the sample. Additionally, the outcome of crisis intervention was evaluated by pre-post questionnaires. Linear trends were found pointing to an improvement of mood, a reduction of tension, and an increase of outward cognitive orientation. Time series modeling showed that, on average, outward cognitive orientation preceded improved mood. The time series models partially predicted the treatment effect, notably the outcome domain "reduction of social anxiety," yet did not predict the domain of symptom reduction. In conclusion, crisis intervention should focus on having patients increasingly engage in outward cognitive orientation in order to stabilize mood, reduce anxiety, and activate their resources.

  7. Diagnostic interventions in nuclear medicine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thrall, J.H.; Swanson, D.P.

    1989-01-01

    Diagnostic interventions in nuclear medicine may be defined as the coadministration of a nonradioactive drug or application of a physical stimulus or physiologic maneuver to enhance the diagnostic utility of a nuclear medicine test. The rationale for each interventional maneuver follows from the physiology or metabolism of the particular organ or organ system under evaluation. Diagnostic inference is drawn from the pattern of change in the biodistribution of the tracer in response to the intervention-induced change in metabolism or function. In current practice, the most commonly performed interventional maneuvers are aimed at studies of the heart, genitourinary system, hepatobiliary system, and gastrointestinal tract. The single most commonly performed interventional study in the United States is the stress Thallium-201 myocardial perfusion scan aimed at the diagnosis of coronary artery disease. The stress portion of the study is accomplished with dynamic leg exercise on a treadmill and is aimed at increasing myocardial oxygen demands. Areas of myocardium distal to hemodynamically significant lesions in the coronary arteries become ischemic at peak stress due to the inability of the stenotic vessel to respond to the oxygen demand/blood flow needs of the myocardium. Ischemic areas are readily recognized as photopenic defects on scans obtained immediately after exercise, with normalization upon delayed imaging. Diuresis renography is aimed at the differential diagnosis of hydroureteronephrosis. By challenging the urinary tract collecting structures with an augmented urine flow, dilated, unobstructed systems can be differentiated from systems with significant mechanical obstruction. 137 references.

  8. Unilateral Huge Hydronephrosis Necessitating Fetal Interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayşenur Cerrah Celayir

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Fetal intervention for obstructive uropathy was first performed at the University of California, San Francisco in 1981. Since then diagnostic criteria for fetal intervention have been laid down to assist in proper patient selection. Unilateral fetal hydronephrosis doesn’t require prenatal intervention; but prenatal intervention might be required in selected cases, especially when hydronephrosis compresses adjacent organs.

  9. Air Cleaning Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    Executive Summary Objective This health technology policy assessment will answer the following questions: When should in-room air cleaners be used? How effective are in-room air cleaners? Are in-room air cleaners that use combined HEPA and UVGI air cleaning technology more effective than those that use HEPA filtration alone? What is the Plasmacluster ion air purifier in the pandemic influenza preparation plan? The experience of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) locally, nationally, and internationally underscored the importance of administrative, environmental, and personal protective infection control measures in health care facilities. In the aftermath of the SARS crisis, there was a need for a clearer understanding of Ontario’s capacity to manage suspected or confirmed cases of airborne infectious diseases. In so doing, the Walker Commission thought that more attention should be paid to the potential use of new technologies such as in-room air cleaning units. It recommended that the Medical Advisory Secretariat of the Ontario Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care evaluate the appropriate use and effectiveness of such new technologies. Accordingly, the Ontario Health Technology Advisory Committee asked the Medical Advisory Secretariat to review the literature on the effectiveness and utility of in-room air cleaners that use high-efficiency particle air (HEPA) filters and ultraviolet germicidal irradiation (UVGI) air cleaning technology. Additionally, the Ontario Health Technology Advisory Committee prioritized a request from the ministry’s Emergency Management Unit to investigate the possible role of the Plasmacluster ion air purifier manufactured by Sharp Electronics Corporation, in the pandemic influenza preparation plan. Clinical Need Airborne transmission of infectious diseases depends in part on the concentration of breathable infectious pathogens (germs) in room air. Infection control is achieved by a combination of administrative, engineering

  10. Emission Facilities - Air Emission Plants

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — Represents the Primary Facility type Air Emission Plant (AEP) point features. Air Emissions Plant is a DEP primary facility type related to the Air Quality Program....

  11. Air Quality Management Process Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Air quality management are activities a regulatory authority undertakes to protect human health and the environment from the harmful effects of air pollution. The process of managing air quality can be illustrated as a cycle of inter-related elements.

  12. Ambient Air Quality Data Inventory

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Office of Air and Radiation??s (OAR) Ambient Air Quality Data (Current) contains ambient air pollution data collected by EPA, other federal agencies, as well as...

  13. Ambient Air Quality Data Inventory

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Office of Air and Radiation's (OAR) Ambient Air Quality Data (Current) contains ambient air pollution data collected by EPA, other federal agencies, as well as...

  14. Olefin metathesis in air

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo Piola

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Since the discovery and now widespread use of olefin metathesis, the evolution of metathesis catalysts towards air stability has become an area of significant interest. In this fascinating area of study, beginning with early systems making use of high oxidation state early transition metal centers that required strict exclusion of water and air, advances have been made to render catalysts more stable and yet more functional group tolerant. This review summarizes the major developments concerning catalytic systems directed towards water and air tolerance.

  15. Air/Water Purification

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    After 18 years of research into air/water pollution at Stennis Space Center, Dr. B. C. Wolverton formed his own company, Wolverton Environmental Services, Inc., to provide technology and consultation in air and water treatment. Common houseplants are used to absorb potentially harmful materials from bathrooms and kitchens. The plants are fertilized, air is purified, and wastewater is converted to clean water. More than 100 U.S. communities have adopted Wolverton's earlier water hyacinth and artificial marsh applications. Catfish farmers are currently evaluating the artificial marsh technology as a purification system.

  16. Olefin metathesis in air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piola, Lorenzo; Nahra, Fady

    2015-01-01

    Summary Since the discovery and now widespread use of olefin metathesis, the evolution of metathesis catalysts towards air stability has become an area of significant interest. In this fascinating area of study, beginning with early systems making use of high oxidation state early transition metal centers that required strict exclusion of water and air, advances have been made to render catalysts more stable and yet more functional group tolerant. This review summarizes the major developments concerning catalytic systems directed towards water and air tolerance. PMID:26664625

  17. Clean Air and Water

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2007-04-10

    The air we breathe and the water we drink are both vital components of our health. Nevertheless, bacteria, pollutants, and other contaminates can alter life-giving air and water into health-threatening hazards. Learn about how scientists at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention work to protect the public from air and water-related health risks.  Created: 4/10/2007 by CDC National Center for Environmental Health.   Date Released: 4/13/2007.

  18. Air Quality Monitoring Programme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kemp, K.; Palmgren, F.

    The air quality in Danish cities has been monitored continuously since 1982 within the Danish Air Quality (LMP) network. The aim has been to follow the concentration levels of toxic pollutants in the urban atmosphere and to provide the necessary knowledge to assess the trends, to perform source...... apportionment, and to evaluate the chemical reactions and the dispersion of the pollutants in the atmosphere. In 2002 the air quality was measured in four Danish cities and at two background sites. NO2 and PM10 were at several stations found in concentrations above the new EU limit values, which the Member...

  19. Mid-air Acrobatics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LlU FENG'AN

    2011-01-01

    On September 1 two new aerobatic demonstration teams,theSky Wing and the Red Falcon,debuted at an air show held in Changchun,capital of northeast China's Jilin Province.The show was staged at a ceremony held by the Aviation University of the People's Liberation Army (PLA) Air Force.Also performing at the show was the 50-year-old Bayi aerobatic demonstration team.The teams demonstrated their superlative flying skills,which showcase the quality of the air force's rigorous pilot training.

  20. Psychosocial Interventions in Depressive Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ceyda Basogul

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In the last ten years, improvements in effective psychosocial interventions in the prevention and treatment of depression are remarkable. The World Health Organization stated that major depression affects children, adults and the elderly and is the leading cause of approximately 12% of all disabilities around the World. Medical expenses, loss of workforce, suicide risk, the risk of relapse or recurrence are taken into account, depression is an issue that needs to be handled with utmost care for health care workers especially psychiatric nurses. The purpose of this literature review is to examine psychosocial interventions and effectiveness of these interventions for depressive disorders shows a gradual increase in prevalence in worlwide. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2015; 7(1: 1-15

  1. Computational radiology for orthopaedic interventions

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Shuo

    2016-01-01

    This book provides a cohesive overview of the current technological advances in computational radiology, and their applications in orthopaedic interventions. Contributed by the leading researchers in the field, this volume covers not only basic computational radiology techniques such as statistical shape modeling, CT/MRI segmentation, augmented reality and micro-CT image processing, but also the applications of these techniques to various orthopaedic interventional tasks. Details about following important state-of-the-art development are featured: 3D preoperative planning and patient-specific instrumentation for surgical treatment of long-bone deformities, computer assisted diagnosis and planning of periacetabular osteotomy and femoroacetabular impingement, 2D-3D reconstruction-based planning of total hip arthroplasty, image fusion for  computer-assisted bone tumor surgery, intra-operative three-dimensional imaging in fracture treatment, augmented reality based orthopaedic interventions and education, medica...

  2. Interventions for preoperative smoking cessation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Thordis; Villebro, Nete; Møller, Ann Merete

    2010-01-01

    Background Smokers have a substantially increased risk of postoperative complications. Preoperative smoking intervention may be effective in decreasing this incidence, and surgery may constitute a unique opportunity for smoking cessation interventions. Objectives The objective of this review...... was to assess the effect of preoperative smoking intervention on smoking cessation at the time of surgery and 12 months postoperatively and on the incidence of postoperative complications. Search strategy The specialized register of the Cochrane Tobacco Addiction Group was searched using the free text...... and keywords (surgery) or (operation) or (anaesthesia) or (anesthesia). MEDLINE, EMBASE and CINAHL were also searched, combining tobacco- and surgery-related terms. Most recent search April 2010. Selection criteria Randomized controlled trials that recruited people who smoked prior to surgery, offered...

  3. Interventional procedures in the chest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollmer Torrubiano, I; Sánchez González, M

    2016-05-01

    Many thoracic conditions will require an interventional procedure for diagnosis and/or treatment. For this reason, radiologists need to know the indications and the technique for each procedure. In this article, we review the various interventional procedures that radiologists should know and the indications for each procedure. We place special emphasis on the potential differences in the diagnostic results and complications between fine-needle aspiration and biopsy. We also discuss the indications for radiofrequency ablation of lung tumors and review the concepts related to the drainage of pulmonary abscesses. We devote special attention to the management of pleural effusion, covering the indications for thoracocentesis and when to use imaging guidance, and to the protocol for pleural drainage. We also discuss the indications for percutaneous treatment of pericardial effusion and the possible complications of this treatment. Finally, we discuss the interventional management of mediastinal lesions and provide practical advice about how to approach these lesions to avoid serious complications.

  4. Interventions for preoperative smoking cessation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Thordis; Villebro, N.; Møller, Ann Merete;

    2010-01-01

    Background Smokers have a substantially increased risk of postoperative complications. Preoperative smoking intervention may be effective in decreasing this incidence, and surgery may constitute a unique opportunity for smoking cessation interventions. Objectives The objective of this review...... was to assess the effect of preoperative smoking intervention on smoking cessation at the time of surgery and 12 months postoperatively and on the incidence of postoperative complications. Search strategy The specialized register of the Cochrane Tobacco Addiction Group was searched using the free text......; pooled RR 10.76 (95% confidence interval (CI) 4.55 to 25.46, two trials) and RR 1.41 (95% CI 1.22 to 1.63, five trials) respectively. Four trials evaluating the effect on long-term smoking cessation found a significant effect; pooled RR 1.61 (95% CI 1.12 to 2.33). However, when pooling intensive...

  5. Neuropsychological intervention in the acute phase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norup, Anne; Siert, Lars; Mortensen, Erik Lykke

    2013-01-01

    Objective: This pilot study investigated the effects of acute neuropsychological intervention for relatives of patients with severe brain injury. Methods: Participants were enrolled in an intervention group comprising 39 relatives, and a control group comprising 47 relatives. The intervention...... = 0.59). Conclusion: Any effects of the acute neuropsychological intervention were limited. Further research is needed to explore the effects of different interventions in more homogenous and larger groups of relatives....

  6. LDA Educational Intervention Research Symposium Intervention Perspectives and Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrill, Melinda; Satterfield, Jule

    2000-01-01

    This article summarizes the journal's special issue on educational intervention research for students with learning disabilities and identifies the following common themes in the preceding papers: (1) effective teaching, (2) the match between teacher and learner characteristics, (3) flexibility in delivery and use, and (4) teacher and student…

  7. STS Interventions: Preparing, Defending, Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Martin

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Intervening in the Australian vaccination debate, I found that STS perspectives helped me understand the controversy but gave little guidance on how to defend against attacks. Max Liboiron comments that preparation, including support networks, should precede interventions. I was well supported in my involvement in the vaccination debate, but those who openly advocate a stigmatized view may have difficulty gaining support. Teun Zuiderent-Jerak asks what is being learned when interventions reinforce existing categories. Controversy participants can learn by being exposed to STS perspectives; controversy researchers, when attacked, can gain new information and develop new research ideas.

  8. Impact evaluation of infrastructure interventions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henrik; Andersen, Ole Winckler; White, Howard

    2011-01-01

    The focus on results in development agencies has led to increased focus on impact evaluation to demonstrate the effectiveness of development programmes. A range of methods are available for counterfactual analysis of infrastructure interventions, as illustrated by the variety of papers in this vo......The focus on results in development agencies has led to increased focus on impact evaluation to demonstrate the effectiveness of development programmes. A range of methods are available for counterfactual analysis of infrastructure interventions, as illustrated by the variety of papers...

  9. Urban air pollution, poverty, violence and health--Neurological and immunological aspects as mediating factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristiansson, Marianne; Sörman, Karolina; Tekwe, Carmen; Calderón-Garcidueñas, Lilian

    2015-07-01

    Rapid rural-urban migration has created overcrowded areas characterized by concentrated poverty and increases in indoor and outdoor air pollutants. These "hotspots" constitute an increased risk of violence and disease outbreaks. We hypothesize that the effects of poverty and associated air pollution-related stress on impaired cognitive skills are mediated by inflammatory cytokines. A research framework is proposed, encompassing (i) an epidemiological investigation of associations between poverty, high concentrations of air pollutants, violence and health, (ii) a longitudinal follow-up of working memory capacities and inflammatory markers, and (iii) intervention programs aiming to strengthen employability and decreased exposures to toxic air pollutants.

  10. Radioactive air sampling methods

    CERN Document Server

    Maiello, Mark L

    2010-01-01

    Although the field of radioactive air sampling has matured and evolved over decades, it has lacked a single resource that assimilates technical and background information on its many facets. Edited by experts and with contributions from top practitioners and researchers, Radioactive Air Sampling Methods provides authoritative guidance on measuring airborne radioactivity from industrial, research, and nuclear power operations, as well as naturally occuring radioactivity in the environment. Designed for industrial hygienists, air quality experts, and heath physicists, the book delves into the applied research advancing and transforming practice with improvements to measurement equipment, human dose modeling of inhaled radioactivity, and radiation safety regulations. To present a wide picture of the field, it covers the international and national standards that guide the quality of air sampling measurements and equipment. It discusses emergency response issues, including radioactive fallout and the assets used ...

  11. Natural Air Purifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    NASA environmental research has led to a plant-based air filtering system. Dr. B.C. Wolverton, a former NASA engineer who developed a biological filtering system for space life support, served as a consultant to Terra Firma Environmental. The company is marketing the BioFilter, a natural air purifier that combines activated carbon and other filter media with living plants and microorganisms. The filter material traps and holds indoor pollutants; plant roots and microorganisms then convert the pollutants into food for the plant. Most non-flowering house plants will work. After pollutants have been removed, the cleansed air is returned to the room through slits in the planter. Terra Firma is currently developing a filter that will also disinfect the air.

  12. Advanced air distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melikov, Arsen Krikor

    2011-01-01

    The aim of total volume air distribution (TVAD) involves achieving uniform temperature and velocity in the occupied zone and environment designed for an average occupant. The supply of large amounts of clean and cool air are needed to maintain temperature and pollution concentration at acceptable...... levels in the entire space, leading to increased energy consumption and the use of large and costly HVAC and duct systems. The performance of desk installed PV combined with background TVAD used for room temperature control has been studied in an office building located in a hot and humid climate....... Ventilation in hospitals is essential to decrease the risk of airborne cross-infection. At present, mixing air distribution at a minimum of 12 ach is used in infection wards. Advanced air distribution has the potential to aid in achieving healthy, comfortable and productive indoor environments at levels...

  13. Regional Air Quality Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This asset provides data on regional air quality, including trace level SO2, nitric acid, ozone, carbon monoxide, and NOy; and particulate sulfate, nitrate, and...

  14. Temporal solitons in air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voronin, A. A.; Zheltikov, A. M.

    2017-02-01

    Analysis of the group-velocity dispersion (GVD) of atmospheric air with a model that includes the entire manifold of infrared transitions in air reveals a remarkably broad and continuous anomalous-GVD region in the high-frequency wing of the carbon dioxide rovibrational band from approximately 3.5 to 4.2 μm where atmospheric air is still highly transparent and where high-peak-power sources of ultrashort midinfrared pulses are available. Within this range, anomalous dispersion acting jointly with optical nonlinearity of atmospheric air is shown to give rise to a unique three-dimensional dynamics with well-resolved soliton features in the time domain, enabling a highly efficient whole-beam soliton self-compression of such pulses to few-cycle pulse widths.

  15. Air Data Calibration Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This facility is for low altitude subsonic altimeter system calibrations of air vehicles. Mission is a direct support of the AFFTC mission. Postflight data merge is...

  16. Investigating Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Edward J.

    1977-01-01

    Describes an experiment using live plants and cigarette smoke to demonstrate the effects of air pollution on a living organism. Procedures include growth of the test plants in glass bottles, and construction and operation of smoking machine. (CS)

  17. Indoor Air Pollution

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Kirk R.

    2003-01-01

    Outdoor air pollution in developing-country cities is difficult to overlook. Indoor air pollution caused by burning such traditional fuels as wood, crop residues, and dung is less evident, yet it is responsible for a significant part of country and global disease burdens. The main groups affected are poor women and children in rural areas and urban slums as they go about their daily activi...

  18. Air Superiority Fighter Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-06-05

    many a dispute could have been deflated into a single paragraph if the disputants had just dared to define their terms.7 Aristotle ...meaningful. This section will expand on some key ideology concepts. The phrase "air superiority fighter" may bring to mind visions of fighter... biographies are useful in garnering airpower advocate theories as well as identifying key characteristics. Air campaign results, starting with World

  19. Nuclear air cushion vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, J. L.

    1973-01-01

    This paper serves several functions. It identifies the 'state-of-the-art' of the still-conceptual nuclear air cushion vehicle, particularly the nuclear powerplant. Using mission studies and cost estimates, the report describes some of the advantages of nuclear power for large air cushion vehicles. The paper also summarizes the technology studies on mobile nuclear powerplants and conceptual ACV systems/missions studies that have been performed at NASA Lewis Research Center.

  20. INDOOR AIR QUALITY ANALYSIS

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Xin

    2010-01-01

    With the development of modern architecture, one of the building's interior decoration, furnishings, appliances and equipment have become increasingly demanding, making construction of the indoor environment of increasing pollution, increasing pollution, indoor environmental pollution hazards to human is also a growing the greater. This thesis summarizes the major indoor air pollution sources and major pollutants. Indoor air pollutants are formaldehyde, radon, ammonia, total volatile org...

  1. Multipollutant air quality management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidy, George M; Pennell, William T

    2010-06-01

    On the basis of a recent NARSTO assessment, this review discusses the factors involved in the implementation of a risk- and results-based multipollutant air quality management strategy applicable to North America. Such a strategy could evolve from current single-pollutant regulatory practices using a series of steps that would seek to minimize risk of exposure for humans and ecosystems while providing for a quantitative evaluation of the effectiveness of the management process. The tools needed to support multipollutant air quality management are summarized. They include application of a formal risk analysis, accounting for atmospheric processes, ambient measurements, emissions characterization, air quality modeling of emissions to ambient concentrations, and characterization of human and ecological responses to ambient pollutant exposure. The new management strategy would expand the current practice of accountability that relates emission reductions and attainment of air quality derived from air quality criteria and standards. Conceptually, achievement of accountability would establish goals optimizing risk reduction associated with pollution management. This expanded approach takes into account the sequence of processes from emissions reduction to resulting changes in ambient concentration. Using ambient concentration as a proxy for exposure, the resulting improvement in human and ecosystem health is estimated. The degree to which this chain of processes and effects can be achieved in current practice is examined in a multipollutant context exemplified by oxidants, as indicated by ozone, particulate matter, and some hazardous air pollutants. Achievement of a multipollutant management strategy will mostly depend on improving knowledge about human and ecosystem response to pollutant exposure.

  2. Echocardiographic detection and treatment of intraoperative air embolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, S; Toya, S; Ohira, T; Mine, T; Greig, N H

    1986-03-01

    A real-time two-dimensional echocardiogram was used to detect the presence of an air embolism in patients undergoing neurosurgical procedures in the sitting position. The technique could with good sensitivity detect the appearance of a single air bubble intraoperatively, thus allowing early intervention to prevent development of further air emboli. Two types of air embolism could be differentiated; the single-bubble type and the "stormy-bubble" type. The single-bubble type was observed during skin and muscle incisions, craniotomy, and brain lesion excision. Further embolism development was prevented by electrocoagulation and application of bone wax. The stormy-bubble type occurred during dura and muscle incisions and was prevented by electrocoagulation, reflection of the dura, or suturing the affected muscle. The routine use of a Swan-Ganz catheter for removal of air embolism by suction proved effective for the treatment of the stormy-bubble type of air embolism. Masking the operative field with saline-soaked cotton strips was of moderate benefit in the stabilization of the single-bubble type of air influx, but proved to be of little value in controlling the entrance of the stormy-bubble type.

  3. Evaluation of Natural Resource Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Andy

    2012-01-01

    This article provides a frame for evaluation of natural resource interventions, which necessarily involves both human and natural systems. Two-system evaluands require us to adapt evaluation methods for comparison and attribution and to address differences in time and space occurring across the systems as well as potentially very different values…

  4. Early Childhood Intervention in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yuzhu; Maude, Susan P.; Brotherson, Mary Jane

    2015-01-01

    With rapid economic development and increasing awareness of the importance of early childhood intervention (ECI), China is re-examining its social and educational practices for young children with disabilities. This re-examination may have a significant impact on young children with disabilities in China. It may also set an example for other…

  5. Obesogenic environment – intervention opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Fisberg

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objectives: To evaluate environmental obesogenic-related factors, such as physical activity in neighborhoods and schools, nutritional behavior, and intervention programs. Sources: Critical analysis of literature with personal point of view from infant obesity experts and political advisors for public intervention. Data synthesis: Although obesity is a public health problem affecting several age groups, it is among children and adolescents that it plays a more important role, due to treatment complexity, high likelihood of persistence into adulthood, and association with other non- transmissible diseases while still in early age. Environment is a main component of the genesis and outcomes in the near future or long term. Modification of intake with high-density food, meal skipping, and high intake of saturated fat, sugar, and salt, associated to high levels of sedentarism are main causes of obesity. Conclusion: Intervention opportunities are related to modifications in political, environmental, and individual settings. School and physical activities in the educational environment are intertwined with nutrition intervention in continuous education. A critical review of some different scenarios in Latin American countries is presented.

  6. Early Intervention Approaches. Chapter 9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996

    This collection of papers presented at a 1996 conference on children's mental health focuses on early intervention approaches. Papers have the following titles and authors: (1) "Child Maltreatment and Prenatal Exposure to Alcohol and Other Drugs: Some Preliminary Findings" (Patrick A. Curtis and Mary Wood Schneider); (2) "Evaluation…

  7. Towards Behaviorally Informed Public Interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karol Olejniczak

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This article informs readers about the theoretical and practical origins of the behaviorally informed interventions (BIPI, analyzes examples of the BIPI from different policy sectors and strategies they offer for policy and regulatory design, and discusses applications and implications of BIPI for public interventions Methodology: This paper is based on a review of literature, as well as an inspection of administrative practices in OECD countries. It encompasses a systematic analysis of scientific papers fromthe SCOPUS database and a query carried out at the library of George Washington University. Findings: The traditional approach to public policy research is based on rational choice theory. It offers limited support, because by assuming perfect rationality of policy decisions, it overlooks existence of systematic errors and biases of human decision-making. The authors argue that behaviorally informed public interventions (BIPI might contribute to improving the effectiveness of a number of public measures – regulation, projects, programs, and even entire policies. Practical implications: The behavioral approach allows decision-makers to better understand the decisions and behaviors of citizens, as well as to design more effective interventions with minimum effort by adapting the existing solutions to real decision mechanisms of citizens. Originality: By combining the concepts of traditional approach with the growing behavioral approach, the authors aim to propose a new theoretical framework (BIPI to be used as a tool for policy design, delivery and evaluation.

  8. Neurolaw and Direct Brain Interventions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vincent, N.A.

    2012-01-01

    This issue of Criminal Law and Philosophy contains three papers on a topic of increasing importance within the field of ‘‘neurolaw’’—namely, the implications for criminal law of direct brain intervention based mind altering techniques (DBI’s). To locate these papers’ topic within a broader context,

  9. [Emergent strategies in interventional cardiology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.A. Rodriguez-Granillo (Gaston); P.W.J.C. Serruys (Patrick); J. Aoki (Jiro)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractDespite the advances in the treatment of patients with coronary artery disease, sudden cardiac death is still unacceptably prevalent. Patients with ischemic heart disease usually require a combination of therapies (drugs and coronary intervention) and may continue to experience symptoms.

  10. Early intervention services in psychosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Csillag, Claudio; Nordentoft, Merete; Mizuno, Masafumi

    2016-01-01

    AIM: Early intervention (EI) in psychosis is a comprehensive and evidence-based approach aimed at detection and treatment of psychotic symptoms in their early stages. This paper presents core features and noteworthy aspects of the evidence basis and limitations of EI, the importance of programme...

  11. Intervention LSCI Skills for Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitson, Signe; Chambers, J. C.

    2014-01-01

    Life Space Crisis Intervention (LSCI) is a set of skills that helps adults turn problem situations into learning opportunities for kids. LSCI views conflicts or stressful incidents as opportunities for learning, growth, insight, and change. This training provides parents with tools for building positive relationships with their children and…

  12. Brain aging and therapeutic interventions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book brings together most up-to-date information on different aspects of brain aging and on the strategies for intervention and therapy of age-related brain disorders. It includes 18 chapters by leading researchers, and each chapter is a comprehensive and critical review of the topic...

  13. Music interventions for dental anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradt, J; Teague, A

    2016-11-25

    Anxiety is a significant issue in the dental care of adults and children. Dental anxiety often leads to avoidance of dental care which may result in significant deterioration of oral and dental health. Non-pharmacological anxiety management interventions such as music listening are increasingly used in dental care. Although efficacy for music's anxiolytic effects has been established for pre-operative anxiety, findings regarding the use of music listening for dental anxiety are inconclusive, especially for children. The use of music for passive distraction may not be adequate for children and highly anxious adults. Instead, interventions offered by a trained music therapist may be needed to optimize music's anxiolytic impact. Music therapy interventions are individualized to the patient's presenting needs and geared at enhancing patients' active engagement in the management of their anxiety. Interventions may include (i) active refocusing of attention, (ii) music-guided deep breathing, (iii) music-assisted relaxation, and (iv) music-guided imagery. In addition, music therapists can teach patients music-based anxiety management skills prior to dental treatments, offer them the opportunity to express emotions related to the upcoming procedure, and help them gain a sense of control and safety. Clinical guidelines for the use of music listening by dental practitioners are offered.

  14. Household air pollution and its effects on health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apte, Komalkirti; Salvi, Sundeep

    2016-01-01

    Household air pollution is a leading cause of disability-adjusted life years in Southeast Asia and the third leading cause of disability-adjusted life years globally. There are at least sixty sources of household air pollution, and these vary from country to country. Indoor tobacco smoking, construction material used in building houses, fuel used for cooking, heating and lighting, use of incense and various forms of mosquito repellents, use of pesticides and chemicals used for cleaning at home, and use of artificial fragrances are some of the various sources that contribute to household air pollution. Household air pollution affects all stages of life with multi-systemic health effects, and its effects are evident right from pre-conception to old age. In utero exposure to household air pollutants has been shown to have health effects which resonate over the entire lifetime. Exposures to indoor air pollutants in early childhood also tend to have repercussions throughout life. The respiratory system bears the maximum brunt, but effects on the cardiovascular system, endocrine system, and nervous system are largely underplayed. Household air pollutants have also been implicated in the development of various types of cancers. Identifying household air pollutants and their health implications helps us prepare for various health-related issues. However, the real challenge is adopting changes to reduce the health effects of household air pollution and designing innovative interventions to minimize the risk of further exposure. This review is an attempt to understand the various sources of household air pollution, the effects on health, and strategies to deal with this emergent risk factor of global mortality and morbidity.

  15. Fluidized Bed Air-to-Air Heat Pump Evaporator Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-07-01

    Frost formation of air-to-air heat pump evaporator surfaces reduces unit efficiency and restricts application. The use of a fluidized bed heat...exchanger as an air-to- heat pump evaporator was investigated to determine if frost accumulation could be eliminated. Experimental investigations were...evaluated, with no practical solution being developed. The use of a fluidized bed heat exchanger for air-to-air heat pump evaporators was determined not feasible. (Author)

  16. Circulating Tumor Cells Detection and Counting in Uveal Melanomas by a Filtration-Based Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cinzia Mazzini

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Uveal melanoma is one of the most deadly diseases in ophthalmology for which markers able to predict the appearance of metastasis are needed. The study investigates the role of circulating tumor cells (CTC as a prognostic factor in this disease. We report the detection of circulating tumor cells by Isolation by Size of Epithelial Tumor cells (ISET in a cohort of 31 uveal melanoma patients: we identified single CTCs or clusters of cells in 17 patients, while the control population, subjects with choroidal nevi, showed no CTC in peripheral blood. The presence of CTCs did not correlate with any clinical and pathological parameter, such as tumor larger basal diameter (LBD, tumor height and TNM. By stratifying patients in groups on the basis of the number of CTC (lower or higher than 10 CTC per 10 mL blood and the presence of CTC clusters we found a significant difference in LBD (p = 0.019, Tumor height (p = 0.048, disease-free and overall survival (p < 0.05. In conclusion, we confirm the role of CTC as a negative prognostic marker in uveal melanoma patients after a long follow-up period. Further characterization of CTC will help understanding uveal melanoma metastasization and improve patient management.

  17. Ozone and membrane filtration based strategies for the treatment of cork processing wastewaters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benitez, F. Javier [Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica, Universidad de Extremadura, 06071 Badajoz (Spain)], E-mail: javben@unex.es; Acero, Juan L.; Leal, Ana I.; Real, Francisco J. [Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica, Universidad de Extremadura, 06071 Badajoz (Spain)

    2008-03-21

    The degradation of the pollutant organic matter present in the cork processing wastewater was studied by combining chemical treatments, which used ozone and some Advanced Oxidation Processes, and membrane filtration procedures. Two schemes were conducted: firstly, a single ozonation stage followed by an UF stage; and secondly, a membrane filtration stage, using different MF and UF membranes, followed by a chemical oxidation stage, where ozone, UV radiation, and the AOPs constituted by ozone plus UV radiation and ozone plus hydrogen peroxide, were used. The membrane filtration stages were carried out in tangential filtration laboratory equipment, and the membranes used were two MF membranes with pores sizes of 0.65 and 0.1 {mu}m, and three UF membranes with molecular weights cut-off of 300, 10, and 5 kDa. The effectiveness of the different stages (conversions in the chemical procedures and rejection coefficients in the membrane processes) were evaluated in terms of several parameters which measure the global pollutant content of the wastewater: COD, absorbance at 254 nm, tannins content, color, and ellagic acid. In the ozonation/UF combined process the following removals were achieved: 100% for ellagic acid and color, 90% for absorbance at 254 nm, more than 80% for tannins, and 42-57% for COD reduction. In the filtration/chemical oxidation combined process, 100% elimination of ellagic acid, more than 90% elimination in color, absorbance at 254 nm and tannins, and removal higher than 80% in COD were reached, which indicates a greater purification power of this combination.

  18. Development of a Filtration-Based Bioluminescence Assay for Detection of Microorganisms in Tea Beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinozaki, Yohei; Igarashi, Toshinori; Harada, Yasuhiro

    2016-03-01

    The market for tea drinks as healthy beverages has been steadily expanding, and ready-to-drink beverages in polyethylene terephthalate bottles have been popular. To more rapidly and accurately test tea beverages bottled in polyethylene terephthalate for microbial contamination, a newly developed filtration device and a washing method with a commercial bioluminescence assay were combined to detect low numbers of bacterial spores, fungal conidia, and ascospores. Washing buffers were formulated with nonionic detergents from the Tween series. Commercially available tea beverages were used to evaluate the filtration capacity of the filtration device, the effect of washing buffers, and the performance of the assay. The assay was tested with serially diluted suspensions of colonies of two bacterial strains, spores of three Bacillus strains, conidia of five fungal strains, and ascospores of four fungal strains. The filtration device enabled filtration of a large sample volume (100 to 500 ml), and the washing buffer significantly decreased the background bioluminescence intensity of tea samples when compared with the no-washing method. Low numbers (1 to 10 CFU/100 ml) of the tested strains of bacteria were detected within 8 to 18 h of cultivation, and fungi were detected within 24 to 48 h. Furthermore, a whole bottle (500 ml) of mixed tea was filtered through the filtration device and microbes were detected. This method could be used for quality control of bottled beverages without preincubation.

  19. Computer simulation of steady-state performance of air-to-air heat pumps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellison, R D; Creswick, F A

    1978-03-01

    A computer model by which the performance of air-to-air heat pumps can be simulated is described. The intended use of the model is to evaluate analytically the improvements in performance that can be effected by various component improvements. The model is based on a trio of independent simulation programs originated at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology Heat Transfer Laboratory. The three programs have been combined so that user intervention and decision making between major steps of the simulation are unnecessary. The program was further modified by substituting a new compressor model and adding a capillary tube model, both of which are described. Performance predicted by the computer model is shown to be in reasonable agreement with performance data observed in our laboratory. Planned modifications by which the utility of the computer model can be enhanced in the future are described. User instructions and a FORTRAN listing of the program are included.

  20. Selection of Air Terminal Device

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter V.

    This paper discusses the selection of the air terminal device for the experiments and numerical prediction in the International Energy Agency Annex 20 work: Air Flow Pattern within Buildings,......This paper discusses the selection of the air terminal device for the experiments and numerical prediction in the International Energy Agency Annex 20 work: Air Flow Pattern within Buildings,...

  1. Interventional radiology robot for CT and MRI guided percutaneous interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hungr, Nikolai; Fouard, Céline; Robert, Adeline; Bricault, Ivan; Cinquin, Philippe

    2011-01-01

    This paper introduces a new patient-mounted CT and MRI guided interventional radiology robot for percutaneous needle interventions. The 5 DOF robot uses ultrasonic motors and pneumatics to position the needle and then insert it progressively. The needle position and inclination can be registered in the images using two strategically placed fiducials visible in both imaging modalities. A first prototype is presented and described in terms of its sterilization, CT and MRI compatibility, and precision. Tests showed that 1) it is entirely sterilizable with hydrogen peroxide gas, 2) no image artifacts or deformations are noticeable in the CT and MRI images, 3) does not affect the SNR of MR images, and 4) its mechanical error is less than 5mm.

  2. Beef HACCP: intervention and non-intervention systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolton, D J; Doherty, A M; Sheridan, J J

    2001-05-21

    While there are several generic beef HACCP documents available to the beef industry, these lack sufficient detail to be of any use other than as a general guide to HACCP. A document which clearly identifies and provides a sound scientific basis for potential critical control points (CCPs') and details critical limits, monitoring and corrective actions is clearly required. The objective of this paper is to provide such information. A detailed description of CCPs' for two different HACCP systems (an intervention and a non-intervention system) are presented and the advantages and disadvantages of each are discussed. Individual beef plants may then make an informed choice as to which HACCP system is most suitable for them and have all the specific information required for effective implementation.

  3. Occupational stress and stress prevention in air traffic control

    OpenAIRE

    Costa, Giovanni

    1996-01-01

    The paper indicates a number of preventive measures targeted to the elimination of the causes of stress, rather than the treatment of its effects, and how these measures can become an integral part of the necessary organizational development and eventually pay for themselves. The paper has seven chapters. 1. Introduction - What is stress? - The sources of stress in air traffic control - The consequences on health and well-being 2. How to prevent stress at work 3. Intervention on the external ...

  4. Computers in Air Defence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. V.S. Rao

    1987-10-01

    Full Text Available With man's mastery over the third dimension - the near atmosphere and space- it has become increasingly necessary to protect oneself not merely from attacks from land and the sea but, more importantly, from attacks from the air. This was recognised even during the World War II and a rudimentary air defence capability was sought to be established; by the manul (visual surveillance and the anti-aircraft guns. The advent of radar signified a major advance in air defence technology and techniques. Rather than depend on visual observation and the hazards and limitations thereof, it became possible with radar to detect the presence of flying objects at much great distances. The PPI display of a conventional air-surveillance radar permits an operator to scan the sky for several hundreds of kilometers all around. Early radar-based air defence systems were dependent on human observation and decision making for detecting targets, identifying them, deciding on interception strategy and for recovering the interceptor after completion of his mission. This was feasible because, with a radar of between 200 to 400 kilometers and aircraft speeds in the range of 500 kilometers per hour, upto 30 minutes warning was available before the target was overhead.

  5. Urban Air Pollution in India

    OpenAIRE

    Narain, Urvashi

    2008-01-01

    This article describes the main efforts undertaken to stem the growth of air pollution in Indian cities. We begin by examining trends in air quality across the country. This is followed by a description of the legal and institutional framework and policies for controlling air pollution in India. Next we report on efforts to improve air quality in Delhi. We conclude by describing recent actions to control air pollution in cities other than Delhi.

  6. AirPort Extreme

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    AirPort Extreme是基于IEEE802.11g无线通讯协议的54Mbps的无线路由机站,它提供了比802.11b标准几乎快5倍以上的连接速率。AirPort Extreme基站可以同时为50台Mac和PC机用户服务。它支持从无线打印至带有USB接口或以太网接口的打印机,支持无线桥接技术,并同时提供了一整套强大的管理工具。除此之外,AirPort Extreme基站还配有一个内建防火墙,

  7. Urban Air Pollution Problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sivertsen, B.

    1995-09-01

    This document focuses on the specific problems of urban air pollution related to emissions, urban climate, meteorology, smog potential, specific locations, air pollution measurements and trends. Examples are given with cases from European cities in particular. The north south differences, coastal and inland problems and data from various parts of Europe are presented. Global trends and results from the UNEP programme are used to illustrate the magnitude of the problem. Special emphasis is placed on the impact of different sources and their importance in selected cities. Different types of atmospheric dispersion models, their development and use, is outlined. The importance of local and regional meteorological data for explanation purposes and for estimating and forecasting urban air quality is presented. Finally, monitoring programmes, mapping, impact assessment and optimum abatement strategy planning are illustrated with examples from different areas in the world. 9 refs., 56 figs., 1 table

  8. Psychosocial interventions for premature ejaculation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara Melnik

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Premature ejaculation (PE is a very common sexual dysfunction among patients, and with varying prevalence estimates ranging from 3% to 20%. Although psychological issues are present in most patients with premature PE, as a cause or as a consequence, research on the effects of psychological approaches for PE has in general not been controlled or randomised and is lacking in long-term follow up. OBJECTIVE: To assess the efficacy of psychosocial interventions for PE. CRITERIA FOR CONSIDERING STUDIES FOR THIS REVIEW: Trials were searched in computerized general and specialized databases, such as: MEDLINE by PubMed (1966 to 2010; PsycINFO (1974 to 2010; EMBASE (1980 to 2010; LILACS (1982 to 2010; the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (Cochrane Library, 2010; and by checking bibliographies, and contacting manufacturers and researchers. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised or quasi-randomised controlled trials evaluating psychosocial interventions compared with different psychosocial interventions, pharmacological interventions, waiting list, or no treatment for PE. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Information on patients, interventions, and outcomes was extracted by at least two independent reviewers using a standard form. The primary outcome measure for comparing the effects of psychosocial interventions to waiting list and standard medications was improvement in IELT (i.e., time from vaginal penetration to ejaculation. The secondary outcome was change in validated PE questionnaires. MAIN RESULTS: In one study behavioral therapy (BT was significantly better than waiting list for duration of intercourse (MD (mean difference 407.90 seconds, 95% CI 302.42 to 513.38, and couples' sexual satisfaction (MD -26.10, CI -50.48 to -1.72. BT was also significantly better for a new functional-sexological treatment (FS (MD 412.00 seconds, 95% CI 305.88 to 518.12, change over time in subjective perception of duration of intercourse (Women: MD 2

  9. Risk reduction: perioperative smoking intervention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Ann; Tønnesen, Hanne

    2006-01-01

    of postoperative intensive care admission. Even passive smoking is associated with increased risk at operation. Preoperative smoking intervention 6-8 weeks before surgery can reduce the complications risk significantly. Four weeks of abstinence from smoking seems to improve wound healing. An intensive, individual......Smoking is a well-known risk factor for perioperative complications. Smokers experience an increased incidence of respiratory complications during anaesthesia and an increased risk of postoperative cardiopulmonary complications, infections and impaired wound healing. Smokers have a greater risk...... approach to smoking intervention results in a significantly better postoperative outcome. Future research should focus upon the effect of a shorter period of preoperative smoking cessation. All smokers admitted for surgery should be informed of the increased risk, recommended preoperative smoking cessation...

  10. Risk reduction: perioperative smoking intervention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Ann; Tønnesen, Hanne

    2006-01-01

    Smoking is a well-known risk factor for perioperative complications. Smokers experience an increased incidence of respiratory complications during anaesthesia and an increased risk of postoperative cardiopulmonary complications, infections and impaired wound healing. Smokers have a greater risk...... of postoperative intensive care admission. Even passive smoking is associated with increased risk at operation. Preoperative smoking intervention 6-8 weeks before surgery can reduce the complications risk significantly. Four weeks of abstinence from smoking seems to improve wound healing. An intensive, individual...... approach to smoking intervention results in a significantly better postoperative outcome. Future research should focus upon the effect of a shorter period of preoperative smoking cessation. All smokers admitted for surgery should be informed of the increased risk, recommended preoperative smoking cessation...

  11. Society of NeuroInterventional Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... membership and to apply online. SNIS Mission The Society of NeuroInterventional Surgery is dedicated to excellence in ... 703-691-2272 Fax 703-537-0650 © 2016 Society of NeuroInterventional Surgery. All Rights Reserved.

  12. Interventions for cough in cancer.

    OpenAIRE

    Molassiotis, Alex; Bailey, Chris; Caress, Ann; Brunton, Lisa; Smith, Jacky

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cough is a common symptom in patients with malignancies, especially in patients with lung cancer. Cough is not well controlled in clinical practice and clinicians have few management options to treat it. OBJECTIVES: The primary objective of this review was to determine the effectiveness of interventions, both pharmacological and non-pharmacological, (other than chemotherapy and external beam radiotherapy) in the management of cough in malignant disease (especially in lung cancer)....

  13. Population-wide preventive interventions for reducing the burden of chronic respiratory disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramson, M J; Koplin, J; Hoy, R; Dharmage, S C

    2015-09-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and asthma impose a substantial burden of disease. This narrative review focuses on potential population-wide interventions that are likely to have an impact on these diseases. The developmental origins of adult disease commence in utero, with maternal nutrition being of particular interest. However, to date, trials of maternal allergen avoidance, dietary supplementation or probiotics have not shown consistent protective effects against asthma. Poor indoor air quality, especially from biomass fuels as well as second-hand tobacco smoke, is a well-recognised risk factor for chronic respiratory diseases. This can be modified by cleaner fuels, cooking stoves or heaters, and improved ventilation. Although allergens are a risk factor for childhood asthma, the results of interventions to reduce exposures have been disappointing. Traffic-related air pollution is associated with an increased incidence of asthma in children. Primary prevention of the adverse effects of air pollution has focused on the development of ambient air quality guidelines, but enforcement remains a challenge in many countries. Occupational asthma may be induced by sensitisers or irritants in the workplace. Prevention involves eliminating the agent or reducing exposure as far as possible, which is more effective than respiratory protective equipment. Smoking cessation remains a key proven preventive strategy for chronic respiratory diseases. There is now an international framework for tobacco control, and recent innovations include plain packaging of tobacco. Chronic respiratory diseases can be substantially prevented by the above population-wide interventions.

  14. Air the excellent canopy

    CERN Document Server

    Fahy, F

    2013-01-01

    We take it for granted, but without it we perish and if we continue to abuse it, it may kill us in the end. This fascinating text provides an understanding and appreciation of the role that air plays in our environment and its importance in relation to human life and technology. Aimed at those who are scientifically curious but who have no specialist training, it contains no mathematical equations and relies upon the qualitative descriptions and analogies to explain the more technical parts of the text together with simple home experiments to illustrate a range of air-based phenomena. Liberall

  15. Image guided percutaneous splenic interventions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Mandeep [Department of Radiodiagnosis, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh 160012 (India)], E-mail: mandykang2005@yahoo.com; Kalra, Naveen; Gulati, Madhu; Lal, Anupam; Kochhar, Rohit [Department of Radiodiagnosis, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh 160012 (India); Rajwanshi, Arvind [Department of Cytology, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh 160012 (India)

    2007-10-15

    Aim: The objective of this study is to evaluate the efficacy and safety of image-guided percutaneous splenic interventions as diagnostic or therapeutic procedures. Materials and methods: We performed a retrospective review of our interventional records from July 2001 to June 2006. Ninety-five image-guided percutaneous splenic interventions were performed after informed consent in 89 patients: 64 men and 25 women who ranged in age from 5 months to 71 years (mean, 38.4 years) under ultrasound (n = 93) or CT (n = 2) guidance. The procedures performed were fine needle aspiration biopsy of focal splenic lesions (n = 78) and aspiration (n = 10) or percutaneous catheter drainage of a splenic abscess (n = 7). Results: Splenic fine needle aspiration biopsy was successful in 62 (83.78%) of 74 patients with benign lesions diagnosed in 43 (58.1%) and malignancy in 19 (25.67%) patients. The most common pathologies included tuberculosis (26 patients, 35.13%) and lymphoma (14 patients, 18.91%). Therapeutic aspiration or pigtail catheter drainage was successful in all (100%) patients. There were no major complications. Conclusions: Image-guided splenic fine needle aspiration biopsy is a safe and accurate technique that can provide a definitive diagnosis in most patients with focal lesions in the spleen. This study also suggests that image-guided percutaneous aspiration or catheter drainage of splenic abscesses is a safe and effective alternative to surgery.

  16. Interventional treatments for hepatocellular carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong-Song Guan; Yuan Liu

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most frequent primary malignant tumors in the world. Hepatic resection and liver transplantation are considered optimal for potential treatment of HCC. However, only 20%of HCCs can be surgically treated. And most of surgically-noneligible patients have to receive interventional managements including local ablation and transarterial chemoembolization (TACE). In this paper, we review the interventional treatments of HCC. DATA SOURCES:A literature search of PubMed database was conducted and research articles were reviewed. RESULTS: Percutaneous ethanol injection (PEI) is usually applied to small HCC for a complete necrosis. Radiofrequency ablation, an alternative to PEI, also causes tumor necrosis and needs fewer times of ablation. Other methods such as acetic acid injection, laser, microwave, etc have enriched local ablation for HCC. High intensity focus ultrasound (HIFU) is thought to be promising. TACE, another common modality, can improve the survival rate of patients with HCC. The newly developed embolic agents and adjuvant rAd-p53 gene therapy are well reported. CONCLUSIONS:Surgically-noneligible HCC can be treated with interventional procedures. Each method has its advantages and disadvantages. However, it is still pressing to develop ablative methods as well as new embolic agents for a better prognosis of HCC.

  17. Radiological interventions in malignant biliary obstruction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kumble Seetharama Madhusudhan; Shivanand Gamanagatti; Deep Narayan Srivastava; Arun Kumar Gupta

    2016-01-01

    Malignant biliary obstruction is commonly caused by gall bladder carcinoma, cholangiocarcinoma and metastatic nodes. Percutaneous interventions play an important role in managing these patients. Biliary drainage, which forms the major bulk of radiological interventions, can be pal iative in inoperable patients or pre-operative to improve liver function prior to surgery. Other interventions include cholecystostomy and radiofrequency ablation. We present here the indications, contraindications, technique and complications of the radiological interventions performed in patients with malignant biliary obstruction.

  18. Four Useful Interventions in Brief Family Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Shazer, Steve; Molnar, Alex

    1984-01-01

    Describes four interventions in brief family therapy, illustrated by case examples. Interventions are aimed at helping clients solve problems, and three assumptions about the nature of change are described. Results of these interventions suggest there is no clinical distinction between clients' perceived change and observed change. (JAC)

  19. Air movement - good or bad?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toftum, Jørn

    2004-01-01

    Air movement - good or bad? The question can only be answered by those who are exposed when they are exposed. Human perception of air movement depends on environmental factors including air velocity, air velocity fluctuations, air temperature, and personal factors such as overall thermal sensation...... and activity level. Even for the same individual, sensitivity to air movement may change from day to day as a result of e.g. different levels of fatigue. Based on existing literature, the current paper summarizes factors influencing the human perception of air movement and attempts to specify in general terms...... influences the subjective perception of air movement. With occupants feeling warmer than neutral, at temperatures above 23oC or at raised activity levels, humans generally do not feel draught at air velocities typical for indoor environments (up to around 0.4 m/s). In the higher temperature range, very high...

  20. STATE INTERVENTION AND MACROECONOMIC MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljubiša Vladušić

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The monetarists are opponents of government intervention and supporters of free market processes. Keynesians are, conversely, supporters and advocates of government intervention and opponents of uncontrolled operation of the market mechanism. As opponents of government intervention, the monetarists do not agree that it should take countercyclical fiscal policy which can cause greater increase in expenditures of the public sector during the recession, but spending cuts in the period of expansion and that, consequently, the public expenditures continue to increase. However, Tobin, indicating a negative attitude, claims that inflation cannot be used as a reason to reduce the budget, if fiscal policy has little or no effect on income. Undesirability of countercyclical fiscal policy is a logical consequence of the monetarist views on the stability of the sector and better performance of the free market of government intervention in social reproduction. Rule on a constant rate of monetary expansion eliminates the need for conducting discretionary policy, as the Phillips curve, previously defined, does not allow an optimal combination of inflation and unemployment. Therefore, the use of money (and interest rates and bank loans, as the goal of monetary policy provides economic policy makers to focus on managing variability (i.e. concentrate to money supply, which is beyond the scope of operation of the market, on the one hand, and to let determining the interest rates of bank loans and the free market, on the other hand. Finally, monetarists are extremely concerned about the multiple connections between inflation and expansion of the public sector, for three reasons: first, inflation increases the share of the public sector (and exacts an increase in public expenditure, if a progressive tax system is functioning; second, combating inflation can only indirectly limit the expenditure of the public sector, as the government expenditures partly increase by

  1. Monitoring Indoor Air Quality for Enhanced Occupational Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitarma, Rui; Marques, Gonçalo; Ferreira, Bárbara Roque

    2017-02-01

    Indoor environments are characterized by several pollutant sources. Because people spend more than 90% of their time in indoor environments, several studies have pointed out the impact of indoor air quality on the etiopathogenesis of a wide number of non-specific symptoms which characterizes the "Sick Building Syndrome", involving the skin, the upper and lower respiratory tract, the eyes and the nervous system, as well as many building related diseases. Thus, indoor air quality (IAQ) is recognized as an important factor to be controlled for the occupants' health and comfort. The majority of the monitoring systems presently available is very expensive and only allow to collect random samples. This work describes the system (iAQ), a low-cost indoor air quality monitoring wireless sensor network system, developed using Arduino, XBee modules and micro sensors, for storage and availability of monitoring data on a web portal in real time. Five micro sensors of environmental parameters (air temperature, humidity, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide and luminosity) were used. Other sensors can be added for monitoring specific pollutants. The results reveal that the system can provide an effective indoor air quality assessment to prevent exposure risk. In fact, the indoor air quality may be extremely different compared to what is expected for a quality living environment. Systems like this would have benefit as public health interventions to reduce the burden of symptoms and diseases related to "sick buildings".

  2. Russia air management program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pace, T.G. [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, NC (United States); Markin, S. [Ministry of Environmental Protection and Natural Resources, Moscow (Sweden); Kosenkova, S.V. [Volgograd Environmental Services Administration, Volgograd (Russian Federation)

    1995-12-31

    The Russia Air Management Program is in the second year of a four-year cooperative program between the Russian Ministry of Environmental Protection and Natural Resources (MEPNR) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to improve national institutions, policies, and practices for air quality management in Russia. This program is part of the Environmental Policy and Technology project being conducted by the U.S. Agency for International Development. The Russia Air Management Program will pilot the application of potential air program improvements in the important industrial City of Volgograd which will enable the development, practical demonstration and evaluation of alternative approaches for improving AQM policies and practices in Russia. Volgograd has a progressive and environmentally enlightened local government, a diverse industrial base and a relatively healthy economy. It is located south of Moscow on the Volga River and was proposed by the Ministry of Environmental Protection and Natural Resources. It was selected after a site visit and a series of discussions with the Ministry, Volgograd officials, the World Bank and the EPA. Following the pilot, RAMP will work to facilitate implementation of selected parts of the pilot in other areas of Russia using training, technology transfer, and public awareness. (author)

  3. Air Structures: Inflatable Alternatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valerio, Joseph M.; And Others

    1973-01-01

    Describes and evaluates several avant garde'' examples of air structures. Included are a soft'' child's playpen, a pneudome that employs a water ballast for anchoring, a one-acre enclosed campus, an instant city'' constructed for an industrial design conference, and the Fuji Pavilion, at Expo '70 in Osaka, Japan, that was large enough to cover…

  4. Mid-air Acrobatics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Two new aerobatic demonstration teams take to the skies On September 1,two new aerobatic demonstration teams,the Sky Wing and the Red Falcon,debuted at an air show held in Changchun,capital of northeast China’s Jilin Province.

  5. Hexane Air Combustion

    CERN Document Server

    Boettcher, Philipp A; Shepherd, Joseph E

    2010-01-01

    Hot surface ignition and subsequent flame propagation of premixed n-hexane air mixtures are shown in this fluid dynamics video. High speed schlieren photography revealed 3 distinct behaviors of ignition and propagation as a function of mixture composition and initial pressure.

  6. Images in the Air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riveros, H. G.; Rosenberger, Franz

    2012-01-01

    This article discusses two "magic tricks" in terms of underlying optical principles. The first trick is new and produces a "ghost" in the air, and the second is the classical real image produced with two parabolic mirrors. (Contains 2 figure and 6 photos.)

  7. Air Blast Calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-01

    gauges at this point are still inside the explosive fireball (where the pressure time histories are dramatically influenced by the propagating...outside of the explosive fireball (since no evidence of an air-product interface is detected in any of the pressure time histories at this point

  8. Learning AirWatch

    CERN Document Server

    Dunkerley, Mark

    2015-01-01

    If you are a technical professional who wants to dive deeper into the functionality offered by AirWatch or manage the solution, then this book will help you choose the best set of configuration, device management, and monitoring options that you can use to effectively manage your EMM implementation.

  9. Tribal Air Quality Monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, Dennis

    2001-01-01

    The Institute for Tribal Environmental Professionals (ITEP) (Flagstaff, Arizona) provides training and support for tribal professionals in the technical job skills needed for air quality monitoring and other environmental management tasks. ITEP also arranges internships, job placements, and hands-on training opportunities and supports an…

  10. Indoor Air Quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selman, Ayser Dawod; Heiselberg, Per

    Overall purpose of the research is to provide an overview of the relevance and importance of various defined Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) parameters in a European perspective. Based on the report it should be possible to prioritize which countries to target for further activities as well as it should...

  11. Air Distribution in Rooms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter V.

    The research on air distribution in rooms is often done as full-size investigations, scale-model investigations or by Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). New activities have taken place within all three areas and this paper draws comparisons between the different methods. The outcome of the l...

  12. Comparing toxic air pollutant programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hawkins, S.C. [ECKENFELDER Inc., Greenville, SC (United States)

    1997-05-01

    This article compares state and federal toxic air pollutant programs. The Clean Air Act Ammendments created a program for the control of Hazardous Air Pollutants based on the establishment of control technology standards. State toxic programs can be classified into two categories: control technology-based and ambient concentration-based. Many states have opened to implement the MACT standards while enforcing their own state air toxics programs. Specific topics discussed include the following: the Federal air toxics program; existing state regulations; New Jersey Air Toxic Program; New York Toxics program.

  13. Living to the fullest! Mindfulness-based interventions as public mental health interventions for depression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pots, Wendy Theresia Maria

    2016-01-01

    Interventions that are easily available, attractive and feasible help to broaden the effect public mental health interventions can have on depression. In this thesis, a specific subset of Mindfulness-based Interventions (MBIs) as public mental health interventions for people with mild to moderate de

  14. The Effectiveness and Precision of Intervention Fidelity Measures in Preschool Intervention Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darrow, Catherine L.

    2013-01-01

    A quantifiable measure of teachers' intervention fidelity when delivering curriculum-based interventions allows researchers to interpret the effectiveness of the curricula under scrutiny. Fidelity measures, however, must accurately represent the critical components of an intervention to confirm that the intervention was delivered as intended and…

  15. Molecular Air Data Clear Air Turbulence Sensor: MADCAT Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Clear air turbulence (CAT), often referred to as "air pockets," is attributed to Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities at altitudes generally above 18,000ft, often in the...

  16. Nitrogen fluorescence in air for observing extensive air showers

    CERN Document Server

    Keilhauer, B; Fraga, M; Matthews, J; Sakaki, N; Tameda, Y; Tsunesada, Y; Ulrich, A

    2012-01-01

    Extensive air showers initiate the fluorescence emissions from nitrogen molecules in air. The UV-light is emitted isotropically and can be used for observing the longitudinal development of extensive air showers in the atmosphere over tenth of kilometers. This measurement technique is well-established since it is exploited for many decades by several cosmic ray experiments. However, a fundamental aspect of the air shower analyses is the description of the fluorescence emission in dependence on varying atmospheric conditions. Different fluorescence yields affect directly the energy scaling of air shower reconstruction. In order to explore the various details of the nitrogen fluorescence emission in air, a few experimental groups have been performing dedicated measurements over the last decade. Most of the measurements are now finished. These experimental groups have been discussing their techniques and results in a series of \\emph{Air Fluorescence Workshops} commenced in 2002. At the 8$^{\\rm{th}}$ Air Fluoresc...

  17. Molecular Air Data Clear Air Turbulence Sensor: MADCAT Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Clear air turbulence (CAT), often referred to as "air pockets," is attributed to Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities at altitudes usually above 18,000ft, often without...

  18. Air-Coupled Vibrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Döring, D.; Solodov, I.; Busse, G.

    Sound and ultrasound in air are the products of a multitude of different processes and thus can be favorable or undesirable phenomena. Development of experimental tools for non-invasive measurements and imaging of airborne sound fields is of importance for linear and nonlinear nondestructive material testing as well as noise control in industrial or civil engineering applications. One possible solution is based on acousto-optic interaction, like light diffraction imaging. The diffraction approach usually requires a sophisticated setup with fine optical alignment barely applicable in industrial environment. This paper focuses on the application of the robust experimental tool of scanning laser vibrometry, which utilizes commercial off-the-shelf equipment. The imaging technique of air-coupled vibrometry (ACV) is based on the modulation of the optical path length by the acoustic pressure of the sound wave. The theoretical considerations focus on the analysis of acousto-optical phase modulation. The sensitivity of the ACV in detecting vibration velocity was estimated as ~1 mm/s. The ACV applications to imaging of linear airborne fields are demonstrated for leaky wave propagation and measurements of ultrasonic air-coupled transducers. For higher-intensity ultrasound, the classical nonlinear effect of the second harmonic generation was measured in air. Another nonlinear application includes a direct observation of the nonlinear air-coupled emission (NACE) from the damaged areas in solid materials. The source of the NACE is shown to be strongly localized around the damage and proposed as a nonlinear "tag" to discern and image the defects.

  19. Health and Climate-Relevant Pollutant Concentrations from a Carbon-Finance Approved Cookstove Intervention in Rural India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aung, Ther W; Jain, Grishma; Sethuraman, Karthik; Baumgartner, Jill; Reynolds, Conor; Grieshop, Andrew P; Marshall, Julian D; Brauer, Michael

    2016-07-05

    Efforts to introduce more efficient stoves increasingly leverage carbon-finance to scale up dissemination of interventions. We conducted a randomized intervention study to evaluate a Clean Development Mechanism approved stove replacement impact on fuelwood usage, and climate and health-relevant air pollutants. We randomly assigned 187 households to either receive the intervention or to continue using traditional stoves. Measurements of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and absorbance were conducted in cooking areas, village center and at upwind background site. There were minor and overlapping seasonal differences (post- minus preintervention change) between control and intervention groups for median (95% CI) fuel use (-0.60 (-1.02, -0.22) vs -0.52 (-1.07, 0.00) kg day(-1)), and 24 h absorbance (35 (18, 60) vs 36 (22, 50) × 10(-6) m(-1)); for 24 h PM2.5, there was a higher (139 (61,229) vs 73(-6, 156) μg m(-3))) increase in control compared to intervention homes between the two seasons. Forty percent of the intervention homes continued using traditional stoves. For intervention homes, absorbance-to-mass ratios suggest a higher proportion of black carbon in PM2.5 emitted from intervention compared with traditional stoves. Absent of field-based evaluation, stove interventions may be pursued that fail to realize expected carbon reductions or anticipated health and climate cobenefits.

  20. Nonpathologizing trauma interventions in abnormal psychology courses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoover, Stephanie M; Luchner, Andrew F; Pickett, Rachel F

    2016-01-01

    Because abnormal psychology courses presuppose a focus on pathological human functioning, nonpathologizing interventions within these classes are particularly powerful and can reach survivors, bystanders, and perpetrators. Interventions are needed to improve the social response to trauma on college campuses. By applying psychodynamic and feminist multicultural theory, instructors can deliver nonpathologizing interventions about trauma and trauma response within these classes. We recommend class-based interventions with the following aims: (a) intentionally using nonpathologizing language, (b) normalizing trauma responses, (c) subjectively defining trauma, (d) challenging secondary victimization, and (e) questioning the delineation of abnormal and normal. The recommendations promote implications for instructor self-reflection, therapy interventions, and future research.

  1. Guide for intervention levels in radiological accidents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jong Tai; Khang, Byung Oui; Lee, Goan Yup; Han, Gee Yang [Korea Atomic Energy Resesrch Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-03-15

    Based on IAEA SS109 and ICRP63, intervention levels and action levels are derived using cost-benefit approach method. Intervention levels are optimized so that the net benefit from protective measures will be maximized. Evacuation, sheltering, relocation, permanent resettlement, administration of stable iodine and food restriction are included in protective measures. Intervention levels are calculated using site specific parameters in Korea. As a results of calculation, general intervention levels are similar to IAEA recommendation and action levels for food restriction are a little higher than IAEA recommendation and Japan guide. Guide on intervention levels in Korea is also suggested based on the calculated results.

  2. Air-cooled, hydrogen-air fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelekhin, Alexander B. (Inventor); Bushnell, Calvin L. (Inventor); Pien, Michael S. (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    An air-cooled, hydrogen-air solid polymer electrolyte (SPE) fuel cell with a membrane electrode assembly operatively associated with a fluid flow plate having at least one plate cooling channel extending through the plate and at least one air distribution hole extending from a surface of the cathode flow field into the plate cooling channel.

  3. Nightfall: Machine Autonomy in Air-to-Air Combat

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Debashis Chanda et al., “Large-Area Flexible 3D Optical Negative Index Metamaterial Formed by Nanotransfer Printing,” Nature Nanotechnology 6, no. 7 (July...article restricts the discussion to air-to-air applications because they present an extremely sterile environment compared to the air-to-ground (surface

  4. A Breath of Fresh Air: Addressing Indoor Air Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palliser, Janna

    2011-01-01

    Indoor air pollution refers to "chemical, biological, and physical contamination of indoor air," which may result in adverse health effects (OECD 2003). The causes, sources, and types of indoor air pollutants will be addressed in this article, as well as health effects and how to reduce exposure. Learning more about potential pollutants in home…

  5. EN EL AIRE / In the air

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés López Fernández

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN En el aire es un viaje a la primera mitad del siglo XX que nos tratará de acercar la frescura y oportunidad de las calles corredor y los jardines en la ciudad vertical. Se inicia en 1909 en Nueva York, con la publicación por la revista Life de La Torre del Globo, se acerca al Inmueble-Villas y al Plan Obus para Argel de Le Corbusier, y finaliza en 1952 con el proyecto para el conjunto residencial de Golden Lane en Londres de A. y P. Smithson. Fragmentos para la ciudad vertical que se construía sobre papel, tras el espejo, paralela en el tiempo, pero muy distinta a la ciudad real, con el objetivo entre otros de integrar arquitectura y naturaleza. Esas propuestas siguen teniendo hoy un gran valor, en un panorama en que el espacio público ligado a la vivienda colectiva, prácticamente ha desaparecido, y el esfuerzo que se demanda al arquitecto se centra, en tejer a modo de encaje de bolillos, una fachada que envuelva un programa de vivienda, funcional y espacialmente obsoleto.SUMMARY In the air, is a journey to the first half of the twentieth century that will try to bring us to the freshness and opportunity of the corridor streets and gardens in the vertical city. It begins in 1909 in New York, with the publication in Life magazine of the Globe Tower, it approaches the Immeubles-Villas and Plan Obus for Algiers by Le Corbusier, and ends in 1952 with the project for the Golden Lane Estate residential complex in London, by A. and P. Smithson. Fragments for the vertical city that was constructed on paper, behind the mirror, parallel in time, but was very different from the real city, with the aim, inter alia, of integrating architecture and nature. These proposals continue to have great value today, in a scenario where the public space linked to the collective home has virtually disappeared, and the effort that is demanded of the architect focuses on weaving a facade like bobbin lace around a functionally and spatially obsolete housing

  6. TEACHERS’ PERCEPTIONS OF ANTI-BULLYING INTERVENTIONS AND THE TYPES OF BULLYING EACH INTERVENTION PREVENTS

    OpenAIRE

    EMMA ELISE ROBERTS

    2011-01-01

    Teachers have a central role in the management and prevention of bullying within schools and are in turn involved in the implementation of anti-bullying interventions (Kochenderfer-Ladd & Pelletier, 2008). Therefore an assessment of teachers’ attitudes towards bullying interventions is needed to determine how helpful they perceived interventions to be. This study investigated teachers’ attitudes towards anti-bullying interventions and the types of bullying they perceived the interventions wou...

  7. Bivalirudin in percutaneous coronary intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sam J Lehman

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Sam J Lehman, Derek P ChewDepartment of Medicine, Flinders University, South Australia, AustraliaAbstract: Bivalirudin is a member of the direct thrombin inhibitor group of anticoagulants. It has been evaluated as an alternative to unfractionated and low-molecular-weight heparins in the settings of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI and acute coronary syndrome (ACS. Results of clinical trials to date suggest bivalirudin is a viable alternative to the use of a heparin combined with a glycoprotein (GP IIb/IIIa inhibitor in these settings. Thrombin has a central role in coagulation and platelet activation in ACS and during PCI. Its direct inhibition is an attractive target for therapy in these settings. Bivalirudin is a 20 amino acid polypeptide hirudin analog. It displays bivalent and reversible binding to the thrombin molecule, inhibiting its action. Direct inhibition of thrombin with bivalirudin has theoretical pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic advantages over the indirect anticoagulants. A reduction in rates of bleeding without loss of anti-thrombotic efficacy has been a consistent finding across multiple clinical trials. There may be economic benefits to the use of bivalirudin if it permits a lower rate of use of the GP IIb/IIIa inhibitors. This article reviews the pharmacology of bivalirudin and clinical trial evidence to date. There are now data from multiple clinical trials and meta-analyses in the setting of ACS and PCI. Early results from the acute catheterization and urgent intervention strategy (ACUITY trial are discussed. Keywords: bivalirudin, direct thrombin inhibitor, acute coronary syndrome, percutaneous coronary intervention

  8. Neurolaw and Direct Brain Interventions

    OpenAIRE

    Vincent, N.A.

    2012-01-01

    This issue of Criminal Law and Philosophy contains three papers on a topic of increasing importance within the field of ‘‘neurolaw’’—namely, the implications for criminal law of direct brain intervention based mind altering techniques (DBI’s). To locate these papers’ topic within a broader context, I begin with an overview of some prominent topics in the field of neurolaw, where possible providing some references to relevant literature. The specific questions asked by the three authors, as we...

  9. Skin dosimetry of patients during interventional cardiology procedures in the Czech Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukupova, Lucie; Novak, Leos

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the study is to determine distribution of air kerma-area product, fluoro time and number of frames values for the two most frequent procedures in the interventional cardiology, to reconstruct skin dose distributions for some patients undergoing coronarography and percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty procedures. Patient dose data were obtained from X-ray unit dose monitoring software report from one hospital and the reconstructions were performed in MATLAB. Dependence of maximum skin dose on air kerma-area product, fluoro time and number of frames was determined to assess trigger levels of these quantities, which can indicate possible exceeding of the 2 Gy skin dose threshold.

  10. Studies efficiency solar air collector

    OpenAIRE

    YORKIN SODIKOVICH ABBASOV; MIRSOLI ODILJANOVICH UZBEKOV

    2016-01-01

    The article presents an analysis of the existing solar air collectors. A description of the design and the results of experimental studies on the effectiveness of the solar air collector with an absorber of from metal shavings.

  11. Air Compliance Complaint Database (ACCD)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — THIS DATA ASSET NO LONGER ACTIVE: This is metadata documentation for the Region 7 Air Compliance Complaint Database (ACCD) which logs all air pollution complaints...

  12. Introduction to Indoor Air Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jump to main content US EPA United States Environmental Protection Agency Search Search Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) Share ... indoor air pollution. For this reason, it is important to pay attention to the time and place ...

  13. Air Markets Program Data (AMPD)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Air Markets Program Data tool allows users to search EPA data to answer scientific, general, policy, and regulatory questions about industry emissions. Air...

  14. Aluminum/air electrochemical cells

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Lei; 王雷

    2014-01-01

    Aluminum (Al) is a very promising energy carrier given its high capacity and energy density, low cost, earth abundance and environmental benignity. The Al/air battery as a kind of metal/air electrochemical cell attracts tremendous attention. Traditional Al/air batteries suffer from the self-corrosion and related safety problems. In this work, three new approaches were investigated to tackle these challenges and to develop high-performance Al/air cells: (1) incorporate an additional hydrogen/a...

  15. Iron-Air Rechargeable Battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayan, Sri R. (Inventor); Prakash, G.K. Surya (Inventor); Kindler, Andrew (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    Embodiments include an iron-air rechargeable battery having a composite electrode including an iron electrode and a hydrogen electrode integrated therewith. An air electrode is spaced from the iron electrode and an electrolyte is provided in contact with the air electrode and the iron electrodes. Various additives and catalysts are disclosed with respect to the iron electrode, air electrode, and electrolyte for increasing battery efficiency and cycle life.

  16. Ambient air pollution, climate change, and population health in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kan, Haidong; Chen, Renjie; Tong, Shilu

    2012-07-01

    As the largest developing country, China has been changing rapidly over the last three decades and its economic expansion is largely driven by the use of fossil fuels, which leads to a dramatic increase in emissions of both ambient air pollutants and greenhouse gases (GHGs). China is now facing the worst air pollution problem in the world, and is also the largest emitter of carbon dioxide. A number of epidemiological studies on air pollution and population health have been conducted in China, using time-series, case-crossover, cross-sectional, cohort, panel or intervention designs. The increased health risks observed among Chinese population are somewhat lower in magnitude, per amount of pollution, than the risks found in developed countries. However, the importance of these increased health risks is greater than that in North America or Europe, because the levels of air pollution in China are very high in general and Chinese population accounts for more than one fourth of the world's totals. Meanwhile, evidence is mounting that climate change has already affected human health directly and indirectly in China, including mortality from extreme weather events; changes in air and water quality; and changes in the ecology of infectious diseases. If China acts to reduce the combustion of fossil fuels and the resultant air pollution, it will reap not only the health benefits associated with improvement of air quality but also the reduced GHG emissions. Consideration of the health impact of air pollution and climate change can help the Chinese government move forward towards sustainable development with appropriate urgency.

  17. Hot Air Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Stouffs

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Invented in 1816, the hot-air engines have known significant commercial success in the nineteenth century, before falling into disuse. Nowadays they enjoy a renewed interest for some specific applications. The "hot-air engines" family is made up of two groups: Stirling engines and Ericsson engines. The operating principle of Stirling and Ericsson engines, their troubled history, their advantages and their niche applications are briefly presented, especially in the field of micro-combined heat and power, solar energy conversion and biomass energy conversion. The design of an open cycle Ericsson engine for solar application is proposed. A first prototype of the hot part of the engine has been built and tested. Experimental results are presented.

  18. Air transport system

    CERN Document Server

    Schmitt, Dieter

    2016-01-01

    The book addresses all major aspects to be considered for the design and operation of aircrafts within the entire transportation chain. It provides the basic information about the legal environment, which defines the basic requirements for aircraft design and aircraft operation. The interactions between  airport, air traffic management and the airlines are described. The market forecast methods and the aircraft development process are explained to understand the very complex and risky business of an aircraft manufacturer. The principles of flight physics as basis for aircraft design are presented and linked to the operational and legal aspects of air transport including all environmental impacts. The book is written for graduate students as well as for engineers and experts, who are working in aerospace industry, at airports or in the domain of transport and logistics.

  19. Aeromicrobiology/air quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Gary L.; Frisch, A.S.; Kellogg, Christina A.; Levetin, E.; Lighthart, Bruce; Paterno, D.

    2009-01-01

    The most prevalent microorganisms, viruses, bacteria, and fungi, are introduced into the atmosphere from many anthropogenic sources such as agricultural, industrial and urban activities, termed microbial air pollution (MAP), and natural sources. These include soil, vegetation, and ocean surfaces that have been disturbed by atmospheric turbulence. The airborne concentrations range from nil to great numbers and change as functions of time of day, season, location, and upwind sources. While airborne, they may settle out immediately or be transported great distances. Further, most viable airborne cells can be rendered nonviable due to temperature effects, dehydration or rehydration, UV radiation, and/or air pollution effects. Mathematical microbial survival models that simulate these effects have been developed.

  20. Pupils' Understanding of Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitriou, Anastasia; Christidou, Vasilia

    2007-01-01

    This paper reports on a study of pupils' knowledge and understanding of atmospheric pollution. Specifically, the study is aimed at identifying: 1) the extent to which pupils conceptualise the term "air pollution" in a scientifically appropriate way; 2) pupils' knowledge of air pollution sources and air pollutants; and 3) pupils' knowledge of air…

  1. Overview of Emerging Air Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    These slides will be presented at the 2014 National Ambient Air Monitoring Conference in Atlanta, GA during August 11-15, 2014. The goal is to provide an overview of air sensor technology and the audience will be primarily state air monitoring agencies and EPA Regions.

  2. Improving IAQ Via Air Filtration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monk, Brian

    1999-01-01

    Provides tips on using air filtration to control indoor air quality in educational facilities, including dedicated spaces with unique air quality conditions such as in libraries, museums and archival storage areas, kitchens and dining areas, and laboratories. The control of particulate contaminants, gaseous contaminants, and moisture buildup are…

  3. Air Pollution Primer. Revised Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corman, Rena

    This revised and updated book is written to inform the citizens on the nature, causes, and effects of air pollution. It is written in terms familiar to the layman with the purpose of providing knowledge and motivation to spur community action on clean air policies. Numerous charts and drawings are provided to support discussion of air pollution…

  4. Interventional radiology in pediatric oncology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffer, Fredric A. [Division of Diagnostic Imaging, Department of Radiological Sciences, St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, 332 N. Lauderdale St., Memphis, TN 38105 (United States)]. E-mail: fred.hoffer@stjude.org

    2005-01-01

    There are many radiological interventions necessary for pediatric oncology patients, some of which may be covered in other articles in this publication. I will discuss a number of interventions including percutaneous biopsy for solid tumor and hematological malignancy diagnosis or recurrence, for the diagnosis of graft versus host disease after stem cell or bone marrow transplantation, and for the diagnosis of complications of immunosuppression such as invasive pulmonary aspergillosis. In the past, tumor localization techniques have been necessary to biopsy or resect small lesions. However improved guidance techniques have allowed for more precise biopsy and the use of thermal ablation instead of excision for local tumor control. A percutaneously placed radio frequency, microwave, laser or cryogen probe can ablate the primary and metastatic tumors of the liver, lung, bone, kidney and other structures in children. This is an alternative treatment for the local control of tumors that may not be amenable to surgery, chemotherapy or radiotherapy. I will also describe how chemoembolization can be used to treat primary or metastatic tumors of the liver that have failed other therapies. This treatment delivers chemotherapy in the hepatic artery infused with emboli to increase the dwell time and concentration of the agents.

  5. Fast Air Temperature Sensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendricks, Elbert

    1998-01-01

    The note documents briefly work done on a newly developed sensor for making fast temperature measurements on the air flow in the intake ports of an SI engine and in the EGR input line. The work reviewed has been carried out in close cooperation with Civ. Ing. Michael Føns, the author (IAU......) and Spencer C. Sorenson (ET). The theory which decribes in detail the overall dynamic chracteristics of the sensor was developed at IAU, DTU....

  6. Air Conditioning Overflow Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    The Technology Transfer Office at Stennis Space Center helped a local inventor develop a prototype of an attachment for central air conditioners and heat pumps that helps monitor water levels to prevent condensation overflow. The sensor will indicate a need for drain line maintenance and prevent possible damage caused by drain pan water spillover. An engineer in the Stennis Space Center prototype Development Laboratory used SSC sensor technology in the development of the sensor.

  7. Air Cargo Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-07-30

    passenger and all-cargo aircraft. The air cargo system consists of a large, complex distribution network linking manufacturers and shippers to freight...free transportation to San Jose, California. His only luggage was a guitar case that concealed hammers, mallets, a knife, and a spear gun. At the...authorities and airplane manufacturers study methods to mitigate the effects of in-flight explosions.76 The FAA has had a active research program in blast

  8. Dental Compressed Air Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-03-01

    compressor ex- cept that the piston rings are made of a low friction material (usually a Teflon- composite ) The piston walls are oil-less and all friction... descal - ing. The water-cooled models are smaller, more efficient, and cause less heating of room air. Water-cooled aftercoolers must have an...dry to a dew point of -400C (-400 F). It has high adsorption capacity. (b) Silica Gel , which must be protected from liquid (usually by a layer of

  9. Clearing the Air

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YIN PUMIN

    2011-01-01

    On November 8,seven Beijing residents,including a representative from a local environmental organization,were invited by the Beijing Municipal Environmental Protection Bureau (BMEPB)to visit its air-quality monitoring center,The visit was the first of a regular program of visits that will take 40 visitors to the center every Tuesday in hopes of giving them a betttr understanding of how airquality data are collected and analyzed.

  10. Air Consumption Analysis of Air-Jet Weaving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RAJ KUMAR KHIANI

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In Textile industry, production is mostly key concern for Industry owner. This always has attracted researchers and machines manufacturers to make new developments in process and machines. Air-jet is one of the leading and successful highest productive weaving machines. However, it is now well established that due to add of charges of compressed air, manufacturing cost of air-jet weaving machine is higher as compared with rapier and projectile weaving machines. This is why countries having energy issues do not prefer air-jet weaving machines comparing projectile weaving machines. In this regard, several researchers and machine manufacturers have continuously been working to improve the efficiency of air-jet weft insertion. However, industry practice is as important as design made by researchers. The aim of this research is to investigate the air consumption of air-jet weaving on industrial scale practice. In this study, five weaving machine of same manufacturer and model were selected. It was observed that despite of manufacturing same quality of fabric, air consumption was varying almost in all weaving machines. Conventionally, mill workers adopt hit and trial practice in weaving industry including airpressure setting which leads to variation of nozzle pressure. Main reason of disparity of air consumption in air-jet weaving machines may be variation of distance from compressor to weaving machines, number of joints, un-necessary valve opening and pipes leakages cause an increase of compressed air consumption.

  11. Enhancing indoor air quality –The air filter advantage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vannan Kandi Vijayan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Air pollution has become the world's single biggest environmental health risk, linked to around 7 million deaths in 2012 according to a recent World Health Organisation (WHO report. The new data further reveals a stronger link between, indoor and outdoor air pollution exposure and cardiovascular diseases, such as strokes and ischemic heart disease, as well as between air pollution and cancer. The role of air pollution in the development of respiratory diseases, including acute respiratory infections and chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases, is well known. While both indoor and outdoor pollution affect health, recent statistics on the impact of household indoor pollutants (HAP is alarming. The WHO factsheet on HAP and health states that 3.8 million premature deaths annually - including stroke, ischemic heart disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD and lung cancer are attributed to exposure to household air pollution. Use of air cleaners and filters are one of the suggested strategies to improve indoor air quality. This review discusses the impact of air pollutants with special focus on indoor air pollutants and the benefits of air filters in improving indoor air quality.

  12. Air System Information Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filman, Robert E.

    2004-01-01

    I flew to Washington last week, a trip rich in distributed information management. Buying tickets, at the gate, in flight, landing and at the baggage claim, myriad messages about my reservation, the weather, our flight plans, gates, bags and so forth flew among a variety of travel agency, airline and Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) computers and personnel. By and large, each kind of information ran on a particular application, often specialized to own data formats and communications network. I went to Washington to attend an FAA meeting on System-Wide Information Management (SWIM) for the National Airspace System (NAS) (http://www.nasarchitecture.faa.gov/Tutorials/NAS101.cfm). NAS (and its information infrastructure, SWIM) is an attempt to bring greater regularity, efficiency and uniformity to the collection of stovepipe applications now used to manage air traffic. Current systems hold information about flight plans, flight trajectories, weather, air turbulence, current and forecast weather, radar summaries, hazardous condition warnings, airport and airspace capacity constraints, temporary flight restrictions, and so forth. Information moving among these stovepipe systems is usually mediated by people (for example, air traffic controllers) or single-purpose applications. People, whose intelligence is critical for difficult tasks and unusual circumstances, are not as efficient as computers for tasks that can be automated. Better information sharing can lead to higher system capacity, more efficient utilization and safer operations. Better information sharing through greater automation is possible though not necessarily easy.

  13. Air transparent soundproof window

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang-Hoon Kim

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available A soundproof window or wall which is transparent to airflow is presented. The design is based on two wave theories: the theory of diffraction and the theory of acoustic metamaterials. It consists of a three-dimensional array of strong diffraction-type resonators with many holes centered on each individual resonator. The negative effective bulk modulus of the resonators produces evanescent wave, and at the same time the air holes with subwavelength diameter existed on the surfaces of the window for macroscopic air ventilation. The acoustic performance levels of two soundproof windows with air holes of 20mm and 50mm diameters were measured. The sound level was reduced by about 30 - 35dB in the frequency range of 400 - 5,000Hz with the 20mm window, and by about 20 - 35dB in the frequency range of 700 - 2,200Hz with the 50mm window. Multi stop-band was created by the multi-layers of the window. The attenuation length or the thickness of the window was limited by background noise. The effectiveness of the soundproof window with airflow was demonstrated by a real installation.

  14. Willingness to pay for mortality risk reduction associated with air pollution in São Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramon Arigoni Ortiz

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological studies report significant association between air pollution and cardiovascular and respiratory mortality. Governmental intervention is required to implement policies aiming to increase air quality, and cost-benefit analysis can be useful to evaluate such policies. Reductions in risks of death are arguably the most important benefit underlying air-quality policies, and therefore need to be valued in money terms. This paper presents a contingent valuation study conducted in São Paulo to estimate the population's willingness to pay (WTP to reduce their risk of death and the correspondent value of a statistical life (VSL. Results ranged between US$ 0.77 - US$ 6.1 million.

  15. The Entangled Sovereignties of Air Police: Mapping the Boundary of the International and the Imperial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munro, Campbell Alexander Omoluaye

    2015-01-01

    The contemporary proliferation of drones and other forms of aerial interventions herald the (re)emergence of air policing as the principal modality for the fabrication of order in the global periphery. Air policing is predomi- nantly framed by international legal analysis as merely ‘killing from...... above,’ yet this designation obfuscates the concomitant occupation of airspaces entailed by drones and other aerial technologies. Such occupations constitute an assertion of jurisdiction in nominally sovereign airspaces authorised by latent imperial legality. The history of air policing reveals...

  16. Call-centre occupant response to new and used filters at two outdoor air supply rates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wargocki, Pawel; Wyon, David; Nielsen, J.;

    2002-01-01

    A 2x2 replicaterd field intervention experiment was conducted in a call-centre providing a public telephone directory service: outdoor air supply rate was 8% or 80% of the total airflow of 430 L/s providing 3.5 h-1; and the supply air filters were either new or used (i.e. used in place for 6 mont......). Each of these 4 conditions was maintained for a full working week at a time. Room temperature and humidity averaged 24 deg.C and 27% RH. The 26 operators were blind to conditions and assessed perceived air quality (PAQ), the intensity of Sick Building Syndrome (SBS) symnptoms and self...

  17. Nutrition intervention to decrease symptoms in patients with advanced heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lennie, Terry A; Moser, Debra K; Biddle, Martha J; Welsh, Darlene; Bruckner, Geza G; Thomas, D Travis; Rayens, Mary Kay; Bailey, Alison L

    2013-04-01

    For a majority of patients with advanced heart failure, there is a need for complementary, non-pharmacologic interventions that could be easily implemented by health care providers to provide palliative care. Three major pathologic pathways underlying heart failure symptoms have been identified: fluid overload, inflammation, and oxidative stress. Prior research has demonstrated that three nutrients-sodium, omega-3 fatty acids, and lycopene-can alter these pathologic pathways. Therefore, the purposes of this study are to test the effects of a 6-month nutrition intervention of dietary sodium reduction combined with supplementation of lycopene and omega-3 fatty acids on heart failure symptoms, health-related quality of life, and time to heart failure rehospitalization or all-cause death. The aims of this double blind-placebo controlled study are (1) to determine the effects of a 6-month nutrition intervention on symptom burden (edema, shortness of air, and fatigue) and health-related quality of life at 3 and 6 months, and time to heart failure rehospitalization or all-cause death over 12 months from baseline; (2) compare dietary sodium intake, inflammation, and markers of oxidative stress between the nutrition intervention group and a placebo group at 3 and 6 months; and (3) compare body weight, serum lycopene, and erythrocyte omega-3 index between the nutrition intervention group and a placebo group at 3 and 6 months. A total of 175 patients with advanced heart failure will be randomized to either the nutrition intervention or placebo group.

  18. Solid-Sorbent Air Sampler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galen, T. J.

    1986-01-01

    Portable unit takes eight 24-hour samples. Volatile organic compounds in air collected for analysis by portable, self-contained sampling apparatus. Sampled air drawn through sorbent material, commercial porous polymer of 2, 3-diphenyl-p-phenylene oxide. High-boiling-point organic compounds adsorbed onto polymer, while low-boiling-point organics pass through and returned to atmosphere. Sampler includes eight sample tubes filled with polymeric sorbent. Organic compounds in atmosphere absorbed when air pumped through sorbent. Designed for checking air in spacecraft, sampler adaptable to other applications as leak detection, gas-mixture analysis, and ambient-air monitoring.

  19. Air Risk Information Support Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shoaf, C.R.; Guth, D.J. [Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC (United States)

    1990-12-31

    The Air Risk Information Support Center (Air RISC) was initiated in early 1988 by the US Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA) Office of Health and Environmental Assessment (OHEA) and the Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards (OAQPS) as a technology transfer effort that would focus on providing information to state and local environmental agencies and to EPA Regional Offices in the areas of health, risk, and exposure assessment for toxic air pollutants. Technical information is fostered and disseminated by Air RISCs three primary activities: (1) a {open_quotes}hotline{close_quotes}, (2) quick turn-around technical assistance projects, and (3) general technical guidance projects. 1 ref., 2 figs.

  20. Analysis of intervention strategies for inhalation exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and associated lung cancer risk based on a Monte Carlo population exposure assessment model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Zhou

    Full Text Available It is difficult to evaluate and compare interventions for reducing exposure to air pollutants, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs, a widely found air pollutant in both indoor and outdoor air. This study presents the first application of the Monte Carlo population exposure assessment model to quantify the effects of different intervention strategies on inhalation exposure to PAHs and the associated lung cancer risk. The method was applied to the population in Beijing, China, in the year 2006. Several intervention strategies were designed and studied, including atmospheric cleaning, smoking prohibition indoors, use of clean fuel for cooking, enhancing ventilation while cooking and use of indoor cleaners. Their performances were quantified by population attributable fraction (PAF and potential impact fraction (PIF of lung cancer risk, and the changes in indoor PAH concentrations and annual inhalation doses were also calculated and compared. The results showed that atmospheric cleaning and use of indoor cleaners were the two most effective interventions. The sensitivity analysis showed that several input parameters had major influence on the modeled PAH inhalation exposure and the rankings of different interventions. The ranking was reasonably robust for the remaining majority of parameters. The method itself can be extended to other pollutants and in different places. It enables the quantitative comparison of different intervention strategies and would benefit intervention design and relevant policy making.

  1. Air Quality at Your Street

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Steen Solvang; Becker, Thomas; Ketzel, Matthias

    DTU Transport as well as data on travel speeds based on GPS data from SpeedMap from the Danish Road Directorate. Modelled concentrations have been compared to fixed regional, urban background and street air quality monitoring stations to assess uncertainties, and to model results from about 30 streets......Citizens are frequently concerned about the air quality where they live, where they go to work, where their children go to kindergarten or where they want to move to. Municipalities may also have an interest in location based air quality information e.g. in relation to screening of complaints from...... concerned citizents, or in the context of localization of institutions, etc. The purpose of the project ‘Air Quality at Your Street’ is to create interactive air quality maps on the internet using webGIS to illustrate the geographical variation of air quality in Denmark for selected health related air...

  2. Indoor Air Pollution (Environmental Health Student Portal)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip Navigation National Library of Medicine Environmental Health Student Portal Connecting Middle School Students to Environmental Health Information Menu Home Air Pollution Air Pollution Home Indoor Air Pollution Outdoor Air ...

  3. Mesenteric Air Embolism Following Enteroscopic Small Bowel Tattooing Procedure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalie Chen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Double balloon enteroscopy (DBE is a revolutionary procedure in which the entire small bowel can be visualized endoscopically. DBE has the advantage of both diagnostic and therapeutic capabilities in the setting of small bowel neoplasms and vascular malformations. We present a unique case of a 76-year-old female who underwent small bowel DBE tattoo marking of a distal small bowel tumor complicated by development of severe abdominal pain postprocedure secondary to bowel air embolism into the mesenteric veins. Mesenteric air can be seen after other endoscopic procedures such as biopsy, mucosal clip placement and polypectomy, or following a colonoscopy. Mesenteric air embolism following small bowel tattooing procedure has not been previously reported in the literature. Mesenteric air when present may be attributed to mesenteric ischemia and can subject the patient to unnecessary surgical intervention if misdiagnosed. Thus, this report holds significance for the radiologist as computed tomography (CT findings of mesenteric air embolism must be evaluated in the context of appropriate clinical history before treatment decisions are made.

  4. Combat Stress and Substance Abuse Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    that the interventions make sense fiscally as well as medically. The estimated societal costs for returning veterans with post-traumatic stress disorder...The proposed intervention shifts the locus of care from treatment of illness to promotion of psychological health and resilience. The intervention...overall well -being of warriors and families. Finally, in an era of financial accountability, it is important that studies document the resources needed

  5. [Interventional radiology: current problems and new directions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos Martín, E; Crespo Vallejo, E

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, vascular and interventional radiology has become one of the fastest growing diagnostic and therapeutic specialties. This growth has been based on a fundamental concept: performing minimally invasive procedures under imaging guidance. This attractive combination has led to the interest of professionals from other clinical specialties outside radiology in performing this type of intervention. The future of vascular and interventional radiology, although uncertain, must be linked to clinical practice and multidisciplinary teamwork.

  6. Cognitive Benefits of Exercise Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, T; Ricci, S; Massoni, F; Ricci, L; Rapp-Ricciardi, M

    2016-01-01

    Exercise, as a potent epigenetic regulator, implies the potential to counteract pathophysiological processes and alterations in most cardiovascular/respiratory cells and tissues not withstanding a paucity of understanding the underlying molecular mechanisms and doseresponse relationships. In the present account, the assets accruing from physical exercise and its influence upon executive functioning are examined. Under conditions of neuropsychiatric and neurologic ill-health, age-related deterioration of functional and biomarker indicators during healthy and disordered trajectories, neuroimmune and affective unbalance, and epigenetic pressures, exercise offers a large harvest of augmentations in health and well-being. Both animal models and human studies support the premise of manifest gains from regular exercise within several domains, besides cognitive function and mood, notably as the agency of a noninvasive, readily available therapeutic intervention.

  7. Interventional treatment of renal angiomyolipoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Poul Erik; Thorlund, Mie Gaedt; Egge Wennevik, Gjertrud

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Renal angiomyolipoma is rare, but many of these patients may have an acute debut with severe bleeding. These patients need urgent treatment with interventional embolization as an attractive option. PURPOSE: To investigate the technical and clinical effect of this treatment...... and to evaluate long-term clinical outcomes with clinical control and radiological imaging. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Eight patients with angiomyolipoma were treated with embolization. Five patients were treated acutely. Five patients were followed-up for mean 4.5 years with clinical and radiological examinations....... RESULTS: The renal angiomyolipoma decreased significantly from mean 7.2 cm to 2.9 cm after embolization (p = 0.04). Cortical infarctions of about one-third of the circumference of the embolized kidneys could be detected on follow-up examinations, but all patients had normal total kidney function...

  8. Optimal intervention strategies for tuberculosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowong, Samuel; Aziz Alaoui, A. M.

    2013-06-01

    This paper deals with the problem of optimal control of a deterministic model of tuberculosis (abbreviated as TB for tubercle bacillus). We first present and analyze an uncontrolled tuberculosis model which incorporates the essential biological and epidemiological features of the disease. The model is shown to exhibit the phenomenon of backward bifurcation, where a stable disease-free equilibrium co-exists with one or more stable endemic equilibria when the associated basic reproduction number is less than the unity. Based on this continuous model, the tuberculosis control is formulated and solved as an optimal control problem, indicating how control terms on the chemoprophylaxis and detection should be introduced in the population to reduce the number of individuals with active TB. Results provide a framework for designing the cost-effective strategies for TB with two intervention methods.

  9. Vocational rehabilitation: a multidisciplinary intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobelet, C; Luthi, F; Al-Khodairy, A T; Chamberlain, M A

    2007-09-15

    Vocational rehabilitation is by definition a multidisciplinary intervention in a process linked to the facilitation of return to work or to the prevention of loss of the work. Clinical staff in contact with a person who has lost his job (general practitioner, specialized physician) must promote vocational rehabilitation. Medical rehabilitation for those with disabilities, whether new or old, has to be followed without delay by vocational rehabilitation. It is even better if these two intertwined processes are overlapping. They involve many professionals including physiotherapists, occupational therapists, psychologists, vocational trainers, job counsellors, teachers, case-managers, job placement agencies. Vocational rehabilitation has a financial cost, borne by many state organizations (security, social system, social affairs) as well as by employers and private insurances, which are in case of accident, concerned by this process. However, the evidence suggests that this is recouped 2- to 10-fold as suggested by the British Society of Rehabilitation Medicine.

  10. Prioritising interventions against medication errors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lisby, Marianne; Pape-Larsen, Louise; Sørensen, Ann Lykkegaard

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Authors: Lisby M, Larsen LP, Soerensen AL, Nielsen LP, Mainz J Title: Prioritising interventions against medication errors – the importance of a definition Objective: To develop and test a restricted definition of medication errors across health care settings in Denmark Methods: Medication...... errors constitute a major quality and safety problem in modern healthcare. However, far from all are clinically important. The prevalence of medication errors ranges from 2-75% indicating a global problem in defining and measuring these [1]. New cut-of levels focusing the clinical impact of medication...... errors are therefore needed. Development of definition: A definition of medication errors including an index of error types for each stage in the medication process was developed from existing terminology and through a modified Delphi-process in 2008. The Delphi panel consisted of 25 interdisciplinary...

  11. The interventional radiology business plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beheshti, Michael V; Meek, Mary E; Kaufman, John A

    2012-09-01

    Strategic planning and business planning are processes commonly employed by organizations that exist in competitive environments. Although it is difficult to prove a causal relationship between formal strategic/business planning and positive organizational performance, there is broad agreement that formal strategic and business plans are components of successful organizations. The various elements of strategic plans and business plans are not common in the vernacular of practicing physicians. As health care becomes more competitive, familiarity with these tools may grow in importance. Herein we provide an overview of formal strategic and business planning, and offer a roadmap for an interventional radiology-specific plan that may be useful for organizations confronting competitive and financial threats.

  12. Is early intervention worth it?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yelin, Edward

    2005-01-01

    Historically, the largest components of costs associated with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), the most common inflammatory rheumatic disease, were hospitalizations, principally for joint replacement surgery, and work loss. Thus, for expensive interventions such as biological agents to be "worthwhile," they must reduce the prevalence of joint replacement and assist persons with RA in maintaining employment. However, joint replacement surgery and work losses tend to occur at least several years after onset of disease, even in severe cases. Assessing the cost-effectiveness of expenditures becomes computationally and politically difficult when the expenditure and the outcome are separated in time. The computational issue concerns the translation of future benefits--surgeries avoided and jobs held onto years from now--into present monetary values. The computational issue may be even more complex when the benefits are less tangible than surgery and wages; for example, when measured by quality-adjusted life-years. The political issue concerns the disjuncture between the agents making the expenditures--provincial health insurance in Canada or an employer's health plan in the US--and the agents reaping the benefits, a private disability insurance company or provincial or state workers' compensation fund. In addition, there is an ethical dilemma. In the US, many of the advances in the care for RA such as the biological agents derive, at least in part, from federal research expenditures. Such expenditures are financed by increasingly regressive taxes. Yet the individuals bearing an increasing share of the tax burden find themselves relegated to more restrictive health insurance plans less likely to provide access to those agents. Thus, whether expenditures for early interventions are worthwhile may turn on such issues as how long the expenditure and the benefits are separated in time, how well the interests of the agent making the expenditure and the agent reaping the rewards are

  13. Nursing burnout interventions: what is being done?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Barbara J

    2014-04-01

    Many studies have documented high prevalence of burnout and compassion fatigue in oncology nurses. Burnout has detrimental effects on nurses, patients, and healthcare organizations. However, burnout interventions have been shown to improve the physical and mental health of nurses, patient satisfaction, and the organizational bottom line by reducing associated costs of burnout. Although treatment centers may prevent and correct burnout in oncology nurses by providing various interventions, few articles focus on those interventions. This article compiles and describes interventions that will serve as a reference to nurses and healthcare organization leaders interested in implementing similar programs.

  14. Interventions to promote healthy eating habits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Traill, W. B.; Shankar, B.; Branbila-Macias, J.

    2010-01-01

    and (iii) The value attached by society to these changes, measured in life years gained, cost savings and quality-adjusted life years. Where evaluations have been inadequate, EATWELL will gather secondary data and analyse them with a multidisciplinary approach incorporating models from the psychology...... of potential interventions. Armed with scientific quantitative evaluations of policy interventions and their acceptability to stakeholders, EATWELL expects to recommend more appropriate interventions for Member States and the EU, providing a one-stop guide to methods and measures in interventions evaluation...

  15. [Logopedic intervention in language learning disorderss].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ygual, A; Cervera, J F

    1999-02-01

    The objective of this study is to analyze, from the conceptual point of view, logopaedic intervention in disorders of acquisition of language. We describe the 'model of intervention at three levels': reinforcing stimulation of language, restructuration of language and substitution of language. We analyze the concepts of 'ambiental intervention', from the naturalist point of view, that of functional exercises and of directed or formal exercises. We study the variables which affect the specificity of logopaedic treatments. As a specific example we describe intervention in auditory perception.

  16. Neuropsychological intervention in the acute phase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norup, Anne; Siert, Lars; Mortensen, Erik Lykke

    2013-01-01

    This pilot study investigated the effects of acute neuropsychological intervention for relatives of patients with severe brain injury. Participants were enrolled in an intervention group comprising 39 relatives, and a control group comprising 47 relatives. The intervention consisted of supportive.......0100.30), but also significantly lower Role Emotional scores (= 2.12 = 0.043, = 0.40). In the sub-acute setting, an analysis of covariance model showed a borderline significant difference between the intervention and the control group on the anxiety scale (= 0.066 = 0.59). Any effects of the acute neuropsychological...

  17. The healthy building intervention study: Objectives, methods and results of selected environmental measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisk, W.J.; Faulkner, D.; Sullivan, D. [and others

    1998-02-17

    To test proposed methods for reducing SBS symptoms and to learn about the causes of these symptoms, a double-blind controlled intervention study was designed and implemented. This study utilized two different interventions designed to reduce occupants` exposures to airborne particles: (1) high efficiency filters in the building`s HVAC systems; and (2) thorough cleaning of carpeted floors and fabric-covered chairs with an unusually powerful vacuum cleaner. The study population was the workers on the second and fourth floors of a large office building with mechanical ventilation, air conditioning, and sealed windows. Interventions were implemented on one floor while the occupants on the other floor served as a control group. For the enhanced-filtration intervention, a multiple crossover design was used (a crossover is a repeat of the experiment with the former experimental group as the control group and vice versa). Demographic and health symptom data were collected via an initial questionnaire on the first study week and health symptom data were obtained each week, for eight additional weeks, via weekly questionnaires. A large number of indoor environmental parameters were measured during the study including air temperatures and humidities, carbon dioxide concentrations, particle concentrations, concentrations of several airborne bioaerosols, and concentrations of several microbiologic compounds within the dust sampled from floors and chairs. This report describes the study methods and summarizes the results of selected environmental measurements.

  18. Problems of the neonates with congenital heart disease requiring early interventions: a regional report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çelik, Muhittin; Aldudak, Bedri; Akar, Melek; Akdeniz, Osman; Tüzün, Heybet; Çelebi, Vefik

    2015-01-01

    Aim: In this study, it was aimed to determine the problems of the neonates who were diagnosed with congenital heart disease requiring early intervention in our hospital. Material and Methods: The files of the newborn babies with congenital heart disease requiring early intervention who were admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit of our hospital between January 2011 and January 2013 were evaluated retrospectively. In all cases, echocardiography and ‘’Score for Neonatal Acute Physiology-II” (SNAP-II) scoring were performed within the first day of admission. The data were interpreted using Number Cruncher Statistical System 2007 software. The statistical significance was set at palprostadil and age were not related to mortality. Three patients were discharged following planning of elective surgery and 60 patients were referred to a tertiary center by air ambulance. Conclusions: The results of our study indicated that prenatal diagnosis could not be made in neonates with congenital heart disease requiring intervention in our region. The mortality rates of these patients were related to the severity of the clinical status at presentation rather than to the age, gender and type of congenital heart disease. The mortality was much higher in the patients who developed circulatory failure. Most of the patients who survived were sent by air ambulance to the centers where the intervention was to be performed. PMID:26568691

  19. Trials of Intervention Principles: Evaluation Methods for Evolving Behavioral Intervention Technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohr, David C; Schueller, Stephen M; Riley, William T; Brown, C Hendricks; Cuijpers, Pim; Duan, Naihua; Kwasny, Mary J; Stiles-Shields, Colleen; Cheung, Ken

    2015-07-08

    In recent years, there has been increasing discussion of the limitations of traditional randomized controlled trial (RCT) methodologies for the evaluation of eHealth and mHealth interventions, and in particular, the requirement that these interventions be locked down during evaluation. Locking down these interventions locks in defects and eliminates the opportunities for quality improvement and adaptation to the changing technological environment, often leading to validation of tools that are outdated by the time that trial results are published. Furthermore, because behavioral intervention technologies change frequently during real-world deployment, even if a tested intervention were deployed in the real world, its shelf life would be limited. We argue that RCTs will have greater scientific and public health value if they focus on the evaluation of intervention principles (rather than a specific locked-down version of the intervention), allowing for ongoing quality improvement modifications to the behavioral intervention technology based on the core intervention principles, while continuously improving the functionality and maintaining technological currency. This paper is an initial proposal of a framework and methodology for the conduct of trials of intervention principles (TIPs) aimed at minimizing the risks of in-trial changes to intervention technologies and maximizing the potential for knowledge acquisition. The focus on evaluation of intervention principles using clinical and usage outcomes has the potential to provide more generalizable and durable information than trials focused on a single intervention technology.

  20. Thermal and hydrodynamic modelling of active catheters for interventional radiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchandise, Emilie; Flaud, Patrice; Royon, Laurent; Blanc, Raphaël; Szewczyk, Jérome

    2011-07-01

    Interventional radiologists desire to improve their operating tools such as catheters. Active catheters in which the tip is moved using shape memory alloy actuators activated using the Joule effect present a promising approach for easier navigation in the small vessels. However, the increase in temperature caused by this Joule effect must be controlled in order to prevent damage to blood cells and tissues. This paper is devoted to the simulation and experimental validation of a fluid-thermal model of an active catheter prototype. Comparisons between computer-predicted and experimentally measured temperatures are presented for both experiments in air and water at 37°C. Good agreement between the computational and experimental results is found, demonstrating the validity of the developed computer model. These comparisons enable us to highlight some important issues in the modelling process and to determine the optimal current for the activation of the catheter.

  1. Comparison between Different Air Distribution Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter V.

    The aim of an air conditioning system is to remove excess heat in a room and replace room air with fresh air to obtain a high air quality. It is not sufficient to remove heat and contaminated air, it is also necessary to distribute and control the air movement in the room to create thermal comfort...

  2. Extensive air showers

    CERN Document Server

    Rao, M V S

    1997-01-01

    Ultrahigh energy cosmic rays carry information about their sources and the intervening medium apart from providing a beam of particles for studying certain features of high energy interactions currently inaccessible at man-made accelerators. They can at present be studied only via the extensive air showers (EAS's) they generate while passing through the Earth's atmosphere, since their fluxes are too low for the experiments of limited capability flown in balloons and satellites. The EAS is generated by a series of interactions of the primary cosmic ray and its progeny with the atmospheric nucle

  3. Solid sorbent air sampler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galen, T. J.

    1986-04-01

    A fluid sampler for collecting a plurality of discrete samples over separate time intervals is described. The sampler comprises a sample assembly having an inlet and a plurality of discreet sample tubes each of which has inlet and outlet sides. A multiport dual acting valve is provided in the sampler in order to sequentially pass air from the sample inlet into the selected sample tubes. The sample tubes extend longitudinally of the housing and are located about the outer periphery thereof so that upon removal of an enclosure cover, they are readily accessible for operation of the sampler in an analysis mode.

  4. AIR VELOCITY SENSOR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘本琛

    1992-01-01

    During the last twenty years there has been rapid progress in the use of automation in a wide range of industries,as well as in military, scientific application. However, the progress in the application of automatic control is often hindered by the lack of accurate, reliable measuring apparatus. An economic thermal couple air flow sensor with better linearity (accuracy is ±5% of full scale) has been successfully made at Trolex Ltd. Many other existing sensors fail in the application of industries because of non-linearity.

  5. Teatro al aire libre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Canac

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Siendo cada vez más frecuentes y numerosas las peregrinaciones a la basílica de Notre Dame, de Laus (Altos Alpes, su capacidad resultaba hace tiempo insuficiente para acoger a sus peregrinos. Este fue el motivo de crear, en un terreno situado ante el atrio de la basílica, un conjunto, que permitiese celebrar misas al aire libre, ceremonias litúrgicas o representaciones de teatro religioso y que dispusiese de todas las posibilidades para conseguir la libertad del juego escénico.

  6. Air Quality Monitoring Programme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kemp, K.; Palmgren, F.

    The Danish Air Quality Monitoring Programme (LMP IV) has been revised in accordance with the Framework Directive and the first three daughter directives of SO2, NOx/NO2, PM10, lead, benzene, CO and ozone. PM10 samplers are under installation and the installation will be completed during 2002....... The PM10 results from 2000 are spares, only TSP are thus included in this report. The data sets for year 2000 is complete for many stations. The monitoring programme consists of 10 stations plus 2 extra stations under the Municipality of Copenhagen. The SO2 and lead levels are still decreasing and far...

  7. Ag-Air Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    Econ, Inc.'s agricultural aerial application, "ag-air," involves more than 10,000 aircraft spreading insecticides, herbicides, fertilizer, seed and other materials over millions of acres of farmland. Difficult for an operator to estimate costs accurately and decide what to charge or which airplane can handle which assignment most efficiently. Computerized service was designed to improve business efficiency in choice of aircraft and determination of charge rates based on realistic operating cost data. Each subscriber fills out a detailed form which pertains to his needs and then receives a custom-tailored computer printout best suited to his particular business mix.

  8. Air gun wounding and current UK laws controlling air weapons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce-Chwatt, Robert Michael

    2010-04-01

    Air weapons whether rifles or pistols are, potentially, lethal weapons. The UK legislation is complex and yet little known to the public. Hunting with air weapons and the laws controlling those animals that are permitted to be shot with air weapons is even more labyrinthine due to the legal power limitations on the possession of air weapons. Still relatively freely available by mail order or on the Internet, an increasing number of deaths have been reported from the misuse of air weapons or accidental discharges. Ammunition for air weapons has become increasingly sophisticated, effective and therefore increasingly dangerous if misused, though freely available being a mere projectile without a concomitant cartridge containing a propellant and an initiator.

  9. Respiratory risks from household air pollution in low and middle income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Stephen B; Bruce, Nigel G; Grigg, Jonathan; Hibberd, Patricia L; Kurmi, Om P; Lam, Kin-bong Hubert; Mortimer, Kevin; Asante, Kwaku Poku; Balakrishnan, Kalpana; Balmes, John; Bar-Zeev, Naor; Bates, Michael N; Breysse, Patrick N; Buist, Sonia; Chen, Zhengming; Havens, Deborah; Jack, Darby; Jindal, Surinder; Kan, Haidong; Mehta, Sumi; Moschovis, Peter; Naeher, Luke; Patel, Archana; Perez-Padilla, Rogelio; Pope, Daniel; Rylance, Jamie; Semple, Sean; Martin, William J

    2014-10-01

    A third of the world's population uses solid fuel derived from plant material (biomass) or coal for cooking, heating, or lighting. These fuels are smoky, often used in an open fire or simple stove with incomplete combustion, and result in a large amount of household air pollution when smoke is poorly vented. Air pollution is the biggest environmental cause of death worldwide, with household air pollution accounting for about 3·5-4 million deaths every year. Women and children living in severe poverty have the greatest exposures to household air pollution. In this Commission, we review evidence for the association between household air pollution and respiratory infections, respiratory tract cancers, and chronic lung diseases. Respiratory infections (comprising both upper and lower respiratory tract infections with viruses, bacteria, and mycobacteria) have all been associated with exposure to household air pollution. Respiratory tract cancers, including both nasopharyngeal cancer and lung cancer, are strongly associated with pollution from coal burning and further data are needed about other solid fuels. Chronic lung diseases, including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and bronchiectasis in women, are associated with solid fuel use for cooking, and the damaging effects of exposure to household air pollution in early life on lung development are yet to be fully described. We also review appropriate ways to measure exposure to household air pollution, as well as study design issues and potential effective interventions to prevent these disease burdens. Measurement of household air pollution needs individual, rather than fixed in place, monitoring because exposure varies by age, gender, location, and household role. Women and children are particularly susceptible to the toxic effects of pollution and are exposed to the highest concentrations. Interventions should target these high-risk groups and be of sufficient quality to make the air clean. To make clean energy

  10. The cost of simplifying air travel when modeling disease spread.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin Lessler

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Air travel plays a key role in the spread of many pathogens. Modeling the long distance spread of infectious disease in these cases requires an air travel model. Highly detailed air transportation models can be over determined and computationally problematic. We compared the predictions of a simplified air transport model with those of a model of all routes and assessed the impact of differences on models of infectious disease. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using U.S. ticket data from 2007, we compared a simplified "pipe" model, in which individuals flow in and out of the air transport system based on the number of arrivals and departures from a given airport, to a fully saturated model where all routes are modeled individually. We also compared the pipe model to a "gravity" model where the probability of travel is scaled by physical distance; the gravity model did not differ significantly from the pipe model. The pipe model roughly approximated actual air travel, but tended to overestimate the number of trips between small airports and underestimate travel between major east and west coast airports. For most routes, the maximum number of false (or missed introductions of disease is small (<1 per day but for a few routes this rate is greatly underestimated by the pipe model. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: If our interest is in large scale regional and national effects of disease, the simplified pipe model may be adequate. If we are interested in specific effects of interventions on particular air routes or the time for the disease to reach a particular location, a more complex point-to-point model will be more accurate. For many problems a hybrid model that independently models some frequently traveled routes may be the best choice. Regardless of the model used, the effect of simplifications and sensitivity to errors in parameter estimation should be analyzed.

  11. Nitrogen fluorescence in air for observing extensive air showers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsunesada Y.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Extensive air showers initiate the fluorescence emissions from nitrogen molecules in air. The UV-light is emitted isotropically and can be used for observing the longitudinal development of extensive air showers in the atmosphere over tenth of kilometers. This measurement technique is well-established since it is exploited for many decades by several cosmic ray experiments. However, a fundamental aspect of the air shower analyses is the description of the fluorescence emission in dependence on varying atmospheric conditions. Different fluorescence yields affect directly the energy scaling of air shower reconstruction. In order to explore the various details of the nitrogen fluorescence emission in air, a few experimental groups have been performing dedicated measurements over the last decade. Most of the measurements are now finished. These experimental groups have been discussing their techniques and results in a series of Air Fluorescence Workshops commenced in 2002. At the 8th Air Fluorescence Workshop 2011, it was suggested to develop a common way of describing the nitrogen fluorescence for application to air shower observations. Here, first analyses for a common treatment of the major dependences of the emission procedure are presented. Aspects like the contributions at different wavelengths, the dependence on pressure as it is decreasing with increasing altitude in the atmosphere, the temperature dependence, in particular that of the collisional cross sections between molecules involved, and the collisional de-excitation by water vapor are discussed.

  12. Nitrogen fluorescence in air for observing extensive air showers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keilhauer, B.; Bohacova, M.; Fraga, M.; Matthews, J.; Sakaki, N.; Tameda, Y.; Tsunesada, Y.; Ulrich, A.

    2013-06-01

    Extensive air showers initiate the fluorescence emissions from nitrogen molecules in air. The UV-light is emitted isotropically and can be used for observing the longitudinal development of extensive air showers in the atmosphere over tenth of kilometers. This measurement technique is well-established since it is exploited for many decades by several cosmic ray experiments. However, a fundamental aspect of the air shower analyses is the description of the fluorescence emission in dependence on varying atmospheric conditions. Different fluorescence yields affect directly the energy scaling of air shower reconstruction. In order to explore the various details of the nitrogen fluorescence emission in air, a few experimental groups have been performing dedicated measurements over the last decade. Most of the measurements are now finished. These experimental groups have been discussing their techniques and results in a series of Air Fluorescence Workshops commenced in 2002. At the 8th Air Fluorescence Workshop 2011, it was suggested to develop a common way of describing the nitrogen fluorescence for application to air shower observations. Here, first analyses for a common treatment of the major dependences of the emission procedure are presented. Aspects like the contributions at different wavelengths, the dependence on pressure as it is decreasing with increasing altitude in the atmosphere, the temperature dependence, in particular that of the collisional cross sections between molecules involved, and the collisional de-excitation by water vapor are discussed.

  13. Air Traffic Flow Management

    CERN Document Server

    Ganu, Hrishikesh V

    2008-01-01

    Air Traffic Flow Management is the regulation of air traffic in order to avoid exceeding airport or flight sector capacity in handling traffic, and to ensure that available capacity is used efficiently. We have tried to explore the logic behind the claims by Bertsimas et.al about integral solutions to the LP relaxation of the Traffic Flow Management Problem(TFMP). Polyhedral theory only indicates that the stronger TFMP formulation of Bertsimas et.al might lead to integral solutions in some cases. Our computations indicate that the encouraging results reported by Bertsimas et.al are not merely fortuitous or due to their specific data set. Indeed, we found that the TFMP had integral solutions even in case of artificial data sets generated to include severe conflicts in the flight schedules. In our limited tests with 4-5 scenarios, we obtained non-integral solutions only once. This is of significant practical importance because, the LP relaxation can be solved even on small machines with low memory and processor...

  14. An Assessment of Intervention Fidelity in Published Social Work Intervention Research Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corley, Nicole A.; Kim, Irang

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Intervention fidelity is a critical strategy to help advance the usefulness and integrity of social work research. This study assessed the extent to which a selected sample of published social work intervention researchers reported its intervention protocols. Methods: Six core social work journals were reviewed in this analysis. The…

  15. Science, Social Work, and Intervention Research: The Case of "Critical Time Intervention"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenson, Jeffrey M.

    2014-01-01

    Intervention research is an important, yet often neglected, focus of social work scholars and investigators. The purpose of this article is to review significant milestones and recent advances in intervention research. Methodological and analytical developments in intervention research are discussed in the context of science and social work.…

  16. Radiation dose and image quality for paediatric interventional cardiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vano, E [Radiology Department, Medicine School, Complutense University and San Carlos University Hospital, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Ubeda, C [Clinical Sciences Department, Faculty of the Science of Health, Tarapaca University, 18 de Septiembre 2222, Arica (Chile); Leyton, F [Institute of Public Health of Chile, Marathon 1000, Nunoa, Santiago (Chile); Miranda, P [Hemodynamic Department, Cardiovascular Service, Luis Calvo Mackenna Hospital, Avenida Antonio Varas 360, Providencia, Santiago (Chile)], E-mail: eliseov@med.ucm.es

    2008-08-07

    Radiation dose and image quality for paediatric protocols in a biplane x-ray system used for interventional cardiology have been evaluated. Entrance surface air kerma (ESAK) and image quality using a test object and polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) phantoms have been measured for the typical paediatric patient thicknesses (4-20 cm of PMMA). Images from fluoroscopy (low, medium and high) and cine modes have been archived in digital imaging and communications in medicine (DICOM) format. Signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), figure of merit (FOM), contrast (CO), contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) and high contrast spatial resolution (HCSR) have been computed from the images. Data on dose transferred to the DICOM header have been used to test the values of the dosimetric display at the interventional reference point. ESAK for fluoroscopy modes ranges from 0.15 to 36.60 {mu}Gy/frame when moving from 4 to 20 cm PMMA. For cine, these values range from 2.80 to 161.10 {mu}Gy/frame. SNR, FOM, CO, CNR and HCSR are improved for high fluoroscopy and cine modes and maintained roughly constant for the different thicknesses. Cumulative dose at the interventional reference point resulted 25-45% higher than the skin dose for the vertical C-arm (depending of the phantom thickness). ESAK and numerical image quality parameters allow the verification of the proper setting of the x-ray system. Knowing the increases in dose per frame when increasing phantom thicknesses together with the image quality parameters will help cardiologists in the good management of patient dose and allow them to select the best imaging acquisition mode during clinical procedures.

  17. Radiation dose and image quality for paediatric interventional cardiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vano, E.; Ubeda, C.; Leyton, F.; Miranda, P.

    2008-08-01

    Radiation dose and image quality for paediatric protocols in a biplane x-ray system used for interventional cardiology have been evaluated. Entrance surface air kerma (ESAK) and image quality using a test object and polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) phantoms have been measured for the typical paediatric patient thicknesses (4-20 cm of PMMA). Images from fluoroscopy (low, medium and high) and cine modes have been archived in digital imaging and communications in medicine (DICOM) format. Signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), figure of merit (FOM), contrast (CO), contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) and high contrast spatial resolution (HCSR) have been computed from the images. Data on dose transferred to the DICOM header have been used to test the values of the dosimetric display at the interventional reference point. ESAK for fluoroscopy modes ranges from 0.15 to 36.60 µGy/frame when moving from 4 to 20 cm PMMA. For cine, these values range from 2.80 to 161.10 µGy/frame. SNR, FOM, CO, CNR and HCSR are improved for high fluoroscopy and cine modes and maintained roughly constant for the different thicknesses. Cumulative dose at the interventional reference point resulted 25-45% higher than the skin dose for the vertical C-arm (depending of the phantom thickness). ESAK and numerical image quality parameters allow the verification of the proper setting of the x-ray system. Knowing the increases in dose per frame when increasing phantom thicknesses together with the image quality parameters will help cardiologists in the good management of patient dose and allow them to select the best imaging acquisition mode during clinical procedures.

  18. Personality Plasticity, Healthy Aging, and Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mroczek, Daniel K.

    2014-01-01

    This commentary on the special section on conscientiousness and healthy aging focuses on several topics brought up in this collection of articles. One is the promise of personality interventions. Despite skepticism on the part of some, such interventions may ultimately prove successful. This is in part because of similarities between personality…

  19. Estimating the Costs of Preventive Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, E. Michael; Porter, Michele M.; Ayers, Tim S.; Kaplan, Debra L.; Sandler, Irwin

    2007-01-01

    The goal of this article is to improve the practice and reporting of cost estimates of prevention programs. It reviews the steps in estimating the costs of an intervention and the principles that should guide estimation. The authors then review prior efforts to estimate intervention costs using a sample of well-known but diverse studies. Finally,…

  20. Confounding in publications of observational intervention studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenwold, Rolf H. H.; Hoes, Arno W.; Hak, Eelko

    2007-01-01

    We conducted a systematic literature search in Medline to assess the proportion of observational intervention studies appreciating confounding bias in peer-reviewed medical literature from 1985 through 2005. This study shows only 9% of all papers on observational intervention studies published in pe

  1. Adapting Behavioral Interventions for Social Media Delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagoto, Sherry; Waring, Molly E; May, Christine N; Ding, Eric Y; Kunz, Werner H; Hayes, Rashelle; Oleski, Jessica L

    2016-01-29

    Patients are increasingly using online social networks (ie, social media) to connect with other patients and health care professionals--a trend called peer-to-peer health care. Because online social networks provide a means for health care professionals to communicate with patients, and for patients to communicate with each other, an opportunity exists to use social media as a modality to deliver behavioral interventions. Social media-delivered behavioral interventions have the potential to reduce the expense of behavioral interventions by eliminating visits, as well as increase our access to patients by becoming embedded in their social media feeds. Trials of online social network-delivered behavioral interventions have shown promise, but much is unknown about intervention development and methodology. In this paper, we discuss the process by which investigators can translate behavioral interventions for social media delivery. We present a model that describes the steps and decision points in this process, including the necessary training and reporting requirements. We also discuss issues pertinent to social media-delivered interventions, including cost, scalability, and privacy. Finally, we identify areas of research that are needed to optimize this emerging behavioral intervention modality.

  2. Evolution of interventional cardiology in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHEN Wei-feng

    2009-01-01

    @@ On the occasion of the 60th anniversary of the founding of the People's Republic of China, I am honored to review the interventional treatment of cardiovascular diseases in China. It is really interesting to evaluate the progress in such a field that did not exist 25 years ago in this country in the present context with the term "interventional cardiology".

  3. Personality Type and Clinical Supervision Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, Janine M.; Clingerman, Tamara L.; Gilbride, Dennis D.

    2011-01-01

    In this study, the authors investigated personality type of supervisors and supervisees and interventions chosen by supervisors for 78 supervisory dyads from 9 different counselor education programs. Gender effects were also investigated. Results indicated that interventions were not influenced by supervisor personality type as measured by the…

  4. Federal Mechanisms to Support Intervention Dissemination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diana, Augusto; Bennett, Nicole

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines federal mechanisms that support program developers and researchers in disseminating effective interventions for public benefit. The purpose of this paper is not to discuss the dissemination of intervention research (i.e., how to inform stakeholders about research findings), nor is it intended to discuss the research of…

  5. Ergonomics intervention in manual handling of oxygen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Motamedzadeh

    2013-05-01

    Conclusion: With the implementation of ergonomic intervention is casting unit, the risk of exposure to musculoskeletal disorders caused by manual handling of oxygen cylinders was eliminated and safety of employees against the risk of explosion of the cylinders in comparison with before the intervention was improved.

  6. Justified Humanitarian Intervention: Operation ALLIED FORCE

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-25

    Intervention” in J.L. Holzgrefe and Robert O. Keohane , eds. Humanitarian Intervention: Ethical, Legal and Political Dilemmas (Cambridge: Cambridge...Gamble. Annapolis, MD: Naval Institute Press, 2007. Holzgrefe, J.L. and Robert O. Keohane . eds. Humanitarian Intervention: Ethical, Legal and

  7. Responsiveness to intervention in children with dyslexia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tilanus, E.A.T.; Segers, P.C.J.; Verhoeven, L.T.W.

    2016-01-01

    We examined the responsiveness to a 12-week phonics intervention in 54 s-grade Dutch children with dyslexia, and compared their reading and spelling gains to a control group of 61 typical readers. The intervention aimed to train grapheme–phoneme correspondences (GPCs), and word reading

  8. Documentation of pharmacotherapeutic interventions of pharmacy students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    King ED

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available During patient care rounds with the medical team, pharmacy students have made positive contributions for the benefit of the patient. However, very little has been documented regarding the impact these future healthcare professionals are making while on clinical rotations.The objective of this study was to assess the impact that clinical interventions made by 6th year pharmacy students had on overall patient outcome. Using a special program for a personal digital assistant (PDA, the students daily recorded the pharmacotherapeutic interventions they made. The interventions ranged from dosage adjustments to providing drug information. Data was collected over a 12-week period from various hospitals and clinics in the Jacksonville, Florida area.In total, there were 89 pharmaceutical interventions performed and recorded by the students. Fifty interventions involved drug modification and fifty-four interventions were in regards to drug information and consulting. Of the drug information and consulting interventions, 15 were drug modification.This study shows the impact pharmacy students make in identifying, recommending, and documenting clinical pharmacotherapeutic interventions. Similar to pharmacists, pharmacy students can also have a positive contribution towards patient care.

  9. Response to Intervention and the Pyramid Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Lise; Carta, Judith; Strain, Phillip S.; Dunlap, Glen; Hemmeter, Mary Louise

    2010-01-01

    Response to Intervention (RtI) is a systematic decision-making process that has gained widespread popularity as a problem-solving framework for organizing hierarchies of evidence-based interventions in the context of ongoing progress monitoring. Initially applied to literacy instruction, RtI is being incorporated into an expanding breadth of…

  10. ANTITHROMBOTIC THERAPY AT PERCUTANEOUS CORONARY INTERVENTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Sulimov

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Possibilities of modern antiplatelet and antithrombotic therapy at percutaneous coronary interventions in patients with coronary artery disease are surveyed. Data of multicenter randomized clinical trials and meta-analyses are discussed. Possibilities of various drugs at percutaneous coronary interventions are reported from position of the international clinical guidelines.

  11. STEM Intervention Programs: Funding Practices and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rincon, Blanca E.; George-Jackson, Casey E.

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the funding practices and challenges of diversity initiatives found in the science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields. Interviews with 55 intervention program administrators, representing 48 unique STEM intervention programs, were conducted at nine large research-intensive universities. The interviews,…

  12. Early identification and intervention in cerebral palsy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herskind, Anna; Greisen, Gorm; Nielsen, Jens Bo

    2015-01-01

    Infants with possible cerebral palsy (CP) are commonly assumed to benefit from early diagnosis and early intervention, but substantial evidence for this is lacking. There is no consensus in the literature on a definition of 'early', but this review focuses on interventions initiated within the fi...

  13. Public health interventions: evaluating the economic evaluations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Forster

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Recent years have witnessed much progress in the incorporation of economic considerations into the evaluation of public health interventions. In England, the Centre for Public Health Excellence within the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence works to develop guidance for preventing illness and assessing which public health interventions are most effective and provide best value for money...

  14. Group Intervention With Adolescent Vietnamese Refugees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsui, Alice M.; Sammons, Morgan T.

    1988-01-01

    Describes group intervention model, based on primary prevention schemes, for work with adolescent Vietnamese refugees. Addresses special cultural and therapeutic issues and concerns. Notes that while group therapies are generally difficult to implement with Vietnamese participants, group intervention work is feasible if clinicians modify…

  15. School-Based Intervention for Test Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, Lay See; Goh, Valerie Grace; Liem, Gregory Arief D.

    2016-01-01

    Background: With children today being tested at younger ages, test anxiety has an earlier onset age. There is relatively limited research on test anxiety management programs with elementary school children. The theoretical basis for this nonrandomized pre-post intervention study is grounded in cognitive and behavioral interventions for test…

  16. Interventional radiology in the lacrimal drainage system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ilgit, Erhan T. [Department of Radiology, School of Medicine, Gazi University, Besevler 06510, Ankara (Turkey)]. E-mail: erhanti@gazi.edu.tr; Oenal, Baran [Department of Radiology, School of Medicine, Gazi University, Besevler 06510, Ankara (Turkey); Coskun, Bilgen [Department of Radiology, School of Medicine, Gazi University, Besevler 06510, Ankara (Turkey)

    2005-09-01

    This article presents a review of the interventional radiological procedures in the lacrimal drainage system. Balloon dacryocystoplasty and nasolacrimal polyurethane stent placement are the main fluoroscopically guided interventions for the treatment of epiphora by recanalizing the obstructed LDS. These procedures can also be used for dacryolith removal and lacrimal sac abscess treatment.

  17. Public Health Interventions for School Nursing Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffer, Marjorie A.; Anderson, Linda J. W.; Rising, Shannon

    2016-01-01

    School nurses (SNs) use public health nursing knowledge and skills to provide nursing services to school populations. The Public Health Intervention Wheel is a practice framework that can be used to explain and guide public health nursing interventions. SNs who were also members of the National Association of School Nurses completed an electronic…

  18. Physical Exercise as a Counseling Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Y. Barry; Baird, M. Kathleen

    1999-01-01

    Provides an integrative review of the literature on the relationship between physical exercise and three psychological variables (depression, anxiety, and self-esteem). Proposes guidelines for using exercise as a counseling intervention, and makes suggestions for evaluating exercise interventions. (Author/GCP)

  19. Minimum intervention dentistry: periodontics and implant dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darby, I B; Ngo, L

    2013-06-01

    This article will look at the role of minimum intervention dentistry in the management of periodontal disease. It will discuss the role of appropriate assessment, treatment and risk factors/indicators. In addition, the role of the patient and early intervention in the continuing care of dental implants will be discussed as well as the management of peri-implant disease.

  20. Reading Together: A Successful Reading Fluency Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Chase; Mohr, Kathleen A. J.; Rasinski, Timothy

    2015-01-01

    The article describes a reading fluency intervention called Reading Together that combines the method of repeated readings (Samuels, 1979) and the Neurological Impress Method (Heckelman, 1969). Sixteen volunteers from various backgrounds were recruited and trained to deliver the Reading Together intervention to struggling readers in third through…

  1. The EHDI and Early Intervention Connection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Lauri; Bradham, Tamala S.; Houston, K. Todd

    2011-01-01

    State coordinators of early hearing detection and intervention (EHDI) programs completed a strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats, or SWOT, analysis that examined 12 areas within state EHDI programs. For the early intervention focus question, 48 coordinators listed 273 items, and themes were identified within each SWOT category. A…

  2. Radiation exposure in CT-guided interventions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kloeckner, Roman, E-mail: Roman.Kloeckner@unimedizin-mainz.de [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Johannes Gutenberg-University, Langenbeckstraße 1, 55131 Mainz (Germany); Santos, Daniel Pinto dos; Schneider, Jens [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Johannes Gutenberg-University, Langenbeckstraße 1, 55131 Mainz (Germany); Kara, Levent [Department of Radiology, Inselspital Bern, Freiburgstraße 18, 3010 Bern (Switzerland); Dueber, Christoph; Pitton, Michael B. [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Johannes Gutenberg-University, Langenbeckstraße 1, 55131 Mainz (Germany)

    2013-12-01

    Purpose: To investigate radiation exposure in computed tomography (CT)-guided interventions, to establish reference levels for exposure, and to discuss strategies for dose reduction. Materials and methods: We analyzed 1576 consecutive CT-guided procedures in 1284 patients performed over 4.5 years, including drainage placements; biopsies of different organs; radiofrequency and microwave ablations (RFA/MWA) of liver, bone, and lung tumors; pain blockages, and vertebroplasties. Data were analyzed with respect to scanner settings, overall radiation doses, and individual doses of planning CT series, CT intervention, and control CT series. Results: Eighy-five percent of the total radiation dose was applied during the pre- and post-interventional CT series, leaving only 15% applied by the CT-guided intervention itself. Single slice acquisition was associated with lower doses than continuous CT-fluoroscopy (37 mGy cm vs. 153 mGy cm, p < 0.001). The third quartile of radiation doses varied considerably for different interventions. The highest doses were observed in complex interventions like RFA/MWA of the liver, followed by vertebroplasty and RFA/MWA of the lung. Conclusions: This paper suggests preliminary reference levels for various intervention types and discusses strategies for dose reduction. A multicenter registry of radiation exposure including a broader spectrum of scanners and intervention types is needed to develop definitive reference levels.

  3. Mantra meditation as a bedside spiritual intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Roxane Raffin

    2014-01-01

    The increased acceptance of integrative care allows nurses to investigate their role as active providers of spiritual care at the bedside. Lack of clear role expectations and interventions support the need for a simple, flexible spiritual bedside intervention. The use of a meditation mantra is discussed.

  4. Cardiovascular Disease Self-Care Interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria Vaughan Dickson

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Cardiovascular disease (CVD is a major cause of increased morbidity and mortality globally. Clinical practice guidelines recommend that individuals with CVD are routinely instructed to engage in self-care including diet restrictions, medication adherence, and symptom monitoring. Objectives. To describe the nature of nurse-led CVD self-care interventions, identify limitations in current nurse-led CVD self-care interventions, and make recommendations for addressing them in future research. Design. Integrative review of nurse-led CVD self-care intervention studies from PubMed, MEDLINE, ISI Web of Science, and CINAHL. Primary studies (n=34 that met the inclusion criteria of nurse-led RCT or quasiexperimental CVD self-care intervention studies (years 2000 to 2012 were retained and appraised. Quality of the review was assured by having at least two reviewers screen and extract all data. Results. A variety of self-care intervention strategies were studied among the male (57% and Caucasian (67% dominated samples. Combined interventions were common, and quality of life was the most frequent outcome evaluated. Effectiveness of interventions was inconclusive, and in general results were not sustained over time. Conclusions. Research is needed to develop and test tailored and inclusive CVD self-care interventions. Attention to rigorous study designs and methods including consistent outcomes and measurement is essential.

  5. Managing Air in Olympic Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing W. Tian

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The 21st century Olympic Agenda aims to align itself with the concept of sustainable development and has driven improved environmental quality in host cities, such as the Green Games in Sydney 2000 and the planned Beijing 2008 Games and in London 2012 as the Low Carbon Games. Air quality has long been a concern of Olympic mega-cities, although the air quality plans and strategies have often seemed short-lived and unsustainable in the long term. We have explored air quality data and air pollution control from seven Olympic cities: Mexico City, Los Angeles, Atlanta, Sydney and Athens and also Beijing and London which will host Olympic Games in near future. The study shows that despite a high altitude and air pollution problems, Mexico City had no clear environmental policy in place for the 1968 games. The characteristic smog of Los Angeles raised concerns about athletic performance at the Olympic Games of 1984, but there were limited efforts to tackle the ozone concentration during these games. The 1996 Atlanta Games represents a case where temporary public transport changes were used as a tactic to reduce air pollution. In Sydney a well planned sustainable strategy reduced air pollutants and CO2 emissions in 2000, but Athens' long efforts to improve air quality for the 2004 games were not wholly effective. Even where strategies proved successful the improvements in air quality seem short-lived. Current host cities Beijing and London are developing emission reduction plans. These have clear air quality objectives and are well intentioned. However, the improvements may be too narrow and may not be sustainable in the long term. Our analysis looks at the origins of success and failure and how more coherent improvements might be achieved and what would promote sustainable plans for air quality management at future games. The study illustrates the feedback between air pollution science and policy awareness.

  6. Material Transport with Air Jet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    István Patkó

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available In the field of industry, there are only a very few examples of material transportwith air jet, and one of these is the air jet loom. In this weaving technology, the weft (thetransversal yarn of the fabric is shot by air jet. This paper will set up the mathematicalmodel of yarn end movement. For a special case, I will specify a solution of the model.

  7. The Cost of Air Pollution

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank; Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation

    2016-01-01

    The Cost of Air Pollution: Strengthening the economic case for action, a joint study of the World Bank and the Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation (IHME), seeks to estimate the costs of premature deaths related to air pollution, to strengthen the case for action and facilitate decision making in the context of scarce resources. An estimated 5.5 million lives were lost in 2013 to diseases associated with outdoor and household air pollution, causing human suffering and reducing economic...

  8. Air and metal hydride battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lampinen, M.; Noponen, T. [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Otaniemi (Finland). Lab. of Applied Thermodynamics

    1998-12-31

    The main goal of the air and metal hydride battery project was to enhance the performance and manufacturing technology of both electrodes to such a degree that an air-metal hydride battery could become a commercially and technically competitive power source for electric vehicles. By the end of the project it was possible to demonstrate the very first prototype of the air-metal hydride battery at EV scale, achieving all the required design parameters. (orig.)

  9. Positive psychology progress: empirical validation of interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seligman, Martin E P; Steen, Tracy A; Park, Nansook; Peterson, Christopher

    2005-01-01

    Positive psychology has flourished in the last 5 years. The authors review recent developments in the field, including books, meetings, courses, and conferences. They also discuss the newly created classification of character strengths and virtues, a positive complement to the various editions of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (e. g., American Psychiatric Association, 1994), and present some cross-cultural findings that suggest a surprising ubiquity of strengths and virtues. Finally, the authors focus on psychological interventions that increase individual happiness. In a 6-group, random-assignment, placebo-controlled Internet study, the authors tested 5 purported happiness interventions and 1 plausible control exercise. They found that 3 of the interventions lastingly increased happiness and decreased depressive symptoms. Positive interventions can supplement traditional interventions that relieve suffering and may someday be the practical legacy of positive psychology.

  10. Do psychological interventions reduce preoperative anxiety?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renouf, Tessa; Leary, Alison; Wiseman, Theresa

    The systematic review investigates whether, during preoperative assessments, nurse-delivered psychological interventions reduce anxiety levels preoperatively for patients undergoing elective surgery. Seventeen studies met the inclusion criteria for data extraction and in-depth critiquing. Of these, two were discarded due to lack of validity, while the remaining studies were organised thematically in a narrative synthesis, generating two principal results: patients' preoperative anxieties were lowered by nurse-delivered general preoperative psychological interventions; and patients valued individualised preoperative interventions delivered by nurses. However, the single oncology study in the review showed an elevation in preoperative anxiety, regardless of intervention, and highlights the need for more research in this under-reviewed area. In the meantime, the authors believe that service improvements should be implemented to ensure that, where possible, psychological preoperative interventions are individualised.

  11. Rett Syndrome. Guidelines for Individual Intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meir Lotan

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Rett syndrome (RS is a neurological disorder affecting mainly females. RS is considered the second most frequent cause for severe and complex neurological dysfunction in females after Down syndrome. Patients with RS are characterized by an array of neurological and orthopedic difficulties that mandate an intensive therapeutic intervention program for the duration of the individual's life. Many aspects of the client’s well-being and functional status depend on the therapeutic intervention she receives and on her compliance to it. This article will briefly review common intervention approaches for individuals with RS and their present day's application. Due to the notion that individual intervention is the foundation on which progress and development of the functional gains rests, the present article will place basic guidelines for individual intervention with clients with RS. The article is mainly based on the clinical experience of the author and others working with individuals with RS.

  12. Brief interventions for alcohol problems: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bien, T H; Miller, W R; Tonigan, J S

    1993-03-01

    Relatively brief interventions have consistently been found to be effective in reducing alcohol consumption or achieving treatment referral of problem drinkers. To date, the literature includes at least a dozen randomized trials of brief referral or retention procedures, and 32 controlled studies of brief interventions targeting drinking behavior, enrolling over 6000 problem drinkers in both health care and treatment settings across 14 nations. These studies indicate that brief interventions are more effective than no counseling, and often as effective as more extensive treatment. The outcome literature is reviewed, and common motivational elements of effective brief interventions are described. There is encouraging evidence that the course of harmful alcohol use can be effectively altered by well-designed intervention strategies which are feasible within relatively brief-contact contexts such as primary health care settings and employee assistance programs. Implications for future research and practice are considered.

  13. Parents' Evaluation of the IDEFICS Intervention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nicholls, Stuart G.; Pohlabeln, Hermann; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: From April 2008 to August 2010 the Identification and prevention of Dietary- and lifestyle-induced health EFfects In Children and infantS (IDEFICS) intervention aimed to encourage healthier diets, higher physical activity levels and lower stress levels among European children and th...... the results represent a broad endorsement of the IDEFICS intervention, they also suggest the importance of vigilance concerning the psychological effects of obesity interventions on overweight and obese children....... positive difference, but also more likely to report that the intervention had had negative effects. Parents of overweight and obese children were more likely to report negative effects - above all, that 'the intervention had made their child feel as if he/she was "fat" or "overweight." Conclusion: While...

  14. Early intervention for childhood overweight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lone Marie; Hertel, Niels Thomas; Mølgaard, Christian;

    2015-01-01

    in body mass index (BMI) z-score in order to compare the results, independent of gender- and age-related changes over time. RESULTS: A total of 80 children were recruited with 35 and 45 children allocated to Model 1 and Model 2, respectively. No significant differences were found in the change in BMI z-score...... (SDS) between the two groups. A decrease in the mean BMI z-score from baseline to study end of -0.20 (95%CI -0.38 to -0.01) in Model 1 and -0.26 (95%CI -0.44 to -0.09) in Model 2, respectively, was detected. The majority of the participants (2/3) continued in the study for more than one year in both...... models, with a mean of 12 consultations in general practice. CONCLUSION: In this particular setting the two intervention strategies against overweight and obesity did not differ significantly with regard to change in BMI z-scores....

  15. Endoscopic ultrasound guided interventional procedures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) has emerged as animportant diagnostic and therapeutic modality in thefield of gastrointestinal endoscopy. EUS provides accessto many organs and lesions which are in proximity tothe gastrointestinal tract and thus giving an opportunityto target them for therapeutic and diagnostic purposes.This modality also provides a real time opportunityto target the required area while avoiding adjacentvascular and other structures. Therapeutic EUS hasfound role in management of pancreatic fluid collections,biliary and pancreatic duct drainage in cases of failedendoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography,drainage of gallbladder, celiac plexus neurolysis/blockage,drainage of mediastinal and intra-abdominal abscessesand collections and in targeted cancer chemotherapyand radiotherapy. Infact, therapeutic EUS has emergedas the therapy of choice for management of pancreaticpseudocysts and recent innovations like fully coveredremovable metallic stents have improved resultsin patients with organised necrosis. Similarly, EUSguided drainage of biliary tract and pancreatic ducthelps drainage of these systems in patients with failedcannulation, inaccessible papilla as with duodenal/gastric obstruction or surgically altered anatomy. EUSguided gall bladder drainage is a useful emergentprocedure in patients with acute cholecystitis who arenot fit for surgery. EUS guided celiac plexus neurolysisand blockage is more effective and less morbid vis-à-visthe percutaneous technique. The field of interventionalEUS is rapidly advancing and many more interventionsare being continuously added. This review focuses onthe current status of evidence vis-à-vis the establishedindications of therapeutic EUS.

  16. "Air embolism during fontan operation"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madan Mohan Maddali

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In patients with a right to left intracardiac shunt, air embolism results in an obligatory systemic embolization. Nonembolization of entrained air is described in a child with a single ventricle physiology who had earlier undergone bidirectional Glenn shunt construction and Damus-Kaye-Stansel anastomosis. The air entrainment was detected by intra-operative transesophageal echocardiography. The combined effect of a "diving bell" phenomenon and mild aortic valve regurgitation are suggested as the reasons for the confinement of air into the ventricle preventing catastrophic systemic embolization.

  17. [Air quality and climate change].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loft, Steffen

    2009-10-26

    Air quality, health and climate change are closely connected. Ozone depends on temperature and the greenhouse gas methane from cattle and biomass. Pollen presence depends on temperature and CO2. The effect of climate change on particulate air pollution is complex, but the likely net effect is greater health risks. Reduction of greenhouse-gas emissions by reduced livestock production and use of combustion for energy production, transport and heating will also improve air quality. Energy savings in buildings and use of CO2 neutral fuels should not deteriorate indoor and outdoor air quality.

  18. Aerodynamical sealing by air curtains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Daria; Linden, Paul

    2015-11-01

    Air curtains are artificial high-velocity plane turbulent jets which are installed in a doorway in order to reduce the heat and the mass exchange between two environments. The performance of an air curtain is assessed in terms of the sealing effectiveness E, the fraction of the exchange flow prevented by the air curtain compared to the open-door situation. The main controlling parameter for air curtain dynamics is the deflection modulus Dm representing the ratio of the momentum flux of the air curtain and the transverse forces acting on it due to the stack effect. In this talk, we examine the influence of two factors on the performance of an air curtain: the presence of an additional ventilation pathway in the room, such as a small top opening, and the effects of an opposing buoyancy force which for example arises if a downwards blowing air curtain is heated. Small-scale experiments were conducted to investigate the E (Dm) -curve of an air curtain in both situations. We present both experimental results and theoretical explanations for our observations. We also briefly illustrate how simplified models developed for air curtains can be used for more complex phenomena such as the effects of wind blowing around a model building on the ventilation rates through the openings.

  19. Self-help interventions for depressive disorders and depressive symptoms: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorm Anthony F

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Research suggests that depressive disorders exist on a continuum, with subthreshold symptoms causing considerable population burden and increasing individual risk of developing major depressive disorder. An alternative strategy to professional treatment of subthreshold depression is population promotion of effective self-help interventions that can be easily applied by an individual without professional guidance. The evidence for self-help interventions for depressive symptoms is reviewed in the present work, with the aim of identifying promising interventions that could inform future health promotion campaigns or stimulate further research. Methods A literature search for randomised controlled trials investigating self-help interventions for depressive disorders or depressive symptoms was performed using PubMed, PsycINFO and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. Reference lists and citations of included studies were also checked. Studies were grouped into those involving participants with depressive disorders or a high level of depressive symptoms, or non-clinically depressed participants not selected for depression. A number of exclusion criteria were applied, including trials with small sample sizes and where the intervention was adjunctive to antidepressants or psychotherapy. Results The majority of interventions searched had no relevant evidence to review. Of the 38 interventions reviewed, the ones with the best evidence of efficacy in depressive disorders were S-adenosylmethionine, St John's wort, bibliotherapy, computerised interventions, distraction, relaxation training, exercise, pleasant activities, sleep deprivation, and light therapy. A number of other interventions showed promise but had received less research attention. Research in non-clinical samples indicated immediate beneficial effects on depressed mood for distraction, exercise, humour, music, negative air ionisation, and singing; while potential

  20. Modern Air Situation Picture Display for Air Surveillance Radar Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Stamatović

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available We have developed a modern air situation picture display applicable in air surveillance radars. The display is based on commercial of-the-shelf hardware and custom software. This paper is focused on the details of the development process. Comparison with a similar commercially available product is given too.

  1. Colorado Air Quality Control Regulations and Ambient Air Quality Standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colorado State Dept. of Health, Denver. Div. of Air Pollution Control.

    Regulations and standards relative to air quality control in Colorado are defined in this publication. Presented first are definitions of terms, a statement of intent, and general provisions applicable to all emission control regulations adopted by the Colorado Air Pollution Control Commission. Following this, three regulations are enumerated: (1)…

  2. Norma Primaria de calidad del aire AIR QUALITY STANDARD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PATRICIA MATUS C.

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Las normas primarias de calidad del aire tienen por finalidad proteger la salud de la población de la contaminación atmosférica. Ellas establecen un nivel de riesgo socialmente aceptado. Este artículo describe los antecedentes considerados durante el proceso de actualización de la regulación vigente en Chile. Detalla conceptos sobre la calidad del aire, describe los efectos en la salud de los contaminantes, y el procedimiento seguido para fijar los nuevos estándares Finaliza enumerando la norma primaria de calidad del aire, sus valores y los limites definidos para ser considerados en el ámbito de la gestión de los episodios críticos o de alta contaminaciónThe main purpose of air quality standards is to protect people health from air pollution. They establish a socially accepted level of risk. This article describes the background information considered during the process for updating the current Chilean regulation. Concepts about quality of air, and the effects of the pollutants on the health are described. The procedure followed to fix the new standards is detailed. Finally we state the primary air quality norm, its values as well as the critical limits in order to control critical events of high air pollution

  3. Reactive Air Aluminization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Jung-Pyung; Chou, Y. S.; Stevenson, Jeffry W.

    2011-10-28

    Ferritic stainless steels and other alloys are of great interest to SOFC developers for applications such as interconnects, cell frames, and balance of plant components. While these alloys offer significant advantages (e.g., low material and manufacturing cost, high thermal conductivity, and high temperature oxidation resistance), there are challenges which can hinder their utilization in SOFC systems; these challenges include Cr volatility and reactivity with glass seals. To overcome these challenges, protective coatings and surface treatments for the alloys are under development. In particular, aluminization of alloy surfaces offers the potential for mitigating both evaporation of Cr from the alloy surface and reaction of alloy constituents with glass seals. Commercial aluminization processes are available to SOFC developers, but they tend to be costly due to their use of exotic raw materials and/or processing conditions. As an alternative, PNNL has developed Reactive Air Aluminization (RAA), which offers a low-cost, simpler alternative to conventional aluminization methods.

  4. Indoor air pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gold, D.R. (Channing Laboratory, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Boston, MA (United States))

    1992-06-01

    This article summarizes the health effects of indoor air pollutants and the modalities available to control them. The pollutants discussed include active and passive exposure to tobacco smoke; combustion products of carbon monoxide; nitrogen dioxide; products of biofuels, including wood and coal; biologic agents leading to immune responses, such as house dust mites, cockroaches, fungi, animal dander, and urine; biologic agents associated with infection such as Legionella and tuberculosis; formaldehyde; and volatile organic compounds. An approach to assessing building-related illness and tight building' syndrome is presented. Finally, the article reviews recent data on hospital-related asthma and exposures to potential respiratory hazards such as antineoplastic agents, anesthetic gases, and ethylene oxide.88 references.

  5. Air Composition and Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brimblecombe, Peter

    1996-01-01

    This book is about the atmosphere and humanity's influence on it. For this new edition, Brimblecombe has rewritten and updated much of the book. In the early chapters, he discusses the geochemical, biological and maritime sources of the trace gases. Next, he examines the chemistry of atmospheric gases, suspended particles, and rainfall. After dealing with the natural atmosphere, he examines the sources of air pollution and its effects, with all scenarios updated from the last edition. Scenarios include decline in health, damage to plants and animals, indoor pollution, and acid rain. The final chapters, also revised, are concerned with the chemistry and evolution of the atmospheres of the planets of the solar system. Students with an interest in chemistry and the environmental sciences will find this book highly valuable.

  6. de Buenos Aires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquín Linne

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Esta investigación explora la situación de los cibercafés en la Ciudad de Buenos Aires y de su principalpoblación, los adolescentes de sectores populares. Aunque en los últimos años millones de adolescentes abandonaronestos espacios como consecuencia de la ampliación de la Internet hogareña, en sectores popularesmuchos adolescentes aún continúan asistiendo en busca de recreación lúdico-comunicativa, información eintegración social. La metodología utilizada consiste en 40 entrevistas en profundidad, observaciones participantesy análisis de contenido de perfiles de Facebook (n: 200. Entre los resultados, se destaca que lasprincipales prácticas de estos adolescentes son comunicativas y que estos espacios funcionan para ellos comoherramientas de alfabetización digital, sociabilidad entre pares e inclusión ciudadana.

  7. Metal hydride air conditioner

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG; Ke; DU; Ping; LU; Man-qi

    2005-01-01

    The relationship among the hydrogen storage properties, cycling characteristics and thermal parameters of the metal hydride air conditioning systems was investigated. Based on a new alloy selection model, three pairs of hydrogen storage alloys, LaNi4.4 Mn0.26 Al0.34 / La0.6 Nd0.4 Ni4.8 Mn0.2 Cu0. 1, LaNi4.61Mn0. 26 Al0.13/La0.6 Nd0.4 Ni4.8 Mn0.2 Cu0. 1 and LaNi4.61 Mn0.26 Al0.13/La0.6 Y0.4 Ni4.8 Mn0. 2, were selected as the working materials for the metal hydride air conditioning system. Studies on the factors affecting the COP of the system showed that higher COP and available hydrogen content need the proper operating temperature and cycling time,large hydrogen storage capacity, flat plateau and small hysterisis of hydrogen alloys, proper original input hydrogen content and mass ratio of the pair of alloys. It also needs small conditioning system was established by using LaNi4.61 Mn0.26 Al0. 13/La0.6 Y0.4 Ni4.8 Mn0.2 alloys as the working materials, which showed that under the operating temperature of 180℃/40℃, a low temperature of 13℃ was reached, with COP =0.38 and Wnet =0.09 kW/kg.

  8. Patients radiation dose values during interventional cardiology examinations in university hospital, Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jung Su [The Institute of Health Science Research, Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Joun Hyuk [Dept. of Radio-technology, Wonkwang Health Science University, Iksan (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Hae Kyoung [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, CHA Bundang Medical Center, CHA University, Sungnam (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jung Min [Dept. of Radiological Science, Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Byung Ryul [Dept. of Cardiology, Kangwon National University Hospital, Chuncheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-03-15

    The use of cardiac angiography (CA) and the interventional procedures is rapidly increasing due to the increase in modern adult diseases. Cardiovascular intervention (CI) is an examination method where radiation is applied to the same area for a long period, and thus may cause skin injury. In this study, we investigate the diagnostic reference level (DRL) of the cardiovascular intervention (CI) carried out by medical institutions and use it as a tool to reduce patient exposure dose. In this study, the DRL was set by acquiring information about the cumulative fluoroscopy time, cumulative fluoroscopy dose-area product (DAP), radiography DAP, cumulative DAP, air kerma, number of video clips, and the total number of images from the cardiac angiography and interventional procedures performed on 147 patients. The DAPs corresponding to the DRL of cardiac angiography( CA) and that of the interventional procedures were shown to be 44.4Gy·cm{sup 2} and 298.6Gy·cm{sup 2}, respectively; the corresponding DRLs of fluoroscopy time were shown to be 191.5s and 1935.3s, respectively. A DRL is not a strict upper bound for radiation exposure. However, the process of setting, enacting, and reviewing the DRLs for the dose by medical institutions will contribute to a reduction in the unnecessary exposure dose of patients.

  9. 77 FR 12524 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Indiana; Lead Ambient Air Quality...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    ... Ambient Air Quality Standards AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Proposed rule...) under the Clean Air Act (CAA). This submittal incorporates the National Ambient Air Quality...

  10. Air Leakage Rates in Typical Air Barrier Assemblies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hun, Diana E. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Atchley, Jerald Allen [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Childs, Phillip W. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-11-01

    Estimates for 2010 indicate that infiltration in residential buildings was responsible for 2.85 quads of energy (DOE 2014), which is about 3% of the total energy consumed in the US. One of the mechanisms being implemented to reduce this energy penalty is the use of air barriers as part of the building envelope. These technologies decrease airflow through major leakage sites such as oriented strand board (OSB) joints, and gaps around penetrations (e.g., windows, doors, pipes, electrical outlets) as indicated by Hun et al. (2014). However, most air barrier materials do not properly address leakage spots such as wall-to-roof joints and wall-to-foundation joints because these are difficult to seal, and because air barrier manufacturers usually do not provide adequate instructions for these locations. The present study focuses on characterizing typical air leakage sites in wall assemblies with air barrier materials.

  11. Music intervention study in abdominal surgery patients: challenges of an intervention study in clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaajoki, Anne; Pietilä, Anna-Maija; Kankkunen, Päivi; Vehviläinen-Julkunen, Katri

    2013-04-01

    Evidence-based nursing requires carefully designed interventions. This paper discusses methodological issues and explores practical solutions in the use of music intervention in pain management among adults after major abdominal surgery. There is a need to study nursing interventions that develop and test the effects of interventions to advanced clinical nursing knowledge and practice. There are challenges in carrying out intervention studies in clinical settings because of several interacting components and the length and complexity of the causal chains linking intervention with outcome. Intervention study is time-consuming and requires both researchers and participants' commitment to the study. Interdisciplinary and multiprofessional collaboration is also paramount. In this study, patients were allocated into the music group, in which patients listened to music 30 minutes at a time, or the control group, in which patients did not listen to any music during the same period.

  12. VRF air conditioner connected to the central control system. LON interface in the Sparkasse Greiz administrative building; Einsatz einer VRF-Klimaanlage mit Anbindung an die GLT. Ermoeglicht in der Sparkasse Greiz durch LON-Schnittstelle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loescher, L. [Mitsubishi Electric Europe B.V., Dresden (Germany)

    2007-07-15

    Central monitoring and control systems ensure automatic control and optimum operating conditions of heating systems, air conditioners and ventilation systems. The operating cost is minimized by early intervention. (orig.)

  13. Cardiopulmonary Benefits of Reducing Indoor Particles of Outdoor Origin: a Randomized Double-Blind Crossover Trial of Air Purifiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Renjie; Zhao, Ang; Chen, Honglei; Zhao, Zhuohui; Cai, Jing; Wang, Cuicui; Yang, Changyuan; Li, Huichu; Xu, Xiaohui; Ha, Sandie; Li, Tiantian; Kan, Haidong

    2017-01-01

    Background Indoor exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) from outdoor sources is a major health concern, especially in highly polluted developing countries, such as China. Few studies have evaluated the effectiveness of indoor air purification on the improvement of cardiopulmonary health in these areas. Objectives To evaluate whether a short-term indoor air purifier intervention improves cardiopulmonary health. Methods We conducted a randomized double-blind crossover trial among 35 healthy college students in Shanghai, China in 2014. These students lived in dormitories that were randomized into 2 groups and alternated the use of true or sham air purifiers for 48 h with a 2-week washout interval. We measured 14 circulating biomarkers of inflammation, coagulation and vasoconstriction, lung function, blood pressure (BP), and fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO). We applied linear mixed-effect models to evaluate the effect of the intervention on health outcome variables. Results On average, air purification resulted in a 57% reduction in PM2.5 concentration from 96.2 to 41.3 μg/m3 within hours of operation. Air purification was significantly associated with decreases in geometric means of several circulating inflammatory and thrombogenic biomarkers, including 17.5% in monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, 68.1% in interleukin-1β, 32.8% in myeloperoxidase and 64.9% in soluble CD40 ligand. Further, systolic BP, diastolic BP, and FeNO were significantly decreased by 2.7%, 4.8%, and 17.0% in geometric mean, respectively. The impacts on lung function and vasoconstriction biomarkers were beneficial, but not statistically significant. Conclusion This intervention study demonstrated clear cardiopulmonary benefits of indoor air purification among young, healthy adults in a Chinese city with severe ambient particulate air pollution. (Intervention Study on the Health Impact of Air Filters in Chinese Adults; NCT02239744) PMID:26022815

  14. An Educational–Vocational Intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalervo Friberg

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Changes in student-affective entry characteristics were examined in an educational−vocational intervention at Finnish comprehensive school. The conceptual framework constructed from attitudes as learned dispositions (Fishbein & Ajzen, 1975 and self-determination (Deci & Ryan, 1985 was tested in a longitudinal study. A person-based survey questionnaire was designed, piloted, and validated. Spearman−Brown reliability was calculated. In the first observation, 669 (Time One Cohort, and in the second, 649 (Time Two Cohort subjects (girls and boys of mean ages of 14.5 and 16.0 years took the Web-based survey. The tested hypotheses were (a variables of self-determination, self-regulation, and intrinsic and extrinsic motivation would emerge as attitudinal domains in work−life orientation; (b the experiences during the implementation of a work−life orientation program would decrease the effects of seventh-grade student background factors at the end of the program in the ninth grade, and (c work−life orientation would be effective and have efficacy in changing student attitudes in relation to further education and occupations. Three factors emerged in the Maximum Likelihood Factor Analysis. The factors Independence, Self-Direction, and Flexibility were used as the dependents in repeated measures in a general linear model. The factor means were subjected to a paired samples t test. There was development toward stronger Independence and Flexibility in the case of both genders. The boys had gained the girls’ seventh-grade lead at the end of the program. Self-Direction did not show any changes. Empirical findings tentatively supported the program’s efficacy in changing entry characteristics.

  15. Historical perspectives on interventional electrophysiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lüderitz, Berndt

    2003-10-01

    The history of interventional electrophysiology is long and fascinating. In the beginning, there is not simply the anatomy and physiology of the heart, but also analysis of the pulse, which indicates the activity of the heart. The analysis of the (peripheral) pulse as a mechanical expression of heart activity goes back several millennia. In China, in 280 B.C., Wang Chu Ho wrote ten books about the pulse. The Greeks called the pulse "sphygmos", and the sphygmology thus deals with a theory of this natural occurrence. In Roman times, Galen interpreted the various types of pulse according to the widespread presumption of the time, that each organ in every disease has its own form of pulse. The basic tool for arrhythmia diagnosis became the electrocardiography introduced by Willem Einthoven who obtained the first human electrogram 1902 in Leiden, The Netherlands. The growing clinical importance of electrical cardiac stimulation has been recognized and renewed as Zoll (1911-1999) in 1952 reported a successful resuscitation in cardiac standstill by external stimulation. Meanwhile all over the world, millions of patients with cardiac arrhythmias have been treated with pacemakers in the last 45 years. The concept of a fully automatic implantable cardioverter-defibrillator system (ICD) for recognition and treatment of ventricular tachyarrhythmias was first suggested in 1970. The first implantation of the device in a human being was performed in February 1980. Further developments concern atrial and atrioventricular defibrillators, radiofrequency ablation, laser therapy and advanced antiarrhythmic surgery, new antiarrhythmic drugs and sophisticated devices for preventive pacing. The advances in the field of diagnostic and therapeutic application of pharmacologic and electrical tools as well as alternative methods will continue as rapidly as before in order to give us further significant aid in taking care of the patient.

  16. E-health interventions for suicide prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Helen; Batterham, Philip J; O'Dea, Bridianne

    2014-08-12

    Many people at risk of suicide do not seek help before an attempt, and do not remain connected to health services following an attempt. E-health interventions are now being considered as a means to identify at-risk individuals, offer self-help through web interventions or to deliver proactive interventions in response to individuals' posts on social media. In this article, we examine research studies which focus on these three aspects of suicide and the internet: the use of online screening for suicide, the effectiveness of e-health interventions aimed to manage suicidal thoughts, and newer studies which aim to proactively intervene when individuals at risk of suicide are identified by their social media postings. We conclude that online screening may have a role, although there is a need for additional robust controlled research to establish whether suicide screening can effectively reduce suicide-related outcomes, and in what settings online screening might be most effective. The effectiveness of Internet interventions may be increased if these interventions are designed to specifically target suicidal thoughts, rather than associated conditions such as depression. The evidence for the use of intervention practices using social media is possible, although validity, feasibility and implementation remains highly uncertain.

  17. Family Intervention in First-Episode Psychosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anvar Sadath

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Family interventions have produced benefits on clinical and family outcomes in long standing psychosis. However, little is known about the efficacy of such interventions in the early stages of psychosis. This article reviews published research over the last two decades on family intervention in first-episode psychosis. Electronic databases, such as PubMed, PsycINFO, and ScienceDirect, have been systematically searched. In addition, an exhaustive Internet search was also carried out using Google and Google Scholar to identify the potential studies that evaluated family interventions in first-episode psychosis. We have identified seven reports of five randomized controlled trials (RCTs and five non-randomized and uncontrolled studies of family intervention. Our review on 12 reports of family intervention studies has shown mixed effects on outcomes in first-episode psychosis. Most of the reports showed no added benefits or very short-term benefits on primary clinical or family outcome variables. There is a dearth of family intervention studies in first-episode psychosis. More RCTs are needed to reach reliable conclusions.

  18. Analysis approaches and interventions with occupational performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Sinae

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to analyze approaches and interventions with occupational performance in patients with stroke. [Subjects and Methods] In this study, articles published in the past 10 years were searched. The key terms used were “occupational performance AND stroke” and “occupational performance AND CVA”. A total 252 articles were identified, and 79 articles were selected. All interventions were classified according to their approaches according to 6 theories. All interventions were analyzed for frequency. [Results] Regarding the approaches, there were 25 articles for studies that provided high frequency interventions aimed at improving biomechanical approaches (31.6%). This included electrical stimulation therapy, robot therapy, and sensory stimulation training, as well as others. Analysis of the frequency of interventions revealed that the most commonly used interventions, which were used in 18 articles (22.8%), made use of the concept of constraint-induced therapy. [Conclusion] The results of this study suggest an approach for use in clinics for selecting an appropriate intervention for occupational performance. PMID:27799719

  19. Innovative Techniques for Evaluating Behavioral Nutrition Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherr, Rachel E; Laugero, Kevin D; Graham, Dan J; Cunningham, Brian T; Jahns, Lisa; Lora, Karina R; Reicks, Marla; Mobley, Amy R

    2017-01-01

    Assessing outcomes and the impact from behavioral nutrition interventions has remained challenging because of the lack of methods available beyond traditional nutrition assessment tools and techniques. With the current high global obesity and related chronic disease rates, novel methods to evaluate the impact of behavioral nutrition-based interventions are much needed. The objective of this narrative review is to describe and review the current status of knowledge as it relates to 4 different innovative methods or tools to assess behavioral nutrition interventions. Methods reviewed include 1) the assessment of stress and stress responsiveness to enhance the evaluation of nutrition interventions, 2) eye-tracking technology in nutritional interventions, 3) smartphone biosensors to assess nutrition and health-related outcomes, and 4) skin carotenoid measurements to assess fruit and vegetable intake. Specifically, the novel use of functional magnetic resonance imaging, by characterizing the brain's responsiveness to an intervention, can help researchers develop programs with greater efficacy. Similarly, if eye-tracking technology can enable researchers to get a better sense as to how participants view materials, the materials may be better tailored to create an optimal impact. The latter 2 techniques reviewed, smartphone biosensors and methods to detect skin carotenoids, can provide the research community with portable, effective, nonbiased ways to assess dietary intake and quality and more in the field. The information gained from using these types of methodologies can improve the efficacy and assessment of behavior-based nutrition interventions.

  20. Quasi experimental designs in pharmacist intervention research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krass, Ines

    2016-06-01

    Background In the field of pharmacist intervention research it is often difficult to conform to the rigorous requirements of the "true experimental" models, especially the requirement of randomization. When randomization is not feasible, a practice based researcher can choose from a range of "quasi-experimental designs" i.e., non-randomised and at time non controlled. Objective The aim of this article was to provide an overview of quasi-experimental designs, discuss their strengths and weaknesses and to investigate their application in pharmacist intervention research over the previous decade. Results In the literature quasi experimental studies may be classified into five broad categories: quasi-experimental design without control groups; quasi-experimental design that use control groups with no pre-test; quasi-experimental design that use control groups and pre-tests; interrupted time series and stepped wedge designs. Quasi-experimental study design has consistently featured in the evolution of pharmacist intervention research. The most commonly applied of all quasi experimental designs in the practice based research literature are the one group pre-post-test design and the non-equivalent control group design i.e., (untreated control group with dependent pre-tests and post-tests) and have been used to test the impact of pharmacist interventions in general medications management as well as in specific disease states. Conclusion Quasi experimental studies have a role to play as proof of concept, in the pilot phases of interventions when testing different intervention components, especially in complex interventions. They serve to develop an understanding of possible intervention effects: while in isolation they yield weak evidence of clinical efficacy, taken collectively, they help build a body of evidence in support of the value of pharmacist interventions across different practice settings and countries. However, when a traditional RCT is not feasible for

  1. Air Pollution Control, Part I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, Werner, Ed.

    Authoritative reviews in seven areas of current importance in air pollution control are supplied in this volume, the first of a two-part set. Titles contained in this book are: "Dispersion of Pollutants Emitted into the Atmosphere,""The Formation and Control of Oxides of Nitrogen in Air Pollution,""The Control of Sulfur Emissions from Combustion…

  2. Screening in humid air plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filippov, Anatoly; Derbenev, Ivan; Dyatko, Nikolay; Kurkin, Sergey

    2016-09-01

    Low temperature air plasmas containing H2O molecules are of high importance for atmospheric phenomena, climate control, biomedical applications, surface processing, and purification of air and water. Humid air plasma created by an external ionization source is a good model of the troposphere where ions are produced by the galactic cosmic rays and decay products of air and soil radioactive elements such as Rn222. The present paper is devoted to study the ionic composition and the screening in an ionized humid air at atmospheric pressure and room temperature. The ionization rate is varied in the range of 101 -1018 cm-3s-1. The humid air with 0 - 1 . 5 % water admixture that corresponds to the relative humidity of 0 - 67 % at the air temperature equal to 20°C is considered. The ionic composition is determined on the analysis of more than a hundred processes. The system of 41 non-steady state particle number balance equations is solved using the 4th order Runge-Kutta method. The screening of dust particle charge in the ionized humid air are studied within the diffusion-drift approach. The screening constants are well approximated by the inverse Debye length and characteristic lengths of recombination and attachment processes. This work was supported by the Russian Science Foundation, Project No. 16-12-10424.

  3. Ozone as an air pollutant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Rolf W.

    1996-01-01

    A Danish new book on ozone as an air pollutant has been reviewed. The Book is "Ozon som luftforurening" by Jes Fenger, Published by "Danmarks Miljøundersøgelser, 1995.......A Danish new book on ozone as an air pollutant has been reviewed. The Book is "Ozon som luftforurening" by Jes Fenger, Published by "Danmarks Miljøundersøgelser, 1995....

  4. Human preference for air movement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toftum, Jørn; Melikov, Arsen Krikor; Tynel, A.;

    2002-01-01

    Human preference for air movement was studied at slightly cool, neutral, and slightly warm overall thermal sensations and at temperatures ranging from 18 deg.C to 28 deg.C. Air movement preference depended on both thermal sensation and temperature, but large inter-individual differences existed...

  5. A Breath of Fresh Air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belew, Rachel

    2011-01-01

    One of the most important aspects of a healthy school--and one that, unfortunately, often falls by the wayside--is indoor air quality. The U.S. Government Accountability Office estimates that more than 15,000 schools nationwide report suffering from poor indoor air quality. According to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, schools with poor…

  6. Mind Your Indoor Air Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mak, Lily

    2012-01-01

    When it comes to excelling in the classroom, it turns out the air students are breathing is just as important as the lessons they are learning. Studies show poor indoor air quality (IAQ) can lessen the comfort of students as well as staff--affecting concentration, attendance and student performance. It can even lead to lower IQs. What's more, poor…

  7. Vehicles and Particulate Air Pollution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The current scene relating to particles and vehicular emissions in UK is reviewed. The active research topics are health effects of particles, particle size and composition, modeling the fate of particles and assessing individual exposure. There is a National Air Quality Strategy combined with local air quality management which includes monitoring and assessment, dispersion modeling and development of management plans.

  8. Cylindrical air flow reversal barrier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woznica, C.; Rodziewicz, M.

    1988-06-01

    Describes an innovative design introduced in the ZMP mine in Zory for quick reversal of ventilation air flow. Geologic mining conditions at the 705 m deep horizon, where the barrier was built, are described. According to the design used until now, a reversal system consisted of safety barriers, ventilation air locks, a ventilation bridge and stopping needed in case of a fire when air flow direction must be reversed. Nine air locks and an expensive concrete ventilation bridge were needed and the air locks had to be operated at 8 points of the region to effect reversal. The new design consists of a 2-storey cylindrical barrier which also fulfills the function of a ventilation bridge. It can be manually or remotely operated by a mechanical or pneumatic system. Tests showed that the new barrier permits immediate air flow reversal while retaining 60% of the original air, which is important in the case of fire and methane hazards. It permits improved seam panelling and splitting of pillars and brings an economy of about 40 million zlotys in construction cost. Design and operation of the barrier is illustrated and ventilation air circulation is explained. 7 figs.

  9. Protective supplied breathing air garment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childers, Edward L.; von Hortenau, Erik F.

    1984-07-10

    A breathing air garment for isolating a wearer from hostile environments containing toxins or irritants includes a suit and a separate head protective enclosure or hood engaging a suit collar in sealing attachment. The hood and suit collar are cylindrically shaped and dimensioned to enable the wearer to withdraw his hands from the suit sleeves to perform manual tasks within the hood interior. Breathing air is supplied from an external air line with an air delivery hose attached to the hood interior. The hose feeds air into an annular halo-like fiber-filled plenum having spaced discharge orifices attached to the hood top wall. A plurality of air exhaust/check valves located at the suit extremities cooperate with the hood air delivery system to provide a cooling flow of circulating air from the hood throughout the suit interior. A suit entry seal provided on the suit rear torso panel permits access into the suit and is sealed with an adhesive sealing flap.

  10. Influence of French Air Power Strategy in the European Union’s Military Operations in Africa (2003-2009)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    Prévention et Gestion des Conflits Contemporains." Défense Nationale et Sécurité Collective June 2007, 35-43. Knutsen, Bjørn Olav. "The EU and the...2 Francois Gaulme, "La Politique Française d’ Intervention Dans les Conflits Limités en Afrique" (paper presented at the The Use of Air Power in...Française d’Intervention Dans les Conflits Limités en Afrique", 7. 4 Gaulme, "La Politique Française d’Intervention Dans les Conflits Limités en Afrique

  11. Optical and opto-acoustic interventional imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarantopoulos, Athanasios; Beziere, Nicolas; Ntziachristos, Vasilis

    2012-02-01

    Many clinical interventional procedures, such as surgery or endoscopy, are today still guided by human vision and perception. Human vision however is not sensitive or accurate in detecting a large range of disease biomarkers, for example cellular or molecular processes characteristic of disease. For this reason advanced optical and opto-acoustic (photo-acoustic) methods are considered for enabling a more versatile, sensitive and accurate detection of disease biomarkers and complement human vision in clinical decision making during interventions. Herein, we outline developments in emerging fluorescence and opto-acoustic sensing and imaging techniques that can lead to practical implementations toward improving interventional vision.

  12. `Energy storage` using liquid air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, K.C. [Melbourne Univ., Parkville, VIC (Australia)

    1995-12-31

    Storage of liquid air is relatively simple, and the work needed to manufacture it is, at least in principle, entirely recoverable. Available energy densities seem excellent. Unfortunately the technology to use liquid air for energy storage has never been developed. The Phillips-Stirling and McMahon and Gifford air liquefiers, and a previous proposal by Smith, provide leads as to the form which the technology might take. This paper introduces the concept of `Exergy`, and how it can be utilized in the storage of liquid air. It concludes that liquid air seems to present some real advantages over batteries for energy storage. The development presents a challenge. Since battery technology is not making the huge advances promised, it could be time to take a more serious look at this alternative. (author). 4 figs., 14 refs.

  13. Picosecond laser filamentation in air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt-Sody, Andreas; Kurz, Heiko G.; Bergé, Luc; Skupin, Stefan; Polynkin, Pavel

    2016-09-01

    The propagation of intense picosecond laser pulses in air in the presence of strong nonlinear self-action effects and air ionization is investigated experimentally and numerically. The model used for numerical analysis is based on the nonlinear propagator for the optical field coupled to the rate equations for the production of various ionic species and plasma temperature. Our results show that the phenomenon of plasma-driven intensity clamping, which has been paramount in femtosecond laser filamentation, holds for picosecond pulses. Furthermore, the temporal pulse distortions in the picosecond regime are limited and the pulse fluence is also clamped. In focused propagation geometry, a unique feature of picosecond filamentation is the production of a broad, fully ionized air channel, continuous both longitudinally and transversely, which may be instrumental for many applications including laser-guided electrical breakdown of air, channeling microwave beams and air lasing.

  14. Lithium-Air Cell Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Concha M.; Dobley, Arthur; Seymour, Frasier W.

    2014-01-01

    Lithium-air (Li-air) primary batteries have a theoretical specific capacity of 11,400 Wh/kg, the highest of any common metal-air system. NASA is developing Li-air technology for a Mobile Oxygen Concentrator for Spacecraft Emergencies, an application which requires an extremely lightweight primary battery that can discharge over 24 hours continuously. Several vendors were funded through the NASA SBIR program to develop Li-air technology to fulfill the requirements of this application. New catalysts and carbon cathode structures were developed to enhance the oxygen reduction reaction and increase surface area to improve cell performance. Techniques to stabilize the lithium metal anode surface were explored. Experimental results for prototype laboratory cells are given. Projections are made for the performance of hypothetical cells constructed from the materials that were developed.

  15. Atmospheric Chemistry and Air Pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey S. Gaffney

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric chemistry is an important discipline for understanding air pollution and its impacts. This mini-review gives a brief history of air pollution and presents an overview of some of the basic photochemistry involved in the production of ozone and other oxidants in the atmosphere. Urban air quality issues are reviewed with a specific focus on ozone and other oxidants, primary and secondary aerosols, alternative fuels, and the potential for chlorine releases to amplify oxidant chemistry in industrial areas. Regional air pollution issues such as acid rain, long-range transport of aerosols and visibility loss, and the connections of aerosols to ozone and peroxyacetyl nitrate chemistry are examined. Finally, the potential impacts of air pollutants on the global-scale radiative balances of gases and aerosols are discussed briefly.

  16. Population Dynamics and Air Pollution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flachs, Esben Meulengracht; Sørensen, Jan; Bønløkke, Jacob

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To explore how three different assumptions on demographics affect the health impact of Danish emitted air pollution in Denmark from 2005 to 2030, with health impact modeled from 2005 to 2050. Methods. Modeled air pollution from Danish sources was used as exposure in a newly developed......) a static year 2005 population, (2) morbidity and mortality fixed at the year 2005 level, or (3) an expected development. Results. The health impact of air pollution was estimated at 672,000, 290,000, and 280,000 lost life years depending on demographic assumptions and the corresponding social costs at 430.......4 M€, 317.5 M€, and 261.6 M€ through the modeled years 2005–2050. Conclusion. The modeled health impact of air pollution differed widely with the demographic assumptions, and thus demographics and assumptions on demographics played a key role in making health impact assessments on air pollution....

  17. Long-term (5 year) safety of bronchial thermoplasty: Asthma Intervention Research (AIR) trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomson, Neil C; Rubin, Adalberto S; Niven, Robert M

    2011-01-01

    Bronchial thermoplasty (BT) is a bronchoscopic procedure that improves asthma control by reducing excess airway smooth muscle. Treated patients have been followed out to 5 years to evaluate long-term safety of this procedure....

  18. Air pollution and public health: emerging hazards and improved understanding of risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Frank J; Fussell, Julia C

    2015-08-01

    Despite past improvements in air quality, very large parts of the population in urban areas breathe air that does not meet European standards let alone the health-based World Health Organisation Air Quality Guidelines. Over the last 10 years, there has been a substantial increase in findings that particulate matter (PM) air pollution is not only exerting a greater impact on established health endpoints, but is also associated with a broader number of disease outcomes. Data strongly suggest that effects have no threshold within the studied range of ambient concentrations, can occur at levels close to PM2.5 background concentrations and that they follow a mostly linear concentration-response function. Having firmly established this significant public health problem, there has been an enormous effort to identify what it is in ambient PM that affects health and to understand the underlying biological basis of toxicity by identifying mechanistic pathways-information that in turn will inform policy makers how best to legislate for cleaner air. Another intervention in moving towards a healthier environment depends upon the achieving the right public attitude and behaviour by the use of optimal air pollution monitoring, forecasting and reporting that exploits increasingly sophisticated information systems. Improving air quality is a considerable but not an intractable challenge. Translating the correct scientific evidence into bold, realistic and effective policies undisputedly has the potential to reduce air pollution so that it no longer poses a damaging and costly toll on public health.

  19. 22 CFR 228.22 - Air transportation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Air transportation. 228.22 Section 228.22... for USAID Financing § 228.22 Air transportation. (a) The eligibility of air transportation is... U.S. flag air carriers for all international air travel and transportation, unless such service...

  20. Air Safety Spinoffs

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-01-01

    Weight saving-even a matter of a few pounds-is an important consideration in airplane design and . construction. Boeing saved 200 pounds simply by substituting a new type of compressed gas cylinder on their 747 commercial airliners. For quickly evacuating passengers in the event of a ground emergency the 747 escape chutes allow ' passengers to slide to safety from the two-story height of the cabin deck. The chutes pop out of exitways and are automatically inflated in seconds by compressed air stored in pressure vessels. Boeing's weight saving resulted from a recent changeover to a new type of pressure vessel built by Structural Composites Industries Inc. of Azusa, Cal. The company employs technology originally developed for rocket motor casings; the cylinders are constructed by winding fibers around an aluminum liner. This technique offers high strength for very low weight-in this case 60 percent less than the pressure vessels earlier used on the 747. Another contribution to improved air safety is an underwater locator device. Called the "Pinger," it uses sonar techniques to locate aircraft crashed in water-or, more specifically, to recover the flight recorder aboard the airplane. Its recovery provides clues as to what caused the accident and suggests measures to prevent similar future occurrences. Until recently, there was no way to recover flight recorders aboard aircraft lost in water crashes. The Pinger, now serving 95 percent of the airline industry, provides an answer. Key element of the Pinger system is a small, battery-powered transmitter, or homing beacon, included as part of the recorder package. For as long as 30 days, the transmitter sends out an acoustic signal from water depths up to 20,000 feet. The other element of the system is a receiver, used by search crews to home in on the transmitter's signal. Originating as a U.S. Navy project, this device was refined and further developed by NASA's Langley Research Center to retrieve submerged nose cones

  1. Intervention Engagement Moderates the Dose–Response Relationships in a Dietary Intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Lippke

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Behavioral interventions could lead to changes in behavior through changes in a mediator. This dose–response relationship might only hold true for those participants who are actively engaged in interventions. This Internet study investigated the role of engagement in a planning intervention to promote fruit and vegetable consumption in addition to testing the intervention effect on planning and behavior. A sample of 701 adults (mean = 38.71 years, 81% women were randomly assigned either to a planning intervention (experimental group or to one of 2 control conditions (untreated waiting list control group or placebo active control group. Moderated mediation analyses were carried out. Significant changes over time and time × group effects revealed the effectiveness of the intervention. The effect of the intervention (time 1 on changes in behavior (time 3; 1 month after the personal deadline study participants set for themselves to start implementing their plans was mediated by changes in planning (time 2; 1 week the personal deadline. Effects of planning on behavior were documented only at a moderate level of intervention engagement. This indicates an inverse U-shaped dose–response effect. Thus, examining participants’ intervention engagement allows for a more careful evaluation of why some interventions work and others do not.

  2. Air Leakage and Air Transfer Between Garage and Living Space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudd, A.

    2014-09-01

    This research project focused on evaluation of air transfer between the garage and living space in a single-family detached home constructed by a production homebuilder in compliance with the 2009 International Residential Code and the 2009 International Energy Conservation Code. The project gathered important information about the performance of whole-building ventilation systems and garage ventilation systems as they relate to minimizing flow of contaminated air from garage to living space. A series of 25 multi-point fan pressurization tests and additional zone pressure diagnostic testing characterized the garage and house air leakage, the garage-to-house air leakage, and garage and house pressure relationships to each other and to outdoors using automated fan pressurization and pressure monitoring techniques. While the relative characteristics of this house may not represent the entire population of new construction configurations and air tightness levels (house and garage) throughout the country, the technical approach was conservative and should reasonably extend the usefulness of the results to a large spectrum of house configurations from this set of parametric tests in this one house. Based on the results of this testing, the two-step garage-to-house air leakage test protocol described above is recommended where whole-house exhaust ventilation is employed. For houses employing whole-house supply ventilation (positive pressure) or balanced ventilation (same pressure effect as the Baseline condition), adherence to the EPA Indoor airPLUS house-to-garage air sealing requirements should be sufficient to expect little to no garage-to-house air transfer.

  3. Symposium: Organizational Health Intervention Research: Current Empirical Developments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ipsen, Christine; Jenny, Gregor

    2014-01-01

    This symposium is one of three symposia submitted by the "International organizational health intervention research partnership". The aim of this symposium is to present new empirical developments based on participatory intervention models. All five studies have developed and applied intervention...

  4. Appropriateness of Percutaneous Coronary Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Paul S.; Patel, Manesh R.; Klein, Lloyd W.; Krone, Ronald J.; Dehmer, Gregory J.; Kennedy, Kevin; Nallamothu, Brahmajee K.; Douglas Weaver, W.; Masoudi, Frederick A.; Rumsfeld, John S.; Brindis, Ralph G.; Spertus, John A.

    2012-01-01

    Context Despite the widespread use of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), the appropriateness of these procedures in contemporary practice is unknown. Objective To assess the appropriateness of PCI in the United States. Design, Setting, and Patients Multicenter, prospective study of patients within the National Cardiovascular Data Registry undergoing PCI between July 1, 2009, and September 30, 2010, at 1091 US hospitals. The appropriateness of PCI was adjudicated using the appropriate use criteria for coronary revascularization. Results were stratified by whether the procedure was performed for an acute (ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction, non–ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction, or unstable angina with high-risk features) or nonacute indication. Main Outcome Measures Proportion of acute and nonacute PCIs classified as appropriate, uncertain, or inappropriate; extent of hospital-level variation in inappropriate procedures. Results Of 500 154 PCIs, 355 417 (71.1%) were for acute indications (ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction, 103 245 [20.6%]; non–ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction, 105 708 [21.1%]; high-risk unstable angina, 146 464 [29.3%]), and 144 737 (28.9%) for nonacute indications. For acute indications, 350 469 PCIs (98.6%) were classified as appropriate, 1055 (0.3%) as uncertain, and 3893 (1.1%) as inappropriate. For nonacute indications, 72 911 PCIs (50.4%) were classified as appropriate, 54 988 (38.0%) as uncertain, and 16 838 (11.6%) as inappropriate. The majority of inappropriate PCIs for nonacute indications were performed in patients with no angina (53.8%), low-risk ischemia on noninvasive stress testing (71.6%), or suboptimal (≤1 medication) antianginal therapy (95.8%). Furthermore, although variation in the proportion of inappropriate PCI across hospitals was minimal for acute procedures, there was substantial hospital variation for nonacute procedures (median hospital rate for inappropriate PCI, 10

  5. 78 FR 12267 - Revision of Air Quality Implementation Plan; California; Placer County Air Pollution Control...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-22

    ... Pollution Control District and Feather River Air Quality Management District; Stationary Source Permits... County Air Pollution Control District (PCAPCD) and Feather River Air Quality Management District (FRAQMD... of Subjects in 40 CFR Part 52 Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Incorporation...

  6. Community Multi-scale Air Quality (CMAQ) Modeling System for Air Quality Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    CMAQ simultaneously models multiple air pollutants including ozone, particulate matter and a variety of air toxics to help air quality managers determine the best air quality management scenarios for their communities, regions and states.

  7. [Air quality control systems: heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellucci Sessa, R; Riccio, G

    2004-01-01

    After a brief illustration of the principal layout schemes of Heating, Ventilating, and Air Conditioning (HVAC), the first part of this paper summarizes the standards, both voluntary and compulsory, regulating HVAC facilities design and installation with regard to the question of Indoor Air Quality (IAQ). The paper then examines the problem of ventilation systems maintenance and the essential hygienistic requirements in whose absence HVAC facilities may become a risk factor for people working or living in the building. Lastly, the paper deals with HVAC design strategies and methods, which aim not only to satisfy comfort and air quality requirements, but also to ensure easy and effective maintenance procedures.

  8. Radioxenon spiked air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watrous, Matthew G; Delmore, James E; Hague, Robert K; Houghton, Tracy P; Jenson, Douglas D; Mann, Nick R

    2015-12-01

    Four of the radioactive xenon isotopes ((131m)Xe, (133m)Xe, (133)Xe and (135)Xe) with half-lives ranging from 9 h to 12 days are produced from nuclear fission and can be detected from days to weeks following their production and release. Being inert gases, they are readily transported through the atmosphere. Sources for release of radioactive xenon isotopes include operating nuclear reactors via leaks in fuel rods, medical isotope production facilities, and nuclear weapons' detonations. They are not normally released from fuel reprocessing due to the short half-lives. The Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty has led to creation of the International Monitoring System. The International Monitoring System, when fully implemented, will consist of one component with 40 stations monitoring radioactive xenon around the globe. Monitoring these radioactive xenon isotopes is important to the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty in determining whether a seismically detected event is or is not a nuclear detonation. A variety of radioactive xenon quality control check standards, quantitatively spiked into various gas matrices, could be used to demonstrate that these stations are operating on the same basis in order to bolster defensibility of data across the International Monitoring System. This paper focuses on Idaho National Laboratory's capability to produce three of the xenon isotopes in pure form and the use of the four xenon isotopes in various combinations to produce radioactive xenon spiked air samples that could be subsequently distributed to participating facilities.

  9. Airing Out Anthrax

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    The AiroCide TiO2 is an air-purifier that kills 93.3 percent of airborne pathogens that pass through it, including Bacillus anthraci, more commonly known as anthrax. It is essentially a spinoff of KES Science & Technology, Inc.'s Bio-KES system, a highly effective device used by the produce industry for ethylene gas removal to aid in preserving the freshness of fruits, vegetables, and flowers. The TiO2-based ethylene removal technology that is incorporated into the company's AiroCide TiO2 and Bio-KES products was first integrated into a pair of plant-growth chambers known as ASTROCULTURE(TM) and ADVANCED ASTROCULTURE(TM). Both chambers have housed commercial plant growth experiments in space on either the Space Shuttle or the International Space Station. The AiroCide TiO2 also has a proven record of destroying 98 percent of other airborne pathogens, such as microscopic dust mites, molds, and fungi. Moreover, the device is a verified killer of Influenza A (flu), E. coli, Staphylococcus aureas, Streptococcus pyogenes, and Mycoplasma pneumoniae, among many other harmful viruses.

  10. Breathe the air!

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    Feeling a bit cooped up in your office? Want to share your interest in science and technology with others but your computer's heard it all before and your colleagues won't even listen anymore? Then here's the answer - come and get some fresh air with the Education and Communication Group. The Visits Service and the Press Office offer you the opportunity to come into contact with CERN visitors. - Be a guide! In becoming a guide you get the opportunity to introduce the Laboratory to vast array of visitors of all nationalities and ages and communicate to them your passion for science and technology. You can get involved as a CERN guide on various levels - giving presentations and tours of the Laboratory, but also leading a «Drôle de Physique» workshop and giving tours of Microcosm. Guides receive training. If you're interested, take a look at the Guides Homepage where all the relevant information and formalities are explained: http://www.cern.ch/guides See also the article in the Bulletin n°25/2002. - Fa...

  11. Nonsurgical interventions after mild traumatic brain injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nygren-de Boussard, Catharina; Holm, Lena W; Cancelliere, Carol;

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To synthesize the best available evidence regarding the impact of nonsurgical interventions on persistent symptoms after mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI). DATA SOURCES: MEDLINE and other databases were searched (2001-2012) with terms including "rehabilitation." Inclusion criteria wer...

  12. Social Work Intervention Focused on Transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-19

    Study Focus: 30-day Rehospitalizations Among At-risk Older Adults Randomized to a Social Work-driven Care Transitions Intervention; Heart Disease; Diabetes; Hypertension; Cancer; Depression; Asthma; Chronic Heart Failure; Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease; Stroke

  13. January 2014 pulmonary journal club: interventional guidelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathew M

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated after 150 words. A few years ago a colleague and I were discussing the shape of healthcare in the USA. One of the comments that was made was "that despite the high costs within our system, that at least there was some standardization in the treatment of certain diseases, for example, receiving Aspirin for an acute myocardial infarction". Guidelines exist to ensure that for certain conditions a standard of care is practiced. When guidelines start to become a measuring stick for what is now considered best practice…..then it our responsibility to ensure that guidelines are rooted on high quality evidence. This paper reviewed the validity of guidelines published and practiced by several of the interventional medical societies including the American Association for Bronchology and Interventional Pulmonology (AABIP, American Society of Diagnostic and Interventional Nephrology (ASDIN, American Society For Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (ASGE and the Society for Cardiovascular Angiography and Interventions (SCAI. A total of ...

  14. Visual ergonomics interventions in mail sorting facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemphälä, H; Hansson, G-Å; Dahlqvist, C; Eklund, J

    2012-01-01

    This study was performed between 2004 and 2011 at mail sorting facilities in Sweden. During this time, different interventions were performed. The first was a lighting intervention that had a positive impact on the postal workers, especially those with eyestrain. A new lighting system also improved the illuminance and gave better light distribution. The second intervention involved new personal spectacles for the postal workers who needed them and this had a positive effect on eyestrain. The third intervention involved a specific type of sorting spectacles for the postal workers who already used progressive lenses privately. The reading distances that the postal workers had while sorting the mail was inverted to the distances in their regular progressive lenses. The new sorting spectacles had a positive effect on head postures and on muscular activity.

  15. PREVIEW Behavior Modification Intervention Toolbox (PREMIT)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kahlert, Daniela; Unyi-Reicherz, Annelie; Stratton, Gareth

    2016-01-01

    of behavior modification by providing a deeper understanding of successful intervention components. OBJECTIVE: To develop a physical activity and dietary behavior modification intervention toolbox (PREMIT) that fulfills current requirements of being theory-driven and evidence-based, comprehensively described......) implementing the intervention and assuring quality. RESULTS: PREMIT is based on a trans-theoretical approach referring to valid behavior modification theories, models and approaches. A major "product" of PREMIT is a matrix, constructed for use by onsite-instructors. The matrix includes objectives, tasks...... and feasible to evaluate. PREMIT is part of an intervention trial, which aims to prevent the onset of type-2 diabetes in pre-diabetics in eight clinical centers across the world by guiding them in changing their physical activity and dietary behavior through a group counseling approach. METHODS: The program...

  16. Intervention patterns of pivot nurses in oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skrutkowski, Myriam; Saucier, Andréanne; Ritchie, Judith A; Tran, Ngoc; Smith, Kevin

    2011-01-01

    The Pivot Nurse in Oncology (PNO) is a health care professional dedicated to providing patients with cancer and their families with continuing and consistent supportive care throughout the care trajectory. The purpose of this paper is to describe the variation and frequency of nursing interventions delivered by 12 PNOs at our health centre. An administrative analysis over a three-year period revealed a total of 43,906 interventions that were grouped into 10 categories. This analysis provided a description of the intervention frequency and these interventions were further collapsed into the four role functions of the PNO. Coordination/continuity of care and the assessment of needs and symptoms were identified as the dominant practice domains of the PNO in the professional cancer navigator role.

  17. Systemic Therapy: A New Brief Intervention Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Searight, H. Russell; Openlander, Patrick

    1984-01-01

    Describes a newly developing mode of problem-oriented brief therapy. The systemic therapy model emphasizes the interactional context of clients' problems and represents an efficient intervention paradigm. (Author/JAC)

  18. The Environmental Impact on Occupational Therapy Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skubik-Peplaski, Camille Louise; Howell, Dana; Hunter, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate how the environment influenced the intervention choices occupational therapists made for patients recovering from a stroke in an inpatient rehabilitation hospital. Three occupational therapists were observed providing intervention for six patients over a 16-month period. Treatment spaces included a therapy gym, gym with kitchen combination, and a home-like space. Furniture was added to the therapy gym to be more home-like midway through the study. Observations included therapist selection of treatment location and interventions, and observational data of the environment and interactions among therapists and patients. This study found that inpatient rehabilitation environments did influence interventions. The occupational therapists provided therapy in the standard therapy gym environment most often, whether it was enhanced to be more home-like or not, and predominately used preparatory methods.

  19. Linking sustainability research to intervention types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheirer, Mary Ann

    2013-04-01

    Researchers, funders, and managers of health programs and interventions have become concerned about their long-term sustainability. However, most research about sustainability has not considered the nature of the program to be sustained. Health-related interventions may differ in their likelihood of sustainability and in the factors likely to influence continuation. I suggest a framework for analyzing the sustainability of 6 types of interventions: (1) those implemented by individual providers; (2) programs requiring coordination among multiple staff; (3) new policies, procedures, or technologies; (4) capacity or infrastructure building; (5) community partnerships or collaborations; and (6) broad-scale system change. Hypotheses for future research and strategies that program managers might use to achieve sustainability also differ by program or intervention type.

  20. Nutrition Intervention Trials in Linxian, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randomized controlled trials were launched in 1985 to test the effects of multiple vitamin and mineral interventions on total mortality and total and cause-specific cancer mortality in a rural Chinese population

  1. The intervention of outreach: best practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tembreull, Cindy L; Schaffer, Marjorie A

    2005-01-01

    Public health nurses (PHNs) use the intervention of outreach to improve health status by locating "at-risk" or "of interest" populations, providing information about health concerns and linking the population to resources to address the health concerns. The purpose of this study was to analyze PHNs' use of the intervention of outreach. Knowledge about best practices can contribute to the ability to successfully implement outreach activities. The descriptive qualitative study involved interviewing 10 Minnesota PHNs. Findings suggest strategies to increase outreach effectiveness. Recommendations include providing education on population-based concepts, such as community assessment and at-risk populations, and using interventions from the Public Health Intervention Wheel in conjunction with outreach.

  2. Foundations of intervention research in instrumental practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes Lunde Hatfield

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The goals of the present study are to evaluate, implement, and adapt psychological skills used in the realm of sports into music performance. This research project also aims to build foundations on how to implement future interventions to guide music students on how to optimize practice toward performance. A two-month psychological skills intervention was provided to two students from the national music academy’s bachelor program in music performance to better understand how to adapt and construct psychological skills training programs for performing music students. The program evaluated multiple intervention tools including the use of questionnaires, performance profiling, iPads, electronic practice logs, recording the perceived value of individual and combined work, as well as the effectiveness of different communication forms. Perceived effects of the intervention were collected through semi-structured interviews, observations, and logs.

  3. Using music interventions in perioperative care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gooding, Lori; Swezey, Shane; Zwischenberger, Joseph B

    2012-09-01

    Anxiety and pain are common responses to surgery, and both can negatively affect patient outcomes. Music interventions have been suggested as a nonpharmacological intervention to alleviate pain and anxiety during surgical treatment. Although the data are somewhat mixed, the research suggests that music-based interventions are effective in reducing anxiety, pain perception, and sedative intake. The majority of studies have focused on interventions during the postoperative period and address pain reduction, with preoperative use of music targeting anxiety reduction the second most commonly cited objective. Most of the studies found in the literature involve passive music listening via headphones. The data suggest that researcher-selected music is most effective in reducing anxiety, primarily because it incorporates evidence-based parameters such as consistent tempo and dynamics, stable rhythms, and smooth melodic lines. Finally, the literature suggests that music therapists can serve as experts to help medical personnel identify effective implementation strategies.

  4. 29 CFR 1603.207 - Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENT EMPLOYEE COMPLAINTS OF EMPLOYMENT DISCRIMINATION UNDER SECTION 304 OF THE GOVERNMENT EMPLOYEE RIGHTS ACT OF 1991 Hearings § 1603.207 Intervention. (a) Any person or entity that...

  5. PREVIEW Behavior Modification Intervention Toolbox (PREMIT)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kahlert, Daniela; Unyi-Reicherz, Annelie; Stratton, Gareth;

    2016-01-01

    of behavior modification by providing a deeper understanding of successful intervention components. OBJECTIVE: To develop a physical activity and dietary behavior modification intervention toolbox (PREMIT) that fulfills current requirements of being theory-driven and evidence-based, comprehensively described...... and feasible to evaluate. PREMIT is part of an intervention trial, which aims to prevent the onset of type-2 diabetes in pre-diabetics in eight clinical centers across the world by guiding them in changing their physical activity and dietary behavior through a group counseling approach. METHODS: The program...... development took five progressive steps, in line with the Public Health Action Cycle: (1) Summing-up the intervention goal(s), target group and the setting, (2) uncovering the generative psychological mechanisms, (3) identifying behavior change techniques and tools, (4) preparing for evaluation and (5...

  6. Interventional management of lower gastrointestinal bleeding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weldon, Derik T.; Burke, Stephen J.; Sun, Shiliang; Mimura, Hidefumi; Golzarian, Jafar [University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics, Department of Radiology, Iowa, IA (United States)

    2008-05-15

    Lower gastrointestinal bleeding (LGIB) arises from a number of sources and is a significant cause of hospitalization and mortality in elderly patients. Whereas most episodes of acute LGIB resolve spontaneously with conservative management, an important subset of patients requires further diagnostic workup and therapeutic intervention. Endovascular techniques such as microcatheter embolization are now recognized as safe, effective methods for controlling LGIB that is refractory to endoscopic intervention. In addition, multidetector CT has shown the ability to identify areas of active bleeding in a non-invasive fashion, enabling more focused intervention. Given the relative strengths and weaknesses of various diagnostic and treatment modalities, a close working relationship between interventional radiologists, gastroenterologists and diagnostic radiologists is necessary for the optimal management of LGIB patients. (orig.)

  7. Brief Intervention Helps Adolescents Curb Substance Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Helps Adolescents Curb Substance Use Brief Intervention Helps Adolescents Curb Substance Use Email Facebook Twitter Two hour- ... School, in Minneapolis, conducted the trial with 315 adolescent and parent/caregiver pairs. Their findings strengthen evidence, ...

  8. Air Embolism after Endoscopic Retrograde Cholangiopancreatography in a Patient with Budd Chiari Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wills-Sanin, Beatriz; Cárdenas, Yenny R.; Polanco, Lucas; Rivero, Oscar; Suarez, Sebastian; Buitrago, Andrés F.

    2014-01-01

    Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography is a procedure commonly used for the diagnosis and treatment of various pancreatic and biliary diseases. Air embolism is a rare complication, which may be associated with this procedure. This condition can be manifested as cardiopulmonary instability and/or neurological symptoms. Known risk factors include: sphincterotomy; application of air with high intramural pressure; anatomic abnormalities; and chronic hepatobiliary inflammation. It is important for the health-care staff, including anesthesiologists, interventional gastroenterologists, and critical care specialists, amongst others, to promptly recognize air embolism and to initiate therapy in a timely fashion, thus preventing potentially fatal outcomes. We submit a brief review of the literature and a case report of air embolism which occurred in the immediate postoperative stage of an endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography, performed in a woman with a history of liver transplantation due to Budd Chiari syndrome and biliary stricture. PMID:25478242

  9. Behavioral interventions for insomnia: Theory and practice

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma, Mahendra P.; Andrade, Chittaranjan

    2012-01-01

    Insomnia is a general clinical term that refers to a difficulty in initiating or maintaining sleep. Insomnia is widely prevalent in the general population, especially in the elderly and in those with medical and psychiatric disorders. Hypnotic drug treatments of insomnia are effective but are associated with potential disadvantages. This article presents an overview of behavioral interventions for insomnia. Behavioral interventions for insomnia include relaxation training, stimulus control th...

  10. Cognitive intervention with elite performers: reversal theory.

    OpenAIRE

    Kerr, J H

    1987-01-01

    Noticeable in the literature associated with the application of psychology to the area of sport and sports performance in particular has been the increasing frequency of references to the use of cognitive intervention in the sports context. Currently utilised in clinical psychology and behavioural medicine, and receiving increasing attention in sports psychology, are a number of intervention techniques primarily oriented towards altering the individual's level of arousal. These techniques, wh...

  11. Evaluation of a Yoga Intervention for PTSD

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-01

    AD_________________ Award Number: W81XWH-10-1-1066 TITLE: Evaluation of a Yoga Intervention for...CONTRACT NUMBER Evaluation of a Yoga Intervention for PTSD 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-10-1-1066 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT...Unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Objective: This pilot study was designed to ascertain whether yoga is a feasible and

  12. The role of interventional radiology in trauma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Douglas M. Coldwell

    2007-01-01

    @@ Introduction Interventional Radiology has evolved into a specialty having enormous input into the care of the traumatized patient. In all hospitals, regardless of size, the Interventional Radiologist must consider their relationships with the trauma service in order to quickly and efficiently render aid to the trauma victim. Such consideration should take place in the light of day as it seems that most trauma occurs in the middle of the night or another inconvenient time. The watchwords of trauma IR are speed and efficiency.

  13. Assessing framing assumptions in quantitative health impact assessments: a housing intervention example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesa-Frias, Marco; Chalabi, Zaid; Foss, Anna M

    2013-09-01

    Health impact assessment (HIA) is often used to determine ex ante the health impact of an environmental policy or an environmental intervention. Underpinning any HIA is the framing assumption, which defines the causal pathways mapping environmental exposures to health outcomes. The sensitivity of the HIA to the framing assumptions is often ignored. A novel method based on fuzzy cognitive map (FCM) is developed to quantify the framing assumptions in the assessment stage of a HIA, and is then applied to a housing intervention (tightening insulation) as a case-study. Framing assumptions of the case-study were identified through a literature search of Ovid Medline (1948-2011). The FCM approach was used to identify the key variables that have the most influence in a HIA. Changes in air-tightness, ventilation, indoor air quality and mould/humidity have been identified as having the most influence on health. The FCM approach is widely applicable and can be used to inform the formulation of the framing assumptions in any quantitative HIA of environmental interventions. We argue that it is necessary to explore and quantify framing assumptions prior to conducting a detailed quantitative HIA during the assessment stage.

  14. Solar air systems - built examples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hastings, S.R. [ed.] [Solararchitektur, ETH-Hoenggerberg, Zurich (Switzerland)

    1999-07-01

    Active solar systems for air heating are a straightforward yet efficient way of using solar energy to heat spaces, ventilation air and even domestic hot water. They offer important advantages over solar water systems, improved comfort and fuller use of solar gains compared with many passive solar systems and are a natural fit with mechanically ventilated buildings. Solar air systems become more economical when they serve multiple functions such as providing a sound barrier, a weatherskin, sunshading, inducing cooling and even electricity supply (hybrid PV/air). Thirty-five different buildings with successfully installed exemplary solar air systems in climates ranging from Canada and Norway to Italy are described and documented. The building types cover single family houses, apartment buildings, schools, sports halls, and industrial commercial buildings with six different configurations of solar air systems used. Each building is described over several pages, with plans, performance details and illustrations provided. An accompanying product catalogue identifies suppliers of the necessary equipment and offers advice on product selection. As well as giving architects and designers invaluable advice based on the experience from these projects, this book also illustrates clearly the wide range of applications and the many benefits of solar air systems. (author)

  15. Interventions for reading difficulties: a comparison of response to intervention by ELL and EFL struggling readers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovett, Maureen W; De Palma, Maria; Frijters, Jan; Steinbach, Karen; Temple, Meredith; Benson, Nancy; Lacerenza, Léa

    2008-01-01

    This article explores whether struggling readers from different primary language backgrounds differ in response to phonologically based remediation. Following random assignment to one of three reading interventions or to a special education reading control program, reading and reading-related outcomes of 166 struggling readers were assessed before, during, and following 105 intervention hours. Struggling readers met criteria for reading disability, were below average in oral language and verbal skills, and varied in English as a first language (EFL) versus English-language learner (ELL) status. The research-based interventions proved superior to the special education control on both reading outcomes and rate of growth. No differences were revealed for children of EFL or ELL status in intervention outcomes or growth during intervention. Oral language abilities at entry were highly predictive of final outcomes and of reading growth during intervention, with greater language impairment being associated with greater growth.

  16. Crisis interventions in online psychological counseling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Amaral Medeiros da Silva

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The world's population is often assailed by crises of various orders. Disasters caused by nature and by humans themselves also impact on people's mental health. Psychological crises, such as suicide attempts, represent a growing problem in mental health. When faced with such scenarios, specific strategies of crisis intervention are both appropriate and necessary. Objective: To conduct a systematic review of the literature dealing with online psychological crisis intervention, describing and discussing their operational design, specific characteristics and applications. Method: A systematic review of literature indexed on the PubMed, PsycINFO, and SciELO databases identified by searches conducted from January to June of 2014. Results: The searches identified 17 empirical studies about online crisis interventions which were reviewed. Three crisis contexts emerged: 1 disasters, 2 risk/prevention of suicide, and 3 trauma. Eleven different intervention programs were described and the predominant treatment approach was cognitive behavioral therapy. The results showed that research into online psychological crisis intervention has been conducted in several different countries, especially the Netherlands and Australia, and that the users of these tools benefit from them. Conclusion: Online crisis interventions have been developed and researched in many countries around the world. In Brazil, there is still a lack of investment and research in this area.

  17. Nutritional Intervention and Breakfast Behavior of Kindergartens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongqing GAO

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: To examine the effect of nutritional education on children’s breakfast patternsMethods: A kindergarten based nutrition intervention was started in September 2001 among 8 kindergartens in Hefei with a total of 2,012 children aged 4-6 years and their parent pairs.Results: Monthly nutrition education sessions were held over two semesters in kindergartens part of the intervention arm.  The approach in education and the content of other activities were uniform across all the kindergartens. A validated questionnaire was used to record breakfast behavior over 7 days including at least one weekend. The parents recorded the children’s breakfast pattern (frequency, time, and food selection at baseline, middle, and end of the study. After intervention, there were significant differences at the final stage, but none at the baseline before intervention. There were changes not only in breakfast frequency, but also in the breakfast selectionConclusion: The breakfast pattern of Chinese children can be modified through nutrition education after a long term intervention. Keywords: Breakfast, Children, Intervention, China

  18. Hepatic infarction following abdominal interventional procedures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fujiwara H

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available To clarify the incidence, background, and progress of hepatic infarction following interventional procedures, cases of hepatic infarction following interventional procedures at our department during the last decade were identified by reviewing the clinical records of 1982 abdominal angiography and interventional procedures and records of abdominal CT. Nine episodes (0.5% in 8 patients were identified as hepatic infarction following an interventional procedure. Five episodes were preceded by embolization of the hepatic or celiac artery at emergency angiography for postoperative bleeding with hemorrhagic shock. Three episodes followed the elected interventional procedure for hepatocellular carcinoma, and the remaining episode occurred after 12 months of chemoinfusion through an indwelling catheter in the hepatic artery and portal vein. Hepatic arterial occlusion in all episodes and portal venous flow abnormality in 5 episodes were observed on angiography. Four patients whose liver function was initially impaired died of hepatic infarction, although the extent of the disease on CT did not appear to be related to the mortality. Multiple risk factors, including arterial insufficiency, were observed in each patient. The incidence of hepatic infarction following interventional procedures in this series was low but sometimes fatal, and occurred most frequently in emergency embolization in hemorrhagic shock.

  19. Training in Radiation Protection for Interventional Radiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vano, E.; Guibelalde, E.

    2002-07-01

    Several potential problems have been detected in the safety aspects for the practice of interventional radiology procedures: a) An important increase in the number cases and their complexity and the corresponding increase of installations and specialists involved; b) New X ray systems more sophisticated, with advanced operational possibilities, requiring special skills in the operators to obtain the expected benefits;c) New medical specialists arriving to the interventional arena to profit the benefits of the interventional techniques without previous experience in radiation protection. For that reason, education and training is one of the basic areas in any optimisation programme in radiation protection (RP). the medical field and especially interventional radiology requires actions to promote and to profit the benefit of the new emerging technologies for training (Internet, electronic books, etc). The EC has recently sponsored the MARTIR programme (Multimedia and Audio-visual Radiation Protection Training in Interventional Radiology) with the production of two videos on basic aspects of RP and quality control and one interactive CD-ROM to allow tailored individual training programmes. those educational tools are being distributed cost free in the main European languages. To go ahead with these actions, the EC has decided to promote during 2002, a forum with the main Medical European Societies involved in these interventional procedures. (Author)

  20. In defense of prenatal genetic interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Timothy F

    2014-09-01

    Jürgen Habermas has argued against prenatal genetic interventions used to influence traits on the grounds that only biogenetic contingency in the conception of children preserves the conditions that make the presumption of moral equality possible. This argument fails for a number of reasons. The contingency that Habermas points to as the condition of moral equality is an artifact of evolutionary contingency and not inviolable in itself. Moreover, as a precedent for genetic interventions, parents and society already affect children's traits, which is to say there is moral precedent for influencing the traits of descendants. A veil-of-ignorance methodology can also be used to justify prenatal interventions through its method of advance consent and its preservation of the contingency of human identities in a moral sense. In any case, the selection of children's traits does not undermine the prospects of authoring a life since their future remains just as contingent morally as if no trait had been selected. Ironically, the prospect of preserving human beings as they are--to counteract genetic drift--might even require interventions to preserve the ability to author a life in a moral sense. In light of these analyses, Habermas' concerns about prenatal genetic interventions cannot succeed as objections to their practice as a matter of principle; the merits of these interventions must be evaluated individually.

  1. Air Sensor Toolbox: Resources and Funding

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA’s Air Sensor Toolbox provides information and guidance on new low-cost compact technologies for measuring air quality. It provides information to help citizens more effectively and accurately collect air quality data in their community.

  2. Profit goal set for airBaltic

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2011-01-01

    Latvijas Krajbanka president arvab, et airBalticu olukorra stabiliseerimiseks läheb vähemalt aasta. AirBalticu senine juht Bertolt Flick võib hakata uue Vilniuse lennukompanii investoriks. AirBalticu uuest juhatusest

  3. Historical Ambient Air Quality Data Inventory

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Historical Ambient Air Quality Data Inventory contains measured and estimated data on ambient air pollution for use in assessing air quality, assisting in...

  4. National Air Toxic Assessments (NATA) Results

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The National Air Toxics Assessment was conducted by EPA in 2002 to assess air toxics emissions in order to identify and prioritize air toxics, emission source types...

  5. High Altitude Clear Air Turbulence Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Air Force Flight Dynamics Laboratory conducted the High Altitude Clear Air Turbulence Project in the mid 1960s with the intention of better understanding air...

  6. Transportation, Air Pollution, and Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Share Facebook Twitter Google+ Pinterest Contact Us Transportation, Air Pollution, and Climate Change Accomplishments & Successes View successes from ... reduce carbon pollution. Carbon pollution from transportation Other Air Pollution Learn about smog, soot, ozone, and other air ...

  7. Air Pollution, Climate, and Heart Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of the American Heart Association Cardiology Patient Page Air Pollution, Climate, and Heart Disease Diane R. Gold , Jonathan ... http://www.epa.gov/greenheart/ . 7 What Is Air Pollution? Air pollution is a mixture of gases and ...

  8. INEEL AIR MODELING PROTOCOL ext

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C. S. Staley; M. L. Abbott; P. D. Ritter

    2004-12-01

    Various laws stemming from the Clean Air Act of 1970 and the Clean Air Act amendments of 1990 require air emissions modeling. Modeling is used to ensure that air emissions from new projects and from modifications to existing facilities do not exceed certain standards. For radionuclides, any new airborne release must be modeled to show that downwind receptors do not receive exposures exceeding the dose limits and to determine the requirements for emissions monitoring. For criteria and toxic pollutants, emissions usually must first exceed threshold values before modeling of downwind concentrations is required. This document was prepared to provide guidance for performing environmental compliance-driven air modeling of emissions from Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory facilities. This document assumes that the user has experience in air modeling and dose and risk assessment. It is not intended to be a "cookbook," nor should all recommendations herein be construed as requirements. However, there are certain procedures that are required by law, and these are pointed out. It is also important to understand that air emissions modeling is a constantly evolving process. This document should, therefore, be reviewed periodically and revised as needed. The document is divided into two parts. Part A is the protocol for radiological assessments, and Part B is for nonradiological assessments. This document is an update of and supersedes document INEEL/INT-98-00236, Rev. 0, INEEL Air Modeling Protocol. This updated document incorporates changes in some of the rules, procedures, and air modeling codes that have occurred since the protocol was first published in 1998.

  9. Hungry for an intervention? : Adolescents' ratings of acceptability of eating-related intervention strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Stok, F.M.; Ridder, de, N.A.; Vet, de, H.C.W.; Nureeva, Liliya; Luszczynska, Aleksandra; Wardle, Jane; Gaspar, Tania; de Wit,

    2016-01-01

    Background Effective interventions promoting healthier eating behavior among adolescents are urgently needed. One factor that has been shown to impact effectiveness is whether the target population accepts the intervention. While previous research has assessed adults’ acceptance of eating-related interventions, research on the opinion of adolescents is lacking. The current study addressed this gap in the literature. Methods Two thousand seven hundred sixty four adolescents (...

  10. Hungry for an intervention? : Adolescents' ratings of acceptability of eating-related intervention strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Stok, F. Marijn; De Ridder, Denise T. D.; de Vet, Emely; Nureeva, Liliya; Luszczynska, Aleksandra; Wardle, Jane; Gaspar, Tania; John B.F. De Wit

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Effective interventions promoting healthier eating behavior among adolescents are urgently needed. One factor that has been shown to impact effectiveness is whether the target population accepts the intervention. While previous research has assessed adults' acceptance of eating-related interventions, research on the opinion of adolescents is lacking. The current study addressed this gap in the literature. METHODS: Two thousand seven hundred sixty four adolescents (aged 10-17 years...

  11. Korean Air Excellence in Flight

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ Korean Air with a fleet of 119 aircraft, is one of the world's top 20 airlines, and oper-ates almost 400 flights everyday to 90 cities in 33 countries. The airline has about 50 flights per week between the US and Asia from nine US gateways: New York, Los Angeles, Washington,Chicago, Dallas, San Francisco, Atlanta, Anchorage and Honolulu.The carrier is a founding member of SkyTeam, the global airline alliance partnering AeroMexico, Air France, Alitalia, CSA Czech Airlines, Continental Airlines, Delta Air Lines, KLM and Northwest Airlines to provide customers with extensive worldwide destina-tions, flights and services.

  12. Steerable percussion air drilling system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bui, H.D.; Gray, M.A.; Oliver, M.S.

    1995-07-01

    In the Steerable Percussion Air Drilling System (SPADS), air percussion is used to drill directionally in hard formations. Compared to mud or air powered PDM motors, SPADS offers directional drilling at high penetration rate, reduced mud costs, negligible formation damage, and immediate indication of hole productivity. Field tests turned up problems ranging from tool design to operation procedures; remedies were developed. There is an optimum WOB (weight on bit) at which torque is reasonably low. The hammer was tested at three different line pressures (200, 300, 350 psig) at optimum WOB in granite, limestone, and sandstone.

  13. The effect of ventilation on the indoor air concentration of PCB

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyng, Nadja; Gunnarsen, Lars Bo; Andersen, Helle Vibeke

    2015-01-01

    The impact of increased ventilation on polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) air concentration by installation of mechanical balanced ventilation units was studied. The intervention was carried out in three PCB-contaminated rooms; one classroom in an elementary school and two small bedrooms...... achieved from the intervention was 30% and in one of the bedrooms 45%. Emissions of PCB rose dramatically during periods of increased ventilation as the drop in concentration did not match the increased ACH. When ventilation in the bedrooms was increased incrementally from 0.5 to 2.2, 4.5, and 6.6 /h...

  14. Air Parity: Re-Discovering Contested Air Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    maritime theories to war fighting strategy in the air domain, specific to the air control spectrum. The author assesses the importance of translating...effort to accomplish strategic 11 National Security Strategy , 12. 12 Office of the Secretary of...Defense, Sustaining U.S. Global Leadership: Priorities for 21st Century Defense (2012), 4. 13 Office of the Chairman, Joint Chiefs of Staff, The

  15. Tandil, Buenos Aires, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María L. Bakker

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Se coleccionaron hojas maduras de ejemplares adultos de Populus alba, Populus deltoides, Robinia pseudoacacia, Ulmus pumila y Fraxinus americana del Campus Universitario, Tandil, Buenos Aires, Argentina (37° 19’S, 59° 08’O en febrero de 2004. La cera cuticular fue extraída, purificada, y el contenido y proporción relativa de n-alcanos de número impar de carbonos (C23C35 fue cuantificado mediante cromatografía gas-líquido capilar. La concentración total de n-alcanos (mg/kg MS fue P. alba (6935 > Robinia (1571 > P. deltoides (1379 > Ulmus (880 > Fraxinus (467. Los n-alcanos más abundantes en todas las especies fueron C27 y C29 que constituyeron entre 10 y 51% y entre 35 y 76% del total respectivamente, excepto en Fraxinus donde los más abundantes fueron C29 y C31 que constituyeron el 31 y 49% del total respectivamente. P. alba y P. deltoides difirieron no solo en la concentración total de n-alcanos sino también en la proporción relativa de C27 y C29, siendo C29 el n-alcano más abundante en la segunda especie (76% igual que en Robinia (75%. La presencia de nalcanos de número par de carbonos no fue detectable o resultó muy baja en general en todas las especies, con excepción de C26, C28 y C30, este último se destacó particularmente en Fraxinus.

  16. Rooftop Unitary Air Conditioner with Integral Dedicated Outdoor Air System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiax Llc

    2006-02-28

    Energy use of rooftop and other unitary air-conditioners in commercial applications accounts for about 1 quad (10{sup 15} Btu) of primary energy use annually in the U.S. [Reference 7]. The realization that this cooling equipment accounts for the majority of commercial building cooled floorspace and the majority also of commercial building energy use has spurred development of improved-efficiency equipment as well as development of stricter standards addressing efficiency levels. Another key market driver affecting design of rooftop air-conditioning equipment has been concern regarding comfort and the control of humidity. Trends for increases in outdoor air ventilation rates in certain applications, and the increasing concern about indoor air quality problems associated with humidity levels and moisture in buildings points to a need for improved dehumidification capability in air-conditioning equipment of all types. In many cases addressing this issue exacerbates energy efficiency, and vice versa. The integrated dedicated outdoor air system configuration developed in this project addresses both energy and comfort/humidity issues.

  17. Air Leakage and Air Transfer Between Garage and Living Space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudd, Armin [Building Science Corporation, Westford, MA (United States)

    2014-09-01

    This research project focused on evaluation of air transfer between the garage and living space in a single-family detached home constructed by a production homebuilder in compliance with the 2009 International Residential Code and the 2009 International Energy Conservation Code. The project gathered important information about the performance of whole-building ventilation systems and garage ventilation systems as they relate to minimizing flow of contaminated air from garage to living space. A series of 25 multi-point fan pressurization tests and additional zone pressure diagnostic testing characterized the garage and house air leakage, the garage-to-house air leakage, and garage and house pressure relationships to each other and to outdoors using automated fan pressurization and pressure monitoring techniques. While the relative characteristics of this house may not represent the entire population of new construction configurations and air tightness levels (house and garage) throughout the country, the technical approach was conservative and should reasonably extend the usefulness of the results to a large spectrum of house configurations from this set of parametric tests in this one house. Based on the results of this testing, the two-step garage-to-house air leakage test protocol described above is recommended where whole-house exhaust ventilation is employed.

  18. Positive Psychological Interventions for Patients with Type 2 Diabetes: Rationale, Theoretical Model, and Intervention Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeff C. Huffman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Most patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D have suboptimal adherence to recommended diet, physical activity, and/or medication. Current approaches to improve health behaviors in T2D have been variably effective, and successful interventions are often complex and intensive. It is therefore vital to develop interventions that are simple, well-accepted, and applicable to a wide range of patients who suffer from T2D. One approach may be to boost positive psychological states, such as positive affect or optimism, as these constructs have been prospectively and independently linked to improvements in health behaviors. Positive psychology (PP interventions, which utilize systematic exercises to increase optimism, well-being, and positive affect, consistently increase positive states and are easily delivered to patients with chronic illnesses. However, to our knowledge, PP interventions have not been formally tested in T2D. In this paper, we review a theoretical model for the use of PP interventions to target health behaviors in T2D, describe the structure and content of a PP intervention for T2D patients, and describe baseline data from a single-arm proof-of-concept (N=15 intervention study in T2D patients with or without depression. We also discuss how PP interventions could be combined with motivational interviewing (MI interventions to provide a blended psychological-behavioral approach.

  19. Air Pollution: Current and Future Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Despite the dramatic progress to date, air pollution continues to threaten Americans’ health and welfare. The main obstacles are climate change, conventional air pollution, and ozone layer depletion.

  20. Meditation Interventions for Chronic Disease Populations: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Roxane Raffin; Larson, Janet L

    2015-12-01

    The rapidly growing body of research regarding the use of meditation interventions in chronic disease presents an opportunity to compare outcomes based on intervention content. For this review, meditation interventions were described as those interventions delivered to persons with chronic disease where sitting meditation was the main or only content of the intervention with or without the addition of mindful movement. This systematic review identified 45 individual research studies that examined meditations effect on levels of anxiety, depression, and chronic disease symptoms in persons with chronic disease. Individual studies were assessed based on interventional content, the consistency with which interventions were applied, and the research quality. This study identified seven categories of meditation interventions based on the meditation skills and mindful movement practices that were included in the intervention. Overall, half of the interventions had clearly defined and specific meditation interventions (25/45) and half of the studies were conducted using randomized control trials (24/45).

  1. Personal Air Vehicle Research Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The innovation is a low aspect ratio all-lifting configuration for personal air vehicles. This configuration uses an architecture fundamentally different from...

  2. A Martian Air Battery Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This project will investigate an entirely new battery chemistry by developing A Martian Air Battery. Specifically the project will explore the concept of a Martian...

  3. Ozone - Current Air Quality Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Local Air Quality Conditions Zip Code: State : My Current Location Forecast Current AQI AQI Loop More Maps AQI: Good (0 - ... About the Highest 5 Today's Forecasts Tomorrow's Forecasts Current AQI Metropolitan Baltimore, MD 101 Metropolitan Washington, DC ...

  4. 2011 NATA - Air Toxics Monitors

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset includes annual (2005 - 2013) statistics of measured ambient air toxics concentrations (in micrograms per cubic meter) and associated risk estimates for...

  5. US Air Force Balloon Observations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Worksheets containing pilot balloon data computed from releases at Air Force stations in the western United States. Elevation and azimuth angles are used to compute...

  6. US Air Force Base Observations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Hourly observations taken by U.S. Air Force personnel at bases in the United States and around the world. Foreign observations concentrated in the Middle East and...

  7. Reverse Ballistic Air Gun Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This custom-designed facility houses a suite of three air guns capable of generating accelerations up to 100,000 Gs and velocities up to 2,000 ft/s. In addition to...

  8. Air Pollution Affects Community Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shy, Carl M.; Finklea, John F.

    1973-01-01

    Community Health and Environmental Surveillance System (CHESS), a nationwide program relating community health to environmental quality, is designed to evaluate existing environmental standards, obtain health intelligence for new standards, and document health benefits of air pollution control. (BL)

  9. Reverse Ballistic Air Gun Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This custom-designed facility houses a suite of three air guns capable of generating accelerations up to 100,000 Gs and velocities up to 2,000 ft/s. In addition to a...

  10. Indoor Air Quality Test House

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Description:In order to enable studies of a range of indoor air quality and ventilation issues, EL maintains a highly instrumented three-bedroom test house. Previous...

  11. Quality and Indoor Air treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cécile HORT

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In developed countries, between 70% and 90% of the life time are spent in confined spaces (housing, transport, etc.. Air quality in these closed spaces is generally inferior than outside. Our lifestylesand the growing use of new products and materials create cocktails of chemicals compounds (COV, CIV... that can cause an increase of worrying diseases such as asthma, allergies or even cancer. These pollutants are particularly present in indoor air. These increasing public health problems gives rise to the development of devices for the treatment of indoor air. However, indoor air contains a lot of chemical substances showing very different physicochemical properties. The “Laboratoire de Thermique, Energétique et Procédés” (LaTEP studies the coupling of treatment processes, such as biofiltration coupled to adsorption.

  12. Air cushion vehicles: A briefing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, J. L.; Finnegan, P. M.

    1971-01-01

    Experience and characteristics; the powering, uses, and implications of large air cushion vehicles (ACV); and the conceptual design and operation of a nuclear powered ACV freighter and supporting facilities are described.

  13. Global air quality and climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiore, Arlene M; Naik, Vaishali; Spracklen, Dominick V; Steiner, Allison; Unger, Nadine; Prather, Michael; Bergmann, Dan; Cameron-Smith, Philip J; Cionni, Irene; Collins, William J; Dalsøren, Stig; Eyring, Veronika; Folberth, Gerd A; Ginoux, Paul; Horowitz, Larry W; Josse, Béatrice; Lamarque, Jean-François; MacKenzie, Ian A; Nagashima, Tatsuya; O'Connor, Fiona M; Righi, Mattia; Rumbold, Steven T; Shindell, Drew T; Skeie, Ragnhild B; Sudo, Kengo; Szopa, Sophie; Takemura, Toshihiko; Zeng, Guang

    2012-10-07

    Emissions of air pollutants and their precursors determine regional air quality and can alter climate. Climate change can perturb the long-range transport, chemical processing, and local meteorology that influence air pollution. We review the implications of projected changes in methane (CH(4)), ozone precursors (O(3)), and aerosols for climate (expressed in terms of the radiative forcing metric or changes in global surface temperature) and hemispheric-to-continental scale air quality. Reducing the O(3) precursor CH(4) would slow near-term warming by decreasing both CH(4) and tropospheric O(3). Uncertainty remains as to the net climate forcing from anthropogenic nitrogen oxide (NO(x)) emissions, which increase tropospheric O(3) (warming) but also increase aerosols and decrease CH(4) (both cooling). Anthropogenic emissions of carbon monoxide (CO) and non-CH(4) volatile organic compounds (NMVOC) warm by increasing both O(3) and CH(4). Radiative impacts from secondary organic aerosols (SOA) are poorly understood. Black carbon emission controls, by reducing the absorption of sunlight in the atmosphere and on snow and ice, have the potential to slow near-term warming, but uncertainties in coincident emissions of reflective (cooling) aerosols and poorly constrained cloud indirect effects confound robust estimates of net climate impacts. Reducing sulfate and nitrate aerosols would improve air quality and lessen interference with the hydrologic cycle, but lead to warming. A holistic and balanced view is thus needed to assess how air pollution controls influence climate; a first step towards this goal involves estimating net climate impacts from individual emission sectors. Modeling and observational analyses suggest a warming climate degrades air quality (increasing surface O(3) and particulate matter) in many populated regions, including during pollution episodes. Prior Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) scenarios (SRES) allowed unconstrained growth, whereas

  14. Global Air Quality and Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiore, Arlene M.; Naik, Vaishali; Steiner, Allison; Unger, Nadine; Bergmann, Dan; Prather, Michael; Righi, Mattia; Rumbold, Steven T.; Shindell, Drew T.; Skeie, Ragnhild B.; Sudo, Kengo; Szopa, Sophie; Horowitz, Larry W.; Takemura, Toshihiko; Zeng, Guang; Cameron-Smith, Philip J.; Cionni, Irene; Collins, William J.; Dalsoren, Stig; Eyring, Veronika; Folberth, Gerd A.; Ginoux, Paul; Josse, Batrice; Lamarque, Jean-Francois; OConnor, Fiona M.; Mackenzie, Ian A.; Nagashima, Tatsuya; Shindell, Drew Todd; Spracklen, Dominick V.

    2012-01-01

    Emissions of air pollutants and their precursors determine regional air quality and can alter climate. Climate change can perturb the long-range transport, chemical processing, and local meteorology that influence air pollution. We review the implications of projected changes in methane (CH4), ozone precursors (O3), and aerosols for climate (expressed in terms of the radiative forcing metric or changes in global surface temperature) and hemispheric-to-continental scale air quality. Reducing the O3 precursor CH4 would slow near-term warming by decreasing both CH4 and tropospheric O3. Uncertainty remains as to the net climate forcing from anthropogenic nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions, which increase tropospheric O3 (warming) but also increase aerosols and decrease CH4 (both cooling). Anthropogenic emissions of carbon monoxide (CO) and non-CH4 volatile organic compounds (NMVOC) warm by increasing both O3 and CH4. Radiative impacts from secondary organic aerosols (SOA) are poorly understood. Black carbon emission controls, by reducing the absorption of sunlight in the atmosphere and on snow and ice, have the potential to slow near-term warming, but uncertainties in coincident emissions of reflective (cooling) aerosols and poorly constrained cloud indirect effects confound robust estimates of net climate impacts. Reducing sulfate and nitrate aerosols would improve air quality and lessen interference with the hydrologic cycle, but lead to warming. A holistic and balanced view is thus needed to assess how air pollution controls influence climate; a first step towards this goal involves estimating net climate impacts from individual emission sectors. Modeling and observational analyses suggest a warming climate degrades air quality (increasing surface O3 and particulate matter) in many populated regions, including during pollution episodes. Prior Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) scenarios (SRES) allowed unconstrained growth, whereas the Representative

  15. Interventions for increasing uptake in screening programmes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Droste, Sigrid

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Opportunities for the early detection of disease are not sufficiently being taken advantage of. Specific interventions could increase the uptake of prevention programmes. A comprehensive analysis of effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of these interventions with reference to Germany is still needed. Objectives: This report aimed to describe and assess interventions to increase uptake in primary and secondary prevention and to explore the assessment of their cost-effectiveness. Methods: 29 scientific databases were systematically searched in a wide strategy. Additional references were located from bibliographies. All published systematic reviews and primary studies were assessed for inclusion without language restrictions. Teams of two reviewers identified the literature, extracted data and assessed the quality of the publications independently. Results: Four HTA reports and 22 systematic reviews were identified for the medical evaluation covering a variety of interventions. The economic evaluation was based on two HTA-reports, one meta-analysis and 15 studies. The evidence was consistent for the effectiveness of invitations and reminders aimed at users, and for prompts aimed at health care professionals. These interventions were the most commonly analysed. (Financial Incentives for users and professionals were identified in a small number of studies. Limited evidence was available for cost-effectiveness showing incremental costs for follow-up reminders and invitations by telephone. Evidence for ethical, social and legal aspects pointed to needs in vulnerable populations. Discussion: The material was heterogeneous regarding interventions used, study populations and settings. The majority of references originated from the United States and focused on secondary prevention. Approaching all target groups by invitations and reminders was recommended to increase uptake in prevention programmes in general. Conclusions: Further research

  16. Call for improving air quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showstack, Randy

    2013-01-01

    The European Environmental Bureau (EEB), a federation of citizen organizations, has called for stricter policies in Europe to protect human health and the environment. "Air pollution emanates from sources all around us, be they cars, industrial plants, shipping, agriculture, or waste. The [European Union] must propose ambitious legislation to address all of these sources if it is to tackle the grave public health consequences of air pollution," EEB secretary general Jeremy Wates said on 8 January.

  17. Cognitive abilities and air pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raufhon Salahodjaev

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The link between intelligence and air pollution is subject to controversy. Some studies report that intelligence has insignificant effect in reducing the greenhouse gas emissions. By using carbon dioxide (CO2 emissions for a large set of countries we present further novel empirical evidence on the relation between level of intelligence and air pollution. Our findings suggest that the relation follows a U-shape pattern and resembles environmental Kuznets curve.

  18. Autonomy of the Air Arm

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    Lewis, and Maj. Gen. George Simonds. Standing, left to right: Brig. Gen. John Gulik, James Doolittle (at that time a civilian), Edgar Gorrell, Brig...official sanction of the War Department, was submitted by Representative John M. Morin ." 56 CREATION OF THE ARmy AIR CORPS The initial stages of the...reality was a revision of the Morin air bill. 47 A quick summary at this point should clarify the major issues under review. Through the medium of various

  19. The lithium air battery fundamentals

    CERN Document Server

    Imanishi, Nobuyuki; Bruce, Peter G

    2014-01-01

    Lithium air rechargeable batteries are the best candidate for a power source for electric vehicles, because of their high specific energy density. In this book, the history, scientific background, status and prospects of the lithium air system are introduced by specialists in the field. This book will contain the basics, current statuses, and prospects for new technologies. This book is ideal for those interested in electrochemistry, energy storage, and materials science.

  20. School based interventions versus family based interventions in the treatment of childhood obesity- a systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background The prevalence of childhood obesity, which has seen a rapid increase over the last decade, is now considered a major public health problem. Current treatment options are based on the two important frameworks of school- and family-based interventions; however, most research has yet to compare the two frameworks in the treatment of childhood obesity. The objective of this review is to compare the effectiveness of school-based intervention with family-based intervention in the treatment of childhood obesity. Methods Databases such as Medline, Pub med, CINAHL, and Science Direct were used to execute the search for primary research papers according to inclusion criteria. The review included a randomised controlled trial and quasi-randomised controlled trials based on family- and school-based intervention frameworks on the treatment of childhood obesity. Results The review identified 1231 articles of which 13 met the criteria. Out of the thirteen studies, eight were family-based interventions (n = 8) and five were school-based interventions (n = 5) with total participants (n = 2067). The participants were aged between 6 and 17 with the study duration ranging between one month and three years. Family-based interventions demonstrated effectiveness for children under the age of twelve and school-based intervention was most effective for those aged between 12 and 17 with differences for both long-term and short-term results. Conclusions The evidence shows that family- and school-based interventions have a considerable effect on treating childhood obesity. However, the effectiveness of the interventional frameworks depends on factors such as age, short- or long-term outcome, and methodological quality of the trials. Further research studies are required to determine the effectiveness of family- and school-based interventions using primary outcomes such as weight, BMI, percentage overweight and waist circumference in addition to the aforementioned